Software Reference, X.25
1
X.25
August 2000
Software Reference
X.25
1
2
X.25
Software Reference
Table of Contents
Table of Contents
X.25
A
REFERENCE
5
1
X.25
6
1.1
An Introduction to X.25
6
1.1.1
Call Setup
7
1.1.2
Data Links and Virtual Circuits
8
1.1.3
Point-to-Point and Point-to-Multipoint Interfaces
10
1.1.4
X.25 Addressing Schemes
10
1.1.5
X.25 Routing
13
1.2
Setup Tool Menus
15
1.3
X.25 Features
29
1.3.1
How do I Configure an X.31 Link (X.25 in the D-Channel)?
30
1.3.2
How do I Configure X.31 in the B-Channel (Case A/Case B)?
33
1.3.3
How do I Configure my X.21 Module so I can Access my X.25 Network?
37
1.3.4
How do I Configure X.25 Access for a Host on my LAN?
40
1.3.5
How do I Configure ISDN Dialup Access for an X.25 Partner?
43
1.3.6
How do I Configure X.25 Dialout Without Configuration?
46
1.3.7
How do I Route IP Traffic over X.25 with MPX25?
51
1.3.8
How do I Use the Router as a TCP-X.25 Bridge?
53
1.3.9
How do I Configure the Routing for Using an X.25 PAD?
57
1.4
X.25 Utilities
61
1.4.1
X.25 PAD
61
1.5
X.25 Diagnostic Code
86
1.5.1
Clear Causes
87
1.5.2
Diagnostic Causes
88
Software Reference
X.25
3
Table of Contents
4
1.5.3
Restart Causes
93
1.5.4
Reset Causes
93
1.6
X.25 Syslog Messages
94
1.7
X.21 Communications Module
101
1.7.1
CM-X21Adapter
102
X.25
Software Reference
A
A
Software Reference
REFERENCE
X.25
5
A
X.25
1
X.25
We start this chapter with an introduction to X.25 to give you an overview of the
X.25 protocol.
Then we will cover all of the menus and settings you will see while using Setup
Tool to configure the X.25 protocol on your router.
Following that are several brief examples for configuring the available X.25 features on your router.
Under Utilities you find the X.25 PAD and a reference of X.25 relevant SNMP
shell commands.
Lastly, hardware specifications for the CM-X21 communications module are
covered.
1.1
An Introduction to X.25
Packet Switching
X.25 is commonly referred to as being a Connection-Oriented, Reliable, Packet-Switched network. These catchwords describe some of the important characteristics of X.25 networks which are explained briefly here to help you better
understand X.25.
Connection-Oriented
X.25 is connection-oriented which means that when data needs to be transferred, a connection must first be established. Communications parameters
such as window size and packet sizes are negotiated when the connection is
first established.
Multiple connections between two end points can be achieved by multiplexing
logical connections onto data links. Different logical connections (or “Virtual Circuits”) are identified by assigning a virtual circuit number for each logical connection. This number is included in the header of each X.25 data-packet.
Packet Switched
6
X.25
X.25 is a packet switched network which means that user data is divided up and
placed into X.25 packets of a predefined maximum length (usually 128 bytes).
Each packet is assigned a virtual circuit number and is transmitted over the data
link.
Software Reference
A
An Introduction to X.25
With a 128 byte packet size, user data must normally be fragmented into many
packets. The X.25 frame format defines a special field, M-bit (M for more),
which is used to allow fragmented packets to be reunited at the receiving station.
Reliable
X.25 connections are reliable connections which means that all data packets
sent are confirmed by the receiving station. This is achieved using either special
packets (Receiver Ready packets) or by having the receiving station “piggyback” confirmation messages onto other packets. Also, in X.25, packets always
arrive in sequence at the receiving station.
X.25
Network
B
C
A
X.25
Terminal
D
X.25
Terminal
X.25 PLP
OSI
Layers
3
LAPB
X.25
User
NL
X.25
User
NL
X.25 Switch
2
DLL
DLL
DLL
DLL
1
PL
PL
PL
PL
X.25
Figure A-1: X.25 Network Scenario
1.1.1
Call Setup
Before data can be exchanged among X.25 partners an X.25 call must be setup. An X.25 CALL packet is sent by the calling partner to the called partner who
can accept/refuse the connection. Once a call has been established, a unique
Software Reference
X.25
7
A
X.25
Virtual Circuit (VC) number is assigned to the connection which is used throughout the duration of the connection.
If an X.25 network lies between two end stations, the VC numbers used by each
end station may be different. For example, if hosts A and D in the diagram
above are communicating, the VC number used for the A–B connection may be
different from the one used for C–D.
After the call is initially setup all packets exchanged between the partners follow
a fixed path defined during the initial call setup phase. Once the connection is
no longer needed, it can be disconnected, and later reused by the same or different communications partners.
1.1.2
8
Data Links and Virtual Circuits
Data Link
A data link is a direct, point-to-point, connection between two X.25 stations. This
physical connection can be via an ISDN B or D channel, an X.21 connection, or
an ethernet connection (LLC2). On a point-to-multipoint physical medium (i.e.
ethernet), multiple point-to-point data links are multiplexed over the same physical interface.
Virtual Channel
A virtual channel (VC) is a Logical Connection that is multiplexed onto a data
link. This means that multiple X.25 connections can exist over the same physical medium, simultaneously.
X.25
Software Reference
A
An Introduction to X.25
MiniPAD
RFC1086
Local
X.25
ifIndex = 1
X.25 Switch
ifindex
01001
(en1-llc)
Ethernet
A
B
10001
(dialup1)
02101
(bri2-1-1)
dialup
ISDN
B-channel
BRICK
ISDN Leased
Line
Data Links
C
MAC MAC
MAC
0:a0:f9 0:a0:f9 0:a0:f9
0:0:17 0:0:18 0:0:19
D
E
X.25 Partners
Link Addresses
Figure A-2: Data Links and Virtual Channels
In X.25, each data link uses one interface. The characteristics of each data link
are defined in SETUP TOOL ➧ X.25 ➧ LINK CONFIGURATION menu or in the
x25LinkPresetTable. These characteristics, such as window and packet size,
can be changed by editing these links.
To display a list of all available interfaces known to the system you can use the
ifstat command.
There are three types of interfaces available on the BinTec router; the first of
which is always available. The other interface types will depend on your particular configuration.
■ Local Interface
The local interface is a special interface and is always available on the
BinTec router.
Software Reference
X.25
9
A
X.25
■ Point-to-Point Interface
This interface is referred to as being Point-to-Point because the two end
stations of the connection are determined solely by the IfIndex. These interfaces include: ISDN dialup, ISDN leased lines, and X.31 interfaces.
■ Point-to-Multipoint Interface
The Point-to-Multipoint interface is referred to as such because the IfIndex
does not completely specify an end-to-end connection. Additional information is required (such as the end stations MAC address) when creating
these interfaces to provide an end-to-end link. These interfaces include:
LAN connections over LLC2.
1.1.3
Point-to-Point and Point-to-Multipoint Interfaces
One of the characteristics of an X.25 interface that must be defined is the encapsulation it uses.
When creating X.25 Point-to-Point interfaces in the WAN PARTNER ➧ Add
menu in Setup Tool or in the biboPPPTable, you can specify either x25 or
x25_ppp encapsulation. By default, x25 encapsulation is used. This allows an
interface to be used solely for X.25 traffic. Using x25_ppp allows PPP and X.25
traffic to be routed over the same interface (i.e. multiplexing IP datagrams and
X.25 packets simultaneously over the same ISDN channel).
For X.25 Point-to-Multipoint interfaces such as ethernet, you must use the enx*llc interfaces, since not all ethernet interfaces on the BinTec router support X.25
(i.e. enx, enx-snap, and enx-nov802.3)
1.1.4
X.25 Addressing Schemes
As in TCP/IP networks, each host in an X.25 network must be uniquely identified before communication between them is possible. However, there is one important difference. In TCP/IP, each data packet contains the source/destination
addresses and is routed individually (packets can take different paths). In X.25,
addresses are only used during call setup and all subsequent data packets follow the same exact route.
10
X.25
Software Reference
A
An Introduction to X.25
In X.25, three different address formats, can be used to identify X.25 hosts:
■ Standard X.25 Addressing (X.121)
■ Extended X.25 Addressing
■ NSAP (Network Service Access Point) Addresses (X.213)
Standard X.25 Addressing (X.121)
The X.121 addressing scheme is the oldest and most common format used in
X.25 networks. X.121 addresses consist of up to 15 digits and may begin with
a leading escape digit (normally a 0). If the leading 0 is present, it is assumed
to be an international address, otherwise a national address is assumed. For
example (Note that spaces in the example addresses are used only for added
readability):
National Address:
4591101234
nationaladdress
International Address:
0 262 4591101234
national address
country code (FRG)
escape digit (network specific)
Figure A-3: Standard X.25 Addressing (X.121)
When working within ISDN, E.164 addresses are used instead of X.121 addresses. E.164 describes the numbering plan of the ISDN network and the commonly known telephone numbering system consisting of country code, area
code, and subscriber number. To address other ISDN devices, an international
ISDN number (according to E.164) is used which is similar to a national X.121
Software Reference
X.25
11
A
X.25
address. An additional zero following the escape code specifies an ISDN address for internetworking. For example:
ISDN Address:
499114501234
international E.164 address
Internetworking Address: 0 0 499114501234
international E.164 address
E.164 indicator (ISDN)
escape digit (network specific)
Figure A-4: E.164 Addressing within ISDN
Extended X.25 Addressing
The extended addressing format provides a standardized way for distinguishing
different types of addresses in X.25. However, many public networks do not
support this addressing format (The BinTec router supports extended addresses and differentiates between standard and extended addresses using a leading @ in the ~Addr field).
When the call is setup, a special bit (the A bit) in the call packet is used to define
whether the addresses used are standard or extended. When the A bit is set,
an extended address is used which consists of up to 255 digits (Most implementations are currently using less than 42 digits). The first two digits have special
meanings and specify the Type of Address (TOA) and Numbering Plan Identification (NPI) respectively.
Sequence
First Digits
Second
Digits
Digits
TOA and NPI Digits
0
Network dependent number
1
International number
2
National number
1
E.164 ISDN numbering plan
3
X.121 numbering plan
Table A-1: Extended X.25 Addressing
12
X.25
Software Reference
A
An Introduction to X.25
For example, the following addresses are characterized according to their TOA
and NPI digits (Spaces in the example addresses are used only for added readability).
Addresses
Digits
A national X.121 address
@2 3 4591101234
An international X.121 address
@2 3 4591101234
National E.164 address
@2 1 9114501234
International E.164 address
@1 1 49 9114501234
NSAP Addresses (X.213)
An alternative to the standard and extended formats is the NSAP (Network Service Access Point) address format. The NSAP format is defined in X.213. Only
a few public networks support this format.
The NSAP format is complex. For our purposes it should be sufficient to say that
NSAP addresses consist of up to 40 hexadecimal characters.
Two types of NSAP addresses also exist, OSI conform (indicated by a leading
X) and Non-OSI conformant (indicated by a leading N).
Some example NSAP addresses are as follows:
Addresses
Digits
OSI compatible address
X 37 26245911012340 4711 abc
Non-OSI compatible address
N 0123456789abcdef
NSAPS can be used, instead of or in addition to, the other address formats.
1.1.5
X.25 Routing
To give you an overview of X.25 routing we use the x25RouteTable of the MIB,
which shows X.25 routing systematically. To configure routes via the Setup
Tool, you must enter the menu X.25 ➧ ROUTING ➧ ADD as described in the
following chapter.
Software Reference
X.25
13
A
X.25
The routing of X.25 packets is accomplished via a routing table similar to the
ipRouteTable. The BinTec router uses entries in the x25RouteTable to determine which link to route X.25 calls it receives. Routing decisions can be made
based on the source link and/or different parameters found in the call packet.
The routing table for our example switch (see section A, chapter 1.1.2, page 8)
might look as follows:
SrcIfIndex
SrcLinkAddr
DstAddr
DstIfIndex
00
en1-llc
0:a0:f9:0:0:17
01
dialup1
02
en1-llc
03
bri2-1-1
04
en1-llc
0:a0:f9:0:0:19
[0-4]*
dialup1
05
en1-llc
0:a0:f9:0:0:19
[5-9]*
bri2-1-1
DstLinkAddr
dialup1
en1-llc
0:a0:f9:0:0:18
0:a0:f9:0:0:17
bri2-1-1
en1-llc
0:a0:f9:0:0:18
Table A-2: Example Switch Routing Table
Here, the first two entries route all calls between partners A and D. The third
and fourth entries provide routes for all calls between partners B and E. The last
two entries specify routes for calls originating from partner C. Any calls to an
X.25 destination address beginning with 0, 1, 2, 3, or 4 are routed to D. All calls
beginning with 5, 6, 7, 8, or 9, originating from C, are routed to E.
Calls with extended addresses are not routed since no routing entry for calls
with a leading “@” is present. Therefore, such calls are refused.
Since some calls may match more than one route in the table, a metric can be
used to prioritize routes. A route with the lowest metric value always has higher
priority.
14
X.25
Software Reference
A
Setup Tool Menus
1.2
Setup Tool Menus
After entering setup from the shell prompt Setup Tool’s Main Menu is displayed as below. Depending on your hardware setup and software configuration your router’s menu may differ slightly.
BinTec router Setup Tool
Licenses
Slot1:
Slot2:
Slot3:
BinTec Communications AG
MyRouter
System
CM-BNC/TP, Ethernet
CM-2XBRI, ISDN S0, Unit 0
CM-2XBRI, ISDN S0, Unit 1
CM-1BRI, ISDN S0
WAN Partner
IP
IPX
X.25
Configuration Management
Monitoring and Debugging
EXIT
Press <Ctrl-n>, <Ctrl-p> to scroll through menu items, <Return> to
enter
➤ Go to X.25.
This is the point where our exploration of Setup Tool begins.
The X.25 menu contains several submenus used to configure the X.25 protocol on the router.
BinTec router Setup Tool
[X.25]: X.25 Configuration
BinTec Communications AG
MyRouter
Static Settings
Link Configuration
Routing
Multiprotocol over X.25
EXIT
Press <Ctrl-n>, <Ctrl-p> to scroll through menu items, <Return> to
enter
Software Reference
X.25
15
A
X.25
Field
Meaning
Static Settings
contains the router’s X.25 address
Link Configuration
lists all X.25-compatible interfaces on the
router, and is used to configure them respectively
Routing
contains the router’s X.25 routing table.
Multiprotocol over X.25
is used to configure the Multiprotocol Routing
over X.25 (MPX25) feature.
TABLE A-3: X.25 CONFIGURATION
Static Settings
➤ Go to STATIC SETTINGS.
The X.25 Static Settings menu contains the router’s local X.25 address.
BinTec router Setup Tool
[X.25][STATIC]: X.25 Static Settings
BinTec Communications AG
MyRouter
Local X.25 Address
SAVE
CANCEL
Press <Ctrl-n>, <Ctrl-p> to scroll through menu items, <Return> to
enter
16
X.25
Software Reference
A
Setup Tool Menus
Field
Meaning
Local X.25 Address
The router’s official X.25 address. Setting this
variable is only required if the router is not
directly connected to an official X.25 data network. When connected directly, the router
ascertains its X.25 address automatically.
The X.25 address must be set here for sites
implementing private X.25 networks, or when
X.25 in the B-channel is used.
Table A-4: X.25 ➧ STATIC SETTINGS
Link Configuration
➤ Go to LINK CONFIGURATION.
This menu displays a list of all interfaces that support the X.25 protocol. The
number of available interfaces listed here is a combination of hardware
(which modules are installed) and software interfaces (configured WAN
partners).
Software Reference
–
Dialup interfaces
Entries for each X.25-compatible WAN partner configured on the system.
–
Hardware interfaces
Depending on which slot the X.21 module is installed in (1 through 3
on a BRICK-XM, 1 through 6 on a BRICK-XL2), the system creates an
initial link using xi1 through xi3 (xi6).
–
X.31 interfaces
If you are receiving X.31 services from your ISDN provider an X.31 link
is also present. X.31 links have the format:
x31d-<slot number>-<unit number>-<TEI>
X.25
17
A
X.25
BinTec router Setup Tool
[X.25][LINK]: X.25 Link Configuration
BinTec Communications AG
MyRouter
Select Link to Configure
x31d2-0-1
en1-llc (create new configuration)
DELETE CONFIGURATION
EXIT
Press <Ctrl-n>, <Ctrl-p> to scroll, <Space> tag/untag DELETE, <Return>
to edit
➤ Before an X.25-compatible interface can be used, its link characteristics
must first be set.
➤ To edit an X.25 link mark the entry and then press Enter.
➤ To remove an X.25 link, tag the entry for deletion (spacebar) and select
DELETE CONFIGURATION.
Configure the X.25 link
➤ Select EDIT.
This menu is used to configure the basic characteristics of the X.25 link.
BinTec router Setup Tool
BinTec Communications AG
[X.25][LINK][EDIT]: Change X.25 Link Configuration
MyRouter
Link
L3 Mode
L3 Packet Size
L3 Window Size
Windowsize/Packetsize Neg.
en1-llc
dte
default: 128
max: 128
default: 2
max: 7
when necessary (default)
Lowest Two-Way-Channel (LTC) 1
Highest Two-Way-Channel (HTC)2
Partner MAC Address (LLC)
Layer 2 Behavior
Disconnect Timeout
SAVE
disconnect after timeout
1000
CANCEL
Use <Space> to select
18
X.25
Software Reference
A
Setup Tool Menus
Software Reference
Field
Meaning
Link
This is the name of the link your are editing and
cannot be changed here
L3 Mode
This defines the mode the router operates in at
Layer 3 of the X.25 protocol stack. Set to DCE
if the router must provide clocking information
or DTE if provided by the remote side of link
L3 Window Size / Packet
Size
Defines the default and maximum values for
Packet size (128, …, 4096 bytes) and Window
size (2 through 127)
Windowsize/Packetsize
Neg.
Decides whether window/packetsize negotiation is made for this X.25 link. The possible values are never, always and when necessary,
where when necessary is the default value. The
value never means no negotiation. When a call
arrives that does not correspond to the default
size, the call is cleared. Always means negotiations are always made and when when
necessary is selected, there are only negotiations, when the requested values differ from the
default values.
Lowest Two-WayChannel (LTC)
LTC and HTC must be set to reflect the number
of Virtual Channel(s) you have arranged for
from your X.25 network provider.
Highest Two-WayChannel (HTC)
Defines the highest number that can be
assigned to a Virtual Channel.
Partner MAC Address
(LLC)
Used when configuring a link for a partner on
the LAN and specifies the host’s MAC or hardware address.
Layer 2 Behaviour
Defines whether (and if so, when) the link
should be disconnected when no virtual channels are active.
Disconnect Timeout
Time in milliseconds to wait before closing the
link once the line becomes inactive.
X.25
19
A
X.25
Table A-5: X.25 ➧ LINK CONFIGURATION ➧ EDIT
Caution!
When establishing X.25 connections via ISDN, it may occur that unintentional
permanent connections are established in combination with certain settings.
It is important to note that if L2IdleTimer is set to -1 in the X25LinkPresetTable,
or in the Setup Tool field Layer 2 Behaviour to always active, the BinTec router
will continue to establish layer 2 with the effect of permanent B-channel connections and increased costs.
➤ Thus, if you want to prevent this, make sure to give the L2IdleTimer variable a value other than -1 or to a setting other than always active in Setup
Tool’s Layer 2 Behaviour field.
Configure X.25 Routes
■ Go to ROUTING.
This menu displays the X.25 routing table. X.25 routes are used for routing
traffic over X.25 interfaces. Routes can be added, removed, or changed
here.
BinTec router Setup Tool
[X.25][ROUTING]: X.25 Route Table
Source Link Dest. Link
ADD
BinTec Communications AG
MyRouter
Dest. Link Addr. Dest X.25 Addr. Metric
DELETE
EXIT
To edit an X.25 route, mark the entry and then press Return.
➤ Select ADD.
X.25 routes configured with Setup Tool are based on two factors:
–
20
X.25
Source link
Link X.25 call_packet first arrived on.
Software Reference
A
Setup Tool Menus
–
Dest. X.25 Address
The address the packet is addressed to.
You must define the destination link where the X.25 packets will be routed by
specifying these two parameters. Standard wildcard characters can also be
used in the Destination Address parameter.
Example
Meaning
{123}45
Either 12345 or 45
[68]*
Any # starting with 6 or 8
[^5]*
Any # not starting with 5
624*
All #s starting with 624
Table A-6: Examples for Wildcard Usage
Since some calls may match more than one route in the table, a metric can be
used to prioritize routes. A route with the lowest metric value always has higher
priority.
When your destination link is a multipoint interface, you additionally have to adjust the Destination Link Address (LLC).
Also note that there are different X.25 addressing standards, and depending on
where the X.25 partner is calling from, the actual X.25 address received by the
router may differ.
BinTec router
BinTec Communications AG
[X.25][ROUTING][EDIT]: Add or Change X.25 Routes
MyRouter
Source Link
Destination Link
any
local
Destination X.25 Address
45*
Metric
0
SAVE
CANCEL
Use <Space> to select
Software Reference
X.25
21
A
X.25
Multiprotocol Routing
over X.25
➤ Go to MULTIPROTOCOL OVER X.25.
This menu lists the Multiprotocol Routing over X.25, or MPX25, interfaces
configured on the system. MPX25 allows the router to route IP, IPX, and
Bridge, traffic over X.25 links. Each MPX25 interface defines an X.25 link
to route one or more protocols over.
The underlying X.25 subsystem must first be configured before any MPX25
interface can be configured here. See the menus:
■ X.25 ➧ STATIC SETTINGS
■ X.25 ➧ LINK CONFIGURATION
■ X.25 ➧ ROUTING
BinTec router Setup Tool
[X.25][MPR]: Multiprotocol over X.25
Interface Name
ADD
BinTec Communications AG
MyRouter
Destination X.25 Address Encapsulation
DELETE
EXIT
➤ Select ADD.
Use this menu to add or change MPX25 interfaces.
22
X.25
Software Reference
A
Setup Tool Menus
BinTec router Setup Tool
[X.25][MPR][ADD]: Add or change X.25 MPR
Partner Name
mpxpartner1
Encapsulation
X.25 Destination Address
ip_rfc877
49911555
BinTec Communications AG
MyRouter
Advanced Settings>
IP>
IPX>
SAVE
CANCEL
Enter string, max length = 25 chars
Software Reference
X.25
23
A
X.25
Field
Meaning
Partner Name
Enter a unique name to identify this MPX25
partner
Encapsulation
Here you select the type of encapsulation/protocol to use. Note that the remote MPX25 partner must be configured to use the same
encapsulation.
When selecting ip_rfc877 or ip, you must define
the IP settings in the IP Submenu (see below).
When selecting mpr, you can enter IP and IPX
settings in the respective submenus (see
below). When you define the settings for both
submenus, both will be routed, but you can also
decide to configure just one of the protocols or
none of it. The Bridge functionality is always
available, when mpr is selected and needs no
configuration.
When selecting ipx, you must define the IPX
settings in the IP menu.
X.25 Destination
Address
The X.25 address for this partner. There must
be an appropriate X.25 route for this address in
the X.25 routing table. The special “{“ and “}“
characters can be used to define an optional
string of digits to use when matching incoming
X.25 calls. For outgoing calls to this partner, the
digits between these characters are used.
{00}4991155 matches both 004991155 and
4991155 for incoming calls, outgoing calls are
placed using 004991155.
Table A-7: X.25 ➧ MULTIPROTOCOL OVER X.25 ➧ ADD
24
X.25
Software Reference
A
Setup Tool Menus
Protocol
Encapsulation
IP
IPX
Bridge
X
ip_rfc877
X
ip
X
X
X
X
mpr
ipx
Table A-8: Encapsulation
Configuring IP Settings
➤ Go to IP.
This is where you configure the IP settings for this remote MPX25 partner
and is only available if the IP protocol or mpr has been enabled.
The settings used in this menu are the same as those used in the WAN
PARTNER ➧ ADD ➧ IP menu but only apply to this MPX25 partner.
Configuring IPX
Settings
➤ Go to IPX .
This is where you configure the IP settings for this remote MPX25 partner
and is only available if the IP protocol or mpr has been enabled.
The settings used in this menu are the same as those used in the WAN
PARTNER ➧ ADD ➧ IPX X.25 menu but only apply to this MPX25 partner.
➤ Go to X.25 ➧ MULTIPROTOCOL
OVER X.25 ➧ ADD
SETTINGS.
This menu can be used to configure advanced features.
➧
ADVANCED
The settings used in this menu are a subset of those used in the WAN
PARTNER ➧ ADD ➧ ADVANCED SETTINGS menu but only apply to this
MPX25 partner.
Software Reference
X.25
25
A
X.25
Monitoring the
Router’s Operational
Status
➤ Go to MONITORING AND DEBUGGING.
This menu consists of several submenus which allow you to monitor the
router’s operational status (and debug problems) in different ways.
BinTec router Setup Tool
[MONITOR]: Monitoring and Debugging
BinTec Communications AG
MyRouter
ISDN Monitor
ISDN Credits
X.25 Monitor
Interfaces
Messages
TCP/IP
OSPF
EXIT
Field
Meaning
ISDN Monitor
lets you track incoming and outgoing ISDN
calls.
ISDN Credits
lets you track credits based accounting
X.25 Monitor
lets you track incoming and outgoing X.25 calls
Interfaces
lets you monitor traffic by interface
Messages
displays system messages generated by the
router’s system logging and accounting mechanisms
TCP/IP
menu lets you monitor IP traffic by protocol
OSPF
menu lets you monitor IP traffic by protocol
Table A-9: MONITORING AND DEBUGGING
26
X.25
Software Reference
A
Setup Tool Menus
➤ Go to X.25 MONITOR.
The X.25 Monitor menu initially display all active X.25 connections. These
calls include leased and dialup connections made through X.25 public networks or over ISDN.
As when using the ISDN Monitor, the menu commands (c, h, d, and s) listed
at the bottom of the screen list different statistics relating to X.25 calls.
BinTec router Setup Tool
[MONITOR][X.25 CALLS]: X.25 Monitor
BinTec Communications AG
MyRouter
From
To
Calling Addr
Called Addr
Duration
xi3
local
1
0
591
0
EXIT
(c)alls(h)istory(d)etails(s)tatistics
The (c)alls listing shows currently established X.25 connections.
From
xi1
mpr-1
To
local
london2
Calling Addr Called Addr
1
0
2
3
Duration
591
139
Figure A-5: (C)alls Listing
The (h)istory listing shows a list of completed X.25 connections (both incoming
and outgoing) since the last system reboot.
From
xi1
local
To
central
london2
Starttime
19;33:52
19:34:01
Duration
0
2
Cause
(0x01) number busy
(0x03) network congestion
Figure A-6: (H)istory Listing
Software Reference
X.25
27
A
X.25
For completed calls, you can display additional information about the call. Select a call from the list, then enter d to see a detailed listing.
The (d)etails listing shows specific information about completed calls.
Clear Cause
Proro ID
1
Source:
Interface
VC Number
X.25 Address
Link Address
Destination:
Interface
VC Number
X.25 Address
Link Address
Clear Diag
State
dataxfer
paris-dialup
1
local
1
555
128/128
Packet Size (In/Out)
EXIT
Window Size (In/Out) 2/2
Figure A-7: (D)etails Listing
The (s)tatistics listing shows transfer activity for established X.25 calls.
Duration 971
Send:
Receive:
Packets
Bytes
1555
10032
Packets
Bytes
1552
20999
Packets/s
Bytes/s
0
0
Packets/s
Bytes/s
0
0
Figure A-8: (S)tatistics Listing
28
X.25
Software Reference
A
X.25 Features
1.3
X.25 Features
The following pages describe configuring some of the most common X.25 features on the router such as:
How do I configure an X.31 link (X.25 in the D-channel)?
How do I route IP traffic over X.25 with MPX25?
How do I configure X.31 in the B-channel (Case A/Case B)?
How do I configure my X.21 module so I can access my X.25 network?
How do I configure X.25 access for a host on my LAN?
How do I configure ISDN dialup access for an X.25 partner?
How do I configure X.25 dialout without configuration?
How do I use the router as a TCP-X.25 bridge?
How do I configure the routing for using an X.25 PAD?
Special Note: The X.25 Local Interface
In X.25 routing the router decides where to forward X.25 calls based on the configured X.25 routes. An X.25 route can lead to a point-to-multipoint interface
such as an ethernet, or a point-to-point interface such as a dialup ISDN or X.25
network partner. Another option is the router’s special “local” interface.
This local interface is an internal virtual interface. Here, the X.25 packet is given
to one of the router’s software processes depending on contents (user data
field) of the X.25 packet. The respective software process may need to reroute
the call in which case the packet is passed back to the lower level routing in-
Software Reference
X.25
29
A
X.25
stance. For example, when routing IP traffic over X.25 links ("Configure a New
MPX Partner", page 52).
telnet
ipxping
IP
X.31 Link
X.25 Host
ISDN
X.25
minipad
IPX
ISDN
Dialup
point-to-point
Local
X.25
en1-llc
point-to-multipoint
Figure A-9: Local Interface
1.3.1
How do I Configure an X.31 Link (X.25 in the DChannel)?
X.31 is a supplementary service offered by your ISDN provider which allows
X.25 packets to be transmitted over an ISDN D-channel. This section describes
configuring the X.31 data link that can be used by hosts on the LAN to connect
to stations on the public X.25 network.
Before you begin
Before you start, verify the following information from your ISDN carrier.
■ The TEI value assigned to this interface.
■ The Window and Packet size to use for Layer 3.
■ The router’s X.25 address.
■ The ISDN telephone number for this subscriber outlet.
30
X.25
Software Reference
A
X.25 Features
Verify License
➤ Verify in the LICENSES menu that your X.25 license is valid. You should find
“X25 (valid)”
Configure the X.31 Link
➤ Go to X.25 ➧ LINK CONFIGURATION.
If the router is connected to the ISDN subscriber outlet you’re receiving the
X.31 service on, you should see an X.31 link in this menu, otherwise connect the cabling and reboot the system. When autodetected properly this
link has the form:
x31d<Module Slot>-<ISDN Unit>-<TEI Value>
➤ Verify the detected TEI value is correct then mark the link and press Return
to define the characteristics of this data link.
BinTec router Setup Tool
[X.25][LINK][ADD]: X.25 Link Configuration
BinTec Communications AG
MyRouter
Link
L3 Mode
L3 Packet Size
L3 Window Size
Windowsize/Packetsize Neg.
x31d2-0-1
dte
default:128
max:128
default:2
max:7
when necessary (default)
Lowest Two-Way-Channel (LTC)
Highest Two-Way-Channel (HTC)
1
2
L2 Window Size
Layer 2 Behavior
2
disconnect when idle
SAVE
CANCEL
Use <Space> to select
Create Route for
Incoming Calls
Result
Software Reference
➤ Go to ROUTING.
Create a route for incoming calls. This will allow calls arriving on the X.31
link that are addressed to the router’s X.25 address to be given to the local
interface (see for information "Special Note: The X.25 Local Interface",
page 29).
PAD calls are given to the PAD subsystem, calls containing IP data go to
the IP subsystem, etc.
X.25
31
A
X.25
BinTec router Setup Tool
[X.25][Routing]: X.25 Route Table
Source link
Dest. Link
ADD
BinTec Communications AG
MyRouter
Dest. Link Addr. Dest X.25
DELETE
Metric
EXIT
The following entries should be made:
Field
Value
Source link
x31d<slot>-<unit>-<TEI>
Destination Link
local
Destination X.25
Address
router’s ISDN telno
Table A-10: X.25 ROUTE TABLE: Incoming Calls
The router’s ISDN telephone number used here should be in the format:
<country code><area code><local number>
Create Route for
Outgoing Calls
➤ Go to ROUTING.
➤ Create an X.25 route for outgoing calls. This route says that all calls from
the local interface are routed to the X.31 link (see for information "Special
Note: The X.25 Local Interface", page 29).
32
X.25
Software Reference
A
X.25 Features
Field
Possible Value
Source link
local
Destination Link
x31d<slot>-<unit>-<TEI>
Destination X.25
Address
leave empty
Table A-11: X.25 ROUTE TABLE: Outgoing Calls
More Info
Testing the X.31 Link:
You can test the X.31 link from a remote X.25 host using a PAD (Packet Assembler Disassembler) by calling the router at its X.25 address.
In Germany, a special “Echo Port” provided by the Deutsche Telekom can be
used to verify your router is accessible over X.31.
➤ Using minipad from the SNMP shell call the echo port with: minipad
026245911029002.
➤ You should see a login prompt. Close the X.25 call with Control-P.
➤ You can also connect to the Deutsche Telekom’s Traffic Generator service
to verify data transfers are possible over the X.31 link. This can be done
with: minipad 026245911029003.
1.3.2
How do I Configure X.31 in the B-Channel
(Case A/Case B)?
The router supports X.31 in the B-channel according to Case A and B. Case A
and B are alternative procedures that can be used to access the public X.25
Software Reference
X.25
33
A
X.25
network from an S0 interface. In both scenarios the router accesses X.25 hosts
through the Packet Handler Interface (PHI) provided by the ISDN carrier.
ISDN
X.31 in B-Channel
Case A
or
Case B
Packet
Handler
Interface
X.21
X.31 in D
Datex-P Host
X.25 Host
Figure A-10: X.31 in B-Channel
When using the X.31 in the B-channel on the router, a WAN Partner interface
can be configured for this PHI that can be used as a virtual router for all X.25
hosts. Individual X.25 Partner interfaces are not required.
Before you begin,
you will need the following information:
■ The router’s ISDN telephone number.
■ Case A only) The telephone number of your local PHI. Contact your local
carrier for this information.
Configure WAN
Partner
34
X.25
➤ Go to WAN PARTNER ➧ ADD.
➤ Firstly, configure the PHI as a new WAN partner.
Software Reference
A
X.25 Features
BinTec router Setup Tool
[WAN][EDIT]: Configure WAN Partner
BinTec Communications AG
MyRouter
Partner Name
phi
Encapsulation
Compression
Encryption
Calling Line Identification
X.31 B-Channel
none
none
no
PPP>
Advanced Settings>
WAN Numbers>
IP>
IPX>
SAVE
CANCEL
Enter string, max length = 25 chars
➤ Go to WAN NUMBERS.
➤ Set your PHI’s ISDN number if your carrier supports Case A. For Case B
you do not need to configure the number.
Field
Possible Value
WAN Number
PHI’s telephone number
Direction
both
Table A-12: WAN NUMBERS Configuration
Configure the Link
➤ Go to X.25 ➧ LINK CONFIGURATION ➧ X.25 LINK CONFIGURATION.
➤ Set the link characteristics for the partner you just created in the previous
step. In most cases the following can be used. If connections can not be
established, verify with you carrier.
Software Reference
X.25
35
A
X.25
BinTec router Setup Tool
[X.25][Link][ADD]: X.25 Link Configuration
Link
L3 Mode
L3 Packet Size
L3 Window Size
Windowsize/Packetsize Neg.
x31d2-0-1
dte
default:128
max:128
default:2
max:7
when necessary (default)
Lowest Two-Way-Channel (LTC)
Highest Two-Way-Channel (HTC)
1
2
L2 Window Size
Layer 2 Behavior
2
disconnect when idle
SAVE
Route for Incoming
Calls
BinTec Communications AG
MyRouter
CANCEL
➤ Go to X.25 ➧ ROUTING ➧ ADD.
➤ Create a route for incoming calls. This will allow calls coming from our PHI
interface that are addressed to the router’s X.25 telephone number to be
given to the local interface (see for information "Special Note: The X.25 Local Interface", page 29).
➤ Insert the Source Link, e.g. x31d2-0-1.
➤ Insert the interface name for PHI, e.g. local as Destination Link.
➤ Insert the router’s ISDN telephone number as Destination X.25 Address,
e.g. 12345.
BinTec router Setup Tool
[X.25][ROUTING][ADD]: X.25 Route Table
Source Link
Destination Link
x31d2-0-1
local
Destination X.25 Address
Metric
12345
SAVE
BinTec Communications AG
MyRouter
CANCEL
Use <Space> to select
36
X.25
Software Reference
A
X.25 Features
Route for Outgoing
Calls
➤ Create another route for outgoing calls. This route says that all calls from
the local interface are routed to the PHI (see for information "Special Note:
The X.25 Local Interface", page 29).
➤ Insert the Source Link, e.g. local .
➤ Insert the interface name for PHI, e.g. x31d2-0-1 as Destination Link.
➤ Leave Destination X.25 Address empty.
BinTec router Setup Tool
[X.25][ROUTING][ADD]: X.25 Route Table
Source Link
Destination Link
BinTec Communications AG
MyRouter
local
x31d2-0-1
Destination X.25 Address
Metric
SAVE
1.3.3
CANCEL
How do I Configure my X.21 Module so I can
Access my X.25 Network?
You can use the CM-X21 communications module to connect networks over a
public (or private) X.25 data network.
Before you begin,
you will need the following information:
■ The number of Virtual Channels, and the Window and Packet sizes assigned by your X.25 network service provider.
■ Your router’s official X.25 address.
■ The remote partner’s official X.25 address.
■ Decide what types of traffic will be routed over this interface.
Software Reference
X.25
37
A
X.25
Configure Hardware
Interface
➤ Go to CM-X.21, X.21 to configure the hardware interface.
➤ In the field Layer 1 Mode set the value dte.
➤ In the field Layer 2 Mode set the value auto.
BinTec router Setup Tool
[SLOT 2 X.21]: Configure X.21 Interface
Layer 1 Mode
dte
Layer 2 Mode
auto
SAVE
BinTec Communications AG
MyRouter
CANCEL
Use <Space> to select
Edit WAN Partner
➤ Go to WAN PARTNER to locate the appropriate X.21 entry to configure (X.21
partner entries have the format: xi<slot number>, e. g. xi2) and enable
Encapsulation X.25.
➤ Select xi2 and press Return.
➤ Confirm with Save.
Configure Data Link
➤ Go to X.25 ➧ LINK CONFIGURATION.
➤ Locate the X.21 entry for the WAN partner you just configured.
➤ Press Enter.
➤ In the field L3 Mode select dte.
In the field L3 Packet Size select <Packet assigned by network>.
In the field L3 Window Size select <Win Size assigned by network>.
In the field Windowsize/Packetsize Neg. select when necessary (default).
In the field Lowest Two-Way-Channel select <LTC assigned by network>.
In the field Highest Two-Way-Channel select <HTC assigned by network>.
In the field Layer 2 Behaviour select always active.
➤ Confirm with SAVE.
38
X.25
Software Reference
A
X.25 Features
Route for
Incoming Calls
➤ Go to X.25 ➧ ROUTING ➧ ADD to create a route for incoming calls. This
will allow calls arriving on the X.21 link that are addressed to the router’s
X.25 address to be given to the local interface.
➤ In the field Source Link select your X.21 link, e. g. xi2.
➤ In the field Destination Link select local.
➤ In the field Destination X.25 Address enter the BinTec router’s X.25 address. e. g. 026245911029002.
➤ Confirm with SAVE.
BinTec router Setup Tool
[X.25][ROUTING][ADD]: X.25 Route Table
Source Link
Destination Link
xi2
local
Destination X.25 Address
026245911029002
Metric
0
SAVE
Route for
Outgoing Calls
BinTec Communications AG
MyRouter
CANCEL
➤ Go to X.25 ➧ ROUTING ➧ ADD.
➤ Create another route for outgoing calls. This route says that all calls from
the local interface are routed over the X.21 link.
➤ In the field Source Link select local.
➤ In the field Destination Link select your X.21 link, e. g. xi2.
➤ Leave the field Destination X.25 Address empty.
More Info
■ Depending on how you have set up X.25 routing, you can test your X.25
configurations using minipad. See "Minipad", page 84. In Germany, call the
local echo port to verify X.25 calls can reach the X.25 network with:
minipad 45911029002.
Software Reference
X.25
39
A
X.25
■ Or, if you have more than 1 virtual channel available, you can also place a
call to your own router’s X.25 address with: minipad your router’s
X.25 address.
■ The call should go out one virtual channel, and come back in on a second
virtual channel and you should receive a new login prompt. This can be verified by displaying the x25CallTable from the shell, or in Setup Tool under
MONITORING AND DEBUGGING ➧ X.25 MONITOR.
1.3.4
How do I Configure X.25 Access for a Host on
my LAN?
LAN hosts can utilize X.25 WAN links provided by the router to connect to remote X.25 hosts. The appropriate WAN links should already be configured. This
section describes how to configure the LLC link (X.25 over ethernet), the local
portion of the end–to–end communication link. An LLC link is specific to a particular LAN host.
FTAM
LAN Partner
MAC: 0a:0b:0c:0d.0e:0f
Local X.25 Address:
X.25 Host
X.25 Address
ISDN
X.31 Link
ISDN
Dialup
Figure A-11: Configuration of the LLC Link
40
X.25
Software Reference
A
X.25 Features
Before you begin,
you will need the following information:
■ The router’s X.25 address.
■ The LAN partner’s MAC address.
■ A locally assigned X.25 address for the LAN partner.
Configure X.25 Local
Address
➤ Go to X.25 ➧ STATIC SETTINGS.
➤ First, verify the router’s local X.25 address is configured, e.g. 22.
BinTec router Setup Tool
[X.25][STATIC]: X.25 Static Settings
Local X.25 Address
BinTec Communications AG
MyRouter
22
SAVE
CANCEL
Enter string, max length = 35 chars
Create LAN Host Link
➤ Go to LINK CONFIGURATION.
➤ Create a new link for the host on the router’s LAN.
➤ Select the appropriate link template from the list depending on which LAN
this host is on.
Ethernet templates have the format: en<slot>-llc (create new configuration).
➤ Mark the entry and press Return to configure the link. For ethernet links the
following settings should be acceptable:
Software Reference
X.25
41
A
X.25
BinTec router Setup Tool
[X.25][LINK][ADD]: X.25 Link Configuration
BinTec Communications AG
MyRouter
Link
L3 Mode
L3 Packet Size
L3 Window Size
Windowsize/Packetsize Neg.
dce
1024 bytes
5
when necessary (default)
Lowest Two-Way-Channel (LTC)
Highest Two-Way-Channel (HTC)
Partner MAC Address (LLC)
1
4095
<LAN Partner’s MAC address>
L2 Window Size
Layer 2 Behavior
disconnect when idle
SAVE
CANCEL
Use <Space> to select
An X.25 (LLC) link now exists for our LAN host. You may need to verify the
Packet and Window sizes and the number of Virtual Channels for this link
are compatible with the settings used on the LAN host.
Edit X.25 Routing Table
➤ Go to ROUTING ➧ ADD.
➤ Create an X.25 route that says: give incoming calls from this LAN Partner
that are addressed to the router’s X.25 address to the special local interface
(see for information "Special Note: The X.25 Local Interface", page 29).
BinTec router Setup Tool
[X.25][Routing][ADD]: X.25 Route Table
BinTec Communications AG
MyRouter
Source Link
Destination Link
en1-llc
local
Destination X.25 Address
Metric
<router’s X.25 address>
SAVE
CANCEL
Use <Space> to select
42
X.25
Software Reference
A
X.25 Features
Another Route...
➤ Create another route so that X.25 calls addressed to our LAN host find the
correct link. This route says: all X.25 calls received from the local interface
that are addressed to our LAN host should be routed to the host at MAC
address over the ethernet link.
BinTec router Setup Tool
[X.25][Routing][ADD]: X.25 Route Table
BinTec Communications AG
MyRouter
Source Link
Destination Link
local
en1-llc
Destination Link Address (LLC)
Destination X.25 Address
<LAN Partner’s MAC address>
<LAN Partner’s X.25 address>
Metric
SAVE
CANCEL
Use <Space> to select
More Info
Depending on how you have set up X.25 routing, you can test your X.25 configurations using minipad. See "Minipad", page 84.
1.3.5
How do I Configure ISDN Dialup Access for an
X.25 Partner?
This section describes how to configure an ISDN dialup access for an X.25 partner. Here an available ISDN B-channel will be used to transfer X.25 user data
with this remote host.
Software Reference
X.25
43
A
X.25
ISDN Telno
X.25 Address
ISDN Telno
ISDN
Figure A-12: ISDN Dialup Access
Before you begin,
you will need the following information:
■ The router’s ISDN telephone number and X.25 address.
■ The remote X.25 partner’s ISDN telephone number.
Configure X.25
Local Address
Edit WAN Partner
➤ Go to X.25 ➧ STATIC SETTINGS.
➤ Verify the router’s X.25 address is set here.
➤ Go to WAN PARTNER ➧ ADD.
➤ Create a new WAN partner interface and enable X.25 traffic.
44
X.25
Software Reference
A
X.25 Features
BinTec router Setup Tool
[WAN][ADD]: Configure WAN Partner
BinTec Communications AG
MyRouter
Partner Name
Encapsulation
Compression
Encryption
Calling Line Identification
X.25
none
none
no
PPP>
Advanced Settings>
WAN Numbers>
IP>
IPX>
SAVE
CANCEL
Use <Space> to select
➤ Go to WAN NUMBERS ➧ ADD.
➤ Set the partner’s ISDN number as WAN Number:
BinTec router Setup Tool
[WAN][ADD][WAN NUMBERS]: WAN Numbers ()
Number
Direction
BinTec Communications AG
MyRouter
<the X.25 partner’s ISDN telephone number>
both
Advanced Settings>
SAVE
CANCEL
Use <Space> to toggle
If the remote site is another BinTec router verify the Incoming Call Answering
settings configured there to ensure this number will be dispatched to the routing service.
Return to the previous menu and select SAVE.
Software Reference
X.25
45
A
X.25
1.3.6
How do I Configure X.25 Dialout Without Configuration?
In an X.25 network there is often a large amount of connection partners. Because the number of X.25 partners can theoretically be infinite, there is the possibility to configure dial–out to X.25 partners without configuring the partners
individually.
For outgoing X. 25 calls a feature is implemented, which generates a ISDN
number out of the destination X.25 address or the destination NSAP (Network
Service Access Point).
Before you begin,
you will need the following information:
■ The router’s ISDN telephone number and X.25 address.
Configure X.25
Local Address
Edit WAN Partner
➤ Go to X.25 ➧ STATIC SETTINGS.
➤ Verify the router’s X.25 address is set here (optional).
➤ Go to WAN PARTNER ➧ ADD.
➤ Create a new WAN partner interface and enable X.25 without configuration:
BinTec router Setup Tool
[WAN][ADD]: Configure WAN Partner
BinTec Communications AG
MyRouter
Partner Name
Encapsulation
Compression
Encryption
Calling Line Identification
X.25 No Configuration, No Signalling
none
none
no
PPP>
Advanced Settings>
WAN Numbers>
IP>
IPX>
Bridge>
SAVE
CANCEL
Use <Space> to select
46
X.25
Software Reference
A
X.25 Features
The following steps must be configured via the SNMP shell in the MIB, because
the necessary variables cannot be configured via the Setup Tool:
x25RouteTable
By adding the new WAN partner as described before, a new interface was created.
In the x25RouteTable now a route for this new interface must be defined.
Example:
inx
SrcIfIndex(*rw)
DstLinkAddr(rw)
SrcNSAP(rw)
ProtocolId(rw)
NUI(rw)
Cug(rw)
00
1
SrcLinkAddr(rw)
DstLinkAddrMode(-rw)
DstAddr(rw)
CallUserData(rw)
RewritingRule(rw)
CugOutgoing(rw)
DstIfIndex(*rw)
SrcAddr(rw)
DstNSAP(rw)
RPOA(rw)
Metric(rw)
CugBilateral(rw)
10008
rule
"*11499119673123"
-1
-1
8
-1
-1
0
-1
■ For the variables SrcAddr and DestAddr you can use wildcards.
■ The variable DstLinkAddrMode can be set to auto or rule.
When set to auto the BinTec router can generate the destination ISDN
number automatically. A requirement for this function is that the X.25 address contains the ISDN number conform to the (extended) X.121 address
format.
Software Reference
X.25
47
A
X.25
X.121 Address Format
When the extended X.121 address format is used for the destination X.25 address contained in the X.25 call packet, the BinTec router assumes that the address starts with an “@” followed by a ”0” (TOA) and a “1” (NPI for ISDN). These
three digits are deleted and the rest of the X.25 address is taken over as the
destination ISDN number.
When the normal X.121 address format is used, the BinTec router looks for a
“0” (escape character for ISDN) or a “9” (escape character for analog connections) as the first digit of the X.25 address, deletes this first digit and again takes
the rest of the X.25 address as the destination ISDN number.
These conventions are the requirement for using the value auto in the variable
DstLinkAddrMode.
In case the ISDN number is not contained in the X.25 address of the call packet,
the generation of the destination ISDN number must be defined via a rule like
explained in the following.
You can set the variable DstLinkAddrMode to rule. When done so, the variable
RewritingRule must be assigned an integer from 0 to 999999, which is the
number of the rewriting rule used. Then you must generate an entry in the
x25RewriteTable with this rewriting rule number.
x25RewriteTable
48
X.25
The rule for converting the destination X.25 address respectively NSAP into an
ISDN number is defined in the variable dstLinkAddr of the x25RewriteTable.
This table contains table entries, which each belong to one rewriting rule number (variable RewritingRule). These numbers are referenced in the
x25RouteTable described earlier.
Software Reference
A
X.25 Features
Example:
inx
RewritingRule(*rw)ReverseCharging(-rw) RPOA(rw)
NUI(rw)
SrcAddr(rw)
SrcNSAP(rw)
DstAddr(rw)
DstNSAP(rw)
ProtocolId(rw)
CallUserData(rw) RespSrcAddr(rw)
RespSrcNSAP(rw)
RespDstAddr(rw)
RespDstNSAP(rw)
RespProtocolId(rw)
RespCallUserData(rw)Cug(rw)
CugOutgoing(rw)
CugBilateral(rw) DstLinkAddr(rw)
00
8
dont_change
dont_change
-1
-1
-1
-1
-1
"X%%%%00.....%%%456"
The format of the variable dstLinkAddr consists of the following components:
[Layer 1/Address Type] Input Rule
■ Layer 1/Address Type
–
This part of the variable dstLinkAddr is optional.
–
When nothing is defined “data_64k” is used as default.
Part of dstLinkAddr
Meaning
1
analog (modem)
2
V110_9600
3
MAC address
4
IP address
Table A-13: Part of dstLinkAddr
■ Input
Software Reference
–
This part of the variable dstLinkAddr is mandatory.
–
It defines whether the input for the conversion is an X.25 address or a
NSAP.
X.25
49
A
X.25
Part of dstLinkAddr
Meaning
X
X.25 address
N
NSAP
Table A-14: Part of dstLinkAddr
■ Rule
–
This part of the variable dstLinkAddr is mandatory.
Part of dstLinkAddr
Meaning
.
take over one digit
%
delete one digit
*
take over the remaining digits
0-9
insert digits
Table A-15: Part of dstLinkAddr
Examples:
Rule
X.25 Address/NSAP
ISDN Number /
MAC Address / IP
Address
X%%%%%00.......%%%456
@11499119673123
009119673456
X%%%%%00.......4*
@11499119673123
0091196734123
N%%00.......4*
499119673123
0091196734123
3X%%%*
@5200a0f9000123
00:a0:f9:00:01:23
4X%%%*
@53c03635a0
192.54.53.160
Table A-16: Examples
50
X.25
Software Reference
A
X.25 Features
1.3.7
How do I Route IP Traffic over X.25 with
MPX25?
The router can be configured to route multiple protocols (IP, IPX, and Bridging)
over X.25. This mechanism allows you to use existing X.25 links as the transport medium for routing other protocols. We call these interfaces MPX25 for
short. We assume that the X.31 link has already been configured and that the
appropriate routes are set. (Configuring different X.25 links are described beginning with "How do I Configure an X.31 Link (X.25 in the D-Channel)?",
page 30.)
TCP
IP
MPR
Local
X.25
Telnetd
TCP
IP
TCP
IP
MPR
Local
X.25
Telnet
TCP
IP
X.25 Addr:
IP Address:
ISDN
200.1.1.2
X.31 in D-Chan.
200.1.1.1
IP Address:
X.25 Address:
199.1.1.7
199.1.1.1
Figure A-13: Routing over X.25
Before you begin,
you will need the following information:
■ The router’s X.25 address.
■ The remote partner’s X.25 address.
■ The remote partner’s IP address.
Software Reference
X.25
51
A
X.25
Configure a New MPX
Partner
➤ Go to X.25 ➧ MULTIPROTOCOL OVER X.25 ➧ ADD.
➤ Create a new MPX25 interface for the remote X.25 partner. Here we define
the types of traffic (IP, IPX, and Bridge) to transport over this link. For our
example earlier, we will only route IP.
➤ Select an Encapsulation, e.g. ip_rfc877.
BinTec router Setup Tool
[X.25][MPR][ADD]:Configure X.25 MPR Partner
BinTec Communications AG
MyRouter
Partner Name
Encapsulation
X.25 Destination Address
ip_rfc877
<MPX25 partner’s X.25 address>
Advanced Settings>
IP>
IPX>
SAVE
CANCEL
Enter string, max length = 25 chars
Only if an X.31 in D-channel link is being used as the transport medium, the
X.25 address entered here should be preceded by {00}. This will allow outgoing calls to be placed correctly (using: 00<country code><area code><local
number>) and incoming calls to be identified (the X.25 network delivers calls
without the preceding 00).
➤ Edit the protocol-relevant settings for this partner. In our example, we are
routing IP over X.25, so we need to set the remote partner’s IP address
here.
➤ Go to IP.
52
X.25
Software Reference
A
X.25 Features
BinTec router Setup Tool
[X.25][MPR][ADD][IP]: IP Configuration ()
BinTec Communications AG
MyRouter
IP Transit Network
yes
local ISDN IP Address
Partner’s ISDN IP Address
172.16.98.91
<MPX25 partner’s IP address>
Partner’s LAN IP Address
Partner’s LAN Netmask
Advanced Settings>
SAVE
CANCEL
More Info
Depending on how you have set up X.25 routing, you can test your X.25 configurations using minipad. See "Minipad", page 84.
1.3.8
How do I Use the Router as a TCP-X.25 Bridge?
The router can be used as a TCP-X.25 bridge as described in RFC 1086.
Using this mechanism, the router can be used to allow X.25 and TCP hosts to
communicate by providing an end–to–end ISO–TP0 connection.
OSI
X.25
Host
7
6
5
4
RFC 1086
TCP
RFC 1086
3
2
1
TCP
Host
Figure A-14: The Router as a TCP–X.25 Bridge
Software Reference
X.25
53
A
X.25
Depending on which side initiates the connection (see the examples under
"More Info", page 33) the router performs the appropriate protocol mappings as
shown earlier.
Before you begin:
No special information is required to configure the router as an ISO–TP0 bridge.
Please note, however, that TCP clients must support RFC 1006 which describes how to transmit TP0 packets over TCP.
Verify License
➤ Go to LICENSES.
➤ Verify your X.25 license. You should see X.25(valid) in this menu.
Route for Outgoing
Calls
➤ Go to X.25 ➧ ROUTING ➧ ADD.
➤ X.25 routing must be configured so that incoming and outgoing calls can be
established. Using the special local interface (see "Special Note: The X.25
Local Interface", page 29) a minimum X.25 routing setup could be used as
follows:
BinTec router Setup Tool
[X.25][Routing][ADD]: X.25 Route Table
Source Link
Destination Link
BinTec Communications AG
MyRouter
local
x31d2-0-1
Destination X.25 Address
Metric
0
SAVE
CANCEL
Use <Space> to select
Possible Values
Meaning
x31d2-0-1
Use an available X.25 compatible interface
name here. By default interfaces for ISDN:
x31d-<slot #>-<unit #>-<TEI> and X.21 modules: xi<slot #> are available.
Table A-17: Destination Link
54
X.25
Software Reference
A
X.25 Features
Route for Incoming
Calls
➤ Go to X.25 ➧ ROUTING ➧ ADD.
➤ Create another route for incoming calls. The interface name used in the
Source Link field should be the same interface used in the previous step.
BinTec router Setup Tool
[X.25][Routing][ADD]: X.25 Route Table
Source Link
Destination Link
BinTec Communications AG
MyRouter
x31d2-0-1
local
Destination X.25 Address
Metric
0
SAVE
CANCEL
Use <Space> to select
More Info
Two common uses for this mechanism are as follows:
■ TCP Client requests connection to X.25 Server
■ X.25 Client requests connection to TCP Server
For more detailed reference please refer to RFCs 1006 and 1086 respectively.
1.
TCP Client requests connection to X.25 Server
Here the TCP-Client initiates a connection (as defined in RFC 1086) with the
router using TCP port 146. The router then contacts the remote X.25-Server
Software Reference
X.25
55
A
X.25
and transparent TP0 packets can begin to be exchanged between the two endpoints.
ISO-TP0
RFC 1086
TCP
Client
X.25
Server
TP0
TP0
➋
RFC 1006
X.25 Call to
Address: 123
connection
➊ TCP
Port: 146
X.25
(Datex.P)
Figure A-15: TCP Client requests connection to X.25 Server
2.
X.25 Client requests connection to TCP Server
Here the TCP-Server must first initiate a connection with the router at TCP port
146 where it registers its IP address and port number. It instructs the router to
accept incoming calls addressed to an X.25 address (123) and route the connection to the registered TCP port number (6002) and IP address (10.5.5.5).
TCP
Server
Address: 10.5.5.5
➌ IP
TCP Port: 6002
TP0
RFC 1006
X.25
Client
Internet
➊
Call to
➋ X.25
Address: 123
TP0
Port 146
X.25
(Datex.P)
Figure A-16: X.25 Client requests connection to TCP Server
56
X.25
Software Reference
A
X.25 Features
The router will listen for incoming calls to the registered address only as long
as the TCP (port 146) connection between the registering host and the router
exists.
1.3.9
How do I Configure the Routing for Using an
X.25 PAD?
To configure the X.25 PAD utility the ISDN interface configuration must be extended and a new software interface for the X.25 PAD must be created.
Before you begin:
Before you start you will need the following information:
The X.25 PAD’s unique MSN (Multiple Subscriber Number)
The remote X.25 network partner’s name and possibly X.25 address
Configure Hardware
Interface
➤ Go to CM-1BRI, ISDN S0 ➧ INCOMING CALL ANSWERING ➧ ADD.
➤ Create a new entry for incoming calls on the ISDN interface to be routed to
the X.25 PAD.
BinTec router Setup Tool
BinTec Communications AG
SLOT 2 ISDN BRI][INCOMING][ADD]: Incoming Call Answering
MyRouter
Item
Number
Mode
Username
Bearer
X.25 PAD
<X.25 PAD’s MSN>
right to left
SAVE
CANCEL
Use <Space> to select
Edit WAN Partner
➤ Next you must add the X.25 PAD as a new WAN partner.
Because the X.25 PAD’s WAN partners can not be identified by their caller’s numbers, you must create one WAN Partner.
Software Reference
X.25
57
A
X.25
➤ Go to WAN PARTNER ➧ ADD.
➤ Create a new WAN partner interface:
BinTec router Setup Tool
[WAN][ADD]: Configure WAN Partner
BinTec Communications AG
MyRouter
Partner Name
<X.25 PAD’s partner name>
Encapsulation
Compression
Encryption
Calling Line Identification
X.25 PAD
PPP>
Advanced Settings>
WAN Numbers>
IP>
IPX>
SAVE
CANCEL
Use <Space> to select
Create X.25 PAD Link
➤ Go to X.25 ➧ LINK CONFIGURATION.
➤ Create a new link for the X.25 PAD’s partner.
➤ Select the appropriate link template from the list:
BinTec router Setup Tool
[X.25][LINK]: X.25 Link Configuration
BinTec Communications AG
MyRouter
Select Link to configure
<X.25 PAD’s partner name> (create new configuration)
DELETE CONFIGURATION
EXIT
Press <Ctrl-n>, <Ctrl-p> to scroll, <Space> tag/untag DELETE, <Return>
➤ Edit the items and change them, if necessary. You might e.g. want to configure special values for L3 Packet Size, L3 Window Size or Windowsize/
Packetsize Neg.
➤ In general the default values you will find in this menu do not have to be
changed. But even, if you do not make any changes you must leave the
58
X.25
Software Reference
A
X.25 Features
menu with SAVE to configure the Link Configuration for the X.25 PAD Partner.
Edit X.25 Routing Table
Depending on whether you want to define a static route from the X.25 PAD’s
partner interface to a single X.25 host/remote partner or multiple routes between several X.25 partners, the routing information differs.
1.
Routing configuration for a static routing between two X.25 partners (the
X.25 PAD’s partner and a remote X.25 host/partner).
➤ Go to X.25 ➧ ROUTING ➧ ADD.
➤ Create an X.25 route that routes outgoing calls from the X.25 PAD to the
remote X.25 network partner (X.25 host).
BinTec router Setup Tool
[X.25][Routing][ADD]: X.25 Route Table
Source Link
Destination Link
BinTec Communications AG
MyRouter
<X.25 PAD’s partner name>
<X.25 network partner name>
Destination X.25 Address
Metric
SAVE
CANCEL
Use <Space> to select
The partner used in the Destination Link must be configured before as an X.25
partner.
2.
Software Reference
This second configuration is an example for connecting three X.25 partners, one of them the X.25 PAD’s partner.
X.25
59
A
X.25
BinTec router Setup Tool
[X.25][Routing][ADD]: X.25 Route Table
BinTec Communications AG
MyRouter
Source Link
Destination Link
<X.25 PAD’s partner name>
<X.25 network partner name A>
Destination X.25 Address
1*
Metric
SAVE
CANCEL
Use <Space> to select
BinTec router Setup Tool
[X.25][Routing][ADD]: X.25 Route Table
BinTec Communications AG
MyRouter
Source Link
Destination Link
<X.25 PAD’s partner name>
<X.25 network partner name B>
Destination X.25 Address
2*
Metric
SAVE
CANCEL
Use <Space> to select
The partners used in the Destination Link must be configured before as X.25
partners.
More Info
For further information see "X.25 PAD", page 61.
60
X.25
Software Reference
A
X.25 Utilities
General
1.4
X.25 Utilities
1.4.1
X.25 PAD
The PAD is a data assembly/disassembly facility used to connect character-oriented asynchronous data terminal equipment (DTE) to the packet-oriented
X.25 network (Datex-P). It is the task of PAD to convert character streams coming from the DTE into data packets and resolve data packets coming from the
network into individual character streams that can be displayed on the DTE. In
this context the character-oriented data terminal equipment is also called startstop mode DTE (short: DTE) and a remote X.25 host is defined as packet mode
DTE.
Recommendation X.29 defines the procedures between a PAD and a packetmode DTE or another PAD and recommendation X.28 defines the DTE interface of a start-stop mode DTE accessing the PAD.
PAD (remote)
DTE
X.25 Host
Modem
V.110
ISDN
X.25-Network
X.29
X.3
X.28
PAD
Figure A-17: X.25 PAD
Software Reference
X.25
61
A
X.25
The PAD program is an implementation of the X.25 PAD according to the three
following ITU-T recommendations:
■ X.3: Parameter definition
■ X.28: User interface / commands
■ X.29: PAD to PAD protocol
In each case, the standard of 1988 is implemented. The implementation should,
however, also be compatible to earlier versions.
PAD features one command mode and one data transfer state. The commands
are described below. PAD can manage only exiting calls, it cannot be called itself.
PAD command signals are directed from the DTE to the PAD and are described
under "Commands Conforming to X.28", page 75. PAD service signals are directed from the PAD to the DTE and serve for e.g acknowledging PAD commands and or transmitting call progress signals to the DTE.
Additional Features
There are two additional features built into the PAD to extend the standard X.25
PAD functionality.
One is the additional variable AutoCallDstAdr in the x25PadProfileTable,
which can contain an X.25 address, the PAD automatically establishes a connection to. The value of this variable must be defined in the
x25PadProfileTable on the BinTec router.
The second item is a timer that determines, when to close down a connection
to the remote X.25 station, after the DTE has sent the CLR command to the
PAD. This time period is defined by configuring the X.25 PAD’s partner. It results from the sum of the values of two items in Setup Tool: Static Short Hold
in the WAN ➧ EDIT ➧ ADVANCED menu (Short Hold in the biboPPPTable
of the MIB) and Disconnect Timeout in the X25 ➧ LINK ➧ EDIT menu
(L2IdleTimer in the X25LinkPresetTable of the MIB).
PAD Parameters
62
X.25
All PAD parameters are stored in the variables of the x25PadProfileTable on
the BinTec router and can be edited there.
Software Reference
A
X.25 Utilities
Additional Entries
Additional Entries
Meaning
Number
The value of this parameter defines the unique
number of the PAD Profile.
Possible values:
0-99: PadProfileTable numbers.
The PadProfileTables 0, 90 and 91 (see later)
are implemented in the BinTec router.
State
This parameter describes the state of the profile.
1.
The Profile is valid. (valid)
2.
The Profile is set to delete. (delete)
The default value is 1 resp. valid.
AutoCallDstAddr
When this parameter is set to a non-empty
string, a call will automatically be established to
this PAD address.
By default this variable is empty. To activate
the autocall function the user must enter a
value (valid X.25 address) for this variable in
the x25PadProfileTable (described later) on
the BinTec router.
Table A-18: Additional Entries
Software Reference
X.25
63
A
X.25
Standard Parameters
The 22 standard PAD parameters defined in X.3 are listed in the table:
Number
Parameter
Description
1
Escape
PAD recall using a character
2
Echo
Echo
3
ForwardChar
Selection of the data forwarding character
4
IdleTimer
Selection of idle timer delay
5
DevControl
Ancillary device control
6
SigControl
Control of PAD service control
7
BrkControl
Operation on receipt of the break signal
8
Discard
Discard output
9
CRPadding
Padding after carriage return
10
LineFold
Line Folding
11
Speed
Binary speed (read only)
12
FlowControl
Flow control of the PAD
13
LFInsert
Linefeed insertion after carriage return
14
LFPadding
Padding after linefeed
15
Edit
Editing
16
CharDel
Character delete
17
LineDel
Line delete
18
LineDisp
Line display
19
SigEdit
Editing PAD service signals
20
EchoMask
Echo mask
21
Parity
Parity treatment
22
PageWait
Page wait
Table A-19: Standard Parameters
64
X.25
Software Reference
A
X.25 Utilities
The exact meanings of the individual parameters and their possible values are
described in the following sections; ^X stands for the simultaneously pressing
the Control key (also Ctrl) and the X key; terms such as BEL or ACK refer to
the corresponding characters in the International Alphabet No. 5 (IA5) according to ITU-T T.50.
Standard Parameters and their Meaning
1 Escape
Definition of a character which causes PAD to switch from the data transfer to
the command mode (escape character).
Possible values:
■ 0: It is not possible to leave the data transfer state.
■ 1: Leave the data transfer state with ^P.
■ 32-126: Defines the character of the IA5 with the number specified as escape character.
The default value is 0.
If a connection exists, the PAD automatically switches back to the data transfer
state after input of a valid command. An exception is the clear command.
2 Echo
Defines whether the echo mode is enabled or not.
Possible values:
■ 0: The echo mode is disabled; no echo. (no_echo).
■ 1: The echo mode is enabled. (echo).
The default value is 0 resp. no_echo.
Specifies whether an echo is to be created by the PAD or not.
Using parameter 20, EchoMask, specific characters can be exempted from the
echo mode.
3 ForwardChar
Definition of characters upon which the PAD forwards the data entered up to
that point as a packet (data forwarding character).
Possible values:
■ 0: No data forwarding character assigned.
Software Reference
X.25
65
A
X.25
■ 1: The characters <A>-<Z>, <a>-<z>, and <0>-<9> serve as data forwarding characters.
■ 2: Data forwarding via activation of the Return key (IA5 character 0/13,
CR).
■ 4: Data forwarding after input of either ESC, BEL, ENQ or ACK.
■ 8: Data forwarding after input of either DEL, CAN or DC2.
■ 16: Data forwarding after input of either EOT or EXT.
■ 32: Data forwarding after input of either HT, LF, VT or FF.
■ 64: All characters in columns 0 and 1 of the IA5 not specified above serve
for data forwarding.
The default value is 0.
These values correspond to the individual bits in the 1-byte value that can be
assigned to this parameter. The values can also be freely combined, e.g.:
■ 126: All characters of columns 0 and 1 of the IA5 and the character 7/15,
DEL serve for data
2+4+8+16+32+64).
forwarding
(combination
of
the
values
Using the national parameters 121 and 122, another data forwarding character
can be defined for each of them. Data forwarding takes place additionally via
the BREAK signal and timer delay in the PAD (parameter 4, IdleTimer).
4 Idle Timer
Defines whether after a specific amount of time all data entered up to this point
are to be forwarded as a packet.
Possible values:
■ 0: No timer-controlled data forwarding.
■ 1-255: n*50ms after the last input of a character, the data entered up to that
point are forwarded as a packet.
The default value is 5 (= 250 ms).
The parameter value n indicates the delay time as a multiple of 50 ms, thus
times of up to approx. 12s are possible.
If parameter 15, Edit, is set to 1, timer-controlled data forwarding is disabled.
66
X.25
Software Reference
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X.25 Utilities
5 DevControl
Defines use of the characters DC1 and DC3 for the control of ancillary devices.
Possible values:
■ 0: No use of DC1 and DC3. (no_use)
DC1 corresponds to X-ON or ^Q, DC3 corresponds to X-OFF or ^S.
6 SigControl
Defines whether, and if so how, PAD service signals are forwarded to the DTE.
Possible values:
■ 0: X.28 mode without PAD service signals.
■ 1: X.28 messages are transmitted to the DTE.
5: X.28 messages are transmitted to the DTE, additionally a prompt (*) is output
in the command mode.
The default value is 1.
7 BrkControl
Defines the reaction of the PAD to the reception of the BREAK signal from the
start-stop mode DTE in data transfer state.
Possible values:
■ 0: No reaction.
■ 1: Data forwarding, an interrupt packet is transmitted, the PAD remains in
data transfer state.
■ 2: Data forwarding, the virtual connection is reset with possible data loss,
the PAD remains in data transfer state.
■ 4: Send an “indication of break” PAD message to the packet-mode DTE (remote PAD).
■ 5: Send an interrupt packet followed by an “indication of break” PAD message to the packet-mode DTE.
■ 8: Data forwarding, switch to command mode.
■ 16: Discard output data to the DTE.
■ 21: Discard all output data to the DTE, data forwarding, send an interrupt
packet and the PAD service signal BREAK indication with parameter field
in which parameter 8 is set to 1, the PAD remains in data transfer state.
Software Reference
X.25
67
A
X.25
The default value is 8.
If no connection has been established, the BREAK signal is ignored.
The BREAK signal is not a character of the IA5. It always consists of an approx.
150 ms long continuous string of the level for binary 0.
Receiving a BREAK signal is a requirement for packet forwarding by the PAD
except for parameter 7 is set to 0.
8 Discard
Defines whether user sequences in packets are output to the DTE or not.
If parameter 7 is set to 21, parameter 8 is set to 1 when a BREAK signal is received. From now on, all data outputs to the DTE are ignored until parameter 8
is reset to 0.
Possible values:
■ 0: Normal data output to the DTE. (normal_data_delivery).
■ 1: Data outputs to the DTE are ignored. (discard_output).
The default value is 0 resp. normal_data_delivery.
9 CRPadding
Defines the number of padding characters (NUL) generated after a CR to the
DTE.
This parameter has meaning only for purely mechanical DTE (e.g. teletyper - it
bridges the time required for the actual carriage return. For modern DTE this parameter is unnecessary, sometimes even interferes (e.g. with direct storing of
data in a file).
Possible values:
■ 0: No padding characters.
■ 1–255: Number of padding characters (NUL) - only useful for purely mechanical DTE.
The default value is 0.
This parameter is only used upon PAD service signals.
10 LineFold
68
X.25
Defines the number of characters after which automatic line folding (inserting
the character CR) is to take place.
Software Reference
A
X.25 Utilities
Possible values:
■ 0: No automatic line folding.
Depending on the settings of parameters 13 or 126, LF is inserted in addition to
CR.
11 Speed
Defines the transmission speed of the DTE. This parameter is set automatically
by the PAD. The parameter is only used internally and not listed in the
x25PadProfileTable. The possible values are described in ITU X.3.
12 FlowControl
Defines whether the user can effect a short-time stop (DC3) and restart (DC1)
of the data flow to the DTE via input of the control characters DC1 and DC3.
Possible values:
■ 0: No use of DC1 and DC3 for data flow control. (no_use_DC1_DC3).
DC1 corresponds to X-ON or ^Q, DC3 corresponds to X-OFF or ^S.
13 LFInsert
Defines whether the PAD inserts a LF after receiving CR.
Possible values:
0: No LF insertion.
1: LF insertion after each CR in the data stream to the start-stop mode DTE.
2: LF insertion after each CR from the start-stop mode DTE.
4: LF insertion after each CR in the echo stream to the start-stop mode DTE.
5: Combination of 1 and 4.
6: Combination of 2 and 4.
7: Combination of 1, 2 and 4.
The default value is 0.
This parameter is only applied in data transfer mode.
14 LFPadding
Defines the number of padding characters (NUL) which are output after an LF
to the DTE.
Possible values:
■ 0: No padding characters.
Software Reference
X.25
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X.25
15 Edit
Defines whether editing of user data is possible in data transfer state or not. If
parameter 15 is set to 1, parameter 4 is disabled.
Possible values:
■ 0: Editing not possible
(no_editing_user_data).
■ 1: Editing possible (editing_user_data).
The default value is 0 resp. no_editing_user_data.
16 CharDel
Defines whether it is possible to delete characters already entered and which
character is used for this function.
Possible values:
■ 0–127: Decimal value of the character from the IA5 to be used for character
delete.
The default value is 0.
17 LineDel
Defines whether it is possible to delete a line already entered and which character is to be used for this function.
Possible values:
■ 0–127: Decimal value of the character from the IA5 to be used for character
delete.
The default value is 0.
18 LineDisp
Defines whether the characters entered and not yet forwarded can be output
again on the DTE and which character is to be used for this function.
Possible values:
■ 0–127: Decimal value of the character from the IA5 to be used for character
delete.
The default value is 0.
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19 SigEdit
Defines which PAD service signals are output after editing (character or line delete).
Possible values:
■ 0: No editing PAD service signals.
■ 1: Editing PAD service signals for printer; "XXX" is output to confirm line delete, "\" to confirm character delete.
■ 2: Editing PAD service signals for display units; characters and lines are deleted visibly on the screen.
■ 8, 32-126: Decimal value of the character from the IA5 that is to be output
as editing PAD service signal for character delete.
The default value is 0.
20 EchoMask
Defines which characters are to be exempted from the echo function.
Possible values:
■ 0: No echo mask.
■ 1: No echo of character CR.
■ 2: No echo of character LF.
■ 4: No echo of characters VT, HT and FF.
■ 8: No echo of characters BEL and BS.
■ 16: No echo of characters BEL and BS.
■ 32: No echo of characters ACK, NAK, STX, SOH, EOT, ETB and ETX.
■ 64: No echo of the editing characters defined in parameters 16, 17 and 18.
■ 128: No echo of DEL and of all characters in columns 0 and 1 of the IA5 not
mentioned above.
The default value is 0.
Combinations of the given values are permitted.
The echo mask is effective only if parameter 2 is set to 1.
21 Parity
Software Reference
Defines whether parity bits are checked and/or generated in the PAD.
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Possible values:
■ 0: No parity bit checking or generation (no_parity).
22 PageWait
Defines the number of lines (or LF characters) after which the PAD is to interrupt output to the DTE.
Possible values:
■ 0: Page wait disabled.
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National Parameters According to Datex-P
If a national parameter is changed, the respective standard parameter is
changed also, and vice versa.
National Parameters
Meaning
118 XCharDel
This parameter is a repetition of parameter 16.
The default value is 0.
119 XLineDel
This parameter is a repetition of parameter 17.
The default value is 0.
120 XLineDisp
This parameter is a repetition of parameter 18.
The default value is 0.
121 XForwardChar1 and
122 XForwardChar2
Allow the definition of up to two data forwarding
characters in addition to parameter 3.
Possible values:
■ 0: No additional data forwarding character.
■ 1–126: Decimal value of the character from
the IA5 to be used as data forwarding character.
The default value for both parameters is 0.
123 XParity
Corresponds to parameter 21.
Possible values:
■ 0: No parity bit checking or generation
(no_parity).
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National Parameters
Meaning
125 XDelay
Defines how long data forwarding is to be
delayed if it occurs simultaneously with a data
input.
Possible values:
■ 0: No delay of data forwarding. Only with
full-duplex connections (parameter 2 is set
to 1).
■ 1–255: Number of seconds by which data
forwarding is to be delayed.
The default value is 0.
If input editing is possible (parameter 15 is set
to 1), a sufficiently large value should be
selected for parameter 125 (e.g. 60 seconds)
so that incoming data are not written into the
data to be edited.
Each character entered resets the delay
counter to 0. However, after input of an appropriate character, data forwarding starts immediately.
126 XLFInsert
This parameter is a repetition of parameter 13.
The default value is 0.
Table A-20: National Parameters and their Meaning
PAD Commands
Guidelines on Notation
The PAD understands the commands described below.
The character "↵" stands for pressing the Return key (carriage return).
Alternatives are separated by a "|"; for example, "yes|no" means, that either
"yes" or "no" can be entered.
Terms in [square brackets] are optional, terms in {curved brackets} are optional
and can be repeated any number of times, terms in <angle brackets> must be
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replaced by an appropriate character sequence (e.g., <ParNo> stands for a
specific parameter number).
Except for the characters {[<|>]} and text in parentheses, all characters of the
commands must be entered exactly as indicated in this section.
Upper and lower case letters as well as spaces can be used freely within the
commands - internally, lower case letters are converted to upper case letters,
spaces are ignored, and the command is executed only after these processes.
The service signals output by the PAD are given here for the standard setting
(parameter 6 has the value 1).
Commands Conforming to X.28
STAT↵
Queries the status of a connection. In response, one of the following messages
is given, depending on whether the connection is free or engaged:
■ FREE: not connected.
■ ENGAGED: connected
CLR↵
Disconnects the selected virtual connection. The command is acknowledged
with the message:
■ CLR CONF: Disconnect, local cause.
Data that are still in the network when the command is transmitted can be lost.
Within a specified time interval (see "Additional Features", page 62) after a CLR
command has been sent, another command can be sent or a new connection
can be initiated.
ICLR↵
After having received this command the PAD transmits an "Invitation to clear"
to the remote partner, i.e. an "invitation" to disconnect the existing connection.
In all the following commands, possible inputs for <ParNo> are the number of
the respective parameter (1-22, 118-123, 125-126).
Generally, only the parameter number is indicated in PAD outputs.
PAR?
[<ParNo>{,<ParNo>}]↵
Software Reference
Queries the current values of the parameters indicated or of all parameters if no
parameter number is given (here the square brackets indicate that the specification of the parameters is optional).
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The parameter values are output as follows:
PAR <ParNo>:<value>>{,<ParNo>:<value>}.
If an invalid parameter number was entered for <ParNo>, the following message is output:
PAR <ParNo>:INV.
RPAR?
[<ParNo>{,<ParNo>}]↵
Queries the current values of the parameters indicated or of all parameters if no
parameter number is given (here the square brackets indicate that the specification of the parameters is optional) of the remote PAD (= the packet-mode
DTE). The local PAD won’t put out a message until the remote PAD has answered. When the remote PAD answers with the value(s) of the parameter(s),
the local PAD puts them out to the start-stop mode DTE.
The parameter values are output as follows:
PAR <ParNo>:<value>>{,<ParNo>:<value>}.
If an invalid parameter number was entered for <ParNo>, the following message is output:
PAR <ParNo>:INV.
SET
<ParNo>:<value>{,<Pa
rNo>:<value>}↵
Used for setting the parameter values.
The value ranges for the individual parameters are described in detail in the
sections "Additional Entries", "PAD Parameters", "National Parameters".
If an invalid parameter number was entered for <ParNo>, the following message is output:
PAR <ParNo>:INV.
If the parameter number and value entered were valid no confirmation message
is put out.
SET?
<ParNo>:<value>{,<Pa
rNo>:<value>}↵
Used for setting and querying the parameter values.
The value ranges for the individual parameters are described in detail in the
sections "Additional Entries", "PAD Parameters", "National Parameters".
If an invalid parameter number was entered for <ParNo>, the following message is output:
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PAR <ParNo>:INV.
If the parameter number and value entered were valid, the parameters just set
are output for checking purposes in the following form:
PAR <ParNo>:<value> {,<ParNo>:<value>}.
RSET?
<ParNo>:<value>{,<Pa
rNo>:<value>}↵
Used for setting and querying the parameter values of the remote PAD. When
the local PAD receives this command, it will send a request to set and put out
the specified parameters to the remote PAD. The local PAD won’t put out a
message until the remote PAD has answered. When the remote PAD answers
with the value(s) of the parameter(s), the local PAD puts them out to the startstop mode DTE.
The value ranges for the individual parameters are described in detail in the
sections "Additional Entries", "PAD Parameters", "National Parameters".
If an invalid parameter number was entered for <ParNo>, the following message is output:
PAR <ParNo>:INV.
If the parameter number and value entered were valid, the parameters just set
are output for checking purposes in the following form:
PAR <ParNo>:<value> {,<ParNo>:<value>}
Priorities
It is possible and permissible to assign the same value (especially the same
character) to different parameters (and thus to the functions controlled by
them). If the PAD receives such a character assigned to several functions, it executes only the function with the highest priority.
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The priorities are defined as indicated in the table
Priority
PAD Functions
ParNo
highest
Recall of the PAD
1
Command separating character (“+”,
“↵“)
-
DC1, DC3
12, 22
Output of last line
18/ 120
Delete one character
16/ 118
Delete one line
17/ 119
Data forwarding character
3
lowest
Table A-21: Priority Table
PROF <ProfileNo>↵
Used for selection of settings for profile <ProfileNo>.
The values 0-99 are possible as <ProfileNo>; the settings of profiles 0, 90 and
91 are summarized in the following table. User-specific settings for profiles 089 and 92-99 are possible.
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Profiles
Parameters
Software Reference
0
90
91
Escape
0
1
0
Echo
0
1
0
ForwardChar
0
126
0
IdleTimer
30
0
20
DevControl
0
1
0
SigControl
1
1
0
BrkControl
8
2
2
Discard
0
0
0
CRPadding
0
0
0
LineFold
0
0
0
FlowControl
0
1
0
(X)LFInsert
0
0
0
LFPadding
0
0
0
Edit
0
0
0
(X)CharDel
0
127
127
(X)LineDel
0
24
24
(X)LineDisp
0
18
18
SigEdit
0
1
1
EchoMask
0
0
0
Parity
0
0
0
PageWait
0
0
0
XForwardChar1
0
0
0
XForwardChar2
0
0
0
XParity
0
0
0
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Profiles
Parameters
XDelay
0
90
91
0
0
0
Table A-22: Settings for PROF <ProfileNo>
■ Profile 0 is the initial profile set at the start of PAD.
■ Profile 90 is the simple standard profile according to X.28.
■ Profile 91 is the standard transparent profile according to X.28.
(The settings for the individual profiles can be queried on the BinTec router in
the x25PadProfileTable.).
RESET↵
Resets an existing connection to the initial state without disconnecting it, i.e. all
data packets sequence numbers are set to 0 and no data packets are on the
transfer section.
INT↵
Transmits an interrupt packet. The PAD only sends a line feed (CR LF) as acknowledgment of this command.
<address>↵
Establishes a connection to the <address> (valid X.25 address) indicated after
a physical connection has been established.
^P
After input of this character the PAD switches from the data transfer state to the
command mode, if parameter 1 has the value 1. Other characters are also possible instead of ^P (Control-P), please refer to the description of parameter 1
in "Standard Parameters and their Meaning", page 65.
This command is acknowledged by a prompt * only if parameter 6 is set to an
appropriate value.
The PAD now waits for the input of a PAD command.
In the X.28 mode, the PAD automatically returns to the data transfer state after
each command (except the CLR command).
Under certain conditions, it is possible to effect a short-time stop and restart of
the output by entering DC1 and DC3.
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Further Commands
In addition, the following command is implemented:
BYE↵
Validity of PAD
Commands
Terminates PAD (and disconnects an existing connection).
The following matrix shows the validity of PAD command signals in dependence
of the state of the DTE (start-stop mode DTE):
Valid after escaping
from data transfer
state
PAD Commands
Valid before virtual
call setup
<address>
X
PROF
X
X
SET
X
X
SET?
X
X
PAR?
X
X
CLR
STAT
X
X
X
RESET
X
INT
X
RSET?
X
RPAR?
X
ICLR
X
Table A-23: Validity of PAD Commands
Initial Profile
Whenever a new PAD is created by accepting an ISDN call, the values of the
parameters are initialized according to the initial profile, which is always profile
0.
The profiles 0 (initial profile), 90 (simple standard profile) and 91 (transparent
standard profile) are by default implemented in the BinTec router. These profiles can be selected with the command PROF (see "PROF <ProfileNo>ø",
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page 78). These three profiles can also be selected, when they are not entered
in the x25PadProfileTable.
In the following paragraphs, the default settings for all parameters are indicated,
with the number (here the PAD parameter number, not the number of the table
entry) and name of the parameter followed by a description of the value selected.
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Parameter
Default
Setting
1 Escape
0
It is not possible to leave the data transfer state.
2 Echo
0
The echo mode is disabled; no echo.
(no_echo)
3 ForwardChar
0
No data forwarding character assigned.
4 Idle Timer
5
5*50ms= 250 ms
5 DevControl
0
No use of DC1 and DC3 (no_use).
6 SigControl
1
X.28 messages are transmitted to the
DTE.
7 BrkControl
8
Data forwarding, switch to command
mode.
8 Discard
0
Normal data output to the DTE
(normal_data_delivery).
9 CRPadding
0
X.28 messages are transmitted to the
DTE.
10 LineFold
0
No automatic line folding.
11 Speed
Software Reference
Meaning
Detected automatically; internal value
12 FlowControl
0
No use of DC1 and DC3 for data flow
control. (no_use_DC1_DC3)
13 LFInsert
0
Editing not possible
(no_editing_user_data).
14 LFPadding
0
No padding characters.
15 Edit
0
Editing not possible
(no_editing_user_data).
16 CharDel
0
No editing.
17 LineDel
0
No editing.
18 LineDisp
0
No display.
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Parameter
Default
Setting
Meaning
19 SigEdit
0
No editing PAD service signals.
20 EchoMask
0
No echo mask.
21 Parity
0
No parity bit checking or generation
(no_parity).
22 PageWait
0
Page wait disabled.
118 XCharDel
Repetition of parameter 16.
119 XLineDel
Repetition of parameter 17.
120 XLineDisp
Repetition of parameter 18.
121 XForwardChar1
0
No additional data forwarding character.
122 XForwardChar2
0
No additional data forwarding character.
123 XParity
0
No parity bit checking or generation
(no_parity).
125 XDelay
0
No delay of data forwarding; Only with
full-duplex connections (parameter 2 is
set to 1).
126 XLFInsert
Repetition of parameter 13.
Table A-24: Default Parameter Settings
Disconnect by the
remote PAD
If a connection is cleared by the remote PAD or by the network, the local PAD
returns to the command mode. If parameter 6 (PAD messages) is set to 0, the
PAD cannot communicate the disconnect to the user. The PAD is terminated in
this case.
Configuration
Necessities for the
PAD
The configuration of the X.25 PAD is described in section A, chapter 1.3.9,
page 57.
Minipad
The following prompt is displayed with the command minipad:
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[-7] [-p pktsz] [-w winsz] [-c cug][-o outgocug] [-b bcug]
<x25address>
The minipad program is a basic PAD (Packet Assembler/Disassembler) program that can be used to provide a remote login services for remote X.25 hosts.
Minipad takes the following arguments:
Command
Argument
Meaning
Use 7 bit data bytes only.
-7
-p
pktsz
Open data connection with
packet size <pktsz>.
-w
winsz
Open data connection with
window size <winsz>.
-c
cug
Closed user group. Possible values for ‹cug›: 0-9999.
-o
outgocug
Closed user group with outgoing access.
Possible values for ‹outgocug›: 0-9999.
-b
bcug
Bilateral Closed user group.
Possible values for ‹bcug›:
0-9999.
<x25address>
Either a standard X.121
address or an extended
address.
Table A-25: Minipad Usage
Minipad is also useful for testing X.25 routes. To diasble X.25 connections to
the minipad, x25LocalPadCall must be set to dont_accept.
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1.5
X.25 Diagnostic Code
X.25 diagnostic codes are reported in the x25CallHistoryTable. Note that only
clear and diagnostic causes reported by the ISDN are stored in this table (via
the ClearCause and ClearDiag fields). Restart and Reset causes may be detected when tracing ISDN channels.
The diagnostic codes are divided up in following groups:
■ Clear Causes
■ Diagnostic Causes
■ Restart Causes
■ Reset Causes
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1.5.1
Clear Causes
Clear causes are reported in the ClearCause field of the x25CallHistoryTable.
Clear
Decimal
Hexa
Meaning
1
0x01
number busy
3
0x03
invalid facility request
5
0x05
network congestion
9
0x09
out of order
11
0x0B
access barred
13
0x0D
not obtainable
17
0x11
remote procedure error
19
0x13
local procedure error
21
0x15
RPOA out of order
25
0x19
reverse charging acceptance
not subscribed
33
0x21
incompatible destination
41
0x29
fast select acceptance not subscribed
57
0x39
ship absent
Table A-26: Clear Causes
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1.5.2
Diagnostic Causes
Diagnostic causes are
x25CallHistoryTable.
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X.25
reported
in
the
ClearDiag
field
of
the
Decimal
Hexa
Meaning
0
0x00
no additional information
1
0x01
invalid P (S)
2
0x02
invalid P (R)
16
0x10
packet type invalid
17
0x11
for state r1
18
0x12
for state r2
19
0x13
for state r3
20
0x14
for state p1
21
0x15
for state p2
22
0x16
for state p3
23
0x17
for state r1
24
0x18
for state p5
25
0x19
for state p6
26
0x1a
for state p7
27
0x1b
for state d1
28
0x1c
for state d2
29
0x1d
for state d3
32
0x20
packet not allowed
33
0x21
unidentifiable packet
34
0x22
call on one-way logical channel
35
0x23
invalid packet type on a PVC
36
0x24
packet on unassigned logical channel
Software Reference
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X.25 Diagnostic Code
Software Reference
Decimal
Hexa
Meaning
37
0x25
reject not subscribed to
38
0x26
packet too short
39
0x27
packet too long
40
0x28
invalid GFI
41
0x29
restart packet with nonzero logical
channel identifier
42
0x2a
packet type not compatible with facility
43
0x2b
unauthorized interrupt confirmation
44
0x2c
unauthorized interrupt
45
0x2d
unauthorized reject
48
0x30
time expired
49
0x31
for incoming call
50
0x32
for clear indication
51
0x33
for reset indication
52
0x34
for restart indication
53
0x35
for call deflection
64
0x40
call set-up, call clearing or registration
problem
65
0x41
facility/registration code not allowed
66
0x42
facility parameter not allowed
67
0x43
invalid called DTE address
68
0x44
invalid calling DTE address
69
0x45
invalid facility/registration length
70
0x46
incoming call barred
71
0x47
no logical channel available
72
0x48
call collision
X.25
89
A
90
X.25
X.25
Decimal
Hexa
Meaning
73
0x49
duplicate facility request
74
0x4a
nonzero address length
75
0x4b
nonzero facility length
76
0x4c
facility not provided when expected
77
0x4d
invalid CCITT-specified DTE facility
78
0x4e
max number of call redirections/
deflections exceeded
80
0x50
miscellaneous
81
0x51
improper cause code from DTE
82
0x52
non aligned octet
83
0x53
inconsistent Q bit setting
84
0x54
NUI problem
112
0x70
international problem
113
0x71
remote network problem
114
0x72
international protocol problem
115
0x73
international link out of order
116
0x74
international link busy
117
0x75
international link busy
118
0x76
remote network facility problem
119
0x77
international routing problem
120
0x78
temporary routing problem
121
0x79
unknown called DNIC
122
0x7a
maintenance action
144
0x90
timer expired or retransmission count
surpassed
145
0x91
for interrupt
Software Reference
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X.25 Diagnostic Code
Software Reference
Decimal
Hexa
Meaning
146
0x92
for data
147
0x93
for reject
160
0xa0
DTE-specific signals
161
0xa1
DTE operational
162
0xa2
DTE not operational
163
0xa3
DTE resource constraint
164
0xa4
fast select not subscribed
165
0xa5
invalid partially full data packet
166
0xa6
D-bit procedure not supported
167
0xa7
registration/cancellation confirmed
224
0xe0
OSI network service problem
225
0xe1
disconnection (transient condition)
226
0xe2
disconnection (permanent condition)
227
0xe3
connection rejection– reason unspecified (transient condition)
228
0xe4
connection rejection - reason unspecified (permanent condition)
229
0xe5
connection rejection - quality of service not available (transient condition)
230
0xe6
connection rejection - quality of service not available (permanent condition)
231
0xe7
connection rejection - NSAP unreachable (transient condition)
232
0xe8
connection rejection - NSAP unreachable (permanent condition)
233
0xe9
reset - reason unspecified
X.25
91
A
X.25
Decimal
Hexa
Meaning
234
0xea
reset - congestion
235
0xeb
connection rejection - NSAP address
unknown (permanent condition)
240
0xf0
higher layer initiated
241
0xf1
disconnection - normal
242
0xf2
disconnection - abnormal
243
0xf3
disconnection - incompatible information in user data
244
0xf4
connection rejection - reason unspecified (transient condition)
245
0xf5
connection rejection - reason unspecified (permanent condition)
246
0xf6
connection rejection - quality of service not available (transient condition)
247
0xf7
connection rejection - quality of service not available (permanent condition)
248
0xf8
connection rejection - incompatible
information in user data
249
0xf9
connection rejection - unrecognizable
protocol identifier in user data
250
0xfa
reset - user synchronization
Table A-27: Diagnostic Causes
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1.5.3
Restart Causes
Restart causes are reported by the ISDN and may be detected when tracing
ISDN channels.
These causes are not stored on the BinTec router.
Decimal
Hexa
Meaning
1
0x01
local procedure error
3
0x03
network congestion
7
0x07
network operational
Table A-28: Restart Causes
1.5.4
Reset Causes
Reset causes are reported by the ISDN and may be detected when tracing
ISDN channels.
These causes are not stored on the BinTec router.
Decimal
Hexa
Meaning
3
0x03
remote procedure error
5
0x05
local procedure error
7
0x07
network congestion
17
0x11
incompatible destination
1
0x01
out of order (PVC)
9
0x09
remote DTE operational (PVC)
15
0x0F
network operational (PVC)
29
0x0D
network out of order (PVC)
Table A-29: Reset Causes
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1.6
X.25 Syslog Messages
(biboAdmSyslogSubject = x25)
The value <fd> used in X.25 system messages is an internal file number to discriminate between the different X.25 and TCP connections.
biboAdmSyslogMessage
Meaning
-Level
ifc 1 vc <vc>: receive window
exceeded, call cleared.
Protocol error in X.25 connection directly to
BinTec router (Interface 1).
err
ifc 1 vc <vc>: N(R) out of range,
call cleared.
Protocol error in X.25 connection directly to
BinTec router (Interface 1).
err
Cannot rewrite call packet; Rule
... does not exist.
A rewriting rule has been referenced in
x25RouteTable, that is not defined in
x25RewriteTable.
err
Unable to route call to IFC ...
(X.25 not supported) cannot use
ifc ... for routing (ifc does not
support X25).
The specified target interface in an entry of
the x25RouteTable does not support X.25.
err
source address too long (...
bytes)
The Link Layer Address (MAC) of a target
interface specified in the x25RouteTable is
longer than 20 Octets.
err
cannot use undefined ifc ... for
routing
The target interface of an entry in the
x25RouteTable does not exist.
err
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X.25 Syslog Messages
biboAdmSyslogMessage
Meaning
-Level
channel misconfiguration (HIC) on
ifc <ifc>
The channel specification of a link in the
x25LinkPresetTable does not match the
condition:
err
channel misconfiguration (LTC) on
<ifc>
LIC <= HIC < LTC <= HTC < LOC <= HOC
channel misconfiguration (HTC) on
ifc <ifc>
channel misconfiguration (LOC) on
ifc <ifc>
channel misconfiguration (HOC) on
ifc <ifc>
ifc=<ifc> [addr=...] vc=<vc> recv
CALL
<SrcAddr> -> <DstAddr> fac=<fac>
cud=<user data>
ifc=<ifc> [addr=...] vc=<vc> send
CALL
<SrcAddr> -> <DstAddr> fac=<fac>
cud=<user data>
ifc=<ifc> [addr=...] vc=<vc> recv
CALL CONFIRM
<SrcAddr> -> <DstAddr> fac=<fac>
cud=<user data>
ifc=<ifc> [addr=...] vc=<vc> send
CALL CONFIRM
<SrcAddr> -> <DstAddr> fac=<fac>
cud=<user data>
Software Reference
An X.25 CALL-REQUEST/INDICATION has
been received. The message contains the
interface index, optionally the link-address,
the virtual circuit number, source and target
address, the call facilities and the call user
data.
debug
An X.25 CALL-REQUEST/INDICATION is
being sent The message contains the interface index, optionally the link-address, the
virtual circuit number, source and target
address, the call facilities and the call user
data.
debug
An X.25 CALL-RESPONSE/CONFIRMATION has been received. The message contains the interface index, optionally the linkaddress, the virtual circuit number, source
and target address, the call facilities and the
call user data.
debug
An X.25 CALL-RESPONSE/CONFIRMATION is being sent. The message contains,
the interface index, optionally the linkaddress, the virtual circuit number, source
and target address, the call facilities and the
call user data.
debug
X.25
95
A
X.25
biboAdmSyslogMessage
Meaning
-Level
ifc=<ifc> [addr=...] vc=<vc> recv
CLEAR
A X.25 CLEAR-REQUEST/INDICATION
has been received with the given cause and
diagnostic codes. The value -1 means,
cause or diagnostic not present.
debug
ifc=<ifc> [addr=...] vc=<vc> send
CLEAR
A X.25 CLEAR-REQUEST/INDICATION is
being sent with the given cause and diagnostic codes. The value -1 means, cause or
diagnostic not present.
debug
ifc=<ifc> [addr=...] vc=<vc> send
CLEAR
A X.25 CLEAR-REQUEST/INDICATION is
being sent without cause and diagnostic.
debug
ifc=<ifc> [addr=...] vc=<vc> recv
CLEAR CONFIRM
A X.25 CLEAR-RESPONSE/CONFIRM has
been received on the given VC.
debug
ifc=<ifc> [addr=...] vc=<vc> send
CLEAR CONFIRM
A X.25 CLEAR-RESPONSE/CONFIRM is
being sent.
debug
ifc=<ifc> [addr=...] vc=<vc> recv
RESET
A X.25 RESET-REQUEST/INDICATION
has been received on the given VC.
debug
ifc=<ifc> [addr=...] vc=<vc> recv
RESET CONFIRM
A X.25 RESET-RESPONSE/CONFIRM is
being sent.
debug
ifc=<ifc> [addr=...] vc=<vc> recv
INTERRUPT
A X.25 INTERRUPT has been received on
the given VC.
debug
ifc=<ifc> [addr=...] vc=<vc> send
RESET CONFIRM
A X.25 RESET-RESPONSE/CONFIRM is
being sent.
debug
ifc=<ifc> [addr=...] vc=<vc> recv
CLEAR
ifc=<ifc>
INTERRUPT
[addr=...] vc=<vc> recv
A X.25 INTERRUPT has been received on
the given VC
debug
ifc=<ifc>
INTERRUPT
[addr=...] vc=<vc> send
A X.25 INTERRUPT is being sent.
debug
ifc=<ifc> [addr=...] vc=<vc> recv
INTERRUPT CONFIRM
A X.25 INTERRUPT-CONFIRM has been
sent on the given VC
debug
ifc=<ifc> [addr=...] vc=<vc> send
INTERRUPT CONFIRM
A X.25 INTERRUPT-CONFIRM is being
sent.
debug
96
X.25
Software Reference
A
X.25 Syslog Messages
biboAdmSyslogMessage
Meaning
-Level
ifc=<ifc> [addr=...] vc=<vc> recv
DIAG
cause=<causecode> diag=<diagcode>
A X.25 DIAG has been received on the
given VC. This message is ignored.
debug
ifc=<ifc> [addr=...] vc=<vc>
invalid VC number
A call on an unassigned VC number was
received.
debug
ifc=<ifc>
collision
[addr=...] vc=<vc> call
A call collision occurred on the given VC
and will be handled according to X.25.
debug
ifc=<ifc>
TIMEOUT
[addr=...] vc=<vc>
A timeout condition occurred on a VC while
waiting for a CALL-RESPONSE/CONFIRMATION, CLEAR-RESPONSE/CONFIRMATION, or a RESET-RESPONSE/
CONFIRMATION. The call will be cleared.
debug
ifc=<ifc> [addr=...] vc=<vc>
windowsize=<incoming>/<outgoing>
packetsize=<incoming>/<outgoing>
The call’s incoming/outgoing parameters for
windowsize and packetsize will used
according to the given values (possibly after
negotiation).
debug
ifc=<ifc> [addr=...] recv RESTART
cause=<cause>
A restart packet has been received on the
given link with the given cause. If the cause
value is set to -1, the cause was not present
in the message.
debug
ifc=<ifc>
[addr=...] send RESTART
A RESTART packet is being sent over the
given link.
debug
ifc=<ifc>
CONFIRM
[addr=...] recv RESTART
A RESTART-CONFIRM packet has been
received on the given link.
debug
ifc=<ifc>
CONFIRM
[addr=...] send RESTART
A RESTART-CONFIRM packet is being
sent over the given link
debug
ifc=<ifc> [addr=...] vc=<vc> recv
ILLEGAL message
An unknown message has been received on
the given VC.
debug
ifc=<ifc> [addr=...] vc=<vc>
invalid VC number
An unknown message has been received on
the given VC.
debug
Software Reference
X.25
97
A
X.25
biboAdmSyslogMessage
Meaning
-Level
ifc=<ifc>
[addr=...] TIMEOUT
A timeout occurred on the given link, while
waiting for RESTART, RESTART-CONFIRMATION, XID negotiation, link establishment or being idle.
debug
ifc=<ifc>
[addr=...] restarting
The restart procedure starts on the given
link and a restart packet is being sent.
debug
ifc=<ifc>
layer 2
[addr=...] resetting
The layer 2 of the given link is being reset
due to a timeout while waiting for a
RESTART. A SABM[E] will be sent.
debug
The given link will be disconnected, while
being idle, i.e. no VCs being established. A
DISC will be sent.
debug
The given link will be established and a
SABM[E] will be sent.
debug
ifc=<ifc> [addr=...]
disconnecting layer 2
ifc=<ifc>
layer 2
[addr=...] connecting
ifc=<ifc>
connected
[addr=...] layer 2
The connect request (SABM[e]) has been
accepted by the peer and a UA frame has
been received.
debug
ifc=<ifc>
2 connect
[addr=...] accept layer
An incoming connect indication (SABM[E])
on the given link will be accepted and a UA
frame being sent.
debug
ifc=<ifc>
2 reset
[addr=...] accept layer
An incoming reset indication (SABM[E]) on
the given link will be accepted and a UA
frame being sent.
debug
ifc=<ifc>
reset
[addr=...] layer 2
The reset request (SABM[e]) has been
accepted by the peer and a UA frame has
been received.
debug
98
X.25
Software Reference
A
X.25 Syslog Messages
biboAdmSyslogMessage
Meaning
-Level
ifc=<ifc> [addr=...] layer 2
disconnected
A disconnect indication (DISC) has been
received on the given link and the link is no
longer established.
debug
dialup ifc ...
The given interface is dialed up due to an
X.25 call routed to it. The message contains,
the interface index, optionally the linkaddress, the virtual circuit number, source
and target address, the call facilities and the
call user data.
debug
txd[<fd>]: <tcpaddr>:<port> New
TCP connection
A new incoming TCP connection from the
specified TCP address via the local port 146
has been established.
debug
txd[<fd>]: <tcpaddr>:<port> First
byte ... - not supported
The first byte the TCP host sent to port 146
isn't supported by the BinTec router. Only
the values 1 and 2 are allowed.
debug
txd[<fd>]: <tcpaddr>:<port>
Connect to a particular X.25 host
The host with the specified TCP address
wants to connect to a particular X.25 host.
debug
txd[<fd>]: <tcpaddr>:<port>
Listen for incoming X.25 call on
addr=<address>
The host with the specified TCP address
wants to listen for incoming X.25 connections for the specified X.25 listening
address.
debug
txd[<fd>]: <tcpaddr>:<port>
Timeout while reading X.25 address The
specified TCP host didn't send the X.25
address completely within a certain amount
of time.
debug
txd[<fd>]: <tcpaddr>:<port>
unsupported X.25 address type
The address type field entry of the X.25
address, the TCP host sent, isn't supported
by the BinTec router. Only the values 3 and
4 are allowed.
debug
Software Reference
X.25
99
A
X.25
biboAdmSyslogMessage
Meaning
-Level
txd[<fd>]: <tcpaddr>:<port> Could
not read 16 byte TCP/IP packet
The specified TCP host didn't send the complete TCP/IP address of the listening TCP
host within a certain amount of time.
debug
txd[<fd>]: <tcpaddr>:<port> IP
Address type ... not supported
The address type field entry of the TCP/IP
address of the listening TCP host, isn't supported by the BinTec router. Only the value
2 is allowed.
debug
txd[<fd>]: <tcpaddr>:<port>
Connection to X.25 host addr=...
failed
The TCP host wanted to connect to the
specified X.25 address but the BinTec
router could not reach the X.25 host.
debug
txd[<fd>]: X.25 CALL_IND
dest_addr=<address>
An X.25 call indication for the specified X.25
address was received by the BinTec router.
debug
txd[<fd>]: Connection failed wrong X.25 address
There is currently no TCP host bound to the
X.25 address of the previously received
X.25 call indication.
debug
txd[<fd>]: Connected to X.25
addr=...
An incoming X.25 connection was established
debug
txd[<fd>]: Connected to TCP
<tcpaddr>:<port>
The BinTec router opened an new TCP connection to the specified listening TCP host.
debug
txd[<fd>]: <tcpaddr>:<port> TCP
The BinTec router connected an incoming
X.25 call to the specified TCP host.
debug
txd[<fd>]: Disconnect and close
connection
The BinTec router disconnects the TCP host
and the X.25 host.
debug
txd[<fd>]: Received disconnect,
cause=<causecode> diag=<diagcode>
The BinTec router received a disconnect
message from the X.25 connection. The
cause and diagnostic codes of the X.25
clear indication message are shown.
debug
<--> txd[<fd>] X.25 addr=...
connected
100
X.25
Software Reference
A
X.21 Communications Module
biboAdmSyslogMessage
Meaning
-Level
txd[<fd>]: Received disconnect
The BinTec router received a disconnect
message from the TCP connection.
debug
No License
An attempt has been made to use X.25 without a valid license.
info
Table A-30: biboAdmSyslogMessage Table and Meaning
1.7
Normal Operation
Mode
X.21 Communications Module
During normal operation, PWR (power) always displays whether the router is
receiving power. ERR (error) is normally off but may blink when an error, such
as a cabling problem, has occurred.
Depending on which slots your communications modules are installed in, the A/
B LEDs for slots 1, 2, and 3 are as follows:
CM-X21
LED
State
Meaning
A
On
Currently receiving an X.21 frame.
B
On
Currently sending an X.21 frame.
Table A-31: LED Status
Depending on which slots your communications modules are installed in, the
LEDs for slots 1 through 6 (S1... S6) are as follows:
Modules
State
Meaning
CM-X21
On
Sending or receiving a packet.
Table A-32: Module Status
Software Reference
X.25
101
A
X.25
1.7.1
CM-X21Adapter
Figure A-18: CM-X21Adapter
The CM-X21 module provides a standard X.21 interface which complies with
the V.11 recommendation. The X.21 interface provides a full-duplex synchronous mode and can be configured to operate as either a DTE (passive mode)
or DCE (active mode). When in active mode the X.21 interface can be set to
operate at baud rates between 2400 and 2048k.
There are also three status indicators located on the back plane. The LEDs indicate various status conditions, as follows:
Color
State
Meaning
Red
On
Error transmitting a packet.
Amber
On
Frame being sent/received.
Green
On
Layer 1 is active (i.e., incoming and
outgoing calls are possible).
Table A-33: CM-X21 back plane LEDs
The four jumper settings on the X.21 module are intended for future use. They
should remain bridged (or jumpered), these are the default settings and should
not be changed.
102
X.25
Software Reference
A
X.21 Communications Module
15 Pin Port for the CM-X21
8
15
7
14
6
5
13
4
12
3
11
2
10
1
9
Figure A-19: 15 Pin X21 Port
The pin assignments for the CM-X21 module conform to the V.11 recommendations and are as follows:
Pin
Function
Mnemonic
1
Protection Ground
PG
2
Transmit (A)
T
3
Control (A)
I
4
Receive (A)
R
5
Indicate (A)
I
6
Signal Timing Element (A)
S
7
Not Connected
8
Signal Ground
SG
9
Transmit (B)
T
10
Control (B)
I
11
Receive (B)
R
12
Indicate (B)
I
13
Signal Timing Element (B)
S
14
Not Connected
15
Not Connected
Table A-34: Pin Assignment
Software Reference
X.25
103
A
104
X.25
X.25
Software Reference
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