Blender 3D: Noob to Pro/Printable Version

Blender 3D: Noob to Pro/Printable Version
Blender 3D : Noob to Pro. For latest version visit http://en.wikibooks.org/wiki/Blender_3D:_Noob_to_Pro
Blender 3D: Noob to Pro/Printable
Version
From Wikibooks, the open-content textbooks collection
< Blender 3D: Noob to Pro
Contents
1 Beginner Tutorials
2 Note on Editing
3 Quick Installation Guide
4 Weblinks
5 Tutorial Syntax
6 Keyboard
7 3-button Mouse
8 Apple 1-button Mouse substitutions
9 Path menu
10 Become Familiar with the Blender Interface
11 Learn the Blender Windowing System
12 The 3D Viewport
13 Resizing the Windows
14 User Preferences
15 Joining and Splitting Windows
16 Window Headers
17 Changing/Selecting Window Types
18 The Buttons Window
19 The 3D Viewport Window
20 Rotating the view
20.1 For laptop users: the num lock
21 Panning the View
22 Zooming the View
23 Pro Tip
24 Placing the 3D cursor
25 Adding and Deleting Objects
26 Other Windows
27 Learn to Model
28 Beginners Tips
29 Starting with a box
30 Subdivision Surfaces
30.1 But I want a box!
31 Quickie Model
32 Quickie Render
33 Mesh Modeling
34 Modeling a Simple Person
35 Creating a New Project
36 Learning about Selection
36.1 1. Box Selecting
36.2 2. Circle Selecting
36.3 3. Lasso Selecting
36.4 4. One By One Selecting
36.5 5. Face Selecting
37 Learning Extrusion
38 Placing Geometry
39 Summary: Keys & Commands
39.1 Detailing Your Simple Person I
39.2 Subsurfaces
39.3 Smooth Surfaces
39.4 Detailing Your Simple Person II
39.5 Selection modes
39.6 Scaling with axis constraint
39.7 Modeling the arms
39.8 Modeling the legs
39.9 Modeling the head
39.10 Creating a Simple Hat
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41
42
43
39.11 Adding an object
39.12 Deleting a selection
39.13 Creating the hat profile
39.14 Spinning the hat
39.15 Final touches
39.16 Putting Hat on Person
39.16.1 Rotation
39.16.2 Location
39.16.3 Size
39.16.4 Putting it on
39.17 Mountains Out Of Molehills
39.18 Creating a simple plane
39.19 First mountain
39.20 Peaks vs. hills
39.21 Shaping the world
39.22 Smoothing things out
39.22.1 Naturalness
39.23 Turning a Cube into a Puppy
Creating Models With Photo Assistance
40.1 Setting UP
40.2 Making A Pyramid
Taking the Best Reference Photos
41.1 Step One: Get the pictures of the model
41.2 Step Two: Get the Picture into Blender
41.3 Modeling a Gingerbread Man
41.4 Modelling
41.5 Camera Positioning and Rendering
41.6 Die Another Way (dice modelling)
41.7 Step 1
41.8 Step 2
41.9 Step 3
41.10 Step 4
41.11 Step 5
41.12 Step 6
41.13 Step 7
41.14 Step 8
41.15 Step 9
41.16 Step 10
41.17 Step 11
41.18 Step 12
41.19 Step 13
41.20 Step 14
41.21 Step 15
41.22 Step 16
41.23 Step 17
41.24 Step 18
41.25 Extra
41.26 Edit Mode HotKeys Review
Edit Mode HotKeys
42.1 Object Mode HotKeys Review
Object Mode HotKeys
43.1 Curve and Path Modeling
43.2 2D Image (logo) to a 3D Model
43.3 Using Bezier Curve to Model a 3D logo from a 2D logo
43.4 Set up
43.5 Introducing the Bezier Curve
43.6 Rough Tracing
43.7 Polishing the Tracing
43.8 Adding a Third Dimension
43.9 Continue tutorial using bezier curves
43.10 Adding the circle
43.11 Johnos Addition (the tutorial on the next page does this too)
43.12 Adding The Circle
43.13 Simple Vehicle
43.14 Design
43.15 Idea
43.16 General Characteristics
43.17 Parts list
43.18 Wheels
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45
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47
48
49
50
51
52
53
43.19 Modeling a picture
43.20 Modeling a picture
43.21 Using Bones
Bones
44.1 A model
44.2 Laying down bones
44.3 Materials and Textures
44.4 Quickie Material
Your First Material
45.1 Naming Names
45.2 Setting the Color
45.3 Quickie Texture
Intro
Adding a texture
Adding a cloud texture
Adding a stucci texture
Adding an image texture
Further Reading
51.1 Procedural Textures
51.2 Creating Basic Seawater
51.3 Texturing Basic Seawater
51.4 Mountains Out Of Molehills 2
51.5 Basic Carpet Texture
51.6 Image Textures
51.7 Free Image Texture Editors
51.8 The Rusty Ball
51.9 UV Mapping
51.10 Quickie UV Map
51.11 UV Map Basics
51.12 Intro
51.13 The Basics of UV Mapping
51.13.1 Add an icosphere
51.13.2 Mark a seam
51.13.3 Unwrap the mesh
51.13.4 Make a template image
51.13.5 Apply an image
51.13.6 Admire your new creation
51.13.7 Some notes
51.14 Source
51.15 Every Material Known to Man
Inorganic
52.1 Natural
52.2 Metals and Minerals
52.3 Other
52.4 Abstract
Organic
53.1 Plants
53.2 Human
53.3 Modeling Keyboard Shortcuts
53.4 Window HotKeys
53.5 Universal HotKeys
53.6 Object Mode HotKeys
53.7 Edit Mode - General
53.8 EditMode - Mesh
53.9 EditMode - Curve
53.10 EditMode - Metaball
53.11 EditMode - Surface
53.12 VertexPaint Hotkeys
53.13 EditMode - Font
53.14 UV Editor Hotkeys
53.15 EdgeSelect Hotkeys
53.16 FaceSelect Hotkeys
53.17 Render Window Hotkeys (to be written)
53.18 Beginning Modeling Final Project
53.19 Beginning Lighting
53.20 Adding Lamps
53.21 Explaining the Different Lights:
53.22 Creating a basic scene with basic lighting
53.22.1 Creating the scene
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53.22.2 Adding the lights
53.22.3 Outdoor lighting
53.23 Shadows
53.24 Render Settings
53.25 Output Format Options
53.26 OSA
53.27 Looking All Around - Panorama Settings
53.28 Panoramic Renderings
53.28.1 Building the Example Scene
53.28.2 Panoramic Rendering
53.29 Other Important Render Options
53.30 Basic Animation
53.31 Particle Systems
53.32 Making Fire
53.33 Using Blender's Particle System to Create Simple Smoke and Fire
53.34 What You Need to Know before You Start
53.35 Setting Up the Workspace
53.36 Making a Smoke Plume
53.37 Furry
53.38 Let your hair hang down
53.39 Creating Fur in Blender 2.40
53.40 Game Engine Basics
53.41 Object Collision Basics For The Blender Game Engine
53.42 Your First Test
53.43 Build a skybox
53.44 Gather your graphics
53.45 Create a dome for the sky
53.46 Create a dome for the ground
53.47 Render the environment map
53.48 Match Moving
53.49 High Dynamic Range imaging (HDRi)
53.50 Creating a Light Probe
53.51 Blender FAQ
53.52 Advanced Tutorials
53.53 Introduction:
53.54 Window Layout:
53.55 Setting your Neutral Pose
53.56 Setting up your additional Pose Lines
53.57 Set your Poses
53.58 Name your Poses
53.59 Time to Animate (b)
53.60 Adjust your Slow in & Out
53.61 Python Scripting
53.62 Introduction
54 Introduction
54.1 Export scripts
54.2 Introduction
54.3 Finding out about things in a scene
54.4 Creating a script
54.5 Exporting a Mesh
54.6 Import scripts
54.7 Introduction
54.8 Importing a Mesh
54.9 Procedural object creation
54.10 Scripts for modifying meshes
54.11 Creating a GUI for your script
54.12 Advanced Animation
54.13 Index
54.14 Introduction
54.15 Guided tour:
54.16 Armature Object
54.17 Armature Object in Object Mode
54.18 The Armature Object
54.19 The Edit Panel When in Object Mode
54.20 Armature Object in Edit Mode
54.21 Now the basics about bones
54.22 The edit panel
54.23 Naming convention
54.24 Mirror Editing
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54.25 Armature Object in Pose mode
54.26 So What Can You Do?
54.27 Mesh Object
54.28 Connection between Armature and Mesh
54.29 The Armature Modifier
54.30 The Old Way
54.31 Tip: Bake envelope to vertex groups
54.32 Envelope
54.33 What is Envelope
54.34 Edit Envelope
54.35 Envelope Options
54.36 Vertex Groups & Weight Paint
54.37 What Are Vertex Groups?
54.38 Weight Paint
54.39 Vertex Groups and Armatures
54.40 Using Weight Painting with Armatures
54.41 Shape Key
54.42 Constraints
54.43 The Constraint
54.44 The Constraint Panel
54.45 The Constraint Index
54.46 Copy Location
54.47 Copy Location
54.48 The Constraint Panel
54.49 Where To Use It
54.50 Copy Rotation
54.51 Copy Rotation
54.52 The Constraint Panel
54.53 Where To Use It
54.54 Track-To
54.55 Track-To
54.56 The Constraint Panel
54.57 Where To Use It
54.58 Floor
54.59 Locked Track
54.60 Follow Path
54.61 Follow path
54.62 The Constraint Panel
54.63 Where To Use It
54.64 Stretch-To
54.65 Stretch-To
54.66 The Constraint Panel
54.67 Where To Use It
54.68 IK Solver
54.69 The IK solver
54.70 The Constraint Panel
54.71 Where To Use It
54.72 Degree Of Freedom
54.73 Action
54.74 Timeline Window
54.75 IPO Window
54.76 Data Type
54.77 Channel
54.78 Curve Edition
54.79 Driven IPO
54.80 Action Window
54.81 Introduction To Action Data Block
54.82 Key Edition
54.83 NLA Window
55 (about this placeholder)
56 The NLA Window
56.1 Forum Notes
56.2 Walkthrough
56.3 Introduction To NLA Editor
56.4 Key Editor In the NLA
56.5 Strip Edition
56.6 Strips Properties (NKEY)
56.7 The Stride feature
56.8 Working example: Bird
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56.9 Build The Rig
56.10 Add Constraints
56.11 Deform The Mesh
56.12 Create A Fly Cycle
56.13 Working example: Bob
56.14 Getting Started
56.15 Build The Rig
56.16 Add Constraints
56.17 Deform The Mesh
56.18 Create Shape Key
56.19 Create A Walk Cycle
56.20 Miscellaneous Tutorials
56.21 All Blender Tutorial Links
56.22 Official Blender Documentation
56.23 Interface
56.24 Mesh Modeling
56.25 Nurbs and Subsurface Modeling
56.26 Specific Object Modeling
56.26.1 Human
56.26.2 Cars
56.27 Texture Mapping
56.27.1 UV Mapping
56.27.2 Animated Textures
56.28 2D Texture Painting Techniques
56.29 Lighting, Shadows and Rendering
56.30 Armatures and IK
56.31 Animation
56.32 Particles
56.33 Fluid Simulation
56.34 Compositing
56.35 Game Engine
56.36 Python and Plugins
56.37 Using other Programs with Blender
56.37.1 Distributed Computing
56.37.2 Maybe someday ...
56.38 Video Tutorials
56.39 Blender WikiBooks
56.40 FAQ
56.41 Repository
56.41.1 Blueprints
56.41.2 Materials
56.41.3 Models
56.41.4 Photos
56.41.5 Textures
56.42 Miscellaneous
56.42.1 Open Movies
56.42.2 IRC
56.42.3 Tests
56.43 Other Lists
56.43.1 Tutorials
56.43.2 Miscellaneous
56.44 About
56.45 Ways to create "fluffy" effect (materials and lights)
56.46 Troubleshooting
56.46.1 ATI Radeon Slowdown Problems
56.46.2 For people who the above solution leads to Blender crash at start up
56.47 Creating Pixar-looking eyes in Blender
Beginner Tutorials
Next Page: Tutorial Syntax
So you've come to learn the Blender, eh? You've made a great choice. This is one of the most
powerful 3D animation and 3D creation tools out there, especially if you're short on cash.
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Learning how to use Blender can be a daunting task, so don't give up! But with the help of
this wikibook, you can someday become a power-user and put those Maya folks to shame.
In addition to this wikibook, there are a number of other resources out there. The Blender
2.3 Guide (http://www.blender3d.org/e-shop/product_info.php?products_id=79) is a great
book. You can get a lot of help at elysiun.com (http://elysiun.com) . If you have an Internet
Relay Chat (IRC) client such as X-Chat (http://xchat.org) , you can connect to
irc.freenode.net and talk to blender users in the following channels:
#blenderwiki (irc://irc.freenode.net/blenderwiki)
#blender (irc://irc.freenode.net/blender)
#blenderchat (irc://irc.freenode.net/blenderchat)
#blenderqa (irc://irc.freenode.net/blenderqa)
#gameblender (irc://irc.freenode.net/gameblender)
If you have any questions or problems with these tutorials, click the discussion tab on the
page with which you're having trouble and explain the difficulty that you're having. Feel free
to practice participating on the discussion on this page.
Note on Editing
If you find an error or an "opportunity for improvement," don't just tell somebody about
it—DO something about it! At the top of each page is a link to "edit this page". Use it! You
don't even have to create an account.
Warning
If you do anything damaging or malicious, or add something
obviously useless to these pages, it will be quickly undone and your
privilege to contribute to wiki projects in the future may be
jeopardized. You have been warned.
Quick Installation Guide
Operating Systems (in alphabetical order):
FreeBSD: Download the tarball from http://www.blender.org/ – Official homepage,
unpack and run "./blender" in the Blender directory. Or install Blender from ports
../ports/graphics/blender-devel/.
Linux: Arch: execute this command: pacman -Sy blender
Linux: Debian: execute this command: apt-get install blender (may not contain the
latest version)
Linux: Fedora Core 3-5: download the blender rpm from the Fedora Extras (execute:
yum install blender)
Linux: Gentoo: execute this command: emerge blender (may not contain the latest
version)
Linux: SuSE: Install Blender from YaST Package Manager
Linux: Ubuntu: make sure that you have enabled access to 'universe' and perform: sudo
apt-get install blender or open the Add Applications program, go to Graphics and find
Blender, check it, then apply.
Linux: Mandriva: Install through urpmi by "urpmi blender" as root.
Linux: PCLinuxOS: Install Blender from Synaptic Software Manager.
Linux: Slackware: Download the latest blender package from [1]
(http://www.linuxpackages.net/search_view.php?by=name&name=blender&ver=10.2)
and install it with installpkg
Linux: other distributions (x86): Download the tarball
(http://planetmirror.com/pub/blender/release/Blender2.37/blender-2.37-linux-glibc2.2.5-i386-sta
, unpack it, then run "./blender" in the Blender directory
Linux: other distributions (PPC): Download the tarball
(http://planetmirror.com/pub/blender/release/Blender2.37/blender-2.37-linux-glibc2.3.2-powerpc
, unpack it, then run "./blender" in the Blender directory
Mac OS X: 10.2: download the Mac OS X 10.2 installer of Blender 2.37a
(http://public.planetmirror.com/pub/blender/release/Blender2.37a/blender-2.37a-OSX-10.2-powe
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, unzip and run it
Mac OS X: 10.3/10.4: Go to the official download page
(http://www.blender.org/cms/Blender.31.0.html) and select from which site you want to
download the Blender .dmg.
OpenBSD: Install Blender from ports ../ports/graphics/blender/.
Windows: Go to the official download page
(http://www.blender.org/cms/Blender.31.0.html) and select from which site you want to
download the Blender MS-Windows installer. Run the installer once the download is
finished. Blender is inherently portable. You can download and extract the zip version of
the program to your USB Flash drive and run Blender from the flash drive wherever you
go.
Are we missing your operating system? Click 'edit this page' and add it, or ask about it in
the discussion.
Please also refer to the official download page
(http://www.blender3d.org/cms/Blender.31.0.html) .
Weblinks
http://www.blender.org/ – Official homepage
Next Page: Tutorial Syntax
Tutorial Syntax
Next Page: Become Familiar with the Blender Interface
Previous Page: Beginner Tutorials
As you go through these tutorials, you will find yourself running into cryptic codes quite
often. These codes refer to keys you need to press on the keyboard and buttons on the mouse
you need to press. They are pretty standard throughout the Blender community at this point.
You may wish to print this page for quick reference throughout this book.
Keyboard
Special/Function:
ALT
the Alt key on the keyboard
the Ctrl (Control) key on the
CTRL
keyboard
the Command key on the
CMD
keyboard (Macintosh)
F1 through the F1 through F12 keys on
F12
the keyboard
SHIFT
the Shift key on the keyboard
SPACE
the Spacebar on the keyboard
TAB
the Tab key on the keyboard
ENTER
the Enter key on the keyboard
the Escape key on the
ESC
keyboard
Alpha-numeric:
AKEY
through
ZKEY
0KEY
through
9KEY
the corresponding letter on
the keyboard
the corresponding number on
the keyboard (above the
letters) on the keyboard—not
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on the numberpad
Numeric pad:
the corresponding number on
the numberpad—not on the
keyboard above the letters
('Num Lock' usually needs to
be enabled)
NUM+ and the corresponding key on the
NUM−
numberpad
NUM0
through
NUM9
Note that in Blender, there is a big difference between the numbers on the number pad
on your keyboard, and the numbers along the top of the keyboard.
For laptop users: You might have to turn on the "Emulate Numpad" option if you don't
have a number pad on your laptop. Drag down the from the bottom edge of the "File,"
"Add," "Timeline" menu bar, to pull out a new panel. One of the buttons on that panel is
"System and OpenGL." Click the "Emulate Numpad" button, to make your regular keys
on top of the keyboard behave like ones on a number pad.
For Macintosh laptops, the F6 key without any modifiers turns on Keypad lock, wherein
the right hand alpha keys emulate a numeric keypad. You must be sure to use F6 again
in order to restore normal keyboard operation. You might find it a bit more convenient to
instead hold the [fn] key on the bottom left of the keyboard to momentarily shift the keys
to their number pad function.
For Windows 2000/XP users, do not press right Shift 5 times in a row as it turns on the
Windows Sticky Keys. Doing so will mess up the ability for your keyboard to recognize
commands. If the box for sticky keys appears, press cancel (better yet, if you don't need
accessibility features, go to Start → Settings → Control Panel; select Accessibility
Options, and for each of the options, StickyKeys, FilterKeys, and ToggleKeys, (1) clear
the "Use …" checkbox, and (2) press the "Settings…" button and clear the "Use Shortcut"
checkbox).
3-button Mouse
LMB
RMB
MMB
the left mouse button
the right mouse button
the middle mouse button
[Note: If you don't have a MMB, you can use Alt-LMB to do the same.]
Gnome users, it is suggested not to use the "Find Pointer" function in Gnome's mouse
settings. If your mouse pointer is being highlighted when you press and release CTRL go
to "Mouse" in Gnome's "Desktop Settings" and uncheck the box under "Find Pointer".
Otherwise it will impair your ability to use certain functions such as "snap to grid" or
using the lasso tool.
Apple 1-button Mouse substitutions
LMB
RMB
MMB
the mouse button (default)
Apple (aka Command) key +
the mouse button
Option (Alt) key pressed + the
mouse button
[Note: While Mac OS X natively uses the "Control" key to emulate the RMB, recent Blender
versions for Mac OS X use the "Command" key for RMB, and the "Option" key for MMB.
This behavior is also noted in the "OSX Tips" file that comes with the Mac version.]
Path menu
SPACE → Add → Mesh → UVsphere
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means :
hit SPACE and, in the menu that comes up, choose Add then Mesh then UVsphere.
Next Page: Become Familiar with the Blender Interface
Previous Page: Beginner Tutorials
Become Familiar with the Blender Interface
Next Page: Learn the Blender Windowing System
Previous Page: Tutorial Syntax
The Blender Windowing System is a treat. I know, it looks like some sort of space-ship
control panel and you have never seen anything like it. Once you learn it, however, you'll
wish all your programs worked this way. Move on to the next page to learn more.
Next Page: Learn the Blender Windowing System
Previous Page: Tutorial Syntax
Learn the Blender Windowing System
Next Page: The Buttons Window
Previous Page: Become Familiar with the Blender Interface
Go ahead and open Blender if you haven't already. You'll see that it occupies the entire
screen, and may obscure your taskbar. Users of Windows and of certain window managers
can press ALT+TAB or ALT+ESC and Apple users may use CMD+TAB to get back to their
web browser viewing this guide. Also, in Linux you can start it with the "-w" option so it will
be confined to a window.
The Blender screen is divided into two sections (there are actually three but we'll get to that
later). The largest section (in the middle, with the gridlines) is the "3D viewport". The section
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at the bottom, showing a series of controls and buttons, is the "Buttons Window."
Unlike many programs, Blender draws and manages its own user interface (UI) elements
(buttons, "windows", menubars, listboxes, dialogs, etc.) rather than relying on the "standard"
ones provided by the windowing system. In fact, all of Blender's UI elements are rendered in
OpenGL, just as the 3D scene objects you create are rendered. Blender's user interface thus
appears and behaves a bit differently from the way a "normal" interface does, and can often
be confusing to new users. However, you will soon discover that the interface has been
designed intentionally to make workflow much faster and more consistent. (For example, you
can zoom and pan around a window full of buttons and controls in just the same manner as
you can zoom and pan around a 3D scene.) Another advantage to Blender's custom user
interface is that it is much more portable, lightweight, and consistent across the various
platforms supported by Blender.
The 3D Viewport
The main division is the 3D Viewport window. It allows you to see and manipulate the 3D
objects in your 3D scene. The grid lines represent one Blender Unit (BU). How big is a BU? It
can be however large you would like it to be! A BU could be an inch, a centimeter, a mile, or
a cubit. A BU lets you decide the scale.
Resizing the Windows
Hold your mouse over the border between the two windows (in this case the 3D view and the
buttons window), and the mouse pointer will change to up/down arrows (or a hand on Mac
OS X). Click the LMB and drag. You can resize the windows by doing this. Resizing the
buttons window will cause the text size to be out of proportion with the window size, to fix
this, click the RMB and select horizontal, which would fix the text size to the window size
proportion.
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Note, when modifying borders in Blender we are referring to the black subdividing lines
within the Blender window; if you are clicking on the outside edge of the window, you are not
doing what the tutorial intended. Also note that if you drag the border at the top of the 3D
viewport (the black line separating the viewport from the "menubar," you will notice that
what looked like a normal menubar is actually the bottom-most portion of another window
called the "User Preferences" window.
Pressing CTRL+UP or CTRL+DOWN toggles the maximize state of the current window (in
Blender3D the current window is the window that your mouse is over); repeat to restore the
window to its original size.
User Preferences
The third division, User Preferences, is mostly hidden, because most of the time you won't
need it. It is actually minimized to the point where only its bottom-most portion is visible and
looks like a normal "menubar" such as you might expect to find at the top of an application
like OpenOffice. To access the hidden portion, move your mouse to the top of the 3D
Viewport, to the black border line under the file menu, until you see the mouse pointer
change to the familiar up/down arrows. Then simply click LMB and drag down while holding.
You will see many Blender configuration options hidden there. Each set of configuration
options is grouped in an appropriate category, such as "View & Controls, "Edit Methods", or
"Auto Save", etc., displayed as a horizontal row of buttons along the bottom. Clicking each of
the category buttons displays its associated settings in the area immediately above.
For example, if you click the "Auto Save" category button, the settings associated with the
automatic saving of files are displayed. I like to set "Save Versions" to "32," which preserves
up to 32 older versions of the file I am working on. When a file is saved, rather than
overwriting the previously written version, it is renamed "name.blend1". By preserving
multiple versions of the file, I can see how my project has developed and even revert to
certain older versions in case of a bad decision.
Unfortunately, in order to set this to default you must:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
Open a new blender window from scratch.
Drag the menu into view.
Change any settings you may want to change.
Re-hide the bar.
Hit CTRL + UKEY.
SAVING YOUR PREFERENCES: It is a good idea to save a backup copy of .b.blend in the
Blender home directory in case you ever want to restore your defaults.
Joining and Splitting Windows
Go to the border between the 3D Viewport and the Buttons Window (note that the mouse
cursor changes as before). Click the RMB or MMB. A menu will come up with the options
"Join" and "Split Area". Choose Split. A bar will appear in the current window. Move the
mouse cursor to position the new border and LMB to accept the change, MMB to change
splitting direction, or RMB to cancel. This is especially useful in the 3D viewport. You can
split it into any number of smaller viewports. Each one can be configured to show a unique
view of your scene.
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Now try "Join Area". Note that this has to be done on the newly created dividing line. Select
one side (the arrow shows which side is left over) Your partitions will become one window
again.
Try splitting at the right (or left) edge of the Blender window—horizontal splits can be useful.
3 Button Mice for Mac OS X Users: While Mac OS X natively uses the "Control" key to
emulate the RMB, recent Blender versions for Mac OS X use the "Command" key for RMB,
and the "Option" key for MMB. This behavior is also noted in the "OSX Tips" file that comes
with the Mac version. If you're using a two key laptop pad, hold down both buttons at once to
imitate the middle button.
While a standard 3-Button USB mouse will work with OS X, Apple sells a product called
Mighty Mouse which provides three buttons, a squeeze, and a built in trackball. Using
Apple's System Preferences, the middle button (the trackball) can be mapped to 'Button 3'
when depressed. If you are using a much earlier version of OS X, the shareware product
SteerMouse will allow you to set the scroll wheel to the Middle Mouse Button (MMB).
Window Headers
Each of the windows we have discussed so far has a "header" that can optionally be
displayed at the top or bottom of its window, or hidden altogether. The header area of the 3D
Viewport, for example, shows the "View", "Select", and "Object" menus, as well as a variety
of buttons and other controls. RMB in the header area, and a popup menu will appear,
allowing you to change the location where the header is drawn, or whether it is drawn at all.
As we have discussed, when Blender first starts up (using its default interface layout), the
Blender screen is divided into 3 separate sections/windows: the 3D Viewport, User
Preferences, and the Buttons Window. The topmost is the "User Preferences" window with
its header (showing the "File" menu, among other controls) at the bottom but the bulk of its
area "off screen" above the header. The 3D Viewport, on the other hand, has its header
shown at the bottom. The Buttons Window has its header at the top of its area, so that it is
adjacent to that of the 3D Viewport.
If you turn off a header and later wish to make it reappear, RMB on the edge of the window
in question and select "Add Header".
Changing/Selecting Window Types
Each of the screen sections/windows within Blender (including those you introduce by
"splitting") may be individually changed to display a desired view of your scene, or a
particular set of controls. In this way, you can configure the layout of the interface in the way
that is most appropriate and convenient to the task at hand. The "window type" is selectable
using the icon in the leftmost corner of the window header. For example, select the icon
(LMB) in the upper left corner of the Buttons Window (i.e., the leftmost end of Buttons
Window header) and note the "Window Type" popup menu which appears. Select "3D View"
from the menu and observe how the Buttons Window is replaced by another 3D Viewport.
Reselect the Window Type button and change the window type back to "Buttons Window."
Next Page: The Buttons Window
Previous Page: Become Familiar with the Blender Interface
The Buttons Window
Next Page: The 3D Viewport Window
Previous Page: Learn the Blender Windowing System
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The Buttons Window is one of the most powerful tools that Blender has. As with all of
Blender's windows, it is rendered in OpenGL, and is very scalable and customizable.
When you have objects selected in the 3D viewport, there will be a number of operations you
may wish to perform on the objects. For example, suppose you have modeled a person.
People have different skin colors, eye colors, hair colors, and more, so you will create a
material to make the person appear as you would like it to appear. The buttons window also
handles sky color, render settings, animation, and a whole lot more.
There are many groups of buttons available to you in the buttons window. To switch between
the buttons groups, select the buttons to the right of the word 'Panels.'
The buttons are (from left to right):
•
•
•
•
•
•
Logic
Script
Shading
Object
Editing
Scene
Click each one of them so that you can get an idea of just how many tools you have at your
disposal.
Some of the buttons groups have sub-groups. For example, switch to the Shading
button.
You will be able to see several new buttons appear to the right. Left to right, they are:
•
•
•
•
•
Lamp Buttons
Material Buttons
Texture Buttons
Radiosity Buttons
World Buttons
All of the above-mentioned button groups are broken down into smaller groups. For example,
click the Editing Button . You'll see five* smaller windows in the buttons window that you
can now manipulate: Link and Materials, Mesh, Mesh Tools, Modifiers/Shapes (two tabs in
the same window) and Mesh Tools 1. You can drag these windows into a different order,
combine them, and minimize them. Try moving and manipulating these smaller windows for
a minute. Also note that there may be more buttons than can fit in the window as it is
currently sized. Click the MMB and drag (or alternatively, scroll the MMB) to pan around
the buttons window.
* If you see fewer than four small windows, try setting the 3D Viewport Window to 'Edit
Mode'. Press the TAB key to toggle between 'Edit Mode' and 'Object Mode'. In 'Edit Mode',
there will be at least four smaller windows in the buttons window.
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Next Page: The 3D Viewport Window
Previous Page: Learn the Blender Windowing System
The 3D Viewport Window
Next Page: Other Windows
Previous Page: The Buttons Window
The Blender 3D Viewport Window is where you will be spending most of your time. Blender
3D gives you 100% control of how you're seeing your world. Here are a few things you can
do to learn how to use the 3D Viewport.
Rotating the view
Position the mouse pointer over the pink square in the middle of the 3D window.
Hold down the MMB and drag the mouse from side to side and up and down.
Hold ALT+LMB for the same effect
To rotate so that "upwards" stays "upwards", use CTRL+ALT+SCROLL
NOTE: if you have own setting for your MMB in mouse configuration, you must reset this to
using the MMB as a real Middle Mouse Button (no Doubleclick or something else).
Otherwise you must use the alternate ALT+LMB for same effects.
It's a cube! Holding down the MMB is the quickest and easiest way to rotate your view and
get a new perspective on things. Right now you're looking at the cube in what's known as
Wireframe Mode. Pressing ZKEY (yes, on your keyboard, the Z key) will toggle back and
forth between Wireframe Mode and Solid Mode. Pressing NUM5 will toggle between
Orthographic and Perspective (perspective looks more natural). This does not affect how
your final product will appear, only the way you see your scene while you're creating it.
As you move the view around, you will see that there are four objects in your 3D scene by
default:
1) The Camera
The camera location and rotation will determine what you will see at render time. To
see in your 3D viewport what the camera will see, activate that window by holding
the mouse cursor over it and press NUM0(remember 0KEY is different).
2) A Lamp
A lamp is simply a light source. It will not be rendered, but the light it provides to the
scene will be rendered.
3) A Cube
This object will be rendered. The camera should be pointing at the cube so that you
will see it at rendertime.
4) The 3D Cursor
This is not an object, but a tool for the artist to use to choose where to put new
objects in the scene, much like the cursor when you're typing on a word processor
(the 'insertion point').
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Later you will learn more about how to use each of these.
[NOTE: If you are using a keyboard which doesn't have a numpad,
e.g. a laptop, see laptop commands below.]
Holding the mouse over your 3D Viewport and pressing the
NUM7, NUM1, and NUM3 buttons will bring you back to
perfectly aligned top, front, and side views respectively. Pressing
CTRL+NUM7, CTRL+NUM1, and CTRL+NUM3 will result in
displaying the bottom, back, and other side views, respectively.
Try each of these views, and watch the camera and light move
around with respect to your new viewpoint (make sure your
NUMLOCK is on. Otherwise, this will not work).
Numpad
Similarly, holding the mouse over a viewport and pressing NUM2, NUM4, NUM6, and
NUM8 will rotate the view down, left, right, and up respectively.
The object the viewport orbits around can be changed to a new object by first selecting it
with the RMB and then pressing NUM. (the period key on the numpad) or NUM, (the
comma key on the numpad) on some keyboard layouts.
Again, remember in Blender that there is a big difference between the number keys on your
numberpad and the number keys along the top of the keyboard. For example, NUM7 refers
to the number 7 on the numberpad, while 7KEY refers to the number 7 that's above the
YKEY and UKEY on the standard US keyboard. If you accidentally pressed 1KEY, 3KEY, or
7KEY during this step and it appears that everything disappeared, you can fix this by
pressing the `KEY (that's a single back-quote key, to the left of the 1KEY on a US or UK
keyboard, usually on the same key as ~, not the single forward quote or apostrophe that is
on the same key as the double quote). If you use a notebook laptop try pressing 1KEY (it
worked for me - `KEY didn't).
[NOTE: the 1KEY through 0KEY and alt-1KEY through alt-0KEY switch layers. Hold shift
to select more than one layer. `KEY selects all 20 layers. Layers will be covered later.]
For laptop users: the num lock
As previously mentioned in this tutorial, recent laptops (some PC and all recent Mac) have a
set of regular keys (from M in the lower left to 9 in the upper right) with additional markings
corresponding to a regular numpad. This behavior can be toggled with F6 (or the key
labelled num lock, this may require pressing FN+numlock key) (FN+F11 on some Dells). If
nothing else works, or as an alternative, you can temporarily activate the numpad behavior
by holding the FN key (lower left corner of the keyboard) and using the keys as a numpad
until you release FN. This allows convenient use of the numpad camera controls without
interfering with the normal use of that set of keys.
If you envision using your laptop for this kind of work, or indeed any work involving numeric
data inputting, it may be worth investing in a USB Numeric Keypad, as Blender uses the
numeric keypad quite a bit. Prices range from between $15 to $20 for a basic keypad.
Panning the View
To pan the view, you have your choice of alternatives:
SHIFT+MMB
SHIFT+ALT+LMB
—and move your mouse. Alternatively, if you have a scroll wheel you can use SHIFT+Scroll
to pan up and down and CTRL-scroll to pan left and right.
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Panning is an important skill to master; try it now.
Note that you must press SHIFT before MMB, otherwise your view will rotate instead of
panning.
Also note, that in Windows XP the simultanious pressing of SHIFT+ALT is used to switch
the keyboard layout (for example QWERTZ becomes AZERTY and vice versa). So when you
find your keyboard layout all messed up, press SHIFT+ALT again, until it fits.
It's recommended using SHIFT+MMB instead.
Zooming the View
Zooming in and out the view is also important. Again, Blender offers you several ways to do
what you need to do:
If your mouse has a scroll wheel, scroll it.
CTRL+ALT+LMB and scroll up and down (not left or right)
CTRL+MMB
NUM+ and NUMTry these all out. Can you see this being useful?
Pro Tip
If you can, find a mouse with side buttons. Anything like Microsoft's Intellimouse, or
Logitech's Mediaplay, that have back/forth buttons, will do. Map those buttons to the
MMB. Makes camera control feel a LOT more intuitive (plus it frees up a finger)
Placing the 3D cursor
Click the LMB to the right of the cube, half-way between the edge of the window and the
cube. The red and white circle (the 3D cursor) moves to where you clicked. Rotate again
and notice that the 3D cursor marks a point in 3D space.
In any given rotational perspective, the set of possible 3D points where you can place the
cursor is defined by the plane of your screen. If you're looking at the standard plane
straight-on (meaning the standard plane is exactly parallel to your screen), you will place the
cursor at the same height above or below the standard plane no matter where you click.
Don't worry, you'll understand this point soon enough.
A more interesting experiment is to rotate the standard plane so the left end is farther away
from you (and thus farther away from the plane of your screen) than the right. In this view,
placing the cursor on the left will put it more toward the front of the plane, and placing it on
the right will put it more toward the back.
Try the following exercise: put the 3D cursor inside the camera. Be sure to view the scene
from different angles to make sure the cursor is in fact inside. Now put the cursor back
inside the cube.
Adding and Deleting Objects
Make sure you are in Object Mode. If not, press TAB. The tab key switches between the edit
and object modes. A status bar at the top-right of the window will indicate the current mode
by displaying 'Ob' or 'Ed' depending on the currently toggled mode.
Click RMB (Cmd+LMB on Mac) on the cube to be sure it's selected. Press the XKEY or
DELKEY to delete it. A window will prompt you to erase object. Click "Erase Selected."
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To add an object, press SPACE. A menu comes up which is called the Toolbox. Select Add →
Mesh → Monkey. (or just Add → Monkey if you are in Edit mode)
A new object will be added, and you will be in what's known as Edit Mode. Press TAB to get
out of Edit Mode, then CKEY to center the screen on the cursor (where the monkey
appeared). Press ZKEY a couple of times, which toggles the 3D Viewport between drawing
the monkey solid and drawing it wireframe. Zoom in and out for a closer look (scroll the
MMB, +KEY, or ALT+CTRL+LMB).
Next Page: Other Windows
Previous Page: The Buttons Window
Other Windows
Next Page: Learn to Model
Previous Page: The 3D Viewport Window
Just when you thought that you were getting the hang of the Buttons window and the 3D
Viewport window, there are several more windows to learn about. Have no fear; we will
gently guide you through this book and teach you about these windows as the need arises.
For now, your only need is to know of them, to be aware of your many options.
In the 3D viewport window, you'll see a button on the header all the way to the left that
has a grid on it (if not, click on a window separator with the RMB or MMB and choose
"Add Header"). That button allows you to switch window types. Click on it with the
LMB and you will see a number of different window types to which you can change. Try
some of the different window types; you will learn about their relevance in time.
Change the window back to the 3-Dimensional Viewport before moving on to the next
tutorial.
Next Page: Learn to Model
Previous Page: The 3D Viewport Window
Learn to Model
Next Page: Quickie Model
Previous Page: Other Windows
The most basic part of 3D development is modeling, because this is where you create
content, or 'models.' Creating 3D models is fun and sometimes challenging.
On the next page, you will take the first step in learning how to model. If you're excited,
great! But if you're scared, don't worry; it starts out very easily. Give yourself time and
patience; Pixar and Dreamworks will still be in business when you're ready for them!
Next Page: Quickie Model
Previous Page: Other Windows
Beginners Tips
These are some basic tips that are often asked for in one form or another. Sometimes it is in
reference to something completely different, but the basic methodology will work.
Starting with a box
Starting with the default cube as our example, we are going to try doing some things to it
that can help illustrate what might happen down the road to our own models when applying
the same effects...
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Subdivision Surfaces
Subdivision surfaces, or subsurfing, uses a mathematical process of simulating a curved
plane in space according to the placement of control points, or vertices. What this means is
that you can create an object with a smooth surface that is easily controlled by relatively few
vertices.
In Blender, the Subsurf operation is treated as a modifier, which
means that the mesh you started with is left intact and editable
even after you've Subsurfed it. You will be able to make changes
to your pre-Subsurf mesh and see how those changes affect the
result of the modifier.
Choose the Editing panel set or press F9, and find the Add
Modifier button in the Modifiers panel. Pressing this button will
pop up a list of available modifiers, from which you should
select Subsurf. Edit : if you don't find it, have a look in the Mesh
part and click on Subsurf. Screenshot beside is not accurate.
The Subsurf modifier
You'll see a Subsurf panel appear inside the Modifiers panel, and the cube in the viewport
will take on a rounded look as the modifier's default settings are applied.
Among the options in the Subsurf panel you will find two important options: Levels and
Render Levels. The higher you set Levels, the more times the smoothing algorithm will be
applied, and the smoother your mesh will look. Levels only affects the cube in the 3D view;
you must use Render Levels to specify the number of levels used when rendering.
Try increasing Levels from 1 to 2 and see how the cube deforms.
Levels set to 1
Levels set to 2
But I want a box!
Often, you will want to render with your model having some sort of subsurf turned on. Face
it, most things in real life just do not have super sharp edges. It is often the case that objects
in the real world will have some sort of softer edge on it (unless it is a knife edge, or a block
of material that has been machined in the shop!). It is just this fact that is often overlooked
by people starting out in 3D: CG can sometimes look too perfect, resulting from impossibly
sharp, clean, and well defined edges.
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This effect can be fixed by telling Blender that we want our cube to
retain more of its original shape. We'll do this using a tool called Edge
Creasing. Each edge in a Blender model has a crease value associated
with it, which is used to tell the Subsurf modifier how sharp we want
that edge to be. By default, all edges have a crease of 0, which is why
our cube has lost all its sharp edges.
Subsurfed cube in
Edit mode
Before we fiddle with the creasing, set the Subsurf Levels up to 3 so
you can see the effect more clearly.
Now, remember what we said about the Subsurf modifier
remembering our original cube shape? Press 'TAB to go into edit mode and you'll see that the
original cube has come back to haunt us as a wire frame around the smoothed cube.
Now we'll experiment with edge creasing. Press CTRL+TAB and
select 'Faces' to enter Face mode, and select one of the sides of our
wire cube with RMB. Now press SHIFT+E and your mouse will be
tied to the cube with a dotted line. Move it gently left and right to see
the effect it has on the mesh.
Editing edge
creases
Note that, although we are in Face mode, it is really the edges that we
are creasing; selecting a face is just a quick way of selecting its four
edges.
Click RMB to cancel out of crease editing mode, then press AKEY
twice to select all faces. Crease them with SHIFT+E like before until
your cube looks like the last image on the left. Click LMB to apply the
changes, then TAB to cancel out of edit mode. Behold: your smooth
cube.
All edges creased
for a bevelled
effect
Quickie Model
Next Page: Quickie Render
Previous Page: Learn to Model
Your first model is easy.
Assuming that you haven't already changed the User Preferences, the
default Blender file will come with your first model! If you've been
following this tutorial straight through, just create a new model by typing
CTRL+XKEY or selecting File->New and then confirm that you wish to
erase your current model.
You should see a square in the 3D viewport (if you rotate the view, you'll
see it is actually a cube). Clicking the RMB (Cmd+LMB on Mac) over an
object selects the object and the outline becomes pink. The cube should
already be selected by default. You can use AKEY to select or deselect all
objects.
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A cube in object
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Right now you're in what's known as Object Mode. In Object Mode you
can move the cube around the 3D environment in relation to other
objects. Note that with the RMB you can also select the lamp or the
camera, in which cases you won't be able to go into Edit Mode (Cameras
and Lamps are edited differently). With the cube selected, hit TAB. This
puts you in what's known as Edit Mode. In Edit Mode, you can change
the shape and size of the cube. You could turn the cube into a puppy… or
at least some day you'll be able to.
TAB - toggles in and out of Edit Mode of the selected, active object.
The cube after
editing in edit
mode.
Now that you're in Edit Mode, you have access to the individual vertices.
Vertices show up as pink dots when they're not selected, and yellow dots when they are
selected. Vertices are control points that you can connect to create edges and faces. Edges
connect two vertices, and faces connect three or more vertices. If all the vertices are yellow
(selected), press AKEY to deselect all vertices (AKEY toggles between selecting all or
selecting none). Go ahead and hit RMB (Command+LMB on Mac) over one of the vertices
and you should see it change to yellow, which means that it is selected (if all you see is a big
blue dot, change the pivot in the pivot menu (two boxes to the left from the one with the
hand on it
) to "Active Object" so that you now see just one dot instead of the arrow). Also
try rotating the view to see what's actually going on.
If you cannot select a vertex, hit the ZKEY and make sure you are in transparent mode. If you
then see a circle with some arrows pointing out of it, you've also had the 3D Transform
Widgets turned on, and you're not ready for that yet! To turn them off, click the button on
(in my version it is a closed hand with one finger pointing up
the header with a hand on it
and there are two such hands - one on the menu above and one on the menu below (click the
hand on the menu below).
With the vertex selected, press GKEY and move your mouse around; you should see the
selected vertex follow! Remember, GKEY lets you grab and move a selection. Choose a new
spot for the vertex and hit LMB, ENTER, or SPACE to drop the vertex in that spot. Rotate
the view around to see the incredible impact your small change has undoubtedly made.
GKEY - "Grabs" the current selection and allows you to move it around with the mouse. Use
LMB, ENTER, or SPACE to drop it in place. Use RMB or ESC to cancel the move.
Next Page: Quickie Render
Previous Page: Learn to Model
Quickie Render
Next Page: Mesh Modeling
Previous Page: Quickie Model
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If you haven't completed the previous tutorial, (the Quickie Model
tutorial), do so now. Keep the same file open from that tutorial because
we will be using it here.
Now that you've created your first model, undoubtedly you'll want to
render it. Rendering is quick and easy. Make sure you're in object
mode (press TAB if you're not) and simply press F12! On Macintosh
OS X 10.4 and Gnome you can use CTRL-F12 or ALT-F12 to avoid the
Dashboard and the Gnome Search Dialog, respectively.
You can also click on 'Render → Render
Current Frame.'
Your first quick
and dirty render
should look
something like this.
A render is the creation of a picture from the camera's point of view, taking the
environment's effects on your scene into account, and generating a realistic picture
based on your settings. This first render will finish very quickly, but you'll find that as
your 3D scenes become more complex, the rendering can take a very long time.
If your cube looks black, you may not actually have a light source in the scene. Some
versions of Blender don't create a lamp (source of light) by default, and you'll need to
add one. To add a lamp, enter object mode (TAB) and then press the spacebar while your
mouse is over the 3D window. Select Add → Lamp which will give you a choice to add
several different types of lamps.
You can interrupt the rendering at any time by pressing ESC while the rendering
window has the focus.
This is a relatively quick render. It can be cleaned up a bit but it will give you a good idea of
what your model currently looks like. Feel free to use the F12 key as often as you would like.
At some point you will probably want to save your renders. Above the 3D Viewport, select
File → Save image… or just hit F3. A menu with a directory list will appear; the upper text
line denotes the directory and in the lower one you type the name of the image, like
"myfirstrendering.jpg". Note that earlier versions of Blender (before 2.41?) will not add the
".jpg" extension automatically if you leave it out.
Next Page: Mesh Modeling
Previous Page: Quickie Model
Mesh Modeling
Next Page: Modeling a Simple Person
Previous Page: Quickie Render
Mesh modeling is the most common type of modeling in all of Blender-dom. If you did the
Quickie Model tutorial, then you've already participated in mesh modeling. A mesh is simply
a collection of vertices that define a three dimensional object. This exercise will further help
explain mesh modeling.
1. Get a piece of paper and a pencil.
2. Draw three dots that are no more than an inch (about 2.5 cm) apart roughly in the shape
of a triangle in the center of the paper.
3. Each one of these dots is called a vertex. (The plural of vertex is either "vertices" or
"vertexes.")
4. Now connect two of the dots with a line segment. The line segment is called an edge.
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5. Draw two more edges so that the three vertices are all connected. You should now have
a triangle drawn on the paper. Fill the triangle in. This is called a face.
6. Now draw another vertex (dot) on the paper. Connect it to two of the vertices (dots) you
previously drew. You have another triangle. Fill it in to create another face.
Could you imagine doing this same sort of activity in 3D space? Essentially, mesh modelling
is just that. The details are on subsequent pages in this tutorial.
You can keep filling up the paper with more vertices, edges, and faces if you want. You may
want to try and create something interesting with your triangles.
Look closely at a 3D video game character some time. Believe it or not, every part of the
character is created from little triangles joined together (of course, the triangles are much
harder to see in newer games using more detailed technology).
When you're creating your models, remember that the whole point of having edges and
vertices is so that you can have control points in 3D space for your faces. When the scene is
rendered, only the faces will be seen. Any edges or vertices not connected to a face will not
appear.
Next Page: Modeling a Simple Person
Previous Page: Quickie Render
Modeling a Simple Person
Next Page: Detailing Your Simple Person 1
Previous Page: Mesh Modeling
Creating a New Project
One of the first things you may want to do is to make a person. Oh,
what fun!
With Blender open, select File → New. A confirmation to "Erase All?"
will appear. Click on it to accept. You should have your default
beginning cube. Select the cube with RMB (CMD + LMB on Mac).
Press NUM1 to go into front view. Right now you're in Object Mode.
The cube should be selected, so you can toggle between Edit Mode and
Object mode with TAB. Leave it in Edit Mode.
Reminder - The status bar at the top right of the screen will show 'Ob'
when in Object Mode and 'Ed' when in Edit Mode.
Learning about Selection
Once in the front view in Edit Mode, you need to select the top
four vertices. The image to the right shows the view rotated a
bit with the correct vertices selected. Try all five of these
methods of doing this:
Note: Before we begin, you'll need to rotate your view a bit
(MMB or for Mac Users ALT + LMB) so that you can see all of
the vertices. Also, make sure the "Limit Selection to Visible"
button is selected, the second furthest right icon of the 3D
View header in EDIT Mode. This button is not visible in
wireframe Mode, so toggle from it with ZKEY if you cannot
find it.
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Your simple person
will look like this.
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1. Box Selecting
[Note: this tool draws a square that you resize to select the top four (vertices\dots)
you are not selecting the 3D (cube\box).]
Press the BKEY to activate what is known as the Border Select tool. Now, when you
click and hold LMB and move the mouse cursor, a selection border will appear. When
you release the mouse button, the vertices that are inside it will be selected. Select the
top four vertices. If you made a mistake, you can start again after hitting AKEY to
deselect the selected vertices. Make sure all the vertices are deselected (pink, not
yellow) before trying the next method.
AKEY - Toggles between selecting all or selecting none.
BKEY - Activates box-select tool. (Note Pressing it twice will give you circle-select tool.)
2. Circle Selecting
Press the BKEY twice to activate the Circle Border Select tool. A circle appears around
the mouse cursor; you can resize the circle by scrolling the MMB. Another way of
resizing the circle is to press the NUM+ and NUM- keys on the numeric pad (useful if
you don’t have MMB or if you're using a Macintosh). You can select vertices by moving
the circle over them, holding LMB, and dragging the mouse. You can deselect vertices
one by one by pressing ALT + LMB over the vertices. (This works with Circle Border
Select Tool activated. Note that you normally deselect vertices by pressing SHIFT +
RMB.)
Try those now. The Circle Border Select tool will be active until you press RMB, ESC or
SPACE. Press AKEY to deselect the vertices before trying the next method.
wmii users: in this window manager ALT + LMB moves the current window so, to deselect a
vertex use CTRL + ALT + LMB instead
3. Lasso Selecting
Like many graphics programs, Blender 3D has a Lasso Select tool. Hold CTRL + LMB
and attempt to draw a circle around the four vertices you would like to select with the
mouse cursor. Release the LMB when you're finished. Press AKEY to deselect the
vertices before trying the next method.
4. One By One Selecting
You can also select the four vertices one by one. Select the first vertex at the top of the
cube with RMB (CMD + LMB on Mac). To select additional vertices, hold SHIFT while
pressing the RMB (CMD + LMB on Mac).
5. Face Selecting
In addition to those selection methods, there is yet another option -- to the
right in your viewport header you can see selection modes. Click on "Face
select mode" (Looks like a triangle) and select the top face of the cube with
the RMB (CMD + LMB on Mac). Switch now to "Vertex select mode" (looks
like 4 dots in a diamond formation) before proceeding further. As you will
see, all four vertices forming the top face are selected (this is also called
"selection transformation").
Selection
Modes
Alternatively, (with the mouse pointer in the 3D Viewer) you may select CMD + TAB
(CTRL + TAB on Windows) and select "Vertices" from the floating drop down menu.
Learning Extrusion
[NOTE: The pictures below are done using the orthographic view. When Blender (2.42)
opens, its default view is the perspective view. If you want the orthographic view, press
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NUM5]
Restore the front view by pressing the NUM1 key.
With the correct four vertices selected, hit the
EKEY. A menu will come up; choose Region (if
Blender gets into a state where you can only select
"Only Edges" and "Only Vertices," you have not
selected four vertices that make up a face). Then
move the mouse to see four NEW vertices attached
to the four that were selected before (you can move
them around with the mouse and drop them in
place with LMB, SPACE, or ENTER).
The EKEY "extrudes" the vertices. If you've never
heard that word before, you'll want to remember it. This is one of the most widely used
modeling tools available.
More than likely, wherever you extruded the vertices to is not the right spot for this tutorial.
Hit the UKEY or CTRL+ZKEY to undo your last edit. You should see just your original cube
with the top four vertices selected.
With the top four vertices selected, hit the EKEY again. Again, choose Region. This time, as
you're moving the extruded vertices around, hold down CTRL and you'll see that they will
only move to certain spots. This is called "snapping". The vertices "snap" to values in
predetermined increments. We'll talk more about snapping later, but for now, set the
vertices in the right spot so that it looks like two cubes of equal size stacked on top of each
other.
The new extruded vertices should be selected still. Hit EKEY and choose Region yet again,
and use CTRL again to control where the vertices are placed. Do it again. Keep doing it until
you have five boxes of equal size stacked on top of each other. And that, my friend, is a very
simple leg!
[NOTE: you must create all stacked boxes in sequence, or you won't get the nodes you
require. Don't just stretch one box all the way.]
Hit AKEY to deselect the current vertices. Select the four
vertices in the upper right hand corner of the leg. Again, you'll
need to rotate your view a little with the MMB (CMD+LMB
on Mac) to be able to see all the vertices. To select two or
more vertices, press RMB for the first vertex. Then, press
SHIFT and hold it. After selecting these two vertices, select
the two vertices that are immediately below them. In total you
should now have four vertices selected.
Hit EKEY, choose Region, and you guessed it, hold CTRL to
set them in the spot so that the box is the same size as all the
others. Do it one more time. Now you have the left leg and the connector between the legs.
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To create the right leg, first press AKEY to deselect all vertices. Select
the four vertices that are going to need to extrude downward in order to
create the right leg. Extrude them the same way we've been doing. Do it
several times until the right leg looks just like the left leg.
Now on to the torso! Hit AKEY to clear your selection, go into front view with
NUM1, select the four vertices at the top of the box connecting the two legs.
Alternatively, it may be easier to change to "Face select mode" and select the top
face of the box with the RMB. You will notice that in this case pressing the
EKEY will automatically select "Region" as your extrusion method since you
have selected the face itself rather than just its vertices.
Either way, extrude the connector box up five times the same way we've been
doing it.
We're going to make the arms stick straight out to the left and
right for now. Go into front view, clear the selection, select the four
vertices on the left side of the torso, not the top two, but the four
directly below the top two. Extrude out five times.
Now make the right arm after the same fashion.
Toggle solid mode on using ZKEY (see below), and check that all is
well. It's easy to fix the model if some faces are missing. To create
a face from four vertices, select the vertices and press FKEY.
Alternatively, use Mesh menu in the viewport > Make Edge/Face.
Placing Geometry
Now we need to add the head. You may have noticed the crosshair-looking thing
floating around in 3D space. It is called the 3D cursor. You place the 3D cursor with
the LMB. The problem is, it's difficult to get it exactly where you want it. Click the
LMB at the top of the neck to try to put the 3D cursor there now. Then rotate your
view and see where the 3D cursor actually ended up. Is it where you intended it to be?
Usually it's not. But sometimes if your camera angle is relatively correct you can come very
close to actually getting it in the right spot!
In order to put the 3D cursor in the right spot, you'll need to put it in the right spot in two
different views. Go to front view with NUM1. Use the LMB to put the 3D cursor at the top of
the neck. Then hit SHIFT+SKEY for the Snap-menu and select Cursor → Grid. The cursor
will snap to the grid. This is an invaluable tool when working with the 3D cursor. Next, go to
side view with NUM3. Use the LMB to again put the 3D cursor at the top of the neck and
snap it to grid again. Now rotate your view around and see that the 3D cursor is neatly at the
top of the neck. Good job!
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You're going to drop a head in at the top of that neck. With the
mouse over the 3D Viewport, hit SPACE. In the menu that comes
up, choose Add →Icosphere. Choose two subdivisions. You will
now see a sphere of vertices added to the model at the spot
where you placed the 3D cursor.
When you're in Edit Mode, adding something will add
vertices and faces to the object you're editing. When you're
in Object Mode, adding something will create a new object
with separate vertices and faces. (If you press SPACE in
either mode, both eventually allow you to add icospheres)
You might feel that the head is a little low. Go to front view with
NUM1 and hit GKEY (Grab) and then press the ZKEY to move
the head up off the shoulders a little bit (pressing the ZKEY
before you drag toggles on Z-axis locking---so that your head moves only on the Z-axis). After
selecting the new location for the icosphere (head), use the LMB to drop it. You can also
change the size of the head with the SKEY (S for "scale").
Note: recognize you may have built this man in a different plane (i.e. the y-axis may be
your up/down axis). If so, substitute the YKEY/XKEY for the ZKEY after pressing the
GKEY in the preceding paragraph.
Hit the ZKEY and the faces will appear with a grey material, letting you see more or less
what your guy is going to look like! Using the ZKEY will toggle between different drawing
modes.
Okay, so it's not all that great yet. Let's start fixin' it up now! (see the links to the next
section, at the bottom of this page)
Summary: Keys & Commands
These are the keys and commands used on this page:
Key
RMB or CMD+LMB???
NUM1
Mode
Object
TAB
BKEY then LMB and drag
AKEY
Description
Select an object
Go to front view
Toggle between Edit Mode and
Object Mode
Box selection
Toggle between Select All and
Select None
BKEY BKEY (pressed twice) then
Circle selection
LMB and drag
CTRL+LMB and drag
Lasso selection
RMB then SHIFT+RMB
One-by-one selection
(click the vertex/edge/face selection
Change the selection mode
buttons)
CMD+TAB (CTRL+TAB in Windows)
Change the selection mode
select vertices then EKEY
Extrude
CTRL
while extruding Enable snapping
MMB or CMD+LMB???
Rotate the 3D view
ZKEY
Toggle wireframe/solid view
Make Edge/Face from selected
FKEY
vertices
NUM3
Side view
SHIFT+SKEY
Snap cursor or selection to the grid
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GKEY
ZKEY (or XKEY or YKEY)
grab mode
(GKEY)
SKEY
Grab the current selection and
move it
Constrain motion to the Z (or X or
Y) axis
Change the scale (size) of selection
"Hell, no! This many hotkeys?", you say? Yes! And it didn't even hurt, did it?
Next Page: Detailing Your Simple Person 1
Previous Page: Mesh Modeling
Detailing Your Simple Person I
Next Page: Detailing Your Simple Person 2
Previous Page: Modeling a Simple Person
This tutorial uses the simple person model from the previous tutorial. If you didn't do it, go
back and do it now---or find it pre-made just for you here (http://www.nusoy.com/blender) .
If your model does not appear to be solid, it is currently being drawn in wireframe mode. For
this tutorial, you need it to be drawn solid. Press the ZKEY to see the model in solid mode.
Subsurfaces
You should already have the "Editing Panel" displayed
in the "Buttons Window". If not, click on the "Editing"
button (shown pressed in the image on the right) or
press F9 to have the Editing Panel displayed. On Macintosh OS X, use CMD+F9 to avoid
engaging the Exposé window effects. Note that the "Editing panel" is a different thing from
"edit mode"; don't confuse them. Depending on whether you're in "edit mode" or "object
mode" the "Editing Panel" will display different tabs. With the object (your man) selected
(RMB) press TAB to view how the available buttons in the panel change.
First of all select the model. We're going to turn on subsurfaces, or
Subsurf.
To enable Subsurf, you must go to the "Buttons Window" → "Editing
Panel"(F9) → "Modifiers" subpanel → click "Add Modifier" →
"Subsurf" from the list. You should immediately see your model
change to look more round, less edgy. New options for "Subsurf" are
now shown in the Modifiers subpanel. You may also perform this
action by pressing SHIFT+OKEY while in object mode.
Note that the "Modifiers" subpanel will be displayed in both "edit mode" and "object mode".
What just happened? Each face was just divided into four smaller
To enter a value on a bar faces that are progressively angled, which has helped soften the
sharp edges of the model where faces touch each other. Click the
you can:
horizontal bar labeled "Levels" and change the value to '2'.
click on the left or
right arrows on
The model will change again because each of your original faces
either side of the bar is now divided into 16. If you change the value to '3' each plane
to add or subtract a will be divided to sixty-four smaller planes, but don't do it unless
unit.
click in the middle of you've got a computer that you're sure can handle it (newer
the bar and enter a computers should be able to handle it pretty easily). Note that
value with the
subdivisions work with base 4, i.e., Level: 1 yields 41 = 4
keyboard.
divisions; Level: 2 yields 42 = 16 divisions; Level: n yields 4n
Hold down LMB and
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move your mouse to
the left or right
while hovering the
mouse cursor over
the number.
divisions.
Notice the other bar labeled "Render Levels" below the "Levels"
bar? That controls how many subdivisions to do at rendertime,
while the value we've been changing handles the number of
subdivisions while working in the Blender. Before moving on, set
the first subdivisions value to 2 and the rendertime subdivisions to 3.
A Modifier is defined as the application of a "process or algorithm" upon Objects. They can
be applied interactively and non-destructively in just about any order the user chooses. This
kind of functionality is often referred to as a "modifier stack" and is found in several other 3D
applications. The x in the upper right of the subsurf modifier will remove the modifier from
the modifier stack. (The subsurf modifier can't be undone with the typical undo command.)
The arrows at the left of the x will move the modifier (and its effects) higher or lower in the
modifier stack.
The Optimal Draw button removes the extra wireframe lines which display as a result of
having additional geometry. This button is especially useful to clarify and speed up the
display of densely subdivided meshes. The blank roundish button towards the top of the
Modifiers panel, just to the left of the up and down arrows, applies the modifier to the editing
cage. Press this button now to remove the translucent, boxy cage, so you can edit the smooth
mesh in the next parts of the tutorial.
Troubleshooting: If one or two of your sides don't subsurf, try selecting all vertices while in
edit mode and typing WKEY to display the "specials" menu, select Remove Doubles.
Unless you have a good reason, don't press Apply on a Subsurf modifier. If you do, the
modifier will be applied to the mesh. While this is useful for some modifiers, for Subsurf this
will add many extra vertices and is generally not needed.
For a complete modifiers documentation go to
http://mediawiki.blender.org/index.php/Manual/PartII/Modifiers
For a complete subsurf modifier documentation go to
http://mediawiki.blender.org/index.php/Manual/PartII/Modelling/Modifier/SubSurf
For a complete subsurfaces documentation go to
http://mediawiki.blender.org/index.php/Manual/PartII/Subsurfaces
Smooth Surfaces
Subsurfaces do a good job of smoothing out objects and creating good
curved surfaces. However, even with subsurfaces the model does not
appear completely smooth; at this point it even appears scaly.
In Edit Mode, hit the AKEY once or twice so that all the vertices are
selected (if you're not in Edit Mode, remember to select the simple
person and press TAB). Find the button that says "Set Smooth" (the
center-right button inside the "Links and Materials" subpanel in the
Editing [F9] panel) and click it. You will see the Blender smooth out
the rough edges where faces were touching before. Next to it is the
button labeled "Set Solid." Click it as well. You will see the simple
person go back to the solid rendering. The simple person looks better
smooth, so click the "Set Smooth" button again. (more information
about this at [2] (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Flat_shading) and [3]
(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gouraud_shading) ).
Your simple person
after setting
smooth.
You need to keep this file open for the next several tutorials. Move on to the next page.
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Next Page: Detailing Your Simple Person 2
Previous Page: Modeling a Simple Person
Detailing Your Simple Person II
Next Page: Creating a Simple Hat
Previous Page: Detailing Your Simple Person 1
This tutorial uses the simple person model from a previous tutorial. If you didn't do it, go
back and do it now---or find it pre-made just for you here (http://www.nusoy.com/blender) .
Selection modes
Up to this point, you've been selecting vertices and
manipulating them. In the first chapter, we touched on
selecting faces. In fact there are three selection modes:
vertices, edges and faces.
Make sure you're in Edit Mode (TAB) and in Solid Mode
(ZKEY). Press CTRL+TAB. A menu will come up where you can choose Vertices, Edges, or
Faces. Choose Edges. Under KDE, CTRL+TAB changes the desktop so you will have to use
the statusline buttons instead. (Older versions of Blender do not have this feature. Instead,
just select all vertices connected to the edge you want to select).
The three selection modes can also be selected with the statusline buttons shown to the
right.
It is important to remember that whether you're in vertices, edge, or face selection
mode, moving or otherwise manipulating your selection will cause connected vertices,
edges, and faces to be moved as well. This is because you cannot separate faces from
edges or edges from vertices.
Scaling with axis constraint
We want to position the 3D cursor between the hips of the simple person, then use that
cursor for scaling.
Use the 3D View's menu Select → Deselect All (AKEY) to make sure everything is
deselected. Reset to View->Front (NUM1) and choose View→Perspective (NUM5). Adjust
the Edit Mode settings as shown in the picture above.
Troubleshooting - If you do not see the cubes around your person, in the Modifiers tab try
clicking the button just to the left of the "move modifier up in stack" button (^) for the
Subsurf modifier. Otherwise, try deleting the subsurf modifier (the X right above apply in the
Modifiers box) and redoing it (Add Modifier -> Subsurf).
By default, when editing in solid mode, the vertices, edges and faces that are on the back
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side of the model are not visible or selectable. This can be toggled by clicking the "Limit
selection to visible" button
located on the header of the 3D View window to the right of
the Vertex, Edge and Face selection mode buttons (while in Edit and Solid mode).
We are now going to place the 3D cursor in the center of the pelvis. To do this we will place
the 3D transform manipulator in the desired location, and then snap the cursor to that point.
The 3D transform manipulator looks like a white circle with three colored (red, green and
blue) arrows pointing in orthogonal directions. If you do not see the 3D transform
manipulator, find the button in your 3D View's header that looks like a hand and click it.
Ensure that you've disabled "Limit selection to visible". Now, select one of the edges just
above the "hips" of our person, where the legs connect to the torso. This would be an edge of
one of the cubes to the left or right of the model's pelvis. Notice that the 3D transform
manipulator jumps to the edge you selected. Now also select (SHIFT+RMB) the edge on the
other side of the pelvis. The 3D transform manipulator should jump halfway between the two
edges.
Once the 3D transform manipulator is in the center between those two vertices, bring up the
Transform → Snap menu (SHIFT + SKEY) and select Cursor → Selection (SKEY4). This will
move the 3D cursor to the location of the manipulator.
Choose Scale Manipulator Mode
(CTRL + ALT + SKEY). Since the
Transform Orientation is set to global,
the manipulator's orientation is the
same as the world's orientation shown
in the lower left corner of the 3D View
pane. The axes are colored RGB for
XYZ, i.e. the X-axis is red, the Y-axis is
green, the Z-axis is blue.
It's important to note that not only is
there a global XYZ axis, but each of
your individual objects has its own
XYZ axes as well. We'll get into that in the next section.
Grab the cube-formed red handle and drag it with LMB to symetrically widen up the
selection along the selected X-axis. While scaling, press CTRL to snap to the grid or ESC to
abort the current manipulation. When it comes to scaling in the Blender, 1.000 means 100%,
.6000 means 60%, and so on. Scale up to 2. Note, you cannot scale along the Z-axis, as the
current selection's Z-dimension is zero — if you want to symmetrically lift the hips, switch
back to Translate Manipulator Mode (CTRL + ALT + GKEY).
So far, you didn´t use the prepared 3D
cursor's position, but the selection's center.
Now, set the 3D Cursor as Rotation/Scaling
Pivot. Since the 3D Cursor was positioned
to the selection's center, the manipulators'
behaviour stays the same. Finish forming
the hips.
Select both the edges on the underside of
each of the arms where they connect to the torso (the armpits,
the edges run from front to back). This is easier being
accomplished, after you rotated the view about the world's
X-axis (View Navigation → Orbit Down (NUM2)). See the
manipulator not jump to the selection, but stay at the 3D cursor.
Form the armpits. For better visual comparison to the width of
the hips, switch to View → Orthographic (NUM5) before scaling
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along the red X-axis. Note, you can now scale along the blue Z-axis, as there is a distance
along Z between the selection and the pivot.
Select the belly cube (if you use View → Border
or CTRL + LMB lasso selection make sure to
deselect the arm pits). This time, don't use the
Scale Manipulator, but the Scale Tool. Press
SKEY to scale, and then once SHIFT + ZKEY to
lock the Z-axis. Now, the scale tool is
constrained to the X- and Y-axis, the selection is
not scaled along the Z-axis any longer, thus,
scales equally along X and Y. The axes that the
scale tool is constrained to are drawn through
the pivot in brightened color. SHIFT + XKEY or
SHIFT + YKEY work accordingly. Finish scaling
by LMB.
Continue selecting different sections of the torso
and scaling it to your liking. Here is an example
of a man-figure:
Modeling the arms
Screenshots and more specific instructions needed for this section.
When you've got the basic shape of the torso, move on to the arms. Note that just like you
can constrain scaling to the X, Y, or Z axis by pressing XKEY, YKEY, or ZKEY, you can
constrain movement to an axis as well. Press the GKEY and then press the appropriate axis
key. As you work on the arms, be sure to use the different viewing angles so everything is
correct (MMB to rotate, NUM1 for front view, NUM3 for side view, NUM7 for top view).
Also, be sure to use CTRL+ZKEY to undo if you mess something up.
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We'll start by making him put his
hands up. First, make sure you're in
Edit mode; if not, select the figure
and press TAB. Also, make sure you
are in Vertices Select Mode
(CTRL+TAB). Before you begin, also
uncheck the roundish button to make
the arms into cubes again. You can
change them back after you are
done.
Now, select the 8 vertices on one arm that are furthest
away from the torso (make sure you deselected the
armpits or whatever other part you were previously
modifying) and press XKEY, and press "Vertices" in the
upcoming menu. Suddenly the boxes disappear, and at
the end of the arm, there's a hole! Don't panic. :) We'll
fix that in a moment.
Select the top four vertices of the end-"box" (by pressing BKEY
and dragging the box around the 4 vertices of the cube) and
extrude up three times by pressing EKEY and CTRL to create
three boxes the same shape.
Now to fix the hollow elbow. Simply select the four vertices at
the gaping hole, press SPACE-"Edit"-"Faces" and finally pick the
option named "Make Edge/Face" (Making a face/edge can also
be done by pressing FKEY, but the other way gives you a better
impression of what you just did). Notice that the hole was
covered by a face.
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Now, click the "Set Smooth" button to make it a smooth face.
Do the same with the other side. Make sure to deselect all the
selected vertices from the other arm by pressing AKEY. It is
important to follow the steps in the same order; doing otherwise may
result in arms of different lengths. Better undo your work and redo
every step while selecting both sides symmetrically.
Modeling the legs
First we switch to the Face Select Mode.
Press CTRL+TAB and select Faces. To
select the two bottom faces of the feet (the
soles of the feet), click RMB and hold down
SHIFT when selecting the second one.
Each face comes with a small square
denoting the face center that turns yellow
as well as the face outline when selected.
Select the 'Subdivide' Command (hit
SPACE then, in the menu that comes up,
Edit → Edges → Subdivide). This command
subdivides the faces each into four smaller
ones all of equal size. In the next step we
need to switch to the Edge Select Mode by
pressing CTRL+TAB.
Press the AKEY to clear your selection.
Select (remember : click RMB and hold
down the SHIFT when selecting the other
one) the two bottom front edges on each
leg that make up the tip of the feet (therefore, there are four selected edges in all).
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Switch to the side view with NUM3 and press the GKEY.
Now move the selected edges away from the legs as far as
you like. Press MMB for orthogonal movement.
edit: Pressing the YKEY will also restrict movement along
the Y-axis only, however orthogonal movement can be
easier.
Congratulations! We now
have feet!
Modeling the head
When you've got an acceptable shape for the legs, you
should do something about that head. A little too spherical,
don't you think ?
Press the AKEY to clear your selection, move mouse
cursor over the head.
Place the mouse cursor over the head and press the
LKEY. This selects edge, face, or vertex that the mouse
cursor is closest to, as well as all edges, faces, or
vertices that are linked to it. The faces for the head and
the faces for the body pass through each other;
however, none of the vertices in the head are linked to
any of the vertices of the body via an edge or a face.
With the whole head selected, press SKEY and scale it
on the Z-axis in order to get a better shape. I think 1.5
is enough. Remember that you need to press ZKEY to
restrict the scaling to the Z-axis only. It is helpful to
restrict the axis you are scaling on in order to get a nice
shape.
After elongating the head, you may find that it is too low. To fix this, press the GKEY (to
move the head) and ZKEY (to restrict movement to the Z-axis). Play around with it a
little until you like the result.
Next Page: Creating a Simple Hat
Previous Page: Detailing Your Simple Person 1
Creating a Simple Hat
Next Page: Putting Hat on Person
Previous Page: Detailing Your Simple Person 2
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This tutorial uses the simple person model from a previous tutorial. If you didn't do it, go
back and do it now---or find it pre-made just for you here (http://www.nusoy.com/blender) .
Adding an object
The first step to hat-making is editing a simple mesh circle.
Press NUM3 to get a sideways view of the model. Pan the view with
SHIFT+MMB until your view is a good distance above the simple
person's head. We're going to add the hat as a separate object, so if
you are in Edit Mode, press TAB to go to Object Mode. Click LMB on
center of the view to place the 3D cursor (you can use SHIFT+SKEY
then Cursor → Grid to snap the cursor to the grid after placement),
then do SPACE → Add → Mesh → Circle, with 12 vertices. (In the latest
version the default is 32 vertices but you may use the arrow to set it
back to 12 [click and drag left or right to change number])
After the circle is added, you will automatically be placed in Edit Mode. The end result
should be something like the picture (if you're in vertex mode).
Deleting a selection
Switch to Edge select mode (CTRL+TAB) and have only the three
edges selected as seen to the right (first click RMB and hold down the
SHIFT when selecting the second one and the third one).
Delete these edges by pressing XKEY → Edges.
Creating the hat profile
Now switch back to Vertex select mode
(CTRL+TAB → Vertices), and try to make the line
to look something like what's shown to the right. To
do that, you have to Use:
AKEY to select/deselect all vertices
RMB to select/deselect a vertex
SHIFT+RMB to select/deselect multiple
vertices, or BKEY for the border select tool
GKEY to move a selection
CTRL to move at regular intervals
Notice: In edit mode be sure that the proportional edit is off, an orange circle at the
bottom of the 3D View indicates whether the proportional edit is on (orange) or off (gray), to
have full control of each vertex seperately you should set proportional edit off (gray) by
pressing OKEY (may be several times). More about proportional edit in a later tutorial, for
this step switch the proportional edit off.
Spinning the hat
Make sure the 3D cursor is placed exactly at rightmost vertex (clear the selection first, select
the rightmost vertex with RMB and then SHIFT+SKEY and Cursor → Selection and finally
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clear the selection again thanks to AKEY).
Make sure "Limit Selection to
Visible" is off. Change to the top
view with NUM7, select all
vertices of the hat by using the
BKEY. Click on the Editing
button (hotkey F9; CMD+F9 for
Mac users).
Under Mesh Tools tab locate
Screw, Spin and Spin Dup
buttons and fill the fields below:
Degr:360, Steps:12, Turns:1
Now hit Spin and when the cursor changes to a "?", click in the (top view) 3D window to
have the polyline create a surface spun around the Z-axis.
Notice: Since Version (2.42) you have to be sure that all vertices are selected too, after
following the steps above by pressing AKEY before you press Spin and no "?" will appear
instead your hat is drawn instantly.
Final touches
Deselect all with AKEY, go to the
top view with NUM7. Use Edge
select mode (CTRL+TAB), then
click on the four frontmost edges
of the hat with RMB (for the first
one) and Shift RMB (for
subsequent ones) to select them.
Go into front view with NUM1
(NUM7)*. Hit EKEY → Region to
extrude the edges, and drag them
down. You can press the
ZKEY(YKEY)* to limit the
extrusion to one direction.
*You need to be in top view
during extrusion so that the
cap bill comes forward and
not down,if it was made from
the top view
Now it's time to subsurf. In the Editing buttons, under the Mesh panel, click on SubSurf and
set Subdiv to 2 or 3. If you are using newer versions such as Blender 2.4, you may need to go
to Modifiers → Add Modifier → Subsurf. Rotate the view around and you will notice that your
hat has a "split at the seam". Because of the settings we chose for the spin, there are several
pairs of vertices that share the exact same spot in 3D space. To correct this problem, in edit
mode hit AKEY to select all vertices and then hit WKEY → Remove Doubles. Now all our
seams will display correctly, and you have removed the unnecessary overlapping vertices in
your mesh hat. Whew! You now have a lovely new hat! Pat yourself on the back, good work!
You can neaten it up a little more by hitting WKEY → Set Smooth to give it a nice smooth
finish.
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Another view of the final hat looks like this.
Keep this simple person/simple hat file open because you will be using it still in the next
tutorial.
Next Page: Putting Hat on Person
Previous Page: Detailing Your Simple Person 2
Putting Hat on Person
Next Page: Mountains Out Of Molehills
Previous Page: Creating a Simple Hat
This tutorial uses the simple person model and hat from a previous tutorial. If you didn't do
it, go back and do it now---or find it pre-made just for you here
(http://www.nusoy.com/blender) .
Once you have created the hat, and are satisfied with the 'form' of it, now it's time to change
the rotation, location, and size of the whole object in 3D space. Switch to Object mode and
select the hat.
Rotation
First, change the rotation of the object. To change the rotation of the hat, press RKEY. Now
you can move your mouse around to change its rotation. It will rotate on a different axis
depending on what viewpoint you are rotating it from. The rotation axis will always be
perpendicular to your viewpoint, so it looks like you're rotating a 2 dimensional image. Press
the RMB, or ESC, to bring you back to the original rotation.
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When you press the RKEY, you are actually entering a rotation mode that can be altered by
further key strokes. For instance, pressing the YKEY after the RKEY will rotate the hat
about the Y-axis. Pressing the ZKEY will rotate it about the Z-axis, and the same goes for the
XKEY. By pressing the ZKEY, YKEY, or XKEY just once, you will rotate the object in
relation to the scene. If, however, you press the same key twice, it will rotate in relation to its
origin, giving you an XYZ arrow pointer thing that displays the angle of the origin.
Important to note is that the shape will rotate around its origin, or center point, indicated by
a small, blue dot that was created when you created the shape. It should be in the center of
your vertices, but if it isn't, there are a couple of ways to get it back. One is to go into edit
mode, select all vertices, and move them around the center point. Another is use the LMB to
put the cursor where you would like the center point, go into object mode and press the
"center cursor" button in editing panel (F9). Or you could hit SHIFT+SKEY, select Selection
→ Center.
Hit the NUM1 on the numberpad to get the front view. Hit the RKEY, followed by the ZKEY
and move your mouse. This will rotate the hat perfectly around the Z-axis. Hold down the
CTRL button so it only rotates in 5 degree increments and click the LMB when you come to
the correct position. (Do this with the X- and Y-axis if needed).
Alternatively, you can click and drag the LMB in a circular motion around the object, to
"draw" an arc. This is called a mouse gesture and has the same effect as pressing the RKEY.
Location
After you have the hat in proper rotation, you will want to move it to the proper position. You
do this the same way you move an individual point. Press the GKEY (for "grab") and move
the mouse. Pressing the X, Y, or Z key will have a similar effect as it did with rotation,
restricting the movement to the X, Y, or Z axis. Pressing the MMB while moving will also
restrict the movement. Pressing the RMB will reset the object to its original position,
without making any changes.
Alternatively, you can click and drag the LMB in a straight line to activate moving the
object. This is another mouse gesture and the same as pressing the GKEY.
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Size
You may notice that the hat is a little big for the person we created. No problem, we'll just
change the size. You do this by pressing the SKEY, for "scale". You can scale the object just
along its X, Y, or Z axis, making it thinner, shorter, fatter, or wider.
Alternatively, you can click and drag the LMB back and forth from the object to scale it.
Start at the object, move your mouse a little away from it, then drag back to the object to
draw a line and go back over it. This is, you've guessed it, a mouse gesture as well and the
same as pressing the SKEY.
So, just remember:
SKEY is for Scale
RKEY is for Rotation
GKEY is for Grab (Move)
Putting it on
Once you have the hat in position, you will want to "put it on". To do this, we make the man
the 'parent' of the hat. What this means is that, when we move the hat, we just move the hat.
However, when we move the man, we move the man AND the hat.
Save your work before doing the following because the program may crash and be
unusable if you accidentally press PKEY instead of CTRL + PKEY. (Note: PKEY
starts the Blender game engine. If you do accidentally press PKEY, ESC should stop
it and bring you back.)
Make sure that you are in object mode and the hat is selected. Hold down shift and select the
man by pressing the RMB. Both the man and the hat should now be selected. Hold down
CTRL and press PKEY and select "make parent" in the confirmation box to make the man a
parent to the hat. Now you will see a line from the hat to the man, indicating that the man is
the hat's parent. If you move the man, the hat will move along with him. Otherwise if you
only move the hat, the man will stay at its place. Don't forget to pay attention to the order of
your selection. The first selected object becomes the child of the second one.
If you want to add color to the person, press F5. You will see a color preview (should be
gray) at the far left of your color table at the bottom of the screen, You can make it any color
you choose (purple, blue, flesh tone--you name it!). Since version 2.41 this is changed to
three small bars on top of each other labeled R,G and B (red, green and blue)
You're probably thinking, "How does Blender make mountains out of molehills so well? It
took me half an hour just to put the hat on!" If so, read on!!!!
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Next Page: Mountains Out Of Molehills
Previous Page: Creating a Simple Hat
Mountains Out Of Molehills
Next Page: Turning a Cube into a Puppy
Previous Page: Putting Hat on Person
Now that we've created our simple person, it's time to give him somewhere to go. In this
tutorial we'll create a mountain range using a few simple, and handy tools.
Start off with a new project, using File → New, or hit CTRL+XKEY. If you have a default
cube or plane just delete them now (select them with RMB and press XKEY).
Creating a simple plane
Our first step is to create a large plane that we'll use for the
ground and grow our mountains out of.
First press on NUM7 to enter top view. This way our plane
will be lying flat when we create it.
Now add the plane with SPACE → Add → Mesh → Plane.
This will be our canvas.
Scale the plane up by about 15. First put the mouse close to
the center of the plane and press SKEY and drag the cursor
away and watch the numbers in the bottom left of the 3D
Window. Hold CTRL to increment by 0.1 for a more precise
measurement. Alternatively, to enter the exact amount
yourself press SKEY, then NKEY for a numerical entry, and
type 15 and hit ENTER. (In later versions of blender, just
press SKEY and begin typing a number for numerical entry.)
Now we need to add some vertices to work with. In the buttons window, make sure we
have the Editing buttons open (or hit F9 in the buttons windows to switch there). Under
Mesh Tools hit the Subdivide button 4 times. Alternatively, in the 3D View window you
can press WKEY and select Subdivide (Or just hit ENTER).
First mountain
Now that we have the ground, it's time to start growing our mountains.
Select a random vertex with RMB. I usually start at the one that is 3 down from the top,
3 in from the left (the 4th vertices if you count the edges).
Change to the side view with NUM3.
Press OKEY to change to proportional edit mode or use the button
which shows a grey ring on the header of the 3D View. The button will
change its color to orange. You can also use SPACE →
Transform→Proportional Edit
Once you've turned proportional edit mode on, another button
appears to its right, the falloff button. Select Smooth Falloff here.
Alternatively you can use the menu on the header of the 3D View
(Mesh → Proportional Falloff → Smooth) or, using SHIFT + OKEY
will switch between Sharp and Smooth Falloff (in versions prior to
2.37) or cycle through all 6 falloff types (in versions 2.37 and up)
while using the Proportional editing tool.
Press GKEY to grab the vertex. We should now have a circle surrounding the vertex, this
is our radius of influence. Basically any vertices inside this circle will be affected by any
changes to the vertex itself.
Use the Mouse Wheel or PAGE_UPKEY and PAGE_DOWNKEY to adjust the radius of
influence to include just over 2 vertices on each side of our selected vertex. (Depending
on your version of Blender, you may need to use ALT + NUM+ and ALT + NUM- and
may need to hold down the LMB while using the Mouse Wheel to adjust the radius of
the influence.) In 2.41 you must 'grab' the vertex first - only then can you alter the
sphere of influence.
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Move the vertex up about 8 units on the Z-Axis.
Do this by dragging the cursor up a little, and
press the MMB; this should restrain the
movements along the Z-axis. Now use CTRL to
move it precisely. Alternatively you can use
ZKEY to restrain movements to the Z-Axis and
type 8 and hit ENTER. In older versions of
Blender you may need to hit the NKEY before
typing the number 8.
Congratulations, we just created our first mountain.
Now it's time to see what other things we can accomplish with the proportional editing tool.
Peaks vs. hills
The 2.37 and onward releases offer 6 types and 2 modes
of proportional editing. The previous release only has 2
of these types: Smooth and Sharp Falloff. We'll take a
look at the difference between these two now.
Change to top view again with NUM7.
Select another vertex away from the first. Lets say 4
from the bottom 4 from the left (counting the
vertices on the edges).
Change back to the side view with NUM3
Select Sharp Falloff from the menu on the bar of the
3D View. Alternatively, using SHIFT+OKEY will
switch from one to the next of the 6 proportional
editing modes while using the Proportional editing
tool.
As before, move the vertex up 8 units on the Z-Axis (Note: The radius of influence will
still be the same size as when we last used it).
GKEY
ZKEY
Type 8 and hit ENTER
Now we can see the differences between the sharp
and smooth falloff. The same number of vertices are
affected in both cases, only the degree to which they
are affected is altered.
The different proportional editing modes can be
selected from the box immediately to the left of the
proportional editing type box. The mode box contains
three options: Off, On, and Connected. Off means that
proportional editing will not be used. Connected
means that only vertices linked to the selected
vertices will be affected by the radius of influence. On means that all vertices will be
affected.
Shaping the world
Now that we've created a couple of Mountains, it's time to see how we can use proportional
editing to shape them.
First make sure we're in side view (NUM3).
Then on the smooth falloff mountain, the first one we created, select the vertex that is
immediately down and left from the topmost point.
Press RKEY to rotate, and hold CTRL and rotate everything by -90. Alternatively, use
RKEY, NKEY, and type -90 and press ENTER
Feel free to play around with scaling or rotating from different view points.
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Smoothing things out
Now that we have a couple of budding
mountains, you probably think they look
kind of choppy. Sure they would be good
if we were making an 8-bit console game,
but we're working with 3D here, we want
things to look sharper than that. There
are a couple of approaches to this. The
first is to use more vertices when we
create our plane. And I won't lie, it
works. But it's also a HUGE resource
hog. It would take your home computer hours of work just to keep things updated, let alone
run it. So instead, we fake it. The easiest way to do this is to turn on SubSurfaces (we saw
this in Detailing Your Simple Person 1. For our purposes, let's set the subdivision (Subdiv) to
2. Also, ensure our SubSurf algorithm is set to Catmull-Clark (this is the default setting).
Now, you'll notice that with SubSurf on, we lose a lot of hard edges that we had, essentialy
we have no sharp corners anymore. I don't know about you, but to me that doesn't make for
a very interesting mountain range. So to restore our corners, we are going to use Weighted
Creases for Subsurfs.
First turn off proportional editing with the OKEY, and ensure we're in side view with
NUM3
Next, while still in edit mode, change to Edge Select mode with CTRL+TAB and select
Edges. Alternatively press Edge Select Mode button at the bottom of the object window.
Under the Edit buttons under Mesh Tools 1 ensure that Draw Creases is selected.
On our Sharp Falloff mountain, the second one we did, select the first two edges on the
right (starting from the point down).
Press SHIFT+EKEY or SPACE → Edit → Edges → Crease SubSurf, then move the
mouse away from the edge until the Edge Sharpness reads 1.000.
As you move the cursor away from the edge you will notice two things, the first is that the
edge becomes thicker as we move from it; this is showing how much of a crease we have
(with Draw Creases turned on). The second is that you will notice the subsurfed mesh
moving closer to the edge as the sharpness increases.
Naturalness
Push CTRL+TAB and select vertices then go into front view NUM1 and select the second
vertex from the top in the center, go into side view NUM3. Push GKEY and drag the vertex
inwards, not too far or your mountain will come out of itself on the other side. Just bring it in
enough to make a small indent.
Then grab the top vertex and pull it down a small amount. You will notice that there is a
small "crunch" in your mountain.
Don't forget to hit the 'set smooth button to smooth everything out.
OK, so your mountains are starting to shape up. But they still look a bit too neat. You could
spend time moving each individual vertex but the chances are your model will still lack the
natural feel. What we need is some chaos. Thankfully this is quite easy to accomplish. Firstly
select the vertexes that make up your mountain, all of them and a few around the base (box
and circle select will make this easier). Select a few vertices between the mountains too.
Next we use something called fractals. Fractals are chaotically (ie randomly) generated
variables. In short you can use these variables to give your mountains a "wobbly" look.
Fractals are located in the Mesh Tools section of your edit buttons (next to Noise, Hash and
Xsort). Click it and you'll be asked for a value. This value is the strength of the fractal. 1 is
very low and will barely change your model. 100 is very high and will twist you models into
very odd shapes indeed. Have a play with different values until you find one that you like.
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Around about 30 should do it. Hit OK and hey presto, your mountains have been transformed
from clinical neatness, to lumpy chaos.
(Under Construction [TODO: finish me])
Next Page: Turning a Cube into a Puppy
Previous Page: Putting Hat on Person
Turning a Cube into a Puppy
Next Page: Modeling a Gingerbread Man
Previous Page: Mountains Out Of Molehills
Creating Models With Photo Assistance
This is a rewritten tutorial, the original is listed below.
My tutorial is about using guide images to place vertices in their proper places in 3D space.
The original tutorial below mine is on how to take good reference pictures. My tutorial
assumes that you have completed all previous tutorials.
Setting UP
Open a new blender project.
Split the Main 3D view window in to 4 windows. Explained in guide: Noob to Pro/Blender
Windowing System.
Change the point of view in each window so that they end up like this:
Num 1 Num 7
Num 3 Num 0
Make a picture of a white square and of a white triangle in photoshop or other image maker.
Save them to a place that is easy to access.
Load the white square into the Num 7 window by going to the 3D view window and pressing
View->Background image-> (click on the icon of a file) find your file and click “select image”
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Load the white triangle into the Num 1 and Num 3 windows.
Now you have a guide for making a pyramid.
Making A Pyramid
You should have a cube given to you when you open a new project. Control Tab to vertices
and delete all but one vertex of your cube.
We will build the pyramid vertex by vertex. The first vertex will be the topmost point of the
pyramid. Use the GKEY to move the vertex around. To get it in the right spot, line it up at
the top most point in the Num 1 and Num 3 windows. If you look in the Num 7 window the
vertex should appear to be in the center. Make sure to keep the vertex highlighted for the
next step.
(note: it might be helpful at some point to zoom in and use the X,Y and Z movement
restriction)
Next in the Num 3 window, place a vertex on the lower left edge of the triangle by holding
control and pressing LMB Line it up in that window and also at the lower right point in the
Num 7 window. This should create a line between your 2 points.
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Next in the Num 1 window, place a vertex on the lower left edge of the triangle. Line it up in
that window and at the lower left point in the Num 7 window.
Next highlight your 3 vertices in the Num 1 window and press the FKEY. You should see a
triangle appear. Press AKEY to deselect and then select the vertex at the top of the pyramid.
Make the next face by placing a vertex in the upper right point in the Num 7 window (this
should line up with the lower right point in the Num 3 window.) Make a new face in the
Num 3 window with the FKEY and keep the face selected after you have made it.
In the Num 3 window, rotate around 180Deg. (control+alt+scroll for MAC users), so that
you are looking at the back of your new triangle. Deselect all vertices and in the Num 7
window, select the lower left vertex. Then Control LMB place a new vertex on the upper left
point in the Num 7 window. It will line up with the lower left point in the Num 3 window.
Select the 3 vertices in Num 3 window and make a face.
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Control tab to faces and select the face in Num 1 window and rotate around 180 Deg.
Control tab back to vertices. Deselect all, and select the three vertices and make a face.
In the Num 7 window select all four corners and make a face. You should have a solid
pyramid!
This is a silly tutorial because you could make a pyramid by simply select the top four
vertices of a cube and merging them together. I wanted to show how you could use different
viewpoints and images to help to guide you to place vertices correctly in 3D space.
{[quote]You could make a pyramid by simply select the top four vertices of a cube and
merging them together.[/quote] If I'm right, this wouldn't be the best to do: You always
would have to select all four verticles, because they don't count as one vertex, but as four.
You only wouldn't be able to size them any more, because every vertex is at the same point
and how do you want to make a gap of lengh "0" wider than it is? So a third way to do is:
delete the cube and create (In Top-view) a cone with as many verticles as the pyramide
should have. (3 verticles for a 3-sided pyramide and 4 verticles for a 4-sided pyramide.) then
rotate the view until you can see the bottom of the pyramide, mark the middle of it, press x
and choose "verticles". Next, mark the rest of the bottom-verticles and press F to create
faces. (if you only want ONE face and create a pyramide with more than 3 sides, then you
need to follow the other two descriptions!) Choose that one, you like best: 1) Tricky, but a
perfect pyramide 2) Very easy and very short, but the "apex" has 4 verticles instead of one 3)
Easy and short, but pyramides with more than 3 sides will have more than one face at the
bottom. (If you find any mistake in the part of the text marked with {}, please correct: I'm
from Austria so my native language is german)}
[this is an interesting point but let me explain myself.
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The point of the exercise was not to create a pyramid, but to learn how to plot 3D
space. I used a simple 3D shape to make things easy.
Second, I should clarify about making a cube into a pyramid. If you select the top 4
vertices and hit ALT + MKEY you will get a prompt that says: Merge, and a choice
to merge the points in the center or at the cursor. Blender deletes all of the doubles
for you!Badalia]
The original tutorial is listed below with a discussion on how to take usable pictures.
Taking the Best Reference Photos
this is also the original tutorial
Step One: Get the pictures of the model
As of now, we have one picture. So, if you have a puppy and a digital camera, please take
three pictures of the cute little rascal, upload them to Imageshack, or your favorite image
repository, and I will check back occasionally and will make whatever modifications are
needed to the images to make them work for this tutorial (which will also be documented
here.) Ideally, the photos will be looking straight down at the top of the puppy, a side view,
and a front view, and, most importantly, the puppy should be in the same pose in all three
photos! Or at least close to the same pose...we all know puppies don't stand still very long.
You could use two mirrors. One is placed next to the puppy at 45 degrees to the camera and
45 degrees to the puppy. Another is placed above the puppy, also at 45 degrees to the
camera and 45 degrees to the puppy. This produces three images, one of the puppy (NUM1),
one of its reflection seen 90 degrees to the right (NUM3), and one of its reflection seen from
overhead (NUM7). Take the photo from a long distance away with a zoom lens to get close to
an orthographic projection.
Or how about a toy wolf taken from 6 views: Left view
(http://img51.imageshack.us/my.php?image=10011325wu.jpg) Right view
(http://img162.imageshack.us/my.php?image=10011337aj.jpg) Front view
(http://img107.imageshack.us/my.php?image=10011347fw.jpg) Back view
(http://img107.imageshack.us/my.php?image=10011350gu.jpg) Bottom view
(http://img162.imageshack.us/my.php?image=10011363ql.jpg) Top view
(http://img119.imageshack.us/my.php?image=10011375bc.jpg)
Using your favorite image editor such as PhotoShop or the GIMP, the images need to be
down-scaled to a reasonable size (I made mine 512x384), and then matched to each other. To
match them, draw construction lines (pulled from the rulers above and to the left) on the left
view for example to pick out key features. I picked the tail, front of back foot, eye level, tip of
the ear, front of the nose:
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I found when I picked out these features that this first image needed to be rotated slightly.
That completed, I proceeded to scale, rotate and shift the other two views (top and front)
until they matched fairly well as layers on top:
Once I had the proper results, I saved the resulting images, and these are the ones we will
use in Blender.
The results are the files you'll need for Step Two:
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Just right-click and save them some place where you can find them to load them into Blender
for Step Two.
Step Two: Get the Picture into Blender
(user comment) so how do you make it 3D in blender? all i can see is user comments
about how it didn't work? and then some pictures in blender but no explanation.
(user comment) To get an image into blender as background, simply go to each
viewport's header (the menu at the bottom), click on 'View' and, from the menu provided,
select 'Background Image ...'
--86.59.104.195 05:42, 16 August 2006 (UTC)
(user comment) I am using v. 2.41 and it seems that the provided top view of the wolf toy
is off by 90 degrees as a background image (that is, it has the wolf's nose to the right,
but all my points in 3D according to the other two views would have his nose to the top).
Am I out of my mind or doing something noobishly foolish? In the meantime I've
manually rotated the image and continued on my merry way.
(user comment) I don't know too, why they go this way to dispay an ISO image, but if you
use NUM3 for front view, NUM1 for side/left view and NUM7 for top view it will work
perfectly, the 3D view 'ISO' arrangement seems to be only in a little bit wired clock-wise
view. I guess, this is probably the way 3d designer work out a drawing instead of many
engineer disciplines will do ;)
(user comment) I was doing this tutorial and though I´m still a noob at this I thought I
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could contribute a little to this. I decided only to do half a wolf and then mirror it to
create a complete wolf. I started out with creating the silhuette of the wolf body in the
side view, and then in front view I started to shape the wolf head, tail and legs...
And at any rate this is what I ended up with. Not the best wolf ever, but as I said before I´m
still pretty noobish.
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(user comment) I too was doing this tutorial when I realized the pictures were a bit off.
So I decided to do my own photos of my own object. However this turned out to be more
difficult then I thought at first. While taking your own photos be aware of several things.
The camera you are using has to have its lens parallel to the object you are taking a
picture of. Also when you take the 3 different photos (front, side, top) or even more you
need to keep the camera the exact same distance from the object as well as the exact
same zoom on the lens for all your pictures. Once you have your photos, rather then
lining up key points in the photos you should center your object in the center of the
photo.
(user comment) It's not necessary to center the object in the photo. In the
Background Image window, you can tweak the center point with X Offset and Y
Offset.]
From this point forward there are multiple ways to do the exact same thing, however for
simplicities sake and so that I can be more detailed I will be using one method (the one
which I use) and be using GIMP.
I found it best to size all the photos to a known width, with an easy to find center. (Mine
happened to be 850x638 pixels, I don’t recommend that but you can choose any size you
want really, as long as all of them are the same size). Then drag the construction lines to
form a crosshair in the middle of the photo. To do this, click on the top ruler, and drag down
to the middle (Exact middle) of the photo, then click on the side ruler and drag across to the
middle (Again exact middle) of the photo.
If you are having troubles finding the exact middle of the photo, move the cursor to the very
bottom left of your photo and the height of your photo will be listed at the bottom left of the
GIMP interface. The numbers are listed in an (x,y) format so you want the first number to say
0 and the second to be the largest you can make it by dragging your cursor. The second
number is the height, and half of that is the middle of your photo. You can do the same with
the top ruler to find the vertical middle of your photo. Only this time the co-ordinates at the
bottom left of the GIMP interface should list the second number (y) as 0, and the first
number should be as large as you can make it by moving your cursor (to the upper right of
the photo).Once you have your width again half of that will be the middle of your photo.
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Then using construction lines put one at the top of your object, and the bottom of your
object. Find the "height" of your object by the distance between them. Remove the
construction lines from the top and the bottom, and place a new construction line above the
horizontal center line by the half of the "height"(of your object). Now place a construction
line on both sides of your object and find the “width” (distance between the new vertical
lines), then remove those construction lines and place a new construction line vertically half
of the "width"(of your object) to the right of the vertical center line. Now cut the object out,
and drag it so that the point you used as the "top" is on the horizontal construction line that
is above the middle. Then Drag the photo left or right until the right edge of the object is on
the vertical construction line you put in right of the middle construction line.
Now the center of your object is at the center of your photo. This is a very important thing
because when blender loads in the picture you will need this so that all of your pictures
match up with each other 3d. You should repeat these steps with all 3 photos. I also dont
recommend doing it in GIMP's "layered mode" as that caused more pandemonium for me. I
recommend opening each photo in a new window .
Taking your pictures is the most important part, because if the pictures are not all in the
same scale (object size to photo size) then your photos will not line up and you won't be able
to place a dot on the same location from front view, side view, and top view.
As a recommendation I would recommend making your first model from a Lego man. That is
what I did and it is very simplistic easy practice. To take my photos I took about 10 minutes
to construct a photo platform for my object. It consisted of a cardboard box with two sides
cut out. I covered the inside area with computer paper. I then used a 2”x4” and a ruler to
make sure that the box stayed the same distance from the camera for all shots, as well as
marking where the Lego man’s feet were positioned inside the box with a pencil. This will
provide good pictures, providing you keep the camera at the same distance and zoom for all
three photos.
Next Page: Modeling a Gingerbread Man
Previous Page: Mountains Out Of Molehills
This tutorial is incredibly vague. I can't follow it. Revise?
Modeling a Gingerbread Man
Next Page: Penguins from spheres
Previous Page: Turning a Cube into a Puppy
In this tutorial you will learn how to make a simple gingerbread man. In a later tutorial you
will be able to make an animation with this gingerbread man.
In this tutorial we will tie together everything we've talked about up to this point, including
extruding, subdividing and rendering, and throw in basic lighting.
Modelling
First, start Blender and zoom in until you can see everything (scroll with the MMB or press
CTRL+MMB). Make sure you are in orthographic mode : press NUM5 to go into
orthographic mode.
Select the cube by clicking RMB on it. To review, when an object is a whitish color, it is
selected.
Now press TAB. When you press TAB it will switch you between Object Mode and Edit
Mode. If you pressed TAB you will see pinkish dots. The pink dots are called vertices.
(You will know if you are in Edit Mode if you can see those dots.) When you select
vertices with the RMB, they will turn yellow.
Select all the vertices (AKEY once or twice) and then click on the editing tab
in the
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header of the buttons window (or you can just press F9) to go to editing.
Once you are there you will see a new menu at the bottom of the page, click on the
subdivide button in the section called Mesh Tools (while all the vertices are selected).
You will see that your cube now has more vertices. This tool is used for dividing an
object so that you can do more complex models. [Nota] In newer versions, you can also
hit SPACE and, in the menu that comes up, Edit → Edges → Subdivide.
Now press AKEY to unselect all the vertices, go to the front view (NUM1) and press
BKEY and drag a square around the top left and middle left vertices or press BKEY
twice and you will see a circle around your mouse - all the vertices in the circle will be
selected by pushing LMB.
Take a closer look on the selected vertices by viewing the model from a different angle
(remember that you can use MMB to achieve this). If you find that you have only
selected two vertices and not six, there are 2 ways of solving your problem. You could hit
the ZKEY to toggle between wireframe mode and solid mode or you could
hit (and deactivate) the
Button in the selection mode buttons (note that
this button is shown only if you're in solid mode). Repeat the previous step
and see the difference.
After selecting the 6 vertices press EKEY and select Region. This will extrude the
selected vertices. Put the new vertices on the adjacent gray line of the grid one unit to
the left (press CTRL to snap to grid). Do this two times so that it looks like below (the
snapshot has been taken in a front view (NUM1)) :
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Clear your selection (AKEY).
Now select the other two vertices (six in 3D again) on the opposite side and do the same
there as explained above. Now the arms are complete, as you can see in the illustration
below.
Now we will do the legs.
First, unselect all the vertices : use AKEY.
Select the bottom left two vertices, extrude it and put them in between the gray line (the
gray lines in the grid representing the Blender units) and the second gray line below. If
holding down CTRL you will notice that the two vertices snap to the grid in the
background and you won't be able to select in between them, but jump between one and
two of them. Press SHIFT as well and you'll be able to go in tenths of the units. (You can
also just enter the number 1.5 to extrude it 1 1/2 units out.)
Extrude it again and put it on the third gray line (or, once again, enter 1.5). It should
now look like this:
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Use the BKEY to select the bottom 4 vertices (12 in 3D) of the leg, and use the GKEY to
pull it out to the left by half a square so that it looks like this
Do this again for the right leg.
Use BKEY to select the vertices at the groin (where the two legs join)
Press GKEY and pull it down by 1/2 a square (type GKEY, ZKEY and write -0.5 - in older
version you have to type type GKEY, ZKEY but also NKEY and write -0.5 then)
(I had some problems here, trying to move the vertices. There were too many vertices in the
same place, and that creates strange forms. To erase the duplicate vertices on top of each
other, you can either select the entire model, or just the vertices you want to clean. Then
press WKEY and choose Remove Doubles.)
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Press TAB to go out of edit mode (you will know if you are out of edit mode if the
vertices are not visible). You are now in object mode.
Click RMB on the object to select it then press SHIFT + SKEY and select Cursor →
Selection. This will make sure the cube you'll add next will be near where you want it.
Press SPACE and put your mouse on the mesh option and select cube. In others
versions, you can also hit SPACE and , in the menu that comes up, choose Add → Mesh
→ Cube.
Press GKEY and put your new cube about 1/3 of the way down the neck (to achieve this,
you can press GKEY and ZKEY : enter 1.33).
Now we will make it look more like a ginger bread man by making it thinner.
Go to side view with NUM3.
Press SKEY for scale and press YKEY for Y-axis and then move your mouse to the
middle until the it is about 0.3 (use CTRL for fixed values).
Remember X-axis is the Red arrow/line, Y-axis is the Green one, and Z-axis is Blue (like
RGB video mode).
Then use RMB on the body and press SKEY and then YKEY and make it as flat as the
head.
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Use the MMB to spin the view around and examine your handiwork.
At this point, it doesn't look entirely like a gingerbread man, does it? It's a bit too ... chunky.
For the last bit, we'll smooth it out.
Make sure you've selected the body in object mode.
Press TAB to switch to edit mode and press AKEY until you have selected all vertices.
Select the editing panel in the buttons window (or hit F9).
In the Modifiers tab, Add a "Subsurf" modifier.
Set the level of the subdivisions to 2, and the number of render levels to 3.
You can press the ZKEY to switch back and forth between wire-frame view and solid
view.
In the 'Link and materials' section, select 'Set Smooth'.
(Note that here I had the same problem as before, with superposed vertices. press WKEY
and select Remove Doubles to clean your model. You will see that it will look much better
after removing the extra vertices with Remove Doubles)
Press TAB to return to object mode, and select the head.
Press the ZKEY to return to wire-frame view.
Now repeat the process above to smooth the head.
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Looks a lot more like a gingerbread man, now, doesn't it?
Camera Positioning and Rendering
This guide will show you how to intuitively get the best shot of your 3D scene with no effort !
Press TAB for Object view mode.
Press NUM0 to get the Camera View.
Select the camera by clicking RMB on the outermost rectangle.
Press GKEY and move your mouse to adjust the position of the camera (XKEY, YKEY,
ZKEY and CTRL may be useful here).
In addition, you can press NUM7 to get the Top View and press RKEY to rotate the
camera to the best angle.
After you are happy with the position, press F12 to render it.
Next Page: Penguins from spheres
Previous Page: Turning a Cube into a Puppy
This tutorial is incredibly vague. I can't follow it. Revise?
Die Another Way (dice modelling)
Next Page: Die Easy
Previous Page: Penguins from spheres
This tutorial needs some more explaining as to what is going on(and why) in section
4. Also needs updating to address Blender version 2.42. [colouring section in
particular is not relevant to 2.42]
In the following tutorial you will be creating a dice. You will use:
polygon mesh
face loop cutting
spin dup
subdivision surfaces
subdivision creases
bevel
set smooth
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multiple materials
extrusion
merge vertices
remove doubles
constraints
Step 1
Press NUM1, NUM7 or NUM3 then SPACE → Add → Mesh → Cube to make a cube aligned
to the axes.
Note: You can, from here, directly divide the cube 2 times by clicking the Subdivide
button in the Mesh tools twice. Then follow the instructions from Step 2 and you can
go directly to Step 10.
Step 2
Hit tab to go into edit-mode and select all faces to prevent bevel messing up normals. Hit
WKEY → Bevel, Recursion → 1 (you'll see why later) then choose bevel size. Bevel of 0.15 is
ok.
Step 3
In editmode, go to the Editing tab (F9) and look at the mesh tools 1 panel. In Blender 2.37,
there is a set of buttons for edge measuring. Turn on Edge Length and note the length of one
of the sides of the square faces. This should be 1.7 if the above settings were used.
Step 4
A typical die has a grid of 9 possible positions for the dents and the gap between the dents is
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the dent radius (or half the diameter). So, there are conveniently 10 units on each edge of
the square faces, where the gaps use 4 of the units and the 3 dents use two each. This means
the gaps are of size 1.7/10 = 0.17 and the dents (1.7x2)/10 = 0.34.
Step 5
To make these segments, use the face loop cut tool. Press KKEY →face loop cut and select
one of the edges.
click and you get a blue line to position.
Unfortunately this tool (even in 2.42) seems only to input by percentages rather than actual
values. Because it's very difficult to position using percentages, especially after the first
segment is made because you then have to work out percentages of what's left, place the
blue line to the far left edge and click once. Do not click again because this line is on top of
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another one and it will be tricky to select it again. If you make a mistake, hit UKEY or CTRL
+ ZKEY to undo.
Weasel note: in Blender 2.41 you can move the cut line roughly into position, then
use SHIFT to precisely position at either 0.17 or 0.34 as appropriate.
Now press GKEY then YKEY to move the line along the axis (this is why the cube needed to
be aligned to the axes first). I'm using YKEY because of the way my cube is setup - the blue
line moves along the green axis. If you've done it another way round, use the appropriate
axis.
After hitting GKEY, YKEY, enter the exact value of the gap that we measured (0.17) and hit
return - if you make a mistake before hitting return, hit delete and retype the number or
press UKEY or CTRL + ZKEY after hitting return.
Select the remaining segment to the right of the line, cut this and move the blue line as far
as you can, which will be to the line you just made. Move this line to 0.34 along y because it
is where the dents go.
Step 6
Repeat step 5 with the remaining segment until you have made 6 cuts of alternating size
(0.17, 0.34, 0.17, 0.34, 0.17, 0.34) and get something like this:
Step 7
Now turn the cube round and do step 5 for the adjacent edge until you get the grid forming.
Note, you move the cuts along the x-axis now so do GKEY, XKEY, 0.17 etc. Don't worry if the
last edge says 0.169 instead of 0.17.
You can see the grid of 9 squares mentioned earlier:
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Step 8
The problem here is that it is very time consuming to do this for the remaining 5 sides of the
die (Note: Actually, at this point there is already 4 remaining sides, an you need to repeat
step 5 just once to finish them). Instead, we will just duplicate the one we have done already.
[note: A time saving option is to complete Step 10 on one side of the face by merging the
centre point of the 9 possible 'pip' locations before continuing from this point.] But first the
rest needs to be deleted. So go into front view (NUM1) and orthographic mode (NUM5).
Also turn off depth buffer clipping. Use vertex select mode and select the bottom vertices:
Make sure these are the right ones by rotating your view with the MMB. Now press XKEY
and select 'vertices'. This should leave only the top side of the die:
We now have to duplicate and rotate this side. There is a very handy tool to save doing this
manually called Spin Dup located in the editing tab (F9) in the mesh tools panel. We want to
duplicate the side 3 times in both the x and y axes to complete the cube - 3 times isn't
necessary in the second axis because we will already have a bottom side but it's easier that
way.
Spin Dup works relative to your camera and the cursor. So, put the camera into front view
(NUM1) and orthographic mode (NUM5). If you haven't moved the cube, the 3D cursor
should be at the center of the cube (at the pink dot). If not, go into object mode (TAB) and
select what's left of the cube and press SHIFT + SKEY and select cursor to selection. You
can also manually move the cursor by going to the View menu → view properties and editing
the 3D cursor position. In this tutorial, it should be at (0,0,0).
The settings for Spin Dup are that we need 3 duplicates over a 270 degree rotation with 1
turn. Now press spin dup to get the following:
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You will see the currently selected side is no longer the top side. This means we have to go
into top view and duplicate around the z-axis so go into top view (NUM7) and hit spin dup
again to fill the remaining sides.
Step 9
There will now be a few overlapping points. To get rid of these, go to the editing tab again
(F9) and in the mesh tools, there is a button called Rem Doubles. Select all the vertices by
pressing AKEY and select remove doubles. This may leave some overlapping points because
the threshold for removing doubles is set at 0.001 and some points might be just outside that
value. Setting it to 0.003 should get rid of all the doubles to leave the die with 384 vertices
(this information is at the top of the Blender window). You can check by counting that each
side has 8x8 vertices and there are 6 sides on the cube.
Step 10
The die needs the dents added. Select one of the faces where a dent would go and extrude
the face by hitting EKEY and then ESC. Do not click after hitting EKEY. Collapse this face
by using ALT + MKEY to merge the 4 corners of the extruded face into the centre where it
will tell you you have removed 3 vertices. You should get the following:
Do this for the configuration of the dots on that side. So for example, 5 would look like this:
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Notes :
It is also possible to directly use the GKEY, the XKEY, YKEY or ZKEY
(depending on what xy or z direction you are working on) and typing 0.17
(perhaps add a minus '-' if it goes up instead of in the die). After SubSurf it will
look nice.
In previous note, if you grab the square surface, the dent is too large. If you grab
the vertex at the center of the X, step 11 says exactly that.
Step 11
Select one of the edges of the dents to check the size is 0.34.
Remember the dent radius was 0.17. We need to use this value to lower the centre point of
the dents down. Select all the 5 centre points at once to save time and move them inwards by
0.17. The side I put the 5 dents on here was the top so I move the vertices inwards by
pressing GKEY, ZKEY, -0.17 and hitting ENTER. I then get this:
Step 12
TAB out of Edit Mode. If you haven't done this already, hit Set Smooth in the Editing panel
and turn on subdivision surfaces
It should look something like this:
In 2.41, you will need to use "Add Modifier" on the Modifiers tab, to add a SubSurf modifier.
Step 13
On a die, the edges of the dents are usually sharp so we'll use subsurface creasing to do that.
Go back into editmode and with the edge select mode on, select all the perimeters of the
dents like so (it may help to turn off subsurf for the moment):
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Press SHIFT+EKEY to enable creasing and move the mouse until the display says crease is
at 1. After pressing SHIFT+EKEY, you can then set crease values in the information box
that you get by pressing NKEY when objects are selected. This can be useful to check if all
the edges have the right crease because it gives you the average crease value and if it is less
than 1, there is an edge wrong.
Step 14
Repeat steps 10,11 and 13 for all the sides of the die. REMEMBER, a die is numbered so that
opposite sides add up to 7. In my example, that means I put 2 on the bottom etc. Once you
finish, if you turn on subdiv level 2, you will get something like this:
Step 15
You can make a test render now to see that the dents look the right size and the bevel is
right. So, turn the subdivision level for the rendering up to 3. To help position the camera so
that you centre the die, you can make the camera look at the die by adding a track-to
constraint to it. I prefer to track an empty though, because it is more flexible.
Make an empty by going into top down view (NUM7) and hitting SPACE → Add → Empty.
It's always best to go into one of the set orthographic views so as to align new objects to the
axes. If you add something misaligned, just go to the object menu then clear/apply > clear
rotation (or ALT+RKEY). Because the empty was created at the origin, you might not be
able to see it as it is inside the die. Hit ZKEY to enable wireframe mode and select the
empty. Just move it outside the cube until we get the constraint set up.
To add a track-to constraint, select the camera first then SHIFT+RMB the empty and press
CTRL+TKEY and choose "TrackTo Constraint" from the list. Move the empty back inside the
die. You can edit constraints in the object tab (F7). Add a couple of lamps (both intensity 1)
to get the scene like this or feel free to experiment with a more advanced lighting setup:
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Step 16
To render, set the size of the image you want. 800x600 is a decent size so put these settings
in the format panel in the Scene tab (F10). In the render panel, make sure 100% is selected.
If it's 50%, the render will come out as 400x300. For preview renders, don't turn on OSA,
which is anti-aliasing because it slows your renders down significantly. Try to only use it for
a final render.
Another way to position the camera is by selecting it and then looking through it as you move
it. Look through the camera by pressing NUM0. Use the GKEY to pan across and rotate
around the local axes of the camera by pressing say RKEY,XKEY,XKEY to rotate in X-axis.
To zoom in and out press GKEY, ZKEY, ZKEY and then move your mouse forwards or
backwards. The mouse wheel zoom moves your view towards and away from the camera,
without actually moving the position of the camera.
Another important point is to set the image format. This is done in the format panel. The
listbox has a number of image types. I find that png is generally the best because it is
lossless and offers the highest compression among the lossless formats. It also supports an
alpha channel for transparency. When rendering an animation, it is better to render as an
image sequence than as a movie because it is easier to edit these and repair broken frames.
Quicktime supports loading of image sequences and you can save as a movie using a wide
range of compression formats.
To save the render, go to the file menu → save image and type in the full name of the
image including the extension e.g. die.png.
The output should now be looking something like this:
Step 17
To give it some colour, we will need to use multiple materials because a typical die has dents
that are a different colour from the die itself.
Go to the editing section (F9) in the button panel again and make sure the die is selected. In
the links and materials panel, there is a section for materials and the number in the box
should be at zero. It may be at 1 if you have assigned a material to the object already. Add
enough to make 2 materials in total.
Go back to the Shading panel (F5) and there is a box at the very top of the material panel
with the number 2 beside it. Click this number to make the two materials you've just created
independent. Use the arrows to the right of the ME button to switch materials.
Make material 1 bright red by just picking red in the colour picker or by setting the RGB
sliders. Make material 2 white by doing the same. Or pick whatever colour you prefer and
material settings.
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Step 18
These colours need to be assigned to the right parts of the die.
Go into editmode and turn off subsurf to help. Select the inner faces of the dents - if you
accidentally don't press the SHIFT, press CTRL+ZKEY or UKEY to undo. Once they are all
selected, go to the Editing tab again and the material panel. Select the colour for the dents.
There is a button that says assign - press it and it will make the dents white but the die
remains red.
Turn subsurf back on and render with OSA (only put it up as high as you need for the
resolution of the image you are rendering):
Extra
The reason I modelled the die this way is because it is also very easy to change the sizes of
the components e.g. the bevel and the dent size. You do this by selecting the vertical or
horizontal segments and just scaling them in one axis. Here we will reduce the dent size and
the bevel by half.
Go into front view (NUM1), turn off clipping and select a line containing dents. Then just
scale in one axis e.g. SKEY, XKEY, 0.5. Remember to have your pivot point set to median:
Do this horizontally and vertically around the die. You should need to scale 9 times for the
dents and 6 times for the bevel:
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You may need to add extra geometry once you are satisfied with the sizes of the dots and the
bevel so that the edges of the die don't look warped due to the subdivision. You can use face
loop cut again for that and add extra lines in the middle of the gap segments.
Next Page: Noob to Pro/Die Easy
Previous Page: Penguins from spheres
I found that there was some screwed edges of my die this way i found this was on
section 12 however the fault may be further up than that
Edit Mode HotKeys Review
3D View by Mode: All HotKeys | Object Mode | Edit Mode | Pose Mode
Vertex Paint Mode | Texture Paint Mode | UV Face Select Mode
Other Windows: Scripts Window | File Browser | Image Browser | Buttons Window
Outliner | User Preferences | Text Editor | Audio Window
Timeline | Video Sequence Editor | UV Image Editor | NLA Editor
Action Editor | IPO Curve Editor
by Key: . , A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z
Relevant to Blender 2.37a
Edit Mode HotKeys
The Period Key
.KEY (on the number pad) - centers the view around the current selection or active
object.
.KEY (on the alphanumeric pad) - changes the pivot point to the 3D cursor. The pivot
point is the point where all things meet when scaled to 0, and the point of 0 translation
during a rotation transformation. See the menu on the 3D view header, located
immediately to the right of the Viewport Shading menu.
The Comma Key
,KEY - changes the pivot point to the bounding box center
A
AKEY - Toggles between selecting all or selecting none.
SHIFT+AKEY - brings up the toolbox.
B
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BKEY - Activates box-select tool. Pressing it twice activates the Circle Border Select tool
(2.41).
C
CKEY - Centers the 3D View where the 3D cursor currently is.
D
DKEY - Brings up a Draw Type menu.
E
EKEY - Extrude selection
F
FKEY - if two vertices are selected, create an edge connecting the two vertices. If three
or four vertices are selected, or two edges are selected, create a face connecting the
vertices or edges. If two co-planar faces are selected, join the faces to create an FGon, or
dismantle a previously created FGon.
G
GKEY - "Grabs" the current selection and allows you to move it around with the mouse.
Use LMB, ENTER, or SPACE to drop it in place. Use RMB or ESC to cancel the move.
GKEY XKEY - Grabs the selection and locks it's Z and Y position. In this mode it will only
move along the global X axis.
GKEY XKEY XKEY - Grabs the selection and locks it's Z and Y position on the local axis.
In this mode the selection will only move along the local X axis.
GKEY YKEY - Grabs the selection and locks it's Z and X position. In this mode it will only
move along the global Y axis.
GKEY YKEY YKEY - Grabs the selection and locks it's Z and X position on the local axis.
In this mode the selection will only move along the local Y axis.
GKEY ZKEY - Grabs the selection and locks it's X and Y position. In this mode it will only
move along the global Z axis.
GKEY ZKEY ZKEY - Grabs the selection and locks it's X and Y position on the local axis.
In this mode the selection will only move along the local Z axis.
H
HKEY - Hides the currently selected vertices, edges and faces. They will be hidden only
while in Edit Mode.
ALT-HKEY - Unhides vertices, edges, and faces that were previously hidden. Vertices,
edges, and faces that are unhidden will be added to the current selection.
I
IKEY - inserts a "key". Keys are used for animation.
J
ALT+JKEY - converts triangular faces to quads.
K
SHIFT+KKEY - knife tool. this doesn't seem to work with nurbs.
L
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M
ALT+MKEY - Merge selected points.
N
NKEY - brings up a Transform Properties mini window.
O
P
Q
QKEY - prompts if you would like to quit the Blender.
R
RKEY - allows rotation of the selection. Move the mouse after pressing RKEY to rotate
it. Press LMB, SPACE, or ENTER to confirm the rotation. Press ESC or RMB to cancel
the rotation.
S
SKEY - begins scaling (resizing) of the selection. Move the mouse to scale larger or
smaller. Press LMB, ENTER, or SPACE to confirm the scaling. Press RMB or ESC to
cancel the scaling.
T
U
UKEY - undo last edit
SHIFT+UKEY - redo previously undone edit
V
W
WKEY - Boolean Tools menu [in 2.41: Specials menu]
X
XKEY - delete the selection.
Y
Z
ZKEY - Toggles between drawing the scene in wireframe and solid mode.
CTRL+ZKEY - undo last edit
SHIFT+CTRL+ZKEY - redo previously undone edit
TAB
TAB - toggles in and out of Edit Mode of the selected, active object.
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F1
F2
F3
F4
F5
F6
F7
F8
F9
F10
F11
F11 - Shows/hides the window with the last render.
F12
F12 - begins a single frame render based on the Scene settings in the Buttons Window.
LMB
LMB - places 3D cursor where you click
CTRL+LMB - places a new vertex at the place clicked. The new vertex will be joined to
any previously selected vertices by an edge.
RMB
RMB - selects vertex, edge or face, depending on select mode
Object Mode HotKeys Review
3D View by Mode: All HotKeys | Object Mode | Edit Mode | Pose Mode
Vertex Paint Mode | Texture Paint Mode | UV Face Select Mode
Other Windows: Scripts Window | File Browser | Image Browser | Buttons Window
Outliner | User Preferences | Text Editor | Audio Window
Timeline | Video Sequence Editor | UV Image Editor | NLA Editor
Action Editor | IPO Curve Editor
by Key: . , A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z
Relevant to Blender 2.37a
Object Mode HotKeys
The Period Key
.KEY (on the number pad) - centers the view around the current selection or active
object.
.KEY (on the alphanumeric pad) - changes the pivot point to the 3D cursor. The pivot
point is the point where all things meet when scaled to 0, and the point of 0 translation
during a rotation transformation. See the menu on the 3D view header, located
immediately to the right of the Viewport Shading menu.
The Comma Key
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,KEY - changes the pivot point to the bounding box center
A
AKEY - Toggles between selecting all or selecting none.
SHIFT+AKEY - brings up the toolbox.
CTRL+AKEY - prompts to "Apply Changes." Size and rotation changes to the model
object become permanent.
CTRL-SHIFT-AKEY - prompts to convert dupliverted objects to real objects.
B
BKEY - Activates box-select tool.
C
CKEY - Centers the 3D View where the 3D cursor currently is.
D
DKEY - Brings up a Draw Type menu.
E
F
FKEY - In the 3D View, switches to UV Face Select Mode. Pressing FKEY again will
bring you back to Object Mode.
G
GKEY - "Grabs" the current selection and allows you to move it around with the mouse.
Use LMB, ENTER, or SPACE to drop it in place. Use RMB or ESC to cancel the move.
GKEY XKEY - Grabs the selection and locks it's Z and Y position. In this mode it will only
move along the global X axis.
GKEY XKEY XKEY - Grabs the selection and locks it's Z and Y position on the local axis.
In this mode the selection will only move along the local X axis.
GKEY YKEY - Grabs the selection and locks it's Z and X position. In this mode it will only
move along the global Y axis.
GKEY YKEY YKEY - Grabs the selection and locks it's Z and X position on the local axis.
In this mode the selection will only move along the local Y axis.
GKEY ZKEY - Grabs the selection and locks it's X and Y position. In this mode it will only
move along the global Z axis.
GKEY ZKEY ZKEY - Grabs the selection and locks it's X and Y position on the local axis.
In this mode the selection will only move along the local Z axis.
H
I
IKEY - inserts a "key". Keys are used for animation.
J
K
L
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M
MKEY - move selection to a different layer.
N
NKEY - brings up a Transform Properties mini window.
O
P
PKEY - starts the game engine.
Q
QKEY - prompts if you would like to quit the Blender.
R
RKEY - allows rotation of the selection. Move the mouse after pressing RKEY to rotate
it. Press LMB, SPACE, or ENTER to confirm the rotation. Press ESC or RMB to cancel
the rotation.
S
SKEY - begins scaling (resizing) of the selection. Move the mouse to scale larger or
smaller. Press LMB, ENTER, or SPACE to confirm the scaling. Press RMB or ESC to
cancel the scaling.
T
TKEY - brings up a Texture Space menu. Allows translation and scaling the Texture.
U
UKEY - brings up Make Single User menu.
ALT+UKEY - opens undo history menu.
V
VKEY - enters Vertex Paint Mode. Pressing VKEY again will switch back to Object Mode.
W
WKEY - Brings up Boolean menu. Choose Intersect, Union or Difference.
X
XKEY - delete the selection.
Y
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Z
ZKEY - Toggles between drawing the scene in wireframe and solid mode.
CTRL+ZKEY - the single best function of blender: UNDO!!! You can undo almost
anything, and the program notifies you when doing a no-undo operation. Note: If Blender
claims there are no more steps to undo, hit tab to switch to object mode and try again.
TAB
TAB - toggles in and out of Edit Mode of the selected, active object.
F1
F2
F3
F4
F5
F6
F7
F8
F9
F10
F11
F12
F12 - begins a single frame render based on the Scene settings in the Buttons Window.
Curve and Path Modeling
Next Page: 2D Image (logo) to a 3D Model
Previous Page: Object Mode HotKeys Review
Frighteningly enough, we know what you're thinking. You're thinking that mesh modeling is
cool and all, but it would be nice if Blender had a better way to create complex smooth 3D
objects, right? Ok, so you weren't thinking that, but now you're curious about this better
way. Good. Move on to the next page to learn more.
Next Page: 2D Image (logo) to a 3D Model
Previous Page: Object Mode HotKeys Review
2D Image (logo) to a 3D Model
Next Page: 2D Image (logo) to a 3D Model Part 2
Previous Page: Curve and Path Modeling
Using Bezier Curve to Model a 3D logo from a 2D logo
{Construction on hold, feel free to complete}
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The image to the left is used in this tutorial. However, the tutorial is
easier to follow using letter/numbers, or simple shapes/curves.
Basically we will be using the graphic as a template for a 3d logo,
tracing it, then discarding the 2d image.
Set up
You need a 2D logo similar to mine (preferably in JPEG format as
Blender understands jpegs fairly well). If you haven't already done so,
open blender and select one of the orthogonal view angles by pressing
NUM7, NUM3, or NUM1.. At the bottom of the 3D viewport on the left, there are some
menus, click View-->Background Image
original 2d logo
A small window will appear containing just one button marked use background image;
click this button. A few more buttons will appear. One of them says image: and has a small
button with a picture of a folder on it; click this button. You are now presented with a file
selection screen. Using the navigation techniques from the previous tutorials, find your 2D
jpeg image on your computer, click the file in the list once then click the Select Image
button at the top right of the screen.
Blender now displays this image in the background of the 3D view for you to trace its outline.
The image is only displayed in orthogonal view. If perspective view is enabled, toggle to
orthogonal view by pressing NUM5. The image will not be rendered as it is not part of your
scene.
Once a background is selected you'll have a dialog like this one.
(Note: I'm using Blender version 2.37 -older versions may differ.)
The background dialog has 6 rows of buttons that function as
follows. These are described from the top of the dialog and going
down:
The top button use background image is a toggle button that
turns display of the image on or off. Turning the button off will not
clear the settings; it just hides the image. When you turn the
button on again, your previous settings are back. Try it - click the button a few times.
Image selection is controlled on the 2nd row labeled image. There are 2 buttons, a text box,
and a final button. The first button is for browsing for an image. The 2nd button is for
selecting an image from a history list. (This will be empty for the first time. Selecting it now
will display the image you currently have selected.) The text box allows typing in the file
directly. The last button on the row, removes the current background image.
The third row is called Texture and will not be used for this tutorial.
The fourth line, labeled blend controls the transparency of the background image with a
slider. A setting of 0 is completely solid and 1 is completely transparent. You can adjust it by
clicking left or right of the knob for gradual changes, clicking and dragging on the slider for
rough settings or clicking directly on the blend text for numeric entry.
The use of the blend function will become obvious once we start tracing our logo. For now,
play around with it, see how it changes the image, and put it back to the 0.500 default.
The fifth line, size, controls the size of the image. This size setting is independent of the
zoom for the 3D view window. To see how the size works move the default cube off to the
side so that you can see both the cube, the background dialog and the background image.
Now watch both the cube and image as you change the size. Notice how the image changes
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size but the cube doesn't? Now press NUM+ and NUM- to change the view's zoom. Now
both the cube and image change size.
The final row controls the X and Y offset for the image. These controls move the image up
and down (Y) or left and right (X). These settings can be useful if you need to reposition the
image from the default position. Like the size, these offset values are independent of the
view. As you change the offset values the cube you added earlier won't move. Now scroll the
view using by clicking and dragging the SHIFT MMB and notice how the cube and image
move together?
Once you start tracing the image you won't be using the size or offset setting. Delete the
cube (select it, press XKEY and select All from the Erase menu), and set the size so that the
entire image is viewable. Then set both the X and Y offsets to 0. Finally minimize the
Background Image dialog. You'll only need it to adjust the blend setting until you finish
tracing.
Introducing the Bezier Curve
The Bezier Curve (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bezier_curve) allows drawing graceful,
complex curves and only requires a few control points. Specifically, it only requires 4 points
for a curve. Two end points and two control points.
For the moment set the blend to 1 on the Background Image dialog. With the center of the
3D view still selected, press SPACE -> Add -> Curve -> Bezier Curve. Alternatively you
can use the Add menu at the top of the screen or press SHIFT -> AKEY to jump directly to
the add menu. You should now have something like this:
Unlike the traditional Bezier Curve each Bezier vertex has 3 points.
I've labeled the 3 points for the left vector: A, B and C.
Point A is an end point. The curve will always go through this point.
Points B and C are control points. These points influence the path
of the curve as it leaves Point A. Because the path stops at A, Point
B has no real effect on the path. Instead B is currently locked with C.
(If you move either B or C, the other will move.) We will fix Point B
to move independently a little later.
The Curve you
added.
The control points have 2 effects on the path exiting the end point:
direction and distance (these are termed slope and magnitude in math
circles) from Point A. The direction will provide the direction that the
path will follow when it leaves A and the distance will determine how
long the path follows that direction before it starts making its way to
the next of the curve.
The example to the
left shows how the
control points
influence the path of
the curve. In the top
picture, we see three
curves. The top curve
How the controls
is the default curve. In
affect the path
the next curve down,
C has been moved to
give a drastically different direction. Notice
how the path leaving A moves away from the
other end point. The third curve, the distance
was changed dramatically. Watch the path
move much higher than the other two curves.
Image:Beziersharpturn0003.gif
Image:Beziersharpturn0002.gif
Image:Beziersharptur
(with C
Take C point
N.B. To
selected)
and move it
easily make
Press EKEY
in the exact
sharp turns;
to extend
direction
take B point
the Bezier,
you want to
and move it
and drag it
turn
really close
out; you will
to A.
find it goes
where you
pointed C!
--Jawboot
01:30, 30
April 2006
(UTC)
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In the bottom example, I've built a heart shape using just the points shown. Dragging the
bottom end point down will make the shape closer to a leaf. You'll be able to do the same at
the end of this tutorial. Go ahead move around the points for the curve and see how they all
interact. Get a good feel working with the curve and when you're ready we'll move on to
tracing.
Now that you know how to work with a bezier curve set blend back to 0.5 on the Background
Image dialog so we can start tracing.
Rough Tracing
The first step in tracing is to click the Polygon convert button on the curve tools
panel. You'll find this in button on the Buttons Window. You may need to select
the Edit Panel. Press F9 if this panel isn't visible. If you don't already have a
curve add one now. It will help to move the curve to the center of the yellow
lightening bolt if you must add a new one.
Next, move the vertices of the curve to the points shown in
the image to the left. This is called Rough Tracing because
you don't need to exactly trace the image. You only need to
approximate the image. Moving the vertices should be
done using the instructions from the Creating a Simple
Hat tutorial.
Move Vertices
Here
Curve
Tools
for
Blender
3D
version
2.37
Note: Selecting the best place to put a vertex is a bit of an art that
you'll acquire as you work with curves. For now follow the arrows
along the cutouts and place each of the vertices as shown.
This tracing uses all the vertices of the polygon. Other cases, you'll
need add or remove extra vertices. Adding and removing vertices as shown in Turning a
Cube into a Puppy tutorial (Note: To add a vertex select the end point of your curve press
CTRL and click LMB. At the place you clicked a new vertex will appear connected to your
curve.).
After moving the last vertex, we finish the rough tracing by pressing the CKEY to close the
polygon. You should see an image similar to the one on the right. (If you only have an outline
switch your view port shading to solid by pressing the ZKEY for now.) Notice how the
polygon doesn't cover all of the yellow of the bolt and how in some places the polygon fails to
conform to the shape of the bolt. This is expected and should not be a cause for concern. We
correct this in the next section.
Once you've finished several logos you should begin to get a feel for
the required placement of vertices. Until then, here are some general
guidelines to keep in mind:
A gradual curve may only require a single vertex.
Tight curves will likely require two closely placed vertices.
Curves may not require a vertex at all - you can define some
curves using the control points of the adjacent vertices. We did
this for both of the inside curves of the bolt above.
Corners require a single vertex placed where the curve bends. A
square, for instance, requires four vertices - one at each corner to be modeled properly.
The end point of a curve will always be on the curve. So should all
of the vertices you place.
We are now ready to move onto the next step modeling the logo. Press
ZKEY to return to wire frame mode and prepare for the next step.
Polishing the Tracing
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Final Rough Traced
Polygon
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First, press the Bezier convert button to convert the polygon back to a curve. This will
convert your polygon back into a curve. Nothing obvious will happen. If you look close, you
should notice the number of points on the curve tripled. When you converted the curve back
to a Bezier curve, Blender changed all of the polygon vertices to Bezier vertices. While the
polygon vertex is a single point the Bezier vertex is made of an end point and 2 control
points. So the extra points are the control points of the Bezier vertices. These control points
are placed along the curve to produce the same shape as the converted polygon.
Position Control Points
Our job is to move the control and end points so that the
curve follows the edge of the bolt. The trick is to move the
2 control points between adjacent end points to bend the
curve to the edge of bolt. First, move the right control
point of the top-left vertex. This should pull the curve
from its end point to more closely match the line of our
bolt. After placing this point, we move to the next control
point following a clockwise direction around the bolt. Use
the RMB to select the point you want to change and move
it with GKEY to place it.
As you move the second point notice how the curve exiting the first end point is drawn away
from the edge of the bolt being traced. We now have to adjust the first control point again to
get that line back on track. This quickly turns into a balancing act adjusting each set of
control points. The trick is to make smaller movements for each iteration of adjustments.
Make a game of it and move the control points all along the bolt. Always move along the
clockwise direction. This practice is not just for consistency, it keeps your place and ensures
that moving a control point doesn't change a portion of the curve that you've already
completed. In time you learn to move the first point only part of the way. Then moving the
second brings the curve for the first into correct alignment.
If you have some trouble aligning the curve to the edge of the bolt, consider adding a new
point. There are two (at least) ways to accomplish this:
Select 2 points that surround the problem spot where you want a new vertex and click
the Subdivide button on the Curve Tools 1 tool panel.
If near an end point, Select it, press the CKEY to open the curve, then Control+LMB
click to add a new point beyond the end of the selected final vertex. Press the CKEY to
reclose the curve.
The new end point should be positioned and then
you have to adjust the curve on both sides of the
end point you move. Any time you move an end
point be sure that the curve going into both
adjacent (clockwise and counter-clockwise) end
points still aligns with the edge of the bolt.
Adding a new end point
Once you've made
the complete circuit around the bolt, you're ready for the final
polishing of the edge of the curve. Press the TAB to switch to
the object mode. This makes the polishing easier as Blender
hides the points and lines for editing the curve. Now zoom in on
the bolt's edge using the NUM+ or Control+LMB drag. Use
Shift+MMB drag the screen so that you closely observe the
entire edge of the bolt while zoomed in closely. Look for places
where the curve pulls away from the edge. Also look for sharp
bends at each of the end points that should be smooth. You can
Finding trace defects
see several defects that I found in my project after tracing the
bolt. Switch back into edit mode to fix the curve and then go
back into object mode to look for more defects.
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Sharp end points are adjusted by decreasing the
angle between end point and the control points.
For Blender specific case that I know of, sharp
points have a tendency to show to the side of the
end point. This typically requires adding a new
vertex between the two end points to smooth out
the curve. Places where the curve pulls away
from the edge can be resolved by moving the
Correcting poorly shaped curve
control point closer to the edge. In the above
image the curve was found to have been pulled
away from the edge. This was fixed by moving the control point a little to the left.
Here's the final polished curve for my project. It is shown in both edit
mode and object mode so you can clearly see both the control and end
points on the left and the curve to the right.
Note: If you have never worked with Bezier curves before, try it with a
2D paint program such as Inkscape or Paint Shop Pro. It might be
quicker and easier to learn proper placement of control points in a
program where drawing the curves is quick and simple.
Final Polished
Curve
Helpful Tip: In blender 2.37 and later (not sure of earlier versions)
pressing the HKEY toggles the control points between free and
aligned (Edit Mode). Free Control Points are good for sharp angles,
and aligned are good for smooth curves. This shortcut is in the Space>Edit>Control
Points menu.
This concludes the tracing of the bolt. All that remains is making the curve 3 dimensional,
applying a material and positioning the final object. Before doing that, we will trace the
circle in the next part of the tutorial. Save this project if you want to take a break before
continuing. You'll need it on the next turorial.
Adding a Third Dimension
First, give the object some depth. Leave editmode, go to the editbuttons screen, and under
the "Curve and Surface" tab, set the following values:
Ext1: 0.2 (the height of the extrusion on either side)
Ext2: 0.02 (the radius of the round bevel applied to the exruded edge)
BevResol: 4 (the number of subdivisions on the bevel curve)
(Note: In 2.4, Ext1 is Extrude and Ext2 is Bevel Depth.)
Also, if you have a simple logo go ahead and increase the DefResulU value to 25. If you have
an extremely complicated image this is totally overboard but looks nice when you are just
tracing text or numbers.
Now you can use your knowledge from earlier in this book to change the material and/or add
texture to your logo. Feel free to rotate, add lighting, or whatever floats your boat. Don't
forget to press ZKEY to toggle wireframe mode.
-=< Tutorial under Construction, ready soon, thanks for input spiderworm >=- A similar
tutorial is available here (http://www.vrotvrot.com/xoom/tutorials/logoTut/logoTut.html)
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Continue tutorial using bezier curves
- This continues the tutorial, finishing up the sample logo from the image in the tutorial using
bezier curves. These instructions make the assumption that you completed the first part in
front view with NUM1. An alternative method for doing this using mesh circles has been
presented below.
First, to make the lightning bolt distinct from the second part of the logo, it may help to
apply a yellow material to it before getting started.
Adding the circle
Switch to object mode by hitting TAB if you aren't already there.
Press space -> Add -> Curve -> Bezier Circle to add a closed
bezier curve with four points forming a circle. If you are in solid draw
type, switch to wireframe with ZKEY so you can see the underlying
image better. Hit SKEY to scale the bezier circle to fit over the circle
in the image. You will probably find that the bezier circle is not dead
center on the sample logo so you will need to move it with GKEY to
center it. You may need to scale it and move it several times to get it
right. You will also find that the circle in the sample image is actually
a slight oval, so scale and position the bezier circle so that it touches
the circle in the image on the left and right sides. Normally, you could
Bezier Circle
then scale the circle and constrain it on the z axis by hitting SKEY
then ZKEY, but it turns out that the oval isn't regular anyway, so just
select the point on the top and hit GKEY then ZKEY to move it down until it touches the top
of the oval in the image. Then do the same for the bottom point and you should have a pretty
good fit.
Match up left and
right sides
Move top and
bottom points
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Just to understand what's happening in the next steps, switch to solid
view with ZKEY. As you can see, you now have a circle, but it's filled
in the middle where you want to be able to see through it. To cut a
hole out of the circle, hit space -> Add -> Bezier Circle while you
still have it selected in edit mode. A new circle will appear inside the
larger circle. As you should be able to see in solid mode, the new
circle actually cuts its shape out of the larger circle surrounding it.
Switch to wireframe mode with ZKEY so that you can see the
underlying image again. Scale up the smaller circle so that it
approximately fits the inner part of the circle in the image. Don't
worry about getting it exact since you'll be manually moving all four
points anyway. Move the bottom point of the bezier circle to the top
left corner of the bar that crosses the circle.
Circle in circle
Move the right point of the circle to the other
corner. To get a curve close to a 90 degree
angle at those corners and an approximation of
a straight line along the bar, you'll need to select the bottom control
point for the point in the upper right corner and drag it very close to
the point itself. You'll probably want to move the control point fairly
close, then zoom the view in very close and adjust the control point
further, otherwise it will be very difficult to control.
Place two points at
either end of the
bar
Place two points at
either end of the
bar
Then move the other two points and adjust their control points until you have a pretty good
approximation of the rest of the inside curve. Next step is to press space -> Add -> Bezier
Circle again and repeat the same steps, but for the lower opening in the logo. Once you've
completed both openings, switch back to solid view with ZKEY and examine your work.
Make any adjustments you need to swithing the draw type back and forth as needed.
Wider bevel has a
nice look
The next step is to make this part three dimensional like you did with
the lightning bolt. Go to object mode with TAB, then select the editing
buttons. Under curve and surface, set Extrude/Ext1 to 0.2, Bevel
Depth/Ext2 to 0.02 and BevResol to 4. You can also set DefResolU to
25 as suggested for the lightning bolt. Looking at the results, the
bevel effect may not be enough, so try increasing Bevel Depth/Ext2 to
something like 0.15. That should look better, but there will be a
problem. Switch back to wireframe mode with ZKEY and you'll see
that the bevel has widened everything so that the circle no longer
matches the original image. This can be fixed fairly easily by reducing
the width parameter under curve and surface until it fits again.
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For final steps, select the lightning bolt again
and switch into sideview with NUM3 and hit
GKEY and then YKEY to move the bolt
backwards. Move the bolt back so it no longer
intersects with the circle and bar. Apply a red
material to the circle and bar portion. Finally,
you can go to view, then to background image
and hit the background image button to hid the
image now that it is no longer needed. At this
point, you can add any finishing touches for
lighting and camera angles and render the logo.
Bevel has
increased logo size
Width adjustment
restores to normal
size
Final render
Johnos Addition (the tutorial on the next page does
this too)
- This tutorial assumes that you were creating a logo from the one above, and that you are
willing to listen to an idiot. :-)
I am new to Blender3D but I will try to finish this tutorial, and leave you with this:
The finished article
Adding The Circle
Ok, what you have so far is a lightening bolt, which is great. Its also nice and rounded which
is even better. However, what we are missing at the moment is the outside circle. This is
probably not the best way of doing it, but it is one way. Instead of using the Bezier Curve, I
am using Circles.
Go to the top view (NUM7), and press SPACE -> Mesh -> Circle. Accept the 32 vertices, you
can make it less but it wont look as good.
Move it into the center of the circle, if you don't then I advise you have wireframe on for the
moment (press Z). Then press S, for scale, and make it the correct size for the inside of the
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circle. Once you have that in the correct place, like so:
Adding the first circle
You may notice that I needed to stretch it sideways a little, you will too. Ok, deselect that,
(press A, once or twice). Now make another circle, move it into the middle, and change the
scale (S Key, remember) so that is reaches to the outside of the big red circle, bigger than
the circle that you added before. Now here is where I am sure theres an easier way of doing
it, but I don't know how so what I did to fill in the circle with faces was this.
If you dont read this carefully, then you may not get the wanted end result. Deselect the
second circle, then select four vertices, that are in a square and will make up a face.
Selecting the four vertices
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Once you have that, press F and a face will appear, I.E the box will be filled (turn off
Wireframe, press z). Now do this right around the circle. To do this, hold down Shift and Ctrl,
then draw a circle around the two vertices you wish to deselect with the Left Mouse Button.
Then draw a circle around the next two vertices while holding down Ctrl and LMB, NOT
SHIFT. Shift changes the control from selecting, to deselecting. This might take a while,
sorry. Once you have got right around the circle its time to make the line through the
middle... this is easy!
NOTE: A quicker way of making the circle object in this scene is to only create the small
circle, select it, press 'E' to extrude (choose Only Edges), press 'S' to scale and another sized
circle will appear, size this appropriately then click LMB. Then to create the cross, select 2
vertices at either side of the circle near where the cross overlaps, then press 'F' to create a
face.
This way is a lot faster, thanks for your help :-) To make the crossing line however, you need
to move 4 of the vertices slightly.. example below:
Moving the four vertices
Once you do this, highlight the 4 you moved, then press F.
Making the circle 3D
Highlight the full circle by pressing A either once or twice. Go to Side View, and press E for
extrude and drag it down so that it is the same thickness as the lightning bolt (you'll see
why). Now this bit is purely for arts sake, you won't probably learn anything here but its
good practise.
Now look at what you have made... it looks nice enough but where the lightening bolt goes
through the circle it looks a bit odd so we will make it look like the circle is lying on top of
the bolt. Where the bolt goes through the circle, note the edges and the vertices. Move them
so that the lines are just either side of where the bolt goes through. Then make new edges
using CTRL+R on the outsides of these edges. Like so:
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Creating the overlap
Now you have squares where the lightning bolt hits the circle. Change to Wireframe (z) if
you are not already in it then highlight the 16 vertices of these boxes and raise them. Now do
the same for where the center line crosses the bolt but create 4 lines instead of two. To
explain why, I've done a diagram.
Why we use 4 points
instead of 2
Now we can make the finishing touches, add subsurf and set it to 2 or 3 and add colour!
Then you are done :-) I won't go over subsurf and adding colour because people have covered
that better than I could in previous 'Noob to Pro' pages. I think thats everything, I did this
and ended up with the first screenshot so I'm sure you will aswell. Sorry about any spelling
mistakes, and I'm sure I didn't use the easiest methods but I've only been doing this kind of
stuff for 3 days :-) Good luck
Next Page: 2D Image (logo) to a 3D Model Part 2
Previous Page: Curve and Path Modeling
Simple Vehicle
Next Page: Modeling a picture
Previous Page: 2D Image (logo) to a 3D Model Part 2
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Design
The idea of this tutorial is to learn to face a complex project. A vehicle is a nice object to find
new problems. First, we must understand that a project is a project. A project does not
reproduce the real world, a project shows an idea or thought and will result in a final image
or video. Whatever does not appear in the final result is unnecessary to include in the model.
We chose a vehicle for this tutorial because there are lots of different parts to work on.
Idea
What we will show with this vehicle? Let's use the model as an analogy. Take a human
characteristic and reproduce it in the vehicle.
Well, I propose the following: Short persons who have bad manners and try always to show
us they are capable by imposing themselves over other people.
General Characteristics
Great power Lot of machinery Small size Compact
Parts list
Wheels Engine General shape Color and textures Scapes Lights Doors Glasses motion Rocket
Launcher
Wheels
IDEA:
Should be pretty big, too big for the body, outside of it. Just a small place between front and
back wheel to open the door. No plain tires but thick textured ones with big rubber pieces to
get a good grip. No straight profile for top speed but a rounded one for all kinds of terrain.
Never mind what is in front of him just keep going over anything in fron of him.
MODELING:
We can model it from scratch by adding a cylinder and modifing the mesh with the tools used
in previous tutorials or you can take a model made by someone else and modify it according
to your needs.
To model from scratch I leave the space here to anyone who wants to show us exactly how to
do it.
To take an existing model you can find the tires at
:"http://www.katorlegaz.com/index.php?a=thumbs&c=Blender_3D_Model_Repository"
released under the Blender Artistic License.
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We should choose one, reduce the hole and enlarge the
bump.
Modeling a picture
Next Page: Bones
Previous Page: Simple Vehicle
Modeling a picture
Ever seen an awesome looking picture you wanted to turn
into a 3D model? Like a logo or a symbol? Well, it's
actually pretty easy... it just takes some time to do.
render of the tires that you can
find in the Blender Model
Repository
First off, you're going to need a picture to trace, I'm currently doing a project for a friend
to do with devils and demons, so I chose a demonic looking face for this tutorial:
Demonic Face
(http://www.masterpiecepumpkins.com/Graphics/Devil2%20(1.5)_______________PM.JPG)
Now we open Blender and start a new project. Delete the default cube. Before you start
tracing the face, you need to set the face as the background image. To do this, click
'view', then 'Background Image'. A box should pop up with only one button in it (Use
Background Image), click it. Now some settings appear, we're only interested in one of
them for this tutorial. Click the small button with a picture of a miniature folder on it (it
looks kind of like a feather pen.) It's the first one under the 'use background image'
button. From there, select the picture you want to trace. Like this: Background Selection
(http://k.domaindlx.com/genis/images/bg_select.jpg)
Ok, now for the long part. Zoom in to the new background image just a little bit. Now,
add a bezier curve, and size it down a little. Hit F9 and find and click the button that
says 'Poly'. Now there should be a few more vertices to work with and the curve should
be just a bunch of joined lines. Select one point at a time and using the GKEY move it to
a point along the background image(or face in this case). Do the same for all of the rest
of the vertices, making sure you only have one vertex selected at a time or you'll move
more than just the vertex you want to. once this is done, select one of the end vertices of
the curve (it doesn't matter which end) and use SHIFT+DKEY to copy that vertex. Move
the newly copied vertex to a point along the edge of the face a small ways away from the
vertex you copied it from. Continue doing this until you have a complete outline (of the
whole face or just one part, like the ear). Here's what it should look like (I did the left
ear):Tracing (http://k.domaindlx.com/genis/images/points.jpg) . You can't see it in the
picture, but six of the points on the right side of the ear are connected, while the rest
aren't. In order to get the effect we're looking for here, we need to connect all of the
points around the edge to make an outline (make sure not to connect the points accross
the picture or you'l have a messed up outline).
To get the outline for the whole face, just do the exact same thing around all of the
edges. We still have a problem though, most of the points aren't joined by a line, so all
we have is a bunch of dots. This is easily solvable. Using the BKEY or the right click of
the mouse, we select a bunch of vertices at a time (somewhere betwen 5 and 10), and hit
the FKEY a few times. Every time you hit the FKEY it should connect two of the points.
Do this until all of the selected points are connected, then unselect them and select
another group and use FKEY to join them. Keep doing this until all of your points are
connected. To connect the last two points, select all the points and press the "C" key, to
close the polygon.
[edit: A better option would be to select a vertex on one of the ends of the whole line, hold
down the CTRL and left-click on a certain point on the image. This will create a new vertex,
immediately connected to the vertex you selected.]
Now that we've got the entire face traced (or outlined if you want to call it that), we can
make it 3D. Hit F9 again and find the Ext1 and Ext2 properties, shown here: Ext1 & Ext2
(http://k.domaindlx.com/genis/images/make3D.jpg) . Change the values and see what
happens. They correspond to the depth of the outline. Try changing them around until
you find what looks good. Now, you'll notice that the lines just stick out straight. I'm still
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investigating how to actually model a head from the outlined face ... so if anyone has any
ideas, feel free to add them to this page.
in order to make it have depth you should make the outline out of mesh points insted of a
curve. add a primitive mesh and delete all the verts in edit mode, then ctrl click to all
point outline. add depth to the surface in a side view(split vievs so you can see what your
moveing). it helps to have 2 or more refrence images, but you can wing it. usuly the final
result has to be subsurfed.
(USER EDIT: I accidentaly started it with mesh instead of curve. You can do the same thing
with extrude, but I have no idea how to go on after that) (USER EDIT LATER: If you subsurf
it, it creates a relatively 3D looking image. Its really cool)
(Another user, even later: IF you want to turn your curve into a mesh, hit Alt-C. Note that
this is NOT reversible.)
Next Page: Bones
Previous Page: Simple Vehicle
Using Bones
Next Page: Materials and Textures
Previous Page: Modeling a picture
Bones
Bones are a modeling tool that is especially important if you're trying to model characters
that move. Bones allow you to move characters' limbs in a way that is much simpler than
trying to re-arrange the vertices every time.
Basically how it works is that a bone will be associated with certain vertices, which will move
along with the bone when the position is changed in pose mode. Using bones is fairly simple
once you get the hang of it, but, like many things in Blender, can be a little daunting at first
sight. Never fear - that's what tutorials are for!
A model
Bones don't do much on their own - in fact, they turn invisible on render time! So, we'll need
a model to use them with. If you haven't already, use an earlier tutorial to create a simple
model, and we'll be on our way!
For this tutorial, we're going to use a model with human proportions, but bones can be used
with just about any body type. The same idea can be applied to cats, spiders or whatever!,
Laying down bones
More to come soon!
Until more comes, here is a quick step by step to get you started
Thanks to Ilias for support. Written by Thomas Westin
Create a cylinder
- Select top view (NUM7)
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- TAB to Object mode
- SPACEBAR in 3D view
Extrude the cylinder
- Select side view (NUM3)
- TAB to Edit mode
- AKEY to deselect all
- BKEY to box select top vertices
- drag the vertices up
Add armature
- TAB to object Mode
- SPACEBAR>Add>Armature
- Add some armatures...
Subdivide
- TAB to Edit
- AKEY to Select All
- WKEY to Subdivide. Do this 2 times
Parent it
- TAB to Object
- SHIFT+RMB to select Cylinder and then Armature. Armature selection MUST be lighter
colored
- CTRL+PKEY, Armature, Create from closest bone
NB for total newbies; I started moving the armature around in pose mode and saw nothing
happen, it took some time to work out that you need to move and scale the bones to sit inside
your cylinder as bones would in an arm. Hope this helps A.A.
Try it
- Go to Pose mode
- Select and Drag the bones joints
Next Page: Materials and Textures
Previous Page: Modeling a picture
Materials and Textures
Next Page: Quickie Material
Previous Page: Bones
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Materials and textures are the things giving your model colour and structure. Without
materials your models would always stay the same dull grey blender uses by default. While
materials give the model colour, textures give it a structure. They allow you to do things such
as add a wood pattern to a desk and to make your rendered images look more realistic.
To find out more about materials and textures, go to the next page.
Next Page: Quickie Material
Previous Page: Bones
Quickie Material
Next page: Quickie Texture
Previous page: Materials and Textures
Your First Material
This page is under construction
You first need to go back to the default Blender scene. Hit CTRL+XKEY to start with a new
Blender scene. Note this also switches you automatically to Object mode. Select the default
cube with the RMB and open the Material buttons by pressing the shading button(F5).
The Blender should already have a material assigned to the cube. You know that because you
see this:
Click the
next to MA:Material in the Material panel to delete the link to the datablock. This
removes the material from the object, removes several tabs from the Button window, and
removes a lot of information from the Material panel and replaces it with an "Add New"
button. You could click that to create a new material, but what we want to do is reapply the
old material to it. Click the button that looks like this: . You'll see a drop-down list and you
want to choose "Material". This nifty drop-down will list all of the materials you've created
thus far and let you apply them to any object in the scene.
Naming Names
"Material" isn't a very creative name for a material (no offense, Ton!). There are a couple of
different ways to rename the material.
1. Press the button that looks like a little car. It's right next to the [x] that deletes the
material. This will "auto" rename the material. It will come up with a pretty boring name,
"Grey". It's better than "Material", but we can think of something better.
2. Press LMB over the material name, and a cursor will appear for you to put your custom
material name. To clear the entire name before entering your own, press BACKSPACE.
There are many places in the Blender you can enter your own value using the same
method. Rename the material to "Green Ooze".
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Setting the Color
Obviously, just changing the name of the material doesn't make the material green. We have
to do some work on it still. You'll notice this section of buttons:
Set the R value to 0.149, the G value to 1.000, and the B value to 0.446. R of course stands
for red, G for green, and B for blue. Mixing these values, we can achieve any color you want.
The easiest way to choose your color value is to click this box
and use the
window that pops up to select whatever color suits your fancy. You'll be using this one in
later tutorials.
We've changed the color of the object, but we can also change the color of the specular. I'd
tell you what the specular is, but I'll let you see for yourself when you change the specular
color.
Click this button
. Now, instead of the R, G, and B sliders showing the material color,
they will show the specular color. Keep your eyes on the Preview of the material and start
messing with the R, G, and B sliders. Do you see what the specular is now? [Note: You may
have to hit Enter before your changes appear in the preview]
Set the specular color to R = 0.640, G = 0.990, and B = 0.566. With this value we should be
able to get a good ooze down the road.
There's a billion other buttons here. We'll get to them all eventually. Keep this file open and
go to the next tutorial, where we will perfect the ooze.
Next page: Quickie Texture
Previous page: Materials and Textures
Quickie Texture
Next page: Procedural Textures
Previous page: Quickie Material
This tutorial uses the file from the previous tutorial. If you didn't do it before, go back and do
it now.
Intro
Textures are laid on top of materials to give them complicated colours and other effects. An
object is covered with a material, which might contain several textures: an image texture of
stone, a texture to make the stone look bumpy, and a texture to make the stone deform in
different ways.
Adding a texture
Select the object to be textured. Add a Material to it if it hasn't got one already. Select the
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Textures tab with the spotty square icon (or by pressing F6). Click Add New. Select the
texture type from the drop-down list. You can also change the texture's name (It will be
something like Tex.001) by clicking on the name box. Naming things is good!
Adding a cloud texture
Add a new Cloud texture (select Clouds from the texture typr drop-down list). A preview
appears, as well as some parameters to experiment with. Go back to the Materials tab (Click
the red sphere or press F5) and a coloured preview of the texture appears. It is purple! All
new textures default to this colour. On the right hand side there are three tabs: Texture, Map
Input, and Map To. Select the Map To tab. The RGB (Red, Green, Blue) sliders here adjust
the colour of the texture. Some areas are transparent and show the material underneath.
This allows you to layer textures. Make the colour black. Render the object (F12) to see the
effect. Next we will add a stucci texture to make our clouds look bumpy.
Adding a stucci texture
Go back to the textures tab (F6) and select the next texture channel (one of the blank buttons
under 'Tex'). Add a stucci texture. Back to the Material (F5), and click the "Map To" tab.
Turn Col off and Nor on. Col means the texture affects the colour. Nor means it affects the
rendered normal, or the angle the renderer treats the surface as - creating fake shadows on
the surface. Play with the Nor slider, but leave it on about 4. Now click the Map Input tab we are going to change the size of the texture. Set SizeX to 0.2 (stretching the texture five
times on the x-axis) and SizeY to 10 (Squishing the texture 10 times in the Y-axis). Render!
The object looks like it has grooves.
Adding an image texture
Any JPG will do for this bit, but if you can't decide, find a nice picture of wood you'd like to
use as a texture on the web. Using the Image Search feature of a search engine is an easy
way. Remove the two old textures (on the Textures tab, select the old ones and click the little
X next to their name) and add a new Image texture. Still in Textures, select image from the
texture type drop down menu, click Load Image, and choose your image. Hit F12 to render.
Back to the Map Input tab (Materials, F5), try the effects of Flat, Cube, Tube and Sphere,
and the XYZ buttons below. Also remember you can change the size of your image using the
Size parameters (SizeX etc.)
Further Reading
Textures are a very powerful tool, and layering them can create all sorts of interesting
effects. You can use Disp to actually displace the vertices of your object based on the texture
(best used with a high vertex count or Subsurf) and do all sorts of other tricks. The Nor
feature is very good for making objects look more realistic without increasing the rendertime
overly much.
Next page: Procedural Textures
Previous page: Quickie Material
Procedural Textures
Next page: Creating Basic Seawater
Previous page: Quickie Texture
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Procedual Textures
Texturing objects can be broken down into two categories: procedural and image texturing.
Procedural texturing makes use of mathematical formulas to generate textures. These
textures are generated within Blender. Image texturing uses images created or captured
outside of the Blender, either in an image manipulation program such as the GIMP or
Photoshop, or captured on a camera. It is important to know the advantages and
disadvantages of each of these texturing methods. Move on to the next tutorial to learn about
procedural texturing.
Current Procedual Textures
Blender currently supports many procedual textures, which are : Clouds, Marble, Stucci,
Wood, Magic, Blend, Noise, Musgrave, Voronoi and DistortedNoise
Next page: Creating Basic Seawater
Previous page: Quickie Texture
Creating Basic Seawater
Next page: Texturing Basic Seawater
Previous page: Procedural Textures
75% of the Earth's surface is covered with water. In homage to this great fact, we will
develop your materials skills first by creating basic seawater.
First we create a new file in Blender and delete the default cube by pressing XKEY and
confirming the popup dialog. Now switch to top view with NUM7 and enter SPACE > Add >
Mesh > Plane to create a plane. Then scale it up to be many many times it's original size
with the SKEY the way you've already learned in one of the earlier tutorials.
Now off to the actual texturing work. Press F5 to bring up the Material Buttons in the
Buttons Window. You will probably find two new small windows appearing here: one called
Material [user comment: in my Blender 2.42a its called Links and Pipeline] and the other one
Preview.
Click the 'Add New' button in the Material window to create a new material named
`Material.001'. To make life easier we'll rename it to something meaningful like 'Seawater'
by simply clicking it and typing in the letters, as shown here (SHIFT+DELETE in field to
clear):
Now, on the same tab, give the seawater material a color of RGB (0.0, 0.139, 0.400). Find
the Alpha slider and move it until it reads approximately Alpha 0.100.
Next page: Texturing Basic Seawater
Previous page: Procedural Textures
Texturing Basic Seawater
Next page: Mountains Out Of Molehills 2
Previous page: Creating Basic Seawater
Disclaimer: This tutorial is for those of you who have installed the yafray
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(http://www.blender3d.com/cms/Yafray.51.0.html) external renderer! The texture
will NOT look like waves (or much of anything at all) with the internal renderer of
Blender.
[Note: Since version 2.42 (or may earlier) you can use the internal blender render]
[ed. note: Need a much more basic introduction to what materials, textures, maps, and all
the accompanying terms are with illustrative examples before diving into a specific sea-water
example. Much more effective learning when you know what you're changing.]
A rendered image with yafray renderer
A rendered image with blender renderer
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Now we'll add a procedural texture to our seawater, which will give it a "wavy" look. Click
the Texture button (looks like bricks) or press F6 to view the texture buttons subcontext.
Click on the knob to the left of the texture name and select the "Add New" button. This
creates a new texture named "Tex.001". Click on the name and change it to "Waves".
Go to the Texture Type pull-down and select 'Stucci'. On the Stucci tab click 'Wall Out' and
'Soft noise', and change 'Noise Basis' to 'Voronoi F1'. [ed. question: Need a little more detail
on playing with what these parameters do] Our Waves texture is ready; next, we will refine
how it is applied to our Seawater material.
Left click on the Materials button (looks like a red sphere) to return to the material buttons
subcontext. Look at the Texture panel, and you'll see that the "Waves" texture has been
automatically associated with the Seawater material.
Select the 'Map To' tab. Click the 'Nor' and 'Spec' buttons so they're selected and have white
text (the white text indicates a positive mapping). Click the 'Hard' button twice so it's
selected and has yellow text (the yellow text indicates a negative mapping).
Select the 'Map Input' tab. There, look at the X, Y and Z scaling. The values to use here
depend on the size of your water plane (you can see and edit the size of the plane by going to
Object, Transform Properties or by pressing 'N'. With a plane size of X=3, Y=3, Z=1, a
reasonable map input scaling is sizeX=5, sizeY=20, sizeZ=25. One important consideration,
if you're mapping to a flat surface, is that the X and Y scalings shouldn't match (or Y and Z or
X and Z for a vertical plane). This is part of what gives the Stucci/voronoi a good "wave" look.
[Note: for the subsequent step you may have to change the Texture Blending Mode to
substract or multiply, instead of mix or add, to get a fine rendered image. Since version 2.42
(or may earlier) use F5 -> MapTo -> drop down list select Substract or Multiply and
continue with this tutorial. This also works for the yafray renderer, later you can change it
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back to Mix after you applied a second texture with 'Col' enabled.]
Now do a render (F12) and look at the result. If you just get a big blue-green looking plane,
you are probably using the internal blender renderer. Install YafRay if you haven't already.
To render with it, press F10 to view the Scene context. On the Render tab, beneath the huge
'Render' button, change the Render Engine from 'Blender internal' to 'YafRay'.
(Note: You have to have your light a good distance away from the plane, and have it set very
powerful to see more than a black square.)
This looks okay, but a bit too jagged. To smooth things out, we'll add a second texture. Go to
the Texture subcontext (F6) if you're not already there. In the Texture tab, click the first
empty rectangle beneath the "Waves" texture. Click 'Add New'. Rename the new texture
"Clouds", and change its texture type to 'Clouds'. In the Clouds tab, set NoiseSize to .2 and
NoiseDepth to 2. Switch back to the material buttons subcontext, select the Texture tab, and
verify that the new Clouds texture is checked and selected. Click on the Map To tab and
select 'Nor' ('Col' should already be selected).
Render (F12), admire your water, and maybe drink a tall glass of something refreshing!
Next page: Mountains Out Of Molehills 2
Previous page: Creating Basic Seawater
Mountains Out Of Molehills 2
Next page: Basic Carpet Texture
Previous page: Texturing Basic Seawater
This tutorial shows you how to use displacement mapping to make a simple environment.
1. Make a grid. (Add/Mesh/Grid) 32x32 will do just fine.
2. Set it smooth. (Editing/Link and Materials/Set Smooth)
3. Make a new material for it. (Shading/Material/Add New)
4. Make a new texture for the material. (Shading/Texture/Add New)
5. Go to Shading/Texture Buttons. You can see your newly created texture there now.
6. Change Texture Type to Clouds.
7. Change the name of the texture to be more descriptive. For example GroundDisp or
something similar.
8. Go back to Shading/Material buttons. You can see our cloud texture applied now but it's
not applied correctly yet.
9. Go to Shading/Map To. This defines how the selected texture is mapped on our material.
10. Check out Col and check Disp on.
11. Set camera and a few lights to the scene.
12. Render.
You can tweak the environment easily by changing Nor value in the Shading/Map To. This
defines how strongly the displacement texture affects the material.
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You could also add subsurfing to the ground area to get smoother results. Also feel free to
tweak the texture and try out different alternatives.
Next page: Basic Carpet Texture
Previous page: Texturing Basic Seawater
Basic Carpet Texture
Next page: Image Textures
Previous page: Mountains Out Of Molehills 2
I've got the basic tutorial, here on my comp, but i am working on maybe using the more
recent aditions to blenders materials/textures to create a better effect. Once i have will post,
or if it turns out just the same, ill put up the old tutorial.
-- Please post what you've got in the meantime? :)
Next page: Image Textures
Previous page: Mountains Out Of Molehills 2
Image Textures
Next page: The Rusty Ball
Previous page: Basic Carpet Texture
Procedural texturing is very powerful; however, sometimes it is difficult or impossible to
generate the desired realism with them. Image texturing is there for you when you need it.
To review, the basic idea is to take an outside image and wrap it around your model. Now
move on to the next tutorial to learn how to do this.
Free Image Texture Editors
Wood Workshop (http://www.spiralgraphics.biz/ww_overview.htm) A free utility
(Requires Operating System: Windows 2000/XP) that generates surprisingly high quality
tiling wood texture images. These textures can be exported as standard image files for
use within Blender.
Next page: The Rusty Ball
Previous page: Basic Carpet Texture
The Rusty Ball
Next page: Creating Pixar-looking eyes
Previous page: Image Textures
Making objects with image textures is not really hard for simple objects like balls, cubes, and
tubes. I'll show you how to do this:
Make a new Scene in Blender and delete the default cube.
Make an object you want to have the image on it (I recommend a Mesh plane, sphere or
tube).
if you are making a Mesh Plane, change your view to above, by pressing NUM7
Go to the materials (F5) and select the default material (of course you can also make a
new material).
Now go to the textures (F6) and choose "Image" as "Texture type" for the selected
texture. There will appear many options, the most interesting one is "Load image". Click
it and select an image. (Note: Bitmaps tend to get all screwy. JPG's are recommended)
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After this, you'll have to specify how your image should be applied to your object. To do
this, go to the materials again, where you'll have to find the "Map input" tab (near the
textures tab). If you have selected it, you'll see four buttons: Flat, Cube, Tube and
Sphere. Select the option which meets your object best.
Render your object. If you can't see your picture well, you can try to rotate your object or
select another option in the "Map input" tab.
You can also render videos onto objects using this method. Just select a movie in the "Load
image" dialog and enable the option "Movie" at the textures buttons. NOTE: Blender ONLY
works with Full Resolution video, not video which has been compressed using a codec. Most
video software will allow you to export video as "full frames" or "no compression".
Experiment a bit!
Next page: Creating Pixar-looking eyes
Previous page: Image Textures
UV Mapping
Next page: Quickie UV Map
Previous page: Creating Pixar-looking eyes
Learning the basics of using UV mapping to map a texture accurately onto an object.
In case you're interested, UV mapping stands for the technique used to "wrap" a 2D image
texture onto a 3D mesh. "U" and "V" are the name of the axes of a plane, since "X", "Y" and
"Z" are used for the coordinates in the 3D space. For example: increasing your "U" on a
sphere might move you along a longitude line (north or south), while increasing your "V"
might move you along a line of latitude (east or west).
Next page: Quickie UV Map
Previous page: Creating Pixar-looking eyes
Quickie UV Map
Next page: UV Map Basics
Previous page: UV Mapping
See the next page for a relevant video tutorial.
Next page: UV Map Basics
Previous page: UV Mapping
UV Map Basics
Next page: Every Material Known to Man
Previous page: Quickie UV Map
Intro
Until someone types in the text for this chapter, you can watch a good video tutorial from the
main Blender (http://www.blender3d.org) site. It is called LSCM UV Mapping and it is
located on this page: http://blender3d.org/cms/Model_Material_Light.397.0.html
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Someone now proceeds to write some beginning text to this page... (pretty much a summary
of the excellent above video by GreyBeard.) Should use a better object (that requires pinning
etc).
The Basics of UV Mapping
Add an icosphere
We'll use an icosphere (2 iterations) for this demonstration. So, create an icosphere with 2
iterations. (SPACE, Add->Mesh->Icosphere)
Make sure you are in top view like in the picture before you create it. Otherwise the equator
of the sphere is probably not parallel to the x/y-plane and unwrapping will give strange
results.
Mark a seam
Select a ring of vertices on the icosphere. (Like an equator).
Press CTRL+EKEY and select "Mark Seam". This tells the UV unwrapper to cut the mesh
along these edges.
Note: since Blender 2.42 you can alternatively go into UV Face Select-mode and mark single
edges as seams with CTRL+RMB and you could also select the faces of the upper or lower
half of the sphere and then press CTRL+EKEY and select "Mark Border Seam". This is quite
nice because you don't have to switch between Edit-mode and UV-mode any more to mark
seams.
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Unwrap the mesh
Set the window mode to "UV Face Select" (this mode is another mode like "Edit Mode" or
"Object Mode", and can be set using a drop-down box at the bottom of the 3D viewport).
To make a second 3D viewport click the RMB near the border in the 3D viewport and select
"Split Area". Set its window type to "UV/Image Editor" with the drop down box on the far left
(looks like a grid for the 3D viewport) or with SHIFT + F10.
In the first window, select all your vertices, and hit UKEY and then LSCM. For Blender 2.42
select all the faces, and hit UKEY and then unwrap to use LSCM.
LSCM is one of the algorithms for unwrapping a mesh onto the 2-dimensional UV space,
acronym for Least Squares Conforming Map. It is a very useful unwrapping method because
it attempts to preserve the shape of each face, much like unwrapping the cloth of a garment.
Make a template image
When you have tweaked a nice layout and intend to make the texture image yourself, you
may ease the texture drawing by saving an image of the UV layout. This image can then be
opened in your image editing program of choice to make a basis for the UV texture by
showing where each surface goes. First run UVs->Save UV face layout: With Wrap selected,
the layout will maintain its proportions which is best for general purpose. Not selecting it
will scale your layout into square proportions which is mostly useful for Blender's game
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engine where textures should preferably be square. Choose location of the image file as
desired (the default name is the name of the object to be textured) and press Export. Tip: if
your image painting program supports layers, try putting the UV layout in a locked,
transparent layer above the actual painting. If you do not alter the dimensions of the
exported UV image in any way it will fit perfectly with your UV layout when the image is
loaded back into Blender.
Apply an image
Save the following image:
Load it in the UV/Image window by clicking Image->Load image (or Image->Open in version
2.4). Then with the very basic operations, grab, rotate and scale, adjust the unwrapped mesh
so that it fits nicely on top of the image.
Admire your new creation
Back in the 3D viewport, put it in Object mode and set the Draw Type to Textured (it's
normally Wire or Solid, another drop down box at the bottom of the window. Greybeard calls
it potato mode). Hit TAB a couple of times to refresh your object, and admire your new
picture mapped onto your object! To make the texture visible in renderings too, you also
need to add a new material to the icosphere and then toggle on TexFace from the Material
buttons:
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To finish your work, switch to Edit Mode, select all vertices and from the Editing buttons
(F9) click Set Smooth. Then next to the same panel reads Modifiers. Click Add Modifier ->
Subsurf. Set Render Levels to three. Switch to Shading buttons (F5) and enable Stars. The
scene is ready!
Some notes
All this relates to the UV/Image window.
If you are going to edit the layout of your unwrapping (so you can make a better picture),
make sure Select->Stick Local UVs to Mesh Vertex is on. You can "pin" vertices when they
have been unwrapped with PKEY. If you do, make sure you put at least one pin on every
island. You can remove all pins with alt-p. LSCM works by trying to maintain the angles
between each vertex. If an unwrapping should be symmetrical and it's not, try putting one
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pin in the middle of the outside edge of the big side and one on the small side, and
unwrapping again with EKEY.
IMPORTANT NOTES:
Remember to set your map input with the UV and Flat buttons enabled.
As said before, to make the texture visible in renderings, too, you also need to toggle on
TexFace from the Material buttons.
Source
Greybeard's LSCM Mapping video tutorial:
http://blender3d.org/cms/Model_Material_Light.397.0.html
Next page: Every Material Known to Man
Previous page: Quickie UV Map
Every Material Known to Man
Next page: Modeling Keyboard Shortcuts
Previous page: UV Map Basics
Want to share your material settings with the world? This is the place!
Inorganic
Natural
Metals and Minerals
Glass
Gold
Other
Mirrors
Liquid
Marble
Abstract
Light Effects
Misty Globe
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Organic
Plants
Woods
Human
Human Skin
Next page: Modeling Keyboard Shortcuts
Previous page: UV Map Basics
Modeling Keyboard Shortcuts
Next Page: Beginning Modeling Final Project
Previous Page: Every Material Known to Man
Blender HotKeys - Relevant to Blender 2.36 - Compiled from Blender Online Guides
Window HotKeys
Certain window managers also use the following hotkeys. So ALT+CTRL can be substituted
for CTRL to perform the functions described below if a conflict arises.
CTRL+LEFTARROW. Go to the previous Screen.
CTRL+RIGHTARROW. Go to the next Screen.
CTRL+UPARROW or CTRL+DOWNARROW. Maximise the window or return to the
previous window display size.
SHIFT+F4. Change the window to a Data View
SHIFT+F5. Change the window to a 3D Window
SHIFT+F6. Change the window to an IPO Window
SHIFT+F7. Change the window to a Buttons Window
SHIFT+F8. Change the window to a Sequence Window
SHIFT+F9. Change the window to an Outliner Window
SHIFT+F10. Change the window to an Image Window
SHIFT+F11. Change the window to a Text Window
SHIFT+F12. Change the window to an Action Window
Universal HotKeys
The following HotKeys work uniformly in all Blender Windows, if the Context allows:
CTRL+LMB. Lasso select: drag the mouse to form a freehand selection area.
ESC.
This key always cancels Blender functions without changes.
or: FileWindow, DataView and ImageSelect: back to the previous window type.
or: the RenderWindow is pushed to the background (or closed, that depends on the
operating system).
SPACE. Open the Toolbox.
TAB. Start or quit EditMode.
F1. Loads a Blender file. Changes the window to a FileWindow.
SHIFT+F1. Appends parts from other files, or loads as Library-data. Changes the
window to a FileWindow, making Blender files accessible as a directory.
F2. Writes a Blender file. Change the window to a FileWindow.
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SHIFT+F2. Exports the scene as a DXF file
CTRL+F2. Exports the scene as a VRML1 file
F3. Writes a picture (if a picture has been rendered). The fileformat is as indicated in the
DisplayButtons. The window becomes a File Select Window.
CTRL+F3 (ALT+CTRL+F3 on MacOSX). Saves a screendump of the active window.
The fileformat is as indicated in the DisplayButtons. The window becomes a FileWindow.
SHIFT+CTRL+F3. Saves a screendump of the whole Blender screen. The fileformat is
as indicated in the DisplayButtons. The window becomes a FileWindow.
F4. Displays the Logic Context (if a ButtonsWindow is available).
F5. Displays the Shading Context (if a Buttons Window is available), Light, Material or
World Sub-contexts depends on active object.
F6. Displays the Shading Context and Texture Sub-context (if a ButtonsWindow is
available).
F7. Displays the Object Context (if a ButtonsWindow is available).
F8. Displays the Shading Context and World Sub-context (if a ButtonsWindow is
available).
F9. Displays the Editing Context (if a ButtonsWindow is available).
F10. Displays the Scene Context (if a ButtonsWindow is available).
F11. Hides or shows the render window.
F12. Starts the rendering from the active camera.
LEFTARROW. Go to the previous frame.
SHIFT+LEFTARROW. Go to the first frame.
RIGHTARROW. Go to the next frame.
SHIFT+RIGHTARROW. Go to the last frame.
UPARROW. Go forward 10 frames.
DOWNARROW. Go back 10 frames.
ALT+A. Change the current Blender window to Animation Playback mode. The cursor
changes to a counter.
ALT+SHIFT+A. The current window, plus all 3DWindows go into Animation Playback
mode.
IKEY. Insert Key menu. This menu differs from window to window.
JKEY. Toggle the render buffers. Blender allows you to retain two different rendered
pictures in memory.
CTRL+O. Opens the last saved file.
QKEY. OK? Quit Blender. This key closes Blender. Blender quit is displayed in the
console if Blender is properly closed.
ALT+CTRL+T. TimerMenu. This menu offers access to information about drawing
speed. The results are displayed in a pop-up.
CTRL+U. OK, Save User defaults. The current project (windows, objects, etc.), including
UserMenu settings are written to the default file that will be loaded every time you start
Blender or set it to defaults by pressing CTRL+X.
CTRL+W. Write file. This key combination allows you to write the Blender file without
opening a FileWindow.
ALT+W. Write Videoscape file. Changes the window to a FileWindow.
CTRL+X. Erase All. Everything (except the render buffer) is erased and released. The
default scene is reloaded.
CTRL+Y. Redo. Mac users may use CMD+Y.
CTRL+Z. Undo. Mac users may use CMD+Z.
SHIFT+CTRL+Z. Redo. Mac users may use SHIFT+CMD+Z
Object Mode HotKeys
These hotkeys are mainly bound to the 3D Viewport Window, but many work on Objects in
most other windows, like IPOs and so on, hence they are summarized here.
HOME. All Objects in the visible layer are displayed completely, centered in the window.
PAGEUP. Select the next Object Key. If more than one Object Key is selected, the
selection is shifted up cyclically. Only works if the AnimButtons->DrawKey is ON for the
Object.
SHIFT+PAGEUP. Adds to selection the next Object Key.
PAGEDOWN. Select the previous Object Key. If more than one Object Key is selected,
the selection is shifted up cyclically. Only works if the AnimButtons->DrawKey is ON for
the Object.
SHIFT+PAGEDOWN. Adds to selection the previous Object Key.
ACCENT. (To the left of the 1KEY in US keyboard) Select all layers.
SHIFT+ACCENT. Revert to the previous layer setting.
TAB. Start/stop EditMode. Alternative hotkey: ALT+E.
AKEY. Selects/deselects all.
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CTRL+A. Apply size and rotation. The rotation and dimensions of the Object are
assigned to the ObData (Mesh, Curve, etc.). At first glance, it appears as if nothing has
changed, but this can have considerable consequences for animations or texture
mapping. This is best illustrated by also having the axis of a Mesh Object be drawn
(EditButtons->Axis). Rotate the Object and activate Apply. The rotation and dimensions
of the Object are 'erased'.
SHIFT+CTRL+A. If the active Object is automatically duplicated (see
AnimButtons->DupliFrames or AnimButtons- >Dupliverts), a menu asks Make duplis
real?. This option actually creates the Objects. If the active Mesh Object is deformed by a
Lattice, a menu asks Apply Lattice deform?. Now the deformation of the Lattice is
assigned to the vertices of the Mesh.
SHIFT+A. This is the AddMenu. In fact, it is the ToolBox that starts with the `ADD'
option. When Objects are added, Blender starts EditMode immediately if possible.
BKEY. Border Select. Draw a rectangle with the LeftMouse; all Objects within this area
are selected, but not made active. Draw a rectangle with the RightMouse to deselect
Objects. In orthonormal ViewMode, the dimensions of the rectangle are displayed,
expressed as global coordinates, as an extra feature in the lower left corner. In Camera
ViewMode, the dimensions that are to be rendered according to the DisplayButtons are
displayed in pixel units.
SHIFT+B. Render Border. This only works in Camera ViewMode. Draw a rectangle to
render a smaller cut-out of the standard window frame. If the option
DisplayButtons->Border is ON, a box is drawn with red and black lines.
CKEY. Centre View. The position of the 3DCursor becomes the new centre of the
3DWindow.
ALT+C. Convert Menu. Depending on the active Object, a PopupMenu is displayed.
This enables you to convert certain types of ObData. It only converts in one
direction, everything ultimately degrades to a Mesh! The options are:
Font -> Curve
MetaBall -> Mesh The original MetaBall remains unchanged.
Curve -> Mesh
Surface -> Mesh
CTRL+C. Copy Menu. This menu copies information from the active Object to
(other) selected Objects.
Fixed components are:
Copy Loc: the X,Y,Z location of the Object. If a Child is involved, this location
is the relative position in relation to the Parent.
Copy Rot: the X,Y,Z rotation of the Object.
Copy Size: the X,Y,Z dimension of the Object.
DrawType: copies Object Drawtype.
TimeOffs: copies Object time offset.
Dupli: all Duplicator data (Dupliframes, Dupliverts and so on)
Mass: Real time stuff.
Damping: Real time stuff.
Properties: Real time stuff.
Logic Bricks: Real time stuff.
Constraints: copies Object constraints.
If applicable:
Copy TexSpace: The texture space.
Copy Particle Settings: the complete particle system from the AnimButtons.
For Curve Objects:
Copy Bevel Settings: all bevelling data from the EditButtons.
Font Objects:
Copy Font Settings: font type, dimensions, spacing.
Copy Bevel Settings: all bevelling data from the EditButtons.
Camera Objects:
Copy Lens: the lens value.
SHIFT+C. CentreZero View. The 3DCursor is set to zero (0,0,0) and the view is changed
so that all Objects, including the 3Dcursor, can be displayed. This is an alternative for
HOME.
DKEY. Draw mode menu. Allows to select draw modes exactly as the corresponding
menu in the 3D viewport header does.
SHIFT+D. Add Duplicate. The selected Objects are duplicated. Grab mode starts
immediately thereafter.
ALT+D. Add Linked Duplicate. Of the selected Objects linked duplicates are created.
Grab mode starts immediately thereafter.
CTRL+D. Draw the (texture) Image as wire. This option has a limited function. It can
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only be used for 2D compositing.
ALT+E. Start/stop EditMode. Alternative hotkey: TAB.
FKEY. If selected Object is a mesh Toggles Face selectMode on and off.
CTRL+F. Sort Faces. The faces of the active Mesh Object are sorted, based on the
current view in the 3DWindow. The leftmost face first, the rightmost last. The sequence
of faces is important for the Build Effect (AnimButtons).
GKEY. Grab Mode. Or: the translation mode. This works on selected Objects and
vertices. Blender calculates the quantity and direction of the translation, so that they
correspond exactly with the mouse movements, regardless of the ViewMode or view
direction of the 3DWindow. Alternatives for starting this mode:
LMB to draw a straight line.
The following options are available in translation mode:
Limiters:
CTRL: in increments of 1 grid unit.
SHIFT: fine movements.
SHIFT+CTRL: in increments of 0.1 grid unit.
MMB toggles: A short click restricts the current translation to the X,Y or Z axis.
Blender calculates which axis to use, depending on the already initiated mouse
movement. Click MiddleMouse again to return to unlimited translation.
XKEY, YKEY, ZKEY constrains movement to X, Y or Z axis of the global
reference.
a second XKEY, YKEY, ZKEY constrains movement to X, Y or Z axis of the local
reference.
a third XKEY, YKEY, ZKEY removes constraints.
NKEY enters numerical input, as well as any numeric
key directly. TAB will switch between values, ENTER finalizes, ESC exits.
ARROWS: These keys can be used to move the mouse cursor exactly 1 pixel.
Grabber can be terminated with:
LMB SPACE or ENTER: move to a new position.
RMB or ESC: everything goes back to the old position.
Switching mode:
GKEY: starts Grab mode again.
SKEY: switches to Size (Scale) mode.
RKEY: switches to Rotate mode.
ALT+G. Clears translations, given in Grab mode. The X,Y,Z locations of selected Objects
are set to zero.
SHIFT+G. Group Selection
Children: Selects all selected Object's Children.
Immediate Children: Selects all selected Object's first level Children.
Parent: Selects selected Object's Parent.
Shared Layers: Selects all Object on the same Layer of active Object
IKEY. Insert Object Key. A keyposition is inserted in the current frame of all selected
Objects. A PopupMenu asks what key position(s) must be added to the IpoCurves.
Loc: The XYZ location of the Object.
Rot: The XYZ rotation of the Object.
Size: The XYZ dimensions of the Object
LocRot: The XYZ location and XYZ rotation of the Object.
LocRotSize: The XYZ location, XYZ rotation and XYZ dimensions of the Object.
Layer: The layer of the Object.
Avail: A position is only added to all the current IpoCurves, that is curves which
already exists.
Mesh, Lattice, Curve or Surface: depending on the type of Object, a VertexKey
can be added
CTRL+J. Join Objects. All selected Objects of the same type are added to the active
Object. What actually happens here is that the ObData blocks are combined and all the
selected Objects (except for the active one) are deleted. This is a rather complex
operation, which can lead to confusing results, particularly when working with a lot of
linked data, animation curves and hierarchies.
KKEY. Show Keys. The DrawKey option is turned ON for all selected Objects. If all of
them were already ON, they are all turned OFF.
SHIFT+K. A PopupMenu asks: OK? Show and select all keys. The DrawKey option is
turned ON for all selected Objects, and all Object-keys are selected. This function is used
to enable transformation of the entire animation system.
LKEY. Makes selected Object local. Makes library linked objects local for the current
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scene.
CTRL+L. Link selected. Links some of the Active Object data to all selected Objects,
the following menu entry appears only if applicable.
To Scene: Creates a link of the Object to a scene.
Object IPOs: Links Active Object IPOs to selected ones.
Mesh data: Links Active Object Mesh data selected ones.
Lamp Data: Links Active Object Lamp data to selected ones.
Surf Data: Links Active Object Surf data selected ones.
Material: Links Active Object Material to selected ones.
SHIFT+L. Select Linked. Selects all Objects somehow linked to active Object.
Object IPO: Selects all Object(s) sharing active Object's IPOs.
Object Data: Selects all Object(s) sharing active Object's ObData.
Current Material: Selects all Object(s) sharing active Object's current Material.
Current Texture: Selects all Object(s) sharing active Object's current Texture.
MKEY. Moves selected Object(s) to another layer, a pop-up appears. Use LMB to move,
use SHIFT+LMB to make the object belong to multiple layers. If the selected Objects
have different layers, this is ORed in the menu display. Use ESC to exit the menu. Press
the "OK" button or ENTER to change the layer setting. The hotkeys (ALT-)(1KEY,
2KEY, ... - 0KEY) work here as well (see 3DHeader).
CTRL+M. Mirror Menu. It is possible to mirror an Object along the X, Y or Z axis.
NKEY. Number Panel. The location, rotation and scaling of the active Object are
displayed and can be modified.
ALT+O. Clear Origin. The `Origin' is erased for all Child Objects, which causes the Child
Objects to move to the exact location of the Parent Objects.
SHIFT+O. If the selected Object is a Mesh toggles SubSurf onn/ off. CTRL+1 to
CTRL+4 switches to the relative SubSurf level for display purpouses. Rendering
SUbSurf level has no HotKey.
CTRL+P. Make selected Object(s) the child(ren) of the active Object. If the Parent is
a Curve then a popup offers two choices:
Normal Parent: Make a normal parent, the curve can be made a path later on.
Follow Path: Automatically creates a Follow Path constraint with the curve as
target. If the Parent is an Armature, a popup offers three options:
Use Bone: One of the Bones becomes the parent. The Object will not be
deformed. A popup permits to select the bone. This is the option if you are
modelling a robot or machinery
Use Armature: The whole armature is used as parent for deformations. This is
the choice for organic beings.
Use Object: Standard parenting. In the second case further options asks if Vertex
groups
should not be created, should be created empty or created and populated.
ALT+P. Clears Parent relation, user is asked if he wishes to keep or clear
parent-induced transforms.
Clear Parent: the selected Child Objects are unlinked from the Parent. since the
transformation of the Parent disappears, this can appear as if the former
Children themselves are transformed.
... and keep transform: the Child Objects are unlinked from the Parent, and an
attempt is made to assign the current transformation, which was determined in
part by the Parent, to the (former Child) Objects.
Clear Parent inverse: The inverse matrix of the Parent of the selected Objects is
erased. The Child Objects remain linked to the Objects. This gives the user
complete control over the hierarchy.
RKEY. Rotate mode. Works on selected Object(s). In Blender, a rotation is by default
a rotation perpendicular to the screen, regardless of the view direction or
ViewMode. The degree of
rotation is exactly linked to the mouse movement. Try moving around the rotation midpoint
with the mouse. The rotation pivot point is determined by the state of the 3DWiewport
Header buttons. Alternatives for starting this mode:
LMB to draw a C-shaped curve.
The following options are available in rotation mode:
Limiters:
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CTRL: in increments of 5 degrees.
SHIFT: fine movements.
SHIFT+CTRL: in increments of 1 degree.
MMB toggles: A short click restricts the current rotation to the horizontal or
vertical view axis.
XKEY, YKEY, ZKEY constrains rotation to X, Y or Z axis of the global reference.
a second XKEY, YKEY, ZKEY constrains rotation to X, Y or Z axis of the local
reference.
a third XKEY, YKEY, ZKEY removes constraints.
NKEY enters numerical input, as well as any numeric key directly. ENTER
finalizes, ESC exits.
ARROWS: These keys can be used to move the mouse cursor exactly 1 pixel.
Rotation can be terminated with:
LMB SPACE or ENTER: move to a new position.
RMB or ESC: everything goes back to the old position.
Switching mode:
GKEY: switches to Grab.
SKEY: switches to Size (Scale) mode.
RKEY: starts Rotate mode again.
ALT+R. Clears Rotation. The X,Y,Z rotations of selected Objects are set to zero.
SKEY. Size mode or scaling mode. Works on selected Object(s). The degree of
scaling is exactly linked to the mouse movement. Try to move from the (rotation)
midpoint with the mouse. The pivot point is determined by the settings of the 3D
Viewport header pivot Menu. Alternatives for starting scaling mode:
LMB to draw a V-shaped line.
The following options are available in scaling mode:
Limiters:
CTRL: in increments of 0.1.
SHIFT+CTRL: in increments of 0.01.
MMB toggles: A short click restricts the scaling to X, Y or Z axis. Blender
calculates the appropriate axis based on the already initiated mouse movement.
Click MMB again to return to free scaling.
XKEY, YKEY, ZKEY constrains scaling to X, Y or Z axis of the local reference.
a second XKEY, YKEY, ZKEY removes constraints.
NKEY enters numerical input, as well as any numeric key directly. ENTER
finalizes, ESC exits.
ARROWS:These keys can be used to move the mouse cursor exactly 1 pixel.
Scaling can be terminated with:
LMB SPACE or ENTER: move to a new position.
RMB or ESC: everything goes back to the old dimension.
Switching mode:
GKEY: switches to Grab.
SKEY: starts Size mode again.
RKEY: switches to Rotation.
ALT+S. Clears Size. The X,Y,Z dimensions of selected Objects are set to 1.0.
SHIFT+S. SnapMenu:
Sel->Grid: Moves Object to nearest grid point.
Sel->Curs: Moves Object to cursor.
Curs->Grid: Moves cursor to nearest grid point.
Curs->Sel: Moves cursor to selected Object(s).
Sel->Center: Moves Objects to their barycentrum.
TKEY. Texture space mode. The position and dimensions of the texture space for the
selected Objects can be changed in the same manner as described above for Grab and
Size mode. To make this visible, the drawingflag EditButtons->TexSpace is set ON. A
PopupMenu asks you to select: "Grabber" or "Size".
CTRL+T. Makes selected Object(s) track the Active Object. Old track method was
Blender default tracking before version 2.30. The new method is the Constrain Track,
this creates a fully editable constraint on the selected object targeting the active Object.
ALT+T. Clears old style Track. Constraint track is removed as all constrains are.
UKEY. Makes Object Single User, the inverse operation of Link
(CTRL+L) a pop-up appears with choices.
Object: if other Scenes also have a link to this Object, the link is deleted and the
Object is copied. The Object now only exists in the current Scene. The links from
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the Object remain unchanged.
Object & ObData: Similar to the previous command, but now the ObData blocks
with multiple links are copied as well. All selected Objects are now present in the
current Scene only, and each has a unique ObData (Mesh, Curve, etc.).
Object & ObData & Materials+Tex: Similar to the previous command, but now
Materials and Textures with multiple links are also copied. All selected Objects
are now unique. They have unique ObData and each has a unique Material and
Texture block.
Materials+Tex: Only the Materials and Textures with multiple links are copied.
VKEY. Switches in/out of Vertex Paint Mode.
ALT+V. Object-Image Aspect. This hotkey sets the X and Y dimensions of the selected
Objects in relation to the dimensions of the Image Texture they have. Use this hotkey
when making 2D Image compositions and multi-plane designs to quickly place the
Objects in the appropriate relationship with one another.
WKEY. Opens Object Booleans Menu.
XKEY. Erase Selected? Deletes selected objects.
ZKEY. Toggles Solid Mode on/off.
SHIFT+Z. Toggles Shaded Mode on/off.
ALT+Z. Toggles Textured Mode on/off.
Edit Mode - General
Again, Most of these hotkeys are useful in the 3D Viewport when in Edit Mode, but many
works on other Blender Object, so they are summarized here. Many Object Mode keys works
in Edit mode too, but on the selected vertices or control points; among these Grab, Rotate,
Scale and so on. These hotkeys are not repeated here.
TAB or ALT+E. This button starts and stops Edit Mode.
CTRL+TAB. Switches between Vertex Select, Edge Select, and Face Select modes.
Holding SHIFT while clicking on a mode will allow you to combine modes.
AKEY. Select/Unselect all.
BKEY+BKEY. Circle Select. If you press BKEY a second time after starting Border
Select, Circle Select is invoked. It works as described above. Use NUM+ or NUM- or
MW to adjust the circle size. Leave Circle Select with RMB or ESC.
CTRL+H. With vertices selected, this creates a "Hook" object. Once a hook is selected,
CTRL+H brings up an options menu for it.
NKEY. Number Panel. Simpler than the Object Mode one, in Edit Mode works for Mesh,
Curve, Surface: The location of the active vertex is displayed.
OKEY. Switch in/out of Proportional Editing.
SHIFT+O. Toggles between Smooth and Sharp Proportional Editing.
PKEY. SeParate. You can choose to make a new object with all selected vertices, edges,
faces and curves or create a new object from each separate group of interconnected
vertices from a popup. Note that for curves you cannot separate connected control
vertices. This operation is the opposite of Join (CTRL+J).
CTRL+P. Make Vertex Parent. If one object (or more than one) is/are selected and the
active Object is in Edit Mode with 1 or 3 vertices selected then the Object in Edit Mode
becomes the Vertex Parent of the selected Object(s). If only 1 vertex is selected, only the
location of this vertex determines the Parent transformation; the rotation and dimensions
of the Parent do not play a role here. If three vertices are selected, it is a `normal' Parent
relationship in which the 3 vertices determine the rotation and location of the Child
together. This method produces interesting effects with Vertex Keys. In EditMode, other
Objects can be selected with CTRL+RMB.
CTRL+S. Shear. In EditMode this operation enables you to make selected forms `slant'.
This always works via the horizontal screen axis.
UKEY. Undo. When starting Edit Mode, the original ObData block is saved and can be
returned to via UKEY. Mesh Objects have better Undo, see next section.
WKEY. Specials PopupMenu. A number of tools are included in this PopupMenu as an
alternative to the Edit Buttons. This makes the buttons accessible as shortcuts, e.g.
EditButtons-> Subdivide is also `WKEY, 1KEY'.
SHIFT+W. Warp. Selected vertices can be bent into curves with this option. It can be
used to convert a plane into a tube or even a sphere. The centre of the circle is the
3DCursor. The mid-line of the circle is determined by the horizontal dimensions of the
selected vertices. When you start, everything is already bent 90 degrees. Moving the
mouse up or down increases or decreases the extent to which warping is done. By
zooming in/out of the 3Dwindow, you can specify the maximum degree of warping. The
CTRL limiter increments warping in steps of 5 degrees.
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EditMode - Mesh
This section and the following highlight peculiar EditMode Hotkeys.
CTRL+NUM+. Adds to selection all vertices connected by an edge to an already
selected vertex.
CTRL+NUM-. Removes from selection all vertices of the outer ring of selected vertices.
ALT+CTRL+RMB. Faces loop select.
ALT+RMB. Edges loop select.
CKEY. If using curve deformations, this toggles the curve Cyclic mode on/off.
EKEY. Extrude Selected. "Extrude" in EditMode transforms all the selected edges to
faces. If possible, the selected faces are also duplicated. Grab mode is started directly
after this command is executed.
SHIFT+EKEY. Crease Subsurf edge. With "Draw Creases" enabled, pressing this key
will allow you to set the crease weight. Black edges have no weight, edge-select color
have full weight.
CTRL+EKEY. Mark LSCM Seam. Marks a selected edge as a "seam" for unwrapping
using the LSCM mode.
FKEY. Make Edge/Face. If 2 vertices are selected, an edge is created. If 3 or 4 vertices
are selected, a face is created.
SHIFT+F. Fill selected. All selected vertices that are bound by edges and form a closed
polygon are filled with triangular faces. Holes are automatically taken into account. This
operation is 2D; various layers of polygons must be filled in succession.
ALT+F. Beauty Fill. The edges of all the selected triangular faces are switched in such a
way that equally sized faces are formed. This operation is 2D; various layers of polygons
must be filled in succession. The Beauty Fill can be performed immediately after a Fill.
CTRL+F. Flip faces, selected triangular faces are paired and common edge of each pair
swapped.
HKEY. Hide Selected. All selected vertices and faces are temporarily hidden.
SHIFT+H. Hide Not Selected: All non-selected vertices and faces are temporarily
hidden.
ALT+H. Reveal. All temporarily hidden vertices and faces are drawn again.
ALT+J. Join faces, selected triangular faces are joined in pairs and transformed to quads
KKEY. Knife tool Menu.
Face Loop Select: (SHIFT+R) Face loops are highlighted starting from edge
under mouse pointer. LMB finalizes, ESC exits.
Face Loop Cut: (CTRL+R) Face loops are cut starting from edge under mouse
pointer. LMB finalizes, ESC exits.
Knife (exact): (SHIFT+K) Mouse starts draw mode. Selected Edges are cut at
intersections with mouse line. ENTER or RMB finalizes, ESC exits.
Knife (midpoints): (SHIFT+K) Mouse starts draw mode. Selected Edges
intersecting with mouse line are cut in middle regardless of true intersection
point. ENTER or RMB finalizes, ESC exits.
LKEY. Select Linked. If you start with an unselected vertex near the mouse cursor, this
vertex is selected, together with all vertices that share an edge with it.
SHIFT+L. Deselect Linked. If you start with a selected vertex, this vertex is deselected,
together with all vertices that share an edge with it.
CTRL+L. Select Linked Selected. Starting with all selected vertices, all vertices
connected to them are selected too.
MKEY. Mirror. Opens a popup asking for the axis to mirror. 3 possible axis group are
available, each of which contains three axes, for a total of nine choices. Axes can be
Global (Blender Global Reference); Local (Current Object Local Reference) or View
(Current View reference). Remember that mirroring, like scaling, happens with respect
to the current pivot point.
ALT+M. Merges selected vertices at barycentrum or at cursor depending on selection
made on pop-up.
CTRL+N. Calculate Normals Outside. All normals from selected faces are recalculated
and consistently set in the same direction. An attempt is made to direct all normals
`outward'.
SHIFT+CTRL+N. Calculate Normals Inside. All normals from selected faces are
recalculated and consistently set in the same direction. An attempt is made to direct all
normals `inward'.
ALT+S. Whereas SHIFT+S scales in Edit Mode as it does in Object Mode, for Edit Mode
a further option exists, ALT+S moves each vertex in the direction of its local normal,
hence effectively shrinking/fattening the mesh.
CTRL+T. Make Triangles. All selected faces are converted to triangles.
UKEY. Undo. When starting Edit Mode, the original ObData block is saved and all
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subsequent changes are saved on a stack. This option enables you to restore the previous
situation, one after the other.
SHIFT+U. Redo. This let you re-apply any undone changes up to the moment in which
Edit Mode was entered
ALT+U. Undo Menu. This let you choose the exact point to which you want to undo
changes.
WKEY. Special Menu. A PopupMenu offers the following options:
Subdivide: all selected edges are split in two.
Subdivide Fractal: all selected edges are split in two and middle vertex displaced
randomly.
Subdivide Smooth: all selected edges are split in two and middle vertex
displaced along the normal.
Merge: as ALT+M.
Remove Doubles: All selected vertices closer to each other than a given
threshold (See EditMode Button Window) are merged ALT+M.
Hide: as HKEY.
Reveal: as ALT+H.
Select Swap: Selected vertices become unselected and vice versa.
Flip Normals: Normals of selected faces are flipped.
Smooth: Vertices are moved closer one to each other, getting a smoother object.
Bevel: Faces are reduced in size and the space between edges is filled with a
smoothly curving bevel of the desired order.
XKEY. Erase Selected. A PopupMenu offers the following options:
Vertices: all vertices are deleted. This includes the edges and faces they form.
Edges: all edges with both vertices selected are deleted. If this `releases' certain
vertices, they are deleted as well. Faces that can no longer exist as a result of
this action are also deleted.
Faces: all faces with all their vertices selected are deleted. If any vertices are
`released' as a result of this action, they are deleted.
All: everything is deleted.
Edges and Faces: all selected edges and faces are deleted, but the vertices
remain.
Only Faces: all selected faces are deleted, but the edges and vertices remain.
YKEY. Split. This command splits the selected part of a Mesh without deleting faces. The
split parts are no longer bound by edges. Use this command to control smoothing. Since
the split parts have vertices at the same position, selection with LKEY is recommended.
EditMode - Curve
CKEY. Set the selected curves to cyclic or turn cyclic off. An individual curve is selected
if at least one of the vertices is selected.
EKEY. Extrude Curve. A vertex is added to the selected end of the curves. Grab mode is
started immediately after this command is executed.
FKEY. Add segment. A segment is added between two selected vertices at the end of two
curves. These two curves are combined into one curve.
HKEY. Toggle Handle align/free. Toggles the selected Bezier handles between free or
aligned.
SHIFT+H. Set Handle auto. The selected Bezier handles are converted to auto type.
CTRL+H. Calculate Handles. The selected Bezier curves are calculated and all handles
are assigned a type.
LKEY. Select Linked. If you start with an non-selected vertex near the mouse cursor, this
vertex is selected together with all the vertices of the same curve.
SHIFT+L. Deselect Linked. If you start with a selected vertex, it is deselected together
with all the vertices of the same curve.
MKEY. Mirror. Mirror selected control points exactly as for vertices in a Mesh.
TKEY. Tilt mode. Specify an extra axis rotation, i.e. the tilt, for each vertex in a 3D
curve.
ALT+T. Clear Tilt. Set all axis rotations of the selected vertices to zero.
VKEY. Vector Handle. The selected Bezier handles are converted to vector type.
WKEY. The special menu for curves appears:
Subdivide. Subdivide the selected vertices.
Switch direction. The direction of the selected curves is reversed. This is mainly
for Curves that are used as paths!
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XKEY. Erase Selected. A PopupMenu offers the following options:
Selected: all selected vertices are deleted.
Segment: a curve segment is deleted. This only works for single segments.
Curves can be split in two using this option. Or use this option to specify the
cyclic position within a cyclic curve.
All: delete everything.
EditMode - Metaball
MKEY. Mirror. Mirror selected control points exactly as for vertices in a Mesh.
EditMode - Surface
CKEY. Toggle Cyclic menu. A PopupMenu asks if selected surfaces in the `U' or the `V'
direction must be cyclic. If they were already cyclic, this mode is turned off.
EKEY. Extrude Selected. This makes surfaces of all the selected curves, if possible. Only
the edges of surfaces or loose curves are candidates for this operation. Grab mode is
started immediately after this command is completed.
FKEY. Add segment. A segment is added between two selected vertices at the ends of
two curves. These two curves are combined into 1 curve.
LKEY. Select Linked. If you start with an non-selected vertex near the mouse cursor, this
vertex is selected together with all the vertices of the same curve or surface.
SHIFT+L. Deselect Linked. If you start with a selected vertex, this vertex is deselected
together with all vertices of the same curve or surface.
MKEY. Mirror. Mirror selected control points exactly as for vertices in a Mesh.
SHIFT+R. Select Row. Starting with the last selected vertex, a complete row of vertices
is selected in the `U' or `V' direction. Selecting Select Row a second time with the same
vertex switches the `U' or `V' selection.
WKEY. The special menu for surfaces appears:
Subdivide. Subdivide the selected vertices
Switch direction. This will switch the normals of the selected parts.
Mirror. Mirrors the selected vertices
XKEY. Erase Selected. A PopupMenu offers the following choices:
Selected: all selected vertices are deleted.
All: delete everything.
VertexPaint Hotkeys
SHIFT+K. All vertex colours are erased; they are changed to the current drawing
colour.
UKEY. Undo. This undo is `real'. Pressing Undo twice redoes the undone.
WKEY. Shared Vertexcol: The colours of all faces that share vertices are blended.
EditMode - Font
In Text Edit Mode most hotkeys are disabled, to allow text entering.
RIGHTARROW. Move text cursor 1 position forward
SHIFT+RIGHTARROW. Move text cursor to the end of the line.
LEFTARROW. Move text cursor 1 position backwards.
SHIFT+LEFTARROW. Move text cursor to the start of the line
DOWNARROW. Move text cursor 1 line forward
SHIFT+DOWNARROW. Move text cursor to the end of the text.
UPARROW. Move text cursor 1 line back.
SHIFT+UPARROW. Move text cursor to the beginning of the text
ALT+U. Reload Original Data (undo). When EditMode is started, the original text is
saved. You can restore this original text with this option.
ALT+V. Paste text. The text file /tmp/.cutbuffer is inserted at the cursor location.
UV Editor Hotkeys
EKEY. LSCM Unwrapping. Launches LSCM unwrapping on the faces visible in the UV
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editor.
PKEY. Pin selected vertices. Pinned vertices will stay in place on the UV editor when
executing an LSCM unwrap.
ALT+PKEY. Un-Pin selected vertices. Pinned vertices will stay in place on the UV editor
when executing an LSCM unwrap.
EdgeSelect Hotkeys
ALT+CLICK. Selects an Edge Loop.
FaceSelect Hotkeys
ALT+CLICK. Selects a Face Loop.
TAB. Switches to EditMode, selections made here will show up when switching back to
FaceSelectMode with TAB.
FKEY. With multiple, co-planar faces selected, this key will merge them into one "FGon"
so long as they remain co-planar (flat to each other).
LKEY. Select Linked UVs. To ease selection of face groups, Select Linked in UV Face
Select Mode will now select all linked faces, if no seam divides them.
RKEY. Calls a menu allowing to rotate the UV coordinates or the VertexCol.
UKEY. Calls the UV Calculation menu. The following modes can the applied to the
selected faces:
Cube: Cubical mapping, a number button asks for the cubemap size
Cylinder: Cylindrical mapping, calculated from the center of the selected faces
Sphere: Spherical mapping, calculated from the center of the selected faces
Bounds to x: UV coordinates are calculated from the actual view, then scaled to a
boundbox of 64 or 128 pixels in square
Standard x: Each face gets default square UV coordinates
From Window: The UV coordinates are calculated using the projection as
displayed in the 3DWindow
Render Window Hotkeys (to be written)
To be written (if someone could it would be very useful! : there's no place about it on the
internet (or I didn't search enough) )
JKEY. Changes the image output. You have two slots in which to render. Very useful
when you want to see what a specific change did to the image.
AKEY. Toggles display of alpha channel. The alpha channel of a picture determines it's
transparency: Black areas are fully transparent, white areas are fully opaque and grey
means semi-transparent. This can be useful when rendered images are arranged in
layers, or used in applications which support alpha channels in images. To save images
with alpha channel, make sure that the RGBA button in the render panel (F10) is
enabled. Also, not all image formats support alpha channels, i.e. TGA and PNG do, but
JPG does not. Note: Any background texturing which is done via the world panel (F8) will
have an alpha value of 0, meaning it will be transparent. However, the world background
will still be rendered correctly on (opaque) surfaces as reflections (i.e. mirrors) - this
must be taken into account when later composing rendered images with a different
background.
ZKEY. Toggle Zoom (2x). This will zoom the rendered image. The mouse can still be
used to scroll around the zoomed image.
Next Page: Beginning Modeling Final Project
Previous Page: Every Material Known to Man
Beginning Modeling Final Project
Next Page: Beginning Lighting
Previous Page: Hot Keys
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Now that you've gotten the hang of 3D modeling, it's important to get some community
feedback on your progress. Don't be an ass and skip this part, or you'll regret it later.
Basically this will help you track your progress and give you something that you'll be working
on over a long term and something you'll be proud of.
First, you need to come up with a project idea. You can choose your own modeling
project, or choose one from the list below.
Second, you need to create a model of your idea. Spend a couple of hours on it, and give
it some details.
Third, once you believe you've come far enough with the model, post it in the Works In
Progress (http://www.elysiun.com/forum/viewforum.php?f=12) forum on elysiun.com
(you will have to create an account if you haven't already). Post several screenshots of
your model from within the Blender (note: creating screenshots is outside the scope of
this wikibook, though see note lower down the page). You can post whatever subject and
message with your posting that you would like, or you can use this suggested subject and
message:
Subject: Beginning Modeling Final Project - <project name>
Message:
Hello. I'm new to the Blender and have completed the tutorials on Beginning
Modeling found at the online wikibook
http://en.wikibooks.org/wiki/Blender_3D:_Noob_to_Pro. Before I continue with the
wikibook, I need some feedback from the community about my skill level so that I
need to determine my progress so far. Please evaluate my model and these
screenshots for the following:
1) I demonstrate an ability to navigate in 3D space.
2) I demonstrate an understanding of the basic parts of a 3D model, such vertices,
edges, and faces.
3) I demonstrate an ability to create form in three dimensions.
Please assist me with any feedback on my model, keeping in mind that I am an
absolute beginner still. I appreciate your help.
Wait for feedback. It usually comes very quickly. If you have any questions about
feedback that you are given, don't be afraid to ask your questions in the forum.
When you and others that have viewed your work feel that you are ready, save your
model in some place you can get back to easily. You will continue working on this project
once you've learned some new skills.
Move on to the next page.
(BTW. in Windows and/or maybe other OS, to take a screenshot press 'PrtScn' (PrintScreen).
It will copy the screen to clipboard for you to paste in your fav graphic app. This may not
work in other OSs but try anyway. You can also create Blender screenshot directly from
Blender using menu File>Dump 3DView... or File>Dump Screen... )
(In linux under the KDE DE I use ksnapshot, check under the graphics tab and see if you
have it. If not it should be just a google search away :) gl and happy blendering)
(On Mac OS X, press Command (Apple) + Shift + 3 to do a full screen capture)
List of ideas:
A Computer and keyboard
A fishing rod
A train engine
A skyscraper
A robot
A Tank (real or made up)
An airplane
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A truck or car
Household appliances
Next Page: Beginning Lighting
Previous Page: Hot Keys
Beginning Lighting
Next Page: Adding Lamps
Previous Page: Beginning Modeling Final Project
Lighting, you say? Psshh. Just throw up one light source and let her run, right?
Wrong. Lighting is probably the most underestimated part of a scene by new 3D artists. By
the following tutorials, you will gain knowledge of the technical use of lights in your scenes.
Next Page: Adding Lamps
Previous Page: Beginning Modeling Final Project
Adding Lamps
Next Page: Shadows
Previous Page: Beginning Lighting
You can quickly add several different types of lights to your blender scene
SPACE > Add > Lamp > Spot
A light will appear in the location of the 3D cursor. You can move a light just like any other
object.
If you want to quickly light a scene just for illumination, not for a specific look, add four
lamps around your subject. If you are interested in experimenting with a lighting
arrangement, a nice quick way to experiment is to create a Monkey in the scene to test with.
SPACE > Add > Mesh > Monkey
The monkey is just as good of a test subject as a human face, so give it a try. You can throw
various materials on the monkey and try different textures too. Don't bad mouth the monkey,
she is really useful.
Explaining the Different Lights:
Lamp: Simple light source, that shines in all directions. Ideal for using as a background
light or simply if you don't want the Lamp to cast shadows
Sun: a directional light source with parallel rays. As the name says: used to emulate
sunlight
Spot: another directional light source with ray going from one center, forming a cone.
Also the only light that naturally casts shadows.
Hemi: 180° constant light source. For special purposes.
Area: Rectangular Area that casts directional light. Used for: ---neon tubes of course ;-)
Creating a basic scene with basic lighting
This addition is simply a way to apply what you know about lights and to discover a few
settings like colors or creating simple shadows. The purpose here is to create a basic
scene with a sphere over a plane, nicely lighted. You should already know the basics of
blender (creating a mesh, moving and rotating it, rendering).
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Creating the scene
Okay, let's start! Open a new file. Add a UVsphere of 32 rings and 32 segments. Exit
EditMode. Leave it in the center of the scene.
Trick : Go in the Editing buttons
, and push Set Smooth
sphere will render as a nicely smoothed sphere.
so the
You should already have a plane in the basic scene, otherwise add a Plane. Have it in
ObjectMode and move it just under the sphere. Scale it so it is very big. The ideal would
that we can't see borders with the camera.
Then we will move the Camera. Grab it and rotate it so it looks at the sphere from top
and a bit from the right. You can have an idea of what it sees pressing Num0 to have a
CameraView.
Trick : First click on the Camera, then on the Sphere holding Shift( the order is very
important ). Do a Ctrl+T and select TrackTo Constraint
. The camera will
be looking at the center of the sphere... You can then move either the camera or the sphere
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and the camera will still point the sphere.
Adding the lights
Okay, we have a pretty beautiful scene, isn't it?... Well, it isn't! But it is enough to add
some lights... Here I will describe a basic lighting scene I use as a default for fast
renderings. I picked it out from another tutorial, you can find the link at the end of this
page.
So we will add our so awaited lights. Add>Lamp>Spot. Yes, we will first use the Spot
light. We can see it as a projector. This is the only light casting shadows. Place it so it is
upper and on the left of the sphere. Rotate it so it looks at the Sphere (you can use a
Trick I gave you before to have the light looking at the sphere).
Okay, let's see what we can tune with the spot light. Having the lamp selected, go in the
Lamp settings
. You will see these buttons.
Yeah, really lots of options. Don't worry, I'll explain the basic ones.
Dist : Sets the maximum distance the light can reach. Increase it so the lighting
cone really goes behind the sphere. I set it to Dist:40.
Energy : This is the force of the light. You can leave it at Energy:1.
RGB : You can change the colour of the light. Click on the colour and a little window
will appear to select the colour you want. Leave it white.
Buf.Shadow : Enables the light to cast shadows, leave it pushed.
OnlyShadows : This light only creates shadows, without casting light ( yeah quite
unrealistic, but it can be useful ). Leave it unpushed.
SpotSi : This is the angle of your cone, in degrees. Leave to SpotSi:45.
SpotBl : This smoothes the circle cast by the light. We will smooth it so that it looks
better. Set it to SpotBl:0.4.
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ClipSta and ClipEnd : This is the distance from the light between which shadows
will be cast. You can see the "line of effects" in the 3D windows when you change
these. Set them so the line starts before the sphere and ends far ( well, a bit ! )
behind the plane. You should obtain something like this.
Now, we have set our Spot light. This light will be our side light and shadowing light.
You can make a fast preview pressing F12. You can see your so nice shadow. But there
isn't enough light... Let's add some more!
Time to add a second light! Add>Lamp>Lamp. This time, we will create a basic lamp.
This is like a point which emits light in every direction from that point. You should place
it at the opposite of the camera, quite at the same height. This light will be used to better
see the form of the sphere and to add a sort of general lighting of the scene.
Go in the Lamp buttons, and set it to a higher energy like Energy:1.25. You can make a
quick render to see how much this light is important to a scene.
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Now, we will add a second basic lamp. Add>Lamp>Lamp and we will place it just
behind the camera point of view, a bit moved at the opposite of the Spot light. This third
light will slightly light the dark parts of the sphere.
Decrease the energy of this light, as it is only supposed to fake the reflections of the
environment. I set it to Energy:0.8. Another little trick, as this is not supposed to be a
direct light, there shouldn't be a little white glow called Specular on the sphere coming
from this light. Push the No Specular button.
Okay, it's time for the final rendering. Of course, this is a really basic lighting set you can
use for rendering a simple mesh; but for more complicated scenes, lights can come from
other places, with other colors, etc... Thus we didn't use the Sun, Hemi and Area lights,
which are a bit more complicated I think.
For a more in-depth tutorial, here is a tutorial from the Blender Documentation
(http://download.blender.org/documentation/html/x4029.html) , which has been a great
source of help for me.
Outdoor lighting
Here you will use a Sun in conjunction with a Spot light and some little Lamps.
Next Page: Noob to Pro/Shadows
Previous Page: Beginning Lighting
Shadows
Next Page: Render Settings
Previous Page: Adding Lamps
Creating Soft Shadows
Next Page: Render Settings
Previous Page: Adding Lamps
Render Settings
Next Page: Output Format Options
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Previous Page: Shadows
Render Settings
The render settings control various options related to the output of rendered, or full quality
images. Rendering an image will calculate effects not displayed in the editing environment
(due to their complexity), and therefore takes a larger amount of time to produce an image.
Next Page: Output Format Options
Previous Page: Shadows
Output Format Options
Next Page: Blender 3D: Noob to Pro/OSA
Previous Page: Render Settings
Size
When you render a scene in Blender, by default there will open a small window showing your
image. If you want to publish your picture, you may want to render it a bit bigger. To do this,
you have to open the Scene context (F10) and locate the Format sub-context (usually on the
right).
You will see some settings there. Let's go through their meanings:
SizeX: This parameter sets the width of the image in pixels.
SizeY: This parameter sets the height of the image in pixels.
AspX, AspY: These parameters specify the aspect ratio of the pixels. By default, this is
100:100, because a pixel on a computer screen has equal width and height. These
settings can be used for screens whose pixels don't have equal width and height. For
example, on a PAL system one pixel's width/height ratio is 54:51, which you can select
there easily. Notice that these parameters don't change the size of the image.
There is one more thing changing the render size: In the Render sub-context (usually in the
middle) there are 4 buttons: 100%, 75%, 50%, 25%. If you have chosen SizeX = 640, SizeY =
480 and you clicked 50%, your image will be 320 pixels wide and 240 pixels high.
WARNING: I have encountered some crashes when I changed those parameters. If you have
problems too, locate the Output sub-context (usually on the left) and select the option
DispView instead of DispWin. This renders the image "into" Blender instead of making a new
window.
Output Formats
Images:
BMP: uncompressed.
Ftype:
Iris:
Iris + Zbuffer:
PNG: open, lossles compression, alpha channel.
Jpeg: default format. Lossy compression.
HamX: extremely compact but only for the "Play" option
Targa:
Targa Raw: uncompressed Targa.
Video:
AVI Codec: saves an AVI with a compression codec. Once selected a pop up menu will
appear giving options as to what codec you want.
AVI Jpeg: saves an AVI as Jpeg images. Compressed but lossy.
AVI Raw: saves an AVI with uncompressed frames.
QuickTime:
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Next Page: Blender 3D: Noob to Pro/OSA
Previous Page: Render Settings
OSA
Next Page: Looking All Around - Panorama Settings
Previous Page: Output Format Options -- Back to Index
OSA stands for oversampling, also known as anti-aliasing. It prevents "jaggies" or aliasing as
its called. This is when you have a diagonal change of colour which results in rough edges.
Remember drawing a diagonal line in Paint? To overcome this hinderance of square pixels a
technique called anti-aliasing or oversampling is used. What it does is it blends the colours
around the rough edge to create a smooth, but defined edge. One way of doing this is to
create the image twice as large, then scaling it down - oversampling. Blender can do this for
you if you select an OSA rate. Remember this will take much longer, but results in better
renders, so use this for the final product, not while testing. In some cases the scene can
seem blurred due to oversampled textures, try changing the OSA setting, or oversampling
yourself.
Here's a quick illustration of how OSA changes a render (look at the edges):
The image on the left has no OSA. The one on the right has 16x (the maximum amount
allowed by Blender.
Next Page: Looking All Around - Panorama Settings
Previous Page: Output Format Options -- Back to Index
Looking All Around - Panorama Settings
Next Page: Blender 3D: Noob to Pro/Other Important Render Options
Previous Page: Blender 3D: Noob to Pro/OSA
Panoramic Renderings
Building the Example Scene
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Ever wondered how that cool looking 360 degree
panoramas that you see on some websites are made? Well,
I don't know either, so someone else will have to tell about
that. What I found out though is how to make Blender
output a 360 degree panoramic image - quite probably this
at least is the first step when making something like on
those websites.
Now, let's try to progress like in a tutorial, as in the other
pages of this Wikibook. So, fire up Blender, and look at the
well known initial box scene. Or rather, change it
somehow. Assuming you have read the book in order, it
shouldn't be hard to get something like in the picture.
The example scene, see from
above
I placed the camera and the light both above the origin,
deleted the cube, and added 8 cylinders, all around the
origin. One way to do this is to place one cylinder, then
duplicate and rotate it around the origin. For this to work,
set the rotation center to the 3D-cursor (with the Pivot
button), and position the 3D cursor at the origin (use
SHIFT+S to make the 3D cursor snap to the grid).Place
The example camera, seen from
the first cylinder using GKEY and then holding CTRL
the side
while moving the mouse. Change to object mode, then use
SHIFT+D to duplicate it. Next, press RKEY to rotate it,
then hold CTRL while rotating it by 45 degrees. Repeat the same for the remaining
cylinders. Use G to move the light. Use NKEY to enter the camera values like shown, so it
looks parallel to the ground.
Speaking of ground, lets also add a ground. I added
another cylinder, below the other ones, as shown. It's easy
to add by switching to front view (NUM1), duplicating a
cylinder (SHIFT+DKEY), and then moving it holding
CTRL pressed again, so it snaps to the grid. To scale it,
use the SKEY , but hit SHIFT+ZKEY to lock the z scaling,
and hold CTRL pressed while scaling in x and y direction
so you can snap to the exact size you want.
The complete scene with a
ground cylinder
Now, to have a complete scene, we need some colors. I
made the ground cylinder green, the 8 example cylinders
gray, and also added a noise normal to the ground. This
doesn't really matter here though, just needed some example scene for the 360° camera.
Something more interesting is the sky texture, because Blender's sky can be made to
seamlessly wrap around with 360 degree. Belows is a screenshot of the sky settings I used.
To get there, click on the Shading button, then select World.
To change the texture, click the textures button or press F6, then add a new texture with the
small button with two arrows, and select the type (e.g. "Marble" or "Clouds") instead of
"None" for the texture. Go back to the World pane, and enable the Real and Blend buttons.
And don't forget to use nice colors, I used blue and white. Now it looks a bit like white clouds
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in a blue sky.
[Maybe should add here more details? What is important so you don't get a seam at the 0 360 degree point? How do you map pre-made sky textures?]
And we are already done, this is the example scene. All that is left to do is to render it as a
panorama.
Panoramic Rendering
Go to the render settings (F10), and click the Pano button. Change the Xparts value to 4. The
value in Xparts will tell how many times the camera will 'turn' horizontally when rendering.
The Yparts value would do the same vertically. Each part (Xparts or Yparts) will render the
size of the whole image you set. To make things easier, make the output image size quadratic
and set both X and Y Aspect to 100. E.g. make your image size 600x600, but not 800x600,
otherwise the following will not work.
If you want a seemless 360 degree view, it is important to
know how many degrees one single image spans. For
example, if you know one image is 90 degree, then you can
set Xparts to 4, and the result will be a single panoramic
picture, and with the right panorama viewer, you can spin
around in it endlessly.
But, how do you make a single picture 90 degree? The angle
a picture spans is called field of view (FOV). And it is a
property of the camera. To change it, select your camera, then click the edit button (or hit
F9). Make sure you haven't set your camera to orthographic (the "Ortho" button), since FOV
only exists with a normal camera.
Unfortunately, you can't directly enter the FOV in Blender's camera settings (as of version
2.37) - instead there is just a parameter called Lens. Type in 16 to get a FOV of 90 degree.
Now hit F12 to render our test image.
If you want, you can also try it out with any other scene. Place the camera somewhere in the
middle with a good view all around, set the camera's Lens to 16, and go into the render
settings (F10). Set Xparts to 4, enable Pano, and render. You should get an image 4 times
as wide as a normal image, and the left and right edges should fit together seemlessly. Also
note that Blender doesn't know if it should apply the FOV as horizontal or vertical viewing
angle, but we always want it to be the horizontal angle. Therefore just make the single
images of the panorama quadratic, as mentioned above - then horizontal and vertical FOV is
the same and Blender gets it right.
This is the resulting panoramic image:
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One problem remains, the image will be quite distorted.
This is because a FOV of 90 degree is too high. Let's try
with 45 degree and 8 XParts instead. As you will have
noticed when playing around with the Lens parameter
before, setting Lens to 8 instead of 16 will not achieve this,
it will make the FOV even bigger. Setting it to 32 looks
better, but definitely is not 45 degree. The picture to the
right explains how FOV and Lens relate to each other:
Panorama with 4 parts.
The camera is at the bottom, the red angle is our desired FOV, and the
length of the green line is what the Lens parameter represents in Blender.
Therefore, the formula to calulcate Lens when we know FOV:
Lens = 16 / tan(FOV / 2)
For a FOV of 45 degree, we therefore get a Lens of 38.627. Now, write
that into the Lens field in the camera settings, and render with 8 XParts.
This time it will render an output image which is 8 times as wide as a
normal output image, and again it will be a seamless 360 degree all
around panorama of your scene. And this time with less distortion. With
the above formula, you can now use any number of XParts you want - just
divide 360 by the number of parts, and calulate the Lens parameter for
the resulting FOV. Note that you also need to take the Aspect settings into
account, unless you set it to 100 and create a quadratic output, as we did.
The Lens
parameter of
the Blender
camera.
Some Lens settings:
4 parts: 16
8 parts: 38.627
16 parts: 80.437
The output with 8 parts can be seen below.
Panorama with 8 parts.
As always, feel free to modify this page in any way you want or add feedback to the Talk
page.
Next Page: Blender 3D: Noob to Pro/Other Important Render Options
Previous Page: Blender 3D: Noob to Pro/OSA
Other Important Render Options
Next Page: Basic Animation
Previous Page: Looking All Around - Panorama Settings
Rendering by Parts (Bucket Rendering)
Images can be rendered in pieces or layers rather than all at one time. Your computer will
only need to compute smaller bits of information thus using less memory. By changing the
Xpart and Ypart values (up to 8 each since Blender can't support more than 64 [8x8] parts) in
the Render panel of the Scene context(F10,) you can divide your image into an invisible grid.
The pieces will layer one at a time until they are whole.
Edge Renderings
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Blender has an option of adding a border-an edge to objects (like in cartoons). To do that you
need to go to the render buttons (F10) and then, under "output" change the edge setting: set
the "Eint" to a value of about 100 and check the "edge" icon to enable edge rendering. This
would give you edge line at the edge of each polygon. To prevent it from applying on all
polygons the same way change to "unified render" under the format tab. Then, in the edge
settings change the "antishift" value, it will decrease itself from the fint value when the line
is between identical materials. By also checking the "all" icon you tell the render to apply the
edge rendering on transparent materials as well.
Multi Thread Rendering
Blender Has the option to render with 'Multiple threads' meaning it can render 2 parts at
once at the same speed as rendering one. This is done by sending 2 Render parts to the cpu
to process at the same time,if your CPU can handle it. The Option is found in render buttons
(F10) as the button "Threads" under the Backbuf filepath and button
Next Page: Basic Animation
Previous Page: Looking All Around - Panorama Settings
Basic Animation
Next page: Blender 3D: Noob to Pro/Basic Animation/Bounce
Previous page: Other Important Render Options
Animating, in principle, isn't that hard. These steps show you how to make a simple keyframe
animation:
1. It is a good idea to switch into the animation screen using the screen selection
drop-down on the main menu (change it to SCR:1-Animation).
2. Go to the starting frame, using the arrow keys on your keyboard (Shift+Left Arrow goes
to Start Frame, Shift+Right Arrow goes to End Frame, the Up and Down arrows Skip 10
Frames, the Right and Left arrows skip 1 Frame)
3. Go into the correct mode. To animate solid objects, go into Object Mode. To animate
bones, go into Pose Mode.
4. Place the object or bone at the desired starting location and/or rotation.
5. Press the IKEY and you will see a menu of the different properties which you may
animate. Choose the most appropriate one, based on the properties you wish to change
in the next keyframe. For example, if you wish to change the location, rotation and size
of the object, select LocRotSize. You have now made the first keyframe, which is a frame
of animation which you have personally set up.
6. Now go to the frame of the next keyframe you wish to define, and put everything in the
place you want for that frame. Remember, if you have a frame rate setting of 25 frames
per second (fps) then if you want to make the next keyframe one second later in the
animation, you need to go to frame 25 to make the keyframe. Then press the IKEY again,
and select the correct option again, depending on the changes you've made. (All
in-between frames are automatically made to interpolate between the two neighboring
keyframes).
7. Repeat the previous step for each keyframe of the animation.
8. If you want more control over the transition between the keyframes, use the IPO-window
(if you followed step 1, it should already be open on the right of screen). Select the object
you have keyframed and the IPO-window will display its animation curves (one curve for
each of the properties you selected). You can select and edit the curves using the normal
Blender controls. Use the curve menu for more options, such as making the curves
actually curve instead of being straight lines.
For more information, see the Blender userguide
(http://download.blender.org/documentation/htmlI/)
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Next page: Blender 3D: Noob to Pro/Basic Animation/Bounce
Previous page: Other Important Render Options
Particle Systems
Next page: Making Fire
Previous page: Blender 3D: Noob to Pro/Basic Animation/Bounce
Particle Systems are used to simulate large amounts of small moving objects, creating
phenomena of higher order like fire, dust, clouds, smoke, or - using a trick - fur, grass and
other strand based objects. Due to the nature of particle systems, that is, the large amount of
objects, the user interaction is limited to controlling global parameters, like direction of
particle movement, applied forces, obstacle definition, randomness, particle life and so on,
but doesn't allow access to single particles. Though it is possible in other software packages
(and useful in certain situations), Blender doesn't provide methods to control single particles.
The amount of control is limited to statistic values, and the resulting effect can only be
controlled by those.
For the most basic particle system in Blender you need one Mesh Object - the emitter.
Emitters must be mesh objects and can emit particles from their vertices' position, and also
from faces. Any Mesh Object is changed into an emitter via the Object panel (accessible with
the F7 key), by applying the Particles Effect in the Effect Tab. Once activated, the object
itself becomes invisible to the renderer, and only its particles are visible. By default, the
Material renders as type Halo rather than as a solid object. To see the particles moving,
crank up the "Norm" value and hit "ALT+A" in a 3D viewport.
The direction of emmitance is controlled by a couple of values:
Norm: a value that takes into consideration the vertex/face normal and sends particles
in this direction (if the value is greater than zero)
X, Y, Z: Those values can give particles speed and direction along the objects local axes.
again, values greater than zero are required. Can be mixed with Norm.
External Forces: particles can be further affected by simulated forces like wind and
gravity. Their values can be positive or negative.
Next page: Making Fire
Previous page: Basic Animation
Making Fire
Next Page < Blender 3D: Noob to Pro/Furry
Previous Page < Blender 3D: Noob to Pro/Particle Systems
Using Blender's Particle System to Create Simple
Smoke and Fire
(2.41)
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The simplest way to think about the particle system is that any mesh object can be made to
emit particles. By default, the particles are emitted from the object's vertices in an invisible
ray.
You can specify the colour and transparency of the particles, the speed and direction in
which they travel, and their size and range of travel. These values are particle "attributes".
By combining different attributes, you can make particles look like bullets, Jedi lightsabers,
smoke plumes, or the flames of a fire.
The following tutorial is not the only way you can create such effects, and expert blender
users can probably do it much more efficiently and economically. It is a simple effect,
intended to let you learn some of the features of basic particle animation.
Some screenshots would be helpfull for this tutorial. Add if you can
What You Need to Know before You Start
In order to complete this tutorial, you must...
Understand how the Blender 3D interface works so that you can select objects and
manipulate them in 3d space.
Know how to select options and change numeric values.
Be able to create and illuminate a simple mesh with lights.
Be able to adjust the camera.
Know how to configure the render and animation settings.
Setting Up the Workspace
Start from the default blender configuration and set up your view as a 2-panel display of the
main 3D view window, and a smaller panel underneath it for the buttons window.
1. Create a mesh of a 3-division icosphere in the center of the 3d window. This icosphere
will be our first "particle emitter".
2. Add a couple of area lamps at very low energy (about 0.075). Arrange the lamps on
either side of the icosphere.
3. Press the F10 key to display the render buttons window.
4. Set up the render options to give you a quick, low-resolution render as follows:
1. set OSA, SHADOW, ENV MAP, and RAY off (not highlighted)
2. set image size to 50%
5. Now press F5 and then click materials, now under the “Shaders” tab make sure halo is
selected.(edit, should be tried if below does not work)
6. Press the F12 key to make a quick render, proving that you can see your icosphere
centered in the view. If not, adjust the camera direction so that it points right at the
icosphere as follows:
1. In the view window, press KP5 to toggle to grid view (grid showing).
2. In the view window, press KP1 to toggle to front view.
3. In the view window, click on the camera to highlight and select it.
4. In the buttons window, press the F9 key to display the editing buttons.
5. Click on the Show Limits button. The camera now has a direction line, showing
where it is pointed.
6. Press the R (rotate) key to select the camera for rotation and rotate it with the
mouse until the direction line runs through the centre of the icosphere.
7. Press the Enter key to confirm the new direction and exit rotation mode.
8. In the view window, press KP7 to toggle to top view.
9. Repeat the alignment described in steps 6 and 7.
10. Press KP0 to return to camera view mode and press F12 to repeat the quick render.
The icosphere should now be dead centre in the image.
(Note - you can also use the rotate widget to point the camera, but I'll leave that for a
different tutorial).
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Why not do it now? See that depressed finger button right under the viewport? (don't worry
it'll cheer up!) right next to it are three essential time saving buttons. Going from right to left
are the Move, Rotate, and Resize widgets. These appear at the 3D pointer location and affect
the currently highlighted objects. left click on a colored axis to perform the desired function
solely along that axis. Usefulness = 11 out of 10
Making a Smoke Plume
Smoke is easiest to model, and learning it first will give you some insight into the particle
system. Begin by making a simple particle emission that you can see in the view window as
follows:
Simple Particle Emission
1.
2.
3.
4.
RMB on the icosphere to select it
In buttons window press F7 to display Obj. buttons
Click the "Physics" Tab and in the second pane labeled "particles" hit "NEW"
The Particles and Particle Motion tabs are displayed (** It is possible to split the
panels so that you can see both at once. LMB on either the Particle or Particle Motion
label and drag to the side. The panels will seperate. ** This is an optional step and not
necessary to complete the tutorial)
Before going further, Press the F12 key to make a quick render of the current state of the
object. What you should see at this point is nothing. Your icosphere appears to have
vanished. This is because you have now declared all its vertices to be nothing more than
particle emitters. Also, the particles have no visible attributes at this point, so there is
nothing for the renderer to see.
LMB on the Particles tab (if you haven't split the panels)
Make the following two changes to the particle system:
1. Click on the Static button.
2. Click on the "Particle motion" tab.
3. Change the value of Norm from 0.000 to 0.100 (Hint: click once on the right arrow
symbol in the box).
Notice that the view window now shows a stream of particles (You MUST be in OBJECT
MODE to see particles) jetting out from every vertex in the icosphere, making it like like a
star. Use MB3(MMB) to rotate the view so that you can appreciate the symmetry of the
particle stream. Press KP 1 to return to front view.
Press F12 to make a quick render of the changed object. You should see something that
lookes like a white explosion. Each particle is rendered as a glowing ball, but the particles
are fairly large at this point, and you cannot see them as individual particles.
Use the following procedure to make the particles smaller. At this time, you will also give
them a color and some transparency to make them look a little more like puffs of smoke.
Smoke Particle Material
1.
2.
3.
4.
In the buttons window, press F5 to display the shading window.
Click on the material buttons icon (red gobe) to display the material.
Click on the Add new Button
Change the name of the material to MA:smoke
The default colour is a brownish grey, which is fine for smoke, so do not adjust it at this
point. However, you want to give it the following attributes:
Smoke Particle Attributes
1. Click on the Shaders tab to display the shaders panel.
2. Set the specularity (shininess) to 0.000.
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3. Click on the Halo button. Notice that the preview sample changes to something
resembling a cloud.
4. Set the value of Hardness to 15
5. Set the Halo size to 0.300
6. Set the value of A (Alpha) to 0.80.
The preview sample might now look as if it has vanished. However, press F12 for a quick
render and you will see that the former white explosion has now become a star of smoke
puffs. This pattern is still too organized and regular to look much like smoke, but you are
getting there.
To model the smoke, press F7 to display the Object buttons in the buttons window again.
When you first set up the smoke model, you set the particle emission as "Static". However,
you want your smoke to build and to move in the final model, so the next step is to randomize
the particles and make them move like drifting smoke.
First, let's look at the default animation of the smoke particles:
1. Click on the Static button. Notice that the star of particles vanishes, and the mesh is now
drawn only as vertices - no polygons.
2. Ensure that the icosphere object is still selected (highlighted purple).
3. Pres KP0 to go to camera view.
4. Put the cursor In the 3D View window and press Alt-A. Notice that each vertex now emits
particles in the same star pattern.
Before you proceed, take a quick look at a rendering of the animation as follows:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
In the buttons window, Press F10 to display the Scene buttons.
In the Format panel, click on the PC button.
In the Format panel, choose AVI JPEG as the file format.
In the Render panel, set the image size to 25% (small, for a fast render).
In the Anim panel, set the value of End to 100, to create a 100-frame animation lasting
about three seconds.
6. In the Output panel, set the filename to /tmp/smoketest, or any other save location that
you prefer.
7. Press the Anim button to begin rendering.
8. When all 100 frames are rendered, press the Play button to review the animation.
What you should see is a cloud of smoke puffs starting from the location of the icosphere
(which is invisible) and radiating outwards. it looks a little like an explosion of smoke, but is
still too organized and regular to appear as smoke.
Now that you have invested some time in creating the animation, it might be worth saving
the .blend file. After you have saved the file as smoke1, you can experiment with making the
particles look more like smoke. Go back to the section titled:
Smoke Particle Attributes and experiment with the values of Halo Size, Hardness and
Alpha. You can also go back to:
Smoke Particle Material and experiment with the color of the smoke. You do not need to
create a new material, you only need to change the existing RGB values.
For example, a Halo Size of 0.900, an Alpha value of 0.100, and a hardness value of 1.0 will
produce a denser, more realistic smoke. After you finish experimenting with the values, use
these values and save the file again.
Randomizing the Smoke Particles
If you are modelling smoke from a fire, you want the particle system to move randomly, but
to drift in a predictable direction as if moved by a breeze or simply billowing up from a
source of fire.
Blender's particle interaction options provide some sophisticated ways to control particles
and make them interact with the environment. However, for this tutorial you will simply
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specify some variables that randomize the particles and move them in the desired direction.
You can learn about particle interaction later.
To set up the model, first revert to a static view of the particles, as follows:
1. In the buttons window, press F7 to display the object buttons.
2. In the Effects panel, press the Static button. Notice that the 3D view changes to the
particle star.
3. Press KP1 to display the front view.
4. In the Effects panel, find the group of variables labelled "Force" [Under "physics" button
and "particle motion" tab in Blender 4.1] and change them as follows:
1. Change the value of X to 0.200. Notice how the particles are now skewed to the
right.
2. Change the value of Z to 0.200. Notice how the particles are now skewed upward.
5. In the Effects panel, change the value of Randlife to 0.200. Notice that the pattern of the
particles becomes more disorganized.
6. In the Effects panel, change the value of Rand to 0.100. The pattern becomes even more
disorganized.
7. Press KP0 to return to camera view.
What was formerly an organized star of particles has now become a random mass. You can
now preview the animation as follows:
1. In the Effects panel, click on the Static button.
2. In the 3D view window, press Alt-A.
The cloud of particles now drifts randomly to the right. Preview the animation as follows:
1. In the buttons window, press F10 to display the Scene buttons.
2. Press the Anim button to start the animation
You should now see a much more realistic drifting cloud of smoke. However, one of the
problems with it is that you can still see a pattern of particle emission from the vertices of
the object. One way to make this less visible is to reduce the scale of the object, squeezing
the vertices together, although that will make the source of the smoke appear very dense.
Using the mesh edit decimator option to reduce the number of vertices will make it less
dense, as will ramping up the Alpha value of the smoke halo.
The *BEST* way to truly randomize particle emission is to select the emitter and go into edit
mode (TAB key), select ALL vertices of the emitter ("A" key), go to the Editing menu (F9),
and then to the Mesh Tool Subpanel. There, press the HASH button, then leave edit mode
(TAB key). You will now see particles emit in a TRULY random fashion, something that has
been overlooked by nearly every other tutorial available.
There are many other ways to make the smoke look more natural, such as by animating the
value of Alpha or color to make the smoke seem as if it is getting thicker. You can use several
emittors to send out particles of smoke of different color and density, with different rates of
emission. By animating emittors, you can create a very realistic effect - or even a moving
cloud system.
However, for this tutorial, we will keep it simple, and move on to the next step of animating
simple flames and sparks to mix in with the smoke.
At this point, you can save the file, and then experiment with changing the values of the
particle system to see how it affects the smoke.
Next Page < Blender 3D: Noob to Pro/Furry
Previous Page < Blender 3D: Noob to Pro/Particle Systems
Furry
Next Page: Game Engine Basics
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Previous Page: Making Fire
Let your hair hang down
To learn how to make fur or hair, click on the link below and scroll to the bottom. It is the
last tutorial.
Or...
Example of sphere with fur-like particles
Creating Fur in Blender 2.40
Matt Liebrich
First off, select the object you want to be furry. (You don't have to duplicate the mesh
anymore!) Then, go to the "Object" tab (F7), and click on the "Physics" tab (to the right, on
the button window menu bar). (Or Press F7 repeatedly to "cycle" between the Object and
Physics SubPanels)
Blender Physics Tab
Under the "Particles" palette, click on "NEW". For best results you should be in object mode.
A bunch of things will pop up in place of that "New" button. Several things are important for
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the creation of hair/fur. The most important are:
Static
Vect
And under the "Particle Motion" palette:
Normal
Random
And the "Z" (or possibly X or Y, depending on the result you want.)under "Force"
Anyway, back on the "Particles" palette, push "Static" and then "Animated" if you want it to
be in an animation. Then push "Vect" for actual "strands" of hair.
Afterwords, in the "Particle Motion" palette, adjust the "Normal" value until the hair is as
long as you like. Increase the randomness value for added realism. (Not too much, though!)
Then, make the value of "Z" under "Force" somewhere around -0.02.
Further information shall be added later by any one interested in doing so. Possible topics to write about include:
Fur/Hair Material Settings
Further, more advanced set-up of hair/fur.
This is the link:
http://download.blender.org/documentation/NaN_docs/Manual2.0/Particles.html
Next Page: Game Engine Basics
Previous Page: Making Fire
Game Engine Basics
Next Page: Your First Test
Previous Page: Furry
Purpose: To demonstrate the object collision feature of Blender's Game Engine.
Object Collision Basics For The Blender Game Engine
With the mouse cursor over a 3D viewport, press NUMPAD-7 to switch to TOP view.
Press the spacebar and select Add >Mesh >Plane. Press TAB to leave edit mode and enter
object mode. [4] (http://img192.echo.cx/my.php?image=17bf.jpg)
Enlarge the plane by pressing S and dragging the mouse cursor away from the center of the
plane. Click to stop re-sizing. The plane will serve as the 'floor'.
Add A UVSphere using the same sequence for adding the plane object. Press TAB to enter
object mode.
With the mouse cursor over a 3D viewport, press NUMPAD 1 for Front view, then press G
and move the sphere above the plane. Click to exit Grab Mode. You may need to scale the
sphere down. It will be the ball which collides with the floor.
Go to logic panel (move cursor over Button Viewport and press F4).
Click on actor button (in the upper left corner of the logic panel), then Dynamic, then Rigid
Body. This activates physics properties for the sphere so it can bounce. A dotted circle
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appears around the sphere; use the Size Slider to adjust the dotted line so it closely conforms
to the perimeter of the sphere.
Next, you want to add some colour to the sphere and the plane (see
Blender_3D:_Noob_to_Pro/Quickie_Material for details), so you can tell the two apart during
simulation.
Move the cursor over a 3D viewport and press P. The sphere will drop down and collide with
the plane. Press ESC to end simulation
For fun, try rotating the plane in front or side (NUMPAD 3) view and press P again. The ball
will first hit the plane, then roll down. Add several more planes rotated to differing angles
and position them in the falling path of the ball to keep it going.
Next Page: Your First Test
Previous Page: Furry
(Note: Where is the size slider in 2.42a?)
Your First Test
Next page: Blender 3D: Noob to Pro/Build a skybox
Previous page: Blender 3D: Noob to Pro/Game Engine Basics
The Game Engine is an interesting feature of Blender. The Game Engine is basically a 3D
environment in which 3D objects move around and react to each other upon contact. The
Game Engine is most easily applied to 3D architectural tours.
As a start, we will teach you to make a ball roll realistically down the hill using Blender's
game engine.
First, make a plane. Subdivide it a few times and scale it up a lot. Now, make a sphere. It can
be any kind. With the sphere selected, go to the game engine settings (the little purple
Pacman-icon). You will see something that says "Actor". Press it. Now press Dynamic. You
will see a bunch of settings available now. Change Size to 1.4. This changes the boundary
that iniates reactions when made contact with by another object. You notice a dotted circle
around the object; this is the boundary. Also enable Rigid body. This makes the ball roll,
instead of staying completely upright the entire time. Edit the plane you made, pulling
vertices up or down. For this example, make it look like a canyon. Put the ball at the start
point and press the P-Key. You will see the ball fall in, and roll. If it doesn't go the way you
wanted, Pull some vertices of the canyon downwards. If you just see white silhouettes, don't
worry. Press escape to exit the game mode. Press Z key. Go back into game mode (P) and
everything will be in wireframe while you play the game.
Now, how about adding a little color to this scene so it doesn't look all white. We will do this
using a method called vertex paint. Press Z again for the normal, solid mode. From the object
mode, locate a scroll-up menu on the 3d view task bar currently labelled "Object mode".
Click it and select "Vertex Paint". Note that all the objects in the 3D view window are white
silhouettes again and that your cursor also has a circle around it. Select the edit buttons
menu below. Here, you will find a square for color selection. Pick a grayish brown color for
the rock. Now go into the 3D view window and click on the rock. Every vertex in your
cursor's circle should start to turn a shade of that color.
Next page: Blender 3D: Noob to Pro/Build a skybox
Previous page: Blender 3D: Noob to Pro/Game Engine Basics
Build a skybox
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Next page: Blender 3D: Noob to Pro/Advanced Tutorials
Previous page: Blender 3D: Noob to Pro/Your First Test
One way to add a realistic feeling to your 3d environment in a game engine is to create a
skybox. A skybox is a large cube which has on its inside a projection of a 360° environment.
When the player (camera) is inside this environment, the scene is rendered with the illusion
of being inside a gigantic world. This is a similar effect to Quicktime VR (see
http://fullscreenqtvr.com for examples). And, by setting up the skybox as a simple cube
shape, you place the least amount of strain on the graphics engine. It's a great advantage for
your game with very little overhead.
This tutorial will show you how to create skyboxes relatively easily from panoramic photos.
My favorite part is, you can do it easily using free tools such as Blender and the Gimp.
Using the Gimp to manipulate images is not really in the scope of this tutorial... check out
some other page on using that software. You should have an understanding of how to edit
images and apply alpha channels. (You could also use the Gimp to apply a polar coordinate
texture to your rectangular image in order to create a fisheye image. Hint: it's not the
sphereize filter.)
Gather your graphics
You can take panoramic images yourself using a regular digital camera and a tripod. A quick
way to accomplish this is to draw marks on your tripod base at every 30 degrees (think of the
hours on a clock face). Make a single mark on the swivel of your tripod to allow you to line up
your shots -- twelve shots at 30 degrees each. Then, using a program such as the Gimp
(http://www.gimp.org) or the incredibly cool Autostitch (http://www.autostitch.net) to merge
the photos into one big panorama.
Or, if you're lazy like me, you can just grab photos online to use as templates to create
original images. There are also many places you can download non-copyrighted photos for
free as well. One resource for cloudy sky textures, as well as panoramic photography
instructions, is Philippe Hurbain's site Philo's Home Page (http://www.philohome.com) . This
tutorial will use a fisheye sky photo from his copyright-free Panoramic Skies images
collection.
You'll also probably want a photo for your ground, unless you prefer to use real models such
as buildings in your skybox. This earlier chapter
(http://en.wikibooks.org/wiki/Blender_3D:_Noob_to_Pro/Mountains_Out_Of_Molehills) on
creating landscapes can be incorporated into setting up your skybox. However, this tutorial
will use the sky photo for the top half of our world, and a panoramic landscape with an alpha
channel for the bottom half. I've created a ground image using copyright-free textures
obtained from Accustudio (http://www.accustudio.com) .
Here are the images I'll be using (you'll want to use images with higher resolution):
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Note: I've outlined the horizon of the ground texture with an alpha channel which will allow
me to place the ground mesh right against the sky mesh with a very natural feel.
Create a dome for the sky
Open a new file in Blender. Your default new file will probably be a two-unit cube in the
center of the screen, with a single light source and a camera. You can delete the light source
because we won't be needing it. Leave the cube, because that is what will become our
skybox.
The cube will be the center of our environment, so use Object->Snap->Cursor To Selection if
your cursor is not centered. Then, from the top view [KEYPAD-7], Use [KEY-SPACEBAR] to
insert a new mesh; make it a UV sphere. I find a 32-segment, 32-ring sphere to be sufficient.
We create the sphere from the top view because that is the projection from which we want to
add the sky texture.
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Scale up the sphere so it resembles a large "arena" in comparison to your cube, and select
and delete the lower half of the vertices, using the front view [KEYPAD-1] and [KEY-B] to
create a bounding box. It helps if "Select Visible" is turned off so you can select all of the
vertices in one go.
Turn on proportional editing with [KEY-O], then select the bottom row of vertices and scale
them up with [KEY-S] so that the bottom of the sphere gets a bell shape. Because the
projection of the sky texture will be from the Y-axis (ceiling) we need the bottom faces of the
sphere to be at an angle, to catch the texture. (Faces perpendicular to the projection will
look like smears.) Alter the influence of proportional editing with [KEY-PAGEUP] and
[KEY-PAGEDOWN]. Linear or Sharp falloff works best with the sphere shape.
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Now you're ready to add your sky texture to this mesh. In the Materials menu, create a new
material and a new texture. Be sure to set your material not to recieve shadows by clicking
the "Shadeless" button. Then, in the Texture menu, set the texture type to Image, and click
the Load Image button to insert our sky texture. Back in the Materials->Texture->Map Input
menu, you may need to scale your image to get rid of the distorted textures at the edges of
the fisheye by setting the Size to, say, 0.950 for X, Y and Z.
At this point, if you wish, you can reposition the camera and render the scene to see how
your sky mesh looks.
Create a dome for the ground
I found it easiest to move the sky dome to a new layer with the [KEY-M] move to layer
command. Then you can select the cube, Object->snap cursor to selection if you need to,
select the top view [KEYPAD-7] and insert another UV sphere just as before -- except this
time, remove the top hemisphere of vertices. I left an extra row of vertices at the "equator",
scaled up, to function as a "billboard" to display the the horizon of our ground texture with
the alpha channel. This sphere should be slightly smaller than the sky hemisphere.
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This time, I will apply the ground texture with a tube projection, so it is projected onto the
mesh horizontally. Because I have an alpha channel on this texture, I click "Use Alpha" in the
Texture menu and Map To -> both Col and Alpha in the Materials menu. You will also need to
set ZTransp in the Mirror Transp menu so that your alpha channel shows up in the envmap
(which will become your skybox), and Alpha to 0 to allow the masked areas to be
transparent. (Alpha channels appear to require Z buffering to appear on procedural
textures.) Also, you may need to adjust the offset of the ground texture (Y-axis), so that the
horizon appears properly on the "billboard" area of your ground hemisphere.
Again, you can reposition the camera and render the scene to make sure everything is
properly aligned. Be sure to activate the layer where you moved the sky mesh. Your results
will look similar to the following image. Set OSA on in the render screen for best results.
Also, use higher resolution images with cleaner alpha channels -- the image below is rather
blurry and you can see a halo around the horizon.
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Render the environment map
The last step is to use the procedural Envmap texture to project the dome textures onto the
cube, which will become our skybox. Select the cube and create a new material. Set the
material to "Shadeless." Add a new texture and make its type Envmap. Set the CubeRes to
whatever you want the resolution of your skybox to be (512 is a good resolution for a game;
1024 or 2048 are fairly high-res; I stuck with low-res for this tutorial). If your sky & ground
hemispheres are very physically large, you may also need to increase the ClipEnd value to
include all of the faces. You may want to set the Envmap calculation to Anim so you don't
have to keep freeing envmap data if you're experimenting. (Anim automatically clears
Envmap data with every render, otherwise you must click 'Free Data' to reset the Envmap.)
Once you've created the Envmap texture, you should be ready to render the Envmap for your
skybox. If you want to set your file format such as JPG or PNG, you should do that first. Then,
simply go to the render screen and click "Render." Again, make sure all layers are visible.
The rendering window appears. First, Blender renders the environment map of the cube.
Afterward, the camera view is rendered, at which point you can hit [KEY-ESCAPE] to stop
rendering -- we are only interested in the environment map which is already complete.
Select the cube again, then get to its texture menu. You will see the newly-rendered Envmap
on the sample texture. Click "Save EnvMap" in the texture menu to save the rendered
Envmap.
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Blender environment maps are saved as a 3x2 matrix of squares, as seen here:
You can now load this image as an envmap texture in a new cube, which you can incorporate
into your game as a skybox. This file can also be edited in the Gimp to remove any
unwelcome artifacts such as trees, buildings, jet trails, etc. Also, because I used a tube
projection on the lower hemisphere, in the bottom face of the envmap you see a strange star
shape at the "pole." You'll most likely have a floor in your game, so you probably won't see
that face anyway, but sticklers can avoid it with clever use of the Filters->Distorts->Polar
Coords filter in the Gimp or Filter->Distort->Polar Coordinates (Polar to Rect.) in Photoshop.
Patching also works well.
To make the skybox appear as a static background in your game, vertex-parent it to your
player object.
Next page: Blender 3D: Noob to Pro/Advanced Tutorials
Previous page: Blender 3D: Noob to Pro/Your First Test
Match Moving
Next page: Blender 3D: Noob to Pro/HDRi
Previous page: Blender_3D: Noob to Pro/Build a skybox
1. Take a look at the WikiPedia article on Match Moving
2. Download the free Match Moving solver, Voodoo
(http://www.digilab.uni-hannover.de/docs/manual.html)
Next page: Blender 3D: Noob to Pro/HDRi
<large>Previous page: Blender_3D: Noob to Pro/Build a skybox</large>
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High Dynamic Range imaging (HDRi)
You may have heard various people talk about HDR images. (WETA, Lucas, even Tim
Sweeny). HDR images are part of a technology called HDRi which stands for "High Dynamic
Range (image)". So... what on earth does that mean?
Here's a link to Wikipedia's article on the HDR format
(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/High_dynamic_range_imaging) which I personally give all my
credit to Paul Debevec for putting it to use for computer graphics purposes. Anyway, before
you start trying to understand the usefullness of HDRi, please read the wikipedia link.
Also, visit Paul Debevec's website (http://www.debevec.org) if you've got some more time to
spare.
To sum up the excitement of HDR CG, think of it like the hype of the next-generation
videogames that are about to come out, except set the stage for 1996 instead of 2006. Paul
Debevec pioneered paralax mapping, HDR lighting, image-based modeling, his latest work
includes some even more amazing technologies, and for the record he's my hero too.
To use HDRi images for 3D rendering, you need something called a light probe...
HDRI stands for High Dynamic Range Imaging, and is basically a technique to use a picture
of the environment to light your scene. This will result in very realistic and convincing
shadows, higlights and reflections. This is very important for realistic emulation of chrome
for example.
First of all, you'll need an HDR image. There is a whole range at http://debevec.org/Probes/
that you can download for free. I will use the Uffizi Gallery probe, but any other HDR image
will do just fine.
To apply the HDRI environment to your scene:
Go to the shading settings (press F5) and click the World button.
In the "Texture and Input" tab, click "Add New" and "Angmap".
Then go to the "Map To" tab and deactivate "Blend" and activate "Hori".
Now go to the Texture settings (press F6) and change the "Texture Type" to "Image".
Click the "Load Image" button and locate your HDR image.
To be able to render using this environment, you need to enable YafRay. Press F10 and
change the "Blender Internal" to "YafRay".
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Creating a Light Probe
The light probe is, in the simplest terms, a photograph of your environment. they work in
very much the same way that reflection maps do, and are made the same way.
Equipment:
1. A pure silver ball. Try a plastic christmas tree ball ornament.
2. A camera, prefferably digital. If you have a high-end digital camera, you'll have less work
ahead.
3. A place you'd like to capture the lighting from. Try laying different things in your
environment to get a good idea.
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4. Something to fire the shutter without touching the camera. For digital cameras, Paul
Debevec reccomends using a program that will take all the pictures for you.
5. A tripod.
Set it up like so. Remember that the height of your camera and the height of the ball relative
to each other controls the angle at which the horizon will be shot. In other words, shoot the
ball at the same angle that you plan to shoot your 3D scene in. If your scene is animated...
consider making a similar rig except attaching your reflective ball to a videocamera as was
done for wikipedia:Flight_of_the_Navigator.
1. Note that the diagram is incorrect. The camera will see items reflected from behind the
sphere as well.
The process:
1. Set up your rig and take
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Blender FAQ
I haven't been able to find an unto date FAQ on the web so Please add in any FAQ or answers
that you know. I will add a bunch in over the next week but the more people who get
involved the better.
Q) After installing I get an error message "A required .DLL file, MSVCR71.DLL, was not
found"?
A) The file is part of the built in Python scripts. It's freely distributable and can be found
with a quick search of google. [[5]
(http://www.dll-files.com/dllindex/dll-files.shtml?msvcr71) ]
Q)How do I print from Blender?
A) You can't print from blender. You can export the image to a graphic file, e.g. PNG or
jpg and print that from a graphic program, e.g. Gimp (http://www.gimp.org/) ,IrfanView
(http://www.irfanview.com/) or msPaint. If you want you can also print from a word, e.g.
Corel or Open Office, but the quality is better in a proper graphics program.
Q) How do I export an image to a file?
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A) Press F10 and in the far right hand corner their is a drop down menu which allows
you to select a file type. jpeg, png, gif, etc. as well as different movie formats such as avi,
and mpeg. Select the format you want the resultant image to be in.
Render the image.
Press F3 and the "save file" window comes up.
Type your file name and extension and press "save"
Q) How do I accelerate rendering through a network?
A) Taken from elysiun (http://www.elysiun.com/forum/viewtopic.php?t=38702) and
written by Pedro Doria Meunier (pdoria).
Requirements DrQueue (http://www.drqueue.org/)
Well... you're right... time to give back what I've learned from Jorge Daza. So here goes
the 'quick & dirty' solution:
1st go through the install procedure explained at DrQueue's (http://www.drqueue.org/)
site.
PAY EXTRA ATTENTION at those environment variables! You have to set them in your
.bashrc file. do whatever procedure you like to activate them (relogin, etc..)
2nd make a NFS share (ex. /mnt/shared/DrqQueue). chmod it so that you don't have any
permission issues. the envvars set in step 1 *must* match the nfs share! ex. if you've
created a nfs share /mnt/shared/DrQueue then DRQUEUE_ROOT must be set to
/mnt/shared/DrQueue.
3rd compile and install it. it'll get installed in that shared folder. hold on to your hats!
we're halfway through!
Now for a quick test:
execute /mnt/shared/DrQueue/bin/master ---> this'll start the master
execute /mnt/shared/DrQueue/bin/slave ---> this'll start a client
execute /mnt/shared/DrQueue/bin/drqman ---> this'll call the GUI. check if there's a
:computer (your own!) listed in that 'Computers' tab. if it's there your master computer is
set up!
Now for the SLAVES:
all you have to do is mount that nfs share somewhere... say /mnt/DrQueue.
Something that helps is to mount the share at boot time... editing your /etc/fstab and
adding the appropriate line will do the trick.
if you've mounted it there then exec /mnt/DrQueue/bin/slave.
go back to the master. you should see another computer listed there!
Something important about the scene files and textures:
You must place the scene files inside that shared folder. same thing with the textures
that are referenced inside the scene file.
A neat trick is to pack the scene file and then unpack it inside the shared folder. this way
all the textures are unpacked at /the/shared/folder/textures .remember to save the scene
file after doing this!
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Hope this helps. Happy Blending!
Advanced Tutorials
Next page: Blender 3D: Noob to Pro/Python Scripting
Previous page: Blender 3D: Noob to Pro/Build a skybox
Author: Anthony Gomez (Extensor) Date: March 5, 2005
Short Description: RVK tutorial
Letters in brackets ie:(z) mean there is addition information at the bottom of the page.
Introduction:
This tutorial is meant to stop all the RVK questions. Orly?
Window Layout:
Set the left half of the screen as 3D View. The other half is divided in two. The top is Action
and the bottom is IPO (set to vertex display).
Setting your Neutral Pose
Make sure you are on the first frame (a). With the cursor over the 3D View, select the mesh
you want to animate. (mesh in object mode) and press the I key. Select Mesh from the pop up
menu then Relative Keys from the next pop up menu. A line will appear in the IPO view. This
line is your neutral pose.
Setting up your additional Pose Lines
Now, figure out how many key frames you will need. If you want to move both eyebrows up
and down then you will need 4 additional IPO lines.
Left Brow Up Left Brow Down Right Brow Up Right Brow Down
Press the up arrow (cursor key) to move to forward 10 frames. Press the I key while over the
3D View and select Mesh. Repeat until you see a total of 5 lines in the IPO window.
Set your Poses
Right click on the Neutral pose line in the IPO window. This sets the mesh to the neutral
pose. Now Right click on the next line up in the IPO window. Enter edit mode in the 3D View
and move the vertices as desired (in this case you will be moving verts to get the left Brow
up pose). Press Tab to exit edit mode. Now right click your Neutral pose line in the IPO
window. You will see your object in its neutral state. Right click the next line up and you
should see the changes you just made to your object. Set up all your mesh poses following
the above instructions.
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Name your Poses
RIght click on the Key names in the Action window. Change the name and click OK.
Time to Animate (b)
Click on the arrow next to the Sliders text. This will give you access to the pose sliders. Move
to frame 20 to start your action. Move the pose slider but release the mouse when set to 0.
Now move 10 frames forward and move the same slider to 1.00 (maximum). Use this method
to set up all your actions(c). Remember to add a 0 value frame to end the pose.(d).
Adjust your Slow in & Out
In the IPO View select from the menu to find the IPO curves. You can get back to the Pose
lines by selecting KeyIPO from the same menu. Right click the spline you want to edit and
press TAB to enter edit mode. Move the handles to adjust slow in/out.(e)
(a) In this case moving to a frame has nothing to do with animation. It is done so that your
pose lines are seperate from each other. (b) Select your key frame marker and use the usual
commands to move <g> and duplicate <d> them. (c) Be subtle by not pushing the slider all
the way to 1.00. (d) Try overlaping your poses. (e) When setting slider values they can
sometimes go into the negative value. This will give you weird results. Although sometimes
they can make your animation more interesting. To fix this edit the IPO, select the point
where the line dips below zero and press the V key. Do the same at the othe end of the curve
if needed.
Warning! Blender has a limit to the number of verts you can use.
Next page: Blender 3D: Noob to Pro/Python Scripting
Previous page: Blender 3D: Noob to Pro/Build a skybox Help. When you save runtime it doesn't carry
across the materials that were mapped to the object. If you render then it is there but not in
the .exe. Also how do I network the game once I have made it. ie how do I send messages
across a port? Why does save dynamic runtime never work?
Please help. The reason why I am posting this here is because I have not been able to enter
an email forum. So far. Please can you tell me how to do this. Please post your reply to
[email protected]
Python Scripting
Next page: Blender 3D: Noob to Pro/Advanced Tutorials/Python Scripting/Introduction
Previous page: Blender 3D: Noob to Pro/Advanced Tutorials
One of Blender's powerful features is its Python API. This allows you to interface with
Blender through the Python programming language. The Python interface allows you to
control almost all aspects of Blender, for example you can write import or export scripts for
meshes and materials of various formats or create procedurally generated textures. You can
also create complete animations procedurally and write scripts to modify existing scenes in
any way you can think of. On top of all, you can easily create a user interface for your script,
transforming it into a generally useable tool.
http://www.blender3d.org/cms/Python_Api.380.0.html
http://www.blender.org/modules/documentation/240PythonDoc/index.html
http://www.blender3d.org/cms/Python_Scripts.3.0.html
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http://www.elysiun.com/forum/viewforum.php?f=5
Next page: Blender 3D: Noob to Pro/Advanced Tutorials/Python Scripting/Introduction
Previous page: Blender 3D: Noob to Pro/Advanced Tutorials
Introduction
Next page: Blender 3D: Noob to Pro/Advanced Tutorials/Python Scripting/Export scripts
Previous page: Blender 3D: Noob to Pro/Python Scripting
For a general introduction to python programming, see:
http://en.wikibooks.org/wiki/Programming:Python
Introduction
Python is used in blender to write plugins as well as automate tasks.
Next page: Blender 3D: Noob to Pro/Advanced Tutorials/Python Scripting/Export scripts
Previous page: Blender 3D: Noob to Pro/Python Scripting
Export scripts
Next page: Blender 3D: Noob to Pro/Advanced Tutorials/Python Scripting/Import scripts
Previous page: Blender 3D: Noob to Pro/Advanced Tutorials/Python Scripting/Introduction
Introduction
Blender is not just useful to create complete animations, but it's also a great modeller. You
can build your complete 3D scene in Blender, and then export it to a useful format. In fact,
you can use it for much more, for example I was using it as a level editor for a freeware 2D
game someone else made. There was a short deadline for the game to be finished, and 2
weeks before that deadline, there still was no level editor for it. It had a custom ASCII level
format, consisting of lists of materials, vertices, triangles and objects. So, remembering the
Blender Python exporters, I volunteered to write an export script for Blender, so it could be
used as level editor. And it worked out very well, Blender can be completely used as level
editor for that game now.
In this tutorial we'll learn how to write a simple Python export script for Blender. Without
requiring previous Python knowledge, it will explain how to query the objects in your scene,
and how to write them to a file. It will also demonstrate the usefulness of export scripts, by
showing how you can process the data while exporting, so you can achieve things that would
not work by using any other existing format.
So, open Blender, make sure the default scene is loaded, and let's begin..
Finding out about things in a scene
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Before we can export something, we must know what to export. One
way to get this information is the Outliner window (SHIFT-F9). It
will list all the things currently know to Blender. Now, we want the
same information from a script. Open the scripts window (green
snake symbol). Click on the menu titled Scripts, and go to
Scripts->System->Interactive Console.
Now, you are ready for the big moment, you are about to execute the
first Blender scripting command. Type this and hit RETURN:
Blender.Object.Get()
As a result, you should see this:
[[Object "Camera"], [Object "Cube"], [Object "Lamp"]]
Changing the window
type to the scripts
Now, what just happened? The line "Blender.Object.Get()" consists
window
of three words, separated by two dots, and then a pair of
parenthesis. The parenthesis at the end mean that a function is
called. The dots just separate different things. The first, "Blender", means to use a function
from the Blender module. Object is a sub-module of Blender. And finally Get is the function
out of Blender.Object that we called. The Get() function is used to list all available objects in
a scene. In our case, this is a Camera, a Cube, and a Lamp.
To get more information about an object, you can pass its name to the Get() function, and
assign it to a variable, like this:
camera = Blender.Object.Get("Camera")
cube = Blender.Object.Get("Cube")
lamp = Blender.Object.Get("Lamp")
We just assigned the three objects to three variables, camera, cube and lamp. To see the
contents of a variable, type just its name:
cube
[Object "Cube"]
camera
[Object "Camera"]
lamp
[Object "Lamp"]
Sometimes it's useful to use Python's dir() function to get more information about an object.
For example
dir(cube)
will write the names of all functions and properties of the object. Quite a lot. But don't worry,
soon you will know how to use all of them. You also may want to find out the type of
something, which you can do like this:
type(cube)
In this case, just typing "cube" already displays the type, but from within an actual script,
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you would use type(). Something else which can be useful is viewing the documentation of
Python objects. To do so, use the help() function on a variable or object.
help(Blender.Object.Get)
This will print the documentation of the Get() function we used. Of course, an easier way to
view the documentation is the online HTML help. Click on Help->Python Scripting
Reference. Hopefully now your browser opens and displays the online documentation of the
Blender Python API. If not, you should find it also here:
http://www.blender3d.org/documentation/237PythonDoc/index.html
(If you compiled Blender from source, it's also easy to create the documentation yourself.) In
the documentation, click on Object, then on Get, and you should see the complete
documentation for that function. Using the documentation will get absolutely vital whenever
you need to do something in a script not covered in a tutorial. And you will need to do so,
else you wouldn't want to learn scripting at all.
Another resource you will need, depending on how far you will go with scripting, is the
Python reference:
http://docs.python.org/
For this tutorial, maybe read the "Tutorial" section in the python docs, but you will
understand everything without doing so.
Now, let's try to find out more about our cube. Type:
cube.getType()
It will tell us that the cube really is a Mesh object in Blender. Look up getType() in the online
docs. Since the variable cube holds an Object, and getType() is a function of that Object,
click on Object. There you find getType().
Now that we know that the cube is a mesh, let's find out more about the mesh.
nmesh = cube.getData()
Every Blender object has data assigned to it, depending on the type. In the case of a mesh,
the data are of type NMesh. In the documentation, go to the top again, and look for the
NMesh module. It will contain documentation for the NMesh type. You can also try
dir(nmesh)
to get an idea about the available functions and properties. Try these:
nmesh.verts
nmesh.faces
The first line will list the 8 vertices of the cube's mesh. The second line will list its 6 faces.
To get a member out of a list, you specify the index in square brackets, starting with 0. So:
v = nmesh.verts[0]
This will assign the first vertex of the cube to the variable v. By now, you already know how
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to use dir() to get a list of possibly interesting things in v, find out about its type with type(),
and where to look for the API documentation. It is in the module Blender/NMesh, when you
click one "NMVert" under "Classes".
v.co
This will display the 3D coordinates of the first vertex. Now, what if we want to know the
coordinates of all vertices? We could of course assign them all to a variable, but the real way
to do this is using a looping constructs. There are numerous ways to do this, but one simple
way looks like this:
for v in nmesh.verts: print v.co
The for variable in list: construct assigns each element of the list to the variable in turn,
and then executes the commands after the colon with the variable having the value of one
particular list element. In a real script, you will have much more than a single command after
the colon - so you would write them in the following lines.
By now, you should know enough to try yourself at a real script in the next section.
Creating a script
You can write scripts either in an external text editor, or in Blender's built in text editor. The
builtin text editor can be hard to use if it doesn't have the standard shortcuts of your
preferred text editor, or if you can't copy/paste between Blender and other applications - but
else, is quite usable. You reach it over the window selector, or by pressing SHIFT-F10
(SHIFT-F11 for Blender 2.41). If you want, you can enable line numbers and syntax coloring
with the buttons at the bottom. Create a new script with File->New, paste the below code
into it, and save it. Or alternatively, paste the below code into a file, and open that file with
File->Open in Blender. As name choose something with the extenstion .py, for example
wikibooks.py. Put it into Blender's user scripts path. Under unix based systems, this is
~/.blender/scripts/.
Under Mac OSX the path is actually hidden in the blender.app so to know the path you would
have to know that the script folder is actually hidden in the blender.app itself. Assuming that
Blender is in the applications directory the path would be
"/applications/blender-2.37a-OSX-10.3-powerpc/blender.app/contents/MacOS/.blender/scripts"
If you try to open the .app contents from the finder you will notice that .blender section of
the path is not visible, while blender will still be able to navigate to this folder. To see this
folder from the OSX terminal use the ls -a command (lists all folders/files even hidden) in the
MacOS forlder of the listed path. It is probabyl a good idea to create an alias to the scripts
folder in the "/applications/blender-2.37a-OSX-10.3-powerpc" folder so that scripts can be
easily manipulated through the finder. I know that its confusing that Blender should have its
script folder buried inside the app but it is necessary to keep the app portable and not
require an install.
Under Windows the default installation it would be this: "C:\Program Files\Blender
Foundation\Blender\.blender\scripts"
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#!BPY
"""
Name: 'Wikibooks'
Blender: 237
Group: 'Export'
Tooltip: 'Wikibooks sample exporter'
"""
import Blender
def write(filename):
out = file(filename, "w")
scn= Blender.Scene.GetCurrent()
for object in scn.getChildren():
out.write(object.getType() + ": " + object.getName() + "\n")
Blender.Window.FileSelector(write, "Export")
Now, go back into the scripts window, and in its menu, click Scripts->Update Menus. If
you saved it into the right path, from now on there should be an entry "Wikibooks" in the
File->Export menu. Try exporting any scene with it. It should open the file chooser dialog,
and after you select a file and press the "Export" button, write a list of all objects in the
scene into it. There will be one object per line, with the type, followed by a colon and the
name.
How does it work? If you look at the script, you probably already know. But just in case, let's
look at the script line by line. The first line contains this:
#!BPY
It tells Blender that this is a Blender script, and therefore it will consider it when scanning
for scripts. Next simply follows a string, enclosed in triple quotation marks, so it can span
multiple lines.
"""
Name: 'Wikibooks'
Blender: 237
Group: 'Export'
Tooltip: 'Wikibooks sample exporter'
"""
It contains four items, which Blender uses to place the script into its menus. The name,
group (menu location), and tooltip, all enclosed in single quotes. And the Blender version this
is for.
import Blender
Remember how we said all functions from the Blender module start with "Blender."? In the
interactive shell, we could simply use them, but in a python script, all used modules must be
declared with an import statement. So the above simply allows us to use the functions from
the Blender module in our script.
def write(filename):
This defines a function in Python. The syntax is def name(parameters):. In our case, the
name is "write", and we have one parameter, called "filename".
out = file(filename, "w")
Here we open a file for writing (the "w"), with the name passed to the function (filename).
The python function "file" will open the file, and return a reference to it, which we store in
the variable "out".
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scn= Blender.Scene.GetCurrent()
for object in scn.getChildren():
out.write(object.getType() + ": " + object.getName() + "\n")
These three lines are our real export script. You already know what the first line does - first
we get the currrent scene, then get a list of all objects in that scene, the for loop is assigning
each one in turn to the variable "object". The second line writes to the file - first the type of
the object, then the string ": ", then the name of the object, and finally a newline.
Blender.Window.FileSelector(write, "Export")
This is where execution of the script starts. It is simply a call of a Blender function (look it up
in the API docs), which opens the file selector. It will display an "Export" button, and when
the user clicks it, our function "write" from above gets called and is passed the selected
filename.
This script isn't really very useful yet, but it shows the basics. You should now be able to e.g.
also list all the materials in the scene. (Hint: They are just like objects, try to find them in the
API docs.)
In the next section, we will learn how to export additional information about objects to our
text file.
Exporting a Mesh
Our export script lists the type and name of every object, but that's not very useful yet. If we
want to load the exported data in another application, we need more. Let's try to export a
mesh object in the OBJ format.
The example below is a cube in the OBJ file format.
v
v
v
v
v
v
v
v
f
f
f
f
f
f
1.000000 1.000000 -1.000000
1.000000 -1.000000 -1.000000
-1.000000 -1.000000 -1.000000
-1.000000 1.000000 -1.000000
1.000001 1.000000 1.000000
0.999999 -1.000000 1.000000
-1.000000 -1.000000 1.000000
-1.000000 1.000000 1.000000
1 2 3 4
5 8 7 6
1 5 6 2
2 6 7 3
3 7 8 4
5 1 4 8
Here is a simple obj export script that exports a selected mesh object, used to export the OBJ
file above.
import Blender
def write_obj(filepath):
out = file(filepath, 'w')
scn= Blender.Scene.GetCurrent()
object = scn.getActiveObject()
mesh = object.getData()
for vert in mesh.verts:
out.write( 'v %f %f %f\n' % (vert.co.x, vert.co.y, vert.co.z) )
for face in mesh.faces:
out.write('f')
for vert in face.v:
out.write( ' %i' % (vert.index + 1) )
out.write('\n')
out.close()
Blender.Window.FileSelector(write_obj, "Export")
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This script will export an OBJ file that can be read by many applications. Let's look at whats
going on.
scn= Blender.Scene.GetCurrent()
object = scn.getActiveObject()
Here we are getting the object you last selected in the current scene. this will raise an error
if there are no selected objects, but its an easy way to test a new exporter.
mesh = object.getData()
This gets the objects linked datablock. At the moment we dont know its a mesh, another case
where error checking would need to be added.
for vert in mesh.verts:
out.write( 'v %f %f %f\n' % (vert.co.x, vert.co.y, vert.co.z) )
Here we write a line for every vertice, using string formatting to replace the "%f" on the left,
with the 3 values on the right.
for face in mesh.faces:
out.write('f')
for vert in face.v:
out.write( ' %i' % (vert.index + 1) )
out.write('\n')
In the OBJ format each face references a number of vertex indices. For every face we have a
line starting with "f", then loop through the vertices in the face. Just as mesh.verts are a list
of all the the vertices in a mesh, face.v is a list of verts in the face limited to 4 vertices
maximum. (where mesh and face are arbitrary variable names assigned to an NMesh amd
NMFace objects) Every vertex writes its index on that same line with 1 added. This is
because with the OBJ file format the first vertex is indexed at 1, whereas with Python and
Blender the first item in a list is 0.
A new line is written so the next face will start on a new line. - in python '\n' represents a
new line when written to a file.
Next page: Blender 3D: Noob to Pro/Advanced Tutorials/Python Scripting/Import scripts
Previous page: Blender 3D: Noob to Pro/Advanced Tutorials/Python Scripting/Introduction
Import scripts
Next page: Blender 3D: Noob to Pro/Advanced Tutorials/Python Scripting/Procedural object
creation
Previous page: Blender 3D: Noob to Pro/Advanced Tutorials/Python Scripting/Export scripts
Introduction
Importing objects into Blender is not that different from exporting. However, there are a few
additional things to take care of. Firstly, all references to "export" in the header should be
changed to "import". Secondly, instead of simply writing out data that Blender provides to
us, we are responsible for giving data to Blender and ensuring that it is properly formatted.
Although Blender is flexible, allowing us to ignore things like vertex indices, we do need to
be careful that we do things in a sensible order.
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Additionally, there is a bit of housekeeping to deal with. We should be in edit mode while
modifying the mesh data. We also need to link up our newly created data to the scene, after
it has been properly constructed, so that Blender can see it and maintain it. This makes it
visible to the user, as well as ensuring that it gets saved along with the scene.
Importing a Mesh
Here is a simple script that can import an OBJ file created by the export script.
import Blender
def import_obj(path):
Blender.Window.WaitCursor(1)
name = path.split('\\')[-1].split('/')[-1]
mesh = Blender.NMesh.New( name ) # create a new mesh
# parse the file
file = open(path, 'r')
for line in file.readlines():
words = line.split()
if len(words) == 0 or words[0].startswith('#'):
pass
elif words[0] == 'v':
x, y, z = float(words[1]), float(words[2]), float(words[3])
mesh.verts.append(Blender.NMesh.Vert(x, y, z))
elif words[0] == 'f':
faceVertList = []
for faceIdx in words[1:]:
faceVert = mesh.verts[int(faceIdx)-1]
faceVertList.append(faceVert)
newFace = Blender.NMesh.Face(faceVertList)
mesh.addFace(newFace)
# link the mesh to a new object
ob = Blender.Object.New('Mesh', name)
ob.link(mesh) # tell the object to use the mesh we just made
scn = Blender.Scene.GetCurrent()
for o in scn.getChildren():
o.sel = 0
scn.link(ob) # link the object to the current scene
ob.sel= 1
ob.Layers = scn.Layers
Blender.Window.WaitCursor(0)
Blender.Window.RedrawAll()
Blender.Window.FileSelector(import_obj, 'Import')
This will load an OBJ file into Blender, creating a new mesh object. Let's take a look at the
more interesting portions.
Blender.Window.WaitCursor(1)
Turn on the wait cursor so the user knows the computer is importing.
name = path.split('\\')[-1].split('/')[-1]
mesh = Blender.NMesh.New( name ) # create a new mesh
Here, we create a new mesh datablock. The name is made from the path only with the
filename.
ob = Blender.Object.New('Mesh', name)
ob.link(mesh)
Next, we create a new object and link it to the mesh. This instantiates the mesh.
scn = Blender.Scene.GetCurrent()
scn.link(ob) # link the object to the current scene
ob.sel= 1
ob.Layers = scn.Layers
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Finally, we attach the new object to the current scene, making it accessible to the user and
ensuring that it will be saved along with the scene. We also select the new object so that the
user can easily modify it after import. Copying the scenes layers ensures that the object will
occupy the scenes current view layers.
Blender.Window.WaitCursor(0)
Blender.Window.RedrawAll()
Now the finishing touches. We turn off the wait cursor. We also redraw the 3D window to
ensure that the new object is initially visible. If we didn't do this, the object might not appear
until the user changes the viewpoint or forces a redraw in some other way.
Next page: Blender 3D: Noob to Pro/Advanced Tutorials/Python Scripting/Procedural object
creation
Previous page: Blender 3D: Noob to Pro/Advanced Tutorials/Python Scripting/Export scripts
Procedural object creation
Next page: Blender 3D: Noob to Pro/Advanced Tutorials/Python Scripting/Scripts for
modifying meshes
Previous page: Blender 3D: Noob to Pro/Advanced Tutorials/Python Scripting/Import scripts
blender tools:
- http://www.makehuman.org/
- http://www.geocities.com/blenderdungeon/lsystem/
python:
http:///www.alcyone.com/software/lsystem/
other:
- http://www.devx.com/Intel/Article/20333/2046 , "Procedural 3D Content Generation, Part 2"
- ModelingCloudsShape --antont, Sun, 20 Mar 2005 03:33:07 +0200 reply
http://www-evasion.imag.fr/Publications/2004/BN04/
these here via:
- http://studio.kyperjokki.fi/FirstAndLast/ProceduralContentCreation
Next page: Blender_3D: Noob to Pro/Advanced Tutorials/Python Scripting/Scripts for
modifying meshes
Previous page: Blender 3D: Noob to Pro/Advanced Tutorials/Python Scripting/Import scripts
Scripts for modifying meshes
Next page: Blender 3D: Noob to Pro/Advanced Tutorials/Python Scripting/Creating a GUI for
your script
Previous page: Blender_3D:_Noob_to_Pro/Advanced_Tutorials/Python_Scripting/Procedural_object_creation
(to be written)
Also see saltshaker (http://saltshaker.sourceforge.net/) a basic but function python script for
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blender, page includes details of how it was made.
Next page: Blender 3D: Noob to Pro/Advanced Tutorials/Python Scripting/Creating a GUI for
your script
Previous page: Blender_3D:_Noob_to_Pro/Advanced_Tutorials/Python_Scripting/Procedural_object_creation
Creating a GUI for your script
Next page: Blender_3D:_Noob_to_Pro/Advanced_Tutorials/Advanced_Animation/index
Previous page: Blender_3D:_Noob_to_Pro/Advanced_Tutorials/Python_Scripting/Scripts_for_modifying_meshes
It is very easy to create a GUI for your script, and that way make it easy to change aspects of
it for everyone.
(to be written)
Next page: Blender_3D:_Noob_to_Pro/Advanced_Tutorials/Advanced_Animation/index
Previous page: Blender_3D:_Noob_to_Pro/Advanced_Tutorials/Python_Scripting/Scripts_for_modifying_meshes
Advanced Animation
Next page: Introduction
Previous page: Creating a GUI for your script
This section will show you the Animation system as it is in Blender 2.4. Most of the features
will be explained and some tutorials will follow. I assume the user has a good understanding
of Blender here.
This text is based on a presentation I did at the Montreal Blender Conference. I hope you'll
find it useful and instructive.
Gabriel Beloin aka --Gabio 23:59, 31 October 2005 (UTC)
If you wish to discuss it further: Visit us at Elysiun: Animation Workshop 2
(http://www.elysiun.com/forum/viewtopic.php?p=511798#511798)
Index
Advanced Animation
Introduction
Guided tour:
Armature Object
Armature Object in Object Mode
Armature Object in Edit Mode
Armature Object in Pose mode
Mesh Object
Connection between Armature and Mesh
Envelope
Vertex Groups & Weight Paint
Shape Key
Constraints
Copy Location
Copy Rotation
Track-To
Floor
Locked Track
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Follow Path
Stretch-To
IK Solver
Timeline Window
IPO Window
Data Type
Channel
Curve Edition
Driven IPO
Action Window
Introduction To Action Data Block
Key Edition
NLA Window
Introduction To NLA Editor
Key Editor In the NLA
Strip Edition
Strip's Properties (NKEY)
The Stride feature
Working example: Bird
Build The Rig
Add Constraints
Deform The Mesh
Create A Fly Cycle
Working example: Bob
Build The Rig
Add Constraints
Deform The Mesh
Create Shape Key
Create A Walk Cycle
Next page: Introduction
Previous page: Creating a GUI for your script
Introduction
Next page: Guided tour
Previous page: Advanced Animation
Welcome to the wonderful yet complex world of computer animation! Through these pages I
will try to show you everything old and new about the new animation system in Blender 2.4.
But, before we get started, there are some basic notions about datablocks you should know.
Animation in Blender is based on the fact that you have something moving in a Blender
scene. For example, a ball bouncing on a floor plane:
-So you have a scene datablock, which holds some info about the scene itself, as you can see
in the Render button window (F10KEY). -You populate this scene with various objects (which
in this case refers to containers for data, not the actual mesh data that shapes the object
itself). The only goal of an object is to hold the whereabouts of the data you want to see in
your scene. It also holds the object instance's properties such as "does it have soft body or
particle options, and do we draw its name?". Most of the info on an object can be seen in the
Object Window (F7KEY).
An object links to all of the data you can see in a 3D view such as mesh, curves, nurbs,
lattices, armatures, metadata, the empty property, text, camera and lamps.
So the ball you just added to the scene is in fact a mesh, linked to an object that is in turn
linked to the current scene.
Now there are also data blocks you can't see in 3D view, such as material, texture, Ipo,
action and image. Instead, you have a special window in which to edit them. This is the idea
behind the Blender interface, wherein each data block has a window for you to edit the data.
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So back to this bouncing ball: It's also moving across the plane! So an ""Ipo"" data block is
linked to the object, telling it where in space the object will be at each frame of the
animation. This Ipo is editable in the Ipo window when selecting the ball in 3D view. In
Blender, the work you are performing is always on the currently active (selected) object and
data.
Looking at the OOPS (object oriented programming system) view (or SHIFT-F9KEY), we can
get a good idea of the internal data structure:
Again, you are working in the scene "Scene", with an object "Sphere" linked to the mesh data
block "Sphere" and the Ipo datablock "ObIpo". Why is that important? Because from there,
you can start playing with the datablocks, linking them all around your projects to reuse old
work. For example you can create more than one Ipo, and use the one you want, or tell more
than one object to use the same Ipo, or to use the same object in more than one Scene.
Most of the linking job can be done in the Edit button window (F9KEY). Where you can tell
an object to use another mesh's data block for Ipo, material, texture or image. There is
always a little dropdown menu button for you to select an already-existing data block.
Now, when it comes to animation, you have to understand the way Blender handles data very
well, because using Blender is always a matter of plugging data blocks together when
working with Ipos, actions and NLA objects.
Next page: Guided tour
Previous page: Advanced Animation
Guided tour:
Next page: Armature Object
Previous page: Introduction
Here I'll show you all the stuff you need to know about the interface when animating. Where
is it? How does it work? Why use it?
We are going to talk about:
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Armature Object
Mesh Object
Constraints
Timeline Window
IPO Window
Action Window
NLA Window
Next page: Armature Object
Previous page: Introduction
Armature Object
Next page: Armature Object in Object Mode
Previous page: Guided tour:
The Armature Object in itself is a tool for the animator to move an object or group of vertices
in a reliable way. An armature is made of bones, which can be parented to each other, or
connected to each other. It was built with the idea of a skeleton in mind.
You can add it using the SPACEKEY in 3Dview and selecting Armature. You'll then enter into
editmode where you can add or move bones to build your default rig. An armature has 3
states. You can switch using the dropdown menu in the header of the 3Dview or use TABKEY
to switch between Editmode <-> [Objectmode|Posemode] and CTRL-TABKEY to switch
between Objectmode <-->Posemode:
Object Mode: Your armature is like any other Object, you can move it around the scene,
scale it, rotate it and edit options in the button window.
Edit Mode: Your armature is in what we call rest position, you can modify the bones it
contains.
Pose Mode: Your armature is ready to be animated, each bone can be moved, scaled or
rotated, constraints get applied, you can pose your character and animate the bones'
behavior over time.
Take note that Pose mode is now a state of the armature you can switch on/off using
CTRL-TABKEY. So when in Pose, you are still in object mode (you can select another
object, contrary to the editmode)
Note: The following 3 pages of this tutorial contain screenshots and discuss techniques that
are only avialable in Blender 2.40a and later. Refer to the Blender 2.40a release notes
(http://www.blender.org/cms/Blender_2_40_alpha.598.0.html) on Armature draw types and
Armature envelopes.
Next page: Armature Object in Object Mode
Previous page: Guided tour:
Armature Object in Object Mode
Next page: Armature Object in Edit Mode
Previous page: Armature Object
The Armature Object
Armature Object is like any other object type:
It has a center, a position, a rotation and a scale factor.
It can be edited.
It can be linked to other scenes, and the same armature data can be reused on multiple
objects.
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All animation you do in object mode is only working on the object, not the armature's
contents like bones.
Try it now: add an armature to your scene: SPACEKEY --> Add --> Armature.
When you add a new armature, you'll enter editmode automatically. To switch between
modes, use the TABKEY or the dropdown menu in the Header of the 3Dview window:
The Edit Panel When in Object Mode
This is how the edit panel looks after you have added a new armature and switched to object
mode (TABKEY):
Link and Materials panel:
The AR: field let you rename your armature Datablock. The dropdown is a quick way
to select which Armature datablock you want to connect to this armature. You can
keep more than one version for the same character. Useful when you have a special
move to achieve in a shot, you can turn on an armature for a special purpose.
The F button is an option to assign a Fake user to the Armature. Again if you have
more than one armature for your character, it's a good idea to turn the Fake on,
because if your armature datablock is not used (linked) it's not going to be saved in
your .blend files. You can always do batch Fake-assignment of armatures by opening
the Datablock browser (SHIFT-F4KEY), go in Armature datablock, select all the
armatures you want to keep, and Press the FKEY.
The OB: field is just to Rename your armature Object to something more cool and
useful than Armature... Armature.001...
Armature panel:
Editing Options:
X-Axis Mirror Edit: Not really useful now, it's more of an editmode option. This
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feature tells Blender you want to replicate all of your bones on one part of the
Armature to the other. It's a clean way to just do half the job ;). The axis of
mirroring is X so left<-->right in frontview (NUMPAD_1KEY) and the center is
the center of the armature object. We will see this feature in detail in the next
page.
X-Ray: This option will let you see the armature through anything in the scene,
solid or not. It's useful to see where your bones are in your character so you can
select them.
Automatic IK is a Posemode option. It lets you pose a chain of bones as if the
bone you were holding was an ik target. More info in Posemode page.
Display Options: These options give you the chance to visualise your bones in various
ways. Also note that there is some specific options and features regarding the
display mode you're in.
Octahedron: This is the default view. Nothing exciting except you have a good
idea of the rolling of the bones.
Stick: This display mode is really useful when you have a lot of bones in your
view. It lets you "unclutter" the screen a bit. It draws the bones as tiny sticks.
B-Bones: It's more a feature than a display mode. This is only useful to visualise
the effect you get when you activate the B-bones (Bezier-Bones). Each bone acts
like a curve handle and lets you get extremely curvy poses. This will be exposed
in the following pages.
Envelope: Again it's more a feature than a display mode. But in this case the
visualisation will be useful to tweak your rig later. Envelope lets you easily tell
which part of you character this bone will animate and it's visually possible to
change the zone of influence exclusively in this display mode. The zone is only
visible in Editmode or Posemode though.
Draw Axes: To draw the axes on each bone of the armature when you are in
Editmode or Posemode. Useful when you want to know where you are and which
axis to use in a constraint for example. Mental note: Y is up, Z is depth and X is
side, contrary to object for which Z is up, Y is depth and X is side.
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Draw names: This lets you see names of bones whatever the mode you are in. It's
useful again to edit your armature, create parent dependencies or add
constraints.
Ghost: This option lets you see a ghost of the armature in frames behind and
over the current time. This is only working when you have an action linked to the
armature, as we will see later.
Step (Armature_button_obj.jpg needs update): This option lets you choose the
frames interval between ghost instances.
Deform options:
Vertex Groups & Envelope: These two toggles let you choose if you want the
armature to deform your character using the Vertex Groups and/or the
Envelopes. We will see that later.
Rest position: This will bring the character back to factory default (item as
Editmode), and no actions will be applied to the armature so you can easily edit
it in the middle of an animation.
Delay Deform: This was useful before as the old system was very slow. What it
does is when you do a manipulation to the rig, it waits until you finish to update
the view. Can still be useful though.
Next page: Armature Object in Edit Mode
Previous page: Armature Object
Armature Object in Edit Mode
Next page: Armature Object in Pose mode
Previous page: Armature Object in Object Mode
Now you've got your armature, but it's not much use until you add some more bones to it.
Think about your body for a moment -- you've got this thing you call a 'skeleton', which for
our purposes correspondings more or less to an armature object. Your skeleton consists of a
number of bones (about 206, to be precise), but generally these are not independent from
each other. If you move your femur (the bit of your leg between your pelvis and your knee)
then conveniently the rest of your leg moves with it. In that example, the tibia/fibula would
probably be counted as one bone, with the femur as their 'parent' bone. In this way, you
build up a hierarchy of bones, making animation much simpler.
Editing an Armature Object gives you the chance to add, move or connect bones together.
Whilst in edit mode, you will see all of the bones within the currently selected Armature.
When you create a new armature in Object mode a single bone will automatically be created
for you, centered at the cursor position. Blender will then switch straight to Edit mode to
allow you to add further bones. At this point we're just defining the default 'rest' position of
the bones and specifying how they connect together -- you'll have to wait until the next
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chapter to find out how to create specific poses.
Now the basics about bones
Having created and selected an armature in Object mode, you can add and
modify the bones in this armature by switching to Edit mode.
You can add a new bone at cursor position by pressing SPACEKEY in
the 3DView --> Add --> Bone.
A bone has two ends: a root (the lower part) and a tip (the upper part).
You can select and move the tip or the root independently with RMB,
or you can select the entire bone by clicking on its body.
You can extrude a new bone from the selection using EKEY. This will
create a bone connected to the original one, meaning the Root of the
new bone will follow the Tip of the original one. You can also
CTRL-LMB to extrude a new bone. It will extrude to where you clicked.
Alternatively, you can connect two existing bones by selecting them one after the other
and pressing CTRL-PKEY. You can then choose either 'Connected' (the child bone - the
one you selected second - will automatically be moved so that it touches the parent) or
'Keep offset'.
You can use SHIFT-DKEY to duplicate a bone
Using the WKEY menu, You can subdivide your bone or flip the name of the bone
between Left-Right (See Naming convention below).
You can delete the bone with XKEY
You can select a chain of bones (connected together) using LKEY, when you hover your
mouse over a bone.
The edit panel
Armature Bones Panel
BO: this field lets you rename your bone.
"Child of" Dropdown: lets you choose which bone will be the parent of this bone. If a
parent is selected, there will be a small button labelled "con", meaning connected.
Setting the parent defines the relationship between your bones. When one bone has
another as its parent, it will do everything the parent does, such as rotate, move and
scale. A dotted line between the parent and child will appear. If you select
Connected, the Root of the Children will go stick to the tip of the parent, giving you a
chain of bones like the 2 bones in your arm.
Segm: If you set this value to something greater than 1, it will cut your bone into
several little segments and deform them on a bezier curve - referred to as a 'B-Bone'.
You need to create a chain of bones to really show off this feature though. In the
example below, the image on the right has 1 segment, and the one on the left has 3
segments each (these are shown in Object mode to show the effect more clearly):
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Dist: This is the area of influence of the bone. It can be visualised using the Envelope
display mode. We generally don't touch this field as there is an easier and faster way
to change this option. Turn Envelope on and select a bone. Then using ALT-S, you
can scale the zone of influence. This has the advantage that you can do it on multiple
bones simultaneously, and it works in both editmode and posemode:
Weight: This specifies how strongly this bone will influence the geometry around it,
relative to the other bones. If two bones crossing each other, both with envelope
influence, have the same weight (like 1:1) they will influence the surrounding
geometry equally. But if you set one to 0.5, the geometry will be affected more
significantly by the other one, with weight 1. For example, in this image, 2 bones
using envelope influence try to move the same geometry. The 2 on the left have the
same weight, you can see the geometry didn't move. On the right, one of the bones
has 0.5 so the bone with weight 1 is winning the tug-of-war!:
Hinge: This tells the bone to remain motionless in a chain. It doesn't copy the
rotation and scale of the parent. Useful for mechanical rig I would say, as you can
animate the rotation of the hinge bone without having to correct it because the
parent rotated:
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Deform: This lets you say if you want the bone to deform the geometry at all.
Switching it off is like setting the weight to 0, except it's faster this way. Useful when
using a bone as a target or a controller, i.e. a bone you just want to use to control
other bones, but not the geometry itself.
Mult: to deform geometry you can use vertex group and/or Envelope. The ability to
mix both of these methods is handy for using one to tweak the other. For example,
you might use envelope everywhere but tweak difficult places manually with vertex
group. We'll discuss this in more detail later on.
Hide: This option lets you hide the bone. You can use it to hide the less important
bones when you want to see what you're doing or for when you come to animate
later on. For example, when you animate you don't need to see the entire chain of
the leg, just the controllers. The values you select here apply to both Editmode and
Posemode.
Naming convention
In many cases, rigs are symmetrical and can be mirrored in half. In these cases, it is helpful
to use a left-right naming convention. This is not only useful for your own sake, but it gives
Blender a hint that there is a pair of equivalent bones, and enables the use of some very cool
tools that will save you some significant work.
It's helpful to name your bones with something useful telling you what it's there for, such
as leg, arm, finger, back, foot, etc.
If you get a bone that has a copy on the other side, however, like the arm (you have 2
arms right?), then the convention is to call them arm.Left and arm.Right.
Other alternatives are also possible, like _L, _LEFT, _left, .L, and .Left. Anyway, when
you rig try to keep this left-right thing as accurate as possible; it will pay off later on.
You can copy a bone named blah.L and flip it over using WKEY --> flip name. So the bone
will be blah.L.001 after you copy it, and flipping the name will give you blah.R. Blender
handily detects if the .001 version already exists, and increments the number for you.
This is an example of naming in a simple rig:
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Mirror Editing
Now we come to the X-Axis Mirror Edit feature. This handy little number allows you to define
only half of your character and tell Blender to automatically repeat the same actions on the
other side. It's cool, it's simple and it saves a whole lot of time.
We will create a little guy out of sticks for the occasion -- don't worry about the geometry yet.
Add a new armature to an empty scene. Enable 'Draw names' from the 'Display options'
section of the Editbutton panel, so we can see what we're doing. You'll also need to
enable the X Axis Mirror Edit mode that we're going to use, under 'Editing options'.
Since, by definition, this feature mirrors along the X Axis, make sure you've got the front
view selected (NUMPAD_1KEY) so that the X Axis runs from left to right. You'll also need
to use the center of the armature (indicated by a purple dot) as the center of your rig,
otherwise the symmetry will go wrong when we come to create the mirror image.
Name the first bone you have "Back". You can scale it to make the entire back of the guy.
Select the tip of this and extrude a new bone from it to do the Head. Name it Head.
Select the tip of Back again and do SHIFT-EKEY to tell blender you're starting a
mirrored chain of bones. Blender will automatically extrude another bone and will create
an exact mirror of whatever you do. Take note that the name of both bones are Back_L
and Back_R. Blender also tries to keep to the naming convention. Unfortunately, since
we extruded from the Back bone, the names aren't quite right anymore.
To change the names: Start by editing one of the names as Arm. Add the suffix to it (_L
or _R). Then hover you mouse over the name field and do CTRL-CKEY. You just copied
the name of the bone! Select the other bone, hover you mouse over the name field and
do CTRL-VKEY. This will paste the name as-is. But as there is already a bone with the
same name, Blender will add .001 after it. No problem; just go into 3Dview and do WKEY
--> Flip name. There you have it -- a working mirror again.
Mirror editing works using names. If you move a bone named blah_L and there is a bone
named blah_R in the same armature, Blender will mirror the move you do to it, so make
sure you follow name convention correctly.
Then we can continue: extrude an other bone to make the lower part of the arm using
EKEY or CTRL-LMB. The new set of bones should be arm_L.001 arm_R.001.
Then we will add the legs. Up till now we have always worked from the tips of the bone.
This is easy as blender understand you want to create children of the selected bone, but
to make the legs you need to extrude from the root of "Back". So go ahead, select the
root of "Back" and do SHIFT-EKEY to start a pair of chains. Rename them to "leg"+suffix.
Now take note that doing so will not parent or connect the new bones to anything. We
don't want it to be connected to the tip of "Back", it would look silly. But we want it to
follow the body!
The way to go is to parent the two leg we just created to the "Back" bone. The old way
(pre 2.40) was to select all bone and select the parent manually in the drop down. There
is an active bone and a selected bone now in editmode and posemode. The active bone is
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the last you selected. Selected bone are all other selected bone. In this case we can't
work with more than 2 bones selected. Select the child (a leg) then select the parent
(Back) and Do CTRL-PKEY. A menu will popup asking connected or "keep offset". The
difference is as simple as connected or not. For now use "keep offset" so you just parent
it. Do it for each leg.
it's also possible to remove parent easily. Select any bone you want to remove parent
relation from and do ALT-PKEY. A menu will popup asking if you want to clear all or just
to unconnect. Of course you don't need to select the parent and/or the child for this to
work since any parent relationship will be cleared. So if you do that on a bone which is
parent of 5 bones, then immediately all the children will be parentless.
Extrude one more time to get a leg with 2 bones.
Turn on the Stick display mode and enjoy your guy made of sticks!
Now you can go into Posemode and pose your guy as you want.
You can move the entire guy just by moving the "Back" bone, since this is how we built
him. This bone is the highest in the bone hierarchy, "The daddy of all bones", you could
say!
Next page: Armature Object in Pose mode
Previous page: Armature Object in Object Mode
Armature Object in Pose mode
Next page: Mesh Object
Previous page: Armature Object in Edit Mode
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Posemode is a very versatile place where you Animate your character, create and manage
constraints and apply your rig to your character.
Contrary to Editmode, Pose mode isn't an obligatory mode where you can't do anything else.
It's now part of the UI like any other object. A good example of it is you can be in posemode
and still select another object.
So What Can You Do?
When you are done building your armature, you can go into Posemode to add constraints and
start creating actions. There are also some new tools accessible in Posemode that you may
want to look at. You can easily get into "pose" mode by selecting the mode from IPO type list
box in the left portion of the lower screen.
The panel has changed a bit too:
What's new in the panels?:
You can use the Automatic IK feature in the Editbutton(F9) to pose a chain of bones
like it was an ik chain. It's usefulness is very limited though. It works well only if
there is no other ik solver in the chain, and if your chain is isolated from the rest of
the rig.
Ghost: in the armature panel the ghost option lets you see the action linked to the
armature over time. Also called onion skinning.
There are two number fields to better tweak the effect of B-Bones. The in/out is used
to tell the scale of the virtual handle of the besier curve. In is the Root of the bone,
and Out is the Tip. The bigger the value, the bigger the effect of rotation.
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There is now a Constraint panel where you can add a constraint to a bone, like any
other object in the scene. This will be shown later.
You can pose your rig using GKEY, SKEY and RKEY. Note that if the bone is part of a
chain it can't be moved (except if it's the first of the chain, moving all the chain as they
are all children), so you rotate the bone instead.
You can do ALT-SKEY on one or more bones while in Envelope display mode to tweak the
envelope size in real time while animating. Useful when for example you move the hand
and some part of the character isn't in the influence zone; the result will be that some
vertices will stay behind.
You can do CTRL-CKEY to copy stuff from a bone to bones. The options are location,
rotation, scale and constraint. Constraint is very handy when you wan to copy a
constraint to other bone. The way it works is easy.
The WKEY menu get some neat options too:
Select constraint target: Will select the target of the bone's constraint currently
selected.
Flip name: Yep, you can flip name in Posemode too.
Calculate/Clear path: This is a visual way to see the action linked to your armature.
You can select just some bones and ask Blender to show you the paths of the bones.
You can pose your character and select all bones you want to see included in the action
and press IKEY. You can insert a key just for loc, rot or size. Avail will add a key to all
available channels in IPO window (all channels you previously added something).
When you insert key for your armature, a new action is created and linked to the
armature if there was no action before. You can also see the curves of each selected
bone of the armature in the IPO window. We will see action window and IPO window
later.
You can parent a bone to an external object by selecting this object then selecting the
bone in question so it's active (The armature is in Posemode so you can select a bone).
Do CTRL-PKEY. Then when you move the bone the object will follow. This kind of Hard
relationship doesn't include any bending at all. It's useful when doing robot rigs as you
are just moving objects around.
Next page: Mesh Object
Previous page: Armature Object in Edit Mode
Mesh Object
Next page: Connection between Armature and Mesh
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Previous page: Armature Object in Pose mode
This section will explain you how to deform your mesh using the armature.
There are two ways to tell Blender which vertex will go with which bone: Vertex group, and
Envelope.
There is also a tool useful when animating which is part of the mesh object: the Shape key, to
create a preset deformation. For example: deform the face to look like a smile.
Connection between Armature and Mesh
Envelope
Vertex Groups & Weight Paint
Shape Key
Next page: Connection between Armature and Mesh
Previous page: Armature Object in Pose mode
Connection between Armature and Mesh
Next page: Envelope
Previous page: Mesh Object
How to tell Blender: "use this armature to deform this mesh"?
The Armature Modifier
Blender now has a Modifier stack (Editbutton, F9KEY). As such, we should use it over
existing methods to pair mesh and armature, as the modifier stack is optimised and simple to
use. Note: You don't need to parent the mesh to the Armature anymore. The only case you
could need to do this would be animating the Armature object itself. Then the mesh should
also follow the armature. In this case select mesh, then armature, and do CTRL-PKEY -->
Object.
The clean way to do so is to go in the Editbutton window (F9KEY) and press "Add modifier"
in the Modifier panel, then select "armature" in the dropdown menu. Then you'll get a new
modifier "Armature" like the previous picture. There you can change the name by clicking on
the name field, enable/disable the modifier when rendering, enable/disable when working to
only move the armature (could get handy with massive character), and when editing (that's
very handy, you can edit the topology while it's deformed). There are also two toggles to tell
Blender what it should use to deform: Vertex Groups and/or Envelopes. You may have
noticed these options are repeated also in the Editbutton --> Armature panel, but as the
tooltip says: these two are used when you use virtual modifier (the old way) to keep
compatibility with old files.
Parenting the mesh to the "armature" will create an old-way link, still visible in the modifier
stack, but not very useful. The first entry with the "make real" button is what appends if you
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do a CTRL-PKEY to "armature". You should not use that kind of connection when you see
that. Press "make real" to get a working modifier.
The Old Way
This way is not recommended but can still be useful. When doing CTRL-PKEY to "armature",
you will get a menu like this:
Don't Create Groups will just create a virtual modifier so you can deform the mesh (the
"make real" button)
Name Groups is almost useless now as blender will create a group for you when you do
weight painting.
Create From Closest Bones is a function to remember when you want to bake all your
envelopes to vertex groups.
Tip: Bake envelope to vertex groups
The workflow is very simple. When you are done with the envelope's tweaking and you have
gotten the best out of it, delete the Armature modifier and parent the mesh to the
armature(CTRL-PKEY). Parent it to "armature" when asked and "Create From Closest
Bones". Do ALT-PKEY and redo the Armature modifier. Now all the envelope influence are
converted to Vertex Groups. This way you can further tweak influence zone using Weight
paint. More info in the following pages.
Next page: Envelope
Previous page: Mesh Object
Envelope
Next page: Vertex Groups & Weight Paint
Previous page: Connection between Armature and Mesh
What is Envelope
Envelope is a new visual tool to help you rig your characters faster and easier. It can often
save you a lot of time. Each bone has a special area around it, allowing you to tell Blender
what part of the geometry will follow each bone. This zone is customizable so you can move,
scale and blend them together.
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Edit Envelope
You can edit this white zone in Editmode or posemode by going in Envelope display mode,
selecting bones and using SKEY or ALT-SKEY.
In Editmode: you can select the Tip, the Body or the Root and scale using SKEY. This area in
the middle will assign a weight of 1 to all vertices contained in here. All vertices with a
weight of 1 will completely follow this bone. The white tranparent area around the center is a
zone of influence which loses power as you go away from the center. Example of influence
(http://www.blender.org/cms/typo3temp/pics/e1c577807c.jpg) This area is scaled when
selecting the body of a bone and doing ALT-SKEY. In Posemode: You can only scale the zone
of influence with ALT-SKEY when in Envelope display mode. It's realtime, and lets you tweak
the influence while you animate. So if you notice there is a vertex not following in the new
pose you just did: Just select the bone it should follow, and scale the zone a bit until the
vertex goes back with his friends. Example:
Envelope Options
It's possible to enable/disable the use of Envelope in the Modifier stack using the "Envelope"
toggle.
There are also two important buttons in the Armature Bones panel: Deform and Mult.
Enabling the Deform button will tell Blender to deform geometry with this bone. It's useful
because in a more complex rig not all the bones are there to deform, some bones are just
there to move other bones.
The Mult option will tell Blender to multiply the weight it get from envelope (let say 0.7) with
the weight you painted in weight paint (let say 0.5). The result will be 0.5*0.7=0.35 so in fact
you just tweaked the envelope influence to 0.3 when it was at 0.7. If you don't want vertices
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to be part of the zone, you can always paint it with 0, as 0*(something) will always give 0.
This way you can give custom shape to your envelope. More on weight paint on next page.
In this example you can see that all the selected vertices are not following the bone. This is
because I painted a weight of 0 on them. In weight paint you'll see nothing. But just the fact
that they are part of the group with a weight of 0 will make that possible. If Mult is off and
you have both a vertex group and envelope, Blender will add value.
Next page: Vertex Groups & Weight Paint
Previous page: Connection between Armature and Mesh
Vertex Groups & Weight Paint
Next page: Shape Key
Previous page: Envelope
What Are Vertex Groups?
Vertex groups are very useful. You can use a vertex group to:
Group vertices together while you model (keep a selection and come back to it later).
Define which vertices softbody simulation affects.
Define which vertices emit particles.
Define which part of a mesh will follow a specific bone.
Vertex groups are specific to the Mesh object and can be modified in Editmode.
If you have vertices assigned to multiple groups (for example, in a character you may have
some vertices in the "upper arm" vertex group that are also in the "lower arm" vertex group),
you can assign weights to those vertices to specify how much relative influence the different
groups have. A weight can range from 0 to 1 and is assigned when you create the group.
Let's take a peek at the GUI of vertex groups in the Editbutton(F9KEY):
From top down:
The dropdown menu lets you select an existing vertex group or rename the current one.
The weight numfield lets you choose the weight value assigned when you add vertices.
You can add a new group or delete the current one.
Assign or remove selected vertices to/from current group.
Select/deselect all vertices in current group.
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Weight Paint
As mentioned above, you may often find that you have some vertices that are assigned to
more than one vertex group. By assigning weights, you can specify the relative influence
each of the vertex groups have. You have two options to assign weights: 1) manually
selecting each vertex and typing in a weight value, or 2) use weight painting to - you guessed
it - paint weights.
Weight painting lets you paint weight values on the mesh like you were painting on a wall
with a can of spray paint. It is a Mode of the 3Dview and is accessible in the 3Dview's header
in the dropdown menu with Objectmode, Editmode and such. A hotkey is also available:
CTRL-TABKEY.
In Weightpaint Mode, the first thing you'll notice is the blue color of the mesh. Blender
provides an easy way to quickly visualise the weight value of each vertex. This is the color
spectrum used:
When you are in Weightpaint mode you can paint all over the mesh as if it was a solid object
on your desk. The paint only works on vertices so don't try to paint in the middle of an edge
or a face, it will never work ;). To help you in your task there is a new panel in Editbutton:
The weight slider is just the same thing as the weight numfield we saw earlier in the
vertex groups button. It's just easier to work with. It's simply the weight you want to
apply to the vertices. In painting terms, think of this as the color.
The buttons from 0 to 1 are shortcuts for weight value, to speed up the workflow.
The opacity slider (and shortcuts) tell Blender what is the percent of the weight value
you want to apply in one shot. If you set opacity and weight to 1 the vertex will turn red
instantly. In painting terms, think of this as the pressure.
"All faces" tells Blender if you want to paint on all faces in the mesh or just the visible
one.
"Vertex Dist" tell blender to use vertex distance instead of faces. When active, the
painting will only check if the vertex is in the brush, then apply a weight value. If it's off,
all vertice part of the faces in the brush will receive weight value. Turning on Vertex Dist
can give good results when you have a lot of polys in you mesh.
"Normals" will apply vertex normals before painting. This means Blender will take
consideration of the direction the vertex is pointing when painting: the more it's facing
away from view, the less it will receive value.
"Spray" really makes it like spraying paint. Without it, a single click will only paint one
value. With Spray on, each time you move the mouse a a paint shot will be added. To get
good effect, use little oppacity value so the weight will top less faster.
"X-mirror" will tell Blender to apply the weight paint on the other group if there is one.
Like Hand.L --> Hand.R. If you paint the group hand.L and there is a hand.R the paint
will be copied over. For this to work your groups must be created, the name of the
groups have to follow name's convention (left right) and both side of the mesh need to be
identical.
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"Wire toggle" toggles the visibility of wire while painting. Useful to find where the
vertices are (activate the edit mode option "Draw all edges" to see even better).
"Mix"/"Add"/"Sub"/"Mul"/"Filter" is how you want to apply the paint based on what is
already there. Mixing will do a mean from brute weight value and current weight value,
"Add"/"Sub" will directly add or subtract value, "Mul" will multiply (exponential painting)
and "Filter" will paint based on alpha value.
Vertex Groups and Armatures
So what use are vertex groups in rigging? You can specify what vertices will move when a
bone moves. When you want to paint a mesh for an armature, do the following:
Make sure the Mesh has an Armature modifier.
Turn Armature into Posemode.
Select the mesh and enter Weightpaint mode (CTRL-TABKEY).
Select the bone you want to paint for with RMB.
Paint what you want.
You'll notice that, if there is no group created when you first paint, Blender will create a
group for you, and give it the same name as the selected bone. This is important, because
when the "Vert. Groups" toggle is on in the Armature modifier, Blender will try to match
bones with Vertex Groups based on the same names.
What happens when we try to blend groups together? See this simple example of 2 bones
trying to bend a tube:
The Groups are painted so the body of each bone is in red and the zone between the two
bones are gradually going from 1 to 0. This will bend nicely. If, for a special reason, you want
a side to react differently, you can always move the bone while painting and try the new
modification you just did. By the way, having Subsurf on while painting can be very cpu
expensive. It's a good idea to turn it off.
Using Weight Painting with Armatures
Armatures are used for many purposes, but one common use is to deform a mesh with an
armature. This example will demonstrate how weight painting can improve
armature-deformed meshes.
In this example, we have two objects; each has an armature modifier applied. The one on the
left is going to be the "before" and the one on the right will be the "after".
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The two objects in this example.
For the object on the left, take a look at the vertex groups as initially assigned (from left to
right: Bone1, Bone2, Bone3, and Bone4). These same vertex groups were assigned for the
object on the right:
Vertex group assignments for each of the
two objects.
Important: A bone in an armature will only act upon those vertices that are in a vertex
group with exactly the same name as the bone.
In Blender 2.37 and previous, this was the ONLY way to get a bone to deform a mesh.
In Blender 2.40 and on, selecting the "Envelope" button in the armature modifier will
allow bones to deform even if you haven't assigned any vertex groups yet.
If you enter Weight Paint mode (CTRL-TAB with object selected) right after assigning the
vertex groups, you can see that the vertex groups as assigned all have a weight of 1.0:
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Initial weights for the vertex groups
assigned above.
OK: both objects have vertex groups assigned and they have armature modifiers. Let's grab a
bone (select the Armature, CTRL-TAB to enter Pose Mode, select Bone4, GKEY to grab, and
move) to deform the mesh. We haven't made the objects different from each other, so after
moving their armatures in the same way . . there's still no difference. That's good.
Armatures deforming objects:
before weight painting
Next page: Shape Key
Previous page: Envelope
Shape Key
Blender Tutorials/Advanced Animation/Guided tour/Mesh/Shape
Constraints
Next page: Copy Location
Previous page: Lip-Sync with Shape Keys
The Constraint
A constraint is what makes everything easier, magic, automatic, customised (add more words
here) in a rig. It tells a bone or an object to do something special based on the position of
another object, and the position of the constrained object itself. There are many constraint
types for you to play with. Most will work everywhere but, the IK solver will only be available
in the Armature Editmode or Posemode.
There are no strict rules to follow for when to use constraints. As long as they save you time
and make everything work by itself. A constraint should never be "time-consuming" or
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difficult to use. Think about the animator who is going to work with this rig (it could be you!).
So, do everything in a smart way.
It's possible to copy constraints from one object/bone to a bunch of objects/bones. A useful
thing to know when doing a repetitive task like rigging all the fingers of a hand. Just select
all bones/objects that you want to give a copy of the constraint, and then select the
bone/object containing the constraints. Press CTRL-CKEY in 3DView, and select Object
Constraints from the popup menu. The idea behind this is to copy the constraints of the
active object to the selection.
When working on an armature in Posemode, the bones will change color if they contain a
constraint. Green for almost all, except for the IK constraint, which turns the bone Yellow.
The Constraint Panel
You can add a Constraint to an object or a bone by going in Object button window(F7) for
objects and bones. Look for a Constraint panel like this (note, it's usually empty):
The panel also appears in Editbutton(F9) when you are in Armature Editmode or Posemode.
So what you get:
A button to add a new Constraint. The choice you have is listed down this page.
When you add a new Constraint, A block get added in the stack. The UI is almost the
same as the Modifier Stack. Each block represent an entry. You can delete it with "X",
move it up or down in the stack, Close or open it.
Constraints are calculated from first to last. So if you have two Constraints working on
the same channel, let say Location, The last one will most probably win the chance to
move the object. But...
Most of the constraints have influence slider to tell how much it influence on the stack. If
the last constraint have an influence of 0.5 it will mix the result with the one before.
You can animate the influence of the Constraint by moving the time, changing the
Influence and adding a key with the "key" button. The "show" button will bring the
correct curve in the IPO window for you to edit it.
You can change the name of the Constraint by clicking on the name when the constraint
is open.
By Clicking on the white jacket of the Constraint you select which one is active for
edition, same as "show" button.
If most of the Constraint you can enter the name of the Object you want to work with as
a target or reference. For a bone, you need to enter in which Armature object it is, then
an other field for the bone name will appear. When filling those fields, remember you can
use autocompletion using TAB.
The Constraint Index
Copy Location
Copy Rotation
Track-To
Floor
Locked Track
Follow Path
Stretch-To
IK Solver
Action
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Next page: Copy Location
Previous page: Lip-Sync with Shape Keys
Copy Location
Next page: Copy Rotation
Previous page: Constraints
Copy Location
The Copy Location constraint does as the name states: it will copy the location of the target
to the source (constrained object). Less Influence will drag the constrained object less and
less to the target.
If it's an armature, a new field will appear to let you tell which bone will be the target. Don't
forget TABKEY completion while writing the name of your object/bone!
You can tell Blender to work only on the selected axis. Many uses are possible :)
The Constraint Panel
The Target field will let you select which Object the constraint holder will follow.
Where To Use It
Most of the time this little constraint is useful to stick objects to one another. By playing with
the Influence you can tell when it will work, when it will remain motionless.
A good use of it is to ask a character to pick up something. By having a bone or empty for
each side of the releationship (hand <-> glass), as the hand approaches the glass, you can
align the two empties and fire the constraint up (1.00) to stick them together. You add
another child-bone in the middle of the hand to tell where the glass will be. Thus moving the
hand will move the glass. On the side of the glass just add an empty and make it parent of
the glass. Add a copy location to the empty pointing to the bone in the hand we just did.
There you go. Of course when the hand rotates the glass will not. For that you will need to
add a Copy Rotation Constraint.
Before Blender 2.40, the above method was a good way of faking parent relationship without
rotation. But now we have the hinge option which does the same.
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Create this kind of tracking device using the X Y Z toggle button
[Link to the Blend
(http://satishgoda.com/blender/projects/TrackingDevice/feb0406_trackingDevice.blend) ]
Next page: Copy Rotation
Previous page: Constraints
Copy Rotation
Next page: Track-To
Previous page:Copy Location
Copy Rotation
This constraint copies the rotation of the target. As simple as that. It can be an object or a
bone. As you can see in the example, only the rotation gets copied.
The Constraint Panel
You have 3 buttons to select which axis get copied over.
Where To Use It
Can be used with Copy Location to fake parent relationship. As you can key the influence you
can make a character pickup something and holding it in his hands. Check the .blend for the
hand-glass scene.
(?)link to the Blend(?)
You can also use this to align a plane with a 2D effect on it to the camera at all times. This
works better than pointing it at the camera in some cases, such as a ring of atmospheric halo
around a planet, where you don't want it disappear behind the planet.
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Next page: Track-To
Previous page: Copy Location
Track-To
Next page: Floor
Previous page: Copy Rotation
Track-To
The Track-To constraint lets you influence the Rotation of the constrained object by making
it track a target with one of the constrained object's axis.
The Constraint Panel
You can enter the name of the target you want to track.
The can select which axis is going to track the target.
You can select which axis is going to stay up.
Where To Use It
A good example of use is the make a camera track an object. The setting to use on a camera
is track: -Z and up: Y. You can turn Axis drawing in objectbutton window to help you choose
the good axis.
Another example with armature would be the eyes of a character:
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(?)link to the Blend(?)
Next page: Floor
Previous page: Copy Rotation
Floor
Next page: Locked Track
Locked Track
Blender 3D: Noob to Pro/Advanced Tutorials/Advanced Animation/Guided tour/Const/lt
Follow Path
Next page: Stretch-To
Locked Track
Follow path
Image:Ie cons
The Constraint Panel
Image:Panel
Where To Use It
Image:Example
(?)link to the Blend(?)
Next page: Stretch-To
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Locked Track
Stretch-To
Next page: IK Solver
Follow Path
Stretch-To
Image:Ie cons
The Constraint Panel
Image:Panel
Where To Use It
Image:Example
(?)link to the Blend(?)
Next page: IK Solver
Follow Path
IK Solver
Next page: Action
Previous page: Stretch-To
The IK solver
The IK solver constraint is a wonderful tool for all animators. IK stand for "Inverse
Kinematic" and is the opposite of FK (Forward Kinematic, Duh!).
FK: You have a dependancy to the root of the chain. In Blender, a FK chain is a chain of
bones connected together. You have to animate the bones rotation one by one to get it
animated. It takes longer, but gives you entire control over the rig.
IK: Both ends are roots. All bones in the chain are trying to rotate to keep both ends on
targets. Now this Constraint got most of the attention durring Animation refactoring,
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hopefully we have a lot of toys to play with now.
The IK solver has a special shortcut in Posemode to be added easily to a bone. If you select a
bone and press 'CTRL-IKEY', You get a little menu asking for more info on the new
constraint, the target: to a new empty object or without target. It's now possible to work
without target. Though you have less freedom (no rot feature, difficult parent relationship).
You can also select the target and then the IK constraint holder and press CTRL-IKEY. With
this way of selecting ensure that your target is selected, but the bone you want to apply the
constraint to is active (the last one selected). The menu will then let you add a constraint to
the current bone with a target. If the target would itself be part of the IK chain, you get an
error message - so make sure the target bone is not connected to the bone you want to add
the constraint to.
It's also possible to remove all IK constraints from selected objects or bones with
'ALT-IKEY'.
USER: WHY my ctrl+i doesn't show menu ??? (ver. 2.41)
The Constraint Panel
You can rename the constraint.
You can select which Object or bone will be the target. Don't forget Tab completion.
The Rot button let you tell Blender to use the rotation of the target to influence the rest
of the chain:
The Tip button lets you tell Blender which part of the bone is the target, the Tip or the
Root. It's interesting to use tip, because this way the Bone holding the IK constraint can
be used to deform geometry.
Len lets you tell Blender the length of the chain the IK solver will try to rotate. If set to 0,
the entire chain will enter in the constraint. If for example the len is 4, only the 4 last
bones of the chain will try to touch the target.
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Also If you set len to 0 and your chain's root is a child of another bone, The IK solver will
reach and rotate all the bones until it gets to the end of the parent relationship. If all the
bones are linked up to a master root, then all other sub-branchs will be affected. If there
is another IK target in other sub-branchs of the rig, Blender will try to mix them. This
concept of multiple IK targets in a rig is called Tree IK and can be used to get completely
automated animations. For example like a doll: if you pull one hand, all the body will
follow. In the 3D-view you'll see a yellow line from the IK solver to the root of the chain it
covers. This line appears when you select the bone containing the IK solver.
PosW and RotW let you tell Blender if this IK solver will influence the final result more of
less in the case of a Tree IK setup. With these options it's possible to use an IK solver just
for location and an other one just for rotation.
Tolerance and iterations are performance and precision options. IK solving is done in
more than one pass, the more passes you calculate, the more accurate results you get.
The tolerance is the distance from the IK solver to the target you can accept. If Blender
manages to place the target near enough, it will stop doing iterations. The Iterations
value is a hard limit you set to limit the time blender can reach on each IK solver per
frame. Try to set it to a very low value to know why Blender needs more than one pass ;).
You can set the general influence this constraint will have over bones, and it's
animatable.
Where To Use It
In any chain of bones you don't want to animate by hand but you want both end to be at
precise location. The best example is a leg: The leg is connected to the body and to the foot.
You don't need to animate the 2 bones in the legs, just place the body and the foot, the leg
will follow automagically.
Degree Of Freedom
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DOF are now possible to set for bones in a Ik chain. this way you can set what will block
where. Very usefull when doing mechanical rig as you can limit the move or better, lock
completely an axis.
There you can set a limit on each axis, or completely Lock it.
No limit gives it complete freedom (which is the same as [min:0 max:360] or [min:0
max:0]).
The stiffness let you tell Blender if there is an axis more difficult to rotate than the rest.
If all bone have a stiffness of 1 on X and you try to curve that chain in a way that all
bones need to turn on X to follow the target, the Solving will find really weird poses to
still touch the target without rotating on X.
Next page: Action
Previous page: Stretch-To
Action
Blender 3D: Noob to Pro/Advanced Tutorials/Advanced Animation/Guided tour/Const/act
Timeline Window
Next page: IPO Window
Previous page: IK Solver
Next page: IPO Window
Previous page: IK Solver
IPO Window
Next page: Data Type
Previous page: Timeline Window
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Next page: Data Type
Previous page: Timeline Window
Data Type
Next page: Channel
Previous page: IPO Window
Next page: Channel
Previous page: IPO Window
Channel
Blender 3D: Noob to Pro/Advanced Tutorials/Advanced Animation/Guided tour/ipo/channel
Curve Edition
Blender 3D: Noob to Pro/Advanced Tutorials/Advanced Animation/Guided tour/ipo/curve
Driven IPO
Blender 3D: Noob to Pro/Advanced Tutorials/Advanced Animation/Guided tour/ipo/drive
Action Window
Blender 3D: Noob to Pro/Advanced Tutorials/Advanced Animation/Guided tour/Action/index
Introduction To Action Data Block
Blender 3D: Noob to Pro/Advanced Tutorials/Advanced Animation/Guided tour/Action/intro
Key Edition
Blender 3D: Noob to Pro/Advanced Tutorials/Advanced Animation/Guided tour/Action/Key
NLA Window
(about this placeholder)
Since there has been nothing written on this page for a while, I asked for some basic
information on another forum. I'll just quote what I learned from that forum, and this can be
massaged into a real page of documentation over time. I won't attribute the individual
various quotes, but thank you all for helping out. Remember, ANYONE can edit a Wiki, so
create an account and make this thing better.
The NLA Window
Forum Notes
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It's quite easy and maybe that's why there's no specific tutorial.
Let's say you want to make two actions, AC:Hit and AC:Kick.
Start with poseing Hit and an Action will automatically be created
in the Action Editor consisting of all the Bones that use Action IPO's.
That's done so return to Frame 1 which will be your default Stance of AC:Hit.
Now, in the Action Editor, click the X (delete) next to AC:Hit and the
datablock menu will disappear. (If you Add New instead of deleting then it
will copy selected bones to the new action and you don't always want that).
If you want a new default pose for AC:Kick, then Pose it or the same stance
will be used as was the default in AC:Hit. Pose and Keyframe your Kick
action and name it.
Over in the NLA Editor you can now use Shift-A to add NLA-Strips of your
Actions, Grab and Scale them and use the Transform Properties tab to input
how they Blend.
If you select an Action with the dropdown menu, at first its name will appear in the NLA window
along with its keys. To make this Action into an NLA strip, point at the Action's name in the
NLA and press CKEY.
Close any open Actions by clicking the scary X in the Action Editor. If
you don't do this, only this action will play. Now in the NLA editor,
play the animation.
If you see any keys (diamonds) in the NLA window, instead of strips
(rectangles), you're still editing an action. It's so much easier if you
have both the Action and NLA windows open so you can see whether an Action
is open or not. (Edited by CD38 23 Feb 2006)
Walkthrough
With no Actions selected, both the Action Editor and the NLA Editor appear empty. Here, the
NLA Editor window does list one Object called -Empty because that object is not an
armature but it has some IPO curves attached.
empty nla window
empty action window
Select an Action you've already made. Here, an Armature named Yui has bones involved in a
one-frame action called -AtEase.
nla window with action
action window with action
Convert the listed Action to an NLA Strip in the NLA Editor by pressing the CKEY with the
mouse hovering over the Action to be converted. No change in the Action Editor; it is still
available as an Action.
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nla window converting to a strip
nla window after conversion
Once converted, note the changes in the NLA Editor. The Action icon appears next to the
Armature's name:
. This is actually a button though it does not look like it, and you can
toggle it between the Action and NLA Strips icon by clicking on it:
.
More soon.
Introduction To NLA Editor
Blender 3D: Noob to Pro/Advanced Tutorials/Advanced Animation/Guided tour/NLA/intro
Key Editor In the NLA
Blender 3D: Noob to Pro/Advanced Tutorials/Advanced Animation/Guided tour/NLA/act
Strip Edition
Blender 3D: Noob to Pro/Advanced Tutorials/Advanced Animation/Guided tour/NLA/strip
Strips Properties (NKEY)
Blender 3D: Noob to Pro/Advanced Tutorials/Advanced Animation/Guided tour/NLA/nkey
The Stride feature
At the moment, the best documentation for Blender Stride features can be found here:
Blender Stride Tutorial
(http://www.telusplanet.net/public/kugyelka/blender/tutorials/stride/stride.html)
which takes on where the Official Blender Stride Page
(http://www.blender3d.org/cms/Advanced_Stride_suppor.720.0.html) takes off. Good luck!
Working example: Bird
Blender 3D: Noob to Pro/Advanced Tutorials/Advanced Animation/example/bird/index
Build The Rig
This page is a candidate for speedy deletion. The user who listed it for
deletion gave the following explanation: "no content, creates "deceptive"
bluelink. Remove this tag is content is added"
If you disagree that the page should be speedily deleted, please explain this on
Wikibooks:Votes for deletion.
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asdfasdf
Add Constraints
Blender 3D: Noob to Pro/Advanced Tutorials/Advanced Animation/example/bird/const
Deform The Mesh
Blender 3D: Noob to Pro/Advanced Tutorials/Advanced
Animation/example/bird/connect2mesh
Create A Fly Cycle
Blender 3D: Noob to Pro/Advanced Tutorials/Advanced Animation/example/bird/fly
Working example: Bob
Next Page: Build The Rig
Previous Page: Fly
Because of my involvement with BSoD, this tutorial is not under development at this
time. Instead, go here:
http://mediawiki.blender.org/index.php?title=BSoD/Introduction_to_Rigging
In this tutorial, we are going to be constructing a fully functional, humanoid character, with
a complete rig, and we are going to animate him performing a walk cycle.
Getting Started
If you need a character model for this tutorial, you can download the model shown here
(http://exenex.com/wavez/bob.blend) (-- 404 File not found!!)
Build the Rig
Deform the Mesh
Create a Walk Cycle
Build The Rig
Next Page: Deform the Mesh
Previous Page: Working Example: Bob
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This page is inactive due to my work for the BSoD
If you think you already know what a rig is, then you probably need to read the definition of
"rig" and "rigging" before we get started. It's important to note that an armature is not a rig,
but a rig can be an armature. Assigning a mesh to be deformed by an armature is not
rigging.
A rig should always be designed for the types of animations your character is going to be
performing. Only make your rig as complex as it needs to be to allow for the types of actions
you need.
To make everything with the armature easy to deal with, we're going to make our character
in the crucifix pose. If he's not, you will have headaches trying to deal with bone roll angles.
Once Blender can easily allow the user to roll the bone to align with a roll target, then I'll
edit this tutorial for that. But in the meantime, we will use vertical legs and horizontal arms.
We will build the legs from the side view and arms from the top view.
Center the cursor (shift+c) and add an armature. In Object Mode,
press alt+r to clear the rotation. You have to have a bone for the hip,
and it needs to stick out of his front or his back, so take your pick,
because they both look bad. Don't point the bone upward at some
odd angle, we need to be able to roll the hips easily, and to that end,
we will place the bone horizontally.
In front view, place the cursor and add a bone. IMAGE
In side view, move points and extrude them until your chain looks
like this. Note the slight bend in the knee. This is very important!
IMAGE
Snap your cursor to the root of this chain (shift+s) and add a bone.
Now select the points at the hip joint and the ankle joint, and snap
the cursor to the selection. IMAGE
Select the tip of the newest bone and snap it to the cursor. IMAGE
Now give these bones some names. It's a good idea to use the same
names I do to avoid confusion, since I will refer to the bones by name. Select upperleg.l and
then shift+select leg.l, and press ctrl+p to make upperleg.l the child of leg.l. Do this again,
but make leg.l the child of hip. IMAGE
In front view, center your cursor and select
pivot point
Add Constraints
Blender 3D: Noob to Pro/Advanced Tutorials/Advanced Animation/example/bob/const
Deform The Mesh
Blender 3D: Noob to Pro/Advanced Tutorials/Advanced
Animation/example/bob/connect2mesh
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Create Shape Key
Blender 3D: Noob to Pro/Advanced Tutorials/Advanced Animation/example/bob/shape
Create A Walk Cycle
Blender 3D: Noob to Pro/Advanced Tutorials/Advanced Animation/example/bob/walk
Miscellaneous Tutorials
Blender 3D: Noob to Pro/Miscellaneous Tutorials
All Blender Tutorial Links
Back to Blender 3D
Here you can find useful Blender Tutorial Links in English language. Feel free to add some
cool tutorial, but here only in English. For tutorials in other languages please read About.
Tutorial about editing this pages is described here.
New in 3D world? Read To Those Learning 3D
(http://glenmoyes.com/articles/to_those_learning_3d.shtml) .
Official Blender Documentation
Almost all Manuals you will find in latest official Blender Manual Books. For additional
tutorials look below this topic.
Blender MediaWiki (http://mediawiki.blender.org/index.php/Main_Page) * exposed
Documentation at Blender3D.org
(http://www.blender3d.org/cms/Documentation.628.0.html)
Interface
User Interface
(http://www.blender3d.org/_media/education/quickstart/Blender_User_Interface.html)
Blender Interface Theme Repository (http://www.frontiernet.net/~krich/themes/)
Basic Editing (http://www.ee.oulu.fi/~kapu/cg_course/bigfiles/blender/blendman.html)
Blender Hotkeys
Blender Hotkeys II (http://blender.excellentwhale.com/)
Basic Hotkeys (http://viewhow2.qarbon.com/vf/vkxfjoo/4/hotkeys_viewlet.html) (Java
tutorial, broken link)
Navigating in 3D Space
(http://www.blender3d.org/_media/education/quickstart/Navigating_3D_Space.html)
Product Presentation
(http://www.blender3d.org/Education/index_old.php?sub=TutorialPresentation)
A short overview of functionality
(http://www.blender3d.org/_media/education/quickstart/Blender_Windows.html)
Basic Blender (http://www.planetannihilation.com/terragen/tut_basic.shtml)
Rotation, Scaling and Layers Tutorial
(http://www.blenderwars.com/tut-path.php?module=rotation)
Appending Textures (http://www.b5-blender.com/tutorial4.html)
Basic Blender (http://www.b5-blender.com/tutorial1.html)
Basic Blender Interface (http://viewhow2.qarbon.com/vf/vkxfjoo/3/interface_viewlet.html)
(Java tutorial, broken link)
Basic Interface
193
Blender 3D : Noob to Pro. For latest version visit http://en.wikibooks.org/wiki/Blender_3D:_Noob_to_Pro
(http://www.users.bigpond.net.au/blendage/pages/beginners_tutorials/tut1/basic_interface.html
Basic Loading and Saving
(http://viewhow2.qarbon.com/vf/vkxfjoo/8/saveloadblend_viewlet.html) (Java tutorial,
broken link)
Basic Parenting (http://www.ingiebee.com/Blendermania/Basic%20Parenting.htm)
(broken pictures links: 7.3. 2005)
Basic Scene (http://viewhow2.qarbon.com/vf/vkxfjoo/5/basicscene_viewlet.html) (Java
tutorial, broken link)
Blender Multimedia (http://www.malefico3d.com.ar/tutor/audiovideo-en.html)
Changing Views (http://blender3dfr.free.fr/anglais/tut2/tut2.htm)
First Impression (http://blender3dfr.free.fr/anglais/premiere.htm)
Getting Started (http://blender3dfr.free.fr/anglais/tut1/tut1.htm)
Removing Orphan Vertices
(http://membres.lycos.fr/bobois/Tuts/reperer_sommets_orphelins/sommets_orphilins.html)
Seeing Textures with Alt-Z
(http://membres.lycos.fr/bobois/Tuts/subdiviser_pour_conquerir_la_texture/subdiviser_pour_conq
The Camera (http://www.malefico3d.com.ar/tutor/camera.html)
Stereoscopic camera for editing
(http://brunetton.tuxfamily.org/index.php?n=En.BlenderStereo)
Mesh Modeling
DupliVerts Tutorial (http://dev.newmediaworx.com/johnnyb/bplanet/tut_dupliverts.htm)
Heightmaps (http://members.tripod.com/~funky_munky/tuts/blender/heightmaps.htm)
Mesh Editing Techniques (http://vrotvrot.com/xoom/tutorials/Corridor/Corridor.html)
Object Extrusion and Procedural Objects
(http://vrotvrot.com/xoom/tutorials/mineRide/mineride.html)
Loops Corkscrews Problem
(http://membres.lycos.fr/bobois/Tuts/Courbes/tire_bouchon/tire-bouchon.html)
Loopings Problem (http://membres.lycos.fr/bobois/Tuts/Courbes/Looping/looping.html)
Knots in Curves Problem (http://membres.lycos.fr/bobois/Tuts/Courbes/Aplat/a_plat.html)
ZeTool (http://membres.lycos.fr/bobois/Tuts/Courbes/ZeTool/zetool.html)
DupliFrames Modeling I
(http://membres.lycos.fr/bobois/Tuts/DupliFrames/Modeling/modeling_with_duplifames_en_1.htm
DupliFrames Modeling II
(http://membres.lycos.fr/bobois/Tuts/DupliFrames/Modeling/pizza_boxes/stack_of_boxes_en.html
Dupliframes
(http://membres.lycos.fr/bobois/Tuts/DupliFrames/les_bases/les_bases_en_1.html)
Spin and Spin Dup
(http://membres.lycos.fr/bobois/Tuts/Spin_et_spin_dup/Spin_and_spin_dup_tutorial.html)
Automatized BevOb
(http://membres.lycos.fr/bobois/Tuts/Extrusion_par_bev_ob/Ext1_Ext2/Ext1_Ext2_en.html)
Extrusion along a Path using BevOb
(http://membres.lycos.fr/bobois/Tuts/Extrusion_par_bev_ob/Alignement_des_axes/Alignement_de
Path Extrusion
(http://membres.lycos.fr/bobois/Tuts/Extrusion_par_bev_ob/Les_bases/Les_bases_en.html)
DupliVerts
(http://membres.lycos.fr/bobois/Tuts/DupliVerts/Dupliverts/dupliverts_en.html)
Limit DupliVerts
(http://membres.lycos.fr/bobois/Tuts/DupliVerts/limiter_les_dupliverts_en.html)
Types of Handles for Bezier Curves
(http://membres.lycos.fr/bobois/Tuts/Courbes/Courbes_de_bezier/Types_de_poignees_bezier/Typ
Blender Booleans (http://www.ingiebee.com/Blendermania/Booleans.htm) (broken
pictures links: 7.3. 2005)
Beveled Cube (http://w1.185.telia.com/~u18510119/tutorials/makeacube.pdf) (pdf
tutorial)
Joining/Separating Parts of a Mesh
(http://membres.lycos.fr/bobois/Tuts/joindre_et_separer/joindre_et_separer_ang.html)
Extrusion Controlled by IPO
(http://jmsoler.free.fr/didacticiel/blender/tutor/en_modelextipo00.htm)
Basic objects (http://blender3dfr.free.fr/anglais/tut3/tut3.htm)
Modelling Techniques and Strategies
(http://www.elysiun.com/forum/viewtopic.php?t=21382)
Easily Remove Orphan Edges and Vertices
(http://jmsoler.free.fr/didacticiel/blender/tutor/modesel_somparaz_en.htm)
Non-destructive bevel effect
(http://blendertips.blogspot.com/2006/03/bevel-modifier-workaround.html)
"Cage" Technique Tutorial (http://www.cyphertxt.com/blendertechniquetut.php)
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Nurbs and Subsurface Modeling
IPOs, Lattices, Nurbs & Stuff
(http://dev.newmediaworx.com/johnnyb/bplanet/tut_bottle.htm)
Cross-Sections (http://vrotvrot.com/xoom/tutorials/Cave/Cave.html)
Curve Resolution
(http://membres.lycos.fr/bobois/Tuts/Extrusion_par_bev_ob/DefResolU/DefResolU_en.html
Weight Parameter
(http://membres.lycos.fr/bobois/Tuts/Courbes/Courbes_nurbs/Poids_des_voisins/Poids_des_voisin
OrderU, UniformU and EndpointU
(http://membres.lycos.fr/bobois/Tuts/Courbes/Courbes_nurbs/Influence_de_order/Influence_de_o
Curves -n- Bevels
(http://www.ingiebee.com/Blendermania/curves%20and%20Bevels.htm)
Subsurf Modeling (http://www.malefico3d.com.ar/tutor/subsurf-e.html)
Making a Hole in Subsurf
(http://membres.lycos.fr/bobois/Tuts/subsurfs/Trouer_une_surface/trouer_une_subsurf_ang.html
Subsurf Edge Rolling - Round
(http://membres.lycos.fr/bobois/Tuts/subsurfs/rouler_un_bord/rouler_un_bord_rond_ang.html
Subsurf Edge Rolling - Square
(http://membres.lycos.fr/bobois/Tuts/subsurfs/rouler_un_bord/rouler_un_bord_carre_ang.html
Modeling a fork (http://www.ingiebee.com/Blendermania/fork.htm) (broken pictures
links: 7.3. 2005)
Modeling with lattices - a fork
(http://www.blender3d.org/documentation/htmlI/x10279.html)
Subsurf modeling 2 (http://blender3dfr.free.fr/anglais/tut5/tut5.htm)
Metaballs (http://blender3dfr.free.fr/anglais/tut6/tut6.htm)
Abstract SubSurf modeling I (http://www.deviantart.com/view/26691152/)
Specific Object Modeling
Double-Helix (http://www.deviantart.com/view/27132715/)
Sword (http://alfisko.xhosting.cz/modellingsword.htm)
Turtle (http://www.elysiun.com/forum/viewtopic.php?t=44686)
Leaf Shader Tutorial (http://www.elysiun.com/forum/viewtopic.php?t=39810)
Balcony and Fire Escape (http://www.project-newhorizon.net/bt_p5.htm) (Broken picture
links, 2/1 2006)
Oscilloscope (http://www.elysiun.com/forum/viewtopic.php?t=43289) (MISSING?)
Sears-Roebuck Dairy Barn (http://www.harkyman.com/searsbarn01.html)
Golf Ball
(http://www.elysiun.com/forum/viewtopic.php?t=31781&postdays=0&postorder=asc&start=15
Celtic Knot (http://jmsoler.free.fr/didacticiel/blender/tutor/cpl_celticknot_en.htm)
Simple Tree (http://www.elysiun.com/forum/viewtopic.php?t=32306)
Making a pedestal (http://web.telia.com/~u91121962/tut1_1.htm)
Building a Castle
(http://www.blender3d.org/_media/education/quickstart/Building_Castle.html)
Ice Cube (http://caron.yann.free.fr/blender/IceCube.pdf) (pdf tutorial)
Water I (http://www.selleri.org/Blender/tuts/Water.pdf) (pdf tutorial)
Water II (http://www.selleri.org/Blender/tuts/Water2.pdf) (pdf tutorial)
Space Pod (http://dev.newmediaworx.com/johnnyb/bplanet/tut_pod.htm)
Grass (http://lib.hel.fi/~basse/blender/tutorials/grass/grass_tut.php)
Bongo Creature (http://www.enricovalenza.com/makebongo.html)
Spiral Stairs (http://www.blenderwars.com/tut.php?module=stairs)
Waste Basket (http://www.blenderwars.com/tut.php?module=waste)
Beveled Cube (http://www.blenderwars.com/tut.php?module=bevcube)
Simple Box (http://www.blenderwars.com/tut-path.php?module=box1)
Fountain with Moving Water
(http://www.users.bigpond.net.au/blendage/pages/tutorials/tut5/fountain.html)
Track Creation (http://www.geocities.com/swdoughty/blendertute1.html)
Dolphin (http://vrotvrot.com/xoom/tutorials/Dolphin/UnderWater.html)
Dice (http://vrotvrot.com/xoom/tutorials/Die/dice.html)
Logo (http://vrotvrot.com/xoom/tutorials/logoTut/logoTut.html)
Cutting through steel (http://vrotvrot.com/xoom/tutorials/Welder/Welder.html)
Roller Coaster
(http://membres.lycos.fr/bobois/Tuts/Courbes/completeRC/foreword_en.html)
Roller Coster Cobra (http://membres.lycos.fr/bobois/Tuts/Courbes/Cobra/cobra.html)
Modelling a Glass
(http://www.linuxgraphic.org/section3d/blender/pages/didacticiels/blender_material/tp1-index-an
Ocean View (http://www.ingiebee.com/Blendermania/create%20ocean%20view.htm)
195
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Solar Systems for beginners
(http://www.ingiebee.com/Blendermania/Solar%20System.htm)
Chair (http://membres.lycos.fr/bobois/objets_a_partager/a_simple_chair.html)
Spiral Stair (http://w1.185.telia.com/~u18510119/tutorials/spiralstair.pdf) (pdf tutorial)
Lighthouse
(http://www.users.bigpond.net.au/blendage/pages/tutorials/tut1/lighthouse.html)
Landscape
(http://www.linuxgraphic.org/section3d/blender/pages/didacticiels/didacticiel-ang.html)
Landscapes Easy
(http://www.users.bigpond.net.au/blendage/pages/tutorials/tut2/landscape.html)
Cloth Tutorial (http://www.free-webspace.biz/sonix/BlenderTutes/QuickClothTute.html)
Cup (http://kahuna.clayton.edu/~jbrooks/blender/tutorials/cup/)
Cola cane (http://free.hostdepartment.com/B/Blender3D/cantut/)
Candle
(http://download.blender.org/documentation/oldsite/oldsite.blender3d.org/93_Blender%20tutoria
Volcano (http://kahuna.clayton.edu/~jbrooks/blender/tutorials/volcano/)
Orbital Logo (http://kahuna.clayton.edu/~jbrooks/blender/tutorials/universal/)
Realistic Planet (http://www.enricovalenza.com/realplan.html)
Landscape Cartoon (http://www.selleri.org/Blender/tuts/CartoonishLandscape.pdf) (pdf
tutorial)
Text (http://blender3dfr.free.fr/anglais/tut4/tut4.htm)
Human
Head Modeling
(http://www.linuxgraphic.org/section3d/blender/pages/didacticiels/head-subsurf/index-ang.html
Head Modeling & Texturing Tutorial
(http://kotinetti.suomi.net/fsware/hippie/tutorial1/index.php)
Head (http://www.visiontovision.com/BlenderHead1.html) (Part 1 of 12-part Flash
Tutorial)
Get a Head (http://members.lycos.co.uk/duxbellorum/get_a_head.html) (link broken)
Hand Palm (http://jlp.nerim.net/tutorials/hands-modelling/hands-tuto-01.html)
LowPoly Leg Modeling (http://mywebpages.comcast.net/jmandmc/legtut/legtut.html)
Make Human: Modeling a New Target
(http://feeblemind.tuxfamily.org/dotclear/index.php/2005/04/11/23-didacticiel-modelisation-dunEyes (http://web.pdx.edu/~wlf/tut.html)
Hair Tutorial (http://www.elysiun.com/forum/viewtopic.php?t=16008)
Real Hair with Blender 3D (http://www.prodigyweb.net.mx/nivel9/hair/realHair.html)
Female Character (http://otothegardener.free.fr/tutorials/Femme/femme.htm)
Clothes for humans (http://kokcito.tk/tut1) (link broken)
Texturing Skin using Vertex Painting and Repeating Image Textures
(http://pages.zoom.co.uk/nick.towers/tutorials/skin_tutorial/skin_tutorial.html)
Wikipedia: Human Body Proportions (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Body_proportions)
Cars
Porsche 550 (http://perso.wanadoo.fr/speedtiti/tutoriels.htm) * exposed
Car IV small (http://otothegardener.free.fr/tutorials/Voiture/voiture.htm)
Car V F1 (http://otothegardener.free.fr/tutorials/F1/f1.htm)
Creating a Toon Car (http://www.raivestudios.com/tutorials/blender/tooncar/)
Texture Mapping
Making a Lightsaber with Halos (http://www.elysiun.com/forum/viewtopic.php?t=64227)
The Unofficial Texturing Tutorial
(http://www.elysiun.com/forum/viewtopic.php?t=11889)
Material Indice Tutorial
(http://feeblemind.tuxfamily.org/dotclear/index.php/2004/12/21/5-blender-indices-materiau---mat
Raytraced Transparency and Refraction
(http://feeblemind.tuxfamily.org/dotclear/index.php/2004/12/26/7-didacticiel-la-refraction---tutor
Chrome and Shiny Metal Surfaces
(http://www.ualberta.ca/%7Enwy/blender/blender_tut1.htm)
Texturing a castle
(http://www.blender3d.org/_media/education/quickstart/Texturing_Castle.html)
Texturing Tutorial (http://www.planetannihilation.com/terragen/tut_buildpics.shtml)
(NOTE: For the game Total Annihilation, not really a general tut)
196
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Textures in OrCo mode (http://www.enricovalenza.com/textures.html)
Textures for Allosaurus (http://www.enricovalenza.com/textall.html)
Chrome Effect (http://www.elysiun.com/tutorials.php?id=8)
Texturing Part I (http://www.geocities.com/woodsmith102000/Tutorials1.html?)
Texturing Part II (http://www.geocities.com/woodsmith102000/Tutorial2.html?)
Texturing a Ship (http://www.blenderwars.com/tut.php?module=texture)
Material Indices
(http://www.linuxgraphic.org/section3d/blender/pages/didacticiels/blender_material/tp2-index-an
Textures Channels
(http://www.linuxgraphic.org/section3d/blender/pages/didacticiels/blender_material/didac4-ang.
Textures Mapping
(http://www.linuxgraphic.org/section3d/blender/pages/didacticiels/blender_material/didac3-ang.
Specular Color
(http://www.linuxgraphic.org/section3d/blender/pages/didacticiels/blender_material/didac2-ang.
The Color
(http://www.linuxgraphic.org/section3d/blender/pages/didacticiels/blender_material/didac1-ang.
Materials in Blender
(http://www.linuxgraphic.org/section3d/blender/pages/didacticiels/blender_material/index-ang.h
Alpha, Bump, and Specular image textures
(http://www.ingiebee.com/Blendermania/BumpSpecAlphaTex.htm)
Image Textures
(http://www.ingiebee.com/Blendermania/attach%20image%20file%20to%20object.htm)
Decals
(http://www.ingiebee.com/tutorials/Decal%20Mirror%20Modelling/theeth%20decal.htm)
Chrome (http://www.ingiebee.com/tutorials/Digital-Mark.htm)
Alpha Masks
(http://membres.lycos.fr/bobois/Tuts/trouer_par_texture/trouer_par_texture.html)
Skies I (http://www.malefico3d.com.ar/tutor/skies.html)
Skies II (http://www.malefico3d.com.ar/tutor/skies2.html)
Shockwave (http://www.elysiun.com/tutorials.php?id=5) (broken link 1. 3. 2006)
Texture Types in Blender (http://www.elysiun.com/tutorials.php?id=4) (broken link
2.23.2006)
Basic Texturing (http://www.b5-blender.com/tutorial3.html)
Basic Texturing 2 (http://viewhow2.qarbon.com/vf/vkxfjoo/7/basictextures_viewlet.html)
(Java tutorial)
Textures with Alpha
(http://www-users.cs.umn.edu/~mein/blender/tutorials/dust/alpha.html)
Textures with Bumpmapping
(http://www-users.cs.umn.edu/~mein/blender/tutorials/dust/bump.html)
Using More Than One Color
(http://www.users.bigpond.net.au/blendage/pages/tutorials/tut9/two_colours.html)
Adding Color To Your Shapes
(http://www.users.bigpond.net.au/blendage/pages/beginners_tutorials/tut3/adding_colour.html
Using Textures and Bumpmapping Them
(http://www.users.bigpond.net.au/blendage/pages/beginners_tutorials/tut4/adding_texture.html
Texture Mapping Tutorial
(http://dev.newmediaworx.com/johnnyb/bplanet/tut_mapping.htm) (pictures ok now
18/03/2006)
Environment Mapping (http://dev.newmediaworx.com/johnnyb/bplanet/tut_envmap.htm)
(pictures ok now 18/03/2006)
Mapping Caracter (http://otothegardener.free.fr/tutorials/LittleOTO/anonce/anonce.htm)
Creation and Mapping
(http://membres.lycos.fr/bobois/Tuts/boite_de_projection/boite_de_projection005_en.html)
Displacement Mapping
(http://www.linuxgraphic.org/section3d/blender/pages/didacticiels/displacement/index-ang.html
Game Sprites (http://www.ingiebee.com/Blendermania/Game%20Sprites.htm)
Stencilling Textures (http://www.ingiebee.com/Blendermania/Stencilling.htm)
Using Texture Stencils
(http://feeblemind.tuxfamily.org/dotclear/index.php/2005/02/27/16-didacticiel-usage-des-masque
UV Mapping
Intermediate and Advanced UV Mapping
(http://www.elysiun.com/forum/viewtopic.php?t=25918) * exposed
UV Mapping & Texturing (http://biorust.com/index.php?page=tutorial_detail&tutid=85)
Sub-Surf and UV-Texturing problem
(http://barney.gonzaga.edu/~amoore1/uv_mapping_project/)
UV Texture Skinning
(http://otothegardener.free.fr/tutorials/LittleOTO/littleoto3/littleoto3.htm)
197
Blender 3D : Noob to Pro. For latest version visit http://en.wikibooks.org/wiki/Blender_3D:_Noob_to_Pro
Character UV Textures
(http://otothegardener.free.fr/tutorials/Armure/anonce/anonce.htm)
UV Mapping a Head (http://mywebpages.comcast.net/jmandmc/uvtut/uvtut.html) (broken
link 07.04.06)
UV Texturing in Blender
(http://www.planetannihilation.com/terragen/tut_texturing.shtml)
Tuhopuu UV editor mapping (http://users.pandora.be/blendix/blender/uv/)
UV Mapping (http://membres.lycos.fr/bobois/Tuts/uvmapping/uvmapping01.html)
Complex material for a sword
(http://67.15.36.49/team/Tutorials/swords&daggers/swords&daggers_01.asp)
Animated Textures
Blender TexMesh Tutorial
(http://www.telusplanet.net/public/kugyelka/blender/tutorials/texmesh/texmesh.htm) *
exposed
animating masks for simulating ice freeze
(http://www.elysiun.com/forum/viewtopic.php?p=455683#455683)
Animated Procedural Textures (http://www.cogfilms.com/tutorials.html) (pdf tutorial)
2D Texture Painting Techniques
This part isn't about using Blender, but about necessary 2D knowledge for advanced
Blender users.
Steven Stahlberg's Tutorials (http://www.androidblues.com/howto.html) * exposed
Dirty Metal Texture (http://div.dyndns.org/EK/tutorial/texture/)
Gritty Pipelines (http://div.dyndns.org/EK/tutorial/gritty/)
Digital Painting
(http://www.planetquake.com/polycount/resources/general/tutorials/HitmanDaz_Tut01/DigitalPa
Advance Painting and Weathering Techniques for Train Textures
(http://www.cham-ministry.org/msts/tutorial1.html)
NWN Texturing Tutorials (http://www.btinternet.com/~i.nation/tutorials/tutorial_00.htm)
Fixing Lighting Irregulaties in Self-Tiling Maps
(http://www.3drender.com/light/EqTutorial/tiling.htm)
Texture Map for the Iris of the Eye (http://www.kandsdesign.com/kim/eyemap-tut.html)
Airplane Texture Tutorial
(http://www.geocities.com/SiliconValley/Haven/2470/txtrtut/txtrtut.html)
Game Skinning Tips (http://www.planetquake.com/pandemonium/html/skintips.htm)
Game Lighting Basics I (http://www.planetquake.com/pandemonium/html/skintut3.htm)
Game Lighting Basics II (http://www.planetquake.com/pandemonium/html/skintut4.htm)
Texturing with Gimp
(http://otothegardener.free.fr/tutorials/GimpTexture/gimptexture.htm)
Lighting, Shadows and Rendering
Light - a detailed tutorial (http://www.itchy-animation.co.uk/tutorials/light01.htm)
Yafray as an Integrated External Renderer
(http://wiki.yafray.org/bin/view.pl/UserDoc/GauravGuide)
Basic 3 Point Lighting (http://www.andrew-whitehurst.net/3point.html)
Radiosity I (http://blenderman.free.fr/tut/radiosity/uk/)
Radiosity II
(http://download.blender.org/documentation/html/chapter_rendering_radiosity.html)
Ramp Shaders (http://www.blender3d.org/cms/Ramp_Shaders.348.0.html)
Simulating Radiosity
(http://jmsoler.free.fr/didacticiel/blender/tutor/lumiere_radios_en.htm)
Caustic Sampler Tutorial (http://www.elysiun.com/forum/viewtopic.php?t=30265)
Shadows Control (http://dev.newmediaworx.com/johnnyb/bplanet/tut_shadows.htm)
Light Types (http://www.stormpages.com/eeshlo/otherBlender.html)
The 'World' buttons within Blender
(http://www.linuxgraphic.org/section3d/blender/pages/didacticiels/world/index-ang.html)
Mastering Shadows
(http://www.linuxgraphic.org/section3d/blender/pages/didacticiels/shadows/index-ang.html
Ambient Occlusion
(http://feeblemind.tuxfamily.org/dotclear/index.php/2005/01/16/10-didacticiel-locclusion-ambian
Area Lights
(http://feeblemind.tuxfamily.org/dotclear/index.php/2005/01/02/9-didacticiel-les-aires-lumineuse
198
Blender 3D : Noob to Pro. For latest version visit http://en.wikibooks.org/wiki/Blender_3D:_Noob_to_Pro
Batmanish Spot Logo (http://www.ingiebee.com/Blendermania/batman%20spotlight.htm)
(broken pictures links; 7.3. 2005)
Depth of Field (http://www.malefico3d.com.ar/tutor/dof-en.html)
Radiosity (http://www.geocities.com/blengine/radiosity.html) (Broken Link 11.19.2005)
Different Lighting Methods (http://www.geocities.com/blengine/lighting.html)
(temporarily(?) down 6.16.2006)
Soft Lights (http://www.selleri.org/Blender/tuts/SoftLight.pdf) (pdf tutorial)
Blender's Mist (http://www-users.cs.umn.edu/~mein/blender/tutorials/dust/mist.html)
Basic Lighting
(http://www.katorlegaz.com/index.php?a=article&display=1075723200.php)
Optimizing Renders
(http://www.katorlegaz.com/index.php?a=article&display=1078185600.php)
Flares (http://www.centralsource.com/blender/flares/)
Toon Shading (http://free.hostdepartment.com/a/aner/TUTORIAL.html)
Simple Gold Ring with Caustics
(http://www.geocities.com/sound_man_dave/caustics.htm)
Armatures and IK
Dancing Flor (http://otothecleaner.free.fr/tutorials/Flor/flor.html) * exposed
Animation Workshop II (http://www.elysiun.com/forum/viewtopic.php?p=511798) *
exposed
Using Ipo driven shape keys to correct deformations in joints
(http://kokcito.tk/rvk/ipo.html) * exposed
Animation recode project
(http://www.blender.org/cms/How_Armatures_work.634.0.html)
Action Constraints tutorial made easy
(http://www.elysiun.com/forum/viewtopic.php?t=49603)
Rigged Character (http://www.elysiun.com/forum/viewtopic.php?t=31839)
Driven Hand Rig (http://www.elysiun.com/forum/viewtopic.php?t=19347)
Constrained Mechanics (http://argoslabs.com/%7Emalefico/tutor/mecano-en.html)
Armatures Tutorial (http://www.anycities.com/turbog/Tutorial1.html)
Animation using Armatures
(http://www.users.bigpond.net.au/blendage/pages/tutorials/tut4/animatin_armatures.html
Ikas Blender 3D - Introduction
(http://mmaigrot.free.fr/didac-blender/ikas/ikas-eng/ik-intro.php)
Constrained Mechanics (http://www.malefico3d.com.ar/tutor/mecano-en.html)
Using Armatures (http://www.elysiun.com/tutorials/animation/)
Making and Using Armatures
(http://www.users.bigpond.net.au/blendage/pages/tutorials/tut3/armatures.html)
Character Animation tools (http://www.elysiun.com/tutorials/animation/)
IK Solver Constraint (http://www.elysiun.com/forum/viewtopic.php?t=42310)
Softbody for Rigged Characters (http://www.enricovalenza.com/softb.html)
Rigging limbs that can twist (http://kokcito.tk/tut/rig3.html)
Rigging tricks (http://kokcito.tk/tut/rig1.html)
IKA Tutorial (http://kahuna.clayton.edu/~jbrooks/blender/tutorials/IKA/)
Animation
Simple Animation
(http://feeblemind.tuxfamily.org/dotclear/index.php/2005/03/08/17-didacticiel-animations-simple
Basic Keyframing
(http://www.users.bigpond.net.au/blendage/pages/beginners_tutorials/tut2/Keyframeanimation.h
Effects (http://download.blender.org/documentation/html/c1585.html)
Character Animation (http://dev.newmediaworx.com/johnnyb/bplanet/tut_charanim.htm)
Run Cycle (http://rodri.aniguild.com/tuto_run/run_en.php) (Non Blender specific)
Lip Sync I (http://www.meloware.com/blender/lipsync.htm)
Lip Sync II (http://dev.newmediaworx.com/johnnyb/bplanet/tut_charanim2.htm)
Camera Switching (http://www.elysiun.com/tutorials.php?id=7) link broken?
Walking Blues (http://argoslabs.com/~malefico/tutor/walking.html)
Non Linear Action Editor - NLA I
(http://mmaigrot.free.fr/didac-blender/nla/eng/index.php)
Non Linear Action Editor - NLA II (http://argoslabs.com/~malefico/tutor/nla-en.html)
Wave Effect
(http://www.linuxgraphic.org/section3d/blender/pages/didacticiels/animation_effects/didac2-ang
Build Effect
(http://www.linuxgraphic.org/section3d/blender/pages/didacticiels/animation_effects/didac1-ang
199
Blender 3D : Noob to Pro. For latest version visit http://en.wikibooks.org/wiki/Blender_3D:_Noob_to_Pro
Animation effects
(http://www.linuxgraphic.org/section3d/blender/pages/didacticiels/animation_effects/index-ang.h
Seascape (http://homepages.nildram.co.uk/~raytrace/tutorials.html) (pdf tutorial)
Flag Creation in Blender (http://homepages.nildram.co.uk/~raytrace/tutorials.html) (pdf
tutorial)
Plane Following a Path
(http://www.ingiebee.com/Blendermania/plane%20follow%20path.htm)
Object Following a Path (http://www.ingiebee.com/tutorials/Path/theeth%20paths.htm)
Cyclic Animation
(http://membres.lycos.fr/bobois/Tuts/animation_cyclique/animation_cyclique_01_ang.html)
Blending into Wireframe
(http://www.ingiebee.com/Blendermania/Blending%20to%20Wireframe.htm) (broken
pictures links; 7.3. 2005)
Animating Materials
(http://www.users.bigpond.net.au/blendage/pages/tutorials/tut7/colourchanging.html)
Walking Tutorial (http://www.fortunecity.com/skyscraper/true/947/id13.htm)
Tracking Cameras to Paths
(http://www.katorlegaz.com/index.php?filename=/articles/blender/Tracking_Cameras_to_Paths.p
Relative Vertex Keys (RVKs)
(http://www.katorlegaz.com/index.php?filename=/articles/blender/RVKs.php)
Change Cameras during an Animation
(http://www.elysiun.com/forum/viewtopic.php?t=42840&highlight=change+camera)
Camera Tracking With Additional Roll Constraint
(http://www.elysiun.com/forum/viewtopic.php?t=46181)
Particles
Particle Interaction (http://blender3d.com/cms/Particle_interaction.349.0.html)
Static Particles (http://www.elysiun.com/forum/viewtopic.php?t=41356)
Static Particle Effect
(http://www.linuxgraphic.org/section3d/blender/pages/didacticiels/animation_effects/didac4-ang
Particles Effect
(http://www.linuxgraphic.org/section3d/blender/pages/didacticiels/animation_effects/didac3-ang
Making a Fireplace (http://www.geocities.com/blengine/fireplace1.html) (down
06.08.2006)
Making a Fountain With Particles
(http://www.users.bigpond.net.au/blendage/pages/tutorials/tut5/fountain.html)
Dust Particles (http://www-users.cs.umn.edu/~mein/blender/tutorials/dust/particle.html)
Flames (http://www.centralsource.com/blender/flames/)
Liquid (http://www.centralsource.com/blender/liquid/)
Explosions (http://www.centralsource.com/blender/explosions/)
Smoke (http://www.centralsource.com/blender/smoke/)
Making a Rain Effect
(http://feeblemind.tuxfamily.org/dotclear/index.php/2004/12/24/4-blender-faire-pleuvoir---making
Particle and field basics (http://www.deviantart.com/view/27104504/)
Fluid Simulation
Fluid Simulation Basics (http://www.deviantart.com/view/27479896/)
Fluid Tutorial (http://www.penguinscore.com/fluidsimtut.htm)
Compositing
Matching Real Lighting (http://www.andrew-whitehurst.net/fx_light.html)
CGI/Live Action Interaction (http://www.blenderwars.com/tut.php?module=blendcg)
Compositing CG and Live Action in Blender
(http://www.weirdhat.com/blender/compositing2/)
Game Engine
Game Engine Developing Team
(http://wiki.blender.org/bin/view.pl/Blenderwiki/GameEngineTeam) broken link
New fully integrated game engine?
(http://www.blender.org/forum/viewtopic.php?t=6409&sid=868ed3b00fd68157b704e87f0cc168
Game Blender Documentation
200
Blender 3D : Noob to Pro. For latest version visit http://en.wikibooks.org/wiki/Blender_3D:_Noob_to_Pro
(http://web.archive.org/web/20011207173733/http://www.blender.nl/gameBlenderDoc/book1.htm
(Last modified 13. 07. 2001)
#GameBlender (http://www.antihc3.dyndns.org/gameblender/game.php) (Broken Link)
Walkthrough Tutorial
(http://www.blender3d.org/Education/index_old.php?sub=TutorialWalkthrough)
Overlay Scenes (http://www.fortunecity.com/skyscraper/true/947/id16.htm)
Walking Tutorial (http://www.fortunecity.com/skyscraper/true/947/id13.htm)
Make a Menu (http://www.fortunecity.com/skyscraper/true/947/id17.htm)
Flipper (http://otothegardener.free.fr/tutorials/Flipper/flipper.htm)
Armatures in the Game Engine
(http://www.users.bigpond.net.au/blendage/pages/tutorials/tut8/realtimearmatures.html)
Multilevel Maze
(http://www.users.bigpond.net.au/blendage/pages/tutorials/tut6/maze.html)
Creating Boulders that make the map restart when hit
(http://www.users.bigpond.net.au/blendage/pages/tutorials/tut10/adding_traps.html)
Python and Plugins
Python Lessons
(http://www.sutabi.tk/timmeh/index.php?option=com_content&task=category&sectionid=4&id=
* exposed
Make Hair
(http://www.dedalo-3d.com/index.php?filename=SXCOL/makehair/abstract.html) *
exposed
Povanim Export Script (http://jmsoler.free.fr/util/blenderfile/fr/povanim_en.htm)
AI Path Importer (http://jmsoler.free.fr/didacticiel/blender/tutor/cpl_import_ai_en.htm)
3D-No Plugins; Put your 3D Blender space on web!
(http://www.thoro.de/portfolio/verschiedenes/3DNP.html)
Randomizer Script (http://www.elysiun.com/forum/viewtopic.php?t=37400)
Embedding the 3D web plugin in a web page
(http://www.blender3d.org/Education/index_old.php?sub=TutorialEmbedplugin)
Different Useful Scripts (http://www.selleri.org/Blender/scripts/text.html)
AfterGlow, Polyline, Hitchcock ZoomEffect, ...
(http://www.hgb-leipzig.de/~daniel/blender/)
Dynamica (http://www.centralsource.com/blender/dynamica/)
BlendSaber (http://www.blenderwars.com/tut.php?module=blendersaber)
Lsystem tree maker (http://marief.soler.free.fr/Monsite/lsystem_en.htm)
Python Scripting for Procedural Animation
(http://www.ingiebee.com/Blendermania/Genos%20Spring.htm)
Python Scripting Part I (http://www.blenderbuch.de/tutor/python1/python1_eng.html)
Python Scripting Part II (http://www.blenderbuch.de/tutor/python2/Python2_eng.html)
Python Scripting Part III (http://www.blenderbuch.de/tutor/python3/Python3_Eng.html)
Focalblur - A Matter of Depth (http://www.elysiun.com/tutorials.php?id=2)
Python API Introduction
(http://jmsoler.free.fr/didacticiel/blender/tutor/english/python_script00.htm)
Python API, Making a Square Mesh
(http://jmsoler.free.fr/didacticiel/blender/tutor/english/python_script01.htm)
Python API, Iterations
(http://jmsoler.free.fr/didacticiel/blender/tutor/english/python_script02.htm)
Python API, Automating Vertex Creation
(http://jmsoler.free.fr/didacticiel/blender/tutor/english/python_script03.htm)
Python API, Automating Face Creation
(http://jmsoler.free.fr/didacticiel/blender/tutor/english/python_script04.htm)
Python API, Making Potatoid
(http://jmsoler.free.fr/didacticiel/blender/tutor/english/python_script05.htm)
Python Script, To build an Empty for EnvMap
(http://jmsoler.free.fr/didacticiel/blender/tutor/english/eng_scriptmirror.htm)
Python Script, Bezier Curves Import
(http://jmsoler.free.fr/didacticiel/blender/tutor/cpl_curvesimport_en.htm)
Python Script, Paths import
(http://jmsoler.free.fr/didacticiel/blender/tutor/cpl_paths_import_en.htm)
Python Script, Importing Adobe Illustrator Format
(http://jmsoler.free.fr/didacticiel/blender/tutor/cpl_import_ai_en.htm)
Python Script, Mesh Explosion
(http://jmsoler.free.fr/didacticiel/blender/tutor/cpl_meshexplosion_en.htm)
Python Script, Level Of Detail
(http://jmsoler.free.fr/didacticiel/blender/tutor/cpl_LOD_en.htm)
Python Script, Wire Shadows and extrusions
201
Blender 3D : Noob to Pro. For latest version visit http://en.wikibooks.org/wiki/Blender_3D:_Noob_to_Pro
(http://jmsoler.free.fr/didacticiel/blender/tutor/python_wireshadows_en.htm)
Python Script, Changing the active camera instantly
(http://jmsoler.free.fr/didacticiel/blender/tutor/cpl_changerdecamera_en.htm)
Subsurface Scattering in Blender
(http://www.dedalo-3d.com/index.php?filename=SXCOL/experiments/ss_scattering_python.html
Using the Superficial Scattering Script
(http://feeblemind.tuxfamily.org/dotclear/index.php/2005/04/25/39-mh-tutorial-using-the-superfic
City Block Genarator (http://www.elysiun.com/forum/viewtopic.php?t=16217)
Blender Camera Calibration with Live Camera
(http://www.elysiun.com/forum/viewtopic.php?t=32715)
Import-export different formats, Different Generators, etc...
(http://www.redrival.com/scorpius/blender-plugins.htm)
Horn Extrude (http://www3.sympatico.ca/emilio.aguirre/hornextrude.html)
Mesh shaker and tutorial (http://saltshaker.sourceforge.net/)
Batch STL (http://blender.formworks.co.nz/batch_stl.html)
Vertices to a Curve Converter (http://www.elysiun.com/forum/viewtopic.php?t=45576)
Zutils, Z-Buffer Utilities (http://www.elysiun.com/forum/viewtopic.php?t=35355)
Using other Programs with Blender
YafRay (http://www.yafray.org)
Verse (http://blender.org/modules/verse/)
SPE - Python IDE for Blender (http://pythonide.stani.be)
Wings 3D Subdivision Modeler (http://www.wings3d.com/)
Verse Gimp-Blender Plugin (http://users.pandora.be/blendix/verse/old/demo.html)
Kerkythea Renderer (http://www.softlab.ece.ntua.gr/~jpanta/Graphics/Kerkythea/)
Equinox 3D (http://www.equinox3d.com)
Wings3D, a Quick and Accurate UVmapping Tool for Blender
(http://mywebpages.comcast.net/jmandmc/uvmap/uvmap.html)
Povray export (http://jmsoler.free.fr/util/blenderfile/fr/povanim_en.htm)
Adobe Illustrator Paths import
(http://jmsoler.free.fr/didacticiel/blender/tutor/cpl_import_ai_en.htm)
Inkscape SVG import
(http://jmsoler.free.fr/didacticiel/blender/tutor/cpl_import_svg_en.htm)
Using Blender content in PowerPoint 2000
(http://www.blender3d.org/Education/index_old.php?sub=TutorialPowerpoint)
Ter2Blend (http://users.skynet.be/sky33676/ter2blend1.html)
Batch Processing Images
(http://membres.lycos.fr/bobois/Tuts/traitement_par_lot/traitement_par_lot_ang.html)
BVH Info (http://www.centralsource.com/blender/bvh/)
Stereogram (http://www.geocities.com/blenderlab/tutorial1.html)
Importing VRML (http://www.blender3d.org/Education/index_old.php?sub=TutorialVrml)
Creating Quicktime VRs
(http://www.katorlegaz.com/index.php?filename=/articles/blender/Quicktime_VR.php)
Blender, Python and Mac OS X
(http://www.katorlegaz.com/index.php?filename=/articles/blender/Python_and_OS_X.php)
Stylistic Rendering (http://www.flippyneck.com/temp/NPR.htm)
Voodoo Camera Tracker (http://www.digilab.uni-hannover.de/docs/manual.html)
Miniature UV mapped building for Lionhead's The Movies game
(http://themovieseditor.com/tutorials/blender-mini-building.html)
Distributed Computing
BURP - Big and Ugly Rendering Project (http://burp.boinc.dk/)
Render Planet (https://renderplanet.com/)
Global Rendering-Farm (http://renderworld.futureware.at/)
OS X Distributed Blender Network Rendering with Xgrid
(http://www.katorlegaz.com/index.php?filename=/articles/blender/Using_Blender_with_Xgrid.ph
Bfarm Distributed Rendering via Internet (http://geocities.com/tronovan3d/)
Maybe someday ...
LightRay (http://www.tacc.utexas.edu/~cburns/lightray/lightray.php)
Toxic (http://www.toxicengine.org/)
Video Tutorials
202
Blender 3D : Noob to Pro. For latest version visit http://en.wikibooks.org/wiki/Blender_3D:_Noob_to_Pro
Official Blender Video Tutorials (http://blender3d.org/cms/Video_Tutorials.396.0.html)
Greybeard's Blender Video Tutorials (http://www.ibiblio.org/bvidtute/)
Head Tutorial (http://www.visiontovision.com/BlenderHead1.html) (Part 1 of 12-part
Flash Tutorial)
Series of short VTuts that explain basic details
(http://www.blendernation.com/2006/03/01/videotutorials-blender-3d-workshop/)
Blender WikiBooks
Blender 3D: Blending Into Python * exposed
Blender 3D: HotKeys
Blender 3D: Import and Render a SolidWorks Model
Blender 3D: MemoBook
Blender 3D: Noob to Pro
All Blender WikiBooks Modules
FAQ
Blender FAQ
(http://www.museum.state.il.us/ismdepts/library/linuxguides/blender/blender_faq_0.html)
(Generated on September 24, 2001)
Blender Tips (http://dev.newmediaworx.com/johnnyb/bplanet/tut_blendertips.htm)
Repository
This section is not about tutorials, but you can find here different useful stuff for your
Blender.
Blueprints
cgworld.ru (http://cgworld.ru/modules.php?name=Blueprints) * exposed
blueprints.onnovanbraam.com (http://blueprints.onnovanbraam.com/)
smcars.net (http://smcars.net/)
boats (http://www.boatdesign.net/boat-plans-archive/index.htm)
old cars (http://www.mgussin.freeuk.com/00Plans.htm)
War Planes (http://www.airwar.ru/other/draw_1w.html)
All sorts of cars (http://www.suurland.com)
Materials
Sonix' Material Library(esp. Cars)
(http://www.free-webspace.biz/sonix/Cars/Blender234CarMaterialLibraryR1.html)
Models
blendermodels.katorlegaz.com (http://blendermodels.katorlegaz.com/)
Photos
Human Photo References (http://www.3d.sk)
Brain scan (http://www.med.harvard.edu/AANLIB/cases/caseNA/pb9.htm)
Textures
Mayang's Free Textures Hi-Res (http://www.mayang.com/textures/index.htm)
Jeremey Engleman's Public Textures Hi-Res
(http://www.art.net/~jeremy/photo/public_texture_frameset.html)
Image*After Free Images Hi-Res (http://www.imageafter.com/)
Free Textures Mid-Res (http://digitalcraftsman.com/textureBin/textureBin.htm)
Sky Maps (http://www.elysiun.com/forum/viewtopic.php?t=24738)
Miscellaneous
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Blender 3D : Noob to Pro. For latest version visit http://en.wikibooks.org/wiki/Blender_3D:_Noob_to_Pro
CG artists must see or read:
How to succeed in Animation (http://genedeitch.awn.com/)
Bitter History of 3D Business (http://home.nordwest.net/Adger/tips/tip077.html)
Blender Art Gallery (http://centralsource.com/blenderart/index.php)
Classical Film and Video Knowledge Base (http://www.rondexter.com/)
Quick Tips in Design&GFX (http://www.atpm.com/9.07/design.shtml)
Open Movies
www.blenderprojects.com (http://www.blenderprojects.com/)
Orange (http://orange.blender.org/cms/The_Movie.555.0.html)
NaNo - Blender Internet Virtual Movie Studio (http://nano.prods.free.fr/)
IRC
irc://irc.freenode.net/blender
irc://irc.freenode.net/blenderchat
irc://irc.freenode.net/blenderclasses
irc://irc.freenode.net/blenderqa
irc://irc.freenode.net/blendercoders
irc://irc.freenode.net/blenderwiki
irc://irc.freenode.net/gameblenderdev
irc://irc.freenode.net/gameblender
irc://irc.freenode.net/verse
Tests
Blender Benchmarks (http://www.eofw.org/index.php)
Other Lists
Please read more about on talk page.
Tutorials
blenderartists.org (http://blenderartists.org/cms/index.php?id=38) * exposed
A Monolingual List of Tutorials
(http://www.zoo-logique.org/3D.Blender/index.php3?zoo=dif)
A Multilingual List of Tutorials (http://membres.lycos.fr/bobois/Liens_Links/big_list.html)
Miscellaneous
Blender 3D Links & Resources
(http://www.katorlegaz.com/index.php?filename=links/blender_3D.php)
Blender Heads around the Globe(Where live other Blenders?)
(http://www.frappr.com/blenderheadsaroundtheglobe)
Blenderart Magazine
(http://s12.yousendit.com/d.aspx?id=14ZVYHLTFHOAK2V3YTCWU38RQ3) Mirror 1
(http://www.apollux-designs.com/BA-Magazine/blenderart_mag-nov-05.pdf.zip) ,M2
(http://blendertestbuilds.de/index.php?dir=Blenderart/20051115/) ,M3
(http://www.intellidesign.org/blenderart_mag/)
Blender Classroom Tutorial (http://www.statikonline.com/Blender/)
About
This links list is language filtered and extended version of personal collection originally
provided by IamInnocent. So if you looking for tutorials in other languages check this link
at www.elYsiun.com (http://www.elysiun.com/forum/viewtopic.php?t=13380) .
German Blenders should have a look at
http://de.wikibooks.org/wiki/Blender_3D:_Tutorial_Linkliste
If you want to add Blender tutorial link in some other language you can add it temporary on
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talk page. We will later made such WikiBooks in other languages too.
Thank you all who contributed to this nice and useful links collection! Feel free to add your
name or link if you think you need to be mentioned here.
-- Popski, Mar 2005 – tutorials from all over the Web
Ways to create "fluffy" effect (materials and lights)
The ways to create "fluffy" (brightened) edges.
based on this Elysiun thread
(http://www.elysiun.com/forum/viewtopic.php?t=42662&postdays=0&postorder=asc&start=0
Spherical Blend texture method
Add a Blend texture set to "sphere" (circular pattern in preview). map it to empty|empty|Z
coordinates and coordinates source to "Nor" instead of "Orco" , set method to Add and
channel to Emit.
Backlight (aka "@ndy's top secret material" :) )
Just add a sufficiently, but not overly bright, colored Hemi light behind the object (relative to
camera). You may need set it to be "layer only" light if it interferes with rest of a lightring
rig. Like ramp, this method can make edge not just brighter but of different color.
Color ramp (http://www.blender3d.org/cms/Ramp_Shaders.348.0.html) with input set to
normal.
Pretty straighforward, but many advise against it.
Minnaert shader
Available in 2.37, "Darkness"<1 actually brightens edge. A cool shader, but not very useful
for this purpose.
Compiled by : Trident (under construction)
Troubleshooting
ATI Radeon Slowdown Problems
Go the the ATI site driver downloads section and select the appropriate OS/graphic card.
This will (most likely) link you to the d/l for the current Catalyst 4.4 drivers.
At the bottom of that page is a link to "Previous driver versions".
D/L the Catalyst 3.7 driver package. Run the EXE and it will extract the driver install
package to:
C:\ATI\SUPPORT\
In this directory will be a directory named (for XP/Win2K users:
\wxp-w2k-7-93-030812a1-010735c-efg\
This is where the driver install package is located. DO NOT RUN THE SETUP. You don't
need to install the old driver.
Navigate down thru the dir structure to the following dir:
C:\ATI\SUPPORT\wxp-w2k-7-93-030812a1-010735c-efg\2KXP_INF\B_10679
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In this dir you'll find a file called: atioglxx.dl_ This is a "packed" version of the ATI OGL
driver.
The next step specifies how you can extract these files to your hard disk using the
'expand.exe' utility included on the cd.
The 'I386' folder on the Windows XP CD contains a utility 'expand.exe' that can be used to
uncompress all compressed dll files. It is a commandline utility, so you have will have to run
it from either the command prompt or the Run dialog. Some examples of its usage are:
expand X:\I386\ADROT.DL_ C:\ADROT.DLL
The above command decompresses the compressed DLL
ADROT.DL_ on the WinXP CD, copies it to C:, and changes the extension to .DLL .
Just extract that file (atioglxx.dll) to your Blender install directory. Usually C:\Program
Files\Blender Foundation\Blender\
Launch Blender.... no more slowdown.
For people who the above solution leads to Blender crash at start up
Thanks to Xenobius at Blenderartists Forum
This solution is tested on ATI radeon express 200 (x200) integrated video card. However it
should work on other ATI card.
Download the Nvidia 53.03 Driver HERE
(http://www.megagames.com/news/redir.cgi?http://download.nvidia.com/Windows/53.03/53.03_winx
Extract the driver to C:\NVIDIA
Copy the nvoglnt.dll from the C:\NVIDIA folder to your blender program folder (ie.
C:\Programs Files\Blender 2.40\)
Rename nvoglnt.dll (the one in the blender program folder) to atioglxx.dll
Run blender...Viola! Blender runs like it should! assorted technical hang-ups and what to do
about them
Creating Pixar-looking eyes in Blender
Next page: UV Mapping
Previous page: The Rusty Ball
Note: This tutorial uses the same modelling and texturing technique
described in the well-known MAX tutorial by Adam Baroody
(http://www.3dluvr.com/rogueldr/tutorials/eye/eyes.html). The sole purpose
of my tutorial is to make this technique more popular among the Blender
users by explaining how to achieve the same result with Blender.
So here we go!
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The goal of this tutorial is to make a Pixar-looking eye. One of the main reasons that Pixar's
characters really convey life is in their eyes. They have depth, you can see how the eye not
only shines but it "collects" light. You may think that you can't achieve this effect without
raytracing but you're wrong. The secret of this depth is in the modelling of the eye. Lets see
how it works!
In this picture you can see the "ingredients" of the
eye model. The blue mesh at the left is the cornea.
It's shape allows for a small spot of specular light
to appear on it even if the light is in a far side
position. The mesh next to it is the iris. Now notice
how it's a bit concave. That's the tricky part - the
shape of the iris allows for a wide soft specular
light to appear at the opposite side of the lamp
direction. This fakes refracted light from the
cornea and makes the illusion of "collecting" light
and creates depth. The next mesh is the eye pupil a simple circle. You can position it close to the
inner side of the iris. And finally - the eyeball. It's a simple sphere with a hole in it.
I won't go deep into modelling of each element - it uses Blender's subdivision surfaces and
it's quite simple as you can see.
Now let's look at the materials. The cornea uses
a transparent material (alpha = 0.1) with Spec
= 2, Hard = 255 and SpecTra = 1. "Ztransp"
should also be turned on.
[NOTE: I set my cornea up exactly how it is in
the picture (and it looks transparent in the
preview) but when I render the eye, the
cornea/iris area just looks black]
[Timbot says: For dude above and whoever else
reads this, just disable the "Traceable" button
in the "Links and Pipeline" box, that did it for
me.]
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<---- The iris uses this image texture.
[NOTE: I can't seem to get the iris to show correctly. I need to know
how to make the iris.] [Another Note: I can't get it working either; I
need to know how to get the texture of the iris in the exact middle.]
[3rd NOTE: If you go to the Map Input tab, you can offset the image
anyway you want]-Badalia [Note: I can't get the pic on my iris, it is
shown in the preview window, but nothing I did up to now could make
the pic appear on my mesh. I don't know if anyone can help me, but i'd
be very grateful for any idea what I might do wrong.(Khayne)]
[Ok try this: go to map input. and change the settings to
Badalia
[No, still doesn't work, but thanks for trying]
The iris is built from a circle of 8 vertices. Select opposite vertices of the circle and join them
using FKEY. Subdivide each new edge using subdivide multi with 2 cuts (WKEY then
subdivide multi. Check number of cuts = 2. Press OK).
Select the new vertices two at a time (adjacent ones) and join them using FKEY. This will
form a ring which will become the pupil hole. Change to edge select (CTRL + TAB) and
select the inner edges where the pupil will be. Delete these edges (XKEY then press Edges).
Change back to vertex selection and select the inner vertices around the pupil hole. Change
to a side view and pull the vertices back a little to formthe concave shape. Scale the iris to
the same size as the hole in the eyeball and position it behind the cornea. Create a new
material and add the iris texture (Choose Image as the texture type and then press Load
Image button).
The texture should be flat texturing (top button to right of preview) and flat in the Map Input
tab. Occo coordinates work. All that is required now is a bit of tweeking of the texture size
using the Xsize and Ysize values in the Map Input tab, and scaling the pupil hole size in Edit
mode.
[NOTE: I've found another way to create the iris: I simply added another eyeball (UVsphere
with 8 segments and 9 rings). First I deleted the outmost vertex at the backend of it. Then I
deleted the rest except the two rings I needed for the iris. Finally I selected the smaller ring
and scaled it hitting s to give the pupil hole the right size. By the way I had created the
cornea in a similar way. I had taken the frontpart of a UV for that.]
You can tweak the RGB values and brightness/contrast of the image to achieve the
appearance you want. Use a smaller value for Hard (about 50) otherwise you'll have a too
shiny look instead of soft specular that fakes refracted light. The Spec value depends on the
energy and distance of the light that illuminates it. Generally you'll need to take care that the
refracted ligth on the iris should be no more than half as bright as the small specular spot on
the cornea - otherwise you'll achieve the bad effect of two specular spots. Oh, another
important thing - join the four meshes before tweaking the texture coordinates. Otherwise
you'll have to do the job twice after you join them, because the texture space is changed. And
activate shadeless button.
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The material for the pupil is a simple black color with the "shadeless" button on.
The eyelid has white color and high values for Spec and Hard (depends on the lighting).
Optionally you can use a reflection map to make it look more wet but I usually don't do this.
The lighting is simple - move the eye to a new layer, create a new lamp and make the lamp
affect only this layer. Position the lamp at a good angle so you have a small shiny spot of
specular light on one side of the iris and a soft spot of "refracted" light on the other side. You
can use a backlight to prevent the eyeball from being too dark at the non-illuminated part.
That's it! Now you're (almost) ready to start with character animation. You
have a nice eye, now you only need a character for it!
Next page: UV Mapping
Previous page: The Rusty Ball
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Categories: Blender | Stubs | Candidates for speedy deletion
This page was last modified 21:26, 12 August 2006.
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