Chapter 9 Gas Tungsten Arc Welding

Chapter 9 Gas Tungsten Arc Welding
Chapter 9
Gas Tungsten Arc Welding
Topics
1.0.0
Introduction to the Process
2.0.0
Principles of Operation
3.0.0
Equipment for Welding
4.0.0
Equipment Setup, Adjustment, and Shut Down
5.0.0
Electrodes, Shielding Gas, and Filler Metal
6.0.0
Welding Applications
7.0.0
Welding Metallurgy
8.0.0
Weld Joint Design
9.0.0
Welding Procedure Variables
10.0.0
Welding Procedure Schedules
11.0.0
Preweld Preparations
12.0.0
Welding Discontinuities and Problems
13.0.0
Postweld Procedures
14.0.0
Welder Training and Qualification
15.0.0
Welding Safety
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Overview
The gas tungsten arc welding (GTAW) process, also known as tungsten inert gas (TIG)
welding, uses a non-consumable tungsten electrode to produce the weld. A shielding
gas (usually an inert gas such as argon), protects the weld area from atmospheric
contamination, and the process normally uses a filler metal, though some welds, known
as autogenous (aw-toj-uh-nuhs) welds, do not require a filler metal.
A constant-current welding power supply produces energy that is conducted across the
arc through a column of highly ionized gas and metal vapors known as plasma. Welders
most commonly use TIG to weld thin sections of stainless steel and non-ferrous metals
such as aluminum, magnesium, and copper alloys.
TIG provides the welder with greater control over the weld than competing procedures
such as shielded metal arc welding (SMAW) and gas metal arc welding (GMAW), thus
allowing for stronger, higher quality welds. However, GTAW/TIG is comparatively more
complex and difficult to master (closer tolerance requirements and filler metal usually
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added by other hand), and is significantly slower than most other welding techniques as
well.
This chapter will present a basic understanding of the GTAW/TIG process and
equipment, along with the key variables that affect the quality of welds. It will also cover
core competencies such as setting up equipment, preparing materials, fitting up, starting
an arc, welding pipes and plates, and repairing welds. Lastly, you will get an
understanding of the safety precautions for GTAW/TIG and an awareness of the
importance of safety in welding.
Although this chapter is very comprehensive, always refer to the manufacturer’s
manuals for specific operating and maintenance instructions.
Objectives
When you have completed this chapter, you will be able to do the following:
1. Describe the process of gas tungsten arc welding.
2. Describe the principles of operation used for gas tungsten arc welding.
3. Describe the equipment associated with gas tungsten arc welding.
4. Describe the processes for installation, setup, and maintenance of equipment for
gas tungsten arc welding.
5. State the shielding gas and electrodes for gas tungsten arc welding.
6. Identify the welding applications for gas tungsten arc welding.
7. Describe the welding metallurgy of gas tungsten arc welding.
8. Identify weld and joint designs used for gas tungsten arc welding.
9. Describe the welding procedure variables associated with gas tungsten arc
welding.
10. Identify welding procedure schedules used for gas tungsten arc welding.
11. Describe preweld preparations for gas tungsten arc welding.
12. Identify defects and problems associated with gas tungsten arc welding.
13. Describe postweld procedures for gas tungsten arc welding.
14. State the welder training and qualifications associated with gas tungsten arc
welding.
15. Describe the welding safety associated with gas tungsten arc welding.
Prerequisites
None
This course map shows all of the chapters in Steelworker Basic. The suggested training
order begins at the bottom and proceeds up. Skill levels increase as you advance on
the course map.
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Introduction to Reinforcing Steel
Introduction to Structural Steel
Pre-Engineered Structures:
Buildings, K-Spans, Towers and Antennas
Rigging
Wire rope
S
T
E
E
L
Fiber Line
W
Layout and Fabrication of Sheet-Metal and Fiberglass Duct
O
Welding Quality Control
R
K
Flux Core Arc Welding-FCAW
E
Gas-Metal Arc Welding-GMAW
R
Gas-Tungsten Arc Welding-GTAW
Shielded Metal Arc Welding-SMAW
B
A
Plasma Arc Cutting Operations
S
Soldering, Brazing, Braze Welding, Wearfacing
I
Gas Welding
C
Gas Cutting
Introduction to Welding
Basic Heat Treatment
Introduction to Types and Identification of Metal
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1.0.0 INTRODUCTION to the PROCESS
Gas tungsten arc welding (GTAW) is an arc welding process that produces coalescence
of metals by heating them with an arc between a tungsten (non-consumable) electrode
and the work. Shielding comes from a gas or gas mixture (Figure 9-1). Both pressure
and filler metal may or may not be used. This process is also known as TIG welding,
which stands for tungsten inert gas welding, unless you are on deployment in Europe,
where you may hear it called WIG welding, using Wolfgram, the German word for
tungsten. Throughout this chapter, the process will be referred to as TIG.
Figure 9-1 — Gas tungsten arc welding.
The gas tungsten arc welding process is very versatile. This process may be used to
weld ferrous and a wide variety of non-ferrous metals. It is an all-position welding
process. Welding in other than flat positions depends on the base metal, the welding
current, and the skill of the welder. The process was developed for the "hard-to-weld"
metals and can be used to weld more different kinds of metals than any other arc
welding process.
Gas tungsten arc welding has an arc and a weld pool clearly visible to the welder. It
produces no slag for entrapment in the weld, and no filler metal carries across the arc,
so there is little or no spatter. Because the electrode is non-consumable, you can make
a TIG weld by fusing the base metal without a filler wire.
The TIG welding process was invented by Russell Meredith of Northrop Aircraft’s
welding group in 1941. Mr. Jack Northrop's dream was to build a magnesium airframe
for lighter, faster warplanes. This new process was called "Heliarc," as it used an
electric arc to melt the base material and helium (He) to shield the molten puddle. The
Linde Division of Union Carbide bought the patents, developed a number of torches for
different applications, and sold them under the brand name Heliarc. Linde also
developed procedures for using argon (Ar) gas, a more readily available and less
expensive gas than helium.
At first, only direct current with a positive electrode was used. However, the electrode
tended to overheat and deposit particles of the tungsten electrode in the weld. This
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problem was overcome by making the electrode negative, which then also made it
satisfactory for welding stainless steel.
During World War II, welding machines producing alternating current and high
frequency stabilization were developed. Alternating current with a superimposed high
frequency, high voltage current over the basic welding current achieved good quality
welding of aluminum and magnesium. With helium largely replaced by argon due to its
greater availability, the gas tungsten arc welding process became more widely accepted
by the early 1950s, and today is classified by the American Welding Society by that
term.
1.1.0 Methods of Application
Welders can apply the gas tungsten arc welding process by the manual, semiautomatic,
machine, or automatic methods, although the manual method produces the greatest
majority of work; the torch is operated by hand, and filler metal, if used, is added with
the other hand. A foot pedal is an additional refinement that controls the amount of
welding current and switches the current on and off. TIG allows the welder extreme
control for precision work by very closely controlling the heat and accurately directing
the arc.
Operators can also use TIG semi automatically, that is by operating the torch by hand
with a wire feeder adding the filler metal automatically. Semiautomatic gas tungsten arc
welding is rarely used; however, machine and automatic methods are becoming
increasingly popular for many applications.
TIG machine welding occurs when equipment performs the welding only under the
control and observation of the welding operator.
Automatic welding occurs when the equipment performs the welding without adjustment
or control by a welding operator. The amount of automation or mechanization applied to
the process depends on the accessibility of the joint, quality control requirements,
number of identical welds to be made, and the availability of capital.
1.2.0 Advantages and Limitations
TIG welding generally produces welds far superior to those produced by metallic arc
welding electrodes. Especially useful for welding aluminum, it is quite useful for welding
many other types of metals as well. The TIG process is most effective for joining metals
up to 1/8 inch thick, although you can use it to weld thicker material with appropriate
preheating.
Gas tungsten arc welding has many advantages over most other types of welding
processes. The outstanding features are the following:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
It makes high quality welds in almost all metals and alloys.
There is no slag, so very little, if any, postweld cleaning is required.
There is no filler metal carried across the arc, so there is little or no spatter.
Welding can be performed in all positions.
Filler metal is not always required.
Pulsing may be used to reduce the heat input.
The arc and weld pool are clearly visible to the welder.
Because the filler metal does not cross the arc, the amount added is not
dependent on the weld current level.
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The limitations of the gas tungsten arc welding process include the following:
1.
2.
3.
4.
The welding speed is relatively slow.
The electrode is easily contaminated.
It is not very efficient for welding thick sections because deposition rates are low.
The arc requires protection from wind drafts that can blow the stream of shielding
gas away from the arc.
2.0.0 PRINCIPLES of OPERATION
TIG uses the heat produced by the arc between the non-consumable tungsten electrode
and the base metal. An inert shielding gas supplied through the torch shields the molten
weld metal, heated weld zone, and non-consumable electrode from the atmosphere.
The gas protects the electrode and molten material from oxidation, and provides a
conducting path for the arc current.
An electric current passing through an ionized gas produces an electric arc. In this
process, the inert gas atoms are ionized by losing electrons and leaving a positive
charge. Then the positive gas ions flow to the negative pole and the negative electrons
flow to the positive pole of the arc. The
intense heat developed by the arc melts the
base metal and filler metal (if used) to make
the weld. As the molten metal cools,
coalescence occurs and the parts join.
There is little or no spatter or smoke. The
resulting weld is smooth and uniform, and
requires minimum finishing (Figure 9-2).
You do not need to add filler metal when
welding thinner materials, edge joints, or
flange joints. This is known as autogenous
welding. For thicker materials, an externally
fed or "cold" filler rod is generally used. The
filler metal in gas tungsten arc welding does
not transfer across the arc, but is melted by
it.
You strike the arc in one of three ways:
Figure 9-2 — TIG process.
1. By briefly touching the electrode to
the work and quickly withdrawing it a short distance.
2. By using an apparatus that will cause the arc to jump from the electrode to the
work.
3. By using an apparatus that starts and maintains a small pilot arc. This pilot arc
provides an ionized path from the main arc.
The torch then progresses along the weld joint manually or mechanically after remaining
in one place until a weld puddle forms. Once the welder obtains adequate fusion, the
torch moves along the joint so the adjacent edges join and the weld metal solidifies
along the joint behind the arc, thus completing the welding process.
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2.1.0 Arc Systems
The TIG process uses a constant current power source, either direct or alternating
current. A constant current welding machine provides nearly constant current during
welding, so both stick (SMAW) and TIG (GTAW) can operate from the same power
supply. The exception is that you do not need a high frequency attachment, often added
for gas tungsten arc welding, to scratch start the arc.
The constant current output is obtained with
a drooping volt-ampere characteristic, which
means that the voltage is reduced as the
current increases. The changing arc length
causes the arc voltage to increase or
decrease slightly, which in turn changes the
welding current. Within the welding range,
the steeper the slope of the volt-ampere
curve, the smaller the current change for a
given change in the arc voltage. Figure 9-3
shows volt-ampere curves for different
welding machine performance
characteristics. This shows several slopes,
all of which can provide the same normal
voltage and current.
Differences in the basic power source
design cause the variations in power
Figure 9-3 — Volt-ampere curves.
sources. A machine with a higher short
circuit current will give more positive
starting. A steep volt-ampere characteristic is generally the most desirable when the
welder wants to achieve maximum welding speeds on some welding jobs. The steeper
slope gives less current variation with changing arc length, and gives a softer arc.
The types of machines that have this kind of curve are especially useful on sheet metal.
These types of machines are also typically used for welding at high current levels. On
some applications, such as all-position pipe welding, a welder may want a less steep
volt-ampere characteristic for better arc control with high penetration capability.
Machines with a less steep volt-ampere curve are also easier to use for depositing the
root passes on joints that have varying fitup. This power source characteristic allows the
welder to control the welding current in a specific range by changing the arc length. This
type of machine also produces a more driving arc.
Test your Knowledge (Select the Correct Response)
1.
The predominant shielding gas used for TIG is _____.
A.
B.
C.
D.
O2
NO2
Ar
He
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2.
How is the arc struck using the manual TIG process?
A.
B.
C.
D.
Holding the electrode to the work until a puddle is formed.
Briefly tapping the electrode on the work.
Depressing the torch trigger and the arc will start.
Clipping the grounding strap on the workpiece.
3.0.0 EQUIPMENT for WELDING
A typical TIG welding system usually consists of the following elements:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
Welding power supply
Welding torch
Tungsten electrode
Welding cables
Gas shielding system
Since welders can apply TIG by various methods with a wide variety of equipment
configurations, often they will include several available items of optional equipment such
as water circulators, foot rheostats, programmers, motion devices, oscillators, automatic
voltage controls (AVC), and wire feeders. Figure 9-4 shows a diagram of the equipment
used for a manual welding setup.
Figure 9-4 — Equipment for gas tungsten arc welding.
3.1.0 Power Sources
The purpose of the power source or welding machine is to provide the electric power of
the proper current and voltage to maintain a welding arc. Manufacturers offer several
various sizes and types of power sources for gas tungsten arc welding. Most of these
power sources operate on 230 or 460 volt input electric power. Power sources that
operate on 200 or 575 volt input power are available as options.
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3.1.1 Power Source Duty Cycle
The duty cycle of a power source is defined as the ratio of arc time to total time. For
rating a welding machine, a ten minute time period is used. Thus, for a machine rated at
a 60% duty cycle, the rated welding current load could be safely applied continuously
for six minutes and be off for four minutes. Most power sources used for gas tungsten
arc welding have a 60% duty cycle. For the machine and automatic methods, a welding
machine with 100% duty cycle rating would be best, but these are not normally
available.
The formula for determining the duty cycle of a welding machine for a given current load
is:
For example, if a welding machine is rated at a 60% duty cycle at 300 amperes, the
duty cycle of the machine when operated at 250 amperes would be:
Figure 9-5 represents the ratio of the square of the rated current to the square of the
load current, multiplied by the rated duty cycle. This chart can be used instead of
working out the formula. A line is drawn parallel to the sloping lines through the
intersection of the subject machine’s rated current output and rated duty cycle. For
example, a question might arise whether a 300 amp 60% duty cycle machine could be
used for a fully automatic requirement of 225 amps for a 10-minute welding job. The
chart shows that the machine can be safely used at slightly over 230 amperes at a
100% duty cycle. Conversely, there may be a need to draw more than the rated current
from a welding machine, but for a shorter period. This graph can be used to compare
various machines. All machines should be rated to the same duty cycle for comparison.
Figure 9-5 — Duty cycle vs. current load.
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3.2.0 Types of Welding Current
The type of power source determines the type of current available. The most important
factor in selecting the type of current is the type of metal to be welded. The thickness of
the metal can also have an influence. You can use either alternating or direct current for
both gas tungsten arc welding and high frequency arc ignition, and you may pulse the
welding current.
3.2.1 Direct Current
You can connect direct current
in one of two ways: electrode
negative (straight polarity)DCEN
or electrode positive (reverse
polarity)DCEP. The electrically
charged particles flow between
the tip of the electrode and the
work (Figure 9-6). You can use
electrode negative for welding
all metals.
Follow special procedures to
weld alloys of magnesium and
aluminum, which have a
refractory surface oxide that
hinders their fusion. You can
make welds on aluminum and
magnesium with a short arc
length using electrode negative
and a helium-bearing shielding
gas, but you can weld these
metals more easily by using
Figure 9-6 — Negative and positive polarity.
electrode positive because this
connection breaks down the
oxide layers on the surfaces.
The main problem with using electrode positive is that the current carrying capacity of
the electrode is extremely low. In fact, the electrode will begin to melt if the currents are
too high. For this reason, you should rarely use electrode positive except for welding
thin sheet metal.
3.2.2 Pulsed Current
The pulsed current method of TIG employs two levels of welding current instead of a
steady current. The welding current switches periodically between the high and low
levels to produce a pulsating current or arc. See Figure 9-7 for a diagram of pulsed
direct current. This pulsed current produces a continuously welded seam consisting of
overlapping arc spot welds. Figure 9-8 shows a cross-sectional view of the pulsed
current weld bead. Each of the spots is produced by the high level welding current after
which the current is switched to the lower level. This lower level allows the weld to
solidify partially between spots and maintains the arc to avoid re-ignition problems.
Pulsed current may be used with direct or alternating current, but it is most commonly
used with direct current.
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Figure 9-7 — Pulsed current
terminology.
Figure 9-8 — Weld produced by
pulsed current.
The pulsed direct current method of gas tungsten arc welding has several advantages
over steady direct current for welding thin materials. The pulsed method is more tolerant
of edge misalignment, normal fixturing can be used with thinner materials, and it gives
better distortion control and root penetration. For open root welding, the high pulse
provides high current for complete penetration, but the low pulse cools the puddle down
to prevent burning through at the root of the joint. Pulsing reduces the heat input to the
base metal. This is particularly good for welding thin stainless steel sheet metal, which
distorts very easily without pulsed current. Another advantage of pulsed current is that it
is very good for welding in the vertical and overhead positions because good
penetration is obtainable with less heat input. Pulsing keeps the weld puddle from
getting too large to control because of the partial solidification that occurs during the low
current.
The number of pulses used can vary from about ten per second down to about one or
one-half per second. The length of time the high current is on and the length of time the
low current is on are variable, as well as the percentage of low current with respect to
the high current.
3.2.3 Alternating Current
Alternating current is a combination of both polarities that alternate in regular cycles. In
each cycle, the current starts at zero, builds up to a maximum value in one direction,
decays back to zero, builds up to a maximum value in the other direction, and decays
back to zero. The arc goes out during the zero portion of the cycle, so a high frequency
current in the welding circuit reignites the arc.
Using alternating current provides the advantages of both direct current electrode
positive (reverse polarity) without the current limitations, and direct current electrode
negative without the oxide cleaning problems. For this reason, welders generally use
alternating current for manual welding aluminum and magnesium.
However, in the alternating current circuit, there is a tendency for the current to become
unbalanced. The arc current flows more easily in one direction because it takes greater
energy to obtain electrons from the base metal than from the tungsten electrode. The
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tungsten electrode emits electrons more easily because it becomes much hotter during
welding than the base metal does. The amplitude of the current in the cycle, when the
electrode is negative, is normally higher than it is during the cycle when the electrode is
positive. This tends to produce an unbalanced current. Operators can use either series
connected capacitors or insert a direct current voltage in the welding circuit to balance
the current. Balanced current is desirable for some applications like high-speed
mechanized welding, but it is not necessary for most manual welding applications.
Balanced current flow has three main advantages:
1. Better oxide-cleaning action
2. Better and smoother welding action
3. No reduction in the output rating of a conventional welding transformer
Disadvantages of a balanced current flow are the following:
1. It requires larger electrodes.
2. Wave balancing systems are more expensive.
3.2.4 High-Frequency Current
The high-frequency current is a separate, superimposed current used to maintain a pilot
arc and help start the arc. The pilot arc does not do any welding, but it is needed to start
the welding arc without touching the electrode to the work when using either direct or
alternating current.
When using alternating current, the high frequency current keeps the arc from going out
when the alternating current changes cycles, from positive to negative or negative to
positive.
When using direct current, the high frequency only helps to start the arc and may be
turned off after establishing the arc. Using a high frequency current is the best starting
method because touching the tip of the electrode to the work or starting on a piece of
carbon can contaminate the tungsten electrode.
When using this superimposed high frequency current with AC TIG, you need to take
certain precautions because the high frequency spark gap oscillators in the power
sources radiate power at frequencies that can interfere with commercial, police, and
aviation radio broadcasts. It can also interfere with television transmissions. Because of
this, the operation of high frequency for AC is subject to control by the Federal
Communication Commission in the United States, and most other countries have similar
regulations.
When installing a welding machine that uses high frequency stabilizers, you must pay
special attention to provide earth grounding and special shielding. Manufacturers
provide special installation instructions that also require all metal conductors in the area
of the machine to be earth grounded. These requirements help limit high frequency
radiation. If you follow these instructions carefully, you can post a certificate stating that
you reasonably expect the high frequency stabilizer to meet FCC regulations.
3.3.0 Types of Power Sources
Constant current (cc) machines can produce AC or DC welding power; they can be
rotating (generators), static (transformer/rectifier), or three phase inverter machines.
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3.3.1 Generator and Alternator Welding Machines
For shop use, an electric motor can power a generator welding machine, or an internal
combustion engine (gasoline or diesel) can do it for field use. You can adjust generator
welding machines intended for shielded metal arc welding to function for gas tungsten
arc welding if you add an inert gas and a high frequency attachment.
You can adapt engine-driven, either water- or air-cooled welding machines as well,
many of which also provide auxiliary power for emergency lighting, power tools, etc.
Generator welding machines can provide DC power, and in some cases both AC and
DC power to the arc, depending on the machine design.
You can also adapt alternator welding machines (also called rotating or revolving field
machines) for gas tungsten arc welding. These machines consist of an electric
generator made to produce AC power.
3.3.2 Transformer-Rectifier Welding
Machines
Transformer-rectifier welding machines are
used much more widely for gas tungsten arc
welding than motor-generator welding
machines. Transformer-rectifier machines
provide both AC and DC welding current to
the arc. A single phase transformer
producing alternating current is connected to
the rectifier, which then produces DC current
for the arc. The rectifier is an electrical
device which changes alternating current
into direct current.
Transformer-rectifier welding machines
operate on single phase input power (Figure
9-9), and because of this, an unbalance may
be created in the power supply lines, which
is objectionable to most power companies.
Figure 9-9 — Welding machine.
However, this type of welding machine is the most versatile for TIG because you can
use it for welding a variety of base metals. A programmable type of transformer-rectifier
power source is often used for TIG welding; the welder can select either AC or DC
current for the application by simple means of a switch which can change the output
terminals to the transformer or to the rectifier.
The transformer-rectifier welding machines are available in different sizes and have
several advantages over rotating power sources:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
Lower operating costs
Lower maintenance costs
Quiet operation
Lower power consumption while idling
No rotating parts
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3.3.3 Inverter Power Sources
A recently developed machine uses the inverter and different levels of programming.
These machines operate on three-phase input power. The three-phase input helps
overcome the line unbalance that occurs with the single-phase transformer-rectifier
machines. Inverters provide power down to .5 ampere with a very fast response time of
one millisecond and less than 1 % ripple. Different programming is available, depending
on the complexity of the job. The high frequency inverters are very quiet and provide
outstanding arc stability.
3.3.4 Transformer Welding Machines
Transformer welding machines are not used often for gas tungsten arc welding except
at home shops or small job shops where gas tungsten arc welding is used only
occasionally. Transformer welding machines produce AC power only and operate on
single-phase input power. Like generator welding machines intended for SMAW, you
can also adapt transformer welding machines for TIG by adding an inert gas and a high
frequency attachment.
The transformer welding machine takes power directly from the line, transforms it to the
power required for welding, and by means of various magnetic circuits, inductors, etc.,
provides the volt-ampere characteristics proper for welding. The main advantage of the
transformer is that it has the lowest initial investment cost and uses electric power
efficiently. However, movable parts tend to vibrate, wear, and become loose, which
creates undesirable noise.
3.3.5 Square Wave Power Source
To overcome the arc extinguishing-restriking problem, a square wave AC output power
source was developed. Either the conventional constant current type or the constant
voltage type of power source can use the
square wave output form. In either case, the
time for switching from positive to negative
or negative to positive current pulse is
approximately 50 to 150 microseconds; thus
the arc is difficult to restart and is unstable.
Power electronics can be used to vary the
positive and negative output of the machine.
The area above the zero point on the curve
(the direct current positive area) and the
area below the curve (the negative area) can
be equalized or balanced.
A power source developed specifically for
gas tungsten arc and plasma arc welding
provides a square-wave output form but also
allows a balance or imbalance between the
straight polarity and reverse polarity halfcycles of each cycle.
Figure 9-10 — Square wave
output: balanced and
unbalanced.
In welding aluminum, the electrode negative
(straight polarity half-cycle) gives maximum
penetration, whereas the electrode positive (reverse polarity half-cycle) provides for the
cleaning action. It is advantageous to provide the most straight polarity half-cycle, and
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this is possible, as shown in Figure 9-10. This machine also has programming ability
and encloses a high-frequency oscillator plus gas and water valves.
3.4.0 Controls
TIG welding machines have some or all of the following controls to operate the welding:
1. On-off power switch.
2. Polarity selection switch — for machines that produce DC power.
3. Welding current control — a knob or tap switch on the front of the welding
machine that controls the amount of welding current delivered to the arc.
4. Foot pedal — an optional piece of equipment for manual welding. It starts the
current flow, varies the current during welding, and reduces the current at the
end of the weld. This control also starts the high frequency current when high
frequency current is used.
5. High frequency control — turns the high frequency current on and off, and
selects the type of high frequency current used. Continuous high frequency
current is used for AC welding where high frequency current is needed only for
arc starting with DC welding current. Also included is a knob to control the
amount of high frequency current.
6. Hot start — a knob on some welding machines. When in use, this control causes
the machine to furnish momentarily a surge of current substantially above the
welding current to get the arc initiated. The knob can also set the amount of “hot
start” current required.
7. Pulsation controls. When pulsed current is desired, several controls are usually
needed.
8. Up-slope and down-slope controls — optional controls that are timers. The upslope control allows the welding current to build up gradually at a set rate at the
beginning of the welding. The downslope control allows the welding
current to decay gradually at a set
rate at the end of the welding to
prevent crater cracking.
9. Shielding gas controls — timers that
can be set to start the flow of
shielding gas before the welding
current starts and to maintain gas
shielding after the welding arc has
been broken. Both of these controls
are used to prevent oxidation of the
tungsten electrode and contamination
of the weld puddle when hot.
Several or all of these controls are used with
a programmable panel (Figure 9-11) and are
available in wide variety depending on the
programmer used.
NAVEDTRA 14250A
Figure 9-11 — Programmer.
9-16
3.5.0 Welding Torches
Torches for TIG welding, designed and used only for this process, are available in a
variety of types and sizes. The torch
conducts the welding current to the arc and
the shielding gas to the arc area. It usually
includes various cables, hoses, and
adaptors for connecting the torch to the
power, gas, and cooling supplies. Manual
torches should also have a handle so the
welder can manipulate the arc. Figure 9-12
shows a manual gas tungsten arc welding
torch. Manual torches can weigh from as
little as three ounces (85 grams) to about
sixteen ounces (450 grams), and are rated
according to their maximum usable welding
current. These torches can utilize various
types and sizes of electrodes and nozzles
while the angle of the electrode to the
handle (the head angle) may vary from torch
to torch. The most common head angle is
Figure 9-12 — Manual TIG torch.
120 degrees, but some torches use 90degree head angles and others have
adjustable heads.
There are two major types of welding torches used for TIG: air-cooled and water-cooled.
The air-cooled torches are cooled by the flow of the shielding gas (which means that
they really are gas-cooled). The only air cooling occurs from the heat radiating into the
atmosphere.
Water-cooled torches have water circulating through the torch, which accounts for most
of the cooling (Figure 9-13); the shielding gas does the rest. Air-cooled torches are
Figure 9-13 — Cross-section view of water-cooled torch.
NAVEDTRA 14250A
9-17
usually small, lightweight, and less expensive than water-cooled torches, and with a
maximum welding current of 200 amperes, they are used normally for welding thin
metal. These torches are more versatile than water-cooled torches because no water is
needed, but they are for low duty cycle welding because the tungsten electrode in an
air-cooled torch becomes hotter than in a water-cooled torch, which can transfer
tungsten to the weld, thus causing inclusions.
Water-cooled torches can operate continuously up to about 200 amperes, with some
especially designed for welding currents up to 500 amperes. These torches are usually
heavier (water hose and connectors usually come with the torch) and more expensive
than the air-cooled types.
There are four types of nozzles or gas cups used for gas tungsten arc welding: ceramic,
metal, fused-quartz, and dual-shield nozzles. They provide shielding gas to the welding
electrode and metal. As a general rule the inside diameter of the gas nozzle should be
three times larger than the electrodes diameter.
Ceramic nozzles are the cheapest and most popular type, but they are brittle. Ceramic
nozzles are the best kind to use with high frequency current to prevent cross-firing to
the nozzle.
Metal nozzles can be either the slip-on type or the water-cooled type. The slip-on type is
limited to low current welding, whereas the water-cooled nozzles are usable with high
welding current.
Fused-quartz nozzles are transparent and some welders prefer them for increased
visibility, but the inside of the nozzle can be dulled by vapors when the electrode is
contaminated, which impairs the vision.
Dual-shield nozzles allow a small amount of helium or argon around the electrode to
shield the immediate weld puddle. Around the central part of the nozzle, an annular
grooved section sends an atmosphere of carbon dioxide or nitrogen to keep air from
contact with the central inert-gas shield. The industry rarely uses the dual-shield nozzle.
Inside the nozzle is the gas orifice. The gas orifice is a series of holes in the end of the
collet body around the electrode that supplies the shielding gas into the nozzle. This
gives a more even flow of shielding gas around the electrode (Figure 9-14).
Figure 9-14 — Parts of a manual torch.
NAVEDTRA 14250A
9-18
Orbital welding heads are designed
specifically to produce high quality welds in
critical welding applications (Figure 9-15).
Because companies related to the aircraft,
pharmaceutical, semiconductor, food
processing, and related industries require
superior weld quality in terms of bead shape,
integrity, and cleanliness, these advanced
systems incorporate computer technology to
control the variables in a weld.
Torch oscillation speed and width are
independently adjustable and automatically
synchronized to allow precise positioning of
filler wire entry into the weld puddle, and
compact wire feeders are controlled
electronically for accuracy and repeatability.
3.6.0 Gas Shielding System
Figure 9-15 — Tube-to-tube welding
heads.
Single cylinders, portable or stationary
manifold systems, or pipes connected to bulk
storage torches may supply the shielding
gas. The most widely used form of gas flow
control is the combination regulator and
flowmeter (Figure 9-16). Flowmeters must be
appropriate for the various shielding gases
because they must be calibrated for a
specific gas. Use only the regulators and
flowmeters designed for a specific gas.
There is a fundamental difference between
the regulators used for oxy-fuel welding and
those used for TIG/MIG welding. While both
have a gauge that provides a tank/cylinder
pressure and a second gauge, with oxy-fuel
welding, the second gauge displays pressure
as the working unit, and with TIG/MIG, the
second gauge displays flow and the working
Figure 9-16 — Regulator and
unit. The working pressure on the oxy-fuel
flowmeter.
regulator is in pounds per square inch (psi),
while the regulator for TIG/MIG is in cubic feet per hour (cfh) or liters per minute (lpm).
See Figure 9-16.
The flowmeter consists of a plastic or glass tube that contains a loosely fitting ball. As
the gas flows up the tube, it passes around the ball and lifts it up: the more gas that
moves up the tube, the higher the ball lifts.
The shielding gas regulator has a constant outlet pressure to the flowmeter of about 50
psig. This is important because the flowmeter scales are accurate only if the gas
entering them is at that approximate pressure. If you use higher inlet pressures, the gas
flow rate will be higher than the actual reading. The reverse is true if the inlet pressure is
lower than 50 psig; therefore, it is important to use accurately adjusted regulators. With
NAVEDTRA 14250A
9-19
an accurate flowmeter, these regulators can deliver inert gas flows up to 60 cfh; read
the scale by aligning the top of the ball with the cfh increment lines.
To obtain an accurate reading, you must mount the meter in a vertical position. Any
slant will create an off-center gas flow and result in an inaccurate reading. As already
mentioned, you need to use different flowmeters for different gases.
The flow of gas necessary for good TIG welding depends primarily on the thickness of
the material, but there are other factors as well, including welding current, size of
nozzle, joint design, speed of welding, and a draft-free area in the location of the
welding. This last factor can affect gas coverage and usage considerably
Plastic hoses bring the shielding gas to the welding torch because helium will diffuse
through the walls of rubber or rubber-fabric hoses. To standardize the hose system,
these same plastic hoses are used for argon also. They may connect straight to the
torch, or go through the power source or the inert gas attachment to the torch.
3.7.0 Welding Cables
The welding cables and connectors connect the power source to the torch and to the
work, essentially the same as those used for SMAW. The cables are normally made of
copper or aluminum and consist of hundreds of fine wires enclosed in an insulated
casing of natural or synthetic rubber. The cable connecting the work to the power
source is the work lead, which typically connects to the work by pincher, clamps, bolt, or
special connection. The cable connecting the torch to the power source is the electrode
lead, and it is part of the torch assembly.
The size of the welding cable used depends on the output capacity of the welding
machine and the distance between the welding machine and the work. Cable sizes
range from the smallest at AWG NO. 8 to AWG No. 4/0 with amperage ratings of 75
amperes and upward. Table 9-1 shows recommended cable sizes for use with different
welding currents and cable lengths.
Table 9-1 ─ Suggested copper welding cable sized for gas tungsten arc welding.
Weld
Length of cable circuit in feet – cable size A.W.G.
Weld
Current
60’
100’
150’
200’
300’
400’
Manual
100
4
4
4
2
1
1/0
(Low
Duty
Cycle)
150
2
2
2
1
2/0
3/0
200
2
2
1
1/0
3/0
4/0
250
2
2
1/0
2/0
300
1
1
2/0
3/0
350
1/0
1/0
3/0
4/0
400
1/0
1/0
3/0
450
2/0
2/0
4/0
500
2/0
2/0
4/0
Type
NAVEDTRA 14250A
9-20
3.8.0 Other Equipment
TIG is a very versatile process, and because of its versatility, there is a need for multiple
types of torches, wire feeders, water circulators, and motion devices. The following
presents some of the most common devices.
3.8.1 Filler Wire Feeders
When you use semiautomatic, machine, and automatic welding, and a filler metal is
necessary, you need a filler wire feeder. For manual welding, you feed the filler metal
by hand. You can feed filler metal into the pool either preheated (hot) or at room
temperature (cold).
A cold wire feeding system consists of a wire drive mechanism, a speed control, and a
wire guide attachment that directs the wire into the molten weld pool. The wire drive
consists of a motor and gear train, which power a set of drive rolls to push the filler wire.
A constant speed governor, either electronic or mechanical, functions as the wire feed
speed control, and a flexible conduit connected to the drive mechanism usually guides
the filler wire to the weld puddle. Often, the wire guide attaches to the torch, and it
maintains the angle of approach to the weld puddle. For heavy duty applications, the
wire guide is water-cooled.
Filler wires used for this application range from 1/32 inch (0.8 mm) to 3/32 inch (2.4
mm) in diameter. Generally, cold wire feeds into the leading edge of the weld puddle.
The equipment for a hot wire system is similar to that for cold wire, except it electrically
preheats the wire with an alternating current from a constant voltage to the desired
temperature before it reaches the weld pool. In many cases, a shielding gas protects
the filler wire from oxidation.
The TIG hot wire method will give a high deposition rate comparable to using MIG.
Sometimes this method is used to weld carbon and low alloy steels, stainless steels,
copper alloys, and nickel alloys. Feed hot wire into the trailing edge of the weld puddle,
but do not use hot wire for aluminum, aluminum alloys, and copper; they require very
high heating currents which cause uneven
melting and arc blow.
3.8.2 Water Circulators
When you use a water-cooled torch, you
must have a continuous water supply via a
water circulator or directly from a hose
connection to a water tap. Hoses, which
may or may not go through a valve in the
welding machine, carry the water to the
welding torch. Figure 9-17 shows a water
circulator.
3.8.3 Motion Devices
Machine welding and automatic welding use
motion devices to move the welding head,
workpiece, or torch depending on the type
and size of the work and the preference of
the user.
NAVEDTRA 14250A
Figure 9-17 — Water circulator.
9-21
Often, motor-driven carriages run on tracks or directly on the workpiece. Carriages are
useful for straight line contour, vertical, or horizontal welding. Side beam carriages are
supported on the vertical face of a flat track, and they can be used for straight line
welding.
You can use welding head manipulators for
longitudinal welds and, in conjunction with a
rotary weld positioner, for circumferential
welds. These welding head manipulators
come in many boom sizes and can be used
also for semiautomatic welding with
mounted welding heads.
Oscillators are optional equipment used to
oscillate the torch for surfacing, vertical-up
welding, and other welding operations that
require a wide bead. Oscillators can be
either mechanical or electromagnetic
devices.
Orbital heads are compact, rugged, and
clamp on a pipe or tube (Figure 9-18). To
weld the smallest to the largest tubes, you
Figure 9-18 — Orbital welding head
will need a family of heads. These heads
designed for low clearances.
will rotate the torch around the pipe,
continuously carrying the tungsten electrode. Multiple adjustments and computer control
allow for precise positioning
Test your Knowledge (Select the Correct Response)
3.
What is the most important factor in selecting power supply?
A.
B.
C.
D.
4.
Availability and type of power available
Type of shielding gas to be used
Type and thickness of the metal to be welded
Skill level of the welder
Welding cables are most commonly made of which material?
A.
B.
C.
D.
Stainless steel
Copper
Bronze
Silver alloy
4.0.0 EQUIPMENT SETUP, ADJUSTMENT, and SHUTDOWN
A basic knowledge of equipment setup, adjustment, and shutdown is necessary to
make effective and efficient welds. This section will give you the basics of setup and
electrode preparation. Always refer to the manufacturer’s safety precautions and proper
tip preparation. Also, always wear your safety glasses when you are in the welding
area.
Attach the remote control to the remote control outlet on the power source.
NAVEDTRA 14250A
9-22
Check torch cables and connect them to the power source.
Select the appropriate electrode for the job.
Ceriated tungstens (orange band) and lanthanated tungstens (black band) are the
recommended alternatives to thoriated
tungstens for DCEN applications if they are
available. Use pure or zirconiated tungstens
for AC welding with conventional sine wave
or conventional square wave power sources.
4.2.0 Preparing the Electrode Tip
Taper the electrodes for DCEN welding to
direct and control the arc. The taper angle of
the electrode is the included angle. For most
applications, a 30° taper about 2 1/2 to 3
electrode diameters long works well (Figure
9-19).
Round off pure and zirconiated electrodes
for AC welding with conventional square
wave power sources to withstand the heat
generate during the electrode positive
portion of the AC cycle.
Figure 9-19 — Preparing the tip.
The rounded tip should not exceed the
diameter of the electrode. Otherwise, the
arc may wander around the surface,
making it hard to control (Figure 9-20).
You can use any of the alloyed tungstens
for AC welding with inverters because you
can adjust the positive portion of the AC
cycle to provide just enough amperage for
cleaning without overheating the tip of the
electrode.
Match the collet and collet body to the
electrode diameter.
Check the nozzle to make sure it is the
proper size and is in good condition.
Figure 9-20 — Rounded tip for
conventional square wave.
The nozzle should be a minimum of 3 times
the diameter of the electrode.
Replace nozzles that are chipped, cracked,
or badly worn. Damaged or dirty nozzles can alter the gas flow pattern and cause
defects or discontinuities in the weld.
NAVEDTRA 14250A
9-23
4.3.0 Assembling the Torch
Thread the collet body into the torch head.
Insert the collet into the collet body.
Install the nozzle.
Insert the electrode so the tip extends about
1/2 inch beyond the nozzle.
Screw the cap into the back of the torch
head and tighten it lightly so the electrode
will move with finger pressure.
Adjust the electrode stickout and tighten the
cap to secure the electrode in place.
Place the torch on its hanger so it will not arc
when you turn the power switch on. Do not
lay it across the welding table.
Refer to Figure 9-21 for assembly.
Figure 9-21 — Torch assembly.
4.4.0 Setting Up the Shielding Gas System
Chain the cylinder in place and remove the cap.
Stand away from the valve port. Open and close the valve quickly to blow out any dirt
before attaching the regulator.
Install the regulator and flow meter assembly.
Attach the gas hose to the flow meter.
Attach the other end of the hose to the connection on the power source.
Open the cylinder valve slowly until pressure registers on the regulator; then open the
valve all the way.
Turn the power source on and tap the foot pedal to start the flow of gas.
Adjust the flow meter to approximately 15 to 20 cubic feet per hour (cfh) for argon.
Set the post flow time on the power source (1 second for every 10 amps).
Test for leaks by closing the cylinder valve. If the regulator pressure drops, check the
hose and the connections at the power source, flow meter, and cylinder for leaks.
4.5.0 Setting Up the Welding Parameters
Set the amperage control to the maximum setting required for the job.
Set the high-frequency switch to start (automatic) for DC welding, or to continuous for
conventional square wave AC.
Adjust the high frequency intensity control.
Run a few test welds on scrap material to fine tune the settings.
4.6.0 System Shutdown and Clean Up
Shut the system down when the job is completed. Close the valve on the gas cylinder.
NAVEDTRA 14250A
9-24
Tap the foot pedal to bleed off the shielding gas.
Close the valve on the flow meter.
Turn off the power source.
Clean up your work area.
As a safety precaution, turn the power switches on the wire feeder and the power
source to the off position before checking electrical connections.
Check all electrical connections to make sure they are tight, and check cables for cracks
and exposed wire.
5.0.0 ELECTRODES, SHIELDING GAS, and FILLER METAL
The electrodes used for this process are non-consumable, so a tungsten electrode is
needed as well as a filler rod if any filler metal is to be added. The shielding gas is an
important consumable of gas tungsten arc welding because its main purpose is to shield
the electrode and molten weld puddle from the atmosphere. Filler metal may or may not
be added, depending on the specific welding application.
5.1.0 Electrodes
TIG uses a non-consumable or nearly non-consumable electrode made of tungsten or
tungsten alloys that melt at 6170 degrees Fahrenheit (3410 degrees Celsius), which is
the highest melting point of all metals. It is virtually impossible to vaporize a tungsten
electrode during welding, provided you use the electrode within the current-carrying
capacity range for its specific type and diameter, with sufficient inert shielding gas.
Tungsten retains its hardness, even at red heat.
There are several types of electrodes for gas tungsten arc welding. These are made of
pure tungsten or alloyed with thoria, zirconia, ceria, lanthana, or a combination of oxides
(Table 9-2). Welding electrodes are classified by chemical composition and are
identifiable by colored markings in the form of bands, dots, etc. on the surface of the
electrode. The AWS classification uses letters to distinguish differences in the
electrodes. The first two letters of a tungsten electrode are E for electrode and W for
tungsten the next letter represents the material the electrode is made of.
Tungsten electrodes usually come in lengths of 3 to 24 inches (76-610 mm) in
diameters from .01 to 1/4 inch (.25 to 6.4 mm). Table 9-3 shows the types of tungsten
electrodes used for welding different metals. Table 9-4 shows the welding current
ranges for tungsten electrodes.
Generally, you will use pure tungsten electrodes (green marking) on the less critical
applications with alternating current; they have a relatively low current-carrying capacity
and a low contamination resistance, but they give good arc stability.
The tungsten electrodes alloyed with 1% (yellow marking) or 2% (red marking) thoria
have several advantages over pure tungsten electrodes. These electrodes have higher
current-carrying capacities, longer life, higher electron emissivity, and greater
contamination resistance. Thoriated tungsten electrodes also give easier arc starting
and a more stable arc.
Ceriated tungsten electrodes (orange marking) contain cerium oxide and have a
reduced rate of vaporization or burn-off, as compared with pure tungsten electrodes.
The EWLa (black marking) electrodes contain lanthanum oxide and are very similar to
the ceriated tungsten electrodes. EWZr (brown marking) electrodes contain a small
NAVEDTRA 14250A
9-25
amount of zirconium oxide. Their welding characteristics generally fall between those of
pure and thoriated tungsten, but they have a higher resistance to contamination. The
EWG (gray marking) electrodes contain an unspecified addition of oxides (rare earth or
others) which affect the characteristics of the arc.
Table 9-2 — Chemical composition requirements for electrodes (AWS A5.12).
Weight Percent
Other
Oxides
or
Elements
Total
AWS
Classification
UNS
Numberb
W Min.
(difference)c
EWP
R07900
99.5
EWCe-2
R07932
97.3
EWLa-1
R07941
98.3
EWTh-1
R07911
98.3
.8-1.2
.5
EWTh-2
R07912
97.3
1.7-2.2
.5
EWZr-1
EWGd
CeO2
La2O3
ThO2
.5
1.8-2.2
.5
.9-1.2
.5
99.1
R07920
ZrO2
94.5
.15-.4
.5
.5
Notes
a.The electrode shall be analyzed for the specific oxides for which values are shown in
this table. If the presence of other elements or oxides is indicated, the amount of
those elements or oxides shall be determined to ensure that their total does not
exceed the limit specified for “Other Oxides or Elements, Total” in the last column of
the table
b. SAE/ASTM Unified Numbering System for Metals and Alloys
c. Tungsten content shall be determined by calculating the measures content of all
specified oxides and elements and subtracting the total form a 100%.
d. Classification EWG must contain some oxide or element additive and the
manufacturer must identify the type and nominal content of the oxide or element
additive.
NAVEDTRA 14250A
9-26
Table 9-3 — Types of tungsten electrodes and shielding gasses.
Type of Metal
Aluminum
Thickness
All Thick Only
Thin Only
Type of Current
Electrode
Shielding Gas
AC
Pure, Zirconium
Argon, Argon-helium
DCEN
Thoriated
Argon-helium, Argon
DCEP
Thoriated, Zirconium
Argon
Copper +
All
DCEN
Thoriated
Argon, Argon-helium
Copper Alloys
Thin Only
AC
Pure, Zirconium
Argon
Magnesium
All
AC
Pure, Zirconium
Argon
Alloys
Thin Only
DCEP
Zirconium Thoriated
Argon
All
DCEN
Thoriated
Argon
All
DCEN
Thoriated
Argon, Argon-helium
Stainless Steel
All
DCEN
Thoriated
Argon, Argon-helium
Titanium
All
DCEN
Thoriated
Argon
Nickel +
Nickel Alloys
Plain Carbon
+Low Alloy
Steels
NAVEDTRA 14250A
9-27
Table 9-4 — Typical current ranges for tungsten electrodes. (AWS A5.12).
Electrode
Diameter
in.
mm
DCEN
(DCSP)
DCEP
(DCRP)
Alternating Current
Unbalanced Wave
Alternating Current
Balanced Wave
A
A
A
A
EWX-X
EWX-X
b
EWP
EWX-X
EWP
EWX-X
.010
.30
Up to 15
na
Up to 15
Up to 15
Up to 15
Up to 15
.020
.50
5-20
Na
5-15
5-20
10-20
5-20
.040
1.00
15-80
Na
10-660
15-80
20-30
20-60
.060
1.60
70-150
10-20
50-100
70-150
30-80
60-120
.093
2.40
150-250
15-30
100-160
140-235
60-130
100-180
.125
3.20
250-400
25-40
150-200
225-325
100-180
160-250
.156
4.00
400-500
40-55
200-275
300-400
160-240
200-320
.187
5.00
500-750
55-80
250-350
400-500
190-300
290-390
.250
6.40
750-1000
80-125
325-450
500-630
250-400
340-525
Notes
Notes:
a. All are values based on the use of argon gas. Other current values may be used
depending on the shielding gas, type of equipment, and application.
b. na = not applicable
5.2.0 Shielding Gases
Argon and helium or mixtures of the two gases are the most widely used shielding
gases for gas tungsten arc welding. The characteristics most desirable for shielding
purposes are chemical inertness and an ability to produce smooth arc action at high
current densities. Argon and helium are both inert, which means that they do not form
compounds with other elements. Inert shielding gas is used because it will protect the
tungsten electrode as well as the molten weld metal from contamination. Special
applications may call for the addition of hydrogen and nitrogen as well. In addition to
showing the types of tungsten electrodes used for welding different metals, Table 9-3
shows the type of shielding gas recommended when welding different metals.
Gas purity can have a considerable effect on welding. Metals such as carbon steel,
stainless steel, copper, and aluminum will usually tolerate very small amounts of
impurities. For the best results, the purity rating should be 99.99+%. Titanium and
zirconium have a very low tolerance to impurities, and you should use only the very
purest shielding gas.
NAVEDTRA 14250A
9-28
5.2.1 Argon
Argon is a heavy gas obtained from the atmosphere by the liquefaction of air, and is
available as a compressed gas or a liquid, depending on the volume of use. It is
obtained at much lower prices in the bulk liquid form compared to the compressed gas
form, and it is the most widely used type of shielding gas for gas tungsten arc welding.
Argon has several advantages over helium:
1. Quieter and smoother arc action.
2. Easier arc starting.
3. Lower arc voltage for current settings and arc lengths. This is good on thin
metals.
4. Good cleaning action, which is preferred for the welding of aluminum and
magnesium
5. Lower flow rates are required for good shielding. Argon is heavier than air.
6. Lower cost and more availability.
7. Better resistance to cross-drafts.
8. Better for welding dissimilar metals.
9. Better weld puddle control in the overhead and vertical positions.
5.2.2 Helium
Helium is a light gas obtained by separation from natural gas. It is available as a liquid
but used more often as compressed gas in cylinders. Since helium is lighter than air, it
leaves the welding area quicker and therefore requires higher flow rates. Another
disadvantage is that it is more expensive and is less available than argon. Helium does
have several advantages over argon shielding gas:
1. Gives a smaller heat affected zone.
2. Produces higher arc voltages for given current settings and arc lengths. This is
good on thicker metals and metals with high conductivity.
3. Is better for welding at higher speeds.
4. Gives better coverage in vertical and overhead positions.
5. Provides deeper penetration because of more heat input.
6. Tends to flatten out the root pass of the weld bead when used as a backing gas.
5.2.3 Argon-Helium Mixtures
The argon-helium mixtures provide the better control of argon and the deeper
penetration of helium. Common mixtures of these gases by volume are 75% helium25% argon, or 80% helium-20% argon. A wide variety of mixtures is available,
particularly for their wide usage in automatic welding.
5.2.4 Argon-Hydrogen Mixtures
Welders use mixtures of argon and hydrogen when welding stainless steel, Inconel,
Monel, and when porosity is a problem; in some cases, no other shielding gas can
prevent porosity.
Argon-hydrogen mixtures increase the welding heat, help control the weld bead profile,
and give the weld puddle better wetting action and a more uniform weld bead. This gas
mixture is not completely inert.
Do not use argon-hydrogen mixtures for welding plain carbon or low alloy steels, but
you can use it for stainless steel with the hydrogen percentage up to 15%. A typical
argon hydrogen mixture is 95% argon and 5% hydrogen.
NAVEDTRA 14250A
9-29
5.2.5 Nitrogen
You can use nitrogen as a shielding gas to obtain higher voltage and produce higher
current, but it is rarely done. The efficiency of heat transfer is higher than for either
helium or argon, which makes nitrogen good for welding copper and copper alloys.
However, nitrogen will reduce arc stability and contaminate the electrodes because it is
not an inert gas. If you use thoriated electrodes, there is negligible contamination by the
nitrogen.
5.3.0 Filler Metals
Since the TIG process can weld a wide variety of metals, it generates a need for various
filler metals. Table 9-5 lists the American Welding Society specifications covering the
different filler metals used for gas tungsten arc welding. The selection of the proper filler
metal is primarily dependent on the chemical composition of the base metal; filler metals
are often similar to the base metal, although not necessarily identical.
Manufacturers produce filler metals with closer control on chemistry, purity, and quality
than for base metals. The choice of a filler metal for a given application depends on the
suitability for the intended operation, the cost, and the metallurgical compatibility. The
required tensile strength, impact toughness, electrical conductivity, thermal conductivity,
corrosion resistance, and weld appearance of a weldment are also important
considerations. Deoxidizers added to the filler metals can give better weld soundness
as well.
Table 9-5 — American Welding Society filler metal specifications that cover the
different metals welded by the gas tungsten arc welding process.
Metals
AWS Filler Metal Specification
Number
Copper and Copper Alloys
A5.7
Stainless Steel
A5.9
Aluminum and Aluminum Alloys
A5.10
Surfacing Welding Rods and Electrodes
A5.13
Nickel and Nickel Alloys
A5.14
Titanium and Titanium Alloys
A5.16
Carbon Steels
A5.18
Magnesium Alloys
A5.19
Composite Surfacing Welding Rods and Electrodes
A5.21
Zirconium and Zirconium Alloys
A5.24
Copper and Copper Alloy Gas Welding Rods
A5.27
Low Alloy Steels
A5.28
Consumable Inserts
A5.30
NAVEDTRA 14250A
9-30
5.3.1 Classification
The American Welding Society devised the classification system for filler metal used
with gas tungsten arc welding. In this system, designations for filler metal rods consist of
the letters ER (for electrode or rod) and an alloy number in most cases. The difference
between an electrode and a rod is that an electrode carries welding current and the
metal transfers across the arc, but a filler rod is added directly to the weld puddle
without electricity running through it.
Because gas tungsten arc welding filler rods are generally chosen based on chemical
composition, they are also classified according to their chemical composition. This is not
true of the specification for carbon and low alloy steel welding rods, which are classified
according to mechanical properties and chemical compositions.
An example of a classification is an ER4043 aluminum welding rod. The ER indicates
that the wire is usable as either an electrode or a filler wire, and the 4043 indicates the
chemical composition as shown in Table 9-6.
The classification of other non-ferrous metals and stainless steels are similar; Table 9-7
shows manganese classifications, Table 9-8 the copper and copper alloys, Table 9-9
the stainless steels, and Table 9-10 the nickel and nickel alloys.
NAVEDTRA 14250A
9-31
Table 9-6 —Aluminum filler metal classifications (AWS A5.10).
Weight Percentage
a,b
Other Elements
AWS
Classification
UNS
c
Number
Si
Fe
ERII00
A91100
d
d
RII00
ERI188g
R1188g
A91100
A91188
A91188
d
0.06
0.06
d
0.06
0.06
ER2319h
A92319
0.2
0.3
R2319h
A92319
0.2
0.3
ER4009
A94009
4.5-5.5
0.2
R4009
ER4010
R4010
A94009
A94010
A94010
4.5-5.5
6.5-7.5
6.5-7.5
0.2
0.2
0.2
Cu
.050.20
.050.20
0.005
0.005
5.86.8
5.86.8
1.01.5
1.01.5
0.2
0.2
R4011k
ER4043
R4043
A94011
A94043
A'I4043
0.2
0.8
0.8
ER4047
A94047
R4047
A94047
ER4145
A94145
R4145
R4643
R4643
A94145
A94643
A94643
6.5-7.5
4.5-6.0
4.5-6.0
11.013.0
11.013.0
9.310.7
9.310.7
3.6-4.6
3.6-4.6
ER5183
A95183
R5183
Mn
Mg
Cr
Ni
0.05
Ti
0.1
Each
Total
AI
0.05e
0.15
99.0 min
0.05e
0.01e
0.01e
0.15
99.0 min
f
99.88 min
f
99.88 min
0.05e
0.15
Remainder
0.05e
0.15
Remainder
f
f
0.01
0.01
0.1
0.03
0.03
0.02
0.1
0.02
0.1
0.01
0.01
0.100.20
0.100.20
0.1
0.45-0.6
0.1
0.2
0.05e
0.15
Remainder
0.1
0.1
0.1
0.45-0.6
0.30-0.45
0.30-0.45
0.1
0.1
0.1
0.05e
0.05e
0.05e
0.15
0.15
0.15
Remainder
Remainder
Remainder
0.2
0.3
0.3
0.1
0.05
0.05
0.45-0.7
0.05
0.05
0.1
0.1
0.1
0.2
0.2
0.2
0.040.20
0.2
0.2
0.05e
0.05e
0.05e
0.15
0.15
0.15
Remainder
Remainder
Remainder
0.8
0.3
0.15
0.1
0.2
0.05e
0.15
Remainder
0.8
0.15
0.1
0.2
0.05e
0.15
Remainder
n.15
0.15
0.15
0.2
0.05e
0.15
Remainder
0.8
0.8
0.8
0.3
3.34.7
3.34.7
0.1
0.1
0.15
0.10キ0.30
0.10-0.30
0.15
0.2
0.1
0.1
0.15
0.15
0.05e
0.05e
0.05e
0.15
0.15
0.15
Remainder
Remainder
Remainder
0.4
0.4
0.1
0.25
0.15
0.05e
0.15
Remainder
A95183
0.4
0.4
0.1
0.25
0.15
Remainder
A95356
0.25
0.4
0.1
0.05e
0.15
Remainder
R5356
A95356
0.25
0.4
0.1
0.05e
0.15
Remainder
ER5554
A95554
0.25
0.4
0.1
0.05e
0.15
Remainder
R5554
A95554
0.25
0.4
0.1
0.05e
0.15
Remainder
ER5556
A95556
0.25
0.4
0.1
0.05e
0.15
Remainder
R5556
A95556
0.25
0.4
0.1
0.05e
0.15
Remainder
ER56S4
A95654
0.05
0.01
3.1-3.9
0.05e
0.15
Remainder
R5654
A95654
0.05e
0.15
Remainder
A02060
0.1
0.15
0.01
0.200.50
3.1-3.9
R206.0j
0.15キ0.35
0.05
0.15
Remainder
R-C355.0
R-A356.0
R-357.0
A33550
AI3560
A03570
4.5-5.S
6.5-7.5
6.5-7.5
0.2
0.2
0.15
0.05
4.25.0
1.01.5
0.2
0.05
0.15
0.060.20
0.060.20
0.050.20
0.050.20
0.050.20
0.050.20
0.050.15
0.050.15
0.150.30
0.05e
ER5356
0.15
0.05
0.05
0.501.0
0.501.0
0.OS0.20
0.050.20
0.501.0
0.501.0
0.501.0
0.501.0
0.1
0.1
0.03
0.40-0.6
0.25-0.45
0.45-0.6
0.1
0.1
0.05
0.05
0.05
0.05
0.15
0.15
0.15
Remainder
Remainder
Remainder
R-A357.0k
A13570
6.5-7.5
0.2
0.2
0.1
0.40キ0.7
0.1
0.2
0.2
0.2
0.040.20
0.05
0.15
Remainder
0.8
0.05
0.01
0.01
0.200.40
0.200.40
Zn
4.3-5.2
4.3-5.2
4.5-5.5
4.5-5.5
2.4キ3.0
2.4-3.0
4.7-5.5
4.7-5.5
0.050.25
0.050.25
0.050.20
0.050.20
0.050.20
0.050.20
0.050.20
0.050.20
0.150.35
0.150.35
0.1
0.1
0.25
0.25
0.25
0.25
0.2
0.2
0.05
0.1
Notes:
a. The filler metal shall be analyzed for the specific elements for which values are shown in this table. If the presence of other
elements is indicated in the course of this work, the amount of those elements shall be determined to ensure that they do not
exceed the limits specified for "Other Elements".
b. Single values are maximum, except where otherwise specified.
c. SAE/ASTM Unified Numbering System for Metals and Alloys,
d. Silicon plus iron shall not exceed 0.95 percent.
e. Beryllium shall not exceed 0.0008 percent.
f. The aluminum content for unalloyed aluminum is the difference between 100.00 percent and the Slim of all other metallic elements
present in amounts of 0.010 percent or more each, expressed' to the second decimal before determining the sum.
g. Vanadium content shall be 0.05 percent maximum. Gallium content shall be 0.03 percent maximum.
h. Vanadium content shall be 0.05-0.15 percent. Zirconium content shall be 0.10-0.25 percent.
i. Silicon plus iron shall not exceed 0.45 percent.
j. Tin content shall not exceed 0.05 percent.
k. Beryllium content shall be 0.04·0,07 percent.
NAVEDTRA 14250A
9-32
Table 9-7 —Magnesium filler metal classifications (AWS A5.19).
Weight Percentage a,b
Other Elements
AWS
Classification
ER AZ61A
R AZ61A
UNS
Numberc
M111611
Mg
Remainder
Al
5.8
to
7.2
Be
0.0002
to
0.0008
Mn
0.15
to
0.5
Zn
0.4
to
1.5
ER AZ92A
R AZ92A
M11922
Remainder
8.3
to
9.7
0.0002
to
0.0008
0.15
to
0.5
ER AZ101A
R AZ101A
M11101
Remainder
9.5
to
11
0.0002
to
0.0008
0.15
to
0.5
ER EZ33A
R EZ33A
M12331
Remainder
0.0008
Rare
Earth
Cu
0.05
Fe
0.005
Ni
0.005
Si
0.05
Total
0.3
1.7
to
2.3
0.05
0.005
0.005
0.05
0.3
0.75
to
1.25
0.05
0.005
0.005
0.05
0.3
2
to
3.1
Zr
0.45
to
1
2.5
to
4
0.3
Notes:
a. The filler metal shall be analyzed for the specific elements for which values are shown in this table. If the presence of other
elements is indicated in the course of this work, the amount of those elements shall be determined to ensure that they do not
exceed the limits specified for "Other Elements, Total".
b. Single values are maximum, except where otherwise specified.
SAE/ASTM Unified Numbering System for Metals and Alloys.
Table 9-8 —Copper filler metal classification (AWS A5.7).
Composition, weight percentagea,b,c
AWS
UNS
d
Common
Name
Cu
Ni
Total
Including
Including
other
Classification
Number
ERCu
C18980
Copper
98 min
Ag
ERCuSi-A
C6S600
Silicon bronze
Remainder
ERCuSn-A
C51800
(copper-silicon)
Phosphor
bronze
ERCuNi'
C71580
Copper-nickel
Zn
1
Sn
Mn
1
0.5
1
1.5
Fe
Si
0.5
ERCuA1-A2
ERCuA1-A3
ERCuNiA1
ERCuMnN1A1
C61000
C61800
Aluminum
bronze
C62400
AlumInum
bronze
C63280
Nickelaluminum
C63380
bronze
Manganesenickel
aluminum
bronze
NAVEDTRA 14250A
A1
Pb
0.01
0.02
0.5
0.01
0.02
0.5
0.01
0.02
0.5
2.8
Remainder
4
0.1
6
Remainder
Ti
elements
0.35
1
0.4
0.25
0.75
ERCuA1-A1
P
0.15
4
(copper-tin)
AlumInum
bronze
Co
0.5
29
0.02
0.02
32
0.2
0.5
to
0.5
Remainder
0.2
0.5
0.1
6
0.02
0.5
0.02
0.5
0.02
0.5
8.5
Remainder
0.02
1.5
0.1
8.5
11.0
Remainder
0.1
2
0.1
10
4.5
Remainder
Remainder
0.1
0.15
0.6
3
3.5
5
11
2
14
4
11.5
0.1
0.1
4
8.5
5.5
9.5
1.5
7
3
8.5
0.02
0.5
0.02
0.5
9-33
Table 9-9 — Chemical compositions of bare stainless steel filler wire and rods
(AWS A5.9).
Composition, Wt% a,b
AWS
Classification
UNS
Number
C
Cr
Ni
Mo
Mn
Si
P
S
N
Cu
Element
Amount
ER209
S20980
0.05
20.5-24.0
9.5-12.0
1.5-3.0
4.0-7.0
0.9
.03
.03
.10-.30
.75
V
0.10-0.30
ER218
S21880
0.1
16.0-18.0
8.0-9.0
0.75
7.0-9.0
3.5-4.5
.03
.03
.08-.18
.75
ER219
S521980
0.05
19.0-21.5
5.5-7.0
0.75
8.0-10.0
1
.03
.03
.10-.30
.75
ER240
S24080
0.05
17.0-19.0
4.0-6.0
0.75
10.5-13.5
1
.03
.03
.10-.30
.75
ER307
S30780
.04-.14
19.5-22.0
8.0-10.7
0.5-1.5
3.3-4.75
.30-.65
.03
.03
.75
ER308
S30880
0.08
19.5-22.0
9.0-11.0
0.75
1.0-2.5
.30-.65
.03
.03
.75
ER308H
S30880
.04-.08
19.5-22.0
9.0-11.0
0.5
1.0-2.5
.30-.65
.03
.03
.75
ER308L
S30883
0.03
19.5-22.0
9.0-11.0
0.75
1.0-2.5
.30-.65
.03
.03
.75
ER308Mo
S30882
0.08
IS.0-21.0
9.0-12.0
2.0-3.0
1.0-2.5
.30-.65
.03
.03
.75
ER308LMo
S30886
0.04
IS.0-21.0
9.0-12.0
2.0-3.0
1.0-25
.30-.65
.03
.03
.75
ER308Si
S30881
0.08
19.5-22.0
9.0-11.0
0.75
1.0-2.5
.65-1.00
.03
.03
.75
ER308LSi
S30888
0.03
19.5-22.0
9.0-11.0
0.75
1.0-2.S
.65-1.00
.03
.03
.75
ER309
S30980
0.12
23.0-25.0
12.0-14.0
0.75
1.0-25
.30-.65
0.G3
.03
.75
ER309L
S30983
0.03
23.0-25.0
12.0-14.0
0.75
1.0-25
.30-.65
.03
.03
.75
ER309Mo
S30982
0.12
23.0-25.0
12.0-14.0
2.0-3.0
1.0-2.5
.30-.65
.03
.03
.75
ER309LMo
S30986
0.03
23.0-25.0
12.0-14.0
2.0-3.0
1.0-25
.30-.65
.03
.03
.75
ER309Si
S30981
0.12
23.0-25.0
12.0-14.0
0.75
1.0-2.5
.65-1.00
.03
.03
.75
ER309LSi
S30988
0.03
23.0-25.0
12.0-14.0
0.75
1.0-2.5
.65-1.00
.03
.03
.75
ER310
S31080
.08-.15
25.0-28.0
20.0-22.5
0.75
1.0-2.5
.30-.65
.03
.03
.75
ER312
S31380
0.15
28.0-32.0
8.0-10.5
0.75
1.0-2.5
.30-.65
.03
.03
.75
ER316
S31680
0.08
18.0-20.0
11.0-14.0
2.0-3.0
1.0-2.5
.30-.65
.03
.03
.75
ER316H
S31680
.04-.08
18.0-20.0
11.0-14.0
2.0-3.0
1.0-2.5
.30-.65
.03
.03
.75
ER316L
S31683
0.03
18.0-20.0
11.0-14.0
2.0-3.0
1.0-25
.30-.65
.03
.03
.75
ER316Si
S31681
0.08
18.0-20.0
11.0-14.0
2.0-3.0
1.0-2.5
.65-1.00
.03
.03
.75
ER316LSi
S31688
0.03
18.0-20.0
11.0-14.0
2.0-3.0
1.0-25
.65-1.00
.03
.03
.75
ER317
S31780
0.08
18.5-20.5
13.0-15.0
3.0-4.0
1.0-2.5
.30-.65
.03
.03
.75
ER317L
S31783
0.03
18.5-20.5
13.0-15.0
3.0-4.0
1.0-2.5
.30-.65
.03
.03
.75
ER318
S31980
0.08
18.0-20.0
11.0-14.0
2.0-3.0
1.0-2.5
.30-.65
.03
.03
.75
Cb'
8XC min/1.0 max
ER320
N08021
0.07
19.0-21.0
32.0-36.0
2.0-3.0
25
0.6
.03
.03
3.0-4.0
Cb'
ER320LR
N08022
0.025
19.0-21.0
32.0-36.0
2.0-3.0
1.5-2.0
0.15
.02
.02
3.0-4.0
Cb'
8XC min/1.0 max
8XC min/0.40
max
ER321
S32180
0.08
18.5-20.5
9.0-10.5
0.75
1.0-2.5
.30-.65
.03
.03
.75
Ti
9XC min/1.0 max
ER330
N08331
.18-.25
15.0-17.0
34.0-37.0
0.75
1.0-2.5
.30-.65
.03
.03
.75
BR347
S34780
0.08
19.0-21.5
9.0-11.0
0.75
1.0-2.5
.30-.65
.03
.03
.75
Cb'
ER347Si
S34788
0.08
19.0-21.5
9.0-11.0
0.75
1.0-2.5
.65-1.00
.03
.03
.75
Cb'
ER383
Noso28
0.025
26.5-28.5
30.0-33.0
3.2-4.2
1.0-25
0.5
.02
.03
.70-1.5
ER385
N08904
0.025
19.5-21.5
24.0-26.0
4.2-5.2
1.0-25
0.5
.02
.03
1.2-2.0
ER409
S40900
0.08
10.5-13.5
0.6
0.5
0.8
0.8
.03
.03
.75
Ti
ER409Cb
S40940
0.08
10.5-13.5
0.6
0.5
0.8
1
.04
.03
.75
Cb'
10XC min/1.0
max
10XC min/0.75
max
ER410
S41080
0.12
11.5-13.5
0.6
0.75
0.6
0.5
.03
.03
.75
ER410NiMo
S41086
0.06
11.0-12.5
4.0-5.0
0.4-0.7
0.6
0.5
.03
.03
.75
ER420
S42080
.25-.40
12.0-14.0
0.6
0.75
0.6
0.5
.03
.03
.75
10XC min/1.0
max
10XC min/1.0
max
ER430
S43080
0.1
15.5-17.0
0.6
0.75
0.6
0.5
.03
.03
ER446LMo
S44687
0.015
25.0-27.5
f
.75-1.50
0.4
0.4
.02
.02
.75
ER502'
SS0280
0.1
4.6-6.0
0.6
.45-0.65
0.6
0.5
.03
.03
.75
ER505'
S50480
0.1
0.5
0.8-1.2
0.6
0.5
.03
.03
.75
ER630
S17480
0.05
8.0-10.5
16.016.75
4.5-5.0
0.75
0.25-0.75
0.75
.03
.03
3.25-4.00
Cb'
0.15-0.30
ER19-10H
S30480
.04-.08
18.5-20.0
9.0-11.0
0.25
1.0-2.0
.30-.65
.03
.03
.75
Cb'
0.05
Ti
0.05
Co
16.0-21.0
W
2.0-3.5
0.015
f
ER16-8-2
S16880
0.1
14.5-16.5
7.5-9.5
1.0-2.0
1.0-2.0
.30-.65
.03
.03
.75
ER2209
S39209
0.03
21.5-23.5
7.5-9.5
2.5-3.5
0.50-2.0
0.9
.03
.03
.08-.20
.75
ER2553
S39553
0.04
24.0-27.0
4.5-6.5
2.9-3.9
1.5
1
.04
.03
.10-.25
1.5-2.5
ER3556
R305S6
.05-.15
21.0-23.0
19.0-22.5
2.5-4.0
0.50-2.00
.20-.80
.04
.02
.10-.30
Notes:
a. Analysis shaIl be made for the elements for which specific values are shown in this table. If the presence of
other elements is indicated in the course of this work, the amount of those elements shall be determined to
ensure that their total, excluding iron, does not exceed 0.50 percent.
b. Single values shown are maximum percentages.
In the designator for composite, stranded, and strip electrodes, the "R" shall be deleted. A designator "C" shall
be used for composite and stranded electrodes and a designator ''Q" shall be used for strip electrodes. For
example, ERXXX designates a solid wire, and EQXXX designates a strip electrode of the same general
analysis, and the same UNS number. However, ECXXX designates a composite metal
NAVEDTRA 14250A
Cb
0.3
Ta
0.30-1.25
A1
0.10-0.50
Zr
0.001-.10
La
0.005-.10
B
0.02
9-34
Table 9-10 — Chemical compositions of filler wire and rods used for welding
nickel and nickel alloys (AWS A5.14).
Weight percent
AWS
Classification
ERNi-1
UNS
Number
N02061
C
0.15
Mn
1.0
Fe
1.0
P
0.03
S
0.015
Si
0.75
Cu
0.25
Nid
93.0
min
ERNieu-7
N04060
0.15
4.0
2.5
0.02
0.015
1.25
Rem
ERNier-1
N060X2
0.10
3.0
(un
0.015
0.50
0.50
ERNICrFe-5
N06062
0.0K
2.5
to
3.5
1.0
62.0
to
69
67.0
min
0.03
0.015
0.35
0.50
70.0
min
ERNICrFc-6
N07092
00K
0.03
0.015
0.35
'0.50
67.0
mIn
ERNiFcCr-1
N08065
0.05
2.0
to
2.7
1.0
6.0
to
10
80
22.0
min.
003
0.03
0.50
ERNiFeCr-2g
N07715
0.05
0.35
Rem
0.015
0.015
0.35
1.50
to
3
0.30
ERNiMo-1
N1000I
0.05
1.0
0.025
0.03
1.0
0.50
2.5
ERNiMo-2
N10003
1.0
0.015
0.02
1.0
0.50
Rem
0.20
ERNiMo-3
N10004
0.04
to
0.08
0.12
4.0
to
7.0
5.0
35.0
to
46
50.0
to
55.0
Rem
0.04
0.03
1.0
0.50
Rem
2.5
ERNiMo-7
NI0665
0.02
1.0
4.0
to
7
2.0
0.04
0.03
0.10
0.50
Rem
1.0
ERNiCrMo-1
N06007
0.05
0.Q3
1.0
2.5
0.04
0.03
1.0
Rem
ERNiCrMo-3
N06625
0.05
to
0.15
0.10
1.5
to
2.5
0.50
Rem
N06002
0.50
I5.0
to
21.0
17.0
to
20.0
5.0
0.04
ERNiCrMo-2
1.0
to
2.0
1.0
0.02
0.015
0.50
0.50
58.0
min
0.50
to
2.5
ERNiCrMo-4
N10276
0.02
1.0
0.04
0.Q3
0.05
0.50
Rem
2.5
ERNiCrMo-7
N06455
0.015
1.0
4.0
to
7
3.0
0.04
0.03
0.05
0.50
Rem
2.0
ERNiCrMo-8
N06975
0.03
1.0
Rem
0.03
0.03
1.0
ERNiCrMo-9
N06955
0.015
1.0
0.04
0.03
1.0
47.0
to
52
Rem
5.0
ERNiCrMo-10
N06022
0.015
0.50
0.02
0.010
0.08
Rem
2.5
ERNiCrMo-1I
N06030
0.03
1.5
0.04
0.02
0.80
1.0
to
2.4
Rem
5.0
ERNiCrCoMo1
I8.0
to
21
2.0
to
6
13.0
to
17.0
0.7
to
1.2
1.5
to
2.5
0.50
N06617
0.05
to
0.15
1.0
3.0
0.03
0.DI5
1.0
0.50
Rem
10.0
to
15
1.0
Co
A1
1.5
1.25
e
Ti
2.0
to
3.5
1.5
to
3
0.75
e
0.20
0.20
to
0.80
2.5
to
3.5
0.60
to
1.2
0.65
to
1.15
Cr
Cb
plus
Ta
0.40
0:70
0.70
to
1.5
0.80
to
1.5
0.60
V
W
0.50
I8.0
to
22
14.0
to
17
14.0
to
17
19.5
to
23.5
17.0
to
21.0
1.0
2.0
to
3.0f
1.5
to
3f
4.75
to
5.50
6.0
to
8
4.0
to
6
1.0
0.40
Mo
Other
Elements
Total
0.50
21.0
to
23.5
20.5
to
23
20.0
to
23
14.5
to
16.5
14.0
to
18
23.0
to
26
21.0
to
23.5
20.0
to
22.5
28.0
to
31.5
20.0
to
24.0
1.75
to
2.5
3.15
to
4.15
0.50
0.30
to
1.5
0.50
0.50
0.50
2.5
to
3.5
2.80
to
3.30
26.0
to
30.0
15.0
to
18
23.0
to
26
26.0
to
30
5.5
to
7.5
8.0
to
10
8.0
to
10
15.0
to
17
14.0
to
18
5.0
to
7
6.0
to
8
12.5
to
14.5
4.0
to
6
0.50
0.50
0.20
to
0.40
0.50
1.0
0.50
0.50
0.50
0.60
1.0
0.50
1.0
0.50
1.0
0.50
0.20
to
1
0.50
3.0
to
4.5
0.50
0.50
0.35
0.50
0.50
0.50
0.35
1.5
0.50
2.5
to4.5
0.50
1.5
to
4
0.50
8.0
to
10
0.50
Notes:
a. The filler metal shall be analyzed for the specific elements for which values are shown in this table. In the course of this work. if the presence of
other elements is indicated. the amount of those elements shall be determined to ensure that their total does not exceed the limit specified for
"Other Elements. Total" in the last column of the table.
b. Single values are maximum, except where otherwise specified.
c. SAEIASTM Unified Numbering System for Metals and Alloys.
d. Includes incidental cobalt.
e. Cobalt-D.12 maximum, when specified.
f.
Tantalum-D.30 maximum, when specified.
g. Boron is 0.006 percent maximum.
NAVEDTRA 14250A
9-35
5.3.2 Sizing
Filler metals come either in straight cut lengths that are 36 inches (914mm) long for
manual welding or in continuous spooled wire for mechanized welding. The diameter of
the filler wire ranges from about .020 inches (.50mm) for delicate or fine work, to about
1/4 inch (6.4mm) for high current welding and surfacing.
5.4.0 Selection of Filler Metal
The type of base metal and the specific mechanical and chemical properties desired are
the major factors in determining the choice of a filler metal. You must be able to identify
the base metal to select the proper filler metal. If you do not know the base metal’s
composition, you need to test it based on appearance and weight with magnetic checks,
chisel tests, flame tests, fracture tests, spark tests, and chemistry tests.
The selection of the proper filler metal for specific job applications is quite involved, but
you should base it on the following factors:
1. Base metal strength properties — This is done by choosing a filler metal to match
the tensile strength of the base metal. This is usually most important with steel.
2. Base metal composition — The chemical composition of the base metal must be
known. Matching the chemical composition is not as important for mild steel as it
is for stainless steels and non-ferrous metals. Closely matching the filler metal to
the base metal is needed when corrosion resistance and color match are
important considerations.
3. Thickness and shape of base metal weldments — Thick sections or complex
shapes may require maximum ductility to avoid weld cracking. Filler metal types
that give best ductility should be used.
4. Service conditions and/or specifications — When weldments are subjected to
severe service conditions, such as low temperatures, high temperatures, or
shock loading, a filler metal that closely matches the base metal composition,
ductility, and impact resistance properties should be used.
Topic 7 Welding Metallurgy will provide more exact recommendations for choosing
filler metals.
5.5.0 Conformances
Filler metals must conform to written specifications for many applications of gas
tungsten arc welding. The three major code-making organizations that issue filler metal
specifications are the American Welding Society (AWS), the American Society for
Mechanical Engineers (ASME), and the military. The ASME recognizes the AWS
specifications or makes its own specifications. The filler wire must meet particular
requirements in order to conform to filler metal specifications.
Test your Knowledge (Select the Correct Response)
5.
What should be the purity rating of the shielding gas?
A.
B.
C.
D.
96.99%
97.99%
98.99%
99.99%
NAVEDTRA 14250A
9-36
6.
(True or False) SAE devised the filler metal classifications.
A.
B.
True
False
6.0.0 WELDING APPLICATIONS
Gas tungsten arc welding is widely used because of its versatility. When weld purity is
important, this process welds stainless steel, low alloy steel, maraging (mahr-ey-jing)
steel, nickel, cobalt, titanium, aluminum, copper, magnesium, and most other metals in
all positions and produces clean weld deposits. The clean weld deposits TIG produces
usually avoids the need of grinding and finishing, and all methods are usable: manual,
semiautomatic, mechanized, and fully automatic.
6.1.0 Industries
Welding pipe or nuclear power components are typical examples of the wide variety of
TIG applications. This process can also weld thin metals and small objects such as
transistor cases, instrument diaphragms, and other delicate parts.
6.1.1 Industrial Piping
Manual TIG is appropriate for
welding pipe and tubing in all
positions. The excellent control of
heat input gives maximum
penetration while preventing meltthrough on the root pass. Welders
use TIG in both the manual and
automatic methods to weld
industrial piping made of various
metals and thicknesses, from 1/32
inch (.8 mm) and up (Figure 9-22).
The maximum thickness welded
depends on the equipment
available and the type of metal. In
some critical welds with metal
thicknesses greater than 1/4-3/8
inch (6.4-9.5 mm), the root pass
of the pipe is deposited by TIG
and then completed with SMAW,
GMAW, or FCAW. Sometimes,
pipe welders will use consumable
inserts in critical service
Figure 9-22 — Industrial pipe welding.
applications. These inserts reduce
porosity when alloyed with
deoxidizers, improve the contour of the underside of the weld, and minimize cracking in
the weld. In thin pipe wall (depending on the base metal), complete fusion is obtainable
without using filler metal, but of course filler metals are used with thicker sections to fill
the joint.
NAVEDTRA 14250A
9-37
Thus, the different ways of depositing the first layer on a pipe or tube are the following:
1. Ends abutted and fused.
2. Ends abutted or slightly separated with filler metal added to the arc area.
3. Ends abutted against a filler ring and then completely fused.
If deep penetration with controlled heat input is necessary, then pulsed current may be
used.
Automatic circumferential or orbital TIG is another option to weld tube and pipe. The
programmed procedure can produce a quantity of identical welds with a high degree of
quality and efficiency. Industries with high quality control requirements and those that
demand accessibility to the joint use this method extensively.
Power piping, air piping, refrigeration piping, chemical industry process piping, and
nuclear power piping are some of the different industries that apply the gas tungsten arc
welding process for welding piping and tubing. Vacuum jacketed piping and pressure
piping are a couple cases where critical welding is required.
6.1.2 Nuclear Power Facilities
The construction and repair of nuclear power facilities requires critical welding. . Many
nuclear applications use both the manual and automatic methods because of their
precise control of the welding.
Gas tungsten arc welding performs the welding for end closure caps and plugs to fuel
rods, and the airtight sealing of the end closures on fuel rods.
This process is also a primary welding method for rod type fuel elements. It is used to
close a backfilling hole that was used to pressure the fuel rods after welding the end
closures.
6.1.3 Ships
TIG applies also to the shipbuilding industry because it uses different materials like
aluminum, stainless steel, and molybdenum.
On hydrofoils, which are primarily made of aluminum, light gauge material and root
passes of heavier sections are welded by this process, with GMAW usually completing
the weld on the heavier sections. Stainless steel hydrofoils and struts are virtually all
welded by the TIG process. Liquefied natural gas (LNG) tanks have a stainless steel
liner inside the vessel that is completely TIG welded.
6.1.4 Aerospace
The gas tungsten arc welding process is the major welding process used in the
aerospace industry. This industry includes the welding of aircraft, spacecraft, and
launch vehicles. Some of the materials welded include aluminum, titanium, low alloy
steel, maraging steel, magnesium, nickel, stainless steel, and super alloys in both the
manual and automatic methods.
In the aircraft industry, examples of the many different welded parts and assemblies
include the fuselage, wing and tail assemblies, landing wheels, engine parts, engine
motor cases, and conventional aircraft assemblies such as ducts, fittings, accumulators,
check valves, exhaust mufflers, and fairing and cowling components.
Launch vehicles and spacecraft are other major applications of the TIG process. Most
aluminum tank fabricators use TIG for the critical pressure vessel butt welds. Titanium
NAVEDTRA 14250A
9-38
alloys used in the liquid propellant tanks, high pressure gas storage tanks, and solid
rocket motor cases are almost exclusively TIG welded.
From landing gears and re-entry capsules, to large diameter rocket booster cases made
of high strength, high carbon, low alloy steel, with thicknesses ranging 0.04-2.0 inches
(1.0-5.1 mm), all are welded by this process.
Maraging steels used to make solid rocket motor chambers are fabricated reliably using
TIG, but additional sufficient inert gas shielding must protect the face and root of the
weld from oxidation. Often, manufacturers accomplish this by welding within inert gas
chambers or by using a backing gas to protect the root of the joint and a trailing gas to
protect the cooling weld metal behind the torch.
6.1.5 Transportation
The automotive and railroad
industries only use TIG to a small
extent, mainly for welding nonferrous metals, for maintenance,
and for small components.
Fabrication of aluminum
radiators 3/32-1/8 inch (2.4-3.2
mm) thick is one application
these industries (Figure 9-23).
In the railroad industry, several of
the interior components made of
aluminum, Monel, stainless steel,
and copper are sometimes
welded by this process, and
there are some maintenance and
repair of passenger trains with
TIG.
6.1.6 Pressure Vessels,
Boilers, and Heat
Exchangers
Figure 9-23 — TIG on aluminum radiator.
Gas tungsten arc welding has wide applications in the pipe and tube industry for
welding pressure vessels, boilers, and heat exchangers. This industry uses it for full
fusion welding from one side without the use of permanent backing rings, and on girth
butt welds with a smooth internal contour. By choosing the correct filler metal and
welding conditions, you can obtain adequate mechanical strength and corrosion
resistance for a particular service. Virtually all tube-to-tube sheet welding of heat
exchangers is done by the automatic method.
NAVEDTRA 14250A
9-39
6.1.7 Maintenance and Repair
TIG can provide maintenance
and repair by both the manual
and automatic methods. Several
industries use this process
because its versatility and
weldability permit quality welding
for various applications.
The TIG process repairs cast
aluminum engine blocks and
heads. The area of a defect is
puddle melted, scraped out with a
steel rod, and finally filled. This
process also repairs stainless
valves and copper heat-sealing
dies for heat exchangers.
Repairing the part instead of
buying a new one saves money
and time.
There are many other possible
applications for gas tungsten arc
welding in maintenance and
repair.
Figure 9-24 — Repair of a roll bar.
6.1.8 Miscellaneous
There are numerous general applications for TIG throughout industry.
The TIG process welds all the
following:
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
stainless aeration parts for
pollution control
equipment
thin steel brackets on lift
trucks
low alloy steel stop rings
to the accumulator on
shock absorbers
small-sized pressure
sensing cells
stainless steel jackets
around the coil of
superconducting magnets
stainless steel adapter
bushings to stainless steel
bulbs for self- actuated
thermostatic regulators
aluminum frame for
elevating platforms
hospital equipment
NAVEDTRA 14250A
Figure 9-25 — TIG welding of a brace.
9-40
•
•
•
•
•
•
mixers
vats
tanks
freezers
coolers
cold rooms made from stainless steel
Welders often use TIG for a wide variety of applications where the parts are made out of
non-ferrous metals, and there are other applications too numerous to discuss in this
course.
6.2.0 Arc Spot Welding
Obtained through the melting and fusion of the metal joint, gas tungsten arc spot
welding is a method used for making small localized fusion welds from one side of a lap
joint. Welding thick metals tends to cause depressions and surface cracking in the
center of the weld, so gas
tungsten arc spot welding is
limited to welding metal about 16
gauge (1 .5 mm) thick or less.
Operators may or may not add
filler metal depending on the
metal thickness and size of the
weld puddle. The equipment
used is similar to that used for
TIG except that TIG spot welding
uses a timing device and a
specially designed torch and
nozzle (Figure 9-26).
Primarily used on mild steel, low
alloy steel, stainless steel, and
aluminum, this method of spot
welding can replace resistance
spot welding and riveting for
many applications, including
garage doors, radar cabins,
electrical fittings, cable sheaths,
and domestic hardware.
Figure 9-26 — Gas tungsten arc spot
welding torch.
The advantages of this process
are the high production rates and low costs obtained; the cost of the equipment is low
compared to resistance welding equipment. In addition, when the equipment for gas
tungsten arc spot welding uses the proper settings, visual inspection is more reliable
than when resistance spot welding is done.
NAVEDTRA 14250A
9-41
Test your Knowledge (Select the Correct Response)
7.
What industry uses TIG almost exclusively?
A.
B.
C.
D.
8
Transportation
Aerospace
Ships
Nuclear power facilities
What is the maximum metal thickness limitation on TIG spot welding?
A.
B.
C.
D.
10 gauge
14 gauge
16 gauge
20 gauge
7.0.0 WELDING METALLURGY
Knowing the basics of welding metallurgy will provide a firm foundation for
understanding the chemical and physical changes that occur on metal when using the
TIG process.
7.1.0 Properties of the Weld
The properties of the weld are items such as the chemical composition, the mechanical
strength and ductility, and the microstructure. These items will determine the quality of
the weld. The types of materials used affect the chemical properties. The mechanical
properties and microstructure of the weld are determined by the heat input of welding as
well as the chemical composition of the materials.
7.1.1 Chemical Properties
The chemical and physical properties such as the chemical composition, melting point,
and thermal conductivity have a great influence on the weldability. These three items
have an influence on the amount of preheating and postheating used, as well as the
welding parameters, because preheating and postheating are used to prevent the area
from becoming brittle and weak.
In the welding of steel, the carbon and other alloy content influence the hardness and
hardenability of the weld metal, which in turn influences the amount of preheat needed.
The two terms, hardness and hardenability, are not the same. The maximum hardness
of a steel is the resistance to indentation. Hardenability is a measure of how easily a
martensite structure forms when the steel is quenched.
Martensite is the phase or metallurgical structure in steel where the maximum hardness
of the steel can be obtained. Steels with low hardenability must have very high cooling
rates after welding to form martensite. Steels with high hardenability will form martensite
even when they are slow-cooled in air. The hardenability will determine to what extent a
steel will harden during welding. The carbon equivalent formula is one of the best
methods of determining the weldability of steels. This value is determined by the
amounts of some of the alloying elements used. There are several different formulas
used. One of these is:
NAVEDTRA 14250A
9-42
Steels with lower carbon equivalents generally are readily weldable and require fewer
precautions such as the use of preheat and postheat.
Steels with higher carbon equivalents are usually more difficult to weld. In the welding of
many of the steels, matching the chemical composition of the filler metal to the base
metal is not as important as matching the mechanical properties. Often, filler metal with
a lower carbon content than the base metal is used because the weld metal absorbs
carbon from the base metal during solidification. The carbon content is kept low to
minimize the tendency toward weld cracking. Alloys are used in the filler metal to
maintain weld strength. In the welding of stainless steels and non-ferrous metals, the
chemical composition of the weld is often the most important property. The chemical
composition of the weld must match the composition of the base metal when corrosion
resistance, thermal and electrical conductivity, and appearance are major
considerations.
Preheating helps reduce the cooling rate of the weld to prevent cracking. The amount of
preheat needed depends on the type of metal being welded, the metal thickness, and
the amount of joint restraint. In steels, those with higher carbon equivalents generally
need more preheating than those with lower carbon equivalents. For the non-ferrous
metals, this will often depend on the melting points and thermal conductivity of the
metal. Table 9-11 shows typical preheat values for various metals welded by this
process.
Another major factor that also determines the amount of preheat needed is the
thickness of the base metal. Thicker base metals usually need higher preheat
temperatures than thinner base metals because of the larger heat sinks that thicker
metals provide. Thick metal draws the heat away from the welding zone quicker
because there is a large mass of metal to absorb the heat. It would increase the cooling
rate of the weld if the same preheat temperature were used on thick base metals as is
used on thinner base metals.
The third major factor for determining the amount of preheating needed is the amount of
joint restraint. Joint restraint is the resistance of a joint configuration to moving or
relieving the stresses due to welding during the heating and cooling of the weld zone.
Where there is high resistance to moving or high joint restraint, large amounts of
internal stress build up, and higher preheat temperatures are needed as the amount of
joint restraint increases. Slower cooling rates reduce the amount of internal stress that
build up as the weld cools.
The melting point of the base metal is a major consideration in determining the
weldability of a metal. Metals with very low melting points are difficult to weld because
the intense heat of the welding arc will melt them too quickly to join them easily. These
metals must be brazed because welding is not practical.
Another property that affects the weldability is the thermal conductivity. The thermal
conductivity is the rate at which heat is conducted by the metal, and it determines the
rate at which heat will leave the welding area. Metals that have a high thermal
conductivity often require higher preheats and welding currents to avoid cracking.
Metals that have very low thermal conductivity may require no preheat and lower
welding currents to prevent overheating an area, which can cause distortion, warpage,
and changes in mechanical properties.
NAVEDTRA 14250A
9-43
Table 9-11 — Preheats for various metals.
Type of Steel
Preheat
Low-Carbon Steel
Room Temperature or up to 200°F (93°C)
Medium-Carbon Steel
400-500°F (205-260°C)
High-Carbon Steel
500-600°F (260-315°C)
Low Alloy Nickel Steel
-Less than ¼’ (6.4 mm) thick
Room Temperature
-More than ¼’ (6.4 mm) thick
500°F (260°C)
Low Alloy Nickel-Chrome Steel
-Carbon content below .20%
200-300°F (93-150°C)
-Carbon content .20% to .35%
600-800°F (315-425°C)
-Carbon content above .35%
900-1100°F (480-595°C)
Low Alloy Manganese Steel
400-600°F (205-315°C)
Low Alloy Chrome Steel
Up to 750°F (400°C)
Low Alloy Molybdenum Steel
-Carbon content below .150%
Room Temperature
-Carbon content above .15%
400-650°F (205-345°C)
Low Alloy High Tensile Steel
150-300°F (66-150°C)
Austenitic Stainless Steel
Room Temperature
Ferritic Stainless Steel
150-500°F (66-260°C)
Martensitic Stainless Steel
150-300°F (66-150°C)
Cast Irons
700-900°F (370-480°C)
Copper
500-800°F (260-425°C)
Nickel
200-300°F (93-150°C)
Aluminum
Note:
Room Temperature 300°F (150°C)
The actual preheat needed may depend on several other factors such as the thickness of the base metal,
the amount of joint restraint, and whether or not low-hydrogen types of electrodes are used. This chart is
intended as general information; the specifications of the job should be checked for the specific preheat
temperature used.
7.1.2 Mechanical Properties
The mechanical properties that are most important in the weld are the tensile strength,
yield strength, elongation, reduction of area, and impact strength. The first two are
measures of the strength of the material, the next two are a measure of the ductility, and
the last is a measure of the impact toughness. These properties are important in gas
tungsten arc welding, especially for welding steel and the non-ferrous alloys that have
been developed to give maximum strength, ductility, and toughness.
NAVEDTRA 14250A
9-44
The yield strength, ultimate tensile strength, elongation, and reduction of area are all
measured from a .505 in. (12.B mm)
diameter machined testing bar. The metal is
tested by pulling it in a tensile testing
machine. Figure 9-27 shows a tensile bar
before and a tensile bar after testing. The
yield strength of the metal is the stress at
which the material is pulled beyond the point
where it will return to its original length. The
tensile strength is the maximum load that
can be carried by the metal. This is also
measured in psi (MPa). Elongation is a
measure of ductility that is also measured on
the tensile bar. Two points are marked on
the bar 2 in. (51 mm) apart before testing.
After testing, the distance between the two
points is measured again and the percent of
change in the distance between them, or
percent elongation, is measured.
Figure 9-27 — Tensile strength
testing bars.
Reduction of area is another method of
measuring ductility. The original area of the
cross section of the testing bar is .505 sq. in (104 sq. mm).
During the testing the diameter of the bar reduces as it elongates. When the bar finally
breaks, the diameter of the bar at the
breaking point is measured, which is then
used to determine the area. The percent
reduction of this cross-sectional area is
called the reduction of area.
Impact tests are used to measure the
toughness of a metal. The toughness of a
metal is the ability of a metal to absorb
mechanical energy by deforming before
breaking. The Charpy V-notch test is the
most commonly used method of making
impact toughness tests. Figure 9-28 shows
some typical Charpy V-notch test bars.
These bars are usually 10 mm square and
have v-shaped notches ground or machined
in them. They are put in a machine where
they are struck by a hammer attached to the
end of a pendulum. The energy that it takes
to break these bars is known as the impact
strength and it is measured in foot-pounds
(Joules).
Figure 9-28 — Charpy V-notch
bars.
7.1.3 Microstructure
There are three basic microstructural areas within a weldment. These are the weld
metal, the heat affected zone, and the base metal. The weld metal is the area that was
molten during welding. This is bounded by the fusion line which is the maximum limit of
melting. The heat affected zone is the area where the heat from welding had an effect
NAVEDTRA 14250A
9-45
on the microstructure of the base metal. The
limit of visible heat affect is the outer limit of
this area. The base metal zone is the area
that was not affected by the welding. Figure
9-29 shows a cross section of a weld
showing the different areas.
The extent of change of the microstructure is
dependent on four factors:
1. The maximum temperature that the
weld metal reached.
2. The time that the weld spent at that
temperature.
3. The chemical composition of the base
metal.
4. The cooling rate of the weld.
Figure 9-29 — Cross section of a
weld.
The weld metal zone, which is the area that
is melted, generally has the coarsest grain
structure of the three areas. Generally, a
fairly fine grain size is produced in most
metals on cooling, but in some metals,
especially refractory metals, rapid grain
growth in the weld metal can become a
problem.
Large grain size is undesirable because it
gives the weld poor toughness and poor
cracking resistance. The solidification of the
weld metal starts at the edge of the weld
puddle next to the base metal. The grains
that form at the edge, called dendrites, grow
toward the molten center of the weld. Figure
9-30 shows the solidification pattern of a
weld. These dendrites give the weld metal its
characteristic columnar grain structure. The
grains that form in the weld zone are similar
to the grains that form in castings.
Figure 9-30 — Solidification
pattern of a weld.
Deoxidizers and scavengers are often added
to filler metal to help refine the grain size in
the weld. The greater the heat input to the
weld and the longer that it is held at high temperatures, the larger the grain size. A fast
cooling rate will produce a smaller grain size than a slower cooling rate. Preheating will
give larger grain sizes, but is often necessary to prevent the formation of a hard, brittle
microstructure.
The heat affected zone is the area where changes occur in the microstructure of the
base metal; the area that is closest to the weld metal usually undergoes grain growth.
Other parts of the heat affected zone will go through grain refinement, while still other
areas may be annealed and considerably softened. Because of the changes due to the
heat input, areas of the heat affected zone can become embrittled and become the
source of cracking. A large heat input during welding will cause a larger heat affected
NAVEDTRA 14250A
9-46
zone, which is often not desirable, so the welding parameters used can help influence
the size of the heat affected zone.
7.2.0 Weldable Metals
TIG is used to weld most metals and their alloys. Some of the most common metals
welded by this process are aluminum, copper, magnesium, nickel, mild steel, low alloy
steel, titanium, zirconium, and the refractory metals. Lead and zinc are difficult to weld
because of their low melting points and tendency to contaminate the tungsten electrode,
but TIG is widely used for welding lead.
7.2.1 Aluminum and Aluminum Alloys
The gas tungsten arc welding process is one of the most widely used processes for
welding aluminum and its alloys. The major alloying elements used in aluminum are
copper, manganese, silicon, magnesium, and zinc. Table 9-12 shows how aluminum
alloys are classified according to their alloy content.
Aluminum alloys are also classified into heat treatable and non-heat treatable
categories. Alloys of the 2XXX, 6XXX and 7XXX series are heat treatable. Alloys of the
1 XXX, 3XXX, 4XXX, and 5XXX series are non-heat treatable, so they derive their
strength from working.
Table 9-12 — Aluminum Alloy Classifications.
Aluminum Classification
Major Alloying Element
1XXX
Commercially pure
2XXX
Copper
3XXX
Manganese
4XXX
Silicon
5XXX
Magnesium
6XXX
Silicon + Magnesium
7XXX
Zinc
8XXX
Other
Generally, you would use TIG to weld the thinner materials, with manual welding done
on thicknesses ranging from .030 inch (1 mm) to 3/8 inch (9.5 mm), and automatic
welding performed on metal ranging in thickness from .01 0 inch (.25 mm) to 1 inch
(25.4 mm). You can use either alternating current or direct current welding power, but
alternating current is the most popular for almost all manual and automatic welding
applications.
Direct current electrode positive is used only for some very thin metal applications.
Direct current electrode negative is used sometimes for high current automatic welding
applications.
Pure or zirconium tungsten electrodes are the most commonly used types for aluminum.
The thoriated tungsten electrodes have a tendency to spit and cause inclusions when
NAVEDTRA 14250A
9-47
used with alternating current, and are not very popular for welding aluminum. Argon
shielding gas is normally used, but argon-helium mixtures are used sometimes to give
deeper penetration and allow faster travel speeds. When direct current electrode
negative is used, mixtures of argon and helium are preferred.
Depending upon the joint and the application, you may or may not use a filler metal;
often, thin metal is welded without a filler metal. The filler metal used for welding
aluminum is generally of the non-heat treatable type. Consequently, when welding
some of the higher strength heat treatable alloys, the weld deposit will be weaker than
the base metal.
Choosing the type of filler metal to use for welding a specific aluminum alloy is based on
ease of welding, corrosion resistance, strength, ductility, elevated temperature service,
and color match with the base metal after welding. You should not use aluminum filler
metal with magnesium contents greater than 3% at service temperatures greater than
1500 F because they become sensitive to stress corrosion cracking. Table 9-13 shows
a filler metal selection chart based on the specific properties desired. Table 9-14 shows
a filler metal selection chart for welding different aluminums together.
The oxide layer on the surface of the aluminum is what makes aluminum more difficult
to weld than many other metals. This oxide layer has a very high melting point
compared to the melting temperature of the aluminum itself. Direct current electrode
positive gives the welding arc an oxide-cleaning action which breaks the oxide layer so
that welding can take place. This type of current can be used only at very low current
levels because the heat buildup on the tungsten electrode can cause it to melt. Direct
current electrode negative can be used at high current levels, but it has difficulty
removing the oxide layer. For these reasons, alternating current is the most popular for
the welding of aluminum.
During the electrode positive portion of the cycle, the oxide layer is broken down, and
during the electrode negative portion of the cycle, penetration is obtained. Alternating
current prevents the electrode from overheating and permits the use of enough welding
current to give good penetration. Remove the oxide chemically or mechanically before
welding.
NAVEDTRA 14250A
9-48
Table 9-13 — Aluminum Filler Metal Selection Based on Properties.
Property Desired
Type of
base metal
Strength Ductility
Color match after
anodizing
Corrosion
resistance
Least cracking
tendency
1100
4043
1100
1100
1100
4043
2219
2319
2319
2319
2319
2319
3003
4043
1100
1100
1100
4043
5052
5356
5654
5356
5554
5356
5083
5183
5356
5183
5193
5356
5086
5356
5356
5356
5356
5356
5454
5356
5554
5554
5554
5356
5456
5556
5356
5556
5556
5356
6061
5356
5356
5654
4043
4043
6063
5356
5356
5356
4043
4043
7005
5039
5356
5036
5039
5356
7039
5039
5356
5039
5039
5356
A preheat is used on aluminum only when the temperature of the parts is below 15° F (10° C), or when a large mass of metal is being welded, which will draw the heat away
very quickly. Aluminum has high thermal conductivity, so heat is drawn away from the
welding area. Because aluminum has a relatively low melting point and a high thermal
conductivity, overheating can be a problem, especially on thin metal, so preheating is
seldom used. The maximum preheat normally used on aluminum is 300° F (150° C). It
is usually preferable to increase the voltage and current levels to obtain adequate heat
input rather than use preheating. However, a preheat of 200-300° F (93-15° C) is used
often when using alternating current on metal thicknesses greater than 3/16 inch (4.8
mm). Some alloys such as 5083, 5086, and 5456 should not be preheated to between
200 and 300° F (95-150° C) because their resistance to stress corrosion cracking will be
reduced due to high magnesium contents.
NAVEDTRA 14250A
9-49
Table 9-14 — Aluminum filler metal selection chart.
511.0
Base Metal
1060,1070,1080,135
0
224.0
C355.0
A444.0
535.0
712.0
6070
6005,
6061
6063,
6061
6151,
6201
6351,
6951
ER4145
ER4145
ER4043ab
ER5356cd
ER5356cd
ER4043ab
ER4043ab
1100,3003, A1c 3003
2014, 2036
2219
ER4145
ER4145e
ER2319a
ER4145
ER4145'
ER4145e
ER4043ab
ER4145
ER4145bc
ER5356cd
ER5356cd
ER4043
ER4043
ER4043ab
ER4145
ER4043ab
ER4043b
ER4043b
ER4043b
ER4043b
ER4043b
ER4043f
ER5356cd
ER5356cd
ER4043f
ER4043f
ER5356cd
ER5356f
ER5356f
ER5356f
ER5356d
ER5356d
ER5356f
ER5356f
ER5356d
ER5356f
ER5356f
ER5356f
ER5183d
ER5356d
ER5356f
ER5356f
ER5556d
ER4043ab
ER4145
ER4043ab
ER4043b.
1
ER4043bf
ER5356cJ
ER5356d
ER5356d
ER53561
ER5356cf
ER5356d
ER4043bf
g
ER4043bf
g
ER4043bf
g
201.0
206.0
3004, A1c 3004
5005, 5050
5052, 5652i
5083
5086
5154, 5254i
5454
5456
319.0,
333.0
354.0,
355.0
356.0,
A356.0
357.0,
357.0
413.0,
443.0
ER4043b
512.0
514.0
7004,
7005
7039,
710.0
513.0
6005, 6061, 6063
ER4145
ER4145bc
ER4043bJg
ER5356f
ER5356cJ
6101, 6151, 6201
ER4145
ER4145bc
ER4043bJg
ER5356f
ER5356cJ
6351, 6951
ER4145
ER4145bc
ER4043bJg
ER5356f
ER5356cJ
6009, 6010, 6070
7004, 7005, 7039
710.0, 712.0
511.0, 512.0, 513.0
514.0, 535.0
356.0, A3560, 357.0
357.0, 413.0
443.0
ER4145
ER4145bc
ER4043b
ER4043b
ER4043
ER5356'
ER5356'
ER5356f
ER5356f
ER4043
ER5356d
ER5356d
ER4145
ER4145
ER4145
319.0, 333.0
ER4145e
354.0, 355.0
ER4145e
C355.0
ER4145e
ER2319a
h
ER4145bc
ER4145bc
ER4145bc
ER4145bc
h
ER4145bc
h
ER4145bc
h
ER4043abg
ER4043bJ
ER4043bJ
ER4043f
ER4043f
ER4043bh
ER4043bh
ER4043bh
201.0, 206.0, 224.0
Base Metal
1060, 1070, 1080,
1350
1100, 3003,
A1c.3003
2014, 2036
2219
3004, A1c.3004
5005, 5050
5052, 5652'
5083
5086
5154, 5254'
Notes:
1.
2.
3.
a.
b.
c.
d.
e.
f.
g.
5154
5254i
5086
5083
ER5356cd
ER5356d
ER5356d
ER5356cd
ER5356d
ER5356d
ER4043
ER5356f
ER5356f
ER53561
ER5356d
ER5356d
ER5654fi
ER5356d
ER5356d
ER5356d
ER5356d
ER5356d
ER5356d
ER5356d
ER5356d
ER5183d
5052
5652'
ER4043b
d
ER4043b
d
ER4043b
ER5356cJ
ER5356cd
ER5654cf
6009
6010
ER4043b
ER4043b
ER4043b
ER4043b
ER4043ab
g
ER4043ab
g
ER4043ab
g
ER4043ab
g
5456
ER5356c
d
ER5356c
d
5454
ER4043a
b
ER4043a
b
ER4043b
ER5356d
ER5356d
ER5356f
ER5183d
ER5356d
ER5356f
ER5356f
ER5556d
ER5356f
ER5356f
ER5356f
ER5356d
ER5356d
ER5356f
ER5554cf
5005
5050
3004
A1c.3004
2219
2014
2036
1100
3003
A1c.3003
ER1100bc
ER4043bd
ER4145bc
ER4145
ER1100bc
ER1100bc
ER4145
ER4043a
b
ER5356cf
ER5356cJ
ER4043bd
ER4145
ER4145bc
ER4145e
ER4145
ER4145e
ER1100bc
ER4043ab
ER5356cf
ER2319a
1060
1070
1080
1350
ER1188bch
j
Service conditions such as immersion in fresh or salt water, exposure to specific chemicals. or a sustained high temperature {over 150°F (66°C)) may limit the choice of
filler metals. Filler metals ER5183, ER5356, ER5556, and ER5654 are not recommended for sustained elevated temperature service,
Recommendations in this table apply to gas shielded arc welding processes. For oxy-fuel gas welding, only ER 1188, ERll00, ER4043, ER4047, and ER4145 filler
metals are ordinarily used.
Where no filler metal is listed. the base metal combination is not recommended for welding.
ER4145 may be used for some applications.
ER4047 may be used for some applications.
ER4043 may be used for some applications,
ER5183, ER5356, or ER5556 may be used.
ER2319 may be used for some applications. It can supply high strength when the weldment is postweld solution heat treated and aged.
ER5183, ER5356, ER5554, ER5556, and ER5654 may be used. In some cases, they provide; (1) improved color match after anodizing treatment, (2) highest weld
ductility, and (3) higher weld strength. ER5554 is suitable for sustained elevated temperature service.
ER4643 will provide high strength in 1/2 in. (12 mm) and thicker groove welds in 6XXX base alloys when postweld solution heat treated and aged.
h.
Filler metal with the same analysis as the base metal is sometimes used. The following wrought filler metals possess the same chemical composition limits as cast filler
alloys: ER4009 and R4009 as R-C355.0; ER40JO and R4010 as R-A356.0; and R40J I as R-A357.0.
i.
Base metal alloys 5254 and 5652 are used for hydrogen peroxide service. ER5654 filler metal is used for welding both alloys for service temperatures below 150"F
(66"C).
j.
jERll00 may be used for some applications
NAVEDTRA 14250A
9-50
7.2.2 Copper and Copper Alloys
Gas tungsten arc welding is well suited for welding copper and copper alloys because of
the intense arc generated by this process. This is advantageous because copper has
very high thermal conductivity and the heat is conducted away from the weld zone quite
rapidly. An intense arc is important in completing the fusion with minimum heating of the
surrounding base metal.
The main alloying elements used in copper are zinc (brasses), phosphorous (phosphor
bronzes), aluminum (aluminum bronzes), beryllium (beryllium coppers), nickel (nickel
silvers), silicon (silicon bronzes), tin and zinc (tin brasses), and nickel and zinc (nickel
silvers). All are TIG weldable, but some are easier to weld than others.
The most weldable are the deoxidized coppers, the silicon bronzes, and the copper
nickels. The most difficult alloys to weld are those with the highest zinc content, which
have a high cracking tendency, and electrolytic tough pitch copper, which causes
problems with porosity. Table 9-15 shows the relative ease of welding copper and
copper alloys.
TIG welding copper and copper alloys is usually done with direct current electrode
negative because of the high current capacity. Exceptions to this include welding
beryllium coppers and aluminum bronzes, where you should use alternating current to
prevent the buildup of oxides. You must take care when welding beryllium coppers; the
fumes given off are dangerous to your health, so you need to wear a gas mask.
Thoriated or zirconium tungsten electrodes are recommended with the 2% thoriated
type being the most popular for welding copper and copper alloys. Generally, argon
shielding gas is used on the thinner sections while helium and mixtures of argon and
helium are used more commonly on the thicker sections. Preheating is not necessary
on the thinner sections, but frequently it is required on sections thicker than 1/8 inch (3.2
mm) so the heat does not leave the weld area too quickly. A temperature of 500-800 F
(260-4250 C) is typical for preheating copper and copper alloys.
Gas tungsten arc welding is primarily used for welding metal thicknesses up to 1/8 inch
(3.2 mm) and for repairing welding or castings. Welding currents used for copper are
50-75% higher than for aluminum because of the high thermal conductivity of copper.
Filler metal is frequently eliminated for welding thinner material, but for thicknesses
greater than 1/8 inch (3.2 mm), filler metal is usually used. About ½ inch (12.7 mm) is
the maximum practical thickness for TIG welding copper, above this thickness, you
should use MIG.
NAVEDTRA 14250A
9-51
Table 9-15 — Weldability ratings of coppers and copper alloys (1=excellent,
2=good, 3=fair)
Type
Weldability rating
Oxygen free copper
2
Electrolytic tough pitch copper
3
Deoxidized copper
1
Beryllium copper
2
Low-zinc brass
2
High-zinc brass
3
Tin brasses
3
Nickel silvers
3
Phosphor bronzes
2
Aluminum bronzes
2
Silicon bronzes
1
Copper nickels
1
When filler metal is used, it is usually selected so the chemical composition of the filler
rod closely matches the base metal. This is often necessary to obtain a strong weld joint
in some of the copper alloys.
However, a filler metal with a different chemical composition than the base metal may
be selected when welding some of the weaker alloys to give the weld joint added
strength. The best choice of filler metal depends primarily on the type of copper alloy
the base metal is, with consideration for the metal’s application as well.
7.2.3 Magnesium and Magnesium Alloys
TIG is the most popular process for welding magnesium and magnesium alloys. The
major alloying elements used with magnesium are aluminum, zinc, and thorium. Most
magnesium alloys are weldable with this process, but the weldability will vary with the
alloy. Table 9-16 shows the main alloying elements used and the relative weldability of
the alloys. The rating is based mainly on the susceptibility to cracking. Aluminum
content up to about 10% helps the weldability because it promotes grain size
refinement, and zinc content above about 1% will increase the tendency towards hot
cracking. Alloys that have a high zinc content are very susceptible to cracking and have
poorer weldability. Thorium alloys generally have excellent weldability.
Magnesium forms an oxide similar to aluminum oxide, which gives these two metals
similar welding characteristics. Alternating current is used for most magnesium and
magnesium alloy welding applications because of its good oxide cleaning action, which
allows higher welding speeds. Direct current electrode positive is often used for welding
metal thicknesses from less than 3/16 inch (4.8 mm) up to 3/8 inch (4.8 mm). Above this
thickness, gas metal arc welding is often used.
Inert gases such as argon, argon-helium mixtures, and helium are required for shielding
because magnesium will react chemically with an active gas. Preheating is often used
on thin sections and on highly restrained joints to prevent weld cracking. Thicker
NAVEDTRA 14250A
9-52
sections generally do not require preheating unless there is a high degree of joint
restraint. All of the different types of tungsten electrodes are used, especially the pure
and zirconium tungsten electrodes.
Filler metal for the gas tungsten arc welding of magnesium and magnesium alloys
generally is one of four different types. Filler metals with lower melting points and wider
freezing ranges than the base metal are often used to avoid cracking. Table 9-17 also
shows a filler metal selection chart. The type of filler metal used is governed by the
chemical composition of the base metal.
Table 9-16 — Magnesium alloy classification, weldability and filler selection
(1=excellent, 2=good, 3=fair, 4 =poor).
Magnesium Major Alloying
Alloy
Elements
Wrought Alloys
AZ10A
Aluminum Zinc
AZ31B
Aluminum Zinc
AZ31C
Aluminum Zinc
AZ61A
Aluminum Zinc
AZ80A
Aluminum Zinc
HK31A
Thorium Zirconium
HM21A
Thorium Manganese
HM31A
Thorium Manganese
Weldability Filler
Rating
Metal
LA141A
M1A
ZE10A
ZK21A
ZK60A
Cast Alloys
2
1
1
2
4
Lithium Aluminum
Manganese
Zinc Rare Earths
Zinc Zirconium
Zinc Zirconium
1
1
1
2
2
1
1
1
AZ61A AZ92A
AZ61A AZ92A
AZ61A AZ92A
AZ61A AZ92A
AZ61A AZ92A
EZ33A
EZ33A
EZ33A
LA141A
EZ33A
AZ61A AZ92A
AZ61A AZ92A
AZ61A AZ92A
EZ33A
AM100A
Aluminum
Manganese
2
AZ63A
Aluminum Zinc
3
AZ81A
Aluminum Zinc
2
AZ91C
AZ92A
Aluminum Zinc
Aluminum Zinc
Rare Earths
Zirconium
Rare Earths Zinc
Thorium Zirconium
Thorium Zinc
Zirconium
Silver Rare Earths
Zinc Rare Earths
Zinc Thorium
Zinc Zirconium
Zinc Zirconium
2
2
AZ101A
AZ92A
AZ101A
AZ92A
AZ101A
AZ92A
AZ101A
AZ92A
AZ101A
2
1
2
2
1
2
2
3
4
4
EZ33A
EZ33A
EZ33A
EZ33A
EZ33A
EZ33A
EZ33A
EZ33A
EZ33A
EZ33A
EK41A
EZ33A
HK31A
HZ32A
K1A
QE22A
ZE41A
ZH62A
ZK51A
ZK61A
NAVEDTRA 14250A
9-53
Table 9-17 — Magnesium filler metal selection chart.
AM100A
Base
Metal
AM100A
AZ10A
AZ10A
AZ31B
AZ63A
Base Metal
AZ80A
AZ81A
AZ91C
AZ92A
EK41A
EZ33A
HK31A
AZ101A
AZ92A
AZ92A
AZ92A
AZ92A
AZ92A
AZ92A
AZ92A
c
AZ92A
EZ33A
EZ33A
EZ33A
EZ33A
EZ33A
EZ33A
EZ33A
d
AZ92A
EZ33A
EZ33A
EZ33A
EZ33A
EZ33A
EZ33A
d
AZ92A
EZ33A
EZ33A
EZ33A
EZ33A
EZ33A
d
AZ92A
EZ33A
EZ33A
AZ92A
EZ33A
AZ92A
EZ33A
EZ33A
AZ92A
EZ33A
AZ92A
c
ab
AZ101A
AZ92A
AZ92A
Filler Metal
AZ61A
AZ92A
AZ61A
AZ92A
AZ61A
AZ92A
c
AZ61A
AZ92A
AZ61A
AZ92A
c
AZ61A
AZ92A
c
AZ61A
AZ92A
AZ92A
AZ61A
AZ92A
AZ92A
AZ31B
AZ31C
AZ61A
AZ92A
AZ63A
c
AZ80A
AZ92A
AZ81A
AZ92A
AZ61A
AZ92A
AZ92A
AZ91C
AZ92A
AZ92A
AZ92A
AZ92A
EK41A
EZ33A
HK31A
HM21A
HM31A
HZ32A
K1A
LA141A
M1A
MG1
QE22A
ZE10A
AZ92A
AZ92A
AZ92A
AZ92A
AZ92A
AZ92A
AZ92A
AZ92A
d
AZ92A
ZE41A
ZK21A
d
AZ92A
AZ92A
AZ92A
AZ92A
AZ92A
AZ92A
AZ92A
AZ92A
AZ92A
d
AZ61A
AZ92A
d
AZ61A
AZ92A
d
AZ61A
AZ92A
c
ZH62A
ZK51A
ZK60A
ZK61A
AZ61A
AZ31C
AZ92A
d
AZ92A
c
AZ101A
AZ92A
c
c
AZ61A
AZ92A
AZ92A
AZ92A
c
AZ92A
AZ92A
AZ92A
AZ92A
AZ92A
AZ92A
AZ92A
AZ92A
AZ92A
EZ33A
AZ61A
AZ92A
AZ92A
AZ61A
AZ92A
d
AZ61A
AZ92A
AZ92A
AZ92A
AZ92A
AZ92A
AZ92A
AZ92A
AZ92A
AZ92A
c
AZ61A
AZ92A
d
AZ61A
AZ92A
d
AZ61A
AZ92A
c
c
c
c
c
c
c
c
c
c
AZ92A
AZ92A
AZ92A
AZ92A
AZ92A
AZ92A
AZ92A
AZ92A
c
AZ61A
AZ92A
d
AZ61A
AZ92A
d
AZ61A
AZ92A
AZ92A
AZ92A
AZ92A
AZ92A
AZ92A
AZ92A
AZ92A
AZ92A
c
AZ92A
AZ101A
AZ92A
AZ92A
AZ92A
AZ92A
AZ92A
AZ92A
AZ92A
AZ92A
AZ92A
c
AZ92A
d
AZ92A
d
AZ92A
d
AZ92A
d
AZ92A
d
AZ92A
d
AZ92A
EZ33A
EZ33A
AZ92A
EZ33A
AZ92A
c
c
c
c
c
c
c
c
c
ZK21A
ZH62A
ZK51A
ZK60A
ZK61A
c
c
c
c
c
AZ101A
AZ92A
AZ92A
Base Metal
Base
Metal
HM21A
HM31A
HZ32A
K1A
LA141A
M1A
MG1
QE22A
ZE10A
ZE41A
ZK21A
ZH62A
ZK51A
ZK60A
ZK61A
HM21A
HM31A
HZ32A
K1A
1A141A
M1A
MG1
QE22A
ZE10A
ZE41A
Filler Metalab
EZ33A
EZ33A
EZ33A
EZ33A
EZ33A
AZ92A
EZ33A
EZ33A
EZ33A
d
AZ92A
EZ33A
d
AZ92A
EZ33A
d
AZ92A
EZ33A
EZ33A
AZ92A
EZ33A
AZ92A
EZ33A
EZ33A
AZ92A
EZ33A
AZ92A
EZ33A
EZ33A
AZ92A
EZ33A
AZ92A
EZ33A
EZ33A
AZ92A
EZ33A
AZ92A
c
c
c
c
EZ33A
d
AZ92A
EZ33A
EZ33A
d
d
c
AZ61A
c
AZ61A
AZ92A
d
AZ61A
AZ92A
EZ33A
EZ33A
AZ92A
EZ33A
AZ92A
c
c
AZ61A
AZ92A
d
AZ61A
AZ92A
c
EZ33A
AZ92A
c
AZ61A
AZ92A
c
EZ33A
Notes:
a.
When more than one filler metal is given, they are listed in order of preference.
b.
The letter prefix (ER or R), designating usability of the filler metal, has been deleted, to reduce clutter in the table.
c.
Welding not recommended.
d.
No data available.
NAVEDTRA 14250A
9-54
7.2.4 Nickel and Nickel Alloys
Gas tungsten arc welding is one of the major processes used for welding nickel and
nickel alloys. The major alloying elements used in nickel are iron, chromium, copper,
molybdenum, and silicon. The classification system for nickel and nickel alloys is shown
in Table 9-18. TIG is used for welding both the solid solution strengthened alloys and
the precipitation-hardenable alloys, but it is especially the preferred method for
precipitation-hardenable alloys because of the difficult of transferring hardening
elements across the arc in the other welding processes. Many of the cast alloys,
especially ones with high silicon contents, are more difficult to weld.
Table 9-18 — Classifications of nickel and nickel alloys.
Series
Alloy group
200
Nickel, solid solution
300
Nickel, precipitation-hardenable
400
Nickel-copper, solid solution (Monel)
500
Nickel-copper, precipitation-hardenable (Monel)
600
Nickel-chromium, solid solution (Inconel)
700
Nickel chromium, precipitation-hardenable (Inconel)
800
Nickel-iron-chromium solid solution (Incoloy)
900
Nickel-iron-chromium, precipitation-hardenable (Incoloy)
One of the most important factors in welding nickel and nickel alloys is the cleanliness
of the base metal. These metals are susceptible to embrittlement caused by sulfur,
phosphorous, and lead. Therefore, the surface of the metal to be welded should be
cleaned of any grease, oil, paint, dirt, and processing chemicals. Another welding
characteristic of nickel is that the weld puddle is not very fluid; therefore, it is more
difficult to get complete fusion.
Direct current electrode negative (DCEN) is usually recommended for both manual and
mechanized welding, with argon, argon-helium mixtures, and helium for shielding.
Generally, helium is better for welding if you will not be adding a filler metal. When
porosity is a problem for single pass welding of nickels, you should use argon-hydrogen
mixtures.
All of the different types of tungsten electrodes are used, but the alloyed tungsten
electrodes are the most common.
A filler metal is usually used when welding nickel and nickel alloys. The filler metals
used for welding of these metals are generally similar in composition to the base metal
being welded. The filler metals are alloyed to resist hot cracking and porosity in the weld
metal.
7.2.5 Steels
TIG can weld steel, but because the process is relatively slow and expensive, it is not
as popular for welding the plain carbon and alloy steels as it is for welding stainless
steel and the non-ferrous metals. Its best usage is for critical applications and for
stainless steel.
NAVEDTRA 14250A
9-55
7.2.5.1 Plain Carbon and Low Alloy Steels
Functionally, you can use the gas tungsten arc welding process to weld all of the
different kinds of steel that can be welded by the other arc welding processes, such as
mild, low alloy, heat treatable, and chromium-molybdenum steels. The major alloying
elements in these steels are carbon, manganese, silicon, nickel, chromium, and
molybdenum. The weldability of the steel depends largely on the carbon content. The
higher the carbon content of the steel, the more susceptible to cracking it becomes and
the need for preheating and postheating increases.
Low carbon steels have carbon contents up to .14%; mild steels have carbon contents
ranging from .15 to .29%. These are generally the easiest to weld and usually do not
require preheat and postheat.
Alloy steels with carbon contents greater than .20% generally require preheating and
postheating due to the increased alloy content.
Medium carbon steels have carbon contents ranging from .30% to .59%, and high
carbon steels have carbon contents ranging from .60% to 1.00%. Many of the very high
carbon steels are not welded, except for repair work, because they are very susceptible
to cold cracking.
Generally, TIG is more sensitive to sulfur, phosphorous, and oxygen in the steel
because there are forms to help remove these elements from the weld puddle. Silicon in
the base metal and filler metal helps the weld puddle to wet out better at the edges, and
it improves the bead shape.
An extremely low silicon content in the base metal will make welding difficult, so a filler
metal is required to provide the silicon for the weld bead. Conversely, an excessively
high amount of silicon in the base metal can promote cracking.
Direct current electrode negative is the most commonly used type of welding current,
but sometimes alternating current is used for welding thin sheets.
All of the different types of shielding gases used for TIG may be used for welding steel.
Argon is the most common with argon-hydrogen mixtures used when you need better
weld puddle wetting and bead shape. The thoriated tungsten electrodes are the most
popular for welding steel.
You should select the filler metal for the low carbon and low alloy steels by matching the
tensile strength of the filler metal to that of the base metal. For welding heat treatable
and chromium-molybdenum steels, base your selection by approximately matching the
chemical composition to achieve similar hardenability, corrosion, and/or heat resistant
properties.
7.2.5.2 Cast Iron
You can make sound welds using the TIG welding process in three principal grades of
cast iron: gray, white, and malleable , but you must always preheat cast-iron parts before
welding. Preheat gray cast iron to a temperature ranging between 500°F to 1250°F; the
required temperature depends on the size and shape of the workpiece.
In either TIG or MIG welding, you should allow the workpiece to cool slowly after
welding. You can accomplish this by covering the workpiece in a bed of lime or ashes.
This slow cooling prevents cracking and residual stresses.
NAVEDTRA 14250A
9-56
7.2.5.3 Free Machining Steels
Free machining steels are steels that have additions of sulfur, phosphorous, selenium,
or lead in them to make them easier to machine. Except for the high sulfur, lead, or
phosphorous, these steels have chemical compositions similar to mild, low alloy, and
stainless steels. The addition of these elements makes these steels nearly unweldable
because lead, phosphorous, and sulfur have melting points much lower than the melting
point of the steel. As the weld solidifies, these elements remain liquid much longer than
the steel so they coat the grain boundaries, which cause hot cracking in the weld. Hot
cracking is cracking that occurs before the weld has had a chance to cool. Because of
this hot cracking problem, free machining steels cannot be welded easily. If you must
weld free machining steel, high manganese filler metal and low base metal dilution will
help give the best results possible.
7.2.5.4 Stainless Steels
Most types of stainless steels can be TIG welded. The types that are very difficult to
weld are types such as 303, 416, 416 Se, 430 F, and 430 FSe, which have high sulfur
and selenium contents, and Type 440, which has a high carbon content.
Chromium is the major alloying element that distinguishes stainless steels from the
other types of steel. . Steels with chromium contents greater than 11% are considered
stainless steels. The high chromium content gives these steels very good corrosion and
oxidation resistance. The three major groups of stainless steels that are welded are the
austenitic, martensitic and ferritic types.
The austenitic types of stainless steels are generally the easiest to weld. In addition to
the high chromium content of about 16-26%, these types have high nickel contents
ranging from 6-22%. These steels are designated by the AISI as the 300 series. The
200 series, which have high manganese contents to replace some of the nickel, are
also austenitic. Nickel and manganese are strong austenite formers and maintain an
austenitic structure at all temperatures. This structure gives these steels good
toughness and ductility but also makes them non-hardenable.
A major problem when welding these types of steels is carbide precipitation or
sensitization, which occurs only in the austenitic structure. This occurs when the
temperature of the steel is between approximately 1000-1600° F (540-870° C) and can
greatly reduce the corrosion resistance. There are several methods for preventing this
problem:
1. A fast cooling rate after welding through this temperature range. This is a major
reason why preheating is usually not used and why these steels require a
relatively low maximum interpass temperature on multiple pass welds.
2. The use of extra low carbon base and filler metal (.03% carbon max). Examples
are 304L and 316L.
3. The use of a stabilized alloy containing columbium, tantalum (tan-tl-uh m) or
titanium. Examples are 347 and 321.
4. The use of a solution heat treatment to redissolve the carbides after welding.
Martensitic stainless steels are not as easy to weld as the austenitic stainless steels.
These stainless steels have approximately 11-18% chromium, which is the major
alloying element, and are designated by the AISI as the 400 series. Some examples are
403,410, 420 and 440. These types of stainless steel are heat treatable because they
generally contain higher carbon contents and a martensitic structure. Stainless steels
with higher carbon contents are more susceptible to cracking and some, such as Type
440, have carbon contents so high that they are often considered unweldable.
NAVEDTRA 14250A
9-57
A stainless steel with a carbon content greater than .10% will often need preheating,
usually in the range of 400-600° F (205-315°C) to avoid cracking. For steels containing
carbon contents greater than .20%, a postweld heat treatment such as annealing is
often required to improve the toughness of the weld produced.
Ferritic stainless steels are also more difficult to weld than austenitic stainless steels
because they produce welds having lower toughness than the base metal. These
stainless steels form a ferritic grain structure and are also designated by the AISI as the
400 series. Some examples are types 405, 430, 442 and 446. These types are
generally less corrosion resistant than austenitic stainless steel. To avoid a brittle
structure in the weld, preheating and postheating are often required. Typical preheat
temperatures range from 300-500° F (150-260° C). Annealing is often used after heat
treatment welding to increase the toughness of the weld.
TIG is especially well suited for welding stainless steel because the filler metal does not
cross the arc and therefore change the composition. The process provides an inert
atmosphere and leaves no slag to react with the base metal. Lower current levels may
be desirable for welding stainless steel compared to welding mild steel because of the
higher thermal expansion, lower thermal conductivity, and generally lower melting points
of stainless steel. The lower thermal conductivity and higher thermal expansion cause
more distortion and warpage for a given heat input.
Use direct current electrode negative (DCEN) for most applications, and the most widely
used tungsten electrode is the 2% thoriated type, with argon, argon-helium mixtures,
and helium shielding gases. Argon is the preferred shielding gas, but argon-hydrogen
mixtures are sometimes used to improve the bead shape and the wetting.
The filler metal for welding stainless steel is generally chosen to match the chemical
composition of the base metal. For the 200 series austenitic stainless steels, a 300
series austenitic filler metal is usually used, due to lack of an available 200 series filler
metal. This weld joint will generally be weaker than the surrounding base metal.
The Type 410 and 420 electrodes are the only martensitic stainless steel types
recognized by the AWS. This limitation is often the reason why austenitic stainless steel
filler metal is often used when welding martensitic stainless steel. Austenitic filler metal
provides a weld with lower strength but higher toughness and eliminates the need for
preheating and postheating. For welding ferritic stainless steels, both ferritic and
austenitic filler metal may be used. Ferritic filler metal is used when higher strength and
an annealing postheat are required. Austenitic filler metal is used when higher ductility
is required. Table 9-19 shows filler metal selection for stainless steels.
NAVEDTRA 14250A
9-58
Table 9-19 — Filler metal selection for welding stainless steel.
AISI
Type
No.
201
202
301
302
3028
304
304l
305
308
309
309S
310
310S
314
316
316L
317
321
330
347
C%
Mn%
Si%
Cr%
Ni%
0.15 max
0.15 max
0.15 max
0.15 max
0.15 max
0.08 max
0.03 max
0.12 max
0.08 max
0.20 max
0.08 max
0.25 max
0.08 max
0.25 max
0.08 max
0.03 max
0.08 max
0.08 max
0.35 max
0.08 max
5.5-7.5
7.5-10.0
2.00
2.00
2.00
2.00
2.00
2.00
2.00
2.00
2.00
2.00
2.00
2.00
2.00
2.00
2.00
2.00
2.00
2.00
1.00
1.00
1.00
1.00
2.00-3.00
1.00
1.00
1.00
1.00
1.00
1.00
1.50
1.50
1.50-3.00
1.00
1.00
1.00
1.00
2.50
1.00
16.00-18.00
17.00-19.00
16.00-18.00
17.00-19.00
17.00-19.00
18.00-20.00
18.00-20.00
17.00-19.00
19.00-21.00
22.00-24.00
22.00-24.00
24.00-26.00
24.00-26.00
23.00-26.00
16.00-18.00
16.00-1S.00
18.00-20.00
17.00-19.00
13.00-17.00
17.00-19.00
3.50-5.50
4.00-6.00
6.00-8.00
8.00-10.00
8.00-10.00
8.00-12.00
8.00-12.00
10.00-13.00
10.00-12.00
12.00-15.00
12.00-15.00
19.00-22.00
19.00-22.00
19.00-22.00
10.00-14.00
10.00-14.00
11.00-15.00
9.00-12.00
33.00-37.00
9.00-13.00
348
0.08 max
2.00
1.00
18.00-19.00
9.00-13.00
403
410
414
420
431
501
502
405
430
442
446
0.15 max
0.15 max
0.15 max
Over 0.15
0.20 max
Over 0.10
0.10 max
0.08 max
0.12 max
0.20 max
0.20 max
1.00
1.00
1.00
1.00
1.00
1.00
1.00
1.00
1.00
1.00
1.50
0.50
1.00
1.00
1.00
1.00
1.00
1.00
1.00
1.00
1.00
1.00
11.50-13.00
11.50-13.50
11.50-13.50
12.00-14.00
15.00-17.00
4.00-6.00
4.00-6.00
11.50-14.50
14.00-18.00
1S.00-23.00
23.00-27.00
1.25-2.50
1.25-2.50
-
NAVEDTRA 14250A
Filler
Other
Elements
N 0.25 max
N 0.25 max
Mo 2.00-3.00
Mo 2.00-3.00
Mo 3.00-4.00
Ti 5 x C min
Cb + Ta
10 x C min
Cb + Ta 10 C
min. Ta 0.10
Mo 0.40-0.65
Mo 0.40-0.65
AI 0.10-0.30
N2 0.25 max
Metal
Selection
308
308
308
308
308
308
308L
308 310
308
309
309
310
310
310 312
316
316L
317
347
330
347
347 348
410 309 310
410 309 310
410 309 310
410 420
430 309 310
502
502
410 309 310
430 309 310
309 310
309 310
9-59
7.2.6 Titanium and Titanium Alloys
You can TIG weld titanium and many of the titanium alloys. The major alloying elements
contained in titanium alloys are aluminum, tin, zirconium, vanadium, and molybdenum.
There are four basic groups of this metal:
1.
2.
3.
4.
Unalloyed titanium
Alpha alloys
Alpha-beta alloys
Beta alloys
The unalloyed titanium and alpha alloys are all weldable. The weakly beta-stabilized
alpha-beta alloys are weldable, but the strongly beta-stabilized alpha-beta alloys are
embrittled by welding. Most beta alloys can be welded, but proper heat treatment must
be used to prevent the welds from becoming brittle.
In general, titanium requires the same welding techniques used for welding stainless
steel with two exceptions: titanium requires greater cleanliness and an auxiliary
shielding gas. The molten weld puddle reacts with most materials, and contamination
from the atmosphere or from material on the surface of the metal can cause
embrittlement in the weld zone and a loss of corrosion resistance. The surface of the
metal to be welded must be cleaned thoroughly to avoid these problems. Argon or
helium shielding gases are almost exclusively used for welding titanium. The only other
shielding gas used is an argon-helium mixture. Welding titanium requires a shielding
gas on the backside of the root pass. For out of chamber welding, a trailing shielding
gas is used behind the torch to protect the hot metal until it cools below about 600°F
(315° C), but in many cases, welding is done in an inert gas-filled chamber.
Thoriated tungsten electrodes are the best types for welding these metals with the 2%
thoriated type being the most widely used with direct current electrode negative.
Preheating is used rarely except when removing moisture from the surface of the metal.
For welding thicknesses greater than .10 in. (2.5 mm), filler metal is required, usually of
the same chemical composition as the base metal. However, to improve the joint
ductility, you can use a filler metal with a lower yield point than the base metal.
7.2.7 Other Metals
You can also use TIG to weld the reactive and refractory metals. Reactive metals
include zirconium and beryllium. Refractory metals are metals such as tungsten,
molybdenum, columbium, and tantalum. The weldability of zirconium is similar to that of
titanium. Because this metal, when hot, is highly reactive with the atmosphere, welding
must be protected by adequate shielding and is frequently done in vacuum chambers
using direct current electrode negative and an argon or helium shielding gas.
Occasionally, beryllium is welded using TIG, but welders must closely control the heat
input to prevent very large grains from being formed and to avoid cracking caused by its
inherent low ductility. In addition, beryllium is very toxic, and you must take strict safety
measures such as wearing special safety clothes and gas masks to prevent contact with
the fumes. Usually, alternating current with an argon shielding gas is used, and a low
heat input is essential when welding beryllium.
TIG is used commonly to weld tungsten and molybdenum. In the welding f these metals,
good cleaning is necessary. Usually, welding is performed using direct current electrode
negative, often in a vacuum chamber, with required preheating.
NAVEDTRA 14250A
9-60
Columbium and tantalum have good weldability, and TIG is the most popular process
for welding these metals with direct current electrode negative, often in a vacuum
chamber. A vacuum chamber is recommended for welding tantalum, but columbium can
be welded without one.
Test your Knowledge (Select the Correct Response)
10.
What term is used for the grains that form on the edge of a weld?
A.
B.
C.
D.
11.
Deoxidizers
Dendrites
Slag
Dross
Why is preheating used when welding titanium?
A.
B.
C.
D.
To increase base metal temperature.
To remove moisture from the base metal.
To soften the base metal.
To increase the hardenability of the base metal.
8.0.0 WELD JOINT
DESIGN
The weld joint design used for
gas tungsten arc welding is
determined by the design of the
weldment, metallurgical
considerations, and codes or
specifications. Good joint
designs are those that provide
accessibility and economy during
construction to help reduce the
cost and generally raise the
quality of the weld joint.
A weld joint consists of a specific
weld made in a specific joint. A
joint is defined as being the
junction of members that are to
be joined or have been joined.
Figure 9-31 shows the five basic
Figure 9-31 — Five basic weld joints.
joint types. Different types of
welds can join each of the
different joint types. In Figure 9-32, the most common types of welds are shown. The
type of weld made is governed by the joint configuration. Figure 9-33 lists the
nomenclature used for groove and fillet welds.
NAVEDTRA 14250A
9-61
Several factors influence the joint design to be used:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
Metal composition
Strength required
Welding position
Metal thickness
Joint accessibility
Figure 9-32 — Types of welds.
The purpose of any joint design is to produce a sound weld deposit with the desired
properties as economically as possible. The edge and joint preparation are important
because they will affect both the quality and the cost of welding. The exactness of the
joint and edge preparation is dependent on the method of welding. Manual welding
applications can tolerate greater irregularities in joint fitup than machine and automatic
applications.
Of the five basic types of joints, the butt and T are the most commonly used. Since TIG
is often used on thinner material, proper fitup can eliminate the need for filler metal
when welding square groove butt joints.
Lap joints have the advantage of not requiring much preparation other than squaring the
edges and making sure the metal is in close contact. Lap joints in thinner metals do not
always require filler metal, nor do edge joints, which are used often on thin material. For
example, on tubing, the end of the tubes are often flared or flanged so that the edges
may be melted and provide the filler metal for the weld (Figure 9-34). Corner joints use
edge preparations similar to those used for T-joints and usually require a filler metal.
NAVEDTRA 14250A
9-62
Figure 9-33 — Weld nomenclature.
Figure 9-34 — Edge joint without use of filler metal.
NAVEDTRA 14250A
9-63
8.1.0 Types of Metal
Due to the variety of base metals and their individual characteristics such as surface
tension, fluidity, melting temperature, etc., joint designs should be developed to use
optimum welding conditions.
For a given joint design, the type of metal influences the maximum base metal thickness
that can be sensibly welded. The maximum thickness for a full penetration squaregroove butt joint is about 5/16 inch (7.9 mm) in stainless steel, and about 3/16 inch (4.8
mm) in aluminum and magnesium. The differences are in the current used; you weld
stainless steel using direct current electrode negative, which gives better penetration
than the alternating current used on aluminum and magnesium.
In aluminum, the weld puddle will become larger and form quicker, making it more
difficult for the welder to control. This is due to the higher thermal conductivity, the
wider, shallower bead produced by alternating current, and the narrower melting
temperature range of aluminum. For example, on 1/4-inch (6.4 mm) thick metal, a Vgroove would be used in aluminum while a square-groove would allow full penetration in
stainless steel. This difference between the metals will also affect the size of the root
face used. In general, larger root faces can be used in mild, low alloy and stainless steel
than can be used in aluminum and magnesium because of the difference in the
penetration capability.
In nickel and high nickel alloys, the weld puddle is very sluggish when molten. The
puddle does not spread or wet out very well, so you must place the filler metal at the
proper location in the joint. As a result, to permit enough space for manipulation, you
need to use larger root openings for nickel than the root openings you would use in
carbon and low alloy steels.
8.2.0 Strength
The strength required of a weld joint is a major factor governing weld joint design. Weld
joints may be either full or partial penetration, depending on the strength required of the
joint. Full or complete penetrating welds are those that have weld metal through the full
cross section of the joint; partial penetrating welds are those that have an unfused area
in the joint. Welds subject to cyclic, impact, or dynamic loading require complete
penetration welds. This is even more important for applications that require low
temperature service.
Partial penetration welds may be adequate for joints where loading is static only, and
they are easier to prepare and require less filler metal than full penetration joints.
The amount of penetration obtained will be affected by the root opening and root face
used. A root opening is used to allow good access to the root of the joint and is usually
used in full penetrating weld joints. A root opening is usually not used in partial
penetration weld joints because access to the root is not necessary and parts are easier
to fit together without a root opening. The size of the root face is also affected. A larger
root face is used for partial penetration welds than for complete penetration welds
because less penetration is required.
8.3.0 Position
TIG can be used in all welding positions. The welding position selected often affects the
shape of the joint. A diagram of the welding position capabilities is shown in Figure 935. Good quality welding in flat, horizontal, vertical, and overhead positions depends on
the skill of the welder.
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Figure 9-35 — Welding test positions.
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Welding positions are classified by a set of numbers and letters. The four basic welding
Welding positions are classified by a set of numbers and letters. The four basic welding
positions are designated by the numbers 1
for flat, 2 for horizontal, 3 for vertical, and 4
for overhead. F designations are used for
fillet welds, and G designations are used for
groove welds. The 5G and 6G positions are
used in pipe welding.
The groove angle is often varied for different
positions. Wider groove angles are often
used when welding in the vertical and
horizontal positions. Some groove joints
welded in the horizontal position have
unsymmetrical groove angles. Usually the
lower groove face is horizontal or nearly
horizontal and the upper groove face is
raised accordingly (Figure 9-36).
8.4.0 Thickness
Figure 9-36 — V-groove joint in
the horizontal position.
The thickness of the base metal has a large
influence on the type of groove that gives the best weld joint possible. The thickness of
the base metal welded by this process is not limited, but gas tungsten arc welding is
particularly well adapted for welding thin metal. Thicknesses down to .005 inch (.1 mm)
can be welded.
The TIG process, because of its relatively low deposition rate, does generally not weld
thick metal sections. GMAW is used on many of the thicker applications, especially on
the non-ferrous metals.
The most common groove preparations used on butt joints are the square-, V-, J-, U-,
bevel-, and combination-grooves. The square-, J-, bevel-, and combination-groove
configurations are also used for T-joints; these preparations are used to make it
possible to get full or adequate penetration.
Square-groove welds are the most commonly used weld joints for TIG because most
applications of this process are on thin metal. The square-groove joint design is the
easiest to prepare and requires the least addition of filler metal, and in many cases, filler
metal is not used at all. Thicknesses up to 3/16 inch (4.8 mm) or 5/16 inch (7.9 mm) can
be welded with full penetration, depending on the type of metal. Many square-groove
joints are welded in one pass. A backing strip may be used so that the root can be
opened to ensure adequate penetration.
V-grooves for groove welds on butt joints and bevel-grooves for T-joints are commonly
used for thicker metal up to about ½ inch (12.7 mm), but these joints are more difficult to
prepare, which increases the cost of preparation, and filler metal must be used for Vgrooves and bevel-grooves. The included angle for a V-groove is usually up to 90
degrees, the wider angles providing better accessibility to the root. Root faces usually
range from 1/8 inch (3.2 mm) to ¼ inch (6.4 mm) depending on the thickness and type
of metal.
U- and J-grooves are generally used in metal thicknesses over ½ inch (12.7 mm) to
reduce the filler metal required for thicker sections. These joint configurations are also
the most difficult and expensive to prepare, but greatly add to the ease of depositing the
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root pass. When possible in thick sections, the fill passes in this type of joint are
deposited by the higher deposition welding processes.
8.5.0 Accessibility
A major consideration in TIG welding joint design is the provision for proper
accessibility. Since TIG typically applies to thinner metals, often welds can be made
from either one side or both sides of the joint. On thicker metals, when both sides of the
joint are accessible, double-grooves are usually made. Double-grooves have less area
to fill than single-grooves, therefore requiring less filler metal and developing less
distortion with proper weld bead sequencing. When double-grooves are used, the roots
of the welds are usually near the center of the base metal.
Welding from both sides of a square-groove usually ensures complete penetration, and
on thicker metal is better than complete penetration welding from one side. Also,
smaller root openings may be used, which will require less filler metal.
When the joints are accessible only from one side, you can use backing strips and
consumable inserts for wider root openings to provide better accessibility to the root of
the joint.
Often, on thick metal accessible from only one side, V-, U-, and J-grooves are used,
although U- and J-grooves are preferred because they provide better accessibility to the
root of the joint and require less filler metal than V-grooves. However, U- and J-grooves
are more difficult to prepare, thus increasing time and costs.
8.6.0 Consumable Inserts
Consumable inserts are widely used in welding tube and pipe, and have an effect on
joint design. They are used when the joint is accessible from only one side and a
uniform, high quality root pass is required. Consumable inserts also provide full
penetration to the root of the weld as long as enough heat is available to melt the insert
to the root of the joint.
Consumable inserts can help line up the joint during the fitup procedure. For best
results, joints with consumable inserts should be precisely prepared and closely fitted,
but often they are used when there is joint misalignment.
Consumable inserts also serve as a type of backing. Inserts usually require the use of a
different joint design, depending on the type used. Consumable inserts are available in
various shapes and sizes (Figure 9-37).
When an insert is used, the dimensions of the joint must be compatible with the
particular insert, and an insert may require the use of a different size root face and root
opening than a normal joint. On square-groove joints, wider root openings are often
used so the insert will fit.
An example of this is shown in Figure 9-38, where a V-groove weld joint of the same
type and thickness is shown with and without a consumable insert. In this case, a
smaller root face and root opening are used with a consumable insert because the
insert reduces the danger of melt-through.
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Figure 9-37 — Consumable inserts.
Figure 9-38 — A V-groove joint with and
without a consumable insert.
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8.7.0 Weld Joint Designs
The weld joint designs shown in the rest of the chapter are those typically used for TIG.
Thickness limitations on the weld joints are approximate numbers and vary, depending
on the type of base metal. While the thickness limits are generally smaller than what
can be used for steels and silicon bronze, they may be slightly large for aluminum and
magnesium applications.
These joint designs are generally for thinner material. Thick material is not included
because it is rarely TIG welded. Several joint designs used with consumable inserts are
included. Figures 9-39 through 9-47 show the "Standard Welding Symbols" of the
American Welding Society. Some of these are shown in the weld joint designs.
AWS welding symbols are the shorthand of welding. They enable the engineer and
draftsman to convey complete welding instructions to the welder on blueprints and
drawings.
Using welding symbols promotes standardization and a common understanding of
design intent. It also eliminates unnecessary details on drawings and mistakes caused
by lack of information or misunderstanding.
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Figure 9-39 — Welding symbols.
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Figure 9-40 — Welding symbols (cont.).
9-71
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Figure 9-41 — Welding symbols (cont.).
9-72
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Figure 9-42 — Welding symbols (cont.).
9-73
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Figure 9-43 — Welding symbols (cont.).
9-74
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Figure 9-44 — Welding symbols (cont.).
9-75
Figure 9-45 — Welding symbols (cont.).
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Figure 9-46 — Welding symbols (cont.).
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Figure 9-47 – Welding symbols (cont.).
8.8.0 Welding Positions
As it is with other welding processes, in TIG welding the proper positions of the welding
torch and weldment are important. The position of the torch and filler metal (if used) in
relation to the plate is called the work and travel angle. Work and travel angles are
shown in Figure 9-48. If the parts are equal in thickness, the work angle should normally
be on the center line of the joint; however, if the pieces are unequal in thickness, the
torch should angle toward the thicker piece.
Figure 9-48 — Travel angle and work angle for TIG.
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The travel angle refers to the angle in which welding takes place. This angle should be
between 5 and 25 degrees. The travel angle may be either a push angle or a drag
angle, depending on the position of the torch.
When the torch is angled ahead of the weld,
it is known as pulling (dragging) the weld or
backhand welding. When the torch is angled
behind (over) the weld, it is referred to as
pushing the metal or forehand welding
(Figure 9-49).
The pulling or drag technique is for heavygauge metals, and thus not as applicable to
TIG. Usually the drag technique produces
greater penetration than the pushing
technique. Also, since the welder can see
the weld crater more easily, better quality
welds can consistently be made. Typically,
TIG uses the pushing technique for lightgauge metals. Welds made with this
technique are less penetrating and wider
because the welding speed is faster.
Figure 9-49 — Pulling and
For the best results, you should position the
pushing travel angle techniques.
weldment in the flat position. This position
improves the molten metal flow and bead contour, and gives better shielding gas
protection.
After you have learned to weld in the flat position, you should be able to use your
acquired skill and knowledge to weld out of position. These positions include horizontal,
vertical-up, vertical-down, and overhead welds. The only difference in welding out of
position from the flat position is a 10-percent reduction in amperage.
If you must weld a heavier thickness of metal with the TIG welding process, you should
use the multi-pass technique (buildup sequence discussed in Chapter 3). This is
accomplished by overlapping single small beads or making larger beads, using the
weaving technique. Various multipass welding sequences are shown in Figure 9-50.
The numbers refer to the sequences in which you make the passes.
Figure 9-50 — Multi-pass welding.
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As presented earlier with gas tungsten arc welding, the maximum thickness for a full
penetration square-groove butt joint is about 5/16 inch (7.9 mm) in stainless steel, and
about 3/16 inch (4.8 mm) in aluminum and magnesium. The following sections on
welding positions will include greater thicknesses in the examples, which will have more
application for shielded metal arc welding (SMAW or stick), gas metal arc welding (MIG
or MAG), and flux core arc welding (FCAW), each with greater deposition rates.
However, the topics are included in this chapter on gas tungsten arc welding (TIG) as
well, because often a precision root pass with TIG may be the best process before
applying one of the alternate, higher deposition processes.
8.8.1 Flat-Position Welding
Welding can be done in any position, but it is much simpler when done in the flat
position. In this position, the work is less tiring, welding speed is faster, the molten
puddle is not as likely to run, and better penetration can be achieved. Whenever
possible, try to position the work so you can weld in the flat position. In the flat position,
the face of the weld is approximately horizontal.
Butt joints— After you strike the arc, hold the torch at a 90-degree angle to the
workpiece surface, and with small circular motions, as shown in Figure 9-51, form a
molten puddle. After you form the molten puddle, hold the torch at a 75-degree angle to
the work surface and move it slowly and steadily along the joint at a speed that
produces a bead of uniform width. Move the torch slowly enough to keep the puddle
bright and fluid. No oscillating or other movement of the torch is necessary except the
steady forward movement.
When you must use a filler metal, form the molten puddle as described previously.
When the puddle becomes bright and fluid, you should move the arc to the rear of the
puddle and add the filler metal by quickly touching the rod to the front edge of the
puddle. Hold the rod at about a 15-degree angle from the work. Because the electrode
is pointing toward the filler metal or pushing it, it is known as the push angle. Remove
the filler rod and bring the arc back to the front edge of the puddle. When the puddle
becomes bright and fluid again, you should repeat the steps as described before. Figure
9-52 shows the correct procedures for adding filler metal. Continue this sequence until
the weld joint has been completed. The width and height of the weld bead are
determined by the speed of travel, by the movement of the torch, and by the amount of
filler metal added.
In welding practice, it is again stressed that good TIG welding depends on following this
definite procedure— form the molten pool and then feed filler rod intermittently to the
leading edge of the pool as you move the torch forward. DO NOT feed the filler rod into
the arc. You should practice making single-pass butt welds until you can produce
satisfactory welds.
Butt joints are the primary type of joints used in the flat position of welding; however,
flat-position welding can be made on just about any type of joint providing you can
rotate the section you are welding to the appropriate position. Techniques that are
useful in making butt joints in the flat position, with and without the use of backing strips,
are described below.
Butt joints without backing strips — A butt joint is used to join two plates having surfaces
in about the same plane. Several forms of butt joints are shown in Figure 9-51.
Plates up to 1/8 inch thick can be welded in one pass with no special edge preparation.
Plates from 1/8 to 3/16 inch thick also can be welded with no special edge preparation
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by welding on both sides of the joint. Tack welds should be used to keep the plates
aligned for welding. The torch motion is the same as that used in making a bead weld.
Figure 9-51 — Butt joints in the flat position.
In welding 1/4-inch plate or heavier, you should prepare the edges of the plates by
beveling or by J-, U-, or V-grooving, whichever is the most applicable. You should use
single or double bevels or grooves when the specifications and/or the plate thickness
require it. The first bead is deposited to seal the space between the two plates and to
weld the root of the joint. This bead or layer of weld metal must be thoroughly cleaned
to remove all slag and dirt before the second layer of metal is deposited.
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Figure 9-52 — Butt welds with multi-pass beads.
9-81
In making multi-pass welds, the
second, third, and fourth layers of
weld metal are made with a weaving
motion of the torch (Figure 9-52).
Clean each layer of metal before
laying additional beads. You may use
one of the weaving motions shown in
Figure 9-53, depending upon the type
of joint.
In the weaving motion, oscillate or
move the torch uniformly from side to
side, with a slight hesitation at the end
of each oscillation. Incline the torch 5
to 15 degrees in the direction of
welding as in bead welding. When the
weaving motion is not done properly,
Figure 9-53 — Weave motions.
undercutting can occur at the joint (Figure 954). Excessive welding speed also can cause
undercutting and poor fusion at the edges of
the
Butt joints with backing strips — Welding
3/16-inch plate or thicker requires backing
strips to ensure complete fusion in the weld
root pass and to provide better control of the
arc and the weld metal. Prepare the edges of
the plates in the same manner as required for
Figure 9-54 — Undercutting in
butt joint welds.
Figure 9-55 — Use of back strips in welding
butt joints.
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welding without backing strips. For
plates up to 3/8 inch thick, the backing
strips should be approximately 1 inch
wide and 3/16 inch thick. For plates
more than 1/2 inch thick, the backing
strips should be 1 1/2 inches wide and
1/4 inch thick. Tack-weld the backing
strip to the base of the joint (Figure 955). The backing strip acts as a
cushion for the root pass. Complete
the joint by welding additional layers of
metal. After you complete the joint,
you may “wash” off or cut the backing
strip away with a cutting torch. When
specified, place a seal bead along the
root of the joint.
9-82
Bear in mind that many times it will not always be possible to use a backing strip;
therefore, the welder must be able to run the root pass and get good penetration without
the formation of icicles.
8.8.2 Horizontal-Position Welding
You will discover that it is impossible to weld all pieces in the flat position. Often the
work must be done in the horizontal position. The horizontal position has two basic
forms, depending upon whether it is used with a groove weld or a fillet weld. In a groove
weld, the axis of the weld lies in a relative horizontal plane and the face of the weld is in
a vertical plane (Figure 9-56). In a fillet weld, the welding is performed on the upper side
Figure 9-56 — Horizontal groove
weld.
Figure 9-57 — Horizontal fillet
weld.
of a relatively horizontal surface and
against an approximately vertical plane
(Figure 9-57).
An inexperienced welder usually finds the
horizontal position of arc welding difficult, at
least until he has developed a fair degree of
skill in applying the proper technique. The
primary difficulty is that in this position you
have no “shoulder” of previously deposited
weld metal to hold the molten metal.
When welding in the horizontal position,
start the arc on the edge of the joint. Then
hold the torch at a work angle of 15
degrees and a push angle of 15 degrees.
After you establish the puddle, dip the rod
into the front edge of the puddle on the high
side as you move the torch along the joint
Figure 9-58 — Horizontal welding
(Figure 9-58). Maintain an arc length as
angles.
close as possible to the diameter of the
electrode. Correct arc length coupled with the correct speed of travel helps prevent
undercutting and permits complete penetration.
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Joint Type
Horizontal-position welding can be used on most types of joints. The most common
types of joints it is used on are tee joints, lap joints, and butt joints.
Tee joints — When you make tee joints in the horizontal position, the two plates are at
right angles to each other in the form of an inverted T. The edge of the vertical plate
may be tack-welded to the surface of the horizontal plate (Figure 9-59).
Figure 9-59 — Tack-weld to hold
the tee joint elements in place.
Figure 9-60 — Position of
electrode on a fillet weld.
A fillet weld is used in making the tee joint, and a short arc is necessary to provide good
fusion at the root and along the legs of the weld (Figure 9-60, View A). Hold the torch at
an angle of 45 degrees to the two plate surfaces (Figure 9-60, View B) with an incline of
approximately 15 degrees in the direction
of welding.
When practical, weld light plates with a
fillet weld in one pass with little or no
weaving of the torch. Welding of heavier
plates may require two or more passes in
which the second pass or layer is made
with a semicircular weaving motion
(Figure 9-61). To ensure good fusion and
to prevent undercutting, you should make
a slight pause at the end of each weave
or oscillation.
For fillet-welded tee joints on 1/2-inch
plate or heavier, deposit stringer beads in
the sequence shown in Figure 9-62.
Figure 9-61 — Weave motion for
multi-pass fillet weld.
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Chain-intermittent or staggered-intermittent fillet welds are used on long tee joints
(Figure 9-63). Fillet welds of these types are for joints where high weld strength is not
required; however, the short welds are arranged so the finished joint is equal in strength
to that of a joint that has a fillet weld along the entire length of one side. Intermittent
welds also have the advantage of reduced warpage and distortion.
Figure 9-62 — Order of string
beads for tee joint on heavy
Figure 9-63 — Intermittent fillet
welds.
Lap joints — When you make a lap joint, two overlapping plates are tack-welded in
place (Figure 9-64), and a fillet weld is deposited along the joint.
The procedure for making this fillet weld is similar to that used for making fillet welds in
tee joints. You should hold the torch so it forms an angle of about 30 degrees from the
vertical and is inclined 15 degrees in the direction of welding. The position of the torch in
Figure 9-64 — Tack welding a lap
joint.
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Figure 9-65 — Position of
electrode on a lap joint.
9-85
relation to the plates is shown in Figure 9-65. The weaving motion is the same as that
used for tee joints, except that the pause at the edge of the top plate is long enough to
ensure good fusion without undercut. Lap joints on 1/2-inch plate or heavier are made
by depositing a sequence of stringer beads (Figure 9-65),
In making lap joints on plates of different thickness, you should hold the torch so that it
forms an angle of between 20 and 30 degrees from the vertical (Figure 9-66). Be careful
not to overheat or undercut the thinner plate edge.
Figure 9-66 — Lap joints on
plates of different thickness.
Figure 9-67 — Horizontal butt
joint.
Butt joints— Most butt joints designed for horizontal welding have the beveled plate
positioned on the top. The plate that is not beveled is on the bottom, and the flat edge of
this plate provides a shelf for the molten metal so that it does not run out of the joint
(Figure 9-67). Often both edges are beveled to form a 60-degree included angle. When
this type of joint is used, more skill is
required because you do not have the
retaining shelf to hold the molten puddle.
The number of passes required for a joint
depends on the diameter of the torch and the
thickness of the metal. When multiple
passes are required, place the first bead
deep in the root of the joint (Figure 9-68).
The torch should be inclined about 5
degrees downward. Clean and remove all
slag before applying each following bead.
The second bead should be placed with the
torch held about 10 degrees upward. For the
third pass, hold the torch 10 to 15 degrees
downward from the horizontal. Use a slight
weaving motion and ensure that each bead
penetrates the base metal.
Figure 9-68 — Multiple passes.
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8.8.3 Vertical-Position Welding
A vertical weld is a weld that is applied to a
vertical surface or one that is inclined 45
degrees or less (Figure 9-69). Erecting
structures such as buildings, pontoons,
tanks, and pipelines require welding in this
position. Welding on a vertical surface is
much more difficult than welding in the flat or
horizontal position due to the force of gravity.
Gravity pulls the molten metal down.
When welding thin material with the TIG
welding process, you should weld from the
top, moving downward. This helps you
produce an adequate weld without burning
through the metal. Filler material is not
normally needed for welding downward.
On heavier materials, you should weld from
the bottom, upwards. This enables you to
achieve adequate penetration. When welding
upward, you normally need to use a filler rod.
Figure 9-69 — Vertical weld plate
positions.
Current Settings and Torch Movement
In vertical arc welding, the current settings should be less than those used for the same
torch in the flat position. Another difference is that the current used for welding upward
on a vertical plate is slightly higher than the current used for welding downward on the
same plate.
To produce good welds, you must maintain the proper angle between the torch and the
base metal. In welding upward, you should hold the torch at 90 degrees to the vertical
(Figure 9-70, View A). When weaving is necessary, oscillate the torch as shown in
Figure 9-70, View B.
In vertical down welding, incline the outer end of the torch downward about 15 degrees
from the horizontal while keeping the arc pointing upward toward the deposited molten
metal (Figure 9-70, View C). When vertical down welding requires a weave bead, you
should oscillate the torch as shown in Figure 9-70, View D.
Vertical welding is used on most types of joints. The types of joints you will most often
use it on are tee joints, lap joints, and butt joints.
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Figure 9-70 — Bead welds in the vertical position.
Hold the torch at 90 degrees to the plates or not more than 15 degrees off the horizontal
for proper molten metal control when making fillet welds in either tee or lap joints in the
vertical position. Keep the arc short to obtain good fusion and penetration.
Tee joints — To weld tee joints in the vertical position, start the joint at the bottom and
weld upward. Move the torch in a triangular weaving motion as shown in Figure 9-71,
View A. A slight pause in the weave, at the points indicated, improves the sidewall
penetration and provides good fusion at the root of the joint.
When the weld metal overheats, you should quickly shift the torch away from the crater
without breaking the arc, as shown in Figure 9-71, View B. This permits the molten
metal to solidify without running downward. Return the torch immediately to the crater of
the weld in order to maintain the desired size of the weld.
When more than one pass is necessary to make a tee weld, you may use either of the
weaving motions shown in Figure 9-71, Views C and D. A slight pause at the end of the
weave will ensure fusion without undercutting the edges of the plates.
Lap joints — To make welds on lap joints in the vertical position, you should move the
torch in a triangular weaving motion as shown in Figure 9-71, View E. Use the same
procedure as outlined above for the tee joint, except direct the torch more toward the
vertical plate marked G. Hold the arc short, and pause slightly at the surface of plate G.
Try not to undercut the plates or allow the molten metal to overlap at the edges of the
weave.
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Figure 9-71 — Fillet welds in the vertical position.
Lap joints on heavier plate may require more than one bead. If so, clean the initial bead
thoroughly and place all subsequent beads as shown in Figure 9-71, View F. The
precautions to ensure good fusion and
uniform weld deposits that were previously
outlined for tee joints also apply to lap joints.
Butt joints — Prepare the plates used in
vertical welding identically to those prepared
for welding in the flat position. To obtain good
fusion and penetration with no undercutting,
you should hold a short arc and carefully
control its motion.
Butt joints on beveled plates 1/4 inch thick
can be welded in one pass by using a
triangular weave motion, as shown in Figure
9-72, View A.
Welds made on 1/2-inch plate or heavier
should be done in several passes, as shown
in Figure 9-72, View B. Deposit the last pass
with a semicircular weaving motion with a
slight “whip-up” and pause of the torch at the
edge of the bead. This produces a good
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Figure 9-72 — Butt joint welding
in the vertical position.
9-89
cover pass with no undercutting. Welds made on plates with a backup strip should be
done in the same manner.
8.8.4 Overhead-Position Welding
Overhead welding is the most difficult position in welding. Not only do you have to
contend with the force of gravity, but the majority of the time you also have to assume
an awkward stance. Nevertheless, with practice it is possible to make welds equal to
those made in the other positions.
Current Settings and Torch Movement
When TIG welding in the overhead position, you should lower the welding current by 5
to 10 percent of what normally is used for flat welding. This reduced welding current
enables you to maintain better control of the welding puddle. Conversely, you need a
higher flow of shielding gas. Hold the torch and the rod as you do for flat welding. You
should try to maintain a small weld puddle to avoid the effects of gravity. Most
inexperienced welders find overhead welding awkward; therefore, try to get in as
comfortable and relaxed a position as possible when welding. This helps you to
maintain steady, even torch and filler rod manipulation.
One of the problems encountered in overhead welding is the weight of the cable. To
reduce arm and wrist fatigue, drape the cable over your shoulder when welding in the
standing position. When sitting, place the cable over your knee. With experience, cable
placement will become second nature.
WARNING
Because of the possibility of falling molten metal, use a protective garment with a tight
fitting collar that buttons or zips up to the neck. Roll down your sleeves and wear a cap
and appropriate shoes.
Type of Welds
Techniques used in making bead
welds, butt joints, and fillet welds
in the overhead position are
discussed in the following
paragraphs.
Bead welds — For bead welds,
the work angle of the torch is 90
degrees to the base metal (Figure
9-73, View A). The travel angle
should be 9 to 15 degrees in the
direction of welding (Figure 9-73,
View B).
Weave beads can be made by
using the motion shown in Figure
9-73, View C. A rather rapid
motion is necessary at the end of
each semicircular weave to
control the molten metal deposit.
Avoid excessive weaving
because this can cause
overheating of the weld deposit
NAVEDTRA 14250A
Figure 9-73 — Position of electrode and
weave motion in the overhead position.
9-90
and the formation of a large,
uncontrollable pool.
Butt Joint — Prepare the plates
for overhead butt-welding in the
same manner as required for the
flat position. The best results are
obtained when backing strips are
used; however, you must
remember that you will not
always be able to use a backing
strip. When you bevel the plates
with a featheredge and do not
use a backing strip, the weld will
repeatedly burn through unless
the operator takes extreme care.
For overhead butt-welding, bead
welds are preferred over weave
welds. Clean each bead and chip
out the rough areas before
placing the next pass. The torch
position and the order of
deposition of the weld beads
when welding on 1/4- or 1/2-inch
plate are shown in Figure 9-74,
NAVEDTRA 14250A
Figure 9-74 — Multi-pass butt joint in the
overhead position.
Figure 9-75 — Fillet welds in the overhead position.
9-91
Views B and C. Make the first pass with the torch held at 90 degrees to the plate, as
shown in Figure 9-74, View A. When you use a torch that is too large, you cannot hold a
short arc in the root area. This results in insufficient root penetration and inferior joints.
Fillet welds — In making fillet welds in either tee or lap joints in the overhead position,
maintain a short arc and refrain from weaving of the torch. Hold the torch at
approximately 30 degrees to the vertical plate and move it uniformly in the direction of
welding, as shown in Figure 9-75, View B. Control the arc motion to secure good
penetration in the root of the weld and good fusion with the sidewalls of the vertical and
horizontal plates. When the molten metal becomes too fluid and tends to sag, whip the
torch quickly away from the crater and ahead of the weld to lengthen the arc and allow
the metal to solidify. Immediately return the torch to the crater and continue welding.
Overhead fillet welds for either tee or lap joints on heavy plate require several passes or
beads to complete the joint. One example of an order of bead deposition is shown in
Figure 9-75, View A. The root pass is a string bead made with no weaving motion of the
torch. Tilt the torch about 15 degrees in the direction of welding, as shown in Figure 975, View C, and with a slight circular motion make the second, third, and fourth pass.
This motion of the torch permits greater control and better distribution of the weld metal.
Remove all slag and oxides from the surface of each pass by chipping or wire brushing
before applying additional beads to the joint.
Welding is the simplest and easiest way to join sections of pipe. The need for
complicated joint designs and special threading equipment is eliminated. Welded pipe
has reduced flow restrictions compared to mechanical connections, and the overall
installation costs are less. The most popular method for welding pipe is the shielded
metal arc process; however, gas shielded arc methods have made big inroads as a
result of new advances in welding technology.
Pipe welding has become recognized as a profession in itself. Even though many of the
skills are comparable to other
types of welding, pipe welders
develop skills that are unique only
to pipe welding. Because of the
hazardous materials that most
pipelines carry, pipe welders are
required to pass specific tests
before they can be certified
In the following paragraphs, pipewelding positions, pipe welding
procedures, definitions, and
related information are discussed.
You may recall from Figure 9-35
that there are four positions used
in pipe welding. They are known
as the horizontal rolled position
(1G), the horizontal fixed position
(5G), the pipe inclined fixed (6G),
and the vertical position (2G).
Remember, these terms refer to
the position of the pipe and not to
the weld
NAVEDTRA 14250A
Figure 9-76 — Butt joints and socket fitting
joints.
9-92
Pipe Welding Procedures
Welds that you cannot make in a single pass should be made in interlocked multiple
layers, with at least one layer for each 1/8 inch of pipe thickness. Deposit each layer
with a weaving or oscillating motion. To prevent entrapping slag in the weld metal, you
should clean each layer thoroughly before depositing the next layer.
Butt joints are commonly used
between pipes and between
pipes and welded fittings. They
are also used for butt welding of
flanges and welding stubs. In
making a butt joint, place two
pieces of pipe end to end, align
them, and then weld them (Figure
9-76).
When the wall thickness of the
pipe is 3/4 inch or less, you can
use either the single V or single U
type of butt joint; however, when
the wall thickness is more than
3/4 inch, only the single U type
should be used.
Fillet welds are used for welding
slip-on and threaded flanges to
pipe. Depending on the flange
and type of service, fillet welds
may be required on both sides of
Figure 9-77 — Flange connections.
the flange or in combination with
a bevel weld (Figure 9-77). Fillet
welds are also used in welding screw or socket couplings to pipe, using a single fillet
weld (Figure 9-76). Sometimes flanges require alignment. Figure 9-78 shows one type
of flange square and its use in vertical and
horizontal alignment.
Another form of fillet weld used in pipefitting
is a seal weld. A seal weld is used primarily
to obtain tightness and prevent leakage.
Seal welds should not be considered as
adding strength to the joint.
Joint Preparation and Fitup
You must carefully prepare pipe joints for
welding if you want good results. Clean the
weld edges or surfaces of all loose scale,
slag, rust, paint, oil, and other foreign matter.
Ensure that the joint surfaces are smooth
and uniform. Remove the slag from flamecut edges; however, it is not necessary to
remove the temper color.
When you prepare joints for welding,
remember that bevels must be cut
NAVEDTRA 14250A
Figure 9-78 — Flange alignment.
9-93
accurately. Bevels can be made by machining, grinding, or using a gas cutting torch. In
fieldwork, the welding operator usually must make the bevel cuts with a gas torch.
When you are beveling, cut away as little metal as possible to allow for complete fusion
and penetration. Proper beveling reduces the amount of filler metal required, which in
turn reduces time and expense. In addition, it also means less strain in the weld and a
better job of design and welding.
Align the piping before welding and maintain it in alignment during the welding
operation. The maximum alignment
tolerance is 20 percent of the pipe thickness.
To ensure proper initial alignment, you
should use clamps or jigs as holding
devices. A piece of angle iron makes a good
jig for a small-diameter pipe (Figure 9-79),
while a section of channel or I-beam is more
suitable for larger diameter pipe.
Tack Welding
When welding material solidly, you may use
tack welds to hold it in place temporarily.
Tack welding is one of the most important
steps in pipe welding or any other type of
welding. The number of tack welds required
depends upon the diameter of the pipe. For
1/2-inch pipe, you need two tacks; place
them directly opposite each other. As a rule,
Figure 9-79 — Angle iron jig.
four tacks are adequate for standard size of
pipe. The size of a tack weld is determined by the wall thickness of the pipe. Be sure
that a tack weld is not more than twice the pipe thickness in length or two thirds of the
pipe thickness in depth. Tack welds should be the same quality as the final weld.
Ensure that the tack welds have good fusion and are thoroughly cleaned before
proceeding with the weld.
Spacers
In addition to tack welds, spacers sometimes are required to maintain proper joint
alignment. Spacers are accurately machined pieces of metal that conform to the
dimensions of the joint design used. Spacers are sometimes referred to as chill rings or
backing rings, and they serve a number of purposes, for example, they provide a means
for maintaining the specified root opening, provide a convenient location for tack welds,
and aid in the pipe alignment. In addition, spacers can prevent weld spatter and the
formation of slag or icicles inside the pipe.
Weather Conditions
Do not assign a welder to a job under any of the following conditions listed below unless
the welder and the work area are properly protected:
• When the atmospheric temperature is less than 0°F
• When the surfaces are wet
• When rain or snow is falling, or moisture is condensing on the weld surfaces
• During periods of high wind
At temperatures between 0°F and 32°F, heat the weld area within 3 inches of the joint
with a torch to a temperature warm to the hand before beginning to weld.
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9-94
Test your Knowledge (Select the Correct Response)
12.
How many basic types of pipe weld joints are there?
A.
B.
C.
D.
13.
4
5
6
8
In addition to tack welds, what is also used for proper pipe alignment?
A.
B.
C.
D.
Spacers
Back strips
Another welder
Flat, smooth surface to place the work piece on
9.0.0 WELDING PROCEDURE VARIABLES
Welding procedure variables control the welding process and the quality of the welds
that are produced. The selection of the welding variables is done after the base metal,
filler metal, and joint design are selected. The selection of the filler metal and joint
design have been discussed in previous chapters.
A proper selection of welding variables will make the welding easier for the welder,
increasing the chance of producing the weld properties required. The three major types
of welding variables are the fixed or
preselected, the primary adjustable, and the
secondary adjustable.
The fixed or preselected variables are set
before the actual welding takes place. These
are items such as the electrode type and
size, the type of current, the type of shielding
gas, and the electrode taper angle. These
variables cannot be easily changed once the
welding starts.
The primary adjustable variables are used to
control the welding process after the fixed
variables have been selected. They control
the formation of the weld bead by affecting
the bead width and height, joint penetration,
arc stability, and weld soundness (Figure 980). The primary adjustable variables for gas
tungsten arc welding are the welding current,
arc length, and travel speed.
Figure 9-80 — Bead height,
width, and penetration.
The secondary adjustable variables are used
to control the welding process. These are usually more difficult to measure and their
effects may not be as obvious. In TIG welding, secondary adjustable variables are
things such as the work and travel angles of the electrode and the electrode extension.
The different variables affect the characteristics of the weld including the joint
penetration of the weld, the bead height and width, and the deposition rate. The joint
penetration is the distance the weld metal extends from its face into a joint, exclusive of
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9-95
weld reinforcement. The bead height is the height of the weld metal above the surface
of the base metal. The bead width is the width of the weld bead. The deposition rate is
the weight of material deposited in a unit of time.
The welding variables presented in this section focus on joint penetration, bead shape,
and the effect they have on the other welding variables. The deposition rate is a lesser
issue with TIG. It will vary widely because the filler metal does not cross the arc and is
not as dependent on variables such as the type and amount of welding current used,
and of course there is no deposition rate when you do not use a filler metal.
9.1.0 Fixed Variables
With gas tungsten arc welding, fixed variables include the type, size, and taper of the
electrode, and the types of welding current and shielding gas.
9.1.1 Type of Electrode
The type of tungsten electrode used in gas tungsten arc welding depends on the type of
metal and the specific application. Refer to Table 9-3 for the correct type of electrode to
weld various base metals.
For less critical applications, you should use the pure tungsten electrodes rather than
the thoriated or zirconium tungsten electrodes. Pure tungsten electrodes have a lower
current carrying capacity and a lower resistance to contamination, and tend to leave
more tungsten inclusions in the weld metal. However, pure tungsten electrodes are
widely used for AC welding of aluminum and magnesium because they do not
disintegrate as fast with alternating current, and are the least expensive.
The thoriated tungsten electrodes are more expensive but are preferred for many
applications because of the higher current carrying capacity, longer life, easier starting,
more stable arc, and greater resistance to contamination.
Zirconium tungsten electrodes generally have properties that fall somewhere in the
middle. Zirconium electrodes often give the best characteristics with alternating current
and are used to give x-ray quality welds in aluminum and magnesium.
9.1.2 Electrode Size
The size of the electrode used will depend on the intended welding current range. Refer
again to an earlier table, Table 9-4, which shows the current ranges for various types
and sizes of tungsten electrodes. This is not the only determining factor though. For all
types of tungsten electrodes, in addition to the electrode diameter, the current-carrying
capacity is affected by the electrode extension, type of electrode holder, type of
shielding gas, and type of welding current.
Larger electrodes will allow you to use higher welding currents. For a given welding
current setting, you will need to use a larger electrode when using direct current
electrode positive because of the high heat buildup that occurs in the electrode. Also,
for a given size of electrode, direct current electrode negative will be able to carry the
largest amount of current. Although larger electrodes are generally used for welding
thicker metal, very small electrodes may be used for welding very thin sheet metal.
9.1.3 Type of Welding Current
The type of welding current used depends primarily on the type of metal to be welded,
the current levels required, and the availability of a machine that produces that type of
welding current. Figure 9-81 describes some of the characteristics of different polarity
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9-96
electrodes; also, refer once again to Table 9-3 for the type of recommended current for
different base metals.
Direct current electrode positive is often used for welding thin aluminum and
magnesium parts. It is popular for these applications because the cathodic cleaning
action created at the surface of the workpiece removes the refractory oxide surface that
inhibits wetting of the weldment. DCEP also provides shallow penetration and has a low
current-carrying capacity because of the high amount of heat that builds up on the
electrode. Since this heat buildup can cause electrode melting, using DCEP is limited to
welding thin materials at low current levels.
Direct current electrode negative is used to obtain deep penetrating welds and is the
most common type of current used for welding metals other than aluminum and
magnesium. For aluminum and magnesium, alternating current with a superimposed
high frequency current is most commonly used. This type of current provides good
oxide cleaning when the electrode is positive and good penetration when the electrode
is negative. Overall, alternating current gives moderate penetration and is the second
choice of current type on most other metals.
Figure 9-81 — Characteristics of current types for gas tungsten arc welding.
9.1.4 Type of Shielding Gas
Shielding gas is directed by the torch to the arc and weld pool to protect the electrode
and the molten weld metal from atmospheric contamination. The inert shielding gas
used will affect the penetration of the weld, the heat input, and the cost of the welding
operation.
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9-97
Argon is the most common type of shielding gas used in TIG and can be used for most
applications. Argon will give less penetration and heat input than helium but is less
expensive to use because it requires lower flow rates, produces the least spatter, and
costs less. It provides a smoother, quieter, arc action, better cross-draft resistance, and
an easier starting arc. Argon is used exclusively on thin metals because the high heat
input of helium causes melt-through.
Helium gives a hotter arc and more heat input into the base metal, which produces
deeper penetration and allows faster travel speeds. It is used especially for welding
thick sections, for metals with high heat conductivity, and for high-speed mechanized
applications.
Mixtures of argon are used to obtain a balance between the characteristics of these two
gases. Using helium instead of argon allows you to use lower welding currents and
produces higher arc voltages for a given arc length.
9.1.5 Electrode Taper Angle
Electrode taper angle is the angle ground on the end of the tungsten electrode (Figure
9-82). This variable applies only to thoriated tungsten electrodes. These are ground to a
tip to give better arc starting with high frequency ignition and a more stable arc. The
grinding wheel should be reserved for grinding only tungsten to eliminate possible
contamination of the tungsten tip with foreign matter during the grinding operation.
When grinding thoriated electrodes, you should use exhaust hoods to remove the
grinding dust from the work area.
You can taper thoriated tungsten
electrodes because of their
higher current-carrying capacity.
The most common taper angle is
approximately 22°. This means
that the electrode is tapered
about 2 1/2 electrode diameters.
The degree of taper also affects
the bead shape and penetration.
Increasing the taper angle tends
to reduce the bead width and
increase the weld penetration.
The disadvantage of the smaller
taper angles is that they tend to
wear away quicker, especially on
starts where the tip of the
electrode is touched to the work.
To reduce the erosion and the
number of times you will need to
regrind the electrode, you should
use a larger taper angle because
it does not wear away as quickly.
Figure 9-82 — Electrode taper angle.
Regardless of the electrode tip
geometry selected, it is important that you use a consistent taper angle once a welding
procedure is established. Changes in the electrode angle can significantly influence the
weld bead shape and size. Therefore, the electrode tip configuration is a variable that
you need to study during the welding procedure development.
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9-98
9.2.0 Primary Variables
As with any other type of welding, the TIG welding procedure consists of certain
variables that you must understand and follow. Many of the variables have been
discussed. This section applies some of these variables to the actual welding
procedure.
9.2.1 Welding Current
Once you have chosen the fixed or preselected variables, the amount of welding current
you use will have the greatest effect on the characteristics of the weld bead. A knob or
handle on the front of the welding machine, or a foot pedal rheostat controls the welding
current. On some automatic applications, weld programmers may control the weld
current.
All of the following help determine the welding current:
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
type of electrode
size of the electrode
type of welding current
position
joint design
metal thickness
current range of the machine
The welding current is the best variable for controlling the depth of penetration and the
volume of weld metal.
As the other factors remain constant, when you increase the welding current, the
penetration and size of the weld bead increases. An excessive weld current can
produce undercutting, excessive penetration, and an irregular weld deposit.
While the other factors remain constant, lowering the welding current will reduce the
penetration and size of the weld bead. An extremely low weld current can cause piling
up of the weld metal, poor penetration, and overlapping at the edges of the weld bead.
Figure 9-83 shows the effects of different welding currents and speeds.
Figure 9-83 — Effects of different primary variables.
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9-99
9.2.2 Travel Speed
The travel speed is the rate that the arc travels along the workpiece. For a given
welding current and voltage, the travel speed determines the amount of heat that is
delivered for a given length of weld. Changes in the travel speed have a strong effect on
the shape of the weld bead and the amount of penetration. In manual TIG welding, the
welder controls the rate that the arc travels along the work. In mechanized and
automatic welding operations, the travel speed is controlled by the equipment.
While the other variables remain constant, increasing the travel speed will reduce the
size of the weld bead and decrease the amount of penetration. Conversly, decreasing
the travel speed will increase the size of the weld bead and increase the penetration.
If the welding current and travel speed are increased or decreased proportionally
together, the weld will maintain the same penetration and width.
An excessive travel speed will produce a weld bead that is too small, has poor
penetration, and is irregular in shape. A travel speed that is too slow will give a weld
bead with excessive penetration, size, and piling up of the weld metal when filler metal
is added.
9.2.3 Welding Voltage (Arc Length)
The welding or arc voltage is dependent on the shielding gas and the distance between
the tip of the electrode and the work. In the case of manual TIG welding, the welder
controls the distance from the tip of the electrode to the adjacent surface of the weld
pool, called arc length.
In mechanized and automatic welding, the arc length is pre-set by the distance from the
electrode tip to the work. In automatic welding, arc voltage controllers may be used to
move the electrode tip up and down to maintain the desired arc length. The arc voltage
controller compares the measured and desired arc voltages to determine which
direction and at what speed the welding electrode should be moved. This determination,
expressed as a voltage error signal, is amplified to drive motors in a slide that supports
the torch. The changing voltage that results from the motion of the welding electrode is
detected and the cycle repeats to maintain the desired arc voltage.
The shielding gas has an effect on the arc voltage. Helium will give higher arc voltages
for a given arc length than argon, which accounts for the greater penetrating ability of
helium.
The arc length has a direct effect on the welding voltage. Increasing the arc length will
increase the arc voltage, and decreasing the arc length will decrease the arc voltage. A
welding voltage that is too high indicates that the arc is too long. An excessive arc
length will produce an irregular welding bead with poor penetration. When the arc length
is extremely long, the shielding gas may not provide enough protection, which could
cause porosity and a discolored weld bead. Figure 9-83 also shows the effect of an
excessive arc length. Too short an arc can also cause problems. It increases the danger
of electrode contamination because the welder is more likely to dip the end of the
electrode in the weld puddle. Another problem is a higher heat buildup on the tungsten
electrode and the torch nozzle because they are closer to the weld puddle. This reduces
the service life of the electrode.
NAVEDTRA 14250A
9-100
9.2.4 Starting the Arc
Before starting the arc, you should form a
ball on the end of the electrode for AC
welding. To do this, simply set the current to
DCRP and strike an arc for a moment on a
piece of carbon or a piece of copper. The
ball diameter should be only slightly larger
than the original diameter of the tungsten
electrode.
When starting the arc with an AC highfrequency current, you do not have to bring
the electrode into contact with the workpiece.
To strike the arc, you must hold the torch in
a horizontal position about 2 inches above
the work surface, as shown in Figure 9-84.
Then rapidly swing the electrode end of the
torch down to within 1/8 of an inch of the
work surface. The high-frequency arc will
then jump the gap between the electrode
and the plate, establishing the arc. Figure 985 shows the torch position at the time the
arc strikes.
Figure 9-84 — Torch position for
the starting swing to strike the
arc.
If you are using a DC machine, hold the torch
in the same position, but touch the plate to
start the arc. When the arc is struck,
withdraw the electrode so it is about 1/8 of an
inch above the plate.
To stop the arc, quickly swing the electrode
back to the horizontal position. If the machine
has a foot pedal, gradually decrease the
current before stopping the arc.
9.3.0 Secondary Variables
Secondary variables for TIG include the
travel and work angles of the electrode, and
electrode extension.
9.3.1 Angles of the Electrode
Figure 9-85 — Torch position at
the end of the swing.
The angular position of the electrode in
relation to the work may have an effect on the quality of the weld deposit. The position
of the electrode may determine the ease at which you can add the filler metal (if used),
the quality of the weld bead, and the uniformity of the bead.
The electrode angles are called the travel angle and the work angle. The travel angle of
the electrode is the angle between the joint and the electrode in the longitudinal plane.
The work angle is the angle between the electrode and the perpendicular plane to the
direction of travel. These are shown in Figure 9-86. The welder manually controls the
electrode angles, and the angles used may vary slightly from welder to welder.
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An incorrect work angle can cause undercutting and an inadequate weld bead. An
example of this is in the case of making a fillet weld. If the welder favors or directs the
arc more toward one plate, undercutting or lack of fusion may result on the other plate,
and the bead may have an irregular shape. The travel angle used will have an effect on
the penetration and the bead height. Increasing the travel angle in the direction of
welding will generally build up the height of the bead. Increasing the travel angle in the
opposite direction of welding will decrease the amount of penetration and give a wider
bead.
Figure 9-86 — Travel angle and work angle.
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9-102
9.3.2 Electrode Extension
The distance that the tip of the electrode extends beyond the end of the gas nozzle is
known as the electrode extension. Usually, the amount of extension is equal to one or
two electrode diameters, as shown in Figure 9-87. There are cases where the electrode
extension used will be greater or less.
The longer the electrode extension, the greater the chance of contamination by striking
the base metal or the filler rod to the tip of the electrode, or by inadequate gas
coverage.
Alternatively, the farther the electrode tip is
withdrawn into the gas nozzle, the less
current the electrode will be able to
withstand because some of the heat is
reflected back to the electrode from the gas
nozzle. Often, longer electrode extensions
are used on fillet welds so the electrode may
approach the root of the joint and the arc will
be visible to the welder.
In some cases, the end of the electrode is
withdrawn into the gas nozzle, making it very
difficuIt to contaminate the electrode. This
hinders visibility and requires a high degree
of welder skill. For welds requiring a very
short arc length, a longer than normal
extension is used so the welder has better
Figure 9-87 — Electrode
vision. Longer electrode extensions require
extension.
higher gas flow rates and will not cool as
efficiently. The electrode extension should
not be longer than absolutely necessary because of the added gas flow rates needed
and the added danger of electrode contamination.
10.0.0 WELDING PROCEDURE SCHEDULES
The welding procedure schedules in this section give typical welding conditions that can
be used to obtain high quality welds under normal welding conditions. The gas tungsten
arc welding process can use a wide variety of operating conditions for welding various
base metals. The schedules presented here provide only a few examples of the many
different welding procedures that can be used. The tables given here are not the only
conditions that could be used because factors such as weld appearances, welder skill,
method of application, and the specific application often require variations from the
schedules.
For example, when automatic gas tungsten arc welding is used, the travel speeds are
often higher than if the welding was performed manually. As the particular requirements
of the application become known, the settings may be adjusted to obtain the optimum
welding conditions. Qualifying tests or trials should be made in the shop or field prior to
actual use.
When adjusting or changing the variables for welding, the effect of the variables on
each other must be considered. In order to obtain a stable arc and good overall welding
conditions, one variable cannot usually be changed very much without adjusting or
changing the other variables.
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The following schedules are based on welding specific metals and their alloys such as
aluminum, magnesium, copper, nickel, and titanium as well as steel. The tables have
the type of weld, base metal thickness, number of passes, tungsten electrode size, gas
nozzle size, filler rod size, gas flow rate, welding current, and travel speed as the
variables that can be changed. The arc voltage is not included because the arc length
will vary depending on the welder. Gas tungsten arc welding is done using constant
current types of power sources, which allow the welding voltage to vary, while keeping
the welding current at approximately the same level. In automatic gas tungsten arc
welding, the voltage is easily measured because the machine can hold a constant arc
length.
The tables presented in this chapter are the conditions for manual TIG welding. The
main emphasis of these schedules is on the welding conditions used for welding thin
materials, especially for non-ferrous metals. The type of current, shielding gas, and
tungsten electrode used are those recommended for welding these different metals, and
will not be considered as variables here.
Because of the wide variety of applications TIG welding is capable of performing, the
procedure schedules presented here are not a complete guide to the procedures for
TIG. They are not the only conditions that may be used to obtain a specific weld. You
should make qualifying tests under actual conditions before using this process or these
schedules for production welding. Figures 9-88 through 9-93 are representative of some
of the configurations you will encounter when welding.
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Figure 9-88 — Square groove welds.
Table 9-20 — Square groove welds in various types of base metal.
Metal
Number Tungsten
Nozzle
Filler
Gas Flow Welding
Travel
Thickness
of
Size
Size
Size
ft.3/hr.
Current
Speed
in/min(mm/s)
in (mm)
Passes
in (mm)
in (mm)
in (mm)
(I/min.)
Amps
Aluminum and Aluminum Alloys
AC, Argon Shield, Pure or Zirconium Tungsten Electrode
3/64 (1.2)
1
1/16 (1.6)
1/4 (6.4)
1/16 (1.6)
19 (9.0)
20-60
12 (5.1)
1/16(1.6)
1
3/32 (2.4) 5/16 (7.9) 3/32 (2.4)
19 (9.0)
40-90
10 (4.2)
3/32 (2.4)
1
3/32 (2.4) 5/16 (7.9) 3/32 (2.4)
19 (9.0)
50-110
10 (4.2)
1/8 (3.2)
1
1/8 (3.2)
3/8 (9.5
) 1/8 (3.2)
20 (9.4)
100-150
10 (4.2)
Copper and Copper Alloys (Except Silicon Bronze)
DCEN, Argon Shield for Thicknesses less than 3/16” (4.8) — Helium for all others,
Thoriated Tungsten
1/16 (1.6)
1
1/16 (1.6)
1/4 (6.4)
1/16 (1.6)
18 (8.5)
100-150
12 (5.1)
1/8 (3.2)
1
3/32 (2.4) 5/16 (7.9) 3/32 (2.4)
18 (8.5)
150-230
10 (4.2)
3/16 (4.8)
1
1/8 (3.2)
3/8 (9.5)
1/8 (3.2)
36 (17)
175-250
10 (4.2)
Silicon Bronze
DCEN, Argon Shield, Thoriated Tungsten Electrode
1/16(1.6)
1
1/16 (1.6)
1/4 (6.4)
1/16 (1.6)
15 (7.1)
60-125
12 (5.1)
1/8 (3.2)
1
1/16 (1.6)
1/4 (6.4)
3/32 (2.4)
20 (9.4)
80-150
12 (5.1)
3/16 (4.8)
1
3/32 (2.4) 5/16 (7.9) 3/32 (2.4)
20 (9.4)
100-195
10 (4.2)
1/4 (6.4)
2
3/32 (2.4) 5/16 (7.9)
1/8 (3.2)
25 (11.8) 150-225
10 (4.2)
NAVEDTRA 14250A
9-105
Metal
Number Tungsten
Nozzle
Filler
Thickness
of
Size
Size
Size
in (mm)
Passes
in (mm)
in (mm)
in (mm)
Magnesium Alloys
AC, Argon Shield, Pure or Zirconium Tungsten Electrode
20 ga (.9)
1
1/16 (1.6)
1/4 (6.4)
3/32 (2.4)
16 ga (1.5)
1
1/16 (1.6)
1/4 (6.4)
3/32 (2.4)
14ga(1.9)
1
1/16 (1.6)
1/4 (6.4)
3/32 (2.4)
12 ga (2.7)
1
3/32 (2.4)
5/16 (7.9)
1/8 (3.2)
11 ga (3.0)
1
3/32 (2.4)
5/16 (7.9)
1/8 (3.2)
Nickel and Nickel Alloys
DCEN, Argon Shield, Thoriated Tungsten electrode
24 ga (.6)
1
1/16 (1.6)
3/8 (9.5)
None
16 ga (1.5)
1
3/32 (2.4)
1/2 (12.7)
1/16(1.6)
1/8 (3.2)
1
1/8 (3.2)
1/2 (12.7)
3/32 (2.4)
1/4 (6.4)
2
1/8 (3.2)
1/2 (12.7)
1/8 (3.2)
Carbon and Low Alloy Steel
DCEN, Argon Shield, Thoriated Tungsten Electrode
24 ga (.6)
1
1/16 (1.6)
1/4 (6.4)
1/16 (1.6)
20 ga (.9)
1
1/16 (1.6)
14 (6.4)
1/16 (1.6)
18 ga (1.2)
1
1/16(1.6)
1/4 (6.4)
1/16 (1.6)
16ga(1.5)
1
1/16 (1.6)
1/4 (6.4)
1/16(1.6)
14 ga (1.9)
1
1/16(1.6)
1/4 (6.4)
1/16 (1.6)
3/32 (2.4)
1
3/32 (2.4)
5/16 (7.9)
3/32 (2.4)
1/8 (3.2)
1
3/32 (2.4)
5/16 (7.9)
3/32 (2.4)
3/16 (4.8)
1
1/8 (3.2)
3/8 (9.5)
1/8 (3.2)
1/4 (6.4)
1
1/8 (3.2)
3/8 (9.5)
1/8 (3.2)
Stainless Steel
DCEN, Argon Shield, Thoriated Tungsten Electrode
1/16 (1.6)
1
1/16(1.6)
1/4 (6.4)
1/16 (1.6)
3/32 (2.4)
1
1/16 (1.6)
1/4 (6.4)
3/32 (2.4)
1/8 (3.2)
1
1/16 (1.6)
5/16 (7.9)
3/32 (2.4)
3/16 (4.8)
1
3/32 (2.4)
5/16 (7.9)
1/8 (3.2)
Titanium
DCEN, Argon Shield, Thoriated Tungsten Electrode
24 ga (.6)
1
1/16(1.6)
3/8 (9.5)
None
16 ga (1.5)
1
1/16(1.6)
5/8 (15.9)
None
3/32 (2.4)
1
3/32 (2.4)
5/8 (15.9)
1/16 (1.6)
1/8 (3/2)
1
3/32 (2.4)
5/8 (15.9)
1/16 (1.6)
3/16 (4.8)
2
3/32 (2.4)
5/8 (15.9)
1/8 (3.2)
NAVEDTRA 14250A
Gas Flow
ft.3/hr.
(I/min.)
Welding
Current
Amps
Travel
Speed
in/min(mm/s)
15 (7.1)
15 (7.1)
15 (7.1)
15 (7.1)
25 (11.8)
25-40
35-70
40-75
50-100
65-125
15 (6.3)
15 (6.3)
13 (5.5)
13 (5.5)
13 (5.5)
15 (7.1)
18 (8.5)
25 (11.8)
30 (14.2)
8-10
40-70
75-140
100-175
8 (3.4)
8 (3.4)
11 (4.7)
8 (3.4)
10 (4.7)
10 (4.7)
10 (4.7)
10 (4.7)
10 (4.7)
10 (4.7)
12 (5.7)
15(7.1)
18 (8.5)
15-35
20-45
25-55
35-65
35-70
35-80
45-100
65-140
85-175
13 (5.5)
13 (5.5)
12 (5.1)
12 (5.1)
12 (5.1)
12 (5.1)
11 (4.7)
10 (4.2)
10 (4.2)
12 (5.7)
12 (5.7)
12 (5.7)
15 (7.1)
35-60
45-85
55-100
65-130
12(5.1)
12 (5.1)
12 (5.1)
10 (4.2)
18 (8.5)
18 (8.5)
25 (11.8)
25 (11.8)
25 (11.8)
20-35
45-85
60-90
80-125
90-140
6 (2.5)
6 (2.5)
8 (3.4)
8 (3.4)
8 (3.4)
9-106
Figure 9-89 — V-groove welds.
Table 9-21 — V-groove welds in various types of base metal.
Metal
Number Tungsten
Nozzle
Filler
Thickness
of
Size
Size
Size
in (mm)
Passes
in (mm)
in (mm)
in (mm)
Aluminum and Aluminum Alloys
AC Argon Shield Pure or Zirconium Tungsten Electrode
3/16 (4.8)
2
5/32 (4.0)
7/16(11.1)
5/32 (4.0)
1/4 (6.4)
2
5/32 (4.0)
1/2 (12.7)
3/16 (4.8)
3/8 (9.5)
2
3/16 (4.8)
1/2 (12.7)
3/16 (4.8)
3 3/16
1/2 (12.7)
2
(4.8)
1/2 (12.7)
3/16 (4.8)
Copper and Copper Alloys (Except Silicon Bronze)
DC EN Helium Shield Thoriated Tungsten Electrode
1/4 (6.4)
2
1/8 (3.2)
3/8 (9.5)
1/8 (3.2)
3/8 (9.5)
2
3/16 (4.8)
1/2 (12.7)
3/16 (4.8)
1/2 (12.7)
2
1/4 (6.4)
5/8 (15.9)
1/4 (6.4)
Silicon Bronze
DC EN Argon Shield Thoriated Tungsten Electrode
3/8 (9.5)
3
1/8 (3.2)
3/8 (9.5)
3/16 (4.8)
1/2 (12.7)
4
1/8 (3.2)
3/8 (9.5)
1/8 (3.2)
3/4(19.1)
9
1/8 (3.2)
3/8 (9.5)
3/16 (4.8)
Magnesium Alloys
AC Argon Shield Pure or Zirconium Tungsten Electrode
3/16 (4.8)
1
1/8 (3.2)
3/8 (9.5)
1/8 (3.2)
1/4 (6.4)
2
3/16 (4.8)
1/2 (12.7)
5/32 (4.0)
3/8 (9.5)
2
3/16 (4.8)
1/2 (12.7)
3/16 (4.8)
1/2 (12.7)
2
3 1/4 (6.4)
5/8 (15.9)
3/16(4.8)
3/4 (19.1)
3
1/4 (6.4)
3/4 (19.1)
3/16 (4.8)
NAVEDTRA 14250A
Gas Flow
ft.3/hr.
(I/min.)
Welding
Current
Amps
Travel
Speed
in/min(mm/s)
25 (11.8)
30 (14.2)
30 (14.2)
160-180
200-220
240-300
11 (4.7)
9 (3.8)
8 (3.4)
35 (16.5)
300-350
8 (3.4)
36 (17.0)
45 (21.2)
45 (21.2)
220-275
275-325
370-500
7 (3.0)
7 (3.0)
6 (2.5)
25 (11.8)
25 (11.8)
25 (11.8)
295-355
245-295
295-355
8 (3.4)
8 (3.4)
8 (3.4)
25 (11.8)
25 (11.8)
30 (14.2)
35 (16.5)
40 (18.9)
95-115
110-130
135-165
280-320
340-380
24 (10.2)
20 (8.5)
18 (7.6)
10 (4.2)
10 (4.2)
9-107
Stainless Steel
DC EN Argon Shield Thoriated Tungsten Electrode
1/4 (6.4)
2
1/8 (3.2)
3/8 (9.5)
3/16 (4.8)
3 3/16
3/8 (9.5)
2
(4.8)
1/2 (12.7)
3/16 (4.8)
1/2 (12.7)
3
3/16 (4.8)
112 (12.7)
1/4 (6.4)
Titanium
DCEN Argon Shield Thoriated Tungsten Electrode
1/4 (6.4)
2
1/8 (3.2)
5/8 (15.9)
1/8 (3.2)
3/8 (9.5)
2
1/8 (3.2)
3/4(19.1)
1/8 (3.2)
1/2 (12.7)
3
1/8 (3.2)
3/4(19.1)
3/32 (4.0)
18 (8.5)
175-250
10 (4.2)
25 (11.8)
25 (11.8)
250-350
250-350
10 (4.2)
10 (4.2)
30 (14.2)
35 (16.5)
40 (18.9)
135-200
140-210
160-250
8 (3.4)
6 (2.5)
6 (2.5)
Figure 9-90 — Fillet welds.
Table 9-22 — Fillet welds in various types of base metals.
Metal
Number Tungsten
Nozzle
Filler
Thickness
of
Size
Size
Size
in (mm)
Passes
in (mm)
in (mm)
in (mm)
Aluminum and Aluminum Alloys
AC, Argon Shield, Pure or Zirconium Tungsten Electrode
1/16(1.6)
1
3/32 (2.4)
5/16 (7.9)
3/32 (2.4)
3/32 (2.4)
1
3/32 (2.4)
5/16 (7.9)
3/32 (2.4)
1/8 (3.2)
1
1/8 (3.2)
3/8 (9.5)
1/8 (3.2)
3/16 (4.8)
1
5/32 (4.0)
7/16 (11.1)
5/32 (4.0)
1/4 (6.4)
1
3/16 (4.8)
1/2 (12.7)
3/16 (4.8)
3/8 (9.5)
2
3/16 (4.8)
112 (12.7)
3/16 (4.8)
1/2 (12.7)
3
3/16 (4.8)
1/2 (12.7)
3/16 (4.8)
NAVEDTRA 14250A
Gas Flow
ft.3/hr.
(I/min.)
Welding
Current
Amps
Travel
Speed
in/min(mm/s)
15 (7.1)
16 (7.6)
19 (9.0)
25 (11.8)
30 (14.2)
35 (16.5)
35 (16.5)
50-90
60-115
70-140
110-200
130-250
175-310
250-350
9 (3.8)
9 (3.8)
10 (4.2)
10 (4.2)
10 (4.2)
8 (3.4)
8 (3.4)
9-108
Copper and Copper Alloys (Except Silicon Bronze)
DCEN, Argon Shield for Thickness < 3/16” , All others Helium, Thoriated Tungsten Electrode
1/16 (1.6)
1
1/16 (1.6)
1/4 (6.4)
1/16 (1.6)
18 (8.5)
90-155
10 (4.2)
1/8 (3.2)
1
3/32 (2.4)
5/16 (7.9)
3/32 (2.4)
18 (8.5)
150-245
8 (3.4)
3/16 (4.8)
1
1/8 (3.2)
3/8 (9.5)
1/8 (3.2)
36 (17.0)
175-255
8 (3.4)
1/4 (6.4)
1
1/8 (3.2)
3/8 (9.5)
1/8 (3.2)
36 (17.0)
200-285
7 (3.0)
3/8 (9.5)
2
3/16 (4.8)
1/2 (12.7)
3/16 (4.8)
36 (17.0)
220-350
6 (2.5)
1/2 (12.7)
3
3/16 (4.8)
5/8 (15.9)
1/4 (6.4)
45 (21.2)
300-500
6 (2.5)
Silicon Bronze
DCEN, Argon Shield, Thoriated Tungsten Electrode
1/16 (1.6)
1
1/16(1.6)
1/4 (6.4)
1/16 (1.6)
15 (7.1)
75-120
10 (4.2)
1/8 (3.2)
1
1/16(1.6)
1/4 (6.4)
3/32 (2.4)
15 (7.1)
95-150
10 (4.2)
3/16 (4.8)
1
3/32 (2.4)
5/16 (7.9)
3/32 (2.4)
20 (9.4)
125-220
10 (4.2)
1/4 (6.4)
2
3/32 (2.4)
5/16 (7.9)
1/8 (3.2)
25 (11.8)
140-275
8 (3.4)
3/8 (9.5)
3
1/8 (3.2)
3/8 (9.5)
1/8 (3.2)
25 (11.8)
200-285
8 (3.4)
1/2 (12.7)
7
5/32 (4.0)
3/8 (9.5)
1/8 (3.2)
25 (11.8)
240-300
8 (3.4)
3/4(19.1)
14
5/32 (4.0)
3/8 (9.5)
3/16 (4.8)
25 (11.8)
275-350
8 (3.4)
1 (25.4)
20
3/16 (4.8)
7/16(11.1)
1/4 (6.4)
25 (11.8)
300-365
8 (3.4)
Magnesium Alloys
AC, Argon Shield, Pure or Zirconium Tungsten Electrode
20 ga (.9)
1
1/16(1.6)
3/8 (9.5)
3/32 (2.4)
15 (7.1)
25-45
20 (8.5)
16 ga (1.5)
1
1/16 (1.6)
3/8 (9.5)
3/32 (2.4)
15 (7.1)
35-60
20 (8.5)
14 ga (1.9)
1
3/32 (2.4)
3/8 (9.5)
1/8 (3.2)
15 (7.1)
50-80
17 (7.2)
12 ga (2.7)
1
3/32 (2.4)
1/2 (12.7)
1/8 (3.2)
20 (9.4)
75-100
17 (7.2)
11 ga (3.0)
1
3/32 (2.4)
1/2 (12.7)
1/8 (3.2)
20 (9.4)
95-120
17 (7.2)
Nickel and Nickel Alloys
DCEN, Argon Shield, Thoriated Tungsten Electrode
24 ga (.6)
1
1/16 (1.6)
3/8 (9.5)
None
15 (7.1)
8-10
8 (3.4)
16 ga (1.5)
1
3/32 (2.4)
1/2 (12.7)
1/16(1.6)
18 (8.5)
25-45
8 (3.4)
1/8 (3.2)
1
1/8 (3.2)
1/2 (12.7)
3/32 (2.4)
25 (11.8)
90-175
11 (4.7)
1/4 (6.4)
2
1/8 (3.2)
1/2 (12.7)
1/8 (3.2)
30 (14.2)
100-175
8 (3.4)
Carbon and Low Alloy Steel
DCEN, Argon Shield, Thoriated Tungsten Electrode
24 ga (.6)
1
1/16 (1.6)
1/4 (6.4)
1/16 (1.6)
10 (4.7)
15-20
13 (5.5)
20 ga (.9)
1
1/16 (1.6)
1/4 (6.4)
1/16 (1.6)
10 (4.7)
25-50
15 (6.3)
18 ga (1.2)
1
1/16 (1.6)
1/4 (6.4)
1/16 (1.6)
10 (4.7)
35-70
15 (6.3)
16 ga (1.5)
1
1/16 (1.6)
1/4 (6.4)
1/16 (1.6)
10 ( 4.7)
50-80
15 (6.3)
14 ga (1.9)
1
1/16(1.6)
1/4 (6.4)
1/16(1.6)
10( 4.7)
65-90
15 (6.3)
1/8 (3.2)
1
3/32 (2.4)
5/16 (7.2)
3/32 (2.4)
12(5.7)
75-120
11 (4.7)
3/16 (4.8)
1
1/8 (3.2)
3/8 (9.5)
1/8 (3.2)
15 (7.1)
150-200
10 (4.2)
1/4 (6.4)
2
1/8 (3.2)
3/8 (9.5)
1/8 (3.2)
18 (8.5)
160-250
10 (4.2)
NAVEDTRA 14250A
9-109
Stainless Steel
DCEN, Argon Shield, Thoriated Tungsten Electrode
1/16 (1.6)
1
1/16(1.6)
1/4 (6.4)
1/16 (1.6)
3/32 (2.4)
1
1/16 (1.6)
1/4 (6.4)
3/32 (2.4)
1/8 (3.2)
1
1/16 (1.6)
5/16 (7.9)
3/32 (2.4)
3/16 (4.8)
1
1/8 (3.2)
3/8 (9.5)
1/8 (3.2)
1/4 (6.4)
2
1/8 (3.2)
3/8 (9.5)
3/16 (4.8)
3/8 (9.5)
2-3
3/16 (4.8)
1/2 (12.7)
3/16 (4.8)
1/2 (12.7)
3
3/16 (4.8)
1/2 (12.7)
1/4 (6.4)
Titanium
DCEN, Argon Shield, Thoriated Tungsten Electrode
24 ga (.6)
1
1/16(1.6)
3/8 (9.5)
None
16 ga (1.5)
1
1/16(1.6)
5/8 (15.9)
None
3/32 (2.4)
1
3/32 (2.4)
5/8 (15.9)
1/16 (1.6)
1/8 (3/2)
1
3/32 (2.4)
5/8 (15.9)
1/16 (1.6)
3/16 (4.8)
2
3/32 (2.4)
5/8 (15.9)
1/8 (3.2)
1/4 (6.4)
2
1/8 (3.2)
5/8 (15.9)
1/8 (3.2)
3/8 (9.5)
2
1/8 (3.2)
3/4(19.1)
1/8 (3.2)
1/2 (12.7)
3
3/32 (2.4)
3/4 (19.1)
5/32 (4.0)
NAVEDTRA 14250A
10 (4.7)
10 (4.7)
10 (4.7)
15 (7.1)
18(8.5)
25 (11.8)
25 (11.8)
45-75
65-85
75-125
100-175
125-225
175-300
200-325
10 (4.2)
10 (4.2)
10 (4.2)
8 (3.4)
10 (4.2)
10 (4.2)
10 (4.2)
18 (8.5)
18 (8.5)
25 (11.8)
25 (11.8)
25 (11.8)
30 (14.2)
35 (16.5)
40 (18.9)
20-35
45-85
60-90
80-125
90-140
125-175
175-225
225-300
6 (2.5)
6 (2.5)
8 (3.4)
8 (3.4)
8 (3.4)
8 (3.4)
6 (2.5)
6 (2.5)
9-110
Figure 9-91 — Pulsed current parameters.
Table 9-23 — Pulsed current procedures for TIG.
STAINLESS STEEL
Metal
Thickness
Welding
%
Gage In Current Welding
(mm) Amps
Current
24 .025 (0.6)
35-45
20
18 .050 (1.2)
45-55
20
16 .062 (1.5)
55-70
20
3/32 (2.4)
65-85
20
1/8 (3.2)
75-95
20
NAVEDTRA 14250A
High
Pulse
Time
Seconds
0.05
0.1
0.2
0.3
0.4
Low
Pulse
Time
Seconds
0.3
0.3
0.4
0.6
0.8
Argon Gas
Flow
ft3/hr
12
12
12
12
12
(I/min)
(5.7)
(5.7)
(5.7)
(5.7)
(5.7)
Travel Speed
in/min
4
4
4
3
3
9-111
(mm/s)
(1.69)
(1.69)
(1.69)
(1.27)
(1.27)
Figure 9-92 — Pulsed current parameters (cont.).
Table 9-24 — Pulsed current for stainless steel.
STAINLESS STEEL-Unlimited Thickness
Joint Type
Welding
Current
Amps
%
Welding
Current
High
Pulse
Time
Seconds
Low
Pulse
Time
Seconds
V/Butt Joint
170-190
20
0.06
Consumable Insert
170-190
20
Open Root
170-190
Fill Pass
170-190
NAVEDTRA 14250A
Argon Gas Flow
Travel Speed
ft3/hr
(I/min)
in/min
(mm/s)
0.06
18
(8.5)
3
(1.27)
0.06
0.06
18
(8.5)
3
(1.27)
40
0.06
0.06
18
(8.5)
4
(1.27)
40
0.06
0.06
25
(11.8)
4
(1.27)
9-112
Figure 9-93 — Gas tungsten arc spot welding - Flat and vertical position.
Table 9-25 — Gas Tungsten Arc Spot Welding.
Metal Thickness
Top Piece
Welding
Condition
Amperes
Gage Inch (mm)
DCEN
Stainless Steel
24
.025 (0.64)
125
24
.025 (0.64)
110
24
.025 (0.64)
100
22
.0312 (0.79)
125
22
.0312 (0.79)
100
18
.05 (1.27)
140
16
.05 (1.27)
110
16
.062 (1.57)
170
16
.062 (1.57)
140
.062 (1.57)
115
.064 (1.62)
160
Low Alloy and Mild Steel
22
.0312 (0.79)
170
22
.0312 (0.79)
140
22
.0312 (0.79)
120
18
.05 (1.27)
170
18
.05 (1.27)
140
18
.05 (1.27)
135
16
.062 (1.57)
170
16
.062 (1.57)
155
Aluminum
.022 (.56)
.32
(.81)
.48 (1.22)
.064 (1.62)
NAVEDTRA 14250A
AC
175
175
150
175
175
200
150
250
Shielding
Gas Argon
Arc Time
Second
Note #2 ft3/hr (l/min)
250
1
1.25
1.5
1.5
1.75
1.5
2.5
3
3.25
5.25
2.25
10
10
10
10
10
12
12
12
12
12
12
(4.7)
(4.7)
(4.7)
(4.7)
(4.7)
(5.7)
(5.7)
(5.7)
(5.7)
(5.7)
(5.7)
250
200
175
250
200
200
250
225
1.5
2
2.25
1.75
2
2.5
3
3.5
8
8
8
10
10
10
12
12
(3.8)
(3.8)
(3.8)
(4.7)
(4.7)
(4.7)
(5.7)
(5.7)
170
200
220
250
1.1
1.5
1.7
2.2
8
8
8
8
(3.8)
(3.8)
(3.8)
(3.8)
9-113
11.0.0 PREWELD PREPARATIONS
Several steps must be taken before making a weld with the gas tungsten arc welding
process. These include preparing the weld joint, preparing the electrode tip, fixturing the
weldment, setting the variables, and in some cases, preheating. The amount of preweld
preparation depends upon the size of the weld and weldment, the type of base metal,
the ease of fitup, the quality requirements, the governing code or specification, and the
welder.
11.1.0 Preparing the Weld Joint
There are different ways of preparing the edge of the joint for welding. For fillet or
square-groove welds, the joints are prepared simply by squaring the edges of the
members if the as-received edge is not suitable. In TIG welding, a large percentage of
the joints are prepared this way because this process is widely used for welding thin
materials.
The methods most often used for edge preparation are oxygen fuel cutting, plasma arc
cutting, shearing, machining, air carbon arc gouging, grinding, and chipping. When they
are available, with the exception of shearing, the thermal cutting methods such as oxyfuel cutting, plasma arc cutting, or air carbon arc cutting are faster than the mechanical
cutting methods.
Oxy-fuel cutting is used on carbon and low alloy steels, plasma arc cutting is used on
ferrous and non-ferrous metals and is best for applications where high production rates
are required, and air carbon arc cutting is used for most steels, including stainless
steels. However, do not use air carbon arc on stainless steels involving critical corrosion
applications because of the high carbon deposition. The surfaces cut by these thermal
methods often have to be ground lightly to remove the scale or contamination.
Common types of prepared joints are the V-, U-, J-, bevel-, and combination grooves.
The more complex types of bevels require longer joint preparation times, which makes
the joint preparation more expensive.
Next to the square edge preparation, the V-groove and single-bevel grooves are used
most often, and can be prepared easily by oxy-fuel cutting or plasma arc cutting. These
two methods leave a smooth surface if properly done. The edges of U- and J-grooves
can be prepared by using special oxy-fuel tips and techniques, air carbon arc cutting, or
by machining, which will produce a more uniform groove. These joint preparations are
not as common in TIG welding because they are joint preparations for thicker materials.
11.2.0 Cleaning the Work Metal
The welds made by TIG are very susceptible to contamination during the welding
process. The surface of the base metal must be free of grease, oil, paint, plating, dirt,
oxides, or any other foreign material. This is especially critical when welding aluminum
and non-ferrous metals. Usually, extremely dirty workpieces, except titanium, are
cleaned by using solvent cleaners followed by vapor degreasing, and simple degreasing
is used for cleaning metals that have oxide-free surfaces. Generally, acid pickling is
used for cleaning metals that have a light oxide coating, while heavier oxide coatings
are removed mechanically by grinding and abrasive blasting.
The type of required cleaning operation will vary depending on the metal. Aluminum has
a thick, refractory oxide coating which has a high electrical resistance. This coating is
removed by deoxidation with a hot alkaline cleaning solution, followed by rinsing in
distilled water. Carbon and low alloy steels may be cleaned chemically in a hydrochloric
NAVEDTRA 14250A
9-114
acid solution. Nickel alloys and stainless steels may be cleaned by pickling, which
removes iron, sand blast residue, and other contaminants. Titanium and titanium alloys
may be cleaned in molten salt baths or by abrasive blasting. Chlorinated solvents used
for degreasing operations should not be used on titanium because they will cause
corrosion cracking. Chemical cleaning can be done by pickling with hydrofluoric acid.
You need to perform several tasks just before welding. One is to file the edges of the
joint smooth so no burrs are present; burrs can cause physical pain and be a place to
trap contaminants in a weld joint. Another is to wire brush the surfaces of the joint and
surrounding area. Use mild steel brushes for cleaning mild and low alloy steel, and use
stainless steel wire brushes for stainless steel, aluminum, and other non-ferrous metals.
Following this procedure will help you avoid contaminating the stainless steel and noncarbon metals with a mild steel brush. You should do the welding as soon as possible
after cleaning, especially on metals that form moderate or thick surface oxides such as
stainless steel, aluminum, and magnesium. Wire brushing does not completely remove
the oxide, but it reduces its thickness and makes the metals easier to weld. Wear gloves
while cleaning to prevent oil or dirt from your fingers from getting on the joint surfaces,
which can also cause contamination.
Contaminates on the workpiece can lead to arc instability and result in welds that
contain pores, cracks, or inclusions.
11.3.0 Electrode Tip Preparation
The shape of the tungsten electrode tip is an important process variable in gas tungsten
arc welding. The type of electrode tip preparation depends on the type of tungsten
electrode; it may have a pointed, hemispherical, or balled profile. A pointed electrode tip
is best for welding in restricted areas such as narrow joints, and it permits a high current
density to be maintained. Pointed
electrode tips are used on
thoriated electrodes, while the
hemispherical and balled tips are
used for zirconium and pure
tungsten electrodes.
The pure and zirconium types of
electrodes form a hemispherical
or balled tip and are used mainly
for welding with alternating
current. These two types of
electrode tip preparations are
shown in Figure 9-94. You
produce a hemispherical
electrode tip by starting an arc
between the electrode and a
piece of scrap metal or copper
and maintaining it at a moderate
current level until a hemispherical
ball is formed on the end of the
electrode.
You produce a balled tip the same
way, except you use higher
current levels. As you increase
NAVEDTRA 14250A
Figure 9-94 — Hemispherical and balled tip.
9-115
the current beyond the point where a hemispherical tip exists, the ball will increase in
size proportionately. The diameter of the balled end should not exceed one and one-half
times the electrode diameter because the excessive current will consume the electrode
too quickly. The surface of the hemispherical and balled tips should always be perfectly
clean, shiny, and highly reflective.
The pointed type of tip preparation is used on 1% and 2% thoriated tungsten electrodes,
which are generally used for DCEN welding. Unless the thoriated electrodes are used
for welding with AC, they are normally ground to a sharp point (Figure 9-95). The length
of the ground surface of the electrode should be about two or three times the size of the
electrode diameter.
To produce optimum arc stability, grind the tungsten electrodes with the axis of the
electrode perpendicular to the axis of the
grinding wheel or along the length of the
electrode and not across the diameter. This
will produce a more stable arc. Slightly blunt
the tip of the electrode before welding; when
higher current levels are used, the tip of the
electrode will melt back a bit and give a
slightly wider tip. Reserve a grinding wheel
for grinding tungsten only to eliminate
possible contamination of the tungsten tip,
Figure 9-95 — Point tip
and use exhaust hoods when grinding
preparation.
thoriated electrodes to remove the grinding
dust from the work area.
Thoriated and zirconium electrodes will maintain a pointed edge preparation over a wide
current range, but pure tungsten electrodes will change their tip profile according to the
amount of current they are carrying. The surface of a pointed electrode should be kept
clean at all times, but it will not be shiny.
11.4.0 Fixturing, Positioning, and Weld Backing
Fixturing can affect the shape, size and uniformity of a weld bead. Fixtures are devices
used to hold the parts in proper relation to each other until welded. When fixturing is not
used, it usually indicates that the resulting weld distortion can either be tolerated or
corrected by straightening operations. The following are primary functions of fixturing:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
Locate parts precisely within the assembly.
Maintain alignment during welding.
Minimize distortion in the weldment.
Control heat buildup.
Increase welding efficiency.
When you use a welding fixture, you can assemble and hold the components securely
in place while you position the weldment and perform the weld. The need to use these
devices depends on the specific application; they are used more often when large
numbers of the same parts are produced. When you can use fixtures, your production
time for the weldments can be reduced significantly. They are also good for applications
where you must hold close tolerances.
Positioners are used to move the workpiece into a position so welding can be done
more conveniently, which affects the appearance and quality of the weld bead.
Sometimes you need a positioner simply to make the weld joint more accessible. The
main objective of positioning is to put the joint in the flat or other more favorable
NAVEDTRA 14250A
9-116
position, which increases your efficiency because you can use higher welding speeds.
This also allows you to use larger diameter wires with globular and high current spray
transfer. These modes of metal transfer will produce the highest deposition rates. Flat
position welding usually increases the quality of the weld because it makes the welding
easier.
Weld backings are commonly used in TIG to provide support for the weld metal and to
control the heat input. Copper, stainless steel, and consumable insert rings are the
three most common methods. Copper is the most popular method of weld backing
because it does not fuse to thin metals. It also provides a fast cooling rate; the high heat
conductivity of copper makes this a good method of controlling the heat input. Stainless
steel is good backing material for argon shielded TIG welding. Often, consumable
inserts are used as weld backing for welding the root pass in pipe welding. They fit into
place and are available in plain carbon steel, alloy steel, and stainless steel, as well as
in copper and nickel alloys.
11.5.0 Preheating
Preheating is sometimes required, but this depends on the type of metal being welded,
the base metal thickness, and the amount of joint restraint. These factors were
discussed in the section on Welding Metallurgy. The specific amount of preheat needed
for a given application is often obtained from the welding procedure.
The preheat temperature of the metal should be carefully controlled. There are several
good methods of performing this: furnace heating, electric induction coils, and electric
resistance heating blankets. On thin materials, hot air blasts or radiant lamps may be
used; with these methods, temperature indicators are attached to the parts being
preheated.
Oxy-fuel torches are another method of preheating. This method gives a more localized
heating than the previously mentioned methods. When you use oxy-fuel torches, you
need to avoid localized overheating and keep deposits of incomplete combustion
products from collecting on the surface of the parts to be welded. There are several
methods of measuring the temperature of preheat such as colored crayons, pellets, and
hand-held temperature indicators. The crayons and pellets melt at a specific
predetermined temperature; the handheld temperature indicators give meter readings,
digital readings, or recorder readings, depending on the type of temperature indicator.
Test your Knowledge (Select the Correct Response)
14.
Which is NOT a major type of welding variable?
A.
B.
C.
D.
15.
Fixed
Primary adjustable
Secondary adjustable
Secondary fixed
On a pointed tip electrode, what should the length of the ground surface be?
A.
B.
C.
D.
Half the diameter of the electrode
Two to three times the diameter of the electrode
Four to five times the diameter of the electrode
Half the length of the electrode
NAVEDTRA 14250A
9-117
12.0.0 WELDING DISCONTINUITIES and PROBLEMS
TIG, like the other processes, can have welding procedure problems resulting in weld
defects. Some defects are caused by problems with the materials, including the use of
improper base metal, filler metal, or shielding gas. Other welding problems may not be
foreseeable, such as arc blow and electrode contamination, and may require immediate
corrective action. A poor welding technique and an improper choice of welding
parameters are other causes of welding defects.
Discontinuities that can occur when using TIG welding are tungsten inclusions, porosity,
wormhole porosity, undercutting, incomplete fusion, melt-through, arc strikes, and
craters. Problems with the welding technique or procedure weaken the weld and can
cause cracking. The base metal and filler metal must be clean to avoid many of these
problems. Other problems that can occur and reduce the quality of the weld are arc
blow, lack of shielding gas, and drafts or air currents.
TIG welding does not have many problems with slag inclusions because a shielding
gas, instead of a slag layer, protects the weld puddle. However, some filler metals,
particularly those used for mild steel, will sometimes leave a small amount of slag,
which may cause slag inclusions if it is not cleaned properly. However, this is rarely a
problem. Welding spatter rarely occurs because the tungsten is a non-consumable
electrode and the filler metal is added directly to the weld puddle, not transferred across
the arc.
12.1.0 Discontinuities Caused by Welding Technique
12.1.1 Tungsten Inclusions
Tungsten inclusions are chunks or particles
from the elctrode which are found in the
weld metal (Figure 9-96).
These inclusions are the result of problems
in the welding procedure such as the
following:
1. Exceeding the maximum current for
a given electrode size or type.
Figure 9-96 — Inclusions.
2. Letting the tip of the electrode make
contact with the molten weld puddle.
3. Letting the filler metal come in contact with the hot tip of the electrode.
4. Using an excessive electrode extension.
5. Inadequate gas shielding or excessive wind drafts which result in oxidation.
6. Using improper shielding gases such as argonoxygen or argon-CO2 mixtures,
which are used for gas metal arc welding.
This problem can be corrected by the following:
1. Reducing the current.
2. Maintaining a distance between the tungsten electrode and weld puddle and the
tungsten electrode and filler metal.
3. Reducing the electrode extension.
4. Increasing gas flow or shielding arc from wind drafts.
5. Using inert gas only.
NAVEDTRA 14250A
9-118
12.1.2 Oxide Inclusions
Oxide inclusions are particles of surface
oxides which have not melted and mixed
into the weld metal (Figure 9-97). These
inclusions occur when welding those metals
that have surface oxides with very high
melting points. This problem is mainly
associated with welding aluminum and
magnesium, but some problems will also
occur when welding stainless steel. Oxide
Figure 9-97 — Oxide inclusion.
inclusions weaken the weld and can serve
as initiation points for cracking. The best
method of preventing this problem is to wire brush the joint and weld area and clean the
area thoroughly before welding.
12.1.3 Porosity
Porosity is the presence of gas pockets in the weld metal that may be scattered in small
clusters or along the entire length of the weld (Figure 9-98). The voids left in the weld
cause it to be weakened. One or more of the
following cause porosity:
1. Inadequate shielding gas flow.
2. Excessive welding current.
3. Rust, grease, oil, moisture, or dirt on
the surface of the base metal or filler
metal, including moisture trapped in
aluminum oxide.
4. Impurities in the base metal, such as
Figure 9-98 — Porosity.
sulfur and phosphorus.
5. An excessive travel speed, which
causes freezing of the weld puddle before gases can escape.
6. Contaminated or wet shielding gas.
Porosity can be prevented or corrected by the following:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
Increasing the shielding gas flow.
Lowering the welding current.
Cleaning the surface of the base metal.
Changing to a different base metal with a different composition.
Lowering the travel speed.
Replacing the shielding gas.
12.1.4 Wormhole Porosity (Piping
Porosity)
Wormhole porosity is the name given to
elongated gas pockets and is usually
caused by sulfur in the steel or moisture on
the surface of the base metal that becomes
trapped in the weld joint (Figure 9-99).
Wormhole porosity can seriously reduce the
strength of the weld. The best methods of
preventing this are to clean the surfaces of
NAVEDTRA 14250A
Figure 9-99 — Wormhole porosity.
9-119
the joint and preheat to remove moisture. If sulfur in the steel is the problem, a more
weldable grade of steel should be selected.
12.1.5 Undercutting
Undercutting is a groove melted in the base metal next to the toe or root of a weld that
is not filled by the weld metal (Figure 9-100). This is particularly a problem with fillet
welds. Undercutting causes a weaker joint at the toe of the weld, which may result in
cracking.
It is caused by one or more of the following:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
Excessive welding current.
Arc voltage too high.
Excessive travel speed
Not enough filler metal added.
Excessive weaving speed.
On vertical and horizontal welds,
undercutting may also be caused by
incorrect electrode angles. This
discontinuity can be prevented by the
following:
Figure 9-100 — Undercutting.
1. Reducing the welding current.
2. Holding a short arc length.
3. Using a travel speed slow enough so the weld metal can completely fill all of the
melted out areas of the base metal.
4. Using more filler metal.
5. Pausing at each side of the weld bead when a weaving technique is used.
12.1.6 Incomplete Fusion
Incomplete fusion occurs when the weld
metal is not completely fused to the base
metal (Figure 9-101). This can occur
between the weld metal and the base metal
or between passes in a multi-pass weld.
Incomplete fusion between the weld metal
and the base metal is usually due to
inadequate penetration. Causes of this
include the following:
1.
2.
3.
4.
Figure 9-101 — Incomplete fusion.
Excessive travel speed.
Welding current too low.
Poor joint preparation.
Letting the weld metal get ahead of the arc.
Incomplete fusion can be prevented by the following:
1.
2.
3.
4.
Reducing the travel speed.
Increasing the welding current.
Preparing the joint better.
Using proper electrode angles.
NAVEDTRA 14250A
9-120
12.1.7 Overlapping
Overlapping is the protrusion of the weld metal over the edge or toe of the weld bead
(Figure 9-102). This defect can cause an area of incomplete fusion, which creates a
notch and can lead to crack initiation. Although TIG is primarily for welding thin metals, if
this occurs, you can grind off the excess weld metal after welding. Overlapping is
produced by one or more of the following:
1. Too slow a travel speed which
permits the weld puddle to get ahead
of the electrode.
2. Arc welding current that is too low.
3. Addition of too much filler metal.
4. Incorrect electrode angle that allows
the force of the arc to push the
molten weld metal over unfused
sections of the base metal.
Overlapping can be prevented or corrected
by the following:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
Figure 9-102 — Overlapping.
Using a higher travel speed.
Using a higher welding current.
Reducing the amount of filler metal added
Using the correct electrode angles.
Grinding off the excess weld metal
12.1.8 Melt-through
Melt-through occurs when the arc melts through the bottom of the weld and creates
holes (Figure 9-103). This can be caused by
one or more of the following:
1. Excessive welding current.
2. Travel speed that is too slow.
3. Root opening that is too wide or a
root face that is too small.
This can be prevented by:
1. Reducing the welding current.
2. Increasing the travel speed.
Figure 9-103 — Melt-through.
3. Reducing the width of the root
opening, using a slight weaving
motion, or increasing the electrode extension.
12.1.9 Arc Strikes
Many codes prohibit striking the arc on the surface of the workpiece. Striking the arc on
the base metal outside of the weld joint can produce a hard spot on the base metal
surface. Failures can then occur due to the notch effect. The arc strikes might create a
small notch on the surface of the metal which can act as an initiating point for cracks.
NAVEDTRA 14250A
9-121
12.1.10 Craters
Weld craters are depressions on the weld surface at the point where the arc was broken
(Figure 9-104). These are caused by the solidification of the metal after the arc has
been broken. The weld crater often cracks and can serve as an origin for linear cracking
back into the weld metal or into the base metal. These craters can usually be removed
by chipping or grinding and the depression can be filled in with a small deposit of filler
metal.
For TIG welding, there are two common
methods of preventing craters. The first is to
reverse the travel of the electrode a little
way back into the weld bead from the end of
the weld bead, before breaking the arc. A
second method is to use a foot rheostat to
control the welding current. This is done by
gradually reducing the welding current at the
end of the weld, which gradually reduces
Figure 9-104 — Weld crater.
the size of the molten weld puddle. For
machine and automatic applications, a slope control on the machine will automatically
reduce the welding current at the end of the weld, which will also gradually reduce the
size of the molten weld puddle.
12.2.0 Cracking
An improper welding procedure, welder technique, or materials can cause weldment
cracking. All types of cracking can be classified as either hot or cold cracking. These
cracks are transverse or longitudinal to the weld. Transverse cracks are perpendicular
to the axis of the weld where longitudinal shrinkage strains acting on excessively hard
and brittle weld metal. Longitudinal cracks are often caused by high joint restraint and
high cooling rates. Although TIG is primarily for thin metals, preheating may be
necessary to help reduce these problems.
Hot cracking occurs at elevated temperatures and generally happens just after the weld
metal starts to solidify. This type of cracking is often caused by excessive sulfur,
phosphorous, and lead contents in the steel base metal. In non-ferrous metals, it is
often caused by sulfur or zinc. It can also be caused by an improper method of breaking
the arc or in a root pass when the cross-sectional area of the weld bead is small
compared to the mass of the base metal.
Hot cracking often occurs in deep penetrating welds and can continue through
successive layers if it is not repaired. Hot cracking may be prevented or minimized by
the following:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
Preheating to reduce shrinkage stresses in the weld.
Using clean or uncontaminated shielding gas.
Increasing the cross-sectional area of the weld bead.
Changing the contour of the weld bead.
Using base metal with very low contents of those elements that tend to cause hot
cracking.
Crater cracks are shallow hot cracks that are caused by improperly breaking the arc.
Crater cracks may be prevented the same way that craters are, by reversing the travel
of the electrode back into the weld bead a little way, gradually reducing the welding
current at the end of the weld, or by stopping the travel before breaking the arc.
NAVEDTRA 14250A
9-122
Cold cracking occurs after the weld metal solidification is complete. Cold cracking may
occur several days after welding and is generally caused by hydrogen embrittlement,
excessive joint restraint, and rapid cooling. Preheating and using a dry high purity
shielding gas help reduce this problem.
Centerline cracks are cold cracks that often
occur in single pass concave fillet welds. A
centerline crack is a longitudinal crack that
runs down the center of the weld (Figure 9105).
This problem may be caused by one or more
of the following:
1. Weld bead that is too small for the
thickness of the base metal.
2. Poor fitup.
3. High joint restraint.
4. Extension of a crater crack.
Figure 9-105 — Centerline crack.
The best methods of preventing centerline cracks are the following:
1.
2.
3.
4.
Increasing the bead size.
Decreasing the width of the root opening.
Preheating.
Preventing weld craters.
Base metal and underbead cracks are cold cracks that form in the heat affected zone of
the base metal. Underbead cracks occur underneath the weld bead (Figure 9-106).
Base metal cracks are those cracks that
originate in the heat affected zone of the
weld. These types of cracking are caused by
excessive joint restraint, entrapped
hydrogen, and a brittle microstructure. A
brittle microstructure is caused by rapid
cooling or excessive heat input. Underbead
and base metal cracking can be reduced or
eliminated by using preheat.
12.3.0 Other Problems
Figure 9-106 — Underbead cracks.
Other problems that can occur with TIG and
reduce the quality of the weld are arc blow, loss of shielding gas coverage, and
electrode contamination.
12.3.1 Arc Blow
The electric current that flows through the electrode, workpiece, and work cable sets up
magnetic fields in a circular path perpendicular to the direction of the current. When the
magnetic fields around the arc are unbalanced, it tends to bend away from the greatest
concentration of the magnetic field. This deflection of the arc is called arc blow.
Deflection is usually in the direction of travel or opposite to it, but it sometimes occurs to
the side. Arc blow can result in an irregular weld bead and incomplete fusion.
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Direct current is highly susceptible to arc blow, especially when welding is being done in
corners and near the ends of joints. Arc blow occurs with direct current because the
induced magnetic field is in one direction.
Alternating current is rarely subject to arc blow because the magnetic field is building
and collapsing continuously due to the reversing current. The problem also occurs when
welding complex structures and massive structures with high currents and poor fitup.
Forward arc blow is encountered when welding away from the ground connection or at
the beginning of the weld joint. Backward arc blow occurs toward the grounding
connection, into a corner, or toward the end of a welding joint. Several corrective
methods that can be used to correct the arc blow problem are the following:
1.
2.
3.
4.
Changing to alternating current.
Welding toward an existing weld or tack weld.
Reducing the welding current and making the arc length as short as possible.
Placing the work connection as far as possible from the weld, at the end of the
weld, or at the start of the weld, and welding toward the heavy tack weld.
5. Wrapping the work lead cable around the workpiece so that the magnetic field
caused by the current in the work cable will neutralize the magnetic field causing
the arc blow.
12.3.2 Inadequate Shielding
Many defects that occur in TIG welding are caused by an inadequate flow or blockage
of shielding gas to the welding area.
An inadequate gas supply can cause oxidation of both the tungsten electrode and the
weld puddle, as well as porosity in the weld bead. This can be detected easily because
the arc will change color, the weld bead will be discolored, and the arc will become
unstable and difficult to control. The most common causes of this problem are the
following:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
Blockage of gas flow in the torch or hoses.
Leak in the gas system.
Very high travel speed.
Improper flow rate.
Wind or drafts.
Arc length or stickout too long.
There are several ways this problem can be corrected or prevented. Check the torch
and hoses before welding to make sure the shielding gas can flow freely and is not
leaking. A very high travel speed may leave the weld puddle, or a portion of it, exposed
to the atmosphere. This may be corrected, in some cases, by inclining the torch in the
direction of travel, using a nozzle that directs shielding gas back over the heated area,
or by increasing the gas flow rate. Increasing the gas flow rate will increase the expense
of the welding.
When welding some of the reactive metals, you may have to use an inert atmosphere
chamber or trailing nozzles. An improper flow rate may occasionally be a problem. For
example, when using argon and welding in the overhead position, you may have to use
higher gas flow rates to provide adequate shielding. This is because argon is heavier
than air and it will fall away from the weld area.
When winds or air drafts are present, you may take several corrective steps. Setting up
screens around the operation is the best method of solving this problem. Increasing the
gas flow rate is another method but, again, this will increase the cost of welding. An
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excessive arc length or stickout will also create a problem in providing adequate
shielding because the distance between the end of the nozzle and the molten weld
puddle is very long. This can be corrected by shortening the arc length or stickout.
12.3.3 Electrode Contamination
Contamination of the tungsten electrode can
cause discontinuities in the weld as well as a
hard to control arc and loss of several
minutes of welding time to clean the
electrode. The electrode can become
contaminated by several means, such as
contact of the weld puddle with the electrode,
contact of the electrode with the filler metal,
inadequate shielding gas flow, or post
welding gas flow time that is too short. Figure
9-107 shows the effects of different causes of
electrode contamination.
When the electrode becomes contaminated
by contact with the filler or weld metal, it
produces a wild and unstable arc. When a
lack of shielding gas is the cause of the
contamination, it greatly reduces the life of
the electrode.
Figure 9-107 — Electrode
contamination.
There are two major methods of correcting
this problem. The first is to break off the contaminated section and then prepare the
clean section for welding. This is usually done by using a pair of pliers or by putting the
contaminated section over the end of a workbench and breaking it off by striking it with
a hammer. The second method is to hold the arc on a section of copper or other metal
until the electrode has been cleared of contaminating metal through its vaporization.
The first method is more commonly used when the electrode is very contaminated.
13.0.0 POSTWELD PROCEDURE
Several operations may be required after welding, such as cleaning, inspecting,
repairing or straightening the welds, and postheating. These operations may or may not
be part of the procedure, and those performed will depend on the governing code or
specification, type of metal, and the quality of the weld deposit.
13.1.0 Cleaning
One of the major advantages of gas tungsten arc welding is that it produces a very
smooth, clean weld bead with very little or no spatter, so there is no slag to be chipped
off the weld bead. Because of this, postweld cleaning may be omitted and only wire
brushing or buffing may be required to remove the discoloration around the weld bead.
13.2.0 Inspection and Testing
Inspection and testing the weld to determine the quality of the weld joint is done after
cleaning. There are many different methods of inspection and testing which were
covered in previous chapters. The uses of these methods wiII often depend on the code
or specification that covered the welding. Testing of a weldment may be done
nondestructively or destructively.
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Nondestructive testing is used to locate defects in the weld and base metal. Of the
many different nondestructive testing methods, some of the most widely used methods
are visual, magnetic particle, liquid penetrant, ultrasonic, and radiographic. Visual,
magnetic particle, and liquid penetrant inspection are used to locate surface defects,
whereas ultrasonic and radiographic inspections are used to locate internal defects.
Destructive testing is used to determine the mechanical properties of the weld, such as
the strength, ductility, and toughness. Destructive testing is also done by several
methods, depending on the mechanical properties being tested for. Some of the most
common types of destructive testing are tensile bar tests, impact tests, and bend tests.
13.3.0 Repairing of Welds
Repairing the weld is sometimes necessary when defects are found during inspection.
When a defect is found, it can be gouged, ground, chipped, or machined out depending
on the type of material being welded.
For steels, grinding and air carbon arc gouging are commonly used. It is not used on the
non-ferrous metals because it causes contamination in the form of carbon deposits.
For the stainless steels and the non-ferrous metals, chipping is a common method for
removing defects. Air carbon arc gouging is preferred for many applications because it
is usually the quickest method. Grinding is popular for removing surface defects and
shallow lying defects. Once you have removed the defects, you can reweld the low
areas created by the grinding and gouging using gas metal arc welding or some other
welding process. You should then reinspect the welds to make sure the defects have
been properly repaired.
13.4.0 Postheating
Postheating is the heat treatment applied to the weld or weldment after welding.
Postheating is often required after the weld has been completed, but this depends upon
the type of metal being welded, the specific application, and the governing code or
specifications. Many of the low carbon steels and non-ferrous metals are rarely
postheated.
Various types of postheating are used to obtain specific properties. Some of the most
commonly used postheats are annealing stress relieving, normalizing, and quenching
and tempering. Stress relieving is the most widely used heat treatment after welding.
Postheating is accomplished by most of the same methods used for preheating, such as
furnaces, induction coils, and electric resistance heating blankets. One method used for
stress relieving that does not involve the reheating of the weldments is called vibratory
stress relief. This method vibrates the weldment during or after welding to relieve the
residual stresses during or after solidification.
Annealing is a process involving heating and cooling that is usually applied to induce
softening. This process is widely used on metals that become very hard and brittle
because of welding. There are several different kinds, and when used on ferrous metals
it is called full annealing. Annealing is the heating up of a material to cause
recrystallization of the grain structure which causes softening. Full annealing is a
softening process in which a ferrous alloy is heated to a temperature above the
transformation range and is slowly cooled to a temperature below this range. This
process is usually done in a furnace to provide a controlled cooling rate.
Normalizing is a heat treatment that is applied only to ferrous metals. Normalizing
occurs when the metal is heated to a temperature above the transformation range and
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is cooled in still air to a temperature below this range. The main difference between
normalizing and annealing is that a normalized weldment is cooled in still air, which
produces a quicker cooling rate than an annealed weldment which is slowly cooled in a
furnace. A normalizing heat treatment will refine the metal grain size and yield a tougher
weld, whereas an annealing heat treatment will result in a softer weld.
Stress relieving is the uniform heating of a weldment to a high enough temperature
(below the critical range) to relieve most of the residual stresses due to welding. This is
followed by uniform cooling. This operation is performed on the ferrous metals and
some of the non-ferrous metals. This process also reduces warpage during machining
that may occur with a high residual stress buildup. Stress relieving is performed on nonferrous metal when stress buildup is a problem; however, in the case of aluminum
alloys, for example, this heat treatment also will reduce the mechanical properties of the
base metal. In the case of magnesium alloyed with aluminum, stress relieving is
performed to avoid problems with stress corrosion.
On parts and metals that are likely to crack due to the internal stress created by
welding, the parts should be put into stress relief immediately after welding without
being allowed to cool to room temperature. The terms normalizing and annealing are
misnomers for this heat treatment.
Quenching and tempering is another postweld heat treatment that is commonly used
where the metal is heated up and then quenched to form a hard and brittle metallurgical
structure. The weldment is then tempered by reheating to a particular temperature
dependent on the degree of ductility, strength, toughness, and hardness desired.
Tempering reduces the hardness of the part as it increases the strength, toughness,
and ductility of the weld.
Test your Knowledge (Select the Correct Response)
15.
Why is spatter rarely a problem when using the TIG process?
A.
B.
C.
D.
16.
Low current is used.
Shielding gases are used.
A non-consumable electrode is used.
The speed of travel is too fast.
What is the annealing process used for?
A.
B.
C.
D.
To harden the weldment
To stop discoloration
To dissipates weld heat
To induce softening of the base metal
14.0.0 WELDER TRAINING and QUALIFICATION
Gas tungsten arc welding requires a high degree of welder skill to produce good quality
welds. This process requires the use of two hands when filler metal is added. A welder
that is skilled in this process will generally have less trouble learning to weld with the
other arc welding processes.
The exact content of a training program will vary depending on the specific application
of the process. The program should be flexible enough so that it can be adapted to
changing needs and applications. The complexity of the parts to be welded, the
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governing codes and specifications, and the type of metal to be welded all need to be
taken into consideration.
A pipe welding course would take more training than a course on welding of plate. A
course concerning the welding of stainless steel might cover the use of pulsed current
and a different type of tungsten electrode preparation than a course covering the
welding of aluminum. The welding characteristics of the metals would also be different.
14.1.0 Basic Gas Tungsten Arc Welding
The basic gas tungsten arc welding training program is used to teach the students the
basic skills necessary for using the process to weld plate. Such a course would provide
training on how to strike the arc, run weld beads, and make good quality fillet and
groove welds. It would also include the welding of mild steel, stainless steel, and
aluminum. Because of this, the course shown in the sample outline below has been split
into three sections covering each of the three metals. The proper cleaning techniques
are also covered for the three metals.
The training obtained by the student should give him or her enough skill to perform a job
welding plate material. This course should also provide the background skill and
knowledge required to take a course on gas tungsten arc welding of pipe and tubing.
The following outline is for a course approximately seventy hours long.
COURSE INTRODUCTION
1. Lecture/Discussion -"Introduction to Gas Tungsten Arc Welding"
2. Lecture/Discussion -"The Safety and Health of Welders"
3. Lecture/Discussion -"Preparation for Welding Starting, Equipment Adjustment,
and Shutdown"
14.1.1 Mild Steel
This part of the course covers welding fillet and square groove welds in the flat,
horizontal, and vertical positions on mild steel using direct current. This includes
techniques used with and without filler metal.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
Stringer Bead, Flat Position, without and with Filler Metal
Fillet Weld, Lap Joint, Horizontal Position, without and with Filler Metal
Lecture/Discussion -"Weld Properties and Weld Quality, Mild Steel"
Fillet Weld, Outside Corner Joint, Flat Position, without and with Filler Metal
Fillet Weld, T-Joint, Horizontal and Vertical Position, with Filler Metal
Square-Groove Weld, Butt Joint, Flat Position with Filler Metal
Single-V-Groove Weld, Butt Joint, Guided Bend Test
Square-Groove Weld, Butt Joint, Overhead Position, with Filler Metal
14.1.2 Stainless Steel
This part of the course covers the welding of stainless steel and the use of pulsed direct
current. Groove and fillet welds are made in the flat, horizontal, and vertical positions
with and without the use of pulsed current and filler metal.
1. Lecture/Discussion -"Introduction to Gas Tungsten Arc Welding Using Pulsed
Current”
2. Square-Groove Weld, Butt Joint, Flat Position, with Filler Metal, without and with
Pulsation
3. Fillet Weld, Lap Joint, Horizontal Position, without and with Filler Metal
4. Lecture/Discussion -"Weld Properties and Qualities, Stainless Steel"
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5.
6.
7.
8.
Filler Weld, Outside Corner Joint, Flat Position, without and with Filler Metal
Visual Inspection Test, Stainless Steel
Fillet Weld, T-Joint, Horizontal and Vertical Position Up, with Filler Metal
Stringer Bead, Flat Position, with Filler Metal
14.1.3 Aluminum
The last part of the course covers welding of fillet and square-groove welds in the flat,
horizontal, and vertical positions on aluminum using alternating current.
1. Lecture/Discussion -"Equipment Adjustments and Their Effects on the Welding
Arc Electrode, Current Amperage Chart"
2. Square-Groove Weld, Butt Joint, Flat Position, with Filler Metal
3. Lecture/Discussion. "Weld Properties and Qualities, Aluminum"
4. Fillet Weld, Lap Joint, Horizontal Position, with Filler Metal
5. Fillet Weld, Outside Corner Joint, Flat Position, with Filler Metal
6. Fillet Weld, T-Joint, Horizontal and Vertical Position Up, with Filler Metal
7. Visual Inspection Test, Aluminum
8. Square-Groove Weld, Butt Joint, Vertical Position Up, with Filler Metal
9. Square-Groove Weld, Butt Joint, Overhead Position. with Filler Metal
14.2.0 Gas Tungsten Arc Pipe Welding
The training program for gas tungsten arc welding of tubing and pipe is used to teach
students basic skills and provides additional training to students who previously learned
to weld plate material. This course covers the welding of mild steel, small diameter pipe,
tube, and larger diameter pipe. It is divided into two sections.
The first part of the course includes the welding of 3-inch mild steel pipe. All passes are
welded using gas tungsten arc welding. Also included in this section of the course is the
welding of 4-inch diameter, Schedule 10 tubing, which is welded in one pass.
The second part of the course covers the welding of 8-inch diameter, mild steel pipe.
Since gas tungsten arc welding is only used for welding the root and hot passes on the
large diameter pipe, the course includes filling out the remainder of the joint with
shielded metal arc welding. The student should be skilled in shielded metal arc pipe
welding before taking this portion of the training program. The following outline is for a
course that is approximately 210 hours in length.
14.2.1 Course Introduction
1. Lecture/Discussion -"Introduction to Gas Tungsten Arc Welding of Pipe"
2. Lecture/Discussion -"Safety and Health of Welders"
3. Lecture/Discussion -"Preparation for Welding"
14.2.2 Small Diameter Piping and Tubing
This part of the course covers the welding of 3-inch diameter, Schedule 40 piping in the
2G and 5G positions, and 4-inch diameter tubing in the 2G, 5G, and 6G positions. This
portion of the course is approximately 70 hours in length.
1. Set-up, Tack Welding of Pipe
2. Single-V-Groove Weld, Butt Joint, Vertical Fixed Position (2G), with Filler Metal,
3-inch Pipe
3. Single-V-Groove Weld, Butt Joint, Horizontal Fixed Position (5G) with Filler
Metal, 3-inch Pipe
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4. Single-V-Groove Weld, Butt Joint, Vertical Fixed Position (2G) and Horizontal
Fixed Position (2G) and Horizontal Fixed Position (5 G). Visual and Guided Bend
Tests, 3-inch Pipe
5. Single-V-Groove Weld, 45 Degrees Inclined Position (6G)
6. Lecture/Discussion -"Pipe Weld Quality"
7. Square-Groove Weld, Butt Joint, 45 Degrees Inclined Position (6G), 4-inch
Tubing
14.2.3 8-lnch Diameter Pipe
This part of the course covers the welding of 8-inch diameter, Schedule 40, mild steel
piping in the 2G, 5G, and 6G positions. The root and hot passes are welded using gas
tungsten arc welding. A section on the use of pulsed current is also included.
The fill and cover passes are welded using shielded metal arc welding and E7018
electrodes. This part of the course also includes the use of consumable inserts put in
the root of the joint, and the welding of stainless steel pipe. This portion of the course is
approximately 140 hours in length.
1.
2.
3.
4.
Single-V-Groove, Butt Joint, Rolled Flat Position (1G)
Single-V-Groove, Butt Joint, Horizontal Fixed Position (5G)
Single-V-Groove, Butt Joint, Vertical Fixed Position (2G)
Single-V-Groove, Butt Joint, Horizontal Fixed Position (5G) and Vertical Fixed
Position (2G) Visual and Guided Bend Tests
5. Single-V-Groove, Butt Joint, 45 Degrees Inclined Position (6G) Visual Test
6. Lecture/Discussion -''Variations of the GTAW Process for Pipe"
7. Single-V-Groove, Butt Weld, 45 Degrees Inclined Position, Using Pulsed Current
8. Lecture/Discussion -"Stainless Steel Pipe Welding”
9. Single-V-Groove Weld, Butt Joint, 45 Degrees Inclined Position (6G) Stainless
Steel Pipe
10. Lecture/Discussion -"Joint Designs for Gas Tungsten Arc Welding"
11. Tack Weld, Butt Joint (with consumable insert) Vertical Fixed Position (2G)
12. Single-V-Groove, Butt Joint (with consumable insert) 45 Degrees Inclined
Position
14.3.0 Welder Qualification
Before a welder can begin work on any job covered by a welding code or specification,
the welder must become certified under the code that applies. Many different codes are
in use today and it is extremely important that the specific code is referred to when
taking qualification tests.
In general, the following types of work are covered by codes: pressure vessels and
piping, bridges, public buildings, storage tanks and containers that will hold flammable
or explosive materials, cross-country pipelines, aircraft, ordnance material, ships and
boats, and nuclear power facilities.
Certification is obtained differently under the various codes. Certification under one
code will not necessarily qualify a welder to work under a different code. In most cases,
certification for one employer will not allow the welder to work for another employer.
Also, if the welder uses a different process or if the welding procedure is altered
drastically, recertification is required. In most codes, if the welder is continually
employed, welding recertification is not required, providing the work performed meets
the quality requirements. An exception is the military aircraft code, which requires
requalification every six months.
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Responsible manufacturers or contractors may give qualification tests. On pressure
vessel work, the welding procedure must also be qualified, and this must be done
before the welders can be qualified. Under other codes, this is not necessary.
To become qualified, the welder must make specified welds using the required process,
base metal, thickness, electrode type, position, and joint design. Test specimens must
be made according to standardized sizes and under the observation of a qualified
person. In most government specifications, a government inspector must witness the
making of weld specimens. Specimens must be properly identified and prepared for
testing.
The most common test is the guided bend test. However, in some cases, x-ray
examinations, fracture tests, or other tests are used. Satisfactory completion of test
specimens, providing that they meet acceptability standards, will qualify the welder for
specific types of welding. The welding that will be allowed depends on the particular
code. In general, the code indicates the range of thicknesses that may be welded, the
positions that may be used, and the alloys which may be welded.
Welder qualification is a highly technical subject and cannot be fully covered here. You
should obtain and study the actual code prior to taking any tests. Some frequently used
codes for welder qualification are the following:
ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code, Section IX
AWS Structural Welding Code D1
Military Specifications and Standards
15.0.0 WELDING SAFETY
Safety is an important consideration when welding. Every welding shop should have a
safety program and take adequate safety precautions to protect welders. Every welder
should be made aware of safety precautions and procedures. Employees who fail to
follow adequate safety precautions can cause physical injury to themselves and others
as well as damage to property. Failure to take safety precautions can result in physical
discomfort and loss of property, time, and money.
Welding is a safe occupation when safety rules and common sense are followed. A set
of safety rules that should be followed is presented in the American National Standard
Z49.1, "Safety in Welding and Cutting," published by the American Welding Society.
There are a number of hazards associated with gas metal arc welding. These do not
necessarily result in serious injuries; they can also be of a minor nature which can
cause discomforts that irritate and reduce the efficiency of the welders. These hazards
are the following:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
Electrical shock
Arc radiation
Air contamination
Compressed gases
Fire and explosion
Weld cleaning and other hazards
Other hazards related to other projects
15.1.0 Electrical Shock
Several precautions should be taken to prevent an electrical shock hazard. First, make
sure that the arc welding equipment is properly installed, grounded, and in good working
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condition. Maintain and install the electrical equipment in accordance with the National
Electrical Code and any state and local codes that apply. Operate equipment within
NEMA Standards’ usual operating conditions for proper safety and equipment life.
Connect the case or frame of the power supply to an adequate electrical ground such
as an approved building ground, cold water pipe, or ground rod. Welding cables with
frayed or cracked insulation and faulty or badly worn connections can cause electrical
short circuits and shocks. An improperly insulated welding cable is both an electrical
shock hazard and a fire hazard.
Keep the welding area dry and free of any standing water. When it is necessary to weld
in a damp or wet area, wear rubber boots and stand on a dry, insulated platform.
15.2.0 Arc Radiation
The gas tungsten arc emits invisible ultraviolet and infrared rays. Skin exposed to the
arc for a short time can suffer serious ultraviolet and infrared burns that are essentially
the same as sunburn, but the burn caused by welding can take place in a much shorter
time and can be very painful. Prolonged and repeated exposure to ultraviolet rays may
cause skin cancer in some skin types. You should always wear protective clothing
suitable for the welding to be done.
Since there is no spatter in this process, general precautions include wearing long
sleeve shirts or cloth lab coats to protect your arms, shoulders, chest, and stomach from
the arc radiation. Wear leather gloves, but wear lighter ones than those worn for
shielded metal arc welding. Wear cloth gloves for light duty work.
Your eyes must be protected from the radiation emitted by the welding arc. Arc burn can
result if your eyes are not protected. Arc burn to the eye is similar to sunburn to the skin
and it is extremely painful for about 24 to 48 hours. Usually, arc burn does not
permanently injure the eyes but it can cause intense pain. There are several
commercial solutions available to soothe the skin and eyes during the period of
suffering.
Infrared arc rays can cause fatigue of the retina of the eye. Ultraviolet radiation is the
only known cause of cataracts at this time. Impaired vision can be the result.
Gas tungsten arc welding produces a brighter arc than shielded metal arc welding
because there is no smoke and it is often used on bright and shiny metals such as
aluminum and stainless steel. Protect your eyes and face with a head shield that has a
window with a filter lens set in it. Helmets with large windows are popular for welding
with this process. Head shields are generally made of fiberglass or pressed fiber
material and are lightweight. The filter lens is made of a dark glass capable of absorbing
infrared rays, ultraviolet rays, and most visible light coming from the arc.
The lens shade used varies for different welders, different metals, and different current
levels, but it should be dark enough so that you can view the arc without discomfort but
not so dark that you cannot see the arc and puddle clearly. A number 12 filter lens is
recommended for use in gas tungsten arc welding because of its brighter arc, but the
project’s variables may dictate a darker lens. Table 9-26 shows the different lenses
commonly recommended for use in GTAW. The higher the lens numbers the darker the
lens. A clear glass should be put on the outside of the welding lens to protect it from
spatter and breakage. Welding should never be done with a broken filter lens or with
cracks in the head shield.
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Table 9-26 — Recommended filter lens shades used in gas tungsten arc welding
(ANSI/AWS Z49.1).
Electrode Diameter-In. (mm)
Lens Shade Number
1/16 (1.6), 3/32 (2.4), 1/8 (3.2), 5/32 (4.0)
10
3/16 (4.8), 7/32 (5.6), 1/4 (6.4)
12
5/16 (7.9), 3/8 (9.5)
14
15.3.0 Air Contamination
Welding fumes are generated by the arc. The welding area should be adequately
ventilated because the vaporized metals are potentially hazardous for the welder. When
welding is done in confined areas, adequate mechanical ventilation or protection for the
welder is required. This may be furnished by the use of a gas mask or on a special
helmet. A second person should stand just outside the confined area to lend assistance
to the welder if necessary.
Another method to use is a mechanical exhaust system to remove the welding fumes.
The argon or helium shielding gas may displace the air that the welder needs for
breathing. Welding should never be done near degreasing and other similar operations.
When they are exposed to an arc, the fumes from chlorinated cleaning solvents form a
very toxic gas, called phosgene, so welding should never be done near cleaning
chemicals. In addition, a mechanical exhaust should be used when welding metals such
as lead, copper, beryllium, cadmium, zinc, brass, bronze, chromium, cobalt,
manganese, nickel, and vanadium.
When grinding tungsten electrodes, which are mildly radioactive, it is advisable to use a
dust collector on the grinder to prevent inhalation of the dust.
15.4.0 Compressed Gasses
The shielding gases used for TIG, typically argon and helium, are compressed and
stored in cylinders. Only use compressed gases for their intended purpose. Cylinders
containing oxygen should be stored separately from cylinders containing fuel gases.
Cylinders in use or in stores or cargo should be securely fastened to prevent their
shifting or falling under any weather conditions. The welder should open the valve of the
cylinder slowly and stand away from the face of the regulator when doing this. The
welding arc should never be struck on a compressed gas cylinder. When not in use, gas
cylinders should be stored with their caps on; caps should also be on when the
cylinders are moved. If the valve should get knocked off, the cylinder acts like a missile
because of the escaping gas and can cause injury and damage. When compressed gas
cylinders are empty, the valve should be closed and they should be marked empty. This
is done by marking the letters "MT" or "EMPTY" on the cylinder.
Move cylinders by tilting and rolling them on their bottom edges. Avoid dragging and
sliding cylinders. When cylinders are transported by vehicle, secure them in position.
Cylinders should not be dropped, struck, or permitted to strike each other violently.
Discontinue the use of any cylinder before the pressure falls to zero. In particular, do not
use oxygen cylinders in welding or cutting operations after the pressure falls below
approximately 25 psi.
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15.5.0 Fires and Explosions
Fires and explosions are hazards that can exist in a welding area if the proper
precautions are not taken. The TIG process may produce sparks which can start a fire
or explosion in the welding area if it is not kept free of flammable, volatile, or explosive
materials. Welding should never be done near degreasing and other similar operations.
Although TIG welding does not produce spatter and long sleeve shirts or cloth lab coats
are used sometimes for skin protection, welders should wear leather clothing to protect
from burns; the leather is fireproof. Fires can also be started by an electrical short or by
overheated, worn cables. In case of a fire that is started by a flammable liquid or an
electrical fire, use a CO2 or dry chemical type of fire extinguisher. Fire extinguishers
should be kept at handy spots around the shop, and the welders should make a mental
note of where they are located. Welders should not have disposable butane or propane
lighters when welding. Sparks or weld spatter hitting them can cause an explosion
which may cause injury.
Other precautions that have to do with explosions are also important. Do not weld on
containers that have held combustibles unless it is absolutely certain that there are no
fumes or residue left. Do not welding on sealed containers without providing vents and
taking special precautions. Never strike the welding arc on a compressed gas cylinder.
When the welding torch is set down or not in use, it should never be allowed to touch a
compressed gas cylinder.
15.6.0 Weld Cleaning and Other Hazards
Hazards can also be encountered during the weld cleaning process. Precautions must
be taken to protect your skin and eyes from hot slag particles. Wear safety glasses,
gloves, and heavy clothing during chipping and grinding operations. Set screens up if
there are other people in the area to protect them from arc burn.
15.7.0 Summary of Safety Precautions
1. Make sure your arc welding equipment is installed properly, grounded, and in
good working condition.
2. Always wear protective clothing suitable for the welding to be done.
3. Always wear proper eye protection when welding, grinding or cutting.
4. Keep your work area clean and free of hazards. Make sure no flammable,
volatile, or explosive materials are in or near the work area.
5. Handle all compressed gas cylinders with extreme care. Keep caps on when not
in use.
6. Make sure compressed gas cylinders are secured to the wall or other structural
supports.
7. When compressed gas cylinders are empty, close the valve and mark the
cylinder “Empty” or “MT.”
8. Do not weld in a confined space without extra special precautions.
9. Do not weld on containers that have held combustibles without taking extra
special precaution.
10. Do not weld on sealed containers or compartments without providing vents and
taking special precautions.
11. Use mechanical exhaust at the point of welding.
12. When it is necessary to weld in a damp or wet area, wear rubber boots and stand
on a dry, insulated platform.
13. Shield others from the light rays produced by your welding arc.
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14. Do not weld near degreasing operations.
15. When the welding gun is not in use, do not hang it on a compressed gas cylinder.
16. Follow guidelines and standards set forth by the American Welding Society, the
Occupational Safety and Health Administration, the American National Standards
Institute, the National Electrical Manufacturers Association, the Compressed Gas
Association, and the Material Safety Data Sheets provided by U.S.
manufacturers.
Summary
This chapter introduced you to the gas tungsten arc welding (GTAW or TIG) process,
from the types of power sources, controls, and welding torches to the types of training
and qualifications needed. It described the industries that use the TIG process and its
applications. Welding metallurgy, weld and joint design, and welding procedure
variables were also discussed. The chapter concluded with a description of possible
weld defects and how to identify them, and safety precautions used for the TIG process.
As always, refer to the manufacturer’s operator manuals for the specific setup and
safety procedures of the welding machine you will be using.
NAVEDTRA 14250A
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Review Questions (Select the Correct Response)
1.
A tungsten electrode has what type of characteristic?
A.
B.
C.
D.
2.
What does Wolfgram mean?
A.
B.
C.
D.
3.
T
Tu
W
La
Which is NOT an advantage of TIG?
A.
B.
C.
D.
6.
constant current power source
constant voltage power source
variable current power source
solar powered
In the AWS classification for tungsten electrodes, what is the letter designation
for tungsten?
A.
B.
C.
D.
5.
It’s the last name of TIG inventor
Tungsten
Inert gas
Electrode
The TIG process uses a _____.
A.
B.
C.
D.
4.
Non-consumable
Consumable
Self shielding
Flux cored
Ability to weld a variety of different metals
High deposition rates
Pinpoint precision
Very little post-weld cleaning
For AC welding with a conventional square wave power source, the High
Frequency should be set to what position?
A.
B.
C.
D.
Continuous
Start (Automatic)
Off
Scan
NAVEDTRA 14250A
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7.
Gas tungsten arc welding uses all of these items except which item?
A.
B.
C.
D.
8.
As a general rule, what should the inside diameter of the gas nozzle be?
A.
B.
C.
D.
9.
Does not interfere with welding.
Increases the arc length.
Results in poor quality welds.
Produces a more stable arc.
On conventional sine wave and conventional square wave power sources, why is
high frequency added to alternating current?
A.
B.
C.
D.
13.
Ground to a point with the tip slightly blunted
Rounded
Similar to a match head
Ground to a point
What condition is caused by filler metal or base metal on the electrode?
A.
B.
C.
D.
12.
Ground to a point with the sharp tip slightly blunted
Rounded
Similar to a match head
Ground to a point
For DCEN welding, how should the electrode tip be shaped?
A.
B.
C.
D.
11.
Three times the electrode diameter.
Five times the electrode diameter.
3/8 inch.
Two times the electrode diameter.
For AC welding with a conventional square wave power source, how should the
electrode tip be shaped?
A.
B.
C.
D.
10.
Shielding gas to protect the weld from oxidation
A constant current welding machine
Non-consumable tungsten electrode
A constant voltage welding machine
Help maintain the arc.
Prevent distortion.
Provide cleaning action.
Start the weld puddle.
A good rule of thumb for setting post flow time is _____.
A.
B.
C.
D.
1 second for every 5 amps
1 second for every 10 amps
1 second for every 20 amps
1 second for every 100 amps
NAVEDTRA 14250A
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14.
What parameters are set when the power source is set to DC?
A.
B.
C.
D.
15.
What type of electrode could you use with ac?
A.
B.
C.
D.
16.
40,000 psi maximum tensile strength
Weight in grams
Electrode welding position
Chemical composition
What should be done with the torch when the torch is not in use?
A.
B.
C.
D.
20.
DCEN
DCEP
AC
Pulsed AC
In the AWS electrode classification ER4043, the 4043 means _____
A.
B.
C.
D.
19.
6 minutes out of every 60 minutes at rated output without overheating
6 minutes out of every 10 minutes at rated output without overheating
Continuously at 60% of rated output
Continuously at 40% of rated output
In TIG, what type of current produces the deepest weld penetration?
A.
B.
C.
D.
18.
Nickel
Plain carbon
Copper alloy
Titanium
What does a 60% duty cycle mean with regard to power source operation?
A.
B.
C.
D.
17.
HF to start
Amperage control to minimum.
Adjust the flowmeter to 5 cubic feet per hour.
Keep the HF intensity control constant.
Hang it out of the way.
Lay it on the welding table.
Lay it across your lap.
Point the electrode toward the workpiece.
The type of heat treatment where the weldment is held above the transformation
temperature and allowed to cool in still air is called _____
A.
B.
C.
D.
normalizing
tempering
annealing
stress relieving
NAVEDTRA 14250A
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21.
What is the type of heat treatment that reduces warpage?
A.
B.
C.
D.
22.
What is the type of heat treatment that produces the highest ductility in carbon
steel?
A.
B.
C.
D.
23.
45°
60°
90°
120°
Between 6% and 22% _______ by weight is contained in Austenitic stainless
steel.
A.
B.
C.
D.
27.
Continuous wave dc
Pulsed wave dc
Square wave ac
Fixed ac
What is the most common torch head angle for TIG welding?
A.
B.
C.
D.
26.
Submerged
Light industrial
Home use
Never
What power supply was developed to overcome the arc-extinguishing – restriking problem?
A.
B.
C.
D.
25.
Tempering
Annealing
Stress relieving
Quenching
When, if ever, is a transformer welding machine used for TIG welding?
A.
B.
C.
D.
24.
Normalizing
Annealing
Stress relieving
Quenching
nickel
tantalum
cadmium
columbium
What is the major alloying element that distinguishes stainless steels from other
types of steel?
A.
B.
C.
D.
Martensite
Chromium
Columbium
Zinc
NAVEDTRA 14250A
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28.
Between what temperatures does carbide precipitation occur?
A.
B.
C.
D.
29.
The best way to prevent carbide precipitation is to use base metals and filler rods
with extremely low carbon content; what other elements also prevent carbide
precipitation?
A.
B.
C.
D.
30.
150°.
200°.
250°
300°
What layer on the surface of aluminum makes it difficult to weld?
A.
B.
C.
D.
34.
.01
.10
.22
22
What is the maximum preheat temperature used on aluminum?
A.
B.
C.
D.
33.
Plain carbon steel wire brush that has not been used on other metals
Fine-bristled brass brush to prevent scarring the oxide coating
Stainless steel wire brush that has not been used on carbon steel
A new polypropylene brush
A stainless steel with a carbon content greater than ____% will often need
preheating?
A.
B.
C.
D.
32.
Columbium, titanium, or tantalum
Chromium, nickel, or cadmium
Martensite, ferrite, or pearlite
Silicon, oxides, or nitrides.
What type of bristle brush should you use when brushing stainless steel?
A.
B.
C.
D.
31.
180°F and 395° (82°C and 202°C).
400°F and 750°F (204°C and 400°C).
1000°F and 1600°F (539°C and 870°C).
1700°F and 2100°F (927°C and 1150°C).
Oxide
Zinc Dioxide
Carbon monoxide
Smelting residue
What type of current is the pulsed current method of welding commonly used
with?
A.
B.
C.
D.
AC
DC
Square wave
Inverter
NAVEDTRA 14250A
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35.
What is the maximum welding current of an air cooled torch?
A.
B.
C.
D.
36.
Why is pulsed current useful for welding stainless steel?
A.
B.
C.
D.
37.
Around the nozzle
After the insulator
Behind the nozzle
In the nozzle
Orbital welding head torch oscillation speed and width are _____ adjusted?
A.
B.
C.
D.
41.
Ceramic
Metal
Fused quartz
Dual shielded
Where is the gas orifice located on a TIG torch?
A.
B.
C.
D.
40.
2
3
4
5
What is the popular type of nozzle used?
A.
B.
C.
D.
39.
It does not overheat the metal as much as continuous current.
It melts the chromium and nickel better than continuous current.
The joint does not require careful cleaning when using pulsed current.
Less amperage is needed to create a fuller weld.
How many types of nozzles are available for TIG welding torches?
A.
B.
C.
D.
38.
100 amps
200 amps
300 amps
500 amps
automatically
intermittently
independently
manually
What is the most common type of gas flow control?
A.
B.
C.
D.
Computer
Flowmeter and regulator
Flowmeter only
Regulator only
NAVEDTRA 14250A
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42.
What is the constant outlet pressure from the regulator to the flowmeter?
A.
B.
C.
D.
43.
A welding cable AWG no. 8 has what maximum amperage rating?
A.
B.
C.
D.
44.
Columdium
Beryllium
Zirconium
Titanium
What does the number 3 refer to when describing welding positions?
A.
B.
C.
D.
48.
Gamma alloys
Beta alloys
Alpha alloys
Unalloyed titanium
What is a refractory metal?
A.
B.
C.
D.
47.
Austenitic
Ferritic
Martensitic
Duplex
What is not a basic group of titanium and titanium alloys?
A.
B.
C.
D.
46.
25
50
75
100
What group of stainless steels is included in the 200 and 300 series?
A.
B.
C.
D.
45.
50 psig
60 psig
70 psig
80 psig
Flat
Vertical
Horizontal
Overhead
What is the purpose of using helium on thick sections of base metal?
A.
B.
C.
D.
Produces a hotter arc with deeper penetration and faster travel speeds.
Provides better coverage than argon.
Is more cost effective than argon.
Is easier to use than argon.
NAVEDTRA 14250A
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49.
Which of the following characteristics help determine welding current?
A.
B.
C.
D.
50.
Working cable size
Area of the metal
Electrode tip size
Thickness of the base metal
What lens shade number is recommended for 1/16 “ diameter electrodes
A.
B.
C.
D.
10
11
12
14
NAVEDTRA 14250A
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Trade Terms Introduced in this Chapter
Alloy
A compound of one or more metals or other elements.
For example, brass is the alloy of copper and zinc.
American Wire Gauge
(AWG)
Standard numbering system for the diameters of round,
solid, non-ferrous, electrically conducting wire.
Annular
Having the form of a ring as a carpenter’s nail has a
series of concentric grooves to improve holding power.
Austenitic
Consisting mainly of austenite, which is a nonmagnetic
solid solution of ferric carbide, or carbon in iron used in
making corrosion-resistant steel.
Autogenous
In metallurgy, a term meaning self-fused, without the
addition of solder or the application of an adhesive.
Ferritic
Consisting of the pure iron constituent of ferrous metals,
as distinguished from the iron carbides.
Ferrous
An adjective used to indicate the presence of iron. The
word is derived from the Latin word ferrum ("iron").
Ferrous metals include steel and pig iron (with a carbon
content of a few percent) and alloys of iron with other
metals (such as stainless steel).
Inverter
An electrical converter that converts direct current into
alternating current.
Malleable
Capable of great deformation without breaking when
subject to compressive stress.
Maraging
A blending of two words (martensitic and aging),iron
alloys which are known for possessing superior strength
and toughness without losing malleability. These steels
are a special class of low carbon ultra-high strength
steels, which derive their strength not from carbon, but
from precipitation of inter-metallic compounds.
Martensitic
Consisting of a solid solution of iron and up to one
percent of carbon, the chief constituent of hardened
carbon tool steels.
Nodular
Occurring in the form of small rounded or irregular
shapes.
Non-ferrous
The term used to indicate metals other than iron and
alloys that do not contain an appreciable amount of iron.
NAVEDTRA 14250A
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Tanalum
NAVEDTRA 14250A
A gray, hard, rare, metallic element occurring in
columbite and tantalite, and usually associated with
niobium; used because of its resistance to corrosion by
most acids, for chemical, dental, and surgical
instruments and apparatus.
9-145
Additional Resources and References
This chapter is intended to present thorough resources for task training. The following
reference works are suggested for further study. This is optional material for continued
education rather than for task training.
Principles of Shielded Metal Arc Welding, Miller Electric Manufacturing Company,
Appleton, WI.
Safety in Welding, Cutting, and Allied Processes, ANSI/ASC Z49.1:2005 An American
National Standard, American Welding Society, Miami FL, 2005.
Shielded Metal Arc Welding, Hobart Institute of Welding Technology , Troy Ohio,1998.
Welding and Allied Processes, S9086-CH-STM-010/CH-074R4, Commander, Naval
Sea Systems Command, Washington Navy Yard, Washington D.C.,1999.
Welding Theory and Application, TC 9-237, Department of the Army Technical Manual,
Headquarters, Department of the Army, Washington D.C., 1993.
Welding Theory and Application, TM 9-237, Department of the Army Technical Manual,
Headquarters, Department of the Army, Washington D.C., 1976.
NAVEDTRA 14250A
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