english, pdf
Historical Development of Fire Detection System
Technology on Ships
Povijesni razvoj tehnologije vatrodojavnih sustava na
brodovima
Miroslav Bistrović
Danko Kezić
Domagoj Komorčec
Pula
e-mail: miroslav.bistrovic@uljanik.hr
University of Split
Faculty of Maritime Studies
e-mail: danko@pfst.hr
Pula
UDK 614.84:629.5
Stručni članak / Professional paper
Rukopis primljen / Paper accepted: 4. 11. 2013.
Summary
Early fire detection has a crucial role in fire spreading and extinguishing. Development
of fire detection technology was introduced as a result of series of great fire incidents,
which have caused heavy material losses with even greater casualties. Fire is among
the major sources of danger to the ship, and therefore special attention must be paid to
preventing and extinguishing fires on board. The recent development of fire detection
sensors and their integration into the fire alarm system can be traced through the
development of four generations of sensors. Integration of fire detection technology
with microelectronics and information technologies, a high level of system autonomy
is achieved, allowing wireless networking of fire alarm sensor while increasing system
reliability and availability.
KEY WORDS
fire
fire detection systems
fire sensors
fiber optic temperature sensor
wireless fire alarm
Sažetak
Rano otkrivanje požara ima presudnu ulogu u njegovu gašenju i sprečavanju širenja.
Razvoj vatrodojavne tehnologije potaknut je nizom požarnih incidenata, koji su za
posljedicu imali velike materijalne gubitke, uz još veće ljudske žrtve. Vatra je među važnijim
izvorima opasnosti na brodovima i zato se mora posvetiti posebna pažnja sprečavanju
i gašenju požara na brodu. Dosadašnji razvoj senzora dojave požara i njihova integracija
u vatrodojavne sustave može se pratiti kroz razvoj četiri generacije senzora. Integracijom
tehnologija dojave požara sa mikroelektroničkim i informacijskim tehnologijama ostvaren
je visok stupanj autonomnosti sustava, koji dozvoljava bežično umrežavanje senzora
dojave požara uz istodobno povećanje pouzdanosti i raspoloživosti sustava.
KLJUČNE RIJEČI
požar
vatrodojavni sustav
senzori požara
svjetlovodni temperaturni senzor
bežični vatrodojavni sustavi
INTRODUCTION / Uvod
Fire protection, through application of science and engineering
principles aims to protect people, property and the environment
from a devastating fire. From ancient times people have realized
that early detection of fire has a positive effect in the fire control.
The earliest recorded examples of fire protection can be traced
back to the Roman Empire and the catastrophic fires that started
in Rome. As a result, Emperor Neron has adopted regulations that
required fireproof material for walls and buildings restoration to
be used. The second recorded case of adopting fire protection
regulations occurred in the year 1666, after the Great fire of
London, which destroyed more than 80 percent of the city. The
fire of London spurred interest in the development of the first
equipment for fire suppression in the form of hand pumps and
fire hydrant installation for water supply [1].
From the beginning of the construction of the first simple
wooden boats, whose material is very susceptible to fire, until
today the sailors’ fear of onboard fires was constantly present.
Due to these facts fire alarm system played a crucial role in saving
ships and people’s lives, but are only effective if reliable and fast
fire alert with exact location of fire can be provided. There is a
direct correlation between the amount of damage caused by fire
and interventions time in various marine fire alarm systems. As the
time of intervention decreases the ship damage also decreases.
Since fire alarm system reaction time (time between fire detection
and extinguishing) is its main task, the system needs to detect fire
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as soon as possible to reduce the fire damages. A lot of attention
is devoted to this issue, which requires a professional approach in
the ship design and construction, keeping in mind sea conditions
during the ship’s voyage. “Solas” convention defines a set of rules
and requirements for fire alarms and detection systems for various
vessel types, and various classification societies apply these rules
as a basis for the selection of fire alarm systems on specific ships.
Proper selection of a fire alarm system and fire alarm detector for a
particular vessel type can significantly prevent the fire spreading,
thus allowing the people evacuation from vulnerable parts of
the ship. Furthermore, a fire alarm system automatically follows a
series of actions such as closing fire doors, turning off ventilation
systems, audio and light signaling, starting fire extinguishing
systems and so on. Fire alarm system’s development led to
integration with ships central alarm system, and therefore better
performance in monitoring control of a particular system, i.e. an
automation system which ultimately aims to decrease work load
of the ship’s crew.
DEVELOPMENT CHRONOLOGY OF FIRE ALARM
DETECTOR / Kronologija razvoja detektora dojave
vatre
The first generation of fire detection devices (1849-1940) was
based on thermal detectors. But the start of fire alarm systems
127
development begins with the invention of the telegraph by
Samuel F. B. Morse in 1844. The first practical fire detection
systems using telegraph, was developed in U. S. by Dr. William
Channing and Moses G. Farmer in 1852. Two years later, he
applied for a patent for his electromagnetic telegraph fire
protection system intended to be used in cities. In Europe
in 1848 the first fire alarm device was developed by C.A. von
Steingel, which was operated by the firemen and used button
switches and different kinds of bells to give prearranged audio
signals. The first telegraph device was created three years later
in Berlin and as fire alarm telegraph equipment, used a cable
connection, to alert total of 37 fire stations [2].
The development of the first temperature sensors started
with the introduction of bimetallic sensors in the 19th century.
The working principle of these sensors was based on the
unequal expansion between the two metal stripes. Since
different metals have different thermal properties, when
heated they will bend in one direction, and in the opposite
direction when cooled, (hence the term bimetal thermometer
or BiMets) [3]. BiMets are reliable and durable, and are
considered ideal for many industrial applications, including
the first fire alarm sensors used for fire protection systems.
Historical process of smoke detectors evolution can be
divided into four generations based on the development of
detectors, improvement, and development of the electronic
technology industry. The first generation of smoke detectors
is considered to be developed until 1960. In1922, Greinacher
from Bern ran an experiment to measure the dust content
in the air, where he noticed a reduced mobility of ions flow
caused by dust. Due to this fact the same year he publishes
an article in the Bulletin of the Swiss Association of Electrical
Engineering, on the possible use of ionizing chambers for gas
detection [4].
The first electronic smoke detector was actually a result
of an error. In 1930, a Swiss physicist named Walter Jaeger
tried to develop a poison gas detector. He thought that the
gas particles would bond with ionized air, thus changing the
electrical current flow in the gas detector. But having failed any
test, Jaeger lit a cigarette and the smoke detector was activated
by reducing electricity flux, leading to the invention of the
first electronic device for smoke detection. Swiss scientists
ErmstMeil and Jaeger developed the first patented smoke
detector in the early 1940s. In1942. begun the commercial
use of ionizing smoke detectors, Cerberus. In1960, Canadian
researchers conducted a test fire of 342 residential buildings,
and have come to the conclusion that smoke detectors reduce
the number of deaths by 41%, while heat detectors by only 8
% [5].
In the period from early 1960s until 1975, the second
generation of smoke detectors was developed, where
americium 24, a radioactive source for ionization, was used for
application in the electronics industry. In 1964 an ionization
smoke detector with a 24V power supply was developed by
Alert [6]. Ionization smoke detectors contain small amounts of
radioactive isotopes alpha - particles, which are emitted in the
decomposition of americium 241, ionizing air and creating a
small electrical charge measured by sensitive devices. When
smoke enters the detector, ions are bonded with smoke a
particle, which reduces the current flow in the detector. When
this occurs, the alarm is turned on. As the path distance of
128
alpha - particles in the air is extremely small, there is no risk
of external radiation from these detectors. Still, according to
international rules, each ionization detector must have an
appropriate radioactivity label. After detectors are used, they
must be properly disposed as a radioactive waste.
Source: Authors
Figure 1 Ionizing smoke detector
Slika 1. Ionizirajući detektor dima
Smoke is one of the first signs of a fire in most cases and
is therefore an important factor to detect the fire. The biggest
advantage of ionizing smoke detectors is that they can detect
very small amounts of smoke, which is, from the safety aspect
of the ship, very important.
Source: Authors
Figure 2 Ionizing smoke detector working principle
Slika 2. Ionizirajući detektor dima - princip rada
A year after the discovery of ionizing smoke detectors,
Duane Pearsall has developed a photoelectric smoke detector
[7]. Major changes in smoke detectors technology occurred
during the 70s and 80s in last century. Smoke detectors
were originally developed to prevent the outbreak of fires in
industrial buildings such as factories and warehouses, as well as
public buildings, where a large number of persons is exposed
M. Bistrović et al: Historical Development of Fire Detection System Technology
to a possible fire. These detectors are today commonly used in
fire detection systems for all vessel types.
Source: Authors
Figure 3 Optical smoke detector
Slika 3. Optički detektor dima
Common photoelectric smoke detectors operate on the
light beam interruption principle. The smoke detector consists
of a light source, usually white light or more often low-power
laser, and a photoelectric module. A beam of light sent through
the detector in normal conditions of cleanliness bypasses
photocell usually at approx. 90 degrees. When smoke particles
obstruct the light beam, there is a break-ray, which focused on
the photo-electric cell changes the physical variables of the
set limits thus triggering alarm.
The third generation of smoke detectors (1975-1990) is
characterized by an increased interest in smoke detectors. In
this period there were a number of key changes in the detectors
design, including the replacement of the filament as a light
source with a light emitting diode and the use of silicon. With
the development of electronics and integrated circuits, there
is a decrease in the volume of the detector components, which
directly contributes to physical size reduction of the detector
and a decrease in energy consumption. In 1982, Pyrotronics
XL3 introduced the first analog- addressable detector [8].
The fourth generation of smoke detectors (1990 -present)
is characterized by the use of multiple detectors in a loop, and
application of algorithms. Development of microelectronics
has enabled the application of many different functions.
This was particularly important for all types of detectors
which, through the utilization of microelectronics, can be
produced as intelligent components. In this way, some basic
evaluation and decision-making functions can be integrated
in the detector. In 1996 a first multi detector (temperature and
smoke) was developed as a detector that uses smart “OR” and
“AND” logic. Major changes in smoke detectors technology,
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were introduced by the development of smart detectors.
Such smoke detectors provided option to regulate the alarm
threshold via a central control panel.
Along with optical smoke detector, a flame detector
was developed. Flame detectors are solutions for almost
all applications where fire may occur due to large losses of
complex equipment such as oil and gas pipelines, offshore
platforms, automotive manufacturing facilities, aircrafts, ships,
ammunition factories, nuclear plants, and where the risk of
staff injury is high. These systems use devices that match the
radiation energy visible to the human eye (about 4000-7000
Angstroms) or radiation energy outside the range of human
vision usually IR (Infra - red), ultraviolet (UV Ultra-violet), or
both. [9] Flame detectors are sensitive to ember, charcoal, or
actual fire of sufficient intensity to activate the detector and
trigger the alarm. In order to reduce false alarms due to a
possible misidentification of real alarms caused by lightning
strikes sparks during welding, sunlight or cigarette use, a 2-3
seconds delay is often included in the design of UV Flame
Detector. Ultraviolet (UV) detectors work with wavelengths
shorter than 300 nm. These detectors detect fire and explosion
within 3-4 milliseconds due to UV radiation emitted at the
time of their activation[10].
Source: Authors
Figure 4 UV flame detector
Slika 4. UV detektor plamena
Data in Table 2 shows the type of fire, whether smoldering
fire or open fire, properties and phenomenon of fire, combustion
process, smoke types, optical properties of smoke, air volume,
UV / IR radiation, temperature intensity, combustion gas type,
volume intensity and pressure rise due fire.
129
Table 1 Fire properties by type
Tablica 1. Značajke vatre prema tipu
Fire
type
Smoldering fire
Open fires
Carbonization
process
Glimmer fire
Solids
Liquids
Gases
Combustion process
Demands constant
energy supply
Independent after
start of fire
Independent after
start of fire
Independent after
start of fire
Independent after
start of fire
Smoke
type
Very bright smoke
Bright smoke
Dark smoke
Very dark smoke
Fire properties
and phenomenon
Oxygen mixing,
carbon content and
chemical structure
dependent
Optical properties of
smoke
Air
volume
Fast spreading
Fast spreading
Strong absorption
Slow spreading
High
High
High
Strong absorption
Slow spreading
High (except for
pure ethanol)
UV/IR radiation
Low
Low to medium
High
High
Increases with
carbon content
Temperature
intensity
Low
Low to medium
High
High
High
Combustion gases
High CO,
low CO2
High CO,
low CO2
Medium CO,
high CO2
High CO,
low CO2
High CO,
low CO2
Fire sound
intensity
Pressure
increment
No
No
No
Medium
Low to medium,
depending on fire
phenomenon
Medium
No
Medium
Low to medium,
depending on the
pressure
Low
Source: www.cfaa.ca/Files/flash/EDUC/TECHNICAL
SMOKE ALARMS DEVELOPMENT OFFICE / Ured za
razvoj dojavljivača dima
Technological development of fire detection systems is closely
linked to technological developments of fire detectors. Today’s
fire alarm technology does not exclude men, but it is still based
on the premise that the fire is always a result of causes and effects.
This means that early automatic fire detection is possible by one’s
knowledge and definition of fire causes and the course of fire.
Development of microelectronics has enabled the integration of
a growing number of functions in one device at the same time
decreasing its physical size. For detectors development this is
1935
1959
important, because thanks to the microelectronics technology,
they can be produced as intelligent components. In this way,
some of the functions of assessment and decision-making can be
exported to the detector.
A chronological development of fire detection systems can
be traced through the history of each equipment manufacturer.
One of the largest manufacturers of fire alarm detection control
systems and fire alarm detectors on the market, with a long
tradition and history, is the Consilium company.
Chronological development of Consilium company [11]:
1971
The company was founded in Norway named Radiodoktor (Servotekknik);
First generation of Salwico gas detectors, KVC-1, was developed by Salen&Wicander AB.;
Salen&Wicander developed the first generation of automatic fire detection system
Salwico SGC-8;
In cooperation with the Stromberg (ABB), a second-generation of fire detection system, SPSP, is designed;
1973
In collaboration with Nittan Japan begins the production of NID-38 smoke detectors;
1980
Delivery of fire alarm system to at the time the world’s largest cruiser, S / S “Norway” - SFDU-77 with 4,500 conventional detectors;
The first conventional fire alarm system, Salwico C-300;
Regardless of the technology used, fire alarm system is monitoring lines which have a large number of conventional fire alarm detectors
interconnected. Detectors are powered from the same line. In case of detector activation, there is an alarm signal in the central fire
alarm station, indicating appropriate supervisory line (zone). It is not possible to identify which detector is activated.
The first addressable fire alarm system, MBSA-802;
1967
1982
1983
1989
Fourth generation of the first analog - addressable system CS3000 fire alarm is launched;
SalwicoCS3000 fire alarm system is an analog addressable type system, which was developed directly for the marine market. The system
combines reliable fire detection with proven protection against false alarms. Due to the high demands that the system provided it is
very well suited for any environment with high and rigorous regulations. Salwico CS3000 is designed to meet the requirements of ISO,
EN54 and CE standards, SOLAS requirements and all major marine classification societies’ requirements. Across the use of display fire
alarm system offers almost endless possibilities for monitoring and controlling system and associated loops.
2000
The first analogue addressable system Nittan;
The fifth generation of fire alarm CS4000;
Key benefits and features of this analogue addressable system is in the central unit intelligence that can start a fire alarm as a pre
- alarm function, the system provides the ability to connect up to 254 units of address (detectors) in the loop, and the loop length
2004
can be up to 2000 meters. It is suitable for all types of vessels. It also meets the requirements of ISO, EN54 and CE standards, SOLAS
requirements and all major marine classification societies’ requirements. Sensors that fire alarm system uses are intelligent sensors
with built-in logic.
2009
Integration of fire alarm system with integrated navigation systems;
2010
Delivery of the fire detection system for ship EPICP with most addressable detectors (9000), for Norwegian Cruise Line company.
Source: www.consilium.se
130
M. Bistrović et al: Historical Development of Fire Detection System Technology
USE OF FIBER OPTIC CABLE IN THE FIRE ALARM
SYSTEM / Korištenje vlaknastog optičkog kabela u
sustavu dojave vatre
Optical fibers are widely used for data transfer and physical
research. In terms of physical applications, optical fiber can be
used to detect variations in temperature using the light beam
refraction index and the modified geometric properties. Fiber
optic cable as the temperature detector was first used in the
fire alarm systems in the late 1980s. Unlike conventional fire
detectors, the fiber optic temperature sensor uses the optical
fiber as a medium for reading. Fiber optic temperature sensor
measures the temperature in range from -160 to 600 degrees
Celsius, and sometimes more [12].
One of the most modern fire detection systems, based on
the use of fiber optic cables as a detector, is a system that uses
a laser beam as a light source. The operation principle of this
system is based on the change in the laser beam parameters
inside the fiber optic cable caused by its deformation. The
deformation is caused by the expansion of tubes filled with
wax due to the temperature rise. The process is reversible when the temperature starts to decrease, the tube with the
wax and the fiber optic returns to the previous form and
dimensions. A tube with wax and an optical guide shielded
with metal pipe makes the whole cable very robust. Before
using as a fire detection system, the cable is divided into
logical sectors, by using accompanying software, which allows
the location of the fire to be known with great accuracy, also
defining the area of affected zone, the dominant direction and
speed of fire progression. Such systems are now mostly used
in road tunnels, airports, various utilities, oil refineries etc. [13].
Currently on the market, this type of fiber optic is very
expensive, which is the reason why it is not yet used broadly
in the shipbuilding industry, although it would be ideal for car
carriers with multiple decks. It is possible that in the near future
this type of optical detectors for fire detection systems gets
much cheaper, and will be used on ships. Fiber optical sensors
are measures of temperature gradient and the maximum set
temperature.
Another approach is the principle of optical detectors
where the sensor is mounted at the end of the cable, and
works on the principle of phase difference between two light
beams [14]
The third approach in using fiber optic cables as the
temperature sensors is the method of bimetallic strips, where
the ambient temperature changes are bending metal stripe,
which in turn is pressing the fiber optic cable enough to
generate a measurable physical change [15].
Source: http://www.capgo.com/Resources/Temperature/FibreOptic/
Fibre.html
Figure 6 Fiber optic detector based on fiber optic cable
deformation measurement
Slika 6. Vlaknasti optički detektor temeljen na izmjeni
deformacije optičkog kabela
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Characteristics of the fiber-optic cable are:
Simple installation;
Reliable quick temperature LHD (Linear Heat Detection)
detection technology;
Complete immunity to electromagnetic influences,
pressure shocks, humidity, vibration,
temperature changes due to weather conditions;
High resistance to aggressive chemicals, mechanical
effects, dust and dirt accumulation, splash;
Fiber is completely passive sensor and has a very long life;
There are no electronics or moving parts;
Temperature measurements are provided over a total
length of fiber optic cable
Source: Authors
Source: Authors
Figure 5 Fiber optic temperature detector based on light
beams phase difference measurement
Slika 5. Vlaknasti detektor temperature temeljen na izmjeni
razlika faze svjetlosnih zraka
“Naše more” 60(5-6)/2013., pp. 127-133
Figure 7 Communication channels between fire detection
system control cabinet and fiber optic sensor loop via DTS
Slika 7. Komunikacijski kanali između kabineta sustava dojave
vatre i spirale putem DTS vlaknastog optičkog senzora
131
Aforementioned chart shows the fiber optic linear
temperature detector that operates through temperature
sensor (DTS) distributor, which uses fiber optics as a detector.
This system is called fire laser and can examine the temperature
at every interval of 1 meter along the installed fiber optic cable
up to 4 km along the loop with a temperature resolution of better
than1°C. The system provides a number of alarm conditions
such as the maximum temperature threshold, the growth rate
of the threshold temperature and temperature variations [16].
WIRELESS FIRE ALARM / Bežični vatrodojavni
sustav
Traditionally, fire alarm systems are designed in a way that fire
alarm detectors are connected via cable to the central unit.
Possible communication standard is NMEA 2000, [17].
Combining different detectors and indicator modules we
can monitor e.g. temperature, smokiness, the presence of
carbon monoxide, explosive gases, etc. Problem of collision of
parameters in huge networks exist so the signal priority can be
introduced [18].
Using cables is an expensive option, and implies that the
whole system (the installation of cables, different connectors’
types, power supplies and transformers, energy consumption)
is expensive. Wireless alarm system is an alternative to classical
systems. The system provides reliable wireless control unit with
fully supervised wireless signals instead of wires.
Also, devices that require power, such as smoke detectors,
temperature detectors, flame detectors, and all other
peripherals in the fire detection system require costly power
supply as a result of the cable length causing a voltage drop.
Because wireless fire detection system does not require a
cable for connection between the central unit and peripheral
equipment, wireless systems can eliminate the costs associated
with the cables. Central wireless transmitter fully supervises
peripheral equipment. Wireless central device regularly sends a
message over the transmitter to the equipment in the system,
i.e. detectors, and the system is constantly aware of the status
of each detector through this two-way communication.
Transmitters are used to transmit any change in status [19].
Today’s modern technology allows the production of
very stable, addressable fire detection system, using wireless
technology. Wireless fire alarm detection systems are safe
as the systems using conventional cables for connection,
because it is a two-way communication between the detector
and the central unit over the transmitter, and is thus provided
with continuous readiness of the system and valid errors
reporting when occurred, such as low voltage fault, the fault
of electronics, communication error, contaminated detectors
or any other alarm condition.
CONCLUSION / Zaključak
Effective object and facilities fire protection today is
unthinkable without the fire detection system. Fire alarm
systems are used for early fire detection, which protect lives
and property from damage caused by fires. There is a direct
correlation between the amount of damage caused by fire and
fire alarm system interventions time in fire fighting situations.
Fire detection and sensor technologies development trends
are constantly evolving with new sensing principles, the
integration of different types of sensors in a single detector
and implementation of software solutions, all with the goal of
faster, more efficient and more reliable fire detection. Thanks to
new technologies, intelligent sensors and dedicated software
interfaces make automatic fire alarm detectors and systems
achieve a high level of intelligence. By adding intelligent
properties to fire alarm sensors a new capabilities are been
developed, so we can for example, track the spreading of a fire
in a specific area. Such features are especially useful for military
applications or for monitoring forest fires. Technologies for
early fire detection are very reliable today, while the false
fire alarm rates are kept to minimum, and the integration of
fire extinguishing systems with fire alarm systems further
contributes to better fire protection.
But even today’s fire detection technology does not
exclude men, meaning that the human factor still has a great
influence in fire protection. Complexity of the fire detection
technology also requires an understanding of the system
by the end-user, which can sometimes be a problem if the
user is not sufficiently trained and qualified to work with the
system. Also, the adoption of new technologies by designers,
commissioning engineers and users and the introduction
to the widespread use requires a certain adjustment period.
With full integration of information and communication
technologies along with intelligent sensor technology in fire
alarm and detection systems, a maximum possible degree of
fire protection will be achieved providing better and simpler
utilization to users.
REFERENCES / Literatura
Source: Authors
Figure 8 Wireless fire detection system
Slika 8. Bežični vatrodojavni sustav
132
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[2] Merton, W., Bunker, Jr., Fire Alarm and Signaling System Installation, Third
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(Available at http://resolver.caltech.edu/CaltechES:5.4.Howard
[4] Milked, J. The History of Smoke Detection, University of Maryland, 2010th
(Available the http://www.enfp.umd.edu/faculty/milke)
[5] Ahrens, M, Fire Analysis and Research Division National Fire Protection
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M. Bistrović et al: Historical Development of Fire Detection System Technology
[6] http://www.todayifoundout.com/index.php/2012/04/how-a-smoke-alarmworks/
[7] http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Smoke_detector
[8] http://www.industry.usa.siemens.com/.../HistoryofSmoke
[9] Hadžiefendić N., Fire Alarm, Electrical Engineering, Belgrade, 2006th
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tip Fire Alarm Automatic door, Rijeka, 2010th
[11] http://www. http://consilium.se/marine-safety/fire-gas-detection
[12] Liu, Z., Ferrier, G., Bao, X., Zeng, X., Yu, Q., Kim, A., Brillouin Scattering Based
Distributed Fiber Optic Temperature Sensing for Fire Detection, Fire Safety
Science 7, University of Ottawa, 2003rd p. 221-232.
[13] Lozica, M., Drakulic, M.: Modern fire detection systems in road tunnels, the
scientific expert Conference “Security in the environment and jobs,” Solaris,
May, 2002.
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[14] Grattan, K. T. V., Meggitt, BT, Optical Fiber Sensor Technology, Chapman and
Hall, London 1998th
[15] http://www.capgo.com/Resources/Temperature/FibreOptic/Fibre.html
[16] http://www.lineardetection.com/fibre-optics-linear-temperature-sensing.
htm
[17] Krile, S., Kezić, D., Dimc F., ‘’NMEA Communication Standard for Shipboard
Data Architecture’’, Naše more, Vol. 60, No 3-4, pp. 68-81., 2013
[18] Krile, S., Kezić, D., “Self-Management Principles in Autonomic Service
Architecture Suported with Load Balancing Algorithm“, Automatika, Vol. 51,
No. 2, pp. 193-204., 2010
[19] Zhang, L., Wang, G., Design and Implementation of Automatic Fire Alarm System
Based on Wireless Sensor Networks, International Symposium on Information
Processing (ISIP’09) Huangshan, PR China, August, 2009. p. 410-413.
133
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