Engine Technology International - Article Reprint

Engine Technology International - Article Reprint
Engine Technology International
Special Contributor’s Supplement
DEATH
BY DIESEL?
The industry reacts to a
damning report by the
World Health Organization
that links diesel engine
fumes to lung cancer
REPRINT SPONSORED BY:
CASE STUDY
Engine Control Strategies
January 2013
UNDER CONSTRUCTION
A handy guide to the best
places to establish powertrain
production and R&D facilities
DETROIT GAME CHANGER
GM’s smallblock gasoline V8 is back, but
this time it’s leaner, more efficient and
packed with high-end technologies
ANNUAL SHOWCASE SPECIAL
Leading, technical papers and
engineering case studies written
for the industry, by the industry!
www.enginetechnologyinternational.com
// CASE STUDY // FREESCALE
Engine control
strategies
By Ralph Ferrara
REALIZING ELECTRONIC ENGINE CONTROL FOR SMALL ENGINES HAS BECOME POSSIBLE THROUGH
THE USE OF MODERN SEMICONDUCTOR CIRCUITRY AND NEW MULTI-CHIP PACK AGING TECHNIQUES
It has been many years since automotive
engine manufacturers discovered the need
for electronic engine control to increase the
performance and efficiency of the IC engine and
to reduce the harmful emissions in its exhaust.
Surprisingly, most small-engine manufacturers
have not followed the lead of the automotive
industry in applying electronic control solutions
to improve performance of their engines.
The majority of the small-engine market
today – especially in the BRIC nations – still
relies on 150-year-old magneto and carburetor
technologies to provide the ignition and fuel
control in their engines. It is a sad fact that
small engines, especially the two-cycle variety,
are now responsible for more air pollution than
the modern automobile. As an example, one
need only observe the smoke billowing from
gasoline-powered lawn mowers, string weed
trimmers, backpack leaf blowers, chain saws,
and hedge trimmers used in the landscaping
industry to understand why electronic control of
small engines is so sorely needed. In countries
such as India, where the motorbike, motor
scooter, and three-wheel taxi are the primary
modes of transportation, the impact of this
pollution can be measured daily in the number
of lives lost to respiratory illnesses. So why is
there such little progress in the modernization
of the small engine?
Automobiles lead the way
In the 1970s the automotive industry realized
that the mechanical ignition system, invented
by Charles Kettering, needed to be replaced
if the automobile was ever to improve its
gasoline efficiency and emissions performance.
Transistorized ignition (TCI) came first,
followed by capacitive discharge ignition (CDI).
Eventually the carburetor, which had remained
an integral part of the gasoline IC engine since
its invention in the 1800s, was finally replaced
following the development of electronic
fuel injectors (EFI) and an electronic engine
control unit (ECU). Along with the ECU came a
replacement for the mechanical points called
the variable reluctance sensor (VRS), which
provides crankshaft speed and engine cycle
timing with the added benefit of never wearing
out and having to be replaced.
// January 2013 // Engine Technology International.com
// CASE STUDY // FREESCALE
REPRINT SPONSORED BY:
“A growing factor is the action by
the governments of most countries
to enact laws to force manufacturers
to clean up their engine emissions”
A small-engine ECU using SiP
There are many reasons for the reluctance
of small-engine manufacturers to upgrade
their small engines and what follows here will
explore some of these reasons and propose a
solution using the very latest semiconductor
technology available. Consider the size and
cost of a modern eight-cylinder automobile
engine and contrast this with a small onecylinder motorcycle engine that is 125cc
or less. Conservatively, there is an order of
magnitude difference, in both size and cost,
between the two engines. However, the
automobile manufacturer can easily afford to
include an ECU costing US$50-100 because it
is only a small percentage of the overall cost of
the entire vehicle. The engine compartment of
an automobile has enough spare room to house
even the largest ECU. Now, taking these factors
on board, it is important to think about the string
weed clipper that sells for less than US$100
in local home improvement stores. Would a
consumer of this product pay even an additional
US$5 for an ECU for that engine? It is a hard
sell, but if cold-start performance, reliability,
and even fuel efficiency are considered – or
more importantly governments imposed
clean air standards – then the US$105 string
weed clipper with an ECU starts looking like
a better deal.
Packaging constraints
The problem is not just the cost but the space
required for the small-engine ECU. The large
engine compartment on an automobile is
missing on a gasoline-powered hand tool –
there is simply not enough room to house an
Engine Technology International.com // January 2013 //
// CASE STUDY // FREESCALE
2
1
ECU of any appreciable size. On the basis of
size and cost alone, the small-engine industry
is somewhat justified for failing to upgrade
gasoline-powered products to electronic
fuel injection. A growing factor, and perhaps
the most important one, is the action by the
governments of most countries to enact laws
to force manufacturers to clean up their engine
emissions. The effect of polluted air on the
health of the population has caused legislators
to take a hard stand on the exhaust emissions
of all gasoline- and diesel-powered engines.
These new laws will become effective in the
near future and they will force manufacturers
to consider adding electronic control to be able
to meet tough emissions standards. As a result,
the time to provide electronic control in small IC
engines is upon us.
What can be done?
One thing the electronics industry can do to
help in this area is to minimize the size and
cost of the small-engine ECU by reducing the
number of components required through the
use of semiconductor integration and discrete
component elimination. As a result of the
4
3
1: A small-engine flywheel
with VRS
2: An ECU with
discrete MCU and ASSP
(the bottom image)
compared to an ECU with
Sip (the top image)
3: Capacitive discharge
ignition module for a
small engine design
technology advances spurred by the growth in
smartphone and tablet computer markets, the
cost and actual size of electronic components
has gone down dramatically in the past few
years. New manufacturing techniques such
as the surface mounting of components on
printed circuit boards and the use of robotic
manufacturing has further reduced the size and
cost of an ECU. The small-engine ECU can now
be reduced to just one analog integrated circuit,
called an application-specific standard product
(ASSP), and one microcomputer (MCU). While
the single chip ECU is still a goal for the future,
new breakthroughs in packaging technology
mean the ASSP and MCU can be contained
in a single package. This single package ECU,
called a system in a package (SiP), reduces
the size of a complete ECU to a circuit-board of
less than 50 x 50mm and containing less than
US$5 worth of components. As a result of these
engineering advances, the goal of making an
EFI system for small gasoline-powered engines
is now easily possible.
The electronic industry can help bring this
‘make it clean’ revolution to small engines by
// January 2013 // Engine Technology International.com
4: A carburetor for
small-engine applications
supporting engine manufacturers with working
reference designs of ECUs in order to help bring
them up to speed with the new technology.
When the automobile industry was learning
how to develop ECUs back in the 1970s, the
electronic industry provided this type of support
until the automobile manufacturers developed
such expertise in-house. Providing the ECU
hardware and software designs to the smallengine makers, whose engineering staff is still
mostly versed in mechanical design, helps
reduce the overall time to market and eliminate
start-up errors that are typical of radically new
product introductions.
The software that is a necessary part of the
ECU is also provided by the electronic industry
so that engine manufacturers can learn how to
tune their engines using this new technology.
As small-engine manufacturers begin adopting
electronic fuel injection, the cost of adding the
ECU will decrease rapidly and the result will be
better small-engine products and cleaner air.
// CASE STUDY // FREESCALE
make it
CLEAN
In a global effort to make small engines more fuel efficient and less polluting, manufacturers
must begin transitioning these engines from mechanical to electronic control. Mandatory
governmental regulations and public demand for clean 2- and 4-stroke engines on everything
from small-displacement motorbikes to outboard motors, lawnmowers, personal watercraft,
leaf blowers and more, is encouraging companies that make the engines to clean them up.
Our proven automotive experience and expertise help small engine manufacturers make a clean
transition from mechanical to electronic control, creating engines that produce more power
and pollute less than their carburetor-controlled predecessors. A cleaner world. Let’s make it.
freescale.com/smallengine
Freescale Small Engine Solutions
Integrated MCU, analog and
mixed-signal circuitry
•
•
Small, practical form factors developed
for small engine applications
Multi-transition reference designs,
hardware, software and technical
support
•
•
Electronic control unit-controlled
operating parameters for maximum
efficiency and minimal emissions
Freescale and the Freescale logo are trademarks of Freescale Semiconductor, Inc., Reg. U.S. Pat. & Tm. Off. All other product or service names are the
Engine Technology International.com // January 2013 //
property of their respective owners.© 2013 Freescale Semiconductor, Inc.
Freescale Small Engine Technology
MM912_S812 S12xs
Multifunctional ignition and injector driver
set new efficiency standards
With increasing gas prices and worldwide emissions regulations, small engine applications
face increasing pressure to be more fuel efficient.
In the automotive industry, Freescale has been on the forefront of the change from
mechanical to electronic engine control. We are now leading the way to make this change
in the small engine industry as well.
The 33812 is an engine control analog power IC intended for motorcycle and other single/
dual-cylinder small engine control applications. The IC consists of three integrated low-side
drivers, one pre-driver, 5.0-volt voltage pre-regulator, MCU watchdog circuit, ISO 9141
K-Line interface and a parallel interface for MCU communication. The three low-side
drivers are provided for driving a fuel injector, a lamp or LED and a relay or another injector
or fuel pump. The pre-driver is intended to drive either an insulated gate bipolar transistor
or a bipolar Darlington transistor to control an ignition coil.
Small Engine Controls
Small Engine System Controls
K-Line
Gas Tank
MIL
ECU
Fuel
Pump
Spark
Plug
Ignition Coil
Fuel
Injector
MM912_812
I/O or ADC
Air
Temperature
Sensor
MUX
I/O
O2
Sensor and
Heating
SPI
ADC
S12P or S12XS
Idle Air Control Valve
Cylinder Temperature Sensor
Power
Supply
Parallel
I/O
ISO9141
Injector Driver
Relay Driver
Injection Pre-Driver
Lamp Driver
Reset
Generator
Watchdog
MC33812
Crankshaft
Sensor
Battery
Freescale Technology
MC33931 H-Bridge
(1) DC Motor
(2) Stepper
Switched Outputs
VRS Input
Features
• Designed to operate over the range of
~4.7 volts ≤ VPWR ≤ 36 volts
• Fuel injector driver—current limit—
4.0 amps typical
• Ignition pre-driver can drive IGBT or
Darlington bipolar junction transistors
• Ignition pre-driver has independent
high- and low-side outputs
• Lamp driver—current limit—1.5 amps
power-on reset typical
• Interfaces directly to MCU using 5.0-volt
parallel interface
Performance
Performance
Typical Values
Outputs
Three drivers, two pre-drivers, one bi-directional
RDSON @ 25° C
0.2 Ω
Operating voltage
–0.3 to 45 volts
Continuous current
2 amps for injector drivers, 1 amp for lamp drivers
Control
Parallel
ESD, HBM
±2000 volts
Operating temperature (TA)
–40 °C to +125 °C
Junction operating temperature (TJ)
–40 °C to +150 °C
Protection
Benefits
Protection
Detect
• Increased fuel efficiency when converting
from a mechanical system to an
electrical system
Overvoltage
•
Overcurrent/SC
•
Overtemperature
•
• Improved emissions using electrical
system of this IC compared to a
mechanical system
Open load
•
• Easiest way to interface an MCU to
DC loads
• Simplified system design
• Reduced board space
Limiting
•
Shut
Down
Auto Retry
•
•
Status Reporting
•
•
•
•
•
•
Orderable Part Numbers
Part Number
Core
Memory
Temperature Range
Package
MM912JS812AMAF
S12XS
128 KB
–40 °C to +125 °C
100 pin LQFP-EP
MM912KS812AMAF
S12XS
256 KB
–40 °C to +125 °C
100 pin LQFP-EP
Note: Add R2 suffix for tape and reel
• Reduce number of components
• Enhanced reliability
Development Tools
Part Number
Description
KIT912S812ECUEVM
S12XS reference design with BDM multi-link
MC9S12XEP100
Calibration board (contact sales for availability)
For more information, visit freescale.com/smallengine
Freescale and the Freescale logo are trademarks of Freescale Semiconductor, Inc., Reg. U.S. Pat. & Tm. Off.
All other product or service names are the property of their respective owners.
© 2013 Freescale Semiconductor, Inc.
Document Number: EngineTechnologyReprint REV 0
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