Wiley | 978-0-470-11411-7 | Datasheet | Wiley 978-0-470-11411-7 Datasheet

```7
HARD DRIVES
PROJECTS
Project 7.1
Examining Drive Geometry
Project 7.2
Removing an IDE Hard Drive
Project 7.3
Installing an IDE Hard Drive
Project 7.4
Installing a SATA Hard Drive
Project 7.5
Installing a SCSI Host Adapter Card and Device Driver
Project 7.6
Replacing a SCSI Hard Drive
Project 7.7
Partitioning and Formatting a Hard Disk Drive
Project 7.8
Defragmenting a Hard Drive
111
112 PC Hardware Essentials Project Manual
Project 7.1
Examining Drive Geometry
Overview
To understand how disks store data, you need to understand disk geometry,
which refers to the electronic organization of the disk drive. The
components of disk geometry include the physical number of read/write
heads (usually one for each side of the platter), and the number of cylinders,
tracks, and sectors of the disk. You can use this information to determine
the storage capacity of a hard drive.
In this project, you will examine the drive geometry (cylinders, heads, and
sectors) of a hard drive. Older drives list the cylinders, heads, and
sectors (or the sectors per track—SPT). (Note that because the number
of tracks per surface is the same as the number of cylinders on the
drive, manufacturers only report the number of cylinders, not tracks.)
Outcomes
After completing this project, you will know how to:
identify the drive geometry of a hard drive
use drive geometry information to calculate the available data
storage space on the drive
What you’ll need
To complete this project, you will need:
an older IDE hard drive that lists the cylinders, heads, and sectors,
and which has already been removed from the computer
a calculator
Completion time
30 minutes
Precautions
On newer drives (generally those that can store over 8.4 GB), the drive
will list the mode, such as LBA (Logical Block Addressing) and the
number of hard drive sectors. For such hard drives, you cannot use the
below steps to calculate storage capacity.
1. Examine the hard drive to locate a section labeled Parameters (Figure 7-1).
Hard Drives s113
Figure 7-1: Locating the Parameters section on a hard drive
2. Enter the information you find:
Cylinders: _________________________________________________________________
Sectors: ___________________________________________________________________
3. Calculate drive geometry using the formula: Cylinders x Heads x Sectors x 512 = Drive
Capacity.
__________________________________________________________________________
4. Convert the result above into MB by dividing by 1,000,000 or into GB by dividing by
1,000,000,000.
__________________________________________________________________________
5. What is the storage capacity of the drive?
__________________________________________________________________________
114 PC Hardware Essentials Project Manual
6. What is the storage capacity of a drive with the following drive geometry:
15690 cylinders, 16 heads and 63 sectors per track.
___________________________________________________________________________
Project 7.2
Removing an IDE Hard Drive
Overview
IDE (Integrated Device Electronics) is an interface for connecting storage
devices such as hard drives, tape drives and optical (CD/DVD) drives. IDE
is a specification that was originally written in 1988. When it was accepted
as an ANSI standard, it was renamed Advanced Technology Attachment
(ATA). The first ATA standards used a parallel bus, and are referred to as
parallel ATA or PATA. The most recent ATA standards are based on a
serial bus and referred to as serial ATA (SATA).
IDE has been the most popular interface for hard disk drives in mainstream
systems for many years, which means that you will very likely be called
upon to remove and install them.
In this project, you will identify and remove an IDE hard drive.
Outcomes
After completing this project, you will know how to:
identify an IDE hard drive
remove an IDE hard drive
What you’ll need
To complete this project, you will need:
working Windows computer with an IDE hard drive installed
a technician’s toolkit with antistatic wrist strap and antistatic mat
Completion time
60 minutes
Precautions
Be sure to take all necessary ESD precautions. Also make sure that any data
on the hard drive that you will be removing has been backed up.
1. If necessary, turn on the computer, and access the CMOS setup routine (also referred to as the
BIOS setup program or BIOS screen). The CMOS setup routine is available for only a short
time during the book sequence. Most computer manufacturers tell you how to enter the
CMOS startup screen as the computer is booting, typically by pressing a specific key
or
+ . The initial screen typically displays a menu of
combination, such as
key.
options (Figure 7-2). Select the Drive Configuration option and press the
Record the information that appears.
Hard Drives s115
___________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________
Figure 7-2: Accessing the CMOS setup routine
2. When you have finished recording the information, press the
key and allow the
computer to finish booting.
3. Shut down the computer and disconnect the power cable, along with any external peripheral
cables.
4. Carefully remove the computer case. Note: As soon as the cover is removed, put on your
antistatic wrist strap to protect the computer from ESD.
5. Prepare a sketch that shows where each expansion card goes in the motherboard expansion
slots and where any cables or wires are connected to the expansion card. On this sketch, note
the pin 1 edge (the edge that has a stripe) on the cables and the colors of individual wires
attached to the expansion card.
___________________________________________________________________________
116 PC Hardware Essentials Project Manual
6. If any of the expansion cards are obstructing your access to the hard drive, you will need to
remove them. Disconnect the wires and cables that are connected to the expansion card,
remove the mounting screw, grasp the expansion card with both hands, and pull upward
while gently rocking the board from front to back (Figure 7-3). Note: As soon as the
expansion card is out, place it on an antistatic mat to protect against ESD.
Figure 7-3: Removing the expansion card
7. The power cable plug on the hard drive is keyed so it fits only one way, but the ribbon (data)
cable can be accidentally reversed if it is not keyed. To keep this from happening, note the
pin 1 position of the hard drive so you can later match it with the striped edge on the data
cable when the drive is reinstalled. After you’ve done this, disconnect the data cable (ribbon
cable) and power cable from the hard drive.
8. Physically remove the hard drive from the computer. Unbolt the hard drive from the drive
bay and then remove the drive from the computer.
9. In another sketch, draw the hard-drive jumper block and show the current jumper settings.
___________________________________________________________________________
Note: The jumper settings should be master or single if this is the bootable drive. If the
jumper settings do not match the installation, the drive will not function. Hard drive jumpers
found in various locations on hard drives set the installation options. If any hard drive jumper
is moved, the hard-drive configuration is changed. Sometimes it is very difficult to find
documentation for jumper settings. Hard drives may be configured as master, single, slave, or
cable select. The hard-drive configuration must match the drive’s usage. The cable select
status permits the computer to automatically select the master or slave status, but it requires a
special hard-drive cable that is identified by a notch or hole in the cable.
Hard Drives s117
Project 7.3
Installing an IDE Hard Drive
Overview
Before installing a new IDE hard drive, you will need to plan how it will be
configured. IDE drives are connected to the motherboard using an IDE
ribbon cable. Motherboards typically have two connectors for IDE ribbon
cables, called the primary IDE channel and the secondary IDE channel. The
IDE ribbon cables themselves have a connector for attaching to the
motherboard and one or two connectors for the IDE drives. If two drives are
connected with the same ribbon cable, one drive must be designated as
Master and one as Slave. This configuration is done typically through
jumpers or switches on the drive itself. Other drive configuration options
include Single, which specifies that there is only one drive on the ribbon
cable, and Cable Select. You can use a Cable Select configuration when you
are using a Cable Select ribbon, which automatically designates one position
on the cable as master and the other as slave.
In general, for best performance, it is best to have drives on their own
separate ribbon cable. If you need to install a second drive on a ribbon cable,
choose the newest, fastest, or most used to act as Master.
In this project, you will determine the hard-drive setup information for the
drive to be installed, set the hard-drive jumpers, install the hard drive, and
then configure the CMOS if the drive is not automatically detected. You can
install the same hard drive as you removed in the previous project or a
different one.
Outcomes
After completing this project, you will know how to:
install an IDE hard drive
What you’ll need
To complete this project, you will need:
the computer from which you removed the hard drive in Project 7.2
a bootable floppy start-up disk
an IDE hard drive compatible with the BIOS of the computer and
the operating system that can be installed
a ribbon cable for an IDE drive
a Molex power connector that matches the plug on the drive
a technician’s tool kit with antistatic wrist strap and mat
the manual that came with the drive (optional but recommended)
Completion time
60 minutes
Precautions
Be sure to take all necessary ESD precautions.
1. Research the settings for the new hard drive and record the jumper and CMOS setup
information in the space provided:
Jumper settings: _________________________________________
118 PC Hardware Essentials Project Manual
Cylinders: __________________________________________________________________
Sectors: ____________________________________________________________________
Note: Newer hard drives have diagrams of their jumper blocks on their labels.
2. If necessary, shut down the computer. Remove the power cable from the computer and
carefully open the computer case. Locate an available drive bay, and identify where the
cables will connect.
3. Set the jumpers on the new hard drive so they have the same function (master, slave, or cable
select) as the drive you removed from the computer. The jumper blocks may be very
different.
Record how you set the jumpers. ____________________________________________
4. Insert the new hard drive into the drive bay, securing it with mounting rails or screws.
5. Attach the ribbon cable (Figure 7-4) to the hard disk drive and motherboard or the hard disk
controller, with the striped edge of the ribbon cable on pin 1 of the plugs. On early hard
drives and on most new hard drives, the drive that is attached to the end of the ribbon cable is
the C: drive. For some systems, the drive position on the ribbon cable does not matter.
Figure 7-4: Ribbon cable
6. Connect a power cable from the power supply to the drive.
7. Reassemble the computer (replace the expansion cards if you removed any and the cover).
8. Start the CMOS setup sequence and make sure the settings match those of the new drive.
Usually the hard drive is automatically detected; however, if the computer BIOS does not
automatically detect the drive, you must set the heads, cylinders, and sectors manually.
Sometimes a hard drive is detected with the wrong settings. The wrong settings may cause
the hard drive to be installed with the wrong size specified.
9. Exit the CMOS setup. The computer will reboot.
10. Boot to a startup disk in the A: drive and then type A:\>C: to attempt to access the hard drive
you just installed.
11. If you see the message INVALID DRIVE SPECIFICATION, the drive needs to be
formatted. Type A:\>FORMAT C: to format the new drive.
12. When the format is complete, type A:\>C: to access the hard drive.
Hard Drives s119
13. If the C: prompt is displayed, the installation is a success.
Project 7.4
Installing a SATA Hard Drive
Overview
SATA drives are a faster alternative to IDE drives. They support greater
storage capacities and higher data transfer speed. SATA drives use a
narrower, and longer data cable that allows for better airflow and more
flexibility in mounting a hard disk inside the PC case. The SATA power
cable has a new type of 15-pin power connector. The SATA data cable
connects to a new 7-pin IDE header directly integrated on the motherboard
or on a PCI SATA expansion card. SATA drives also operate at lower
voltages than IDE drives, reducing power consumption. Another important
feature is that SATA drives are hot-swappable under Windows 2000,
Windows XP, Windows Vista, and Windows Server 2003. One hard drive
can be removed and another plugged in without rebooting the computer. The
hot-swap feature and the higher data transfer speeds suggest that SATA
drives may become a competitive alternative to SCSI hard disks.
Many PC motherboards in current use do not have onboard support for
SATA drives. SATA support can be added to these systems through PCI
SATA expansion cards from third-party vendors. Typically, these expansion
cards can support two or more SATA drives.
Outcomes
After completing this project, you will know how to:
install a SATA hard drive in a computer
What you’ll need
To complete this project, you will need:
a Windows computer with a free drive bay and a motherboard that
includes onboard SATA support (if it does not, you must first install
a PCI SATA expansion card)
an appropriate SATA hard drive
a technician’s toolkit with antistatic wrist strap
Completion time
60 minutes
Precautions
Be sure to take all necessary ESD precautions. You will need to ensure that
drive you are installing is compatible with the motherboard.
1. Back up the data on existing hard disks in your PC.
2. Review the documentation included with your motherboard or third-party SATA expansion
card. If necessary, install a PCI SATA expansion card if the motherboard does not include
onboard SATA support.
3. Find an empty drive bay for the SATA drive; or rearrange the positions of existing storage
devices, removing the old hard drive, if necessary.
4. Insert the SATA drive in the drive bay and secure it in place.
120 PC Hardware Essentials Project Manual
5. Attach the 4-pin side of a Molex-to-SATA power cable to a Molex cable from your power
supply and attach the 15-pin side to the SATA power connector on the SATA drive (Figure
7-5). (A PC that includes direct SATA support may include a power supply with a native 15pin power cable.)
Figure 7-5: SATA power cable
6. Connect the 7-pin data cable to the SATA connector on the drive and to the SATA-1 header
on the motherboard or PCI expansion card.
Figure 7-6: SATA data cable
7. Reconnect any drives, expansion cards, and internal cables that were disconnected duringthe
drive installation. Reconnect the external video cable and power cable so that you can power
on the computer and confirm that the system BIOS detects the drive properly. If the PC
doesn’t boot, the drive is either misconfigured or not detected at all. Remove and reattach
cables as necessary.
Hard Drives s121
Project 7.5
Installing a SCSI Host Adapter Card and Device Driver
Overview
SCSI (Small Computer Systems Interface) is an interface standard that
supports a variety of internal and external peripheral devices, including hard
drives. SCSI technology is typically found in server computers, but is also
available for PCs Before you can install a SCSI hard drive into a computer
system, the computer must be able to support it. Some computers have SCSI
support built into their motherboards, or come with a SCSI adapter in a slot
as standard equipment. If the computer does not have one of these two
things, you must install a SCSI host adapter. A SCSI host adapter is used to
manage all of the devices on the SCSI bus, as well as to send and retrieve
data from the devices. There are a variety of host adapter cards available,
including those compatible with 8-bit ISA, 16-bit ISA, and PCI buses. The
host adapter chosen must be compatible with the motherboard’s expansion
buses. In this project you will learn how to install a SCSI host adapter card
and confirm that its associated device driver has been installed.
Outcomes
After completing this project, you will know how to:
install a SCSI host adapter card
confirm that the SCSI host adapter device driver has been installed
What you’ll need
To complete this project, you will need:
a working computer that does not have a SCSI host adapter
embedded on the motherboard
an ISA, PCI, or PCI-X SCSI host adapter card/board (depending on
the system’s bus), and appropriate cables
an available PCI or ISA slot
a technician’s toolkit with antistatic wrist strap
documentation for the host adapter (recommended)
Completion time
60 minutes
Precautions
None
 Part A: Install a SCSI host adapter
1. If necessary, shut down the computer and unplug it. Disconnect any external peripherals
attached to the PC.
2. Carefully remove the computer case. Note: As soon as the cover is removed,use the antistatic
wrist strap to protect the computer from ESD.
4. If you are installing an older ISA host adapter card, you may need to configure jumpers or
DIPswitches on the card before installing it. Check the manufacturer’s documentation for any
122 PC Hardware Essentials Project Manual
required settings. Most modern host adapters (Figure 7-7) are Plug and Play, however, so this
is likely to be unnecessary.
Figure 7-7: A typical host adapter card
5. Remove the slot cover from the back of the computer, and carefully insert the card into the
available slot.
6. Secure the card in the slot with the case screw.
7. Reconnect the power cable and any other peripheral cables you disconnected.
8. Turn on the computer. As the computer starts, look at the monitor. Most SCSI host adapters
display a start-up message with a prompt (a set of keystrokes) that allows you to enter the
SCSI setup system. Note what you see.
___________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________
Hard Drives s123
9. If there is an option to enter the SCSI setup system, type the prompt. In the SCSI setup,
review and record the options offered. Refer to the host adapter card’s manual for any details
___________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________________
 Part B: Confirm installation of the SCSI host adapter device driver
1. Most host adapter cards today are Plug and Play. When you restart the computer, Windows
should detect the presence of the adapter card and prompt you through the process of
installing the host adapter’s drive. Do so.
2. Once the driver is installed, use Device Manager to confirm that this software was properly
installed. To open Device Manager in Windows XP, right-click My Computer in the
Start menu, and select Properties on the shortcut menu to open the Systems Properties
button to open the
dialog box. Click the Hardware tab, and then click the
Device Manager. You should see an entry for your host adapter under SCSI and RAID
Controllers.
Project 7.6
Replacing a SCSI Hard Drive
Overview
Unlike IDE devices, which usually have one jumper to select between
master, slave, or cable select status, SCSI devices have three jumpers to set
their ID number. These jumpers provide eight binary combinations from
000 to 111. The host adapter (SCSI controller) is usually device 7, whereas
a bootable hard drive is usually device 0. Up to eight SCSI devices can be
connected to the same SCSI-1 or SCSI narrow cable; the first and last
devices on the cable are terminated with a resistor bank. The terminating
resistor bank can be physically inserted or removed, it can be electrically
inserted or removed by a single jumper, or it can be set with software. SCSI
devices can be connected as internal devices, external devices, or a
combination of internal and external devices. Internal SCSI devices usually
use a 50-pin ribbon cable; there are several types of external SCSI cables.
Consult the installation manual for cabling instructions.
In this project, you will record the current hard-drive setup information,
remove the hard drive, determine the hard-drive setup information for the
drive to be installed, set the hard-drive jumpers, install the hard drive, and
check the SCSI configuration to see if the hard drive is configured. You can
install the same hard drive or a different one. Any hard drive you install
must be compatible with the BIOS of your computer, the SCSI controller,
and the operating system you are using.
124 PC Hardware Essentials Project Manual
Outcomes
After completing this project, you will know how to:
remove a SCSI hard drive
install a SCSI hard drive
What you’ll need
To complete this project, you will need:
a computer with a SCSI hard drive and host adapter installed
a bootable floppy start-up disk
a new internal SCSI hard drive to install (alternatively, you can
reinstall the SCSI hard drive that you removed in Part A of the
project)
a power connector inside the computer that matches the plug on the
new drive (usually a Molex)
built in
an interface cable (usually a ribbon cable) with the appropriate
connectors for connecting the new drive to the host adapter
a technician’s toolkit with antistatic wrist strap and antistatic mat
Completion time
60 minutes
Precautions
Be sure to take all necessary ESD precautions. Also make sure that any data
on the hard drive that you will be removing has been backed up.
 Part A: Remove the current SCSI hard drive
1. If necessary, turn on the computer, and access the CMOS setup routine (also referred to as the
BIOS setup program or BIOS screen). The CMOS setup routine is available for only a short
time during the book sequence. Most computer manufacturers tell you how to enter the
CMOS startup screen as the computer is booting, typically by pressing a specific key
or
+ . The initial screen typically displays a menu of
combination, such as
key. Record the
options. Select the Drive Configuration option and press the
information that appears.
___________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________________
2. When you have finished recording the information, press the
key and allow the
computer to finish booting.
3. Shut down the computer and unplug it. Disconnect any external peripheral cables.
4. Carefully remove the computer case cover. Note: After you remove the cover, use the
antistatic wrist strap to protect the computer from ESD.
Hard Drives s125
5. Prepare a sketch that shows where each expansion card goes in the motherboard expansion
slots and where any cables or wires are connected to the expansion card. On this sketch, note
the pin 1 edge (the edge that has a stripe) on the cables and the colors of individual wires
attached to the expansion card.
__________________________________________________________________________
6. If any of the expansion cards are obstructing your access to the hard drive, you will need to
remove them. Disconnect the wires and cables that are connected to the expansion card,
remove the mounting screw, grasp the expansion card with both hands, and pull upward
while gently rocking the board from front to back. Note: As soon as the expansion card is
out, place it on an antistatic mat to protect against ESD.
7. The power cable plug on the hard drive is keyed so it fits only one way, but the ribbon (data)
cable can be accidentally reversed if it is not keyed. To keep this from happening, note the
pin 1 position of the hard drive so you can later match it with the striped edge on the data
cable when the drive is reinstalled. After you’ve done this, disconnect the data cable (ribbon
cable) and power cable from the hard drive.
8. Physically remove the hard drive from the computer. Unbolt the hard drive from the drive
bay and then remove the drive from the computer.
9. In another sketch, draw the hard-drive jumper block and show the current jumper settings and
terminating resistor. The jumper settings should be a binary number from 000 to 111. The
boot hard drive is usually set to binary 0, which is indicated by no SCSI ID jumpers being
set. The first and last devices on the cable are terminated with a resistor bank.
___________________________________________________________________________
126 PC Hardware Essentials Project Manual
 Part B: Install a SCSI drive
1. Verify the hard-drive CMOS settings. The CMOS should be set to SCSI or NO DRIVE.
Record the information.
___________________________________________________________________________
Note: Newer hard drives have diagrams of their jumper blocks on their labels.
2. Set the jumpers on the new hard drive to have the same SCSI ID number as the drive you
removed from the computer. Set the terminating resistor if it was set on the hard drive you
removed.
Record how you set the jumpers: ________________________________________________
3. Place the new hard drive in the drive bay and secure it with screws or mounting rails or
screws.
4. Attach the SCSI ribbon cable to the hard disk drive and the SCSI host adapter, with the
striped edge of the ribbon cable on pin 1 of the plugs (Figure 7-8).
Figure 7-8: Striped edge of ribbon cable
5. Attach a power cable to from the power supply the drive.
6. Reassemble the computer (replace the expansion cards if you removed any and the cover).
7. Boot the computer and press
+ . You should see the message Press Ctrl+A for SCSI
Select. The SCSI hard drive should appear in the SCSI scan.
8. Boot to a startup disk in drive A: and then attempt to access the hard drive you just installed
by typing A:\>C:
9. If you see the message INVALID DRIVE SPECIFICATION, the drive needs to be
formatted. Type A:\>FORMAT C: to format the new drive.
Hard Drives s127
10. When the format is complete, type A:\>C: to access the hard drive.
11. If the computer shows a C: prompt, the installation was a success.
Project 7.7
Partitioning and Formatting a Hard Disk Drive
Overview
For a hard disk to be able to hold files and programs, it has to be partitioned
and formatted. Partitioning is the process of creating logical divisions on a
hard drive. A hard drive can have one or more partitions, represented by
different drive letters. Formatting is the process of preparing a hard disk for
use by an operating system. Formatting establishes a file system, creates and
configures a file allocation table (FAT), and creates a root directory.
Different operating systems support different types of file systems, such as
FAT16, FAT32, and NTFS. In this project, you will learn how to partition
unallocated space on a hard disk and format it.
Outcomes
After completing this project, you will know how to:
partition a hard disk
format a hard disk
What you’ll need
To complete this project, you will need:
administrative rights on a Windows XP, Windows 2000 or Windows
Server 2003 computer that has an additional unpartitioned hard
drive installed. You can also use a computer whose hard disk is set
up to use basic storage and has unallocated space available
Completion time
30 minutes
Precautions
Do not tamper with the logical drive (usually the C: drive) that contains the
Windows system files.
1. If necessary, turn on the computer and log on as an Administrator.
2. Open the Start menu, select Control Panel, and then select Administrative Tools to
open the Computer Management window.
3. Double-click Storage in the left pane of the window if necessary, and then click Disk
Management to display the disk configuration information in the Details pane.
4. Record the information about the hard disks and other storage devices that you see.
___________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________________
128 PC Hardware Essentials Project Manual
5. Right-click an area of unpartitioned space, and choose New Partition on the shortcut menu.
Figure 7-9: Disk Management
6. The Welcome screen of the New Partition Wizard appears, with information on creating
button to continue.
a partition. Click the
7. The Select Partition Type screen appears. You have the option of selecting either a
primary partition or an extended partition. The Primary Partition option button should be
selected by default.
8. Record the information available on this screen about how many primary partitions can be
created on a basic disk.
___________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________________
button.
9. Accept the default selection (Primary Partition) by clicking the
10. The Specify Partition screen appears. Here, you must select the size for the partition.
(Note: Choose a partition size that is no greater than one-half of the size of the unallocated
space.) Enter a value for the size of the partition in the Amount of disk space to be
used spin box. Record the maximum disk space, the minimum disk space, and the size that
you selected.
___________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________________
Hard Drives s129
11. Click the
button to open the Assign Drive Letter or Path screen. Here, you can
assign a drive letter or path for the partition. (Note: You can always change the drive letter
and path at a later date.) Typically, the computer’s initial hard drive will be assigned the
letter C, with D: assigned to a CD-ROM or DVD-ROM drive. Here, accept the default
assignment.
button to open the Format Partition screen. Here, a file system for the
12. Click the
drive must be selected. NTFS is the file system selected by default. What are the other
file systems available?
___________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________________
13. Choose NTFS as the file system, and enter a label (name) for the partition in the
Volume label text box. Record the label that you selected.
___________________________________________________________________________
14. Make sure the Perform a Quick Format checkbox is selected.
button.
15. Click the
16. The Completing the New Partition Wizard screen appears. Review the information
presented, and then click the Finish button to complete the process.
17. Return to the Computer Management window to see the newly created primary
partition.
18. Close the Computer Management window, and all other open windows.
19. What are some other methods available to partition and format a hard disk drive?
___________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________________
130 PC Hardware Essentials Project Manual
Project 7.8
Defragmenting a Hard Drive
Overview
When you create a file, it normally occupies contiguous hard-drive space
(the clusters used to store the file are adjacent to each other). Over time, as
the file size increases, there may not be enough contiguous space for the
file. So, the file gets broken up. This process is called fragmentation. When
enough files become fragmented, the hard drive wastes time going to
different clusters to retrieve them. If fragmentation becomes bad enough, a
condition called disk thrashing occurs: Operations slow noticeably, and the
hard-drive light flickers to indicate constant activity. Microsoft provides a
utility called Disk Defragmenter to help the hard drive reorganize itself.
Defragmentation is a process of rewriting files and organizing them so that
access to the files is improved. This process can take several hours if you do
not have adequate free space for the system to rewrite files or if there is a lot
of fragmentation on the hard drive.
In this project you will learn how to use the Disk Defragmenter to analyze
the level of fragmentation of a hard drive, and defragment it if necessary.
Outcomes
After completing this project, you will know how to:
analyze a hard disk to determine its level of fragmentation
defragment a hard drive
What you’ll need
To complete this project, you will need:
administrative rights on a Windows XP, Windows 2000 or
Windows Server 2003 computer
Completion time
30 minutes or more depending on the amount of fragmentation
Precautions
Run Disk Defragmenter only when you are not using the computer for
anything else. The defragmentation process can slow the time it takes to
access other disk-based resources, and any files that are open or in use
cannot be defragmented.
1.
2.
3.
4.
Turn on the computer, and log on as an administrator.
Open the Start menu and select My Computer.
Right-click the C: drive and click Properties to open the Properties dialog box
Click the Tools tab.
Hard Drives s131
5. Click the
button to open the Disk Defragmenter window (Figure 7-10).
Figure 7-10: Disk Defragmenter window
6. Click the
button.
7. The computer will now analyze the fragmentation of the hard disk drive. A message box will
appear when the analysis is complete, with a recommendation as to whether the volume
should be defragmented (Figure 7-11).
Figure 7-11: Analysis completed
132 PC Hardware Essentials Project Manual
8. Click the
button. An Analysis Report dialog box opens (Figure 7-12).
Figure 7-12: Analysis Report dialog box
9. Record the following volume information:
Volume size: _______________________________________________________________
Cluster size:_________________________________________________________________
Used space:_________________________________________________________________
Free space:_________________________________________________________________
Percent free space: ___________________________________________________________
Hard Drives s133
10. Record the following information about the most fragmented file:
Fragments: _________________________________________________________________
File size: ___________________________________________________________________
File name:__________________________________________________________________
button to start the defragmenting
11. If defragmenting is recommended, click the
process. You can follow the process in the Disk Defragmenter window.
button to close the
12. When the process is complete, a message box will appear. Click the
message box.
13. Close the Disk Defragmenter and any other open windows.
134 PC Hardware Essentials Project Manual
```