A network-enabled radio console architecture

A network-enabled radio console architecture
A network-enabled radio console architecture
Michael Dosch
Telos System, Cleveland Ohio USA
[email protected]
Introduction
Radio broadcast audio mixing consoles have remained
relatively unchanged for more than twenty years.
Originally, source equipment connected to stand-alone
mixing consoles with discrete analog signals. Later, the
preferred method of interconnection became AES/EBU
digital. More recently, high-end broadcast consoles have
begun to offer proprietary centralized mixing and routing
engines which make possible the sharing of sources
between studios.
Using modern computer networking equipment, it is
now possible to build robust Networks capable of
transporting digital media signals throughout a complete
studio facility. This paper describes various console
models, outlines the advantages offered by a studio
Network and explains how future broadcast
equipment— most notably mixing consoles— will need
to change in order to fully exploit these advantages.
Sources are different now
The audio mixing console has long been the central
processing and control device of the radio studio.
Despite a trend toward digital processing, the basic
architecture of the console has not changed in more than
twenty years. Audio source equipment feeds the console
analog or AES/EBU audio. The user mixes live and
recorded elements and the outputs of the console feed
the transmission chain and other destinations. This
approach is heavily dependent on the user to push the
right buttons at the right times so as to deliver the
appropriate content. And sharing sources between
studios is difficult. The stand-alone console is ideal for
dedicated studios that can be set up for a certain show
type and left unchanged.
Newer console designs have begun to offer integrated
routing switchers using proprietary centralized mixing/
routing time division multiplex (TDM) engine cores.
These systems offer significant advantages over standalone console designs. Because all studio sources are
connected to a central core engine, it is possible for
sources to be shared by multiple studios. Further,
because the mixing and routing is performed centrally,
the studio console interface is a flexible control surface
that can be reconfigured in software to accommodate
changing show types, shared resources and the instant
recall of user preferences and settings. The centralized
mixing/routing engine approach reduces costs when
compared to stand-alone mixing consoles due to reduced
wiring costs and a consolidation of expensive
components.
While these advancements offer benefits to the modern
radio plant, even the most advanced consoles of today
seem to ignore the now central role played by the
personal computer (PC). Most broadcasters are using
PC’s to replace many other studio functions—
particularly audio source equipment. Gone are the days
of playing from CD, carts, vinyl, cassette and reel tape
in a typical broadcast. Most program audio is now
recorded, edited and played out of a PC system.
While consoles remain much the same, the PC has
quietly taken center stage in today’s radio studio.
Traditional consoles handle PC audio the same as any
discrete source, hindering potential intercommunication
that might enhance accuracy and efficiency. Instead of
using analog or AES/EBU audio as the interconnection
standard, we believe broadcast audio systems of the
future will use networked Ethernet to provide a much
more flexible and cost-effective alternative to console
systems used today.
Why Ethernet?
With traditional consoles, the PC uses sound cards to
feed analog or digital audio to the console. In a complex
studio, it may be desired to play many audio elements
from the PC simultaneously. While modern PC’s are
capable of playing multiple simultaneous audio streams,
the sound cards can often be a limiting factor. With
Ethernet, the PC does not need sound cards. Rather, it
passes the audio directly to the network via a standard
network interface connection (NIC), eliminating the
expense and compatibility issues associated with sound
cards.
Ethernet can be carried over standard computer
networking devices such as switches, hubs and routers.
These networks can be easily scaled from small singlestudio installations all the way up to the most advanced
consolidated multi-station, multi-studio facilities.
particularly the capabilities of DAB, as we evaluate
whether the old model will be able to meet future needs.
Figure 1 shows a (greatly) simplified diagram of a
typical radio studio connected to a traditional console.
Analog and digital sources are connected to the console
Analog Signals
Digital (AES-3) Signals
Figure 1. Simplified diagram of a traditional radio
studio using discrete audio connections.
More importantly, Ethernet is information rich meaning
that associated data can travel the same path as the
audio. As broadcasters continue to embrace digital audio
broadcast (DAB), there will be a need to convey
content-related data to the transmission chain. An
Ethernet will carry both audio and associated data on a
single connection to any destination.
An Ethernet provides device-independent flexibility.
Sources and destinations are network resources, as are
mixing engines, storage devices, processors, and other
types of peripherals. Because of this, an Ethernet is easy
to install and maintain. Once a device has been
connected to the network, it is now an available resource
to be used as the engineer wishes. Sharing devices
across studios on a permanent or temporary basis will
no longer require wiring changes.
What’s wrong with the way it is?
Discrete analog and digital connections to a broadcast
console have worked well for years. Some might say this
approach is not broken and shouldn’t be fixed. Indeed,
there are some very sophisticated facilities running some
of the most complex shows on stand-alone consoles
from PR&E, Wheatstone and others. But we must
carefully consider the changing technology of radio,
where they are mixed and routed to the program output.
The operator chooses the sources— including computer
audio— and selects levels to produce a live show.
Even though the PC is providing most of the recorded
audio and the playout software can log what is played,
it is quite possible for user errors downstream to render
the log useless. For example, the PC may have played
a spot while the console fader was down, the channel
not assigned to program, another source was being
played simultaneously encroaching on the spot, etc.
Because sources are tied to the console, they are not
easily shared by other studios. And with only analog or
AES/EBU connections, any provisions for program
associated data will need to be made separate from the
console, complicating the system design. For example,
how does the system know if a source is feeding the
program chain or is simply being auditioned locally?
Despite its limitations, this is by far the most popular
radio console model in use today, and is quite
satisfactory for many applications.
The more sophisticated designs of today, provide a
centralized mixing/routing engine as depicted in Figure
2. The central engine core performs all the switching,
mixing and console processing for a group of studios.
Sources can be shared across studios. For very large
plants, multiple engines can be ganged together and
some have special provisions for dealing with localized
studio sources.
This approach provides much more flexibility than the
stand-alone console model previously described. Wiring
costs are greatly reduced and studios can be more
efficiently utilized. Perhaps the most significant benefit
is the seamless integration between routing and mixing
functions. Each input channel can select from a range
of available sources. Outputs and monitor preferences
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Control Surface
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Control Surface
Analog Signals
Digital (AES-3) Signals
Control Signals
Figure 2. Simplified diagram of a centralized router/
mixing engine core.
Control surfaces provide the user interface, but perform
no actual audio processing. The user interacts with a
surface much the same as they would an actual console,
but rather than changing the audio directly, their input
is captured and fed to the central engine core to change
levels, switch signals, etc. Control surfaces can be
reconfigured quickly to accommodate different shows
or user preferences.
are stored for instant recall when launching a show. Yet
with all this integration, all of the audio is still treated
as discrete. This is especially limiting for the PC which
must use sound cards to convert its audio to analog or
AES/EBU streams before feeding it into the engine core.
An Ethernet audio network can provide all of the
benefits of the centralized core approach while adding
a wide range of new capabilities.
Why use computer technology?
The computer industry has advanced the state-of-the-art
in computer networking, routing and switching systems.
It is now possible to transport digital media signals
reliably over controlled Ethernet audio networks with
guaranteed quality of service (QoS).
Studio audio in the broadcast plant is especially
demanding. It is not enough that the network be capable
of reliably delivering audio packets. The delivery
method must provide for synchronization, absolutely no
information loss, and extremely low delay (latency).
By carefully specifying the network components, system
design and transport protocol, it is possible to build a
low-latency, no-loss, synchronized Ethernet audio
network using a combination of commonly available
Ethernet and PC components and some purpose-built
broadcast pieces.
Additionally, because the underlying network is
Ethernet, PC’s can connect directly to the network
without any translating hardware. Ethernet cables, plugs,
tools, testers, hubs, and Ethernet adapters are ubiquitous
and inexpensive. By building the studio infrastructure
using these elements, broadcasters are able to access
advanced technology with costs driven lower by the high
volumes of the mainstream computer networking
markets.
What about traffic?
An Ethernet audio network must manage traffic more
intelligently than the typical office LAN which routinely
drops packets and uses TCP/IP to throttle the speed of
the source to deal with variable network congestion.
While this method works fine for web browsing, email
and print jobs, the penalty for this method of delivering
audio is very high latency due to large buffers, audio
drop-outs, or both.
The best way to solve this problem that we have found
is to use switching Ethernet hubs to prioritize audio
streams for reliable transmission and to control the flow
of traffic. In an ideal system, high-priority audio can be
conveyed over the same Ethernet segments as standard
TCP/IP or UDP/IP control or file transfer data.
The switching Ethernet hub is ideally suited for an audio
network. In Figure 4, six workstations are connected to
a switching hub using 100BT Ethernet segments. Each
segment is capable of carrying 24 inputs and 24 outputs
(linear PCM, stereo 48kHz sampling rate, 20 bit
resolution) simultaneously. So in the simple example
shown, this network provides a 144 by 144 cross-point
matrix. The switching Ethernet hub performs two vital
functions for the Ethernet audio network.
100BT
100BT
100BT
100BT
100BT
100BT
Figure 4. A switching hub is used to prioritize and manage network traffic flow.
First, it divides the network into independent Ethernet
segments, each capable of carrying a full payload of
traffic. It does this by sending only those packets
intended for a particular segment. With a properly
written protocol and careful system design, it is possible
to completely eliminate network congestion and
contention.
By contrast, a standard (non switching) hub will cause
the connected devices to share bandwidth; relying on the
connected devices to ignore the unnecessary packets.
Without a switching hub, the six workstations above
would share a single 100BT network connection limiting
the matrix to 24x24 total inputs to outputs at best.
Second, the switching hub prioritizes the data. This
feature is what allows the Ethernet audio network to also
carry lower-priority associated data without concern that
these additional packets will affect the delivery of timecritical audio packets. In fact, it is possible to set
multiple levels of priority for maximum reliability and
efficiency.
For example, in a broadcast studio, we could set live
elements like microphones to the highest priority,
computer audio sources to medium priority, and logic
signals and PAD to low priority. By prioritizing traffic
this way, it is possible to deliver live audio with minimal
latency and still allow other traffic on the same net. With
switching hubs and a well designed protocol and system,
a broadcast-capable Ethernet audio network is possible.
Why is low latency so important?
The traditional console model provides for very low
input to output delay. This is a critical requirement for
a live-format broadcast console in which the announcers
will typically monitor their own voices in headphones.
PREAMP
Studies have shown that total mic to headphone delay
in excess of 30ms will cause live monitoring to become
distracting if not impossible. Delays between 15 and
30ms produce an annoying comb effect. Ideally, a
console system would have much lower latency, perhaps
less than 10ms total.
ADC
AMP
500 µS
ADAPTER
500 µS
DAC
ADAPTER
750 µS
Control Surface
Mix Engine
A 10ms latency budget disqualifies most network
methodologies, even those which purport to offer lowlatency delivery. The problem is that even the lowlatency protocols— even those intended for media use—
will add at least 5ms per network hop. Multiple network
hops are required in even the simplest systems.
To gain acceptance by broadcasters, networked audio
systems will need to provide latency performance in the
range of 1ms per network hop. The other system
components will also need to be designed for speed. It
does little good to have an ultra-fast network, only to
have huge buffers in the mix engine adding tens of
milliseconds to the round-trip delay.
The essential components of a network-centric radio
console are shown in Figure 5. Each component will add
some delay to the overall chain. The good news is that
with careful design and some clever application of
technology, it is possible to build an Ethernet audio
network capable of delivering real-time signals with
minimal latency. In fact, it is possible to build an entire
studio network with port-to-port throughput times that
can rival the traditional console.
So analog sources are networked?
Every source and every destination should be made
available to the network as a resource. Every microphone,
tape machine, satellite feed or CD player used in the
broadcast plant needs to be connected to the network.
In order to be useful, an Ethernet audio network will need
to have provisions for converting analog feeds to packets
and back again. Professional-grade A/D/A conversion
would logically be bundled together with the adapters. It
would also be beneficial to have network-addressable
GPIO interfaces to start and stop sources and to provide
remote control capabilities.
What about digital sources?
Again, an Ethernet audio network must be able to
interface with discrete digital sources and destinations.
Because AES-3 is a universally-accepted standard for
transporting linear PCM audio, translation between AES/
250 µS
750 µS
Figure 5. For radio systems, total delay must be
well under 10ms for live audio signals.
EBU and network would be required for certain devices.
In an ideal future, every device would be equipped with
an Ethernet adapter and would be capable of transmitting
and receiving properly formatted packets directly. We
believe that the benefits of Ethernet will drive many
broadcast equipment manufacturers to replace or
supplement their AES-3 digital connections with network
ready Ethernet jacks in future designs.
And to reiterate an earlier point: most recorded audio in
the modern broadcast plant originates in the PC. IP allows
the PC to speak directly to the network through its NIC—
no sound cards required.
Is this scalable?
The overall bandwidth of a switched network scales with
the size of the network (more bandwidth is added as the
network grows). This means that bandwidth does not limit
the number of channels that can be supported networkwide. There is virtually no limit to how large or complex
a network can be built using this approach.
What may be surprising though is how cost-effective an
Ethernet audio network can be for small, simpler
installations. Even a one or two studio facility will benefit
from the ability to share sources, direct connect to PC’s,
transport associated data and wire everything with
inexpensive Ethernet cables.
Studio systems can be built as stand-alone clusters, each
with its own central switching Ethernet hub.
Interconnecting multiple studios can be accomplished via
one of the switched Ethernet segments. Although 100BT
Ethernet is ideal for local shared sources, some
broadcasters may wish to connect the studios together
using a 1000BT copper or fiber link.
Where is the cross-point switcher?
Perhaps one of the more interesting attributes of the
Ethernet audio network is its ability to provide the
functions of a cross-point audio switcher— without any
additional cost. In the networked audio system, every
audio source and every audio destination is available on
the network, eliminating any need for a dedicated cross
point audio switcher.
Some larger facilities use expensive, proprietary crosspoint audio switchers to share sources and reconfigure
destinations. These traditional routing switchers can
easily cost more than $50,000US for a typical plant. And
while these routers are competent at routing analog or
AES/EBU discrete signals, an Ethernet audio network is
superior for most modern radio plants with mixed analog,
digital and computer-generated signals.
Figure 6 shows a simplified cross-point switching
example. Analog and digital sources are converted to
digital and interfaced to the network as high-priority
multicast streams, available to all interested destinations.
Connections are made by simply having the destination
(output) terminal adapter request a source stream. This
could be done locally with a simple user interface on the
terminal itself or with a configuration application.
Any audio workstations on the network can “direct
connect” via Ethernet; no sound cards required. Audio
from the workstations will be IP-standard, medium
priority, and can feed the same destinations as the highpriority live streams. This system is much more flexible
than the traditional audio cross-point switcher at only a
fraction of the cost. And unlike the proprietary crosspoint switchers which are prohibitively expensive for the
smaller station, an Ethernet audio network is costeffective for very small systems— as small as only a few
devices— while being able to scale up to meet the needs
of the largest facilities.
Some facilities may choose to use audio networks to
simply replace the function of the cross-point routing
switcher, connecting to traditional consoles and source
equipment. Even in this application, the network
approach offers key benefits over traditional approaches.
Modern broadcast plants have a mixture of local and
centralized sources and destinations. CD players,
microphones, headphones and speakers are mostly local
to the studio while audio servers, satellite receivers,
transmission feeds are usually in the central terminal
room.
The traditional cross-point switcher is often a central
resource. Studio sources and destinations must be
connected back to the central device. This can be done
with either multiple discrete audio cables or some type
INPUTS
MIC IN
LINE IN
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ADC
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DIRECT CONNECT
DAC
LINE OUT
AES-3 OUT
OUTPUTS
Figure 6. An Ethernet Audio network configured as a crosspoint audio switcher.
of proprietary studio connector interface device. Both
approaches add cost to the already-expensive cross-point
audio switcher.
The networked audio approach allows conversion
terminals to reside near their sources and destinations.
Terminals can be located both in studios and in central
rack rooms. Switches can also be distributed around the
facility or centralized. Even workstations can be central,
local or both. Everything is connected together with
standard low-cost Cat-5 cabling.
While the Ethernet audio network makes an excellent
replacement for the traditional cross-point switcher, much
more is possible once we establish the network
infrastructure. In particular, if we are to add a device to
manage the mixing and routing of signals on the network,
we can also replace the traditional console.
A PC-based mixing engine?
Having established that all of a facility’s sources and
destinations can be networked, let’s now address the need
for mixing and processing. Ideally, a mixing engine would
be attached to the network and would receive the desired
streams and would perform any mixing and signal
processing necessary and send the result to the
appropriate destinations.
processing tasks (such as real-time Linux) and tight,
efficient application code. In order to keep the overall
system latency under our 10ms maximum, the engine will
need to receive, mix, process and distribute live streams
within a millisecond or two. Although challenging, this
too is possible with careful design. Needless to say, this
PC engine must be dedicated to perform the engine
functions exclusively.
Most of today’s digital mixing console engines— both
stand-alone and the centralized router/engine types— are
based on proprietary DSP architectures. While these
designs are satisfactory for the discrete audio studio of
the past, the networked approach makes possible a
different architecture, one based on the power of the
modern PC motherboard.
In the network-centric architecture, the mixing engine is
an available resource just like the sources and destinations
themselves. It costs only a fraction of what a proprietary
mixing engine would, again taking advantage of computer
industry volumes to make technology more accessible.
The low cost and wide availability of the PC-motherboard
makes this engine architecture much easier to acquire,
maintain and upgrade than traditional approaches.
A Pentium-4 equipped motherboard is an amazingly
powerful device, with processing power comparable to
large multi-DSP proprietary embedded systems. In fact,
the PC engine is much better suited for mixing in a
network-centric facility than proprietary engines. All the
connections into and out of the engine are made via
Ethernet.
Of course, most PC motherboards are burdened with
slow, general purpose operating systems and inefficient
applications. To make an effective mix engine, the PC
must be optimized for this purpose, with an efficient and
reliable operating system capable of handling real-time
A simplified studio mixing system is shown in Figure 7.
Analog and digital discrete sources are converted to
digital live (high-priority) streams and fed to the network.
The mixing engine sweetens and mixes these streams and
feeds the result to the appropriate output destinations,
based on a configuration template and live-input from a
control surface or user application.
A single P4 engine is capable of supporting a very
complex studio setup, with 24 or more active sources,
multiple program outputs, monitor outputs, mix-minus
outputs, auxiliary sends, talkback paths, etc. Amazingly,
this PC-engine can outperform the very largest multi-bus,
multi-channel, stand-alone consoles used in radio today.
Due to the tremendous amount of latent power in the P4
motherboard, the PC-based mixing engine is capable of
adapting to a wide range of situations without any
hardware changes. One studio setup might have a dozen
or more live sources, each with independent mix-minus
output requirements. Another setup might use 6 or 8
computer-sourced IP streams and several different control
surfaces. The PC-based mixing engine adapts to the needs
of the studio instantly and effortlessly.
TERMINAL
Mix Engine
Control Surface
TERMINAL
Figure 7. A PC-based mixing engine completely
replaces traditional console functions.
Further, it is possible to integrate external functions into
the engine. Many consoles will use external effects
devices, equalization, profanity delays, headphone
dynamics processing, and other specialized functions. A
PC-based mixing engine can assign resources to provide
these and other functions that might otherwise require
dedicated equipment.
The engines can be located in the studios or in the terminal
rooms, stand-alone or shared. The networked broadcast
plant requires an entirely new way of thinking about
systems architecture, but once our minds are open to the
possibilities, it is easy to see how powerful and flexible
tomorrow’s systems will be.
Is all this really possible?
The concepts described here are more than interesting
theory. Telos has in fact developed a studio audio
transport system called Livewire, a suite of audio
networking tools which will forever change the way we
connect and use studio audio equipment.
Livewire terminals interface to
analog and AES-3 gear.
The Livewire network uses a common Ethernet to carry
audio streams and any associated data or control between
devices, studios and facilities. At its heart Livewire uses
Ethernet switches to isolate links, manage traffic and
ensure fully reliable transmission.
Livewire assigns the highest priority to live audio streams
(called Livestreams) for delivery in less than 1ms per
network hop, while also providng an IP-Standard
medium-delay mode for connection to PC’s. It distributes
a clock signal over the Ethernet for precise
synchronization and low delay.
The Livewire system includes translation terminals for
microphone audio, line-level analog audio, and AES/EBU
audio for connection to traditional equipment. These
terminals provide the synchronization and advertise the
availability of connected sources to the rest of the network
and can be located physically near their associated gear.
A software driver makes Livewire
look like a sound card to PC’s.
A specialized Routing Controller terminal provides a list
of available streams which can be scrolled and selected
or instantly accessed via softkeys. It connects to Livewire
and provides convenient audio input and output ports.
The Livewire system provides a unique way of handling
audio from PC’s using a software driver that causes the
network to look like a sound card to the PC application.
Equipped with this driver, the application will pass audio
to and from the network seamlessly.
A PC-based Engine running Linux and a highly-tuned
application mixes and processes Livewire streams while
adding less than 1ms of throughput delay. The Engine
adapts to changing studio requirements and has sufficient
processing headroom to allow for “accessory” features
like built-in headphone dynamics processing and channel
equalization that might require add-on devices in a
traditional studio system.
Telos offers control surfaces to provide the tangible user
interface (UI) for the board operator, with intuitive
controls and displays designed for the fast-paced live
format radio show. These surfaces communicate to the
Engine and other devices over the Livewire.
Control surfaces communicate
over the same network.
A PC-based Engine mixes and
processes Livewire streams.
Putting it all together
Shown on this page is an example studio system using
Livewire components. In this example, the studio has a
large number of active local sources. Each microphone
has an independent monitor feed which enables the host
to talk to each guest’s headphones privately.
The phone and codec sources each have associated mixminus outputs. In fact, due to the Engine’s ability to
assign resources as required, it is possible to have a mixminus output for every assigned source. And the
management of mix-minus outputs is handled completely
within the Engine automatically, finally making hybrids
and codecs as easy to use as CD players.
The audio delivery software is directly feeding the
network with 6 simultaneous stereo audio sources.
Additionally, the Ethernet switch is linked to other studios
and centralized sources and is also making these local
sources available to other interested studios.
In this example, the traffic is light and the local Engine
working well below its capacity. There are 10 local
Livestream sources, 6 IP-Audio sources and 13 local
destinations. Any program associated data is carried
through the network along with the audio data and can
be delivered to interested devices by simply connecting
them to an unused switch port.
A GPIO terminal is shown which provides for remote
control and contact closure commands for microphones
and discrete peripherals.
In this drawing, we even show a firewall-protected
internet connection. The idea of allowing internet traffic
onto a critical audio network would be terrifying were it
not for the traffic management features of the Ethernet
switching hub. Because of the priority placed on
Livestreams over IP-Standard audio streams over
everything else, Livewire ensures that even on a busy
network, audio comes first.
HOST MIC
CONTROL MONITORS
HOST H/P
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6 Stereo IP-Streams
FIREWALL
The Future
Some will be uncomfortable with the idea of computer
networking technology for audio delivery. Proprietary
embedded systems may feel more industrial and secure.
What’s more, we have all had our share of bad
experiences with computers and networks. We groan at
the thought of “rebooting” our consoles. For good reason
of course.
In order to be accepted by broadcasters, Livewire— or
any other audio networking approach for that matter—
absolutely must provide the highest level of reliable
operation. This is our programming we’re talking about.
The office printer can be off line for an hour while we
hunt down the IT expert. The station audio must be
uninterrupted.
We believe that the future will clearly prove, despite some
initial apprehension, that studios built around audio
networks will provide high reliability, cost efficiency and
greatly enhanced studio operations. Once networking
begins to gain acceptance, we should see other significant
changes.
We described here a console engine which hangs on the
network intercepting streams, mixing, processing and
presenting the result back to the network for interested
destinations. It is easy to imagine future broadcast
products equipped with Ethernet audio connections to
be addressed and shared throughout a facility.
And as Moore’s law continues to drive PC MIPS up and
prices down, the network-enabled radio Engine will very
soon have excess capacity that could be tapped for
alternative tasks. Software plug-in products to do voice
processing, program delay or even codec or hybrid
functions may eventually replace the need for stand-alone
broadcast gear.
Broadcast technology has always been driven forward
by advancement in the communications and computer
industries. PC’s replaced broadcast carts. Digital Signal
Processing replaced analog functions. And each
technology advance brought with it new standards of
performance and new operating possibilities.
We can now apply computer networking to the broadcast
plant in ways never before possible. Discrete point-topoint wiring and TDM mainframe-type engine cores will
soon seem antiquated once broadcasters begin to
experience the benefits of the networked audio plant.
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