Smoke Detection
Handbook for
Smoke Detection
in ventilation systems
Planning documentation: Bo Backvik/Tomas Fagergren
© Calectro AB
Please feel free to quote the manual
as long as you cite the source.
Gothenburg
Palmeblads Tryckeri AB
CALECTRO AB has a broad range of products for a large number of control and
regulation functions in heating, ventilation and air conditioning systems.
We consider one of our most important fields to be our capacity to deliver reliable smoke
detection components for ventilation systems.
Rapid and reliable detection is an essential factor for simplifying evacuation and saving
lives and property to the greatest extent possible.
But, even a good product is of little use unless it is used with knowledge and good
judgement.
CALECTRO AB would therefore like to use this handbook to point out problem areas
related to smoke detection in ventilation systems and help expand knowledge in order to
develop systems better suited to their intended usage.
We would like to thank graduate engineer Bo Backvik, PBL Kontroll KB, and engineer
Tomas Fagergren, Brandskyddslaget AB, for valuable contributions to the creation of this
handbook.
Gothenburg, Sweden, April 2009
CALECTRO AB
Lars Petersson
Revised version April 2009
CONTENTS
page
Smoke detection in ventilation systems
introduction
fire development
1
1
2
Basis of fire protection measures
3
Appropriate detection
4
duct or room detection
4
Nature of the object – requirement level
6
Active smoke control
7
Right type of smoke detector
9
Correct installation and positioning
final check of installed detector
sources of interference
Correct number of smoke detectors
detectors in air treatment unit rooms
detectors on floor levels
duct and room detection
12
16
16
18
19
20
21
Sensitivity
22
Operating conditions
23
Detection in intake air
25
Monitoring and maintenance
27
Testing smoke detectors
29
Functionality testing and inspection
30
Planning documentation (Quick guide)
31
Overview of different types of smoke detectors
32
Notes
34
SMOKE DETECTION IN VENTILATION SYSTEMS
Current Swedish building regulations, BBR 15 (2008), set extensive requirements for
evacuation safety. In a separate fire protection document, the building contractor must
report the evacuation strategy and the function of the ventilation system during a fire. A
ventilation system in operation provides good opportunities (with relatively low costs) to
give clear signals about smoke from the start of a fire. This makes it possible to extend the
amount of time available for evacuation.
The general objective of fire prevention measures in ventilation systems – to prevent the
spread of fire and smoke – is to save lives and property. Measures taken in ventilation
systems are only one part of the total technical fire protection installations.
In many cases, supplementation is required with measures geared towards rooms in fire
cells.
The ventilation system (air handling system) of a building is considered a severe problem
area. This is because by the very nature of the system the ventilation ducts more or less
openly connect rooms in different fire cells and thereby give the smoke free passage. Many
types of systems have large air flows, which means that openings and ducts are designed
with large dimensions.
It is therefore particularly important to develop methods to prevent the spread of fire
and smoke through or because of the building's ventilation system within the established
technical fire time requirement.
An essential part of this development is improved knowledge of associated equipment
required to initiate protection measures. One basic requirement is for fire to be detected at
an early stage, for example via smoke detection.
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1
Fire development
Ignition
Flame
Invisible smoke and gas
No flame
No noticeable heat
The fire has started!
Smouldering phase
Visible smoke
No flame
Not later than here!
But the fire should preferably
be detected in phase 1
As a rule, all buildings and building ventilation systems are fitted with a detector system
intended to detect a fire as soon as possible and thereby help prevent other fire cells and
evacuation routes from filling with smoke and toxic gases.
In structures fitted with a complete fire alarm system, this can be used to control required
functions in the ventilation system.
This handbook describes detection, particularly in duct systems, by means of smoke
detectors. The handbook reports the technical design of smoke detectors and presents
viewpoints on usage to achieve the required functions at different requirement levels.
2
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BASIS OF FIRE PROTECTION MEASURES
According to the ACT ON TECHNICHAL REQUIREMENTS FOR
CONSTRUCTION WORKS, (BVL), a building structure which is erected or modified
must comply with important technical requirements with respect to matters such as safety
in the event of fire.
In the attendant statute, BVF (SFS 1994:1215) it is stated in §4 that:
Building structures shall be planned and erected in such a way that
1. the bearing capacity of the structure during a fire can be assumed to persist for a
determined period of time.
2. the development and spread of fire and smoke within the structure is limited
3. the spread of fire to adjacent buildings is limited
4. individuals inside the building during a fire can leave it or be rescued in another manner
5. the safety of rescue workers during a fire is taken into consideration
Functional requirements are established in Boverket's building regulations BBR 15
(2008). Fire protection regulations (section 5 in BBR) are currently being reviewed, but
this is not expected to be complete until 2010 at the earliest.
The great importance of fire protection measures in the initial phase of a fire (when evacuation
should take place) can never be emphasised enough. But, the general objective of protection
against the spread of fire and fumes (smoke) through the ventilation system is for the duration
of the protection to equal the fire resistance of the structural parts that separate the fire zone.
If the fire reaches the later phase where the explosive gas mixtures have ignited, other
rescue actions must also be taken.
The ambition level is based on the requirement of BBR 5:61:
“Buildings must be divided into fire cells separated by structural parts that prevent
the spread of fire and combustion gas.”
There is no reason to have a lower ambition level for ventilation systems. They should
therefore be designed with the objective of preventing the spread of fire and combustion
gases. This is particularly important in order to make it possible for people to reach safety
and to facilitate the work of rescue workers during the initial phase of a fire – which is
often short and not infrequently a matter of only a few minutes.
It is well known that smoke is the dominant reason for personal injuries – usually the
reason for about 80% of the injuries. Smoke also causes material damage, even outside the
fire cell where the fire occurred – if it spreads.
With BBR, the method of achieving fire protection measures has been given a completely
different focus than it had in old norms. Instead of using a “passive” approach with
conventional solutions, the objective of BBR is to use calculations to plan different “active”
and co-ordinated fire protection measures to achieve the desired requirement level.
Naturally, this combination of measures includes preventing the spread of fire and smoke
via the ventilation system to the greatest possible extent. Active measures also include use of
the ventilation system as a resource for early detection of fire. This requires that the system
have an appropriate structure and has well conceived and refined smoke detection.
An active concept also includes creating a protection system that is tailored to the risk class
of the building/structure and achieves the desired requirement level.
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3
APPROPRIATE DETECTION
The objective of detection is based on the nature of the object, risk class and operating
conditions to achieve appropriate detection with a system structure tailored to the building
and its ventilation system.
The most important objective is to achieve early detection to ensure satisfactory evacuation
safety and to limit the degree of damage. In the initial stage of a fire, the combustion gas
temperatures are usually low, making smoke detectors a good choice.
In certain environments or if maintenance is not carried out properly, smoke detectors
can give false alarms. Switching to heat detectors, however, could lead to no or seriously
delayed alarms, which is even worse.
Greater knowledge concerning the characteristics of smoke detectors and their possibilities
to ensure appropriate detection is one way to eliminate false alarms or at least limit them
to an acceptable level.
The following should be taken into consideration in order to achieve appropriate
detection:
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
evaluate the nature of the object and the requirement level
select the right type of smoke detector
select the correct installation and positioning
select the right number of smoke detectors
evaluate the operating conditions of the ventilation system
prepare monitoring and maintenance
guidelines for functionality testing
Duct or room detection
What is “appropriate” detection?
The definition of this concept depends on the nature of the object, the set requirement
level and operating conditions.
Duct detection, which means that detectors are placed inside ducts or in adapters outside
of ducts, costs less but generally requires that the air treatment system is operating. It is
not really possible to locate the seat of the fire, but it is possible to gain time.
Room detection, which means that detectors are placed in rooms or at representative
positions for groups of rooms, provides a more direct connection to the seat of the fire
and makes it possible to localise the fire provided that it is coupled with a more advanced
alarm system.
As in many other cases, the issue is a matter of weighing technology against finances. Can
an advanced detection system (= more expensive) help to limit damage to an extent that
makes the cost justifiable? This does not apply to objects in which all technical measures
to save lives and properties are considered a matter of course and where individual room
detection and fire alarm systems are standard.
As previously mentioned, operating conditions must be taken into consideration – are
fans running or not? In a system without operating fans, duct detection on its own is not
enough. For more information, see the sections on installation, number and operating
conditions.
4
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Duct detection, where appropriate supplemented with some room detection, should
give most “standard” objects a satisfactory requirement level – both technically and
financially.
An expansion of this leads to a technical solution that is beyond the ordinary. For a
structure that requires monitoring with alarms in the event of a fire, a combination of fire
alarm system with in-room detectors and duct detectors in the ventilation system is very
practical. A structure often consists of large open rooms and groups of small rooms. Room
detection for fire alarms for groups of small rooms can be unnecessarily expensive, while a
duct detector can monitor 10-20 rooms, depending on their layout. Larger rooms are best
monitored with room detectors.
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5
NATURE OF THE OBJECT – REQUIREMENT LEVEL
Detection in ventilation systems focuses greatly on stopping or starting fans and closing
or opening dampers with simple means and often without taking the time factor into
consideration. At the same time, some form of alarm is triggered.
It is important to analyse the object and provide detailed instructions for the design of the
detection system as early as the planning stage. Unfortunately, this is seldom or never the case.
In a broader sense, detection must be tailored to the object's risk class and the type of
protection desired – the requirement level.
The protection of human lives under difficult circumstances and the protection of material
or cultural values naturally set different detection requirements than those for systems
geared towards a lower, more “normal” risk class.
A structure with many fire cells and many rooms in each cell naturally has different design
requirements than one with just a few, “open” fire cells.
An office building is not protected in the same manner as a hospital. The fire risks are not
the same, the rooms are different and they are used in different ways.
higher
Different requirement levels could be:
• to detect and localise the start of smoke (fire)
to initiate active protection measures
to notify the fire brigade
• to detect smoke
to initiate active protection measures
to notify the fire brigade
lower
• to detect smoke
to initiate active protection measures
to trigger an alarm
• to detect smoke
to initiate passive protection measures
to trigger an alarm
The design and component parts of the system vary depending on what requirement level*
is set.
*) Refer to pages 7 and 8 for more information on “active” and “passive” protection measures.
6
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ACTIVE SMOKE CONTROL
Background
The contribution of the ventilation system to the spread of smoke is and has long been a
favourite topic of discussion. Now, practically no one questions the fact that a ventilation
system that is shared by several fire cells brings with it a risk of spreading both fire and
combustion gas (smoke). The risk comes from the ventilation system often more or less
openly connecting different fire cells, enabling smoke to spread via the duct system.
Passive systems
It was not so long ago that the standard method to deal with a fire was to stop the fans
and open a bypass to “vent” the system and let smoke pass out to the open air. The
method had many flaws and is now only used in special cases and then based on analytical
dimensioning.
Another example of a passive system is stopped fans and a system of smoke-separating
dampers (combustion gas dampers) between fire cells. This type of system can be expensive
if there is a large number of fire cells.
Active systems
In active systems, an extraction system or the like is used to “gather” smoke and quickly
transport it to a duct detector installed in a suitable location (see section on correct
installation and positioning). With both extract and supply air systems, there is also a risk
of smoke penetrating back into the supply air duct system at an early stage of the fire and
at low fire pressure in the fire room. This penetration can be actively fought in different
ways. In some cases, the extract and supply air system can be converted and smoke from
the fire room can be transported to the open air via both duct systems.
With fans operating, the inlet temperature to the fan must not be higher than the fan can
handle. Calculate the inlet temperature and check with the fan manufacturer to find the
max. temperature level of the selected fan.
Provide a secured power supply if the fan(s) should continue operating during a fire.
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7
Scope
The fundamental concept behind active protection against the spread of smoke can be
developed in different ways.
Active smoke control can include the following:
•
early detection
•
localisation of the fire
•
activation of protection measures
•
smoke evacuation
•
keeping evacuation routes free from smoke
•
“pressurisation” (mechanical pressure increase in adjacent rooms to prevent the spread
of smoke)
•
warning and alerting
This can be achieved by designing the ventilation and detection systems to meet specific
objectives.
Measures
The protection level that can be achieved with active measures is related to the degree to
which one is prepared to supplement and make additions to the ventilation system.
Compared to normal operation, operating conditions are completely different when there
is a fire. The following are examples of measures to supplement the ventilation system:
•
install temperature-resistant fans (combustion gas fans if necessary) that strengthen
the extraction fans or ensure extraction flow if the ordinary fans collapse.
•
subdivide the building's fire cells into smoke cells for more effective monitoring of
the smoke spread protection
•
install dampers that can be used to control the supply and extraction air system for
different fire and smoke cells
•
install auxiliary fans for the outside air supply that can be used for pressurisation of
e.g. evacuation routes to keep them smoke-free.
Do not pressurise more than approx. 50-75 Pa; otherwise it can be difficult to open the doors.
Calculation required.
The objective of active protection measures is to prevent smoke from leaving the room or
fire cell in which the fire started to the greatest extent possible.
8
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RIGHT TYPE OF SMOKE DETECTOR
Different types of detectors work differently depending on the nature of the “medium” –
the smoke/air mixture – they are triggered by. Consider the following before deciding on
a detector type:
•
what sort of fire can be expected – sleeper fire with a long development time –
smouldering fire – flaming fire – etc.
•
what kind of smoke does the fire produce – light smoke with small particles and slight
density – black smoke with large particles and high density – something in between?
•
temperature – smoke volume – dilution
Smoke consists of gases – more than 90% air and pyrolysis gases, carbon monoxide (CO),
carbon dioxide (CO2) and particles (soot). During plastic fires, other toxic and/or harmful
gases are also produced.
The colour of the smoke and the size of the particles are important factors to the detector's
function.
There are different types of detectors, including:
•
ionising detectors
•
optical (light scattering) detectors
•
line optical (obscuring) detectors
Electrodes
+
-
+
U
-
-
Source
-
+
Normal operation:
A weak, radioactive source ionises the air molecules
so that an electric current is generated between the
electrodes.
+
Ionising detectors
+
+
During a fire:
If smoke particles pass through the detector, the current changes and the detector emits an alarm
signal
Advantage: The quickest one for fires with small
particles (0.01–1 microns), even those that are
Source
invisible and are formed at the early stage of a U
fire.
-
+
+
+
+
Disadvantage: Interference can be caused by +
invisible combustion gases, e.g. exhaust fumes
from vehicles (garage), frying fumes (kitchen),
welding, etc.
From an environmental perspective, the optical smoke detector is preferred to the ionised
detector because the ionised smoke detector contains radioactive matter.
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9
Optical (light scattering) detectors
Normal operation:
An LED emits light in a dark
labyrinth in the detector housing.
Light does not reach the photo cell.
During a fire:
When smoke particles enter the
detector labyrinth, the light beam
is refracted by the smoke particles
and light is reflected to the photo
cell so that the detector generates
an alarm signal.
ht
Lig
Photo Cell
LED
Smoke
Photo Cell
Advantage: Quick for white smoke
from very slow (smouldering) fires.
Disadvantage: Must be visible
smoke.
LED
Photo Cell
Line optical (obscuring)
detectors
Normal operation:
A transmitter emits a light beam to
a recipient.
During a fire:
When the smoke particles pass
through the detector, the light
beam is obscured and the detector
generates an alarm signal.
Advantage: Quick with large
particles, including plastic fires at low
temperature (approx. 300°C), e.g.
cable ducts, computer rooms,etc.
Lig
ht
Fotocell
LED
Photo Cell
Smoke
Fotocell
Disadvantage: Must be visible
LED
(preferably dark) smoke. Hard to
get stable in environmental tests. Sensitive to condensation in ducts.
Ionising detectors work best when there are a large number of small (0.01-1 micron)
particles, while optical (light scattering) detectors are considered better for a smaller
number of large (0.1-10 microns) particles.
It is difficult to determine the type of particles smoke will have. This depends on factors
such as the type of material on fire and how the fire starts (rapid or slow ignition).
10
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However, a guideline for this determination can be found internationally. Established test
fires have been used for decades in detector tests. In order to be approved, each detector
must be able to withstand these defined test fires.
The table below provides information on the nature of various types of fire and smoke.
Test fires in accordance with European standard EN 54-7 for point smoke detectors/
ceiling-mounted smoke detectors:
Characteristics
Test
fire
Type of fire
TF2
Smouldering
fire
(wood)
Negligible
Weak
Yes
Most
visible
Light, highly
reflective
TF3
Smouldering
fire
(textile)
Negligible
Very
weak
Yes
Most
invisible
Light, highly
reflective
TF4
Open, plastic
(polyurethane)
Strong
Strong
Yes
Partially
invisible
Very
dark
TF5
Liquid fire
(n-Heptane)
Strong
Strong
Yes
Most
invisible
Very
dark
Heat
development
Updraft
Smoke
Aerosol
spectrum
Visible part
Remarks:
1. In order to be approved, smoke detectors must also pass the European environmental
tests in accordance with EN 54-7, which for example include high wind speeds, temperature
variations, relative humidity, vibrations, shock, high frequencies and electrical transients.
2. Both optical and ionising smoke detectors comply with the detection requirements
specified above.
3. With the new generation of optical smoke detectors of the type EVC-PY-DA, the
development of microprocessor-based electronics has levelled the playing field between
ionising and optical detectors. With a new wavelength for the light source and optimised
measuring angle in the detector chamber, detection of dark and low-reflecting smoke types
has been greatly improved. From an environmental aspect as well, optical smoke detectors
are preferable to ionising ones.
The detector also has an “intelligent” alarm level sensitivity adjustment as depicted in the
sketch below.
Signal
Alarm limit
Service alarm
Environmental impact
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Long
time
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Stable alarm level. The alarm level of the
detector is continually adjusted so it is
always optimal, regardless of the impact the
environment has on the detector, e.g. dust,
soot and other particles.
Each detector stores and updates
information on the self-adjusted level.
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11
CORRECT INSTALLATION AND POSITIONING
In order to ensure proper functioning of a duct detector*1, it is essential for it to be
installed correctly in the duct and correctly in relation to sources of interference. It is also
important to install a sufficient number for appropriate detection. More on this is found
under the heading “Number”.
The installation instructions primarily apply to ionising detectors and optical (light
scattering) detectors, but certain sections also apply to line optical (obscuring) detectors.
Ionising and optical (light scattering) detectors must not be installed inside ducts. They
should be placed in an adapter with transparent cover positioned outside of the duct.
Air (or a mixture of air and smoke) is directed across the detector in the adapter via a
2-channel venturi pipe positioned inside the duct. The venturi pipe is adapted to the size
of the duct and is fitted in the middle of the duct, where the flow is stable.
UG-3 Uniguard Superflow *2
Adapter cover
terminal block
rear
Smoke detector
Adapter cover
detector chamber
front
Plastic plug
covers test hole
Adapter
Flow indicator
Venturi pipe
Auxiliary fan
If air flow in the duct is
insufficient, a fan pipe
with preinstalled auxiliary
fan can be installed.
Older types of smoke detectors have two venturi pipes – one with inlet and one with
outlet – to obtain flow through the adapter.
*1) A detector positioned inside the duct or in an adapter outside the duct.
*2) The adapter and venturi pipe are patented.
12
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Duct detector
Position the detector in the centre of the duct where the flow is stable and the adapter in
the middle of the duct wall.
Bore
Ø 38 mm.
Max. duct with 0.6 m.
Use venturi pipe 0.6
Cut to the right lenght if necessary.
Bore
Ø 38 mm.
Duct width larger than 0.6 m.
Venturi pipe must go through the entire duct.
Cut pipe to the right length.
Fit end plug.
Fit terminal gasket.
Fit rubber gasket TET
26-35 as "bearing".
Standard venturi pipe lengths,
which can be cut to the required length:
VR-0.6M Length=0.6 m Ducts up to 0.6 m
VR-1.5M Length=1.5 m Ducts from 0.6 to 1.4 m
VR-2.8M Length=2.8 m Ducts larger then 1.4 m
Bore
Ø 51 mm.
Max. duct width 0.6 m.
Use venturi pipe 0.6 m.
Cut to the right length if necessary.
NOTE!
Bore
Ø 51 mm.
Pipe max. 30 mm outside of duct.
Bore
Ø 51 mm.
Duct width larger than 0.6 m.
Venturi pipe must go through
the entire duct.
Cut pipe to the right length.
Fit end plug.
Fit terminal gasket.
Fit rubber gasket
TET 26-35 as "bearing".
Venturi pipe with auxiliary fan
which can be cut to the required length:
VRF-0.6M Length=0.6 m Ducts up to 0.6 m
VRF-1.5M Length=1.5 m Ducts from 0.6 to 1.4 m
VRF-2.8M Length=2.8 m Ducts larger then 1.4 m
NOTE!
Bore
Ø 51 mm.
Pipe max. 30 mm outside of duct.
When venturi pipes with a length of 1.5 m or 2.8 m are used, the pipe must go through
and be fixed in the opposite duct wall with the rubber gasket included in the delivery
(TET 26-35).
NOTE: The terminal gasket and end plug should always be fitted onto the pipe end. The
pipe may protrude from the duct maximum 3 cm.
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13
The detector is positioned and marked so that operating and maintenance personnel can
find it easily.
If the detector has a hidden position, e.g. in a shaft or above a false ceiling, inspection
hatches must be installed and signs posted.
The detector should not be installed where condensation problems could arise, e.g.
outdoors, in unheated attics, etc. If such cases, the detector must be insulated from the
ambient air and marked with an extra indicator lamp, LED-03, and the sign “HIDDEN
SMOKE DETECTOR”.
Insulating hoods/covers, indicators and signs can be ordered from Calectro.
Installation in unheated attic.
HIDDEN
Sign
smoke detector
External LED as alarm
indicator.
Bore Ø 38 mm.
A 100-200 mm insulation mat
Bore Ø 38 mm.
is used to cover the entire Uniguard
when installed in an unheated attic.
A notification sign should be mounted.
If installing in a duct outdoors or
in an unheated attic,
insulating protection hood/cover
UG-COVER must be used.
Adapter on outside of insulated duct wall
If the duct is insulated on the outside, the adapter must be installed in a manner that does
not disturb the thickness of the insulation.
A bracket – Calectro installation bracket UG-MB – is used if space is required between the
smoke detector and duct. On round ducts, the bracket is suitable (even without insulation)
to facilitate installation.
14
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Another operating condition worth noting is the speed in the duct at the adapter. Speed
must be minimum 0.2 m/s and maximum 20 m/s.
Within this range, detector sensitivity should remain basically unchanged.
The detector with adapter must also be stable, i.e. there must be no false alarms at speeds
up to 20 m/s.
At speeds below 0.2 m/s, boosting the effect of the venturi pipe with an auxiliary fan via a
special venturi pipe with preinstalled fan (see page 13) can be considered.
Ventilation branch box
Do not position the smoke detector in a ventilation branch box. Smoke from the
connection ducts can bypass the smoke detector (regardless of type), and the alarm will
fail to trigger due to air swirls and air pockets.
Example of incorrect installation!
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15
Final check of installed detector
•
Check that the duct detector is properly installed in relation to the direction of air
flow – the arrow on the adapter should point in the direction of flow.
•
Check that the venturi pipe is securely attached as indicated in the installation
instructions – particularly if an extra long venturi pipe is used.
•
Check that the duct detector is fitted with a flow indicator.
•
Check that the adapter cover and its gasket seals properly.
•
Check that the cable inlets are well sealed.
•
Check that the flow indicator shows that air flows through the detector adapter when
the unit is started.
•
Check the test hole plug.
See also the information under “Functionality testing and inspection” on page 30!
Sources of interference
Another important rule is to select an appropriate distance from all bends, dampers and
dimensional changes in the duct system that could cause flow interference as the result of
air pocket formation. Such changes can in turn affect the air/smoke mixture, resulting in
failed or delayed detection.
The duct detector should not be positioned:
• near inlets to or outlets from fans or air handling units
• near duct bends
• near branches/connections
• near dimensional changes
• near batteries, dampers or the like
In order to achieve the required function, a duct detector must be positioned with the same
degree of precision as when selecting the location of a flow meter.
The hydraulic diameter dh is the unit of measure used when determining distance to a
source of interference.
16
Circular duct
Rectangular duct
dh= D
dh=
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The distance before a source of interference should not be less than 3 x dh and the distance
after a source of interference should not be less than 5 x dh. If it is very difficult to achieve
these distances, the following can be accepted as an exception: 2 x dh before and 3 x dh
after the source of interference. A smoke test can be used to test functionality and must be
done if the shorter distances must be used.
Smoke tests should be performed with a smoke generator (with paraffin as the aerosol material).
This is used for test fires in laboratories. Smoke bombs or other chemical smoke should be
avoided as these do not develop particles like an actual fire would. In addition, chemical
smoke can damage the smoke detectors.
Examples of installation at sources of interference
SD = smoke detector
Fan
SD
SD
Fan Unit
SD
SD
Connection duct
SD
SD
Duct bend
SD
SD
SD
Silencer
Damper
SD
SD
SD
SD
Battery
If it is not possible to install the smoke detector as specified above, you may be forced to
disregard these regulations. The illustration below shows the best positioning for such
cases. Try to position the detector at the position marked with an A (before the source
of interference). If this is not possible, use position B and as close to the recommended
distance as possible. Smoke tests should be performed with a smoke generator. Do not
install the detector at the positions in the illustration marked with an X because in these
positions the detector may miss the air flow.
Example of installation
as an exception in space
that is extremely difficult to
access
3dh
A
A
B
B
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17
CORRECT NUMBER OF SMOKE DETECTORS
The most common practice today is to place a smoke detector in the supply and extraction
air ducts for each air handling unit and centrally in the air handling unit room. Whether
this is sufficient or not depends on the scope and nature of the ventilation system as well as
the set requirement level, e.g. what degree of delay can be accepted.
In principle, it does not matter whether the air handling unit room is located over, level
with or below the ventilation installation.
For a big system with a large number of fire cells and perhaps many rooms in each cell,
it is important to take into consideration the dilution ratio between smoke and air. Such
evaluations are seldom or never performed for smoke detectors, even though the function
of the detector depends on such an evaluation.
If dilution is too great, the concentration of particles will be so low that the smoke
detector will not react. It is not until the fire has reached an advanced stage with increased
combustion gas flow that there is detection – with an undesired delay and perhaps in a
situation when it is too late to save lives and property.
There is limited practical experience on how much the smoke can be diluted. One rule
of thumb is not to dilute the flow more than 10 times in order to obtain satisfactory
protection.
Another rule of thumb is that the “duct route” (duct length/air speed) should not be
longer than approx. 15-20 s. Soot particles can coagulate and become fewer in number
and larger in size – and not pass the selected detector.
Duct detection generally requires that the ventilation system(s) is in operation. Viewpoints
on detection in systems without operating fans are found in the section on operating
conditions.
18
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Detectors in air handling unit rooms
Fan room
SD
SD = smoke detector
Floor 4
Floor 3
Floor 2
Shaft
Floor 1
A smoke detector (SD) is positioned in front of the air handling unit and in a location
common to the four floor levels.
Since the smoke is diluted a lot before it reaches the detector, the SD function is
delayed.
Fan room
Fan room
2 x SD
Shaft
4 x SD
Floor 4
Floor 4
Floor 3
Floor 3
Floor 2
Floor 2
Floor 1
Shaft
Floor 1
The number of main ducts is increased and one smoke detector (SD) is positioned in each
main duct.
Having a greater number of main ducts can, to a reasonable extent, compensate
for excessive dilution, but if a large number of rooms/smoke cells/fire cells are
connected, this will not be enough.
Positioning detectors in air treatment unit rooms simplifies servicing and
maintenance.
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19
Detectors on floor levels
Fan room
SD
Floor 4
SD
Floor 3
SD
Floor 2
SD
Shaft
Floor 1
In this case, detectors can be placed on the floor levels – one detector (SD)
for each level.
Decentralisation generates more rapid detection.
Positioning closer to the potential start of the fire increases the likelihood of
obtaining detection even if the air treatment system is not in operation.
Fan room
SD
SD
SD
SD
SD
SD
SD
SD
Floor 4
Floor 3
Floor 2
Shaft
Floor 1
Detectors are placed in each connection duct.
Increasing the number of detectors in this manner can be justified as a means of
preventing the degree of dilution from becoming too large due to the large number
of connected rooms.
20
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Duct and room detection
Fan room
SD
SD
*
SD
SD
SD
SD
*
*
SD
*
*
Floor 4
*
Floor 3
*
Floor 2
*
Floor 1
SD
Shaft
Duct detection in connection ducts is supplemented to some degree with room
detection.
See also pages 4 and 23.
Increased detection reliability is achieved (regardless of whether the system
is operating) by supplementing duct detection with a certain degree of room
detection, such as in corridors or other representative positions (to protect a
group of rooms).
*) Position of SD in e.g. corridor; see page 23.
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21
SENSITIVITY
Conventional smoke detectors – (decentralised intelligence)
A conventional smoke detector has built-in functionality for determining whether an
alarm should be triggered. This means that the smoke detector already has a set limit value
for service and smoke alarms.
Effect of dirt.
When a conventional smoke detector is exposed to dirt, both its sensitivity and the risk of
a false alarm increase.
Analogue smoke detectors in fire alarm system –
(centralised intelligence)
Analogue smoke detectors are connected to an advanced central unit. The analogue smoke
detector provides information on current “smoke indication level” (analogue value) and
address to the central unit, which can be programmed with a different sensitivity level for
each smoke detector if necessary.
Effect of dirt.
When an analogue smoke detector is exposed to dirt, its analogue value increases. In order
to prevent an increase in smoke detector sensitivity, the central unit compensates/increases
the alarm limit value. This serves to maintain the sensitivity level and reduces the risk of
false alarm.
New optical smoke detector with automatic sensitivity
adjustment
EVC-PY-DA is a conventional optical smoke detector that combines the benefits of
decentralised intelligence with automatic sensitivity adjustment. This means that
technology previously only available in advanced fire alarm systems is now available in
Calectro smoke detectors for ventilation ducts (UG-3-O) and ceiling installation (EVCPY-DA). Since the alarm level is adjusted automatically, sensitivity is maintained and the
service life of the smoke detector increases. The service alarm is triggered when the smoke
detector has reached maximum adjustment (compensation) + 60% remaining sensitivity.
Approval in accordance with EN 54-7
A smoke detector should be tested in order to be provided a “trade description”. The basis
of this is laboratory testing in accordance with European standards, a test which shows that
the detector has the correct sensitivity in relation to established test fires and which shows
that the detector has the correct ratio between sensitivity and stability (environmental
test); see page 11 EN 54 -7.
For this reason, detectors tested in accordance with EN 54-7 should always be used.
22
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OPERATING CONDITIONS
When designing an appropriate smoke detection system, consideration must be given to
whether the air handling unit is in operation.
Completely different conditions apply if you want to maintain the requirement level set
for an operating system in a system that does not have fans operating.
When the fans are not operating, the associated duct system can be considered “closed” and
there is no noticeable flow in the ducts. Consequently, it takes a long time for the smoke to
reach the detectors – regardless of whether they are installed in the duct or in an adapter – so
that they can produce a signal. With such a delay, the alarm does not have the same value
as if it had been triggered at an earlier stage.
A general rule is that duct detection requires the air handling unit to be
operating. The system can be supplemented to provide protection when the
unit is stopped.
Example:
From the control unit, the
smoke alarm is forwarded to
an alarm panel in the control
cabinet in the fan room.
Room Corridor
SD=
=Ceiling-mounted smoke
detector
SD
SD
Distribution box
Control unit
SD
SD
Examples of different positioning alternatives are found under the heading “Correct
number” on pages 18-21.
Positioning in the air handling unit room as described on page 19 can never be considered
to provide good protection when the system is not operating. Installing a detector inside
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23
a duct or fitting the adapter with an auxiliary fan in the form of a so-called fan pipe can
hardly be considered sufficient since there is no smoke in the duct (during the initial stage
of the fire). If conditions are just right, smoke could spread in the main ducts and cause
detection – with a considerable time delay. In such cases, each main duct is fitted with a
smoke detector.
On page 20, it was noted that if a duct detector is positioned quite close to the potential
start of a fire, the likelihood of detection increases, even if the system is not operating. If
a fire breaks out, the smoke will also spread in the duct system, albeit slowly. When the
smoke reaches the duct detector, it is initially at a low speed. In such cases, an auxiliary fan
in the form of a so-called fan pipe can enhance the effect of the venturi pipe and reduce
detection time.
Supplementation of the detector system, e.g. as described on page 21, is a solution that
is recommended for reliable detection, regardless of whether the air handling unit is
operating.
“Regulations for automatic fire alarm systems” – SBF 110:6 – e.g. items 3.4.1 and 3.4.3
apply to in-room detectors.
SBF 110:6 item 3.1.4 applies to ventilation systems in general.
Another form of detection can be illustrated with the following example:
Fan room
SD
SD
Floor 4
Floor 3
Floor 2
Shaft
Floor1
When the fans are off, detection is handled with a separate system. A small-sized duct
system is connected to the rooms. The small fan starts when the main system stops. If
smoke is detected, the protection measures of the main system are triggered.
24
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DETECTION IN SUPPLY AIR
In older standards and practice, the general rule was that a ventilation system servicing
several fire cells should be stopped in the event of a fire upon a signal from a triggered
smoke detector in the supply air duct immediately after the supply air fan.
Below are some updated views on detection in supply air.
Building made up of one fire cell – one extract and supply air system
If the building is made up of one fire cell, the consequences are not greater if the fire starts
in the fan motor or if combustion gas is sucked in via the outdoor air inlet compared to if
the fire starts in the building.
A smoke detector in the supply air duct directly after the supply air unit can thus be a
good idea to protect property, but is not required by Swedish building regulations, BBR
15 (2008).
Building made up of several fire cells – one extract and supply air system per fire cell
collapsed
window
fire cell
limit
Here, there is no risk of combustion gas spreading between the building's fire cells.
However, there is a risk of short circuit so that smoke is sucked in via the outdoor air inlet to
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25
a unit serving another fire cell. This leads to indirect spread between fire cells via the
ventilation system.
• Stop of the fans is controlled by the smoke detector in supply air.
or
• Stop of the fans is controlled by the building's fire detection system (supplemented if
necessary).
Building made up of several fire cells – one extract and supply air system
fire cell
limit
When several fire cells are served by a common extract and supply air system, there is a
risk of combustion gas spreading between fire cells. There are several ways to resolve this.
This always requires some form of fire detection in the building, either duct detector(s) in
extract air duct(s) and/or via the building's fire detection system.
If a fire starts in the fan motor (supply air), all fire cells in the building will be affected. It is
wise practice to install a smoke detector in the supply air duct directly after the supply air
fan. Stop of the fan is controlled by the smoke detector.
Note that if the fans should continue running during a fire, this function must be
blocked.
26
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MONITORING AND MAINTENANCE
There are different types of control units to automatically close/open smoke dampers, fire
dampers or smoke fire dampers and to stop/start fans.
Smoke detectors
Damper
Fan
Alarm
Service alarm
(indicates dirt
accumulation on
the detector)
Control unit ABAV-S3
230V or 24V
A control unit also serves as an alarm centre for the air handling unit. From the control
unit, signals can be forwarded to e. g. the unit's control cabinet/alarm panel.
Wiring diagram – duct detector
CONTROL UNIT
ABAV-S3
24V AC/DC
or
230V AC
ALARM
ALARM
FAULT
SERVICE
6
7
+
10 9 +
2
1
3
4
5
11
8
12
13
14
DUCT SMOKE DETECTORS UG-3-J/UG-3-O
SD 1
Connections in
Uniguard Superflow
Final resistence
Rb
2,2 kΩ
LED-03*
* LED-03: max. cable length = 3m.
24VAC
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SD n
Connections in
Uniguard Superflow
6
7
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27
Wiring diagram – ceiling detector
Terminals in control
unit
- 24V DC +
External alarm indicator LED-03
Max. cable length = 3 m.
ABAV-S3
6
6
5
5
1
1
Final resistance
2,2 kΩ
ST-.-DA /
EVC-PY-DA
ST-.-DA /
EVC-PY-DA
2
4
2
4
3
3
Theoretically, an unlimited number of smoke detectors can be connected. But, for
functionality and maintenance reasons, the number should be limited to about 10.
Smoke detectors with the same function, i.e. will close/open the same damper or start/stop
the same fans in the event of a fire alarm, are connected to one control unit.
If the detectors will actuate different dampers and fans, e.g. supply air side or extraction
air side, one control unit is used for the smoke detectors installed for the supply air side and
another control unit is used for the extraction air side.
Maintenance
To keep the detector insert from becoming too dirty, it should be cleaned at suitable
intervals (at least once a year).
The following alternatives are available depending on the degree of dirt:
A. Dry particles can be vacuumed or carefully blown away.
B. Other dirt is removed with a damp cloth.
C. If the detector insert is so dirty that cleaning alternatives A and B are not enough, the
detector insert must be replaced.
D. A reserve stock of detector inserts and control units should be kept to facilitate rapid
module replacement during servicing.
The venturi pipe should also be removed and cleaned each time the detector is cleaned.
After cleaning, the pipe is refitted in its original position. NOTE: Do not forget to refit
the end plug.
NOTE: After cleaning, check that all connections are tight, the adapter cover forms a tight seal
and that the flow indicator is oscillating. Also check that the sealing plug has been reinserted
in the test hole after the detector has been tested with smoke or aerosol (RDP-300).
28
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Since dirt is the most common reason for false alarms, smoke detectors with built-in service
alarm (maintenance alarm) should be used.
With the tough environment of duct systems, it is difficult to prescribe suitable
maintenance intervals in advance.
The Calectro Uniguard Superflow duct detector comes with a service alarm as standard.
The system can be built based on 2 principles:
1.
Service alarm indication on smoke detector with LED. Control unit ABAV-S3 should
be used.
2.
The same as point 1, but with an external signal for both service alarm and smoke
alarm. Control unit ABAV-S3 must be used.
A service alarm is a requirement when using certain active solutions as protection against
the spread of combustion gas.
TESTING SMOKE DETECTORS
The following detectors are tested with smoke spray RDP-300.
Conventional smoke detectors.
Duct-mounted
UG-3-J
UG-3-O
UG-3-A4I
UG-3-A4O
UG-3-A5I
UG-3-A5O
Ceiling-mounted
EVC-PY-DA
ST-I
ST-P
ST-I-DA
ST-P-DA
The following detectors are tested with smoke from a smouldering cotton thread.
Analogue, addressable smoke detectors.
NS-AIS
NS-AOS
UG-3-NS-AIS
UG-3-NS-AOS
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29
FUNCTIONALITY TESTING AND
INSPECTION
After completing installation, it is easy to check that the electrical connection is correct.
Smoke is applied to the detector with a smoke detector tester or by other means and the
reaction of the detector is observed.
Also perform the final check of installed detector described on page 16.
This is not a functionality test in the strictest sense of the word. Conducting a functionality
test which corresponds to the conditions that can occur during a real fire is in all practicality
impossible.
However, a functionality test should always be conducted, preferably by applying smoke
from a smoke generator at an appropriate point in the duct system. (Use paraffin or
glycerine-based smoke generators as aerosol material. Smoke bombs or other chemical
smoke could damage the detector and should be avoided.)
E
OK
SM
R
TO
RA
NE
GE
Functionality test
Smoke (from e.g. a smoke
generator) is directed into the duct
A periodic functionality test is performed after the system has been put into operation.
At regular intervals – at least once a year – the system is checked to ensure that upon
receiving an alarm from a triggered smoke detector the control unit actuates the right fans
and closes/opens the right dampers.
At the same time, there is a check that the flow indicator is oscillating (that air really
flows from the ventilation duct through the detector) and the detector insert is visually
inspected to see if cleaning is necessary.
If the venturi pipes have been detached, check to ensure they were reinstalled in their
original positions, that all connections are tight, that the cover forms a tight seal and that
the end plug has been installed (see page 28).
30
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PLANNING DOCUMENTATION
Bear in mind the following during planning work
A. Select a solution that optimises smoke detection for the object in question based on
the information on pages 19 and 20. See also suggestions for improved fire protection
on pages 21, 23 and 24.
B. Use the same degree of care when positioning the smoke detector's venturi pipe as
when selecting a position for a flow meter in ducts, i.e. at least 3 dh (duct widths)
before and 5 dh after a source of interference. (Source of interference = battery, filter,
pipe bend, etc.) See page 17.
C. Establish the duct size and select an appropriate length for the venturi pipe. See page
13. The size is written in the description.
D. Installation bracket UG-MB is always used if the duct will be insulated. See page 14.
E. If the detector has an auxiliary fan, the auxiliary fan must be connected via the relay
switch that controls the ventilation unit fans so that the auxiliary fan only runs when
the regular fans are stopped.
F.
Position the smoke detector so that it is accessible for servicing. The LED of the smoke
detector should therefore be visible from the floor. If this is not possible, the detector
should be marked with an extra indicator lamp, LED 03, and the sign “hidden smoke
detector”.
G. Avoid installing ionising detectors where problems could occur, e.g. in ventilation
ducts of restaurant kitchens (frying fumes), garages (exhaust fumes), workshops with
welding and boiler rooms (non-combustible flue gases).
Consult the supplier for alternative solutions.
H. Smoke tests should be performed on the smoke detectors after installation is complete
to ensure that they are correctly positioned and installed.
1. The electrical connection can be tested with smoke detector spray or matches to
check that the right damper and fan are actuated during detection.
2. Perform a smoke test with a smoke generator from a suitable space that is monitored
by the detector.
I.
For smoke detector models, see the table on page 32.
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31
OVERVIEW
DIFFERENT TYPES OF SMOKE DETECTORS
Conventional – for connection to a control unit
Smoke
alarm
Service
alarm
230V AC
24V
AC/DC
Alarm
pt. 1
Alarm
pt. 2
UG-3-J
ABAV-S3
ABAV-S3
X
X
X
*1
UG-3-O
ABAV-S3
ABAV-S3
X
X
X
*1
EVC-PY-DA
ABAV-S3
ABAV-S3
X
X
ST-I
ABAV
ABV-3
X
X
ST-P
ABAV
ABV-3
X
X
ST-I-DA
ABAV-S3
ABAV-S3
X
X
X
ST-P-DA
ABAV-S3
ABAV-S3
X
X
X
Type
Control unit
input
Ceiling
Duct
Auxiliary
installation installation
fan
Ionising
detector
Optical
detector
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
Conventional – Standalone with built-in relay function
(detector without control unit)
Smoke
alarm
Service
alarm
24V
AC/DC
Alarm
pt. 1
Alarm
pt. 2
UG-3-A4I
X
X
X
X
*1
UG-3-A4O
X
X
X
X
*1
Input
Type
230V AC
Ceiling
Duct
Auxiliary
installation installation
fan
UG-3-A5I
X
X
X
X
*1
UG-3-A5O
X
X
X
X
*1
Ionising
detector
Optical
detector
X
X
X
X
Alarm point 1: Smoke in duct.
Alarm point 2 (service alarm): Dirty smoke detector.
*1: Can be combined with an auxiliary fan.
Alarm function for conventional optical smoke detectors
Signal
Alarm limit
Service alarm
Environmental impact
Long
time
The conventional optical smoke detector EVCPY-DA has an intelligent monitoring circuit that
continuously checks and adjusts the sensitivity
for optimum functionality during the entire life of
the detector. When the detector can no longer
compensate for environmental influences, a service
alarm is indicated.
Alarm function for conventional ionising smoke detectors
Alarm, conventional smoke detector
Signal
Alarm
Smoke concentration
The conventional ionising smoke detector
generates an alarm as soon as the preset alarm
limit has been exceeded.
Sources of interference, such as short-term
electrical transients or dirt, could generate a false
alarm.
Time
32
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Analogue, addressable – for connection to a control unit
Smoke
alarm
Service
alarm
24V
AC/DC
Alarm
pt. 1
Alarm
pt. 2
NS-AIS*1a
KE-1000
X
X
UG-3-NS-AIS*1a
KE-1000
X
X
NS-AOS*1b
KE-1000
X
X
UG-3-NS-AOS*1a
KE-1000
X
X
Type
Control unit
input
230V AC
Ceiling
Duct
Auxiliary
installation installation
fan
Ionising
detector
X
Optical
detector
X
X
*2
X
X
X
X
*2
X
Alarm point 1: Smoke in duct.
Alarm point 2 (service alarm): Dirty smoke detector.
*1a: Analogue ionising detector that also indicates the address when a smoke alarm is triggered.
*1b: Analogue optical detector that also indicates the address when a smoke alarm is triggered.
*2: Can be combined with an auxiliary fan.
Function for analogue addressable smoke detectors
Signal
Alarm, conventional
smoke detector
Alarm
limit
Evaluation time
Alarm analogue/
intelligent smoke detector
The analogue detector evaluates alarm signals
by measuring time, signal height and signal
propagation. The detector only generates an alarm
if this check gives the preset values for a fire.
Time
Signal
Alarm
limit
The analogue detector does not generate an alarm
from short, strong signals from interference, such
as insects and electrical transients.
Time
Transient, insect, etc.
Transient, insect, etc.
Stable alarm level. The alarm level of the detector
is continually adjusted so it is always optimal,
regardless of the impact the environment has on
the detector, e.g. dust, soot and other particles.
Signal
Alarm limit
Service alarm
Environmental impact
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Long
time
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Important historical data:
Each detector stores and updates important data,
such as when the detector was put into operation,
number of operating hours, number of alarms and
the self-adjustment level.
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33
NOTES
34
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Calectro AB
Postal address: Box 4113
SE-426 04 Västra Frölunda
Delivery address: Svalörtsgatan 16
SE-426 68 Västra Frölunda
Sweden
Telephone (swb): +46 31-69 53 00
Fax (swb): +46 31-29 32 91
E-mail: [email protected]
Website: www.calectro.se
Sales/technical support
Telephone: +46 31-69 53 01
Fax: +46 31-69 86 45
E-mail: [email protected]
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