Glass Manager

Glass Manager
Glass Manager
Optical Design Software
Optical glass database
A product of
Qioptiq Photonics GmbH & Co Kg
Königsallee 23
D - 37081 Göttingen
Germany
www.qioptiq.com
www.winlens.de
www.opticalsoftware.net
Qioptiq website
Software updates
Support videos & news
Summary
Glass Manager is the optical glass database program
within the WinLens suite from Qioptiq.
The main aim of Glass Manager is to help an optical
designer compare and select the 'best' optical glasses.
Glass Manager contains nearly 2000 glasses from the
main manufacturers, both current and obsolete. For each
material it contains optical [index & transmission],
chemical, thermal and mechanical data.
Glass Manager has all the standard tables and graphs
that you would expect in the large paper catalogue, but
goes far beyond these in many ways:
 powerful search & sort facilities
 clone and/or lock graphs and tables for quick
comparison
 custom waveband selection [user or key spectral/laser
lines]
 custom glass maps [select axes from a wide range of
properties]
 custom colour coding of glasses on the glass maps
 history logs for rapid access to ‘old’ searches, colour
codes & custom plots
 direct comparison of up to 4 glasses on same graph
 zoomable graphs & plots
Furthermore you may also add your own materials using
the Material Editor utility.
In short, Glass Manager is a standalone program that will
benefit any optical designer, and compliment any optical
design software.
This manual is divided into three main sections:
 Section 1. Installation notes and a brief introduction
to the main concepts involved in the Glass Manager.
 Section 2. The main manual; it provides detailed notes
on all the features to be found. It follows the menu
structure in Glass Manager.
 Section 3. A sample session with Glass Manager. This
works through much of what you can do with Glass
Manager.
We suggest that once you have installed the program,
you follow through section 3, the sample session.
Glass Manager Manual
2
Copyright © 2010
Qioptiq Photonics.
All rights reserved.
Contents
The software
1. INTRODUCTION TO GLASS MANAGER
7
2. GETTING STARTED
9
The software described in this
manual is furnished under a
license agreement and may be
used or copied only in
accordance with the terms of
the agreement.
NO WARRANTIES. Qioptiq
Photonics expressly disclaims
any warranty for the SOFTWARE
PRODUCT. THE SOFTWARE
PRODUCT AND ANY RELATED
DOCUMENTATION IS PROVIDED
"AS IS" WITHOUT WARRANTY OR
CONDITION OF ANY KIND,
EITHER EXPRESS OR IMPLIED,
INCLUDING, WITHOUT
LIMITATION, THE IMPLIED
WARRANTIES OR CONDITIONS
OF MERCHANTABILITY, FITNESS
FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE,
OR NON-INFRINGEMENT. THE
ENTIRE RISK ARISING OUT OF
USE OR PERFORMANCE OF THE
SOFTWARE PRODUCT REMAINS
WITH YOU.
LIMITATION OF LIABILITY. In no
event shall Qioptiq Photonics or
its suppliers be liable for any
damages whatsoever (including,
without limitation, damages for
loss of business profits, business
interruption, loss of business
information, or any other
pecuniary loss) arising out of
the use of or inability to use the
SOFTWARE PRODUCT, even if
Qioptiq Photonics or its
suppliers has been advised of
the possibility of such damages.
The manual
All rights reserved. No part of
this document may be
reproduced, stored in a retrieval
system or transmitted in any
form or by any means:
electronic, mechanical,
photocopying, recording or
otherwise, without permission in
writing from the publishers.
Revision 2.1.1
Author: Dr Geoff Adams
2.1
2.2
2.3
2.4
SYSTEM REQUIREMENTS
INSTALLATION
LICENSE FILE
RUNNING GLASS MANAGER
9
9
9
10
3. USING THE PROGRAM: KEY CONCEPTS
11
3.1
3.2
3.3
3.4
3.5
3.6
11
12
13
13
13
14
LAYOUT
THE 'CURRENT' GLASS
THE GLASS SELECTION
CLONE & LOCK
GRAPH FEATURES
DOUBLETS
4. FILE MENU
18
4.1
4.2
4.3
4.4
4.5
4.6
18
18
18
18
19
19
PRINT CURRENT GLASS
PRINT SELECTED GLASSES
PRINT DOUBLET DATA
SCREEN DUMP
PRINTER SETUP
EXIT
5. TABLES
20
5.1
REFRACTIVE INDEX TABLE
5.2
INDEX RELATED DATA FOR CURRENT GLASS
5.3
DISPERSION CONSTANTS TABLE
5.4
RELATIVE PARTIAL DISPERSION TABLE
1.5
TRANSMITTANCE TABLE
5.6
TEMP. COEFFICIENTS OF REF INDEX TABLE
5.7
OTHER PROPERTIES (CHEM/MECH/THERMAL) TABLE
5.8
SELECTED GLASSES TABLE
5.9
CALCULATOR
5.10
OBSOLETE GLASSES
5.11
MELT DATA MODELLER
5.11.1
TRUE MELT GLASSES
5.12
GLASS COMPARISON TABLE
20
20
21
21
21
22
23
23
25
25
26
27
28
6. GRAPHS
29
6.1
GRAPHS FOR THE CURRENT GLASS
6.1.1
REFRACTIVE INDEX GRAPH
6.1.2
REFRACTIVE INDEX GRAPH (FIRST DIFFERENTIAL)
6.1.3
REFRACTIVE INDEX GRAPH (SECOND DIFFERENTIAL)
6.1.4
INTERNAL TRANSMITTANCE GRAPH
29
30
30
30
31
Glass Manager Manual
3
6.1.5
TOTAL TRANSMITTANCE GRAPH
6.2
PLOTS FOR THE SELECTED GLASSES
6.2.1
DOUBLETS AND THE PLOTS
ND : VD GRAPH
6.2.2
6.2.3
PCS : VD GRAPH
6.2.4
PDC : VD GRAPH
6.2.5
PFD : VD GRAPH
6.2.6
PGF : VD GRAPH
ND : DENSITY GRAPH
6.2.7
6.2.8
CUSTOM PLOT
6.3
CUSTOM COLOURS FOR THE PLOTS
6.4
DOUBLET CHROMATIC ABERRATION GRAPH
6.4.1
DOUBLET FOCAL LENGTH PLOT SCALES
31
32
32
33
33
34
34
34
35
35
36
37
38
7. SEARCH TOOLS
39
7.1
FIND GLASS DIALOG - CTRL + F
7.2
SEARCH DIALOG - F2
7.2.1
SEARCH CRITERIA: GENERAL PROPERTIES (1 & 2)
7.2.2
SEARCH CRITERIA: RELATIVE PARTIAL DISPERSIONS
7.2.3
SEARCH CRITERIA: TRANSMITTANCE
7.2.4
SEARCH CRITERIA: CHEMICAL
7.2.5
SEARCH CRITERIA: MECHANICAL
7.2.6
SEARCH CRITERIA: THERMAL
7.2.7
SEARCH CRITERIA: OTHERS
7.2.8
SORT CAPABILITY.
39
41
42
43
43
43
44
44
44
45
8. DOUBLET MAKER - F3
46
8.1
8.2
8.3
8.4
48
49
49
50
DOUBLET MAKER SORT OPTIONS
CHANGES TO INTERFACE AFTER CREATING A DOUBLET
CHANGING GLASSES IN A DOUBLET
TERMINATE DOUBLET
9. WAVELENGTHS - F4
51
10. TAGGED GLASSES
54
11. HISTORY LOGS - F9
55
12. GLASS MANAGER TOUR - A QUICK TUTORIAL.
57
13. QIOPTIQ LICENSE AGREEMENT
74
Glass Manager Manual
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Glass Manager Manual
5
Introduction
Section 1
Introduction
Introduction
1. Introduction to Glass Manager
Glass Manager is an optical glasses database program
written specifically for lens designers. It contains key
data on many hundreds of glasses [current & obsolete]
from the key manufacturers - CDGM [Chengdu], Corning,
Hoya, Hikari, Ohara, Pilkington, Schott & Sumita. This
data includes:
 Refractive index
 Transmittance
 Relative partial dispersion
 Chemical properties
 Mechanical properties
 Thermal properties
Glass Manager is designed to make it easy for you to find
& compare materials for your projects.
With Glass Manager you can find groups of glasses with
specified properties, view their behaviour in graphs and
tables and even analyse pairs of glasses for use as
achromatic doublets.
Data Display. glass data can be shown in many ways:
 Tables for various properties of one glass
 Spreadsheets to display the properties of a selected
set of glasses.
 Graphs for the optical properties of one glass
 Plots for optical properties for a selected group of
glasses
 Custom Plot - select from a wide range of properties
 Colour code glasses in plots in many ways [category,
maker or property]
 Standard or user selected wavelengths for those plots
 Comprehensive glass finder facility to select glasses
from the database
 Doublet making facilities
 Obsolete glass list plus nearest available glass finder
 Glass Data sheet printout, Doublet printout
Simple Interface. The tables and plots in Glass Manager
have been designed to resemble those in the large glass
catalogs. You can have as many tables and graphs visible
as you need, sized and arranged as you want, and
accessed via a one level deep menu.
Glass Manager Manual
7
Introduction
Powerful search tools. [chapter 7] There are various
tools for finding sets of glasses, single glasses and
alternatives to specific glasses.
Clone and Lock. [chapter 3.4] You can clone - make
multiple copies - of tables and graphs. These can then
be 'locked' to a specific glass for ease of comparison
[new in 2010].
History Logs. [chapter 11] Lists of recent searches,
colour codings and individual glasses - click to rapidly
re-select. Great for speedy comparison
Custom Wavebands. [chapter 1] You may define the
current waveband used in the Plots - such as n-V. These
will show the correct data for that waveband. You can
specify the waveband manually or from accurate tables
of spectral and laser lines.
Colour Coding. [chapter 6.3] glasses in the plots can be
colour coded by type, maker or a selected property thus adding a 'third dimension' to the displayed
information
Melt Glass Modeller: [chapter 5.11] Predict the change
in refractive index over the entire waveband from 2 index
values of the melt data.
Zoom in Graphs. You may zoom into and out of all
graphs. Simply click down the left mouse button at one
corner of the area of interest and drag the cursor to the
other corner, then release the mouse button.
Glass Manager Manual
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Intro: installation
2. Getting started
The Glass Manager program is very easy to install and
run, provided of course that your machine has the
necessary capabilities.
2.1 System Requirements
Glass Manager will run on PC's with Win XP, 7 or Vista. It
will probably run on earlier operating systems too.
Any machine capable of running one of the named
operating systems without problem should also run
Glass Manager without problem.
2.2 Installation
You will have either downloaded the installation zip file
from www.winlens.de or been sent a CD with it.
Inside the zip file, you will find an executable
GlassManagerTD_Installer.exe
Extract this executable onto your PC, and double click to
start the installation process.
By default Glass Manager will be installed in folder:
C:\Program Files\Qioptiq\GlassManagerTD\
You can change this if so desired.
The installation process is very straightforward - there
are no further options.
2.3 License file
Once Glass Manager is installed, you must then place a
copy of the encrypted license file, LINOS_3D.LIC in the
same folder as the program.
This license file is specific to you and will be send upon
purchase of a license file for the WinLens suite.
If you do not do this Glass Manager will refuse to start!
Glass Manager Manual
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Intro: installation
2.4 Running Glass Manager
The first time that you run Glass Manager you will be
required to enter the details held within the license file to confirm that you are the legitimate owner of the
software.
These will be included in the email sent with the license
file.
Your name and company will then appear in your version
of Glass Manager.
Glass Manager Manual
10
Intro: key concepts
3. Using the Program: Key Concepts
This chapter provides a brief introduction to the Glass
Manager layout and the key concepts which you must
understand.
3.1 Layout
Glass Manager is a single program with a menu, header
bar, toolbar, sidebar [notes] and footerbar.
The header bar has been designed to resemble the
information displayed for a glass in the large paper
catalogs. It shows the data for the 'current glass'
At the right hand end of the header bar are 3 check
boxes. These enable you to
'tag' glasses for quick
comparison in the graphs- see
section… [chapter 10]
You can access all the facilities in Glass Manager via the
menus - these are just one level deep, so there is no
complex structure to remember.
However it is quicker to use the icons in the toolbar.
Glass Manager Manual
11
Intro: key concepts
The toolbar contains icons to load graphs,tables etc.
Icons
Purpose
Chapter
Tables showing data for a
single glass
5.1
Tables showing data for all
selected glasses
5.8
Alternate glass finder
Melt modeller
Glass comparison table
5.9
5.11
5.12
Graphs showing index or
transmission data for a single
glass
6.1
Plots showing data for all
selected glasses
6.2
Doublet focal length plot
6.4
Search Tools
7
Doublet Maker
Waveband selector
History Logs [F9]
Print
8
1
11
3.2 The 'Current' Glass
The glass named in the header bar is known as the
current glass. Most of the tables and about half of the
graphs show a property(s) of the current glass. As you
change the current glass, so these are updated
automatically.
There are many possible ways to alter the current glass:
 By using the Find Glass dialog [CTRL+F] [section 7.1]
 by clicking on a graph showing the selected glasses
(below). The nearest glass to the cursor becomes the
current glass.
 by clicking on row in the spreadsheet showing the
selected glasses.
 Clicking on a 'recent' glass in the history log [F9]
 by a VCR control on the footer bar
 by selecting a glass name from a list on left of the
footer bar.
Glass Manager Manual
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Intro: key concepts
3.3 The Glass Selection
From the entire database it is possible to select a subset
of the glasses (press key F2 to get the Search dialog discussed in chapter 7.2). This subset is known as the
'selected glasses'. The current glass is always one of the
selected glasses. Initially, all glasses in the database are
selected.
If you have one or more of the
plots, Nd:Vd (shown here),
PCs:Vd, PdC:Vd, PFd:Vd,PgF:Vd or
Nd:density or the Custom plot
visible, you will see the
selected glasses represented
on these plots by a scattering
of single points.
On such plots the current glass is highlighted by a small
red flashing cross.
3.4 Clone & Lock
You may make additional copies of any table or graph
that’s dedicated to a single glass. Simply right click on
the window of interest and select 'clone' from the popup
menu. You can make as many clones as you want.
You can then lock any of the windows to display data
from a specific glass - again right click on the graph and
select 'Always display glass….' Option from the menu.
The Find Glass dialog will appear [chapter 7.1] and you
can easily choose the appropriate glass.
Using these features it is simple to compare two or more
glasses directly, especially for data in tables where
several decimal places may be of import.
3.5 Graph features
All graphs are zoomable: To zoom into a graph simply
select the area that you wish to view more closely by
clicking and dragging with the mouse pointer. To
restore the full plot, press the resize button.
As the mouse pointer is moved over a graph relating to
the current glass (e.g. refractive index v wavelength), a
full cursor is shown moving along the curve. On the
footer bar, the x & y values are also constantly updated.
Glass Manager Manual
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Intro: key concepts
As the mouse moves over a plot of the selected glasses,
there is NO cursor. However the footer bar reports the x
& y co-ordinates of the pointer, along with the name of
the glass nearest the pointer.
3.6 Doublets
With Glass Manager you can assess pairs of glasses for
use as achromatic doublets. One half of the doublet will
always be the current glass. The other half will be one of
the selected glasses.
There are two ways to create doublets:
 Click with the RIGHT hand mouse button on a graph
showing the selected glasses. You will be asked to
enter the required power of the doublet. Glass
Manager will then analyse the thin lens system made
up of the current glass, and the glass nearest the
mouse pointer (when you clicked the graph). On
subsequent clicks you will not need to enter a power.
 Select the doublet maker option [F3] for a more
systematic approach [chapter 8]. A dialog box will
appear. Enter the doublet power and select a sort
order. Glass Manager will then make doublet
combinations between the current glass and all other
glasses in the selection. The sorted results will
displayed in a spreadsheet. You may resort the results
if desired. If you want to analyse one special
combination further, simply click on the row
containing that glass. Press EXIT to return to the
main program.
In either case, Glass Manager will:
 Indicate the 'second' glass on plots of the selected
glasses by a small green flashing cross hair.
 Show the name & code of the 'other' glass at the right
of the header bar.
 Display the power of the doublet underneath. This
may be edited.
 Add a further pull down list to the footer bar. This
also contains the names of the selected glasses, but is
linked to the 'second' glass. If you used the doublet
maker, then these glasses will be listed in that sort
order. As you click on a glass in the list, so the
'second' glass is altered.
Glass Manager Manual
14
Intro: key concepts
 Enable the doublet focal length plot and doublet
printout options.
To cancel the doublet analysis mode, simply enter a
power of zero into the text box on the header bar.
By default, a doublet is analysed with respect to the d
(587.6nm) wavelength, and corrected at the C (656.3nm)
and the F(486.1nm) wavelengths.
These defaults can be changed by pressing F4. For
example, you could design a doublet for 900nm, and
correct it at 800 & 1000nm. These also apply to the
plots of selected glasses.
Hint: to reduce the residual (secondary) chromatic
aberration, you will need to select glasses with different
V Values, but similar Px,y's. Therefore the plots PCs:Vd,
PdC:Vd or PgF:Vd may be very useful. But also note that
glass pairs which have reduced secondary spectrum tend
to be exotic.
Glass Manager Manual
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The Manual
Section 2
The Manual
Menu by menu review of the main Glass Manager menu
items:
 File
chapter 4
 Tables
chapter 5
 Graphs
chapter 6
 Search
chapter 7 [F2] or [CTRL + F]
 Doublets
chapter 8 [F3]
 Waveband
chapter 1 [F4]
Plus notes on
 Tagged glasses
 History logs
chapter 10
chapter 11 [F9]
The Manual: File Menu
4. File Menu
As Glass Manager neither imports nor exports data, this
menu is short.
NB you can add glasses to the database using the
Material Editor Utility
4.1 Print Current Glass
Select this option to obtain a data sheet for the current
glass.
Note that the refractive indices (apart from those in the
header) have been calculated from the dispersion
constants.
Note also that the internal transmittances have been
calculated from the equivalent absorption coefficients.
4.2 Print Selected Glasses
Select this option to generate data sheets (as above) for
all the selected glasses. Be careful when using this
option, as you could easily generate several hundreds of
datasheets.
4.3 Print Doublet Data
If a doublet has been created, then this will give a
printout of the two glasses, their names, suppliers &
powers along with the plot of focal length against
wavelength.
4.4 Screen Dump
Select this option to generate a screen dump of the
entire program. The quality of the dump will depend on
your printer.
NB You may also generate screen dumps for individual
graphs/tables, by clicking with the right hand mouse
button on the graph or table.
For the selected glasses plots you should click on the
area round the graph rather than on the graph itself, as
that would start the doublet creation mechanism.
Glass Manager Manual
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The Manual: File Menu
4.5 Printer Setup
Select this option to access the standard Windows printer
setup dialog. With this you may choose the printer,
paper orientation etc. Options displayed will depend on
the current printer driver. Some, such as print to file, are
not supported by Glass Manager.
4.6 Exit
Terminates the program. The following items are kept
until the next launch of Glass Manager
 Waveband
chapter 1 [F4]
 Tagged glasses
chapter 10
 History logs
chapter 11 [F9]
The program also remmebers the last locations of the
graphs and tables but does not reload them
automatically.
Glass Manager Manual
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The Manual: Tables
5. Tables
Hint: Clone and
Lock
Right click a table,
and select 'Clone'
to make an extra
copy of a table.
The Glass Manager contains a variety of tables which
may be selected by the user.
Right click and
select 'Always
display…' to
force table to
display a chosen
glass.
5.1 Refractive Index Table
These are great
for comparing
glasses directly.
Also shown are the actual indices at the d and e
wavelengths, and the difference between the actual and
calculated data. This provides a check on the accuracy of
the stored dispersion constants.
Most of the tables show data only for the current glass,
and are therefore updated as you change the current
glass.
This table shows the refractive indices for the current
glass at specified wavelengths from 250 to 2500nm.
These indices are calculated from the dispersion
coefficients.
Note that some manufacturers use the Schott formula
with coefficients which give accurate results in the region
365 to 1014nm, whilst Schott Glaswerke now uses the
Sellmeier formula which provides extended accuracy
between 250 to 2500nm.
If the old Schott formula is being used, then the
displayed indices in the 1014-2500nm and 250-365nm
regions are extrapolated and must be treated with
caution.
Data is not given for the current glass below its UV cutoff.
5.2 Index related data for current glass
This table shows the refractive indicies for the selected
waveband, along with the dispersions, V value, partial
dispersions and relative partial dispersions - all
calculated for the chosen waveband.
Note that if a non-standard waveband is used [not dCF,
or eF'G'] then the descriptive labels will be appropriate.
Glass Manager Manual
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The Manual: Tables
5.3 Dispersion Constants Table
This table shows the dispersion coefficients stored for
the current glass. Note that these are used to calculate
the refractive indices shown in the refractive index table
and graphs.
Most manufacturers give the dispersion constants for the
Schott formula [6 coefficients] which have been fitted to
measured data in the 365 to 1014nm band. Schott
Glaswerke now use a three term Sellmeier formula [6
coefficients], which offers similar accuracy over an
extended waveband (typically 250 to 2500nm).
The table also shows the type of the polynomial used to
represent the index function and the general region of
validity for that polynomial.
5.4 Relative Partial Dispersion Table
This table shows some relative partial dispersions, Px,y,
for the current glass. It is split into two halves:
 The top part shows Px,y and dPx,y for wavelength pairs
(x,y)
Px,y = (nx - ny)/(nF - nC)
dPx,y is the difference of Px,y from the
'normal' glass line
 Bottom part shows P'x,y for the same wavelength pairs.
P'x,y = (nx - ny)/(nF' - nC')
All the data is calculated from the dispersion polynomial
for the glass, except for the values PCs, PdC & PgF which
are stored in the database.
5.5 Transmittance Table
This table shows the internal transmittance, ti, at
specified wavelengths for blocks of the current glass
which are 5 and 25 mm thick, where:
ti (  )  e ( ).t
a() is the absorption coefficient for that glass and t is
the glass thickness.
Since the different manufacturers provide data for
different thicknesses and wavelengths, the equivalent
absorption coefficient has been calculated beforehand
and stored in the database. The transmittances are then
recalculated from the absorption coefficients.
Glass Manager Manual
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The Manual: Tables
5.6 Temp. Coefficients of Ref Index Table
This table shows the temperature coefficients of
refractive index for the current glass.
The refractive index of a glass varies with the
temperature. This variation depends on both the
temperature range and the wavelength under
consideration.
Unfortunately, there is little common ground between
the manufacturers as to which wavelengths to use.
Therefore the form of this table will vary from supplier to
supplier.
In essence, the columns show data for a specific
wavelength (generally specified by one of the standard
letters [whose value will be see in the refractive index
table]). The rows show the data for a specific
temperature regime.
Glass Manager Manual
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The Manual: Tables
5.7 Other Properties (Chem/Mech/Thermal)
Table
When selecting a glass, many other properties besides its
refractive index and transmittance should be considered,
for example, cost, handling and density may all be
significant.
This table shows a large number of these properties for
the current glass. These have been grouped into four
categories, separated by a blank row in the spreadsheet:
Thermal
Linear Coeff of Thermal Expansion -30C-+70C [A-30/70]
Linear Coeff of Thermal Expansion -20C-+300C
[A20/300]
Transformation Temperature [Tg]
Softening Point [T107.6]
Upper Annealing Point [T1013.0]
Specific Heat capacity [Cp]
Thermal Conductivity [l]
Mechanical
Density, Youngs Modulus, Poissons Ratio, Torsion
Knoop Hardness
Chemical
Climatic Resistance [CR]
Stain Resistance [FR]
Acid Resistance [SR]
Alkali Resistance [AR]
Phosphate Resistance [PR]
Miscellaneous
Color Code
Bubble
'Price'
Availability
[Some manufacturers do not provide all this data, either
at all or only for certain glasses.]
5.8 Selected Glasses Table
Not clonable
This is a customisable read only spread sheet, which
shows data for the selected set of glasses. These glasses
are ordered in the way specified by the search facility
[chapter 7.2].
Glass Manager Manual
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The Manual: Tables
The table is only updated when you run the search
facility and change or reorder the selected set of glasses.
The glass name, glass code and supplier are always
shown at the left hand side of the table.
You can customise the table by checking one or more of
the option boxes at the bottom of the window. Thus you
can elect to see partial transmission data and/or
chemical and/or mechanical etc. properties.
Dispersion
nF-nC, PCs, PdC, PgF
Chemical
Climatic Resistance [CR]
Stain Resistance [FR]
Acid Resistance [SR]
Alkali Resistance [AR]
Phosphate Resistance [PR]
Mechanical
Density, Youngs Modulus, Poissons Ratio, Torsion
Knoop Hardness
Thermal
Linear Coeff of Thermal Expansion -30C-+70C [A-30/70]
Linear Coeff of Thermal Expansion -20C-+300C
[A20/300]
Transformation Temperature [Tg]
Softening Point [T107.6]
Upper Annealing Point [T1013.0]
Specific Heat capacity [Cp]
Thermal Conductivity [l]
Other
Color Code
Bubble
'Price'
Availability
T5mm
Transmission of a 5 mm thick block of glass
T25mm
Transmission of a 25 mm thick block of glass
The last two do not take into account reflection losses.
The values are given at 250, 300, 350, 400, 500, 700 &
1060 nm.
Glass Manager Manual
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The Manual: Tables
5.9 Calculator
Not clonable
This is a simple interactive form which shows:

refractive index

refractive index (first differential wrt wavelength)

refractive index (second differential wrt wavelength)

reflection loss

internal transmission

total transmission (combined absorption & reflection
loss)
for the current glass at a specified wavelength and
thickness.
You may alter both wavelength (in nm) and glass
thickness (in mm). On entering the new value(s) the
display will be updated accordingly.
When the current glass is altered, the results will be
recalculated for the wavelength and thickness specified.
The reflection loss is calculated for a double sided plate
made of the current glass and immersed in air. The
effects of multiple reflections have been included.
5.10 Obsolete glasses
Not clonable
Alternative glass
finder
As of version 2.3
[Aug 2010] you
can now find
alternatives for
any glass - not
just obsoletes.
Select 'all glasses'
from the dropdown list at mid
bottom of the
form,
In recent years some of the key glass manufacturers have
rationalised their glass lists. Many old glass types are no
longer available (unless large quantities are required).
The Glass Manager maintains a table of nearly 1000
obsolete glasses. You can simply browse through this
list or get the program to find the 'nearest' equivalent
available glasses.
This form is divided into several sections (initially not all
being visible):
1: Spreadsheet showing the obsolete glasses (name,
supplier, refractive index, V value & density) [top left of
form]
2: Option buttons. Check on of these to control in what
order the obsolete glasses are displayed [bottom of
form]
3: Header showing data for one of the selected glasses.
To change this glass click on the spreadsheet. This glass
in the row you clicked will appear in the header.
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The Manual: Tables
4: Spreadsheet showing 'nearest' available glasses to the
obsolete glass specified in the header. This appears
when you click the 'Find nearest available glasses' button
at the bottom of the form. The glasses are displayed in
order of 'closeness' to the selected glass. [top right of
form]
5: Options section - you can:
 choose number of nearest glasses displayed (1 to 9)
 alter the weighting between refractive index & V value
in the programs definition of 'closeness' of glasses. If
the slider bar is moved to the left, then refractive
index becomes more important, whilst if moved to the
right, then V value becomes more significant. If the
slider is at either extreme, then the other factor is
completely ignored. [middle right of form]
NB use of this table does not alter the current glass or
the selected set of glasses in the main program.
5.11 Melt data modeller
Not clonable
Glasses are created in batches called melts. The index
data of a melt will vary slightly from the catalogue
values. In some cases this can be significant. It is
therefore of use to model the impact of a melt.
This table predicts the refractive indices of a melt of one
the catalog glasses. You must either supply:
 two refractive indices (at specified wavelengths)
 one index and V Value at the current standard
wavelengths
On changing any of these, Glass Manager will predict the
indices of the melt using a well tried model1. These
indices are calculated and displayed for a closely spaced
set of wavelengths over the waveband defined by region
of validity of the equations defining the normal glasses.
Both catalog and melt data will be given (on screen and
as a printout).
1
It has been found [Juan Rayces] that a melt will tend to
lie on a line on a PV plot (relative partial dispersion v V
Value), through the catalog data, where that line is
parallel to the normal glass line. By using this model it is
possible to determine the melt indices at many
wavelengths, from a knowledge of the catalog data and
from just two refractive indices of the melt.
Glass Manager Manual
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The Manual: Tables
Alternative use: modeling old glasses in patents
In most lens design patents, the glasses are not specified
by name, but simply by n & V values. Often this may be
matched exactly to currently available glasses. However
many older patents used glasses from manufacturers
who no longer exist. The designer may have an idea
what type of glass was used, but no exact index data at
other wavelengths.
By using this 'melt' method the designer can still obtain
some reasonable data for the old glass. Select an
existing glass of a similar chemical composition and then
enter the N & V values for the old glass. The resultant
'melt' data may be taken then as a possible set of indices
for the old glass.
5.11.1 True melt glasses
using the melt modeller does NOT impact on any of the
data in Glass Manager or change any of the graphs &
tables.
However, using the separate Material Editor utility, it is
easy to create a true melt glass which will be listed in the
database, will appear in the graphs & tables etc and can
be used in WinLens.
For such a glass you will need the manufacturers melt
certificate. Generally you will need the refractive index at
several wavelengths, but for Schott glasses you can
supply the differences in the format they supply.
Glass Manager Manual
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The Manual: Tables
5.12 Glass comparison table
Not clonable
In recent years the main manufacturers have made
available ranges of eco-friendly glasses - many of which
are replacements for the old glasses which contained
lead or arsenic etc.
This table enables you to compare any of the following
options:
1. any eco glass with its non-eco equivalent [if any]
2. any non-eco glass with its eco equivalent[if any]
3. any two named glasses
[select your prefered option from bottemmost left list]
To choose the glass[s], simply click on the list[s] of
visible glass names at the left hand side. Glass Manager
will automatically find and display the performance data
for the glass[s] in the tables on the right hand side.
The form contains a number of 2 row spreadsheets that
display the various properties [index, transmission,
chemical, mechanical, thermal and miscallaneous
properties]. In this way you can get a overview in onc
glance.
NB if you choose selections 1) or 2), then Glass Manager
will automatically define the required equivalent name.
Thus if you choose eco glass N-BK7 [Schott], Glass
Manager will display the properties for N-BK7 and BK7
NB you may choose how the glass name lists are sorted.
Glass Manager Manual
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The Manual: Graphs
6. Graphs
Hint: Clone and
Lock
Right click a
graph, and select
'Clone' to make
an extra copy of
that graph.
Right click and
select 'Always
display…' to
force a graph to
display a chosen
glass.
These are great
for comparing
glasses directly.
There are three sets of graphical displays:
 Graphs: those showing data for the current glass.
These will show the variation of some property of the
current glass against wavelength.
 Plots: those showing data for the current glass
selection. These are typically found at the back of the
glass manufacturers glass catalogues, except that
instead of showing all glasses produced by one
manufacturer, these will show the glasses selected via
the Search facility (F2) from the database.
 Doublet Graph. A graph showing the chromatic
aberration of a doublet.
All graphs/plots can be zoomed. Simply select the area
of interest on the graph with the mouse pointer (Press
down the left hand mouse button at one corner of the
rectangle, drag the mouse pointer to the opposite corner
and release the button). The selected area will then fill
the plot. To return to default setting, simply click the
'resize button' which is at the bottom left of the graph.
There are some useful hot keys:
Hot Key
Function
F6
Large/small glass points on
the plots
F7
Thick/thin lines on the
graphs
Shift + F6
Glass names on plots
Shift + F7
Glass name options
F8
Plot colouring options
6.1 Graphs for the current glass
These show either graphs of the refractive index (or
differentials) or transmission against wavelength.
Note that as you move the mouse pointer over the graph
a cursor is 'pulled' along the curve. The x and y values
are shown on the bar at the bottom of the screen.
If you have 'tagged' any glasses, their curves will also be
shown in different colours.
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The Manual: Graphs
Useful 'Hot keys'
F7: Thick or thin
curves
6.1.1 Refractive Index Graph
This graph shows the variation of refractive index
(vertical axis) with wavelength.
By default, this graph is scaled
vertically from a refractive
index of 1.3 to a maximum of
2.1. This does not change as
the current glass is altered.
However the autoscale option
(top right), fits rescales the
vertical axis each time the current glass is altered, to
give the clearest possible display.
6.1.2 Refractive Index Graph (first differential)
This graph shows the variation of the first differential of
refractive index (vertical axis) with wavelength.
The first differential is
calculated using an exact
expression, and not by finite
differences.
The autoscale option, as
described for the refractive
index graph is available.
6.1.3 Refractive Index Graph (second differential)
This graph shows the variation of the second differential
of refractive index (vertical axis) with wavelength.
The second differential is
calculated using an exact
expression, and not by finite
differences
The autoscale option, as
described for the refractive
index graph is available.
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The Manual: Graphs
6.1.4 Internal Transmittance Graph
This graph shows the internal transmittance, ti, (vertical
axis) of a block of the current glass against wavelength.
ti (  )  e ( ).t
where a() is the absorption
coefficient for that glass and t
is the glass thickness.
You can specify the thickness
of the glass by typing in ue
into the text box at the top
right of the graph.
6.1.5 Total Transmittance Graph
This graph shows the total transmittance, tt, (i.e.
includes multiple reflection losses) (vertical axis) of a
block of the current glass
against wavelength.
ti (  )  R(  ). e ( ).t
where a is the absorption
coefficient for that glass, t is
the glass thickness and R is
the overall reflection loss
The multiple reflection loss
for a plane parallel plate of index n immersed in air, with
normally incident light at wavelength l, R, is given by:
R(  )  1  22 n( )
n ( )1
You can specify the thickness of the glass by typing in a
value into the text box at the top right of the graph.
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The Manual: Graphs
6.2 Plots for the Selected Glasses
Useful 'Hot keys'
F6: large glass
points
Shift+F6: glass
names on plot
Shift+F7: glass
name options
F8: colour code
options [see
chapter 6.3]
The following plots are similar to those found at the back
of the glass manufacturers catalogues, except that they
show the currently selected set of glasses, rather than all
glasses in the database.
 Nd:Vd
 PCs:Vd, PdC:Vd, PgF:Vd
 Nd:density
 Custom Plot [user can select both axes from a wide
range of parameters]
Generally these plots show refractive index related
properties of the glasses. By convention, these
properties are shown for a sequence of standard
wavelengths (s - 852nm, C - 656nm, d - 587nm, F 486nm & g - 435nm) spread over the spectrum. These
are particularly appropriate for visual instruments.
However is possible to alter the default wavelengths
[chapter 9], in which case the scales and glass positions
in these graph will almost certainly change.
You will see a blinking red cursor on each of these plots.
The center of the cursor lies at the position of the
current glass. (Obviously if you have zoomed in on a
specific area of the graph, it is possible that the square
will not be visible). Click on one of these graphs with the
left hand mouse button and the current glass indicator
will move to the nearest glass. (All other graphs, tables
etc. will be updated appropriately)
As the mouse pointer is moved about over one of these
plots, the current position of the pointer on the graph
will be displayed on the bottom bar. You will also see
the name of the glass nearest to the pointer. (In general,
this is NOT the current glass)
6.2.1 Doublets and the Plots
[full notes in chapter 8] If you click with the right hand
mouse on one of these graphs, then you may create a
doublet. The program will ask you to specify a power for
the doublet. On entering a non zero value, the program
will take the current glass and the glass nearest the
mouse pointer and find the appropriate values. The
other glass will be indicated by a flashing green square.
Glass Manager Manual
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The Manual: Graphs
If you click again with the right hand mouse button, then
the other glass will alter to that nearest the mouse
pointer.
Not clonable
6.2.2 nd : Vd Graph
This graph shows the position of each glass in the
selected set in a plot of refractive index (vertical axis)
against V Value.
Note. By default these are nd
& Vd, but as stated above,
these may be changed, in
which case the scales may be
changed by clicking on the
command button labelled
'scale' now visible.
Also on this graph, there is a series of lines showing the
standard Schott subdivisions for the nd : Vd plot. These
do not alter their position. [these only appear if you are
using the standard waveband]
There is also a drop down list at bottom left of the plot.
You may choose to display the data in any of the
formats:
 n: V
 1/n: V
 n: 1/V
 1/n: 1/V
 n: dispersion
Not clonable
6.2.3 PCs : Vd Graph
This graph shows the position of each glass in the
selected set in a plot of partial
relative dispersion Pxy (vertical
axis) against the V Value.
This graph shows a Pxy which
is orientated toward the IR. By
default the PC,s & Vd values are
shown. (see note beside
section 6.2.1)
The 'normal' glass line is shown by a thick grey line
across the graph (as also seen in the next two graphs).
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The Manual: Graphs
Not clonable
6.2.4 PdC : Vd Graph
This graph shows the position of each glass in the
selected set in another plot of
partial relative dispersion Pxy
(vertical axis) against the V
Value.
This graph shows a Pxy which
is orientated accross the
visible. By default the Pd,C & Vd
values are shown.
Not clonable
6.2.5 PFd : Vd Graph
This graph shows the position of each glass in the
selected set in another plot of
partial relative dispersion Pxy
(vertical axis) against the V
Value.
This graph shows a Pxy which
is orientated accross the
visible. By default the PF,d &
Vd values are shown
Not clonable
6.2.6 PgF : Vd Graph
This graph shows the position of each glass in the
selected set in a plot of partial relative dispersion
(vertical axis) against the V
Value.
This graph shows a Pxy which
is orientated toward the UV.
By default the Pg,F & Vd values
are shown.
Glass Manager Manual
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The Manual: Graphs
Not clonable
6.2.7 nd : density Graph
This graph shows the position of each glass in the
selected set, in a plot of
refractive index (vertical axis)
at the d [587.6nm]
wavelength against density
[gm/cc]. [Density means
specific gravity]
Naturally, if the default
wavelengths are changed, only the refractive indices are
altered.
Not clonable
6.2.8 Custom Plot
This graph shows the position of each glass in the
selected set, where both axes
can be defined by the user
from a wide range of
properties.
Note the printer icon [mid
left]- this will generate a high
quality printout that uses the
full resolution of your printer.
To select the graph axes, click on the 'options' button at
bottom left of the graph. Glass Manager will load a
simple dialog wherein you can select from a wide range
of properties. Including transmissions at certain
wavelengths [for a specific thickness]
Glass Manager has sensible default ranges for the
different parameters, but you can change the scales with
the scale button [top left].
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The Manual: Graphs
6.3 Custom Colours for the Plots
You may define a customs colour scheme for glass plots
- adding extra information to the display. Press Function
Key F8.
This will
load the
dialog
shown here.
In this dialog you can select to code for:
 Type [eco, recommended, available?, obsolote etc]
 Maker
 Property - shown above.
In each case you will see coloured panels for the options.
Simply click a panel to view a colour picker.
For the 'properties' option, you may choose from a whole
range of options - optical, chemical, thermal and
mechanical.
Typically properties have a whole range of values. So,
for these, you actually setup a colour gradient, by
selecting colours for the two end points. You specify the
values for the end points in 2 text boxes. You may also
define 'blanket' colours for any glass which has a value
above or below the range; so for transmission, one nice
scheme might be:
 Above 98%
- light blue
 98% [upper limit]
- green
 45% [lower limit]
- red
 Below 45%
- black
This colour scheme will apply to all plots. You can recall
previous schemes in the history logs [chapter 11] - F9
NB using large 'points', F6, enhances the visibility of the
colour coding in the plots.
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The Manual: Graphs
6.4 Doublet Chromatic Aberration Graph
Not clonable
Once you have created a doublet pair [chapter 8], you
may select this graph. It shows a plot of wavelength
(vertical axis) against variation in focal length, for the
doublet.
By default, the doublet power is specified for the dwavelength (mid) and corrected at the C (long) and
F(short wavelengths)
If any of these wavelengths are altered (see section 1),
then the powers are calculated for the new wavelengths.
The focal lengths are calculated for many points over the
waveband and then normalised against the focal length
at the mid wavelength.
You will see three vertical lines:
 green: passing through the 'mid' wavelength
 red/blue: passing through the 'long' & 'short' lines (for
achromats these have been made identical and the red
line will lie under the blue line).
The form caption shows the glasses and the power.
Underneath the graph you will see the resultant powers
of the individual glasses. You will also see a measure of
the secondary spectrum (the 'distance' between the mid
and long, short lines). For achromats the smaller this
Glass Manager Manual
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The Manual: Graphs
value is, the better the residual chromatic aberration of
the doublet
Glass pairs with reduced secondary spectrum have
similar Pxy values (i.e. lie on approximately horizontal
lines on the Pxy graphs). Unfortunately, such glass pairs
tend to have undesirable properties such as large
individual powers or poor handling characteristics in one
or both glasses.
Sometimes your glass selection will result in the doublet
having the same focal length at three wavelengths. Such
systems are called apochromatic - the example above
looks as if it such a case.
6.4.1 Doublet focal length plot scales
Click on the command button labelled 'scale' on the top
left of this form. A form will appear which will enable
you to change maximum & minimum values for the
wavelength & focal length axes.
Glass Manager Manual
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The Manual: Search
7. Search Tools
There are two main search tools in Glass Manager:
 Find Glass dialog [CTRL+F]- to locate a single glass as
the new 'current' glass
 Search dialog [F2] - to select the range of glasses.
Once selected these are those displayed in the glass
plots etc. The current glass will come from this set.
7.1 Find Glass Dialog - CTRL + F
The Find Glass dialog is an easy to use tool for locating a
single glass, by name or by some other properties.
Mainly used to select the new current glass, you will also
see it when 'locking' a graph or table to display a specific
glass [chapter 3.4]
On first use you will see
 text box to type in your
chosen glass name
 list - this will contain
glasses whose name
matches the letters you
type into the box
 most recent glass list click to select
 checkboxes to select
type of glasses allowed
There is a neat 'type-ahead' facility. As you start typing
in the first letters of a glass name, you will see a list of
all matching glasses - simply click to select.
You can change the search using this drop down list of
inequalities, such as 'greater
than' [>], 'less than' [<], or even
specify a range [><].
If you use a range then separate
the upper and lower limit values
by a colon, e.g. '1.5 : 1.6'
In fact, going back to the
equality search [=], you can enter multiple values each
separated by a colon
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The Manual: Search
Of course, you may be more interested in finding a glass
with other properties, such as a
specific index, rather than a
specific glass name.
Simple - click on the nd option
in this list and then start typing
in the desired refractive index.
This time you will see an list of
glasses whose index matches
your criterion.
As you type in the first text box, so another will appear in which you can create
a second search
condition.
You can enter up to 3
search requirements in
these boxes - all of
which help pin down
the glass you want.
So - to summarise, with this FindGlass dialog you can
select a single glass. This may be:
 one of the most recently visited glasses [left hand list]
 the result of a deliberate search entered into the text
boxes [right hand list]
In either case - simple click the appropriate list to
choose the glass you want.
FindGlass remembers your last search criterion so you
will see the same search results on re-loading.
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The Manual: Search
7.2 Search Dialog - F2
The glass finder dialog box will allow you to make a
selection of glasses with a given set of properties from
the database and then sort them into a specific order.
This selection will then appear in the plots and tables
showing data for multiple glasses.
The selection criteria are specified by entering values
into text boxes or making selections on check boxes on
the left hand side of the dialog. The sort order is defined
by check boxes on the right hand side of the dialog.
Because there are a great many possible select criteria,
these have been grouped into sets under different
headings and placed on different tabs on the left hand
side of the dialog.
On pressing the 'search' command button at the bottom
left hand of the form, the Glass Manager will review each
tab and form a combined query. The database is then
searched for all glasses which meet these criteria, and
sorted. All appropriate graphs are updated, and the
current glass is set to the first glass in the selection.
On recalling Search by using F2 again, the last query will
still be displayed, so that you can further refine it if
necessary (if there are no solutions then the previous
query will be retained).
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The Manual: Search
NB You can recall previous searches using the History
Log [as described in chapter 11]
7.2.1 Search criteria: General properties (1 & 2)
These two almost identical 'pages' in the glass finder
dialog allow you to select glasses by name2, glass code
and/or the equivalent Schott name. Simply enter the
desired value into the text box under the appropriate
label.
You can also require that the refractive index, nd, and the
V Value, Vd, lie between certain limits. Enter the desired
limits into the boxes under the appropriate labels.
You may specify a supplier(s), by checking one or more
of their names. A few 'generic' materials such as CaF2
have been included in the database. These are described
as 'specials'
NOTE 1. The reason for having two almost identical
'general' pages is to allow you to specify two quite
different groups of glasses simultaneously. This is very
useful when creating doublets. For example, you could
select all glasses whose equivalent Schott names are
either BK* or SF*.
NOTE 2. The only difference between these two pages is
that the second can be 'isolated' from the restrictions
imposed by any other page. So if you want to compare a
known 'exotic' glass with a range of cheaper, easier to
handle alternatives; simply enter the exotic name in the
second page and check the isolate option in the lower
right of that page. Then no matter what restrictions you
place on the chemical or other properties, that glass will
be selected.
Alternatively, if you want one part of a doublet to
be an known 'exotic' glass and the other part to be
something common, use this option.
2
Wild cards can be used in the glass name, code and
Schott name: i.e. specifying a glass name 'B*' will give all
glasses beginning with B, while specifying a glass code
'5??6??' will give all glasses whose refractive index nd,
lies between 1.500 to 1.599 and whose V Value is from
60.0 to 69.9.
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The Manual: Search
7.2.2 Search criteria: Relative Partial Dispersions
This 'page' in the glass finder dialog box enables you to
select glasses whose relative partial dispersions, Pxy, lies
within certain limits and/or that the absolute difference
of Pxy from the normal line lies within certain limits.
The former will constrain the solution set to lie between
two horizontal bands on the relevant Pxy graph, while the
latter will select glasses inside (or outside) two lines
parralel to the normal glass line.
7.2.3 Search criteria: Transmittance
This 'page' in the glass finder dialog box enables you to
specify limits for the internal transmittance of glasses, at
various points in the spectrum.(300, 350, 400, 500, 700
and/or 1060nm). The required transmission limits
should lie between 0 and 1.
You may specify the thickness of the glass for which
these transmissions are to be achieved.
Alternatively you may limit the color code of the glass. by
entering required numbers in the text boxes.
7.2.4 Search criteria: Chemical
This 'page' in the glass finder dialog box enables you to
select glasses with the required handling characteristics.

Climatic Resistance [CR]

Stain Resistance [FR],

Acid Resistance [SR]

Alkali Resistance [AR],

Phosphate Resistance [PR]
Note; for some of these characteristics suppliers use the
same test, but not in all. Therefore be cautious about
comparisons between different suppliers.
As with other search criteria 'pages' , you may
include/exclude 'null'3 fields
3
For various reasons the different glass manufacturers do
not always provide the same data. Therefore for some
glasses some fields will be null or undefined, i.e. the
value is not known. You may choose to exclude such
glasses (the default) from the solution set for a given
'page' of criteria or include them. by checking the
appropriate box
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The Manual: Search
7.2.5 Search criteria: Mechanical
This 'page' in the glass finder dialog box enables you to
control the mechanical characteristics of the selected
glasses. You can specify limiting values for:

Density

Young's Modulus

Poisson's Ration

Torsion

Knoop hardness
7.2.6 Search criteria: Thermal
This 'page' in the glass finder dialog box enables you to
specify limiting values for various thermal properties of
the glasses:

Linear Coefficient of Thermal Expansion -30C-+70C
[A-30/70]

Linear Coefficient of Thermal Expansion -20C-+300C
[A20/300]

Transformation Temperature
[Tg]

Softening Point
[T107.6]

Upper Annealing Point
[T1013.0]

Specific Heat capacity
[Cp]

Thermal Conductivity
[l]
7.2.7 Search criteria: Others
This 'page' in the glass finder dialog box enables you to
specify a variety of glass characteristics that do not fit
under the previous categories.

Bubble Class

Price [relative to some key glass]

Availability
Be wary of direct price comparisons between glasses
from different manufacturers!
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The Manual: Search
7.2.8 Sort Capability.
As well as defining the selection criteria, you can
determine the order in which the glasses will be
available. For example, you can order the glasses by the
refractive index or density.
You may have multiple sort criteria. This is only useful if
the main sort criteria has only a few possible values (e.g.
Climate resistance CR has values 1,2,3 & 4). The
secondary sort criteria will then order the glasses within
each category resulting from the first criteria.
To select the sort criteria, simply check one of the
options in the right hand side of the dialog box. You will
see the name appear below. On checking another this
will appear below the first. The sort order is specified
from the top down.













Glass Name: alphabetical order of the glasses
Nd: order of glasses by refractive index at d
wavelength, lowest first.
Vd: order of glasses by V Value, lowest first.
Schott Name: alphabetical order of the glasses by the
equivalent Schott name
Density: order of glasses by density, lightest first
Tg: order of glasses by the transformation
temperature, lowest first
Knoop: order the glasses in order of hardness, softest
first.
CR: order glasses by climatic resistance, best first.
FR: order glasses by stain resistance, best first.
SR: order glasses by acid resistance, best first.
AR: order glasses by alkali resistance, best first.
Price: order glasses by relative cost/unit volume,
cheapest first.
Avail: order glasses by availability, most readily in
stock first.
Once the search criteria and sort order have been
specified, the program will then search through the glass
database to find the required glasses.
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The Manual: Doublet Maker
8. Doublet Maker - F3
One of the commonest problems for the optical designer
is the selection of suitable glass combinations for the
control of chromatic aberrations.
Obviously a full optimisation program will be required
for glass selection in complex lenses - but Glass
Manager is very helpful in assessing alternatives.
Glass Manager also has a facility to allow you the assess
thin lens doublets - a pre design if you like.
The Doublet Maker dialog will assess all the doublets
created by combining the current glass (always one part
of the doublet) with the rest of the glasses in the
selected set, one at a time. The results of the analysis
are then sorted according to criteria that you have
chosen.
The Doublet Maker dialog consists of 5 basic areas :
1) Brief description of the two glasses in the doublet.
If a doublet has not been defined yet, then the data
for a second glass will not be shown.
2) Doublet specification. [THIS MUST BE DEFINED]
For an achromat [default] only the power
(1/required focal length) is needed.
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The Manual: Doublet Maker
For a pseudo glass4 check the bottom option box,
enter the power and a non zero V value.
3) Sort criteria. You may select from 0 to 3 of these
options to determine in what order the results of the
doublet analysis will be displayed. The options are
discussed in more detail below. As you
check/uncheck options so the sort criteria are
displayed in the three panels beneath. Note that the
primary sort criteria is always shown on the left.
4) Command Buttons. These cause the Glass Manager
to run the calculations, resort them if you change
criteria and leave the doublet maker.
5) Customisable spreadsheet. This displays the results
of the calculations and sort procedure. The data is
displayed in the order that the sort criteria require. It
will always display the glass name, code & supplier at
the left hand side. Next to these will be a column(s)
displaying the sort criteria value(s) for that glass.
Finally, if you have checked one or more of the option
buttons directly below the spreadsheet, you will see
extra columns in the spreadsheet for that data.
By default the doublet is designed at the d wavelength
and corrected at the C & F wavelengths, but these
defaults may be changed - see chapter 1.
Initially, the topmost glass in the spreadsheet is the
second glass in the doublet. You will see its name etc.
underneath that of the current glass, on the top left hand
side of the dialog.
If you click on a specific row in the spreadsheet, then
glass named in that row will become the second glass in
the doublet.
You can rerun this as often as you want, changing initial
conditions or sort criteria, until you find a suitable
combination(s) of glasses
4
In some situations, your thin lens pre-design will not
require an achromatic doublet, but a glass with a specific
power and finite V-Value. If such a glass is not actually
available, then you may create a 'pseudo' glass with
those specific properties from two real glasses.
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The Manual: Doublet Maker
8.1 Doublet Maker Sort Options
Description of the options available for sorting doublet
glasses.

Glass Name: alphabetical order of the glasses

Nd: order of glasses by refractive index at d
wavelength, lowest first.

Vd: order of glasses by V Value, lowest first.

Schott Name: alphabetical order of the glasses by the
equivalent Schott name

|Ka|: power of the current glass, from most negative
to most positive.

|Kb|: power of the other glass, from most negative to
most positive.

|Ka|+|Kb|: sum of the absolute powers of both
glasses, lowest first.
Note: the more powerful a lens is, the steeper the curves
required on the finished component. This tends to go
with increased aberrations and cost of fabrication.

Petsval: Petsval sum; a measure of the field curvature
of an optical system.

dF_s: Measure of chromatic aberration between the
very long and the mid (design) wavelength

dF_C: Measure of chromatic aberration between the
long and the mid (design) wavelength

dF_F: Measure of chromatic aberration between the
short and the mid (design) wavelength

dF_g: Measure of chromatic aberration between the
very short and the mid (design) wavelength
Note: chromatic aberration is given as difference
between normalised focal lengths at the wavelengths in
question
Note: if you have changed the default wavelengths [F4]
then these four option titles will have also changed to
match.

Density: order of glasses by density, lightest first

Tg: order of glasses by the transformation
temperature, lowest first

Knoop: order the glasses in order of hardness, softest
first.

CR: order glasses by climatic resistance, best first.

FR: order glasses by stain resistance, best first.

SR: order glasses by acid resistance, best first.

AR: order glasses by alkali resistance, best first.

Price: order glasses by relative cost per unit volume,
cheapest first.

Avail: order glasses by availability, most readily in
stock first.
Note that for some glasses, the selected sort fields may
be undefined, e.g. not all glasses have an equivalent
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The Manual: Doublet Maker
Schott name. In such cases, these glasses will appear at
the top of the list, with either a zero value or a blank in
that field.
8.2 Changes to interface after creating a
doublet
On returning to the main program, you will see several
modest changes to the initial interface. These changes
are designed to help you handle doublets.
The second glass in the doublet will be indicated by a
flashing green square in the group graphs.
Another drop
down list will
appear in the
footer bar at the right of the VCR controls.
This list will show the selected glasses for the second in
the order specified by the Doublet Maker. The current
second glass will be shown when the list is 'closed'.
Alternatively you can use the spin buttons beside the list
to move up and down.
The status bar will also be modified. At the right hand
side, there will be displayed the name of the 'other' glass
and its code. Beneath this you will see the power of the
doublet. The power may be edited.
The graph showing the chromatic aberration of the
doublet is now available (section 6.4), and can be also
printed out (section 4.2). This graph will update as you
change either glass in the doublet.
8.3 Changing glasses in a doublet
Having created a doublet, you may wish to change either
or both of its component glasses.
To alter the current glass, use any of the 'normal'
methods:
 Use FindGlass Dialog [CTRL+F]
 Click with the LEFT mouse button on a plot, next to a
new glass.
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The Manual: Doublet Maker
 Click on a glass name in the left hand list in the footer
bar.
 Click on the VCR control.
To alter the 'Other' glass either:
 Click with the RIGHT mouse button on a group graph,
next to a new glass.
 Click on a glass name in the right hand list in the
footer bar.
 Click on the spin button next to that list
 Reload the Doublet Maker, click in the spreadsheet on
another name and exit.
8.4 Terminate doublet
Once a doublet has been created you can either:
 From the header bar set the doublet power to 0
 In the doublet maker, set the power to zero and exit
the doublet maker.
Changes made to the programs interface to handle
doublets will then disappear.
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The Manual: Custom Wavebands
9. Wavelengths - F4
In the paper versions of glass catalogs, the plots of
optical properties, such as nd:Vd, are presented for the
standard wavelengths (d,C & F), Naturally, such plots are
available in Glass Manager, as discussed in section 6.2.
However if you ares not working at the standard visible
waveband then such plots are incorrect and may be
misleading.
Glass Manager easily overcomes this problem, by
allowing you to alter the 'standard' wavelengths. The
plots will update as appropriate.
In Glass Manager there are five such wavelengths
associated with plots of selected glasses and also the
design & analysis of doublets5. The table below shows
the wavelengths, their default values and the related
plots.
Wavelength
Default Values
Related Plots
Very long
s
852.1nm PCs:Vd
custom
doublet,
Long
C
656.3nm nd:Vd, PCs:Vd, PdC:Vd, PgF:Vd
custom
doublet,
Mid
(principle)
d
587.6nm nd:Vd PdC:Vd nd:density
custom
Short
F
486.1nm nd:Vd, PCs:Vd, PdC:Vd, PgF:Vd
custom
doublet,
Very short
g
435.8nm PgF:Vd
custom
doublet,
doublet,
If one or more of these defaults values is altered, then
the related plots are also altered to match. For example,
if the plot of nd:Vd is visible and the Long, Mid & Short
5
Achromats are designed for the mid wavelength, and
corrected (i.e. have same focal length) at the long and
short wavelengths. However in the doublet maker
facility, the chromatic aberration between the mid & very
long and mid & very short wavelengths is also analysed.
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The Manual: Custom Wavebands
wavelengths are changed to 900, 800 & 700nm
respectively, Glass Manager will update that plot to
n800:Vuser [Vuser = n800-1/(n700-n900).
To alter the wavelengths press F4. A dialog box will
appear with the
current values
indicated by
cursors on a scale
(somewhere
between 250 &
2500nm). The
precise values are
shown in text
boxes at the right
of the dialog box.
The wavelengths may be altered by:
 typing values directly into the text box
 'dragging' the cursors by the small boxes on their
right hand ends
 clicking the spin buttons beside the values [1nm
resolution]
 clicking the icons at the right of the text boxes - this
will launch a list of accurate standard spectral and
laser lines [shown below]. Simply click to select.
You will not be able to make the cursors 'cross over' each
other.
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The Manual: Custom Wavebands
Pressing the default key will reset the dialog to the
values tabulated above. Pressing the OK button will
close this dialog and cause Glass Manager to redisplay
any of the plots named above which were already visible.
It is quite likely that the scales will be altered.
Changes made to the standard wavelengths only effect
the plots for selected glasses and doublet design &
analysis graph.
n-V [1000-1400nm]
n-V [1400-1800nm]
As we can see this does indeed make a considerable
impact on the form of the n-V plot and therefore on the
appropriate choice of glasses!
You can store your custom wavebands for later reuse by
clicking the icon at bottom right.
You can assign a name to the
waveband.
Your wave bands will then appear
in the dropdown list under the
standard dCF & eC'F' options.
Finally, changes made to the standard wavelength do not
effect the header bar, tables, graphs for the current glass
or the search facility. Thus if the mid wavelength is
altered to 1014nm, then the header bar still shows the
refractive index at the d [587.6nm] wavelength.
The sole exception to this rule is the 'Index related data
for the current glass' table, section 5.2, which shows n,V,
dispersion & relative partial dispersions for the current
waveband.
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The Manual: Tagged Glasses
10. Tagged Glasses
Sometimes it is very useful to 'overlay' curves, such as
refractive index or transmission, for a small number of
glasses.
You can tag up to 3 glasses, using the panel at the top
right of Glass Manager.
Simply 'check' one of the tick boxes to tag the current
glass. The name of the current glass will appear, along
with the name of its maker and a colour code box. Until
that option is unchecked, that specific glass is tagged,
even if you alter the current glass or run a search.
When a glass is tagged you will also see colour coded
curves for that glass in the graphs, along with the curve
for the current glass and any other tagged glass.
In the plots showing the selected glasses (such as Nd:
Vd), you will see dots of the same colour indicating the
position of the tagged glasses.
NB tagging is quite different from 'cloning' a graph.
Cloning a graph makes an independent copy. You can
then you can then lock either copy to a specific glass
To clone and/or lock - simply right click the graph of
interest and select the option from the popup menu this is fully discussed in Chapter 3.4 and demonstrated
in the example at the end of the manual.
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The Manual: History Logs
11. History Logs - F9
There are lots of nice features in Glass Manager, such as
the Search dialog, Find Glass tool and Colour coding for
plots. Unfortunately, it may take a while to set up
different searches or colour codes, so if you wish to
setup an earlier situation or recall a recent glass it can
take longer that you might like.
However, this is now no longer a problem. Glass
Manager retains logs of:
 Colour Codes [chapter 6.3]
 Search Logs
[chapter 7.2]
 Recent Glasses
These logs are displayed in a simple table, which is
loaded via the:
 F9 hot key
 History Logs icon in the toolbar
 History logs option in the View menu
To recall an item, all you need to do is click the option.
In this way it is very easy to switch rapidly from one
option to another
The form is not modal, you you can interact with other
windows while this is open.
If you right click on an item then you will see a small
popup dialog with a couple of log management options
[delete item & clear log]
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Guided Tour
Section 3
Guided Tour
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56
Guided Tour
12. Glass Manager Tour - a quick
tutorial.
When you start GlassManager for the first time you will
see something like this:
 Menu
 Header Bar
 Toolbar
 Tagging
 SideBar
 Footer Bar
Initial screen
The toolbar & sidebar can be hidden [View menu]. The
side bar just contains introductory notes so you might
want to read these and then hide it.
The Current Glass
The header shows the name and basic details of the
'current glass'. Many graphs and tables relate to this
glass, and are updated when you alter the current glass.
If you click the VCR control on the footer bar, then you
can change the current glass. Note how the header bar
updates instantly, showing the name etc. of the new
'current glass'. Try this a couple of
times.
Using the VCR control you can work through the
database systematically. Of course this is not good for
finding a specific glass right in the middle of a set of
thousands of items!
Alternatively, try selecting a glass name from the pull
down list beside the VCR control. This method is ok if
you know the name of the glass that is of interest to you,
but is still cumbersome!
We will show some much more interesting/useful
methods of changing the current glass in a while…
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Guided Tour
Plots and Graphs
Glass Manager has many graphs displaying various
properties of one or more glasses. Pull down the 'Graph'
menu and select the 'nd:Vd' option. Glass Manager will
display a movable resizable child form containing a
graph of refractive index against V Value. This is the
standard plot found at the back of all glass catalogues.
Note that each glass in the database is represented by a
little dot [later on you will see how to display a subset of
the database].
Hit the F6 key several times to toggle between large and
small dots.
Hit the Shift+F6 keys to toggle the glass names on and
off. Initially thare are so many that the names just cover
each other up in a mess.
A little flashing red cursor will be seen on the graph.
This shows the position of the 'current' glass. Try
changing the current glass again with the VCR and glass
list methods. Note how the position of this cursor
changes.
Now move the mouse pointer over the graph and look at
the footer bar. Note:
 the 'position' of the mouse pointer
 the name of the glass 'nearest' the pointer
Both these are updated as you move the cursor.
Change 'current
glass'
click on the n:V
plot - at the
location of the
glass of interest
Click on the graph with the left hand mouse button. You
will see the red cursor move to the glass nearest the
pointer. Note that the header has changed. This is
another way of altering the current glass. You can use
this on any of the plots which display many glasses
simultaneously [nd : Vd, PCs:Vd, PdC:Vd, PgF:Vd or nd :
density].
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Guided Tour
All graphs can be zoomed. Select an area of interest by
click-and-dragging with the mouse pointer. That area
will expand to fill the available area. You can zoom in
again or return to the default plot by clicking on the
'resize' button at the bottom left of the plot.
Multiple graphs
You may have several graphs visible simultaneously,
which may be placed about the screen as you desire.
From the 'Graph' menu select the 'Refractive index'
option. Glass Manager will load another resizable,
movable child form containing a graph showing the
refractive index curve6 for the current glass only. If the
current glass is changed then the graph is updated
automatically.
Now move the mouse pointer over this graph. Note that
a full plot cross hair
appears, which runs
along the curve as
the mouse is moved
back and forth.
This time the footer
bar displays the
coordinates of the
center of the cross
hair.
Naturally, no glass
name is shown in
the footer.
By moving the cursor to a desired wavelength, you can
read off the refractive index at that point. However,
because of the finite resolution of the screen you may
not be able to select the exact wavelength required
(which is where the calculator, described below, is
helpful).
6
If you have tagged one or more glasses, then you will
also see their curves overlayed on the graph. However
the cursor will always move along the current graph
curve, and data displayed in the footer bar will refer to
the current glass.
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Guided Tour
The Calculator
To obtain values at exact wavelengths use the calculator.
From the 'Table' menu
select the 'Calculator'
option.
Glass Manager will
display the form shown
here.
At the top you can
enter a specific
wavelength and glass
thickness.
Underneath, in the results frame, the program will
display:
 refractive index for that wavelength
 refractive index - firstdifferential
 refractive index - second differential
 internal transmission
 total transmission
 reflection losses (for a uncoated slab of the current
glass)
Note that as you change the current glass, so the results
are automatically updated.
Try changing the wavelength to 800nm and the glass
thickness to 100mm. Then try other values.
Note that any changes made in the calculator have NO
impact on any other table or graph in this program.
Most tables, however, are not interactive, merely
showing data. A typical example is the table of refractive
indices, described on the following page.
At this point you might want to close any graphs, plots
etc that you have open - of course, leaving Glass
Manager itself running - to unclutter the workspace.
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Guided Tour
Tables
From the 'Table' menu select the 'Refractive Index'
option.
Glass Manager will display a child form. In this form you
will see a spread
sheet containing
the values of the
refractive index,
for the current
glass, at a set of
standard
wavelengths.
These values have
been calculated
from the stored
dispersion
constants.
However in the
fourth column from
left, Glass Manager
displays the
measured indices
for the n & e wavelengths. These can be compared with
the calculated results as a check [we have run more
extensive checks on the standard glasses when setting
up the database].
Clone and Lock
One of the key functions of Glass Manager is to help you
compare glasses. You could do this by switching current
glass - but this can be a bit laboured [even with the
FindGlass dialog].
Instead we will show you how to make multiple copies of
a table and then force it to display a specific glass.
Right click on the nd:Vd table and select 'Clone this table'
from the popup menu.
Glass Manager will create an independent copy of the
table. You can move this round the workspace at you
pleasure.
At present both copies of the table are displaying the
current glass - which is nice but not very useful.
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Guided Tour
Right click one of the tables again - this time selecting
the 'Always display glass…' menu option.
Glass Manager will display the FindGlass dialog. Simply
click on any glass in
the 'glasses inspected
earlier' list. Make
sure that your choice
is NOT the same as
the current glass.
You will now see that
the glass data in the
chosen table is that
of the selected glass.
If a table is locked to a specific glass then the glass name
is preceded by a * in the title bar of the form.
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Guided Tour
Now you can directly compare the data for these two
glasses. You are not limited to two glasses - try cloning
and locking to a third glass. In fact you are only really
limited by the screen real estate you have.
Cloning and locking applies to all tables and graphs that
show data for a single glass. Plots & tables which show
data for the current selection cannot be cloned.
Note - FindGlass is actually much more powerful - as
shown in chapter 7.1. You can play around with
FindGlass trying out using the various search tools.
Search & Sort - F2
So far the example has concentrated on various means of
displaying data. Now it is time to see how the program
can help you select glasses from the many hundreds of
possibilities.
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Guided Tour
To access the search facility you can either press F2 or
select the 'Search DataBase' option from the 'Search'
menu. Glass Manager will then display a dialog form.
The search criteria are specified in a series of tabbed
pages held in a frame on the left hand side. To look at
the different options available click on the tabs at the top
of each page.
The sort criteria are specified in the frame on the right
hand side of the dialog.
First of all we will search for all glasses with Refractive
Index between 1.6 & 1.7 and V Value between 30 & 40
 Do the following:
 Look at the search frame and make sure that the tab
titled 'General - 1' is active (highlighted) by clicking
on it.
 In the sub frame titled 'nd' [refractive index at d
wavelength] enter 1.6 in the box next the word 'from'
and 1.7 in the box next the word 'to'.
 In the sub frame 'Vd' enter 30 and 40 in the same
cells.
 Name7 the search 'n1.6-1.7 V30-40' in the 'Search
name' text box at bottom left
 Click the button 'Search' at the bottom left.
7
This name will appear in the history log [chapter 11]
from where this specific search can be easily recalled.
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Guided Tour
Glass Manager will find all glasses which meet this
criteria. The search dialog will disappear and the graphs
will be updated.
In particular note:
 plots such as
nd : Vd will
display only the
selected set of
glasses.
 the current
glass is always
one of the
selected set.
 initially the
current glass is
the first glass in
the selected set.
Now lets find a different set of glasses. Press F2. The
search dialog will reappear. Note that the search criteria
previously specified are still in place.
 Clear the old criteria by clicking the 'Clear' button.
 In the page 'General - 1', in the sub frame labeled
'Name' enter 'B*'
 Check the 'Hoya' & 'Sumita' check boxes
 Name the search 'B* for HS' [or something similar]
 Click on the Search button.
Glass Manager will now find those glasses which are:
 produced by
the chosen
manufacturers.
 have names
begining with B
(such as BK7,
BK10)
Note the use of
the wild card
symbol '*'.
NB You can also
use the other
standard wild card symbol '?' to allow one variable
character in the search pattern.
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Guided Tour
Press F2 again.
 Do NOT clear the search pattern, but click on the tab
'General - 2'. Note how this page is almost identical
in layout to tab 'General - 1'
 Enter 'SF*' in the sub frame labelled 'Equivalent Schott
Name'8
 Then click on the tab labelled 'Mechanical'.
 Set the density to lie between 3 and 5
 Name the search 'B* for HS, SF*, p3-5'
 Click the Search button
Glass Manager will find those glasses whose:
[(name begins
BK* and is from
Hoya/Sumita)]
OR
[whose
equivalent Schott
name begins with
SF*]
AND
whose density
lies between 2 &
4 gm/cc.
Note that by using the tabs 'General - 2' and 'General 1' you can select glasses from two quite different areas
on the 'nd:Vd' plot9. This can be useful when creating
doublets.
8
Equivalent Schott Name. Each glass manufacturer has
their own naming system. However often a glass will be
almost identical in its properties to a Schott glass, e.g.
NbF 2 from Hoya is similar to LaFN24 from Schott. In
such cases the manufacturers also give their glass the
Schott name. This can be very useful when comparing
equivalent glasses from different sources.
9
Criteria specified in these two tabs are linked by a
logical OR. The criteria specified by any other tab are
linked by logical ANDs.
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Guided Tour
The only difference between the 'General - 1' and
'General - 2' page is that you can 'isolate' the latter from
the other pages, i.e. you can specify glass on this page
which ignore10 the restrictions imposed by all the other
pages.
By default, page ''General - 2' shares the conditions
imposed by other pages, and you have to actively choose
to enable the isolation.
As you can see, you can build up quite complex
searches, and it would be a shame to keep on rebuilding
them. You can actually Save searches to disk and reload
them [using the 'Save Search' & 'Load Search' buttons]
History Log
Alternatively, you can recall up the most recent searches
using the history log. Press F9 and the log will appear.
This contains Colour Codes, Searches and the most
recent 'current' glasses.
Simply click on the item of interest to recall it. Try out
recalling the different searches.
10
This could be useful when trying to find a cheap or
easy to handle equivalent to and expensive or difficult to
handle glass. Enter the difficult glass in General - 2 and
check the 'yes' option in the lower left of this page. The
difficult glass will then be found no matter what other
restrictions you have specified. This may also be usefull
when creating doublets if one glass is predetermined.
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Guided Tour
Current Glass Revisited
So far we have touched on 3 ways of changing the
current glass:
 Use the Video controls in the footer bar
 Select from the dropdown list in the footer bar
 Click on one of the glass plots [near a glass]
There are other ways. Load the 'current glasses' table this is a spreadsheet showing all the glasses in the
current selection. Simply then click on a glass of
interest.
There is final most effective way using the Find Glass
dialog. We have already used this when locking a table but now we will use it to find a glass with the following
properties:
 Refractive index between 1.55 & 1.6
 ECO friendly
 Wavelength cutoff of less then 310nm
 Made by Sumita
First of all, use the history log and click the 'All Glasses'
Search - Glass Manager will again display all glasses in
the database.
Either click the Find Glass Icon in the toolbar [or footer
bar] or press CTRL+F keys together.
Initially you will see
something like this.
Make sure that the
checkboxes ringed in red
are all checked
You will now start defining
the refractive index
condition in the region
ringed in blue.
This time we are going to ignore the most recent glasses
list at bottom right!
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Guided Tour
Drop down the condition list at the
bottom left of the text box and
select the range '><' option
Drop down the search type list
beside it and select the 'refractive
index' option
Enter 1.55 : 1.6 into the text box
When defining a
range [><], you
must enter the
lower and then the
upper value,
separated by a
colon.
Immediately you will see a list of
many glasses - these are all matches
to your constraint.
Note that a second constraint area
has appeared under the first.
NB If using the
equality, you can
enter many values
all seperated by
colons, e.g. a:b:n
would be fine for a
glass name search.
We just want ECO friendly glasses,
so clear the Recommended,
Available? And obsolete checkboxes
under the list.
The possible glasses significantly
decrease in number.
In the second constraint area set
 the condition to '<='
 the search type to 'wave min'
 the text box value to '310'
this roughly halves the solutions.
In the third constraint area set
 the condition to '='
 the search type to 'Maker'
 the text box value to 'su'
To clear a
constraint simply
remove all text
from the text box.
You will now see a few sumita
glasses in the list. Click one and
that will become the current glass!
As you can see, the Find Glass dialog is very powerful
indeed, and very efficient in finding a specific glass.
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69
Guided Tour
Doublets
Selection of glasses for correction of chromatic
aberration is a interesting task. Glass Manager has been
designed to provide active help to the designer.
We will prepare to look at doublets by getting the
'preferred' Schott glasses and ordering the glasses by
climatic resistance.
 Press F2 again, to load the Search dialog.
 Press the Clear button.
 Select the 'General - 1' tab and check the Schott
option button.
 Select the 'Others' tab and check the 'Preferred'
check box.
 In the Sort frame, click on the check box labelled CR
(climatic resistance). When the program comes to find
the glasses, it will order them according to their CR
grade (lowest first).
 Press the 'Search' button.
Use the Find
Glass dialog to
make N-BK7 the
current glass.
Then make sure that the nd : Vd plot is visible and at the
default zoom, then make N-BK7 the current glass .
Note the red cursor in the lower left of the plot. The
current glass is always one half of the doublet.
You will need to
clear the other
constraints first.
Now click with the right hand mouse button near a glass
in the upper right of the plot. This will be the initial
selection for the 'other' glass in the doublet. As with the
current glass, the other glass is always one of the
selected set of glasses.
 Set condition
to '='
 Set search to
'Glass name'
 Enter value of
You will be asked to specify the power (1/focal length) of
the doublet. Enter a value e.g. 10.
Glass Manager will now 'create' the doublet and also
make some modifications to the user interface:

Green cursor in the nd:Vd plot over the position of the
other glass. If other plots [i.e. PCs:Vd, PdC:Vd, PgF:Vd
or nd:density] showing the selected set of glasses are
visible, then a similar cursor will be seen in those.

Header Bar: at the right hand side you will see both
the name of the 'other' glass along with its code and
also the power of the doublet. The power can be
altered here. If you enter zero, then the doublet is
'destroyed' and the Glass Manager interface reverts to
normal.

Footer Bar: at the right of the VCR control another list
containing the selected glasses appears. However it
is linked to the 'other' glass.
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70
Guided Tour

Graph showing the chromatic aberration of the
doublet is now enabled.
Pull down the 'Graph' menu and select the 'Doublet
Chromatic Aberration' option. Glass Manager will
display a graph showing normalised focal length
(horizontal) against wavelength.
The curve showing the chromatic aberration is updated
whenever you alter either glass.
Underneath the plot you will see the powers of the
individual components Generally, the larger the
individual powers of the component glasses, the worse
the general performance is and the harder it is to make.
You will also the residual or secondary spectrum
(difference of normalised focal lengths at the d & C11
wavelengths). For most combinations of glasses this will
have a value of about 0.00050. Try changing either
current glass or other glass by clicking with left or right
hand mouse buttons on the nd:Vd plot, or by using the
pull down lists or the VCR controls.
11
By default, the doublets are designed at the d (587nm)
wavelength and corrected at the C (656nm) and F
(486nm) wavelengths, i.e. has the same focal length at
those two values.
However, in Glass Manager you are not limited to
those values. To alter the defaults press the F4 key.
Glass Manager Manual
71
Guided Tour
It is possible, however, to reduce this by careful glass
choice. Theoretical analysis shows that for a glass
combination to have reduced secondary spectrum, both
glasses must have a similar relative partial dispersion,
Pxy. At the same time it is desirable to have a large a V
Value difference as possible as this reduces the
component powers.
Pull down the 'Graph' menu and select the 'PCs:Vd'
option. You will see a plot of V Value (horizontal) against
relative partial dispersion. Note how most of the glasses
lie clustered along a straight line (known as the normal
line); thus making it difficult to get two glasses with
similar Pxy but very different V.
However a few glasses lie well off this curve, and can be
used to give highly colour corrected systems with good
performance.
Select N-FK51a (the glass farthest away from the normal
line) for the current glass, and N-SK5 for the other glass
(use the second glass list in the footer bar).
Note:

The dramatically reduced level of chromatic
aberration in the visible and infra red. (d-C
=0.00003).

Both glasses have a similar relative partial dispersion.
Try different glasses for the 'other' glass.
Unfortunately glasses such as N-FK51a, which give good
chromatic correction, tend to be expensive and/or
difficult to handle.
Glass Manager Manual
72
Guided Tour
Doublet Maker Facility F3
Glass Manager has a more systematic method available
for evaluating doublet pairs. Make BK7 the current glass
(Hint: use the glass list).
Press F3. Glass Manager will launch the Doublet Maker
dialog (shown here). Then press the 'Search' button at
the lower left of
the dialog. Glass
Manager will then
work through the
selected set of
glasses. For each
it will make a
doublet with the
current glass and
store the
component powers
etc. When it has
finished the results
are displayed in
the spreadsheet on
the right hand side
of the dialog.
By default, the results are displayed in the order of the
selected glasses. However you may choose to specify a
sort criterion. This could be optical (e.g. powers of the
components, petzval sum, or residual chromatic
aberration) or related to different characteristics of the
'other' glass (e.g. density, climatic resistance, price etc.).
In this example, we will aim to find those glass
combinations with smallest secondary spectrum, so
check the df_C check box [middle row, third from left].
This gives the residual chromatic aberration between the
doublet focal lengths at the d & F wavelengths. Then
press 'Search'.
When the results are displayed, click on any of the rows,
and note how the glass name in that row appears in the
doublet description at the left hand side of the dialog.
When you return to the main program, this will be the
doublet analysed in the chromatic aberration graph etc.
That concludes the brief tour through the main facilities
of the Glass Manager program.
Glass Manager Manual
73
License
13. Qioptiq LICENSE AGREEMENT
SINGLE USER PRODUCT: this is a legal agreement
between you, the end user, and Qioptiq Photonics GmbH
& Co Kg, a German corporation. If you do not agree to
the terms of this agreement, promptly return the disks
and accompanying notes to the place that you obtained
them for a full refund.
1. GRANT OF LICENSE: Qioptiq grants you the right to
use one copy of the Glass Manager software program on
a single terminal connected to a single computer (i.e.
with a single CPU). You may not network the software or
otherwise use it on more than one computer or terminal
at a time.
2. COPYRIGHT: Glass Manager is owned by Qioptiq or its
suppliers (the associated .DLL and .OCX files are the
copyright of Microsoft Corporation and its suppliers,
FarPoint Technologies Inc & Virtual Media Technology Pty
Ltd), and is protected by UK copyright laws, international
treaty provisions and all other applicable national laws.
Therefore you must treat the software like any other
copyrighted material (e.g. a book), except that you may
(a) make one copy of Glass Manager solely for backup or
archival purposes or (b) transfer Glass Manager to a hard
disk provided you keep the original solely for backup or
archival purposes.
3. OTHER RESTRICTIONS: You may not reverse
engineer, decompile or disassemble Glass Manager. You
may transfer your rights under this agreement on a
permanent basis provided that you transfer all copies of
Glass Manager and all written materials and the recipient
agrees to the terms of this agreement. Any transfer
must include the most recent update and all prior
versions.
LIMITED WARRANTY.
LIMITED WARRANTY: Qioptiq warrants that Glass
Manager will perform substantially in accordance with
the accompanying notes for a period of 90 days from
date of receipt. Any implied warranties on the software
are limited to 90 days.
CUSTOMER REMEDIES: Qioptiq's entire liability and your
exclusive remedy shall be, at Qioptiq's option, either (a)
return of the price paid, or (b) replacement of the
Glass Manager Manual
74
License
software that does not meet Qioptiq's limited liability
and is returned to Qioptiq with a copy of your receipt.
This warranty is void if failure of the software has
resulted from accident, abuse or misapplication. Any
replacement copy of Glass Manager will be warranted for
the remainder of the original warranty period or 30 days,
whichever is longer.
NO OTHER WARRANTIES: Qioptiq disclaims all other
warranties, either express or implied, including but not
limited to implied warranties of merchantibility and
fitness for a particular purpose, with respect to the
software and the accompanying notes. The limited
warranty contained herein gives you specific legal rights.
NO LIABILITY FOR CONSEQUENTIAL DAMAGES: to the
maximum extent permitted by applicable law, Qioptiq
and its suppliers shall not be liable for any other
damages whatever (including, without limitation,
damages for loss of business profits, business
interruption, loss of business information or other
pecuniary loss) arising out of the use or inability to use
Glass Manager, even if Qioptiq has been advised of the
possibility of such damages. In any case Qioptiq's entire
liability under any provision of this agreement shall be
limited to the amount actually paid by you for Glass
Manager.
Glass Manager Manual
75
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