LED Dimmer Using PWM Dimming Method for Low
International Journal of Scientific Engineering and Applied Science (IJSEAS) - Volume-1, Issue-8,November 2015
ISSN: 2395-3470
www.ijseas.com
LED Dimmer Using PWM Dimming Method for LowPower Lighting Applications
Abhishek H. Jadhav
1
and Prof. .D.Patane
2
P
1,2
1,2
Department of Electronics Engineering,
Terna Engineering College , Nerul, Navi Mumbai.
Abstract—It is proposed to develop a dimmable
LED driver circuit with adaptive feedback control
for regulating the LED current and brightness. By
using universal input voltage operation, high efficiency
and high power factor can be achieved by a coupled
inductor single ended primary inductance converter
power factor correction (PFC) converter with a simple commercial transition-mode PFC controller. The
operation principles and design considerations of the
studied LED driver can be analyzed. Matlab simulink
can be used to demonstrate the operation of the
adaptive feedback control system, LED lamp current
and voltage waveforms.
Key Words: Transition-mode, Simulink, Adaptive Feedback Control, Duty Cycle, Power Factor, Power Factor
Correction .
I. I NTRODUCTION
Light-emitting diode (LED) gradually becomes a
commonly used solid-state light source in general
lighting applications. It has longer lifetime and has
no poison mercury content compared with the conventional fluorescent lamp. Multiple LED lamps are
usually connected in parallel for obtaining enough
lighting levels. In addition, dimming control is often
needed to regulate lighting levels for human needs
as well as to achieve energy saving. A conventional
linear current-regulator method, has simple circuit
configuration. It is widely used for dimming applications by modulating the current amplitude of
the parallel-connected LED lamps. However, linear
dimming is not recommended at currents lower than
the test conditions because it may produce unpredictable results and may be subjected to variation
in performance. A pulse width modulation (PWM)
dimming method can be used to dim the LED
lamp by modulating its pulse current width. The
corresponding PWM controller series connected
with every LED lamp raises the circuit complexity
and cost. Furthermore, the uncontrollable current
amplitude will shorten the lifetime of the LED
lamp.
A novel LED driver with self-adaptive drive
voltage. An adaptive voltage adjustment by sensing the gate-source voltage VGS of the dimming
transistors. The studied LED driver is a currentmode controlled single-ended primary inductance
converter (SEPIC) with 20-30-V dc input voltage. A
sequential phase-shifted PWM dimming scheme is
also used to adjust LED string brightness individually for reducing the input/output current ripple. Every LED string has an individual PWM controller.
In general lighting applications, ac input current
harmonics have to also meet IEC 61000-3-2 Class
C regulations for output power over 25 W.
II. L ITERATURE S URVEY
There are two types of dimming methods available currently which are related to the type of the
input given
• DC Dimming Methods
• AC Dimming Methods
A. Dimming
Dimming is the process of controlling the amount
of electrical power supplied to a light source. The
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International Journal of Scientific Engineering and Applied Science (IJSEAS) - Volume-1, Issue-8,November 2015
ISSN: 2395-3470
www.ijseas.com
four most popular methods for dimming LED lights
are described below and cover 0-10Volt dimming.
PWM(Pulse Width Modulation) dimming. Forward
Phase Dimming(sometimes referred to as ’TRIC’
or incandescent Dimming) and Reverse-Phase dimming (sometimes referred to as an ELV or Electronic Low Voltage Dimming)
1) 0 − 10 V Dimming: This method can use
a number of devices to control the dimming. This
requires additional low voltage wiring, but is more
accurate than AC phase dimming.
Dimmer Types:
• 0 - 10 V controller outputs 0 - 10 V using a
computerized control device.
• 0 - 10 V wall dimmer uses a passive current
sinking dimmer to sink 5mA off a 0 - 10 V
input
• Potentiometer 50 kΩ with 2 terminal is recommended.
• Fixed register - A Fixed resister can be used
to tune the drivers output.
2) PWM (Pulse Width Modulation): This
method can use a number of devices to control
dimming. This requires additional low voltage
wiring but is more accurate than AC dimming.
PWD dimmable LED Drivers use CCR (Constant
Current Reduction) based on the duty cycle of the
PWM input signal to achieve dimming.
The first solid state phase control dimmers employed CRs and Tric for switching. The electrical
characteristics of these devices requires that the
unwanted power be cut off from the start or leading
edge of each half power cycle. The very rapid
switch-on time of SCRs and Tric produces a very
low losses. However the rapid current increase produces unwanted Electromagnetic Interference(EMI)
radiated from the load circuits and harmonics distortions in the supply mains. To produce these problems, a substantial inductor is incorporated into the
dimmer circuit to slow the rate of current increase.
Fig. 1.
Firing of Silicon Device
2) Trailing Edge: A trailing edge dimmer is a
reverse dimmer with a more complex circuit than
a forward phase dimmer. The simple leading edge
B. AC Line Dimmers
circuit can no longer be used, because most Tric
Requires a leading edge (TRIAC) or trailing to can not be turned off until the wave crosses zero
change input voltage via phase cut. the resulting volts.(Gate turn-off(GTO) Tric’s exist, but are far
chopped wave has less energy than the AC line. more expensive and less common). To implement
Since thede types of dimmers connect directly a trailing edge dimmer, the switching device turns
between AC source and AC input of the power on as the AC waveform passes through zero. Called
source, they are very popular and easy to use. They zero crossing detector circuit. After a predetermined
typically require no additional wiring so are good time set by the control, the switching device is
turned off and the remaining part of the waveform
for retrofit and residential applications.
1) Leading Edge: Also commonly known as is not used by the load. Trailing edge dimmers
’TRIC Dimming’, ’SCR Dimming’ and forward commonly use MOSFET as these require almost
Phase dimming control is the most common form no control current and are rugged and reliable.
of phase dimming. It uses a silicon device usually
They are also inexpensive and readily available
an SCR or TRIC to turn the mains waveform on at voltage ratings suitable for mains operation.
part way through its cycle. By varying the point Another option is IGBT(insulated Gate Bipolar Traat which the waveform turns on we can alter the sistor) , which combines the advantages of both
amount of power delivered to the load.
MOSFET and bipolar transistor. These are generally
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International Journal of Scientific Engineering and Applied Science (IJSEAS) - Volume-1, Issue-8,November 2015
ISSN: 2395-3470
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more expensive than MOSFETs. Reverse phase
control dimmer employ MOSFET or IGBTs to
remove power from the end of each cycle. The
general thought was that a reverse phase control
dimmer will produce less EMI and mains distortion
than a forward phase dimmer. Using IGBT and
MOSFET to achieve slow turn-on times has enable
the production of phase control dimmer with acceptable EMI and harmonic distortion, without need for
big , heavy inductors. The drawback is higher heat
dissipated in the switching devices necessitating
thermal control measures, such as heat sinks.
IV.
PREVIOUS METHODS
A conventional linear current-regulator method,
as shown in Fig. 1(a), has simple circuit configuration. It is widely used for dimming applications
by modulating the current amplitude of the parallelconnected LED lamps. However, linear dimming is
not recommended at currents lower than the test
conditions because it may produce unpredictable
results and may be subjected to variation in performance.
Fig. 3.
Conventional Linear Current-Regulator Circuit
A. Analog Dimming:
Fig. 2.
Typical trailing edge performance waveform
III. P ROBLEM D EFINITION
The LED driver consists of a coupled inductor
SEPIC PFC converter, an improved PWM Dimming
circuit, and an adaptive feedback controller. The
input current can be operated at CCM condition
by using a commercial low-cost TM PFC control
IC. High power factor can be achieved without an
additional input filter for eliminating high frequency
current ripple. The output voltage of the coupled
inductor SEPIC PFC converter can be adjusted by
the studied adaptive feedback controller to minimize
the power losses on the dimming transistors. Compared with the conventional PWM dimming scheme
that the pulse width of every LED lamp current is
modulated by the individual PWM controller, the
studied dimming circuit uses only one simple PWM
controller to modulate all of the LED lamps’ pulse
width..
Analog dimming can use a simpler circuit, but
the variable current supplied to the LED means that
the regulator supplying the current to the LED must
soak up any power not supplied to the LED. This
additional power arises from the difference between
the raw supply voltage powering the LED/regulator
subsystem and the voltage across the LED. That
power is wasted as heat. In addition, analog dimming may be inappropriate for applications that
require a constant color temperature. An LED’s
color will change depending on the current driven
through the device
B. TRIAC Dimming:
TI’s LM3445 In general lighting situations, especially where LEDs are replacing incandescent bulbs,
there is a need to permit the use of TRIAC controls,
because TRIAC dimming controls have become
commonplace over the last few decades. Here, the
TRIAC dimmer supplies time-sliced sections of
sinusoidal AC voltage to the LED driver. The driver
must then translate this chopped AC power into
something the LED can use. Texas Instruments’
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International Journal of Scientific Engineering and Applied Science (IJSEAS) - Volume-1, Issue-8,November 2015
ISSN: 2395-3470
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LM3445 TRIAC-dimmable LED drivers offer 100:1
full range dimming capability, going from nearly
imperceptible light to full on in a continuous range.
TI’s LM3445 maintains a constant current to large
strings of LEDs driven in series off of a standard
line voltage. TI’s TRIAC dimmable LED driver
allows master-slave operation control in multi-chip
solutions, which enables a single TRIAC dimmer
to control multiple strings of LEDs with smooth,
consistent, flicker-free LED dimming. This method
dims the output illuminance through cutting the
phase of the AC current, which will decrease the
power input to the light. There are mainly four types
of phase-cut dimming methods:
1) Leading Edge Dimming:: This can alternatively be called as “triac dimming” or “incandescent
dimming”. It turns off the sinusoidal signal of the
electrical current at the front of the AC input. It
fits the traditional incandescent lamps or magnetic
low voltage transformer. Nevertheless, it can cause
buzzing noise when dimmed, and when it is used
for an LED lamp, it can produce a high inrush
current to its electronic component, and eventually
the entire luminaire will be damaged.
Fig. 5.
Leading Edge Dimming Waveform
of the LED driver. The band gap and the forward
voltage of the LED may decrease in accordance
with increasing operation time because the junction
temperature changes with power dissipation and
ambient temperature as well as device aging. A
constant output voltage design for the LED driver
circuit will cause serious power dissipations on
dimming circuit under dimming operation. Thus, an
adaptive feedback control, is designed to minimize
the power losses on the dimming transistors. The
drain voltage of the dimming transistors is sensed to
determine the proper reference voltage Vref in the
voltage feedback control loop. The output voltage of
the LED driver can be adjusted so that the dimming
transistors are operated with a minimum voltage
drop.
B. Dimming Circuit
Fig. 4.
Leading Edge Dimming Waveform
2) Trailing Edge Dimming:: This is also called
“electronic dimming”, which can be considered as
a reverse form of leading edge dimming, as it turns
of the end of the AC input waveform. It can be used
for electronic driver and low voltage transformers.
In comparison to leading edge dimming, it will not
exert high inrush current, while not causing buzzing
sound when dimmed.
V. T HE P ROPOSED M ECHANISM
A. Adaptive Feedback
A simple PFC control is used for achieving high
power factor input and output voltage regulation
The PWM dimming signal is generated by a
commercial low-cost PWM control IC (TL494) and
is then voltage divided by the resistors R3 and R4
to a specific modulating voltage Vm. The current
pulse width of the parallel-connected LED lamps
can be adjusted by the PWM dimming signal. The
dimming frequency is usually higher than 70 Hz,
making them perceivable to the human eye. Considering the switching loss for the dimming transistors,
the dimming frequency in this paper is designed
at 400 Hz. During on-time interval of the PWM
dimming, the amplitude of LED lamp current is
regulated by a linear current regulator to be operated
at a specific condition suggested by the LED’s
datasheet. The linear current regulator consists of an
operational amplifier LM358, a dimming transistor
2N6660, and a dimming resistor Rd. In this paper,
the used LED lamp is composed of 13 pieces of
series connected LUMILEDS emitter-type LEDs.
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This LUMILEDS diode is a 1.2-W high-luminance
LED with a nominal voltage of 3.42 V at a rated
current of 350 mA.
C. SEPIC
Single-ended
primary-inductor
converter
(SEPIC) is a type of DC-DC converter allowing
the electrical potential (voltage) at its output to
be greater than, less than, or equal to that at its
input; the output of the SEPIC is controlled by
the duty cycle of the control transistor. A SEPIC
is essentially a boost converter followed by a
buck-boost converter, therefore it is similar to a
traditional buck-boost converter, but has advantages
of having non-inverted output (the output has the
same voltage polarity as the input), using a series
capacitor to couple energy from the input to the
output (and thus can respond more gracefully
to a short-circuit output), and being capable of
true shutdown: when the switch is turned off,
its output drops to 0 V, following a fairly hefty
transient dump of charge. SEPICs are useful in
applications in which a battery voltage can be
above and below that of the regulator’s intended
output. For example, a single lithium ion battery
typically discharges from 4.2 volts to 3 volts; if
other components require 3.3 volts, then the SEPIC
would be effective.
D. Methodology Used:
Fig. 6.
Block Diagram Of LED Dimming Circuit
1) PFC Controller:: Phase-fired control is often
used to control the amount of voltage, current or
power that a power supply feeds to its load. It
does this in much the same way that a pulse-width
modulated (PWM) supply would pulse on and off
to create an average value at its output. If the supply
has a DC output, its time base is of no importance
in deciding when to pulse the supply on or off, as
the value that will be pulsed on and off is continuous. PFC differs from PWM in that it addresses
supplies that output a modulated waveform, such as
the sinusoidal AC waveform that the national grid
outputs. Here, it becomes important for the supply
to pulse on and off at the correct position in the
modulation cycle for a known value to be achieved;
for example, the controller could turn on at the peak
of a waveform or at its base if the cycle’s time
base were not taken into consideration. Phase-fired
controllers take their name from that fact that they
trigger a pulse of output at a certain phase of the
input’s modulation cycle. In essence, a PFC is a
PWM controller that can synchronizes itself with
the modulation present at the input. Most phasefired controllers use thyristors or other solid state
switching devices as their control elements.
2) Dimming Input:: Dimming input is the user
input given to the PWM controller for the regulation
of the voltage.
3) PWM controller:: It’s a Pulse Width Modulation controller with changes according to the input
of the given to the controller. The PWM controller
output is used for the LED current regulator which
regulates the LED current.
4) AFC:: The band gap and the forward voltage of the LED may decrease in accordance with
increasing operation time because the junction temperature changes with power dissipation and ambient temperature as well as device aging. A constant
output voltage design for the LED driver circuit will
cause serious power dissipations on dimming circuit under dimming operation ]. Thus, an adaptive
feedback control, as shown in Fig. 8, is designed to
minimize the power losses on the dimming transistors. The drain voltage of the dimming transistors
is sensed to determine the proper reference voltage
Vref in the voltage feedback control loop. The
output voltage of the LED driver can be adjusted
so that the dimming transistors are operated with a
minimum
voltage
drop.
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International Journal of Scientific Engineering and Applied Science (IJSEAS) - Volume-1, Issue-8,November 2015
ISSN: 2395-3470
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Fig. 14 Input Voltage & Current for Input = 100 V
PF = 0.7
Fig. 15.
Load Voltage & Current for Input = 100 V PF = 0.7
VI. EXPERIMENTAL RESULT
Fig. 16.
Fig. 9.
Input Voltage & Current for Input = 100 V PF = 1
Fig. 10.
Load Voltage & Current for Input = 100 V PF = 1
Efficiency for Input = 100 V PF = 0.7
Fig. 17 Power Factor for Input = 100 V PF = 0.7
Fig. 18.
Fig. 11.
Rectifier Output for Input = 100 V PF = 0.7
Efficiency for Input = 100 V PF = 1
Fig. 12 Power Factor for Input = 100 V PF = 1
Fig. 19
Fig. 13 Rectifier Output for Input = 100 V PF =1
Fig. 20.
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Load Voltage for Input = 100 V PF = 0.3
Input Voltage & Current for Input = 100 V PF = 0.3
International Journal of Scientific Engineering and Applied Science (IJSEAS) - Volume-1, Issue-8,November 2015
ISSN: 2395-3470
www.ijseas.com
Fig. 21.
Load Voltage & Current for Input = 100 V PF = 0.3
Fig. 22.
Efficiency for Input = 100 V PF = 0.3
Fig. 23 Power Factor for Input = 100 V PF = 0.3
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ISSN: 2395-3470
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VII. CONCLUSION
In this paper, we have presented a dimmable LED
driver for low-power lighting applications. Under
universal input volt- age operation, high efficiency
and high power factor can be achieved by a coupled
inductor SEPIC PFC converter with an adaptive
feedback control design. An improved PWM dimming technique was also studied for regulating the
LED current and brightness. Current amplitude of
LED lamps can be regulated at a specific condition
suggested by the LEDs datasheet. A laboratory
prototype was built and tested. The experimental
waveforms of the laboratory prototype were shown
to verify the feasibility of the proposed scheme.
After comparing leading edge and trailing edge
Phase-cut dimming methodologies, it is clear that
for most LED lamps, trailing edge dimming is a
better option comparing to leading edge dimming.
However, because LED retrofits are mostly for the
existing incandescent or halogen fixtures, which
makes many manufacturers designed their LED
lamps to be suitable for leading edge dimmers. So
when you choosing a dimmable LED, it is better to
clarify the capable dimming method for the product
before getting a dimmer for it, or you can use a
"Universal" dimmer, as it is suitable for both leading
edge and trailing edge dimming.
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