iLife® `04 All-in-One Desk Reference For Dummies

iLife® `04 All-in-One Desk Reference For Dummies
iLife ’04

ALL-IN-ONE DESK REFERENCE
FOR
DUMmIES
‰
by Tony Bove and Cheryl Rhodes
iLife ’04

ALL-IN-ONE DESK REFERENCE
FOR
DUMmIES
‰
iLife ’04

ALL-IN-ONE DESK REFERENCE
FOR
DUMmIES
‰
by Tony Bove and Cheryl Rhodes
iLife® ’04 All-in-One Desk Reference For Dummies®
Published by
Wiley Publishing, Inc.
111 River Street
Hoboken, NJ 07030-5774
Copyright © 2004 by Wiley Publishing, Inc., Indianapolis, Indiana
Published by Wiley Publishing, Inc., Indianapolis, Indiana
Published simultaneously in Canada
No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system or transmitted in any form or by
any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, scanning or otherwise, except as permitted
under Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act, without either the prior written permission of the Publisher, or authorization through payment of the appropriate per-copy fee to the Copyright
Clearance Center, 222 Rosewood Drive, Danvers, MA 01923, (978) 750-8400, fax (978) 646-8600. Requests
to the Publisher for permission should be addressed to the Legal Department, Wiley Publishing, Inc.,
10475 Crosspoint Blvd., Indianapolis, IN 46256, (317) 572-3447, fax (317) 572-4355, e-mail: [email protected]
wiley.com.
Trademarks: Wiley, the Wiley Publishing logo, For Dummies, the Dummies Man logo, A Reference for the
Rest of Us!, The Dummies Way, Dummies Daily, The Fun and Easy Way, Dummies.com, and related trade
dress are trademarks or registered trademarks of John Wiley & Sons, Inc. and/or its affiliates in the United
States and other countries, and may not be used without written permission. All other trademarks are the
property of their respective owners. Wiley Publishing, Inc., is not associated with any product or vendor
mentioned in this book.
LIMIT OF LIABILITY/DISCLAIMER OF WARRANTY: THE PUBLISHER AND THE AUTHOR MAKE NO REPRESENTATIONS
OR WARRANTIES WITH RESPECT TO THE ACCURACY OR COMPLETENESS OF THE CONTENTS OF THIS WORK AND
SPECIFICALLY DISCLAIM ALL WARRANTIES, INCLUDING WITHOUT LIMITATION WARRANTIES OF FITNESS FOR A
PARTICULAR PURPOSE. NO WARRANTY MAY BE CREATED OR EXTENDED BY SALES OR PROMOTIONAL MATERIALS.
THE ADVICE AND STRATEGIES CONTAINED HEREIN MAY NOT BE SUITABLE FOR EVERY SITUATION. THIS WORK IS
SOLD WITH THE UNDERSTANDING THAT THE PUBLISHER IS NOT ENGAGED IN RENDERING LEGAL, ACCOUNTING,
OR OTHER PROFESSIONAL SERVICES. IF PROFESSIONAL ASSISTANCE IS REQUIRED, THE SERVICES OF A COMPETENT PROFESSIONAL PERSON SHOULD BE SOUGHT. NEITHER THE PUBLISHER NOR THE AUTHOR SHALL BE LIABLE
FOR DAMAGES ARISING HEREFROM. THE FACT THAT AN ORGANIZATION OR WEBSITE IS REFERRED TO IN THIS
WORK AS A CITATION AND/OR A POTENTIAL SOURCE OF FURTHER INFORMATION DOES NOT MEAN THAT THE
AUTHOR OR THE PUBLISHER ENDORSES THE INFORMATION THE ORGANIZATION OR WEBSITE MAY PROVIDE OR
RECOMMENDATIONS IT MAY MAKE. FURTHER, READERS SHOULD BE AWARE THAT INTERNET WEBSITES LISTED IN
THIS WORK MAY HAVE CHANGED OR DISAPPEARED BETWEEN WHEN THIS WORK WAS WRITTEN AND WHEN IT
IS READ. FULFILLMENT OF EACH COUPON OFFER IS THE SOLE RESPONSIBILITY OF THE OFFEROR.
For general information on our other products and services or to obtain technical support, please contact
our Customer Care Department within the U.S. at 800-762-2974, outside the U.S. at 317-572-3993, or fax
317-572-4002.
Wiley also publishes its books in a variety of electronic formats. Some content that appears in print may
not be available in electronic books.
Library of Congress Control Number: 2004106262
ISBN: 0-7645-7347-0
Manufactured in the United States of America
10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1
1B/RW/QW/QU/IN
About the Authors
Tony Bove and Cheryl Rhodes have kicked around the computer industry for
decades. They edited the influential newsletter, “Bove & Rhodes Inside Report
on New Media,” and wrote weekly and monthly columns and feature articles
for computer-industry magazines including Computer Currents (for computer
users), Nextworld (for computer professionals), and NewMedia (for multimedia
professionals). They also co-founded and edited Desktop Publishing/Publish
magazine (for publishing professionals).
Tracing the personal computer revolution back to the ’60s, Bove and Rhodes
produced a CD-ROM interactive documentary in 1996, Haight-Ashbury in the
Sixties (featuring music from the Grateful Dead, Janis Joplin, and the Jefferson
Airplane). Bove and Rhodes have written over a dozen books on computing,
desktop publishing, and multimedia, including at least one bestseller, The Art
of Desktop Publishing (Bantam); a series of books about Macromedia Director
that includes Macromedia Lingo Studio and Official Macromedia Director Studio
(Random House); the long-running Adobe Illustrator: The Official Handbook for
Designers (Random House) now in its fourth edition; Desktop Publishing with
PageMaker and PageMaker 4: The Basics (Wiley Publishing, Inc.); and The WellConnected Macintosh (Harcourt Brace Jovanovich).
Tony Bove has been a director of enterprise marketing for a large software
company, as well as a communications director and technical publications
manager. He also developed the Rockument music site, www.rockument.com,
with commentary and radio programs focused on rock music history. In
addition, he is a founding member of the Flying Other Brothers band (www.
flyingotherbros.com).
Cheryl Rhodes is an education specialist, researcher, and advocate. She
founded and served as director of the Pacific Community Charter School,
and worked as a professional courseware designer for ComputerTown USA
(a National Science Foundation project) and the Lawrence Hall of Science, as
well as an instructor in computer courses at elementary and high schools.
Dedication
This book is dedicated to our sons, John Paul Bove and James Eric Bove,
both of whom contributed tips and spent considerable time testing examples
while turning a vacation into a book project. These kids truly live the iLife
and should probably get a raise in their allowances, now that you bought this
book. Let’s send them to college — tell your Mac friends to buy this book!
Thank you.
Authors’ Acknowledgments
We want to thank our Wiley project editor, Beth Taylor, for having the patience
of a saint while pulling this project through the process on time. We also thank
Wiley copy editor Jean Rogers for her skills that made our job so much easier.
Many thanks to our technical editor, Lisa Spangenberg , for helping to make
this book both more useful and accurate. Thanks as well to Dennis Cohen for
contributing material to this book. We also thank Rich Tennant for his highly
amusing cartoons. A book of this size places a considerable burden on a publisher’s production team, and we thank the Composition Services crew at
Wiley for diligence beyond the call of reason.
We owe thanks and a happy hour or two to Carole McLendon at Waterside,
our agent. And we have acquisitions editor Bob Woerner at Wiley to thank for
coming up with the idea for this book and helping us to become professional
dummies — that is, For Dummies authors.
Finally, our heartfelt thanks to members of the Flying Other Brothers (Pete
Sears, Barry Sless, Jimmy Sanchez, Bill Bennett, Bert Keely, and Roger and
Ann McNamee) as well as Stacy Parrish, Howard Danchik, Vickie Garwacki,
Chris Flum, Paul Dulany, and DuCharme for letting us use their photographs
of the band.
Publisher’s Acknowledgments
We’re proud of this book; please send us your comments through our online registration form located
at www.dummies.com/register/.
Some of the people who helped bring this book to market include the following:
Acquisitions, Editorial, and Media
Development
Composition
Project Editor: Beth Taylor
(Previous Edition: Christine Berman)
Acquisitions Editor: Bob Woerner
Copy Editor: Jean Rogers
(Previous Edition: Rebecca Senninger)
Technical Editor: Lisa Spangenberg
Editorial Manager: Leah Cameron
Media Development Manager:
Laura VanWinkle
Project Coordinator: Maridee Ennis
Layout and Graphics: Amanda Carter,
Lauren Goddard, Denny Hager,
Joyce Haughey, Stephanie D. Jumper,
Michael Kruzil, Lynsey Osborn,
Melanee Prendergast, Heather Ryan,
Julie Trippetti
Proofreaders: Amy Adrian, Laura Albert,
Carl William Pierce
Indexer: Tom Dinse
Media Development Supervisor:
Richard Graves
Editorial Assistant: Amanda Foxworth
Cartoons: Rich Tennant (www.the5thwave.com)
Publishing and Editorial for Technology Dummies
Richard Swadley, Vice President and Executive Group Publisher
Andy Cummings, Vice President and Publisher
Mary C. Corder, Editorial Director
Publishing for Consumer Dummies
Diane Graves Steele, Vice President and Publisher
Joyce Pepple, Acquisitions Director
Composition Services
Gerry Fahey, Vice President of Production Services
Debbie Stailey, Director of Composition Services
Contents at a Glance
Introduction .................................................................1
Book I: iTunes ..............................................................7
Chapter 1: iTunes — The Digital Jukebox ......................................................................9
Chapter 2: Organizing Your Library ..............................................................................31
Chapter 3: Enhancing the Audio ....................................................................................53
Chapter 4: Burning CDs ..................................................................................................71
Book II: iPhoto ...........................................................83
Chapter 1: Getting to Know iPhoto ...............................................................................85
Chapter 2: Importing Photos .........................................................................................97
Chapter 3: Organizing Photos ......................................................................................107
Chapter 4: Improving Photos .......................................................................................137
Chapter 5: Making Slideshows .....................................................................................153
Chapter 6: Printing and Publishing Photos and Books ............................................173
Book III: iMovie........................................................201
Chapter 1: Digital Moviemaking ...................................................................................203
Chapter 2: Importing Video, Audio, and Photos .......................................................215
Chapter 3: Organizing and Improving Video Clips ....................................................231
Chapter 4: Editing Movies and Sound .........................................................................253
Chapter 5: Viewing and Sharing Movies .....................................................................287
Book IV: iDVD ..........................................................307
Chapter 1: Instant iDVD Authoring .............................................................................309
Chapter 2: Making Menus and Buttons .......................................................................325
Chapter 3: Burning DVDs ..............................................................................................341
Book V: GarageBand.................................................353
Chapter 1: Getting in Tune with GarageBand ............................................................355
Chapter 2: Adding Loops and Audio Files ..................................................................373
Chapter 3: Recording and Arranging Music ...............................................................385
Chapter 4: Getting the Best Mix ...................................................................................413
Book VI: iPod ...........................................................431
Chapter 1: Have iPod, Will Travel ................................................................................433
Chapter 2: Getting Wired for Sound ............................................................................459
Chapter 3: Managing Life on the Road ........................................................................473
Book VII: iLife Extras ................................................495
Chapter 1: Understanding Your iEnvironment ..........................................................497
Chapter 2: Enhancing Your iLife Environment with Other Tools ............................509
Chapter 3: Taking a Cue from the Media Pros ...........................................................535
Index .......................................................................553
Table of Contents
Introduction..................................................................1
About This Book ..............................................................................................2
Conventions Used in This Book ....................................................................2
Foolish Assumptions ......................................................................................3
How This Book Is Organized ..........................................................................4
Book I: iTunes ........................................................................................4
Book II: iPhoto ........................................................................................4
Book III: iMovie ......................................................................................4
Book IV: iDVD .........................................................................................4
Book V: GarageBand ..............................................................................5
Book VI: iPod ..........................................................................................5
Book VII: iLife Extras .............................................................................5
Icons Used in This Book .................................................................................5
Where to Go from Here ...................................................................................6
Book I: iTunes ...............................................................7
Chapter 1: iTunes — The Digital Jukebox . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .9
Setting Up iTunes ..........................................................................................10
Playing CD Tracks .........................................................................................12
Rearranging and repeating tracks ....................................................13
Skipping tracks ....................................................................................14
Repeating a song list ...........................................................................14
Displaying Visuals .........................................................................................14
Fine-Tuning the Sound ..................................................................................16
Using an equalizer preset ...................................................................16
Cross-fading and controlling volume ................................................16
Buying Music Online from Apple ................................................................17
Visiting the iTunes Music Store .........................................................17
Setting the music store preferences .................................................22
Importing Music into iTunes .......................................................................23
Ripping music from CDs ....................................................................23
Importing music files from other sources ........................................25
Importing Audio Books ................................................................................27
Listening to Web Radio .................................................................................27
Streaming music from the Internet ...................................................28
Saving your favorite stations .............................................................29
Adding Web broadcasts ......................................................................30
xii
iLife ’04 All-in-One Desk Reference For Dummies
Chapter 2: Organizing Your Library . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .31
Been Searching . . . Browsing, and Sorting, Too ........................................32
Browsing by artist and album ............................................................32
Understanding the song indicators ...................................................33
Changing viewing options ..................................................................34
Sorting songs by viewing options .....................................................35
Searching for songs .............................................................................36
The Singer, Not the Song: Adding and Editing Information .....................37
Retrieving information from the Internet .........................................37
Editing artist and band names ...........................................................38
Speed editing multiple songs .............................................................39
Adding liner notes and ratings ..........................................................40
Play It Again, Sam: Using Playlists ..............................................................43
Creating a playlist of multiple songs .................................................43
Creating a playlist of multiple albums ..............................................44
Generating a Smart Playlist ..........................................................................45
Viewing and editing a smart playlist .................................................45
Setting up a new smart playlist .........................................................45
Gimme Shelter: Consolidating and Backing Up .........................................47
Sharing Music (Legally) ................................................................................49
Copying songs to other computers ...................................................49
Sharing music in a network ................................................................51
Chapter 3: Enhancing the Audio . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .53
Deciding Your Encoding Format ..................................................................54
Changing Encoders and Settings .................................................................57
Using the AAC encoder ......................................................................57
Using the MP3 encoder .......................................................................59
Using AIFF or WAV encoders .............................................................61
Import settings for voice and sound effects ....................................62
Converting songs to other encoders ................................................63
Equalize It! ......................................................................................................65
Adjusting the preamp volume ...........................................................66
Using presets ........................................................................................67
Adjusting frequencies .........................................................................68
Assigning equalizer presets to songs ...............................................69
Chapter 4: Burning CDs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .71
Using Recordable CDs ..................................................................................71
Where you can play CD-Rs .................................................................72
What you can fit on a CD-R .................................................................72
Creating a Burn Playlist ................................................................................73
Calculating how much music to use .................................................74
Importing music for an audio CD-R ...................................................75
Importing music for an MP3 CD-R .....................................................76
Table of Contents
xiii
Setting the Burning Preferences ..................................................................76
Setting the sound check and gaps .....................................................76
Setting the format and recording speed ...........................................78
Burning a Disc ................................................................................................78
Exporting song information for liner notes .....................................79
Dealing with trouble in CD-R paradise ..............................................80
Book II: iPhoto............................................................83
Chapter 1: Getting to Know iPhoto . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .85
Living in the Digital World ............................................................................85
Why digital is better: Instant pictures ..............................................86
Resolution — the image quality factor .............................................87
Modifying and enhancing your photos .............................................87
Storing, printing, and sharing your photos ......................................88
Opening Images in iPhoto ............................................................................90
Starting iPhoto .....................................................................................90
Changing your display settings .........................................................91
Getting around in iPhoto ....................................................................92
Viewing photos ....................................................................................93
Chapter 2: Importing Photos . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .97
Importing Photos from Digital Cameras .....................................................97
Connecting a digital camera ..............................................................97
Importing from memory card readers ............................................100
Transferring Images from Other Sources .................................................102
Using a photo service .......................................................................102
Importing images from your hard drive .........................................104
Using a scanner .................................................................................104
Chapter 3: Organizing Photos . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .107
Photo Albums for All Occasions ...............................................................107
Creating albums and adding photos ...............................................108
Arranging photos in albums ............................................................110
Removing photos from albums .......................................................112
Using an album for desktop and screen effects ............................112
Creating a smart album ....................................................................117
The Digital Contact Sheet ...........................................................................118
Displaying photo information ..........................................................119
Adding and editing titles ..................................................................120
Keeping track of film rolls ................................................................123
Arranging and sorting photos ..........................................................125
Adding comments .............................................................................125
Adding and using keywords .............................................................126
xiv
iLife ’04 All-in-One Desk Reference For Dummies
Searching by keyword .......................................................................128
Adding ratings to photos ..................................................................130
Maintaining a Photo Archive .....................................................................130
Backing up your library ....................................................................131
Moving and switching between libraries .......................................132
Burning a CD or DVD .........................................................................133
Sharing Photos in a Network .....................................................................135
Chapter 4: Improving Photos . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .137
Modifying Photos ........................................................................................137
Cropping and Rotating Photos ..................................................................138
Rotating photos .................................................................................139
Cropping photos ................................................................................140
Constraining cropping for print sizes .............................................142
Fine-Tuning Photos .....................................................................................146
Improving brightness and contrast ................................................146
Removing red-eye and red tint ........................................................148
Retouching and enhancing photos .................................................150
Converting to sepia or black and white .........................................151
Chapter 5: Making Slideshows . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .153
Playing a Slideshow ....................................................................................153
Pausing and playing ..........................................................................154
Advancing manually and controlling the speed ............................155
Assembling a Slideshow .............................................................................155
Arranging a photo album for a slideshow ......................................156
Choosing photos that display well ..................................................156
Changing Playback Settings .......................................................................158
Setting slide transitions ....................................................................159
Timing your slideshow .....................................................................160
Changing the music ...........................................................................160
Using iTunes music ...........................................................................161
Saving your settings ..........................................................................163
Sharing and Exporting Slideshows ...........................................................163
Sharing slideshows online ................................................................164
Exporting to a QuickTime movie .....................................................167
Exporting a slideshow to iDVD ........................................................170
Chapter 6: Printing and Publishing Photos and Books . . . . . . . . . . .173
Setting Up Your Printer ..............................................................................174
Picking a desktop printer and paper ..............................................174
Setting up pages for your desktop printer .....................................175
Printing Photos ............................................................................................176
Printing standard prints ...................................................................178
Printing greeting cards .....................................................................179
Printing contact sheets for albums .................................................180
Table of Contents
xv
Ordering Prints ............................................................................................181
Making Photo Books ...................................................................................184
Choosing a book layout theme ........................................................184
Fine-tuning page layouts ...................................................................186
Editing titles and captions ...............................................................188
Previewing and printing books ........................................................190
Ordering professionally printed books ..........................................191
Sharing Photos Online ................................................................................193
Sending photos as e-mail attachments ...........................................193
Exporting to a photo service ...........................................................195
Publishing photos on Web pages ....................................................197
Book III: iMovie ........................................................201
Chapter 1: Digital Moviemaking . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .203
What You Can Do with iMovie ...................................................................203
What you need for iMovie ................................................................205
Why you need a digital video camcorder .......................................206
Touring iMovie .............................................................................................208
Starting iMovie ...................................................................................208
Understanding the iMovie window elements ................................210
Video Shooting Techniques .......................................................................212
Chapter 2: Importing Video, Audio, and Photos . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .215
Using a DV Camcorder ................................................................................215
Connecting a DV camcorder ............................................................216
Recording video directly to a hard drive .......................................217
Recording video from the iSight camera ........................................219
Importing clips from DV tape ...........................................................219
Automatic scene detection ..............................................................221
Playing Your Clips .......................................................................................222
Importing Video from Other Sources .......................................................223
Importing QuickTime movies ..........................................................223
Converting from film and video formats ........................................225
Importing Multimedia Elements ................................................................226
Using photos and graphics in iPhoto ..............................................226
Using music and sounds in iTunes ..................................................227
Chapter 3: Organizing and Improving Video Clips . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .231
Organizing a Project ....................................................................................232
Creating and saving a project ..........................................................232
Copying a project .............................................................................233
xvi
iLife ’04 All-in-One Desk Reference For Dummies
Organizing Clips ..........................................................................................234
Arranging clips in the Clips pane ....................................................234
Renaming a clip .................................................................................235
Importing clips from different projects ..........................................236
Deleting and Restoring Clips .....................................................................237
Restoring a clip to its previous form ..............................................237
Deleting clips and emptying the Trash ...........................................238
Editing Individual Clips ..............................................................................239
Trimming and cropping clips ...........................................................239
Splitting a clip ....................................................................................241
Cutting out the middle of a clip .......................................................242
Reversing the direction of a clip .....................................................242
Adding Motion and Picture Effects ...........................................................243
Adding the Ken Burns Effect to photos ..........................................244
Applying effects to video clips ........................................................248
Chapter 4: Editing Movies and Sound . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .253
Assembling an Oscar-Winning Sequence .................................................254
Arranging clips in the clip viewer ...................................................254
Working in the timeline viewer ........................................................255
Slowing down or speeding up video clips ......................................257
Overlaying and trimming clips directly ..........................................258
Bookmarking clips in the timeline ...................................................259
Transitioning Between Scenes ..................................................................259
Adding transitions between clips ....................................................260
Fading in and out ...............................................................................262
Editing the Sound Track .............................................................................265
Controlling video clip volume levels ..............................................265
Importing music from iTunes .........................................................266
Arranging sound clips in the track ..................................................269
Adjusting the volume of an audio track .........................................270
Trimming sound clips .......................................................................270
Splitting sound clips .........................................................................271
Separating sound from video ..........................................................271
Adding sound effects ........................................................................272
Laying video over sound ..................................................................274
Adding a voice-over or narration ....................................................275
Locking audio to video ....................................................................277
Adding Post-Production Elements ............................................................277
Creating titles and credits ................................................................278
Adding a black clip ............................................................................282
Creating chapter markers for DVD ..................................................284
Chapter 5: Viewing and Sharing Movies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .287
Playing Your Movie in Full-Screen Playback ............................................287
Sharing Movies ............................................................................................288
Sharing by e-mail ...............................................................................290
Sharing with Bluetooth devices .......................................................290
Table of Contents
xvii
Sharing on the Web .........................................................................291
Choosing QuickTime expert settings ..............................................293
Exporting to a DV Camcorder ....................................................................295
Exporting Still Images ................................................................................296
Copying Movies to VHS Tape .....................................................................297
Exporting to iDVD .......................................................................................299
Publishing Movies on the Web ..................................................................300
Book IV: iDVD...........................................................307
Chapter 1: Instant iDVD Authoring . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .309
What You Can Do with iDVD ......................................................................310
Touring iDVD ...............................................................................................312
Importing Digital Video into iDVD .............................................................314
Importing from iMovie ......................................................................314
Importing QuickTime movies .........................................................316
Assembling Photo Slideshows ...................................................................317
Importing slideshows from iPhoto into iDVD ................................318
Creating a slideshow in iDVD ...........................................................319
Rearranging the photo order ...........................................................320
Setting the slide transition and duration .......................................320
Importing images and graphics files into slideshows ..................321
Adding sound to a slideshow ...........................................................322
Chapter 2: Making Menus and Buttons . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .325
Creating DVD Menus ...................................................................................325
Selecting menu themes .....................................................................326
Changing a menu background .........................................................328
Changing the sound of a menu ........................................................330
Adding drop zones to the menu ......................................................330
Adding text to the menu ...................................................................333
Creating Buttons .........................................................................................334
Adding buttons ..................................................................................334
Fine-tuning motion buttons ..............................................................335
Customizing buttons .........................................................................336
Adding Submenus .......................................................................................337
Turning chapter markers into submenus .......................................338
Customizing submenus ....................................................................338
Navigating menus in Map view ........................................................339
Copying an iDVD Project ............................................................................340
Chapter 3: Burning DVDs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .341
Previewing the DVD ....................................................................................341
Using the Motion and Preview buttons ..........................................341
Using the remote control ..................................................................342
xviii
iLife ’04 All-in-One Desk Reference For Dummies
Adding Project Files to the DVD ................................................................343
Putting photos on DVD-ROM ...........................................................343
Putting any digital files on DVD-ROM .............................................345
Setting Up Autoplay and Looping .............................................................346
Adding an autoplay introduction ....................................................346
Looping movies and slideshows .....................................................347
Burning a DVD .............................................................................................347
Testing Your DVD-R .....................................................................................350
Troubleshooting DVD Problems ................................................................350
Book V: GarageBand .................................................353
Chapter 1: Getting in Tune with GarageBand . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .355
Getting Started with GarageBand ..............................................................355
Opening an existing song .................................................................356
Playing songs .....................................................................................358
Adjusting the volume of each track ................................................359
Starting a new song project .............................................................361
Setting Song Parameters ............................................................................362
Setting the tempo ..............................................................................363
Setting the time signature ................................................................363
Setting the key ...................................................................................364
Changing the tempo, time signature, and key ...............................364
Using Your Mac as an Instrument .............................................................366
Using the on-screen keyboard .........................................................366
Using MidiKeys ..................................................................................368
Connecting a USB MIDI keyboard ....................................................368
Using an audio interface for MIDI ....................................................369
Chapter 2: Adding Loops and Audio Files . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .373
Selecting Apple Loops ................................................................................373
Using the Loop Browser ...................................................................375
Using column view ............................................................................376
Limiting choices by scale and key ..................................................377
Arranging Loops in the Timeline ...............................................................378
Creating tracks ...................................................................................378
Looping loops in the track ...............................................................381
Adding an Audio File ...................................................................................382
Chapter 3: Recording and Arranging Music . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .385
Recording Software Instruments ...............................................................385
Recording into a Software Instrument track ..................................386
Changing the Software Instrument ..................................................388
Table of Contents
xix
Setting the instrument sound and effects ......................................389
Saving a customized Software Instrument .....................................392
Recording Real Instrument Tracks ...........................................................393
Using the line-in connection ............................................................393
Using an audio interface ...................................................................395
Using the internal microphone ........................................................397
Creating a Real Instrument track .....................................................398
Recording a Real Instrument performance ....................................399
Changing the Real Instrument sound .............................................400
Setting Real Instrument effects ........................................................401
Arranging Music Tracks .............................................................................404
Working with regions in the timeline ..............................................405
Moving regions ..................................................................................405
Selecting, copying, and pasting regions .........................................406
Looping and resizing regions ...........................................................408
Splitting and joining regions ............................................................410
Recording into a cycle region ..........................................................411
Chapter 4: Getting the Best Mix . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .413
Mixing Tracks ..............................................................................................413
Setting the track volume curve .......................................................414
Setting the pan position ...................................................................415
Using special effects with tracks .....................................................416
Using the Track Editor ................................................................................418
Editing Real Instrument tracks ........................................................420
Editing Software Instrument tracks ................................................422
Using the Master Track Controls ..............................................................424
Controlling the master volume ........................................................424
Setting the master volume curve ....................................................426
Setting master track effects .............................................................427
Moving Your Song to iTunes ......................................................................428
Setting up song and playlist information .......................................428
Exporting to iTunes ...........................................................................430
Book VI: iPod............................................................431
Chapter 1: Have iPod, Will Travel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .433
Getting Started with Your iPod ..................................................................434
Thinking inside the box ....................................................................435
Powering up your iPod .....................................................................436
Setting the language ..........................................................................437
Connecting to the Mac ......................................................................439
xx
iLife ’04 All-in-One Desk Reference For Dummies
Playin’ in the Hand ......................................................................................440
Thumbing through the menus .........................................................440
Using the buttons ..............................................................................441
Locating and Playing Songs .......................................................................443
Repeating and shuffling songs .........................................................445
Creating On-The-Go playlists ...........................................................446
Adjusting the sound volume ............................................................447
Updating Automatically ..............................................................................448
Updating from the library automatically ........................................449
Updating automatically by playlist .................................................453
Updating selected songs automatically ..........................................454
Updating Manually ......................................................................................454
Setting the iPod to update manually ...............................................455
Copying music directly to the iPod .................................................455
Deleting music from the iPod only ..................................................456
Editing Songs on the iPod ..........................................................................457
Editing playlists .................................................................................457
Editing song information ..................................................................457
Chapter 2: Getting Wired for Sound . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .459
Making Connections ...................................................................................460
Playing through the Mac ..................................................................462
Connecting to a home stereo ...........................................................463
Connecting headphones and portable speakers ...........................465
Listening aboard Planes, Trains, and Automobiles ................................465
Playing car tunes ...............................................................................466
Connecting by wireless radio ..........................................................468
Taking music abroad .........................................................................469
The Sound of Music ....................................................................................470
Using the iPod equalizer ...................................................................470
Using the iTunes custom EQ presets ..............................................471
Using sound check ............................................................................472
Chapter 3: Managing Life on the Road . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .473
Getting the Most from Your iPod ..............................................................473
Setting date, time, and sleep functions ..........................................474
Setting the alarm clock .....................................................................475
Putting a bookmark in an Audible title ...........................................476
Customizing the menus and display ...............................................477
Playing games with your iPod .........................................................478
Adding Personal Information .....................................................................478
Using iCal for custom calendars ......................................................478
Using Address Book ..........................................................................481
Not N’Sync? Try iSync .......................................................................482
Sorting your contacts .......................................................................484
Table of Contents
xxi
Using the iPod as a Hard Drive ..................................................................484
Mounting the iPod as a hard drive ..................................................485
Adding addresses from other sources ............................................487
Adding calendars from other sources ............................................488
Adding notes and text documents ..................................................488
Saving photos and voice recordings ...............................................490
Taking your system on the road ......................................................490
Resetting Your iPod ....................................................................................492
Book VII: iLife Extras.................................................495
Chapter 1: Understanding Your iEnvironment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .497
Knowing What You Need ............................................................................497
Helping iPhoto run smoothly ...........................................................498
Optimizing iMovie and GarageBand performance ........................500
Getting the most from iDVD .............................................................501
Leveraging iMovie and iDVD ......................................................................501
Backing up an iMovie Project ..........................................................503
Backing up an iDVD project .............................................................503
Surfing the Apple Web Site .........................................................................504
Calling for Help ............................................................................................505
Troubleshooting Problems ........................................................................507
Chapter 2: Enhancing Your iLife Environment with Other Tools . . .509
Plugging In ....................................................................................................510
iTunes plug-ins ...................................................................................510
iMovie plug-ins ...................................................................................511
iPhoto plug-ins ...................................................................................513
iDVD plug-ins ......................................................................................514
GarageBand loops and instruments ................................................516
Enhancing iLife with AppleScript ..............................................................516
Scripting iTunes .................................................................................517
AppleScripting iPhoto .......................................................................517
AppleScripting iDVD .........................................................................519
Supplementing iLife with Other Programs ...............................................521
Freeware and shareware ...................................................................521
Commercial enhancements ..............................................................529
Supplementing iLife with Hardware ..........................................................534
Chapter 3: Taking a Cue from the Media Pros . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .535
Taking Better Photos and Movies .............................................................535
Obeying the rule of thirds ................................................................536
Simplifying the background .............................................................537
xxii
iLife ’04 All-in-One Desk Reference For Dummies
Adjusting the altitude .......................................................................539
Stabilizing the camera ......................................................................539
Throwing some light on the subject ...............................................540
Shooting more than you need ..........................................................541
Watching the zoom ............................................................................541
Reading the fine manual ...................................................................543
Enhancing the sound with an extra mic .........................................543
Finding out more on the Internet ....................................................544
Capturing Better Audio ..............................................................................545
Using the right hardware and software ..........................................545
Recording narrations ........................................................................547
Preparing the Shoot ....................................................................................547
Planning the scope ............................................................................548
Filling in the details ...........................................................................550
Budgeting time and money ..............................................................550
Planning for the DVD ..................................................................................551
Index........................................................................553
Introduction
R
emember the Nowhere Man from the Beatles classic animated movie,
Yellow Submarine? He was the nerdy little fellow always going round in
circles, writing books, composing music, taking pictures, directing plays,
and making movies, always so very busy. But he was also very sad, because
no one could see his work; the Blue Meanies had taken art away from the
people (and if we speculate on who the Blue Meanies are, we might really
get in trouble . . . ). Nowhere Man is just “sitting in his nowhere land /
making all his nowhere plans for nobody.” But as John Lennon pointed out,
“Isn’t he a bit like you and me?”
With the iLife suite of software tools, you won’t be like Nowhere Man — iLife
puts the world at your command. All your digital assets — your photos,
your songs, your videos, everything — are at your fingertips. The iLife software brings together all your digital assets so that you can use them for creative projects and manage them for the rest of your real life.
A day in the iLife might include ripping some music CDs with iTunes to use
with your iPod on the road, or perhaps transferring the photos from your
digital camera into your iPhoto library to share them with friends by e-mail.
You might want to assemble a slideshow of the photos in iPhoto and set it to
original music that you can create in GarageBand by just jamming with prerecorded loops and saving it in your iTunes library. You can then post the
slideshow with your music on the Web. You can even bring video footage
from your digital camcorder into iMovie and make a music video with all
these elements. Finally, you can use iDVD to put together eye-popping
menus and buttons to show off the music video and slideshow and anything
else you may have, and burn a DVD-R that your friends can play on their
Macs or on everyday DVD players. You can find out how to do all of this and
more in this book.
Now you’re getting somewhere, man.
2
About This Book
About This Book
We designed this book as a reference. You can find the information you need
when you need it easily — this book even has thumbtabs to locate subjects
quickly. We organize the information in a linear fashion into seven minibooks.
You can read each minibook from beginning to end to find out how to use
the software from scratch. You can also dive in anywhere and begin reading,
because you find all the info you need to know for each task in each section
or step list.
We don’t cover every detail of every function of the software, and we intentionally leave out some detail so that we don’t spook you with technospeak
when it’s not necessary. (Really, engineers can sometimes provide too many
obscure choices that no one ever uses.) For this book, we wrote brief but
comprehensive descriptions and included lots of cool tips on how to be productive with iLife.
Conventions Used in This Book
Like any book about computers, this book uses certain conventions.
When we write, “Choose iTunes➪Preferences,” you should open the iTunes
menu from the toolbar (in iTunes) and then select the Preferences menu
item. Some menus have selections that are submenus with more choices,
such as View➪Arrange Photos➪By Date. If we wrote out each command the
long way, this book would be bigger. In an effort to save paper, ink, and your
money, we use the command arrows.
It’s a relief that we’re mostly beyond having to type commands into a computer, even if we have to use something rodent-like in appearance as well as
name. You can use a one-button mouse to do just about everything on a Mac.
When we write, “Click the Import button,” you should move the mouse
cursor to the button on-screen and click the mouse button.
Clicking once is not the only way to use a mouse. When we write “Drag the
photo over the name of the album” we mean click the photo, hold the mouse
button down, and drag the mouse pointer over to the name of the album
before lifting your finger off the mouse button.
Sometimes we abbreviate the instruction, “Click the name of something” to
“select something.” For example, when we say, “Select a photo album,” we
mean click the name of the photo album. Other times, we combine the clickand-drag function — we say, “Scroll the Source list,” when we mean clicking
and dragging the scroll bar for the Source List window.
Foolish Assumptions
3
Foolish Assumptions
Contrary to popular belief (and rumors circulated by the Blue Meanies), you
don’t need the following to use any of the applications (or this book):
✦ A pile of cash for extra equipment and software: Yes, you need a digital
camera for iPhoto, a digital camcorder for iMovie, a DVD-R drive for iDVD,
and the iPod for portable music playing, but you can get all of this, including an iMac with a SuperDrive for burning DVD-Rs, for under $3,500, which
is about one-tenth of what it cost to do the same in 1998. And you don’t
need any extra software — every important piece of software we describe
in this book is either already on your Mac or available for free from the
Apple Web site at www.apple.com.
✦ A better education: Courses in film, photography, and music can’t hurt,
but iLife is designed for the rest of us air-guitar players that barely know
the difference between a video clip and a still image. You won’t need any
specialized knowledge to have a lot of fun with this software while building your digital assets.
✦ A tech support hotline: Not once do we ever feel the need to contact
the Apple technical support. Everything works as it should. We pinch
ourselves daily for this apparent miracle. We never have to wade through
inscrutable documentation, either — the built-in help is informative and
useful (which you certainly won’t need if you have this book).
The iLife software is free, supplied with every Mac. That’s really all the software you need.
However, we do make some honest assumptions about your computer skills:
✦ You know how to use the Mac Finder: You should already know how to
use the Finder to locate files and folders, and how to copy files and folders from one hard drive to another.
✦ You know how to select menus and applications on a Mac: You should
already know how to choose an option from a Mac menu, how to find
the Dock to launch a Dock application, and how to launch an application
in the Application folder.
For more information on either topic, see that excellent book by Mark L.
Chambers, Mac OS X All-in-One Desk Reference For Dummies (Wiley).
4
How This Book Is Organized
How This Book Is Organized
We organized this tome into seven minibooks. The first five minibooks represent the five parts of iLife (iTunes, iPhoto, iMovie, iDVD, and GarageBand);
the sixth minibook covers the iPod, and the last minibook delves into extra
iLife information.
Book I: iTunes
This minibook begins with the revolution in digital music and what iTunes
does. You find out how to play music CDs like a professional DJ, buy music
online from the Apple Music Store, rip CDs and import music from many
sources, and organize your music library. The minibook covers everything
you need to know about sound quality and hard drive space trade-offs, as
well as how to get the best sound from your computer or CDs you burn
yourself.
Book II: iPhoto
This minibook provides all you need to know about using digital cameras
and organizing your photos to produce prints, photo albums, and even
professional-looking photo books. It shows you how to improve and retouch
digital photos, create slideshows, and share photos online and by e-mail.
Book III: iMovie
This minibook introduces digital video and tells you everything you need to
know about using digital camcorders with your Mac to create videos of all
kinds, even professional videos. This minibook shows you how to manage
video clips, create movies with photos and clips, and even edit soundtracks
and special effects. It also covers sharing movies online and saving movies in
professional formats.
Book IV: iDVD
This minibook describes how to bring all your digital assets together to
create exciting DVDs that can play in DVD players as well as computers. You
find out how to create interactive menus and buttons and special effects,
such as video backgrounds. Burn DVDs like the pros and back up all your
precious digital assets — photos, music, movies, slideshows — at their highest quality.
Icons Used in This Book
5
Book V: GarageBand
This minibook describes how to create your own music by building songs
with prerecorded loops, recording a performance using your Mac as a synthesizer that can simulate musical instruments, and recording performances
with real musical instruments (such as guitars) or live singing with vocal
microphones. You find out how to create and edit separate tracks, mix the
tracks with volume and panning controls to create stereo sound, employ
sound effects and simulated amplifiers, and export the finished song to
iTunes.
Book VI: iPod
This minibook tells how to take your entire music library with you on the
road with an iPod. You also discover how to use the iPod to look up contacts
(addresses and phone numbers) and your calendar and to-do lists, as well as
how to use the iPod as a portable hard drive.
Book VII: iLife Extras
This minibook talks about integrating the various components of iLife and
includes some helpful third-party stuff.
Icons Used in This Book
The icons in this book are important visual cues for information you need.
The Remember icons highlight important things you should commit to
memory.
The Technical Stuff icons highlight technical details you can skip unless you
want to bring out the technical geek in you.
The Tip icons highlight tips and techniques that save you time and energy,
and maybe even money.
The Warning icons save your butt by preventing disasters. Don’t bypass a
Warning icon without reading it. This is your only warning!
6
Where to Go from Here
Where to Go from Here
Feel free to begin reading this book anywhere or skip particular sections or
chapters (or go really wild and start on page 1 and continue reading to the
Index). If you want to know how to tackle a particular task, look it up in the
Index or Table of Contents and flip to the page you need. Or if you want to
start finding out about one of the products, start with that minibook. This is
your book; dive right in.
Book I
iTunes
Contents at a Glance
Chapter 1: iTunes — The Digital Jukebox ............................................................................9
Chapter 2: Organizing Your Library ..................................................................................31
Chapter 3: Enhancing the Audio..........................................................................................53
Chapter 4: Burning CDs........................................................................................................71
Chapter 1: iTunes —
The Digital Jukebox
In This Chapter
Starting iTunes
Playing music tracks
Setting visual effects
Perfecting the sound
Shopping for music online
Importing into iTunes
Listening to Web radio streams
M
ore than half a century ago, jukeboxes were the primary and most convenient way for people to select the music they wanted to hear and
share with others, especially newly released music. Juke joints were hopping
with the newest hits every night; however, you still had to insert coins every
time you played a song. Possibly, you could afford records and a turntable,
but you had to throw a party to share the music with others.
Today, using a computer, you can create a digital jukebox and conveniently
click a button to play a song. Connect your Mac to a stereo amplifier in your
home, or connect speakers to your Mac, and suddenly your Mac is the best
jukebox in the neighborhood.
You can listen to a new song on the Internet and download it immediately.
You can also buy music online at the iTunes Music Store. iTunes downloads
music from the store and puts it in your library, making it immediately available for playing, burning onto a CD, or transferring to an iPod. You can even
listen to Web radio stations using iTunes and add your favorite stations to
your music list.
Transferring songs from a CD to your computer is called ripping a CD (to the
chagrin of the music industry old-timers who think we intend to destroy the
disc or steal the songs). Ripping an entire CD’s worth of songs is quick and
easy, and track information including artist name and title arrives automatically over the Internet.
10
Setting Up iTunes
iTunes gives you the power to organize songs into playlists and burn (record)
CDs of any songs in your library, in any order. You can even set up dynamic
smart playlists that reflect your preferences and listening habits. iTunes offers
an equalizer with preset settings for all kinds of music and listening environments, and it gives you the ability to customize and save your own personalized settings with each song.
This chapter explains how iTunes changes your music playing and buying
habits for the better. You can preserve your music virtually forever without depending on the viability of the media (such as CDs that can become
scratched), and you can also use your music in a variety of creative projects
made possible by iLife.
Setting Up iTunes
You need to set up iTunes so that it can use your Internet connection to download song information such as artist name and song titles. This happens automatically when you first start iTunes. Follow these steps:
1. Launch iTunes.
Double-click the iTunes application, or click the iTunes icon in the Dock.
2. If this is the first time you’ve used iTunes, click the Agree button for
Apple’s License Agreement.
Apple’s License Agreement appears only when you start iTunes for the
first time. You can click Save to save the license agreement as a document, Print to print it, Decline to quit iTunes immediately, or Agree to
move on to iTunes Setup Assistant. No lawyers will be present when you
do this; it’s all up to you.
The Setup Assistant takes you through the process of setting up iTunes
for the Internet.
3. Click Yes or No for the following options:
• “Yes, use iTunes for Internet audio content,” or “No, do not modify
my Internet settings”
We suggest clicking Yes to allow iTunes to handle audio content,
because iTunes offers more features than you typically find with
browser plug-ins from other companies. On the other hand, if you are
happy with your plug-ins and helper applications, you can click No
and leave your Internet settings untouched.
Setting Up iTunes
11
• “Yes, automatically connect to the Internet,” or “No, ask me before
connecting”
The Setup Assistant also asks if you want iTunes to search your home
folder for music files. You may want to click the No button for now,
because iTunes may find files you don’t want to add to your library
(such as music for games).
4. Click Next to go to the iTunes Music Store screen of the Setup Assistant.
The assistant asks if you want to go straight to the iTunes Music Store.
We suggest clicking No for now, until you get to know iTunes.
5. In the Setup Assistant window, click Done.
The iTunes window appears, as shown in Figure 1-1. You can drag the
bottom-right corner of your iTunes window to make it larger or smaller
on your screen.
Figure 1-1:
Launching
iTunes.
If your computer shares a phone line or you pay Internet connection charges
by the minute, you probably don’t want to connect automatically. If you’re
stuck with a dial-up modem, you may not want your modem to make a phone
call every time you slip a CD into the computer. On the other hand, if your
Internet cost isn’t based on usage and you’re always connected, connecting
iTunes automatically is convenient.
iTunes — The
Digital Jukebox
If you use an always-on broadband Internet service, you probably
want iTunes to connect automatically, and you can click Yes. If you
use a dial-up modem, if your Internet service is intermittently off, or
if your Internet service charges when you use it, you probably don’t
want this connection to be automatic — you can click No to make
iTunes ask first. To go to the next screen, click Next.
Book I
Chapter 1
12
Playing CD Tracks
Whether or not you set iTunes to automatically connect to the Internet, you
should at some point connect to the Internet with iTunes, not only to buy
music online and listen to Web radio, but also to retrieve the track information
when you insert a CD new to iTunes so that you don’t have to type the information yourself.
Playing CD Tracks
To start playing music, just insert a music CD (or even a CD-R disc that
someone else may have burned for you). The music tracks appear in the
iTunes song/detail list, as shown in Figure 1-2.
You can play CDs without importing the music to your iTunes library if you
want to use iTunes as a CD player only. To find out how to get digital music
online or import music from CDs, see the sections, “Buying Music Online
from Apple” and “Importing Music into iTunes,” later in this chapter.
Figure 1-2:
The tracks
of an audio
CD.
If your Mac is connected to the Internet, and you clicked Yes to the “automatically connect to the Internet” question in Setup Assistant, iTunes presents the track information from the Internet for each song automatically
after you insert the CD, as shown in Figure 1-3.
To play the CD from the first track — which is already selected if you just
inserted the disc, but may not be if you clicked somewhere else after inserting
the disc, in which case you should click the first track to select it — click the
Play button. The Play button turns into a Pause button, and the song plays.
Playing CD Tracks
13
Volume slider
Book I
Chapter 1
Play
iTunes — The
Digital Jukebox
Back
Forward
Figure 1-3:
CD track
info appears
after iTunes
consults
with the
Internet.
Shuffle Repeat
Status Display
Visual Effects Eject
When the song finishes, iTunes continues playing the songs in the list in
sequence until you click the Pause button (which then turns back into the
Play button). You can skip to the next or previous song using the arrow keys
on your keyboard, or by clicking the Forward or Back button next to the Play
button. You can press the the spacebar of your keyboard to perform the
same function as clicking the Play button; pressing the spacebar again is just
like clicking the Pause button.
The status display above the list of songs tells you the name of the artist and
song (if known), and the elapsed time of the track. Click the artist name, and
the name disappears and the song title is displayed; click the title, and it is
replaced by the artist name. If you click the Elapsed Time status, the status
changes to the remaining time and then, with another click, to the total time
(one more click brings you back to the elapsed time).
Rearranging and repeating tracks
You can rearrange the order of the tracks to automatically play them in any
sequence you want — similar to programming a CD player. Click the upwardpointing arrow at the top of the first column in the song list, and it changes
to a downward-pointing arrow, with the tracks in reverse order.
14
Displaying Visuals
You can change the order of tracks played in sequence. Just press and hold
the mouse button on the track number in the first column for the song, and
drag it up or down in the list. You can set up the tracks to play in some completely different sequence.
Skipping tracks
To skip tracks so they don’t play in sequence, click the box next to the song
name to remove the check mark. iTunes skips deselected songs when you
play the entire sequence.
To remove all check marks from a list simultaneously, hold down the Ô key
while clicking a check mark. Click an empty check mark box while pressing
Ô to add check marks to the entire list.
Repeating a song list
You can repeat an entire song list by clicking the Repeat button at the
bottom of the Source list on the left side of the iTunes window (or by choosing Controls➪Repeat All). The Repeat button icon changes to show blue
highlighting. Click the Repeat button again to repeat the current song
(or choose Controls➪Repeat One) — the icon changes to include a bluehighlighted numeral one. Click it once more to return to normal playback
(or choose Controls➪Repeat Off).
The Shuffle button, to the left of the Repeat button, plays the songs in the
list in a random order, which can be fun. You can then press the arrow keys
or the Back or Forward button to jump around in random order. Eject a CD
by clicking the Eject button or by choosing Controls➪Eject Disc.
Displaying Visuals
Visual effects can turn your Mac display into a lightshow for your amusement. You can watch a cool visual display of eye candy while the music
plays — or leave it on like a lava lamp. Click the Visual Effects button on
the bottom right side of the iTunes window (or choose Visualize➪Turn
Visualizer On). The visual animation appears in the iTunes window and
coordinates with the music.
In addition to the animation replacing the iTunes song list, an Options
button replaces the Import button in the upper-right corner of the iTunes
window. You can click the Options button to open the Visualizer Options
dialog, as shown in Figure 1-4.
Displaying Visuals
15
Book I
Chapter 1
iTunes — The
Digital Jukebox
Figure 1-4:
Set your
options for
visual
effects.
The Visualizer Options dialog offers the following options that affect the animation but not the performance of iTunes when it’s playing music:
✦ Display frame rate: Displays the frame rate of the animation along with
the animation.
✦ Cap frame rate at 30 fps: Keeps the frame rate at 30 fps (frames per
second) or lower, which is the speed of normal video.
✦ Always display song info: Displays the song name, artist, and album for
the song currently playing, along with the animation.
✦ Faster but rougher display: The animation plays faster, with rougher
graphics. Choose this option if your animation plays too slowly.
The Visualizer menu in iTunes gives you even more control over visual effects.
You can choose Visualize➪Small or Visualize➪Medium to display the visual
effects in a rectangle inside the iTunes window, or Visualize➪Large to fill the
iTunes window. Choosing Visualize➪Full Screen sets the visual effects to
take over the entire screen. With full-screen visual effects, you can click the
mouse or press the Escape key on your keyboard to stop the display and
return to iTunes.
While the animated visual effects play, press Shift+/ (the keystrokes you use
to type a question mark) to see a list of keyboard functions. Depending on
the visual effect, you may see more choices of keyboard functions by pressing Shift+/ again.
To turn off visual effects, click the Visual Effects button again. You can leave
the effects on (except when in full-screen mode) even while opening the
equalizer, because you still have access to the playback controls. See the
following section to find out how to change the equalizer settings.
16
Fine-Tuning the Sound
Fine-Tuning the Sound
The jumping-bar displays you see on audio equipment are in most cases
equalizers. An equalizer (EQ in audiospeak) enables you to fine-tune the
specific sound spectrum frequencies. Adjusting bass and treble controls on
a radio or stereo are simply cruder ways of adjusting these frequencies. An
equalizer gives you far greater control over specific frequencies.
Using an equalizer preset
To see the iTunes equalizer, click the Equalizer button, on the bottom-right
side of the iTunes window. The Equalizer window appears, as shown in
Figure 1-5. Chapter 3 of this minibook provides more details on enhancing
the sound with the iTunes equalizer.
Figure 1-5:
Adjusting an
equalizer
preset.
You can select one of the preset values from the pop-up menu or adjust the
frequencies manually by dragging the sliders up and down, just like a professional mixing console. We describe in detail how to use the equalizer in
Chapter 3 of this minibook.
Cross-fading and controlling volume
You can fade the ending of one song into the beginning of the next one to
slightly overlap songs, just like a radio DJ. Ordinarily, iTunes is set to have a
short cross-fade — a short amount of time between the end of the fade in the
first song and the start of the fade in the second song.
You can change this cross-fade setting by choosing iTunes➪Preferences and
then clicking the Effects button. You can turn the Crossfade Playback option
on or off, and increase or decrease the amount of the cross-fade.
You can also adjust the volume for all the songs at once by sliding the
volume slider in the upper-left section of the iTunes window. The maximum
volume of the iTunes volume slider is the maximum set for the computer’s
sound in the Sound pane of System Preferences.
Buying Music Online from Apple
17
To adjust the volume of a particular song, click a song to select it, and then
choose File➪Get Info. In the Get Info dialog, click the Options tab, and then
drag the Volume Adjustment slider left or right to adjust the volume.
1. Choose iTunes➪Preferences.
The Preferences dialog appears.
2. Click the Effects button.
3. Select the Sound Check check box.
iTunes sets the volume for all songs according to the level of the slider.
4. Click OK.
Buying Music Online from Apple
When Apple announced its new music service, Apple chairman Steve Jobs
remarked that other services put forward by the music industry tend to
treat consumers like criminals. Steve had a point. Many of these services
cost more and add a level of copy protection that prevents consumers from
burning CDs or using the music they bought on other computers or portable
MP3 players.
Apple did the research on how to make a service that worked better and
was easier to use, and it forged ahead with the iTunes Music Store. By all
accounts, Apple has succeeded in offering the easiest, fastest, and most
cost-effective service for buying music for your Mac and iPod. For example,
the iTunes Music Store offers gift certificates you can e-mail to others, and
allowance accounts you can set up for others (such as children) with credit
limits but without the need to use a credit card. New features are added
almost weekly to the store.
Visiting the iTunes Music Store
As of this writing, the iTunes Music Store offers more than 500,000 songs,
with most songs available for download at the price of $.99 each, and entire
albums are available for download at far less than the price you pay for the
CD. You can play the songs on up to three different computers, burn your
own CDs, and use them on players such as the iPod.
You can preview any song for up to 30 seconds, and if you already established your account, you can buy and download the song immediately. We
don’t know of a faster way to get a song.
iTunes — The
Digital Jukebox
Some CDs play more loudly than others, and occasionally, individual tracks
within a CD are louder than others. To ensure that all the songs in your
library play at the same volume level, follow these steps:
Book I
Chapter 1
18
Buying Music Online from Apple
To use the iTunes Music Store, follow these steps:
1. In iTunes, click the Music Store option in the Source list.
The Music Store front page appears (see Figure 1-6), replacing the iTunes
song list. The page enables you to check out artists and songs to your
heart’s content, although you can’t buy songs until you sign into a
Music Store account. You can use the Choose Genre pop-up menu to
specify music genres, or click links for new releases, exclusive tracks,
and so on — just like any music service on the Web.
Figure 1-6:
The Music
Store front
page.
2. Click the Sign In button on the right to create an account or sign in to
an existing account.
You need an account (with a credit card) to buy music. iTunes displays
the account sign-in dialog, as shown in Figure 1-7.
If you already set up an account in the Apple Store, in the .Mac service, or
on America Online (AOL), you’re halfway there. Type in your ID and password, and then click the Sign In button. Apple remembers the information
you put in previously, so you don’t have to re-enter it every time you visit
the iTunes Music Store. If you forgot your password, click the Forgot
Password? button, and iTunes provides a dialog to answer your test question. If you answer correctly, your password is then e-mailed to you.
3. If you aren’t signed up, click the Create New Account button to, uh,
create a new account.
iTunes displays a new page, replacing the iTunes front page, with an
explanation of steps to create a new account and the terms of use.
Buying Music Online from Apple
19
Book I
Chapter 1
iTunes — The
Digital Jukebox
Figure 1-7:
Signing into
the iTunes
Music
Store.
4. Click the Agree button, and then fill in your personal account
information.
iTunes displays the next page of the setup procedure, which requires
you to type your e-mail address, password, test question and answer
(in case you forget your password), birth date, and privacy options.
5. Click Continue to go to the next page of the account setup procedure,
and then enter your credit card information.
Enter your personal credit card information. The entire procedure is
secure, so you don’t have to worry. The Music Store keeps your information on file and you don’t have to type it in again.
6. Click Done to finish the procedure.
You can now use the iTunes Music Store to purchase and download
music to play in iTunes and to use on an iPod.
Browsing the store and previewing a song
You may want to listen to a song before buying or just browse the store and
listen to song previews. To browse the store, click the Browse button in the
top-right corner of the window. iTunes displays the store’s offerings categorized by genre, and within each genre, by artist and album. Click a genre,
then an artist, and then an album, to see the list of songs from that album
that are available to preview or purchase, as shown in Figure 1-8.
To see more information about a song or the album it came from, click one of
the circled arrow buttons in the song list:
✦ Clicking the arrow in the Artist column takes you to the artist’s page of
albums.
✦ Clicking the arrow in the Album column takes you to the album page, as
shown in Figure 1-9.
20
Buying Music Online from Apple
✦ Clicking the arrow in the Genre column takes you back to the genre’s
specials page (or the home page).
Figure 1-8:
Browsing
the iTunes
Music
Store.
Click a song in the list of songs and click the Play button to play a preview.
Each preview lasts about 30 seconds. The previews play on your computer
off the Internet in a stream, as shown in Figure 1-9, so there may be a few
hiccups in the playback.
Figure 1-9:
Previewing
songs online
in the iTunes
Music
Store.
Buying Music Online from Apple
21
Buying songs
If for some reason your computer crashes or you quit before the download
finishes, iTunes remembers to continue the download when you return to
iTunes. If for some reason the download doesn’t continue, choose Advanced➪
Check for Purchased Music to continue the download.
Apple offers 1-Click technology in the store so that when you click the Buy
Song button, the song immediately starts downloading to your computer
and the purchase is done.
But you don’t have to use the 1-Click technology. You can instead add songs
to a shopping cart in the store, to delay purchasing and downloading until
you’re ready. With the shopping cart, the store remembers your selections
and you can browse the store at different times, adding to your shopping
cart without making any purchases final; you can also remove items from the
cart at any time. When you’re ready to buy, you can purchase and download
the songs in your cart at once. If you decide on the shopping cart method,
the Buy Song button changes to an Add Song button. When you’re ready to
purchase everything in your cart, click the Buy Now button to close the sale
and download all the songs at once. To switch from 1-Click to a shopping
cart, check out the section, “Setting the music store preferences.”
All sales are final. If your computer’s hard drive crashes and you lose your
information, you also lose your songs — you have to purchase and download them again. But you can mitigate this kind of disaster by backing up
your music library, which we describe in detail in Chapter 2 of this minibook. You can also burn your purchased songs onto an audio CD, as we
describe in Chapter 4 of this minibook.
Handling authorization
The computer you use to set up your account is automatically authorized by
Apple to play the songs you buy. Fortunately, the songs aren’t locked to that
computer — you can copy them to another computer and play them from
within the other computer’s iTunes program. When you first play them on
another computer, iTunes asks for your iTunes Music Store ID and password
in order to authorize that computer. You can authorize up to three computers at a time. If you want to add a fourth computer, you can remove the
authorization on a computer by choosing Advanced➪Deauthorize Account.
iTunes — The
Digital Jukebox
After you have an account set up, you can purchase songs and download
them to your computer. Select a song and click the Buy Song button at the
far right of the song (you may have to scroll your iTunes window horizontally). The store displays a warning to make sure you want to buy the song,
and you can either go through with it or cancel. The song downloads automatically and shows up in your iTunes song list. Purchased songs also
appear in a Purchased Music playlist in the iTunes library.
Book I
Chapter 1
22
Buying Music Online from Apple
After you set up an account, you can sign into the iTunes Music Store at any
time to buy music, view or change the information in your account, and see
your purchase history. To see your account information and purchase history,
click the View Account link in the store after signing in with your ID and password. Every time you buy music, you get an e-mail from the iTunes Music
Store with the purchase information.
Setting the music store preferences
Your decision to download each song immediately or add to a shopping cart
and download the song(s) later will likely be based on how your computer
connects to the Internet. If you would rather gang up your song downloads
to do at a certain time (such as overnight), you probably want to use the
shopping cart method.
You can change your preferences with the iTunes Music Store by choosing
iTunes➪Preferences; and in the Preferences dialog that appears, click the
Store button at the top of the dialog. The Store dialog appears, as shown in
Figure 1-10. The Store dialog enables you to change from 1-Click to Shopping
Cart or vice versa. You can also select the Play Songs after Downloading
option so that the songs you bought start playing immediately after downloading. The Load Complete Preview before Playing option, if turned on, provides better playing performance (fewer hiccups) with previews if you have
a slow Internet connection.
If you use more than one computer with your account, you can set the preferences for each computer differently while still using the same account. For
example, your store-authorized home computer may have a faster connection than your authorized PowerBook on the road, and you can set your
iTunes preferences accordingly.
Figure 1-10:
Setting your
preferences
for the
iTunes
Music
Store.
Importing Music into iTunes
23
Importing Music into iTunes
Importing songs from a CD is called ripping a CD. We’re not sure why it came
to be called that, but Apple certainly took the term to a new level with an ad
campaign for Macs a while back that featured the slogan “Rip, Mix, Burn.”
Burning a mix CD was the hip thing to do a few years ago. If you have an
iPod, you only have to rip and mix — burning CDs to play your music wherever you go isn’t necessary.
Ripping, in technical terms, is the process of extracting the song’s digital
information from an audio CD, but in common terms it also includes the
process of compressing the song’s digital information and encoding it in a
particular sound file format. The ripping process is straightforward, but the
settings you choose for importing affect sound quality, hard drive space
(and iPod space), and compatibility with other types of players and computers. Chapter 3 of this minibook provides an in-depth look at these encoders
and quality settings; for now, we show you how to do it and provide suggestions for settings.
Ripping music from CDs
Though importing music from an audio CD takes a lot less time than playing
the CD, it still takes time. We suggest that before you rip your first CD, you
look at the Importing dialog by choosing iTunes➪Preferences, and then
clicking the Importing button at the top of the Preferences dialog. The
Importing dialog appears, as shown in Figure 1-11.
Note the type of encoding selected in the Import Using pop-up menu and the
quality setting in the Setting pop-up menu and consider these options:
✦ Import Using: Set this pop-up menu to AAC Encoder, which is the same
as the format used by the Apple Music Store, or the MP3 Encoder, which
is the standard for online music files. The other formats are for higherquality uncompressed music files. (Chapter 3 of this minibook provides
a more in-depth look at these choices.)
iTunes — The
Digital Jukebox
To immortalize your music, you need to import it into iTunes from your
audio CDs and other sources. After you put music into the iTunes library,
you can preserve it forever. A song in digital format can be kept in that
format in a file on any number of digital media storage devices — so even if
your CDs, DVDs, and hard drive fails, your backup copy (assuming you made
a backup copy on a safety disk) is still as perfect as the original digital file.
You can make as many digital copies as you want. There are no limitations
on playing the copies except those imposed by the iTunes Music Store for
songs you purchased (up to three computers).
Book I
Chapter 1
24
Importing Music into iTunes
Figure 1-11:
Check your
preferences
for ripping
CDs.
✦ Setting: Set this pop-up menu to High Quality for most music. You can
change this setting to get better quality or to use hard drive space more
efficiently, as we describe in Chapter 3 of this minibook.
✦ Play songs while importing: Click the check box to play the songs at the
same time that you rip them. This option slows down the speed of
importing.
✦ Create file names with track number: Click the check box to include the
track number in the filenames created by iTunes for the songs you rip.
✦ Use error correction when reading Audio CDs: Click the check box if
you have problems with the audio quality when playing the CD (or problems with the music files ripped from the CD). Dirty or scratched CDs
can cause such problems. This option slows down the ripping process,
but it corrects some of these problems.
To rip a CD, follow these steps:
1. Insert an audio CD.
The songs appear in your song list as generic unnamed tracks at first. If
the track names don’t appear in a minute, connect to the Internet and
choose Advanced➪Get CD Track Names.
2. (Optional) Deselect any song(s) on the CD that you don’t want to
import.
iTunes imports the songs that have check marks next to them; when you
remove the check mark next to a song, iTunes skips that song.
Importing Music into iTunes
25
3. (Optional) To remove the gap of silence between songs that segue
together, select those songs and choose Advanced➪Join CD Tracks.
To select multiple songs, click the first one, and then hold down the Ô
key to click each subsequent song. To select several songs consecutively, click the first one, and then hold down the Shift key and click the
last one.
4. Click the Import button at the top right of the iTunes window.
The status display shows the progress of the operation. To cancel, click
the small x next to the progress bar.
iTunes plays the songs as they import. You can click the Pause button
to stop playback. You can also stop the playback by choosing iTunes➪
Preferences and clicking the Importing button. Deselect the Play Songs
While Importing check box in the Importing dialog.
As iTunes finishes importing each song, it displays a green check mark
next to the song. iTunes chimes when it finishes the import list.
5. Click the Eject button at the bottom right of the iTunes window to
eject the CD after all the songs are imported.
You can also choose Controls➪Eject Disc to eject the CD.
Importing music files from other sources
The quality of the music you hear depends on the quality of the source. Web
sites and services offering MP3 files vary widely. Some sites provide highquality, legally derived MP3 songs, and some don’t. Anyone can create MP3
files, so beware of less-than-high-quality knockoffs and sites that offer free
music.
Some sites offer only streaming audio, just like a Web radio station
(described in the “Listening to Web Radio” section, later in this chapter). If
you download something that turns out to be just a Web address (a URL),
you can still use that with iTunes — a broadcast symbol appears next to the
song in your library, just like a Web radio station.
Whether you download the music file or copy it from another hard drive,
you need to save it on your hard drive. After you save or copy an MP3 file —
or for that matter an AIFF or WAV file — on your hard drive, you can simply
drag it into the iTunes window to import it to your library. If you drag a
folder or disk icon, all the audio files it contains are added to your iTunes
library. You can choose File➪Add to Library as an alternative to dragging.
iTunes — The
Digital Jukebox
The tracks on many music CDs are separate, but the end of one song
merges into the beginning of the next song. You don’t want an annoying
half-second gap between those songs.
Book I
Chapter 1
26
Importing Music into iTunes
Adding your own pet sounds
No, we’re not talking about sounds your pet
may have made. We’re referring instead to your
favorite music or sounds that can’t be found on
CD or, believe it or not, on the Internet. The Pet
Sounds Sessions box set by the Beach Boys
includes just about every spoken word and
sneeze in the studio during the recording, and
you may have equally unusual sounds or rare
music that can’t be found anywhere else. How
do you get stuff like that into iTunes?
Sound can be imported from almost anywhere:
Internet: You can import MP3 music files
from Web sites by first downloading the
MP3 files to your Mac. You can also link to
Web radio stations, but you can’t capture
the songs from Web broadcasts without
additional software, and you may be violating copyright law, so we don’t recommend
doing it.
Professional editing programs: You can
import high-quality AIFF-format or WAVformat files from music editing programs.
These programs typically record from any
analog source device, such as a tape
player or even a turntable for playing vinyl
records.
Line-in connector: You can record music
from instruments and microphones directly
into a digital file from the Mac’s line-in connector using GarageBand, described in
Book V, which lets you mix tracks of music
from instruments and other sources and
export directly into iTunes. You can also
record an analog signal, such as a line out
from your home stereo connected to the
Mac’s line-in connector, using the Sound
Studio program, found in the Applications
folder in Mac OS X systems (you can use it
for about two weeks before paying for it).
You can connect any music source to the
line-in connector, including home stereos
with turntables for playing vinyl records.
(The Sound Studio program may not be
bundled with all systems. You can download an application to check it out at
www.felttip.com/products/sound
studio/.) For newer Macs that no longer
have the line-in connections, you can purchase a USB audio input device, such as
the Griffin iMic or the Roland UA-30.
You can import any sound saved in an MP3,
AIFF, or WAV sound file, including your own
voice recorded to the hard drive using the
Mac microphone and a program such as
GarageBand or Sound Studio. You may want to
create special sound effects to use with photo
slideshows in iPhoto, videos in iMovie, or DVD
menus in iDVD. You can import the sound
effects file once into your iTunes Library and
use it in all three types of projects.
Voice recordings tend to be low-fidelity, so we
recommend using the MP3 Encoder with the
Good Quality setting (128 Kbps), rather than
higher quality settings. Sound effects and voice
recordings are typically mono rather than
stereo — but you can also select the Custom
setting to force the importing to be mono
or stereo, as we describe in Chapter 3 of this
minibook.
When you add a song to your iTunes Library, a copy is placed inside the
iTunes Music folder, which you can view in the Finder. (The iTunes Music
folder lives in the Music folder of your Home directory/folder.) The original
song file is not changed or moved. You can then convert the song to another
Listening to Web Radio
27
format — for example, you can convert an AIFF file to an MP3 file — while
leaving the original file intact. We describe converting songs in Chapter 3 of
this minibook.
Do you like to listen to audio books and spoken magazine and newspaper
articles? Not only can you bring these sounds into iTunes, but you can also
transfer them to an iPod and take them on the road, which is much more
convenient than taking cassettes or CDs.
Audible is a leading provider of downloadable spoken audio files. Audible
lets you enable up to three computers to play the audio files, just like the
iTunes Music Store. Audible does require that you purchase the files.
Audible’s content is also licensed by Apple to be included in the iTunes
Music Store in the Audio Books category, with over 5,000 titles so far, including magazines and radio programs as well as books.
To import Audible files, follow these steps:
1. Go to www.audible.com and set up an account if you don’t already
have one.
2. Choose and download an Audible audio file.
These are files whose names end with .aa.
3. Drag the Audible file to the iTunes window.
If this is the first time you’ve added an Audible file, iTunes asks for your
account information. You need to enter this information only once for
each computer you use with your Audible account.
To disable an Audible account, open iTunes on the computer that will no
longer be used with the account, and choose Advanced➪Deauthorize
Computer. In the Deauthorize Computer dialog that appears, select the
Deauthorize Computer for Audible Account option and click OK. Remember:
You need to be online to authorize a computer or to remove the authorization from that computer.
Listening to Web Radio
Now you can reach radio stations on the Internet that represent nearly every
area of the world. You can tune into Japan-A-Radio for the top 40 hits in
Japan, or Cable Radio UK from the south coast of England, or Radio Darvish
iTunes — The
Digital Jukebox
Importing Audio Books
Book I
Chapter 1
28
Listening to Web Radio
for Persian traditional music. You can also check out the local news and
sports from your hometown, no matter where you are. You can listen to talk
radio and music shows from all over the country and the world.
You can’t record or save a song from a radio broadcast without special software. But you can add your favorite stations to your music library or to a
playlist to tune in quickly and easily. You can also tune in any Web radio or
streaming broadcast if you know the Web address.
Streaming music from the Internet
Apple provides links within iTunes directly to radio stations on the Internet,
so you may want to try these first. Follow these steps:
1. Click the Radio option in the Source list.
The iTunes window displays a list of categories of radio stations, as
shown in Figure 1-12.
Figure 1-12:
Selecting a
Web radio
station.
2. Click the Refresh button to retrieve the latest radio stations.
More Web radio stations are added all the time. The Refresh button in
the top-right corner of the iTunes window (taking the place of the
Browse button) connects iTunes to the Internet to retrieve the latest list
of radio stations for each category.
3. Click the triangle next to a category name to open the list of radio
streams in that category.
Listening to Web Radio
29
4. Select a stream and click the Play button.
Within seconds, you hear live radio off the Web.
If you use a dial-up modem connection to the Internet, you may want to
choose a stream with a bit rate of less than 56 Kbps for best results. The Bit
Rate column shows the bit rate for each stream.
iTunes creates a buffer for the audio stream so that you hear continuous
playback with fewer Internet-related hiccups than most Web radio software.
The buffer temporarily stores as much of the stream as possible, adding
more of the stream to the end of the buffer as you play the audio in the
buffer. If you hear stutters, gaps, or hiccups when playing a stream, set your
buffer to a larger size by choosing iTunes➪Preferences. In the Preferences
dialog, click the Advanced button, and then choose a size from the
Streaming Buffer Size pop-up menu. Your choices are Small, Medium, or
Large (sorry, no X-Large).
Saving your favorite stations
Car radios offer preset stations activated by you pressing a button. Of
course, you first need to tune into the station of your choice to set that
button. You can do the same with iTunes, and the process is just as easy:
1. Select a radio station stream.
2. Create a playlist or scroll the Source list to an existing playlist.
See Chapter 2 of this minibook to discover how to create a playlist.
3. Drag the stream name over the playlist name.
iTunes places the stream name in the playlist with a broadcast icon next
to it. You can click the playlist name and rearrange the playlist as you
want, dragging stream names as you would drag song names.
Drag as many steams as you like to as many playlists as you like. Radio
streams in your playlists play only if you are connected to the Internet.
To quickly create a playlist from selected radio streams, first select the
streams (by holding down Shift or the Ô key to make multiple selections),
and then choose File➪New Playlist from Selection.
Book I
Chapter 1
iTunes — The
Digital Jukebox
Radio station broadcasts stream to your computer over the Internet —
sections of the audio transfer and play while more sections transfer so
that you hear it as a continual stream. Some large radio stations offer
more than one stream.
30
Listening to Web Radio
Adding Web broadcasts
Millions of Web sites offer temporary streaming audio broadcasts all the
time. A rock group on tour may offer a broadcast of a special concert, available for only one day. You may want to tune in weekly or monthly broadcasts
such as high-tech talk shows, news programs, documentaries, or sporting
events . . . the list is endless. You may even have access to private broadcasts
such as corporate board meetings.
As of this writing, iTunes supports only MP3 broadcasts. You can find lots of
MP3 broadcasts at www.shoutcast.com and live365.com.
All you need to know is the Web address, also known as the URL (Uniform
Resource Locator) — the global address of documents and other resources
on the Web. You can find most URLs from a Web site or e-mail about a broadcast. Follow these steps to add a Web broadcast to a playlist:
1. Choose Advanced➪Open Stream.
The Open Stream dialog appears, with a URL text field for typing a Web
address.
2. Type the exact, full URL of the stream, as shown in Figure 1-13.
Include the http:// prefix as in http://64.236.34.141:80/stream/
1014.
If you’re connected to the Internet, iTunes automatically retrieves the
broadcast and places it at the end of your song list.
3. Click OK.
Figure 1-13:
Enter the
URL to play
any Web
streaming
broadcast.
Chapter 2: Organizing Your Library
In This Chapter
Browsing the library and searching for songs
Adding and editing song information
Creating custom and automatic smart playlists
Backing up your library and sharing music over a network
T
he iTunes library is awesome even by jukebox standards — it can hold
up to 32,000 songs (depending on how much space you have on your
hard drive). Finding Chuck Berry’s “Maybelline” is a challenge using a rotating dial of 32,000 songs. And its companion, the 40GB iPod portable music
player, can hold about 10,000 songs in the AAC format — that’s enough
music to last two weeks if played 24 hours a day!
Even if you keep your iTunes library down to the size of what you can fit on
your iPod, you still have a formidable collection at your fingertips. If you’re
a music lover and your music collection is getting large, you’ll want to
organize your collection to make finding songs easier.
In this chapter, we show you how to organize your songs in iTunes. You can
find any song in seconds and display songs sorted by artist, album, genre of
music, or other attributes. You can grab song information from the Internet
and add and edit the information to make organizing more useful. Grabbing
and editing the information is important because you don’t want your
imported CD music to have song titles like “Track 1” — you don’t want to
mistakenly play “My Guitar Wants to Kill Your Mama” by Frank Zappa when
trying to impress your classical music teacher with Tchaikovsky’s Pathétique
Symphony, 3rd Movement, do you?
This chapter also explains how to create playlists, which are lists of songs to
be played, transferred to an iPod, or burned to a CD. iTunes even offers
smart playlists — playlists that generate their own lists, without your help,
based on the song information (which is another good reason to edit the
information). You also find out how to make a backup of your library — a
very important operation, especially if you have music files on your hard
drives that are your only copies of the songs. For example, you may have
songs in the AAC format that you purchased from the iTunes Music Store
(so you don’t have the songs on CD), or you may have songs that you
recorded with GarageBand (see Book V for more about GarageBand).
32
Been Searching . . . Browsing, and Sorting, Too
Been Searching . . . Browsing, and Sorting, Too
You rip a few CDs, buy some songs from the iTunes Music Store, and you
watch your music library fill up with songs. That song list keeps getting
longer and longer, and as a result, your library gets harder to navigate.
Selecting songs to play in a proper order also is harder. Shouldn’t a computer be able to make these things easier? Of course it can.
Browsing by artist and album
You can switch to the Browse view to find songs more easily. The Browse
view is useful as long as you track information for the songs. You aren’t overwhelmed by a long list of songs — when you select an album, iTunes displays
only the songs for that album.
To select the Browse view, click the Browse button in the upper-right corner.
iTunes organizes your music library by artist and album, which makes finding
just the right tunes easier, as shown in Figure 2-1. Click the Browse button
again to return to List view. Clicking the Browse button toggles between the
two views.
Browse
Figure 2-1:
Click the
Browse
button to
browse the
iTunes
library.
The Browse view sorts the songs by artist, and within each artist’s group, by
album. This type of column arrangement is a called a tree structure, although
it looks more like a fallen tree to us.
Been Searching . . . Browsing, and Sorting, Too
33
When you click an artist in the Artist column on the left side (as shown in
Figure 2-2), the album titles appear in the Album column on the right. At the
top of this Album column, the All selection is highlighted, and all of the
songs appear in the Song Name list.
Book I
Chapter 2
Organizing
Your Library
Figure 2-2:
Select an
artist in the
Browse
view to see
the list of
albums for
that artist.
To see more than one artist’s albums at a time, hold down the Ô key and
click each artist’s name. iTunes displays all of the albums for the artists you
Ô+click.
As you click different albums in the Album column, the Song Name list displays the songs from that album. The songs are listed in proper track order,
just as the artist intended them.
This arrangement is great for selecting songs from albums, but what if you
want to look at all the songs by that artist in the library at once? See all the
artist’s songs in the iTunes library by selecting the All option in the Artist
column. (Note that iTunes considers “Clash” and “The Clash” to be different
groups — we edit the artist name and other information whenever necessary, as described in the “Speed editing multiple songs” section, later in this
chapter.) To see all the songs in your collection, return to the default List
view by clicking the Browse button.
Understanding the song indicators
As you make choices in iTunes, it displays an action indicator next to each
song to show you what iTunes is doing. Here’s a list of indicators and what
they mean:
34
Been Searching . . . Browsing, and Sorting, Too
✦ Moving zigzag: iTunes is importing the song.
✦ Green check mark: iTunes has finished importing the song.
✦ Exclamation point: iTunes can’t find the song. You may have moved or
deleted the song accidentally. Drag the song from the Finder to the
iTunes window.
✦ Broadcast icon: The song is on the Internet, and iTunes plays it as a
music stream.
✦ Black check mark: The songs are marked for the next operation, such as
importing from an audio CD or playing in sequence.
✦ Speaker: The song is currently playing.
✦ Chasing arrows: iTunes is copying the song from another location or
downloading the song from the Internet.
Changing viewing options
iTunes gives you the ability to customize a song list. The list starts out with
the Song Name, Time, Artist, Album, Genre, My Rating, Play Count, and Last
Played categories — you may have to drag the horizontal scroll bar along
the bottom of the song list to see all these columns. You can display more or
less information, or different information, in your song list; you can also display columns in a different order from left to right, or with wider or narrower
column widths.
You can make a column wider or narrower by dragging the dividing line
between the column and the next column. As you move your cursor over the
divider, it changes to a double-ended arrow; you can then click and drag the
divider to change the column’s width.
You can also change the order of columns from left to right by clicking a
column header and dragging the entire column to the left or right.
Maybe you don’t like certain columns — they take up too much valuable
screen space. Or perhaps you want to display some other information about
the song. You can add or remove columns such as Size (for file size), Date
and Year (for the date the album was released, or any other date you choose
for each song), Bit Rate, Sample Rate, Track Number, and Comment. To add
or delete columns, choose Edit➪View Options.
The View Options dialog appears, as shown in Figure 2-3, and you can select
the columns you want to appear in the song list. To pick a column, select the
check box next to the column’s name. Any unchecked column headers are
columns that do not appear in the iTunes window. Note: The Song Name
Been Searching . . . Browsing, and Sorting, Too
35
column always appears in the iTunes window and can’t be removed, so it
doesn’t appear in the View Options dialog. You can also change the view
options by Ô+clicking any of the column headings in the songlist in either
Browse or List view.
Book I
Chapter 2
Organizing
Your Library
Figure 2-3:
The viewing
options for
the song list.
The viewing options you choose depend on your music playing habits. You
may want to display the Time column to know at a glance the duration of
any song. You may want the Date or Year columns to differentiate songs from
different eras, or the Genre column to differentiate songs from different
musical genres.
You can also browse by genre in the Browse view, rather than by artist. To
add a Genre column to the Browse view, choose iTunes➪Preferences and
click the General button at the top of the Preferences dialog. In the General
dialog that appears, select the Show Genre When Browsing option.
Sorting songs by viewing options
Knowing how to set viewing options is a good idea because you can use the
viewing options to sort the listing of songs. Whether you’re in Browse view
or viewing the song list in its entirety, the column headers double as sorting
options.
For example, clicking the Time header reorders the songs by their duration
in ascending order (from shortest to longest). If you click the Time header
again, the sort is reversed, starting with the longest song. This can be useful
if you are looking for songs of a certain length — for example, looking for a
song to match the length of a slideshow in iPhoto (see Book II) or a movie
clip in iMovie (see Book III).
36
Been Searching . . . Browsing, and Sorting, Too
You can tell which way the sort is sorting — ascending or descending
order — by the little arrow indicator in the header. When the arrow is pointing up, the sort is in ascending order; when down, it is in descending order.
You can sort the song list in alphabetical order. Click the Artist header to
sort all the songs in the list by the artist name, in alphabetical order (the
arrow points up). Click it again to sort the list in reverse alphabetical order
(the arrow points down).
Searching for songs
As your music library grows, you may find locating a particular song by the
usual browsing and scrolling methods that we describe earlier in this chapter to be time consuming. So . . . let iTunes find your songs for you!
Locate the Search field — the oval field in the top-right corner, to the left of
the Browse button — and follow these steps:
1. Click in the Search field, and then type the first characters of your
search term, using these tips for best searching:
• You can search for a song title, an artist, or an album title.
• Typing very few characters results in a long list of possible songs,
but the search narrows down as you type more characters.
• The Search features ignore case — for example, when we search for
miles, iTunes finds “Eight Miles High,” “She Smiles Like a River,” and
everything by Miles Davis.
The search operation works immediately, searching for matches in the
Song Name, Artist, and Album columns.
2. The results display as you type.
If you’re in Browse view with an artist and a particular album selected,
you can’t search for another artist or song. Use browsing with searching
to further narrow your search.
3. Scroll through the search results and click a song to select it.
If you want to search the entire library, first click the All selection at the top
of the Artist column to browse the entire library, before using the Search
field. Or if you prefer, turn off the Browse view by clicking the Browse button
again, and use the Search field with the library’s song list.
To back out of a search so that the full list appears again, you can either
click the circled X in the Search field, or delete the characters in the Search
field. You then see the entire list of songs in your library, just as before. All
the songs are still there, and remain there unless you explicitly remove
them. Searching only manipulates your view of the songs.
The Singer, Not the Song: Adding and Editing Information
37
The Singer, Not the Song: Adding
and Editing Information
Adding all the song information seems like a lot of trouble, but that ol’ Mac
magic comes through for you. You can get most of the information automatically, no typing necessary.
Retrieving information from the Internet
Why type song information if someone else has typed it? You can get information about most commercial CDs from the Internet. However, you need to
check your Internet connection first.
During the setup process, you can control whether iTunes connects automatically or manually to the Internet. In Chapter 1 of this minibook we
describe how, when you first start iTunes, the Setup Assistant helps you
through the process of setting iTunes up to connect to the Internet automatically. You can change the setup of your Internet connection at any time by
following these steps:
1. Choose iTunes➪Preferences.
The Preferences dialog appears.
2. Click the General button.
3. Select the Connect to Internet When Needed option.
When this option is selected, iTunes connects automatically; otherwise,
iTunes asks first before connecting to the Internet.
4. Click OK.
You can connect to the Internet at any time, if you’re not automatically connected, and get the song information when you need it. After you connect,
from the iTunes menu, choose Advanced➪Get CD Track Names.
Even if you automatically connect to the Internet, the song information database on the Internet (known as Gracenote CDDB) may be momentarily
unavailable, or you may have a delayed response. If at first you don’t succeed, choose Advanced➪Get CD Track Names.
Organizing
Your Library
Organization depends on information. You expect the computer to do a lot
more than just store this music with “Untitled Disc” and “Track 1” as the
only identifiers. Song names, album titles, composer credits, and release
dates may seem trivial. But you can use the song information to search for
songs or sort song lists, and the information is absolutely necessary for
making smart playlists.
Book I
Chapter 2
38
The Singer, Not the Song: Adding and Editing Information
Editing artist and band names
At some time or another you may want to edit artist and band names that
come in from the Internet. For example, for solo artists, we like to list the
artist by last name, rather than first name like the Gracenote CDDB does.
For example, we routinely change the name of the artist derived from CDDB,
which comes in as, “Miles Davis” because we’d rather have the artist name
be “Davis, Miles.”
Other annoyances often occur in the CDDB, such as bands that normally
have “The” in front of their names, such as The Who, The Band, The Beatles,
and The Beach Boys. We dislike having “The” before the band name, so we
routinely remove “The.”
You can edit a song’s information in either Browse view or List view. Edit a
song’s track information by clicking directly in the field, and clicking again so
that the mouse pointer turns into an editing cursor. You can then select the
text and type over it, or use Ô+C (copy), Ô+X (cut), and Ô+V (paste) to
move tiny bits of text around within the field. As you can see in Figure 2-4,
we changed the Artist field to “Beck, Jeff.”
Figure 2-4:
Click inside
the Artist
field to
edit the
information.
We prefer working directly with the song list (with Browse view turned off)
when editing song information.
You can edit the Song Name, Artist, Album, Genre, and My Ratings fields
right in the song list. But editing this information by choosing File➪Get Info
is easier. Keep reading to find out more.
The Singer, Not the Song: Adding and Editing Information
39
Automatic dialup
At that point, your Internet service may still be
on until the service hangs up on you. You may
want to switch to a browser, without quitting
iTunes, and surf the Web to make use of the
connection — iTunes continues to import or
play the music while you surf.
You can stop an automatic modem connection as quickly as possible — if your service
provider or phone service charges extra fees
based on timed usage. When iTunes finishes
importing, switch to your remote connection
program without quitting iTunes, terminate the
Internet connection, and then switch back to
iTunes.
Speed editing multiple songs
Editing in the song list is fine if you’re editing the information for one song,
but typically you need to change all the tracks of an audio CD. For example,
if a CD of songs by Bob Dylan is listed with the artist as “Bob Dylan,” you
may want to change all the songs at once to “Dylan, Bob.” Changing all the
song information in one fell swoop, of course, is fast and clean, but like most
powerful shortcuts, you need to be careful because it can be dangerous.
You can change a group of songs in either Browse view or List view. To
change a group of songs at once, follow these steps:
1. Select a group of songs by clicking the first song and then holding
down the Shift key as you click the last song.
All the songs between the first and last are highlighted. You can add to a
selection by Shift+clicking other songs, and you can remove songs from
the selection by Ô+clicking.
2. Choose File➪Get Info or press Ô+I.
A warning message displays Are you sure you want to edit
information for multiple items?
Like speed skating, speed editing is dangerous. If, for example, you
change the song name, the entire selection then has that song name. Be
careful about what you edit when doing this. We recommend leaving the
Do Not Ask Me Again warning option deselected, so that the warning
appears whenever you try this.
3. Click the Yes button.
The Multiple Song Information dialog appears, as shown in Figure 2-5.
Organizing
Your Library
If your computer uses a modem, iTunes triggers
the modem automatically (like a Web browser).
It can call your Internet service provider and
complete the connection process before
retrieving the track information.
Book I
Chapter 2
40
The Singer, Not the Song: Adding and Editing Information
Figure 2-5:
Change the
artist name
for multiple
songs at
once.
4. Edit the field you want to change (typically the Artist field) for the
multiple songs.
When you edit a field, a check mark appears automatically in the check
box next to the field. iTunes assumes you want that field changed in all
the selected songs. Make sure that no other check box is selected except
the field you want, which is typically the Artist field (and perhaps the
Genre field).
5. Click OK to make the change.
iTunes changes the field for the entire selection of songs.
You can edit the song information before importing the audio tracks from a
CD. The edited track information for the CD imports with the music. (What’s
interesting is that when you access the library without the audio CD, the
edited version of the track information is still there — iTunes remembers CD
information from the CDs you inserted before. Even if you don’t import the
CD tracks, iTunes remembers the edited song information until the next time
you insert that audio CD.)
Adding liner notes and ratings
Although the track information grabbed from the Internet is usually enough,
you probably won’t find the track information to be complete, or that it
matches your personal taste. Your ratings and genre choices make creating
playlists automatically possible (as described later in this chapter).
The Singer, Not the Song: Adding and Editing Information
41
Book I
Chapter 2
The first time we popped an audio CD into the
Mac was like magic. iTunes, after thinking for a
few moments, displayed the song names,
album title, and artist names automatically.
How did it know? This information isn’t stored
on a standard music CD — iTunes has to either
recognize the disc somehow or read the liner
notes.
The magic is that the software knows how to
reach out and find the information on the
Internet, in a music database known as
Gracenote CDDB (CDDB stands for CD
Database). The site (www.gracenote.com)
that hosts Gracenote CDDB on the Web offers
the ability to search for music CDs by artist,
song title, and other methods. The iTunes software already knows how to use this database,
so you don’t have to!
iTunes finds the track information by first looking up a key identifying number on the audio
CD — a secret number stored on every publicly
released music CD. iTunes uses this number to
find the information within the database. The
database keeps track information for most of
the music CDs released in the global commercial market.
Although the database doesn’t contain any
information about personal or custom CDs,
people can submit information to the database about CDs that the database doesn’t
know about. You can even do this from within
iTunes — type the information for each track
while the audio CD is in your Mac, and then
choose Advanced➪Submit CD Track Names.
The information you typed is sent to the
Gracenote CDDB site, where the good people
who work tirelessly on the database check out
your information before including it. In fact, if
you spot a typo or something erroneous in the
information you receive from Gracenote, you
can correct it, and then use the Submit CD
Track Names command to send the corrected
version back to the Gracenote site. The good
folks there appreciate the effort.
Some facts, such as composer credits, may not be included in the information grabbed from the Internet. However, composer information is important
for iPod users, because the iPod allows you to scroll music by composer as
well as by artist, album, and song. Adding composer credits is usually worth
your while because you can then search, sort, and create playlists based on
this information.
After your songs import into the music library, locate a single song and
choose File➪Get Info (or press Ô+I). You see the Song Information dialog, as
shown in Figure 2-6. The Song Information dialog offers the following tabs:
✦ Summary: The Summary tab offers useful information about the music
file’s format and location on your hard drive, its file size, as well as information about the digital compression method (bit rate, sample rate, and
so on). You can read more about compression methods in Chapter 3 of
this minibook.
Organizing
Your Library
Long distance information: The CDDB database
42
The Singer, Not the Song: Adding and Editing Information
Figure 2-6:
View and
edit the
song
information.
✦ Info: The Info tab allows you to change the song name, artist, composer,
album, genre, and year, and you can also add comments.
✦ Options: The Options tab offers volume adjustment, choice of equalizer
preset, ratings, and start and stop times for each song. We describe
these settings in Chapter 3 of this minibook. You can assign a rating of
up to five stars to a song (your own rating system, equivalent to the Top
40 charts).
✦ Artwork: The Artwork tab enables you to add or delete artwork for the
song (the Apple Music Store supplies artwork with most songs).
You may have noticed the My Top Rated playlist in the Source list. This playlist is an example of a smart playlist — a playlist that updates when ratings
are changed. The My Top Rated playlist plays all the top-rated songs in the
library.
The cool thing about ratings is that they’re yours. You can use them to mean
anything you want. For example, you may rate songs based on how much you
like them, or whether your mother would listen to them, or how they blend
into a work environment. Then you can use the My Top Rated playlist to automatically play the top-rated songs in the library. You find out more about
playlists later in this chapter, in the section, “Generating a Smart Playlist.”
Play It Again, Sam: Using Playlists
43
Play It Again, Sam: Using Playlists
You can create as many playlists of songs, in any order, as you want. The
song files don’t change, nor are they copied — the music files stay right
where they are, only their names are stored in the playlists. You can even
create a smart playlist that automatically adds songs to the playlist based on
the criteria you set up, and removes songs from the playlist that don’t match
the criteria.
Creating a playlist of multiple songs
The Mac was made for this: dragging items visually to arrange a sequence.
Save yourself a lot of browsing time by creating playlists (which, by the way,
can really improve the way you use music with an iPod). You can drag individual songs and entire albums into a playlist and rearrange the songs
quickly and easily. To create a playlist, follow these steps:
1. Click the + button or choose File➪New Playlist.
The + button, in the bottom-left corner of the iTunes window under the
Source list, creates a new playlist in the Source list named “untitled
playlist.”
2. Type a descriptive name for the playlist.
The playlist appears in the Source list, as shown in Figure 2-7. After you
type a new name, iTunes automatically sorts it into alphabetical order in
the Source list, underneath the preset smart playlists and other sources.
3. Select the library in the Source list and then drag songs from the
library to the playlist.
4. Select the playlist in the Source list and then drag songs to rearrange
the list.
The order of songs in the playlist is based on the order in which you
drag them to the list. To move a song up the list and scroll at the same
time, drag it over the up-arrow in the first column (the song number); to
move a song down the list and scroll, drag it to the bottom of the list.
You can move a group of songs at once by selecting the group (either by
clicking the first song and Shift+clicking the last song, or by Ô+clicking
songs to select a noncontiguous group).
Organizing
Your Library
To organize your music for different operations, such as copying to an iPod
or burning a CD, you make a list of the songs called a playlist. You can also
use playlists to organize your music and act as a DJ. Make a playlist of love
songs from different albums to play the next time you need a romantic
mood. Compile a playlist of surf songs for a trip to the beach. We create
playlists specifically for use with an iPod on road trips and other playlists
that combine songs from different albums based on themes or similarities.
Book I
Chapter 2
44
Play It Again, Sam: Using Playlists
Figure 2-7:
Creating a
playlist and
adding
songs.
You can drag songs from one playlist to another playlist. Remember: Only
links are copied, not the actual files. Besides dragging songs, you can also
rearrange a playlist by sorting the list — click the Song Name, Time, Artist
column headings, and so on. And when you double-click a playlist, it opens
in its own window, displaying the song list.
To create a playlist quickly, select the group of songs that you want to make
into a playlist (Shift+click or Ô+click to select the group), and then choose
File➪New Playlist from Selection. A new playlist appears in the Source list,
and you can then type a name for the playlist.
Creating a playlist of multiple albums
You may want to play entire albums of songs without having to select each
album as you play them. You may want to use an iPod, for example, on that
long drive from London to Liverpool, and play Beatles albums in the order
they were released (or perhaps the reverse order, reversing the Beatles’
career from London back to Liverpool).
To create a playlist of entire albums in a particular order, follow these steps:
1. Create a new playlist.
Create a playlist by clicking the + sign under the Source list, or choosing
File➪New Playlist. Type a descriptive name for the new playlist.
2. Select the library in the Source list and then click the Browse button
to find the artist.
The Album list appears in the right panel.
Generating a Smart Playlist
45
3. Drag the album name over the playlist name.
4. Select and drag each subsequent album over the playlist name.
You can rename a playlist at any time by clicking its name and typing a new
one, just like you would rename any filename in the Finder.
Generating a Smart Playlist
At the top of the Source list, indicated by a gear icon, you can find what
Apple (and everyone else) calls smart playlists. iTunes comes with a few
sample smart playlists, such as the My Top Rated playlist we mention earlier
in this chapter, and you can create your own. Smart playlists add songs to
themselves based on prearranged criteria. For example, as you rate your
songs, the My Top Rated playlist changes to reflect your new ratings. You
don’t have to set anything up — My Top Rated is already defined for you.
The smart playlists are actually ignorant of your taste in music. You can
create one that grabs all the songs from 1966, only to find that the list
includes “Eleanor Rigby,” “Strangers in the Night,” “Over Under Sideways
Down,” and “River Deep, Mountain High” (in no particular order) — which
you may not want to hear at the same time. You may want to fine-tune your
criteria.
Viewing and editing a smart playlist
To view and edit a smart playlist, select the playlist and choose File➪Edit
Smart Playlist. The Smart Playlist dialog appears, with the criteria for the
smart playlist. You may want to modify the smart playlist so that songs with
a higher rating are picked — simply add another star or two to the My Rating
criteria. You can also choose to limit the playlist to a certain number of
songs, selected by various methods such as random, most recently played,
and so on.
Setting up a new smart playlist
To create a new smart playlist, choose File➪New Smart Playlist. The Smart
Playlist dialog appears, giving you the following choices for setting criteria:
✦ Match the Following Conditions: You can select from the first pop-up
menu any of the categories used for song information, and from the
second pop-up menu, you select an operator, such as the greater than or
Organizing
Your Library
Each time you drag an album, iTunes automatically lists the songs in the
proper track sequence.
Book I
Chapter 2
46
Generating a Smart Playlist
less than operators. The selections you make in these two pop-up menus
combine to express a condition such as Year is greater than 1966
or something like that. You can also add multiple conditions by clicking
the + button, and then deciding whether to match all or any of these
conditions.
✦ Limit To: You can make the smart playlist a specific duration, measured
by the number of songs, time, or size in megabytes or gigabytes. Limiting
a smart playlist to what can fit on a CD, or for the duration of a drive or
jogging exercise with an iPod is useful. You can select the songs by various methods such as random, most recently played, and so on.
✦ Match Only Checked Songs: This selects only songs that have a black
check mark beside them, along with the rest of the criteria. Checking
and unchecking songs is an easy way to fine-tune your selection for a
smart playlist.
✦ Live Updating: This allows iTunes to automatically update the playlist
continually, as you add or remove songs from the library.
After setting up the criteria, click OK to create the smart playlist. iTunes creates the playlist with a gear icon and the name “untitled playlist.” You can
then click in the playlist and type a new name for it.
Setting up multiple criteria gives you the opportunity to create playlists
that are way smarter than the ones supplied with iTunes. For example, we
created a smart playlist with criteria shown in Figure 2-8 that does the
following:
✦ Adds any song added to the library in the past week that also has a
rating greater than three stars.
✦ Limits the playlist to 72 minutes of music to fit on an audio CD and
refines the selection to the most recently added if the entire selection
becomes greater than 72 minutes.
✦ Matches only checked songs and performs live updating.
Figure 2-8:
Create a
smart
playlist with
multiple
conditions.
Gimme Shelter: Consolidating and Backing Up
47
Gimme Shelter: Consolidating and Backing Up
You can change where iTunes stores your music library by choosing
iTunes➪Preferences, clicking Advanced, and clicking the Change button,
which lets you select another location.
If you access Web radio and shared libraries on a network, you probably
have music in your library that is not actually in your library at all — it can
be streamed to your computer over the Internet, or be part of a shared
library or playlist on a network, as we describe later in this chapter.
You can find the location of any song by selecting the song and choosing
File➪Get Info, and then clicking the Summary tab in the Song Information
dialog. Look in the Kind section. If you see remote, then the song is not on
your hard drive. If you have songs in different locations — on different hard
drives connected to the same Mac, or shared over a network, you can have
iTunes consolidate your music library by copying everything into the iTunes
Music Library folder. By consolidating your library first, you make sure that
your backup is complete.
To consolidate your music library, choose Advanced➪Consolidate Library.
The original songs remain where they are, but copies are made in your music
folder.
To copy the music files in your library to another hard drive, locate the
iTunes folder using the Finder. Drag this entire folder to another hard drive
or backup device, and you’re all set. Note, however, that this action copies
the music itself, not your playlists. You still have to export your playlists.
You can export a playlist and import it into a different computer in order to
have the same playlist in both places. Select the playlist and choose
File➪Export Song List, choose the XML option from the Format pop-up menu
in the Save: iTunes dialog, and click the Save button. When you export a
playlist, you get a list of songs in the XML (Extensible Markup Language)
format, but not the songs themselves — you still need to copy the actual
song files to the other computer. You can then import the playlist into
iTunes on the other computer by choosing File➪Import, selecting the XML
Organizing
Your Library
If you hate to be disorganized, you’ll love iTunes and its nice, neat file storage methods. iTunes, by default, stores your music library inside your home
folder — the path to this folder is typically your home folder/Music/iTunes/.
Inside this folder is an iTunes Music folder. All songs you import are stored
in the iTunes Music folder. Even music files you drag to the iTunes window
are stored here — iTunes makes a copy and stores the copy in the iTunes
Music folder.
Book I
Chapter 2
48
Gimme Shelter: Consolidating and Backing Up
file, and clicking the Choose button. You can also export all the playlists in
your library at the same time by choosing File➪Export Library, and then
import them into iTunes on the other computer by choosing File➪Import
and selecting the exported XML file.
The copy operation may take some time if the library is huge — you can
stop the operation anytime, but the newly copied library may not be complete. Allowing the copy operation to finish is always best.
If you subscribe to the Apple .Mac service, you can use its Backup software.
With Backup, which comes with a .Mac membership, you can quickly and
easily store important files on your iDisk. For information about Mac OS X
backup procedures and the .Mac service, see the excellent book titled
Mac OS X All-in-One Desk Reference For Dummies by Mark L. Chambers
(published by Wiley).
To copy your entire music library to another Mac, follow these steps:
1. Locate your iTunes Music folder in the Finder in your old Mac.
Locate your iTunes folder, which is usually within the Music folder in
your home folder. Inside the iTunes folder is the iTunes Music folder,
which contains your music library.
2. If the new Mac has a music library, move the music folders inside the
iTunes Music folder to another folder, or copy them to another hard
drive and delete the original files.
If the music library is empty, you can skip this step.
3. Copy the iTunes Music folder from the old Mac to the iTunes folder of
the new Mac.
The iTunes Music folder contains all the music files.
4. On the old Mac, choose File➪Export Library, browse to a location on
your hard drive or network, and click the Save button.
When you export your entire library, iTunes creates an XML file that
contains all the playlist information and links to music files.
5. Start iTunes on the new Mac.
6. Choose File➪Import, select the Library.xml file, and click the
Choose button.
The music library is now available on the new computer.
Sharing Music (Legally)
49
Sharing Music (Legally)
Apple uses a protected form of the AAC encoder for the songs in its online
store. The rights of artists are protected while also giving you more leeway
in how to use the music more than most other services (though by the time
you read this, other services may have adopted this format with similar
privileges).
Some of the features Apple offers through the Apple Music store are the
following:
✦ Creating backups: Easily create backups by copying music several
times.
✦ Copying music: Play songs on three separate computers. See Chapter 1
of this minibook for more info.
✦ Sharing music over a network: Everyone on a network (such as the
Apple wireless AirPort network) can play the music.
Whether or not you manage files on your hard drive on a regular basis, you
may want to know where these songs are stored, so that you can copy music
to other computers and make a backup of the entire library. You may also
need to copy or move the library when you get a new Mac — after all, these
Macs just keep getting better year after year. You can play your purchased
music on any authorized computer — you can authorize up to three computers at once, and you can remove authorization from the computer(s) you
don’t use anymore.
Copying songs to other computers
You can copy as much music as you want. If the songs are in the protected
AAC format (bought from the online music store), you can copy them to
another computer, but you can’t play them on that computer unless, of
course, the computer is authorized to do so.
Using the Finder, you can copy songs freely from your iTunes Music folder to
other folders, other hard drives, and other computers. You can use iTunes to
copy music to devices such as the iPod. We describe the iPod in Book VI.
Organizing
Your Library
You want to protect your investments in music. If you buy music online, you
want to be able to play the music anywhere, and even share the music with
your friends. You can easily share the music you rip yourself from CDs. You
can also share, to a limited extent, the music you buy online from Apple.
Book I
Chapter 2
50
Sharing Music (Legally)
I fought the law and the law won:
Sharing and piracy
Apple CEO Steve Jobs gave personal demonstrations of the Apple Music Store, iTunes, and
the iPod to Paul McCartney and Mick Jagger.
According to Steven Levy at Newsweek
(May 12, 2003), Jobs said, “They both totally get
it.” The former Beatle and the Stones frontman are no slouches — both conduct musicbusiness affairs personally and both have
extensive back catalogs of music. They know
all about the free music swapping services on
the Internet, but they agree with Jobs that you
will be willing to pay for high-quality music
rather than download free copies of questionable quality.
We agree with the idea, also promoted by Jobs,
that technology should not be treated as the
culprit with regard to violations of copyright
law. Conversely, technology should not be used
as a solution to piracy, because determined
pirates will circumvent it with newer technology, and only consumers are inconvenienced.
We’re not lawyers, but we think the law already
covers the type of piracy that involves counterfeiting CDs. The fact that you are not allowed to
copy a commercial CD and sell the copy to
someone else makes sense. You also can’t sell
the individual songs of a commercial CD.
Giving music away is, of course, the subject of
much controversy, with some file-sharing services closed by court order while others flourish in countries that don’t have copyright laws
as strict as the United States. Nothing in the
Apple realm of technology enables the sharing
of music at this level — you have to hack it
somehow — so we don’t need to go into it,
except to provide one observation: The songs
we hear from free sharing services such as
KaZaa have, for the most part, been low quality, on a par with FM radio broadcasts. Nice for
listening to new songs to see if we like them
but not useful for acquiring as part of our real
music collection. The Apple Music Store is
clearly superior in quality and convenience,
and we prefer the original, authorized version
of the song, not some knock-off that may have
been copied from a radio broadcast.
As for making copies for personal use, the law
is murky at best. It depends on what you mean
by personal use. The iLife package allows you
to use these music files in creative projects.
You can, for example, put together a music
video to show your friends by using iMovie to
combine some video footage you shot with your
camcorder and the latest hit by Eminem. But
don’t expect to see it on MTV or VH1. Your local
public access cable TV station can’t even play
it, unless you obtained the broadcast rights,
which typically includes contacting the music
publisher, the record label, and the artist —
good luck.
Can you legally use a pop song as a soundtrack
for a high school yearbook slideshow? It
sounds legal to us, given the ability to use
music for educational purposes, but that is a
question only a lawyer can answer. If you’re
interested in obtaining the rights to music
to use in semi-public or public presentations,
or even movies and documentaries for public
distribution, you can contact the music publisher or a licensing agent. Music-publishing
organizations, such as the Music Publishers’
Association (www.mpa.org), offer information
and lists of music publishers, as well as explanations of various rights and licenses.
Sharing Music (Legally)
51
To use iTunes music with iPhoto, iMovie, or iDVD, you don’t have to copy anything or do anything. When you open any of the iLife applications, your iTunes
music library is automatically available from within the other iLife application.
Sharing music in a network
If you live like the Jetsons, the TV cartoon family of the future — with a Mac
in every room, connected by wireless or wired network — iTunes is made for
you. You can share the music in your library with up to five other computers
in the same network. You can even do this with music from the Apple Music
Store.
When you share songs on a network, the song is streamed from the Mac that
contains the songs in its library (the library Mac) to your computer over the
network — the song is not copied to your music library. From your computer,
you can’t burn the shared songs to a CD or copy the shared songs to an iPod.
You can, of course, do those things on the library Mac.
You can share radio links, MP3, AIFF, and WAV files, and even AAC files and
music purchased from the Apple Music Store, but not Audible spoken word
files or QuickTime sound files. If you have a large network (such as an office
network), check to make sure the computers share the same subnet. The
computers need to be within the same subnet to share music.
To share your music library, turning your Mac into the library Mac, follow
these steps:
1. Choose iTunes➪Preferences and click the Sharing button.
The Sharing tab of the Preferences dialog appears, showing the options
for sharing music.
2. Select the Share My Music option.
3. Select either the Share Entire Library option or the Share Selected
Playlists option and choose the playlists to share.
4. Type a name for the shared library and add a password if you want.
The name you choose appears in the Source list for other computers
that share it. The password restricts access to those who know it. Use a
password you don’t mind letting others know — not the password for
the online music store or any other secret password.
5. Click OK.
Book I
Chapter 2
Organizing
Your Library
The files are organized in folders by artist name and by album within the
iTunes Music folder. Copying an entire album, or every song by a specific
artist, is easy. You can find the location of any song by selecting the song
and choosing File➪Get Info. Click the Summary tab in the Get Info dialog to
see the Summary pane.
52
Sharing Music (Legally)
On the other computers on the network, you can access the music by
following these steps:
1. Choose iTunes➪Preferences and click the Sharing button.
The Sharing tab of the Preferences dialog appears, with options for
sharing music.
2. Select the Look for Shared Music option and then click OK.
The shared libraries or playlists appear in the iTunes Source list.
3. Click the shared library or playlist to play it.
Chapter 3: Enhancing the Audio
In This Chapter
Importing and converting music using custom import settings
Getting the best quality and space trade-offs with music files
Using the equalizer and assigning presets to songs
J
ust a century ago, people would gather at phonography parties to listen
to a new invention called a phonograph, the predecessor to the record
player. Before records, radio, and jukeboxes, the phonograph was the only
source of prerecorded music, and the quality of the sound must have been
awful by today’s standards.
The choices of formats for sound have changed considerably from the fragile 78-rpm records from the phonography parties to the scratchy 45-rpm and
33-rpm records to today’s CDs. Consumers had to be on the alert then, as
you do now, for dead-end formats that could lock up music in a cul-de-sac of
technology, never to be played again. You know what we’re talking about —
dead-end formats like the ill-fated eight-track cassette, or the legendary
quadraphonic LP.
You want your digital music to last forever and play at high quality on future
players as well as today’s players. You also want to take advantage of the
compression technology that squeezes more music onto players than ever
before. This chapter provides our suggestions for the importing preferences
for ripping CDs that provide the highest quality and the best use of compression technology. You may be quite happy with the results using these suggestions. But listening pleasure depends entirely on the listener, and some people
can hear qualitative differences that others don’t hear or don’t care about.
You can specify quality settings to your liking, but as you discover more about
digital audio technology, you’ll find that you have decisions to make about
your music library. This chapter helps you make them. For example, you may
be tempted to trade quality for space by importing music at average-quality
settings that allow you to put more songs on your hard drive and iPod than if
you chose higher-quality settings. This may make you happy today, but what
about tomorrow, when iPods and hard drives double or triple in capacity?
On the other hand, you may be very picky about the sound quality and, with
an eye toward future generations of iPods and cheaper hard drives, decide
to trade space for quality, importing music at the highest possible quality
54
Deciding Your Encoding Format
settings and then converting copies to lower-quality, space-saving versions
for iPods and other uses. Of course, you need more hard drive space to
accommodate the higher-quality versions.
This chapter explains which music encoding and compression formats to use
for higher quality, and which to use for cramming more songs into the same
amount of hard drive space. It also covers importing sounds other than music,
converting songs from one format to another, enhancing music with the builtin equalizer, and saving equalizer settings with songs. You’ll impress your
audiophile friends, even ones who couldn’t believe that iTunes is capable of
reproducing magnificent music.
Deciding Your Encoding Format
The encoding format and settings you choose for importing music when ripping a CD affect sound quality, hard drive space (and iPod space), and compatibility with other types of players and computers. You may want to change
your import settings before ripping CDs depending on the type of music, the
source of the recording, or other factors, such as whether you plan to burn
an audio CD or listen to the music on a portable player such as the iPod. We
describe in detail how to change your import settings in the section, “Changing Encoders and Settings,” later in this chapter.
Some encoding formats compress the music, while others do not. Compression reduces the sound quality because it throws away information to make
the file smaller. The amount of compression depends on the bit rate you
choose, as well as the encoding format and other options.
Without getting too technical (as we do later in this chapter), more compression means the files are smaller but music quality is poorer. Less compression
means better quality, but the files are larger. You can therefore trade quality
for space, and have more music of lower quality, or trade space for quality,
and have less music of higher quality.
Power also is an issue. In iPods, playing larger files takes more power because
the hard drive inside the iPod has to refresh its memory buffers more quickly
to process more information as the song plays — you might even hear hiccups
in the sound.
We prefer a higher-quality sound overall, and we typically don’t use the lowerquality settings for encoders except for voice recordings. We can hear differences in music quality at the higher compression levels and would rather go
Deciding Your Encoding Format
55
✦ AAC Encoder: Used for songs in the Apple Music Store — we recommend
it for all uses except burning new audio CDs (see AIFF).
✦ AIFF Encoder: Use AIFF if you plan on burning the song to an audio CD,
the most universal music format, because it offers the highest possible
quality. The files occupy lots more space than AAC or MP3 files because
they are not compressed.
✦ MP3 Encoder: Supported in most computers and some CD players —
use the MP3 format for songs you intend to send to others or to use with
MP3/CD players or applications that support MP3.
✦ WAV Encoder: WAV is the high-quality sound format used on PCs (like
AIFF). The files occupy lots more space than AAC or MP3 files because
they are not compressed. Use WAV if you plan on burning the song to an
audio CD or using the song with PCs.
If you use an MP3 player other than an iPod, you want to either import or
convert songs with the MP3 encoder. If you use an iPod or play music on the
Mac, you can use the higher-quality AAC encoder to produce files that are
either the same size as their MP3 counterparts but higher in quality, or at
the same quality but smaller in size.
To have the best possible quality you can have for future growth, you may
consider not using compression at all, and not compromising on quality. You
can import music at the highest possible quality — using the uncompressed
AIFF or WAV encoders — and then convert the music files to a lesser-quality
format for use in the iPod or other devices. We describe how to convert
music later in this chapter in the section, “Converting songs to other
encoders.”
You can import a CD using one encoder, and then import the CD again using
a different encoder as long as you change the name of at least one of the
imported CDs to identify it (you can always tell by its settings, as described
in Chapter 2 of this minibook). You can always delete the repetitive album
after you transfer it into another application (such as the iPod) to reclaim
hard drive space.
Book I
Chapter 3
Enhancing
the Audio
out and buy another hard drive if necessary to store more music. But iTunes
gives you the choice in the Import Using pop-up menu in the Importing dialog
(which you get to from the Preferences dialog). This is perhaps the most
important choice. You can choose one of four encoders (see the sidebar,
“AAC, MP3, and AIFF” for more detailed descriptions):
56
Deciding Your Encoding Format
AAC, MP3, and AIFF
We intend to leapfrog years of technospeak
about digital music file formats and get right to
the ones you need to know about:
AAC: The iTunes Music Store file format, known
as MPEG-4 Advanced Audio Coding, is a higher
quality format than MP3, comparable to CD quality (MPEG stands for Moving Pictures Experts
Group, a body that recognizes compression
standards for video and audio). We think it offers
the best trade-off of space and quality. All your
purchased music from the iTunes Music Store
comes in this format. It is suitable (though not as
good as AIFF) for burning to an audio CD and
excellent for playing in an iPod or from a hard
drive. However, as of this writing, only Apple
supports the AAC format.
AIFF: The Audio Interchange File Format is the
standard digital format for uncompressed sound
on a Mac and provides the highest quality representation of the sound. Use AIFF if you plan to
burn songs to an audio CD. Mac-based digital
sound editing programs import and export AIFF
files, and you can edit and save in AIFF format
with absolutely no loss in quality. The downside
is that AIFF files take up enormous amounts of
hard drive (and iPod) space because they’re
uncompressed.
MP3: The MPEG-1, Layer 3 format, also known
as MP3, is supported in most applications on
most computers. Use the MP3 format for songs
you intend to send to others or use with MP3
players. The MP3 format offers quite a lot of different compression and quality settings, so you
can fine-tune the format to get better quality,
sacrificing hard drive (and iPod) space as you
dial up the quality. Use the MP3 format for a
song you intend to burn on an MP3 CD (AIFF or
WAV formats are better for regular audio CDs).
WAV: Waveform Audio File Format is a digital
audio standard that Windows-based PCs can
understand and manipulate. Like AIFF, WAV is
uncompressed and provides the highest quality
representation of the sound. Use WAV if you
plan on burning the song to an audio CD or using
it with PC-based digital sound editing programs,
which import and export WAV files. WAV files
take up enormous amounts of space on hard
drives and iPod because they’re uncompressed.
DVD-audio: DVD-audio is a relatively new digital audio format developed from the format for
DVD video. DVD-audio is based on PCM recording technology but offers improved sound quality by using a higher sampling frequency and
longer word lengths. iTunes does not yet directly
support the DVD-audio format, but you can
import a digital video file containing DVD-audio
sound into iMovie (as described in Book III,
Chapter 2), extract the sound, and export the
sound in AIFF or WAV format for use with
iTunes.
Super Audio CD (SACD): The Super Audio CD is
a new format developed from the past audio
format for CDs. The SACD format is based on
Direct Stream Digital (DSD) recording technology that closely reproduces the shape of the
original analog waveforms to produce a more
natural, higher-quality sound. Originally developed for the digital archiving of priceless analog
master tapes, DSD is based on 1-bit sigmadelta modulation, and operates with a sampling
frequency of 2.8224 MHz (64 times the 44.1 kHz
used in audio CDs). Philips and Sony have
adopted DSD as the basis for SACD, and the
format is growing in popularity among audiophiles. However, iTunes does not support SACD.
If you buy a music product in the SACD format,
choose the hybrid format that offers a conventional CD layer and a high-density SACD layer.
You can then import the music from the conventional CD layer.
Changing Encoders and Settings
57
Changing Encoders and Settings
Book I
Chapter 3
If you want to change your encoder and quality settings before you rip an
audio CD, follow these steps:
The Importing dialog appears, where you can make changes to the encoding format and its settings.
2. Choose the encoding format you want to convert the song into and
select the settings for that format.
Use the pop-up menus to make your changes. The Setting pop-up menu
offers different settings depending on your choice of encoder in the
Import Using pop-up menu. See the sections on each encoding format
later in this chapter for details on settings.
3. Click OK to accept changes.
After changing your importing preferences, and until you change them
again, iTunes uses these preferences whenever it imports or converts
songs.
Using the AAC encoder
We recommend using the AAC encoder for everything except music you
intend to burn on an audio CD. AAC offers the best trade-off of space and
quality for hard drives and iPods.
The Setting pop-up menu for the AAC encoder offers only two choices: High
Quality and Custom (see Figure 3-1). You may want to use the High Quality setting for most music, but for complex music (such as jazz and classical), you
may want to select Customs to fine-tune the AAC encoder settings.
To customize your AAC encoder settings, choose Custom from the Setting
pop-up menu to see the AAC Encoder dialog, as shown in Figure 3-2. The
custom settings for AAC allow you to change the following:
✦ Stereo Bit Rate: This pop-up menu allows you to select the bit rate, which
is measured in kilobits per second (Kbps). Use a higher bit rate for higher
quality, which, of course, increases the file size. 320 Kbps is the highestquality setting for this format; 128 Kbps is considered high quality.
✦ Sample Rate: This pop-up menu enables you to select the sample rate,
which is the number of times per second the sound waveform is captured digitally (or sampled). Higher sample rates yield higher-quality
Enhancing
the Audio
1. Choose iTunes➪Preferences, and then click the Importing button.
58
Changing Encoders and Settings
sound and large file sizes. However, never use a higher sample rate than
the rate used for the source. CDs use a 44.100 kHz rate, so choosing a
higher rate is unnecessary unless you convert a song that was recorded
from digital audio tape (DAT) or directly into the Mac at a high sample
rate, and you want to keep that sample rate.
✦ Channels: This pop-up menu enables you to choose how you want the
music to play through speakers — in stereo or mono. Stereo, which offers
two channels of music for left and right speakers, is the norm for music.
Mono — monaural or single-channel — was the norm for pop records
before the mid-1960s. (Phil Specter was known for his high-quality monaural recordings, and the early Rolling Stones records are in mono.) Monaural recordings take up half the space of stereo recordings when digitized.
Choose the Auto setting to have iTunes use the appropriate setting for
the music.
We recommend selecting the highest bit rate in the Stereo Bit Rate pop-up
menu and leaving the other two pop-up menus set to Auto.
Figure 3-1:
Customize
the settings
for the AIFF
encoder.
Figure 3-2:
Customizing
settings in
the AAC
Encoder
dialog.
Changing Encoders and Settings
59
Using the MP3 encoder
The MP3 encoder offers four choices for the Setting pop-up menu in the
Importing dialog:
✦ Good Quality (128 Kbps): Certainly fine for audio books, comedy
records, and old scratchy records. You may even want to go lower in bit
rate (Kbps stands for kilobits per second) for voice recordings.
✦ High Quality (160 Kbps): Most people consider this high enough for
most popular music, but we go higher with our music.
✦ Higher Quality (192 Kbps): High enough for just about all types of music.
✦ Custom: To fine-tune the MP3 encoder settings, choose the Custom setting, as shown in Figure 3-3. Customizing your MP3 settings increases
the quality of the sound while also keeping file size low.
Figure 3-3:
Customize
the settings
for the MP3
encoder.
The MP3 encoder offers a bunch of choices in its custom settings dialog
(refer to Figure 3-3):
✦ Stereo Bit Rate: This pop-up menu’s choices are measured in kilobits
per second (Kbps); select a higher bit rate for higher quality, which, of
course, increases the file size. The most common bit rate for MP3 files
you find on the Web is 128 Kbps. Lower bit rates are more appropriate
for voice recordings or sound effects. We recommend at least 192 Kbps
for most music, and we use 320 Kbps, the maximum setting, for songs
we play on our iPods.
Enhancing
the Audio
Although we prefer the AAC encoder for quality, as of this writing, most MP3
players (other than iPods) don’t support AAC. You may want to use the MP3
encoder for other reasons, such as more control over the compression parameters and compatibility with other applications and players that support MP3.
Book I
Chapter 3
60
Changing Encoders and Settings
✦ Use Variable Bit Rate Encoding (VBR): This option helps keep file size
down, but quality may be affected. VBR varies the number of bits used
to store the music depending on the complexity of the sound. If you
select Highest from the Quality pop-up menu for VBR, iTunes encodes at
up to the maximum bit rate of 320 Kbps in sections of songs where the
sound is complex enough to require a high bit rate, while keeping the
rest of the song at a lower bit rate to save file space. The lower limit is
set by the rate you chose in the Stereo Bit Rate pop-up menu (shown in
Figure 3-4). Some audiophiles swear by it, while others don’t ever use it.
We use it only when importing at low bit rates, and we set VBR to its
highest quality setting.
Figure 3-4:
Select the
Use Variable
Bit Rate
Encoding
(VBR) check
box to get
high quality
using less
file space.
Many MP3 players do not support VBR-encoded files. (Note that you can
use VBR-encoded MP3 files on the iPod without any problem.)
✦ Sample Rate: This pop-up menu enables you to select the sample rate
(the number of times per second the sound waveform is captured digitally). Higher sample rates yield higher quality sound and large file sizes.
However, you should never use a higher sample rate than the rate used
for the source — CDs use a 44.100 kHz rate, so choosing a higher rate is
unnecessary, unless you convert a song that was recorded from DAT or
directly into the Mac at a high sample rate, and you want to keep that
sample rate.
✦ Channels: This pop-up menu enables you to choose how you want the
music to play through speakers — in stereo or mono. Stereo, which offers
two channels of music for left and right speakers, is the norm for music.
Monaural (Mono) recordings take up half the space of stereo recordings
when digitized. Choose the Auto setting to have iTunes use the appropriate setting for the music.
Changing Encoders and Settings
61
✦ Smart Encoding Adjustments: This option, when selected, tells iTunes
to analyze your MP3 encoding settings and music source and to change
your settings as needed to maximize the quality of the encoded files.
✦ Filter Frequencies Below 10 Hz: This option, when selected, filters out
low frequency sounds. Frequencies below 10 Hz are hard to hear, and
most people don’t notice if they’re missing. Filtering inaudible frequencies helps reduce the file size with little or no perceived loss in quality.
However, we think selecting this option and removing the low-frequency
sounds detracts from the overall feeling of the music, and we prefer not
to filter frequencies.
Figure 3-5:
Choose the
Joint Stereo
setting
for MP3
encoding to
reduce file
size without
noticeably
affecting
quality.
Using AIFF or WAV encoders
We recommend that you use the AIFF or WAV encoders for songs from audio
CDs if you intend to burn your own audio CDs with the music. You get the best
possible quality with either encoder because the music is not compressed.
The difference between the encoders is only that AIFF is the standard for
Mac applications and computers, and WAV is the standard for PC applications and computers.
Book I
Chapter 3
Enhancing
the Audio
✦ Stereo Mode: This pop-up menu enables you to choose between Normal
or Joint Stereo. Normal mode is just what you think it is — normal stereo.
Choose the Joint Stereo setting, as shown in Figure 3-5, to make the file
smaller by removing information that is identical in both channels of a
stereo recording, using only one channel for that information, while the
other channel carries unique information. At bit rates of 128 Kbps and
below, this mode can actually improve the sound quality. However, we typically don’t use the Joint Stereo mode when using a high-quality bit rate.
62
Changing Encoders and Settings
You can import music with AIFF or WAV at the highest possible quality and
then convert the music files to a lesser-quality format for use in the iPod or
other devices.
AIFF and WAV files take up huge amounts of hard drive space, and although
you can play them on an iPod, they take up way too much space and battery
power to be convenient for anyone but the most discerning audiophile who
can afford multiple iPods. You can handle these large files by adding another
hard drive or by backing up portions of your music library onto other media,
such as a DVD-R disc (which can hold 4.7GB). But if multiple hard drives and
backup scenarios scare you, you should use the AAC or MP3 encoders to
compress files so they take up less space on your hard drive.
Both the AIFF encoder and the WAV encoder offer the same custom settings
in the AIFF Encoder dialog, shown in Figure 3-6, with Sample Rate, Sample Size,
and Channels pop-up menus. You can choose the Auto setting for all three
pop-up menus, and iTunes automatically detects the proper sample rate, size,
and channels from the source. If you choose a specific setting, such as the
Stereo setting in the Channels pop-up menu, iTunes imports the music in
stereo, regardless of the source. Audio CDs typically sample at a rate of
44.100 kHz, with a sample size of 16 bits, and stereo channels.
Figure 3-6:
Set the AIFF
encoder to
import in
stereo no
matter what
the source.
The Sample Rate pop-up menu for AIFF and WAV offers more choices than for
AAC, down to a very low sample rate of 8.000 kHz that’s suitable only for
voice recordings.
Import settings for voice and sound effects
Audio books are available from Audible (www.audible.com) in a special
format that doesn’t require any further compression. You can also import
audio books, spoken-word titles, comedy CDs, and other voice recordings in
the MP3 format.
Changing Encoders and Settings
63
If the recording has any music at all, or requires close listening to stereo
channels (like a Firesign Theatre or Monty Python CD), you should treat the
entire recording as music and skip this section.
Book I
Chapter 3
Sound effects CDs offer sound effects at CD quality, which you may want to
treat as normal music; but you may also want to reduce the sound file if you
intend to incorporate the sound effect into movies in iMovie to keep the
overall movie from getting too large.
Enhancing
the Audio
By fine-tuning the import settings for voice recordings and sound effects, you
can save a significant amount of space without reducing quality. We recommend the following settings depending on your choice of encoder:
✦ AAC encoder: AAC allows you to get away with an even lower bit rate
than MP3 to get the same quality, thereby saving more space. We recommend a bit rate as low as 80 Kbps for sound effects and voice recordings.
✦ MP3 encoder: Use a low bit rate (such as 96 Kbps). You may also want to
reduce the sample rate to 22.050 kHz for voice recordings. Filter frequencies below 10 Hz because voice recordings don’t need such frequencies.
Converting songs to other encoders
Converting a song from one encoder to another may be useful if you want to
use one encoder for one purpose, such as burning a CD, and another encoder
for another purpose, such as playing on an iPod.
You want to use different encoding formats if you have a discerning ear and
you want to burn a CD of songs, and also use the songs in your iPod. You can
first import and then burn AIFF-encoded songs to a CD, and then convert the
songs to AAC or MP3. You can then save space by deleting the AIFF versions.
Converting a song from one compressed format to another is possible (say
from AAC to MP3), but you may not like the results. When you convert a compressed file to another compressed format, iTunes compresses the music
twice, reducing the quality of the sound. You get the best results by starting
with an uncompressed song that was imported using either the AIFF or WAV
format, and then converting that song to the compressed AAC or MP3 format.
You can tell what format a song is in by selecting it and choosing File➪Get
Info. Click the Summary tab to see what kind of file format the song is in.
You can’t convert songs you buy from the iTunes Music Store to another file
format because they are encoded as protected AAC files. If you could, they
wouldn’t be protected, would they? You also can’t convert Audible books and
spoken-word content to another format. (However, you can burn them to an
audio CD and re-import them, with a perhaps noticeable drop in quality.)
64
Changing Encoders and Settings
Manic compression has captured your song
Every person hears the effects of compression
differently. You may not hear any problem with
compressed audio that someone else says is
tinny or lacking in depth.
Too much compression can be a bad thing.
Further compressing an already-compressed
music file — say by converting a song —
reduces the quality significantly. Not only that,
but once your song is compressed, you can’t
uncompress the song back to its original quality.
Your song is essentially locked into that format.
The audio compression methods that are good
at reducing space (and if you’re not going to
reduce space significantly, why bother?) have
to throw away information. In technospeak,
they are lossy (as opposed to loss-less) compression algorithms. Lossy compression loses
information each time you use it, which means
if you compress something that’s already compressed, you lose even more information.
MP3 and AAC (the new, advanced Applesponsored cousin to MP3) use two basic methods to compress audio: removing non-audible
frequencies and removing the less important
signals.
For non-audible frequencies, the compression
removes what you supposedly can’t hear
(although this is a subject for eternal debate).
For example, if a background singer’s warble is
totally drowned out by a rhythm guitar playing a
chord, and you can’t hear the singer due to the
intensity of the guitar’s sound, the compression
algorithm loses the singer’s sound while maintaining the guitar’s sound.
Within the sound spectrum of frequencies that
can be heard by humans, some frequencies
are considered to be less important in terms of
rendering fidelity, because many people can’t
hear sounds in that frequency. Removing specific frequencies is likely to be less damaging
to your music than other types of compression,
depending on how you hear things. In fact,
your dog may stop getting agitated at songs
that contain ultra-high frequencies only dogs
can hear (such as the ending of “Day in the
Life” by the Beatles).
Another option in MP3 compression is the
Channel choice. Most likely, you want to keep
stereo recordings in stereo, and mono recordings in mono, and the Auto setting guarantees
that. But you can also select Joint Stereo for
the stereo mode of the MP3 encoder to reduce
the amount of information per channel. The
Joint Stereo mode removes information that is
identical in both channels of a stereo recording, using only one channel for that information,
while the other channel carries unique information. At bit rates of 128 Kbps and below, this
mode can improve the sound quality.
Variable Bit Rate (VBR) encoding is a technique
that varies the number of bits used to store the
music depending on the complexity of the
sound. While the quality of VBR is endlessly
debated, it’s useful when set to the Highest setting, because VBR can encode at up to the
maximum bit rate of 320 Kbps in those rare
cases where the sound requires it, while keeping the rest at a lower bit rate.
Equalize It!
65
To convert a song to another file format, follow these steps:
1. Choose iTunes➪Preferences and then click the Importing button.
Book I
Chapter 3
The Importing dialog appears.
the Import Using pop-up menu; in the Encoder dialog that appears,
select the settings for that format.
For example, if you are converting songs in the AIFF format to the MP3
format, you choose MP3 Encoder from the Import Using pop-up menu, and
then select the settings you want in the MP3 Encoder dialog that appears.
3. Click OK to accept the settings for your chosen format.
4. In the iTunes window, select the song(s) you want to covert, and then
choose Advanced➪Convert Selection.
The encoding format you chose in Step 4 appears in the menu: Convert
Selection to MP3, Convert Selection to AAC, Convert Selection to AIFF,
or Convert Selection to WAV. Choose the appropriate menu operation to
perform the conversion. When the conversion is complete, the newly
converted version of the song appears in your iTunes library (with the
same artist name and song name, so it is easy to find).
iTunes creates a copy of each song and converts the copy to the new format.
Both the original and the copy are stored in your music library.
If you convert songs obtained from the Internet, you’ll find that the most
common bit rate for MP3 files is 128 Kbps, and choosing a higher stereo bit
rate won’t improve the quality — it only wastes space.
The automatic copy-and-convert operation can be useful for converting an
entire music library to another format — hold down the Option key and
choose Advanced➪Convert Selection, and all the songs copy and convert
automatically. If you have a library of AIFF tunes, you can quickly copy and
convert them to AAC or MP3 in one step, and then assign the AIFF songs to
the AIFF-associated playlists for burning CDs, and MP3 or AAC songs to MP3
or AAC playlists that you intend to copy to your iPod.
Equalize It!
When you turn up the bass or treble on a stereo system, you are actually
increasing the volume, or intensity, of certain frequencies while the music is
playing. If you are a discerning listener, you may change these bass and
Enhancing
the Audio
2. Choose the encoding format you want to convert the song into from
66
Equalize It!
treble settings a lot — perhaps even for each song. Wouldn’t it be nice if you
could save these settings with each song? You can with iTunes.
The iTunes equalizer (EQ) allows you to fine-tune the specific sound spectrum
frequencies in a more precise way than with bass and treble controls. You can
use the equalizer to improve or enhance the sound coming through a particular stereo system and speakers — for example, you may pick entirely different
equalizer settings for car speakers, home speakers, and headphones.
With the iTunes EQ, you can adjust the frequencies directly or use one of
more than 20 built-in presets for various types of music, from classical to
rock. You can then assign the equalizer settings to a specific song or set of
songs. With the equalizer settings, you can customize playback for different
musical genres, listening environments, or speakers. You can even save your
own customized presets.
To see the iTunes equalizer, click the Equalizer button, which is on the
bottom-right side of the iTunes window, or choose Window➪Equalizer.
Adjusting the preamp volume
The preamp in your stereo is the component that offers a volume control
that applies to all frequencies equally. (Volume knobs generally go up to ten,
except, of course, for Spinal Tap’s preamps, which go to eleven.)
The iTunes equalizer, shown in Figure 3-7, offers a Preamp control on the
far left side. You can increase or decrease the volume in 3-decibel (dB) increments up to 12 dB. Decibels are units that measure the intensity (or volume)
of the frequencies. You can adjust the volume while playing the music so
that you can hear the result right away.
Figure 3-7:
Use the
equalizer’s
Preamp
slider to
adjust
volume
across all
frequencies.
Equalize It!
67
Using presets
iTunes offers presets, which are equalizer settings made in advance and saved
by name. You can quickly switch settings without having to make changes to
each frequency slider. iTunes comes with more than 20 presets of the most
commonly used equalizer settings.
To use an equalizer preset, click the Equalizer button, which is on the bottomright side of the iTunes window. The Equalizer window appears, and you can
click the pop-up menu at the top of the equalizer, as shown in Figure 3-8, to
select a preset. If a song is playing, you hear the effect in the sound immediately after choosing the preset.
Figure 3-8:
Choose one
of the builtin equalizer
presets.
You can also create your own presets. Choose the Manual option in the popup menu to make setting changes in the equalizer, as described in the next
section, “Adjusting frequencies.” Then choose the Make Preset option from
the pop-up menu to save your changes. The Make Preset dialog appears, as
shown in Figure 3-9. Give your new preset a descriptive name. The name
appears in the pop-up menu from that point on — your very own preset.
Book I
Chapter 3
Enhancing
the Audio
You may want to increase the preamp volume for songs that are recorded too
softly, or decrease it for songs that are so loud you can hear distortion. If you
want to make any adjustments to frequencies, you may want to adjust the
preamp volume first if volume adjustment is needed, and then move on to the
specific frequencies.
68
Equalize It!
Figure 3-9:
Save your
adjustments
as your own
preset.
You can rename or delete the presets by choosing the Edit List option from the
pop-up menu, which displays the Edit Presets dialog for renaming or deleting
presets, as shown in Figure 3-10. You can rename or delete any preset, including the ones supplied with iTunes.
Figure 3-10:
Rename
or delete
presets.
Adjusting frequencies
You can adjust the frequencies in the iTunes equalizer by clicking and dragging sliders that look like mixing-board faders.
The horizontal values across the equalizer represent the spectrum of human
hearing. The deepest frequency (“Daddy sang bass”) is 32 hertz (Hz); the midrange frequencies are 250 Hz and 500 Hz, and the higher frequencies go from
1 kilohertz (kHz) to 16 kHz (treble).
The vertical values on each bar represent decibels (dB), which measure the
intensity of each frequency. Increase or decrease the frequencies at 3-decibel
increments by clicking and dragging the sliders up and down. You can drag
the sliders to adjust the frequencies while the music is playing to hear the
effect immediately.
Equalize It!
69
Assigning equalizer presets to songs
You can also use the same presets in an iPod. When you transfer the song to
the iPod, the preset stays assigned to it, and you can choose whether or not
to use the preset when playing the song on the iPod.
You can assign any equalizer preset directly to a song. Assign a preset to
songs by following these steps:
1. Choose Edit➪View Options.
Alternatively, Ô+click any column heading in the song list and choose
the Equalizer option from the shortcut menu.
The View Options dialog appears, as shown in Figure 3-11.
Figure 3-11:
Show the
equalizer
column to
assign
presets to
songs.
2. Select the Equalizer check box and click OK.
3. Locate a song in the song list, and scroll the song list horizontally to
see the Equalizer column.
You can open a playlist or scroll the entire song list in List or Browse view.
4. Choose a preset from the pop-up menu in the Equalizer column.
The Equalizer column has a tiny pop-up menu, as shown in Figure 3-12,
that allows you to assign any preset to a song.
Enhancing
the Audio
One reason why you go to the trouble of setting equalizer presets is to assign
the presets to individual songs. The next time you play the song, it will use
the equalizer preset you assigned.
Book I
Chapter 3
70
Equalize It!
Figure 3-12:
Assign an
equalizer
preset to
a song.
When you transfer songs with presets to the iPod, it uses the presets for
playback. See Book VI, Chapter 2 for lots of great suggestions on using equalizer settings with the iPod.
Chapter 4: Burning CDs
In This Chapter
Choosing the proper disc media
Preparing a playlist for burning
Choosing the sound and format settings
Burning CDs
W
hen vinyl records were popular, rock radio disk jockeys who didn’t
like disco would hold disco meltdown parties. People were encouraged to throw their disco records into a pile to be burned up or steamrolled
into vinyl glop. This chapter isn’t about that, nor is it about anything involving fire or heat.
Burning a CD actually refers to the process in which the CD drive recorder’s
laser meets the surface of the disc and creates a new impression loaded
with digital information.
Contrary to the beliefs of some record company executives, burning CDs is
not a global pastime simply because people want to steal music. People burn
CDs for a lot of reasons. Maybe you want to bring a CD of your special party
songs to the local DJ club to mix in with the night’s music. Maybe having your
12 favorite love songs on one CD for your next romantic encounter is convenient. Or maybe you want to burn a few CDs of obscure songs to impress your
friends on your next big road trip. Blank discs are cheap — pennies to the
dollar compared with the older technology of cassette tapes.
This chapter burns, er, boils down everything for you by telling you what kind
of discs to use, where the discs play, how to get your playlist ready for burning, what settings to use for burning, and so on. You find out what you need
to know to make sure that your burns are not meltdowns — the only melting
is the music in your ears.
Using Recordable CDs
If you don’t have an iPod or similar player, you can’t take music with you
unless you burn a disc. Even if you have a player, you may still want to make a
CD that plays on any CD player or to back up your music files on CD or DVD.
72
Using Recordable CDs
After importing music into your iTunes library, you can arrange any songs in
your library into a playlist and burn a CD using that playlist. If you have an
Apple-supported CD-R, CD-RW, or DVD-R drive (such as the Apple SuperDrive),
and blank CD-Rs (“R” is for “recordable”), you can create your own music CDs
that play in most CD players.
Blank CD-Rs are available in most electronics and computer stores. You can
also get them online from the Apple Store. Choose iTunes➪Shop for iTunes
Products to reach the Apple Store online.
The discs are called CD-Rs because they use a recordable format related to
commercial CDs (which are not recordable, of course). You can also create a
disc in the MP3 format by creating a CD-R with data rather than music, which
is useful for backing up a music library.
Where you can play CD-Rs
CD-Rs play just like commercial CDs in most CD players, including car and
portable CD players. The CD-R format is the most universal and most compatible with older players.
The Apple SuperDrive and the ComboDrive also create CD-RWs (the RW
stands for ReWritable) that you can erase and reuse, but most CD players
don’t recognize them as music CDs. The SuperDrive can create data DVD-R
and DVD-RWs also, which are useful for holding data files, but you can only
use these discs with computers that have a DVD drive — most commercial
DVD players won’t read data on a DVD-R or DVD-RW. To find out how to create
DVD titles for commercial players, see Book IV.
You can play MP3 files burned on a CD-R in the new consumer MP3 disc players and combination CD/MP3 players, as well as on computers that recognize
MP3 CDs (including Macs with iTunes).
What you can fit on a CD-R
You can fit up to 74 minutes of music on a high-quality CD-R (some can go as
high as 80 minutes). You measure the amount of music in minutes (and seconds) because the Red Book encoding format for audio CDs and CD-Rs compresses the music information. Although CD-Rs (and CD-RWs) hold about
650MB of data, the actual storage of music information varies. The sound
files on your hard drive may take up more space but still fit within the 650MB
confines of the CD.
If you burn music to a CD-R or CD-RW in the MP3 format, the disc can hold
more than 12 hours worth of music. You read that right — 12 hours on one
disc. Now you know why MP3 discs are popular.
Creating a Burn Playlist
73
Book I
Chapter 4
The typical audio CD and CD-R use the CD-DA
(Compact Disc-Digital Audio) format, which is
known as Red Book — not something from
Chairman Mao, but a document, published in
1980, that provides the specifications for the
standard compact disc (CD) developed by Sony
and Philips. According to legend, this document
was in a binder with red covers.
Also according to legend, in 1979, Norio Ohga,
honorary chairman and former CEO of Sony
who’s also a maestro conductor, overruled
his engineers and insisted that the CD format
be able to hold Beethoven’s Ninth Symphony
(which is 74 minutes and 42 seconds).
CD-DA defines audio data digitized at 44,100
samples per second (44.1 kHz) and in a range
of 65,536 possible values (16 bits). Each second
of hi-fi stereo sound requires almost 1.5 million
bits of storage space. Data on a CD-DA is organized into sectors (the smallest possible separately addressable block) of information. CD
data is not arranged in distinct physical units;
data is organized into frames that are each 1/75
of a second. These frames are intricately interleaved so that damage to the disc does not
destroy any single frame, but only small parts
of many frames.
To import music into the computer from an
audio CD, you have to convert the music to digital sound files by using a program such as
iTunes. When you burn an audio CD-R, iTunes
converts the sound files back into the CD-DA
format as it burns the disc.
If you have a DVD (Digital Versatile Disc) burner, such as the Apple SuperDrive, you can burn data to a DVD-R or DVD-RW to use with other computers. This approach is suitable for making backup copies of music files (or
any data files, such as movies or digital photos). DVD-Rs can hold about
4.7GB of music or other data files.
To burn a CD-RW or DVD-RW that already has data on it, you must first erase
it by reformatting it using the application supplied with the drive. CD-RWs
and DVD-RWs work with computers but won’t work with consumer players.
Creating a Burn Playlist
To burn a CD, you must first define a playlist for the CD. (See Chapter 2 of
this minibook for how to create a playlist.) You can use songs encoded in
any format that iTunes supports; however, you get higher quality music with
the uncompressed formats AIFF and WAV.
Burning CDs
The little Red Book that launched an industry
74
Creating a Burn Playlist
To copy an album from your iTunes library onto an audio CD, you can quickly
create a playlist for the album by switching to Browse view in your iTunes
library and dragging an album from the Album list (in the top-right section
of the library) to the white area below the items in your Source list. iTunes
automatically creates a playlist with the album name. You can then use that
playlist to burn a CD.
If your playlist includes music purchased from the Apple Music Store or other
online stores in the protected AAC encoding format, some rules may apply.
For example, the Apple Music Store allows you to burn ten copies of the same
playlist containing protected songs to an audio CD, but no more. You can,
however, create a new playlist and copy the protected songs to the new
playlist, and then burn more CDs with the songs.
Calculating how much music to use
When you create a playlist, you find out how many songs can fit on the CD by
totaling the durations of the songs, using time as your measure. You can see
the size of a playlist by selecting it; the bottom of the iTunes window shows
the number of songs, the amount in time, and the amount in megabytes for the
currently selected playlist, as shown in Figure 4-1.
Figure 4-1:
Check the
duration of
the playlist.
Playlist info
In Figure 4-1, the selected playlist has 23 songs that total 1.1 hours and
724.1MB. You may notice the discrepancy between the megabytes (724.1)
and what you can fit on an audio CD (650). While a CD holds only 650MB,
Creating a Burn Playlist
75
the music is compressed and stored in a special format known as CD-DA
(or Red Book). Thus, you can fit a bit more than 650MB of AIFF-encoded
sound, because AIFF is uncompressed. We can fit 1.1 hours (66 minutes) of
music on a 74-minute or 80-minute CD-R with many minutes to spare.
You should do the opposite for an MP3 CD — use the actual megabytes to calculate how many songs to fit — up to 650MB for a blank CD-R. You can fit lots
more music on an MP3 CD-R, because you use MP3-encoded songs rather than
uncompressed AIFF songs.
If you have too many songs in the playlist to fit on a CD-R, iTunes burns as
many songs in the playlist as can fit on the CD-R (either audio or MP3), and
then it asks you to insert another CD-R to continue burning the remaining
songs in the playlist.
Importing music for an audio CD-R
Before you rip an audio CD of songs you want to burn to an audio disc, you
may want to change the importing settings, as described in Chapter 3 of this
minibook.
The iTunes Music Store provides songs in the protected AAC format. You
should convert songs from music CDs to the AIFF or WAV formats if you want
to take those songs and burn them to your own audio CD-Rs.
AIFF is the standard digital format for uncompressed sound on a Mac, and
you can’t go wrong with it. WAV is basically the same thing for Windows.
Both the AIFF Encoder and the WAV Encoder offer the same Custom Settings
dialog, with settings for sample rate, sample size, and channels. You can
choose the automatic settings, and iTunes automatically detects the proper
sample rate, size, and channels from the source.
The Apple AAC music file format is comparable to audio CD quality and is a
higher quality format than MP3. We think AAC offers the best trade-off of
space and quality. All music that you purchase from the Apple Music Store
comes in this format, and it is suitable (though not as good as AIFF) for burning to an audio CD.
Burning CDs
You should always use the actual duration, in hours, minutes, and seconds,
to calculate how much music you can fit on an audio CD — either 74 or 80
minutes for blank CD-Rs. Leave at least one extra minute to account for the
gaps between songs.
Book I
Chapter 4
76
Setting the Burning Preferences
Importing music for an MP3 CD-R
MP3 discs are CD-Rs with MP3 files stored on them. You can buy consumer MP3
CD players (car, portable, and home) that play both audio CDs and MP3 CDs.
You can fit up to 12 hours of music on a CD-R using the MP3 format. The
amount of music varies with the encoding options and settings you choose, as
does the quality of the music, as we describe in Chapter 3 of this minibook.
You can use only MP3-encoded songs to burn an MP3 CD-R. Any songs not
encoded in MP3 are skipped and not burned to the CD-R. Audible books and
spoken-word titles are provided in an audio format that uses security technologies, including encryption, to protect purchased content. You can’t burn
an MP3 CD-R with Audible files, so any Audible files in a burn playlist are
skipped when you burn an MP3 CD-R.
Setting the Burning Preferences
Burning a CD is a simple process, and getting it right the first time is a good
idea — when you burn a CD-R, it’s done, right or wrong. You can’t erase content on a CD-R as you can with a CD-RW. But because you can’t play a CD-RW
in most CD players, if you want to burn an audio CD, we recommend using a
CD-R. Fortunately, CD-Rs are inexpensive, so you won’t be out more than a
few cents if you burn a coaster (a bad CD-R).
Setting the sound check and gaps
Musicians do a sound check before every performance to check the volume
of microphones and instruments and its effect on the listening environment.
The aptly named Sound Check option in iTunes allows you to do a sound
check on your tunes to bring them all in line, volume-wise.
To have all the songs in your library play at the same volume level all the
time, choose iTunes➪Preferences, and in the Preferences dialog, click the
Effects button to see the Effects dialog. Select the Sound Check check box,
which sets all the songs to the current volume controlled by the iTunes
volume slider.
After selecting the Sound Check option, you can burn your audio CD-R so
that all the songs play back at the same volume, just like they do in iTunes.
Choose iTunes➪Preferences, and then click the Burning button. Select the
Use Sound Check option, as shown in Figure 4-2. This option is only active if
you already selected the Sound Check option in the Effects dialog.
Setting the Burning Preferences
77
Book I
Chapter 4
Burning CDs
Figure 4-2:
Select
the Use
Sound
Check
option for
the CD-R
burn.
Consistent volume for all tracks makes the CD-R sound professional. Another
professional touch is to add an appropriate gap between songs, just like commercial CDs. Follow these steps to control the length of the gap between the
songs on your audio CD-Rs (not MP3 CD-Rs):
1. Choose iTunes➪Preferences, and then click the Burning button in the
Preferences dialog.
The Burning dialog displays, as shown in Figure 4-3.
2. Choose an amount from the Gap Between Songs pop-up menu.
You can choose from a gap of none to five seconds. We recommend
selecting a gap of two seconds.
3. Click OK.
Figure 4-3:
Set the gap
between
songs for an
audio CD.
78
Burning a Disc
Setting the format and recording speed
Before burning a CD-R, you have to set the disc format and the recording
speed. Choose iTunes➪Preferences, and then click the Burning button in the
Preferences dialog.
You can choose from the following three options for the Disc Format setting
in the Burning dialog (refer to Figure 4-2):
✦ Audio CD: Choose this option to burn a normal audio CD of up to 74
or 80 minutes (depending on the type of blank CD-R) using any iTunessupported music files, including songs bought from the iTunes Music
Store. While connoisseurs of music may prefer to use AIFF-encoded or
WAV-encoded music to burn an audio CD, you can also use songs in the
AAC and MP3 formats.
✦ MP3 CD: Choose this option to burn an MP3 CD with songs encoded in
the MP3 format; no other formats are supported for this option.
✦ Data CD or DVD: Choose this option to burn a data CD-R, CD-RW, DVD-R,
or DVD-RW with the music files. You can use any encoding formats for
the songs. Data discs don’t play on consumer CD players — they are
meant for use with computers. Data discs are good choices for storing
copies of music bought from the iTunes Music Store.
Blank CDs are rated for recording at certain speeds. Normally, iTunes detects
the rating of a blank CD and adjusts the recording speed to fit. But if your
blank CDs are rated for a slower speed than your burner, or you are having
problems creating CDs (see the section, “Dealing with trouble in CD-R paradise,” later in this chapter), you can change the recording speed setting to
match the CD’s rating. Choose iTunes➪Preferences, and then click the Burning
button in the Preferences dialog. Choose a specific recording speed from the
Preferred Speed pop-up menu in the Burning dialog, or choose the Maximum
Possible option to set the recording speed to your burner’s maximum speed.
Burning a Disc
After you set the burning preferences, you’re ready to start burning. Follow
these steps to burn a CD:
1. Select the playlist designated for burning to a disc and click the Burn
Disc button.
A message appears, telling you to insert a blank disc.
2. Insert a blank disc (label side up).
iTunes immediately checks the media and displays a message in the
status window that the disc is ready to burn.
Burning a Disc
79
3. Click the Burn Disc button again.
When iTunes has finished burning the CD, iTunes chimes, and the CD is
mounted on the Desktop.
4. Eject the newly burned disc from your CD drive and test it out.
Burning takes several minutes. You can cancel the operation at any time by
clicking the X next to the progress bar. But canceling the operation isn’t like
undoing the burn. If the burn has already started, you can’t use the CD-R or
DVD-R again.
If the playlist has more music than fits on the disc using the chosen format,
iTunes burns as much as possible from the beginning of the playlist, and then
asks you to insert another disc to burn the rest. To calculate the amount of
music in a playlist, turn to the section, “Calculating how much music to use,”
earlier in this chapter.
If you choose the MP3 CD format, iTunes skips over any songs in the playlist
that are not in the MP3 format.
Exporting song information for liner notes
Don’t delete the playlist yet! You can export the song information for all the
songs in the playlist to a text file and edit that information to make liner notes
for the CD.
iTunes exports all the song information for a single song, all the songs in a
playlist, an album, by an artist, or in the library into a text file. Select the songs
or playlist and choose File➪Export Song List (or Ô+click and choose Export
Song List from the shortcut menu). In the Export Song List dialog, select the
Plain Text option from the Format pop-up menu (unless you use a double-byte
language, such as Japanese or Chinese, for which the Unicode option is the
right choice).
You can open this text file in a word-processing program, such as the free
TextEdit program supplied with the Mac. iTunes formats the information in
order for you to easily import it into a database or spreadsheet program.
You can change the formatting by manipulating the tab settings (tabs are
used between pieces of information).
Burning CDs
This time, the button has a radioactive symbol. After clicking the Burn
Disc button, the process begins. The radioactive button rotates while the
burning takes place, and a progress bar appears, displaying the names of
the songs as they burn to the disc.
Book I
Chapter 4
80
Burning a Disc
iTunes exports all the song information, which may be too much for your
liner notes. Edit the liner notes by following these steps:
1. Open your preferred word processor while you are using iTunes.
2. Switch to iTunes, select the playlist, and choose Edit➪View Options.
The View Options dialog opens.
3. Select the columns that you want to appear in the song list.
To pick a column, click the check box next to the column header so that
a check mark appears. Any unchecked column headers are columns that
do not appear. Note: The Song Name column always appears in the listing and can’t be removed.
4. Select all the songs in the playlist and choose Edit➪Copy.
To select all the songs in the playlist, click the first song, and hold down
Shift while clicking the last song to highlight all the songs.
5. Switch to your word processor and choose Edit➪Paste.
The liner notes appear in your word processor, as shown in Figure 4-4.
You can now edit the liner notes in your word processor — for example,
you may want to decrease the font size or delete nonessential information so that the liner notes will fit inside a CD case when printed.
6. In your word processor, choose File➪Print to print out the liner notes
so that you can include them with your newly-burned CD.
You can automate the task of creating liner notes from iTunes if you are
adept at using AppleScript. Free AppleWorks templates and AppleScripts for
making liner notes are available on the Apple Web site (www.apple.com/
applescript/itunes/index.html) and information about scripting iTunes
can be found in Book VII, Chapter 2.
Dealing with trouble in CD-R paradise
Murphy’s Law applies to everything, even something as simple as burning a
CD-R. Don’t think for a moment that you are immune to the whims and
treacheries of Murphy (no one really knows who Murphy is) who in all his
infinite wisdom, pronounced that anything that can go wrong will go wrong.
We cover some of the most common problems you may encounter when
burning CDs in this section.
The best way to test your newly burned disc is to pop it right back into your
SuperDrive or any CD-ROM drive, or try it on a CD player. On most CD players,
an audio CD-R plays just like any commercial audio CD. MP3 CDs play fine on
MP3 CD players and also work in computers with CD-ROM and DVD drives.
Burning a Disc
81
Book I
Chapter 4
Burning CDs
Figure 4-4:
Edit the
exported
playlist in
TextEdit.
If the CD works on the Mac but not on a CD player, you may have a compatibility problem with the player and CD-Rs. We have a five-year-old CD player
that doesn’t play CD-Rs very well; car CD players sometimes have trouble
playing CD-Rs as well.
The following list gives some typical problems you may run into when burning a CD, along with the solutions to those problems:
✦ Problem: The disc won’t burn.
Solution: Perhaps you have a bum disc (it happens). Try using another
disc and burning at a slower speed.
✦ Problem: The disc doesn’t play, or stutters when playing, with a CD
player.
Solution: This happens often with older players that don’t play CD-Rs
well. Try the disc in your Mac CD-ROM, DVD-ROM, or SuperDrive. If it
works there, and you set the format to Audio CD, then you probably
have a compatibility problem with your CD player.
82
Burning a Disc
✦ Problem: The disc doesn’t show tracks on a CD player, or it ejects
immediately.
Solution: Be sure to use the proper disc format — choose iTunes➪
Preferences and click the Burning button to see the Disc Format setting
in the Burning dialog. The Audio CD format works in just about all CD
players that can play CD-Rs. MP3 CDs work in MP3 CD players and computer CD-ROM and DVD drives. Data CDs or DVDs work only in computer
drives.
✦ Problem: The eMac went to sleep while burning and never woke up.
Solution: You have found one strange glitch that fortunately only applies
to eMacs set to go into sleep mode. As a safety precaution, turn off sleep
mode in the Energy Saver preferences (in System Preferences) before
starting a burn.
✦ Problem: Some songs in a playlist were skipped and not burned onto
the disc.
Solution: Audio CD-Rs burn with songs encoded in any format, but you
can use only MP3-encoded songs to burn an MP3 CD-R — any songs not
encoded in MP3 are skipped (any Audible files are also skipped). If your
playlist for an audio CD-R includes music purchased from the Apple Music
Store or other online stores in the protected AAC encoding format, some
rules may apply — see the section, “Creating a Burn Playlist,” earlier in
this chapter.
Burning CDs is a personal matter. Piracy is not a technology issue — it is a
behavior issue. Don’t violate copyright law. See the section about sharing
music legally in Chapter 2 of this minibook.
Book II
iPhoto
Contents at a Glance
Chapter 1: Getting to Know iPhoto ....................................................................................85
Chapter 2: Importing Photos................................................................................................97
Chapter 3: Organizing Photos............................................................................................107
Chapter 4: Improving Photos ............................................................................................137
Chapter 5: Making Slideshows ..........................................................................................153
Chapter 6: Printing and Publishing Photos and Books ..................................................173
Chapter 1: Getting to Know iPhoto
In This Chapter
Finding out what features to look for in digital cameras
Checking out what iPhoto can do for you
Opening images in iPhoto
T
aking photos has never been easier. Digital cameras and Apple software
have combined to turn the Macintosh into a digital darkroom — no need
for a real darkroom with smelly chemicals and film processing equipment. In
fact, you no longer need film. What a relief! You can take all the pictures you
want without ever having to find a store to buy another roll of film.
This chapter tells you all you need to know about digital cameras, and it
provides an overview of what you can do with iPhoto. You find out how to
get around in iPhoto and look at your pictures in detail.
Living in the Digital World
Maybe your vacation photos bore other people (at least, if you show them in
a long slideshow), but to you they’re priceless, preserving special memories.
Family pictures, vacations, weddings . . . these events don’t happen every day
and you want to preserve your photos of these events. You don’t want your
photos to deteriorate due to age, weather, or environmental factors such as
kids with peanut butter fingers. The problem with film and prints is that film
negatives eventually deteriorate, and photographic prints fade over time, or
can be scratched or torn, and are costly to replace (if they can be replaced at
all). The cost of film also limits the number of pictures you may want to take.
In the digital world, these limitations don’t exist. The ones and zeroes that
make up digital information don’t change, and the image remains perfect —
for all eternity.
Digital information can be destroyed, however. You might accidentally erase
the photos on your camera. Your computer or your hard drive can fail. A
virus can take over your computer and wreak havoc, destroying files in the
process. Your laptop can be stolen. You may drop the computer while
moving. Stuff happens, even in the digital world.
86
Living in the Digital World
USB versus FireWire for digital cameras
USB (Universal Serial Bus) is used to connect
hundreds of nifty devices to your computer,
such as keyboards, pointing devices, external
hard drives, keychain-sized flash drives, printers, scanners, and so on. USB connectors are
plug-and-play: You can plug them in at any time
while your computer is on or off. Many of these
devices get their power directly from the Mac
through the USB connection.
Like USB, FireWire also supplies power to a
device, such as a camera, through the same
cable that connects it to the computer. FireWire
devices are also plug-and-play. But FireWire
can handle data transfer speeds of more than
30 times faster than USB — at least that’s true
of the first versions of USB and FireWire. USB
version 1, which is used in every Mac model
sold at the time of this writing, offers a transfer rate of 12 megabits per second (Mbps).
FireWire version A offers a rate of 400 Mbps.
However, the more advanced generation of
USB, version 2.0, has a transfer rate of 480
Mbps, 40 times faster than the first version
(USB 1.1). Many Mac models now sport USB
2.0 connectors, but not all cameras support
USB 2.0 — the camera will still work with the
USB 2.0 port, but you’ll only get the slower USB
1.1 transfer rate of 12 Mbps. Meanwhile, the
FireWire spec (IEEE 1394) hasn’t stood still:
Version B offers a transfer rate of 800 Mbps,
twice as fast as FireWire A. Again, OS X supports both, but as of this writing, older Mac
models and the iBook, iMac, and eBook offer
FireWire A. The 17-inch PowerBook G4 offers
FireWire B.
USB is the connection of choice for most digital cameras (though some very high-quality
cameras may offer FireWire) because digital
camera manufacturers need to make cameras
that work with all types of computers; most
PCs, for example, come with USB ports, but
they likely don’t have FireWire ports. This isn’t
such a bad deal, though, because even USB 1.1
is generally fast enough for transferring digital
photo images.
You can protect information a number of ways. With iPhoto, you can archive
all of your photos to CD or DVD, creating multiple copies easily. You can, for
example, store archives of your photos on separate DVDs, storing one copy
at home and another at work for safekeeping — all for just the price of a few
blank DVD discs.
Why digital is better: Instant pictures
Everything about digital photography is easier and costs less than traditional film photography. Digital photography is truly instant gratification —
you see the results immediately and can then take more pictures based on
what happened an instant before.
With a film camera, you pay for every picture, including the accidental shot
of your foot, thumb, or the inside of your jacket pocket. The entire roll, no
matter what’s on it, has to be processed before you even see the photos.
Living in the Digital World
87
And if you want extra prints of the good photos, you need to reorder them
and pay for them again.
With a digital camera, you see your pictures in seconds, and you can delete
bad shots and reshoot them. You can archive what you like, and you can
delete what you don’t like. If you have a color printer, obtaining extra prints
is as easy as using the Print command. You can even e-mail the photos to a
service for high-quality prints. You never have to run to a store to buy film,
or waste money again on perishable film you don’t use.
Features of digital cameras can be intimidating. Camera buffs speak a different
language with their F-stops, optical zoom, and fish-eye lenses. You may want
to base your choice of digital cameras on features such as optical zoom, which
offers a higher-quality close-up than digital zoom, or the type of memory card
available for the camera.
Book II
Chapter 1
If you’re an amateur photographer, you probably don’t need to be too picky
about which camera to buy. You can get excellent results from just about any
digital camera. You need only know two important facts when picking out
a digital camera:
Getting to Know
iPhoto
✦ Your camera must be compatible with the Mac USB (Universal Serial
Bus) or FireWire (IEEE 1394) connectors.
✦ Image quality is measured by the pixel resolution of the digital camera.
Resolution — the image quality factor
All you need to know about image quality with a digital camera is the
number of pixels — specific points of information in a picture. Digital cameras are often described by the image resolution in millions of pixels, or
megapixels. Higher megapixel counts usually result in better images. A
2-megapixel camera produces good 4-x-6-inch prints and acceptable 8-x-10inch prints. A 3-megapixel camera produces very good 4-x-6-inch prints and
magazine-quality 8-x-10-inch prints. A 5-megapixel camera produces good
quality 10-x-14-inch prints.
Modifying and enhancing your photos
If you aren’t a professional photographer, the chances that your pictures
come out perfect every time are very slim. Some of the pictures may not be
as vivid as you thought they would be. That almost postcard-perfect view
from the highway may show a bit of road litter and guardrail, and you want
to cut out that part. Or maybe the light was too bright or too dim, or the
camera’s flash put red spots in your subject’s eyes (the dreaded red-eyes).
iPhoto makes these problems easy to fix. iPhoto is a digital darkroom, offering a number of easy ways to improve and enhance your photos, such as the
following:
88
Living in the Digital World
✦ You can instantly correct any photo that’s too dark, too light, or overexposed. iPhoto also provides editing tools for automatically correcting
that red-eye effect.
✦ You can crop any image. Cropping is a process in which you draw a
smaller rectangle inside the image and omit everything outside the rectangle. You can improve a postcard-perfect view of a scenic stop along a
highway by removing, for example, the road litter and guardrail from the
bottom edge of the photo.
✦ You can change color photos to black and white (or more accurately,
grayscale) or sepia tone. Changing color to grayscale is very handy for
printing in books, newspapers, newsletters, or documents that don’t use
color. You can also change a color photo to sepia tone to make the picture look old-timey.
✦ You can make blemishes disappear like magic. (And with some creative editing in programs such as Adobe Photoshop, you can even make
people look thinner.)
You don’t have to load any special software to do the kind of improvements
to your pictures that make them more effective as photographs. Chapter 4 of
this minibook provides details on how to make improvements.
Storing, printing, and sharing your photos
iPhoto acts as your own processing lab and photo service. iPhoto allows you
to use your Mac to keep track of photos with titles and keywords and comments. You can quickly display them on-screen, in any size ranging from
thumbnails to full screen.
The iPhoto photo library holds any number of photos — limited only by how
much space you have on your hard drive. Even if you store thousands and
thousands of photos in your library, you can find the one you want quickly
and easily by searching by titles or comments, by date, or by ratings you can
assign to photos.
Even better, you can organize the photos in separate photo albums — and
in each album, you can arrange the photos exactly in the sequence you want
for slideshows and photo books. iPhoto even offers “smart” albums that, like
the “smart” playlists in iTunes, update themselves with new photos automatically based on the criteria that you set.
With iPhoto, you can produce slideshows, photo portfolios, and even nicely
bound coffee-table photo books and school yearbooks. All you have to do is
organize the photos in an album, select a theme and a layout, and bingo,
iPhoto creates the book in electronic format. You can then print out the
Living in the Digital World
89
pages on your own printer, or you can order professionally printed and bound
books from a service directly from iPhoto. (The service is available not only in
the United States, but also in Japan and Europe.) In the case of a school yearbook, you could get last-minute pictures into it and still make the graduationday deadline.
More pixels mean higher quality
image has a total of 90,000 pixels. With a pixel
dimension of 1,000 by 1,000, the image has a
million pixels, or a megapixel. The more pixels,
or specific points of information in a picture, the
more detail is represented, as shown in the following figure. The photo on the left shows less
detail than the photo on the right, which was
taken with a higher-resolution camera.
The second factor is the number of colors your
Mac can display, which is controlled by the
Display setting in the System Preferences.
When you set the Display setting to the Millions
option, you are actually getting over 16 million
colors. You get 16 million colors because a pixel
in a typical image can represent 256 levels of
red, green, and blue, which gives a possible
tonal range of over 16 million colors (256 x 256
x 256). Anything less than that can cause the
image to appear with splotches of the same
color rather than a subtle tonal range of colors.
Book II
Chapter 1
Getting to Know
iPhoto
When digital cameras take a picture, they
divide the image in the lens into many tiny
squares, or pixels, to represent the image. Two
factors with pixels affect image quality. The first
factor, controlled by the digital camera or scanner, is the spatial resolution of the image. The
spatial resolution is the number of pixels in the
image, both horizontally and vertically. With a
pixel dimension of 300 x 300, for example, an
90
Opening Images in iPhoto
Photos are just a part of the iLife experience. iPhoto connects to the other
iLife applications, and if you explore them, you’ll find uses for your digital
photos you hadn’t thought of before, such as creating a DVD of a slideshow
using music from your iTunes library, or using photos in an iMovie project
along with video clips and music.
Saving your photos has never been easier. You can copy your entire photo
collection to another hard drive or burn CDs or DVDs with your images to
keep archives. Archiving saves all the information you have about each
photo, including date, album, film roll, keywords, and comments. After you
archive your photos on CD or DVD, you can still view them in iPhoto directly
from the disc — when you insert the disc, the archived library on the disc
appears automatically in iPhoto with its titles, keywords, and photo albums.
You can also share photos. E-mail them directly from iPhoto if you use the
standard Mac OS X Mail application, or even Eudora or Microsoft Entourage.
You can even share entire slideshows with others on the Internet using the
.Mac service, or you can post photos on Web pages. Essentially everyone
can have a copy of your photos.
We describe slideshows in detail in Chapter 5 of this minibook. You can read
all about printing photos and photo books and sharing photos online in
Chapter 6 of this minibook.
Opening Images in iPhoto
This section provides a tour of iPhoto. If you’re using iPhoto for the first
time, you won’t have photos in your photo library until you import them,
which we cover in Chapter 2 of this minibook. If you already have photos on
your hard drive (either scanned images or files from a digital photo service),
you can drag the files directly to the iPhoto window after starting iPhoto to
add them to your photo library.
Starting iPhoto
The iPhoto icon is available in the Dock, which appears typically at the bottom
of the desktop. To start iPhoto, click the iPhoto icon.
When you start iPhoto, its window takes up a good portion of your desktop,
but you may want to make it as large as possible to see all your thumbnails
and view individual images with as large a viewing area as possible. To do this,
choose Window➪Zoom. The Zoom Window command fills the desktop with
the iPhoto window. To make the iPhoto window smaller, choose Window➪
Zoom again.
Opening Images in iPhoto
91
To make the window invisible but accessible from the Dock, choose Window➪
Minimize. (If you do this and then can’t find iPhoto, click either the iPhoto
icon or the newly created minimized document icon in the Dock, and the
window reappears.) iPhoto works like all the other “i-applications” in
Mac OS X.
Changing your display settings
When you start iPhoto, you may get the message Caution: The current
screen resolution is not optimal for iPhoto. Whether accidentally
or intentionally, your color display setting is set to fewer colors than the display can actually handle, or your display’s resolution is set too low. Either
one of these settings, if not set to its highest value, causes this message to
appear. And in particular, if you use an older iBook, the settings provided for
the iBook display always cause this message to appear.
You can change your display settings at any time in OS X and your settings
take effect immediately. However, you should first quit iPhoto before doing so.
Follow these steps to change your display settings:
1. Choose System Preferences from the Apple menu.
The System Preferences window appears.
2. Click the Display icon.
The icon appears in the Hardware row of icons (and also, typically, in
the top row of most-used icons).
The Display Preferences window appears.
3. Click the Display tab.
The Display pane appears.
4. Choose the highest pixel resolution setting in the Resolutions list.
The resolution settings are on the left side of the Display pane. Your display may be capable of 1024 x 768 pixels; you should choose that setting
or a higher one if available.
Getting to Know
iPhoto
If you’re unlucky enough to get this message, don’t panic. iPhoto still works
properly, but colors in images may appear in solid splotches rather than
smooth gradients, and the images themselves may not appear as good as
they would at the higher settings. The images aren’t changed, of course —
the digital information is still there. All you need to do is change your display settings.
Book II
Chapter 1
92
Opening Images in iPhoto
5. Choose the Millions option from the Colors pop-up menu.
The Colors pop-up menu is to the right of the list of resolution settings,
in the Display pane. Your display should be capable of displaying millions of colors; choose that setting so that your photos look their best.
6. Close the System Preferences window by choosing System
Preferences➪Quit System Preferences.
Your display changes automatically to the new settings. Now your display
settings offer the best quality viewing for your photos.
When you start iPhoto the first time, iPhoto asks the question Do you want
to use iPhoto when you connect your digital camera? Click the Yes
button to have iPhoto start up automatically when you connect your digital
camera. If you click the No button, iPhoto will not start up automatically —
you have to explicitly launch iPhoto (or some other application) to import
photos from your digital camera.
Getting around in iPhoto
The iPhoto window is split into three major sections, or panes (as in windowpanes), as shown in Figure 1-1. The three panes are
✦ The Tools pane: The iPhoto Tools pane acts like a control center, offering
one-click access to the iPhoto tools. These tools change when you switch
modes by clicking the mode buttons, which are Import, Organize, Edit,
and Book.
✦ The Source pane: The list of albums (and other sources of images)
appears in a pane on the left side of the window. You use this list to
organize your photo albums and select them for viewing. Beneath this
pane are buttons for creating a new album, playing a slideshow, showing
information about the selected photos, and rotating the selected photos.
✦ The Viewer pane: The largest pane — the viewer — displays your photo
thumbnails when you are in Organize mode. Individual photographs
show when you select one for viewing or editing.
When you first use iPhoto, the photo library appears in the Viewer pane.
As you organize photos into photo albums, the names of the albums appear
in the Source pane. You can change the Viewer pane to show only a single
album’s photos by selecting the album’s name in the Source pane. To view
the entire photo library, click the photo library at the top of the Source pane.
Use the mode buttons to switch modes of operation:
✦ Import: Transfer photos from your digital camera or memory card
reader. (You can also transfer images from hard drives and digital
Opening Images in iPhoto
93
backup media by dragging the image files to the iPhoto window or by
choosing File➪Import.)
✦ Organize: View your photo library and organize photo albums.
✦ Edit: View a single photo to make improvements, such as removing redeye and changing brightness and contrast.
✦ Book: Organize photos into a book layout for printing books.
Book II
Chapter 1
Getting to Know
iPhoto
Figure 1-1:
The iPhoto
window is
split into
three panes.
Mode buttons
Source pane
Viewer pane
Tools pane
Viewing photos
The Viewer pane of the iPhoto window shows thumbnail images of your
photos. You can change the size of the thumbnail images — make them
shrink or grow larger to see more detail — by dragging the size control slider
(beneath the Viewer pane) to the right, as shown in Figure 1-2. The size control slider has an icon of a large photo on one side and a small one on the
other.
To look at a single image, double-click the thumbnail of the image, or click it
once (to select it) and click the Edit mode button. Either way, the image fills
the Viewer pane, and the tools in the toolbar change into the Edit mode
tools, as shown in Figure 1-3.
94
Opening Images in iPhoto
Figure 1-2:
Drag the
size control
slider to
make
thumbnails
larger or
smaller.
As you see in Figure 1-3, even in Edit mode, the size control slider is available to make the image larger or smaller, so you can zoom in on an image to
see more detail, or zoom out to see the entire picture.
Figure 1-3:
Double-click
a thumbnail
to see the
image in
detail.
For optimum viewing, check out the following tips:
✦ Open a photo in a separate window: Hold down the Option key while
double-clicking a photo’s thumbnail for an even better way to view a
photo, as shown in Figure 1-4. iPhoto scales the photo in its proper
Opening Images in iPhoto
95
proportions, rather than stretching it to fit the iPhoto viewer pane, so
the image looks exactly as it should.
If you like the separate window approach to view your photos, and you
want iPhoto to do this every time you double-click a photo (rather than
using the Viewer pane in Edit mode), choose iPhoto➪Preferences, and in
the Preferences window that appears, switch the Double-click option to
the Opens in Separate Window option.
✦ Compare several photos side by side: Open several photos, each in separate windows, by holding down the Option key while double-clicking
the thumbnails. This is where a large display comes in handy.
✦ Zoom in and out of photos: The Zoom buttons on the left side of the
photo window’s special toolbar (at the top of the window) allow you to
zoom in or out of the photo. You can also scale the photo by dragging
the window’s lower-right corner to make the window larger or smaller.
The Fit button in the window’s toolbar automatically scales the photo to
fit the window. The window’s toolbar offers many of the Edit mode tools,
including cropping and rotating, in the toolbar.
Figure 1-4:
Option+
doubleclicking
opens the
photo in
its own
window.
Book II
Chapter 1
Getting to Know
iPhoto
You can tell how large the photo is, too — whether it is a small photo
scaled to display at 100 percent magnification, which is its actual size, or
if it is a very large photo scaled at 50 percent or less in order to display
it. iPhoto displays, in the window’s title bar, the percent the photo is
scaled — for example, in Figure 1-4, the photo is scaled to 39 percent of
its actual size.
96
Opening Images in iPhoto
You can experiment freely with the Edit mode tools to improve your photos,
as we describe in Chapter 4 of this minibook. You can, for example, click the
B & W button to turn the photo into black and white (grayscale). You can
adjust brightness and contrast, and even experiment with retouching and
cropping. It doesn’t matter how much you experiment — if you don’t like a
change you make, don’t worry: iPhoto stores originals of every photo in its
library. Simply choose Photos➪Revert to Original, and your original photo is
restored in pristine condition.
Chapter 2: Importing Photos
In This Chapter
Importing your photos from a digital camera
Using a photo service to import photos
Importing images from your hard drive
Scanning images into iPhoto
W
ith iPhoto, you can import pictures directly from your digital camera.
Don’t have a digital camera? You still like to use that old Brownie film
camera your grandmother gave you? Don’t worry. You can use a scanner to
scan photographic prints, or you can send your film rolls to a photo service
that can convert your film to digital images on a CD or the Web. (Odds are
the photo service you already use offers this service. Next time you’re there,
ask about it.) iPhoto has no problem importing images from a CD or hard
drive. In this chapter, you find out how to import your photos — even those
musty photos of Grandma’s you found in the attic — into iPhoto.
Importing Photos from Digital Cameras
If you ever need to show somebody that using a Mac is much easier than
using a PC, all you need to do is open iPhoto, connect your digital camera to
the USB port, and click the Import button. That’s all there is to it. Your photographs appear in the iPhoto Viewer pane, ready to edit, print, archive, or
whatever you want to do.
Your picture-taking skills may improve with iPhoto as you experiment more,
without the space limitations of film. Because digital cameras don’t use film,
you’ll find yourself taking many more pictures than usual, dumping them
into your Mac, viewing them, deleting the truly bad ones, and taking more
pictures. As your collection of photographs grows, you will appreciate how
easy importing and organizing your photos in iPhoto is. The photo library
allows you to view all the photos you import from your digital camera.
Connecting a digital camera
USB (Universal Serial Bus) is the most common choice for connecting digital
cameras to a Mac — the exceptions are very high-quality cameras that offer
FireWire. Fortunately, both types of connections work the same way.
98
Importing Photos from Digital Cameras
To import pictures from a digital camera, follow these steps:
1. Connect the camera to the Mac using a USB or FireWire cable.
Digital cameras typically come with a special USB or FireWire cable
that has a very small connector on one end for the camera and a larger
connector on the other end for the computer’s USB or FireWire port.
However, if both ends are the same on the cable you are using, it doesn’t
matter which end is plugged into the camera or the computer.
2. Power up your digital camera by pushing the power button.
Most cameras also have a power-on switch to save battery life. (Many
smart people, including ourselves, have sat there waiting for the photos
to appear, only to find that the camera was off.)
Connect your camera before you turn it on, because the Mac may not recognize some camera models unless they are turned on while connected.
If the Mac doesn’t recognize your camera, try turning the camera off and
then turning it on again.
3. Click the iPhoto icon to start iPhoto (if it hasn’t already started).
When you connect and power on your digital camera, the iPhoto icon
becomes animated (or dances in the Dock), awaiting your click. Depending
on how you configure your Mac, iPhoto may automatically start when the
computer detects the camera. If you are running iPhoto for the first time,
a dialog pops up asking if you want to always run iPhoto when you connect a camera. Click the Yes button.
iPhoto opens, displaying the iPhoto window.
4. Click the Import mode button.
The Tools pane changes to show the Import tools, as shown in Figure 2-1.
iPhoto displays either a camera icon, a disk icon, or a memory card reader
icon, depending on the type of camera or memory card reader you are
using. For example, our Nikon CoolPix 4300 shows up with a disk icon.
When you start iPhoto, you may get the message Caution: The
current screen resolution is not optimal for iPhoto. This
message means that your color display setting is set to fewer colors
than the display can actually handle or that your display’s resolution is
set to a lower number than possible. See Chapter 1 of this minibook to
find out how to change your display settings.
5. Choose whether or not to delete the photos in your camera after
importing.
If you want to delete photos from your camera as soon as they are
imported, select the Erase Camera Contents after Transfer option in the
Tools pane (located at the bottom of the iPhoto window). Many cameras
Importing Photos from Digital Cameras
99
have a delete function, so you don’t need to use this option. However,
using this option enables you to import and delete photos in the camera
all in one step. With the photos in the photo library, you no longer need
to keep copies in your camera or memory card, and you can make room
for new photos.
Book II
Chapter 2
Importing Photos
Figure 2-1:
iPhoto is
in Import
mode, ready
to import
photos from
a digital
camera.
6. Click the Import button.
While the importing occurs, the Import button changes to a Stop button;
to cancel the photo transfer at any time during your import, click the
Stop button. When it finishes importing, iPhoto displays a small image
for each photo in the photo library, as shown in Figure 2-2. The size of
the images in the viewing area is controlled by the zoom slider in the
lower-right corner of the iPhoto window, just underneath the viewing
area. These small versions of your images, which can be reduced to very
small, are called thumbnails.
If your camera has a sleep mode, make sure that you disable or set it to
a time increment long enough to allow your images to import into the
Mac. Importing 24 photos generally takes about one minute with most
digital cameras.
7. Disconnect the camera (eject it first if necessary).
If ejecting is required, the camera’s icon appears on the desktop. To
eject the camera, click the camera’s icon and hold down the mouse
button. The Trash icon changes to the Eject icon. You can then drag the
camera’s icon over the Eject icon to eject the camera properly. Although
100
Importing Photos from Digital Cameras
nothing really happens (nothing actually ejects from the machine, nor
do any doors open), you may find that if you don’t eject as required with
some cameras, your images may not delete from the camera even if you
have the delete option enabled.
Figure 2-2:
Imported
photos
appear as
thumbnails
in the photo
library.
Of course, if you don’t like to drag icons (such as when you use a laptop in
an airline seat and dragging may cause you to elbow your neighbor), you can
click the camera icon and press Ô+E. When the camera ejects properly, you
can then disconnect the camera.
Remember: Wait until all photos are transferred into iPhoto or click the Stop
button before disconnecting your camera.
If you disconnect your camera and suddenly get a message from OS X telling
you that the device isn’t properly disconnected, this means that you didn’t
drag its icon over the Trash icon. USB devices may be in trouble if you did
this — with hard drives, for example, you could lose data if the hard drive is
disconnected improperly, and with digital cameras, the flash media for storing images may be damaged.
Importing from memory card readers
Additional memory cards are like extra rolls of film. A memory card reader is
useful if you take lots of pictures and use multiple cards. Rather than connecting your camera to your Mac every time you want to transfer pictures, leave
the card reader connected to the USB port of your Mac and put the camera’s
Importing Photos from Digital Cameras
101
memory card in the card reader. If you use multiple memory cards, this
method is especially convenient.
Many cameras come with relatively small memory cards — 16MB or less,
enough to hold about 24 pictures. Memory card formats include Compact
Flash, SmartMedia, and Memory Stick. They all function in a similar manner,
but they’re different physical sizes and shapes.
If you want to get more memory cards for your camera, be sure to ask for the
right kind of card, as the wrong type won’t work with your camera. Generally,
a sample memory card is provided with your new digital camera, along with
information about which type of cards to buy.
1. Connect the card reader to the Mac.
Standard USB cables generally work with card readers, so either end of
the cable can be plugged into the card reader and the computer. If you
use a memory card reader that doesn’t offer a USB connection, it may
provide a PCMCIA card for a PCMCIA slot often found in computers,
especially PCs. Some Mac models also offer PCMCIA slots, and you can
insert the PCMCIA card for the memory card reader into a slot and use it
like any other device.
2. Power up your card reader and insert a card.
Use the power button on your card reader if you have one; many card
readers power themselves on by sensing power from the USB cable.
3. Start iPhoto.
The iPhoto icon is available on the desktop in the Dock. Simply click the
iPhoto icon, and the iPhoto window appears.
4. Click the Import mode button.
The Tools pane changes to show the Import tools (refer to Figure 2-1).
You won’t see an icon, however, unless you insert a card into the reader.
5. Click the Import button in the Tools pane.
If your card reader is connected and powered on, iPhoto displays the
card icon in the Tools pane, along with the number of photos on the
card and the Import button. While importing, the Import button changes
to the Stop button. To cancel the photo transfer at any time during your
import, click the Stop button. If you want to delete photos from the
memory card as soon as they are imported, select the Erase Camera
Contents after Transfer option in the Tools pane. With the photos in the
photo library, you no longer need to keep copies on your memory card,
and you can make room for new photos.
Importing Photos
iPhoto imports photos from a card reader just as it does with a camera,
using the same steps:
Book II
Chapter 2
102
Transferring Images from Other Sources
6. Eject and disconnect the card reader.
Wait until all the photos transfer into iPhoto or click the Stop button
before disconnecting your card reader. After you finish importing your
photos, drag the card reader’s icon from the desktop to the Trash icon
in the Dock. However, you may find that leaving your card reader connected to your Mac is useful, because you can just switch memory cards
to import more photos.
Transferring Images from Other Sources
If you don’t have a digital camera, don’t worry. You can turn your film into
digital images in many ways. You can continue to use your favorite film
camera and probably even continue using whatever services you use now
for film processing.
If your camera uses 35mm film, you can have your pictures developed by a
digital imaging service, such as PhotoWorks (www.photoworks.com) or the
“You’ve Got Pictures” service on America Online (sponsored by Kodak).
Many services offer digital processing of film and choices on how to deliver
the digital images — on a floppy disk or CD, or posted on the Web for easy
downloading to your Mac.
Suppose that you have photographic prints or slides. You may think that
prints or slides can’t be included in the photo library. But you’d be wrong. In
fact, you can not only include them and organize them into albums, but you
can also improve these photos. Then you can create new prints and do anything with them that you can do with your digital images.
Using a photo service
Many photo services offer photos on CDs, which can be mailed to you or
picked up at your convenience. Typically, the service offers either the Kodak
Picture CD or Photo CD formats, but it may offer a special format that requires
software from the service.
We should mention here that professional photographers using film cameras
should investigate professional services that offer at least the Photo CD
format. Services offering high-resolution film scanning most likely offer
Photo CD discs that you can use with your Mac and iPhoto, as well as highresolution digital files that can be transferred by network or high-speed
Internet connection. The Photo CD format offers resolutions high enough
for even magazine-quality photo prints.
If the format is Photo CD or Picture CD, you import the photos by following
these steps:
Transferring Images from Other Sources
103
1. Insert the CD into your CD-ROM drive.
An icon representing the CD appears on the desktop or Sidebar.
2. Click the CD icon to view the files in the Finder.
3. Open iPhoto by clicking its icon in the Dock (or by double-clicking the
iPhoto application in Applications).
iPhoto opens.
4. Drag the individual files (or folder of files) containing the photos to
the iPhoto Viewer pane (as shown in Figure 2-3).
5. Close the Finder window by clicking the button in the right corner of
the title bar when the files finish copying.
Book II
Chapter 2
6. Drag the CD icon to the Trash icon to eject the CD from the CD-ROM
Figure 2-3:
Import
photos from
a CD by
dragging
files to the
iPhoto
window.
If you drag a folder, a film roll is created with the folder’s name. If the folder
you import contains subfolders, film rolls are created with each subfolder’s
name. We describe how to edit the film roll information in Chapter 3 of this
minibook.
If a service offers images on floppy disk, you may want to choose that
medium. However, floppies hold only about 1MB of image data, compared
to nearly 600MB available on a CD. You also need to have a floppy disk drive
for your Mac, which is not included in the newest Mac models.
Importing Photos
drive.
104
Transferring Images from Other Sources
If a service offers a format that is not Photo CD or Picture CD, it most likely
offers software you can download that extracts the images from the CD and
saves them as image files on your hard drive. Although having every service
use the same or similar format would be convenient, some services offer
proprietary formats. For example, PhotoWorks offers a CD format that
requires use of the service’s special software, but this software offers the
ability to organize photos into albums, much like iPhoto itself. PhotoWorks
offers this software not to compete with iPhoto, but to provide iPhoto-like
functions for people who use PCs and older Macs that can’t run iPhoto. The
software is free and very easy to download, and it is also supplied with the
CD in case you don’t want to download it.
When a service offers a proprietary format with special software, make sure
that the software can save the image in one of the following formats: TIFF,
PICT, JPG (or JPEG), or EPS. You don’t need to know anything about these
formats to import them, except that TIFF is the preferred format for photos
because it guarantees the highest quality without compression. iPhoto can
import images in any of these formats automatically.
Importing images from your hard drive
If you save images to your hard drive in one of the appropriate formats, you
can then import each file or a folder of files. Follow these steps to import files:
1. With iPhoto open, choose File➪Import.
The File Import dialog appears.
2. Use the Mac Finder browser to find the folder containing the image
files.
3. Select the image file or files to import.
4. Click the Import button.
Your images import to the photo library.
You can delete the image files from your hard drive after importing them.
Using a scanner
A scanner optically scans a photographic print, slide, or negative, and then
creates a digital image. A scanner can be controlled directly by a Mac using
the Image Capture application.
Unless you have a consistent need for scanning, you may get by with using
a scanning service at a local copy shop. Many shops offer self-service scanning with instructions, and others do the scanning for you. All you need to
know to order scans of photographic prints is the following:
Transferring Images from Other Sources
105
✦ Ask for the highest color depth. The Mac can handle millions of colors,
which is also known as 32-bit color in the world of PCs.
✦ Ask for the highest affordable resolution. Many services offer scanning
at 600 dots per inch (dpi), which is acceptable for most personal uses.
✦ Select the TIFF file format. TIFF files are better than any other compressed file format (such as JPEG) for images that you still want to work
on — to edit or retouch, as we describe in Chapter 4 of this minibook.
If your scanner is connected to your Mac (most likely with a USB cable),
install the Mac OS X software that was provided with it. If you don’t have the
software, check with the manufacturer of the scanner to see if it works with
Mac OS X. If it does, you can use the Image Capture application, located in
the Applications folder, to scan photos:
image.
2. Use the selection tool in the toolbar to zoom in and define the image
scan area.
You can select either a portion of the image to scan or select the entire
image.
3. When you’re satisfied with the results, click the Scan button to create
a TIFF file and save the file on your hard drive.
Image Capture provides a dialog for saving the TIFF file in a folder on
your hard drive.
Use the Options button in the toolbar to change the scanner’s settings to set
image-related options, such as resolution if you don’t like the outcome of the
file. Check the documentation that came with your scanner for more information about its capabilities.
If you want Image Capture to open automatically when you press a button on
your scanner, choose the Preferences option from the Image Capture menu.
In the Preferences dialog, select the Image Capture option from the When a
Scanner Button Is Pressed, Open menu.
Finally, import the TIFF file into iPhoto by following these steps:
1. Choose File➪Import.
The File Import dialog appears.
2. Navigate to the folder containing the image files.
3. Select the image file to import.
Importing Photos
1. Open Image Capture and click the Full Screen button to see the whole
Book II
Chapter 2
106
Transferring Images from Other Sources
4. Click the Import button.
The files are imported into iPhoto.
After you import image files, the images in those files become part of the
photo library. You can delete the image files after importing them.
Scanner talk
Before digital cameras became widely available, the only way to get a photo into digital
form was to use a scanner — a machine that
optically scans a photographic print or slide in
the same way that a copier can optically scan
a piece of paper and reproduce it.
In fact, most copiers are essentially scanners,
and many of today’s office copiers double as
image scanners when connected to a computer. The typical flatbed scanner is popular
because you can put anything on the scanning
surface — a photographic print, a book page,
a newspaper, an object, or even a body part
such as your hand — and scan the material.
Sheet-fed scanners look more like copiers and
accept only flat pieces of paper, making them
not as useful for scanning photographic prints.
Slide scanners are designed for scanning
35mm slides. They are a bit more expensive
than your average flatbed scanner. If you have
slides that need to be scanned, you may want
to instead use a photo service, as many of them
offer slide scanning. Slide scanners aren’t convenient to buy because of the expense and
because digital cameras are cheaper and
easier to use. If you really need slides, a photo
service can take your digital photos and create
slides from them.
If you are even semi-serious about getting a
scanner, check out Scanners For Dummies by
Mark L. Chambers (published by Wiley Publishing, Inc.). Image Capture works with scanners
that have driver software for Mac OS X. Image
Capture also works with TWAIN drivers that
are Mac OS X-compatible. Other applications
that can control scanners using Mac OS X or
TWAIN drivers include GraphicConverter,
Photoshop, and Photoshop Elements (GraphicConverter is currently included on some Mac
models). TWAIN is a standard protocol for
controlling scanners from computers and has
nothing to do with Mark Twain, nor is it an
acronym — it refers to Rudyard Kipling’s “The
Ballad of East and West” and its famous line,
“. . . and never the twain shall meet . . .” — an
ironic reflection on the difficulty, at that time, of
connecting scanners and personal computers.
Chapter 3: Organizing Photos
In This Chapter
Organizing photos into photo albums and smart albums
Using iPhoto as a digital contact sheet
Arranging, sorting, and searching for photos
Backing up your photo library and sharing it over a network
F
ree photos are a wonderful thing. After you see how easy taking pictures
with a digital camera is, and how you can save your photos on the Mac
without spending money on film and share them with others by printing
them yourself or sending them by e-mail, you’ll start experimenting at will.
Go ahead, take another shot. If you run out of space on your digital camera’s
memory card, connect your camera or card reader to your Mac, download
the photos to the photo library, and delete them from the memory card.
Then go back and take more pictures!
The iPhoto photo library can hold any number of photos; the number is limited only by available hard drive space. At an average size of 1MB per photo
(and many photos occupy less space), you can store 20,000 photos in a 20GB
hard drive. And, of course, you can expand a photo library over multiple
hard drives or create multiple libraries. The number of digital photos that
you can manage has no practical limit, especially if you use backup storage
devices and media, such as DVDs. For all practical purposes, you can keep
shooting pictures forever.
Fortunately, you can organize even massive quantities of photos in the
photo library. You can add keywords, titles, and film roll information to each
photo automatically, to make locating a particular photo very easy. iPhoto
also provides a very convenient organizing metaphor for assembling sets of
related photos: the photo album. You can organize hundreds or thousands of
photos into albums to make the photos easier to locate. This chapter shows
you how to organize your photo library and photo albums, assign titles and
keywords to photos, and manage your library.
Photo Albums for All Occasions
You’ve probably seen photo albums with plastic sleeves for holding photographic prints. A digital photo album is similar in concept but holds digital
photo files instead of prints. In both cases, an album is simply a way of
108
Photo Albums for All Occasions
organizing photos and placing them in a proper sequence. When you create
a photo album in iPhoto, you select the photos from your photo library and
arrange them in the order you want.
You can use photo albums to assemble photos from special events, such
as a vacation, or to display a particular subject, such as your favorite
nature photos. You can also use albums to organize photos for a slideshow,
QuickTime movie, or Web page. Students on a class trip can contribute
photos from their cameras to the same photo library, and you can create a
set of albums that document the trip, and then post the documentary as a
slideshow on the Web. You can organize a photo album of a band on tour and
add music from the tour to create a slideshow — just like a rockumentary!
You can make as many albums as you like using any images from your photo
library. Because the albums are lists of images, they don’t use up hard drive
space by copying the images — the actual image files remain in the photo
library. Like an iTunes playlist, an iPhoto photo album is a list of references
to photos in your library. You can include the same photo in several albums
without making multiple copies of the photo and wasting hard drive space.
You can even delete a photo from an album without actually removing it
from your library, as we show in this chapter.
Creating albums and adding photos
To create a new photo album and add a photo to it in iPhoto, follow these
steps:
1. Click the Organize mode button.
The photos in your library appear as thumbnails in the Viewer pane, as
shown in Figure 3-1.
2. Click the + button.
The + button is underneath the Source pane (refer to Figure 3-1).
Alternatively, choose File➪New Album or press Ô+N.
The New Album dialog appears.
3. Type the album name and click OK.
The default name appears highlighted in the New Album dialog. Type a
name for the album (other than “Album-1” — something descriptive), as
shown in Figure 3-2.
4. Click a photo in your library and drag it into the album.
You know the photo is selected when an outline appears around it —
drag the photo over the name of the album in the Source pane.
5. Repeat Step 4 until you drag all the photos you want for this album.
Photo Albums for All Occasions
109
Book II
Chapter 3
6. Click the photo album name in the Source pane to see the photos in
the album.
When you click an album name in the Source pane, only the photos you
dragged to the album appear in the Viewer pane, not the entire library.
You can switch back to the entire library by clicking Photo Library in the
Source pane. Find out how to organize your album later in this chapter
in the “Arranging photos in albums” section. To view the entire photo
library again, select the photo library in the Source pane.
Figure 3-2:
Type the
new photo
album’s
name.
You can select multiple photos for dragging by clicking the first one and holding down the Shift key while clicking the last one — the first, last, and all the
photos between them are selected automatically. You can then drag the selection over the name of the album in the Source pane, as shown in Figure 3-3. A
number appears, showing the number of selected photos in the range.
The same selection rules that apply to files in the Finder also apply to
photos in the iPhoto viewer:
Organizing Photos
Figure 3-1:
Add a new
photo
album.
110
Photo Albums for All Occasions
✦ Click the photo once to select it. You can then drag the photo.
✦ Click the first photo and Shift+click the last photo to select a range of
photos. You can then drag the entire selected range.
✦ After making a selection (single or a range), you can add a nonconsecutive photo to the selection by Ô+clicking a photo. You can also
Ô+click a selected photo to remove it from the selection.
Figure 3-3:
Add multiple
photos at
one time to
an album.
Another way to select multiple photos is to first reduce the thumbnail size
with the size slider, and then drag a selection rectangle around all the
thumbnails. You can then drag the selection over the album name to add all
the photos at once. Of course, with thumbnails that small, you may not be
able to determine which photos belong and which don’t. Don’t worry — in
the next section, “Arranging photos in albums,” we show how to remove
unwanted photos from an album.
You can also create an album by dragging a folder of photos from the Finder
into the iPhoto Source pane. iPhoto creates an album with the folder’s name
and imports all photos contained in the folder. Using the Finder, you can add
a photo to an album directly from a CD or from another location on your
hard drive.
Arranging photos in albums
To see the photos gathered into an album, click the name of the album in the
Source pane.
Photo Albums for All Occasions
111
All your photos are still in the library; the Viewer pane shows only the photos
you added to the album. You can organize the photos within your album without having to wade through all the other photos.
The order that your photos appear in the album is important — it defines the
order of photos in a slideshow or a book layout. You will probably always want
to change the order of photos after you create an album. To change the order
of photos in an album, follow these steps:
1. Click the album name in the Source pane.
2. Click the Organize mode button.
iPhoto switches to Organize mode, with organization tools in the Tools
pane and photo thumbnails in the Viewer pane.
and drag them to a new location.
Figure 3-4 shows the four lake photos as they are dragged to a new location near the end of the photo album.
4. Repeat Step 3 until all your photos are arranged as you want them in
the album.
You can also use the Cut, Copy, and Paste commands in the Edit menu to
organize your photos. Use the Cut command (Edit➪Cut) to move one or more
selected photos from one location into another location (Edit➪Paste). Use the
Copy command (Edit➪Copy) to leave the selected images in the original location and repeat them in the new location. Using the Copy and Paste commands,
you can repeat images throughout an album as many times as you like.
Figure 3-4:
Arrange
the photos
in an album
in a certain
order.
Organizing Photos
3. Click a photo and drag it to a new location or select multiple photos
Book II
Chapter 3
112
Photo Albums for All Occasions
To use the same photo in more than one album, simply drag the thumbnail
for that photo over one album, and then select and drag the thumbnail over
another album. The photo appears in both albums without having to create
duplicate copies of the image and waste hard drive space. You can also use
the Copy command (Edit➪Copy) to copy a selected photo from the library
to an album — after using the Copy command, select the album in the
Source pane, and use the Paste command (Edit➪Paste).
You can also duplicate an entire photo album, in case you want to arrange
the photos in different ways. You don’t actually duplicate the photos, so
hard drive space is not wasted. To duplicate an album, select the album
name in the Source pane and then choose Photos➪Duplicate. A new album
is created with the same name and “- -1” is added to the name. You can then
rename the album if you want.
Removing photos from albums
You may have been a bit hasty with your selections in the photo library when
dragging them over to the new photo album. Or perhaps you just noticed that
useless shot you accidentally took of the side of a barn. Never mind — to
delete a photo, just select the photo in the album and press the Delete key.
If you are squeamish about pressing the Delete key (and who isn’t?), select
the photo and choose Photos➪Remove from Album.
When you remove a photo from an album, the photo is not deleted. It remains
intact in your photo library. The only way to delete a photo from the library is
to select the Photo Library in the Source pane, select the photo in the library,
and then press the Delete key or choose Photos➪Move to Trash. You can also
select the photo and press Ô+Option+Delete, or you can simply drag the
image from the library to the Trash icon in the Source pane.
Photos you delete from your library are still available in the iPhoto Trash
until you choose File➪Empty Trash. After emptying the trash, the photos are
truly deleted.
If you delete something that you didn’t want to delete, you can usually undo
the operation by choosing Edit➪Undo. If you perform some operations after
deleting the photo, you may have to choose Edit➪Undo several times and
undo all the subsequent operations before you can undo the deletion.
Using an album for desktop and screen effects
One of the surest ways to demonstrate your skills with a Mac is to personalize your settings for Desktop & Screen Saver (or separate Desktop and Screen
Effects in previous versions of OS X) to show your iPhoto library of photos.
The Desktop is the background image behind the Finder.
Photo Albums for All Occasions
113
The Screen Saver (or Screen Effects) function displays animation when your
computer is inactive. In typical computer jargon, the screen animation is
called a screen saver. To protect your display from prying eyes, you can set
the Screen Saver (or Screen Effects) setting to display animation if your computer hasn’t been used for a certain number of minutes. Apple provides a set
of effects, but you can use an album from your photo library as your screen
saver — the photos appear one after the other, like a slideshow.
To set your Desktop and Screen Saver (or Screen Effects) settings to a photo
album, follow these steps:
In OS X version 10.2 and earlier, the Screen Effects tab appears, as shown
in Figure 3-5, with the Pictures Folder selected. This pane is also available
by clicking the Screen Effects icon in System Preferences.
Figure 3-5:
Select the
Pictures
Folder with
your iPhoto
album for
Screen
Effects
in OS X
version 10.2
or earlier.
In OS X version 10.3 and newer, the Desktop & Screen Saver pane of
System Preferences appears, and your desktop background is automatically set to the first photo (or the selected photo) of the album.
4. Click the Screen Saver button and choose iPhoto Selection, as shown
in Figure 3-6 (or click the Screen Effects tab in older versions of OS X,
and choose Pictures Folder).
In OS X version 10.2 and earlier, the Screen Effects tab opens the pane
that lets you assign a screen effect. Click the Pictures Folder choice in
the list of screen effects, if it is not already selected.
Book II
Chapter 3
Organizing Photos
1. With iPhoto open, click the Organize mode button in the toolbar.
2. Select an album or group of photos.
3. Click the Desktop icon in the Tools pane.
114
Photo Albums for All Occasions
In OS X version 10.3 and newer, the Screen Saver button opens the pane
that lets you assign a screen saver. Click the iPhoto Selection choice in
the list of screen savers, if it is not already selected.
Figure 3-6:
Select
iPhoto
Selection
with your
iPhoto
album for
a Screen
Saver in
OS X
version 10.3
or newer.
Your pictures are now used for the screen effects; to see them working, just
leave your computer inactive for the time it takes to launch the screen effects.
If you’re impatient, you can see the effects right away by clicking the Test
button.
In OS X versions 10.3 and newer, the Screen Saver pane provides an Options
button — click it to access the display options. In OS X versions 10.2 or earlier, use the Configure button. You can control cross-fading between slides,
zoom back and forth, crop slides to fit the display, and so on by selecting the
check boxes:
✦ Cross-Fade between Slides: On. A cross-fade is a smooth transition from
one image to another.
✦ Zoom Back and Forth: On. The screen effect zooms into the image to
show more detail, and zooms out to show the entire picture.
✦ Crop Slides to Fit on Screen: On. This option draws a smaller rectangle
inside the image and cuts away everything outside the rectangle in order
to fit the image on-screen.
Photo Albums for All Occasions
115
✦ Keep Slides Centered: Off. When you select this option, the pictures are
always centered on-screen without the need for cropping.
✦ Present Slides in Random Order: Off. When you select this setting, the
images appear in random order rather than in the sequence you arranged
for the photo album in iPhoto.
In OS X 10.3 and newer, the Screen Savers pane offers a slider for setting the
number of minutes before the screen effects turn on (refer to Figure 3-6). You
can also click the Hot Corners button to open a window, as shown in Figure 3-7,
that enables you to set hot corners — corners of the display that activate the
screen effect when you drag your mouse into them. You can use the pop-up
menus for one, two, three, or all four corners, and you can choose whether to
start or disable the screen saver (or choose other actions, such as exposing all
windows, or no action at all).
Figure 3-7:
Change the
hot corner
settings for
your screen
saver in
OS X 10.3
and newer.
Organizing Photos
In OS X version 10.2 and previous versions, the Screen Effects pane offers
controls over activation with the Activation pane, and the ability to set hot
corners in the Hot Corners pane. Click the Activation tab for the Activation
pane and drag the pointer in the timeline to set the number of minutes
before the screen effects turn on.
Book II
Chapter 3
116
Photo Albums for All Occasions
Why use screen effects?
Screen effects are primarily eye candy. At one
time, there was a need for protective measures
to keep your display in good condition. Old
cathode ray tube (CRT) monitors were vulnerable to prolonged use: Pixels could burn out over
time if they did not change their color values.
The pixel would freeze on a certain color value
and stay that way. When this happened, the
pixel appeared in a strange color in the context
of the other pixels around it. Eventually, if
enough pixels died, your display wouldn’t look
so good.
With animation, each pixel of the display
changes over time, so that it doesn’t burn out
and freeze on one color. Photos were also considered good to use because, typically, every
pixel in a photo has a different color value. The
best animation for screen saving was switching from one photo to another (as in a slideshow), because the switching exercises all the
pixels in the display.
And so, the screen saver was born, and some
are even famous today, such as the flying
toasters of the After Dark package, the scenes
from Star Trek, and custom screen savers from
rock stars such as Todd Rundgren, David
Bowie, and the Grateful Dead.
Even so, the only monitor Apple currently sells
that could possibly use a screen saver as a protective measure is inside the eMac, and it has
special circuitry that dims the screen even if
the screen saver is running. In other words, a
screen saver is mostly useful as a privacy
screen and as eye candy.
Screen effects do not protect LCD displays in
laptops. The most important display part in a
typical laptop is the backlighting, which is not
affected by screen effects. In laptops, use the
Sleep and Energy Manager settings to protect
hardware and save energy.
You can also set the screen effect to ask for a password when waking from the
screen effect. With a password, you can leave your computer inactive on your
desk, running the screen effects, and prevent any unauthorized use. In OS X
version 10.3 and newer, open System Preferences, click Security, and select
the Require a Password to Wake This Computer from Sleep or Screen Saver
option. In OS X version 10.2 and earlier, select the Use My User Account
Password option in the Activation pane.
Your desktop background doesn’t have to change for any reason other than
you want something nice to display, perhaps to show a part of your personality. In OS X version 10.3 and newer, the Desktop & Screen Saver pane of System
Preferences appears when you click the Desktop icon in iPhoto, and your
desktop background is automatically set to the first photo (or the selected
photo) of the album. You can change the photo by following these steps:
1. Open System Preferences and click Desktop & Screen Saver.
2. Click the Desktop tab to see the Desktop pane.
Photo Albums for All Occasions
117
3. Select iPhoto Selection from the list of desktop image choices.
Your photo album appears in the viewer section of the Desktop pane.
4. Click a photo thumbnail in the viewer section of the Desktop pane.
Your desktop background is automatically set to the photo you choose.
You can switch photos by clicking another photo, or switch to another
type of desktop image by clicking a choice in the list of desktop image
choices.
Figure 3-8:
Use a photo
album for
the Desktop
background
image in
OS X
version 10.2.
Creating a smart album
iPhoto lets you create smart albums, which automatically add photos to the
album based on prearranged criteria. You can set up a smart album that
decides which photos to include based on the ratings you assign to them
(see the “Adding ratings to photos” section, later in this chapter). For example, you might want to set up a smart album with only the highest-rated
photos taken during the last six months.
Book II
Chapter 3
Organizing Photos
In OS X version 10.2 and earlier, you can place images from your photo
album into the collection of images used with the Desktop Preferences settings. The Desktop Preferences settings control the background displayed
behind the Finder. To access the Desktop Preferences settings, open the
System Preferences window and click the Desktop icon. The Desktop
Preferences window appears, as shown in Figure 3-8, with preview images.
Your album name appears in the Collection menu, and images from your
album appear below that menu in thumbnails. Click a thumbnail image to
make that picture the background picture for your desktop.
118
The Digital Contact Sheet
To create a smart album, follow these steps:
1. Choose File➪New Smart Album; in the dialog that appears, type a
name for the album in the Smart Album Name field.
2. Select options from the pop-up menus to set the criteria for including
photos in the smart album, as shown in Figure 3-9.
Figure 3-9 shows that we specified that only high-rated photos taken
after September 1, 2003 should be included in this smart album. Select a
condition from the first pop-up menu and choose a comparison, such as
the greater than or less than, from the second pop-up menu.
Figure 3-9:
Set the
criteria for
including
photos in a
smart
album.
3. Combine conditions for better results.
To add additional matching conditions, click the Add (+) button. Then
decide whether to match all or any of these conditions by choosing
either option from the Match pop-up menu.
4. When you’re finished adding conditions to establish the smart album
criteria, click OK to save your smart album.
iPhoto automatically updates your smart album when any photo that
matches the criteria is added or removed from the library. Smart albums are
indicated by a gear icon in the Source pane.
You can look at and change the criteria for a smart album by first selecting
the smart album in the Source pane and then choosing File➪Smart Album.
You can then make changes to the criteria and click OK to save them.
The Digital Contact Sheet
In commercial photography, a contact sheet is a quick print of photos in a
thumbnail size with titles and information about the negatives. If you were
ordering wedding pictures, for example, you may be presented with a contact sheet for choosing the pictures you want developed. You may mark a
The Digital Contact Sheet
119
few pictures for large prints that can be framed, and several dozen more to
be developed at normal size for your photo album, and tell the photographer
to discard the rest in order to save money.
If all this sounds familiar, it’s because you can perform all these functions
(and more) with iPhoto — and you wouldn’t even have to discard any to
save money. In fact, iPhoto is set up to look like a contact sheet, with thumbnail images arranged in any order you choose. A huge difference exists, however: iPhoto is a digital contact sheet. You can find photos faster, sort them
easier, and save the information about them more securely than with an oldfashioned contact sheet.
Amateur and professional photographers can use the iPhoto sorting and
searching functions and assign keywords to photos, turning your photo
library into a simple database. With keywords, you can search and display
photos related by topic, or assign a check mark or “favorite” label to certain
photos and find them instantly. After a keyword search, you can quickly
arrange the found photos in a certain order to create a new photo album.
You can also add comments to each photo that can be useful as descriptions
in a book of photos (we describe how to create photo books in Chapter 6 of
this minibook).
Displaying photo information
When iPhoto imports pictures from a digital camera, it finds out how the picture was taken. The photo information includes the type of camera, shutter
speed, aperture, focal length, exposure data, whether the flash was on, the
resolution of the image, and so on.
To see information about a photo, select the photo in Organize mode (either
in the photo library or in a photo album) and choose Photos➪Show Info.
iPhoto opens the Photo Info window, shown in Figure 3-10.
The Exposure tab (on the right in Figure 3-10) provides information about
the camera’s shutter, aperture, exposure bias, and so on. The Photo tab
(on the left in Figure 3-10) offers the image resolution in pixels, the date the
photo was taken, the dates it was digitized and imported, the filename and
file size, and the camera make and model. A lot more information is found in
iPhoto than is found on a typical contact sheet, and the information is useful
for learning how to take better pictures or for choosing photos to use in
projects.
Book II
Chapter 3
Organizing Photos
Every picture tells a story, but you still need words to describe your pictures. A title, for example, may be all you really need to identify a particular
photo. iPhoto allows you to arrange the photos by title, so you can easily
find the photo you’re looking for. You can also sort your photos by film roll
information.
120
The Digital Contact Sheet
Figure 3-10:
Show the
photo
information.
Adding and editing titles
Titles are the most convenient way to identify photos. A title is the name or
a short description of a photo. Every photo has a title when imported —
iPhoto simply assigns the film roll and photo number to the title, usually in
an eight-character name that also doubles as the filename (with a JPG extension, as in DSCN0015.JPG).
Of course, DSCN0015.JPG is not very descriptive. You can edit the title of
each photo by typing directly into the Title field that appears below the
Source pane in either Organize or Edit mode, as shown in Figure 3-11. You
can change the title of a photo assigned to an album, and it automatically
changes the title of the same photo in the photo library. If the Title field is
not visible, click the “i” button in the toolbar, which displays brief information, including titles and comments.
Editing a photo’s title changes it in the photo library and in all albums and
books where the title appears.
Titles can be useful for sorting purposes, and for automatically choosing
photos for smart albums. You can arrange your photos alphabetically by
title, which can be quite useful if your titles are “Beach 1,” “Beach 2,” “Beach
3,” “Trail A,” Trail B,” and so on, but not quite so useful if your titles are
more like “Several Species of Small Furry Animals Gathered Together in a
Cave and Grooving with a Pict” (your titles can be quite long if you want).
To see titles under each thumbnail image in the Viewer pane, choose
View➪Titles to enable the viewing of titles. (Choose it again to turn it off.)
The Digital Contact Sheet
121
Figure 3-11:
Type a title
for a photo
in the Title
box.
Book II
Chapter 3
You don’t necessarily have to type a title for every photo. You may be happy
with using the filename supplied by iPhoto, which usually consists of three letters identifying the source, a film roll number, and a picture number. However,
one very cool feature of iPhoto is the ability to automatically assign a title to a
set of photos. You can choose to automatically assign the date and time, or
the filename, or the film roll info, or any text you specify to the title.
For example, you can assign the date and time to a set of selected photos by
following these steps:
1. Select the photos you want to assign titles to.
You can select photos in the photo library or in a photo album.
2. Choose Photos➪Batch Change.
The Batch Change dialog appears with a pop-up menu for Title, Date,
or Comments, and another pop-up menu with values for Title, Date, or
Comments.
3. Choose Title in the first pop-up menu and a selection from the second
pop-up menu.
As shown in Figure 3-12, you have choices for short, abbreviated, or
long date formats, and 12-hour or 24-hour clock formats with or without
seconds.
Organizing Photos
To see titles properly in the Viewer pane, you may want to increase the size
of the thumbnails in the pane by dragging the size slider on the right side of
the iPhoto window under the Viewer pane.
122
The Digital Contact Sheet
Figure 3-12:
Choose date
and time
formats to
automatically assign
to photo
titles.
4. Click OK.
The photos now have titles consisting of the date and time, as shown
in Figure 3-13. Find out how to sort photos by date and time, in the
“Arranging and sorting photos” section, later in this chapter.
Figure 3-13:
The date
and time as
part of a
photo title.
The Digital Contact Sheet
123
Keeping track of film rolls
After taking lots and lots of pictures, you will want iPhoto to help you keep
track of them. iPhoto already knows which picture came from which film roll
or camera. Even though you are not actually using film with digital cameras,
iPhoto still uses the quaint language of pre-digital photography and refers to
a set of pictures from a memory card (or any import operation) as a film roll.
You can keep track of each film roll by viewing the thumbnail images in the
photo library with film roll information. First select the entire photo library
(select the photo library in the Source pane), and then choose View➪Film
Rolls. iPhoto separates the display of thumbnails into film rolls, as shown in
Figure 3-14.
Book II
Chapter 3
Organizing Photos
Figure 3-14:
Keep track
of photos by
film roll.
Viewing your photo library by film roll gives you a useful way of sorting
photos. Click the triangle next to a film roll to hide photos. As shown in
Figure 3-15, iPhoto displays a list of film rolls, just like Finder folders. The
photos are still there — just click the triangle again to see them.
If you have a lot of photos and begin to experience slow performance, view
your photos by film roll and hide the photos you don’t need to look at.
Viewing photos by film roll increases performance because iPhoto won’t
have to display so many thumbnails at once.
124
The Digital Contact Sheet
Figure 3-15:
Open a film
roll and
see its
thumbnails,
or close it to
see a list of
film rolls.
To see only the photos from a particular film roll, you can choose to look at
one of the smart albums that iPhoto automatically created for you — the
Last Roll and Last 12 Months items in the Source pane. (Refer to the “Creating
a smart album” section in this chapter.) For example, to limit your viewing to
only the photos from the last film roll, click the Last Roll item in the Source
pane, as shown in Figure 3-16.
Figure 3-16:
Select the
Last Roll
album to
see only
the photos
from the last
film roll.
The Digital Contact Sheet
125
Arranging and sorting photos
Although you can’t rearrange the photos in the photo library by dragging
them, as you can in a photo album, you can view them by different methods,
including by title, by date, and by film roll.
After initially importing photos, the iPhoto Viewer pane displays thumbnails
arranged by film roll (View➪Arrange Photos➪By Film Roll). You can view
each film roll separately by choosing View➪Film Rolls (choose it again to
view all the film rolls).
To arrange your photos by title, choose View➪Arrange Photos➪By Title.
Adding comments
An old Chinese proverb, often misquoted, says, “One picture is worth more
than ten thousand words.” But sometimes a few words can help explain the
picture. Those photos you took years or even months ago — do you remember what was so important about them? You may want to share information
with others about each photo, or simply add comments to photos to remind
yourself what was so significant about them or what details to look for in the
photos.
You may want to use comments as descriptive captions, as in magazines and
books. The comments you add to photos can optionally appear as captions
in printed photo books and as messages accompanying the photos you send
by e-mail, as well as on Web pages.
To add a comment to a photo, follow these steps:
1. Select a photo in Organize or Edit mode.
You can select any photo appearing in the Viewer pane for an album or
for the entire photo library.
2. Click the “i” button in the toolbar.
Typically the Comment field is not visible, even when the Title and Date
fields are showing. Clicking the “i” button once shows the Title and Date
fields, and clicking it again shows the Title, Date, and Comment fields.
Clicking it a third time makes them all disappear.
3. Type the comment in the Comment field.
Each line of text wraps to the next line as you type. The comment is
automatically saved with the photo.
Organizing Photos
Arranging by date is just as easy: Choose View➪Arrange Photos➪By Date.
The photos are arranged by the date you imported them into iPhoto.
Book II
Chapter 3
126
The Digital Contact Sheet
Adding and using keywords
Titles are useful for identifying individual photos. Film roll and date information can be useful for identifying sets of photos taken at the same time or
with the same type of camera. Photo albums serve nicely as collections of
photos. But you can organize photos in another way: by keyword.
Keywords give you the power to organize your photos by topics or other
characteristics that likely appear throughout your photo library — photos of
your kids, pets, vacations, and so on. The larger your photo library, the more
useful keywords can be. After you assign keywords, you can quickly search
and locate photos using the keywords. You can also use keywords with conditions for choosing photos in smart albums.
For example, you can assign the keyword “Birthday” to photos related to
birthdays, and find all the birthday shots in one search. All the photos related
to vacations can have the keyword “Vacation” assigned to them. And what if
a birthday occurred during a vacation? You can assign both keywords to
those special photos, so that a search on either “Vacation” or “Birthday”
finds those photos — indeed, a search for “Vacation” and “Birthday” finds
only those photos.
Apple thoughtfully included a set of keywords that most people find useful,
but you can rename any of them and add your own keywords as well. To see
the keywords list (shown in Figure 3-17), edit the keywords, and assign keywords to photos, choose Photos➪Show Keywords (or press Ô+K).
To assign a keyword to one or more selected photos, follow these steps:
1. Click the Organize mode button to switch to Organize mode (if you’re
not all ready in Organize mode).
2. Select one or more photos.
Shift+click to select a range of photos, and Ô+click to add photos to a
selection.
3. Choose Photos➪Show Keywords (or press Ô+K).
iPhoto displays the keywords list (refer to Figure 3-17).
4. Select one or more keywords.
Shift+click to select a range of keywords and Ô+click to add keywords to
a selection.
5. Click the Assign button.
The selected photo or photos are assigned a keyword or keywords.
The Digital Contact Sheet
127
You don’t have to add all the keywords at once. You can, for example, add
the keyword “Vacation” to a set of photos, and then go back and add “Kids”
to a subset of those photos. The subset has two keywords: “Vacation” and
“Kids.”
Book II
Chapter 3
Organizing Photos
Figure 3-17:
Assign a
keyword to
a selected
photo.
The supplied keywords may not be as useful as your own would be, so
iPhoto gives you a way to rename the supplied keywords, delete keywords,
and create your own keywords.
Renaming a keyword changes that keyword in any photos to which you
assigned it. Be sure you truly want to rename the keywords assigned to the
photos, because it happens automatically.
To rename an existing keyword, follow these steps with the keywords list
open:
1. Select the keyword in the keywords list.
2. Choose the Rename option from the Keywords pop-up menu at the top
of the keywords list.
The keyword becomes highlighted.
3. Type the new keyword replacing the old one and click outside the
keyword’s text field to finish.
The new keyword replaces the old keyword wherever it is used.
128
The Digital Contact Sheet
To create a new keyword, follow these steps with the keywords list open:
1. Choose the New option from the Keywords pop-up menu at the top of
the keywords list.
A new “untitled” keyword becomes highlighted, as shown in Figure 3-18.
Figure 3-18:
Create
a new
keyword.
2. Type the new keyword in the empty text field and click outside the
keyword’s text field to finish.
If you previously selected a keyword, the new keyword is inserted right
after it. You can add as many keywords as you want. Although previous
versions of iPhoto supported only 14 keywords, the current version
allows a lot more (we stopped at about 30, which is way more than we
needed).
iPhoto provides a special keyword that you can’t rename or delete: the check
mark keyword at the top of the list. When you assign the check mark to one
or more photos, a small check mark appears superimposed over the bottomright corner of the thumbnail image. (The check mark doesn’t change the
photo in any way — it appears only on the thumbnails in Organize mode.) You
can then easily search for all the photos marked with a check mark. Marking
photos with a check mark is simply the electronic version of marking photos
on a contact sheet with a magic marker or felt-tip pen.
Searching by keyword
After assigning keywords to photos, you can search your photo library for
photos that match your keyword selections. iPhoto assembles the thumbnails
The Digital Contact Sheet
129
of the located photos in the Viewer pane so that you can easily add them to
a photo album, edit and improve them, assemble a slideshow with them, and
so on.
To search by keyword, follow these steps:
1. Click the Organize mode button to switch to Organize mode (if you’re
not all ready in Organize mode).
2. Select the photo library in the Source pane.
3. Choose Photos➪Show Keywords (or press Ô+K).
iPhoto displays the keywords list (refer to Figure 3-18).
4. Select one or more keywords.
5. Click the Search button.
iPhoto locates one or more photos that have the selected keywords
assigned to them (in this case, “Band tour”) and displays thumbnails in
the Viewer pane.
By assigning the “Vacation” and “Kids” keywords to photos that show the
kids on vacation, you can search for either “Vacation” or “Kids” to locate those
photos, and you can narrow your search by looking for photos that match
both keywords. You can then sort the photos by title, date, or film roll.
Figure 3-19:
Search for
photos
using
keywords.
Organizing Photos
In Figure 3-19, we’re searching for all the photos that have the keyword
“Band tour.”
Book II
Chapter 3
130
Maintaining a Photo Archive
By creating your own keywords, you can set up a hierarchical organization
for photos. A photographer may use client names for keywords, and thereby
quickly locate photos for clients and create several photo albums for a single
client. Titles can be used to sort specific projects for clients, while the photographer can still sort by date or film roll.
Adding ratings to photos
Adding ratings to photos — are we talking about adult content? That’s one
use, but we really mean ratings that can help you decide which photos are outstanding, which are good, which are mediocre, and so on. After you categorize
your photos, you can then use this rating system of one to five stars to decide
which photos get selected for albums. You can make this task automatic by
creating a smart album (as described in the “Creating a smart album” section,
earlier in this chapter) that selects photos based on your ratings.
To assign a rating to one or more photos, select the photo or photos and
choose Photos➪My Rating. Choose a rating (or None) from the submenu of
ratings. You can also press Ô+0 for no rating, Ô+1 for one star, Ô+2 for two
stars, and so on, up to Ô+5 for five stars. To view the ratings of photos,
choose View➪My Rating.
Maintaining a Photo Archive
Whether or not you manage files on your hard drive, you may want to know
where these photos are stored, so that you can go about your usual file management tasks — such as backing up current files and archiving files you no
longer need at hand.
You may also want to move the whole photo library to another Mac — after
all, these Macs just keep getting better year after year. Make copies of all
your photos and create CDs or DVDs as archives. They’re your photos, and
why shouldn’t you have multiple copies of them? The cost of a single blank
CD or DVD is very low compared to the cost of the film you used to buy just
to take pictures (not to mention the fact that some of your photos are
undoubtedly priceless).
The operations we describe in this section make use of the Mac Finder and
the iPhoto Library folder, which is the folder that contains the individual
photo files that comprise your entire photo library. If you move, delete,
rename, or otherwise tamper with files or folders inside the iPhoto Library
folder, you may be unable to see your photos in iPhoto.
Maintaining a Photo Archive
131
Backing up your library
You should routinely copy your photo library to another hard drive or removable storage device, or burn a CD or DVD, or even use the backup iDisk services provided by .Mac.
We say “even iDisk” because, frankly, iDisk doesn’t offer enough storage
space (at 100MB) for most photo libraries, and it is slow to access using a
dial-up modem. We use iDisk to transfer photo albums and large files to
others, and to back up very important documents. But you are better off
using CD or DVD as a backup medium for your photo library. We describe
how to burn a CD or DVD with your photo library later in this chapter, in
the section, “Burning a CD or DVD.”
If you subscribe to the Apple .Mac service, you can use its hassle-free
Backup 2 software with your iDisk to copy specific folders, such as a folder
of exported images from your iPhoto library. With Backup 2, which comes
free with a .Mac membership or can be purchased from Apple, you can
quickly and easily store important files on your iDisk or on CD or DVD.
Backup 2 allows you to save the latest versions of your files regularly and
automatically, so you never have to worry about losing photos or any other
important documents.
If you don’t have Backup 2, follow these steps to download and install it:
1. Download Backup 2 installation package by going to the .Mac main
page (www.mac.com), clicking the Backup button, and then clicking the
Download Backup link.
The software may also be available in the download section of the main
Apple site (www.apple.com). (You need to stay connected to the Internet
to complete the next steps.)
2. Read the instructions.
Instructions are available on how to download and install Backup 2.
These instructions have probably changed since we wrote this — the
helpful people at .Mac are always trying to make things easier for you.
3. Double-click the installation package to install it.
When the installation completes, the Backup application is placed in the
Applications folder on your hard drive.
Organizing Photos
To copy the photo library to another hard drive, locate the iPhoto Library
folder using the Finder. The folder is usually located within the Pictures folder
in your User folder. Drag this folder to another hard drive or backup device,
and you’re all set. The copy operation may take some time if the library is
huge — you can stop the operation anytime, but the newly copied library
may not be complete. For best results, allow the copy operation to finish.
Book II
Chapter 3
132
Maintaining a Photo Archive
To use Backup to copy folders to your iDisk, to a recordable CD, or to a hard
drive, follow these steps:
1. Double-click the Backup icon.
The Backup software displays a list of items to back up and a check box
next to each item.
2. Select the folders for backup.
You can add any folder you like to the backup list by clicking the + (plus
sign) button and choosing your library in the Open File dialog.
3. Choose a backup destination in the Backup to iDisk pop-up menu.
You can choose CD or another hard drive rather than iDisk for your
backup.
4. Click the Backup Now button or schedule a backup to happen later.
The Backup Now button saves your files to the backup destination
immediately. You can schedule automatic backups by clicking the calendar button, specifying the time and date you want the backup to occur,
and then clicking OK.
5. Quit Backup.
Moving and switching between libraries
Moving a photo library involves copying it to a new location (and then deleting the original version if you wish). You can copy the iPhoto Library folder
to any other hard drive by placing the folder inside the Pictures folder of
anyone’s User folder, which replaces the existing iPhoto Library folder. When
you start iPhoto, it unhesitatingly opens whatever it finds in the iPhoto
Library folder in the Pictures folder.
When you buy a new Mac, its iPhoto Library folder is most likely empty. You
can copy your library folder from your regular Mac to the new Mac, replacing the empty library folder on the new Mac. When you start iPhoto on the
new Mac, it automatically opens the library you copied over.
If you don’t want to replace the library on the new Mac, you can rename the
new Mac’s library folder or move it to a new location on the hard drive to
preserve it. Then you can copy the older iPhoto Library folder into the
Pictures folder of your User folder on the new Mac without copying over the
new photo library. When you start iPhoto on the new Mac, it automatically
opens the older library you copied.
You can also switch between two or more photo libraries. To open another
photo library, follow these steps:
Maintaining a Photo Archive
133
1. Quit iPhoto by choosing iPhoto➪Quit iPhoto.
2. In the Finder, rename the current iPhoto Library folder, or move it to
another location.
Essentially, you are hiding the library folder from iPhoto, tricking it into
starting a new one.
3. Open iPhoto.
iPhoto can’t find the library folder, so it asks if you want to find it or
create a new one.
4. Click the Find Library button.
5. Choose the library you want to use, and click Open.
Burning a CD or DVD
A great way to maintain several photo libraries is to burn CDs or DVDs with
them. If you have an Apple-supported CD-RW or DVD-R drive (such as the
Apple SuperDrive), you can create your own CDs and DVDs to store your
photos. This process is called burning because when you save (or write)
information to a disc, your drive burns the information onto the disc’s surface with a laser.
A CD burned with iPhoto can be used only on a Mac. To burn a recordable
CD for a Windows user or print shop that doesn’t accept Mac CDs, use the
Finder (or an application such as Toast, described in Book VII, Chapter 2) to
burn the CD.
To burn your own CD or DVD using iPhoto, follow these steps:
1. Click the Organize mode button.
2. Select the photo library or a specific album.
You can select the entire library, a specific album, or individual photos
to burn to a disc. You can fit quite a lot of photos on a CD or DVD, so you
may want to select your entire photo library for a CD or DVD burn operation to use up the entire CD or DVD space.
3. Click the Burn icon.
The Insert Disc dialog appears, prompting you to insert a blank disc.
4. Insert a blank disc and click OK.
A disc icon appears on the information panel. The green area on the disc
icon on the left side represents the amount of space on the blank disc
that your photos will require in order to burn them onto the disc.
Organizing Photos
You can also start a new library by clicking the Create Library button.
Book II
Chapter 3
134
Maintaining a Photo Archive
5. Click the Burn button in the Tools pane a second time.
This time the Burn button should have a radioactive symbol on it. Click
it again. (Clicking it the first time, and then again this time, is a safety
precaution.) The Burn Disc pane appears, offering options for burning
the disc. You can cancel the operation with the Cancel button, or click
the Eject button to eject the disc, or click OK to begin burning.
You can also set options, as shown in Figure 3-20, by clicking the downarrow button in the top-right corner of the Burn Disc pane. Set the burn
speed in the Speed pop-up menu, and set options to verify the burn and
either eject the disc or mount it on your desktop when finished.
Figure 3-20:
Expand the
Burn Disc
pane and
set options
for burning
the disc.
6. Click the Burn button in the Burn Disc pane.
The burn operation starts. It may take several minutes to burn the disc;
when it is done, you hear a chime and the disc automatically ejects. You
can cancel the burn by clicking the Cancel button next to the progress
bar, but you will not be able to use the blank disc after canceling.
You can show other photo libraries you burned to a CD or a DVD while using
your current photo library. You can’t modify the photo libraries on the CD or
DVD, but you can view and copy any photos and albums they contain.
To open a photo library on a CD or a DVD, follow these steps:
1. Insert the CD or DVD disc into your Mac.
An icon for the disc appears in the Source pane.
2. Click the disc’s icon in the Source pane.
iPhoto displays the photos and albums on the disc. Click the triangle
next to the CD’s title to see the photo albums on the CD, as shown in
Figure 3-21. You can copy them to your current library to work on them.
Sharing Photos in a Network
135
If you want to edit the entire photo library on the disc, you can copy the
library to your hard drive and then switch to that library, as described earlier in this chapter, in the section “Moving and switching between libraries.”
You can use photos and DVDs in many ways, such as assembling
documentary-style slideshows. We cover these and many other DVD topics
in Book IV.
Book II
Chapter 3
Organizing Photos
Figure 3-21:
Open the
photo library
on CD and
view its
albums.
Sharing Photos in a Network
You may want to allow your photo library to be shared over a local-area network in the same way you share your iTunes library (as described in Book I,
Chapter 2). You could then allow others on the network to view, copy, and
even edit the photos. A professional photography or design firm could use
this method to distribute photo work among employees.
To share your library, follow these steps:
1. Choose iPhoto➪Preferences and click the Sharing button.
The Sharing window appears, with the options for sharing photos.
2. Select the Share My Photos option, as shown in Figure 3-22.
3. Select either the Share Entire Library option or the Share Selected
Albums option.
If you want to share only selected albums, you must also choose the
albums to share.
136
Sharing Photos in a Network
Figure 3-22:
Set iPhoto
to share
your photo
library with
others on
the network.
4. Type a name for the shared library and add a password if you want.
The name you choose appears in the Source pane for other computers
that share it. The password restricts access to those who know it. (Pick
a password you don’t mind sharing with others; for example, your name
is a good password, but your secret password for digital photo services
isn’t.)
Tell the others on the network to follow these steps to use the shared library:
1. Choose iPhoto➪Preferences and click the Sharing button.
The Sharing window appears (refer to Figure 3-22).
2. Select the Look for Shared Photos option.
After selecting this option, any shared libraries or albums appear in the
Source pane.
3. Click the shared library or album to open it.
What’s really nice about sharing a photo library is that you can use it over a
wireless AirPort network. You can designate one computer as the “library”
Mac and show a slideshow anywhere in your house or office with your wireless laptop and other computers on the LAN.
Chapter 4: Improving Photos
In This Chapter
Rotating and cropping
Changing brightness and contrast
Removing red-eye and retouching
Changing to black and white or sepia
P
hotos are records of reality, but reality doesn’t always comply with
your wishes — the sun may be too bright, or the forest too dark, the
subject too far away, or the combination of light, shadows, and distance
make the scene too blurry to show details. Cameras offer automatic settings
for taking pictures that compensate for some of these factors, but these settings don’t always give you the best pictures.
Digital photography, on the other hand, offers unlimited ways to change
images without adversely affecting the quality of the image. Unlike the technology involved with developing film, in which successive modifications to
the film degrade the image quality, digital technology allows you to experiment with images at will, and we encourage experimentation. Not only can
you save the original version of the image in pristine condition and experiment on a copy, you can also directly change the pixels of an image without
changing its resolution. The image resolution remains as high as when you
started.
So go ahead and have fun with your photos. This chapter is all about using
iPhoto to its fullest potential for improving and enhancing images. You find
out how to adjust the brightness and contrast, remove the annoying red-eye
effect in the photo subject’s eyes, and retouch photos to remove blemishes
and image artifacts. As influential writer Arthur C. Clarke once said, “Any
sufficiently advanced technology is indistinguishable from magic.” He could
have easily been talking about the editing capabilities of iPhoto.
Modifying Photos
The most obvious advantage digital photos have over prints is that you can
change your digital photo instantly. You can also make copies quickly and
easily, and you can make changes to the copies without affecting the originals.
138
Cropping and Rotating Photos
Whether you’re viewing photos within a photo album (after selecting the
album in the Source pane), or in the entire photo library (after selecting the
photo library in the Source pane) doesn’t matter when you change them.
The changes are recorded in the original photo stored in the library.
You can make some changes while in Organize mode, but certain changes
are easier to make in Edit mode. For example, you can rotate a photo or a
group of photos quickly in Organize mode. But if you want to see the images
up close while rotating, or if you want to make other changes and see those
changes in detail, use Edit mode by selecting the photo and clicking the Edit
mode button. Alternatively, you can open the photo in a separate window, as
we describe in Chapter 1 of this minibook.
Keep the following tips in mind when enhancing photos:
✦ Any changes you make to a photo, such as cropping, rotating, or changing a photo’s brightness or contrast, changes the photo’s appearance in
the photo library and in every album where it appears.
✦ To change a photo without changing it everywhere, make a duplicate of
the photo by selecting the photo and choosing Photos➪Duplicate (or
press Ô+D). Then you can change the duplicate without changing the
original.
✦ If you make a mistake, you can always revert a photo to its original version by choosing Photos➪Revert to Original.
✦ To quickly compare the adjusted version of the photo with the original,
press and hold down the Control key. iPhoto displays the original version as long as you hold down the Control key. By holding and releasing
the Control key, you can toggle back and forth to compare the original to
the adjusted version.
Cropping and Rotating Photos
In traditional commercial printing and photography, a light table — a translucent piece of plastic or glass fitted on top of a box with internal light — is
used for trimming photographic film negatives or positives and preparing
them for printing in magazines, newspapers, books, and so on. Because light
illuminates the film from below, the image can be seen and trimmed.
The professionals who know how to trim photos on a light table wield precision knives with wild abandon, and most importantly, they know how to cut
in straight lines. They use words such as cropping to describe cutting away
the outer edges of a photo, bringing the center of the photo to the forefront;
and retouching to describe brushing away artifacts in the image.
Cropping and Rotating Photos
139
The fact that iPhoto uses the same terms as professional photographers and
provides all of the functionality of a light table in the digital world is no accident. You can crop a photo to remove extraneous parts of the picture to
better frame the subject, showing only what you want the photo to show;
rotate a vertical photo horizontally; and combine cropping and rotating to
show only part of an image at the proper angle. And you don’t even need to
be able to draw or cut a straight line.
Rotating photos
If you hold your camera sideways to take a picture of something tall, such as
a redwood tree, when you import the picture into iPhoto, you end up with a
photo that is horizontally oriented (the tree is on its side). You probably want
to rotate the photo to be vertically oriented.
You can quickly and easily rotate photos to the right in Organize mode in the
Viewer pane. You can also rotate a photo after selecting it and clicking the
Edit button to edit it. Either way, iPhoto rotates the entire image in 90-degree
increments (right angles).
To rotate a photo, follow these steps:
1. Select a photo by clicking its thumbnail in the Viewer pane of Organize
mode.
2. Click the Rotate button.
The photo rotates 90 degrees, as shown in Figure 4-1. Each time you
click the Rotate button, the photo rotates 90 degrees.
Choose Photos➪Revert to Original if you don’t like how the rotation
turns out.
You can reverse the direction that an image rotates (to the left rather than
right) by pressing the Option key while clicking the Rotate button. The icon
on the button changes to indicate the new direction.
You can set the direction for the Rotate button to always start in either left
or right direction. Choose iPhoto➪Preferences; in the Preferences window
that appears, click the General button. Choose the direction for the Rotate
option by clicking the Left-rotate or Right-rotate button.
Improving Photos
You may want to rotate a photo for other reasons as well — for example, you
may want to rotate photos shot by a camera held upside down or pointed
down.
Book II
Chapter 4
140
Cropping and Rotating Photos
You can rotate a photo in Edit mode as well as in Organize mode. The Rotate
button is available in both modes and also in the toolbar of a photo opened
in a separate window. If you want to rotate a group of photos and you don’t
need to see them up close, you can rotate them in Organize mode; if you want
to see a photo up close while rotating, use Edit mode by clicking the Edit
mode button, or open the photo in a separate window, as we describe in
Chapter 1 of this minibook.
Figure 4-1:
Rotate a
photo by 90
degrees.
Cropping photos
Cropping enables you to keep only a rectangular portion of the photo and
remove the outer edges. You can use cropping to do the following:
✦ Get rid of something you don’t want. You can eliminate the outer portions of a photo to remove wasted space, crop out an ex-boyfriend that
shouldn’t be in the picture, or you can remove the fuzzy outline of a car
window in a photo shot from a car.
✦ Focus on the subject. By cropping a photo, you can adjust where your
subject appears in the frame of the picture, drawing more attention to
your subject and improving the overall composition. Professional photographers, for example, may crop tightly around a person’s face, removing most of the background.
✦ Fit the photo to a specific proportion. You may want to adjust the proportions of your photo to fit sizes for book layout or prints, which iPhoto
makes easy with a Constrain feature that draws exactly the right proportions for you. Cropping is often better than stretching or resizing a photo,
Cropping and Rotating Photos
141
because the pixels within the cropped area do not change. By constraining the cropping selection, you get better results with prints and books
because the picture is framed properly for the size of the print or book
layout.
Make a copy before cropping the photo. Find out how to make a copy and
other tips in the “Modifying Photos” section, earlier in this chapter.
To crop a photo to get rid of the outer edges and improve the composition
(without using the Constrain feature), follow these steps:
1. Click the thumbnail image of the photo in the Viewer pane.
2. Click the Edit mode button for Edit mode.
3. Click a starting point and drag diagonally across the photo in the
Viewer pane to create a cropping rectangle.
Click at one corner of the photo in the area you want to crop and drag
across the image. The cursor’s pointer turns into a crosshair. As you
drag, the portions of the photo outside the selected area dim to show
that the area will be cut from the photo, as shown in Figure 4-2.
Figure 4-2:
Crop the
photo in Edit
mode.
4. Adjust the edges of the cropping rectangle, as shown in Figure 4-3.
If your cropping rectangle isn’t perfect the first time, move your mouse
pointer close to the edge or corner of the cropping rectangle and drag to
reshape the rectangle.
Improving Photos
After switching to Edit mode, the selected photo fills the entire Viewer
pane.
Book II
Chapter 4
142
Cropping and Rotating Photos
See how we dragged the top edge up a little bit in Figure 4-3? We didn’t
like our original cropping area in Figure 4-2, so we adjusted the cropping
area a little more. Besides adjusting a side of the crop selection area, you
can click inside the crop selection so that the cursor changes to the
browse “pointing finger” cursor, and then move the entire selection
rectangle.
Figure 4-3:
Reshape the
cropping
rectangle by
dragging its
edges.
Cropping changes the actual photo. Be sure you define the edges perfectly before clicking the Crop button in the next step.
5. Click the Crop button in the Tools pane at the bottom left of the
iPhoto window.
The Crop button reduces the photo dimensions to the selected area, as
shown in Figure 4-4.
Constraining cropping for print sizes
You can use the Constrain feature to crop a photo to a specific proportion.
Constrain keeps the proportions accurate while you drag the cropping rectangle, so you don’t need rulers, math expertise, or graphics skill to get it
right for specific print dimensions. As you drag, the Constrain feature keeps
the rectangle accurate.
The Constrain pop-up menu, to the left of the Crop button, offers a list of
print sizes like 4 x 6 (Postcard), 4 x 6 (Portrait), standard 8 x 10, 8 x 10
(Portrait), and so on. You even find sizes such as 1024 x 768 pixels, for desktop pictures and screen effects. Using the preset choices from the Constrain
menu guarantees the cropped photo fits nicely in the format you need.
Cropping and Rotating Photos
143
Figure 4-4:
Click the
Crop button
to crop a
photo.
Book II
Chapter 4
To crop a photo with the Constrain menu in a separate window, follow these
steps:
1. Hold down the Option key while clicking the thumbnail image of the
photo in the Viewer pane.
If you open the photo in a separate window, you can see the photo at different sizes. Figure 4-5 shows a photo opened in a window scaled at 30
percent of its actual size.
2. Click the Constrain pop-up menu and choose a format, as shown in
Figure 4-5.
Improving Photos
Although most of us don’t need to be extremely precise with cropping our
photos, graphic artists and print-layout specialists may want very precise
image sizes for reproducing on printing presses. iPhoto allows you to do precise cropping when you open your photo in a separate window. Open the
photo in a separate window by holding down the Option key while doubleclicking the photo. The Crop button and Constrain pop-up menu are available in the window’s toolbar. (If you don’t see the Crop button on the right,
click the double-arrow on the far-right side of the toolbar to reveal the Crop
function and other functions not visible due to the size of the window.) You
can crop a photo any way you like, but you will get much better results from
photo printing services if you crop using the standard photo sizes available
in the Constrain menu.
144
Cropping and Rotating Photos
Figure 4-5:
Choose a
format
from the
Constrain
menu for
cropping.
3. Click in one corner of the area you want to crop and drag the mouse
across the image to the far corner of the cropping area.
The mouse pointer turns into a crosshair. As you drag, the portion of the
photo outside the area dims to show that it will be cut from the photo,
as shown in Figure 4-6.
4. Adjust and resize the cropping rectangle.
If your cropping rectangle isn’t perfect the first time, move your pointer
anywhere inside the cropping rectangle until the cursor turns into a pointing finger, and then drag to adjust the rectangle’s position. You can also
drag the edges of the cropping rectangle to make it larger or smaller, but
still in the same proportion, because the Constrain feature is on: Move
your pointer close to the edge or corner of the cropping rectangle and
drag to make it larger or smaller.
Notice also that the Custom fields fill in with the proportions for your
Constrain choices (10 x 8 in Figure 4-6). After opening a photo in an individual window, the Custom fields allow you to specify your own proportions for constraining the cropping, so you can be as precise as you want.
5. Click the Crop button.
Be sure you want to crop the photo. Cropping changes the photo everywhere it appears.
The Crop button reduces the photo dimensions to the selected area,
which, due to the Constrain feature, is in the correct proportion for your
Cropping and Rotating Photos
145
print or display choice. After clicking the Crop button, the photo consists of only the selected area, as shown in Figure 4-7; the rest of the
photo is thrown away.
Book II
Chapter 4
Figure 4-7:
The
cropped
photo now
at the right
size and
proportion.
Improving Photos
Figure 4-6:
The crop
constrains
to the
proper 8 x 10
proportions.
146
Fine-Tuning Photos
Solving printing problems with cropped images
Problems can crop up, pun intended, when you
print photos that have been cropped or resized.
Prints typically come in specific sizes such as
4 x 6, 5 x 7, and 8 x 10 inches. However, photos
from most digital cameras are sized at a proportion of 4 (width) to 3 (height) pixels, which is
fine for computer displays, but not the right proportion for typical prints. If you pay no attention
to the Constrain feature, you may find some
photos have white margins on the finished
prints. Use the Constrain feature if you’re cropping a photo you intend to print.
Although cropping doesn’t change the pixels
in the cropping area, the parts of the photo
outside of the cropping area are removed,
reducing the overall size of the photo. A photo
at low resolution may, after cropping, be too
small to print well at large sizes because the
printer resizes the photo to fill the paper size,
which makes the pixels larger and produces
jagged edges. High-resolution cameras can
produce higher-quality prints at large sizes,
even if you crop the image.
Fine-Tuning Photos
Your vacation is over, and you’re looking over your photos. The beach shots
look washed out from way too much sunlight, and the forest shots look as
dark as inside a dungeon. And your youngest son is in the gift shop impersonating a red-eyed Martian.
You can work magic with the iPhoto editing tools, improving photos that
would otherwise be fuzzy, too dark, or too bright. Poor lighting is often the
biggest problem with photos. But the iPhoto Brightness and Contrast controls
can make photos look better, with more saturated colors, or with sharper,
crisper details. The iPhoto Red-Eye button removes the red spots in your subject’s eyes created by the camera’s flash. The Red-Eye button also reduces the
amount of red in any selected area of a photo.
Improving brightness and contrast
Some of the best indoor photos are taken with light streaming through a
window, using only the ambient light from the sun. (Why, then, when you sit
for a portrait photo, does the photographer spend more time on lights than
anything else?) With natural, ambient light, your camera reads the lighting
for the entire room and reveals more depth in the background and surroundings. Ambient light from various sources, such as lamps and overhead lights,
produces a softer, more balanced photo with less contrast. With a flash, only
about ten feet in front of the camera is illuminated, and everything beyond
fades to black.
Fine-Tuning Photos
147
Whatever the lighting conditions are when you take your photos, you can
regain some of the detail lost in the darkness by using the Brightness and
Contrast sliders. The sliders allow you to change the brightness and contrast and see the effect immediately. Find the sliders in Edit mode and also
in the toolbar of a photo opened in a separate window.
When in Edit mode, the Brightness or Contrast sliders are located in the
Tools pane. Drag the sliders left or right, as shown in Figure 4-8. The top
slider controls the brightness, and the bottom slider controls the contrast.
Book II
Chapter 4
Improving Photos
Figure 4-8:
Drag the
Brightness
slider to
adjust
brightness.
With the Brightness and Contrast sliders, you can bring out details in photos
taken in poor lighting conditions. The sliders enable you to make incremental adjustments. You can
✦ Adjust each slider gradually until you get the effect you want.
✦ Click the icons at either end to set minimum or maximum brightness
and contrast settings. For example, in Figure 4-9, we clicked the dim sun
icon on the left side of the Brightness slider for minimum brightness,
and then moved the Contrast slider to get the desired effect.
✦ Click anywhere along the slider bar to jump directly to a setting.
148
Fine-Tuning Photos
Figure 4-9:
We dragged
the Contrast
slider to
increase
contrast,
with
brightness
set to dark.
Removing red-eye and red tint
Red-eye is light from the camera’s flash, reflected off the retinas in your subject’s eyes. Red-eye happens even with your dog or cat’s eyes, making docile
Spot look quite vicious. The red is the color of the eye’s retinal tissue; you
get green-eye or yellow-eye from a creature whose retinal tissue is greenish
or yellowish. Red-eye can be more prominent in photos shot in dim rooms,
because the pupils are dilated, exposing more of the retina.
The red-eye effect is a common problem in flash photography — so common
that many digital cameras come with built-in red-eye reduction. But our shots
prove that our digital camera still zaps people’s eyes with red even with this
reduction feature; either that or it proves that we don’t know how to use the
camera’s reduction feature.
It doesn’t matter. iPhoto provides you with a magic wand that zaps red-eye.
Follow these steps:
1. Click the thumbnail image of the photo in the Viewer pane.
You can also perform this operation in a separate window. Hold down
the Option key while clicking the thumbnail image of the photo in the
Viewer pane, and skip to Step 3.
2. Click the Edit mode button for Edit mode.
The selected photo fills the entire Viewer pane.
3. Zoom into the photo.
Fine-Tuning Photos
149
In Edit mode, use the size control slider to zoom in, as we have in Figure 4-10. When viewing a photo in a separate window, use the Zoom
buttons.
4. Click and drag with your mouse across an eye to select the image area.
Be sure the Constrain pop-up menu is set to the None option, so that
you select an image area of any shape.
The Red-Eye button doesn’t know the difference between an eye and a
nose — all it does is reduce the red tint in the pixels that are concentrated in a circular shape. Therefore, keep the selected area as close to
the red-eye as possible, so that you don’t change any other part of the
image.
5. Click the Red-Eye button.
The Red-Eye button, found in the Tools pane, removes red tint from the
selected area (as shown in Figure 4-10). The eyes may now be a lot
darker than before, but at least they don’t look bright red.
You can use the Red-Eye button to remove red from any part of a photo. The
Red-Eye tool simply removes some of the red from each pixel.
Figure 4-10:
Remove
red-eye
from a
photo.
Compare the improved photo with the original (red-eyed) version by pressing and holding the Control key.
Improving Photos
Be absolutely sure that you’re ready to remove the red-eye. Removing
red-eye changes the photo in the photo library and in every album.
Book II
Chapter 4
150
Fine-Tuning Photos
Retouching and enhancing photos
Here’s where photos can depart from reality. (Removing red-eye is, after all,
just removing something that the camera’s flash put there.) You can literally
alter the photo with iPhoto in such a way that even a judge and jury couldn’t
tell the difference. You can remove anomalies and blemishes with the Retouch
brush and enhance the colors in a photo with the Enhance wand. Both tools
are available in Edit mode and when viewing a photo in a separate window.
Before making any changes, make a copy of the photo in case you make any
changes you don’t like. We cover this and other tips in the section, “Modifying
Photos,” earlier in this chapter.
To use the Retouch brush, follow these steps:
1. Click the thumbnail image of the photo in the Viewer pane.
Choose a suitable image for retouching, such as a photo that was digitized and imported and has spots from the scanning process.
You can also perform this operation in a separate window. Hold down
the Option key while clicking the thumbnail image for the photo in the
Viewer pane and skip to Step 3.
2. Click the Edit mode button for Edit mode.
The selected photo fills the entire Viewer pane.
3. Zoom into the photo.
In Edit mode, use the size control slider to zoom in as much as possible.
When viewing a photo in a separate window, use the Zoom buttons.
4. Click the Retouch brush.
The Retouch brush icon is in the center of the tool. The pointer turns
into a crosshair.
5. Use your mouse pointer as a brush and repeatedly scrub a small area
that you want to deemphasize or remove.
Repeatedly drag over a small area as if using a brush. Slowly the area
blends into the surrounding pixels, as shown in Figure 4-11. The blemish
or spot disappears. Life would be so much easier if getting rid of a real
blemish was this simple.
The Retouch tool actually clones neighboring pixels and uses them to replace
the pixels you are brushing over, blending them in by manipulating color
values. (And you thought cloning was for sheep!)
The Enhance wand works on the entire photo. It performs a combination of
operations, including subtle adjustments to the brightness and contrast and
other changes to the colors to bring out more clarity and saturated color in
Fine-Tuning Photos
151
the image. The essential effect of Enhance is to make the colors, and the
overall photo, more vivid.
Book II
Chapter 4
Improving Photos
Figure 4-11:
Retouching
a photo.
To use the Enhance wand, follow these steps:
1. Click the thumbnail image of the photo in the Viewer pane.
2. Click the Edit mode button for Edit mode.
The selected photo fills the entire Viewer pane.
3. Click the Enhance wand.
The Enhance wand icon is toward the right in the Tools pane. It may take
a second for iPhoto to respond after you click the Enhance button (the
cursor may spin for a while). Don’t click the Enhance button a second
time unless you want a double dose of the Enhance function — which
might be useful with photos that could use a bit more enhancing.
Converting to sepia or black and white
Some scenes just look better in black and white, and some look better with
an antique-looking print. You can change your photos to either black and
white or sepia, which is the color of a faded print.
Technically, a “black and white” photo uses multiple shades of gray, but we
call it black and white, or B & W. Black and white images can evoke a moody
atmosphere. Black and white can also be effective for portraits, for obtaining
greater contrast and enhanced starkness, and for trying to achieve an Ansel
Adams look.
152
Fine-Tuning Photos
To convert a color photo into black and white, choose the photo in the
Viewer pane, click the Edit mode button for Edit mode, and then click the
B & W icon toward the right in the Tool pane.
To convert a color photo into sepia, choose the photo in the Viewer pane,
click the Edit mode button for Edit mode, and then click the Sepia icon.
Make a copy before you make any irreversible changes to your photo. Find
out how to do this and other tips in the “Modifying Photos” section, earlier
in this chapter.
Customizing the separate edit window
To be more precise about cropping and
retouching, you can open the photo in a separate window by holding down the Option key
while double-clicking the photo. You can also
customize the window’s toolbar to show only
the editing tools you need (or to show tools that
don’t appear when the window is sized to be
small).
To customize the window, click the Customize
icon in the toolbar; if it does not appear, click
the double-arrow icon in the top-right corner of
the window and choose Customize from the
pop-up menu. The customize panel appears, as
shown in the following figure. You can drag the
icons to the window’s toolbar. You can also
drag icons out of the toolbar to remove them. If
you drag more icons than iPhoto can fit in the
toolbar, the double-arrow icon provides access
to them in a pop-up menu (the same pop-up
menu you used to select Customize). The customize panel also offers the default set of icons
inside the box at the bottom of the panel, which
you can drag in its entirety to the toolbar.
Chapter 5: Making Slideshows
In This Chapter
Creating a slideshow
Controlling slideshow playback and adding music
Sharing slideshows online
Exporting slideshows to QuickTime and iDVD
Y
ou may remember the old days when slides were projected onto a
screen, white walls, or white sheets, and how the click-clack sound of
the slide carousel on the projector drowned out everything else. Slideshows
of this sort used to be the only way to exhibit photos to a group of people.
Photos can display on computers, and with laptops to connect directly to
video projectors, you can put on shows that are nothing like your grandfather’s slideshows. Not only do the photos look fantastic, but you can set
them to music, fade between each photo, repeat the slideshow in a loop
endlessly, and generally look as good as a professional slideshow in a kiosk
or boardroom. In this chapter, you discover how to change these and other
settings to fine-tune your slideshow. We also describe how to choose the
best pictures, how to share slideshows with friends, and how to create a
movie from a slideshow.
Playing a Slideshow
Words can’t express the feeling you have when you first look at the photos
you’ve taken in an iPhoto full-screen slideshow. Your display fades to black,
and your entire photo library (or the album you select) starts to appear,
photo by photo, filling the screen for two seconds before fading out while
the next photo fades in. You hear the music of J.S. Bach — “Minuet in G” —
which is the default setting for music during slideshows.
Within the Organize mode in iPhoto, you can create and play slideshows.
Follow these steps to play a slideshow with a particular selection of photos
in mind:
1. Select the photos for the slideshow in the Viewer pane.
2. Click the Play button in the toolbar.
The Play button looks like a CD-player play button.
154
Playing a Slideshow
The slideshow plays in an endless loop until you stop it by clicking the
mouse or pressing the Esc key. Of course, running in an endless loop, with
two seconds per slide, may not be the ideal setting for your slideshow, but
don’t worry. We describe how to change that setting later in this chapter,
in the section, “Changing Playback Settings.”
You can also press the spacebar to show the semi-transparent Slide Show
control panel, which pauses the slideshow when you press the spacebar
again, or moves forward or backward through the show if you press the
right-arrow or left-arrow key.
If your slideshow doesn’t look as good as you expect, check your display settings. To find out how to change your display settings, see Chapter 1 of this
minibook.
iPhoto offers different ways to play a makeshift slideshow on the fly:
✦ Show your entire library or an entire album from the beginning:
Select either the photo library or the photo album in the Source pane,
without selecting any photos, and click the Play button. The slideshow
consists of all the photos in the Viewer pane, starting with the first.
✦ Show your entire library or an entire album starting at a photo (not
at the beginning): Click a single photo, in either the photo library or
an individual album in the Viewer pane. The slideshow starts with the
photo immediately following the selected photo. (We know, starting on
the selected one is logical, but it doesn’t work that way.) The show continues and then loops back to the first photo in the Viewer pane.
✦ Show selected photos only: Select multiple photos in the Viewer pane —
either a range of photos in consecutive order, or individual photos in
nonconsecutive order. The slideshow uses only those photos, endlessly
repeating them.
You may want to play a makeshift slideshow of selected photos just to experiment with them to see if they would work well in the final version of the
slideshow. Not all photos are cropped or rotated properly for slideshow
viewing.
Pausing and playing
When playing a slideshow, you can pause it and resume playing whenever
you want.
To pause a slideshow while playing, press the spacebar. A pause indicator
appears briefly on-screen and then disappears, leaving the slideshow paused
on the photo. When you pause a show, the music keeps playing — which
Assembling a Slideshow
155
means you can’t really synchronize photos to music. However, you can use
iMovie to create a synchronized slide-and-music show (see Book III), and you
can use iDVD to burn a DVD of the slideshow (see Book IV).
To resume playing the slideshow, press the spacebar again. When the show
resumes, a play indicator appears briefly and then disappears, and the
slideshow continues.
Advancing manually and controlling the speed
To advance manually, slide-by-slide, press the right-arrow key on your keyboard. To go backwards, press the left-arrow key.
When you press either of the arrow keys, the slideshow jumps to the next or
previous slide. The slideshow then pauses while the music continues playing. You can then manually move forward or backward, slide-by-slide, by
again pressing the left-arrow or right-arrow key.
To return to normal playback speed, press the spacebar to bring the
slideshow out of pause mode.
You can speed up or slow down a slideshow temporarily by pressing the uparrow or down-arrow key. Pressing the up-arrow key speeds up a slideshow,
decreasing the time that each slide is shown, while pressing the down-arrow
key slows down a slideshow, increasing the time that each slide is shown.
The slideshow continues at that speed until you change the speed again by
pressing the up-arrow or down-arrow key. However, this speed change is
temporary — speeding up or slowing down the slideshow does not affect the
slide playback timing you define in the Slideshow window, described later in
this chapter, in the section, “Changing Playback Settings.” When you rerun
the slideshow after stopping it, iPhoto uses the saved settings for timing the
presentation.
Assembling a Slideshow
Although you may find a slideshow of the photos in your library (in whatever order those photos are sorted) to be interesting, your friends may not
feel the same way. Create slideshows for others that are at least appealing,
if not dazzling. You can do this by choosing the best pictures and the most
appropriate music.
Book II
Chapter 5
Making Slideshows
Usually slideshows run in auto-play mode with timing you can adjust in the
Slideshow window, which we describe in the section, “Changing Playback
Settings,” later in this chapter. However, you can override the settings by
manually advancing or reversing the slides and increasing or decreasing the
speed of the slideshow.
156
Assembling a Slideshow
Arranging a photo album for a slideshow
Arranging photos in an album allows you to determine the order of your
photos in a slideshow.
After you choose the photos you want for a particular slideshow, the best
way to organize that slideshow is by assigning the photos to an album. You
can make a separate photo album for each slideshow, because albums are
just lists of images and they don’t use up hard drive space.
Creating a photo album for a slideshow is no different than creating a photo
album for any other reason. We describe how to arrange photos in photo
albums in more detail in Chapter 3 of this minibook.
The order of your photos in the album defines how your slideshow plays.
Photo albums are convenient for this process because you can rearrange
your photos in any order you like. The final arrangement determines the
order in which people see the images in the slideshow.
Choosing photos that display well
The important thing to remember about photos in slideshows is that not all
photos fill the screen properly. You may want to use only photos that look
good at full-display dimensions.
iPhoto uses the entire display resolution when putting on a slideshow, and
for many Mac users, that means at least 1024 x 768 pixels. If your photos are
smaller, iPhoto stretches them to fill the display, often with undesirable
results (jagged lines and visible pixels, to name a couple).
You can determine whether a photo works well in a slideshow in two ways:
✦ Select the photo you want to check and select another photo (it doesn’t
matter which one), and then click the Play button. The slideshow consists
of just those two slides, over and over, and you see not only how the
photo looks at full-screen resolution, but also when fading in and out.
✦ When looking at a single image in Edit mode, hold down the Option key
and double-click the photo to open it in a separate window. Make the
window as large as you can to see how the photo looks at full screen.
You can tell the size of a photo by opening it in a separate window. iPhoto
scales the photo in its proper proportions, rather than stretching it to fit the
Viewer pane. You can tell how large the photo is by the percentage displayed
in the title bar — whether a small photo scaled to display at 100 percent
magnification or a very large photo scaled at 50 percent or less.
To make sure that your photos are large enough to look good in a full-screen
slideshow, you can check the size in two ways:
Assembling a Slideshow
157
✦ Select a photo in the Viewer pane. The Size field on the far left side of
the iPhoto window displays something like 2272 x 1704, which is the size
of the photo (2272 pixels wide by 1704 pixels high).
✦ Select a photo in the Viewer pane. You can also use this method if the
photo is open in a separate window. Choose Photos➪Show Info. iPhoto
lists the Width and Height, in pixels, in the Photo tab of the Photo Info
window, as shown in Figure 5-1.
Book II
Chapter 5
Making Slideshows
Figure 5-1:
Check the
size of the
photo in
pixels.
Size matters
When the iPhoto slideshow function enlarges
a narrow image to show it full screen, the photo
maintains the correct horizontal-to-vertical
aspect ratio. As a result, some images may
appear with black borders on either the horizontal or vertical edges, similar to a widescreen movie on television (letterboxing).
When you include low-resolution images in a
slideshow, they may stand out as jaggy-edged
and fuzzy, which might be fine if you are going
for some artistic effect. But if you plan ahead
and you know you want to use the pictures you
are about to take in a slideshow, make sure
your digital camera is set to capture photos at
a pixel resolution of at least 1024 x 768 pixels,
preferably higher.
If you are stuck with photos that are too small,
you can fix the problem with an image editing
program, such as Adobe Photoshop. With
Photoshop and iPhoto open, drag a photo
directly from iPhoto into the Photoshop window
and make changes, such as scaling the image
to be larger, or surrounding a small image with
a black border. You can then save the image as
a TIFF or Photoshop file, and in iPhoto, choose
File➪Import to bring the revised photo back
into your photo library.
158
Changing Playback Settings
Changing Playback Settings
Are you ready for a performance? Possibly not — you may want to show
each photo for longer than two seconds, change the music, or even set the
show to play photos in random order. These choices are available in the
Slideshow window.
To open the Slideshow window, follow these steps:
1. In Organize mode, select the photo album from the albums list.
To define slideshow settings, you have to use a photo album as the basis
for your slideshow.
2. Click the Slideshow icon in the Tools pane (second icon from the left).
The Slideshow window appears, as shown in Figure 5-2.
3. Make any changes you want.
You can set a transition between each slide and change the transition settings, change the speed of the slideshow’s photos, display your ratings
with the photos, and change the music. These settings are explained
in the sections, “Setting slide transitions,” “Timing your slideshow,”
“Changing the music,” and “Using iTunes music.”
4. Click the Save Settings button to save your settings.
Figure 5-2:
Change the
settings
in the
Slideshow
window.
Changing Playback Settings
159
Setting slide transitions
Transitions between slides don’t have to be dull. You can make one slide dissolve into another, or show a slide turning on a cube to make room for the
next one. You can even use a mosaic flip effect that rotates sections of the
new slide into place.
In the Slideshow window, you can choose a transition between slides, as
shown in Figure 5-3. After you select a transition, you can pick other options.
For example, you can choose the Wipe transition, and then specify the direction and speed of the wipe.
Figure 5-3:
Choose
a slide
transition
in the
Slideshow
window.
As you choose a transition, the miniature preview in the Slideshow window
shows you how the transition will appear, using slides from the selected
album.
The Direction pop-up menu specifies which direction the transition occurs
from — for example, a wipe generally moves the new slide into position
while moving the old slide out, from left to right. You can change the direction to right-to-left, top-to-bottom, and so on.
The Speed slider specifies the speed of the transition relative to the overall
speed of the slideshow, which is described in the next section.
Book II
Chapter 5
Making Slideshows
These transitions can provide a dramatic flourish to your presentation, and
you can experiment with them freely — choose one, and if you don’t like it
(and you can see a preview while choosing), simply choose another. The
transitions are automatically applied to the slideshow.
160
Changing Playback Settings
Timing your slideshow
Your slideshows don’t have to be fixed to run endlessly, or to show only two
seconds per slide. Do you really want your audience to fidget in their seats
and keep asking for you to go back to another slide? With the slideshow
options, you’re in control — you can set the slideshow so that the audience
has a chance to study each photo or make the photos go by in a flash.
In the Slideshow window, you can change the Play Each Slide for . . . Seconds
setting, so that slides appear on-screen for the duration you want before
fading. The up and down arrows allow you to adjust the number of seconds
with a maximum of 30 seconds between photos.
If you want more than 30 seconds between photos, you can type a number
higher than 30, but not higher than 60 seconds (if you do, iPhoto pays no
attention to the silly human request and refuses to highlight the Play button
until you come to your senses).
The number of seconds you choose applies to each slide in the slideshow —
you can’t set different timings for different slides (if you need that level of
control, try iMovie, which we describe in Book III).
The timing is saved with the photo album used for the slideshow. You can
try different timings by setting up multiple photo albums and changing the
settings for each one.
The number of seconds you choose for playing each slide also affects the
transition time between slides. Choosing a longer playing time produces
longer, more appealing transitions. We prefer setting the timing to 20 or 30
seconds per photo.
You can select the Repeat Slideshow option to, well, repeat the slideshow, if
you want the slideshow to loop. If you deselect the Repeat Slideshow option
(click the check box to toggle the option off), iPhoto plays the slideshow and,
at the end, returns to the Viewer pane in Organize mode. This may be useful
for previewing, but you may want your slideshows to repeat, especially if you
are using a slideshow in an exhibit or on a demonstration table. You can
always end a slideshow by clicking the mouse or pressing the Esc key.
Changing the music
Apple thoughtfully provided very nice music to go along with your slideshows.
Music makes a slideshow come alive, turning your ordinary (and extraordinary) photos into something that resembles parts of a Ken Burns documentary. (Okay, so maybe your family vacation doesn’t rank up there with a Ken
Burns documentary, no matter what you may think.)
Changing Playback Settings
161
The Music pane of the Slideshow window enables you to change the music.
To open the Slideshow window, select a photo album in Organize mode and
click the Slideshow icon in the Tools pane.
The Source pop-up menu in the Music pane typically starts out with the
Sample Music option, as shown in Figure 5-4, and the songs available in this
category (as of this writing) are from J.S. Bach: “Jesu, Joy of Man’s Desiring”
performed by Leo Kottke (our favorite), and “Minuet in G” performed by
Harvey Reid.
Book II
Chapter 5
Making Slideshows
Figure 5-4:
Click the
triangular
Play button
to play a
song.
After selecting one in the song list, click the Play button at the bottom-left
side of the Music pane (refer to Figure 5-4) to play just the music.
Using iTunes music
Although the default songs, “Minuet in G” and “Jesu, Joy of Man’s Desiring,”
are exquisite, you may become tired of them. Apple only provides them as
suggestions, anyway. You can select a tune or even an entire playlist from
your iTunes library. If you don’t have any music yet in your iTunes library,
read all about importing music into iTunes in Book I, Chapter 1.
To play a tune from the iTunes library, follow these steps:
1. Open the Slideshow window by selecting a photo album in Organize
mode and clicking the Slideshow icon in the Tools pane.
The Slideshow window appears.
162
Changing Playback Settings
2. Click the Music tab to open the Music pane.
3. Click the Source pop-up menu to select an iTunes playlist, or select
iTunes Library to see the entire music library.
Selecting a playlist is useful if you already defined a playlist for slideshows
in iTunes (Book I, Chapter 2), and you want to play the entire playlist with
the slideshow. The songs stored in the playlist appear in the box below
the menu, as shown in Figure 5-5.
Figure 5-5:
Select
a tune
from your
iTunes
library
for the
slideshow’s
music.
If you choose the entire iTunes Library, you can sort the song list and
select a song from the library.
When you choose an iTunes playlist, the entire playlist appears as the
song list, and the entire playlist is assigned to the slideshow (unless you
select a song in the list). But if you select a song inside the playlist, that
song alone is assigned to the slideshow. You can select and play songs
(click the Play button to hear songs), and then go back and either select
an entire playlist in Source pop-up menu or select only one song.
4. Click the Play button to hear your selection.
If you select the entire iTunes library in Step 3, the list of songs is initially
sorted alphabetically by artist, but you can sort the list alphabetically by
song title by clicking the Song column header, or sort the songs by duration
(from shortest to longest) by clicking the Time column header. If you know
the specific song you want to add to the slideshow, type the title in the
Search field to narrow the choices. Figure 5-6 shows the iTunes library
sorted by duration, shortest to longest.
Sharing and Exporting Slideshows
163
Figure 5-6:
View the
iTunes
library by
duration
rather than
by title.
Book II
Chapter 5
Saving your settings
When you are satisfied with your slideshow settings, you can save them by
clicking the Save Settings button in the Slideshow window (refer to Figure 5-6).
iPhoto saves the slideshow settings for the entire photo album. When you
view your photo album, the slideshow information appears in the Viewer pane
underneath the Source list.
If you save your settings, any new photo that you drag into the album uses
those settings while in the album. Meanwhile, the photo in the photo library
remains unchanged, and you can drag it to other albums and use the other
albums’ slideshow settings. This cool feature is a timesaver.
To play the slideshow, select the photo album and click the Play button underneath the Source list. The slideshow runs exactly as you set it up to run.
Sharing and Exporting Slideshows
A slideshow on your computer is wonderful for those who can pull up a seat
and watch. If you have a PowerBook laptop or an iBook, you no doubt already
Making Slideshows
You can choose only one song or playlist for a slideshow. iPhoto continues
playing the song or playlist until it ends or the slideshow ends. If the slideshow repeats endlessly, the song or entire playlist also repeats when it ends.
They play independently — the songs and the slides are not synchronized.
(If you want to synchronize sound with photos or images, use iMovie, which
we cover in Book III.)
164
Sharing and Exporting Slideshows
appreciate the slideshows you can show others on the spot, thanks to the
portability of your machine. But to reach a larger audience or different audiences at different times, you have some options:
✦ Share your slideshow online with the .Mac service.
The entire slideshow is available online for others to use as a screen
effect (anyone using .Mac, that is).
✦ Export your slideshow to a QuickTime movie.
You can post a QuickTime movie on a Web page and include it with
other scenes in an iMovie presentation, described in Book III.
✦ Create a DVD of the slideshow.
You can export the entire slideshow, including music, to iDVD, which
gives you tools to improve the slideshow and burn a DVD. We describe
iDVD in more detail in Book IV.
In addition, you can share individual photos with others via e-mail, or publish individual photos on a Web page. We describe how to do both in
Chapter 6 of this minibook.
Sharing slideshows online
You can really impress your friends with this trick. You can provide your
slideshow online for others to use as a screen effect (that is, a screen saver).
Apple offers the .Mac service for all Mac users (for a fee, of course). One of
its major benefits is the capability of sharing iPhoto slideshows with others
over the Internet. With the .Mac Slides feature on the .Mac service, others
can use your slideshow as a screen effect. The Screen Effects function acts
like a screen saver — animation displays on your desktop when your computer is inactive.
You can subscribe in advance to the .Mac service, or you can go ahead and
click the .Mac Slides icon in the Tools pane, and iPhoto automatically connects to the Internet and checks to see if you have a .Mac account. If you
don’t, iPhoto gives you the option to join the service and launches your
Internet browser to the .Mac sign-up page.
Of course, if you aren’t connected to the Internet through a network or a highspeed modem that provides always-on service, iPhoto won’t automatically
connect to the Internet works until you connect manually by modem. Connect
to the Internet using your usual method before clicking the .Mac icon.
To share your slideshow with others over the Internet using the .Mac service, follow these steps:
Sharing and Exporting Slideshows
165
1. In Organize mode, select the photo album or individual photos in the
slideshow.
2. Click the .Mac Slides icon in the Tools pane.
The .Mac Slides icon displays a warning: Are you sure you want
to publish a slideshow as .Mac Slides? Transferring an entire
slideshow can take some time if your slideshow contains a lot of photos.
3. Click the Publish button to publish the slideshow.
iPhoto copies the photos in the slideshow to your iDisk on the .Mac
service, as shown in Figure 5-7. You can cancel the operation by clicking
the Cancel button.
Book II
Chapter 5
Making Slideshows
Figure 5-7:
Copy a
slideshow
to the .Mac
service for
sharing
online.
When the slideshow finishes copying, iPhoto displays a dialog notifying you
that the photos are online, and as an option, gives you the opportunity to
announce your slideshow to others who use the .Mac service. If you click the
Announce button in the dialog, your e-mail application appears with a new
message ready to send — all you need to do is fill in the addresses. Don’t
click the Announce button unless you’re ready to announce your slideshow
and send the e-mail.
You can control which e-mail program iPhoto uses by choosing iPhoto➪
Preferences and selecting an e-mail application in the Mail pop-up menu.
The e-mail message provides instructions to others on how to subscribe to
the slideshow using the .Mac service. To use the slideshow, others have to
be running Mac OS X version 10.2 or newer. They need to connect to the
Internet, and then perform the following steps:
1. Open System Preferences and click the Screen Effects icon.
The Screen Effects window appears, as shown in Figure 5-8.
166
Sharing and Exporting Slideshows
Figure 5-8:
Use a
sharedonline
slideshow
as a screen
effect.
2. Select .Mac in the list of available screen effects.
3. Click the Configure button.
The screen saver options appear, as shown in Figure 5-9.
4. In the .Mac Membership Name field, enter the username of the
member who published the slideshow and click OK.
5. Choose System Preferences➪Quit System Preferences to close System
Preferences.
Figure 5-9:
Set options
for the
screen
effect.
Sharing and Exporting Slideshows
167
Screen Effects offers settings for playing the screen saver, which you can find
out about in Chapter 3 of this minibook.
Sharing your slideshows this way is cool. What’s cooler is the fact that you
can change your slideshow, publish a new version, and your friends automatically see the new version as part of their screen effects. Keep your
friends and family abreast of events and changes in your life, as told with a
slideshow of your photos.
Exporting to a QuickTime movie
Your slideshow is so fantastic you want to share it with the world. But only
.Mac users can see your slideshow.
To put your slideshow into a QuickTime file, follow these steps:
1. In Organize mode, select an album from the Source pane or individual photos used in a slideshow.
2. Choose File➪Export.
The Export Photos window displays, with tabs for different types of
export functions, as shown in Figure 5-10.
Figure 5-10:
Export a
slideshow
as a
QuickTime
movie.
Making Slideshows
QuickTime to the rescue! QuickTime is like a container for multimedia built
into every Mac and available to any PC user intelligent enough to know what’s
best. When you create a QuickTime movie file, even those dudes with Dells
and geeks with Gateways can play it. You send your slideshow to them as a
QuickTime burned on a CD or DVD, or you can publish a QuickTime file on
a Web site for anyone to play.
Book II
Chapter 5
168
Sharing and Exporting Slideshows
• File Export: Export versions of your photos using file formats such
as JPG (for JPEG, the standard image format for Web pages) and TIFF
(the standard format for desktop publishing software). You can discover more about file formats in Chapter 6 of this minibook.
• Web Page: Export photos or an entire album to a Web page, as we
describe in Chapter 6 of this minibook.
• QuickTime: Export photos or an album set up as a slideshow to the
QuickTime format.
3. Click the QuickTime tab.
The QuickTime pane appears.
4. Change the movie options as you wish, especially the Images section.
In the QuickTime pane’s Images section, specify the pixel resolution of
your movie. If you make a movie as an experiment, go ahead with the
suggested resolution settings of 640 x 480 pixels. We outline the different
resolutions in the sidebar, “The QuickTime resolution.”
5. Click the Export button to create the QuickTime movie.
The Save As dialog opens.
6. Type a name for the QuickTime movie, and choose where to save it on
your hard drive, and then click the Save button.
You can change the following settings in the QuickTime pane of the Export
Files window:
✦ Time to display each photo: You can also control the time each photo
takes to show by typing a number in the Display Image for . . . Seconds
text field in the Images section of the QuickTime pane. (This setting
overrides the settings for the slideshow in the Slideshow Settings
window.) You can be precise about the number of seconds for displaying
the image, down to hundredths of a second. In fact, you can make a
QuickTime movie that displays images so fast it could pass for a light
show at a rock concert. The maximum duration for each slide is
60 seconds.
✦ Background color: To add a background color, click the Color button in
the Background section of the QuickTime pane and then click the color
preview box. The Colors window appears, as shown in Figure 5-11. The
Colors window gives you multiple ways to select a color. The color
wheel includes a slider for selecting the color’s intensity. You can try
other ways to select a color — the icons along the top row of the Colors
window offer color-value sliders, color swatches, a spectrum, and a set
of crayons. To set a color, drag the color you chose in the Colors
window to the preview box in the QuickTime pane.
Sharing and Exporting Slideshows
169
The QuickTime resolution
You have some choices to make about how you
plan to use this movie, before setting the image
resolution and exporting the QuickTime movie.
Although you can go with the default resolution
of 640 x 480 pixels, you can also make a movie
as large as your monitor (which is how iPhoto
typically plays slideshows).
Although you can type any number you want as
a pixel dimension, you should maintain the 4:3
aspect ratio that digital cameras and displays
use. You can, however, reverse the ratio and
specify 480 x 640 pixels, if all the photos in the
slideshow are vertically oriented.
Figure 5-11:
Set a
background
color for the
QuickTime
movie.
Remember: Music takes up considerable
space. A slideshow saved as a QuickTime file
with music (such as the sample song “Minuet
in G”) is a lot larger than the same file saved
without music. With music, the file size jumps
up to 1.6MB for a slideshow with ten photos
at a 640 x 480 resolution. You can reduce the
music’s sampling rate in iTunes before using
the music with the slideshow, but that’s another
topic, which we cover in Book I.
Book II
Chapter 5
Making Slideshows
If you do increase the pixel resolution, you may
run into a problem. Pixel resolution affects file
size dramatically, and you need to make a movie
that everyone can play. If you specify 1,024 x 768
pixels (the typical display setting for slideshows
on an iMac), the resulting movie may be too
large to send as an e-mail attachment — if
that’s what you want to do with it. Your movie’s
screen size may also be too large for other
people’s monitors, such as older iBooks.
A resolution of 800 x 600 is okay for just about
all computer displays, but 640 x 480, the suggested resolution, is by far the most commonly
used. With 640 x 480 pixels, the resulting file
size is small and easy to handle by e-mail or
other means (such as publishing on a Web
page). For example, a slideshow of ten photos,
at a 640 x 480 pixel image size, creates a
QuickTime file that is 1MB; the same slideshow
at 800 x 600 pixels creates a 1.5MB file, and a
slideshow at 1,024 x 768 pixels creates a 2.3MB
file.
170
Sharing and Exporting Slideshows
The color you choose serves as the first and last frames of the movie
and fills the margins of vertically oriented photos or other odd-shaped
photos. You may want to choose a color that matches the backgrounds
of your photos, such as blue for blue sky or water photos. However,
black is the most effective choice for most slideshows.
✦ Background image: An alternative to a background color is a background
image, preferably one that doesn’t clash with the photos themselves
(unless you are trying for a special clashing effect). To set an image as
the background, select the Image option in the Background section of the
QuickTime pane, and then click the Set button to select an image from
your hard drive.
✦ Music: Decide whether to include the music that you set in the Slideshow
Settings window, keeping in mind that the alternative is a silent movie
and a smaller file.
To view the finished movie, open the movie file using the QuickTime Player
or any other application that plays QuickTime movies. Your slideshow looks
like a professional presentation, and now you can share it with the world.
Exporting a slideshow to iDVD
A great way to share your slideshow is to burn a DVD, which can then be
played with any type of DVD player. If you have an Apple-supported DVD-R
drive (such as Apple’s SuperDrive), you can create your own DVDs with
slideshows, menus, and video clips — a process called burning.
iDVD offers tools for creating DVDs with menus for selecting material on the
disc. You can transfer a slideshow, including its music, directly from iPhoto
to iDVD to create a DVD slideshow.
To export a slideshow to iDVD, follow these steps:
1. In Organize mode, select an album or individual photos used in a
slideshow.
2. Click the iDVD icon in the Tools pane (available if you have iDVD).
The iDVD application opens, as shown in Figure 5-12.
3. Click the Customize button (or choose Project➪Show Customize Panel
from the iDVD toolbar).
The Customize drawer opens to the left of the stage, attached to the
iDVD window.
4. Click the Media button in the Customize drawer and choose Photos
from the pop-up menu.
Sharing and Exporting Slideshows
171
Your albums from iPhoto appear, ready for use with iDVD. The photos
from your library, while remaining in your library, are now linked to an
iDVD project. You don’t need to export and import photos; in fact, you
can still make changes to the photos in your library and albums in
iPhoto, while keeping them linked to this iDVD project.
Creating DVDs is a much bigger topic than we can cover here — check
out Book IV for the full story on iDVD.
Book II
Chapter 5
Making Slideshows
Figure 5-12:
Your iPhoto
albums
automatically export
to iDVD.
172
Book II: iPhoto
Chapter 6: Printing and
Publishing Photos and Books
In This Chapter
Setting up your printer and printing photos
Ordering prints from services
Assembling a photo book
Sharing photos by e-mail
Publishing Web pages
P
eople generally save photos for posterity, nostalgia, history, and hundreds of other reasons, but for the most part, people save photos so
that others can see them.
Paper is still the most useful medium for showing photos. You still want prints
to put in frames, scrapbooks, and wallets. Your grandmother still hasn’t figured out e-mail, let alone how to save a photo attached to an e-mail message,
so you’ll want to print photos for her. With iPhoto, you can create prints on
your own color printer and print as many as you want without using a service. And if you want real photographic prints, you can order them directly
through iPhoto by using the Kodak online service.
You can go much further with iPhoto: You can even publish a photo book
that looks professional. After organizing photos into a book layout that can
include titles and captions, you can order professionally printed books
worthy of the Library of Congress.
And publishing photos on the Web is easy with the iPhoto HomePage feature. Not only can you connect to a Web site where you can publish your
photos, but you can also produce a layout of the Web page automatically
and add text, such as titles and captions. You can also export photos into
other file formats for use with other programs, such as Web authoring programs, and for posting to Web sites using methods other than HomePage.
You can even export an entire photo album to share with others.
This chapter walks you through all the details of printing your own photographic prints and things such as greeting cards, ordering prints from online
services, ordering photo books, and publishing photos on the Web.
174
Setting Up Your Printer
Setting Up Your Printer
The trees may not like it, but paper remains the most universal medium for
showing photos. True, with digital photography, the noxious chemicals of
film processing are gone, and the darkroom has been turned into a walk-in
closet, but you still need to make prints of some kind.
In fact, digital photography makes it easier than ever to get exactly the
prints you want without wasting money on the prints you don’t want. For
example, you can print your own contact sheets, which are quick prints of
photos in a thumbnail size. Or you can simply use iPhoto as a digital contact
sheet. As an added bonus, you can print individual photos on your own
color printer to see how they look in print form before ordering a highquality print on photographic paper. You can even print your own greeting
cards.
Read through this section to discover how to easily set up your printer to
take advantage of printing your own photos.
Picking a desktop printer and paper
Printing photos from iPhoto is just about the easiest thing you can do.
However, your results may be low quality, especially if you use a standard
office printer. Office printers used for invoices and documents are not going
to do justice to your color photos. To achieve the result that you want, you
have to spend a little money.
First, we recommend that you buy a color printer. You need at least a decent
inexpensive color printer, available from manufacturers such as Epson,
Hewlett-Packard, and Canon, for less than $200. Higher-quality color printers
are surprisingly affordable, such as the Canon i950 Color Photo Printer for
about $250. Note: Make sure that you factor in the number of prints that you
can make with a single ink cartridge and the cost to replace the cartridge.
Desktop printers designed to print photos, such as the aforementioned
Canon i950, typically use six different ink colors rather than just the four
colors used by most color inkjet printers. The extra colors make photo
prints look outstanding.
A second factor to consider is the type of paper used for printing. The plain
typing paper that you use with a laser printer or photocopier is too thin and
can’t absorb enough ink to show colors well. You can still use regular copy
paper, however, to show how large a photo print is or for contact sheets.
Still, so-called “high resolution” paper used with inkjets is heavier and might
do better for test prints — it’s not glossy, but it has a smooth finish on one
Setting Up Your Printer
175
side. The best paper for finished prints or greeting cards is either glossy
photo paper or, if you can afford it, glossy film, made with polyethylene
rather than paper.
Setting up pages for your desktop printer
When using a printer with iPhoto, like with most Mac applications, you can
access printer quality features by choosing File➪Page Setup. Different printers offer different features (or sometimes, just different terminology for the
same types of features). You can access the printer’s settings by clicking the
Settings pop-up menu in the Page Setup dialog, as shown in Figure 6-1, which
offers these settings:
✦ Custom Paper Size: You can specify custom sizes, depending on your
printer. Color photo printers typically offer sizes for precut photo paper,
such as 4 x 6. Your printer may also have choices for paper, such as plain,
inkjet paper, glossy photo paper, and so on.
✦ Summary: Displays a summary of the page attributes, including the
document page size, paper dimensions, orientation, scale, and paper
margins.
Figure 6-1:
Change
the printer
settings in
the Page
Setup
dialog.
Printing and
Publishing Photos
and Books
✦ Page Attributes: Choose the size of your paper. You can also set the
orientation of the page to portrait style (horizontal), or landscape style
(vertical facing left, or vertical facing right). You can also resize the page
to fit the paper.
Book II
Chapter 6
176
Printing Photos
If you have more than one printer that you can choose from, switch printers
by choosing the one that you want in the Format For pop-up menu in the Page
Setup dialog.
Printing Photos
After you set up your printer settings, you’re ready to print. Follow these
steps:
1. Select one or more photos in Organize mode.
2. Choose File➪Print or click the Print button in the Tools pane.
Click the Print button, not the Order Prints button, which connects you
to the Kodak service.
The Print dialog appears with the photo that you selected displayed in a
preview pane, as shown in Figure 6-2.
3. Make any changes to the settings.
For example, in Figure 6-2, we set the Style setting to the Full Page option
to get a full-page print of a single photo, and we also specified one copy
and set the margins. A preview of the printed photo appears on the left
side of the dialog.
4. Click the Print button.
Figure 6-2:
Print from
the Print
dialog.
Printing Photos
177
The Print dialog offers pop-up menus for page styles, presets, and printers,
and various options for controlling the printing:
✦ Printer: If you have more than one printer, you can choose a different
printer.
✦ Presets: You can save print settings if you click the Advanced Options
button. Presets saved in the Advanced Options area are listed in the
Preset pop-up menu for easy selection.
✦ Margins: Use this slider to set the margin around the edges of the images
to be printed.
• Contact Sheet: A quick print of photos in a thumbnail size.
• Full Page: The photo occupies a full page. You can drag the Margins
slider to increase the size of the margins of the page.
• Greeting Card: The photos are laid out in the standard greeting card
format, either single-fold or double-fold.
• N-Up: You can use this style to place from 4 to 16 photos on a single
page or to place the same photo several times on the same page.
• Sampler: This style offers two templates for layouts that are attractive for printed photos.
• Standard Prints: This style provides sizes and layouts for prints just
like the ones that you get from a photo service.
✦ Copies: Specify the number of copies to print. If you print a set of photos,
this number specifies the number of copies of the entire set.
✦ Preview button: Click to see a full-screen preview of the page that you’re
printing.
✦ Save As PDF button: You can save the pages as a PDF (Portable Document
Format) file that others can open with Adobe Acrobat.
✦ Advanced Options button: Click to access the Advanced Options area of
the Print dialog. These settings vary from printer to printer. You can use
the Presets pop-up menu to save your settings by choosing Save As in the
pop-up menu and typing a name for the preset. The preset appears from
that point on in the Presets menu. The Advanced Options area includes
the Copies & Pages, Layout, Output Options, Error Handling, Paper Feed,
and Printer Features settings. (These settings are described in detail in a
book about Mac OS X such as Mac OS X All-in-One Desk Reference For
Dummies by Mark L. Chambers, published by Wiley Publishing, Inc.)
Book II
Chapter 6
Printing and
Publishing Photos
and Books
✦ Style: Set the specific types of pages that iPhoto handles for any type of
color printer. When you choose a different style, the preview image in the
dialog changes to show that style. Some of these styles are described in
more detail in this chapter. The styles available from the Style menu are
178
Printing Photos
Printing standard prints
Standard prints are what you get from a photo service. iPhoto makes conforming to standard print sizes with your color printer easy because it automatically resizes images to fit properly for the settings you choose. These
settings are useful if you intend to use store-bought picture frames, which
are measured for specific sizes such as 4 x 6 or 8 x 10.
To select a standard print size when printing to your desktop printer, choose
these settings from the Print dialog:
1. Choose the Standard Prints option from the Style pop-up menu, as
shown in Figure 6-3.
2. Choose the appropriate size from the Size pop-up menu.
Figure 6-3:
Print standard prints.
Don’t choose a very large print size, such as 8 x 10, for a low-resolution image
because the picture stretches over a large area and doesn’t look as good as
it does at smaller print sizes. You need a resolution of at least 1800 x 2200
pixels for a decent 8 x 10 print. If you choose a large size for an image that is
lower in resolution than quality demands, iPhoto kindly signals you with a
yellow warning sign in the preview pane of the Print dialog.
Although the Print dialog offers many choices for printed photo sizes, you
may need to adjust the proportions of your photo to fit certain sizes. Photos
from most digital cameras are sized at proportions of 4 (width) x 3 (height),
which is fine for computer displays, DVDs, and iPhoto book layouts, but isn’t
the right proportion for standard prints. If you don’t adjust the proportions,
Printing Photos
179
you may find that some photos have unintended white margins at the sides
of the finished prints. iPhoto makes this adjustment easy with the Constrain
feature for cropping.
The Constrain pop-up menu in iPhoto offers choices for standard print and
display formats. When cropping is constrained, the cropped photo fits the
format properly. To find out more about cropping with the Constrain feature,
see Chapter 4 of this minibook.
Printing greeting cards
iPhoto rotates and places your photo properly on the page so that you can
fold the page into a proper greeting card. You can click the option to print
in single-fold or double-fold style. The preview pane shows what the photo
looks like in either style:
✦ Single-fold: The photo appears upside down at the top of the page,
making a large greeting card with a single horizontal fold easy to create,
as shown in Figure 6-4.
✦ Double-fold: The photo appears in the top-right corner of the page
facing to the right, making a standard-sized greeting card with both a
horizontal and a vertical fold easy to create.
Figure 6-4:
Print a
greeting
card with a
single fold.
Book II
Chapter 6
Printing and
Publishing Photos
and Books
iPhoto provides a style for greeting cards. You can choose either the singlefold or double-fold style. To select a greeting card layout when printing to your
desktop printer, choose the Greeting Card option from the Style pop-up menu
in the Print dialog.
180
Printing Photos
You can use the special glossy paper stock for greeting cards that is already
scored and perforated for easy folding.
Printing contact sheets for albums
In commercial photography, a contact sheet is a quick print of photos in a
thumbnail size. You can order contact sheets when you process film rolls so
that you can choose which ones to use for full prints.
Of course, in iPhoto, you can print your own contact sheets, just like a commercial photo service. Contact sheets can be useful for comparing the quality of several photos at once, making test prints of an entire album, or even
repeating the same photo in a grid for cutting up wallet-sized prints.
To print a contact sheet, choose the Contact Sheet option from the Style
pop-up menu in the Print dialog, as shown in Figure 6-5.
Figure 6-5:
Choose
Contact
Sheet and
adjust the
number
of photos
in a row.
The Contact Sheet style offers the following settings:
✦ Across: Use the slider to choose how many slides you want across the
page. You can print up to eight photos in a row (although you need a
magnifying glass to see them).
✦ Save Paper: Select the Save Paper option to print photos with thinner
margins. Keep it unselected to spread the photos out on the page. The
preview pane shows how the photos will print.
Ordering Prints
181
Ordering Prints
You can order prints from the Kodak photo service directly from iPhoto that
are much higher quality than the prints you can make with a color printer.
To use the Kodak photo service, you set up an account with your credit
card, and Apple remembers your account information the next time that you
order prints. Select the size and quantity of the photos to be printed, and in
one click, transmit the photos directly to Kodak. Your finished photos are
printed on high-quality glossy photographic paper and are mailed or expressdelivered to you.
To order prints, you need to connect to the Internet. Then follow these steps:
Book II
Chapter 6
1. Select the photos to print in Organize mode.
2. Click the Order Prints button in the Tools pane.
The photos that you selected appear in the Kodak Order Prints window,
as shown in Figure 6-6.
3. Click the Set Up Account button.
The Set Up Account dialog appears, as shown in Figure 6-7.
Figure 6-6:
Order prints
from Kodak
with the
Order Prints
window.
Printing and
Publishing Photos
and Books
You can also select an album to order prints of all the photos in the
album.
182
Ordering Prints
Figure 6-7:
Log into
your Apple
account in
the Set Up
Account
dialog.
• If you already have an account: Sign in with your Apple ID (which is
the same as your .Mac ID) and password. You can skip Steps 4
through 7 if you already have an account.
• To create a new account: Click the Create Account button, which
takes you to another page in the Set Up Account dialog, as shown in
Figure 6-8.
Figure 6-8:
Create
a new
account
with your
personal
information.
4. Fill in your personal information and click the Continue button.
The information includes your e-mail address, a password, and a question
and answer that you can easily remember to help verify your identity in
case you forget your password.
Ordering Prints
183
5. Click the Accept button to accept the Terms of Use agreement for the
service.
6. Enter your billing information and click the Continue button.
Include your billing address, phone number, credit card information, and
preferred shipping method (standard or express).
7. Enter your shipping address and phone number and click the Continue
button.
8. Enter the quantity of prints in the far right column of the Order Prints
window for each print size.
9. Click the Buy Now button to finish your order.
Apple offers 1-Click ordering with standard encryption for keeping your
credit card and shipping information secure. If you don’t have an Apple
Store 1-Click ordering account, you are guided through the process of
setting up an account for the first time.
A low-resolution warning (exclamation point in a yellow triangle) appears if
your photo is not high enough in resolution for a particular print size. You
can still order that print size for that photo, but the quality will probably
be poor. You get the same warnings when you print at these sizes on your
own printer — if you do test prints first, you know in advance which photos
work best at which sizes. We suggest that you use the 8 x 10 size with photos
1536 x 1024 pixels or higher in resolution.
You may already have realized that the Order Prints function, which is connected to the Kodak service, is not the only way to order prints. Other services may be less expensive or offer better choices. You can easily burn a CD
with a photo album (as we describe in Chapter 3 of this minibook) and send
the CD to a photo service. Many services on the Internet accept photos
attached to e-mails or uploaded directly to a Web site — we describe both
methods later in this chapter.
Services may accept only certain file formats for photos. You can export
photos from iPhoto in appropriate file formats by selecting one or more
photos, or an entire album, and choosing File➪Export. We explain more
about how to do this later in this chapter, in the “Exporting to a photo
service” section.
Book II
Chapter 6
Printing and
Publishing Photos
and Books
To quickly fill in a quantity of one for a specific print size for multiple
photos, click the Quick Order button at the top-right corner of the Order
Prints window. Alternatively, you can scroll down and specify different
numbers and sizes for each photo. The total cost updates as you make
your selections.
184
Making Photo Books
Making Photo Books
Inexpensive desktop publishing technology provided freedom for many
small presses and publishers and also paved the way for digital photography
and other multimedia pursuits. But it was not just the graphical interface of
the computer and the rise of laser printers that brought about this change —
it was most importantly the introduction of layout tools that everyone could
use. Overnight, anyone could be a newsletter publisher, or even a magazine
or book publisher, because tools were available to help you lay out elements
on pages.
iPhoto provides an automatic book layout capability that helps anyone become
a photo book publisher. You can assemble a book from a photo album and
have it professionally printed and bound to look as good as most books on
library shelves (better, in fact, because yours hasn’t been mishandled yet).
You can create catalog-style books, picture books, portfolios, story books,
and yearbooks, or use any of the layout themes for books that defy category.
Choosing a book layout theme
With iPhoto, you can choose from among several book layout themes and
place photos in pages automatically. Your first step is to choose the photos
that you want for the photo book and assemble them into a photo album, as
we describe in Chapter 3 of this minibook.
Book layouts are based on photo albums — the sequence of photos in the
album defines the sequence of the pages in the book. If you want to change
the sequence, rearrange the photos in the album. You can create different
types of books with the same photos by creating separate photo albums for
each book. Creating a photo album for a book is no different than creating a
photo album for any other reason. We describe how to create and arrange
photos in photo albums in more detail in Chapter 3 of this minibook. To start
the process of creating a book, you choose a book layout theme:
1. Select a photo album and arrange the photos in the sequence that you
want in Organize mode.
Flip to Chapter 3 of this minibook if you need help arranging your photos.
2. Click the Book mode button.
iPhoto displays the layout of the book with photos from the selected
album with the Picture Book theme. A preview of the cover page appears
at the top, with thumbnails of subsequent pages arranged below it, as
shown in Figure 6-9.
The Picture Book theme appears by default when you first click the Book
mode button. As you can see in Figure 6-9, photos of different sizes work
well in this format, and iPhoto makes semi-intelligent choices based on
Making Photo Books
185
photo sizes — page 3, for example, places two photos side-by-side. We
describe how to fine-tune the design of pages in the next section, “Finetuning page layouts.”
3. Choose a book layout theme in the Theme pop-up menu in the
Tools pane.
The themes define the photo layout for the pages:
• Catalog: This theme places more photos on each page than other
themes. It is often used for catalogs and directories.
• Classic: The Classic theme is a standard layout for coffee-table books
with room for captions and commentary.
• Portfolio: This theme presents photos with accompanying captions
and text in a layout suitable for commercial portfolios, used by
artists and photographers to show their work.
• Story Book: With photos placed at angles and combined on the page,
this theme offers attractive choices for page layouts that allow
enough room for text.
• Year Book: This variation of the Catalog theme provides a standard
layout for college and high school yearbooks, with multiple photos
on each page.
All the themes offer special title pages and variations of the layout in
order for you to customize your book.
Figure 6-9:
The Picture
Book layout
theme.
Book II
Chapter 6
Printing and
Publishing Photos
and Books
• Picture Book: The default setting, Picture Book is commonly used
for printed photo albums and does not include any text, such as
titles or comments.
186
Making Photo Books
4. Optional: Select a page to preview and click the Preview button in the
Tools pane.
To really look at the way a theme works its magic on pages, select a page
from the row of thumbnails — scroll the row of thumbnails horizontally
to see more pages. The page that you selected appears in a separate
window, as shown in Figure 6-10.
By choosing themes and previewing pages, you can see right away what the
book looks like.
Figure 6-10:
Preview for
the Classic
photo book
theme.
Fine-tuning page layouts
After selecting a book layout theme for your photo album, you can fine-tune
the design of each page. You can even rearrange the photos in your book
while designing — you may not realize that certain photos don’t look good
together until you see the page sequence in Book mode.
When you rearrange pages in Book mode (as in moving page 5 before page 3,
and so on), the photos on those pages are also automatically rearranged in the
photo album. You can set the photo sequence for your book in either Organize
mode by rearranging photos in the album or in Book mode by rearranging
pages. If you change the arrangement in the album, the book changes as
well, and vice versa. However, you can’t delete a photo in Book mode — use
Organize mode to delete a photo from the photo album used for the book.
Making Photo Books
187
Locking pages and saving your work
As you change the number of photos on a page,
or change the order of pages that have multiple
photos, the change affects the pages that come
afterwards. The best way to design pages is to
work forward in sequence from the cover page
and page one. When you make changes that
ripple across the page sequence, you can
decide whether you like the changes, and if you
do, you can lock the page by checking the Lock
Page check box in the Tools pane. From that
point, changes made to other pages do not
affect the locked page.
As for saving your work, you don’t have to:
iPhoto keeps track of your Book mode settings
for the photo album you select. But if you want
to change the book layout while preserving the
layout you just created, you can do this by
making a duplicate copy of the photo album;
just choose File➪Duplicate.
Each theme offers options for laying out pages. For example, in Figure 6-11,
page 7 shows two slides on the page. By changing the number of photos on
the page in the Page Design pop-up menu in the Tools pane, you can add or
delete a photo to this page.
Figure 6-11:
Change the
number
of photos
per page.
Printing and
Publishing Photos
and Books
To rearrange pages, click the page and drag it to the new location in the
sequence. While you drag, the sequence scrolls horizontally to reveal more
pages, so you can drag a page from the beginning to the end.
Book II
Chapter 6
188
Making Photo Books
The Page Design pop-up menu, available for each theme, provides layouts for
✦ Cover: The cover page of the book.
✦ Introduction: The introduction page, which may have room for text.
✦ One: A book page layout with one photo on the page.
✦ Two, Three, Four, and so on: Book page layouts with two, three, four, or
more photos on the page (menu options change depending on theme).
Options that also appear in the Tools pane for each theme include the
following:
✦ Titles: Select the Titles check box to include titles. By default, the title
(or caption) for each photo in the book is the photo’s title in the photo
library.
✦ Comments: Select the Comments check box to add comments to your
book. Comments for photos in your photo library are, by default, used
as comments in layouts that offer space for them.
✦ Page Numbers: iPhoto automatically numbers the pages of your book, but
you can opt not to use page numbers by deselecting the Page Numbers
check box.
Editing titles and captions
The titles and comments that you assign to your photos can automatically
be used as titles and captions in books. In each layout theme, you can also
add more text — to the title and introduction page, and in some themes, to
captions. If your comments are like ours, “Daddy falls in the creek to much
applause,” and not meant to be real captions, adding more text is useful.
If you are ordering a print of this book, check it first for spelling errors and
typos. You can use the Spelling options in iPhoto’s Edit menu; first select the
text to be spell checked, and then choose Edit➪Spelling.
If the yellow caution triangle appears when editing titles and captions, it
means that the entered text will not fit in the text field of the printed book.
You need to either choose a smaller font, or better yet, edit the text to reduce
the number of characters, or the book may not print properly.
You can edit the text on pages by clicking directly in the text fields of the
layout in the preview pane. The preview pane increases the size of the image
within the pane, so that you can see clearly to type. You can increase or
decrease the size by dragging the size control slider on the right side under
the row of page thumbnails.
Making Photo Books
189
To change the text font and style, follow these steps:
1. Drag over the text in the field to select it.
2. Choose Edit➪Font➪Show Fonts or press Ô+T.
The Fonts window appears, as shown in Figure 6-12.
Book II
Chapter 6
Printing and
Publishing Photos
and Books
Figure 6-12:
Change the
font in the
Fonts
window.
3. Select a different font and/or style.
The selections that you make in the Fonts window change the appearance of the text in the preview pane in Book mode. You can’t increase
the size of the text beyond the text field length because these layouts
adhere strictly to the themes. In general, the font changes that you make
to a caption on a page affect all the captions on all the pages.
To select a font, choose a family (such as Baskerville), a typeface style
within that family (such as Bold Italic), and the size of the font.
The Extras pop-up menu provides many font options for using fonts with
Mac OS X applications. Some of these options are useful for text in iPhoto,
including
• Show Preview/Hide Preview: Shows or hides a preview of the font
settings right in the Fonts window. (You can drag the window to be
larger to see both the preview and the font settings.)
• Show Characters: Displays the Character Palette window with
Japanese, Chinese, Cyrillic, Greek, and special symbols that you can
insert into your text.
190
Making Photo Books
• Color: Assigns a color to the text. Keep in mind that the font color is
part of the defined book theme.
• Get Fonts: Launches your Web browser and takes you to the page on
the Apple site for buying fonts for the Mac.
4. Click the Close button to close the Font window.
If you want to create a more flexible page layout, well, that’s what page
layout programs are for! (We recommend Adobe PageMaker.)
Previewing and printing books
Previewing your book on your Mac is the best way to see quickly whether
the photos look right on the page. Printing is the best way to see whether
the photos print well and to catch any spelling errors or typos.
To preview the book, select any page from the row of thumbnails, and click
the Preview button in the Tools pane to see that page in a separate window
(refer to Figure 6-10). You can jump page by page with the arrow buttons,
and you can turn on the Show Guides option at the top of the window to see
the text box outlines.
To print the book, first set up the pages for your printer using File➪Page
Setup, as we describe earlier in this chapter in the section, “Setting up pages
for your desktop printer.” Then follow these steps:
1. Choose File➪Print in Book mode.
The Print dialog appears with the first page from the book displayed in a
preview pane.
2. Make changes to the settings.
The Print dialog for printing books offers the following settings: Printer,
Presets, Copies, Preview button, Save As PDF, and Advanced Options.
See the section, “Printing Photos,” earlier in this chapter for more on
printing options. Even without a printer, you can see how the book will
look by clicking the Preview button in the Print dialog. You can then
browse the entire photo book in Preview mode, clicking thumbnails to
reveal pages, as shown in Figure 6-13.
3. Click the Print button.
You can save the book as a PDF file, which is accepted by many printing and
publishing services. You can save an entire book as a PDF file and then attach
that PDF to an e-mail message. You can also post PDF files on Web sites. You
can save time and money by saving the book as a PDF, and then printing it
on a black-and-white printer to check for spelling errors or other mistakes
before you order a printed book.
Making Photo Books
191
Book II
Chapter 6
Printing and
Publishing Photos
and Books
Figure 6-13:
Previewing
the book
page from
the Print
dialog.
Ordering professionally printed books
iPhoto links you directly to an online print service where you can order professionally printed and bound versions of your book. When you first use the
service, you can either log into your existing Apple account or set up an
account with your credit card, as we describe earlier in this chapter in the
“Ordering prints” section.
The hardback books are covered in elegant linen, and they measure 9 x 11.25
inches. Note: The minimum number of pages for a book is ten pages; if you
order a book with less, you end up with blank pages. You can duplicate a
photo in the album and create another introduction page, add more photos,
or reduce the number of photos per page to create enough pages.
To order books, you need to connect to the Internet. Then follow these steps:
1. Click the Order Book button in Book mode or the Order Book icon in
Organize mode.
iPhoto converts your book layout into a form that can be transferred to
the book printing service. Depending on how big your book is, transferring may take a few minutes. The Apple Order Book window appears, as
shown in Figure 6-14.
192
Making Photo Books
Figure 6-14:
Use the
Apple online
book ordering service
to order
a book.
If you get a warning message about low-quality images, it means that you
ignored previous warning indicators about printing those images at certain sizes. The photos might be cropped and lower in resolution than their
original versions; if so, you can revert back to the original version of the
photo by selecting it in Organize mode and choosing Photos➪Revert to
Original. If the photos were taken at low resolution, one work-around is
to increase the number of photos on the page, using the Design Page popup menu for that page (in Book mode). Using more photos on the page
reduces the size of the photo but doesn’t reduce its resolution, so the
photo looks and prints better.
2. Select the cover’s color and the quantity in the Color Cover
pop-up menu.
You can make color choices such as black, burgundy, light gray, or navy
for the cover of the book.
3. Click the Set Up Account button.
You need to set up your account with a credit card for billing, as we
describe earlier in this chapter in the “Ordering prints” section.
4. Follow the on-screen instructions to make the purchase.
Follow the instructions (the helpful folks at Apple are always improving
them) to finish the purchase process.
Sharing Photos Online
193
Sharing Photos Online
Did you jump right to this section of the book when you first opened it?
Going online creates a whole new set of possibilities with your photos. You
can do projects you never considered before — a school play, the family
vacation, even business opportunities. Whatever the purpose is for using
photos, you can probably do it cheaper and easier online.
The fastest and easiest way to get photos in the hands of others is through
e-mail. But you can also share photo albums by using online photo services
(many of which also offer high-quality prints of digital photos). You can even
publish your photos on a Web page, whether you have a site of your own
or not.
Besides browsing the Web, sending e-mail with a photo is perhaps the most
common use of the Internet. E-mail is a great way to send a photo to one
person or a thousand people (although we discourage spamming — please
don’t send us your baby photos unless we know you). Of course, you can
even combine several photos in one e-mail, but if you send high-resolution
photos, the e-mail may be too large to send. Adding one photo to an e-mail
message is easy and almost always works.
iPhoto works with your e-mail program. You can set up your e-mail program
by choosing iPhoto➪Preferences and selecting an e-mail application in the
Mail pop-up menu. For example, we use the Mail application provided with
Mac OS X.
If you have an e-mail account and you’re ready to send a message, attaching
a photo is simple. Follow these steps:
1. Select a photo in Organize mode.
2. Click the Email icon in the Tools pane.
The Mail Photo dialog appears, as shown in Figure 6-15.
Figure 6-15:
Choose
a size for
photos to
e-mail in the
Mail Photo
dialog.
Printing and
Publishing Photos
and Books
Sending photos as e-mail attachments
Book II
Chapter 6
194
Sharing Photos Online
3. Choose a size for the image in the Size pop-up menu.
Choose from the following sizes: Small (240 x 320), Medium (640 x 480),
Large (1280 x 960), or Full Size (full quality). To find out more about sizing
photos for e-mail, see the sidebar, “Sizing photos for e-mail,” elsewhere
in this chapter.
4. Select the Titles and the Comments check boxes to include titles and
comments if you want.
iPhoto includes the title and comment in the text part of the e-mail message. iPhoto also puts the title into the subject field of the e-mail.
5. Click the Compose button.
iPhoto processes your photos into the standard JPEG format for e-mail
attachments and then launches your mail application with a new message featuring the photo, as shown in Figure 6-16.
Figure 6-16:
An e-mail
message
ready to
send with
a photo.
6. Add the e-mail recipient’s address and a subject line.
7. Save or send the e-mail message.
If you want to send the photo in its original file format or use PDF as a file
format (for a photo book, for example), don’t use the Email icon. First create
a new e-mail message and leave its window open. Then switch to iPhoto and
drag the thumbnail for the photo (to copy a photo in its original format)
directly into the message window to attach the file. To attach a PDF file, you
Sharing Photos Online
195
have to save it on your hard drive first from iPhoto by choosing File➪Print
and then clicking the Save As PDF button. You can then use the Mail application to attach the PDF file to the message.
Exporting to a photo service
Apple offers the .Mac service for all Mac users (for a fee, of course). One of
its major benefits is the capability to share photos with others over the
Internet in the form of a slideshow. Online photo services would also love
your business. Besides offering prints, many offer online photo albums that
you can publish on the Internet to share with friends in a slideshow format.
Follow these steps for exporting photos to photo services:
1. Select one or more photos, or an entire album, in Organize mode.
2. Choose File➪Export.
The Export Photos dialog appears, as shown in Figure 6-17.
Figure 6-17:
Export a
photo with
the Export
Photos
dialog.
3. Click the File Export tab.
The File Export pane appears, with options for exporting photos into
different file formats.
Book II
Chapter 6
Printing and
Publishing Photos
and Books
To send your photos to an online service, you must follow the instructions
provided by the service. Many services accept photos attached to e-mails or
uploaded directly to their sites. Before sending photos, be sure that your
photos are in the format the service accepts. You can export photos from
iPhoto into the appropriate format.
196
Sharing Photos Online
4. Select the appropriate file format from the Format pop-up menu.
The Format pop-up menu provides the following formats:
• Original: The original format for the photo. (The format used by the
digital camera, typically JPEG.)
• JPG: Short for JPEG (Joint Photographic Experts Group), the standard image format for Web pages. Use this choice to make sure the
photo is in a standard version of JPEG (if your digital camera’s
format is specialized).
• TIFF: Tagged Image File Format, the standard format for desktop publishing software.
• PNG: Portable Network Graphics format, a new standard designed
to replace the GIF format that’s used extensively on the Web for
graphics.
Be sure to select the format that the photo service requires. Most services support the JPEG and TIFF formats.
You can specify the image size and filename in the File Export tab. Keep
the Use Extension option selected if you want the filename to have a
standard extension that identifies the file’s format — this is usually the
case, especially with online services.
5. Click the Export button and choose a folder for saving the file.
Sizing photos for e-mail
The Size pop-up menu in the Mail Photo dialog
offers size choices, and we recommend the
following:
Choose the Small setting (240 x 320) to keep
e-mail attachments small. The photo resizes to
240 x 320 pixels, which is good enough for many
tasks, such as announcing a new baby or sending someone a birthday photo.
Choose the Medium setting (640 x 480) if you
want to send photos that occupy a nice portion
of a typical monitor but not create too large of
an attachment.
Choose the Large setting (1280 x 960) if you are
sending samples of your photos to others who
will print them. The higher the resolution for
printing, the better quality the print result —
and the attachment is probably still small
enough to pass under the attachment size limits
of most Internet service providers.
Choose the Full Size (full quality) setting only
when sending photos to photo services for
making prints, or when high quality is absolutely
necessary, such as the rare occasion when you
publish photos in a magazine. The attachment
may be too large for some Internet service
providers. E-mail servers choke on large
attachments, and you may get a polite message
from your service provider informing you that
the attachment is too large.
Sharing Photos Online
197
After exporting photos to your hard drive, follow the instructions from the
online service to upload the files to the service.
Publishing photos on Web pages
Publishing on the Web is by far the most universal method of distributing
photos online. Everyone in the world can see your photos on a Web page —
as long as they can find the Web page. (You can create a Web page whose
address you never tell anyone, but Google may still find it!)
With HomePage on the .Mac service, others can see your photos on your
Web page hosted by Apple. You must first have a .Mac account, which you
can set up by visiting the Apple site and registering with a credit card, as
described in the “Ordering prints” section, earlier in this chapter.
Follow these steps to use the HomePage feature of the .Mac service:
1. Select the photos you want to publish in Organize mode.
You can select multiple photos or an entire photo album. You can even
publish an entire library.
2. Click the HomePage icon in the Tools pane.
The Publish HomePage window appears, with the photos that you
selected.
3. Choose a theme and layout option for the Web page.
Pick a theme for framing and placing the photos on the Web page from
the scrolling list of thumbnails on the right side of the Publish HomePage
window, as shown in Figure 6-18. The Layout options, at the bottom-left
corner of the Publish HomePage window, offer two choices: two-column
or three-column.
4. Edit the title and caption for the Web page.
You can edit the title and caption for the page by clicking inside the text
area and selecting the text, and then typing your own. By default, the
text comes from the titles and comments in your photo library.
5. Drag photos to change their locations on the page if you want to
change the photo sequence.
Book II
Chapter 6
Printing and
Publishing Photos
and Books
You can publish photos on the Web by using iPhoto in two ways: Use the
HomePage feature of the .Mac service, or export your photos and upload
them to a site on the Internet (or e-mail them to a hosting service). With Web
publishing software, you can set up a Site folder on your hard drive where
you can temporarily store exported photos until posting them to the Web.
198
Sharing Photos Online
Figure 6-18:
Choose
a theme
for the
Web page.
6. Select the Send Me a Message check box if you want iPhoto to add a
Feedback button on your HomePage.
Anyone viewing your Web page can send you an iCard by clicking the
Feedback button that .Mac places on your Web page.
7. Select the Counter check box to display a counter on your HomePage.
A counter keeps track of how many times the page is viewed.
8. Select a HomePage site to publish to in the Publish To pop-up menu.
9. Click the Publish button.
iPhoto automatically sends the photos to the Web site and creates the Web
page. A message displays telling you publishing was successful and gives
you the address of the HomePage so that you can tell others.
To view your HomePage, type the address into your Internet browser. The
address is homepage.mac.com/membername (substitute membername with
your name). Figure 6-19 shows an example.
To make changes to your HomePage or to set up a password to protect
access to your HomePage, go to www.mac.com and click the HomePage icon.
You can make changes, preview the page, and republish the page from your
browser.
Sharing Photos Online
199
Book II
Chapter 6
If you already have a Web site, use the Export command to create HyperText
Markup Language (HTML) pages with your photos included, and then use
your usual method of uploading the pages to your site.
The Export function does not use layouts — its no-frills design is simple and
easy to modify with any HTML editing program. To publish a Web page of
photos by using the Export button, follow these steps:
1. Select one or more photos, or an entire album, in Organize mode.
2. Choose File➪Export.
iPhoto displays the Export Photos dialog.
3. Click the Web Page tab.
The Web Page pane appears, as shown in Figure 6-20.
4. Customize the page layout.
You can specify the number of columns and rows for the photo thumbnails, and the background color and text color. The Web page uses
thumbnails as links to larger-size photos. You can specify the size of the
thumbnails in the Thumbnails section, and the size of the larger image in
the Image section. You can also choose to show titles and comments.
5. Click the Export button and save the page on your hard drive.
The main page with thumbnails and the associated photos are saved
in files ready to be uploaded to your Web site. You can open the pages
Printing and
Publishing Photos
and Books
Figure 6-19:
The
published
HomePage
on the Web.
200
Sharing Photos Online
in a Web browser, even though they exist only on your hard drive until
you upload them to your site. Figure 6-21 shows the main page with
thumbnails — viewers click a thumbnail to see the larger version of the
photo.
Figure 6-20:
Export a
Web page
with photos
to any site.
Figure 6-21:
The page
offers
thumbnails
that link to
larger
versions of
the photos.
Book III
iMovie
Contents at a Glance
Chapter 1: Digital Moviemaking ........................................................................................203
Chapter 2: Importing Video, Audio, and Photos..............................................................215
Chapter 3: Organizing and Improving Video Clips..........................................................231
Chapter 4: Editing Movies and Sound ..............................................................................253
Chapter 5: Viewing and Sharing Movies ..........................................................................287
Chapter 1: Digital Moviemaking
In This Chapter
Reviewing moviemaking and what you can do with iMovie
Using a digital camcorder and video shooting techniques
Touring iMovie and what you need to run it
V
ideo is so pervasive in our world that nearly everybody on the planet
has seen it. Ordinary citizens have used camcorders to record violent
weather, exchanges between police and suspects, home bloopers, weddings,
and school plays. As the wise sage (and wisecracking baseball player) Yogi
Berra once said, “You can observe a lot just by watching.” People pay more
attention to events and people that are the subjects of video clips.
Making home movies is nothing new. But even with the best analog camcorder, you can’t edit a video. Before iMovie, you had to rent or buy thousands of dollars worth of video editing gear and use complicated software to
edit videos — most home users couldn’t afford that equipment, and so they
had no way to edit their videos. With iMovie, you can not only edit your
video clips, you can also improve them by adding transitions and special
effects, matching the audio with the video or adding music, and creating a
final movie with just the scenes you want. You can then copy the movie to
your camcorder’s tape cassette, watch the movie on TV, save the movie as a
QuickTime file for use elsewhere, or even burn a DVD of the movie to use in
DVD players.
Digital technology makes video editing easy, cheaper, and more fun to make,
opening up entirely new possibilities. You’ll find that with a Mac, iMovie, and
a digital camcorder, creating video clips for the Web or producing DVDs or
videotapes of weddings and other events is simple.
What You Can Do with iMovie
iMovie provides the basic, no-frills editing tools you need to put together a
movie from a set of video clips. You can navigate freely from scene to scene,
and save your edits and changes in digital format without the use of videotape. The result is a digital video movie you can save as a QuickTime file or
dump back to digital videotape without any loss in quality.
204
What You Can Do with iMovie
If you aren’t that familiar with video, the following list explains what you can
do to create and produce a movie with iMovie. Although you may do these
steps in sequence, you can go back and redo many of these steps over and
over until your movie is exactly the way you want. With iMovie, you can do
the following:
✦ Shoot the video and transfer it to your computer. Use a digital camcorder to record video, which of course includes audio (unless you’re
making a silent movie or adding sound later). Whatever you shoot
becomes the basis for your movie.
iMovie allows you to import your digital video footage with one click, and
it automatically separates the scenes for you into clips. You can then
pick out the good parts, snip out the slow or boring parts, shuffle scenes
around to your heart’s content, and add sound.
✦ Edit the video clips. Use iMovie to organize and edit your clips, and to
trim unwanted parts at the beginnings and endings (but make sure you
don’t lose any important sounds by trimming). You can edit the scenes
in the timeline viewer and synchronize the audio to the video. Import
photos from iPhoto or create still images from video scenes to mix in
with your movie. Find out how to do tight editing, and how to establish a
shot and create cutaways and cut-ins to make your movie more effective
and interesting to watch.
✦ Add special video effects and documentary-style effects for photos.
You can spiff up your video with visual effects like Lens Flare, Aged Film,
Letterbox, and Electricity. Want to sprinkle a glittering trail of fairy dust
over a festive scene? iMovie lets you do that, and you can even decide at
which point in the frame you want to use it. iMovie also enables you to
add haunting visual effects such as fog and ghost trails to your movies in
seconds. You can bring your photos from iPhoto to life with professional
documentary-style impact, using pan and zoom effects.
✦ Arrange the video clips in a sequence using a timeline, adding transitions between scenes. Use iMovie to flow from scene to scene just right.
iMovie offers smooth transitions to make your video look professional.
✦ Edit the sound. Video includes sound, and you can add even more
sound to your movie three different ways:
• Use one of the included sound effects to augment the sound from the
video.
• Add a musical track from a CD, from your own iTunes library, or a
song you created in GarageBand and exported to your iTunes library.
You may want to fade music behind the sound from the video and
use it for transitions.
• Record your own voiceover. You can use iMovie to record directly
into an audio track.
What You Can Do with iMovie
205
✦ Add titles and credits. When you’re done editing, you can add text as
end credits, rolling commentary, or opening titles. You can choose from
several styles and customize the text color and font.
✦ Save the final version and make copies. You can copy your movie to
digital videotape (such as the cassette used in your camcorder), or save
it as a QuickTime file for publishing on the Web and distributing by
CD-ROM or other methods. You can send the movie over to iDVD to
create a DVD with menus and everything that can play on any DVD
player. You can even copy the movie to conventional videotape, all without any loss in quality, because the information is in digital form.
Don’t let the reduced image quality of Web video keep you from publishing
videos on the Web. Even though image quality suffers when you shrink
movies in size to put them on the Internet, video is a very effective medium
for communicating your message.
What you need for iMovie
Although iMovie makes video editing easy, you need a fairly robust Mac, and
if you want to create your own DVDs, you need an Apple-supported DVD-R
drive (such as the Apple SuperDrive).
Book III
Chapter 1
Why is video editing easier now?
Digital technology took a while to reach the
professional video editing room, but when it
did, it transformed video editing completely.
Professional video editing changed as digital
video hardware replaced older, more expensive videotape controllers. The ability to edit the
video changed dramatically with digital video
compression technology, which allowed editors to store and edit video on a hard drive without compromising quality.
iMovie is an even further improvement on digital editing, providing editing tools for people
with no background in video editing. With
iMovie, you can navigate freely from scene to
scene in any manner, and save your edits and
changes in digital format on a hard drive without the use of videotape. Digital copies are
exact duplicates, and so there is no loss in
quality in the copies. You can edit to your
heart’s content without ever sacrificing the
original quality of the video.
Digital
Moviemaking
Video editing in the past conjures up images of
darkened rooms with dedicated technicians
tending to large tape machines surrounded by
huge consoles with thousands of levers, knobs,
and buttons. To edit videotape professionally,
technicians of yesteryear had to create a
master tape by literally cutting and splicing
together pieces of tape. Eventually, machines
were invented that synchronized two tape
decks with time code so that editors could provide a list of editing changes associated with
time codes, and the machines would do the
work of creating a master tape from other
tapes. Any copy made of the master videotape
was inferior in quality, and the quality degraded
even further with copies of copies.
206
What You Can Do with iMovie
If you don’t have the right equipment, or the money to invest in new equipment (none of this is cheap), you can send your files to a service to be converted to DVD. Or you can use iMovie on one Mac and later transfer the
project to another iMac with a DVD-R drive.
To use iMovie, you need the following requirements at a minimum:
✦ A digital video (DV) camcorder to record your footage and to convert
older footage and other video sources to the digital format.
✦ DV cassette tapes (called mini-DV in camcorders) to store the digital
video you capture with the camcorder.
✦ A Mac with a FireWire port to connect your camcorder and control it
from iMovie.
✦ A FireWire cable to connect your camcorder to the Mac. FireWire is also
known as IEEE 1394 DV terminal. The cable has a camcorder-style (very
small) connector on one end and a standard FireWire connector for the
Mac on the other end.
✦ Gigabytes of free space on your hard drive to store and edit video clips.
We typically use an 80GB hard drive for a small video project (half an
hour of video). Video data occupies about 3.6MB of storage space per
second — roughly 7GB for 30 minutes.
✦ At least 256MB of RAM, Mac OS X version 10.1.5 or later, and QuickTime
version 6 or later.
With iMovie, you can record directly to your hard drive without tape, but
your camcorder must be connected to the Mac. Although this makes sense
for interviews or other situations in which the camcorder is stationary, your
ability to move freely is severely hampered (unless you have an assistant
running after you, carrying a PowerBook running on batteries — it may look
silly, but it actually works). You’ll find no qualitative difference in recording
to the hard drive or to the DV cassette in the camcorder, but the cassette is
more convenient.
Why you need a digital video camcorder
If you’re thinking about buying a camcorder, you should consider buying a
digital camcorder. Digital video makes all former methods of recording video
obsolete. You’ll find many advantages for digital video over analog video:
✦ You can copy digital videotapes without any loss in quality.
✦ You can convert digital video on tape to digital video on your hard drive
with iMovie, which automatically detects scenes and creates individual
clips for them. iMovie controls a digital camcorder for both recording
directly to the hard drive and transferring digital video from the camcorder’s cassette.
What You Can Do with iMovie
207
✦ You can combine digital video clips into a sequence without any seams
between the clips — no weird fuzzy lines or flickers to cover up, and no
need to mask the artifacts from the analog-to-digital conversion process
that was necessary just a few years ago. The video you shoot is exactly
the same quality after the editing process.
Don’t throw out your old camcorder and forget about using analog videos.
With the level of control iMovie has over a digital camcorder, you can use a
digital camcorder for the importing of analog video by connecting your older
camcorder or VCR to your digital camcorder. We describe how to do this in
Chapter 2 of this minibook.
Why digital? What’s the difference?
Digital camcorders offer tremendous advantages over analog camcorders:
The quality is far better than ever before. Picture
quality with video depends on the horizontal resolution, which is measured across the picture
as if counting vertical lines. All video formats
(except high-definition television, or HDTV) have
the same vertical resolution, or number of lines
going down the picture. The horizontal resolution, however, varies. VHS tape offers 240 lines
of horizontal resolution, and a live TV broadcast
offers 300 lines. A digital satellite broadcast
offers 400 lines. Digital video in the mini-DV cassette format used by camcorders offers 500 lines
of horizontal resolution, resulting in a much
sharper, clearer picture.
You can make copies of copies with no loss in
quality. Digital video data lasts forever, even
though the medium for storing it doesn’t last.
Even if you make copies of copies of copies,
the digital information will still be duplicated
exactly each time. The quality of analog video,
on the other hand, deteriorates when you copy
a tape. You probably have noticed this with
VHS tapes — a copy of a tape is not nearly as
good as the original.
Book III
Chapter 1
Digital
Moviemaking
Digital camcorders are smaller and easier to
use. Digital video (DV) camcorders are smaller
because the size of the tape cartridge is smaller.
The largest DV camcorder you can buy in an
electronics store is about the same size as the
smallest 8mm camcorder of yesteryear. Small
size means more convenience, easier handling,
and longer battery life (due to less equipment to
power).
You can edit digital video with a personal computer, a hard drive, and editing software. Digital
video is data. Before you could edit video as
digital data on a hard drive, you could only use
a computer to control traditional videotape
equipment that performed editing operations
based on a list of instructions. You really didn’t
edit on the computer; your changes in an editing system translated into instructions for
the analog machines. Digital video changed all
that by providing a format for video that can
record and play back as digital information. You
can access the information — the video — at
any point, without needing to rewind or fastforward a tape.
208
Touring iMovie
If you use a standard analog camcorder that uses 8 mm (millimeter) analog
videocassettes, you can choose to buy a hybrid digital 8mm camcorder, such
as the Sony Digital8, that plays standard 8mm cassettes and also stores digital video using that format.
Don’t buy a more expensive camcorder in order to get features that you may
not need. DV camcorders offer an impressive set of features, some of which
you may never use. For example, in-camera editing is a feature that essentially
allows you to do minimal clip editing and sequencing in the camcorder (such
as the Sony camcorder that uses the Sony MiniDisc, instead of DV cassettes).
But as an iMovie user, you will probably never do in-camera editing — moving
your video clips to the iMac to edit them is much more convenient. And the
iMovie editing software gives you editing tools that are far more flexible, powerful, and easier to use than camcorder buttons.
Touring iMovie
iMovie allows you to bring multimedia elements together and place them in
a sequence over time. iMovie keeps track of all these elements, capturing
the video (including the video’s audio portion) and storing a series of video
clip files on your hard drive. You can then import other elements, such as
photos from iPhoto, music from iTunes, and even other videos saved as
QuickTime files.
Starting iMovie
On most Macs, you find the iMovie icon in the Dock, but if that’s not the case,
you can find it in the Applications folder. Double-click the icon to open iMovie.
When you start iMovie for the first time, you have a choice of opening an
existing project or creating a new one (or quitting the program). If you open
an existing project, a window appears, similar to the one in Figure 1-1.
If your display is not set to at least 1,024 x 768 or higher in the Displays preferences, you get a message from iMovie saying it can’t run. Your display’s
resolution is set to a lower number than possible, either accidentally or
intentionally. To change its resolution, follow these steps:
1. Choose System Preferences from the Apple menu in the upper-left
corner.
The System Preferences window appears.
2. Click the Displays icon.
The icon appears in the Hardware row of icons (and also, typically, in the
top row of most-used icons). The Displays pane appears.
Touring iMovie
209
3. Click the highest pixel resolution setting in the Resolutions list.
Your display must be capable of at least 1,024 x 768 pixels to run iMovie;
choose that setting or a higher one if available.
4. Select the Millions option in the Colors pop-up menu.
5. Quit System Preferences by choosing System Preferences➪Quit
System Preferences.
Now your display setting offers the best quality viewing for your movies.
You can change your display settings at any time in Mac OS X, and your
settings take effect immediately. However, if you lower the pixel resolution below 1,024 x 768 while iMovie is running, iMovie quits abruptly.
Book III
Chapter 1
Digital
Moviemaking
Figure 1-1:
The iMovie
window
after
opening a
project.
Camera/edit mode switch
iMovie monitor
Trash
Playback controls (rewind, play, play full-screen) Disk space indicator
Clip/timeline viewer (shows timeline)
Scrubber bar
Clip/timeline viewer button switch
Media panes (clips pane showing)
Media pane buttons
210
Touring iMovie
When you start iMovie for the first time, a Welcome to iMovie dialog appears,
providing the following choices:
✦ Quit: Click this button to quit the program.
✦ Open Existing Project: Click this button to open a project already stored
on your hard drive. The Mac OS X Open dialog appears, which enables
you to browse folders to select a project file.
✦ Create New Project: Click this button to create a new project.
After clicking the Create New Project button, the Save dialog appears. Type
the name for your project in the Save As text field, and click the Where pop-up
menu to locate a folder for storing the project. Click the down-arrow button to
expand the dialog into the full Mac OS X Save dialog, which enables you to
browse folders easily.
After selecting a folder to save the project, click the Save button to save it.
iMovie uses the project name as the name for both the project file, and for the
folder that contains the project file and all the video clips associated with the
project file. iMovie saves the project folder inside the folder you selected.
After creating a new project or selecting an existing project, the project
appears in the iMovie window. If you are starting a new project, the iMovie
window appears with the iMovie monitor set to all black and the Clips pane
empty.
The next time you start iMovie, the program opens automatically with the
last project you opened. You can then continue working in the project, start
a new project by choosing File➪New Project, or open another project by
choosing File➪Open Project (or File➪Open Recent, which displays a submenu of projects opened recently).
Understanding the iMovie window elements
The iMovie window elements you use most often are the following:
✦ iMovie monitor: Your video clip plays in the iMovie monitor, whether
you select the clip in the Clips pane or in the timeline or clips viewer.
✦ Clips pane: iMovie stores incoming clips in the Clips pane until you use
them in the timeline or clip viewer. The Clips pane is one of the media
panes — you switch media panes by clicking the media panes buttons.
✦ Scrubber bar: Drag the triangle along the scrubber bar to move through
(or scrub through) a clip or sequence of clips frame by frame. The scrubber bar plays whatever displays in the iMovie monitor. You can select a
single clip from the Clips pane and scrub through it, or you can create a
sequence in the timeline or clip viewer and scrub through that.
Touring iMovie
211
✦ Camera/edit mode switch: Click this switch on the scissors side to
switch to edit mode (edit video) or on the camera side to switch to
camera mode (transfer video to and from your camcorder).
✦ Clip viewer/timeline viewer switch: The clip viewer/timeline viewer
button on the far left switches the lower pane from clip viewer mode to
timeline viewer mode and vice versa.
✦ Playback controls: Use the playback controls to skip to the beginning of
a selected clip, play the clip in the iMovie monitor, or play the clip using
the entire screen.
✦ Media pane buttons: Use these buttons to show different media panes:
the Clips pane, Photos pane, Audio pane, Titles pane, Trans page, Effects
pane, and iDVD pane (refer to Figure 1-1).
✦ Timeline or clip viewer: The timeline viewer displays the video clips
over time (refer to Figure 1-1). When you click the clip viewer mode
button, the timeline viewer switches to the clip viewer, and you can see
the individual clips in the sequence.
✦ Trash: Drag unwanted video clips to the Trash to delete them and reclaim
hard drive space. However, if you empty the Trash, you can no longer
restore video clips to their original, unedited state. To empty the Trash,
choose File➪Empty Trash.
iMovie provides two modes of operation; you can switch from one mode to
the other by clicking the camera/edit mode switch:
✦ Camera mode: Click the switch on the camera side for camera mode. Use
this mode only when you’re connecting a camcorder and transferring
video. You can control the camera with the playback controls. Read Chapter 2 of this minibook to find out about transferring video and using
camera mode.
✦ Edit mode: Click the switch on the scissors side for edit mode. Use this
mode when you’re editing the movie. (Note: You can’t edit your movie
when in camera mode.) All Clip panes, editing tools, and views are available in edit mode.
The playback controls do the following:
✦ Play button: Plays the movie in the iMovie monitor.
✦ Rewind button: Moves back to the beginning of the movie.
Book III
Chapter 1
Digital
Moviemaking
✦ Hard drive space indicator: You can see how much hard drive space
you use as you work. You need at least 2GB of free storage at any time
while using iMovie. This bar turns yellow when you start running out of
memory. When it turns red, you must free up some space (usually by
emptying the Trash) in order to continue working in iMovie.
212
Video Shooting Techniques
✦ Play full-screen button: Plays the movie using the entire Mac display
(full screen). Click your mouse to stop full-screen playback and return to
the iMovie window.
✦ Arrow keys on your keyboard: Steps through the movie one frame at a
time. Press the right-arrow key to move forward, and press the left-arrow
key to move backward. Hold down the Shift key while pressing the rightor left-arrow key, and the movie plays faster (ten frames at a time).
The media pane buttons give you access to media elements and effects by
switching panes when you click them:
✦ Clips: Switches to the Clips pane, which holds transferred video clips
and imported movies.
✦ Photos: Switches to the Photos pane, providing access to your iPhoto
library and the Ken Burns photo effects.
✦ Audio: Switches to the Audio pane, providing iMovie sound effects and
access to your iTunes library.
✦ Titles: Switches to the Titles pane, which offers a set of animation effects
for creating frames with text, such as movie titles and credits.
✦ Trans: Switches to the Trans pane, which offers a set of transitions to use
between video clips.
✦ Effects: Switches to the Effects pane, which offers a set of special effects
for livening up video clips and images.
✦ iDVD: Switches to the iDVD pane, which enables you to define chapter
markers for a movie and create an iDVD project (see Book IV for more
about iDVD).
Video Shooting Techniques
A professional video looks, well, professional for many reasons. But you can
use iMovie to make a video look as professional as broadcast TV, if you have
the skills required to set up shots properly. We can’t teach that in this book —
but a lot of books exist on the topic of shooting video properly, and filming
techniques haven’t changed with the advent of digital video.
Keep these few tips in mind when shooting video:
✦ Get the shot. Quality matters, but nothing matters more than being at
the right place at the right time with your lens cap off and your camcorder ready to record. Whether you cover important news events or
document your baby’s first steps, worry about quality later.
Video Shooting Techniques
213
✦ Shoot more footage than you need. Before digital camcorders became
popular, shooting less and using the pause button often was the conventional wisdom. Editing the video was hard and expensive, if not impossible, and the audience ended up seeing everything, even the lousy footage.
Digital video reverses this logic. Shoot more than you need and edit out
the video you don’t need.
✦ The sound is better with a carefully placed microphone. Camcorders
have microphones built into them, but because you’re holding the camcorder, what you hear is mostly what is right around you (including your
own heavy breathing or comments if you’re not careful). That faraway
sound you hear in a home video interview sounds amateurish — and
happens whenever the subject is too far away from the microphone. Use
a separate microphone (even a clip-on Lavalier microphone works well
with interview subjects) and place it appropriately to hear what you
want to hear in the video. Many camcorders allow you to connect an
external microphone for audio recording.
✦ Don’t pan or zoom too much while shooting. Camcorders have wonderful pan and zoom features, but refrain from using them except before a
shot. Zooming into a scene during a shot can make viewers uncomfortable, even nauseous, so it’s best to avoid it (unless, of course, you’re
trying to make viewers a little dizzy).
✦ Try for the best lighting conditions. You may have heard about directors
canceling movie shots because the camera operator complained that the
light wasn’t right. Good lighting is extremely important for shooting video,
as well as with still-image photography. Video captures an even smaller
range of light and darkness than photographic film, and images sometimes
lack depth (photographic film, of course, is much higher in resolution).
Videographers and cinematographers spend years developing lighting
skills, but you can read books to find out the basics.
Book III
Chapter 1
Digital
Moviemaking
✦ Keep the camcorder steady while shooting. A smooth image is probably the most distinguishing characteristic that separates home videos
from professional ones. The trick is to keep the camcorder stable —
using a tripod, if possible, is the best way to solve this problem. Some
camcorders offer image stabilization, which smoothes out the shakes and
jiggles that show up when your camcorder is unsteady (such as when
you’re walking and shooting at the same time). If you can’t use a tripod,
use anything — a table, a window ledge, a tree stump, a body part — or
at least lean against something to help you keep the camera steady.
214
Book III: iMovie
Chapter 2: Importing Video,
Audio, and Photos
In This Chapter
Importing video clips from a digital camcorder
Importing video from other sources
Importing photos from iPhoto and music from iTunes
W
hen you start making a video, you may be thinking only about how to
shoot the video clips. But you can add a lot more with iMovie. Your
wedding video may be a bit more interesting and romantic with a sound track
or perhaps even a voice-over narration. You may want to add embarrassing
photos of your parents to spice it up. And what about putting in those really
embarrassing photos, and adding sound effects to enhance them?
You can import video and other elements at any time in the process of making
a movie. You can even import new shots to replace older ones that don’t work
out. You can also use one Mac to do all your video importing, and then copy
the iMovie project folder to another Mac to do editing. Because the video is in
digital format, you have the flexibility to copy the video files anywhere — to
backup drives, CD-ROM, the camcorder’s DV cassette, and even to removable
media such as large-capacity Zip drives.
Using a DV Camcorder
Camcorders not only record video onto digital video (DV) tape, they also can
play back the video you record. Recording and playing video are accomplished in two separate modes:
✦ Camera mode records the video. When your camcorder is in camera
mode, its microphone and lens are ready to record when you press the
Record button.
✦ VTR (video tape recorder) or VCR mode plays back the video you
record. When the camera is in VTR/VCR mode, the camcorder plays what
is on the DV tape cassette when you press the Play button (you can also
rewind and fast forward). Some camcorders call this “edit” mode.
216
Using a DV Camcorder
Just to confuse you (actually, not, but some people find it confusing), iMovie
has its own camera and edit modes, as described in Chapter 1 of this
minibook.
Most DV camcorders also keep track of the time and date and store that information with the video. When you first use a new DV camcorder, be sure to set
your camcorder’s date and time in order for the date and time to be correct
when the video transfers to iMovie.
Connecting a DV camcorder
To use your camcorder with iMovie and transfer video to your computer, connect the camcorder and let iMovie do the rest.
To connect your DV camcorder to your Mac:
1. Locate the FireWire cable (your digital camcorder likely came with one).
These cables are also available commercially. FireWire is also known as
IEEE 1394 DV terminal or i.Link; the cable will have a camcorder-style
(very small) square connector on one end and a standard FireWire connector (also known as the six-pin connector) for the Mac on the other end.
2. Connect the camcorder to the Mac by using the FireWire cable.
Locate the FireWire connection on the camcorder and plug the square
connector into it. Find the FireWire port on your Mac (it’s marked by the
radioactive Y symbol), and plug the larger six-pin connector into it.
3. Turn your camcorder to camera mode or VTR/VCR mode.
If you are recording video directly to a hard drive, without using DV tape,
choose camera mode and read the upcoming section, “Recording video
directly to a hard drive.”
If you are importing prerecorded video from DV tape cassette, choose
VTR/VCR mode and read the section, “Importing clips from DV tape,”
later in this chapter.
Before you start transferring video from your camcorder to your Mac, if your
camcorder has a sleep mode, make sure it’s disabled or set to a time increment long enough to allow your video to play in full at normal speed. If possible, connect AC power to the camcorder during this process to save battery
life. Having the camera go into sleep mode or having the batteries die while
you’re transferring video to your Mac could cost you time, as you may need to
start transferring video again from the beginning of the cartridge.
After you connect and power on your camcorder, double-click the iMovie
icon to start the program. Refer to Chapter 1 of this minibook for details.
Using a DV Camcorder
217
You can transfer video into clips in a new project or an existing project. To
open an existing project, choose File➪Open Project. To start a new project,
choose File➪New Project.
Note: Deciding what hard drive you use to save the project folder is important.
iMovie uses the project folder to store copious quantities of video data, which
occupies about 3.6MB of storage space per second, and roughly 7GB for 30
minutes. If you have more than one hard drive, pick the fastest one — an internal hard drive is usually faster than an external FireWire hard drive. Don’t save
your project file onto removable media, such as Zip or Jaz drives, which are
not fast enough for digital video recording, and don’t even think of using floppies or the network iDisk.
Recording video directly to a hard drive
You can use a DV camcorder with iMovie to record video directly from the
camcorder’s lens and microphone to your hard drive, without wasting DV
tape. You can record directly to the hard drive if your Mac is connected to
the camcorder while recording. The benefit is that you can record scenes
freely, delete clips you don’t want as they appear in iMovie, and re-record
scenes as you need to, up to the limit of your hard drive space, without using
up DV tape. When recording directly to your hard drive, what you see on the
iMovie monitor is automatically saved in a video clip.
To control the DV camcorder from iMovie and record directly to the hard
drive, follow these steps:
1. Make sure that your camcorder is powered up in its camera mode and
that iMovie is running.
Camera mode is the camcorder’s mode for recording. However, don’t
press the Record button unless the camcorder requires a cassette to
record.
2. In iMovie, click the camera/edit mode switch on the camera side to
switch to camera mode (if iMovie didn’t switch modes automatically).
Importing Video,
Audio, and Photos
With most DV camcorders, you put the camcorder in camera mode, but
don’t press the Record button on the camcorder to record on tape — in fact,
you don’t need a tape cassette in the camcorder. Because you are recording
directly to the hard drive, you don’t use the camcorder’s record-to-tape
mechanism — the video goes straight from the camcorder’s circuitry to your
computer. However, some camcorders don’t pass the video through in this
manner, and the opposite is true: You must insert a DV tape cassette and
press the Record button. If this is the case, you can still record directly to
the hard drive with the tape paused (or record to tape at the same time, and
then rewind the tape to record over later).
Book III
Chapter 2
218
Using a DV Camcorder
If iMovie already detects the camcorder, it may switch to camera mode
automatically. The Import button appears under the iMovie monitor
window in camera mode.
You can now see in the iMovie monitor what the camcorder is picking
up. You may also hear an echo of every sound because everything the
camcorder picks up is played through your Mac speakers. You can turn
down the sound by clicking and dragging the volume slider underneath
the iMovie monitor on the right side.
3. Click the Import button.
iMovie stores the video information directly to the hard drive and a new
clip appears in the Clips pane, as shown in Figure 2-1.
4. Click the Import button again, or press the spacebar, to stop capturing
video.
When you stop, iMovie automatically sets itself up to store another clip
in the Clips pane. You can repeatedly click the Import button to start
and stop recording; each time you start over, you create a new clip.
That’s all there is to it. We describe how to play back these clips in the later
section, “Playing Your Clips.” (Where else?)
Figure 2-1:
A clip
captured
directly to
the hard
drive from a
camcorder.
Using a DV Camcorder
219
Recording video from the iSight camera
If you use iChat A/V with an iSight digital camcorder for videoconferencing,
you can also record the video you capture with the iSight and bring it right
into iMovie. The iSight is a lightweight portable camera capable of recording
high-quality audio and video that connects to your Mac by a FireWire cable
that also provides power to the camera from your Mac. iMovie automatically
converts the video from the special YUV format for videoconferencing to digital video, so that you can create movies with the footage.
To use iSight, you must be using a PowerMac G3, G4, or G5 running at 600
megahertz (MHz) or faster, and you must be able to use iChat A/V. Follow
these steps to record video using the iSight camera with iMovie:
1.
2.
3.
4.
Quit any other applications that use iSight (such as iChat A/V).
Open the privacy shutter on your iSight, and make sure the lens is open.
In iMovie, click the mode switch to set iMovie to camera mode.
Click the triangle to the left of the camera mode switch and choose
iSight from the pop-up menu.
5. Click the Record with iSight button.
The video you see in the iMovie monitor is also recording as a clip in the
Clips pane.
Book III
Chapter 2
6. Click the Record with iSight button again to stop recording.
Importing clips from DV tape
While you can record video directly to the hard drive (as described in the
“Recording video directly to a hard drive” section, earlier in this chapter), you
will most likely want to record onto DV tape cassette so that you can take your
camcorder everywhere and record anything. Recording onto tape also assures
that you have another copy of the video you shot after you transfer the video
to your Mac. You can take your camcorder anywhere, and then come back to
your Mac and transfer all the video you shot to iMovie in one step.
To start controlling the DV camcorder and import already-shot video on the
camcorder’s cassette:
1. Make sure that your camcorder is powered up in its VTR/VCR play
mode and that iMovie is running.
2. In iMovie, click the camera/edit mode switch on the camera side to
switch to camera mode (if iMovie didn’t automatically switch modes).
Importing Video,
Audio, and Photos
You can record up to 9.5 minutes of video at a time as long as you have enough
hard drive space (a 9-minute clip takes about 3GB of hard drive space).
220
Using a DV Camcorder
If iMovie already detects the camcorder, it may switch to camera mode
automatically. The Import button appears under the monitor window
when iMovie is in camera mode.
3. Press the Rewind button on the camcorder to rewind the camcorder’s
cassette to the beginning of the cassette.
4. In iMovie, click the Import button.
iMovie stores the video information directly to the hard drive, and a new
clip appears in the Clips pane for each new scene, as shown in Figure 2-2.
5. Click the Import button again or press the spacebar to stop capturing
video.
When iMovie reaches the end of the prerecorded video, it stops capturing
to the hard drive. However, the camcorder may continue playing blank
tape. Stop the camera by pushing its Stop button.
You can press the Rewind button on your camcorder to rewind the tape back
to the beginning in order to set the camcorder up for recording over the material you just imported. Don’t press the Rewind button if you want to continue
recording from the point in the tape where you left off, or if you want to keep a
tape copy of your video.
Figure 2-2:
Transferring
taped video
from the DV
camcorder
to create
video clips
in iMovie.
Using a DV Camcorder
221
Automatic scene detection
When you import video into iMovie from DV tape, each scene you record automatically separates into video clips in the Clips pane. How does iMovie know
when one scene stops and another starts?
iMovie isn’t psychic; it simply checks the date and time stamp the DV camcorder puts into every frame of video on tape. When iMovie detects a break
in time — which happens when you stop recording with the camcorder, even
for just a few seconds — the next piece of footage is imported as a new clip.
Automatic scene detection is one of the outstanding virtues that sets iMovie
apart from video editing systems costing thousands of dollars.
Separating scenes into clips is helpful in editing because you can
✦ Transfer all the video automatically.
✦ Avoid doing edits to cut out scenes you don’t want.
✦ Use clips in a different order.
✦ Trim clips to make them perfect before using them.
✦ Use clips in different movies.
✦ Make clips play back seamlessly.
Automatic scene detection is, well, automatic. But you can also turn it off. Why
would you want to turn off the automatic scene detection feature? When you
want to have manual control over when each clip begins and ends. Choose
iMovie➪Preferences and deselect the Automatically Start New Clip at Scene
Break option in the General section of the Preferences window.
You can still import video the same way after turning off the automatic scene
detection feature. However, the video imports as one unbroken clip until you
press the spacebar or click the Import button again.
Pressing the spacebar is the same as clicking the Import button. If you press
the spacebar when iMovie is not capturing video, iMovie starts to capture as
if you clicked the Import button. When you press the spacebar again, the
capturing process stops.
Importing Video,
Audio, and Photos
If you are experienced at editing analog video, you may have to unlearn one
practice: worrying about the seams between the clips. With digital video, no
seams exist between clips, and using transitions, such as fade-outs, to mask
seams is not needed (although you can certainly add transitions if you
want). Simply stack the clips in order and play them; you won’t see any
seam between clips.
Book III
Chapter 2
222
Playing Your Clips
Don’t try to use the iMovie capture feature for crude editing on the fly by
capturing only some of the footage. Chances are that you will miss something important. Instead, use the iMovie frame-accurate clip trimming features, which we describe in Chapter 3 of this minibook.
Playing Your Clips
You can play video clips in the Clips pane one at a time. The clip plays from
beginning to end, and you can use the Rewind button to move back to the
beginning. To see clips in a sequence, see Chapter 4 of this minibook. To
play a single clip, click the clip in the Clips pane. The clip fills the iMovie
monitor, and iMovie automatically switches to edit mode (see Chapter 1 of
this minibook to read about iMovie modes). You can then click the iMovie
Play button to play the clip.
As the clip plays, the scrubber bar moves forward, displaying the amount of
time elapsed from the beginning of the clip. The time shows in minutes, seconds, and frames, with each separated by a colon — in Figure 2-3, the video
has reached the 22nd frame (00:22 means 00 seconds and 22 frames). You
can drag the triangle, also known as the playback head, to jump to any part
of the video clip. You can also click inside the scrubber bar at any point to
start the video from that point.
Figure 2-3:
Dragging
the scrubber
bar to jump
to a section
of the video
clip.
Importing Video from Other Sources
223
Keeping time
Understanding the iMovie time measurements
requires a bit of readjustment. iMovie displays
the time code on the scrubber bar and displays
the total time for each clip in the Clips pane. The
frame counter and other time measurements
use mm:ss:ff, where mm is the minutes, ss is the
seconds, and ff is the number of frames. U.S.
NTSC Video records at 30 frames per second,
but this counting scheme starts at zero; the first
second of video is from 00:00 to 00:29, and the
next second is 01:00 to 01:29. If a clip is shorter
than a minute, the minutes are left off.
To play back a section of the video clip over and over, click at the beginning
of the section in the scrubber bar, and after it plays, click the same spot in
the scrubber bar again.
You can use the playback controls, or the playback head in the scrubber bar,
to play whatever shows in the iMovie monitor. The playback controls are
described in Chapter 1 of this minibook in “Understanding the iMovie window
elements.”
Importing Video from Other Sources
Importing QuickTime movies
QuickTime is the Apple format for digital video. You can play a QuickTime
movie on just about any PC or Mac. You can download the QuickTime player
for free from the Apple Web site (www.apple.com). As a Mac user, you most
likely already have the standard QuickTime player (shipped with every Mac),
or perhaps you upgraded to QuickTime Pro.
You can export QuickTime files from many programs. For example, you can
create animation in a program such as Macromedia Director, save it as a
QuickTime file, and then transport the file into iMovie to use with your movie.
Importing Video,
Audio, and Photos
iMovie caters to your need to grab more and more stuff for your videos. You
can import other digital movies saved as QuickTime movies, and you can
transfer video from any source to your DV camcorder for importing. You can
even include that old film footage Grandpa shot of your father as a baby. The
video you import from other sources is most likely not the same quality, but
your viewers may not even notice the difference.
Book III
Chapter 2
224
Importing Video from Other Sources
What if the imported movie isn’t full screen?
Many QuickTime movies are made to run in a
small window, either as streaming video from
the Web or from CD-ROM, or perhaps the
QuickTime movie is an older movie created at a
time before computers were fast enough to run
digital video at full screen. When you import a
small-screen QuickTime movie, iMovie does its
best to blow it up to full-screen size when you
play it in full-screen mode by enlarging the
pixels. Unfortunately, this can result in an ugly,
coarser video picture.
Of course, digital video technology has reached
a point where DV camcorders are everywhere,
and most computers are fast enough to play
digital video full screen, so it’s likely that any
QuickTime movies you make with iMovie can
be full-screen, full-quality movies. You still have
to create a smaller-picture movie in some situations, such as when you’re publishing video
on the Web (described in Chapter 5 of this minibook), but you can still create full-screen versions to store on a hard drive and DV tape.
To import a QuickTime movie into iMovie, follow these steps:
1. Switch to edit mode if iMovie is in camera mode.
Click the switch mode button that shows a camera on one end and a scissors on the other. Click the button so that it switches to scissors (edit)
mode.
2. Choose File➪Import.
The Import dialog appears.
3. Select the QuickTime movie file and click the Open button.
QuickTime movies typically have a filename with the .mov extension (see
Figure 2-4). The QuickTime movie appears in the Clips pane of your project. You can then use it as any other video clip.
Figure 2-4:
Locate a
QuickTime
movie to
import.
Importing Video from Other Sources
225
Converting from film and video formats
You need a film projector or special film camera to play back a movie on film
(for example, those old home movies on VHS video tapes or 8mm film). You
can have film processed by a professional video service into either video
format, but the standard format is best for matching computer displays and
most TVs. Most services can dump film directly to digital videotape and can
create DVDs.
Video recorded in a non-digital format can be converted to digital using a DV
camcorder or a special converter called an analog-to-digital (A-D) converter,
and then brought into iMovie, where you can combine it with other video or
save it in a digital format. Although you don’t have to preserve commercial
videos — nearly everything ever broadcast or released is re-released in DVD
format — converting your old home movies on video or film is the best way
to preserve them.
Video in other formats, such as VHS tape, smaller camcorder cassettes, or
even locked into the commercial DVD format, can be brought into iMovie
through your DV camcorder.
With the iMovie level of control over a DV camcorder, using a DV camcorder
for the importing of analog video makes more sense than getting a costly A-D
converter, which you can’t control from iMovie.
To use a DV camcorder to convert video, and then use iMovie to import the
video, follow these steps:
1. Connect your video player’s output to your DV camcorder’s video/audio
input connectors.
A video player (VCR, cable/satellite receiver, analog camcorder, DVD
player) typically offers connectors (one RCA connector for video and
two for audio, or better yet, an S-video connector and two RCA audio
connectors) for output to a television or video receiver. A DV camcorder
typically offers either RCA-type or S-video or both, for recording (input)
into the camcorder.
2. Switch the DV camcorder to the proper mode to record from the input
connectors rather than the lens. (Instructions differ depending on the
camcorder.)
Importing Video,
Audio, and Photos
DV camcorders typically have a video-in connection for S-video or RCA-type
cables. Connect your older camcorder or VCR (or even a DVD player, cable or
satellite receiver, or any device that outputs video with RCA or S-video connectors) to your DV camcorder, and use the camcorder as an A-D converter.
Book III
Chapter 2
226
Importing Multimedia Elements
Follow the instructions that came with your DV camcorder to record
from the input connectors. Some camcorders have a special Record
button for recording from analog sources in VTR/VCR mode (separate
from the button for recording video in camera mode).
3. Turn on the DV camcorder’s record function to start recording from
the input connectors, and start playing the video on the video player.
After you start the recording process, the video played on the analog
device records in digital format on the DV camcorder’s tape. This process
preserves the video in digital format before bringing it into iMovie. You
can watch the progress of the recording on your DV camcorder’s monitor.
4. After recording video in the DV camcorder onto DV tape cassette,
start iMovie and import the video recorded to the DV tape to capture
clips for your project.
See the section, “Importing clips from DV tape,” earlier in this chapter,
for details on importing video from your digital camcorder into iMovie.
Some DV camcorders allow you to pass the analog video straight through the
camcorder to iMovie without recording it to DV tape, which saves the extra
step of recording to tape before importing. For example, the Canon ZR 60
offers an analog-digital converter mode that does not require the use of a cassette. To use this method, follow the camcorder’s instructions to prepare the
camcorder, and then read the section, “Recording video directly to a hard
drive,” earlier in this chapter.
Importing Multimedia Elements
When compiling documentaries, many filmmakers use still photos for dramatic effect rather than re-enacting a scene with actors. Ken Burns is a documentary filmmaker well known for this technique, used extensively in his
documentaries Civil War and Jazz — which is why Apple included the Ken
Burns Effect in iMovie. Often music as well as the voice of the narrator accompanies the still photos.
You can create these effects with your photos and more with iMovie. Your
digital photographs in iPhoto are instantly ready for use, as are your songs
in iTunes. We describe how to add narration and edit the audio in your
movie in Chapter 4 of this minibook.
Using photos and graphics in iPhoto
Nothing captures the essential convenience of the iLife package than opening up iMovie and clicking the Photos button, which is one of the Media pane
buttons (as described in Chapter 1 of this minibook). The Photos pane
Importing Multimedia Elements
227
replaces the Clips pane and shows your entire iPhoto library, ready for use
in your movie, as shown in Figure 2-5. Nothing could be easier.
You can even use the pop-up menu in the Photos pane to select a specific
photo album and see only those photos (refer to Figure 2-5). We describe
how to use still-image techniques in Chapter 3 of this minibook.
You can also use graphics created by chart and graph functions of spreadsheet applications, or images created in applications such as Adobe
Illustrator and Adobe Photoshop. The easiest way to do this is to import the
graphics first into iPhoto, as we describe in Book II, Chapter 2.
After you import the file into iPhoto, the image in the file becomes part of
your iPhoto library and automatically appears in the Photos pane of iMovie.
While iMovie lets you use anything in your iPhoto library, including many
different types of graphics files, not all of them look so good in digital video
format.
Book III
Chapter 2
Importing Video,
Audio, and Photos
Figure 2-5:
Clicking
the Photos
button automatically
makes your
iPhoto
library
available.
Using music and sounds in iTunes
With iLife, your music in iTunes is always, as Mick Jagger might say, just a
click away. Click the Audio button, which is one of the media pane buttons.
228
Importing Multimedia Elements
The Clips pane is replaced with the Audio pane, and your entire iTunes
music library appears, ready for use in your movie, as shown in Figure 2-6.
Figure 2-6:
iMovie
opens your
iTunes
library; sort
the tunes
by artist
or song,
or choose
different
playlists.
The music in the library appears in a list in the same order as you sort them
in iTunes. Of course, that may not be the way you want to view the list in
iMovie. You can sort the list alphabetically by artist by clicking the Artist
heading (see Figure 2-6), or by song by clicking the Song heading. You can also
select a playlist from the pop-up menu to see only the songs in the playlist,
sorted in the playlist sequence. The playlist can also be re-sorted by clicking
the Song or Artist heading. Sorting in the iMovie Audio pane does not change
your iTunes library.
You can also sort by the Time heading, which is useful if you create a playlist
of movie theme music to use for scenes and edit the music for time. A sort by
time yields a list of songs sorted by duration. You can then easily pick the
song you need to match a particular duration in your movie.
While iMovie offers a nice set of sound effects that we describe in Chapter 4
of this minibook, you may have more that you want to add, such as sounds
you create or record from other sources. You can use the following sounds:
✦ Sounds from videos: Import sounds simply as video clips. You can then
use iMovie to split the sound from the nonexistent video picture and use
only the sound. We describe how to do this in Chapter 4 of this minibook.
Importing Multimedia Elements
229
✦ Sounds from the everyday world: Record sounds right on your Mac
through its microphone using iMovie. We describe how to do this, and
how to record narration (same thing as outside sound, only different
microphone techniques) in Chapter 4 of this minibook.
✦ Sounds from CDs: Rip music straight into iTunes, as we describe in
Book I, Chapter 1.
✦ Sounds from other sources: Save sounds as digital audio files in the
AIF, WAV, MP3, QuickTime, or other formats. Import sound files first into
iTunes, as we describe in Book I, Chapter 3.
In addition, you can import digital audio files by choosing File➪Import. When
importing a digital audio file, iMovie places it in the timeline viewer rather
than the Audio pane. We describe how to edit sound in the timeline viewer in
Chapter 4 of this minibook.
Sizing photos for movies
If possible, save a copy of any graphics or still
images exactly as you want them at a 640 x 480
pixel resolution. While digital video frames are
actually 720 x 480, digital video uses rectangular pixels rather than square pixels. iMovie
compensates for the discrepancy by converting the pixels for you. You can therefore plan to
make your images fit the 4:3 aspect ratio for displaying at 640 x 480.
Book III
Chapter 2
Importing Video,
Audio, and Photos
You can modify your photos in iPhoto to be the
right size and aspect ratio for use in movies.
Fortunately, digital cameras use the same 4:3
aspect ratio as video, but you may have enough
resolution in your photos to crop your image to
the best part and use only that part of the
image. In Book II, Chapter 3, we describe how
to crop photos with the Constrain feature to
create smaller photos, but still maintain the
right ratio so that you can use the photos in a
movie that displays at 640 x 480 pixels.
230
Book III: iMovie
Chapter 3: Organizing and
Improving Video Clips
In This Chapter
Managing video clips and copying projects
Deleting and restoring video clips
Cropping, trimming, and arranging video clips
Adding documentary-style special effects to photos
Adding special effects to video clips
I
n moviemaking, the clapstick helps the sound editor synchronize sound
with picture because in film, the picture and sound are recorded separately. With video, you can record both at the same time, so you may not
need any sound synchronization except when adding more sound. But the
most important function of the slate is to help the director and editor identify a particular take in the raw footage from the cameras. As director, you
can then separate clips and rearrange them as you see fit.
Video production is similar. You can summarize the entire process of making a
movie or a video as shooting scenes, organizing and selecting the video clips
you want, trimming the clips, and arranging them in a sequence. The most
important part of moviemaking is getting the shots; the second is working
with your video clips.
This chapter explains how to organize video clips, select the ones you want
to use, and edit those clips so that they show exactly what you want them
to show. It also describes how to add motion and picture effects to clips that
run the clip in reverse, adjust contrast and brightness, change colors or
change the scene to black and white, or transform clips into visual eye candy
with simulated flash bulbs, ghost trails, mirror images, rain, fog, earthquakes,
and so on. With these effects, you can change something mundane into something visually interesting or convey feelings and emotions that you can’t capture with a camera. You can even prepare wildly vivid scenes for concert light
shows and music videos.
232
Organizing a Project
Organizing a Project
An iMovie project is a file that defines a sequence using links to media files.
The media files are photos from iPhoto, music from iTunes, and, of course,
your video clips.
iMovie creates each video clip by checking the date and time stamp as it
imports footage from your DV camcorder. With automatic scene detection,
iMovie detects each break in time — which is what happens when you stop
recording with the camcorder, even for just a few seconds — and separates
each scene from the next, storing each scene in a separate video clip file.
iMovie enables you to work on separate clips and assemble them in any
order.
Creating and saving a project
To create a project, choose File➪New Project. You can choose where to store
the project folder (we suggest in your Movies folder, inside your Home folder).
You provide a name for the project, which iMovie uses as the project folder
name. iMovie stores your imported video clips in a folder called Media,
located within your project folder (see Figure 3-1).
Figure 3-1:
iMovie
saves your
video clips
in a folder
dedicated
to your new
project.
The project document contains information about clip edits, special effects,
the sequence of clips that make the movie, and so on, while the clip files
contain the actual video footage.
The project document file by itself is meaningless without the clip files, which
is why iMovie puts them together in a single folder. If you copy only the project document file to a Zip drive or floppy disk, and bring it to another Mac,
you’ll be disappointed to find no video in your project. To copy a project, see
the following section.
Organizing a Project
233
Copying a project
You may have a need to copy an entire movie project. Here are some reasons why:
✦ To create another version of a project in order to create a different movie
using the same video clips. iMovie has no Save As command; the only way
to create a new version is to copy the project folder.
✦ To save a version of a project halfway through editing the movie, or
before adding special effects, so that you can go back to that version of
the project if you don’t like the results of editing and adding effects.
✦ To create a backup copy of the entire project for archive purposes.
✦ To move the project to another hard drive (such as another Mac).
Copying a project folder uses up lots of hard drive space — essentially doubling the space occupied by the clips, because you make a duplicate of everything. You may want to make this copy on another hard drive or removable
media, such as a high-capacity disk cartridge, or save the clips to a DV tape
(along with your original footage). We describe how to export to DV tape in
Chapter 5 of this minibook.
To copy a project folder, follow these steps:
1. Quit iMovie and locate the project folder using the Finder.
To copy the project folder to another storage device or folder, go to
Step 2. To duplicate the folder on the same hard drive, skip to Step 3.
2. In the Finder, drag the project folder to another storage device or
folder.
When you copy a folder to another storage device or a different folder,
the folder name remains. You’re done (you can skip the following steps).
3. In the Finder, select the project folder and choose File➪Duplicate.
When you duplicate a folder on the same hard drive in the same folder,
the Finder automatically adds “copy” to the end of the new folder’s name.
4. Optional: Rename the newly duplicated project document.
If you duplicate the project folder (and it now has “copy” at the end of
its name), you should also rename the project file inside the new folder
Organizing and
Improving
Video Clips
By default, the project folder is inside your Movies folder, which is inside
your Home folder — unless you saved your project elsewhere. Using the
Finder, open your Home folder to find the Movies folder, and open the
Movies folder to find your project folder. (To find out how to use the
Finder, see Mark L. Chambers’ most excellent book, Mac OS X All-in-One
Desk Reference For Dummies, published by Wiley Publishing, Inc.)
Book III
Chapter 3
234
Organizing Clips
to have the same name as the project folder, to differentiate the copied
project file from the original.
Although you can rename the project folder and project file in the Finder, don’t
rename or delete any of the clip files in the Media folder using the Finder. You
can use iMovie to rename clips and to delete them, as we describe later in this
chapter in the “Renaming a clip” and “Deleting clips and emptying the Trash”
sections. iMovie controls the actual filenames for video clips. If you rename the
video clips in the Finder, iMovie no longer recognizes them. And don’t take
the Media folder out of the project folder because iMovie won’t be able to
find the Media folder’s files without help from you — iMovie opens a dialog
asking for the location of each of your files if it can’t find them for the project.
When you start iMovie again, the last movie project you worked on opens
automatically. You can open any movie project by choosing File➪Open
Project.
Organizing Clips
A video project with a lot of clips can quickly become hard to manage if you
don’t organize the clips in some way. The Clips pane shows all your clips in
the project, but you can use it as a makeshift storyboard for your project by
rearranging them to suit your needs and renaming the clips to identify them
better. A storyboard is a set of sketches or pictures that tells the story in
sequence, and it is typically used as a guide for editing as well as an organizational tool.
Arranging clips in the Clips pane
Your iMovie Clips pane can serve as a storyboard when you rearrange the
clips into the proper sequence and use descriptive titles for your clips.
To rearrange your clips, click each clip and drag it to a new location in the
Clips pane. You can drag a clip to any empty space, as shown in Figure 3-2.
You can also drag a clip to a location already occupied by a clip, and iMovie
automatically shifts the other clips to the right and down, to accommodate
the newly moved clip.
You can move multiple clips at once by clicking the first clip, and either Shift+
clicking the last clip for a consecutive range of clips, or Ô+clicking each subsequent clip to add it to the selection. With the clips highlighted, click and hold
down the mouse button to drag the selection to the new location.
Organizing Clips
235
Figure 3-2:
Drag clips
to rearrange
them in the
Clips pane.
Renaming a clip
You may want to rename clips as you edit them to indicate that the clips have
been edited. For example, you may rename “Clip 01” to “Clip 01 edited” or
something equally innovative. Most likely you want to give your clips descriptive titles, such as “Uncle Monty does card tricks.” You can use up to 127 letters and spaces in a clip’s name.
To see clip information and rename a clip, double-click the clip in the Clips
pane or select the clip and choose File➪Show Info.
The Clip Info dialog appears with information about the clip, including its real
name in the Finder next to Media File and its size, capture date, and duration.
You can edit the filename by clicking inside the Name field, highlighting the
old name, and then typing the new one, as shown in Figure 3-3. Click the Set
button to set the name for the clip.
Organizing and
Improving
Video Clips
Your imported clips appear in the Clips pane with the default names “Clip 01,”
“Clip 02,” and so on, and that may be okay for your project. But you can also
change these names in iMovie to make the clips easier to recognize.
Book III
Chapter 3
236
Organizing Clips
Figure 3-3:
Rename a
video clip
in the Clip
Info dialog.
The name you give the clip does not affect the clip’s real name in the Finder,
which must stay the same so that the project document can find it. Never
rename a clip’s real name in the Finder.
Importing clips from different projects
You can copy video clips from one project into another project to save yourself the time and trouble of connecting the DV camcorder and importing them
again. The key piece of information you need to import a clip from another
project is the real filename for the clip, which you can get from the Clip Info
dialog.
Follow these steps to import a video clip from another project:
1. Choose File➪Open Project and open the project that has the video clip
you want.
2. Select the video clip and choose File➪Show Info or double-click the
video clip.
The Clip Info dialog gives you the real filename for the clip next to the
Media File entry (refer to Figure 3-3). Remember this filename. It’s something like Clip 07.
3. Click OK, and open the project into which you want to import the
video clip by choosing File➪Open Project.
4. Choose File➪Import and use the Import dialog to navigate to the
other project folder’s Media folder.
5. Find the clip by looking for its real name, select the clip, and click the
Import button.
Be sure to save the project after you import a video clip by choosing File➪
Save Project.
Deleting and Restoring Clips
237
Deleting and Restoring Clips
When you edit a video clip, you’re performing a destructive edit — the video
clip is changed, perhaps irrevocably, by the edits. But iMovie is smart at digital editing and provides not only the ability to undo edits, but also the ability
to restore the clip to its original state. As long as you don’t empty the iMovie
Trash, you can restore any clip.
Don’t get too cozy with retrieving something from the Trash because at some
point, you will have to empty the Trash to reclaim hard drive space.
The best techniques are those that allow you to recover gracefully, so we recommend that you copy the project folder to another drive to make a backup,
as we describe in the section, “Copying a project,” earlier in this chapter. After
the original clips are safe, you can go ahead with all the editing you want with
the secure feeling that you can always find the original version of the clip.
Restoring a clip to its previous form
Say you just made edits that you don’t like. You could quit iMovie without
saving the project. When you open the project again, the previous version
opens (before you made the edits). That’s good, because the edits you don’t
like are not saved.
You can only undo actions you’ve done since you last saved the project, or
actions that occurred since you last emptied the Trash.
If you save your project but still don’t like some of the edits, you can restore
specific clips. Select the clip with the bad edits in the Clips pane and choose
Advanced➪Restore Clip. The clip is then restored to the last saved version.
You can also duplicate a clip inside your iMovie project by selecting the clip
and holding down the Option key while dragging it to a new location in the
Clips pane. However, this action does not actually make a copy of the clip —
it simply makes a copy of the edits you made to a clip, so that you can make
other edits and still restore the clip to its original state. If you need to go back
to the original version before any edits, even saved ones, you need to import
the original clip from the DV camcorder’s tape or from a backup folder.
Organizing and
Improving
Video Clips
But what if you made some good edits and some bad edits? If you haven’t
yet saved the project and you just made some bad edits, you can undo each
edit going backward by choosing Edit➪Undo for each edit. You can undo up
to ten previous actions, or the actions up to the last time you saved (if fewer
than ten).
Book III
Chapter 3
238
Deleting and Restoring Clips
Deleting clips and emptying the Trash
Video clips can hang out in the Clips pane forever, even if they’re never used
in the project. In fact, you may want to create a special project containing all
your original clips, and then import those clips into new projects.
To delete a video clip, drag the clip to the Trash icon in the lower-right corner
of the iMovie window, as shown in Figure 3-4. iMovie displays, right next to the
icon, the amount of hard drive space occupied by the trashed items.
The iMovie Trash works in a different way than the Trash in the Finder. The
iMovie Trash retains the clips in their original forms before editing. As long
as you don’t empty the Trash, you can undo actions and restore clips.
However, you probably will eventually need to free up some hard drive space.
Granted, external hard drives cost less than $200, but you’ll quickly fill up
that external hard drive if you don’t occasionally empty the Trash. Empty
the Trash by choosing File➪Empty Trash.
After you empty the iMovie Trash, you can’t undo any action that occurred
before emptying the Trash, and you also can’t restore clips to the forms they
were in before emptying the Trash.
Figure 3-4:
Delete a
video clip
with the
iMovie
Trash.
Editing Individual Clips
239
Editing Individual Clips
Most of the work of producing a video is editing the clips to make them more
interesting or more effective at communicating. You may want to tighten up
the video clips so that they start and stop at exactly the right moments by
removing unwanted sections of clips. You may also want to split a clip into
two clips, so that you can use the two sections of the clip in different places
in the sequence.
As with any editing changes to clips, you can always restore the clips to their
original states as long as you don’t empty the Trash (as described in the
“Deleting and Restoring Clips” section, earlier in this chapter).
Trimming and cropping clips
As you play your video clip, you may notice that the clip starts too early
or ends too late. You can remove the unwanted parts of a clip in the following ways:
✦ Trimming: Removes the highlighted section of video from the clip.
✦ Cropping: Removes everything except the highlighted section of video
from the clip.
Here’s how to trim from the beginning of a video clip:
and click to see the two triangles — the crop/trim markers.
2. Drag the right crop/trim marker to the last frame that you want to
remove.
In Figure 3-5, we drag the right marker all the way to 05:00, highlighting
the five-second section at the beginning.
The section you want to trim becomes highlighted.
3. Choose Edit➪Clear.
The highlighted section is removed.
You can use the arrow keys on your keyboard to make more accurate selections. Click a crop/trim marker and press the left-arrow or right-arrow key
to move the marker one frame at a time. To move the marker in 10-frame
increments, hold down the Shift key while pressing the left-arrow or rightarrow key.
Organizing and
Improving
Video Clips
1. Move your pointer underneath the playback head in the scrubber bar
Book III
Chapter 3
240
Editing Individual Clips
Figure 3-5:
Drag the
right crop/
trim marker,
under the
scrubber
bar, to
highlight
and trim
a section
from the
beginning
of the clip.
Crop marker
To trim from the end of a video clip, follow these steps:
1. Drag the right crop/trim marker to the last frame that you want to
remove.
2. Drag the left crop/trim marker to the first frame that you want to
remove.
The selected portion is indicated by a yellow band in the scrubber bar.
3. Choose Edit➪Clear.
The highlighted section is removed.
When you remove a section of the video clip, the Trash icon at the bottom of
the iMovie window indicates that the Trash contains some data — the amount
(in megabytes or kilobytes) next to the Trash icon increases. (The five seconds we trim from the beginning puts 17MB in the Trash.) The removed
sections accumulate in the Trash as you make edits.
Follow these steps to crop a video clip (highlighting the portion of the clip
that you want to keep):
Editing Individual Clips
241
1. Drag the right crop/trim marker to the last frame that you want to
keep.
2. Drag the left crop/trim marker to the first frame that you want to
keep.
The selected portion becomes highlighted.
3. Choose Edit➪Crop.
The video portion before and after the highlighted section is removed.
You can immediately play your video clip to see whether it’s cropped or
trimmed correctly. When your clips are edited the way you want, choose
File➪Save Project to save your editing changes. The project is saved in your
Movies folder (or whatever folder you used when you created the project).
You don’t have to drag both crop/trim markers to make a highlighted selection. You can also select portions of your video in the following ways:
✦ Drag one crop/trim marker to the beginning or end of a selection, and
then click underneath the tick marks of the scrubber bar to establish the
other end of the selection.
✦ Extend an existing selection by clicking under the tick marks to the right
of the right marker, or to the left of the left marker. Clicking inside the
selected area reduces the selection.
Splitting a clip
Sometimes you need to split a clip into two clips. For example, you may have
a clip that has two scenes shot one right after the other, without any pause
in the recording, and you want to use them as two clips rather than one. Or,
for example, you may want to insert a title in the middle of a scene.
To split a clip into two clips, select the clip and follow these steps:
1. Move the playback head to the place in the clip where you want the
split to occur.
2. Choose Edit➪Split Video Clip at Playhead.
The video clip splits into two clips at the point of the playback head.
After splitting the clip, iMovie saves the second clip with the same name, but
with “/1” appended to it. You can then rename the clip if you want.
Organizing and
Improving
Video Clips
✦ Shift+click to highlight from one marker to the beginning or end of the
clip.
Book III
Chapter 3
242
Editing Individual Clips
Cutting out the middle of a clip
If a video clip has a great part at the beginning and a great part at the end
and nothing but junk in between, you can cut out the middle part. You may
find that many of your clips can use this treatment — especially those parts
where you jiggled the camcorder.
To cut out a middle part, select the clip and follow these steps:
1. Drag the right crop/trim marker to the last frame that you want to
cut out.
2. Drag the left crop/trim marker to the first frame that you want to
cut out.
The piece you want to cut out is highlighted, which is indicated by a
yellow band in the scrubber bar.
3. Choose Edit➪Clear.
The highlighted portion of the video is removed.
Reversing the direction of a clip
Making video clips run backward may seem like a cheap gimmick, humorous
when applied to skiers, high-divers, planes taking off, buildings in the process
of being demolished, and so on. But it can also be a useful way to fix a problem
or add a touch of professionalism to a video.
For example, if you zoomed into the subject with your camcorder without also
zooming out, and later you discover that you wish you had zoomed out, you
can split the clip (as we describe in the section, “Splitting a clip,” earlier in this
chapter). Make the zoom-in part a separate clip, copy it, and then reverse the
direction of the copy. You end up with two clips: the zoom-in and the reverse
of the zoom-in, which looks just like a zoom-out. Put them together and the
scene is complete.
You can combine the reversing and slow motion to achieve an overall effect
that adds a sensitive feel to the video. Changing the speed of your video is
described in Chapter 4 of this minibook.
To reverse the direction of the clip, follow these steps:
1. Select the clip in the Clips pane.
2. Choose Advanced➪Reverse Clip Direction (or press Ô+R).
The clip’s thumbnail appears with a left-pointing arrow in the upper-right
corner, indicating that it runs in reverse, as shown in Figure 3-6.
Adding Motion and Picture Effects
243
A reversed clip
Figure 3-6:
Reverse the
direction of
a video clip.
Book III
Chapter 3
You can use the Reverse Clip Direction command on several clips at once, if
you already dragged them to the clips viewer in sequence. (We show how to
do this in the “Applying effects to video clips” section, later in this chapter.)
The command not only reverses the direction of each clip, but also intelligently reverses the entire sequence.
Adding Motion and Picture Effects
Reality, as captured by your camcorder, may not be enough to convey the
message or feeling that you want to be expressed in your movie. Perhaps the
fireworks you recorded did not come out as well as you hoped, or you want
Organizing and
Improving
Video Clips
An entire clip runs in reverse — including the sound. Recorded voices may
now sound like the Beatles at the end of the song “Rain.” Nature sounds, however, may sound fine backwards or forwards. If you don’t like how it sounds,
you can adjust the audio portion and even add a different soundtrack, as we
describe in Chapter 4 of this minibook.
244
Adding Motion and Picture Effects
to jazz up a sequence to make it look more like a nightmare or a walk through
the funhouse. With iMovie, you have at your disposal an arsenal of special
effects and tricks that were previously available only to professional video
editors and artists.
While the addition of special effects may be somewhat gratuitous or even
comical if they’re added for no reason, many of these tricks can be used to fix
real problems and make genuine enhancements to your video clips. Maybe
you didn’t hold the camcorder steady enough in a particular shot, but you
realize the camera shake works for that shot, and you want to enhance the
effect you caused accidentally. You can apply other effects to lighten or darken
a clip. You can also add motion effects to photos and still images.
Before performing any of these actions, you may want to make a copy of the
clip in case the effect doesn’t come out as you like. Select a clip in the Clips
pane, choose Edit➪Copy, and then choose Edit➪Paste. iMovie makes a copy
of the clip and stores it next to the original. You can then experiment with
either the original or the copy, leaving the other intact.
Adding the Ken Burns Effect to photos
After clicking the Photos button, your entire iPhoto library appears automatically in the Photos pane, replacing the Clips pane. Using the Photos pane,
you can select any photo or album in your iPhoto library.
Filmmaker Ken Burns may not be a household name, but his documentaries
(such as Ken Burns’ Jazz) have been watched by millions, and Apple pays him
respect by naming the zooming and panning effect for photos after him — the
Ken Burns Effect at the top of the Photos pane. Ken Burns uses variations of
this effect in his documentaries, with great success.
iMovie allows you to pan across, zoom in and out, and even combine panning
and zooming to achieve interesting results that suggest movement or the
passing of time. The best way to use these effects is to experiment with the
settings and watch the preview window.
Zooming in and out on photos
To experiment with the zoom effect, follow these steps:
1. Select the photo in the Photos pane, and then select the Ken Burns
Effect option.
The photo appears in the preview box of the Photos pane. Click the check
box next to the Ken Burns Effect option to select it.
2. Select the Start option in the Photos pane.
Adding Motion and Picture Effects
245
3. Adjust the Zoom slider to change the magnification for the starting
point of the zoom effect.
The extent to which you zoom is displayed in the Zoom field. In Figure 3-7,
we chose a magnification of 1.47 for the zoom’s starting point.
4. Select the Finish option in the Photos pane.
5. Adjust the Zoom slider to change the magnification for the ending
point of the zoom effect.
The amount you choose appears in the Zoom field.
6. Click the Preview button.
A preview of the effect plays in the preview window.
7. Adjust the Duration slider to change the duration of the zoom.
8. Click the Reverse button to change the direction of the zoom.
You can click the Reverse button again to change the direction back to
the original setting.
9. When you’re satisfied with the effect, click the Apply button.
iMovie creates a video clip of the zoom effect and places it in the clip
viewer.
Book III
Chapter 3
Organizing and
Improving
Video Clips
Figure 3-7:
Set the start
and finish
magnification (zoom)
levels.
246
Adding Motion and Picture Effects
10. Click the Clips button to display the Clips pane.
Switch back to the Clips pane from the Photos pane while the clip you
edited is still in the clip viewer.
11. Drag the edited clip from the clip viewer to an empty spot in the Clips
pane (see Figure 3-8).
With the edited clip stored in the Clips pane, you can use it anywhere in
your video sequence. We describe building a sequence in Chapter 4 of
this minibook.
Panning across while zooming a photo
To experiment with the image panning effect, follow these steps:
1. Select the photo in the Photos pane.
2. Select the Start option in the Photos pane.
3. Adjust the Zoom slider to set the magnification for the starting point
of the panning effect.
The amount you choose appears in the Zoom field.
Figure 3-8:
You can add
the video
clip of the
zoomed-in
photo to the
Clips pane.
Adding Motion and Picture Effects
247
4. Specify where to start the pan.
Hold your mouse pointer over the image in the preview window until a
hand appears, and then click and drag the image to where you want the
pan to begin.
5. Select the Finish option in the Photos pane.
6. Adjust the Zoom slider to change the magnification for the ending
point of the panning effect.
The amount you choose appears in the Zoom field.
7. Specify where to end the pan.
Hold your mouse pointer over the image in the preview window until a
hand appears, and then click and drag the image to where you want the
pan to end.
8. Click the Preview button.
A preview of the effect plays in the preview window.
9. Adjust the Duration slider to change the duration of the zoom.
10. Click the Reverse button to change the direction of the pan.
Click it again to change the direction back to the original setting.
11. Click the Apply button to apply the effect.
12. Click the Clips button to display the Clips pane.
Switch back to the Clips pane from the Photos pane while the clip you
edited is still in the clip viewer.
13. Drag the edited clip from the clip viewer to an empty spot in the Clips
pane.
With the edited clip stored in the Clips pane, you can use it anywhere in
your video sequence. We describe building a sequence in Chapter 4 of
this minibook.
Creating an effect, called rendering, can take time. You’ll notice the clip created
by the photo has a red line slowly moving across it, showing the progress of
the rendering. You can continue to do other things in iMovie while the effect is
rendered. The rendering with the Ken Burns Effect usually takes a very short
time, and before long, your clip is ready to play. Click the Play button to look
at the effect in all its glory.
Organizing and
Improving
Video Clips
iMovie creates a video clip of the pan effect and places it in the clip
viewer.
Book III
Chapter 3
248
Adding Motion and Picture Effects
Applying effects to video clips
Video effects change the picture without changing the sound. iMovie provides
a list of video effects ranging from Adjust Colors and Aged Film to Sepia Tone,
Sharpen, and Soft Focus. The best way to use the Effects features of iMovie is
to experiment.
To apply any effect, follow these steps:
1. Pick a clip and drag it from the Clips pane to the clip viewer.
2. Click the Effects button.
The Effects pane replaces the Clips pane, as shown in Figure 3-9.
3. Click the clip in the clip viewer to reselect it.
The clip now has a blue border.
Effects pane
Figure 3-9:
The Effects
pane lists
the special
effects you
can apply to
a clip.
Clip viewer
Adding Motion and Picture Effects
249
4. Select an effect from the list in the Effects pane, and then adjust the
effect’s settings.
When you pick an effect, the preview window shows what the effect
looks like using the selected clip. The effect’s specific settings appear at
the bottom of the Effects pane, and you can adjust them to your heart’s
content — with each adjustment you see a preview in the preview
window.
5. Use the effect on the entire clip or just a portion of it.
To apply the effect to a portion of the clip, drag the crop/trim markers to
highlight a section of the video (as we describe earlier in this chapter, in
the section, “Trimming and cropping clips”).
6. Adjust the Effect In and Effect Out sliders if you want the effect to
start and end gradually.
You can make the effect kick in more slowly by dragging the Effect In
slider. Make it end more gradually by dragging the Effect Out slider. The
time code, in seconds and frames, appears in the preview window.
7. Click the Apply button to apply the effect.
As the clip is being rendered, the clip’s thumbnail shows a red line moving
slowly across it, showing the progress. When the red line reaches the end,
the rendering is done.
You can then play the clip by itself, or you can Shift+click the clips in the
clip viewer to play them in sequence.
8. Click the Clips button to display the Clips pane.
Switch back to the Clips pane from the Effects pane while the clips you
edited are still in the clip viewer.
9. Drag the clips from the clip viewer to an empty spot in the Clips pane.
With the clips stored in the Clips pane, you can use them anywhere in
your video sequence. We describe building a sequence in Chapter 4 of
this minibook.
You can select multiple clips, even clips that are not in sequence, Ô+clicking
to select them. You can then apply an effect to all the selected clips at once.
Book III
Chapter 3
Organizing and
Improving
Video Clips
If you apply the effect to only a portion of the clip, iMovie automatically
splits the clip into two or more clips — one clip for the portion before the
effect, one clip for after the section with the effect, and one clip just for
the section with the effect. The clips are arranged in proper sequence in
the clip viewer. In Figure 3-10, we end up with two clips, because we
started the effect at the beginning of the clip.
250
Adding Motion and Picture Effects
Figure 3-10:
iMovie splits
the clip.
You can take advantage of an infinite number of possibilities with the iMovie
Effects pane. You can combine multiple effects to a clip to get the look you
want. Here are suggestions for various effects:
✦ Adjust Colors: Use this effect to change the colors in the picture or to
make the color more or less vivid, or darker or brighter. You can use this
effect to enhance a sunset view, for example.
✦ Aged Film: Make your video look like old newsreel footage with this effect,
which creates a visual effect of scratched film, with a super grainy texture
and lines and specks.
✦ Black & White: Turn your clip into black and white to simulate early
television pictures, or to emulate the Wizard of Oz (everything’s in black
and white until Dorothy lands on Oz and opens the door). Sometimes a
video shot on a gray day looks better in black and white.
✦ Brightness & Contrast: While the effect isn’t a substitute for good lighting when recording video, it can help alleviate the problems associated
with poor lighting by making the picture brighter or darker, and with
less or more contrast.
✦ Earthquake: We use this effect to cover up an unsteady camcorder. It
also works well if you happen to be videotaping in earthquake country.
Adding Motion and Picture Effects
251
You can also use this effect to exaggerate some activity, such as a barroom brawl (staged, of course).
✦ Electricity: A bolt of lightning comes down out of the sky. Nice. You can
control the animation of the lightning by dragging the Rotate slider to
animate the lightning clockwise or counterclockwise around the picture.
✦ Fairy Dust: This effect sends an animated fairy wand’s spark across the
picture in an arc you can control with a Direction slider and with a trail
you can control with the Trail slider. (Yes, Toto, we’re not in Kansas
anymore.)
✦ Flash: Use this effect to simulate flash bulbs going off. Perfect for weddings, graduations, simulated press conferences, and gala openings. You
can control the number of flashes, the brightness of the flash, and the
speed.
✦ Fog: Simulate a foggy night in London or San Francisco, or just crank up
the fog machine for any purpose you want. You can control the amount
of fog, the direction the fog is blowing, and the fog’s shade of gray.
✦ Ghost Trails: Use this effect to create trails coming from moving objects
and people, which is useful for portraying a runner at top speed, or a
dancer using expansive gestures. Figure 3-11 shows the Ghost Trails
effect on a walking youngster. You can control the length of the ghost
images, how closely the ghost follows the image, and the transparency
of the ghost images.
✦ Letterbox: Use this effect to simulate the look of a film on DVD or VHS in
letterbox format, shift the viewable area up or down, or resize the viewable area as you see fit.
✦ Mirror: This effect looks like a funhouse mirror. The image splits in half;
one half fills with a mirror image of the other half. You can reflect images
horizontally and vertically.
✦ N-Square: Strictly for fans of the movie The Fly, this effect divides the
picture into square panes, and you can control the number of squares.
✦ Rain: This effect looks quite convincing, and you can make it a light
or heavy rainstorm using the Amount and Wind sliders. Combine this
with the Black & White, Electricity, and Flash effects to simulate a
thunderstorm.
✦ Sepia Tone: This effect gives you that brown-and-white look of a very
old photo, which can help convey antiquity and nostalgia. You can
follow up this effect with the Brightness & Contrast effect to adjust the
picture further.
Organizing and
Improving
Video Clips
✦ Lens Flare: This effect produces a lens flaring effect that sweeps across
the scene like sunlight in the lens. You can set the sweep angle and the
intensity of the flare.
Book III
Chapter 3
252
Adding Motion and Picture Effects
Figure 3-11:
The Ghost
Trails effect.
✦ Sharpen: Add a fine-grained look to your picture, giving it an unrealistic
crispness, depending on how high you slide the Amount slider.
✦ Soft Focus: This effect gives everything a blurry, fuzzy-edged look for
those hazy, dreamy, or romantic scenes; you also see this effect used in
TV commercials with ancient stars because it hides facial wrinkles.
For that newsreel look of yesteryear, combine the effects of the Black &
White and Flash effects set to a maximum count, minimum brightness, and
fast speed.
Chapter 4: Editing
Movies and Sound
In This Chapter
Arranging video clips
Adding transitions
Editing the sound track
Adding titles, credits, and chapter markers in post-production
Y
ou shot scenes, organized video clips, and selected the ones you want.
You also trimmed the clips and added some effects. Now you’re ready
to perform perhaps the most creative task in all of moviemaking — you’re
ready to edit the movie into a sequence that tells the story with the emotional and intellectual impact you want the audience to experience.
Movie directors are often lauded for creative efforts in the editing studio.
Alfred Hitchcock, for example, is noted for raising editing to a new level of
artistic success — he used tricks such as cutaways to show what an actor is
reacting to, and very tight editing to show only the parts of a scene he wanted
to show, leaving the audience to imagine the rest. Directors often create a
rhythm for the movie established by the lengths of the edited clips and use a
chronological order to help advance the story line and introduce suspense.
This kind of editing requires a very strict timeline. The editing choices you
make to arrange your video clips and audio tracks over time can be either
wholly original or shamelessly imitative of the great directors of Hollywood.
Good editing makes a movie; bad editing breaks it.
This chapter shows how to use the iMovie timeline and clip arrangement features to edit a movie. It walks you through the process of arranging clips and
controlling their durations, as well as adding and controlling audio tracks.
This chapter describes various features of iMovie that can make your movies
look professionally produced, and it describes the post-production process at
the end to make the movie ready for distribution.
We suggest that you start the editing process with all the video editing you
need, such as clip adjustments and transitions, before tackling the audio portion of the movie. Visual edits can change the duration of the entire movie,
254
Assembling an Oscar-Winning Sequence
and if you already synchronized other sounds in addition to the sound in the
video clips, you may find these sounds out of sync. You can always move elements back into the positions you want to re-synchronize them, but this is
extra work you don’t need to do if you start with visual editing.
Assembling an Oscar-Winning Sequence
Typically, you start movie editing by arranging video clips in a storyboard,
which is a sequence of still pictures that represents the movie. iMovie makes
arranging the movie clips into a storyboard the easiest part of the process
by providing the clip viewer to show individual clip thumbnails arranged
over time. If you already trimmed and cropped your video clips as we
describe in Chapter 3 of this minibook, you most likely already know the
sequence in which you want the clips to run, and arranging the clips is the
fastest part of this process.
Arranging clips in the clip viewer
To arrange clips in a sequence, drag each clip to the clip viewer. After you drag
clips to the clip viewer, you can play each clip by clicking the Play button.
To place a clip after another clip, drag it to a position to the right of the first
clip. You can also place a clip between two clips, and drag clips around as
you wish, within the clip viewer, as shown in Figure 4-1. You can also drag
clips back to the Clips pane to remove them from the sequence.
This one-clip-at-a-time dragging can be tedious. But if you already arranged
clips in sequence in the Clips pane, you can drag more than one clip at a time
by selecting the first clip, Shift+clicking the last clip, and then dragging the
entire set to the clip viewer. iMovie places the clips into position in the same
order as they were in the Clips pane.
To play the sequence of clips in the clip viewer, you can use either of the following methods:
✦ Select the first one, and then hold down the Shift key and click the last
one to highlight all the clips. Click the Play button. The entire sequence
of clips plays.
✦ You can play the entire movie by first choosing Edit➪Select None and
then clicking the Play button.
While the sequence plays, the playback head in the scrubber bar moves forward as iMovie displays the time in minutes, seconds, and frames.
Assembling an Oscar-Winning Sequence
255
Clips pane
Figure 4-1:
Rearrange
clips in
the clip
viewer to
change the
sequence.
Book III
Chapter 4
Working in the timeline viewer
The timeline viewer gives you more control over the entire movie, enabling
you to adjust the duration of any clip in the sequence and control audio
tracks. The timeline viewer arranges the video clips along a timeline, with
each clip clearly indicated by its thumbnail. You can select any clip and play
only that clip by clicking the Play button, or you can click the Rewind button
and then the Play button to play the entire movie. You can also drag clips
from the Clips pane to the timeline viewer to add them at the end of the
sequence or insert them between other clips.
The timeline viewer is simply a different view of the same arrangement of
clips, and you can switch back and forth from the timeline viewer to the clip
viewer using the mode buttons.
To show the timeline viewer, click the clock icon to the right of the clip icon
in the clip viewer/timeline viewer switch.
Editing Movies
and Sound
Clip viewer
256
Assembling an Oscar-Winning Sequence
The timeline viewer enables you to arrange clips and to see how long they
play. You can move to any point in the movie by dragging the playback head
in the scrubber bar, or by dragging the playback head in the timeline, which
appears like a ruler above the clips in the timeline viewer, as shown in
Figure 4-2.
Besides using the Play button, you can play your movie starting from the point
where the playhead is positioned by pressing the spacebar on your keyboard.
Press the spacebar again to stop playback.
The timeline viewer displays the sequence of clips horizontally. You can scroll
forward and backward though the entire sequence by dragging the scroll
slider along the bottom of the timeline viewer. If you want a closer view of the
frames so that you can move to an exact position, zoom in or out of the timeline viewer by dragging the Zoom slider at the bottom left of the iMovie
window, as shown in Figure 4-3. Drag the slider to the right to zoom in and to
the left to zoom out.
Figure 4-2:
Drag the
playback
head in the
timeline
viewer to
move to any
frame in the
movie.
Playback head
Timeline viewer switch
Timeline
Assembling an Oscar-Winning Sequence
257
Figure 4-3:
Zoom in
for more
precise
adjustments.
Zoom slider
Slowing down or speeding up video clips
Suppose you want to show your child’s first swing of a baseball bat in slow
motion for dramatic effect. Or perhaps you have a great video clip of your
dog jumping and running around the yard that would make everybody crack
up if the clip played faster.
To slow down or speed up a video clip, follow these steps:
1. Select the clip in the timeline viewer.
The white space around the thumbnail image of the video becomes
highlighted.
2. Drag the Speed slider to the right (the tortoise) or left (the hare), as
shown in Figure 4-4.
When you change the speed of a clip, the timeline viewer automatically
shrinks or stretches the clip to show its duration and adjusts the movie
accordingly.
When you change the duration of a video clip, the sound also changes. Slowing down or speeding up the sound may seem humorous, but it can also be
irritating, or it may distort voices so much that it’s difficult to understand
the dialogue. Fortunately, iMovie allows you to edit the sound track, as we
describe in the “Editing the Sound Track” section, later in this chapter.
Figure 4-4:
Change the
speed of a
video clip.
Speed slider
Editing Movies
and Sound
Each notch on the slider represents a multiple of the original speed of
the clip — a single notch faster represents twice the original speed, two
notches represents three times the speed, and so on.
Book III
Chapter 4
258
Assembling an Oscar-Winning Sequence
Overlaying and trimming clips directly
You can perform clip-editing operations, such as trimming and cropping
(described in Chapter 3 of this minibook), from the timeline viewer. As you
perform such operations, the timeline viewer automatically adjusts to reflect
the editing changes.
You can also trim clips quickly and with fewer steps by directly trimming them
in the timeline. Move your pointer near one end of the clip until it turns into a
double-arrow (as shown in Figure 4-5). As you drag toward the center, you trim
the clip with one move. The trimmed video is not deleted, just hidden — you
can drag the end of the clip to adjust it without removing any video. The
trimmed part of the clip is preserved until you empty the iMovie Trash.
You can see if a clip has been trimmed by looking at its ends in the timeline
viewer — full clips have rounded corners in the timeline, while trimmed
clips have straight ends and sharp corners.
You can also overlap clips, trimming the clip underneath. Move your pointer
near the center of the clip, hold down the Ô key, and drag toward an adjacent clip. As you drag, the clip you are dragging overlaps the adjacent clip,
trimming the adjacent clip in one move. All subsequent clips move along
with it, so that you don’t leave a gap by accident.
Figure 4-5:
Trim the clip
directly in
the timeline.
Transitioning Between Scenes
259
Bookmarking clips in the timeline
Bookmarks are useful for marking important frames in the movie. After setting bookmarks, you can jump from one bookmark to the next in the timeline
by using keyboard shortcuts or commands:
✦ To set a bookmark, move the playhead to the frame in the movie that
you want to mark, and then choose Bookmarks➪Add Bookmark (or
press Ô+B). When you move the playhead again, you’ll see a green diamond in the scrubber bar above the timeline to indicate that the frame
is bookmarked.
✦ To move from one bookmark to the next, choose Bookmarks➪Next Bookmark or press Ô+] (right bracket).
✦ To move from a bookmark to the previous one, choose Bookmarks➪
Previous Bookmark or press Ô+[ (left bracket). You can also click on any
visible Bookmark icon to instantly move the playhead to that frame.
Transitioning Between Scenes
Movies and professionally produced television shows typically use nothing
but a simple cut from one clip to the next, even though professionals have
an arsenal of transition effects that they can use such as dissolves, wipes,
overlaps, and so on. Transitional effects are usually kept simple because
they can detract from the video and call attention to the video editing
process.
But sometimes a transition makes sense artistically, or it can be useful
for suggesting the passage of time or to hide a flaw in the video itself. For
example, the hit TV show Six Feet Under uses a cross-dissolve-to-white (or
wash-out-to-white) transition between each major scene for artistic effect.
The transition is not so obvious as to call attention to itself, and the transition is used consistently throughout the show and the series, providing a
sense of unity in the work. Other popular transitions include fading in from
black in the beginning of a movie, and fading out to black at the end (or
fading into credits).
Book III
Chapter 4
Editing Movies
and Sound
Some of the most visually interesting features of digital video editing software are transition effects that you can set between video clips. When one
clip ends and another begins, the video plays seamlessly, but the scenes in
the video clips may be so different that the sudden transition from one to
another is jarring. You can smooth out these transitions by adding a transition effect.
260
Transitioning Between Scenes
Adding transitions between clips
To add a transition between two clips in a sequence in the timeline viewer
(or in the clip viewer), follow these steps:
1. Select the second clip.
iMovie regards the selected clip as the clip to transition into, assuming the
previous clip is the one to transition from. The only exception is if you
select the very first clip in the movie — in which case iMovie assumes,
based on the transition you choose, that you want to place the transition
between the first and second clips.
2. Click the Trans button.
The Clips pane switches to the Transitions pane, which lists all the transitions and provides a preview window.
3. Select a transition.
iMovie shows a preview in the small window, using the selected clip as
the transition’s ending.
4. Adjust the duration of the transition with the Speed slider.
The Speed slider provides up to 4 seconds (04:00) of transition time.
When you change this slider, iMovie plays another preview in the small
window. You can continue to make adjustments and preview them until
you have the duration you want.
5. Adjust the direction of the transition.
With some transitions, you can click the arrows to the left of the preview
window to set the direction you want the transition to start from.
6. Drag the transition to a position between the clips.
The transition appears as a special type of video clip between the two
clips — a bar with an icon indicating a transition (as shown in Figure 4-6).
If the transition needs time to finish rendering, a red progress bar creeps
across the bottom of the green transition bar until the rendering finishes.
Unlike many other video editing programs, iMovie allows you to continue
working on the movie while rendering takes place.
7. Play the movie to view the transition.
To see the transition in action after it finishes rendering, you can start
the movie from the beginning, or drag the timeline viewer’s playback
head, as shown in Figure 4-7.
Transitioning Between Scenes
261
Figure 4-6:
Insert the
transition
between
two video
clips.
Book III
Chapter 4
Editing Movies
and Sound
Figure 4-7:
Play
back the
transition.
262
Transitioning Between Scenes
Adding a transition between clips makes the entire movie shorter (with the
exception of transitions such as the Fade In transition that works its magic
on only one clip) because the transitions borrow portions of both clips to
make the transition. The transition may affect the sounds in the two clips as
well; we show you how to control the audio portion of a video clip in the section, “Editing the Sound Track,” later in this chapter.
Because the transition is itself a video clip, you can rename it to something
you can recognize later. Double-click the transition’s clip in the timeline to
open the Clip Info dialog, and then type a new name for the transition.
You can also edit the transition as a clip by selecting the transition in the
timeline, and then changing the Speed slider and using the direction arrows
(if applicable) in the Transitions pane. You can even change the type of transition. When you finish making adjustments, click the Update button to
update the transition in the timeline viewer.
Fading in and out
Fading into the first clip is an excellent way to introduce the movie, just
as fading out of the last clip is a great way to end it. You may also want to
use fading transitions in the middle of a movie between scenes.
To add a fade-in transition to the beginning of a movie, follow these steps:
1. Select the first clip in the timeline viewer (or clip viewer).
2. Click the Trans button.
The Clips pane switches to the Transitions pane.
3. Select the Fade In transition.
iMovie shows a preview in the small window, using the first clip as the
transition’s ending, so that the movie starts with a fade from black into
the first frame of video.
4. Adjust the duration of the transition with the Speed slider.
The Speed slider provides up to 4 seconds (04:00) of transition time. You
can continue to make adjustments and preview them until you have the
duration you want. If you specify a duration longer than the first clip,
iMovie tells you that the clip is too short — you can specify a shorter
duration for the transition, or slow down the first clip to make it longer.
5. Drag the Fade In transition to the beginning of the movie.
You can drag the transition into place by using either the timeline viewer
or the clip viewer.
Transitioning Between Scenes
263
6. Play the movie with the transition.
To see the transition in action after it finishes rendering, you can click
the Rewind button and then the Play button to start the movie from the
beginning, or you can drag the timeline viewer’s playback head to the
first frame and then click the Play button.
To add a Fade Out transition, follow the same steps, except that you select
the last clip in the movie and drag the Fade Out transition to the very end of
the last clip.
Here are some suggestions for using various transitions:
✦ Circle Closing: Introduces the second clip by shrinking the first clip’s
ending in a circle that closes into nothing, leaving the second clip. This
works best if the first clip’s subject is in the center of the picture. Also
known as iris close among video editors.
✦ Circle Opening: A neat reversal of the circle closing transition, a circle
opens to reveal the second clip. This works best if the second clip’s subject is in the center of the picture.
✦ Cross Dissolve: Fades the first clip seamlessly into the second clip with
a superimposing effect. A short cross dissolve is very popular as a soft
way of cutting from one scene to the next. Very short cross dissolves
often hide abrupt cuts in an interview in which a person is talking. This
is the most popular transition, and is also known as the crossfade.
✦ Fade Out: Fades out from the last clip into total blackness. This is most
appropriate at the end of a movie. You may want to use a Fade Out before
a black clip that you need at the very end of a movie. Skip ahead to the
“Adding a black clip” section, later in this chapter, for more info about
black clips.
✦ Overlap: Freezes the last frame of the first clip while the new clip fades
in superimposed over it. This is useful when the first clip is short and
you want to draw more attention to the second clip. This transition is
similar to the Cross Dissolve transition.
✦ Push: One of the few transitions that you use to change the direction,
the Push transition literally shoves the end of the first clip off the edge
of the picture to play the second clip. With the direction buttons, you
can pick which side to push from. Rarely used professionally, this transition simulates the changing of a slide in an old-fashioned slide projector.
Editing Movies
and Sound
✦ Fade In: Fades in to the first clip from total blackness. This is most appropriate at the beginning of a movie. You may want to use a Fade In after a
black clip. Find out how to add a black clip in the appropriately titled
“Adding a black clip” section, later in this chapter.
Book III
Chapter 4
264
Transitioning Between Scenes
✦ Radial: Uses a sweeping clockwise wipe around the end of the first clip
to reveal the second clip. Radial is sometimes used to indicate the passage of time because it reminds viewers of a clock.
✦ Scale Down: In this transition, the first clip gets smaller and smaller and
disappears into the second clip. You may have seen this transition in
documentaries and news programs — the first clip shrinks into the upperleft part of the picture, not into the center. See this transition in Figure 4-8.
✦ Warp Out: In this transition, the second clip intrudes from the center,
pushing the first clip’s image out to the edges. The effect makes the first
clip’s ending scene look like it’s opening up into the second clip. Refer to
Figure 4-7 for an example of the Warp Out transition.
✦ Wash In: Fades in to the second clip from total whiteness, in effect similar to the Fade In transition but from white rather than black. Because
the absence of an image is a black picture, you’ll likely only use this
to transition from a whitened-out scene, or from a Wash Out transition
that washed the previous scene into white. You can use a Brightness &
Contrast effect with a clip to gradually brighten it into nearly pure white.
See Chapter 3 of this minibook for more on effects.
✦ Wash Out: Fades out from the second clip into total whiteness, in effect
similar to the Fade Out transition, but fades to white rather than black.
Because the absence of an image is a black picture, you’ll likely only use
this to transition to a whitened-out scene, or to a Wash In transition that
then washes the next scene in from white.
Figure 4-8:
The
Scale Down
transition
shrinks the
first clip into
the second
clip.
Editing the Sound Track
265
Editing the Sound Track
Editing the sound is as important, if not more important, than editing the
picture. Viewers usually barely notice flaws in a moving picture compared
to flaws in the sound, which linger in the mind and can be irritating. (For
example, a scratchy newsreel is fine to watch as long as the sound isn’t
scratchy.)
If you add transitions, change the speed of any video clips, or perform a lot
of clip trimming, chances are that you need to edit the sound as well. Fortunately, iMovie makes this as easy as editing video clips.
Controlling video clip volume levels
By far the most common editing technique to do away with unwanted audio
is to simply lower the volume. You can lower the volume of the sound on a
clip-by-clip basis and control the volume within each video clip.
To control the volume of the sound in a video clip, follow these steps:
1. Click the video clip in the timeline viewer.
2. Select the Edit Volume check box at the bottom center of the timeline
viewer.
3. Drag the volume slider next to the Edit Volume option.
Drag the volume slider to the right for louder volume, or to the left for
lower volume — or all the way to the left to mute the volume. As you
drag this slider, the purple volume level bar rises or falls to reflect the
volume level.
Figure 4-9:
Change the
volume of a
video clip.
Volume slider
Editing Movies
and Sound
The Edit Volume option should have a check mark next to it, as shown
in Figure 4-9. A purple volume level bar appears across the middle of
the clip.
Book III
Chapter 4
266
Editing the Sound Track
What if you want to lower only a portion of the sound in a video clip? For
example, perhaps you want to fade the sound in at the beginning. To fade
the sound from mute up to full volume at the beginning of a clip, follow
these steps:
1. Select the video clip in the timeline viewer, and select the Edit Volume
check box.
2. Click a point in the volume level bar in the clip, and drag the marker
that appears up for louder or down for softer.
The purple volume level bar allows you to adjust the volume directly. If
you want to gradually fade the volume from muted to full volume, click
the point where you want the full volume to start, and then click the
beginning of the volume level bar and drag it down to the bottom.
You can select multiple video clips and adjust the volume all at once. To adjust
the volume in multiple clips, in the timeline viewer, click the first clip and
Shift+click the last clip. Then, with the Edit Volume option selected, drag the
volume slider next to the Edit Volume option.
Importing music from iTunes
Music can make your movies a lot more exciting and establish a mood. Imagine the opening scenes of Apocalypse Now! without the eerie music of the
Doors and Jim Morrison singing “This is the end. . . ” — it just wouldn’t be
the same.
You may want to synchronize actions in your video clips to musical moments
or time videos to play at a certain rhythm with the beat supplied by a separate
music track. iMovie helps you create music videos as well as videos with
music, because you can edit videos to the music — using techniques such as
slowing down and speeding up the video clips, using transitions, cropping and
trimming clips, and so on. The music track can form the basis of the video.
iMovie gives you two tracks for adding extra sounds. However, you can overlay sounds in a single track, and iMovie automatically mixes all of the sound
for playback, so the possibilities are endless.
To add music from your iTunes library to your movie (including any songs
you exported from GarageBand to your iTunes library), follow these steps:
1. Click the clock icon to switch to the timeline viewer.
2. Click the Audio button.
The Audio pane, shown in Figure 4-10, displays a pop-up menu for selecting iMovie sound effects or your iTunes library, or a playlist within your
library.
Editing the Sound Track
267
Audio pane
Figure 4-10:
Select a
tune from
the iTunes
library.
Book III
Chapter 4
To select a song, you can do one of the following:
• Choose the iTunes library from the pop-up menu (if not already
selected) and click a song (or scroll the song list if the song you want
is not visible).
• Choose a playlist from the pop-up menu and click a song in the
playlist.
• After choosing the iTunes library, sort by artist or song first, and then
scroll down to find the song you want, and click it.
• Type a word or even just part of a word, as shown in Figure 4-11, into
the text box below the song list. The songs with those characters anywhere in the title show up immediately as you type.
You can import songs directly from an audio CD into iMovie. Insert the
audio CD, and after the CD mounts on the desktop, you can use the popup menu at the top of the Audio pane to access it. Choose the CD from
the pop-up menu, and then select the track.
Editing Movies
and Sound
3. Select a song.
268
Editing the Sound Track
Figure 4-11:
Type a few
letters of the
song’s title
to find a
particular
song.
Search box
4. Drag the song to the timeline viewer, or click the Place at Playhead
button.
The two lower tracks in the timeline viewer, as shown in Figure 4-12, are
reserved for audio tracks. If you already moved the playback head to the
exact spot where you want the music to begin, clicking the Place at
Playhead button is easiest. The song becomes an audio clip in the audio
track.
Whenever you select more than one clip in the timeline viewer, iMovie displays the total duration, which is helpful information if you want to measure
the amount of time you have for the music before importing the music. iMovie
gives you control over how much of the song to play and the volume level at
different points in the song, but you can also prepare the movie for a full
song by first noting how much time it takes and preparing the movie for it.
iMovie displays the total duration of the selected clips in the Video Selection
note above the timeline, and you can match the music to the length of the
time frame.
Editing the Sound Track
269
Figure 4-12:
Drag the
song to
one of the
timeline
viewer’s
two audio
tracks.
Arranging sound clips in the track
Sound clips can display waveforms within them, so that you can see where
the sound is loud or soft (or silent). To show waveforms within sound clips,
choose iMovie➪Preferences and select the Show Audio Track Waveforms
option. This is optional because the waveform display may slow down performance a bit.
As you scrub through the timeline or drag clips in the timeline holding down
the Shift key, a yellow snap-to line appears that acts like a magnet for lining
up clips. The line appears right as you reach the end of a clip while scrubbing, to make it easy to line up the next clip or align a sound clip to a video
clip. A snap-to line also appears if you reach the playhead, a timeline bookmark, or three or more frames of silence in a sound clip — that is, if the Show
Audio Track Waveforms option is selected. You can use a snap-to line to line
up a sound clip with a video clip, using the waveform as a guide.
Editing Movies
and Sound
The timeline viewer’s audio tracks work the same way as the video clip track.
You can drag horizontally to adjust the position of a sound clip relative to the
video clips.
Book III
Chapter 4
270
Editing the Sound Track
You can set up iMovie so that snap-to lines always appear without needing
to hold down Shift: Choose iMovie➪Preferences and select the Enable
Timeline Snapping option.
Adjusting the volume of an audio track
You can adjust the volume of the audio track the same way as a video track.
To change the volume of the entire music track, follow these steps:
1. Select the sound clip in the audio track of the timeline viewer.
2. Select the Edit Volume check box.
A purple volume level bar appears across the middle of the audio track.
3. Drag the volume slider next to the Edit Volume option.
Drag the volume slider to the right for louder volume, or to the left for
lower volume. As you drag this slider, the purple volume level bar rises
or falls to reflect the volume level.
You can directly manipulate the volume level bar in the sound clip to control
the volume at different places in the sound clip. Follow these steps:
1. Select the sound clip in the audio track and select the Edit Volume
check box.
A purple volume level bar appears across the middle of the sound clip.
2. Click a point in the volume level bar in the clip, and drag the marker
that appears up for louder or down for softer.
Trimming sound clips
When the music or sound is too long to fit the video clip sequence that you
need it for, and you don’t want to extend the movie with blank space just
because the music is that long (even if the music is muted, it’s still there),
you can trim the end of the sound clip to end at the proper place. You can
also trim the beginning of the sound clip to remove sound and start the clip
exactly where you want it to start.
To trim the beginning or end of a long sound clip, follow these steps:
1. Select the sound clip in the audio track of the timeline viewer, and
move your pointer to one end of the clip.
The pointer turns into a double-arrow, as shown in Figure 4-13.
Editing the Sound Track
271
2. Drag the beginning or ending of the clip with the double-arrow pointer.
As you drag, you trim off the beginning or ending. After dragging a bit,
you can use the left-arrow or right-arrow key to trim one frame at a time
in either direction (or hold down the Shift key while pressing the arrow
keys to trim 10 frames at a time).
Trimming removes the sound temporarily, without deleting the sound, in case
you intend to edit the sequence to increase its duration, and you need to
change the trimming of the sound clip.
Figure 4-13:
Trim a long
audio clip to
shorten it.
Splitting sound clips
Sometimes splitting a sound clip into two clips is useful. For example, you may
want to use part of a song at the beginning of a movie and another part at
the end.
1. Move the playback head to the place in the clip where you want the
split.
2. Choose Edit➪Split Selected Audio Clip at Playhead.
After splitting the sound clip, iMovie saves the second clip with the same
name, but with “/1” appended to it. You can rename the clip if you want. You
can also drag either sound clip somewhere else in the movie.
Separating sound from video
You can separate the audio portion of a video clip and use the sound as a
separate clip — to use elsewhere if you want, or to preserve it in its entirety
while you cut the video clip.
The audio portion is actually copied from the video clip — the video clip
does not lose it. However, in the video clip, the audio volume is automatically muted.
Editing Movies
and Sound
To split a sound clip into two clips, select the clip in the audio track of the
timeline viewer and follow these steps:
Book III
Chapter 4
272
Editing the Sound Track
You don’t have to rejoin the audio portion to the video clip if you decide later
that you want to use it. Because the audio portion is never deleted (only
muted), you can bring it back by resetting the volume of the video clip.
To separate the sound from the video:
1. Select a video clip in the timeline viewer.
2. Choose Advanced➪Extract Audio.
The new sound clip appears as a separate clip in the top audio track of
the timeline viewer.
While you may not think you need this feature, extracting the audio portion
of a video clip offers a few new opportunities to experiment. For example,
you can copy the sound clip, and position the copy slightly earlier or later
than the original sound clip to form an echo. Select the clip in the timeline
viewer, choose Edit➪Copy to copy the clip and Edit➪Paste. Then drag the
new clip into position.
Adding sound effects
Sound effects can trigger excitement, surprise, and sometimes humor
(although they can also be annoying if used too much). iMovie offers a long
list of sound effects, ranging from the sounds of birds to the sound of a xylophone (our favorite is Suspense). Adding a sound effect is simplicity itself —
just follow these steps:
1. Show the timeline viewer by clicking the clock icon.
2. Click the Audio button.
The Audio pane automatically opens your iTunes music library.
3. Choose the iMovie Sound Effects option from the pop-up menu.
Sets of sound effects appear in a list. Click the triangle next to the set
name “Skywalker Sound Effects” or “Standard Sound Effects” to open the
set, as shown in Figure 4-14. You can scroll the list of effects for the one
you want — iMovie displays the duration for each effect.
4. Select a sound effect and drag it to the timeline.
You can control the volume of a sound effect clip just like any other audio clip,
as shown in Figure 4-15, in which we fade the volume down at the end of the
Jungle clip. You can also trim the sound effect — especially for sound effects
that are long, such as the Jungle effect — as described in the “Trimming sound
clips” section, earlier in this chapter.
Editing the Sound Track
273
Audio pane
Figure 4-14:
Select a
sound effect
to add to
your movie.
Book III
Chapter 4
Editing Movies
and Sound
Figure 4-15:
Adjust the
volume for
a sound
effect.
274
Editing the Sound Track
You can insert as many sound effects as you like, or even use the same effect
over and over — no rule says you can’t annoy people (except the rule of good
taste). You can achieve interesting effects by combining sound effects.
Simply drag them to the timeline and overlap the existing sound effect to
combine effects.
Laying video over sound
Suppose that a video clip has a sound track that you want to use, but you
want to paste some new, perhaps shorter, video clip (such as a still image
jazzed up with a Ken Burns Effect, as described in Chapter 3 of this minibook) over a section of the first video clip without pasting over the sound.
You’ll also want to overlay sound over video when you have a video clip of
someone talking, but you want to replace portions of just the video image to
show something else while the subject continues talking. In such cases, you
replace the old video with the new video, but keep the old video’s sound.
To paste a video clip over a portion of another video clip without replacing
the audio portion of the original clip, follow these steps:
1. Choose iMovie➪Preferences.
The iMovie Preferences window appears.
2. Select the Extract Audio in Paste Over option and close the Preferences
window.
This option is typically already selected.
3. Select the video clip or portion of a video clip.
If you crop the video clip before copying, only the cropped video is
copied. You can also select a portion of a video clip by dragging the crop
markers in the iMovie monitor, as described in Chapter 3 of this minibook.
4. Choose Edit➪Copy to copy the selected video.
This is a new video clip, ready to be pasted onto a section of the first
video clip.
5. Drag the playback head to the first frame of the first movie.
The new video clip will replace this section.
6. Choose Edit➪Paste to paste the copied video.
The second video clip replaces the first video clip. If the second video
clip is longer, the excess video is not pasted; if shorter, iMovie fills the
rest with a black clip.
The new video overlays the older video, but the older video’s sound track is
still heard.
Editing the Sound Track
275
On the other hand, suppose you have a new video clip that you want to use to
replace a section of an older clip, and you want to use the new clip’s sound as
well. To paste a video clip over a portion of another video clip, replacing the
audio as well, follow these steps:
1. Choose iMovie➪Preferences.
The iMovie Preferences window appears.
2. Deselect the Extract Audio in Paste Over option.
3. Follow Steps 3 through 6 in the previous list.
The new video overlays the older video and replaces the older video’s sound
track.
Adding a voice-over or narration
One capability of iMovie that you won’t find in even high-priced digital editing
systems is the ability to record a voice-over or narration while you watch your
movie. With this feature, adding narration is a snap — you can record your
own narration to explain the images in a documentary-style movie, or you can
record a voice-over, such as the voices you hear on commercials, announcers
before shows, or even sportscasters. You can even record an optional extra
voice-over track that can be played back on DVD. The possibilities are endless.
Before recording sound directly into your Mac, you must first set the sound
input in the Sound Preferences: Choose Ú➪System Preferences, click the
Input tab, and then choose the type of microphone or input. To save your
settings, quit the Sound panel and System Preferences by choosing System
Preferences➪Quit.
To record a voice-over or narration, follow these steps:
1. Move the playback head to the position in the timeline viewer (or clip
viewer) where you want the recorded audio to begin.
iMovie inserts the audio clip into the timeline or clip viewer at the position of the playback head.
Editing Movies
and Sound
Every Mac has the built-in capability to record sound. Some Mac models offer
built-in microphones, such as PowerBooks and iBooks and some iMac models.
Some models allow you to connect an external microphone to a mini-plug
jack, and you can connect a USB microphone to all Macs. You can also record
sound into your Mac using the microphone of your digital videocamera, or
using the iSight video camcorder used for video conferencing. Simply import
the recorded audio just as you would a video clip.
Book III
Chapter 4
276
Editing the Sound Track
2. Click the Audio button.
The Audio pane appears.
3. Click the red Record button and speak into the microphone (or make
the sound you want to record).
The Record button is next to the input meter, as shown in Figure 4-16.
While you speak, the input meter should show from green to yellow
dots — if the dots extend to red, you’re speaking too loudly or you’re
too close to the microphone. As you record, the movie also starts playing from the playback head, so you can watch the movie while recording
the voice-over or sound.
4. Click the red Record button again to stop recording.
The sound clip of the voice appears in the top audio track in the timeline
viewer at the location of the playback head.
You can drag the clip to any position just like any other sound clip, and control its volume or trim it just like any other sound clip.
Figure 4-16:
Record
sound
directly into
an iMovie
sound track.
Record button
Adding Post-Production Elements
277
Locking audio to video
If you have either music or a sound effect that must play at a certain frame
of the video, you can lock the audio clip to that video clip.
Locking audio to video is especially useful if you’ve done a lot of editing of
sound to video, and you discover that you need to shorten or lengthen a
video clip or add another clip. If you go ahead and edit the video clips without locking the audio, the audio clips will most likely be out of synchronization with the video. You would then have to drag all the audio clips back to
the positions you want for them to be synchronized. A tedious job — and
you’re likely to forget something or drag something too far.
To lock an audio clip to a video clip, follow these steps:
1. Move the playback head to where you want to lock the audio to the
video.
2. Choose Advanced➪Lock Audio Clip at Playhead.
Yellow pushpins appear to indicate that the audio clip is locked to the
video.
You can always unlock the audio clip by simply dragging it. But while the
audio is locked to the video clip, if the video clip moves, the audio clip moves
with it, so that they stay in sync.
Adding Post-Production Elements
Most movies start with a title and credits before the opening scene. It’s not
usual to see a movie start immediately with the opening scene, without some
kind of title or credits at least appearing at some point. So why shouldn’t
your movies look professional? iMovie gives you lots of choices for adding
titles and credits.
That may not be all that you need for your movie. If you’re going to copy the
movie to videotape or supply it to a television station, you need to add a
blank section — a black clip — to the beginning of the movie. You may also
want to add a black clip to the end. All these elements are typically created
Book III
Chapter 4
Editing Movies
and Sound
Locking an audio clip freezes its position with regard to the video clip, so
that if the video clip moves in any way on the timeline, the audio clip moves
with it. Nothing you do to other video clips — including inserting, deleting,
cropping, trimming, or changing their speed — changes the synchronized
audio and video.
278
Adding Post-Production Elements
at the end of a project, in post-production phase or simply post. (So the next
time people ask you if your movie is ready to show, tell them it’s still in postproduction. They’ll be impressed.)
Creating titles and credits
All movies should have titles. Even “Untitled” is a good title. This is your
chance to be witty, even if it’s a vacation video.
As for credits, who wouldn’t want to take credit for a masterpiece? And if
you don’t want credit, maybe you can’t resist making up names for all those
strange job titles, such as gaffer, key grip, and associate executive producer.
iMovie simplifies the making of titles and credits. Everything is called a title
in the Titles pane. You can type whatever you want, including real titles and
credits, and iMovie spins an interesting effect for you.
The title and credits can appear superimposed over the video, or against a
plain black background — both look professional. If the goal is to make people
read the text, using a black background is better because the text stands out
more and the viewer is not distracted by the video.
iMovie creates a clip in the timeline viewer to represent the title or credits
section. To create a title or credit clip, follow these steps.
1. In the timeline viewer, click the Titles button.
The Titles pane appears, providing a list of effects, from 3D Spin to Zoom,
with Speed and Pause controls, a Font pop-up menu and character size
slider, and text fields for typing in text, as shown in Figure 4-17.
2. Choose a title effect and type your text in the lower text fields.
Some title effects are part of a set, such as Centered, which includes Centered Title and Centered Multiple. Click the triangle next to the set name
to open a set of effects. The title effect you choose appears in the small
preview window. Experiment with different effects before choosing one.
3. Set the Speed and Pause settings.
The Speed slider allows you to set the speed of the title effect, which is
actually the speed of the animation. The Pause slider allows you to set
the pause in the title effect, which is how long the title remains completely 100 percent visible and readable. The total duration of the title
effect is the sum of these settings. iMovie conveniently sums these for
you at the bottom of the small preview screen.
Adding Post-Production Elements
279
Preview window
Figure 4-17:
Type a
movie title
and preview
the effect.
Text boxes
Title effects
The Font pop-up menu allows you to select any font in your system, and
you can make the characters larger or smaller with the Size slider to the
right of the pop-up menu.
5. Optional: Click the Color button (if you want a color for the title text
other than black).
The Color window appears, as shown in Figure 4-18. You can select a
color from the color wheel, or try the other color models, such as the
spectrum or the crayons — available as buttons at the top of the Color
window.
6. Adjust the direction of the animation.
The arrow buttons to the left of the small preview window in the Titles
pane are grayed-out if not applicable. With some title effects, you can
click these arrows to set the direction you want the animation to start
from. For example, the Scroll with Pause title effect (in the Scrolling set)
allows you to scroll the title from any of the four directions — bottom,
top, left, or right.
Editing Movies
and Sound
4. Choose a font and set the size for the text.
Book III
Chapter 4
280
Adding Post-Production Elements
Figure 4-18:
Change
the color
of the text
in the title.
7. Optional: Select the Over Black check box.
iMovie creates a black clip with the title effect, adding seconds to your
movie. If you leave this option deselected, iMovie superimposes the title
over video.
For example, in Figure 4-19, we typed the title “THE END,” chose the
Centered Title effect, and deselected the Over Black option.
Figure 4-19:
The title
is superimposed
over the
video.
Adding Post-Production Elements
281
Be sure that any separate sound clips are locked to video before adding
a title effect over black. When iMovie adds a black clip for the title, the
additional seconds throw your sound clips out of sync with the video.
We describe how to lock audio to video in the section, “Locking audio to
video,” earlier in this chapter.
8. Drag the title effect’s name from the list to the timeline.
You may want to zoom into the timeline viewer to see the clips better,
especially if you want to insert the title effect at the very beginning. The
title appears in the Viewer pane, as shown in Figure 4-20.
Some title effects are set up for rolling or scrolling credits that you typically
see at the end of a movie. These effects allow you to type many lines of text
rather than one or two lines.
For example, the Rolling Credits effect, shown in Figure 4-21, offers the ability to add multiple lines of text. The effect displays two text fields for each
credit line. All you have to do is click the + button to add another pair of text
fields to create another credit line.
Book III
Chapter 4
Editing Movies
and Sound
Figure 4-20:
The title
appears
at the
beginning
of the
movie.
282
Adding Post-Production Elements
Figure 4-21:
Add credit
lines to your
movie.
If you plan to export your movie in the QuickTime format only, at a smaller
picture size, you can select the QT Margins option to increase the space in
the picture to place titles. This increase in space means that iMovie can offer
larger font sizes and wider lines of text. You want to use the largest font size
available — that way, when the picture shrinks to a smaller size for playing
from Web sites, viewers can still read the text. However, this is not good for
video played on normal televisions.
Leave the QT Margins option deselected if you want to play your movie on
different types of devices, including normal televisions. The QT Margins
option widens the margins for title effects, but televisions cut off the edges
of the picture, as we describe in the “Staying inside the safe area” sidebar,
and your titles may have their edges cut off.
Adding a black clip
You may have already done this by accident — we certainly did, a number of
times. If you drag a video clip away from another clip, you end up with a gap
in the video between the two clips, which is all black (the absence of color).
Adding Post-Production Elements
283
Staying inside the safe area
The picture size is as important when developing a movie for television as it is when creating
a movie to be viewed on the Web. The difference is that with movies that will be viewed on
a TV, you need to keep the best part of your
video away from the edges of the picture. Most
people still have televisions that overscan the
screen — the cathode-ray guns overshoot the
margins of the screen to make sure that the
screen is “painted” edge-to-edge. As a result,
you lose about 10 percent of the picture on
each edge (sometimes less on top and bottom,
depending on the TV). If you place something
on the very edge of the picture, such as the
beginning of a title, it may get cut off when
viewed on a TV. Television producers work
around this limitation by defining the TV-safe
area where all the action takes place. The safe
area is, essentially, inside the edges of the picture, leaving at least a 10 percent margin
around all sides.
Known as a black clip, these gaps can be useful in a number of ways:
✦ To separate one video segment from another: If you want to show two
different short movies, but keep them together in one digital video file,
you can separate them with a black clip.
✦ To create a tape lead-in: If you need to provide enough blank video so
that older VCRs can get up to speed before playing the movie, create a
black clip at the beginning of your movie.
✦ To add comic relief at the end of a movie: You see movies that have
comic outtakes playing behind the credits or at the very end, separated
first by a black clip. Black clips are also effective transitions between the
outtakes.
If you plan to send your video on tape or in digital format to a television station or production house, you need to leave more than 60 seconds of black
clip at the beginning, so that they can add color bars and other images before
the start of your movie. You may want to do this by exporting the movie to DV
tape, and start the recording with one minute of blank tape, which is another
way of adding a black clip, but without making it a part of your movie file.
To create a black clip, simply drag a video clip to the right on the timeline,
creating a gap. iMovie turns that gap into a black clip. Switch to the clip
viewer to see it, as shown in Figure 4-22.
Editing Movies
and Sound
✦ To create longer transitions between scenes with black clips: You can
use precisely timed black clips to serve as transitions, especially between
a Fade Out transition and a Fade In transition.
Book III
Chapter 4
284
Adding Post-Production Elements
Figure 4-22:
Create a
black clip.
Creating chapter markers for DVD
If you plan to create a DVD of your movie, you can create chapter markers in
advance, so that viewers can jump directly to their favorite scenes. When you
use the movie with iDVD, the DVD-authoring portion of iLife, your chapter
markers are automatically assigned to the DVD menu of scenes in the movie.
Follow these steps for each chapter marker you want to add:
1. Select a clip in the timeline viewer, and if necessary, also move the
playback head to the beginning of the clip.
When you select a clip in the clip viewer, and then switch to the timeline
viewer, the playback head is already at the beginning of the clip you
selected.
2. Click the iDVD button.
The iDVD pane opens.
3. Click the Add Chapter button and type a chapter title.
Type the chapter title next to the thumbnail that appears in the iDVD
pane. The chapter markers appear in the timeline viewer as diamonds.
Adding Post-Production Elements
285
4. Move the playback head to a new position that you want to mark as
another chapter, and then repeat Step 3.
You can continue to move the playback head and add chapter markers
with the iDVD pane open, as shown in Figure 4-23.
After you create these chapter markers, you can use them to jump around
the movie in iMovie and to start playing from any chapter. To move the
iMovie playhead to a marked chapter in a movie, click the chapter name in
the iDVD pane in iMovie.
With the post-production finishing touches complete, you are ready to share
your movie with others. We describe a variety of ways to share your movies
in Chapter 5 of this minibook.
Book III
Chapter 4
Editing Movies
and Sound
Figure 4-23:
Create
multiple
chapter
titles in the
iDVD pane.
286
Book III: iMovie
Chapter 5: Viewing and
Sharing Movies
In This Chapter
Switching to full-screen playback
Sharing movies on the Internet by e-mail and Web site
Exporting with QuickTime expert settings
Exporting to a camcorder
Publishing with HomePage
F
inally, a distribution deal! Call your agent! Suddenly everyone wants to
see your movie.
And you are in a great position to distribute that movie. The movies you make
with iMovie can be played full-screen on any computer or TV set. Read that
again: any computer or TV set.
You can play your movies even in the wilderness villages on the BurmaThailand border, where we hear television sets with VCRs are powered by
batteries. You can play your movies in campers, boats, recreational vehicles,
airplanes, and even submarines. Wherever there’s a VCR, or better yet, a
DVD player, you can play your movies.
Computer users have even more choices: They can view DVDs, download
videos from the Internet, or watch a video streaming from a Web site. They
can even receive small movies by e-mail. This chapter shows how to make
your movies available to just about anyone with a hankering to watch it.
Playing Your Movie in Full-Screen Playback
Although iMovie doesn’t play your movie in full-screen mode in the best possible quality, playing back your movie in full-screen mode during the editing
and post-production process and before you copy it to any other medium is
useful. That way, if you need to make any changes at the last minute, you can
make them before wasting any time with exporting and copying.
To play a movie in full-screen mode, click the Play Full-Screen button (to the
right of the larger Play button in the iMovie monitor). The movie plays in
288
Sharing Movies
full-screen mode from the position of the playback head. Click the Rewind
button first to start at the beginning of the movie. If you select a clip first, only
that clip will play. To play the entire movie (not just selected clips), deselect
all clips, choose Edit➪Select None, and then click the Play Full-Screen button.
To interrupt the movie in full-screen mode, click your mouse or press any
key on your keyboard.
In full-screen mode, the quality of the picture is not as crisp as it appears in
the camcorder’s viewer, the computer’s monitor with the QuickTime Player, or
television monitors. To see the best quality on your computer screen, export
the movie in the QuickTime format, as described in the section, “Choosing
QuickTime expert settings,” later in this chapter. To copy your movie to a DV
camcorder or videotape, see the section, “Exporting to a DV Camcorder,” later
in this chapter.
Sharing Movies
You can play your movie in iMovie, but you need to export the movie into
another format so that other people can view it. QuickTime is a digital video
file format that offers many choices for quality, compression, picture size,
and playback format. QuickTime provides the key to Internet distribution,
which opens your audience to millions of potential viewers.
iMovie offers multiple ways of sharing an iMovie movie on the Internet in the
QuickTime format. You can use the built-in settings to export movies that can
be sent by e-mail or published on the Web. You can also export QuickTime
movies that can be streamed from Web sites — streaming movies start playing
immediately after you click on them, and keep playing while the rest of the
movie continues to download from the Internet.
You can also export QuickTime movies for CD-ROM playback, and as digital
video files at the highest possible quality for professional use. iMovie even
lets you export movies with custom QuickTime settings for professional editing, or to your DV camcorder, or to iDVD.
Follow these steps to share your movie:
1. Choose File➪Share.
iMovie displays the share dialog, as shown in Figure 5-1.
2. Click a button at the top of the dialog to see each sharing pane, which
offers different export settings:
• Email: Export to a small QuickTime file (160 x 120 pixels) at 10 frames
per second. The pop-up menu enables you to choose what e-mail program to use to send the movie. See the “Sharing by e-mail” section,
later in this chapter.
Sharing Movies
289
Figure 5-1:
Share your
movie by
e-mail or
other
methods.
• Videocamera: Export to your DV camcorder’s digital videocassette
to archive the edited movie or to use it with other projects. See the
“Exporting to a DV Camcorder” section, later in this chapter.
• iDVD: Export the movie to iDVD to create a DVD that plays with any
DVD player. See the “Exporting to iDVD” section, later in this chapter.
• QuickTime: QuickTime files play on almost any computer (and
certainly every Mac). See the “Publishing Movies on the Web” and
“Choosing QuickTime expert settings” sections, later in this chapter.
• Bluetooth: You can use Bluetooth wireless technology to transfer
movies wirelessly to other computers, mobile phones, or personal
digital assistants — if the device can play movies.
3. Click the Share button to export the movie.
Publishing a movie on the Internet is an exercise in compromise. Although
many people have high-speed connections to the Internet that make
Viewing and
Sharing Movies
• HomePage: Export to a small QuickTime file (160 x 120 pixels) at 10
frames per second in the streaming format with a hint track. The hint
track maps key frames in your movie to time signatures used with
streaming servers. iMovie then launches your browser and opens the
.Mac HomePage service to publish the movie automatically on the
Web using the .Mac service. See the “Publishing Movies on the Web”
section, later in this chapter.
Book III
Chapter 5
290
Sharing Movies
downloading a large file quickly possible, most people suffer with a lowerspeed, dial-up connection. You can create multiple versions of your movie
for the different types of access.
Sharing by e-mail
To export a movie you want to distribute by e-mail, click the Email button in
the Share dialog (refer to Figure 5-1) to open the Email pane. The Send Email
Using pop-up menu lets you choose what e-mail program you want to use to
send the movie file. The Email pane settings shrink the movie down with
video and audio compression, reducing the picture size as well, to create a
QuickTime movie file that might be small enough to attach to an e-mail message. Your movie is compressed to 10 frames per second, with a picture size
of 160 x 120 pixels, and mono (rather than stereo) sound.
Check the size of your movie before e-mailing it. Movie files are large and
e-mail is not meant for large files. The Internet service provider (ISP) that
provides your e-mail server may have limitations on the size of e-mail attachments — ours has a limit of about 4.5MB total. Web-based e-mail accounts
may limit attachment sizes to 1MB or less. If the size of the attachments is
larger than the limit, the e-mail message gets bounced back, undelivered.
The limit on attachment size also applies to incoming messages, so some of
your audience may not be able to receive such a large file to their e-mail
accounts, even if you can send the attachment.
The e-mail format may create a blurry movie that is too small to have an
impact. It may also create a movie file that’s still too large to attach to an
e-mail — our 6-minute video became a 14.7MB file. However, reducing the
picture size or increasing the compression factors renders the movie even
harder to watch. Remember: The end product is not always worth the effort.
Sharing with Bluetooth devices
Bluetooth technology enables short-range wireless connections between desktop and notebook computers, handhelds, personal digital assistants, mobile
phones, camera phones, printers, digital cameras, headsets, keyboards, and
pointing devices. Using this technology, you can transfer movies wirelessly to
other computers, mobile phones, and personal digital assistants that can play
movies.
Bluetooth wireless technology uses a globally available frequency band (2.4
GHz) for worldwide compatibility. Your Bluetooth device must be compliant
with the Third Generation Partnership Program (3G-PP) and have an appropriate video application to be able to display movies.
You can transfer movies to a Bluetooth device with iMovie by following these
steps:
1. Choose File➪Share and click the Bluetooth button.
Sharing Movies
291
2. Select or deselect the Share Selected Clips Only option.
Select this option to send only the clips selected in the timeline or clip
viewer; deselect this option to share the entire movie.
3. Click the Share button to compress the movie.
4. Choose the type and category of the Bluetooth device.
Choose the type of Bluetooth device from the Device Type pop-up menu,
and choose the category of device from the Device Category pop-up menu.
5. Click the Search button to search for available devices.
6. Choose a device in the Device window and click the Select button.
Your exported movie file is saved with the file extension .3gp in a newly
created Bluetooth folder inside your movie project folder. You can use
Bluetooth File Exchange to transfer the .3gp movie file with other devices.
Bluetooth devices such as cell phones and PDAs tend to have small memory
footprints, so your movie needs to be very small in terms of file size.
Sharing on the Web
There are two ways to share your movies by posting them on a Web page:
✦ Export a QuickTime movie with built-in or expert settings. You have
ultimate control over the settings for your QuickTime movie with this
method, but you have to upload the movie file to the Web site yourself by
using either a publishing program or an upload facility on the Web site
(such as the facility for uploading files to your iDisk in the .Mac service).
You can export a QuickTime movie by clicking the QuickTime button, as
shown in Figure 5-2. The Compress Movie For pop-up menu enables you to
choose a built-in compression format. Your choices are the following:
✦ Email: Your movie is compressed to 10 frames per second, with a picture
size of 160 x 120 pixels, and mono (rather than stereo) sound — see the
“Sharing by e-mail” section, earlier in this chapter.
✦ Web: The standard Web setting creates a QuickTime movie that has, at
240 x 180 pixels, a slightly larger picture than the e-mail setting for
Book III
Chapter 5
Viewing and
Sharing Movies
✦ Use the HomePage feature of the .Mac service. Choose File➪Share and
click the HomePage button. After typing a movie filename (and perhaps
buying more disk space on the .Mac service by clicking the Buy More
Space button), click the Share button. iMovie exports the movie as a
streaming QuickTime file with a hint track, and then launches your
browser to open the .Mac log in screen. After logging in to the .Mac service,
you see a page that lets you choose Web page templates for presenting
your movie. iMovie automatically uploads your movie to the .Mac service.
See the section, “Publishing Movies on the Web,” later in this chapter.
292
Sharing Movies
QuickTime, but the larger size is much more viewable. Files are still
quite large — our 6-minute movie came out to 32.3MB. Web viewers
must download the entire movie before starting to play it.
✦ Web Streaming: Streaming video does not download to your computer — it
starts playing as soon as the viewer clicks the Play button, no matter how
long the video is. The video streams into the computer from the Internet in
short bursts (called buffering), which is enough to start the movie playing
while the computer receives more streaming data. The streaming format
is the most useful QuickTime format for large-scale movies, because it
provides instant gratification for the viewer. However, it requires the use of
the QuickTime Streaming Server, available from Apple. Otherwise, the
Streaming Web setting is the same as the Web setting, except that the file
size is slightly larger because this setting includes an additional hint track
for controlling streaming. The hint track maps key frames in the movie to
time signatures so that you can navigate to any part of a streaming movie
and wait only for buffering to occur before seeing that part.
✦ CD-ROM: Your movie is compressed to 15 frames per second, with a picture size of 320 x 240 pixels, and full-quality stereo sound — suitable for
playback from CD-ROM.
Figure 5-2:
Export a
QuickTime
file.
✦ Full Quality DV: Your movie is copied to a disk file in digital video format
with full-quality picture and sound — suitable for professional video editing programs and video services. The QuickTime file also takes up a lot of
hard drive space in this format, because no compression is involved. To
give you an idea of how large the file can get, we saved a movie that is 6:11
(6 minutes and 11 seconds), which created a file size of 1.24GB.
✦ Expert Settings: This option provides several windows of options for
specifying picture size, frame rate, compression methods, and various
custom settings for streaming and other features. In short, it gives you
access to the entire menu of QuickTime settings. See the next section.
Sharing Movies
293
Choosing QuickTime expert settings
QuickTime is used extensively in the digital video production world for highquality video production, for making DVDs, and for producing movies for the
Web. Those who know a lot about QuickTime can tweak the movie files to gain
performance advantages, or adjust settings for the highest possible quality or
to make tradeoffs in performance or quality. There are as many reasons for
using QuickTime expert settings as there are custom settings themselves.
To gain access to the full range of QuickTime settings, choose File➪Share; in
the Share dialog that appears, choose Expert Settings in the Compress Movie
For pop-up menu, and then click the Share button (refer to Figure 5-2). As
shown in Figure 5-3, the Save Exported File As dialog appears, with an
Options button and two pop-up menus: Export and Use.
Book III
Chapter 5
Viewing and
Sharing Movies
Figure 5-3:
Choose a
format from
the Export
pop-up
menu.
The Export pop-up menu offers a wide variety of QuickTime export formats.
You can, for example, export a movie to the Audio/Visual Interleaved (AVI)
format used on PCs, to the Windows Bitmap (BMP) sequence, to the Digital
Video (DV) Stream format, or to a file in the Motion Picture Expert Group
Version 4 (MPEG-4) format that most PCs can play from a Web site. You can
also export just the sound portion of your movie to various sound file formats,
such as AIFF and WAV. Each type of export offers its own dialog with options
specific to that type of file, which you access by clicking the Options button.
The Use pop-up menu, shown in Figure 5-4, provides convenient settings that
help you fine-tune QuickTime movies for the Web. The Modem, DSL/Cable
Medium, and LAN settings represent slowest, medium, and highest speeds,
294
Sharing Movies
respectively. The pop-up menu also offers the Default Settings choice to
reset all settings back to their defaults, so that you can make custom adjustments to all your settings.
Figure 5-4:
Choose a
setting from
the Use
pop-up
menu.
Click the Options button for any of the export options to access settings for
that type of export. For example, if you select Movie to QuickTime Movie
from the Export pop-up menu, and then click the Options button, you see
the Movie Settings dialog, as shown in Figure 5-5.
Figure 5-5:
Change the
settings for
the Movie to
QuickTime
Movie
format.
Exporting to a DV Camcorder
295
The Movie Settings dialog offers several dozen different video compression
methods, called compressor/decompressors (codecs). Click the Settings
button to choose from the MPEG-4 codec for Web, DVD, and computer playback, along with the Cinepak and Sorenson codecs, which are useful for playing movies from CD-ROM.
Exporting to a DV Camcorder
To copy your movie to DV tape, you need a digital video (DV) camcorder and
a DV cassette (also called mini-DV) to store the digital video. Apple calls this
option “Videocamera,” but you can’t use just any video camera — it must be a
digital video camcorder, which can record onto a digital video (DV) cassette.
Camcorders not only record video in camera mode, they also play back the
video recorded in VTR (video tape recorder) or VCR mode. In VTR/VCR mode,
the camcorder can record to its tape from an external source, which is what
you do when you export your movie to the camcorder. Copying the movie to
the camcorder and playing the movie takes the same amount of time.
Connect your camcorder to your Mac (see Chapter 1 of this minibook). Then
follow these steps:
1. Choose File➪Share and click the Videocamera button.
2. Set at least 10 seconds for the camera to get ready, and add as many
seconds of black as you like.
Most DV camcorders do not start recording instantly, but take a few seconds to get the tape rolling properly. In addition, you may want to add a
few seconds of black to the beginning of the movie so that viewers have
a moment to settle down and get ready to watch the movie.
If you plan on sending this DV tape to a professional video studio or television station, leave at least a full minute of black before the video starts.
3. Click the Share button.
iMovie controls the copying of the movie from your Mac to the DV camcorder. With most DV camcorders, you can watch the recording happen
on the camcorder’s display.
When copying completes, iMovie automatically stops the camcorder’s recording operation. Your finished movie is now safely stored on DV cassette, and
you can play it on your DV camcorder, which you can connect easily to a TV
or VCR.
Viewing and
Sharing Movies
The Share dialog changes to show the Videocamera pane and its export
options, as shown in Figure 5-6.
Book III
Chapter 5
296
Exporting Still Images
Figure 5-6:
Export the
movie to
a DV camcorder’s
cassette.
After exporting to the DV camcorder, you can switch iMovie to camera mode
by clicking the camera icon (moving the blue ball away from the scissors
icon). You can then control the camcorder with the Rewind and Play buttons.
If you have trouble recording to your DV camcorder, check to see if your DV
cassette is write-protected. Some PAL camcorders are set with FireWire input
disabled — check the documentation that came with your camcorder.
Exporting Still Images
You may capture a rare shot of someone or something that you want to preserve as a still photo — for example, the last shot of someone looking at a
sunset, or a winner at the finish line. You can then use the image as a photo
or a graphic for a printed piece.
To export an image from your movie, follow these steps:
1. Select the clip and position the playback head in the timeline viewer
to show the image you want to save.
2. Choose File➪Save Frame As, and in the Save dialog that appears,
choose a format from the Format pop-up menu.
iMovie gives you two choices for the file format: JPEG or PICT.
Copying Movies to VHS Tape
297
Use the JPEG format for images that you intend to use on Web pages or
as attachments to e-mails. Use the PICT format for images you intend to
use with other applications, such as Adobe Photoshop. You can import
either type of image into iPhoto, as we describe in Book II, Chapter 2.
3. Browse to the folder where you want to save the image.
4. Click the Save button.
You may want to use a single image, or frame, of the movie as a freeze frame —
the movie holds that image for dramatic effect or just to show the image
longer than usual. iMovie takes the image in a single frame and creates a video
clip with it. To save an image as a freeze frame video clip, follow these steps:
1. Select the clip and position the playback head in the timeline viewer
to show the image you want to save.
2. Choose Edit➪Create Still Frame.
iMovie creates a video clip with the image with a default duration of five
seconds.
3. If you want to change the default time, choose File➪Show Info.
The Clip Info dialog opens.
4. Type a new duration in the Duration field and then click the Set button.
Although you lose a lot of picture and sound quality when copying a movie to
the type of VHS tape used in VCRs and nondigital camcorders, you also gain a
much larger audience for your movie.
You need a DV camcorder to copy movies to a VCR — a DV camcorder acts
like a digital-to-VHS converter, and is much cheaper and easier to use than
converters used in the past. Follow these steps to copy the movie to a VCR:
1. Copy the movie to a DV cassette in a DV camcorder.
See the “Exporting to a DV Camcorder” section, earlier in this chapter, for
details.
2. Connect your VCR to your DV camcorder’s video/audio output
connectors.
A video recorder such as a VCR typically offers RCA-type connectors (one
for video and two for audio), or an S-video connector for video along with
two RCA-type audio connectors, for input to the VCR for recording onto
tape. A DV camcorder typically offers RCA-type or S-video or both for
output from the camcorder. Connect the input of the VCR to the output of
the DV camcorder.
Viewing and
Sharing Movies
Copying Movies to VHS Tape
Book III
Chapter 5
298
Copying Movies to VHS Tape
3. Press the Record button on the video recorder (VCR), and then press
the Play button on the DV camcorder.
That’s all there is to it. The VCR records the movie from the DV camcorder,
and you can go back to work on your Mac. Remember to press the Stop
button on the VCR when the movie finishes copying.
If, on the other hand, you want to copy the movie directly to the VHS-format
VCR without saving it to DV cassette first, you can use the DV camcorder to
pass the video from your Mac through to the VCR. Follow these steps:
1. Connect your video recorder (VCR) to your DV camcorder’s video/
audio output connectors.
2. Choose iMovie➪Preferences.
The iMovie Preferences window appears.
The art of compression
If you want to dabble with the QuickTime expert
settings, you can choose how to compress your
movie. We have the best success with the following choices for QuickTime exporting:
Web: The standard Web setting does not
offer streaming — the quality of playback
is 12 frames per second, which offers
smoother motion than 10, but not the highest quality (30). The sound is compressed
by resampling at a sample rate of 22.05 kHz
(16-bit sample size), which is good but not
the best quality. We instead use the Web
Streaming setting. MPEG-4 is the compressor most PCs can play, and you find that
choice in the expert settings. For audio
compression, we use Qdesign Music or
uLaw 2:1, which are optimized for the
QuickTime Streaming Server.
CD-ROM: We recommend the CD-ROM
choice in the QuickTime pop-up menu (refer
to Figure 5-2).
DVD: We export directly to iDVD. iDVD handles all DVD compression. If you can’t
afford a DVD-R to burn your DVDs, you can
use any number of services that can do it
for you for a small fee.
Professional studios and services: We provide the movie on DV cassette, or as a Full
Quality DV file, or we use the DV Stream
export option in the expert settings, which
produces a pure video file that we use with
professional digital editing equipment and
applications, such as Final Cut Pro.
Converting between PAL and NTSC: You
can use iMovie to capture video clips using
either format, and then export the movie as
a DV stream; you can then import the movie
and copy it to either type of camcorder
(PAL or NTSC). You can also export the
movie as a QuickTime movie file with the
DV-PAL or the DVCPRO-PAL compression
codec used in Europe.
If you want to find out more about compression
and codecs when converting movies to QuickTime, pick up a copy of iMovie 2 For Dummies,
by Todd Stauffer (published by Wiley Publishing, Inc.).
Exporting to iDVD
299
3. Select the Play Video Through to Camera option and click OK.
4. Choose File➪Share and click the Videocamera tab.
5. Switch the DV camcorder to VCR/VTR mode.
Do not insert a blank tape into your camcorder.
6. Press the Record button on your VCR.
7. In the Share dialog, click the Share button.
iMovie plays the movie through the DV camcorder and records the
movie to the VCR.
8. Press the Stop button on the VCR when the movie finishes copying.
Exporting to iDVD
The newest way to save your movie is to burn a DVD, which can be played
with any type of DVD player. If you have an Apple-supported DVD-R drive
(such as the Apple SuperDrive), you can create your own DVDs. You can
transfer your entire movie directly from iMovie to iDVD in two steps:
1. Click the iDVD button in iMovie.
The iDVD pane displays, as shown in Figure 5-7.
Book III
Chapter 5
Viewing and
Sharing Movies
Figure 5-7:
Export the
movie to
iDVD.
300
Publishing Movies on the Web
2. Click the Create iDVD Project button.
iMovie automatically transfers your movie to iDVD, which opens
immediately.
Creating DVDs is a much bigger topic than we can cover here — look for the
iDVD story in Book IV.
Publishing Movies on the Web
To publish your QuickTime movie on the Web, you can use the HomePage
feature of the .Mac service, or you can export your movie to the Site folder
on your hard drive, where you can use Web publishing software to post it.
The .Mac service provides an easy way to create and publish a Web page
from iMovie. With HomePage on the .Mac service, viewers can download
your movie from your home Web page.
As of this writing, the .Mac HomePage feature does not yet offer streaming
video — in which frames of video appear without having to wait for the
movie to download. However, the movie files you upload to your HomePage
are exported with a hint track to take advantage of a streaming server, when
(and if) the .Mac HomePage service provides one. Streaming video works
best when the viewer has a high-bandwidth connection.
To serve a video stream, your ISP or Web hosting service needs to deploy
the QuickTime Streaming Server (QTSS), which provides native support for
streaming MPEG-4 and QuickTime files, as well as support for standards for
the Windows and Linux operating systems. Apple offers this server as part
of its .Mac service so that anyone can publish streaming movies, but you can
also purchase the server and set it up to host your own streaming video site.
To export your iMovie movie for Web streaming, follow these steps:
1. Choose File➪Share and click the QuickTime button (refer to Figure 5-2).
2. Choose Web Streaming from the Compress Movie For pop-up menu.
The Web Streaming option compresses the movie to 12 frames per
second with a picture size of 240 x 180 pixels and medium-quality stereo
sound. This format also adds the streaming hints that map key video
frames to the time signature so that you can navigate to different parts
of a streamed movie and still view it smoothly.
3. Click the Share button to export the movie.
To publish your movie, you must first transfer it to the Web site and place a
link to the movie on a Web page. You can use a Web publishing application
(such as Macromedia Dreamweaver MX) to do both. You can also create
your own Web page and use an FTP (file transfer protocol) application (or
Publishing Movies on the Web
301
FTP function built into the publishing application) to transfer the movie file
and Web page to your Web site. For more information, we recommend Web
Design For Dummies by Lisa Lopuck (John Wiley & Sons, Inc.). On the other
hand, publishing your movie with the HomePage feature of .Mac is a snap.
You don’t need a publishing or FTP application. iMovie exports the movie
file when you click the Share button in the HomePage pane, and the .Mac
HomePage service does the rest for you. Follow these steps:
1. Choose File➪Share and click the HomePage button.
2. Type a name for your movie (or use the convenient name provided).
The HomePage pane, as shown in Figure 5-8, lets you type a name for
your movie.
Figure 5-8:
Using the
HomePage
sharing
pane to
publish a
movie on
the Web.
Book III
Chapter 5
Viewing and
Sharing Movies
3. Check your iDisk space, and buy more space if you need it.
In the HomePage pane (refer to Figure 5-8), the message describes how
the movie is compressed, and offers an estimate of the resulting file size
(which depends on the size of your movie). Make sure you have enough
disk space in iDisk. You can click the Buy More Space button to purchase more.
4. Click the Share button.
iMovie automatically compresses your movie into the proper QuickTime
format and transfers it to your iDisk. After this is finished, iMovie automatically launches your browser and connects you to the .Mac log-in
page, as shown in Figure 5-9.
5. Type your .Mac ID and password, and click Enter.
The HomePage service page opens with your movie shown in a small
QuickTime player, ready for previewing, as shown in Figure 5-10.
302
Publishing Movies on the Web
Figure 5-9:
Logging into
the .Mac
service to
publish your
movie with
HomePage.
Figure 5-10:
Previewing
your movie
on the Web
with the
HomePage
service.
Publishing Movies on the Web
303
6. Click the Play button to preview your movie.
The Play button turns into a Pause button; click it to pause the movie,
and click it again to resume playing.
7. Select a theme by clicking the thumbnail image for the theme.
The thumbnail images in the lower part of the page (refer to Figure 5-10)
represent iMovie themes. (Make sure the iMovie theme type is selected
on the left side of the lower part of the page — if another type is
selected, click iMovie in the list of theme types.) Click a thumbnail to
select a theme. Your custom page opens with your movie embedded in
the page, as shown in Figure 5-11, which uses the Projector theme. The
movie starts playing almost immediately, and you can use the player
controls under the picture to control playback.
8. Click the Edit button to edit the titles on the page.
When you click the Edit button, the page changes to a version you can
edit, as shown in Figure 5-12. Click inside the title section of the page
and type your own title for the movie, and click inside the description
section and write a few descriptive lines of text. You can also click the
Choose button in the layout to choose a different QuickTime movie.
9. Click the Publish button to publish your Web page with the movie.
The Publish button is in the upper-right corner (refer to Figure 5-12). After
clicking the Publish button, your page is on the Web. The HomePage service displays a message, as shown in Figure 5-13, with a link to the page.
Click the link to see the page.
Book III
Chapter 5
Viewing and
Sharing Movies
Figure 5-11:
Your custom
movie page
displayed
with a
HomePage
theme
(Projector).
304
Publishing Movies on the Web
Figure 5-12:
Editing the
title and
description
for your
custom
movie page.
Figure 5-13:
HomePage
posts the
page and
displays its
link after
you click
Publish.
Publishing Movies on the Web
305
10. Announce your page to others.
You can announce your page to others by sending an iCard from the
.Mac service, which would include a link to your movie page. Click the
right arrow button to send an iCard.
To use the .Mac service, you must first have a .Mac account, which is simple
to set up at www.apple.com — all you need is a credit card.
You don’t have to use the HomePage feature of iMovie. You could export a
QuickTime movie with custom settings, and then use the HomePage service
directly. Follow these steps to publish your movie with the .Mac HomePage
service directly:
1. Open your iDisk.
With any version of Max OS X you can open your iDisk by choosing iDisk
from the Go menu in the Finder (choose Go➪iDisk➪My iDisk). With Mac
OS X 10.3, you can double-click the iDisk icon in the Finder.
2. Copy the exported movie to the Movies folder on iDisk.
3. Launch your browser and go to the HomePage in your .Mac account.
The HomePage window appears with any sites you already created. The
HomePage editing page provides several choices for the movie page layout.
Click inside the text field, select the text, and then type your own title.
7. Choose a QuickTime movie file from your iDisk.
Click the Choose button on the editing page to select a QuickTime
movie. Your iDisk appears; you can navigate to the Movies folder and
select the movie file.
That’s it. Your movie is now up on the Web, viewable by anyone, anywhere.
All viewers need to do is find the movie on your Web site and click it. You
can send them the Web link in an e-mail, or use the HomePage service and
the iCard service of .Mac to send an e-mail.
Viewing and
Sharing Movies
4. Click iMovie in the list of templates on the left side of the page.
5. Click the Edit button in the top-right corner of the page.
6. Edit the title and caption for the Web page.
Book III
Chapter 5
306
Book III: iMovie
Book IV
iDVD
Contents at a Glance
Chapter 1: Instant iDVD Authoring ..................................................................................309
Chapter 2: Making Menus and Buttons ............................................................................325
Chapter 3: Burning DVDs ..................................................................................................341
Chapter 1: Instant iDVD Authoring
In This Chapter
Touring iDVD
Importing movies from iMovie
Importing QuickTime files
Adding slideshows
D
VD is the medium of choice for movies, having replaced videotape in
the last few years. DVD stands for Digital Versatile Disc (not digital
video disc, which is an older medium that has since bought the farm, along
with the short-lived Betamax format for video and music 8-track cartridges).
The name reinforces the concept that DVD holds anything from video to
music to photos and is a versatile medium to use — it is, in fact, the first
consumer medium that allows the viewer to interact with the content by
using menus to navigate the disc’s movies, excerpts, photos, and multiple
soundtracks.
DVD authoring is the process of assembling the contents of a DVD and designing the interface — the menus and buttons that allow you to navigate the
contents. Authoring used to require expensive digital video and DVD mastering hardware and software and authoring expertise. But with iDVD and a
SuperDrive-equipped Mac, you can easily create DVDs to distribute your own
videos and presentations.
iDVD is an application that offers tools for creating DVDs that contain menus
and buttons to navigate the contents of the discs. iDVD requires a Mac with
an Apple SuperDrive, which is a DVD-R (recordable DVD) burner. Besides
offering professionally designed menu themes with spectacular special
effects, iDVD allows you to grab your photos from iPhoto, import your
QuickTime movies from iMovie, and use your music from iTunes. Like the
page layout programs that ushered in the era of desktop publishing, iDVD is
helping to launch the new era of desktop interactive video.
310
What You Can Do with iDVD
What You Can Do with iDVD
With iDVD, you can put movies on DVD, of course. But you can add several
features to the DVD besides a menu with a button to play a movie:
✦ Mark sections of a movie you create with iMovie as chapters, as described
in Book III, Chapter 4, so that viewers can jump to specific sections. Those
chapter titles can be automatically turned into a scene menu to access the
specific sections of the movie. See Chapter 2 of this minibook to find out
how to add menus to your DVD.
✦ Add nifty movie menus animated with scenes from the movie. You can
define up to 30 menus in one iDVD project, and you can define up to six
buttons in a menu that link to submenus, slideshows, or movies. See
Chapter 2 of this minibook to find out how to add menus to your DVD.
✦ You can create a slideshow of your photographs that is accompanied by
music. Each slideshow can contain up to 99 images, and a DVD can contain up to 99 slideshows or movies in any combination. For details, read
the section, “Assembling Photo Slideshows,” later in this chapter.
Saying that you can fit a lot of information on a DVD is an understatement, but
video takes up a lot of disc space. You can fit up to 90 minutes of video on a
DVD-R using iDVD, including all still images, backgrounds, and movies. However, if you put more than 60 minutes of video on a DVD-R, the picture quality
may suffer because iDVD uses stronger compression with a slower bit rate to
fit more than 60 minutes of video on the disc, and both factors reduce overall
picture quality. The best approach is to limit each DVD-R to 60 minutes.
Where you can play your DVD-R
The Apple SuperDrive burns standard 4.7GB 2.0
General DVD-R media. These discs are playable
in most standard DVD players and computer
DVD-ROM drives. If you purchased your DVD
player since 2003, it’s likely compatible with
DVD-Rs. But some older players and some
inexpensive models can’t play DVD-R media, or
can play them only marginally well, with picture artifacts, sound problems, or navigation
problems.
In addition, most commercial DVDs have a
region code that ties the DVD to specific
regions of the world, as a measure of copy protection. Fortunately, you can play DVD-Rs created by iDVD in all regions and you don’t have
to specify a region code. But keep in mind that
you must burn a different DVD-R for some
countries — you must use the proper format
(NTSC for the United States, PAL for Europe),
and a single DVD can’t hold more than one
format. iDVD is already set to use the proper
format for your region (depending on where
you bought your Mac), but you can also change
the format used by iDVD.
What You Can Do with iDVD
311
DVD is a mass-produced medium, like audio CDs. The discs are read-only —
they can’t be modified in any way; only viewed. To create even a massproduced DVD, you have to burn a recordable DVD (DVD-R) with the content. The DVD-R serves as a master to mass-produce the type of DVDs you
see in stores. With iDVD, you can burn a DVD-R that you can then use in
normal DVD players, and you can also use the DVD-R as a master to provide
a service that mass-produces DVDs.
Follow these steps to make a DVD:
1. Import all the content into iDVD.
iDVD allows you to import movies from iMovie projects, QuickTime
movies, iPhoto slideshows, and iTunes songs and playlists. This chapter
describes the importing process — see the later sections, “Importing
Digital Video into iDVD” and “Assembling Photo Slideshows.”
2. Choose a theme for your DVD menus, buttons, and background.
iDVD is supplied with professionally designed themes that you can use
to create your own menus and submenus. Themes provide a design that
integrates menu elements in a consistent way and makes navigation
easier. iDVD allows you to customize these themes into unique menus
for your DVDs. Chapter 2 of this minibook describes themes and how to
use them.
3. Customize the theme with your specific menus, buttons, backgrounds,
and content.
After choosing a theme, you assign media elements, such as movies and
sounds to menus, buttons, and backgrounds, to make your DVD project
look as professional as a commercial DVD. iDVD gives you a great deal of
control over theme elements, including resizing the buttons and arranging them on-screen any way you like. Read Chapter 2 of this minibook to
find out how to customize themes and add your own menu elements.
4. Preview and then burn your DVD-R.
You get one chance with a DVD-R — after you burn video to it, you can’t
rewrite it. Gather everything you want to put on the disc beforehand, so you
don’t waste a disc.
Book IV
Chapter 1
Instant iDVD
Authoring
iDVD makes previewing the interactive experience of your DVD-R easy,
so you don’t waste a blank disc on a flawed presentation. You can make
changes and adjustments, and preview it again. When you’re ready,
you can then burn a DVD-R quickly and easily with your SuperDriveequipped Mac. Chapter 3 of this minibook describes the process of previewing and then burning a DVD-R.
312
Touring iDVD
Touring iDVD
Double-click the iDVD icon on the Dock to open iDVD, and a window appears,
similar to the one shown in Figure 1-1. iDVD starts with the Wedding Bronze
One theme already selected and on display in the theme window — the white
drapes move because the theme is animated.
Figure 1-1:
The iDVD
main
window.
To see an iDVD project, click the Customize button. A drawer slides out to the
left of the theme window, displaying the iMedia browser. The iDVD window
consists of the following elements:
✦ Main window: iDVD shows the DVD project in the main window and
allows you to arrange buttons and edit slideshows. This window
changes to a preview window when you click the Preview button.
✦ Customize: Click the Customize button to open the Customize drawer,
shown in Figure 1-2, which offers the following:
• Themes: Browse and select themes.
• Settings: Customize the buttons, titles, and backgrounds of a
theme — see Chapter 2 of this minibook.
• Media: Browse your iMovie projects and QuickTime movies to use in
your iDVD project; browse your iTunes library to add music to slideshows or to add menu elements to enhance a theme; or browse your
iPhoto library to create slideshows with your photos.
Touring iDVD
313
Figure 1-2:
An iDVD
project
with the
Customize
drawer
open.
Customize drawer
Main window
Themes pane
• Status: Check the status of the imported movie’s encoding process
(digital video is encoded by iDVD for the DVD format). See the
“Importing Digital Video into iDVD” section, later in this chapter.
✦ Folder: Click the Folder button to create a submenu for your DVD project. See Chapter 2 of this minibook to find out about submenus.
✦ Slideshow: Click the Slideshow button to create a slideshow using
photos from iPhoto. See the section, “Assembling Photo Slideshows,”
later in this chapter.
✦ Motion: Click the Motion button to turn off the motion in menus and buttons; click it again to turn motion back on. Motion slows down the performance of iDVD and you may want to turn it off until you are ready to
preview and burn your DVD project.
✦ Preview: Click the Preview button to preview the DVD project in the
main window. See Chapter 3 of this minibook for more details.
✦ Burn: Click the Burn button to burn a DVD-R. See Chapter 3 of this minibook for more details on burning.
Instant iDVD
Authoring
✦ Map: Open a map view of your iDVD project to navigate more easily
through menus and submenus, as described in Chapter 2 of this minibook.
Book IV
Chapter 1
314
Importing Digital Video into iDVD
Importing Digital Video into iDVD
Before you burn your movie to a DVD, you have to import the video into iDVD.
When you import digital video, iDVD automatically encodes and compresses
the video — prepares the video to be burned to a DVD. In this section, we
show you how to import video from iMovie and QuickTime.
Importing from iMovie
If you’re an iMovie-maker, your first step is not with iDVD at all — you use
iMovie to export your finished movie, and iDVD automatically compresses it
and makes it available in your project. Using iMovie to export your movie
greatly reduces the possibility of error in making high-quality DVDs. The
compression is performed automatically with the appropriate settings.
You can also import QuickTime movies directly into iDVD (see the “Importing QuickTime movies” section, later in this chapter). You can’t use QuickTime VR, MPEG, Flash, or streaming movies — they must be in the standard
QuickTime format with linear video tracks.
If your movie is in a format other than the QuickTime format, import the
movie into iMovie first (Book III), and then use iMovie to export the movie
to iDVD.
To import your movie to iDVD from iMovie, follow these steps:
1. Open iMovie and export your movie.
See Book III, Chapter 5 if you’re not sure how to export.
iMovie automatically transfers your movie to iDVD and creates a project
with a link for the movie in iDVD.
If you use slow motion, reverse clips, or other special effects, you may get
a message reminding you to render them before exporting your movie.
Click the Render and Proceed button to export to iDVD with a high-quality
movie; otherwise, the movie may not be as good as expected. The rendering process may take some time.
2. Optional: In iDVD, click the Motion button to turn off animation and
sound temporarily.
Turning off motion and sound improves the iDVD performance during
the authoring phase. You can turn on motion before previewing and
burning the disc.
3. Click the Customize button.
The Customize drawer slides out to the left of the main window.
Importing Digital Video into iDVD
315
4. Click the Status button to see the status of the imported movie’s
encoding process.
iDVD takes some time to compress and encode your movie to the DVD
format, and the Status pane, shown in Figure 1-3, shows a progress bar.
You can continue working in iDVD doing other things while the encoding
process continues. When the status shows Done, the movie is ready.
Figure 1-3:
Check the
status of the
movie
encoding
process.
5. Click the Media button and choose Movies from the pop-up menu to
see the icon for the movie.
The Media pane shows icons for the movie files in your Movies folder, as
shown in Figure 1-4. Not all of them are encoded yet — only the movies
you assign to buttons in iDVD are actually encoded for DVD.
Don’t delete your source files for any movie or picture imported into iDVD.
When you add a movie to your iDVD project, the project contains only a reference to the location of the file on your hard drive — adding a movie to your
Book IV
Chapter 1
Instant iDVD
Authoring
Other movies in the Media pane are movie files saved in the Movies folder.
iDVD looks in the Movies folder in your Documents folder on your hard drive
for any QuickTime movie files. You can add other folders for iDVD to search
for movies by choosing Preferences in the iDVD menu, and clicking the
Movies button to see the Movies preferences pane. You can then click the
Add button and browse to a folder to add the folder to the list of folders that
iDVD searches. If you created other QuickTime files, you may want to move
them into a subfolder within the Movies folder (or out of the Movies folder
altogether), so that iDVD does not import them.
316
Importing Digital Video into iDVD
iDVD project does not create a copy of the movie. When you import from
iMovie, that file is stored in the Movies folder of your Documents folder. If
you move your iDVD project to another computer, you must also move the
source files.
Figure 1-4:
Browse
movies in
your Movies
folder.
After you import your movie into iDVD from iMovie, you’re ready to choose
a theme for your menus, buttons, and backgrounds, which is covered in
Chapter 2 of this minibook.
Importing QuickTime movies
To import a QuickTime movie into iDVD, you can simply drag it from the
Finder to the background of an iDVD menu, or to the Media pane (refer to
Figure 1-4). Click the Media button at the top of the Customize drawer to
open the Media pane, and then choose Movies from the pop-up menu. Or, if
you prefer, choose File➪Import➪Video.
You can always check the status of the compressing and encoding by clicking the Status button.
For movies created in iMovie, use iMovie’s automatic iDVD export rather than
doing it manually. See “Exporting to iDVD” in Chapter 5 of minibook III. You
can’t import uncompressed QuickTime files or QuickTime files with only
thousands of colors (rather than millions, which is the normal setting). The
QuickTime files also can’t contain 48-bit color images. You also can’t use
movies saved with the Fast Start option for Web Streaming format (described
in Book III, Chapter 5).
Assembling Photo Slideshows
317
Changing the format from NTSC or PAL
You may never have to do this, but if you need
to create a DVD-R for viewing in a different
country that uses a format other than the one
iDVD is set up for, you can change the format.
You’re not being unpatriotic — spreading your
culture abroad is a good thing.
NTSC is used in North America, Japan, and various non-European countries, while PAL is used
in most European countries and in Brazil. Your
Mac comes configured with iDVD set to the
appropriate format for your region. But if, for
example, you live in North America and you
want to create a DVD-R for Europe, you can do
this. You can’t, however, mix formats on the
same disc using iDVD.
After creating a new project, but before adding
any media files, choose iDVD➪Preferences
and choose either the NTSC or PAL button for
the Video Standard preference.
You can’t use iDVD to convert a movie from one
format to another. You must first use iMovie to
export the movie as a QuickTime file, using the
DV (Digital Video) format for PAL or NTSC. For
example, to convert movies from NTSC to PAL,
you export the NTSC-format movies as QuickTime files using the DV-PAL or DVCPRO-PAL
setting. Then you can import the QuickTime files
into iDVD.
After you import your QuickTime movie into iDVD, you’re ready to choose a
theme for your menus, buttons, and backgrounds, which is covered in Chapter 2 of this minibook.
Assembling Photo Slideshows
Photo slideshows are reason enough to burn DVDs. You can show your
photos on your home TV, or bring a DVD over to your friends or relatives to
show on their televisions. All they need is a DVD player.
Photos look better when played from DVD than from any other video medium
except the Mac itself, and they look nearly as good on DVD as they look on the
Mac. You can offer a complete slideshow on DVD with buttons for navigating
among the photos.
You can create slideshows in three different ways:
✦ Create the slideshow first in iPhoto, as described in Book II, Chapter 4.
You can then export it to iDVD to start a DVD project with the slideshow
Instant iDVD
Authoring
You can use any photo or album in your iPhoto library in slideshows or as
part of your project’s DVD menus.
Book IV
Chapter 1
318
Assembling Photo Slideshows
already arranged and ready for burning to disc, as we describe in the
“Importing slideshows from iPhoto into iDVD” section, later in this chapter. You can also change the slideshow’s arrangement in iDVD.
✦ Create the slideshow in iDVD by dragging any image from your iPhoto
library to a new iDVD project in the order you want.
✦ Create a slideshow in iMovie with music synchronized to specific points
in the show, and then export the movie to iDVD. See Book III, Chapter 4
for the lowdown on how to synchronize music to a sequence of clips in
iMovie.
iDVD stretches or compresses photos to fit in the standard DVD window for
slideshows, which is 640 x 480 pixels (720 x 480 pixels for video). If your
photos are larger, the iDVD compression makes them look fine. But if the
photos are smaller, iDVD stretches them to fill the display, often with undesirable results (jagged lines and visible pixels, to name a few). For best results,
make sure your photos are are at least 640 x 480 pixels or bigger in size.
Photos that have a different aspect ratio than 4:3 may appear with black
bands on the sides (for a portrait-style picture) or top and bottom (for a
wide, panoramic picture) so that the image fills the screen.
Importing slideshows from iPhoto into iDVD
To import a slideshow from iPhoto to iDVD and automatically create a new
iDVD project with the slideshow, follow these steps:
1. With iPhoto open, click the Organize mode button and select a photo
album prepared as a slideshow.
See Book II, Chapter 5 to find out how to create a slideshow in iPhoto.
2. Click the iDVD icon in the iPhoto Tools pane.
iDVD opens with a new iDVD project with a link to the slideshow in iPhoto.
The title is the name of the slideshow photo album in your iPhoto library.
3. Click the Preview button to see the slideshow.
The slideshow plays as it would if burned on a DVD. The DVD remote
control appears for selecting menu items and advancing through the
slideshow manually.
To stop the preview, click the Preview button again.
If you are satisfied with the preview, the slideshow is ready for burning onto
DVD. See Chapter 3 of this minibook to find out how to burn a DVD. If you
think the slideshow can use some work, you can edit the slide order and add
other photos and images, as we describe in the section, “Rearranging the
photo order,” later in this chapter.
Assembling Photo Slideshows
319
Creating a slideshow in iDVD
If you don’t have slideshows ready to go in your iPhoto library, you can use
iDVD to create a slideshow with photos from iPhoto. Follow these steps to
access your photos in the iPhoto library:
1. In iDVD, click the Customize button, or choose Project➪Show
Customize Panel.
The Customize drawer slides out, providing access to the Media pane.
2. Click the Media button in the Customize drawer, and then choose
Photos from the pop-up menu.
The Media pane displays your entire iPhoto library, along with albums
and slideshows.
3. Click the Slideshow button in the iDVD window.
iDVD creates a link to the slideshow, as shown in Figure 1-5. The text
button is named “My Slideshow” until you rename it (as we did to “Band
Tour slideshow”).
4. Double-click the slideshow link.
The slideshow editing window appears, as shown in Figure 1-6.
5. Drag photos directly from the Media pane into the slideshow editing
window in the order you want for your slideshow.
Book IV
Chapter 1
Instant iDVD
Authoring
Figure 1-5:
Create a
slideshow
with your
iPhoto
photos.
320
Assembling Photo Slideshows
Figure 1-6:
Drag photos
into iDVD.
Each photo appears in a list of thumbnails, numbered consecutively to
represent the slideshow order, and you can drag the thumbnail images
into a different order. If you want to bring in images or graphics files that
are not in iPhoto, see “Importing images and graphics files into slideshows” later in this chapter.
To return to the iDVD main window, click the Return button at the bottom of
the slideshow window.
Rearranging the photo order
You can rearrange any slideshow in iDVD, whether created in iDVD or
exported from iPhoto.
Arranging and rearranging is as easy as dragging the images in the slideshow
editing window. Double-click the slideshow link to open the slideshow editing window.
Select one or more thumbnail images and drag them to a new location, as
shown in Figure 1-7. As you drag the images, the sequence of thumbnails
opens up to make room for them.
Setting the slide transition and duration
One of the most important decisions that you must make about your slideshow is how you want it to play — either manually, so that the viewer has to
click or press the next button to move to the next slide, or automatically, so
that the slideshow advances according to a specified slide duration.
Assembling Photo Slideshows
321
Figure 1-7:
Rearrange
the photos
in a
slideshow.
You set this with the Slide Duration pop-up menu in the slideshow editing
window. The slideshow is automatically set to the Manual setting, unless you
add sound — in which case it is automatically set to the Fit to Audio setting.
The Fit to Audio setting in the Slide Duration menu matches the duration to
the length of the audio clip. See the section, “Adding sound to a slideshow,”
later in this chapter.
You can also select the Loop Slideshow option so that the slideshow repeats,
and you can choose a transition to use between slides from the Transition
pop-up menu. The transitions are the same as the ones available for iPhoto
slideshows — see Book II, Chapter 5 for more information about setting slide
transitions.
Given the vast amount of space on a DVD, you may want to create multiple
versions of the slideshow — one that advances manually, and one that
advances timed to fit the audio.
Importing images and graphics files into slideshows
You may want to include other graphics and image files in your DVD slideshow.
You can drag these files directly from the Finder into the slideshow window.
Instant iDVD
Authoring
The slideshow editing window also provides the Display < > During Slideshow
option, which, when selected, automatically adds left and right arrows to the
slideshow. The arrows don’t actually work as buttons; they simply indicate
that slides precede or follow the current slide, much like slideshows provided
with commercial DVD titles.
Book IV
Chapter 1
322
Assembling Photo Slideshows
You can drag the image directly to a position in the slideshow list in the
slideshow edit window. As an alternative, you can choose File➪Import➪
Image and select an image or graphics file. iDVD places the imported image
at the end of the list.
Adding sound to a slideshow
You probably think you already have enough audio, with the sound effects,
narration, and music incorporated into the movies for your DVD. But you
can also add an audio clip to a slideshow in iDVD to make your slideshow
interesting to the ear as well as the eye. Most commercial DVD titles have
these nice audio perks, and you can provide them with your DVD.
You can use any song or playlist stored in your iTunes library as part of your
DVD. You can even set an entire playlist for the background of a menu to play
multiple songs while displaying the menu — an excellent way to present a
music collection on DVD.
You can add the music in your iTunes library to menu backgrounds and buttons, as we show in Chapter 2 of this minibook. You can also add music to a
slideshow by following these steps:
1. Click the slideshow link for your slideshow to open the slideshow
editing window.
2. Click the Media button in the Customize drawer, and then choose
Audio from the pop-up menu.
The iTunes library opens in the Media pane, as shown in Figure 1-8.
3. Drag a song or an entire iTunes playlist from the iTunes library to the
Audio icon in the slideshow editing window.
The Audio icon in the slideshow editing window changes to show an
icon for the type of sound file — for example, an MP3 icon for an MP3
file or an AIFF icon for an AIFF sound file. You can also drag an entire
iTunes playlist to the Audio icon to play multiple songs.
You can also import a sound file by dragging it directly from the Finder
over the Audio icon. iDVD imports the sound file and changes the icon
to show the type of sound file.
4. In the slideshow editing window, select a duration setting in the Slide
Duration pop-up menu.
The Fit to Audio setting in the Slide Duration pop-up menu matches the
duration to the length of the song or playlist. You can use a timed duration for each slide by picking a duration in the Slide Duration pop-up
menu (such as 5 seconds). The sound loops back and plays again if
there are more slides to show than music to play.
Assembling Photo Slideshows
323
5. Preview your slideshow by clicking the Preview button.
To stop the preview, click the Preview button again.
Figure 1-8:
Drag a song
from the
iTunes
library to
add music
to the
slideshow.
The next step is to choose a theme for your menus, buttons, and backgrounds,
as described in Chapter 2 of this minibook. You can then move on to burning
your DVD — see Chapter 3 of this minibook.
Book IV
Chapter 1
Instant iDVD
Authoring
324
Book IV: iDVD
Chapter 2: Making Menus
and Buttons
In This Chapter
Selecting and customizing menus
Adding buttons
Fine-tuning motion and other button features
Adding and customizing scene selection submenus
I
n order to present all the bonus material you expect on a DVD, you must
create a menu for your DVDs to allow users to navigate it.
With iDVD, you can create menus and backgrounds for your DVD project
that are similar to the ones you see in commercial DVDs. iDVD gives you a
great deal of control over menus, buttons, and backgrounds, with properly
designed themes ready to use, and it also enables you to customize these
elements for a unique presentation.
Creating DVD Menus
The menus in a DVD don’t just provide choices: They also help set up the
entire experience. Commercial DVDs need to offer menus so that you can find
all the content stored on them. But you want to use menus, backgrounds,
and buttons for your DVDs as well, not just to provide ways to select the content, but also to set up a mood or capture the attention of the viewer. Many
DVD menus resemble touch-screen kiosks. Sound and video are staples of
these menus, with buttons that play little movies and backgrounds that
show animation and video clips. Movies that run from start to finish are also
broken up into chapters, or scenes, that viewers can select independently.
iDVD is excellent for creating these menus. You can have a lot of fun with
menus, buttons, and backgrounds. Introduce your children’s videos using
the Book theme, or use a wilder theme like Gen Y. The Sport, Western, and
Passport themes are naturals for vacation videos. Or add your own video
clip as a background, repeating in a loop with the menu selections set apart
and easy to click or select with a remote control.
326
Creating DVD Menus
The themes in iDVD do the work of supplying motion buttons and backgrounds, and iDVD allows you to customize these themes into unique menus
for your DVDs.
Selecting menu themes
In iDVD, a theme consists of a professionally designed combination of background elements, a music clip, and a button style that comprises a menu.
Typically, the menu is designed with typefaces and images to match the
theme, and the text selections are set to readable font sizes and placed in
areas on the page that attract attention.
Start with a theme and then customize it — you can change the music for
musical themes, change the background picture and text, change the buttons, and add your own movies and slideshows to areas in the background
and to buttons, which we cover in the section, “Adding drop zones to the
menu,” later in this chapter. You can then save your customized theme and
burn a DVD with it.
To see the themes, click the Customize button. A drawer slides out to the left
of the theme window, as shown in Figure 2-1. If the Themes pane is not
already open, click the Themes button to open it.
The Themes pane offers a pop-up menu to select sets of themes. Thumbnails
of the themes appear in the pane in a list that you can scroll through. Thumbnails that show a silhouette of a walking man in the lower-right corner offer
motion.
Figure 2-1:
The Themes
pane
displays all
the themes
supplied
with iDVD.
Creating DVD Menus
327
To select a theme, click its thumbnail. The theme replaces whatever theme
was displayed before in the main window, as shown in Figure 2-2. Click the
Motion button to view motion on the themes that offer sound and motion.
Figure 2-2:
After
selecting
the
Projector
theme, the
DVD menu
changes
automatically.
What’s cool is that if you already created some buttons for a menu, the new
theme has the same buttons. With all themes, buttons automatically appear
where they should, in the proper text font, button shape, and size, when you
add a button. We describe buttons in the “Creating Buttons” section, later in
this chapter.
Themes come in several types, including
✦ Picture-only: These themes offer a background style with a static image
that you can change. Examples include Your Photo Here, Brushed Metal
One, and Parchment.
✦ Motion: These themes offer short video clips in the background that
repeat in a loop (with or without audio). Motion themes sport an icon of a
running man within a circle. Examples include Global, Sky, and Baby Blue.
✦ Drop zone: These themes offer sections of the main background for running movies and slideshows. Drop zones are not links to movies — they
show only part of the movie in your menu. Examples include Postcard,
Projector, and Theater.
Making Menus
and Buttons
✦ Picture with audio: These themes offer a picture-only style and image
that you can change, accompanied by music or sound that you can
change. One example is Claim Check. You can customize most themes to
include your own audio clip.
Book IV
Chapter 2
328
Creating DVD Menus
Themes have titles that you can edit to make the menu your own. Click the
title to select it and type your own title.
iDVD is very forgiving if you do things you don’t like. You can undo just
about every operation you perform, going backwards. Just choose Edit➪
Undo for each consecutive operation to undo them.
Changing a menu background
You can change the background of any theme. Some themes, such as the Your
Photo Here theme, are designed specifically for you to add your own photo as
a background. Others, such as the Global theme, are designed to play a movie
in the background, and you can replace this movie with your own.
However, the vast majority of the themes offer sections of the background
that say Drag photos or movies here — these sections are called drop
zones. Drop zone themes, which we cover in the section, “Adding drop zones
to the menu,” later in this chapter, are designed so that movies or slideshows
play within frames. You probably don’t want to play video as the entire background of a theme that also has a drop zone — the two movies would clash.
To replace the background of a theme with either a photo from your iPhoto
library or a movie from iMovie, follow these steps:
1. Select the theme.
If you don’t already have the Themes pane open, click the Customize
button to open the Customize drawer, and then click the Themes button.
iDVD changes the menu in the main window to reflect the new theme.
2. Click the Media button to open the Media pane, and then choose
either Photos or Movies from the pop-up menu.
The Photos choice in the Media pane provides access to your iPhoto
library, and the Movies choice provides access to any exported movies
from iMovie.
3. Select a photo or movie and drag it over the Settings button until the
Settings pane appears, and then drop your photo or movie into the
Background well.
The Background well fills with the photo or movie you selected, as
shown in Figure 2-3.
The image now appears as the background of your menu, as shown in
Figure 2-4.
Creating DVD Menus
329
Figure 2-3:
Drag a
photo from
the iPhoto
library to
a theme’s
background.
If you drag a movie into the background of a theme that offers a drop zone,
the drop zone is also replaced along with the rest of the background —
unless you also hold down the Option key as you drag, which retains the
drop zone. We describe drop zones in the section, “Adding drop zones to the
menu,” later in this chapter.
Book IV
Chapter 2
Making Menus
and Buttons
Figure 2-4:
The
background
photo is
now set for
this menu.
330
Creating DVD Menus
You can also drag an image file or QuickTime movie file from the Finder
directly into the Background well in the Settings pane. With the Settings pane
open, choose File➪Import➪Image to import an image file, or choose File➪
Import➪Video to import a movie. iDVD imports the file directly into the
Background well.
The Settings pane provides options for the background, including pop-up
menus that control the position, font, size, and color of the text. For movies
used in the background, you can also control the duration of the movie’s loop
with the Duration slider. This sets how long the movie plays before repeating
in a loop. A movie in a background can play up to 30 seconds before looping.
Changing the sound of a menu
All of the themes allow you to add sound to your menu background (or
replace sound already there). To add a song or playlist from your iTunes
library, follow these steps:
1. Select the theme.
If you don’t already have the Themes pane open, click the Customize
button to open the Customize drawer, and then click the Themes button.
iDVD changes the menu in the main window to reflect the new theme.
2. Click the Media button and choose Audio from the pop-up menu to
open the Audio pane.
The Audio pane opens with your iTunes library and playlists.
3. Select a song or playlist and drag it over the Settings button until the
Settings pane appears, and then drop it into the Audio well.
The song or playlist appears in the Audio well, as shown in Figure 2-5. The
music plays in the background and repeats in a loop until the viewer clicks a
button in the menu.
You can’t add audio to a drop zone or a button — that would be a bit too
cacophonous, with audio already playing in the drop zone and possibly also
in the background.
Adding drop zones to the menu
Drop zones sound like places where military helicopters land, but in iDVD,
drop zones are sections of the menu background that can play movies and
slideshows. You can also place a still image in a drop zone.
Creating DVD Menus
331
Figure 2-5:
The theme’s
background
audio
setting is set
to a song
from the
iTunes
library.
Drop zones are not buttons — you won’t get anywhere by clicking them.
They are essentially cool ways to frame a movie or slideshow loop. Only a
portion of the movie or slideshow plays in the drop zone, and that portion
repeats in a loop. It starts with the first frame of the movie — unlike buttons,
you can’t change the starting frame in a drop zone.
To add a movie, slideshow, or image to a drop zone, follow these steps:
1. Select a theme that has a drop zone.
If you don’t already have the Themes pane open, click the Customize
button to open the Customize drawer, and then click the Themes button.
Themes with drop zones have a section of the background that says
Drag photos or movies here or something similar.
2. Click the Media button and choose Movies from the pop-up menu to
open the Movies pane, or choose Photos from the pop-up menu to open
the iPhoto pane.
3. Drag a movie, photo, or slideshow to the drop zone.
As you drag, the drop zone highlights, which makes dropping the element in the zone easy.
4. Click the drop zone to select it.
A slider appears above the drop zone, as shown in Figure 2-6.
Making Menus
and Buttons
You can use any movie, photo, or slideshow.
Book IV
Chapter 2
332
Creating DVD Menus
5. Drag the slider to the slide of the slideshow or the frame of the movie
that you want to appear first.
The slider defines the first slide of a slideshow or first frame of a movie
to appear in the drop zone. The Movie check box that appears above a
movie indicates that motion is turned on when the check box is selected;
if you turn off motion by deselecting the check box, the single frame
appears in the button as a single image, without motion. The Edit Order
button associated with a slideshow (refer to Figure 2-6) opens the slideshow editor so that you can rearrange the order of slides if you wish.
6. Set the duration by adjusting the Duration slider in the Settings pane
of the Customize drawer.
This sets how long a movie plays inside the drop zone before repeating
in a loop. The Duration slider controls all the movies in the menu — they
all play for the number of seconds set by the slider.
Figure 2-6:
Set the first
frame of a
slideshow in
a drop zone.
Click the Motion button in the main window to see the drop zone motion.
Click the Motion button again to stop the motion. Movies and slideshows
play within the drop zone, showing part of the picture (depending on the
size of the drop zone). If not enough of the picture appears, drag the picture
around with the mouse within the drop zone until more of the picture shows.
If you drag movies of different durations to drop zones in a menu that also
has a background movie, the Duration slider overrules them all, and they all
play with the same duration set by the slider. If you want to get wilder than
that, consider using iMovie to create a single movie with all moving background elements.
Creating DVD Menus
333
To remove something from a drop zone, hold down the Control key and click
the image, slideshow, or movie in the drop zone, and then select the Clear
option from the shortcut menu that appears. You can also drag the element
from the drop zone to a place outside the iDVD window. The element is not
deleted — you simply remove it from the drop zone.
Adding text to the menu
Text can be useful, even in a DVD menu. You may want to put descriptions of
the menu choices, captions for background and drop-zone photos and movies,
or a copyright notice or credits for licensed material. You may want to show
screen “pages” of text using one of the menu themes as a page layout theme.
You can place text anywhere in the menu. Each piece of text, or text object,
can have its own different font, size, style, and color, controlled by the
Settings pane. To add text to a menu, follow these steps:
1. Choose Project➪Add Text.
The words Click to edit appear in the menu, as shown in Figure 2-7.
2. Double-click the words to select the text object, and then type new
text.
3. Drag the text object to place it where you want; leave it selected.
4. Click the Customize button to open the Customize drawer, and then
click the Settings button.
The Settings pane appears in the Customize drawer.
Book IV
Chapter 2
Making Menus
and Buttons
Figure 2-7:
Add a text
object to the
menu and
change its
settings.
334
Creating Buttons
5. Adjust the text characteristics in the Text section of the Settings pane.
You can change the alignment, font, color, and size of the text. Use the
From Theme choice in the Color pop-up menu to choose a color that fits
with the current theme.
6. Click outside the text object to save your changes.
To select all the text objects in a menu, select one of the objects, and then
choose Edit➪Select All. All the text objects are selected, and you can change
their settings at once in the Settings pane.
Creating Buttons
Menus offer buttons that you click to play movies and slideshows and to
access submenus. Without buttons, viewers can’t select anything. Find out
how to add submenus in the “Adding Submenus” section, later in this chapter.
Some themes offer text buttons and some offer motion buttons that can play
miniature movies. You can customize any button in any theme and create
truly wacky combinations if you want. The professionals that designed the
themes will never know if you make some extensive customizations to their
themes. Customize away!
Adding buttons
When you export a movie from iMovie or a slideshow from iPhoto, iDVD
automatically creates a button for your menu in whatever theme you used
the last time you used iDVD. If this is the first time you opened iDVD, the
theme is usually the Theater theme.
To create a button, you can do any of the following:
✦ Button for a movie: Drag a movie from the Movies pane in the customize drawer, or drag a QuickTime file in the Finder, to any area of the
background that is not a drop zone. When the menu appears on the DVD
(and also when you use the Preview button to preview the DVD), clicking the button plays the movie.
✦ Button for a slideshow: Drag an existing slideshow from the iPhoto
browser in the Customize drawer to any area of the background that
is not a drop zone. If you don’t have a slideshow already prepared,
click the Slideshow button to create the button, and then double-click
the button to open the slideshow editing window (see Chapter 1 of
this minibook).
Some themes provide text buttons. You can change the text label of the text
button by clicking its label to select it and typing a new label.
Creating Buttons
335
Checking the TV safe area
When you arrange buttons within a theme, keep
in mind that buttons should not be close to the
edges of the picture area, or the buttons may be
partially cut off when you view the DVD on a
television screen. Most DVDs are made to play
on televisions connected to DVD players, even
though a growing segment of the population
uses computers to play their DVDs.
Most televisions overscan the screen — the
cathode-ray guns overshoot the margins of the
screen to make sure that the images shown on
the screen are edge to edge. As a result, you
lose about ten percent of the picture on each
edge (sometimes less on top and bottom,
depending on the TV). If you place something
on the very edge of the picture, such as the
button’s label, it may get cut off when viewed on
a television. iDVD works around this limitation
by defining the TV safe area where all the action
takes place. The safe area is, essentially, inside
the edges of the picture, leaving at least a ten
percent margin around all sides.
The themes provided with iDVD follow the
rules — all buttons and drop zones are within
the TV safe area. But it doesn’t hurt to check,
especially if you move buttons around or otherwise customize your menu.
To check the TV safe area, choose Advanced➪
Show TV Safe Area. The gray-shaded border of
the iDVD movie window is outside the safe area,
and everything inside the border is inside the
safe area. You can move buttons, or reduce the
font size of labels, to bring these things safely
inside the safe area. To turn off the safe area
display, choose Advanced➪Hide TV Safe Area.
Fine-tuning motion buttons
Motion buttons play a movie or slideshow inside the button. Unlike a drop
zone, which only plays motion, a motion button also acts as a menu selection you can click with a mouse or select with a remote control.
When you add a button for a movie, iDVD uses the first frame of the movie as
the button’s preview image. If the theme you’re using offers motion buttons
(indicated by the running man icon in the theme’s thumbnail), the button
automatically plays the first 30 seconds of the movie. You can also change the
starting and ending frame of the looping video that plays within the button.
1. Drag a movie or slideshow to the menu to add a button.
If the movie has chapter markers already set for individual scenes, indicated by a folder icon for the button, double-click the folder icon to open
the individual scenes menu, which offers individual movies to play.
2. Click the button in the menu.
A slider appears above the movie button, as shown in Figure 2-8.
Making Menus
and Buttons
To fine-tune a motion button, follow these steps:
Book IV
Chapter 2
336
Creating Buttons
Figure 2-8:
Drag a
movie
button’s
slider to set
the first
frame.
3. Drag the slider to the frame of the movie that you want to appear first.
The slider defines the first frame to appear when the movie plays inside
the button. The Movie check box that appears above a movie button
indicates that motion is turned on; if you deselect the check box to turn
motion off, the single frame appears in the button as a still image, without motion.
4. Set the duration by adjusting the Duration slider in the Settings pane
of the Customize drawer.
This sets how long the movie plays inside the button before repeating in
a loop. The Duration slider controls all the movies in the menu — they
all play for the number of seconds set by the slider.
To see the movie play inside the button, click the Motion button. Click the
Motion button again to stop the movie — you may prefer to work without
motion in menus, because it can slow down the performance of iDVD.
Customizing buttons
You can customize buttons, like just about everything else in iDVD, to your
liking. Change the text of the button’s label by clicking its label to select it,
and then typing a new label. The Settings pane of the Customize drawer,
shown in Figure 2-9, has both a Text section and a Button section for changing the style of the button along with the button label’s position, font, color,
and size. Change the size of the entire button by dragging the Size slider in
the Button section.
Adding Submenus
337
Don’t want text labels on your buttons? You can choose the No Text option
from the Position pop-up menu in the Text section of the Settings pane.
Figure 2-9:
Change the
button’s
style.
You can move the buttons around the menu freely if you select the Free
Position option, or move them to positions on an invisible grid set by the
theme’s designer by selecting the Snap to Grid option. Be careful not to get
buttons too close to the edges of the menu — remember to check the TV
safe area.
Adding Submenus
Where do you put all the good stuff — the individual scenes from the movie,
the alternative version of the slideshow, the outtakes? You put them behind
a single button that opens a submenu. And if you have lots of choices, your
submenus can have buttons that open more submenus.
Submenus are similar to Mac folders, which is why iDVD uses a folder icon
to distinguish a folder button, which accesses a submenu. You can click the
Folder icon in the control panel below the iDVD preview window to add a
Book IV
Chapter 2
Making Menus
and Buttons
A menu can have up to six buttons, and with most commercial DVDs, the
menus typically offer fewer than six buttons. This makes menu selection
easy for the viewer. Too many choices may be confusing or difficult to navigate with a remote control.
338
Adding Submenus
folder button. But if you export your movie from iMovie with chapter markers to indicate individual scenes, iDVD automatically creates a folder button
for you.
Turning chapter markers into submenus
With iMovie, you can create chapter markers in advance to divide a movie
into scenes. When you add a movie button for a movie that you imported from
iMovie with chapter markers, iDVD creates a submenu for the chapters of the
movie. (To add chapter markers in iMovie, see Book III, Chapter 4. You can add
the chapter markers, and then use iMovie to export to iDVD and create a new
iDVD project that includes chapter submenus.)
To add a movie with chapter markers, follow these steps:
1. Drag the movie to the menu to add a button.
If the menu has no other buttons, iDVD puts two buttons on the menu:
one to play the entire movie, and a Scene Selection button with a folder
icon that links to the submenu. If the menu already has buttons, iDVD
creates one button with a folder icon and the title of the movie, which
links to the submenu.
2. Double-click the Scene Selection button to see the submenu.
The button names in the submenu are the ones set for the chapter markers in iMovie.
Each submenu has a back button to go back to the previous menu, and a forward button if your submenu needs to offer more than six selections. The
Global theme puts these nifty arrow buttons on either side of the menu for
going backward or forward in the submenu.
Customizing submenus
You can customize the buttons in the subfolders as you need, such as setting
the first frame and duration of motion buttons, and dragging custom images
to individual buttons. You can even change the button style in a submenu
without affecting the other menus.
You can add a transition between menus by selecting one from the Transition
pop-up menu in the Settings pane. The transitions are the same as the ones
you can use in iPhoto slideshows, described in Book II, Chapter 5.
You may want to change the folder icon used for submenu links to something more interesting. For example, to change the Scene Selection button
Adding Submenus
339
in Figure 2-10, click the button and drag the Folder slider to a frame in the
movie. The button uses the chosen frame as its image, rather than the image
of a folder.
Figure 2-10:
Change the
Scene
Selection
button.
You can use either the same or different themes for menus and submenus.
While you can pick contrasting themes that boggle the mind and confuse
everyone, using different themes to differentiate submenus is helpful for
viewers to know they’re in a different place on the DVD.
When iDVD shows the submenu in the window, choose a different theme
from the Themes browser, and iDVD complies.
Automatically assign a single theme to all your submenus by choosing
Advanced➪Apply Theme to Folders, or apply a theme to an entire project by
choosing Advanced➪Apply Theme to Project.
The DVD menus and submenus can seem complex, but you can quickly see a
map of your project and navigate to any menu or submenu by clicking the
Map button, as shown in Figure 2-11. The Map button shows a tree structure
of your iDVD project, with the main menu on the left branching into submenus as you scroll to the right. By scrolling down, you see all the submenus at a particular level.
Click on a thumbnail of a DVD screen menu to go directly to that menu screen.
Making Menus
and Buttons
Navigating menus in Map view
Book IV
Chapter 2
340
Copying an iDVD Project
Figure 2-11:
Navigate
menus
using Map
view.
Copying an iDVD Project
You can arrange and rearrange your menus to your heart’s content, but don’t
forget to save the project before quitting iDVD. Choose File➪Save Project to
save a project. You can also make another version of a project by choosing
File➪Save As, typing a new name for the project, and choosing a destination
folder for the project.
Like iMovie, iDVD organizes the content it uses by project, with a project file
named something like Vacation and Tour.dvdproj. The difference is that
iDVD does not copy the source media files, such as movies, songs, and
photos — the project file contains links to these files on your hard drive. If
you have already backed up your source files, you may need to only back up
the iDVD project file.
If you move or delete or rename your source media files, you will have to
show iDVD where they are the next time you open the project. iDVD displays
a dialog asking for help in finding the source media file(s) on your hard drive.
On the other hand, if you need to make an archive copy of the entire project,
or transfer the project to another computer, use the Archive Project function
of iDVD that gathers all the source files, including videos, and stuffs them
into one project file. Choose File➪Archive Project, and select a location for
the .dvdproj file. You can then copy or transfer the entire project to
another computer.
Chapter 3: Burning DVDs
In This Chapter
Using the simulated remote control
Adding photos and files to the DVD
Burning the DVD-R
T
he discs you can create with the Apple SuperDrive are called DVD-R,
because they are a recordable format. DVD-Rs should play in all new
DVD players purchased since 2003. Some older players and some inexpensive models can’t play DVD-R media, or can play them only marginally well,
with picture artifacts, sound problems, or navigation problems. The Apple
SuperDrive burns standard 4.7GB 2.0 General DVD-Rs.
You can technically fit up to 90 minutes of video on a DVD-R, including still
images, backgrounds, and movies. However, if you put more than 60 minutes
of video on a DVD-R, the picture quality may suffer because iDVD uses
stronger compression with a slower bit rate. The best approach is to limit
the video you burn to each DVD-R to a total duration of 60 minutes or less.
Previewing the DVD
You don’t want to burn a disc with mistakes because blank DVD-Rs cost up
to five dollars each, and you can’t redo or fix a disc after you’ve burned it.
To be on the safe side, use iDVD preview mode to preview the DVD menus
and movie playback to make sure everything is working correctly before
you burn your project to a DVD-R.
Using the Motion and Preview buttons
Make sure your motion video menus, drop zones, and buttons are moving —
click the Motion button in the iDVD window to turn on motion, click it again
to turn motion off.
Make sure you turn on motion before previewing and certainly before burning, or you will get a warning from iDVD informing you that your project contains motion menus that are currently turned off.
342
Previewing the DVD
To see a preview of your DVD presentation, click the Preview button at any
time. iDVD provides a cute remote control panel on the display, shown in
Figure 3-1, to simulate a physical remote control for a DVD player. When
you’re done, you can click either the Exit button on the remote control, or
you can click the Preview button again.
Figure 3-1:
The DVD
preview
includes a
simulated
DVD player
remote
control.
Using the remote control
Like remote control units for DVD players, the preview remote control in
iDVD provides navigation, selection, and movie-playing buttons:
✦ Arrow buttons: Click these buttons to select a button in a menu. Use the
left-arrow and right-arrow buttons to advance through slides in a
slideshow.
✦ Enter button: Click this button to activate a selected button.
✦ Movie buttons: Click the movie buttons to play or pause, stop, fastforward, and rewind the movie.
✦ Volume control: Drag this slider to control the audio volume; drag left to
decrease the volume or drag right to increase the volume.
✦ Menu button: Click this button to return to the menu or submenu you
just used.
✦ Title button: Click this button to return to the title menu (first menu).
✦ Exit button: Click this button to exit preview mode and return to iDVD.
Adding Project Files to the DVD
343
Testing your DVD menus with the remote control is a good idea, especially
if you intend for other people to watch the DVD on a commercial DVD player
(and therefore, the viewers will be using a remote control to navigate your
DVD). However, when you preview your DVD project, you can also click the
menus with your mouse to test them.
The last thing you should do before you burn the DVD is to go back and preview it again. Make sure that there are no typos in the text or mistakes in the
navigation. Make sure that your slideshow runs the way you want it to run.
Also make sure the movies are the correct ones. You’d be surprised how
often it happens that people forget to include something before they burn a
DVD. A typo on a DVD will haunt you forever.
Adding Project Files to the DVD
Besides using iDVD to create movies, you can also use it to back up your
photo and image archives, and to put just about any digital file on the DVDROM portion (the part not accessible with a commercial DVD player) of the
DVD-R.
You can check the disc space available in the Status pane. Open the Status
pane by clicking the Status button in the Customize drawer. You can check
the DVD capacity and the amount of space taken up by motion menus,
tracks, and other menus.
You may not want the recipients of your DVD-R (or DVD created from it, if
you plan on making multiple copies) to be able to access these files — which
they can, if you put the files on the disc. But if you want to archive the photos
and possibly other files associated with a DVD-R project, you can add them
to the disc.
Putting photos on DVD-ROM
To add the photos of a slideshow to DVD-ROM, double-click the slideshow’s
text button to open the slideshow editing window, as described in Chapter 1
of this minibook, and select the Add Original Photos on DVD-ROM option.
To see the list of files to be placed in the DVD-ROM portion of the disc,
choose Advanced➪Edit DVD-ROM Contents; the DVD-ROM Contents window
Book IV
Chapter 3
Burning DVDs
You can add all the photos in a slideshow to the DVD-ROM portion of your
DVD-R. Viewers using computers can open the DVD-ROM portion of the disc
and copy the photo files to their systems. Commercial DVD players can’t
access the DVD-ROM section.
344
Adding Project Files to the DVD
appears, as shown in Figure 3-2. The slideshow should appear in the list of
files in the DVD-ROM Contents window. Click the triangle next to the
Slideshows folder to open the folder, as shown in Figure 3-3.
The folders and files inside the Slideshows folder (refer to Figure 3-3) are set
up to be burned to the DVD-ROM portion of the disc.
Figure 3-2:
Open the
DVD-ROM
Contents
window.
Figure 3-3:
Check the
list of
photos to be
burned to
the DVDROM
portion of
the DVD-R.
Adding Project Files to the DVD
345
Putting any digital files on DVD-ROM
You can put any type of digital file in the DVD-ROM portion of the disc, making
the file accessible from a computer with a DVD-ROM drive. This is a nice way
to make a backup of some of the source files of a project.
We don’t recommend copying movie files this way because you can’t play a
movie file from the DVD-ROM portion of the disc if it is larger than 1GB. Also,
if you try to save more than a few thousand files, you may run into problems,
according to Apple (what kind of problems Apple doesn’t say, but we take
the company’s word for it). Apple suggests that if you want to back up your
entire hard drive onto DVD-R, don’t use iDVD. Instead, use the Burn Disc feature of the Finder, which makes sense to us.
On the other hand, if you have some files that you want to save in the
DVD-ROM portion of the disc, you can copy them directly into iDVD. Follow
these steps:
1. Choose Advanced➪Edit DVD-ROM Contents.
2. Click the New Folder button to create a new folder.
You can add as many folders as you like and type a name for each folder,
as shown in Figure 3-4.
3. Drag files or folders to the new folder in the DVD-ROM Contents
window.
Dragging the files does not actually copy them, but establishes links to
them so that when the DVD-R is burned, the files are copied. When you
burn the disc, these files appear in the DVD-ROM portion of the disc.
Book IV
Chapter 3
Burning DVDs
Figure 3-4:
Create
folders for
your project
files.
346
Setting Up Autoplay and Looping
Setting Up Autoplay and Looping
Before burning your DVD, you can make it look professional by adding an
introductory slideshow or movie that presents your company’s logo or the
DVD production credits as soon as the DVD is inserted in the player. You can
even create a warning screen similar to the FBI warning on commercial DVDs.
You can also set slideshows and movies on the DVD to loop, or repeat over
and over, which is useful for DVDs used in demonstrations, as well as for
DVDs for entertainment. You can even combine the features and make a
looping autoplay DVD for a kiosk or self-running demo.
Adding an autoplay introduction
Your DVD can start a movie or slideshow right away, as soon as the disc is
inserted into a player — a feature typically referred to as autoplay. If you
turn on looping for the autoplay movie or slideshow, as described in the next
section, the viewer sees only the autoplay movie or slideshow until using the
Title button on a remote control.
To add an autoplay movie or slideshow, follow these steps:
1. Click the Customize button to open the Customize drawer, click the
Media button, and then choose Movies or Photos from the pop-up
menu.
Choose Movies from the pop-up menu in the Media pane of the
Customize drawer if you want to autoplay a movie; to autoplay a
slideshow, choose Photos from the pop-up menu.
2. Click the Map button to open the map view of the project.
Map view provides an overview of your DVD menus and submenus, and
lets you set the autoplay feature.
3. Drag a movie, image, or slideshow from the Media pane to the Project
icon in the map view.
The first icon on the left is the Project icon for the autoplay movie or
slideshow. Drag the movie or photo album to the icon as shown in
Figure 3-5. iDVD automatically sets the movie, image, or slideshow as the
autoplay movie.
4. Click Map again to close map view.
If you use a movie with chapter markers set in iMovie (or in Final Cut Pro or
Final Cut Express) for your autoplay movie, the viewer can press the Next or
Previous buttons on a remote control to navigate to the chapters.
Burning a DVD
347
Figure 3-5:
Add an
autoplay
movie to
the DVD.
If you use a slideshow as your autoplay show, you can edit the slideshow by
double-clicking the Project icon in the map view to open the slideshow
editor, which is described in Chapter 1 of this minibook.
To remove an autoplay movie from an iDVD project, drag it out of the Project
icon in the map view.
Looping movies and slideshows
After a movie or slideshow finishes playing, the menu normally appears, and
the viewer has to select something. You can set the movies and slideshows
to repeat endlessly, without returning to the menu. The viewer can always
press the Menu button on a remote control to exit the loop.
To turn on looping for a movie or slideshow, select the movie or slideshow
button in your DVD menu, and choose Advanced➪Loop Movie or Advanced➪
Loop Slideshow. To turn off looping, choose the same command again.
Burning a DVD
As part of your Mac system, your SuperDrive laser is always ready to burn
media.
Burning DVDs
You can also turn on looping for a slideshow in the slideshow editor by
selecting the Loop Slideshow option, as described in Chapter 1 of this
minibook.
Book IV
Chapter 3
348
Burning a DVD
Before you start burning a disc, close all other projects you may have open.
Burning a DVD takes a lot of processing power, and may also tie up your
computer for a while. Let the computer do its thing with the SuperDrive.
Don’t press the Eject button on your keyboard while a burn is in process
because you will ruin the DVD-R (and because discs cost between two and
five dollar seach, you don’t want to waste too many of them).
Here’s a checklist of things to do before burning your DVD-R:
✦ Add photos and files to the DVD-ROM portion of the disc.
See the section, “Adding Project Files to the DVD,” earlier in this chapter.
✦ Make sure the Motion button is active.
You may prefer to work without the menus and buttons moving, because
animating them slows down iDVD’s performance. Simply click the Motion
button to put things back into motion. They must be in motion if you
want them to be in motion on the DVD-R.
✦ Change the name of the DVD if you wish by choosing Project➪Project
Info and typing a new name in the Project Info window, as shown in
Figure 3-6.
By default, iDVD uses the name of your iDVD project as the name for
the DVD.
Figure 3-6:
Change the
name of the
DVD-R in
the Project
Info
window.
Follow these steps to burn your DVD:
1. Click the Burn button once.
Burning a DVD
349
The Burn button starts pulsating, its icon replaced with the symbol for
radioactivity (Apple at least has a sense of humor), as shown in Figure 3-7.
This is your fail-safe point.
2. Click the Burn button a second time to start the burn process.
When prompted, insert a blank DVD-R. (Make sure that the label side is
up.) iDVD then burns the new DVD-R, rendering and encoding the menu
and the movie files if necessary. You may want to take a break now —
the progress bar tells you the number of minutes it takes for the burning
process.
If you see a Your project contains motion menus that are
currently turned off warning, immediately cancel the operation and
click the Motion button to turn on motion in the menus (unless you don’t
want motion in your menus for some reason). Then repeat the process.
The burn process may take some time, and you may see the
Multiplexing and burning message in the progress window. Don’t
worry; everything is fine. If you want to know what some of these messages mean, we heartily recommend CD and DVD Recording For Dummies
by Mark Chambers, published by Wiley.
At the end of the process, iDVD spits out your newly burned DVD-R and
displays a message asking if you want to burn another one just like it.
3. Click OK to burn another identical disc; otherwise, click the Cancel
button.
Although you may be tempted to fire off a dozen more copies of a DVD-R for
your friends, we recommend testing the disc first, before you make any
duplicates. You can always open iDVD and burn a copy later.
Book IV
Chapter 3
Burning DVDs
Figure 3-7:
The DVD-R
burn
process
renders,
encodes,
and burns
the DVD-R.
350
Testing Your DVD-R
Testing Your DVD-R
The best way to test your newly burned DVD-R is to pop it right back into
your SuperDrive or similar DVD drive on your Mac. It should play just like
any commercial DVD title.
The DVD Player application, supplied with every Mac that has a DVD drive,
provides a simulated remote control for controlling playback. DVD Player
also offers the capability to play the DVD in half-screen, normal size, or maximum-size window, depending on your display, by choosing options from the
Video menu. You can resize the viewer to take over the entire screen by
choosing Window➪Viewer, or press Ô+0 (zero) to toggle between full-screen
and a viewer window. You can control the sound volume by dragging the
slider in the remote control.
You can also double-click the disc’s icon in the Finder to see the contents of
the DVD-ROM portion of the DVD-R. You can then copy the folders and files
to a hard drive using the Finder.
After you test the DVD-R on a Mac, test the DVD-R with a commercial DVD
player. If it works on the Mac but not on the commercial player, there may be
a compatibility problem with the commercial player and DVD-Rs.
That’s it! You can now call yourself a DVD author, and iDVD is now an important part of your iLife.
Troubleshooting DVD Problems
We created our first DVD-R with movies, music, sounds, and with lots of files
copied to the DVD-ROM portion. It worked perfectly the first time. How often
does that happen with new technology? If you’re not so lucky, check out the
following solutions:
✦ Problem: The disc won’t burn.
Solution: Perhaps it’s a bum disc (it happens). Try another one, and get
a refund if the other one works.
✦ Problem: iDVD can’t find all the media files.
Solution: This happens often, especially if you use media from audio CDs
without first copying the audio to your hard drive (via iTunes or some
other method). This also happens if you move or delete the source files
for the media you are burning to the DVD-R or the DVD-ROM portion.
Copy the files back onto the hard drive in their proper places, and when
you open the project again, iDVD will ask for help in finding the files —
you can click the Find File button to navigate folders to find the files.
Troubleshooting DVD Problems
351
✦ Problem: The DVD-R won’t play on a commercial DVD player.
Solution: If this happens, try the DVD-R in your Mac. If it works fine in
your Mac, the disc is burned properly. Your DVD player probably doesn’t
play DVD-Rs. If the disc doesn’t work on your Mac, try burning another
blank DVD-R, and make sure that you have turned off any virus protection, automatic updating, or automated backup software; that your Mac
is disconnected from the Internet; and that you have quit all applications. Then start iDVD again to burn the disc.
✦ Problem: The eMac went to sleep while burning and never woke up.
Solution: You have found one strange glitch that fortunately only
applies to eMacs set to go into sleep mode. As a safety precaution, turn
off sleep mode in the Energy Saver preferences (in System Preferences)
before starting a burn.
If these troubleshooting steps don’t help, you might want to try the Apple
iDVD support site at www.info.apple.com/support/idvd.
Book IV
Chapter 3
Burning DVDs
352
Book IV: iDVD
Book V
GarageBand
Contents at a Glance
Chapter 1: Getting in Tune with GarageBand ..................................................................355
Chapter 2: Adding Loops and Audio Files ........................................................................373
Chapter 3: Recording and Arranging Music ....................................................................385
Chapter 4: Getting the Best Mix ........................................................................................413
Chapter 1: Getting in Tune
with GarageBand
In This Chapter
Playing a song and adjusting the volume of each track
Setting and changing the tempo, time signature, and key signature
for a song
Using the on-screen keyboard and connecting a MIDI keyboard
A
re you ready to kick out the jams? GarageBand turns your Mac into a
home recording studio with built-in instruments, special effects, thousands of prerecorded loops, and built-in studio engineering intelligence. You
can use the royalty-free loops for your songs, perform with the Software
Instruments that are built into GarageBand, and add recordings of Real
Instruments to the mix if you want — you can even plug in a guitar and use
GarageBand’s built-in amplifier simulators.
Keith Richards of the Rolling Stones said that you only need to know three
chords to make rock ’n’ roll, but with GarageBand, you don’t even need to
know that much. You can construct songs, even if you have no musical ability at all, because GarageBand offers prerecorded loops that can be used as
building blocks to create songs. In much the same way that a word processor is useful for anyone slinging words — not just professional writers and
authors — GarageBand is useful for anyone trying to make music. Of course,
if you do have musical talent, GarageBand is an easily mastered tool for
combining your instrument (whether it’s a guitar, piano, even your voice)
with other instruments and prerecorded loops.
In this chapter, you find out how to get started with GarageBand, how to
open and play songs, how to adjust the volume, and how to set the basic
parameters of a song, such as tempo and key signature. We also show you
how to use your Mac as an instrument and connect a USB MIDI keyboard
and other audio gear.
Getting Started with GarageBand
When you first open GarageBand, you are presented with a dialog that
enables you to open an existing song or create a new one, as shown in
Figure 1-1.
356
Getting Started with GarageBand
Figure 1-1:
Select an
existing
song or
create a
new song.
GarageBand also lets you edit song projects created in GarageBand, such as
the sample GarageBand songs on the iLife installation DVD.
Opening an existing song
If you want to immediately open a song when you first start up GarageBand,
click the Open Existing Song button in the Welcome to GarageBand dialog.
The Open dialog appears, where you can locate the song project file (a file
with the extension .band such as in My Song2.band). To open one of the
songs on the iLife installation DVD, browse to the DVD folder GarageBand
Demo Songs, and then select a song such as Shufflin’ Guitar Blues.
band, Daydream.band, Half Dome.band or Shufflin’ Piano Blues.band.
When you have the song you want to open selected, click the Open button.
The GarageBand window has controls that look like they belong in an expensive sound studio — round knobs, tiny sliders, and horizontal tracks with
waveforms representing music, as shown in Figure 1-2. Click the open-eye
icon (to the right of the “i” icon) to see the built-in CD-quality prerecorded
Apple Loops you can use in your songs, described in detail in Chapter 2 of
this minibook.
Each instrument and vocal performance is recorded in a separate track in
GarageBand — a track stores the audio information in a way that makes it
easy to isolate and change that audio information without affecting other
instrument or vocal tracks.
GarageBand offers two types of tracks:
✦ Real Instrument tracks: Performances and loops recorded with actual
musical instruments and voices, either through a microphone or
through a line-in connection. Real Instrument tracks are represented as
waveforms in the GarageBand window. Because Real Instrument tracks
are recordings of a live instrument or singer, you can’t adjust each note
or transpose notes to other keys with excellent results, as you can with
Software Instrument tracks. And although you can tweak the sound of an
instrument after recording it, you can’t easily make it sound like another
instrument (such as making a guitar sound like a drum).
Getting Started with GarageBand
357
The GarageBand window offers the following functions (refer to Figure 1-2):
✦ Track headers: A track contains the music from a single instrument or
set of instruments. Each track has a header that shows the instrument
icon and name. Click the mute button (with the speaker icon) to mute
the track, or click the solo button (with the headphone icon) to hear
only that track.
✦ Track mixer: Drag the pan wheel to adjust the left-right placement of the
track in the stereo field, and drag the volume slider to adjust the track’s
volume. The level meters show the track’s volume level as you record
and play.
Tracks with sound regions
Track headers
Track mixer
Timeline beat ruler
Figure 1-2:
The
GarageBand
window
showing the
audio tracks
of a finished
song.
Function buttons
Zoom slider
Transport controls
Loop Browser
Time display
Master volume track
Book V
Chapter 1
Getting in Tune
with GarageBand
✦ Software Instrument tracks: Performances and loops recorded with MIDI
(Musical Instrument Digital Interface) instruments such as the on-screen
keyboard or an external USB MIDI keyboard. A Software Instrument track
contains notes that are actual MIDI instructions, so you can adjust and
transpose notes to other keys as much as you want. Even more, you can
switch instrument types — if you recorded a drum part into a Software
Instrument track, you can change it later to a guitar or piano.
358
Getting Started with GarageBand
✦ Tracks with sound regions: The track’s audio information appears here
as a region within a track, with its duration measured by the timeline
beat ruler. A region is the colored rectangle that indicates the duration of
a particular track in the timeline. The region shows a waveform representing a Real Instrument sound, or a set of notes representing a Software
Instrument sound (see Chapter 3 of this minibook for more about Real
Instruments and Software Instruments). You click inside a track before
recording an instrument to create a region, and you drag loops into
tracks to create loop regions. You can drag the regions within the track
to arrange the music.
✦ Timeline beat ruler: The timeline area of the GarageBand window offers
a beat ruler with a playhead that you can drag to different locations
within the song; you can also use the ruler to align regions to beats and
measures.
✦ Zoom slider: Use this slider to zoom into the timeline for a closer view
of the regions at a particular time in the song.
✦ Function buttons: You can add a new track (+ icon), open the Track Info
window (“i” icon), open the Loop Browser (the open-eye icon), or open
the Track Editor (which occupies the same space as the Loop Browser
when open).
✦ Transport controls: Use the Record (red) button to start recording,
or the CD-player-style controls to play at the point of the playhead, go
to the beginning, fast-rewind, or fast-forward.
✦ Time display: This indicator tells you the playhead position measured in
musical time (using musical measures, beats, and ticks) or absolute time
(hours, minutes, seconds, fractions of a second), and the tempo. It also
provides buttons to change the tempo or to change the time measure.
✦ Loop Browser: This section offers either a grid of keyword buttons to
refine your search for a loop or a column view that lets you browse to a
loop. After choosing a Software Instrument, you can scroll the matching
list of loops on the right or click more buttons to the right of the instrument button to refine your search. You can hear a loop by clicking on the
loop, and you can drag a loop directly to the timeline to create a track.
✦ Master volume track: This track controls the master volume and lets
you adjust the overall volume by dragging the volume slider; you adjust
the volume of sections of the song by dragging points of the volume line
in the track.
Playing songs
After opening a song project, you see the song’s individual tracks in the timeline. The timeline offers a vertical-line playhead showing the location in the
timeline of the song’s point of playback. A beat ruler appears at the top of
the timeline showing beats and measures (units of musical time).
Getting Started with GarageBand
359
To record or play music, use the transport control buttons (from left to
right, as shown in Figure 1-2):
✦ Back-to-beginning (rewind): Moves the playhead back to the beginning
of the song.
✦ Fast-rewind: Moves the playhead quickly backward in the song.
✦ Play: Starts playing at the point of the playhead (you can also use the
spacebar on your alphanumeric keyboard as a substitute for the Play
button). Play an entire song by clicking the Back-to-Beginning button to
move the playhead back to the beginning of the song, and then clicking
the Play button or pressing the spacebar to start playback.
✦ Fast-forward: Moves the playhead quickly ahead through the song.
✦ Cycle: Play the entire song or a cycle region over and over as a loop. See
Chapter 3 of this minibook for more about recording into a cycle region.
You can also drag the playhead in the timeline to a specific region or time in
the song, and then click the Play button or press the spacebar to play from
that point in the song to the end.
Adjusting the volume of each track
Despite its name, GarageBand doesn’t have to sound like a band playing so
loudly in a garage that everyone in the entire neighborhood needs to wear
earplugs. You can lower the volume without eliminating the talented musical
performance.
The master volume slider (below the lower-right corner of the timeline) controls the volume for playing the song. To adjust the volume, drag the slider
to the right to increase the volume or to the left to decrease it. See Chapter 4
of this minibook for more details on controlling the master volume.
The volume setting in GarageBand does not override the setting you choose in
the Sound pane of the System Preferences window. The volume in GarageBand
can only be equal to or less than the output volume set on the Sound pane.
In GarageBand, each track typically contains the music from a single instrument, but a track can also hold an “instrument” that sounds like an entire
orchestra (simulated in software) or an entire previously mixed song. In
audio recording, separate tracks are used to get as much separation as possible between instruments so that their sounds don’t bleed into each other’s
recordings — so that, for example, the drums don’t drown out the vocals.
You can hear the separate tracks alone or all together, without having to
actually work on a proper mix of the song (mixing a song is described in
Getting in Tune
with GarageBand
✦ Record (red dot): Click the record button to start or stop recording.
Book V
Chapter 1
360
Getting Started with GarageBand
detail in Chapter 4 of this minibook). As shown in Figure 1-3, the track
header section offers three buttons that control volume:
✦ Mute button: Click the track’s mute button (with the speaker icon) to
turn the track’s sound off, as shown in Figure 1-3. You can mute several
tracks at once in order to hear only the remaining unmuted tracks.
✦ Solo button: Click the track’s solo button (with the headphone icon) to
hear that track by itself, quickly silencing all other tracks. You can solo
several tracks at once to hear them; all tracks not marked for solo are
silent.
✦ Track volume curve button: Click the track volume curve button (triangle icon) to show the track volume curve for changing the track’s
volume over the length of the song.
Figure 1-3:
Muting the
Harmonica
track so that
it is silent
while the
other tracks
play.
Mute
Solo
Volume level
Pan wheel
Track volume curve
The Mixer section of each track appears between the section with the track
name and the timeline; to make it appear if it’s not visible, click the triangle
next to the word “Tracks” at the top of the window or choose Track➪Show
Track Mixer. The Mixer section offers two controls (see Figure 1-3):
✦ Volume level: Drag the volume slider in the Mixer section of the track
to the left to lower the volume, or to the right to raise it. The volume of
each track can be controlled in order to mix the tracks properly, as
described in Chapter 4 of this minibook.
✦ Pan wheel: Click and drag the pan wheel to set the pan position for
mixing left and right stereo channels, as described in Chapter 4 of this
Getting Started with GarageBand
361
minibook. Drag down to pan to the left channel, and drag up to pan to
the right — the wheel’s white dot indicates the position.
GarageBand simplifies the process of creating a new song. But before you
start your new song project, make sure that you have enough space available on your hard drive. How much space you need depends on how complex the song is, what types of instruments you use (real or software, as
described in Chapter 3 of this minibook), and how long the song is. Each
track extends from the beginning to the end of a song, so if you have lots of
tracks in a song, the song takes up more space.
For example, a four-minute song with two Real Instrument tracks takes up
90MB. Each minute of stereo audio recorded into GarageBand from a Real
Instrument uses about 10MB of space. The audio is not compressed as it is
in iTunes, because you are still working on the song, and you need the highest quality.
To start a new song project, follow these steps:
1. Open GarageBand; in the Welcome to GarageBand dialog, click the
Create New Song button.
Alternatively, if you are already in GarageBand with a song open, choose
File➪New.
The New Project dialog appears with the following defaults: time signature at 4/4, the tempo at 120 beats per minute (bpm), and the key signature in C, as shown in Figure 1-4. See the “Setting Song Parameters”
section for more information.
Figure 1-4:
Starting a
new song
project
using the
default
tempo, time,
and key
settings.
2. In the New Project dialog, adjust the tempo setting, time signature,
and key, and then click the Create button.
The GarageBand window appears with a single track in the timeline that
says Grand Piano, as shown in Figure 1-5.
Getting in Tune
with GarageBand
Starting a new song project
Book V
Chapter 1
362
Setting Song Parameters
Figure 1-5:
Performing
with the
built-in
Grand Piano
using the
on-screen
music
keyboard.
3. Select the Grand Piano track and experiment with the built-in
Software Instruments.
You can use the simulated on-screen piano keyboard or a real MIDI
keyboard.
You can lay down tracks and add new tracks in any order you want. For
example, you may want to start out a brand new song by working out the
main melody with a lead guitar or piano track, and later adding bass,
rhythm, and supporting instrument tracks. Or you may find it easier to first
lay down a rhythm track of bass guitar and drums or just a strumming
acoustic guitar before you work on the melody.
Setting Song Parameters
When you first create a song, you set the song’s parameters (tempo, time
signature, and key signature) in the New Project dialog. You don’t have to
know how to read music to define these basic parameters that characterize
a song’s rhythm and the range of notes played. You know when a song is fast
or slow and whether the beat is on time or not just by snapping your fingers
to it. Rhythmic patterns are the basic building blocks of music, and they are
universal.
You can experiment with these settings all you want. To help guide you in
getting the right feel for a song, pick a setting and try a few loops, as
described in Chapter 2 of this minibook. The loops automatically conform to
the settings you chose.
Setting Song Parameters
363
Setting the tempo
The tempo, measured in beats per minute (bpm), defines the rhythmic pulse
of the song. You can set the tempo to any speed between 60 bpm, which is
slow at one beat per second, up to 240 bpm, which is a rapid four beats per
second. Most pop music clocks in at 120 bpm. In the New Project dialog
(refer to Figure 1-4), you drag the Tempo slider left to slow it down and right
to speed it up.
When you record a live instrument, the recording is fixed in the tempo set
for the song. Even though you can change the tempo of a Software Instrument
recording or loop by changing the tempo for the Master Track, described
later in this chapter, you can’t change a Real Instrument recording.
Setting the time signature
You also set the time signature when you create a new song, which measures
the song’s meter. The time signature is a fraction that indicates the relationship of beats and measures. For example, with a time signature of 2/4, you
have two beats in every measure, with each beat having the value of a quarter note (denoted by the 4). A measure is simply a handy metric that separates music into pieces; sometimes a measure is called a “bar” (as in “beat
me daddy, eight to the bar”).
The most common time signature is 4/4, used in such classics as “Hey Jude”
and “Let It Be” by the Beatles — but check out the Beatles’ “In My Life” for
an example of a 2/2 time signature. Keeping with the same band, “Norwegian
Wood” is in 3/4, and you can really hear the difference in time signature
when “All You Need is Love” switches from 4/4 (while Lennon sings “There’s
nothing you can do that can’t be done”) to 3/4, then back again (when he
sings “Nothing you can sing that can’t be sung”).
In the New Project dialog, use the Time pop-up menu to set the time signature. You can set the time signature to 2/2, 2/4, 3/4, 5/4, 7/4, 6/8, 7/8, 9/8, or
12/8 (used in the Beatles’ “Oh! Darling”) (refer to Figure 1-4). While other
time signatures do exist, GarageBand doesn’t support them, and you can
generally make do with one of these. The time signature defines how the
timeline in GarageBand is divided into beats and measures.
Book V
Chapter 1
Getting in Tune
with GarageBand
The default settings are typical for popular songs, so you might want to start
with them. You have to set these parameters before adding loops or recording instruments, so that your loops and recordings can fit together and play
at the same speed, using the same range of notes. You can always change the
song’s parameters later, and all recordings and loops with Software
Instruments will change automatically to reflect the new settings; however,
Real Instrument loops and recordings do not change, so it’s best to set these
parameters before recording with a live instrument.
364
Setting Song Parameters
Setting the key
The key signature defines the central note around which a song is written,
set, and arranged (except, of course, atonal compositions, which
GarageBand is perfectly capable of producing, but let’s not go there right
now). In Western music, the key is determined by the tone on which a scale
begins, ends, or around which a song is centered, and the interrelationships
of the seven pitches within that scale.
Harmonica players who play professionally use a set of harmonicas, each
tuned to a separate key. Guitar players can switch keys by using something
called a capo — if you’ve ever seen a guitar player screwing some kind of
gizmo on the neck of his guitar, or adjusting the gizmo between songs, that
gizmo is probably a capo.
By default, a new song is set to the key of C unless you change it in the Key
pop-up menu in the New Project dialog (refer to Figure 1-4). Whatever key
you use, the Software Instruments you play automatically play in that key.
Apple Loops with melody and harmony instruments are recorded in a specific key, but when you add them to a new song, the loops are automatically
transposed to play in the new key — each note changes to reflect its relationship to the new key.
Loops that were recorded with a Real Instrument in a specific key may sound
unnatural or distorted when you use them in a song in a different key. You can
limit the loops displayed to those loops that sound good in the defined key
by changing your GarageBand preferences. Choose GarageBand➪Preferences,
click the General tab, and select the Filter More Relevant Results option.
Changing the tempo, time signature, and key
You may have to experiment a bit before you find the right tempo or key for
the song, and you may want to change the time signature for a song or any of
these parameters when recording certain parts of a song (for example, if you
want to change the rhythm in the middle of a song).
You can change the tempo, time signature, and key at any time by following
these steps:
1. Select any track by clicking the track header.
2. Click the “i” button to open the Track Info window.
The Track Info window opens, showing the type of instrument (real or
software).
3. Choose Master Track from the pop-up menu at the top of the window.
The Master Track Info window appears, as shown in Figure 1-6.
Setting Song Parameters
365
4. Change the tempo, time signature, or key signature by using the Tempo
slider, the Time pop-up menu, or the Key pop-up menu, respectively.
change.
Close the Master Track Info window by clicking the red button that
appears in the upper-left corner of the window.
Figure 1-6:
Changing
the tempo in
the Master
Track Info
window.
When you change the tempo or key in the Master Track Info window, the
Software Instruments and loops in all of the tracks adjust to the new settings
automatically — not just the new ones you record after changing the settings,
but also the ones you recorded before changing them.
For example, if you set the key to C when you create a new song, and then
change the key later to D in the Master Track Info window, any tracks
already recorded with Software Instruments are automatically transposed to
the new key. You don’t have to go back and re-record them. If the entire song
is done up with Software Instrument recordings and loops, the entire song
would change automatically to the new key and still sound great (well, as
great as it sounded before).
Automatic transposing is handy if you already arranged a song with Software
Instruments, and then discovered that the vocal doesn’t sound good at that
key (the singer finds it too high or too low). You can quickly change the key
without having to change the Software Instrument recordings to accommodate the vocals.
If you want to transpose only one or more regions in a track to a new key,
rather than the entire song, use the Track Editor as described in Chapter 3
of this minibook.
Getting in Tune
with GarageBand
5. Close the Master Track Info window, and play the song to hear the
Book V
Chapter 1
366
Using Your Mac as an Instrument
This automatic transposing feature works because the Software Instruments
create music with MIDI instructions rather than fixing their notes as waveform information. It would be fantastic if GarageBand could also transpose
Real Instrument recordings, but physics is harder to deal with — Real
Instruments create waveform information, not MIDI instructions, and if you
stretch or squish that information, it just wouldn’t sound any good. (For that
kind of audio tweaking, check out Pro Tools, a Mac-based professional audio
editing system from Digidesign.)
Using Your Mac as an Instrument
Music and musical instruments change with the times and with the technologies available. Ancient people used brass, animal horn, bone, ivory, even
gold to make musical instruments — the oldest lyre is Sumerian and made of
gold, with gold and silver strings. In the 16th century, many instruments
were made of wood, and by the 18th century, the technologies of woodworking and metalworking made the piano possible. By the 19th century, Adolphe
Sax was so brazen as to combine a wind instrument and a brass horn to
invent the instrument that now bears his name, the saxophone. It’s not surprising that the technology of electricity, and eventually of the microprocessor, would lead to another change in musical instruments and music with
synthesizers and computer-created music.
You are probably already aware that digital synthesizers can sound like
nearly any type of real-life instrument (as well as a good many imaginary
ones). Your Mac can act like a digital synthesizer with GarageBand’s
Software Instruments — you can perform with the Mac live or choose Apple
Loops for samples you can repeat as needed.
To perform original music with your Mac using GarageBand’s Software
Instruments, you can use the on-screen keyboard, you can connect a USB
MIDI piano keyboard directly to your Mac, or you can use an audio interface
device. The free MidiKeys is a useful alternative to the on-screen keyboard
provided with GarageBand — see the “Using MidiKeys” section, later in this
chapter. (You can also use the same audio interface device to connect real
electric instruments and microphones and record directly into GarageBand,
as described in Chapter 3 of this minibook.)
Using the on-screen keyboard
One way to perform is by using the on-screen music keyboard, which activates
a Software Instrument. To use the keyboard, click the simulated piano keys.
You can simulate playing the piano keys harder or softer by using your
mouse. Click lower in a white or black key to play the note harder; click
Using Your Mac as an Instrument
367
higher in the key to play the note softer. If you don’t have an on-screen piano
keyboard that says “Grand Piano” along the top (refer to Figure 1-5), choose
Window➪Keyboard.
You can also change the range of notes you can play on the on-screen music
keyboard by clicking the small triangles to the left or right of the keys — the
left one lowers the keys by an octave, while the right one raises them an
octave. By expanding the keyboard and changing its range of notes, you can
play every note you could possibly hear on the on-screen keyboard.
The on-screen music keyboard is primitive, but you can use it to experiment
with different instrument sounds and effects. Still, you may find it difficult to
actually play the on-screen music keyboard with your mouse, and you can’t
play more than one note at a time. To play several notes at once (as in a
chord) with your alphanumeric keyboard, use MidiKeys (see the next section,
“Using MidiKeys”). To use a full-size piano-style keyboard, you can connect a
MIDI-compatible music keyboard (see the later section, “Connecting a USB
MIDI keyboard”).
Figure 1-7:
Expanding
the
on-screen
music
keyboard
to show
more keys.
Getting in Tune
with GarageBand
You can move the on-screen music keyboard to any location on your screen
by clicking in the space between the keys and the side of the keyboard and
dragging it. You can also expand the keyboard, increasing the number of
keys shown, by dragging the expansion triangle on the lower-right edge of
the keyboard, as shown in Figure 1-7.
Book V
Chapter 1
368
Using Your Mac as an Instrument
Using MidiKeys
Another way to perform is to use MidiKeys (version 1.6b3 as of this writing),
which is a free program written by Chris Reed (puck.homeip.net/~creed)
that simulates a MIDI keyboard with an on-screen piano keyboard similar to
the one provided with GarageBand. You can download it from the Version
Tracker site: www.versiontracker.com/dyn/moreinfo/macosx/16702.
MidiKeys presents a small graphic representation of a MIDI keyboard on the
screen, just like the GarageBand on-screen keyboard — clicking the keys
sends notes to GarageBand. The one difference is that you can also type on
your alphanumeric keyboard and press several keys at once to play chords.
MidiKeys is especially useful with a PowerBook on the road because all you
need is the PowerBook’s keyboard to work on a song.
To play MidiKeys with your alphanumeric keyboard, use the following
alphanumeric keys:
✦ First row of keys (from Z to /) for the white piano keys. The Z key is the
same as the middle C key on a MIDI or piano keyboard.
✦ Second row (from S to ;) for the black piano keys (sharps and flats).
✦ Third row (from Q to O) for white piano keys one octave lower. The Q
key is equivalent to the A key on a MIDI or piano keyboard.
✦ Fourth row (from 2 to 9) for black piano keys (sharps and flats) one
octave lower.
MidiKeys sends MIDI notes to GarageBand just like an external MIDI keyboard and can be used to activate Software Instruments.
Connecting a USB MIDI keyboard
You can also use a MIDI keyboard that connects to your Mac with a USB
plug. A USB MIDI keyboard is plug-and-play, literally — just plug it in, start
GarageBand, and you can play your piano and organ riffs and have them
translated into Software Instruments. Just follow the same instructions as if
you were using the on-screen music keyboard. Your Mac already understands MIDI (Musical Instrument Digital Interface), the universal communication method of electronic music devices.
One popular model is the M-Audio Keystation 49e, available from the Apple
Store. You can find a list of compatible MIDI devices on the Apple site: www.
apple.com/ilife/garageband/compatibility.html.
If you don’t hear music from your USB MIDI keyboard, make sure the keyboard is connected to the USB port and that the keyboard is turned on.
When you first start a new song in GarageBand, a Software Instrument track
Using Your Mac as an Instrument
369
Figure 1-8:
The
Audio/MIDI
pane
indicates
whether
GarageBand
detects the
MIDI
keyboard.
To see if your USB MIDI keyboard is actually playing, watch the time display
in GarageBand as you play — the MIDI status light to the left of the tempo
should flash on each time you play a note. If you are still not hearing music,
make sure the volume slider for the track is not all the way to the left, and
turn up the output volume for your computer’s speakers or your external
speakers.
Using an audio interface for MIDI
You don’t have to use a USB keyboard for MIDI input to GarageBand — any
MIDI instrument or device can be connected through an audio interface,
which is a box that has many ports for connecting various types of audio
equipment. The Emagic Multichannel Interface A62 m is a good example —
it connects to your Mac’s USB port and offers six audio inputs (for line-in
music, electric instruments, or microphones), two audio outputs (for speakers or preamps), and MIDI input/output (for connecting MIDI devices). Apple
provides a utility called Audio MIDI Setup that works with audio devices
connecting by FireWire, USB, PCMCIA, or PCI.
To use an audio interface with one or more MIDI devices, you must first
install the software that comes with the interface (follow the manufacturer’s
instructions). You can then use Audio MIDI Setup (in Applications/Utilities)
Book V
Chapter 1
Getting in Tune
with GarageBand
labeled Grand Piano opens automatically — make sure that this track is still
selected by clicking the track header. If you still don’t hear music, choose
GarageBand➪Preferences and click the Audio/MIDI button to see the Audio/
MIDI pane, as shown in Figure 1-8. The MIDI Status should indicate that your
system detected at least one MIDI input; if not, you may have to troubleshoot
your connection by using the Audio MIDI Setup utility (see the section, “Using
an audio interface for MIDI”).
370
Using Your Mac as an Instrument
to select audio channel input and output devices for your Mac and control
volume levels and other characteristics. Follow these steps:
1. Connect the audio interface to your Mac and connect the MIDI devices
to the interface.
2. Double-click the Audio MIDI Setup application (in Applications/Utilities)
to open the Audio MIDI Setup window, and then click the MIDI
Devices tab.
The MIDI devices connected to your computer appear in the pane, as
shown in Figure 1-9. If your MIDI devices don’t appear, click the Rescan
MIDI button on the toolbar.
Figure 1-9:
Using the
Audio MIDI
Setup
window to
configure
MIDI
devices.
3. Choose New Configuration from the Configuration pop-up menu; in
the dialog that appears, give the new configuration a name, and then
click OK.
4. Double-click the icon for your MIDI interface device to describe the
device.
The Audio MIDI Setup dialog for your device appears, enabling you to
give the device a name. You can click the More Information button to
change settings for the MIDI properties and ports for the device. Click
the Open Icon Browser button to change the icon if you want.
5. Click OK to finish making changes.
6. To add another MIDI device to your new configuration, click the Add
Device button on the toolbar.
Using Your Mac as an Instrument
371
7. When you’re finished, choose Audio MIDI Setup➪Quit Audio MIDI
Setup.
Your MIDI device should now be working with GarageBand — to check,
choose GarageBand➪Preferences and click the Audio/MIDI button to see the
Audio/MIDI pane (refer to Figure 1-8).
MIDI and the musical prophet
The ’60s and ’70s were explosive decades for
the creation of new musical instruments.
Besides electric guitars, organs, and keyboards,
a new type of instrument began to show up on
albums and in concerts — the synthesizer. These
large, odd-looking and odd-sounding machines
were based on analog electronics, using electric voltages to create and control sounds.
Higher voltages made higher notes and lower
voltages made lower notes. Special keyboards
were made for musicians to play them. Early
synthesizers could play only a single note at a
time — to get more notes, you either had to buy
more synthesizers, or record parts on tape.
These new Moog and ARP brands of synthesizers were already bending quite a few ears by
the mid-’70s with bands such as Emerson, Lake
& Palmer and Genesis. Musicians like Keith
Emerson and Rick Wakeman used extravagant
multiple-keyboard configurations in shows
where each instrument was set up to produce a
single sound. Joe Zawinful of Weather Report
developed a unique technique for playing on
two keyboards simultaneously, placing himself
between a pair of ARP 2600 synthesizers, one of
which had its keyboard electronically reversed,
going from high notes on the left to low notes on
the right.
Over time, these devices were equipped with
programmable memory that would be useful for
storing and recalling sounds created earlier by
the musician for the live performance. The layering of sounds upon sounds became an important tool, almost like a trademark sound for
many artists. Then, in 1979, came the next big
step: new keyboards were equipped with computer interface plugs so that they could be connected to other synthesizers. Development
moved swiftly as more companies got into the
act. The diversity of keyboards, drum machines,
sequencers, and other musical devices grew
rapidly.
To move up another notch in technology and
accessibility, the synthesizer industry decided
to learn a lesson in compatibility from the computer industry and develop a standard for interconnectivity. As electronic instruments began
to go digital, a number of manufacturers, including Roland, Oberheim, Sequential Circuits, and
(continued)
Book V
Chapter 1
Getting in Tune
with GarageBand
For each MIDI device connected to your MIDI interface device that you
want to include in the configuration, click the Add Device button.
Double-click the icon for the device to name the device, select a different
icon for it, and specify MIDI settings for the device. To specify the connection between the MIDI interface device and a MIDI device, drag from
the output or input connectors above the device icon to the corresponding connector on the other device icon.
372
Using Your Mac as an Instrument
(continued)
Fender Rhodes, developed digital interfaces
which allowed their own digital instruments to
work together, but these proprietary interfaces
did not permit interworking between devices
developed by different manufacturers.
Dave Smith and Chet Wood, then working for a
company called Sequential Circuits, devised a
Universal Synthesizer Interface to overcome
this problem (probably with some input from
Roland). Their proposal was presented to the
Audio Engineering Society in autumn 1981, and
provided a starting point for the development of
the MIDI standard.
MIDI stands for Musical Instrument Digital
Interface, and it is now an international standard that specifies how musical instruments
with microprocessors can communicate with
other microprocessor-controlled instruments or
devices. The first synthesizer to speak MIDI
was the Sequential Prophet 600 in 1983, played
by some of the greatest keyboard players in jazz
and rock.
MIDI communicates performance information,
not the actual audio waveform — a MIDI device
can register what note you played, how hard
you played it (how much pressure was applied
to the key of a keyboard), and how quickly you
released it (or took your finger off the key), as
well as registering other controls such as sliders, wheels, switches, and pedals. The information is then passed to another device that
“plays” the music based on this performance
information. GarageBand can take the MIDI
information and apply it to any Software
Instrument, effectively turning your Mac into a
fully functional music synthesizer.
The newest development in MIDI devices is
compatibility with USB (Universal Serial Bus)
cables, so that you can plug the MIDI keyboard
directly into your Mac’s USB port, and not only
transmit MIDI information through the USB
cable, but also supply power to the keyboard
from your Mac through the USB cable, making
it super easy to take a PowerBook and a USB
MIDI keyboard to any location and play music.
The M-Audio Keystation 49e is a typical example of a USB MIDI keyboard: It’s a 49-note, fullsize, velocity-sensitive MIDI keyboard with
modulation and pitch bend wheels. You can
shift the pitch of its keys up or down an octave
using the Octave buttons, bend notes with the
pitch wheel, and modulate the sound with the
modulation wheel. Although you can use an
optional power adapter, the keyboard draws so
little power that your Mac can power it through
the USB connection.
Chapter 2: Adding Loops
and Audio Files
In This Chapter
Browsing for Apple Loops and narrowing your search
Creating new tracks in the timeline and adding loops
Adding an audio file as a track
“Y
esterday’s experiment is tomorrow’s cliché,” remarked Bob Welch
(formerly of Fleetwood Mac, a band that knows a thing or two about
clichés). But somewhere in the middle between experiment and cliché is the
familiar riff, or sequence of notes in a particular rhythm. We hear something
we recognize, and we like it. If a musical sequence didn’t repeat at least
once, how would you recognize it as a sequence?
And so it came to pass that the past experiments in guitar licks, keyboard
riffs, horn phrases, and drum rolls have become familiar and useful in
today’s popular songs. Sequences that play exactly the same notes over and
over in exactly the same way are called loops. Sometimes a loop is used over
and over consistently throughout a song (a steady, repeating bass line, for
example), and some loops occur only a few times or even just once. You can
purchase or obtain free loops from sources including Apple. Loops are made
with either Real Instruments or Software Instruments and can be manipulated and edited just like tracks created from your own performances.
This chapter describes how to use the high-quality prerecorded loops that
are included with GarageBand, and how to bring finished music such as
recordings from other sessions saved as audio files or a song from your
iTunes library, into your song project.
Selecting Apple Loops
In GarageBand jargon, loops are prerecorded samples of sound you can use
in a song. Each loop repeats, note for note, in exactly the same tempo, so
that you can seamlessly repeat the loop over and over. (In other words, you
can loop the loop.)
374
Selecting Apple Loops
Stairway to heaven built with scales and keys
Defined in terms of Western music, a scale is a
collection of pitches either arranged in ascending order or in descending order. Ignoring
atonal music for a moment, the key is the tone
on which a scale begins, ends, or around which
a song is centered, and defines the interrelationships of the seven pitches within that scale.
A major scale is when the intervals between the
third and fourth notes and the seventh and
eighth notes are semitones (a half step between
notes), and all the other intervals are whole
tones. The harmonies within the scale are
based on these notes and the spacing between
these intervals. A lot of uncomplicated rock and
pop songs use a major scale.
A natural minor scale has a semitone between
the second and third notes and the fifth and
sixth notes; all the other intervals are whole
tones. Some orchestrated blues and a lot of jazz
are set in a minor scale. What’s confusing is
that most blues songs use a major scale, but
with “blue” third and seventh notes that change
from major to minor and back again. (Indeed,
you have to suffer if you want to sing the blues.)
GarageBand is supplied with loops in a format called Apple Loops. Okay,
Apple Loops sounds like a breakfast cereal, but they’re pretty cool because
they can be used free and clear of any royalties or licenses. GarageBand
includes thousands of these prerecorded Apple Loops and a Loop Browser
that categorizes them, so that you can find the loop you want for a particular
mood or genre — everything from Acoustic Noodling 02 (guitar) to RnB Horn
Section 09.
You can purchase additional Apple Loops from Apple, and you can use prerecorded loops from other sources in the Apple Loop format, both free and
purchased. (Loops from other sources may be royalty-free, but they may
have other restrictions — be sure to consult the fine print before you purchase them.)
You can add loops by dragging and dropping loop files or an entire folder of
loop files into the GarageBand Loop Browser. The new loops are copied to
the Loops Library and automatically indexed so that they appear in the Loop
Browser.
When you drag an Apple Loop to the timeline, the loop automatically matches
the tempo you’ve set for the song, and if the loop has a melody, the melodic
notes are automatically transposed into the key set for the song. No worries
about being out of tune or totally incapable of keeping time — GarageBand
takes care of that for you.
Selecting Apple Loops
375
Using the Loop Browser
The Loop Browser lets you browse loops by instrument, and for each instrument, you can narrow the search by genre, mood, and type. Follow these
steps to search for and select a loop:
1. Open the Loop Browser by clicking the open-eye icon or by choosing
Control➪Show Loop Browser.
2. Choose an instrument category by clicking one of the keyword buttons on the left side of the Loop Browser area.
When you click an instrument category button, for example, the Drums
button, loops for that instrument category appear in the scrolling results
list on the right.
3. Scroll the list of loops on the right, as shown in Figure 2-1, and click
a loop’s name to hear it.
The loop repeats until you click the loop again to stop it, or until you
click another loop to hear what that loop sounds like.
You can adjust the volume of playback by dragging the volume slider in the
Loop Browser (in the center near the bottom).
Figure 2-1:
Choose an
instrument
for a loop,
and then
scroll
through the
list of loops.
Adding Loops and
Audio Files
GarageBand puts thousands of loops at your disposal — luckily, the Loop
Browser enables you to easily narrow your search so that you don’t have to
scroll through a long list of all the loops.
Book V
Chapter 2
376
Selecting Apple Loops
The grid of keyword buttons helps you refine your search by breaking the
loops up into categories, reducing the number of loops in the resulting
scrolling list. After clicking a button for an instrument category, the Loop
Browser highlights more buttons to the right that you can click to narrow
your search by genre, mood, and type. For example, you can narrow the
search down by picking a musical genre (World), and then a mood (Relaxed),
and/or a type (Electric), as shown in Figure 2-2.
Figure 2-2:
Refining the
search for a
drum loop.
Instruments
Genre
Mood
Type
Using column view
GarageBand offers another way to navigate loops: the column view, as
shown in Figure 2-3. To turn on column view, click the button with the
columns icon, which is to the left of the Scale pop-up menu at the bottom-left
side of the Loop Browser window. (Next to it is the Browse View icon, with
its icon showing tiny control buttons — clicking one of these control buttons
turns off the other, changing the view of loops.)
By using the column view, you can browse to a loop in a similar fashion as
browsing for a file in the Finder. With so many loops to choose from, column
view offers a quick way to find the loop you want, especially if you are
already familiar with the way loops are categorized.
After clicking a keyword in the left column, you have a choice of matching
categories in the middle column. Click a category in the middle column to
show matching keywords in the right column. Click a keyword in the right
column to show matching loops in the results list.
Selecting Apple Loops
377
Book V
Chapter 2
Adding Loops and
Audio Files
Figure 2-3:
Browsing
for a loop
using
column
view.
Limiting choices by scale and key
You may want to limit your loop choices to a particular scale or key so that
you are not overwhelmed with choices that make no sense for your song.
That way you wouldn’t have to wade through loops such as Orchestra Brass
01 and Orchestra Brass 02 set in the key of D-sharp, or Medieval Flute 01
through 06 set in the key of E (except, of course, 03, which is set in the key
of B) just to find a good horn section for your song in the key of C. You can
refine your search for loops by scale (major, minor, neither, or both), and set
preferences to show only the loops that are relevant for the key of the song.
See the nearby sidebar, “Stairway to heaven built with scales and keys,” for
more about keys and scales (major and minor).
Most loops (except for drum and percussion loops) are recorded in either a
minor or major scale. The Scale pop-up menu in the bottom-left corner of the
Loop Browser (refer to Figure 2-2 or Figure 2-3) lets you narrow your results
to Any, Major (in a major scale), Minor (in a minor scale), Neither, or Good
for Both (loops that could be used in major or minor scales).
Not all loops sound good in certain keys (again, with the exception of drum
and percussion loops). Loops that were recorded in a different key may
sound distorted after being automatically transposed — which is what happens when you use the loop in a song set to a different key.
By filtering more relevant options, you can limit the list of loops to those
that are relevant to the song’s key. Choose GarageBand➪Preferences, click
the General button as shown in Figure 2-4, and select the Filter for More
Relevant Results option. While this option is selected, GarageBand’s Loop
378
Arranging Loops in the Timeline
Browser displays only loops that are either in the same key as the song or
are in major or minor scales that are related to the key of the song.
Figure 2-4:
Setting the
option to
filter more
relevant
results.
If you have already assembled some tracks for a song, you can preview a loop
along with the rest of your song. The loop automatically plays in the same
key and tempo. Click the Rewind button to return the playhead to the beginning, click the Play button to play the song, and click the loop to hear it at
the same time. The loop automatically plays along with the beat of the song.
Arranging Loops in the Timeline
The process of recording music has changed since the Beatles recorded tape
loops at the Abbey Road Studios in London and used them in songs such as
“Tomorrow Never Knows” and “Rain.” Back then, the state-of-the-art recording equipment consisted of four separate tracks. The Beatles had to put their
vocals, guitars, bass, and drums on three of the four tracks, reserving the
fourth for all the different tape loops. It was even more complicated to
record and then play back all these loops on different tape machines and
feed the result into that fourth track.
Today, studios have an unlimited number of tracks, with at least one track
for each instrument. With GarageBand, you can use as many tracks as you
need (up to the limit of what your computer can handle) for both recordings
and loops. When you’re finished with your song, you can then mix all the
tracks into two stereo tracks without any loss in sound quality.
Creating tracks
You can create a new track by dragging a loop into an empty space on the
timeline. Follow these steps:
Arranging Loops in the Timeline
379
1. Select a loop in the Loop Browser.
2. Turn on the Snap to Grid feature (if it isn’t already on) by choosing
You know if the Snap to Grid feature is active because a check mark
appears next to it in the Control menu. While not necessary, the Snap to
Grid feature makes it easier to line up regions (the colored rectangles
that indicate the duration of a particular loop) in the tracks.
3. Drag the loop to an empty space below the timeline beat ruler, as
shown in Figure 2-5.
As you drag, you may notice that a vertical line appears lining up the
loop with the beat. The loop snaps to different points in the timeline —
points defined by the tempo and time signature (the beat) — if you have
the Snap to Grid feature turned on.
Figure 2-5:
Dragging a
loop to the
timeline.
You can also create a track first. Choose a Software Instrument or Real
Instrument for the track, and then drag a loop to the track. This method is
useful if you already have an instrument sound in mind that is different than
the sound used for the loop. Follow these steps:
1. Click the + button under the track headers to create a new track.
You can also choose Track➪New Track. The New Track dialog appears,
as shown in Figure 2-6, with two tabs: Real Instrument and Software
Instrument.
Adding Loops and
Audio Files
Control➪Snap to Grid.
Book V
Chapter 2
380
Arranging Loops in the Timeline
Figure 2-6:
Creating a
new track
with a
Software
Instrument.
You can use either a Real Instrument or Software Instrument to define a
track. Both types of instruments are described in Chapter 3 of this minibook. Apple Loops come in both flavors — Software Instruments and
Real Instruments.
2. Select the instrument you want to define the track and click OK.
A new track with the name of the instrument you selected appears in the
timeline.
3. Select a loop in the Loop Browser and drag it to the newly created
track.
After dragging a loop to a track, the loop creates a region in the track
showing a waveform for a Real Instrument, or a set of dashes that look
like notes for a Software Instrument (unless no notes are played, in
which case the region is gray). You can drag a Real Instrument loop into
a Real Instrument track, and a Software Instrument loop into a Software
Instrument track. Real Instrument loops have a waveform icon in the
Loop Browser (see Exotic Beat 04 in Figure 2-5), while Software
Instrument loops have a musical note icon, as shown in Figure 2-7.
The differences between the types of loops are as follows:
✦ Real Instrument loops: Although these loops were recorded with live
instruments in a specific tempo, time signature, and key, the loops are
somewhat elastic — you can change the tempo and transpose them into
different keys, with mixed results. You can also copy and paste waveform information in the Track Editor, as described in Chapter 4 of this
minibook, but you can’t change individual notes. You also can’t change
the instrument itself, as you can with Software Instrument loops.
Arranging Loops in the Timeline
381
Figure 2-7:
The loop
RnB Beat 06
is a
Software
Instrument
loop.
Looping loops in the track
Loops were made to be looped. After dragging a loop to a track, the region
takes up only a few measures of the song. To loop a region so that it plays
repeatedly and smoothly, follow these steps:
1. Move the pointer over the upper-right edge of the region.
As you move the pointer to the upper-right edge of the region, the
pointer changes into the loop pointer (an icon with a circular arrow).
2. Drag the edge of the region to extend it.
Drag the edge to the point where you want it to stop playing, as shown
in Figure 2-8. The notches at the top and bottom of the region show
where the loop ends and begins again — you can drag to the end of a
loop or have it end anywhere in the middle.
To hear the looping region, drag the playhead in the timeline back to the
beginning, or to where the new recorded region starts, and then click the
Play button.
Book V
Chapter 2
Adding Loops and
Audio Files
✦ Software Instrument loops: You can change the tempo and key without
any loss in quality. You can even change the type of instrument —
change a guitar loop into a drum loop simply by dragging the guitar loop
to a track defined as a drum track. Software Instrument loops can also
be edited in the Track Editor in detail — you can change the notes, their
placement in time, and everything else, as described in Chapter 4 of
this minibook.
382
Adding an Audio File
Extension of loop region
Loop region
Loop pointer
Figure 2-8:
Extending a
loop so that
it repeats
seamlessly.
Adding an Audio File
What if you already have recordings you want to use? Or you want to add
your own harmonica solo to a popular song? You might even want to mix
several songs together.
No problem: GarageBand can take an audio file saved in the AIFF, WAV, or
MP3 formats and lay it out in the timeline in its own Real Instrument track.
For example, you can drag a song converted to AIFF or MP3 (see Book I,
Chapter 3) directly from iTunes to your desktop to make a copy of the song
as an audio file, and then drag the audio file from the desktop into the
GarageBand timeline, as shown in Figure 2-9. You can drag the song into an
existing Real Instrument track or create a new track by dragging into an
empty space in the timeline.
As you drag, a vertical line appears, lining up the beginning of the audio file
with the beat. Just like a loop, the audio file’s beginning snaps to different
points in the timeline — points defined by the tempo and time signature
(the beat) — if you have the Snap to Grid option turned on (choose Control➪
Snap to Grid).
Adding an Audio File
383
Book V
Chapter 2
Adding Loops and
Audio Files
Figure 2-9:
Dragging
an audio file
from the
Finder
desktop into
the timeline.
When you bring an MP3 audio file into GarageBand, the audio is converted
to the AIFF format and stored with the song project, just like a recording of a
Real Instrument performance.
To move the audio file within the timeline, just drag the region for the audio
file left or right within the track. You can control the volume and apply Real
Instrument sounds and effects to the song, just like you can with any other
Real Instrument track.
The capabilities of mixing one or more audio files from several sources are
certain to be tapped by artists, especially those that create musical collages
with samples from different songs.
Be aware, however, that samples from commercial songs must be licensed
for use in your songs. You can certainly jam along with any tune and show
off your skills with GarageBand, but you can’t use copyrighted material in
your own works.
384
Book V: GarageBand
Chapter 3: Recording and
Arranging Music
In This Chapter
Choosing a Software Instrument, setting its sound and effects, and
recording live
Connecting electric instruments or microphones for vocals and
acoustic instruments
Choosing a Real Instrument sound, setting its effects, and recording live
Arranging, looping, copying, pasting, and recording directly into
regions in the timeline
G
eorge Harrison was prophetic with his comments in the mid-’90s when
he said that musicians in the future would be able to push a button to
get the sound that it took the Beatles weeks or months to figure out in the
’60s. And here we are, less than a decade later, plugging instruments into a
Mac and using simulated amplifiers!
As we describe in this chapter, you can plug in a USB MIDI keyboard (see
Chapter 1 of this minibook) and choose a Software Instrument to make it
sound like a guitar or even a horn or drum, as well as, of course, various
kinds of keyboards. You can also connect an electric instrument, such as
your favorite Stratocaster guitar, or use a microphone to record acoustic
instruments as well as vocals, using Real Instrument settings and effects.
This chapter also shows you how to arrange music regions in tracks, including moving, copying, joining, and splitting regions, and how to extend loops
and overdub cycle regions in tracks. We predict that someday people will be
asking, is it live or is it GarageBand?
Recording Software Instruments
With GarageBand, you can record music using your Mac as an instrument
all by itself or using a MIDI keyboard connected to your Mac. Either way,
you’re making music with what GarageBand calls a Software Instrument.
In essence, you’re using your Mac like a synthesizer, with GarageBand
providing instrument sounds — Electric Piano, Smokey Clav, Cathedral
Organ, Orchestral Strings, Dub Horns, Electric Tremolo guitar, Steel String
acoustic guitar, you-name-it guitar, and synthesizer sounds with weird
names like Martian Lounge and Modern Prophecy.
386
Recording Software Instruments
Whatever instrument sound you’re looking for, you’ll probably find it; if not,
you can get 100 more Software Instruments in the optional GarageBand Jam
Pack available from the Apple Store.
Recording into a Software Instrument track
To record your performance on the on-screen music keyboard or USB MIDI
keyboard using a Software Instrument, start a new song or open an existing
song, and follow these steps:
1. Choose Track➪New Track to create a new track.
The New Track window appears, as shown in Figure 3-1, with two tabs:
Real Instrument and Software Instrument. Alternatively, you can click
the + button under the track headers to open the New Track window.
Figure 3-1:
Choosing a
Software
Instrument
(Grand
Piano) in the
New Track
window.
2. Click the Software Instrument tab to show the list of Software
Instruments.
3. Select a category from the list on the left, select an instrument sound
in the list on the right, and then click OK.
Click on Organs, Strings, Guitars, Horns, or whatever type of instrument
you want in the list on the left, and the Software Instruments in that category are listed to the right for you to select.
4. Click the track header for the track to record into.
You can record into a new track or an existing track, as long as it is set
to be a Software Instrument track.
5. (Optional) Turn on the metronome and the Count In option to play one
measure before starting to record by choosing Control➪Metronome
and Control➪Count In (respectively).
Recording Software Instruments
387
6. Click the red Record button to start recording and either use the onscreen keyboard or a USB MIDI keyboard to perform the music for the
new track.
GarageBand starts to record in the track while playing any other tracks,
and it lays down a new region in the track’s timeline, as shown in
Figure 3-2.
7. When you’re done performing the new music, click the red Record
button again to stop recording and press the spacebar or click the
Play button to stop playback.
Figure 3-2:
Recording a
Software
Instrument
performance.
To hear your recording, drag the playhead in the timeline back to the beginning, or to where the new recorded region starts, and click the Play button
or press the spacebar.
If you don’t like how the recording turned out, you can record over that
track by recording into a cycle region, as described later in this chapter. If
you just want to adjust a note or two instead of re-recording the entire track,
see the section on using the Track Editor in Chapter 4 of this minibook.
Book V
Chapter 3
Recording and
Arranging Music
GarageBand includes a metronome that plays a short blip for each beat
of the measure, not recorded with the music, to help you keep time while
playing an instrument. You can turn it on or off by choosing Control➪
Metronome (a check mark means it is on). If you use the metronome,
you might also want to turn on the Count In option by choosing Control➪
Count In — just like a bandleader counting in “1-2-3-4” to prepare the
band to begin a song. GarageBand plays the metronome one full measure before starting to record so that you can get ready to perform along
with the beat.
388
Recording Software Instruments
You can play along with a song in iTunes with your on-screen or USB MIDI
keyboard and any Software Instrument. Start a song in iTunes, and then
switch to GarageBand and play along — both the iTunes output and the
GarageBand output are mixed automatically so that they play on your Mac’s
speakers simultaneously. You can figure out the song’s melody lines by playing along in GarageBand. Even better, you can import the song into
GarageBand as we describe in Chapter 2 of this minibook.
Changing the Software Instrument
You can change the instrument for a Software Instrument track at any time,
before or after recording performances or adding loops. To change the
instrument, click the track’s header, and then click the Track Info button, as
shown in Figure 3-3. The Track Info window appears, as shown in Figure 3-4.
Whether you start a new track or change an existing track, the New Track or
Track Info window enables you to pick any Software Instrument to use with
your on-screen or USB MIDI keyboard. As you pick an instrument (refer to
Figure 3-4) the name of the on-screen keyboard changes to that instrument.
Figure 3-3:
Click the
Track Info
button with
a selected
Software
Instrument
track.
Although you can change the instrument to experiment, a track can have
only one instrument for the length of a song. If you want to add more instruments, you need to create a track for each instrument.
As you click on keys in the on-screen music keyboard or play your MIDI keyboard, you hear the sound of the Software Instrument and any effects you
changed for the instrument. You can switch Software Instruments and
change effects and play them immediately to see how they sound, without
having to actually record a performance.
Recording Software Instruments
389
Book V
Chapter 3
Recording and
Arranging Music
Figure 3-4:
Change the
track to a
different
Software
Instrument
in the Track
Info
window.
Setting the instrument sound and effects
The Track Info window provides a more detailed view of settings for each
Software Instrument — click the Details triangle to reveal these settings, as
shown in Figure 3-5.
Figure 3-5:
Click the
Details
triangle in
the Track
Info window
to show
more
settings and
effects.
390
Recording Software Instruments
In the Track Info window’s detailed section, the instrument generator and all
the effects (such as a compressor, an equalizer, echo, reverb, and so on) are
on the left side, and the settings for the generator and all the effects are in
pop-up menus on the right side. For example, you can change the instrument’s generator (the code that creates the Software Instrument) and the
generator preset — the generator pop-up menu on the left controls the
sound source of the instrument, and the preset controls on the right are specific settings for that generator.
To add or adjust the effects for the selected Software Instrument, follow
these steps:
1. Click the Track Info button; in the Track Info window that appears,
click the Details triangle to reveal the Details panel.
2. Choose a new instrument generator and preset.
Choose a new instrument generator (such as Guitar) from the Generator
pop-up menu, and then choose a generator preset (such as Clean
Electric Guitar) from the Preset pop-up menu to the right of the
Generator menu, as shown in Figure 3-6.
3. Turn effects on or off, and adjust settings as you wish.
Click the check box for an effect to turn it on or off, and use the pop-up
menus on the right to adjust the effect’s settings. The Compressor, Echo,
and Reverb effects offer sliders you can drag to adjust their settings (if
you’ve selected that option).
4. Click the pencil button to further modify the characteristics of each
effect.
The generator and each of the effects (except Echo and Reverb) offer
additional ways to tweak the settings, accessed by clicking the pencil
button on the far right. When you click the pencil button, a new window
appears, as shown in Figure 3-7, with many options you can use to
modify the effect’s characteristics.
You can use the on-screen or USB MIDI keyboard in real time to hear the
results as you’re tweaking instrument characteristics.
5. When you’re done tweaking the effect, click the Close button to close
the window. In the Warning dialog that appears, click the Save button
to save settings before changing, or click the Don’t Save button to
replace the settings with new settings.
As you experiment with settings, every time you make a change,
GarageBand shows a dialog that asks Do you want to save the file
before switching to a new one? Click the Save button to save the
old settings as a preset (and give the preset a name, as described in the
“Saving a customized Software Instrument” section, later in this chapter),
Recording Software Instruments
391
or click the Don’t Save button to discard the existing settings so that you
can apply new ones.
Book V
Chapter 3
Recording and
Arranging Music
Figure 3-6:
Using the
Guitar
generator
with the
Clean
Electric
Guitar
preset.
Figure 3-7:
Modifying
the
characteristics of
the Amp
Simulation
effect.
392
Recording Software Instruments
6. Close the Track Info window after making changes or click the Save
Instrument button, as described in the next section.
Your on-screen keyboard or USB MIDI keyboard immediately takes on the
sound and characteristics of the Software Instrument as you play. The
changes you made are automatically saved with the Software Instrument’s
track in the song.
Saving a customized Software Instrument
You’ve done all this experimenting to get a particular sound — shouldn’t you
save it? Even though the changes you made to the effects and the sound of a
Software Instrument are automatically saved with the Software Instrument’s
track in the song, you may want to save these custom settings so that you
can use the identical instrument, sound, and effects settings in another song.
To do this, in the Track Info window, click the Save Instrument button; in the
Save Instrument dialog that appears, give the instrument a new name (such
as “Tony’s guitar”), and then click OK. The instrument appears in the Software
Instruments menu, and you can choose an icon for it by clicking the instrument’s icon and dragging across the selection of icons to the one you want,
as shown in Figure 3-8. You can then use the new instrument in any song.
Figure 3-8:
Selecting an
icon for the
newly saved
“Tony’s
guitar.”
Recording Real Instrument Tracks
393
Recording Real Instrument Tracks
GarageBand is more than accommodating to musicians who want to record
with their own instrument — it even simulates various amplifiers that would
cost you a fortune to assemble (even if you could find them). And you can
fiddle with the effects and settings until your ears fall off. GarageBand offers
virtual amps for Arena Rock, British Invasion, Clean Jazz, and so on. You can
blaze away on your favorite instrument and clean up mistakes in the Track
Editor, as described in Chapter 4 of this minibook. You can also record vocals
or acoustic instruments with a separate microphone or with the Mac’s builtin microphone.
To record a Real Instrument track, you need at least 10MB of free hard drive
space per minute of recording. You will also want headphones or speakers
for high-quality stereo playback; headphones are best for monitoring the
recording — hearing yourself play along with the music.
Using the line-in connection
Got stereo? Most Mac models offer a line-in connection that accepts a cable
with stereo mini-plug, which is common in many music-lover households.
You can connect any kind of mono or stereo audio source, such as a CD or
DVD player, or electric instrument, such as an electric guitar, or a mono
microphone, or a stereo set of microphones.
For home stereo gear, all you need to do is find a line out from your stereo
system, and connect a cable that uses RCA-type left and right stereo plugs
or a stereo mini-plug to your stereo system. If you use RCA-type plugs, you
need to use an RCA-to-stereo-mini-plug converter, or a cable that offers a
stereo mini-plug on the other end.
For electric guitars and microphones, you need a phono-to-mini-plug converter such as the Monster Instrument Adapter, which is a short cable that
has a mono 1⁄ 4-inch phono connection on one end and a 1⁄ 8-inch mini-plug on
the other to connect to your Mac’s line-in connection.
If your Mac doesn’t offer a line-in connection, you can purchase a USB audio
input device, such as the Griffin iMic or the Roland UA-30. If you intend to
connect more than one instrument or microphone at the same time, we recommend that you purchase an audio interface, as described in the next section, “Using an audio interface.”
Recording and
Arranging Music
Software Instruments are cool, but they just can’t compare in sound and feel
to real, live instruments. You may even have a favorite instrument that you
absolutely must use, as if it were a part of you or a life partner. “It’s been
through three wives,” Waylon Jennings remarked about his Telecaster guitar.
“To me, a guitar is kind of like a woman. You don’t know why you like ’em,
but you do.”
Book V
Chapter 3
394
Recording Real Instrument Tracks
To assign sound input to your Mac’s line-in connection so that you can record
from an external microphone or an electric instrument, follow these steps:
1. Connect your instrument, microphone, or sound source to the line-in
connection on your Mac.
If you don’t have a line-in connection, you can use a USB audio input
device.
2. From the desktop of your system, choose System Preferences from the
Apple menu; in the System Preferences window, click the Sound icon
to open the Sound pane.
3. Click the Input tab, and in the list of sound input devices, select
Line In.
The list appears in the Sound pane, as shown in Figure 3-9.
4. Quit System Preferences by choosing System Preferences➪Quit
System Preferences to save your settings.
Figure 3-9:
Setting up
the Mac’s
line-in
connection
for
recording.
To set the volume level for sound input, connect your instrument or microphone (or source of music or sound) to the line-in connection and play music.
As you play, watch the input level meter. As the volume gets louder, the
oblong purple dots are highlighted from left to right. To adjust the volume,
drag the slider underneath the input level meter. If all the dots are highlighted all the time, you’re way too hot (too loud). If the dots are not highlighted at all, you’re way too low. You want the dots to be highlighted about
three-fourths of the way across from left to right for optimal input volume.
Recording Real Instrument Tracks
395
Using an audio interface
To use an audio interface as your input device (so that instruments or microphones connected to it can be used to record), follow these steps:
1. Connect your instruments, microphones, and sound sources to the
audio interface.
Follow the connection instructions provided with your audio interface.
2. Choose GarageBand➪Preferences; in the Preferences window, click
the Audio/MIDI Interfaces button.
The Audio/MIDI Interfaces pane appears, as shown in Figure 3-10.
3. Choose the audio interface from the Audio Input pop-up menu, and
then close the Preferences window (click the red button in the upperleft corner of the window).
Figure 3-10:
Setting up
an audio
or MIDI
interface for
recording.
You can configure your audio interface with more specific controls. Apple
provides a utility called Audio MIDI Setup that works with audio devices connecting via FireWire, USB, PCMCIA, or PCI.
To use an audio interface with one or more instruments, microphones,
and audio devices, you must first install the software that comes with the
Recording and
Arranging Music
An audio interface is an adapter or device that enables you to connect audio
sources to your Mac, and they come in several formats including USB,
FireWire, PC card, and PCI. You may already need a MIDI-compatible audio
interface to use a MIDI keyboard, as described in Chapter 1 of this minibook;
many audio interfaces offer both MIDI and connections for other audio
devices. The Emagic Multichannel Interface A62 m, for example, connects to
your Mac’s USB port and offers six audio inputs (for line-in music, electric
instruments, or microphones), as well as MIDI connections.
Book V
Chapter 3
396
Recording Real Instrument Tracks
interface, following the manufacturer’s instructions. You can then use Audio
MIDI Setup (in Applications/Utilities) to select audio input and output, control volume levels, and set other characteristics by following these steps:
1. Connect the audio interface to your Mac, and then connect the instruments, microphones, or audio devices to the interface.
Connect your audio interface device to your Mac, following the instructions that came with it. You should be able to connect your guitar, keyboard, microphone, or any other instrument with an electric pick-up.
2. Double-click the Audio MIDI Setup application (in Applications/Utilities)
to open the Audio MIDI Setup window, and then click the Audio Devices
tab.
The Audio Devices pane appears, as shown in Figure 3-11. You can
change various settings depending on the audio device or instrument
you are using.
Figure 3-11:
Using Audio
MIDI Setup
for more
control over
input and
output.
3. Choose the name of the audio device from the Default Input pop-up
menu.
4. To configure a device, choose it from the Properties For pop-up menu.
5. When you’re finished, choose Audio MIDI Setup➪Quit Audio MIDI
Setup.
The audio devices and instruments connected to your audio interface
should now be ready to use with GarageBand.
Recording Real Instrument Tracks
397
Using the internal microphone
We recommend using an external microphone for vocals and acoustic instruments because you can place them closer to the person or instrument. Of
course, you’ll get the best vocal recordings by singing in a completely quiet
room, if not an actual soundproof vocal booth that doesn’t produce echoes.
However, the Mac’s internal microphone can be useful, especially when
recording sound effects or ambient sound on the road with a PowerBook.
To assign sound input to your Mac’s internal microphone so that you can
use it to record sound, choose System Preferences from the Apple menu in
Mac OS X; in the window that appears, click the Sound button. Click the
Input tab, as shown in Figure 3-12, and then click the Internal Microphone
option in the list of sound input devices.
Figure 3-12:
Setting up
the Mac’s
internal
microphone
for
recording.
To set the volume level for sound input, talk to your Mac (the microphone is
typically near the display) or play whatever acoustic instruments you want
to record. The internal microphone is always on and detecting sound, so
watch the input level meter in the Input tab. To adjust the volume, drag the
Input Volume slider. The purple oblong dots that simulate a level meter highlight from left to right as the volume gets louder. For a good input volume
level, you want the dots to be highlighted about three-fourths of the way to
Recording and
Arranging Music
Although we don’t recommend it, you can use the Mac’s built-in microphone
if you have no other choice. It will pick up sound from the room, so be aware
that your recording might sound like just what it is — a recording made in a
room with a single microphone.
Book V
Chapter 3
398
Recording Real Instrument Tracks
the right, not all the way (which is too loud). If you don’t have enough dots
highlighted, the volume may be too low.
Creating a Real Instrument track
You can record an instrument straight into a Real Instrument track without
any effects or sound treatment, and then add effects and change the characteristics of the sound later (such as running the sound through a simulated
amplifier). Or you can choose a Real Instrument sound and set as many characteristics and effects as you want before recording.
In order to record a Real Instrument or choose a Real Instrument sound, you
must first create a track. To create a Real Instrument track, start a new song
or open an existing song, and follow these steps:
1. Choose Track➪New Track to create a new track.
Alternatively, you can click the + button under the track headers to
create a new track. The New Track window appears with two tabs: Real
Instrument and Software Instrument.
2. Click the Real Instrument tab to show the list of Real Instruments.
3. Select a category and then an instrument sound.
Click on Organs, Strings, Guitars, Horns, or whatever type of instrument
you want, and the effects in that category are listed to the right for you
to select from. In Figure 3-13, for example, we selected a Real Instrument
effect (Arena Rock guitar) for a track to be used to record a live harmonica, effectively creating an entirely new sound.
4. Set the input format and channel.
In the New Track dialog, set the input format (select the Mono or Stereo
option) and input channel (select an option from the Input pop-up menu).
By default, the track is set to monophonic recording (one input), but if
your electric instrument offers stereo output, you can switch to stereo.
5. Turn the track monitor on or leave it off, depending on whether you
want to hear your performance as you perform.
You can turn the track’s monitor on or off in the New Track dialog. Turn
the monitor on to hear yourself as you play your instrument or sing —
you also hear the other tracks of the song as you sing or play. You
should use headphones if you are monitoring a microphone track.
If you get a loud shrieking noise, it means the microphone you’re using is
picking up the sound from the speakers and causing feedback. Turn the monitor off, or use headphones rather than speakers when turning the monitor
on. To turn off the monitor for any track, select the track, click the “i” button
to open the Track Info window, and then deselect the Monitor option.
Recording Real Instrument Tracks
399
Book V
Chapter 3
Recording and
Arranging Music
Figure 3-13:
Selecting
a Real
Instrument
effect
(Arena Rock
guitar).
Before recording, make sure that your instrument or your microphone is
connected and working. After selecting a Real Instrument sound, you can
hear the sound and any effects set up for the instrument immediately by
playing it (or by singing if your track is for vocals).
Recording a Real Instrument performance
The first thing anyone does before recording a performance of any kind is to
check the recording level. The recording level is the input volume through
the line-in, microphone, or audio interface connection. The input volume has
an upper limit that is set by the Sound preferences pane (as described in the
“Using the line-in connection” and “Using the internal microphone” sections,
earlier in this chapter).
You can test the recording level by playing and watching the level meters in
the new track’s Mixer section — to make the Mixer section visible, choose
Track➪Show Track Mixer. If the red dots at the right of the level meters in
the Mixer section appear, it means the volume is too high (technically, the
audio input is clipping), and you should drag the volume slider to the left to
lower the volume, as shown in Figure 3-14.
As you record a real instrument, the recording is fixed in the tempo and key
set for the song (turn to Chapter 1 in this minibook to find out about setting
the song’s tempo and key). Even though you can transpose the recording of
a Software Instrument to another key or change its tempo, you can’t change
a Real Instrument recording.
If you want to change the tempo and key of the song before recording a Real
Instrument, click the “i” button to open the Track Info window, and select
Master Track from the pop-up menu at the top of the window to show the
Master Track controls. Then change the tempo, time signature, and key for
the Master Track as described in Chapter 1 of this minibook.
400
Recording Real Instrument Tracks
Figure 3-14:
Adjusting
the input
volume for
a Real
Instrument
track.
When you are ready to record your performance, follow these steps:
1. Select the Real Instrument track for the recording.
Click the header of the track to select it. You can record into a new track
or an existing track, but it must be set to a Real Instrument. You can
record only one Real Instrument track at a time.
2. Drag the playhead to the point in the timeline where you want to start
recording (or leave it at the beginning of the timeline).
3. Turn on the metronome and the Count In option.
The metronome plays a short blip (not recorded with the music) for each
beat of the measure to help you keep time while playing an instrument.
You can turn it on or off by choosing Control➪Metronome. If you use the
metronome, you might also want to turn on the Count In option by
choosing Control➪Count In so that you hear the metronome one full
measure before starting your performance.
4. Click the red Record button to start recording, and then start your
performance.
If you set the Count In option to on, the metronome plays a full measure of
beats before GarageBand starts to record; otherwise, GarageBand starts
recording immediately, and lays down a new region in the track’s timeline.
5. Click the red Record button again to stop recording, and click Play to
stop the song.
Even though you already recorded a performance with a Real Instrument
sound, you can still change the characteristics of that sound and change the
type of Real Instrument itself, as described in the next section.
Changing the Real Instrument sound
You can change the sound for a Real Instrument track at any time, before or
after recording performances or adding loops, by clicking its header and
Recording Real Instrument Tracks
401
Figure 3-15:
Changing
the Real
Instrument
setting for
the track to
Solo Sax.
Setting Real Instrument effects
Before or after recording a performance, you can change the Real Instrument
setting and effects for the track in the Track Info window — which means
that you can choose just about any setting and effects to perform with (or
just the Basic Track/No Effects setting), and change them later.
The Track Info window provides a more detailed view of settings for each
Real Instrument sound (which are different from the settings and effects for
Software Instruments). To open the Track Info window, double-click the track
header or select the track and click the “i” button. To reveal the detailed settings in the Track Info window, click the Details triangle.
You can change the characteristics and effects associated with the selected
Real Instrument sound — such as changing the echo, reverb, noise gate, and
other settings for the Solo Sax. As you make changes in the Track Info
window, you can hear the difference in sound in real time by playing the
tracks while you adjust the settings.
In the Track Info window’s detailed section, the instrument effects (such as
a compressor, an equalizer, echo, reverb, and so on) are on the left side,
and the settings for the effects are in pop-up menus on the right side. Click
the check box for an effect to turn it on or off, and drag the sliders for Gate,
Book V
Chapter 3
Recording and
Arranging Music
then clicking the Track Info button to open the Track Info window. For example, after recording a live harmonica performance with a Real Instrument
sound set to Arena Rock guitar, we changed the Real Instrument sound to a
Solo Sax (in the Band Instruments category), as shown in Figure 3-15, changing the sound in the process. The track icon changes to a sax and the new
setting takes effect for that track immediately.
402
Recording Real Instrument Tracks
Compressor, Echo, and Reverb effects to adjust these settings (if you’ve
turned them on), as shown in Figure 3-16.
As you experiment with settings, every time you make a change, GarageBand
pops up a dialog that asks, Do you want to save the file before
switching to a new one? Click the Save button to save the old settings
as a preset (and give the preset a name), or click the Don’t Save button to
discard the old settings and use the new ones.
The Equalizer’s preset pop-up menu, to the right of the Equalizer option
itself, offers choices such as Add Brightness. You can also manually adjust
settings rather than using the presets by clicking the pencil button next to
the preset menu, as shown in Figure 3-17.
The pop-up menu and the pencil button for the Equalizer option enable you
to choose other special effects, such as Phaser (set to Circle Phases in the
Phaser pop-up menu) and Treble Reduction (set to Manual in the pop-up
menu — click the pencil button next to the pop-up menu to manually adjust
the settings). You can also change the Amp Simulation effect for the Real
Instrument (which is described in more detail in the sidebar, “Simulating
guitar amplifier effects”).
Figure 3-16:
Changing
the Reverb
setting for
the Solo
Sax effect.
Recording Real Instrument Tracks
403
Book V
Chapter 3
While your guitar gently weeps, you can simulate the effects of various amplifiers using your
Mac and GarageBand — without having to
spend a penny on a special effects pedal. The
sound of the amplifier is an important part of the
overall electric guitar tone. The amp simulation
effect enables you to change the sound based
on the known characteristics of typical guitar
amplifiers.
Many of the Real Instrument settings in the
Guitars category already include amp simulation. To see if a track uses amp simulation,
select the track, and then open the Track Info
window. Click the Details triangle to see the
effects settings. If included, Amp Simulation will
appear in one of the two pop-up menus for additional effects.
You can add the Amp Simulation effect by
choosing it from one of the two additional popup menus in the Track Info window, and choosing a preset from the pop-up menu to the right.
To adjust the amp preset, click the pencil button
next to the effect preset pop-up menu to open
the Amp Simulation window, select an option
for the Model, and then drag the sliders to
adjust the amp preset settings for Pre Gain,
Low, Mid, and High tone controls, Master, and
Output Level, as shown in the following figure.
To save a new preset after adjusting settings,
choose Make Preset from the pop-up menu in
the Amp Simulation window, type a name for
the new preset, and click the Save button.
Recording and
Arranging Music
Simulating guitar amplifier effects
404
Arranging Music Tracks
Figure 3-17:
Changing
the
Equalizer
setting
manually.
Maybe you don’t want any effects at all; or if you do, you want to apply them
later. If all you want is clean, unaffected recording of your instrument or
voice, at the top of the Track Info window, choose Basic Track in the left
column and choose No Effects in the right column. You can click the Details
triangle to open the Details pane and verify that no other effects are applied,
and that Echo and Reverb are set to 0 (zero). This setting is also useful if you
are using an external amp simulator or synthesizer.
When you have the settings for a Real Instrument exactly the way you want
them, you can save the settings as a Real Instrument for future use in other
songs. Click the Save Instrument button to save your settings, give it a new,
descriptive name (such as “Tony’s sax-harmonica”), and choose an icon for it
by clicking the instrument’s icon and dragging across the selection of icons
to the one you want (refer to Figure 3-8). The instrument appears in the Real
Instruments menu, and you can then use the instrument settings in any song.
Arranging Music Tracks
When you see the credit “Arranged by . . .” on a song, it doesn’t mean the producer arranged to have the song recorded and distributed or arranged to have
the artist paid or arranged the furniture in the recording studio. Arranging a
song means that the arranger decided exactly how the song should be played
(and with what instruments), and when each part should be played. The
arranger accepts the song as written and then takes liberties with the instruments, time signatures, tempo, and so on.
Arranging Music Tracks
405
Working with regions in the timeline
When you drag a loop to the timeline, or record into a track, GarageBand
represents the music with a region in the timeline showing graphically what
the sound looks like:
✦ Real Instrument regions: Loops are blue regions showing waveforms,
and recordings are purple waveforms.
✦ Software Instrument regions: Both recordings and loops are green
regions showing dashes in a musical scale (higher pitch dashes in the
upper part of the region, and lower pitch dashes in the lower part).
As building blocks for your song, regions help you define pieces of music
that may change, depending on the arrangement. You might, for example,
record a guitar part that goes along with a chorus into a separate Software
Instrument track, and copy the region of that one performance to the same
place in the timeline as each chorus in the song — so that you only need to
perform the guitar part once.
The timeline beat ruler shows beats and measures (units of musical time),
and you can use the beat ruler to align musical regions precisely. The timeline offers a grid to snap these segments into place — to turn it on, choose
Control➪Snap to Grid.
You can set the grid to different note values in the time measure, such as
quarter notes, eighth notes, sixteenth notes, thirty-second notes, quarter
note triplets, eighth note triplets, and so on. To set the grid to a different
note value, click the grid button in the upper-right corner of the timeline, as
shown in Figure 3-18, and then choose a grid value from the menu. In addition to the note values, you can set the grid to Automatic so that the grid
becomes more precise as you zoom in or out with the timeline zoom slider
under the track names.
Moving regions
The reason that these pieces of music are organized into regions is so that
you can move them easily within tracks. Drag a region within a track (left or
right) to change its starting point in the song.
Book V
Chapter 3
Recording and
Arranging Music
An arrangement is a written-down description of how to play a song, much
like a recipe. Because it describes notes played over time, an arrangement
has to show information about the song over time. Arrangers would put
together charts, sometimes with meticulous musical scores, to produce an
arrangement. GarageBand goes a step further and offers a visual depiction of
the song using a timeline, with instruments separated into tracks that extend
from the beginning to the end of the song — each track containing a separate musical instrument or voice. You can have as many tracks as you need
to represent the song.
406
Arranging Music Tracks
Figure 3-18:
Setting the
timeline
grid to a
different
note value.
You can even drag a region from one track to another (up or down), if you
want the region to take on the characteristics (sounds and effects) of the
destination track. However, Real Instrument regions can be moved only to
other Real Instrument tracks, and Software Instrument regions can be moved
only to other Software Instrument tracks.
When you drag a region over another region in the same time slot, as shown
in Figure 3-19, the region underneath is shortened to the edge of the region
you are dragging over it. If you completely cover a region with another
region, the region underneath is deleted.
Figure 3-19:
Moving a
region into
the same
time slot as
the end of
another
region.
Selecting, copying, and pasting regions
It’s useful to be able to copy and paste regions so that you can perform
something once and use it thousands of times. You can even copy multiple
regions in different tracks at once — for example, if a set of regions for bass
and drum tracks are perfect for a few measures, and you want to use them
throughout the song, you can select the regions, and then copy and paste
them. Because you can copy regions from multiple tracks at once (as in a
Arranging Music Tracks
407
vertical selection of regions), you can copy entire sections of a song to
another place in the song.
Figure 3-20:
Selecting a
range of
regions in
the timeline.
To copy a region, select it and choose Edit➪Copy (or press Ô+C). To paste
the copy in the track at a different location in the timeline, move the playhead to the point where you want the copied region to start, as shown
in Figure 3-21, and then choose Edit➪Paste (or press Ô+V). To copy and
paste multiple regions at once, select the regions first, and then copy and
paste them.
Figure 3-21:
Setting a
new
position to
paste the
copied or
cut regions.
After pasting one or more regions, the playhead moves to the end of the first
pasted region, as shown in Figure 3-22. This is convenient because you can
choose Edit➪Paste again (or press Ô+V again) to paste another copy right
next to the first one.
Recording and
Arranging Music
Click a region to select it, and Shift+click to select multiple regions. You can
also select multiple regions at once by dragging an imaginary selection rectangle around all the regions you want to select — as you drag from a point
in the timeline, any regions intersecting your imaginary rectangle are highlighted to show that they are selected, as shown in Figure 3-20.
Book V
Chapter 3
408
Arranging Music Tracks
To delete the region or regions from one location and paste them into another,
choose Edit➪Cut rather than Edit➪Copy. However, it might be faster to just
drag the selected regions to the new location in the timeline.
Figure 3-22:
The
playhead
moves to
the end of
the first
pasted
region.
If you hold down the Option key while dragging a region, you automatically
make a copy of the region; when you drop the copy, it is just like pasting it
into the new location. You can also delete a region by selecting it and pressing the Delete key on your keyboard or by choosing Edit➪Delete.
Looping and resizing regions
Music is all about repetition. Although you can paste a region over and over
quickly to repeat a region over time, GarageBand makes this a lot easier with
the loop pointer. When you loop a region, it repeats without any seams
between the regions. You can loop Real Instrument recordings, Software
Instrument recordings, and loops of both types.
To loop a region within a track, follow these steps:
1. Move your pointer to the upper-right edge of the region.
The pointer changes to the loop pointer (a circular arrow), as shown in
Figure 3-23.
2. Drag the loop pointer to extend the region.
Drag the region to the point where you want it to stop looping, as shown
in Figure 3-24. The notches at the top and bottom show the beginning
and end of the piece of music that loops. You can drag to the end or to
anywhere in the middle of a looping region.
You can shorten a region so that only the visible part of the region plays.
You can also lengthen a Software Instrument region, adding silence — but
only to Software Instrument regions; Real Instrument regions can only be
shortened or returned to their original lengths.
Arranging Music Tracks
409
Book V
Chapter 3
Recording and
Arranging Music
Figure 3-23:
Changing
to the loop
pointer.
Figure 3-24:
Looping the
region by
dragging the
loop pointer.
To resize a region, follow these steps:
1. Move your pointer over the lower half of either the right or left edge
of the region.
The pointer changes to the resize pointer, as shown in Figure 3-25.
2. Drag the edge of the region to shorten or lengthen it.
Figure 3-25:
Changing to
the resize
pointer.
410
Arranging Music Tracks
You can use silence to your advantage. First, extend a Software Instrument
region to add silence to a musical phrase, and then loop the region so that
the fully extended region, including silence, is repeated. That way the region
can be looped through the rest of the song and play accurately with the
same amount of silence between the repeated musical phrases.
Splitting and joining regions
A region can be split into two or more regions. You may want to split a
region if you recorded a great performance but you want to use part of it in
one place in the song, and part of it in another place. You can split the region
and then drag one part to another place in the song.
You can also join regions together as long as they are already adjacent to
one another on the same track, without any space between them. This is
useful if you recorded a great performance at the beginning and end of a
region, but made mistakes in the middle. You can split the region into three
pieces — the good part, the bad part, and the final good part — and then
join the first and last parts into one region.
Software Instrument regions (green) can be joined only to other Software
Instrument regions, and Real Instrument recordings (purple) can only be
joined to other Real Instrument recordings. Real Instrument loops (blue
regions) can’t be joined to other regions.
To split a musical region into two or more regions, follow these steps:
1. Select the region.
2. Move the playhead to the point in the region where you want the split
to occur, and choose Edit➪Split.
The selected region is split into two regions at the playhead; any notes
in a Software Instrument region at the split point are shortened so that
they don’t extend past the split point.
To join two or more regions, follow these steps:
1. Select the regions to be joined.
2. Choose Edit➪Join Selected.
When you join Real Instrument regions, a dialog appears asking if you want
to create a new audio file — click the Create button to do this, so that the
regions are joined into one. Otherwise the joining is cancelled.
Arranging Music Tracks
411
Recording into a cycle region
You can record a performance into a cycle region into a track of the same
type (Real Instrument recording into a Real Instrument track, or Software
Instrument recording into a Software Instrument track), overwriting any
region already there — in effect splitting and shortening regions to make the
new cycle region fit, as if you had dragged the new cycle region over the
existing regions.
To create a cycle region, follow these steps:
1. Click the Cycle button.
The Cycle button, with the revolving arrows, is in the row of transport
control buttons. This button opens the cycle ruler, which is a tiny
second ruler that appears below the beat ruler.
2. Drag inside the cycle ruler to define a yellow bar that indicates a
cycle region in the timeline, as shown in Figure 3-26.
Make sure the beginning and end of your yellow bar are set accurately in
the timeline for the time section.
3. Select a track and record a performance.
With the cycle region defined, you can record directly into the cycle
region of that track. As you record, a new region appears in the track,
as shown in Figure 3-27, shortening any region that lies underneath the
new region, and splitting a region into two if necessary, in order to fit
the new region.
Figure 3-26:
Defining a
cycle region
by dragging
in the
opened
cycle ruler.
Recording and
Arranging Music
It’s nice to know that you can record over any part of a song and correct it
with a new version. You can be just like the superstars that make their songs
perfect — you can overdub to your heart’s content. Overdubbing is when you
record directly over a part of a song. In GarageBand, you do this by creating
a cycle region, which restricts the recording to a specific time segment in the
selected track.
Book V
Chapter 3
412
Arranging Music Tracks
Figure 3-27:
After
recording
into a cycle
region.
In Real Instrument tracks, the cycle region records only one performance of
an instrument (or vocal). When the cycle region repeats, you hear only that
one performance.
However, in Software Instrument tracks, you can record while the cycle
repeats, overlaying one performance over another, and you can keep doing it
to create a multilayered performance — each cycle is merged with the region
created the first time through. You can use this feature to create incredibly
textured and multilayered performances.
Chapter 4: Getting the Best Mix
In This Chapter
Setting the track volume curve, pan position, and special effects
Using the Track Editor to edit Real Instrument and Software
Instrument tracks
Using the master track controls and setting the overall volume
Exporting the song to your iTunes library
T
he unsung hero of any album recording session is likely to be the mixing
engineer (the person who controls the mix). Mixing is the process of
controlling and balancing the volume of all the tracks and adding track
effects while combining all the tracks into the final song. You’ve probably
bought past albums that were “remixed” as well as remastered for CD.
These terms simply mean that the tracks of the songs were recombined in
such a way as to bring out the subtleties in the music.
This chapter describes the features GarageBand provides for mixing your
tracks into a final song. You can directly edit instrument tracks to fix wrong
notes or timing issues, and you can set volume curves to precisely control the
volume of each track over the duration of the song. When you are finished
with your edits and mix settings, you can export the song directly to iTunes to
burn a CD with the song, use it in playlists, or listen to the song on your iPod.
Mixing Tracks
You can add and edit as many tracks in your song as you want, but eventually you have to balance the volume in all the parts so that they blend into
two tracks for stereo playback. You do this by controlling the volume and
stereo pan position for each track. You may also want to add effects to tracks
that simulate echo, reverb, compression, and so on. In the GarageBand
window, the Mixer section of each track appears between the section with
the track name and the timeline; if it is not visible, click the triangle next to
the word Tracks at the top of the window, or choose Track➪Show Track
Mixer. In the Mixer section, you can drag the track’s volume slider to the left
to lower the track’s volume, and to the right to raise it, as shown in Figure 4-1.
The volume for each track can be raised or lowered so that you can achieve
414
Mixing Tracks
a balance of sound across all the tracks. In addition, the sound for each track
can be placed in the stereo field with the pan wheel.
Creating a mix of the song is not always complicated. You may simply need
to raise or lower the volume of the individual tracks using the track volume
sliders. If it sounds good after doing so, you are well on your way to finishing
the mix. However, you may need to refine the volume for each track to get a
good mix by setting the track volume curve, as described in the following
section.
Figure 4-1:
Raising the
volume for
the Digital
Horns track
relative to
the other
tracks.
Setting the track volume curve
Sound is fluid, and by controlling the ebb and flow of the volume of sound, you
can work wonders to improve a song. GarageBand provides a volume curve
for each track that controls the volume over the duration of the song, so that
you can raise or lower the volume in different places. You can raise or lower
the volume of a track at specific points in a song to simulate a crescendo or
decrescendo, to make specific tracks fade in or out, or even to hide a bad
note by lowering the volume in the track at that particular moment.
To improve a mix, you can adjust the volume curve of a track precisely over
the duration of the song by following these steps:
1. Open the Track Volume row for the track.
Click the down-arrow button in the Track header section of the track to
open the Track Volume row underneath the track.
2. Click the check box to turn on the Track Volume option.
Turn on the Track Volume option so that the horizontal volume line
appears in the row underneath the track.
Mixing Tracks
415
3. Click on the volume line to create a point; drag a point to define a
curve, as shown in Figure 4-2.
Figure 4-2:
Defining a
volume
curve that
fades up
the Digital
Horns track.
When dragging a point on the curve, you can align it with a beat or measure
the beat ruler by turning on the Snap to Grid option. Choose Control➪Snap
to Grid.
Songs often have a fade in at the beginning and a fade out at the end, and
you can set the volume curve to define these. You can also set it so that a
portion of the track is higher or lower than the rest, giving you ultimate control over the volume of any track at any point in a song.
Setting the pan position
A song can be mixed for stereo playback so that you might hear vocals
coming from the left speaker and guitars coming from the right, but you also
hear drums and bass coming from somewhere in the middle. (With music
from the early ’70s, such as albums by Pink Floyd and the Moody Blues, you
might think you hear the sound move across the room from one speaker to
another.) How is this possible with only two speakers?
The answer is that stereo speakers can create a field of sound, also known as
the stereo field, in which instruments and vocals are balanced in volume
across the two stereo channels — not set to full volume in one channel. Your
brain interprets the audio information as more like a three-dimensional
sound panorama.
GarageBand offers the same mixing capability as a professional studio mixer:
the ability to pan (short for panorama). This means that you get to place the
Getting the
Best Mix
The volume changes evenly between points on the volume curve, providing smoother volume control for the track.
Book V
Chapter 4
416
Mixing Tracks
track right where you want it in the panorama of the sound field — to the far
left side, or closer to the middle, or on the right. You can set the pan position of a track by clicking on the simulated pan wheel in the Mixer section of
the track, as shown in Figure 4-3. Then, drag down to pan to the left channel
or drag up to pan to the right — the wheel’s white dot indicates the position.
Option+click the pan wheel to return it to the center position. Experiment
with the pan wheel to get the sound that you want.
Figure 4-3:
Setting the
pan position
for the
Digital
Horns track
to the right
side.
Typically, drum and bass tracks are set to the middle (balanced between left
and right stereo fields), while vocals, lead instruments, and supporting
instruments and vocals can be put in either channel.
Using special effects with tracks
Rock bands in the ’60s used a recording technique — very sophisticated —
to get that compressed-echo sound of someone singing in a bathroom. They
used a very long cable that could stretch all the way to the bathroom, and
recorded the vocal performance there. Seriously, in order to get effects such
as John Lennon’s lead vocal on “Tomorrow Never Knows” by the Beatles,
which sounds like it’s coming from the top of a windswept mountain, the
producer had to record Lennon’s vocals by running the cable into a
Hammond organ and recording with a microphone through the organ’s special Leslie loudspeaker, which produced a swirling sound effect.
You don’t have to resort to buying a Hammond organ with a Leslie loudspeaker, bending the rules of physics, or moving your equipment into the
bathroom or even out to a cathedral to get that lofty church sound. You can
add effects for any track by selecting the track and clicking the “i” button for
Track Info (or choosing Track➪Show Track Info), and then clicking the triangle next to Detail to reveal the effects and their settings. Each effect has a
slider or pop-up menu in the detail section, as shown in Figure 4-4.
Mixing Tracks
417
Book V
Chapter 4
Getting the
Best Mix
Figure 4-4:
Adjusting
special
effects
for a Real
Instrument
track.
You can turn on the following effects:
✦ Gate: Limits the sound by passing only levels that are above a certain
threshold, usually set to just above background noise to filter it out.
Only Real Instruments offer a noise gate.
✦ Compressor: Adds punch to a song to make it play better on speakers
with a narrow dynamic range by decreasing the difference between the
loudest and softest parts of the song.
✦ Equalizer: Increases or decreases specific frequencies of the sound to
raise or lower highs, lows, and mid-range tones in the sound.
✦ Flanger: Copies and plays back the sound slightly out of tune from the
original signal, which is useful for double-tracking a vocal part to make a
single singer sound like two vocalists.
✦ Tremolo: Repeats a single tone or alternates two tones rapidly to produce a tremulous, shaking sound.
✦ Echo: Copies and plays back the original sound later in time and lower
in volume (enough to be heard distinctly from the original).
✦ Reverb: Recreates the sound of an acoustic space by playing back many
copies of the original signal at slightly varied times and volume levels.
(Reverb is short for reverberation.)
418
Using the Track Editor
You can also use the pop-up menus to add amp simulation, bass and treble
reduction, and chorus. All of these settings are available for both Real
Instruments and Software Instruments, with the exception of the noise gate,
which is used only with Real Instruments. Of course, setting a drum to play
with an amp simulator might produce a weird result, but you can certainly
try it. Software Instruments have more effects available, such as the instrument generator (described in Chapter 2 of this minibook).
The echo and reverb effects for individual tracks are based on the echo and
reverb settings for the master track — see the “Setting master track effects”
section, later in this chapter. If you turn off echo or reverb in the master
track, the effects are not available for individual tracks.
As you experiment with settings, every time you make a change to an instrument or change a pop-up menu for an effect, GarageBand asks if you want to
save the settings before making the change, asking in a dialog, Do you want
to save the file before switching to a new one? Click the Save
button to save the old settings as a preset (and give the preset a descriptive
name), or click the Don’t Save button to discard the old settings and use the
new ones. You can also click the Cancel button to cancel the change.
Although your effects settings are saved with the song automatically, you
can save your effects settings to use with other songs — see Chapter 3 of
this minibook.
To make your own presets for specific effects, such as the equalizer and amp
simulator, click the pencil button next to the pop-up menu for the effect, adjust
your settings, and then choose Make Preset from the pop-up menu, provide
a name for the preset, and click the Save button. When you adjust a preset, it
appears as Manual in the pop-up menu so that you know it has been changed.
Using the Track Editor
Play a bum note? Can’t get that bass line to match up with the drumbeat? Or
maybe you just want to tweak the notes of a particular loop you like? With
the Track Editor, you can view the music in a region as if through a microscope, viewing either the actual notes in a Software Instrument track (displayed as dots and dashes on a timeline grid, similar to a piano roll), or the
waveform of a Real Instrument track.
To open the Track Editor, select the track to edit and click the Track Editor
button (the one with the scissors). The Track Editor appears below the
timeline and transport buttons and has its own zoom slider. Depending on
the type of track, you see either a note-by-note representation of a Software
Instrument, as shown in Figure 4-5, or the waveform of a Real Instrument,
as shown in Figure 4-6.
Using the Track Editor
419
Book V
Chapter 4
Getting the
Best Mix
Figure 4-5:
A Software
Instrument
track in the
Track Editor.
With both kinds of tracks, you can move the region forward (to the right) or
backward (to the left) in the timeline. You can zoom in to see larger notes or
a more detailed waveform by dragging the Track Editor’s zoom slider in the
lower-left corner.
Figure 4-6:
A Real
Instrument
track in the
Track Editor.
420
Using the Track Editor
Editing Real Instrument tracks
Your performance with a Real Instrument may be slightly off the beat, but
you can use the Track Editor to edit the track in the following ways:
✦ Move a region to adjust its location in the song. You can move a region
in order to precisely line it up with the beat.
✦ Cut or copy parts of a region and paste them in other locations in the
song. You can cut or copy part of a Real Instrument performance and
paste it over another part of a region or in another place in the track.
✦ Delete a part of a region. You can simply delete the parts you don’t like
without disturbing the rest of the region.
For example, you can copy (or cut) a portion of a Real Instrument region and
paste it into another region, creating a new region and splitting the pastedinto region into two to accommodate the new one. And rather than deleting
an entire region from a track, you can delete a portion of a region that has
bad notes, and leave the rest of the region intact and still synchronized to
the timeline.
To copy and paste sections of a Real Instrument region, follow these steps:
1. Select the Real Instrument region.
Click on a region in a Real Instrument track, or click on the track itself to
select the entire track.
2. Open the Track Editor by clicking the Track Editor button (or doubleclick the selected region).
The selected region (or regions, if you selected an entire track) appears
in the Track Editor.
3. Select a section of a Real Instrument region in the Track Editor.
Select a section by dragging a selection rectangle with the crosshairs
pointer, as shown in Figure 4-7.
4. Choose Edit➪Copy to copy the section; choose Edit➪Cut to cut it; or
choose Edit➪Delete to delete it.
If you cut or delete a section, it disappears, as shown in Figure 4-8,
leaving the rest of the track locked to the timeline at the same point —
so you can delete small sections without disturbing the rest of the
performance.
5. To paste a copied or cut section, move the playhead to the new location in the Track Editor and choose Edit➪Paste.
You can zoom out first to see more of the track if you need to.
Using the Track Editor
421
Book V
Chapter 4
Getting the
Best Mix
Figure 4-7:
Selecting a
portion of a
Real
Instrument
region.
Figure 4-8:
After cutting
or deleting
the selected
portion, the
rest of the
region is still
locked to
the timeline.
You can also transpose any Real Instrument loop region to a different key
without changing the rest of the song. This works only with Real Instrument
loops, not recordings. You may want to do this to create dissonance or tension in a song by using a loop in another key to offset the rest of the music in
the designated key. The results may not be as good as choosing a Real
Instrument loop that’s in the appropriate key, but it’s worth a try if you don’t
mind experimenting.
422
Using the Track Editor
To transpose a Real Instrument loop region, follow these steps:
1. Select the Real Instrument loop.
Click on a region in a Real Instrument track, or click on the track itself to
select the entire track.
2. Open the Track Editor by clicking the Track Editor button (or doubleclick the selected region).
The selected region (or regions, if you selected an entire track) appears
in the Track Editor.
3. Drag the Transpose slider in the Track Editor to transpose the region
up or down in pitch.
If you prefer, you can type the number of semitones in the Transpose
field (a semitone is the smallest measure of difference between two
pitches; it’s a half step up or down in a scale).
Changes like these that you make in the Track Editor window do not affect
original loops — just the versions you added to your song.
Editing Software Instrument tracks
Software Instruments were made for this kind of treatment. Using the Track
Editor, you can change the actual notes of a Software Instrument track (performance or loop), including the note’s duration, pitch, velocity, and location
in the timeline. You can also transpose an entire region to a different key,
and fix the timing of notes automatically.
When you open a Software Instrument region in the Track Editor (refer to
Figure 4-5), it looks like an old-style piano roll with holes that served as
instructions to a player piano. The holes, or notes, are rectangular and very
precise. The left edge of each note indicates where the note starts in the
timeline, and the right edge indicates where it stops. If you use a MIDI keyboard with velocity-sensitive keys, GarageBand also shows each note’s
velocity, which is how hard you pressed the key. Notes played lightly (softly)
are light gray, and those played more forcefully (loudly) are darker.
The following list describes the different ways that you can edit the notes in
the Track Editor:
✦ Shorten or lengthen the duration of a note: Drag the lower-right corner
of the note to resize it. As you drag, the note’s edges snap to the lines in
the beat ruler.
✦ Change a note’s starting point: Drag the note itself left or right, using
the timeline grid as a guide.
Using the Track Editor
423
✦ Change a note’s pitch: Drag the note up or down. The vertical position
of the note in the grid shows the note’s pitch, as it would appear on the
simulated piano keyboard displayed along the left edge.
Book V
Chapter 4
✦ Change the note’s velocity (from soft to hard): Drag the Velocity slider
from left to right (you may have to click the triangle to the left of the
Track Editor’s beat ruler to open the Advanced section of the Track
Editor, which offers the Velocity slider). The note becomes lighter or
darker as you drag the slider. Hold down the Shift key while dragging to
change it by finer increments.
Getting the
Best Mix
Your performance with a Software Instrument may not be perfect — the
notes may not fall exactly on the beat, especially when playing at a fast
tempo. No worries — you can have the Track Editor fix the timing automatically. (This problem occurs more often when using the on-screen keyboard
than with a USB MIDI keyboard, unless you are like us and have no talent at
all with a keyboard — which is why we love the Track Editor.)
To fix the timing with the Track Editor, follow these steps:
1. Select the Software Instrument region.
Click on a region in a Software Instrument track, or click on the track
itself to select the entire track.
2. Open the Track Editor by clicking the Track Editor button (or doubleclick the selected region).
The selected region (or regions, if you selected an entire track) appears
in the Track Editor.
3. Click the Fix Timing button.
All the notes in the region are automatically moved to the nearest grid
position.
If you don’t like the results, you can always choose Edit➪Undo. You can also
drag notes yourself if you want any of them to be slightly behind or before
the beat.
If you use a USB MIDI keyboard with a pitchbend wheel (a control that bends
notes up and down), or a modulation wheel that changes the Software
Instrument sound, you can edit the controller information in the Track
Editor. Follow these steps:
1. Select the Software Instrument region.
2. Open the Track Editor by clicking the Track Editor button (or doubleclick the selected region).
3. Choose the type of controller information from the Display pop-up
menu in the Advanced section of the Track Editor.
424
Using the Master Track Controls
With the Track Editor, you can transpose any Software Instrument region to
a different key without changing the rest of the song. You might want to do
this if you want to change tracks to a new key based on a Real Instrument
recording in a different key. You can’t change a Real Instrument recording,
but you can transpose the Software Instrument tracks to match the key of
the Real Instrument recording.
You can transpose all of the Software Instrument tracks as described in
Chapter 1 of this minibook, using the Master Track Info window, or you can
transpose them individually in the Track Editor.
To transpose a Software Instrument region in the Track Editor, follow these
steps:
1. Select the Software Instrument region.
2. Open the Track Editor by clicking the Track Editor button (or doubleclick the selected region).
3. Drag the Transpose slider in the Track Editor.
As you drag the slider, the region is transposed up or down in pitch.
If you prefer, type the number of semitones in the Transpose field
(a semitone is the smallest measure of difference between two pitches).
Using the Master Track Controls
Although it is necessary to use a separate track for each instrument and
vocal performance in order to get the best results with your sound, there
must be a way to control all these tracks at once. As in the military, there is
a chain of command for volume controls, and the General is the master track,
which has controls that define the uppermost volume of all the tracks, and
turns on the crucial reverb and echo effects for all the tracks. You can also
control the volume for all the tracks with a master track volume curve, and
turn on other useful effects that work across all the tracks. Every song has
a master track, usually hidden until you explicitly show it.
Controlling the master volume
To control the volume of the overall song and to add effects to the entire
song, show the Master Track by choosing Track➪Show Master Track, which
appears at the bottom on the timeline as the last track, as shown in Figure 4-9
(with the heading Master Volume).
The master volume slider (below the lower-right corner of the timeline) controls the volume for the entire song — meaning the output volume, which is
used when exporting the song to iTunes.
Using the Master Track Controls
425
Book V
Chapter 4
Getting the
Best Mix
Figure 4-9:
The master
track is
labeled
Master
Volume.
You should add effects first before setting the master volume, and then adjust
the master volume using the sound coming out of your Mac as your guide
(either through speakers, headphones, or a home stereo system). Refer to
the “Using special effects with tracks” section, earlier in this chapter.
To adjust the master volume, setting the upper limit for all tracks, drag the
slider to the right to raise it, or to the left to lower it, as shown in Figure 4-10.
Figure 4-10:
Adjusting
the master
volume for
the song
(which is
too loud, as
shown by
the volume
level meter).
Volume level meter
Master volume slider
426
Using the Master Track Controls
Make the volume high enough to eliminate background noise but not high
enough to cause clipping (a distortion that sounds like a sharp, crackling
sound and is caused by volume overload). As the song plays, watch the level
meters above the master volume slider. The meters are so narrow that you
can easily miss them — they are the two narrow grooves, one for each channel of stereo sound, immediately above the master volume slider.
The level meters show green, then orange, and then red, as the volume gets
louder. The red part at the far right appears only when the volume is at its
highest. If the red dots to the right of the meters appear (refer to Figure 4-10),
the volume is way too high — these are called clipping indicators, and they
stay on to remind you that clipping occurred in the song (so that you can go
back and change the volume). You can reset these indicators by clicking them.
Before exporting a song, you should make sure that clipping is not occurring.
You can reduce or eliminate clipping by lowering a specific track’s volume,
as described in Chapter 1 of this minibook, or by lowering the level of an
effect that may be causing the distortion. Otherwise, the best way to handle
clipping, other than lowering the master volume slider, is to lower the
master volume using a volume curve, adding control points and lowering the
volume at the time in the song when the distortion occurs. See the following
section, “Setting the master volume curve.”
Setting the master volume curve
The master track gives you the opportunity to control the volume with a
curve for all the tracks in a song, so that you can be precise and set fade-ins
and fade-outs affecting all the tracks.
The master volume curve overrides the track volume curve to establish an
upper limit for the volume of the individual track. Your settings in each of
the tracks can still control the volume at levels lower than the limit set by
the master volume curve, but volume can’t increase above the master limit.
With the master volume curve, you can even define points for curves flexible
enough to fade all the tracks up and down at different places in the song.
To define the master track volume curve, first turn on the Master Volume
option (refer to Figure 4-9). Click on the horizontal line to establish a point in
the line, and then drag the point to define a curve, as shown in Figure 4-11. In
the figure, the curve is set to fade the volume down for all the tracks at the
same time.
Using the Master Track Controls
427
Book V
Chapter 4
Getting the
Best Mix
Figure 4-11:
Setting the
volume
curve for
the master
track.
Setting master track effects
The master track offers effects that work on the entire song — including
echo, reverb, equalizer, and compressor. We discuss these effects in the
“Using special effects with tracks” section, earlier in this chapter. The echo
and reverb effects are usually turned on — if you turn them off in the master
track, they will not work in the individual tracks either.
To add or change effects in the master track, follow these steps:
1. Select the Master Volume track.
2. Click the Track Info button (with the “i” icon), or choose Track➪Show
Track Info.
The Track Info window for the master track appears, offering preset
effects settings for various music genres (ambient, classical, dance, and
so on).
3. Click the triangle next to Details to reveal the detailed section.
As shown in Figure 4-12, the master track settings are already turned on.
4. Select the options for Echo, Reverb, or Equalizer if you want to have
those effects in your song or in individual tracks.
5. Close the Master Track Info window (click the red button that appears
at the top-left corner of the window).
You can add more effects or make changes to the effects that affect the
entire song. These settings establish the upper limit for the same effects
used in individual tracks.
428
Moving Your Song to iTunes
Figure 4-12:
The master
track effects
work on all
tracks of the
song.
Moving Your Song to iTunes
The multiple-track display of your finished song in GarageBand is impressive, and now that you have the volume just right for all the tracks and the
song itself, and you’ve mixed your tracks to the pan positions you want, and
you’ve switched on the effects you want, you are ready to export your song
to iTunes.
iTunes is where it’s at, and it’s where it should be — your song, that is. After
your song is in iTunes, you can play it on your Mac and on your iPod, burn a
CD with it, and use it with projects in iPhoto, iMovie, and iDVD.
When you export your song, GarageBand takes all your tracks, mixes them
automatically according to the settings you selected, and exports the song
as a two-track stereo audio file to iTunes in the highest-quality uncompressed format, AIFF. You can then use iTunes to convert the song to a compressed format such as MP3. See Book I, Chapter 3 for more information
about formats and converting songs in iTunes.
Setting up song and playlist information
Before exporting your great work of musical genius, you might want to save
a copy of the song under a different name. Although this move takes up
more hard drive space, you will thank us for having suggested it, as you can
use this method to save two versions of the song — one version mixed a
Moving Your Song to iTunes
429
certain way, and another unmixed version (ready for future mixing). Choose
File➪Save As, and give the song a name it deserves.
Figure 4-13:
Setting the
song and
playlist
information
before
exporting to
iTunes.
After you have the song in iTunes, you can find it with the information you
set in the Export pane of the GarageBand Preferences window.
Cycle regions for exporting loops
To export only a piece of a song, such as a
sample or a loop, you can set a cycle region
first as described in Chapter 3 of this minibook.
Normally, GarageBand exports the song from
the very first measure to the end of the last
region in the song, unless a cycle region is
turned on. You turn on a cycle region by clicking the cycle button, which is the far right
button in the set of transport buttons.
A cycle region can also be useful for extending
a song past the last region, so that GarageBand
exports the silence at the end. This is useful if
you used any effects that cause reverberations,
echoes, or remnants that “trail off” at the end
of a song. Normally, the trailing end would be
cut off, because GarageBand stops exporting
at the end of the last region. But if you set the
cycle region to start at the very beginning of the
song and end at some point past the last region,
and then export the song, the exported song
should include any sound trailing off at the end.
Getting the
Best Mix
You will also want to set the name of an iTunes playlist as well as the artist
and composer in the Export pane of the GarageBand Preferences window, as
shown in Figure 4-13. (iTunes playlists are described in Book I, Chapter 2.)
Choose GarageBand➪Preferences, click the Export tab, and enter the playlist
name in the iTunes Playlist field. You can also enter the name of the composer and album in the Export pane. The composer name is used for both
artist and composer fields in iTunes.
Book V
Chapter 4
430
Moving Your Song to iTunes
Exporting to iTunes
To export your song, in GarageBand, choose File➪Export to iTunes.
GarageBand creates a mixdown (the final mix into two stereo channels) and
exports the song automatically to iTunes in the uncompressed AIFF format.
GarageBand exports the song from the very first measure to the end of the
last region in the song, or exports just a cycle region if the cycle region is
turned on (see the sidebar, “Cycle regions for exporting loops,” elsewhere in
this chapter).
iTunes automatically places the song in its library according to the playlist
and album titles you specified, and the composer name you specified for
both the artist and composer fields, as shown in Figure 4-14.
Figure 4-14:
The song in
iTunes.
The song is ready for you to edit the song information further if you need to,
and ready to burn a CD or convert to another format. GarageBand exports
the song in the AIFF format, which occupies a lot of hard drive space (and
way too much space and power in an iPod), but is the ideal format to burn to
CD for audio CD players that do not support the MP3 file format. You should
use iTunes to convert the song to a compressed format such as MP3 for use
in an iPod or on your computer. See Book I, Chapter 3 for more information
about formats and converting songs in iTunes.
Book VI
iPod
Contents at a Glance
Chapter 1: Have iPod, Will Travel ....................................................................................433
Chapter 2: Getting Wired for Sound ................................................................................459
Chapter 3: Managing Life on the Road..............................................................................473
Chapter 1: Have iPod, Will Travel
In This Chapter
Connecting the iPod
Playing music with the iPod
Updating the iPod automatically
Copying songs manually to the iPod
I
n his trademark style, Apple CEO Steve Jobs introduced the third generation of iPods with a remark about the Apple competitors: “We’re into our
third generation and the rest of them haven’t caught up with the first.”
The iPod is indeed different from any portable music device that came before
it. The iPod is, essentially, a hard drive and a digital music player in one
device. Just imagine this: a 40GB iPod model can hold around 10,000 songs.
That’s more than 21 days of music. Even the 40GB model (the largest size as
of this writing) weighs less than two CDs, and the iPod mini is smaller than a
cell phone and weighs just 3.6 ounces.
As of this writing, there are three generations of iPod models:
✦ First generation: The 5GB and 10GB iPods of the first generation offer a
scroll wheel that physically turns with your finger as you use it. These
models do not offer all the features of second and third generation iPods.
They connect to the Mac with a standard FireWire cable.
✦ Second generation: The 10GB and 20GB iPods of the second generation
use a touch wheel that doesn’t physically turn when you use it. These
models do not offer all the features of third generation iPods. They connect to the Mac with a standard FireWire cable.
✦ Third generation: The 10GB, 15GB, 20GB, 30GB, and 40GB models of the
third generation use a touch wheel that doesn’t physically turn when you
use it. They connect to the Mac with a FireWire cable that is different on
each end — one end connects either to the iPod itself or to a dock and
is called the dock connector. The third generation also includes the iPod
mini, which uses a click wheel that offers the same functions as the touch
wheel, but is more suitable for the smaller device. The iPod mini has the
same software features as the full-size iPod, except that it does not
include support for voice recording or photo storage accessories as of
this writing.
434
Getting Started with Your iPod
All iPods are designed to be held in your hand while you thumb the scroll
wheel (our generic term for scroll wheel, touch wheel, or click wheel). The
LCD screen in full-size models offers backlighting so that you can see it in
the dark. For a nifty chart that shows the differences between iPod models,
see the specifications page on the Apple iPod site at www.apple.com/ipod/
specs.html.
This chapter shows you how to get your iPod connected, synchronized with
iTunes, and ready to play music anywhere. You also gain a working knowledge of how to use the iPod to browse music.
Getting Started with Your iPod
The iPod is a high-quality music player, not a high-quality music recorder (not
yet anyway, although it can record low-quality sound such as voice dictation
and commentary). However, what makes the iPod great is the way that it helps
you manage your music. It updates itself automatically to copy your entire
iTunes music library, if you want. With automatic updating, any changes,
additions, or deletions you make in your iTunes library are reflected in your
iPod. You also have the option to copy music directly to your iPod, delete
music on your iPod, and manage updating by playlist.
You’ll only spend about ten seconds copying an entire CD’s worth of music
from iTunes on your Mac to your iPod. The iPod supports the most popular
digital audio formats, including MP3 (including MP3 Variable Bit Rate), AIFF,
WAV, and the new AAC format, which features CD-quality audio in smaller file
sizes than MP3. The iPod also supports the Audible AA spoken word file
format.
The iPod is also a data player, perhaps the first of its kind. As a hard drive,
the iPod serves as a portable backup device for important data files. You can
transfer your calendar and address book to help manage your affairs on the
road. Although the iPod is not as fully functional as a PDA — for example, you
can’t add information directly to the device — you can view the information.
You can keep your calendar and address book automatically synchronized
to your computer, where you normally add and edit information. We cover
using the iPod as a data player in detail in Chapter 3 of this minibook.
The iPod has many convenient features that complement your listening
habits when you’re traveling. You can use the sleep timer, a feature that
shuts off the iPod after an amount of time that you specify, so that you can
fall asleep to your music. You can even use the iPod as an alarm clock and
choose to wake up to either an alarm tone or your favorite music. You need
to use portable speakers to make this work, or else you’ll sleep right on
through the alarm — the iPod has no built-in speaker.
Getting Started with Your iPod
435
Thinking inside the box
As you open the elegantly designed box (which reminds us of the awe we felt
at opening the Beatles’ White Album in 1968), try not to get too excited. Before
going any further, make sure that you received everything you were supposed
to get inside the box.
The box for the full-size iPod includes a CD with the iTunes software for the
Mac and PC and the cables you need to connect to a computer:
✦ Current models offer a dock connection and a special cable to connect
the dock or the iPod itself to the Mac’s FireWire connection. The 15GB
model does not come with the dock itself, but you can order it as an
extra. The dock connection on the iPod is the same as the connection
on the dock.
All models come with a FireWire-compatible power adapter for connecting
either the older iPod or the newer iPod-in-dock to an AC power source.
With most models, you also get a set of earbud headphones and a remote
control that connects to the iPod by wire. The accessories don’t stop there —
you may also have a carrying case and some other goodies. A long list of
optional accessories, many of which we describe in this minibook, is available in the online Apple Store (www.apple.com/store).
You also need a few things that don’t come with the iPod:
✦ A Mac with a built-in FireWire port, running Mac OS X version 10.1.4 or
newer. You can also use the iPod with a 300 MHz or faster PC with at least
96MB of RAM running Windows ME, 2000, or XP (with at least 128MB of
RAM), and a built-in or Windows-certified IEEE 1394 (FireWire) or a USB
connection.
✦ You need to install iTunes 4.0 or newer (provided on CD-ROM with the
iPod, or downloaded directly from Apple at www.apple.com/itunes).
Double-click the installer on the CD-ROM (or on your desktop if downloaded) to install iTunes. For PCs, you can install iTunes for Windows,
also included on the CD-ROM that comes with your iPod.
✦ Optional: Mac users can install iSync, a free utility program from Apple
for synchronizing your iPod with your address book and calendar and
with PDAs and cell phones; and iCal for creating and editing your calendar. Both are available for free downloading from www.apple.com.
Have iPod,
Will Travel
✦ Older models offer a FireWire cable for connecting the iPod FireWire
connection to the Mac’s FireWire connection.
Book VI
Chapter 1
436
Getting Started with Your iPod
Powering up your iPod
You can take a six-hour flight from Philadelphia to Oakland, California, and
listen to your iPod the entire time. The iPod includes a built-in rechargeable
lithium polymer battery that provides up to eight hours (possibly as much as
ten hours) of continuous music playtime on four hours of charge. (Playback
battery time varies, however, with the type of encoder you use for the music
files in iTunes — Book I, Chapter 3 has more info about encoders.)
You can also fast-charge the battery to 80 percent capacity in one hour. The
iPod battery recharges automatically when you connect the iPod to a power
source. That power source can be either the power adapter supplied with
the iPod, or a Mac connected by FireWire cable.
Older iPod models offer a Mac-like FireWire connection on the top of the iPod,
but newer models use a dock that connects to the iPod and offers FireWire
and USB to various devices. The dock can also connect to your home stereo
through a line-out connection. The dock includes a cable with a dock connector on one end and a FireWire (or optional USB) connector on the other, as
shown in Figure 1-1. You can connect the FireWire end of the cable to either
the Mac (to synchronize with iTunes and play iPod music in iTunes), or to the
power adapter, to charge the iPod battery. The FireWire connection to the
Mac provides power to the iPod as long as the Mac is not in sleep mode.
You can’t remove or replace the iPod internal battery yourself — you need
Apple support to have it replaced if it goes. Don’t fry your iPod with some
generic power adapter — use only the power adapter supplied with the iPod
from Apple. Charging the battery to about 80 percent takes about an hour,
and charging it fully takes about four hours, which is fast enough for most
people. If your iPod is inactive for more than 14 days, you must recharge its
battery — and you may as well send your iPod to us if you aren’t using it; we
can find a use for it!
Keeping the iPod encased in its carrying case when charging is tempting, but
also foolish — the iPod needs to dissipate its heat, and you could damage the
unit by overheating it and frying its circuits, rendering it as useful as a paperweight. The bottom of the iPod warms up when it is powered on — the bottom
functions as a cooling surface that transfers heat from inside the unit to the
cooler air outside. You may notice that the iPod’s display turns iridescent
when it gets too hot or too cold, but this effect disappears when its temperature returns to normal. Be sure to remove the iPod from its carrying case
before you recharge it. If you purchase one of the heat-dissipating carrying
cases available in the Apple Store, you can keep your iPod inside the case
when you’re charging the battery.
A battery icon in the top-right corner of the iPod display indicates with a
progress bar how much power is left. When you charge the battery, the icon
Getting Started with Your iPod
437
turns into a lightning bolt inside a battery. If the icon does not animate, it
means that the battery is fully charged. You can disconnect the iPod and
use it before the battery is fully charged. You can also use the iPod while
it is charging.
Setting the language
Wiedergabelisten? Übersicht? (Playlists? Browse?) If your iPod is speaking in
a foreign tongue, don’t panic — you’re not in the wrong country. You may have
purchased an iPod that’s set to a language you don’t understand. More likely,
someone set it to a different language either accidentally or as a practical joke.
Fortunately, you can change the setting without having to know the language
that it’s set to.
Book VI
Chapter 1
Remote connection
Dock
Figure 1-1:
The iPod
in its dock,
connected
to the Apple
power
adapter.
Hold switch
Power supply
FireWire-to-Dock cable
Have iPod,
Will Travel
Line out
438
Getting Started with Your iPod
To set the language, no matter what language the menu is using, follow these
steps (iPod software version 2.0):
1. Press the Menu button repeatedly until pressing it does not change
the words on the display.
When pressing the Menu button no longer changes the display, you are
at the main menu.
2. Select the fourth item from the top (Settings).
Use your finger or thumb to scroll clockwise on the wheel until the fourth
item is highlighted, and then press the button at the center of the scroll
wheel (the Select button) to select the item. The Settings menu appears.
3. Select the sixth item from the top (Language).
The Language menu appears.
4. Select the language you want to use. (English is at the top of the list.)
If these steps don’t do the trick, the iPod main menu may have been customized (something you can find out how to do in Chapter 3 of this minibook).
Someone could have customized it previously, or perhaps you pressed buttons accidentally that customized the menu. To get around this problem, you
can reset all of the iPod settings back to the defaults. (Unfortunately, resetting
your iPod settings back to the defaults wipes out any customizations you
may have made, so you will have to redo any repeat/shuffle settings, alarms,
backlight timer settings, and so on.)
Follow these steps to reset all your settings, no matter what language is
displayed:
1. Press the Menu button repeatedly until pressing it does not change
the words on the display.
When pressing the Menu button no longer changes the display, you are
at the main menu.
2. Select the fourth item from the top (Settings).
Use your finger or thumb to scroll clockwise on the wheel until the fourth
item is highlighted, and then press the button at the center of the scroll
wheel (the Select button) to select the item. The Settings menu appears.
3. Select the item at the bottom of the menu, Reset All Settings.
The Reset All Settings menu appears.
4. Select the second menu item (Reset).
The Language menu appears.
Getting Started with Your iPod
439
5. Select the language you want to use. (English is at the top of the list).
The language you choose is now used for all the iPod menus. Now don’t go
pulling that joke on someone else!
Connecting to the Mac
Your Mac should have a FireWire connection marked by a radioactive-looking
Y symbol. The cable supplied with your iPod has a six-pin connector that
inserts into your Mac’s FireWire connection.
When you first connect the iPod to the Mac, the iTunes Setup Assistant
appears, as shown in Figure 1-2. In this dialog, you can name your iPod,
which is a good idea if you plan on sharing several iPods among several
computers.
In the Setup Assistant, you can also turn on or off the option to automatically
update your iPod. If this is your first time using an iPod, you probably want
to fill it up right away, so leave this option selected. If you want to copy only
a portion of your library to the iPod, deselect this option and skip to the section, “Copying music directly to the iPod,” later in this chapter.
Figure 1-2:
Set up the
iPod for use
with a Mac
with the
Setup
Assistant.
Book VI
Chapter 1
Have iPod,
Will Travel
Depending on your iPod model, that cable either connects directly to your
iPod (older models) or to a dock. If you already use the cable to charge up
the iPod, you can disconnect the cable from the power adapter and connect
that same end to the Mac. In fact, you can leave your dock connected to your
Mac in this fashion and use the Mac to also charge up the iPod battery, as
long as your Mac does not go to sleep (in some Mac models, leaving the iPod
in the connected dock when the Mac sleeps drains the battery).
440
Playin’ in the Hand
The Setup Assistant allows you to register your iPod with Apple to take advantage of Apple support. When you reach the last dialog of the Setup Assistant,
click the Done button.
After you click the Done button in the Setup Assistant, the iPod name appears
in the iTunes Source pane under the Music Store. If you selected the automatic
update feature in the iTunes Setup Assistant, the iPod name appears grayed
out in the Source pane, and you can’t open it. If you have the automatic update
feature turned off, the iPod name appears just like any other source in the
Source pane, and you can open it and play songs on the iPod through iTunes
and your Mac speakers. See Book I for more about the Source pane in iTunes.
After finishing setup, the iPod icon also appears on the Finder desktop. If you
leave your iPod connected to the Mac, the iPod appears on the desktop and
in iTunes whenever you start iTunes.
To see how much free space is left on the iPod, click the iPod icon on the desktop and choose File➪Get Info. The Finder displays the Get Info window with
information about capacity, amount used, and available space. You can also
use the About command in the iPod Settings menu: Settings➪About from the
main menu. The iPod information screen appears with capacity and available
space.
Playin’ in the Hand
The design of the iPod enables the user to hold it in one hand and perform
simple operations by thumb (see Figure 1-3). A unique circular scroll wheel
makes scrolling through an entire music collection quick and easy. As you
scroll, items on the menu are highlighted. The button at the center of the
scroll wheel (the Select button) selects whatever is highlighted in the menu
display.
In full-size models, the touch-sensitive buttons above the scroll wheel perform
simple functions when you touch them (older models are not touch-sensitive,
so you need to press them). The iPod mini uses a click wheel that offers the
same functions as the touch wheel. It combines the scroll wheel and buttons,
with pressure-sensitive buttons underneath the top, bottom, left, and right
areas of the circular pad of the wheel.
Thumbing through the menus
The iPod menu starts out with five selections, as follows:
✦ Playlists: Select a playlist to play.
✦ Browse: Select by artist, album, song, genre, or composer.
Playin’ in the Hand
441
✦ Extras: View and set the clock and alarm clock, view contacts, view your
calendar, view notes, and play games. See Chapter 3 of this minibook for
more information on these features.
✦ Settings: Set display settings, menu settings, the backlight timer, the date
and time, the language, shuffle and repeat modes, the clicker, and the
method of sorting your contacts. We describe these functions in Chapter 3
of this minibook. You can also use the equalizer (covered in Chapter 2 of
this minibook).
✦ Backlight: Turns on or off the backlighting for the iPod display.
Using the buttons
Figure 1-3:
The iPod
Settings
menu and
buttons.
Previous/Rewind
Play/Pause
Menu
Next/Fast-forward
Have iPod,
Will Travel
In full-size models, the touch-sensitive buttons above the scroll wheel perform functions when you touch them (older models are not touch-sensitive,
so you need to press them). The iPod mini offers a click wheel that combines
the scroll wheel and buttons, with pressure-sensitive buttons underneath
the top, bottom, left, and right areas of the circular pad of the wheel. These
areas tilt as you press them, activating the buttons.
Book VI
Chapter 1
442
Playin’ in the Hand
The buttons do obvious things for song playback:
✦ Previous/Rewind: Press once to start a song over. Press twice to skip to
the previous song. Press and hold to rewind through a song.
✦ Menu: Press once to go back to the previous menu. Each time you press,
you go back to a previous menu until you reach the main menu. Press
and hold the button to turn on the backlight.
✦ Play/Pause: Press to play the selected song, album, or playlist. Press
Play/Pause when a song is playing to pause the playback.
✦ Next/Fast-forward: Press once to skip to the next song. Press and hold
Next/Fast-forward to fast-forward through the song.
The scroll wheel and buttons can do more complex functions when used in
combination:
✦ Turn iPod on: Press any button.
✦ Turn iPod off: Press and hold the Play/Pause button.
✦ Disable the iPod buttons: Push the Hold switch to the other side, so
that an orange bar appears (the Hold position). Do this to keep from
accidentally pressing the buttons. To reactivate the iPod buttons, push
the Hold switch back to the other side so that the orange bar disappears
(the normal position).
✦ Reset the iPod: Set the Hold switch to the Hold position, and then back
to normal. Then press the Menu and Play/Pause buttons simultaneously
for about five seconds, until the Apple logo appears in the iPod display.
You can reset the iPod if it gets hung up for some reason (for example, it
might get confused if you press the buttons too quickly). This operation
resets the iPod, essentially restarting the iPod’s hard drive. It does not
change the music or data on the iPod. See Chapter 3 of this minibook for
more about resetting.
✦ Turn Backlight on and off: Press and hold the Menu button (or select
the Backlight option from the main menu).
✦ Change the volume: While playing a song (the display says Now Playing),
use the scroll wheel to adjust the volume. A volume slider appears in the
iPod display indicating the volume level as you scroll. See the section,
“Adjusting the sound volume,” later in this chapter.
✦ Skip to any point in a song: While playing a song (the display says Now
Playing), press and hold the Select button until the progress bar appears
indicating where you are in the song, and then use the scroll wheel to
scroll to any point in the song.
Locating and Playing Songs
443
Locating and Playing Songs
To play a song, you can select a song by artist, by album, or by playlist. You
create playlists in iTunes, which we describe in Book I, Chapter 2.
Follow these steps to locate a song by artist and then by album:
1. Select the Browse item from the iPod main menu.
Scroll the main menu until Browse is highlighted, and then press the
Select button to select it. The Browse menu appears.
2. Select the Artists item.
The Artists item is at the top of the menu and should already be highlighted; press the Select button to select it. The Artists menu appears.
3. Select an artist from the Artists menu.
The artists’ names are listed in alphabetical order by first word (any
leading “The” is ignored so that “The Beatles” is listed where “Beatles”
would be in the list). Scroll the Artists menu until the artist name (such
as “Radiohead” or “Bowie, David”) is highlighted, and then press the
Select button to select it. The artist’s menu of albums appears. (For
example, the “Radiohead” menu in our iPod includes the selections All,
OK Computer, and The Bends; the “Bowie, David” menu includes All,
Heroes, Ziggy Stardust, and many more.)
4. Select the All item or the name of an album from the artist’s menu.
The All item is at the top of the artist’s menu and should already be
highlighted; you can press the Select button to select it. Or scroll until
an album name is highlighted, and then press the Select button to select
it. Albums are listed in alphabetical order based on the first word (a
leading “A” or “The” is not ignored, so the album The Basement Tapes
is listed after the album Stage Fright in The Band’s menu). A song list
appears after you select a choice.
5. Select the song from the list.
The songs in the album list are in album order (the order they appear
on the album); in the All list, songs are listed in album order for each
album. Scroll the list until the song name is highlighted, and then press
the Select button to select it. The artist name and song name appear.
Have iPod,
Will Travel
To browse by genre, select the Genres item, and then select a genre from
the Genres menu to get a reduced list of artists that have songs in that
genre (in alphabetical order by Artist name).
Book VI
Chapter 1
444
Locating and Playing Songs
Follow these steps to locate a song by album directly:
1. Select the Browse item from the iPod main menu.
Scroll the main menu until Browse is highlighted, and then press the
Select button to select it. The Browse menu appears.
2. Select the Albums item.
Scroll the Browse menu until Albums is highlighted, and then press the
Select button to select it. The Albums menu appears.
Select the Composers item to choose a composer, and then select a composer from the Composers menu to get a list of songs for that composer.
3. Select an album from the Albums menu.
The albums are listed in alphabetical order (without any reference to
artist, which may make identification difficult). The order is by first word
(a leading “A” or “The” is not ignored, so the album The Natch’l Blues is
listed after Taj’s Blues in the T section, rather than in the N section.
Scroll the Albums menu until the album name is highlighted, and then
press the Select button to select it. A song list appears.
4. Select the song from the list.
The songs in the album list are in the order in which they appear on the
album. Scroll the list until the song name is highlighted and press the
Select button to select it. The artist name and song name appear.
Follow these steps to locate a song by playlist:
1. Select the Playlists item from the iPod main menu.
The Playlists item is at the top of the main menu and may already be highlighted; if not, scroll the main menu until Playlists is highlighted and press
the Select button to select it. The Playlists menu appears.
2. Select a playlist.
The playlists are listed in alphabetical order. Scroll the Playlists menu
until the playlist name is highlighted and press the Select button to select
it. A list of songs in the playlist appears.
3. Select the song from the list.
The songs in the playlist are in playlist order (the order defined for the
playlist in iTunes). Scroll the list until the song name is highlighted, and
then press the Select button to select it. The artist name and song name
appear.
Locating and Playing Songs
445
Repeating and shuffling songs
If you want to drive yourself crazy repeating the same song over and over, the
iPod is happy to oblige. More than likely, you will want to repeat a sequence
of songs, which you can easily do.
You can also shuffle songs within an album, playlist, or the entire library. By
shuffle, we mean that the iPod will play songs in random order. You can even
set the iPod to repeat an album or playlist but still shuffle the playing order.
Although simply pressing the Previous/Rewind button to repeat a song is
easier, you can set the iPod to repeat a single song automatically by following these steps:
Book VI
Chapter 1
1. Locate and play a song.
2. Press the Menu button repeatedly to return to the main menu, and
then select the Settings item.
The Settings menu appears.
3. Scroll the Settings menu until Repeat is highlighted.
The Repeat setting displays Off next to it.
4. Press the Select button once (Off changes to One) to repeat one song.
If you press the button more than once, keep pressing until One
appears.
To repeat all the songs in the selected album or playlist:
1. Locate and play a song in the album or playlist.
Locate and play a song, described earlier in this chapter in the “Locating
and Playing Songs” section.
2. When the song starts playing, press the Menu button repeatedly to
return to the main menu, and then select the Settings item.
The Settings menu appears.
3. Scroll the Settings menu until the Repeat item is highlighted.
The Repeat setting displays Off next to it.
4. Press the Select button twice (Off changes to All) to repeat all the
songs in the album or playlist.
Have iPod,
Will Travel
Locate and play a song as described in the “Locating and Playing Songs”
section. The song starts playing.
446
Locating and Playing Songs
To shuffle songs in an album or playlist:
1. Locate and play a song in the album or playlist.
Locate and play a song, as described in the section, “Locating and
Playing Songs,” earlier in this chapter.
2. When the song starts playing, press the Menu button repeatedly to
return to the main menu, and then select the Settings item.
The Settings menu appears.
3. Scroll the Settings menu until the Shuffle item is highlighted.
The Shuffle setting displays Off next to it.
4. Press the Select button once (Off changes to Songs) to shuffle the
songs in the selected album or playlist.
To shuffle all the albums in your iPod while still playing the songs in each
album in normal album order:
1. Press the Menu button repeatedly to return to the main menu, and
then select the Settings item.
The Settings menu appears.
2. Scroll the Settings menu until the Shuffle item is highlighted.
The Shuffle setting displays Off next to it.
3. Press the Select button twice (Off changes to Albums) to shuffle the
albums without shuffling the songs within each album.
When the iPod is set to shuffle, it won’t repeat a song until it has played
through the entire album, playlist, or library.
Creating On-The-Go playlists
If you don’t have playlists from iTunes (or you don’t want to hear those
playlists), you can create a temporary On-The-Go playlist (which works in
iPods using iPod software version 2.0 and newer, including the iPod mini, but
not in older iPod software versions). You can select a list of songs or entire
albums to play in a certain order, queuing up the songs or albums on the
iPod. Queued songs appear automatically in a playlist called “On-The-Go” in
the Playlists menu (to use the Playlists menu, see the section, “Locating and
Playing Songs,” earlier in this chapter).
To select songs or entire albums for the On-The-Go playlist:
Locating and Playing Songs
447
1. Locate and highlight a song or album title.
2. Press and hold the Select button on the scroll wheel until the title
flashes.
3. Repeat Steps 1 and 2 in the order you want the songs or albums played.
To play the On-The-Go playlist, scroll to the On-The-Go item, which you
can always find at the very end of the list in the Playlists menu. To find the
Playlists menu, see the section, “Locating and Playing Songs,” earlier in this
chapter.
To clear the list of queued songs, follow these steps:
1. Press the Menu button repeatedly to return to the main menu, and
then select the Playlists item.
The Playlists menu appears.
2. Select the On-The-Go item.
The song list in the On-The-Go playlist appears.
3. Scroll to the very end of the song list and select the Clear Playlist item.
The Clear menu appears.
4. Select the Clear Playlist item.
The songs disappear from the playlist.
Adjusting the sound volume
The iPod is quite loud when set to its highest volume — you should turn it
down before using headphones. To adjust the volume:
1. Select and play a song on the iPod.
2. Change the volume with the scroll wheel.
A volume bar appears in the iPod display to guide you. Scroll with your
thumb or finger clockwise to increase the volume or scroll counterclockwise to decrease the volume.
Book VI
Chapter 1
Have iPod,
Will Travel
If you don’t clear the list of queued songs, the next time you automatically
synchronize your iPod to iTunes, the list is copied to your iTunes library as
“On-The-Go 1” (and the next list as “On-The-Go 2” and so on). You can keep
track of your On-The-Go playlists this way, or if you want to save your OnThe-Go playlists with a new name, you can rename them in iTunes. When
updating manually, you can copy the On-The-Go playlist manually.
448
Updating Automatically
If you have the Apple iPod remote control that attaches to the iPod connections on the top, you can use the volume button on the remote to adjust the
volume, play or pause a song, fast-forward or rewind, and skip to the next or
previous song. You can also disable the buttons on the remote by setting the
remote’s Hold switch (similar to the iPod Hold switch). To find out about the
iPod remote control, see Chapter 2 in this minibook.
Updating Automatically
If you’re too busy to copy specific songs to your iPod and your entire iTunes
music library fits on your iPod, why not just copy everything? Copying your
library is just as fast as copying individual songs, if not faster, and you don’t
have to do anything except connect the iPod to the Mac.
The default setting for a new iPod is to update itself automatically, synchronizing to your iTunes library — the iPod matches your library exactly, song
for song, playlist for playlist.
iTunes automatically copies everything in your iTunes music library to the
iPod. If you made changes in iTunes after the last time you synchronized,
those changes are automatically made in the iPod when you synchronize
again. If you added or deleted songs in your library, those songs are added
or deleted in the iPod library.
If your iTunes music library is too large to fit on your iPod, you can still update
automatically and keep your iPod synchronized to a subset of your library,
adding new material under your control, or you can let iTunes select the
music automatically according to your ratings, as described in the section,
“Updating from the library automatically.” You can even create a smart
playlist that does it for you, as described later in the section, “Updating automatically by playlist.”
Songs stored remotely (such as songs shared from other iTunes libraries on
a network) are not synchronized because they are not physically on your
computer. See Book I, Chapter 2 for more info on how to share music over a
network with iTunes.
If you share an iPod with someone else, chances are you want to update the
playlist rather than the entire library. That way, you automatically erase all the
music on the iPod associated with the other person’s playlists and copy the
music in your library associated with your playlists. All this happens automatically so that you don’t have to think about it after setting it up. Of course,
because the music for your iPod is on your computer, someone erasing your
music from the iPod isn’t a big deal — you can update the iPod quickly with
your music when it’s your turn.
Updating Automatically
449
You can prevent the iPod from automatically updating by holding down
Ô+Option as you connect the iPod, and keeping the keys held down until the
iPod name appears in the iTunes Source pane. This works even if you choose
to automatically update the iPod in the Setup Assistant, as we describe earlier in this chapter, in the “Connecting to the Mac” section.
Updating from the library automatically
The iPod is set up by default to automatically update itself from your iTunes
library. Just follow these simple steps to set the updating process in motion:
1. Connect the iPod to your Mac through the Mac’s FireWire connection.
2. Click the iPod eject button, which appears in the bottom-right side of
the iTunes window.
You can also eject (or unmount) the iPod by dragging the iPod icon on
the desktop to the Trash. In OS X 10.3, you can click the eject icon next
to the iPod icon in the Finder Sidebar. After you eject the iPod, the iPod
displays an OK to disconnect message. You can then disconnect the
iPod from its dock, or disconnect the dock from the computer.
While the updating is in progress, do not disconnect your iPod until it tells
you it is safe to do so. The iPod displays a Do not disconnect warning until
it is safe, and then it displays a giant check mark and OK to disconnect. The
iPod is a hard drive, after all, and hard drives need to be closed down properly in order for you not to lose any critical data.
If you change your iPod preferences to update manually or automatically by
playlist, as we describe later in this chapter, in the “Updating Manually” section, you can change the setting back to automatic update at any time. After
changing the setting to automatic update, updating occurs automatically
unless you change the setting back to manual, or you hold down Ô+Option
while connecting the iPod.
Change your iPod preferences to automatic update by following these steps:
1. Connect the iPod to your Mac through the Mac’s FireWire connection.
If this is the first time you’re connecting an iPod, iTunes starts automatically. You can change this in the iPod preferences.
2. Select the iPod name in the iTunes Source pane.
Book VI
Chapter 1
Have iPod,
Will Travel
When you first connect the iPod to the Mac, your iPod automatically
synchronizes with your iTunes music library, unless you turned off the
Automatic Update option in the Setup Assistant, or you hold down
Ô+Option while connecting the iPod. (See the section, “Connecting to
the Mac,” earlier in this chapter, for more information about connecting.)
450
Updating Automatically
3. Click the iPod options button on the bottom-right side of the iTunes
window, to the left of the equalizer button, as shown in Figure 1-4.
The iPod Preferences dialog appears, as shown in Figure 1-5.
4. Select the Automatically Update All Songs and Playlists option.
iTunes displays a confirmation message (see Figure 1-6).
Figure 1-4:
Open the
iPod options
to set preferences.
iPod options button
iPod eject button
Figure 1-5:
Setting preferences.
Updating Automatically
451
Figure 1-6:
Confirm you
want to
update
your music
library automatically.
5. Click OK to go ahead and to confirm that you want to change to automatic update.
6. Change other iPod preferences as you wish.
7. Click OK to close the iPod Preferences dialog.
8. Click the iPod eject button, which appears in the bottom-right side of
the iTunes window.
You can also eject (or unmount) the iPod by dragging the iPod icon on the
desktop to the Trash. In OS X 10.3, you can click the eject icon next to
the iPod icon in the Finder Sidebar. After you eject the iPod, it displays
an OK to disconnect message. You can then disconnect the iPod from
its dock or disconnect the dock from the computer.
If you connect your iPod to another Mac, you may be in for a surprise. When
you connect an iPod previously linked to another Mac, iTunes displays the
message This iPod is linked to another iTunes music library.
Do you want to change the link to this iTunes music library
and replace all existing songs and playlists on this iPod
with those from this library? If you don’t want to change the iPod to
have this other music library, click the No button. Otherwise, the contents of
the iPod are erased, and iTunes starts to update the iPod with its library. By
clicking the No button, you change that computer’s iTunes setting to manually update.
You can prevent the iPod from automatically updating by holding down
Ô+Option as you connect the iPod, and keeping the keys held down until the
iPod name appears in the iTunes Source pane.
Have iPod,
Will Travel
Other preferences you may want to change include the Open iTunes When
Attached option, which launches iTunes automatically when selected (if
this option is deselected, you have to start iTunes by clicking its icon in
the Dock or by double-clicking the application in the Applications folder).
Book VI
Chapter 1
452
Updating Automatically
If your iTunes music library is too large to fit on your iPod, you can still
update automatically and keep your iPod synchronized to a subset of your
library. When you first use your iPod (which is set by default to automatic
update), iTunes displays a message if your library is too large to fit:
The iPod ‘<your iPod’s name>’ does not have enough space
to hold all of the songs in your music library. For your
convenience, iTunes has created a new playlist named
‘<your iPod’s name> Selection’ which contains a
selection of songs from your music library that will fit
on this iPod. You may change the songs in this playlist
at any time. Your iPod will be automatically updated
with this playlist every time it is connected.
You have only one choice, which is to click OK. iTunes creates a new playlist
specially designed for updating your iPod automatically. For example, if
your iPod is named GigaMojo, you will find a new playlist named GigaMojo
Selection, filled with all the songs that iTunes could fit in your iPod.
If, on the other hand, you have already been using your iPod and it is set to
automatic update, iTunes displays this message if your library is full:
The iPod “<your iPod’s name>” cannot be updated because
there is not enough free space to hold all of the songs
in the iTunes music library. Would you like iTunes to
choose a selection of songs to copy to this iPod?
iTunes gives you a choice: You can click the No button, and iTunes updates
automatically until it fills up your iPod. If you click the Yes button, iTunes displays this message:
iTunes has created the playlist “<your iPod’s name>
Selection” using your music preferences and will update
the iPod “<your iPod’s name>” with this playlist every
time it is connected.
Click OK (the only choice at this point). iTunes creates a new playlist specially
designed for updating your iPod automatically. For example, if your iPod is
named GigaMojo, you will find a new playlist named GigaMojo Selection filled
with all the songs that iTunes could fit in your iPod.
iTunes decides which songs and albums to include in this playlist using the
ratings you can set for each song in the iTunes song information, as described
in Book I, Chapter 2. iTunes groups album tracks together and computes an
average rating and play count for the album. It then fills the iPod, giving higher
priority to albums with play counts and ratings greater than zero. You can
therefore influence the decisions iTunes makes by adding ratings to songs or
to entire albums, as described in Book I, Chapter 2.
Updating Automatically
453
Updating automatically by playlist
You can set up the iPod to update only selected playlists automatically. If
you want to copy playlists manually, see the section, “Updating Manually,”
later in this chapter. Updating automatically by playlist is an easy way to
automatically update an iPod from an iTunes library that is larger than the
iPod’s capacity.
Before using this update option, create the playlists in iTunes (see Book I,
Chapter 2) that you want to copy to the iPod. Then follow these steps:
1. Connect the iPod to your Mac through the Mac’s FireWire connection.
2. Select the iPod name in the iTunes Source pane.
3. Click the iPod options button.
4. Select the Automatically Update Selected Playlists Only option.
5. In the list box, select the check box next to each playlist that you want
to copy in the update, as shown in Figure 1-7.
Figure 1-7:
Set up the
iPod to automatically
update with
only the
selected
playlists.
6. Click OK.
iTunes automatically updates the iPod by erasing its contents and copying only the playlists you selected in Step 5.
7. Click the iPod eject button that appears in the bottom-right corner of
the iTunes window.
Have iPod,
Will Travel
The iPod Preferences dialog appears (refer to Figure 1-5).
Book VI
Chapter 1
454
Updating Manually
Updating selected songs automatically
You may want to update the iPod automatically, but only with selected
songs — especially if your iTunes library is larger than the capacity of your
iPod. To use this method, you must first select the songs you want to transfer to the iPod in the iTunes library and then deselect the songs you don’t
want to transfer.
You can quickly select or unselect an entire album by selecting an album in
Browse view and holding down the Ô key.
After selecting the songs to transfer, follow these steps:
1. Connect the iPod to your Mac through the Mac’s FireWire connection.
2. Select the iPod name in the iTunes Source pane.
3. Click the iPod options button.
The iPod Preferences dialog appears (refer to Figure 1-5).
4. Select the Automatically Update All Songs and Playlists option and
click OK for the Are you sure you want to enable automatic
updating? message that appears.
5. Select the Only Update Checked Songs check box and click OK.
iTunes automatically updates the iPod by erasing its contents and copying only the songs in the iTunes library that you selected.
6. Click the iPod eject button, which appears in the row of buttons in
the bottom-right corner of the iTunes window (only while the iPod is
connected).
Updating Manually
When your iPod is set to update automatically (the entire library, either by
playlist or by selected song, as described in the “Updating Automatically”
section, earlier in this chapter), the iPod contents are grayed out in the
iTunes window. Because you manage the contents automatically, you don’t
have direct access to the songs in the iPod using iTunes.
However, if you set your iPod to update manually, the entire contents of the
iPod is active and available in iTunes. You can copy music directly to your
iPod, delete songs on the iPod, and edit the iPod playlists directly.
You may have one or more reasons for updating manually, but some obvious
ones are the following:
Updating Manually
455
✦ Your entire music library may be too big for your iPod, and therefore,
you want to copy individual albums, songs, or playlists to the iPod
directly.
✦ You want to share a single music library with several iPods, and you have
different playlists that you want to copy to each iPod directly.
✦ You want to copy some music from another computer’s music library,
without deleting any music from your iPod.
✦ You want to play the songs on your iPod using iTunes on the Mac, playing
through the Mac’s speakers.
With manual updating, you can add or delete music from your iPod using
iTunes. The iPod name appears in the iTunes Source pane, and you can
double-click to open it, displaying the iPod playlists.
To set your iPod to update manually, follow these steps:
1. Connect the iPod to your Mac, holding down Ô+Option to prevent
automatic updating.
Continue holding them down until the iPod name appears in the iTunes
Source pane.
2. Select the iPod name in the iTunes Source pane.
3. Click the iPod options button.
The iPod Preferences dialog appears (refer to Figure 1-5).
4. Select the Manually Manage Songs and Playlists option.
iTunes displays the Disabling automatic update requires manually unmounting the iPod before each disconnect message.
5. Click OK to accept the new iPod preferences.
The iPod contents now appear active in iTunes and not grayed out.
Copying music directly to the iPod
To copy music to your iPod directly, follow these steps:
1. Select the iTunes music library in the iTunes Source pane.
The library’s songs appear in a List view or in Browse view, as described
in Book I, Chapter 1.
Have iPod,
Will Travel
Setting the iPod to update manually
Book VI
Chapter 1
456
Updating Manually
2. Drag items directly from your iTunes music library over the iPod
name in the Source pane, as shown in Figure 1-8.
When you copy a playlist, all the songs associated with the playlist are
copied along with the playlist. When you copy an album, all the songs in
the album are copied.
3. Click the iPod eject button which appears in the bottom-right side of
the iTunes window.
Figure 1-8:
Copy an
album of
songs
directly from
the iTunes
library to
the iPod.
Deleting music from the iPod only
With manual updating, you can delete songs from the iPod directly. Manual
deletion is a nice feature if you just want to go in and delete a song or an
album.
To delete any song in the song list with your iPod set to manual updating,
follow these steps:
1. Select the iPod in the iTunes Source pane.
2. Open the iPod’s contents in iTunes.
3. Select a song or album on the iPod in iTunes and press the Delete key
or choose Edit➪Clear.
iTunes displays a warning to make sure you want to do this; click OK
to go ahead or Cancel to stop. If you want to delete a playlist, select the
playlist and press the Delete key or choose Edit➪Clear. As in the iTunes
library, if you delete a playlist, the songs are not deleted.
Editing Songs on the iPod
457
Editing Songs on the iPod
With manual updating, you have the option to edit song information and
playlists directly in the iPod using iTunes. Information edited in the iTunes
library is automatically copied with automatic update, but you may want to
edit playlists and song information manually, just on your iPod.
Editing playlists
You can also create playlists just on the iPod itself, by following these steps:
1. Select the iPod in the iTunes Source pane and open the iPod contents.
2. Create a new playlist by clicking the + button in the bottom-left corner
Book VI
Chapter 1
of iTunes under the Source pane or choose File➪New Playlist.
3. Type a name for the untitled playlist.
The new playlist appears in the Source pane under the iPod. After you
type a new name, iTunes automatically sorts it into alphabetical order
in the list.
4. Click the name of the iPod in the Source pane and drag songs from
the iPod song list to the playlist.
You can also click the Browse button to find songs more easily.
The order of songs in the playlist is based on the order in which you drag
them to the list. You can rearrange the list by dragging songs within the
playlist. For more information about creating playlists in iTunes and arranging songs in playlists, see Book I, Chapter 2.
You can create smart playlists in exactly the same way as in the iTunes
music library — read all about it in Book I, Chapter 2.
Editing song information
With the iPod contents open in iTunes, you can edit song information just
like you do in the iTunes library by scrolling down the song list and selecting
songs.
After selecting the iPod in the Source pane and opening its contents, click
the Browse button. In Browse view, you can browse the iPod contents, and
find the songs by artist and album. See Book I, Chapter 2 to find out how to
browse in iTunes.
Have iPod,
Will Travel
An “Untitled playlist” appears in the Source pane.
458
Editing Songs on the iPod
You can edit information such as the Song Name, Artist, Album, Genre, and
My Ratings for the iPod songs directly in the columns in the song list. To edit
song information, locate the song and click inside the text field of a column
to type new text.
Editing this information by choosing File➪Get Info and typing the text into
the Song Information window may be easier. Book I, Chapter 2 describes how
to edit song information in detail.
Although the track information iTunes grabs from the Internet is usually
enough, it is by no means complete. Some facts, such as composer credits,
may not be included in the information grabbed from the Internet. However,
composer information is important for iPod users because the iPod lets you
scroll music by composer as well as by artist, album, and song.
If you have the time and inclination to add composer credits, doing so is
worth your while because you can then search, sort, and create playlists
based on this information. This is particularly important for classical music
lovers, because iTunes and the iPod make it easy to find songs by the
performer/artist but not by the composer, which classical fans may prefer.
Book I, Chapter 2 describes how to edit song information and add information such as composer credits to songs in your library. When you copy these
songs from iTunes to your iPod, this information is also copied to your iPod.
Chapter 2: Getting Wired for Sound
In This Chapter
Playing the iPod through the Mac
Connecting the iPod to home stereos, headphones, and speakers
Playing the iPod while traveling
Enhancing the sound quality
S
ound studio engineers try to make recordings for typical listening environments, and therefore have to simulate the sound experience in those
environments. Studios typically have home stereo speakers as monitors so
that the engineers can hear what the music sounds like on a home stereo. In
the 1950s and early 1960s, when AM radio was king, engineers working on
potential AM radio hits purposely mixed the sound using low-fidelity monaural speakers, so that they could hear what the mix would sound like on
radio. Thank goodness those days are over, and cars offer higher-quality FM
radio as well as very high-quality audio systems.
The point is that the quality of the sound is no better than the weakest link
in the audio system. Music from older times that was mixed to a mono channel for car radios is not going to sound as good even when played on a home
stereo.
The audio CD bridges the gap between home stereos, car stereos, and portable CD players by enabling you to listen to high-quality music anywhere, as
long as you have a decent pair of headphones. Music production changed
considerably over the last few decades as more people listened to higherquality FM radio, bought massive home stereos, and eventually bought CD
players for their cars and boats and portable players to use while flying and
jogging. At each step, popular music was reissued in the new medium, such
as audio CD, and remixed in the process for the new sound systems.
The iPod represents a major leap forward in bridging the gap between home
stereos, car stereos, and portable players. Picking up where CDs left off, the
iPod offers nearly as high-quality sound as an audio CD in a convenient device
that can hold weeks’ worth of music. What’s more, you can tweak the sound
not just for home stereos, but also for all listening environments.
460
Making Connections
This chapter explains how to connect the iPod to a variety of different speaker
systems and how to use the iPod in different listening environments. We also
offer a summary of accessories, such as headphones, power cables, and connection cables and devices, which together enable you to use the iPod just
about anywhere.
Making Connections
The sleek iPod models offer connections that enable you to connect headphones to your iPod, connect your iPod to your home stereo, or connect
your iPod to your Mac. The connections, as shown in Figure 2-1 (current
models) and Figure 2-2 (older models), are as follows:
Figure 2-1:
A current
model 40GB
iPod with
its dock.
Making Connections
461
Book VI
Chapter 2
Getting Wired
for Sound
Figure 2-2:
An older
model 20GB
iPod with
connections
on top.
✦ FireWire: New models have a dock connection on the bottom. The
dock includes a cable with a dock connector on one end and a FireWire
(or optional USB) connector on the other. Older iPods have a Macstyle FireWire connection on the top that works with any standard
Mac FireWire cable.
✦ Headphone out (with control socket): The headphone and control socket
combination connection allows you to plug in the Apple iPod remote
control, which in turn offers a headphone out connection. The remote
offers playback and volume control buttons. You can also connect headphones or a 3.5-millimeter stereo mini-plug cable to the headphone out
connection.
✦ The dock connections: The iPod dock offers two connections — one
for the special cable to connect to a FireWire (or USB) connection, and
a line-out connection for a stereo mini-plug cable (or headphones).
You can connect the FireWire end to either the Mac (for synchronizing with
iTunes and playing the iPod with the Mac) or to the power adapter to charge
the iPod battery. The FireWire connection to the Mac provides power to the
iPod as long as the Mac is not in sleep mode.
462
Making Connections
Playing through the Mac
You can play your iPod music on your Mac, or any Mac with a FireWire connection. You can use an iPod music library with iTunes on your Mac or on
another Mac running iTunes and a different library.
You hear the music from your iPod on the Mac’s speakers and through the
headphone connection to the Mac. Apple designed Macs to have connections for adding your own speakers. When you play music in iTunes, it plays
through those speakers. Depending on your Mac model, you may already
have excellent speakers.
With an iPod set to manual updating, as we describe in Chapter 1 of this
minibook, its contents are available in the iTunes window. You can play the
songs on your iPod in iTunes.
To play music on your iPod in iTunes, follow these steps:
1. Connect the iPod to your Mac, holding down Ô+Option to prevent
automatic updating.
2. Set your iPod to update manually.
To set your iPod to update manually, refer to Chapter 1 of this minibook.
(The iPod updates automatically by default, unless you change it.)
3. Select the iPod name in the iTunes Source pane.
4. Open the iPod contents in iTunes.
After selecting the iPod in the iTunes Source pane, you can click the
triangle next to its name to open the iPod, so that you can scroll or
browse the iPod songs. You can open the iPod lists just like any other
music source in the Source pane, as shown in Figure 2-3.
Figure 2-3:
Play the
iPod songs
and playlists,
and browse
the iPod
using iTunes
on your
Mac.
Making Connections
463
5. Scroll or browse the iPod song lists in iTunes to locate a song.
To find out how to browse in iTunes, see Book I, Chapter 2.
6. Click the song in iTunes and then click the iTunes Play button.
To find out how to play music tracks in iTunes, see Book I, Chapter 1.
To connect to a different Mac than your own and play your iPod music,
follow the preceding steps. After you connect your iPod to the other Mac,
iTunes starts up and displays this message: This iPod is linked to
another iTunes music library. Do you want to change the link
to this iTunes music library and replace all existing songs
and playlists on this iPod with those from this library? Click
the No button.
Unless you want to change the contents of your iPod to reflect this computer’s music library, don’t click the Yes button. If you click the Yes button,
the contents of the iPod are erased, and iTunes updates the iPod with the
library on this computer. If you’re using a public computer with no music in
its library, you are erasing the iPod without any music to add. If you’re using
a friend’s computer, your friend’s library copies to the iPod, erasing whatever was in your iPod.
Connecting to a home stereo
Home stereo systems come in many shapes and sizes, from the monster component racks of audiophiles to the itty-bitty boom boxes for kids. We’re not
talking about alarm-clock radios, but stereos with speakers that allow you to
add another input device such as a portable CD player. You need to be able
to connect a device to the component of the stereo system that accepts input.
In more expensive stereo systems, the component is typically the receiver
(which includes a preamp/amplifier with a volume control, and a tuner to
receive FM radio). Less expensive stereos and boom boxes are all one piece,
but connections for audio input should be somewhere on the device.
You can connect most stereos to an input device by using RCA-type cables —
one (typically marked red) for the right channel, and one (typically white)
for the left channel. All you need is a cable with a stereo mini-plug on one
end, and RCA-type connectors on the other, as shown in Figure 2-4. Stereo
mini-plugs have two black bands on the plug, while a mono mini-plug has
only one black band.
Getting Wired
for Sound
By clicking the No button, you change that computer’s iTunes setting to
manually update. You can then add songs from that computer to your iPod
or edit your iPod playlists and song list on that computer (as we describe in
Chapter 1 of this minibook).
Book VI
Chapter 2
464
Making Connections
Figure 2-4:
RCA left and
right connectors are
on top, and
the stereo
mini-plug on
the bottom,
along with a
hard-wired
portable
speaker
system and
its stereo
mini-plug.
We recommend the Monster high performance dual balanced iCable for
iPod, available in the Apple Store, for audiophiles with excellent stereo
equipment; any cables you can get at a consumer electronics store are fine
for anyone else.
Connect the stereo mini-plug to the iPod dock’s line-out connection, or to the
headphone connection at the top of the iPod (use the headphone connection
on iPods without docks). Connect the left and right RCA-type connectors to
the stereo system’s audio input — whatever’s available, such as AUX IN, for
auxiliary input, or TAPE IN, for tape deck input, or CD IN for CD player input.
Don’t use the PHONO IN (for phonograph input) on most stereos. These connections are for phonographs (turntables) and are not properly matched for
other kinds of input devices. If you do this, you may get a loud buzzing sound
that could damage your speakers.
You can control the volume from the iPod using the scroll pad, which we
describe in Chapter 1 of this minibook. This controls the volume of the
signal from the iPod. Stereo systems typically have their own volume control
to raise or lower the volume of the amplified speakers. For optimal sound
quality when using a home stereo, set the iPod volume at less than half the
Listening aboard Planes, Trains, and Automobiles
465
maximum output and adjust your listening volume through your stereo controls (using the volume knob or equivalent). By doing this, you prevent overamplification, which can cause distortion and reduce audio quality.
Connecting headphones and portable speakers
Apple designed the iPod to provide excellent sound through headphones,
and through the headphone connection, the iPod can also play music though
a hard-wired portable speaker systems. The speaker systems must be selfpowered and allow audio to be input through a 3.5 mm stereo connection.
Portable speaker systems, which include built-in amplifiers and a volume
control, typically offer a stereo mini-plug you can attach directly to the iPod
headphone connection or the dock line-out connection. To place the external speakers farther away from the iPod, you can use a stereo mini-plug
extension cable, available at most consumer electronics stores, which has
a stereo mini-plug on one end and a stereo mini-socket on the other.
Portable speaker systems typically have volume controls to raise or lower
the volume. Set your iPod volume to half and then raise or lower the volume
of your speaker system.
Listening aboard Planes, Trains, and Automobiles
When you travel, take an extra pair of headphones or earbuds and a splitter
cable, such as the one in Figure 2-5, available in any consumer electronics
store, or the Monster iSplitter available in the Apple Store. You can plug both
headphones into the iPod and share the music with someone on the road.
You can truly go anywhere with an iPod. If you can’t plug it into a power
source while it is playing, you can use the battery for up to ten hours of playing time before having to charge. You can find all the accessories needed to
travel with an iPod in the Apple Store at www.apple.com.
Put on “Eight Miles High” by the Byrds while cruising in a plane at 40,000
feet. Ride the rails listening to “All Aboard” by Muddy Waters, followed by
“Peavine” by John Lee Hooker. Or cruise on the Autobahn with Kraftwerk.
Whatever. You have an entire music library in your shirt pocket.
Book VI
Chapter 2
Getting Wired
for Sound
The iPod contains a small amplifier powerful enough to deliver audio through
the headphone connection. It has a frequency response of 20 Hz (hertz) to
20,000 Hz, which provides distortion-free music at the lowest or highest
pitches. Hertz has nothing to do with rental cars — one hertz is a unit of frequency equal to one cycle per second. At pitches that produce frequencies
of 20 cycles per second, or 20,000 cycles per second, the iPod responds with
distortion-free sound.
466
Listening aboard Planes, Trains, and Automobiles
Figure 2-5:
A headphone cable
that splits
into two,
allowing
two sets of
headphones.
The iPod provides high-quality music no matter what the environment —
even in an earthquake. With skip protection, you don’t have to worry about
turbulence, potholes, or strenuous exercise causing the music to skip. In addition to the hard drive, the 40GB iPod has a 32MB memory cache. The cache
is made up of solid-state memory, with no mechanical or moving parts, so
movement doesn’t affect playback. Skip protection works by preloading up
to 20 minutes of music to the cache at a time. The iPod plays music from the
memory cache rather than the hard drive.
Playing car tunes
We always wanted a car that we could fill up with music just as easily as filling it up with gasoline, without having to carry dozens of cassettes or CDs.
With an iPod, an auto-charger to save on battery power, and a way to connect
the iPod to your car’s stereo system, you’re ready to pump music.
Be careful to pick the right type of auto-charger — the auto-chargers for
older iPods provide a FireWire connector, while the auto-charger for the new
dockable iPods use a dock connector cable. You can find an auto-charger
from Belkin with the appropriate FireWire-to-dock connector cable, shown
Listening aboard Planes, Trains, and Automobiles
467
in Figure 2-6, in the Apple Store. It offers a convenient socket for a stereo
mini-plug cable that you can connect directly to a car stereo if you have a
mini-socket in the car for audio input.
Unfortunately, not many car stereos offer a mini-socket for audio input. And
as of this writing, there are accessories that require custom car installations
that let you connect your iPod to the car sound system using the FireWire
dock connector. But there are no standard dock connectors for car stereos
that don’t require installation. That would be totally cool because the iPod is
clearly designed for plugging into a “car dock” that offers both power and a
connection to the car’s stereo system.
Many car stereos have a cassette player, and you can buy a cassette player
adapter from most consumer electronics stores or from the Apple Store.
Adapters look like a tape cassette with a mini-plug cable (that sticks out
through the slot when you’re using the adapter), as shown in Figure 2-6.
Figure 2-6:
Car accessories —
cassette
player
adapter,
autocharger, and
iPod remote
switch.
Book VI
Chapter 2
Getting Wired
for Sound
Until you get a car with a stereo-in connection or a FireWire connection or
get one installed, you can use either a cassette player adapter to connect
with your car stereo or a wireless device that we describe in the next section, “Connecting by wireless radio.”
468
Listening aboard Planes, Trains, and Automobiles
You can connect the mini-plug cable directly to the iPod or to the autocharger if a mini-socket is offered, or to the iPod remote switch that in turn
is connected to the iPod. Then insert the adapter into the cassette player,
being careful not to get the cable tangled up inside the player.
One inherent problem with this approach is that the cable that dangles from
your cassette player looks unsightly. You also may have some trouble ejecting the adapter if the cable gets wedged in the door. But overall, this method
is the best for most cars because it provides the best sound quality.
Connecting by wireless radio
A wireless music adapter lets you play music from your iPod on an FM radio,
with no connection or cable, although the sound quality may suffer a bit due
to interference. You can use a wireless adapter in a car, on a boat, on the
beach with a portable radio, or even in your home with a stereo system and
tuner. We even use it in hotel rooms with a clock radio. We always take a
wireless adapter with us whenever we rent a car, because even if a rental car
has no cassette deck (ruling out the use of our cassette adapter), the car
probably has an FM radio.
To use a wireless adapter, follow these steps:
1. Set the wireless adapter to an FM radio frequency.
The adapter offers you a choice of several frequencies — typically 88.1,
88.3, 88.5, and 88.7 MHz. You choose the frequency and set the adapter
according to its instructions.
2. Connect the wireless adapter to the iPod headphone connector or the
line-out connector on the iPod dock.
The wireless adapter (see Figure 2-7), such as the iRock (available in the
Apple Store) or the popular Belkin Tunecast Mobile FM Transmitter, acts
like a miniature radio station, broadcasting to a nearby FM radio. (Sorry,
the FM signal can’t go much farther than a few feet, so no one else can
hear your Wolfman Jack impersonation.)
3. Tune to the appropriate frequency on the FM dial.
Tune any nearby radio to the same FM frequency you chose in Step 1.
Some wireless adapters require standard replaceable batteries; others draw
their power from the iPod itself. You need to set the adapter close enough to
the radio’s antenna to work, making it impractical for home stereos — you
can get better quality sound by connecting to a home stereo with a cable.
Don’t be surprised if the wireless adapter doesn’t work as well in cities —
there may be too much interference from other radio stations.
Listening aboard Planes, Trains, and Automobiles
469
Book VI
Chapter 2
Getting Wired
for Sound
Figure 2-7:
An example
of a wireless
adapter.
Taking music abroad
If you want to charge your iPod battery when you travel abroad, don’t count
on finding the same voltage as in the United States. But you need to plug your
Apple power adapter into something to recharge your iPod. Fortunately,
power adapters are available in most airports, but the worldly traveler may
want to consider saving time and money by getting a travel kit of power
accessories.
The Apple Store offers the World Travel Adapter Kit, which includes a set of
six AC plugs with prongs that fit different electrical outlets around the world.
The kit works with the white portable power adapter that is shipped with
the iPod. The AC plugs included in the kit directly support outlets in North
America, Japan, China, United Kingdom, Continental Europe, Korea, Australia,
and Hong Kong.
One way to solve the power problem is to use rechargeable batteries. (You can
find these in any convenience store.) The Belkin Battery Pack, available in the
Apple Store, enables you to power your iPod with replaceable batteries — even
when the iPod’s internal battery is drained. It uses four standard AA alkaline
batteries that you can replace when the charge is gone. Discreet suction cups
secure the unit to the back of your iPod without marring its finish, and a
charge-level indicator tells you when your batteries are running low.
470
The Sound of Music
Another way to supply power to your iPod is to use your iBook or PowerBook
laptop to supply the power, and then use a power adapter with your laptop.
You can use, for example, the Kensington Universal Car/Air Adapter from
Apple to plug your PowerBook or iBook into any car cigarette lighter or
Empower-equipped airline seat. Then use your FireWire-dock cable and dock
to power your iPod (or just FireWire cable with older iPods).
The Sound of Music
The Beach Boys were right when they sang “Good Vibrations” because that’s
what music is — the sensation of hearing audible vibrations conveyed to the
ear by a medium such as air. The frequency of vibrations per second is how
we measure sound.
When you turn up the bass or treble on a stereo system, you are actually
increasing the volume, or intensity, of certain frequencies while the music is
playing. You are not actually changing the sound itself, just the way it is being
amplified and produced through speakers.
The iTunes equalizer (EQ), described in Book I, Chapter 3, allows you to finetune the specific sound spectrum frequencies in a more precise way than
with bass and treble controls. You might pick, for example, entirely different
equalizer settings for car speakers, home speakers, and headphones, or for
different genres of music.
The iPod also has a built-in equalizer, but you can’t directly change the
frequencies — it offers presets for musical genres and listening environments.
You can use the iPod equalizer for on-the-fly adjustments of the sound by picking a preset on the iPod. You can also use the iTunes equalizer to improve or
enhance the sound, assigning built-in or your own custom equalizer settings
to each song, and then you can use these settings with the iPod.
Using the iPod equalizer
You leave the back-road bliss of the country to get on the freeway, and now
the music in your car doesn’t have enough bass to give you that thumping
rhythm you need to dodge other cars. What can you do? Without endangering anybody, you can pull over and select one of the iPod equalizer presets,
such as Bass Booster.
The iPod built-in equalizer modifies the volume of the frequencies of the
sound, and while you don’t have sliders for faders like the iTunes equalizer,
you get the same long list of presets to suit the type of music, or the type of
environment. The iPod equalizer uses a bit more battery power when it is
turned on, so you may have less playing time on your iPod battery.
The Sound of Music
471
To select an iPod equalizer preset, choose Settings➪EQ from the main menu,
and then select one of the presets, as shown in Figure 2-8.
Book VI
Chapter 2
Getting Wired
for Sound
Figure 2-8:
Choosing
an equalizer
preset for
the iPod
output.
Each EQ preset offers a different balance of frequencies designed to enhance
the sound in certain ways. For example, Bass Booster increases the volume
of the low (bass) frequencies, while Treble Booster does the same to the high
(treble) frequencies.
To see what a preset actually does to the frequencies, open the iTunes equalizer and select the same preset. The faders in the equalizer display show you
exactly what the preset does.
The Off setting turns off the iPod equalizer — no presets are used, not even
one you may have assigned in iTunes. You have to choose an EQ setting to
turn on the iPod equalizer.
Using the iTunes custom EQ presets
If you assign a preset to the song using iTunes, iPod uses the assigned EQ
preset from iTunes when you choose an EQ preset on the iPod. In other
words, the assigned EQ preset from iTunes takes precedence over the
preset in the iPod.
If you know in advance that you need to use specific presets for certain
songs, use iTunes to assign the preset to the song before copying the song
to the iPod. On the other hand, if you don’t want your song prefixed to use
472
The Sound of Music
a certain preset, and you want to experiment with the presets in the iPod to
get better playback in different listening environments, don’t assign a preset
in iTunes — wait until you have the song in your iPod, and then you can use
different EQ presets on the song.
To assign built-in or custom presets to songs using the iTunes equalizer, see
Book I, Chapter 3.
After assigning a preset to a song in iTunes, you turn on the iPod equalizer
by choosing any EQ setting (other than Off), and the iPod uses the song’s
preset for playback. To find out more about the iTunes equalizer, see Book I,
Chapter 3.
Using sound check
Because not all music CDs are mastered in the same way, songs on different
albums can have large volume discrepancies. By using the Sound Check feature in iTunes and your iPod, you can standardize the volume of all the songs
in your music library. The Sound Check feature in the iPod uses a bit more
battery power when it is turned on, so you may have less playing time on
your iPod battery.
First, in iTunes, select the Sound Check feature, as we describe in Book I,
Chapter 1. Doing this sets all the songs to the current volume controlled by
the iTunes volume slider.
Then, on the iPod, to have all the songs play at the same volume level all the
time, choose Settings➪Sound Check➪On from the main menu to turn on the
sound check feature. To turn it off, choose Settings➪Sound Check➪Off.
Chapter 3: Managing
Life on the Road
In This Chapter
Setting time, date, alarm, and sleep functions
Customizing and resetting the iPod
Synchronizing information
Adding calendars, to-do lists, and text notes
Using the iPod as an external hard drive and backup device
Installing a custom Mac system on the iPod
T
he iPod is more than just a device that you use to listen to music. You
can also use it as a data player to help you manage your daily activities.
We chose the iPod for music, but we also find it useful for viewing information we need when traveling.
For instance, you can use the iPod as an alarm clock and set it to awaken you
with your favorite music (or just a beep so that you don’t need headphones
or speakers). But you can use its capabilities for far more. This chapter shows
you how to use the iPod’s contacts and calendar functions. You also find out
how to keep information on your iPod synchronized with your laptop or desktop computer — like you do with a PDA. You can get the most from your iPod
by using bookmarks with audio books and customizing the iPod menu. You
can also play games included on your iPod (yet another way the iPod helps
to pass time while traveling). In this chapter, you also discover how the iPod
can function as an external, portable hard drive. Last but not least, this chapter describes how to solve common problems you might have and how to
reset the iPod.
Getting the Most from Your iPod
You may have purchased an iPod simply to listen to music, but those thoughtful engineers at Apple who get to travel a lot with their iPods put a lot more
into this device. In particular, you can alleviate the boredom of airplane travel
with games, bookmark your reading material, and check the time, date, and
month (in case you’re stranded for a really long time).
474
Getting the Most from Your iPod
Setting date, time, and sleep functions
All iPods running iPod software version 2.0 or newer have a digital clock that
doubles as an alarm clock and a sleep timer. To access the clock, choose
Extras➪Clock from the main menu.
To set the date and time, follow these steps:
1. Press the Menu button.
2. Choose Extras➪Clock.
The clock appears with menu selections underneath, shown in Figure 3-1.
You can also set the date and time by choosing Settings➪Date & Time
from the main menu.
3. Select the Date & Time option.
The Date & Time menu appears.
4. Select the Set Time Zone option.
A list of time zones appears in alphabetical order.
5. Scroll the Time Zone list and select a time zone.
The Date & Time menu appears again.
Figure 3-1:
View the
clock.
Getting the Most from Your iPod
475
6. Select Set Date & Time.
The Date & Time display appears with up and down arrow indicators
over the hour field, which is now highlighted.
7. Change the hour using the scroll pad.
Scroll clockwise to go forward and counterclockwise to go backward.
8. Press the Select button after scrolling to the appropriate hour.
The up and down arrow indicators move over to the minutes field,
which is now highlighted.
9. Repeat Steps 7 and 8 for each field of the date and time: minutes,
AM/PM, the calendar date, calendar month, and year.
Just like a clock radio, you can set the iPod to play music for a while before
going to sleep. To set the sleep timer, select the Sleep Timer option from
the Clock menu. A list of time amounts appears in 15-minute intervals, from
15 minutes to 120 minutes. You can select a time amount or the Off setting
(at the top of the list) to turn off the sleep timer. When the iPod shuts itself
off (after you hold down the Pause button, or it remains idle for a few minutes
and shuts itself off), the preference for the Sleep Timer is reset to the default
status, Off.
Setting the alarm clock
Time is on your side with the iPod Alarm Clock function, which is available
in the iPod Clock menu, as shown in Figure 3-2. To set the Alarm Clock function, follow these steps:
1. Choose Extras➪Clock➪Alarm Clock from the main menu.
The Alarm Clock menu appears.
2. Highlight the Alarm option and press the Select button (Off changes
to On).
3. Select the Time option.
The Alarm Time menu appears with up and down arrow indicators.
4. Change the time using the scroll pad.
Scroll clockwise to go forward and counterclockwise to go backward.
Managing Life
on the Road
When you finish setting the year by pressing the Select button, the Date &
Time menu appears again. You can select the Time option and press the Select
button to show hours as 24-hour increments (military style). You can also
select the Time option, and press the Select button to show the time in the
menu title of your iPod menus.
Book VI
Chapter 3
476
Getting the Most from Your iPod
Figure 3-2:
Set the time
for the alarm
in the Alarm
Clock menu.
5. Press the Select button after scrolling to the appropriate alarm time.
The Alarm Clock menu appears again.
6. Select the Sound option in the Alarm Clock menu.
A list appears, with the Beep option at the top of the list, followed by
playlists on your iPod in alphabetical order.
7. Choose an option as the alarm sound, and then press the Select
button.
If you choose Beep, the alarm beeps without the need for any headphones
or speakers. If you choose a playlist, when the alarm goes off, the playlist
plays until you stop it by pressing the Play/Pause button. Of course, you
need speakers or headphones to hear the music.
8. You can return to the main menu by pressing the Menu button.
Putting a bookmark in an Audible title
When you use books, magazines, and other titles from the company Audible
in your iPod (obtained from www.audible.com), you can automatically bookmark your place in the text with the iPod. Note that bookmarks only work
with certain formats of Audible files. If you have an audio book or spoken
word file in any other format, such as MP3, bookmarks are not available.
Getting the Most from Your iPod
477
To find out how to download Audible audio files into iTunes, see Book I,
Chapter 1.
When you use the Pause/Play button to pause an Audible file, the iPod
automatically bookmarks that spot. When you hit the Play button again,
the Audible file starts playing from that spot.
Bookmarks synchronize when you copy an Audible title to your iPod —
whichever bookmark is farther along in iPod or iTunes becomes the effective
bookmark.
Customizing the menus and display
✦ About: Displays information about the iPod, including number of songs,
how much space is used, how much space is available, the version of
the software in use, and the serial number.
✦ Main Menu: Allows you to customize the main menu on iPods that use
iPod software 2.0 or newer. For example, you can add items from other
menus, such as Artists or Songs from the Browse menu, to the main menu.
You can turn each menu item on (to appear in the main menu) or off.
✦ Backlight Timer: You can set the backlight to remain on for a certain
amount of time by pressing a button or using the scroll pad. Specify two
seconds, five seconds, and so on. You can also set it to always be on.
Remember: Using the backlight drains the iPod’s battery faster.
✦ Contrast: You can set the contrast of the iPod display by using the scroll
pad to increase or decrease the slider in the Contrast screen. If you accidentally set the contrast too dark, you can reset it by holding down the
Menu button for at least four seconds.
✦ Clicker: When this setting is on, you hear a click when you press a
button; when it’s off, you don’t hear a click.
✦ Language: Set the language used in all the menus. See Chapter 1 in this
minibook for how to set the language.
✦ Legal: Display the legal message that accompanies Apple products.
✦ Reset All Settings: Reset all the Settings menu settings in your iPod,
returning them to the state they were in originally. However, your music
and data files on the iPod are not disturbed. This is not the same as resetting (and restarting) the iPod software itself; Reset All Settings simply
returns all settings to their defaults. See the “Resetting Your iPod” section, later in this chapter, for how to reset your iPod software.
Managing Life
on the Road
The Settings menu in the iPod main menu offers ways to customize the iPod
experience. You can change the main menu to have more choices, set the
timer for the backlight, and so on. Choose the Settings menu from the main
menu. Some of these options include:
Book VI
Chapter 3
478
Adding Personal Information
Playing games with your iPod
The games that come with the iPod — Music Quiz, Brick, Parachute, and
Solitaire — are a bit dorky for the information age, but hey, they’re extras
provided with iPod software 2.0 and newer, added just because it was possible to add them (older iPods have only Brick). To find the games, choose
Extras➪Games.
Brick reminds us of the original version of Pong, a kind of solitary ping-pong.
Parachute is a crude shoot-’em-up with cute helicopters that explode and
paratroopers that drop like ants to engulf you. We can’t get the hang of
either of them, but we return to the Solitaire card game often enough. The
Music Quiz tests your knowledge of your iTunes library and is probably the
greatest time-waster of them all. And, of course, you can listen to music
while you play these games.
Adding Personal Information
You can manage your address book, calendar, and to-do list for the road all
on your Mac, and synchronize your iPod to have all the information you
need for viewing and playback. As a result, you may not ever need a PDA.
Using iCal for custom calendars
Your iPod has a standard calendar you can view by choosing Extras➪
Calendars➪All. This function is far more useful after you update your iPod
with your calendars and to-do lists using iCal.
Imagine a musician going backstage after a performance and meeting his
booking agent who says he can get him ten more gigs if he can confirm the
dates right now. This musician happens to carry around an iPod, and amid
the backstage craziness, he scrolls through his calendar for the entire year,
finding all the details he needs about gigs and recording sessions, right down
to the minute, including travel directions to each gig. “No problem,” the
musician says.
iCal, the free desktop calendar application from Apple (which requires Mac
OS X 10.2.3 or newer), creates calendars that you can copy to your iPod. You
can create calendars for different activities, such as home, office, road tours,
exercise/diet schedules, mileage logs, and so on, and you can view them separately or all together. After editing your calendars on the Mac, you can synchronize your iPod to have the same calendars.
To add events to your calendar before copying it to your iPod, follow these
steps:
Adding Personal Information
479
1. Open iCal on the Mac.
Double-click the iCal application or click the iCal icon in the Mac OS X
dock to open iCal. iCal displays a calendar, as shown in Figure 3-3.
Book VI
Chapter 3
Managing Life
on the Road
Figure 3-3:
Use iCal to
manage
separate
custom
calendars.
2. Choose File➪New Event to add an event to a particular day.
iCal opens the Inspector window for you to add the event information.
You can specify the date and time for the event and add a description
and location. If you have already created custom calendars within iCal
(as described later in this section), choose the calendar you want to add
the event to from the Calendar pop-up menu. You can set other options,
including an alarm, whether the event repeats, or even invite guests via
e-mail.
3. Repeat Step 2 for any more events you want to add, and then quit iCal
by choosing iCal➪Quit iCal.
You can create custom calendars in iCal that show only the events assigned
to the custom calendar. For example, you might create one custom calendar
for work events, another for family events, another for an exercise plan, and
so on. All of your custom calendars are maintained by iCal so that you can
see all of them at once in the calendar view, or just the ones you want to see.
The list of custom calendars appears in the top-left corner of the iCal window,
with a check box next to each custom calendar. When you select the check
box, the custom calendar’s events show up in the calendar view; if you select
more than one custom calendar, the events from all selected custom calendars are merged in the calendar view.
480
Adding Personal Information
We don’t need no PDAs
We could never get used to tiny portable computers and PDAs. We use computers for all our
information needs, but have never really gone
smaller than a laptop because the keyboards on
smaller devices are too small for touch-typists.
People who use the “one-finger-plunk” or “huntand-peck” method of typing can quickly adapt
to using forefingers and thumbs or a stylus to
type reasonably well on a cell phone or PDA.
But PDAs can be hard to use for people who
are trained to hold their hands a certain way
and touch-type with all fingers.
There’s true irony in this. The original reason for
the QWERTY arrangement of keys on the keyboard, standard to this day, was to slow down
the human typist and place commonly used
letter combinations on opposite sides of the keyboard, so that the mechanical arms of the typewriter wouldn’t jam. Efforts to change this during
the computer age were ignored, even if they did
allow for increased typing speed and higher
productivity. People assimilated the original
arrangement and learned to type fast with it
and simply wouldn’t change.
Small keyboards and clumsy human interfaces
hamper the use of PDAs for input, raising the
question for the laptop users, why bother?
Laptops (and possibly the new tablet computers)
are excellent for this purpose, and all your information is centralized on that machine. If you add
new information using two different devices, you
run the risk of being out-of-sync (most often you
end up accidentally overwriting the new stuff put
into the PDA with the stuff from your laptop).
The Apple PowerBook and iPod combo is one
reasonable answer to this dilemma. You input
and edit all your information using the PowerBook and update the iPod as necessary. Then
take the iPod into situations when you need to
view the information but don’t need to change
it. As a portable external hard drive, the iPod
is ideal for temporary secure data storage,
because you can’t change it.
To create a custom calendar, follow these steps:
1. Choose File➪New Calendar, or click the plus (+) button in the bottomleft corner of the iCal window.
“Untitled” appears in the list of calendars at the top left.
2. Type a new, descriptive name for the new “Untitled” calendar.
Click inside the name field and type a new name.
3. Select or deselect the custom calendar.
Deselect the custom calendar’s check box if you don’t want the custom
calendar events to be displayed. Select the check box to display the
custom calendar along with other selected custom calendars (merged
with the other custom calendar events).
To view the information for any event, select the event and choose Window➪
Inspector to see the Inspector window. iCal also keeps track of your to-do
Adding Personal Information
481
list: Choose File➪New to Do to add an item to the list. You can import calendars from other applications that support the iCal or vCal format.
With your calendar information in iCal, transfer your calendars automatically to the iPod and keep them always up-to-date with iSync, which is available for downloading free from www.apple.com. You can read more about
iSync in the “Not N’Sync? Try iSync” section, later in this chapter.
You can set an alarm for an event in iCal by choosing an option from the
Alarm pop-up menu in the Inspector window. If you choose Message with
Sound as your alarm choice, the alarm will work with your iPod when you
synchronize your calendar with your iPod with iSync.
Using Address Book
The most likely bit of information you may need on the road is someone’s
phone number or address (or both). The iPod stores up to a thousand contacts right alongside your music.
You already have an address book, managed by the Address Book application that comes with every Mac. If you use the supplied Mail application or
some other e-mail program, chances are your e-mail addresses are stored in
the appropriate vCard format or your e-mail program allows you to export
them as vCards, as we describe in the “Adding addresses from other sources”
section, later in this chapter.
If you use Address Book on your Mac, keeping your iPod synchronized with
your newest addresses and phone numbers is simple and automatic; just
follow these steps:
1. Launch Address Book by double-clicking the Address Book application or clicking its icon in the Mac OS X dock.
Address Book displays a people card, and you can add address cards for
people as shown in Figure 3-4.
2. Choose File➪New Card to add a new card or click the plus (+) button
at the bottom of the Name column.
3. To edit a card, select the person in the Name column and click the
Edit button.
You can add multiple addresses, phone numbers, e-mail addresses, and
so on, as shown in Figure 3-4 — just click the tiny plus (+) icon next to
each type of information to add more.
Managing Life
on the Road
To find out more about iCal, pick up a copy of Mac OS X All-in-One Desk
Reference For Dummies, by Mark Chambers (published by Wiley
Publishing, Inc.).
Book VI
Chapter 3
482
Adding Personal Information
Figure 3-4:
Adding a
new contact
with Address Book.
4. To save your changes, click the Edit button again, and Address Book
saves the edits.
If you receive a vCard from someone as an e-mail attachment (with the .vcf
extension), you can simply drag the attachment to your Address Book window
to add the vCard to your address book — if that person filled out the vCard
with phone numbers and address information, you don’t have to type anything. Wouldn’t it be nice if all your friends sent you vCards to keep you up
to date, and you never had to retype the information?
To put your addresses on the iPod, you can either export a vCard file to the
iPod Contacts folder (as we describe in the “Adding addresses from other
sources” section, later in this chapter) or use the iSync application, which is
automatic and keeps your iPod synchronized with changes you make on
your Mac.
Not N’Sync? Try iSync
Chances are that you make a lot of changes to addresses, phone numbers,
calendar events, and to-do lists on your Mac. Information changes often and
new information accumulates quickly. Even though you can update your
iPod with this information manually, remembering to copy each file you need
is hard. iSync performs this function automatically and keeps all your information updated.
iSync is available as a free download from Apple at www.apple.com. After
installing iSync, connect your iPod to the Mac using your FireWire connection, open iSync, and choose Devices➪Add Device. iSync searches for all
your devices. Select the iPod from the list of devices, and the iPod icon
appears in the iSync bar. Click the iPod icon, and the iPod synchronization
settings window appears, as shown in Figure 3-5.
Adding Personal Information
483
Book VI
Chapter 3
Managing Life
on the Road
Figure 3-5:
The iPod
synchronization window.
You can synchronize all contacts and calendars or just the ones you select.
Select the Automatically Synchronize When iPod Is Connected option, and
every time you connect your iPod to your Mac by FireWire, iSync goes to
work. If you don’t want that level of automation, you can launch iSync anytime and click the Sync Now button. iSync performs its magic, pausing twice
to inform you that you are changing your iPod contacts and calendars, as
shown in Figure 3-6.
After you finish synchronizing, be sure to eject the iPod (drag the iPod icon to
the Trash, or in Mac OS X 10.3 or newer, click the eject icon next to the iPod
icon in the Finder Sidebar) before disconnecting the iPod. If you forget to do
this, your iPod’s hard drive may freeze up, and you may need to reset your
iPod as described in the “Resetting Your iPod” section, later in this chapter.
After updating and ejecting the iPod, you can view your addresses and phone
numbers by choosing Extras➪Contacts, and then choosing a name.
You can look at your calendars by choosing Extras➪Calendars➪All. Select a
calendar and then use the scroll wheel to scroll through the days of the calendar. Select an event to see the event’s details. Press the Next and Previous
buttons to skip to the next or previous month. To see your to-do list, choose
Extras➪Calendars➪To Do.
If your calendar events use alarms, you can turn on the iPod’s calendar
alarms. Choose Extras➪Calendars➪Alarms. Select Alarms once to set the
alarm to Beep, or once again to set it to Silent (so that only the message for
the alarm appears), or one more time to set if to Off (the Alarms choices
cycle through Beep to Silent to Off and then back to Beep).
484
Using the iPod as a Hard Drive
Figure 3-6:
Use iSync
to keep the
iPod calendar and
contacts
updated.
Sorting your contacts
The iPod contact list, updated by iSync from your Address Book, is sorted
automatically, and the iPod displays contact names in alphabetical order when
you choose Extras➪Contacts. You can choose whether to display them by
last or first name. Choose Settings➪Contacts➪Display. Then press the Select
button in the scrolling pad for each option:
✦ First Last: Displays the contact list by first name and then last name, as
in “Ringo Starr.”
✦ Last, First: Displays the contact list by last name followed by a comma
and first name, as in “McCartney, Paul.”
You can also change the way the contacts sort, so that you don’t have to look
up people by their first names (which can be time-consuming with so many
people named Elvis). The sort operation uses the entire name, but you decide
whether to use the first or the last name first. Choose Settings➪Contacts➪
Sort. Press the Select button in the scrolling pad for each option:
✦ First Last: Sorts the contact list by first name, followed by the last name,
so that “Mick Jagger” sorts under “Mick” (after Mick Abrahams but before
Mick Taylor).
✦ Last, First: Sorts the contacts by last name, followed by the first name,
so that “Brian Jones” sorts under “Jones” (“Jones, Brian” appears after
“Jones, Alice” but before “Jones, Norah”).
Using the iPod as a Hard Drive
You have a device in your pocket that can play weeks of music, sort your
contacts, remind you of events, wake you up in the morning, and tuck you in
at night. Did you also know that you can use your iPod to keep a safe backup
of your most important files and even help restore your computer to life if
the system won’t work?
Using the iPod as a Hard Drive
485
You read that right. You can keep a safe backup of files, and you can put a
version of the Mac system on the iPod to use in case of emergencies. Apple
doesn’t support the last item, but you can do it. You can also copy applications and utility programs you may need on the road, or even copy your
entire User folder to the iPod if you have room after putting music on it.
But that’s not all. With full-size iPods that can connect using the dock-type
connector (not older iPods, and not the iPod mini), you can use accessories
to extend your iPod’s capabilities. For example, you can use the Belkin Media
Reader for iPod to store photos from digital camera memory cards, and with
another accessory, the Belkin iPod Voice Recorder, you can record voice
memos, meetings, interviews, and other sounds. There’s even software such
as Pod2Go that offers synchronized feeds that supply your iPod with news,
weather forecasts, and even sections of Web pages that you can read on the
iPod screen.
We don’t recommend using the iPod regularly as a hard drive to launch applications. Because the iPod is designed more for sustained playback of music,
you could eventually burn out the device by frequently using it to launch
applications. Instead, use it as an external drive for backing up and copying
files and, in emergency situations, for starting up the system (as described
in the section, “Taking your system on the road,” later in this chapter).
Mounting the iPod as a hard drive
The iPod can double as an external hard drive for your Mac. And like any
hard drive, you can transfer files and applications from your computer to the
iPod and take them with you wherever you go. The iPod is smart enough to
keep your files separate from your music collection so that they are not accidentally erased when you update your music. And because the iPod is with
you, it’s as safe as you are. Many of the capabilities of third-party software
and accessories — such as storing photos, news feeds, and Web pages as
notes — depend on using the iPod mounted as a hard drive.
To use the iPod as an external drive, follow these steps:
1. Connect the iPod to your Mac.
2. Hold down Ô+Option as iTunes opens (or as you open iTunes, if it
doesn’t launch automatically).
By holding down Ô+Option, you prevent the iPod from automatically
updating itself.
3. Select the iPod name in the iTunes Source pane.
Managing Life
on the Road
The key to these capabilities is the fact that the iPod serves as an external
hard drive. After you mount the iPod on your Mac desktop, you can use it as
a hard drive.
Book VI
Chapter 3
486
Using the iPod as a Hard Drive
4. Click the iPod Options button.
The iPod Preferences window opens.
5. Select the Enable FireWire Disk Use option and click OK.
6. Open the iPod icon in the Finder to see its contents.
The iPod hard drive opens up to show three folders — Calendars,
Contacts, and Notes, as shown in Figure 3-7. You can add new folders,
rename your custom folders, and generally use the iPod as a hard drive,
but don’t rename these three folders, because they link directly to the
Calendar, Contacts, and Notes functions on the iPod.
7. Drag files or folders to the iPod window.
To keep data organized, create new folders on the iPod, and then drag
files and folders you want to back up to the newly created folders.
8. When the system has finished copying the data to the iPod, eject the
iPod.
After ejecting the iPod, its display shows the message OK to disconnect.
You can then disconnect the iPod from its dock, or disconnect the dock from
the computer. Don’t ever disconnect an iPod before ejecting it. You may have
to reset your iPod if you do, as described in the section, “Resetting Your iPod,”
later in this chapter.
To delete files and folders from the iPod, drag them to the Trash just as you
would with an external hard drive.
Don’t use a disk utility program, such as Disk Utility or Drive Setup, to erase
or format the iPod’s hard drive. If you erase the hard drive in your iPod in
this way, it may be unable to play music.
Figure 3-7:
The iPod
hard drive
mounted
on the Mac.
Using the iPod as a Hard Drive
487
To see how much free space is left on the iPod, you can use the Finder. Select
the iPod icon on the Finder desktop, and choose File➪Show Info. You can also
use the About command in the iPod Settings menu: Choose Settings➪About
from the main menu.
Adding addresses from other sources
A vCard, or virtual card, is a standard method of exchanging personal information. The iPod sorts and displays up to a thousand contacts in the vCard
format. The iPod is compatible with popular applications such as Microsoft
Entourage, Microsoft Outlook, and Palm Desktop.
You can export one card, a group of cards, or even the entire list as a vCard file
(with a .vcf extension) by dragging the vCard file into the Contacts folder, as
shown in Figure 3-8. Contacts must be in the vCard format to use with the iPod.
As of this writing, the iPod supports only a portion of what you can put into
a vCard. For example, you can include photos and sounds in vCards used by
other applications, but you can’t open up those portions of the vCard using
the iPod.
After updating and ejecting the iPod, you can view your addresses and phone
numbers by choosing Extras➪Contacts, and then choosing a name.
Figure 3-8:
Add a vCard
file to
the iPod.
Book VI
Chapter 3
Managing Life
on the Road
After mounting the iPod as a hard drive, simply export your contacts as
vCards directly into the Contacts folder of your iPod. In most cases, you can
simply drag vCard-formatted contacts from the application’s address book
to the iPod Contacts folder.
488
Using the iPod as a Hard Drive
Adding calendars from other sources
iPod supports industry-standard iCalendar and vCalendar files, which can be
exported by many applications, including Microsoft Entourage, Microsoft
Outlook, and Palm Desktop.
In most cases, you can drag an iCalendar file (with the filename extension
.ics) or a vCalendar file (with the filename extension .vcs) to your iPod
Calendar folder, as shown in Figure 3-9.
If you deleted the Calendars folder on the iPod, you can create a Calendars
folder and then drag the calendar event files into the folder.
You can look at your calendars by choosing Extras➪Calendar➪All. Select a
calendar and then use the scroll wheel to scroll through the days of the calendar. Select an event to see the event’s details. Press the Next and Previous
buttons to skip to the next or previous month. To see your to-do list, choose
Extras➪Calendar➪To Do.
Figure 3-9:
Add exported calendars in the
iCalendar
format to the
Calendars
folder on
the iPod.
Adding notes and text documents
You can add text notes to your iPod so that you can view them on the iPod
display — all sorts of notes, such as driving directions, weather information,
or even news items. If you just use your iPod for music, you might want notes
about the music. This feature works with iPods that run iPod software 2.0 or
newer (including iPods that use the dock connector and the iPod mini).
In a perfect world, you could rip audio CDs and also capture all the information in the liner notes — the descriptions of who played which instruments,
where the CD was produced, and other details. Then, while sharing your
iPod music with others, you could view the liner notes on the iPod screen
whenever a question arises about the music.
Using the iPod as a Hard Drive
489
You can almost achieve the same result by typing some of the liner notes, or
any text you want, into a word processing program (such as TextEdit, provided free with the Mac), save the document as an ordinary text file (with the
filename extension .txt), and drag it to the Notes folder of the iPod, as shown
in Figure 3-10. You can copy song information from your iTunes music library,
which we cover in Book I, Chapter 2.
Text files in the Notes folder are organized by filename. You can view these
notes files by choosing Extras➪Notes. Make sure that you name your notes
with descriptive filenames (such as the album name) so that you can easily
scroll the list of notes files to find the liner notes for the album you are listening to.
Figure 3-10:
Drag a text
file with liner
notes for an
album to the
Notes folder
on the iPod.
Your notes can use basic HTML tags (used in Web pages) such as paragraph
markers (<P> and </P>) and line break (<BR>). Third-party software accessories use these features to provide extra functions — for example, Pod2Go
(available from www.kainjow.com/pod2go/website) offers synchronized
feeds that supply the Notes folder with news, weather forecasts, movie listings, stock quotes, horoscopes, sections of Web pages, and even driving
directions. You can also take advantage of the Notes folder and other iPod
Managing Life
on the Road
Your iPod can also display a folder hierarchy in the Notes folder, allowing
you to organize your notes by creating folders (using the Finder with your
iPod mounted as a hard drive) and putting notes files within the folders in
the Notes folder. The size of any single note is limited to 4K; any text beyond
4K is truncated. You can transfer up to 1,000 notes.
Book VI
Chapter 3
490
Using the iPod as a Hard Drive
features by using some of the handy AppleScripts provided for iTunes and
the iPod, which you can download from the Apple site (www.apple.com/
applescript/ipod). For more information about AppleScript, see Book VII,
Chapter 2.
Saving photos and voice recordings
If you’re traveling with your digital camera, as long as you brought your iPod,
you can shoot all the pictures you want without worrying about filling up your
camera’s memory card. Your full-size iPod can serve as the repository of all
photos. Shoot all the pictures you want, and then connect the camera to your
iPod with the Belkin Media Reader for iPod, and transfer the photos to your
iPod, deleting them from your camera’s memory card. You could travel for
weeks on end, shooting thousands of photos in locations around the world,
without running out of space in your iPod.
Using the Belkin Media Reader for iPod, you can transfer photos from memory
card directly into your iPod, where you can store them temporarily until you
can connect the iPod to your computer and transfer them to iPhoto. The
Belkin Media Reader for iPod connects to the iPod’s FireWire dock connector
and transfers photos quickly to the iPod hard drive, which can hold hundreds
or even thousands of photos (depending on how much music is already stored
on the iPod). Available from the Apple Store, this accessory works only with
full-size iPod models with dock connectors.
To transfer the photos to the iPhoto library on your computer, you mount
the iPod as a hard drive as described earlier in this chapter. Then import the
photos by dragging the files directly from the iPod hard drive and dropping
them over the iPhoto window.
Another cool accessory is the Belkin iPod Voice Recorder that lets you record
memos, meetings, interviews, and any other kind of voice recording (though
not CD quality) using your iPod. The audio files are stored on your iPod, which
stamps them with the date and time. You can record hundreds of hours of
voice recordings and review them by using the built-in speaker, your headphones, or your computer. Just like your music, your voice memos synchronize automatically with your iTunes library. Available from the Apple Store,
this accessory works only with full-size iPod models with dock connectors.
Taking your system on the road
Although not officially supported by Apple, you can use your iPod to save
your Mac in a system crisis. You can load the iPod with a minimally-configured
Mac OS and then use the iPod to start up your Mac.
Life on the road can be hazardous to your computer’s hard drive, and if any
portion of the hard drive containing system files is damaged, your system
may not start up. When this happens, you ordinarily use the installation CDs
Using the iPod as a Hard Drive
491
to start the computer, scan and fix the hard drive trouble spots, and reinstall
the operating system. With an iPod, you can at least start the computer and
scan and fix the hard drive trouble spots, and also use any other files or
applications you previously put on the iPod hard drive.
For example, you may want to take an important presentation in the form of
a QuickTime movie on the road, to use with the QuickTime Player. You can
copy the movie file, the QuickTime Player, and a custom version of Mac OS X
to the iPod for emergency use. If your laptop fails, you can start the laptop
from the iPod and run the QuickTime Player and its movie from the iPod by
using the iPod as a hard drive.
1. Insert your Mac OS X installation CD into your Mac, and follow the
directions to start up the installation process.
You have to restart the Mac with the installation CD while holding down
the C key to start the computer from the CD.
2. When you are asked to select a destination, choose the iPod hard drive.
Do not use the option to erase and format the hard drive, because the
hard drive is your iPod. If you format or erase the iPod’s hard drive, you
render it useless as a music device, and it must be restored to its factory
condition, as described in the next section, “Resetting Your iPod.”
3. Specify a custom installation rather than a standard installation.
To make sure that you don’t use up too much drive space on your iPod,
choose a custom installation of OS X. In the custom installation section,
choose only the languages you need. These language options take up a
lot of space, and you probably don’t need them in emergencies.
4. After installation finishes and the computer restarts from the iPod,
continue through the setup procedure and then use Software Update in
System Preferences to update the system on your iPod.
Most likely, a lot of system updates are waiting for you — updates released
after the date of your installation CDs. Spend the time to update your
system because these updates may make a difference in how your computer performs with certain applications.
To get the most functionality from your iPod, make sure you have the latest
version of iPod software. To find out which version of software your iPod uses,
select the About command from the iPod Settings menu. To update your iPod
software to the latest version for the model you have, go to www.apple.com/
ipod/download, and follow the instructions to download the appropriate
version of the iPod software.
Book VI
Chapter 3
Managing Life
on the Road
To copy files and applications to the iPod, first mount the iPod as a hard
drive, as we describe in the section, “Mounting the iPod as a hard drive,”
earlier in this chapter. To install a custom version of OS X on your iPod,
follow these steps:
492
Resetting Your iPod
Although iPod is the road warrior’s dream weapon for combating road fatigue
and boredom, if you update and maintain its hard drive contents wisely, you
will find that it is also invaluable as a tool for providing quick information and
for saving your computer from disaster. Don’t let hard drive space go to waste:
Fill up your iPod and let the iPod be your road manager.
Resetting Your iPod
If your iPod doesn’t turn on, don’t panic — at least not yet. First check the
Hold switch’s position on top of the iPod. The Hold switch locks the iPod
buttons so that you don’t accidentally activate them. Slide the Hold switch
away from the headphone connection, hiding the orange layer, to unlock the
buttons. (If you see the orange layer underneath one end of the Hold switch,
the switch is still in the locked position.)
If it still doesn’t work, check to see if the iPod has enough juice. Is the battery
charged up? Connect the iPod to a power source and see if it works.
There are times when your iPod seems confused, or freezes up — it just
won’t start up. This problem may have been caused by pressing more than
one button at the same time, or perhaps you disconnected the iPod from
your Mac before it had a chance to display the OK to disconnect message.
In situations like this, you can reset the iPod.
This is not the same as resetting the settings of your iPod. If all you need to
do is reset the settings in the Settings menu of your iPod (such as your language, the duration of the backlight timer, the contrast of the iPod display,
and so on — see the earlier section, “Customizing the menus and display”),
you can choose Settings➪Reset All Settings➪Reset from the main menu. All
your menu and display settings are returned to their original values.
This section is about a more drastic kind of reset — using the ultimate reset
button on your iPod, which is similar to pressing a reset button on your computer: It resets the operating system and restarts the system. Sometimes when
your iPod gets confused or refuses to turn on, you can fix it by resetting it.
Follow these steps to reset your iPod:
1. Toggle the Hold switch.
Set the Hold switch to hold (lock) and then set it back to unlock. This step
is like the beginning of a secret handshake.
2. Press the Menu and Play/Pause buttons simultaneously and hold for
at least five seconds until the Apple logo appears; release the buttons
when you see the Apple logo.
The appearance of the Apple logo signals that your iPod has been reset.
Resetting Your iPod
493
Releasing the Menu and Play/Pause buttons after the Apple logo appears
is important. If you continue to hold down the buttons after the logo
appears, the iPod displays the low battery icon and you must connect
it to a power source before using your iPod again.
After resetting, everything is back to normal, including your music, data files,
and some of your customized settings. However, the On-The-Go Playlists and
any customizations to the Main menu are purged, and the alarm clock setting
it reset to On.
If your iPod still won’t work, or doesn’t display the Apple logo after a reset,
you may have to restore your iPod.
Managing Life
on the Road
Restoring the iPod erases your iPod’s hard drive and returns the device to its
original factory condition. Restore erases all of the data on the hard drive, so
make sure that you back up any important data you may have put on your
iPod. You can use the appropriate iPod Software Updater application for
your iPod model to restore your iPod. You can download the appropriate
version from Apple (www.apple.com/ipod/download). When finished, you
can update your iPod from your iTunes music library and resynchronize
with iCal and Address Book using iSync.
Book VI
Chapter 3
494
Book VI: iPod
Book VII
iLife Extras
Contents at a Glance
Chapter 1: Understanding Your iEnvironment ................................................................497
Chapter 2: Enhancing Your iLife Environment with Other Tools ..................................509
Chapter 3: Taking a Cue from the Media Pros ................................................................535
Chapter 1: Understanding
Your iEnvironment
In This Chapter
Knowing what you need
Backing up iMovies and iDVDs
Cruising and using the Apple Web site
Summoning help when needed
Troubleshooting your configuration
J
ohn Donne wrote, “No man is an island, entire of itself . . .” and what he
observed as true of man (or woman) is also true of software. All your
applications depend to some extent on their environment: the operating
system and other services available to them (fonts, graphics routines, and
hardware, to name just a few). These environmental dependencies are even
more obvious and pronounced when separate applications (like your iLife
applications) communicate and interconnect.
Science fiction author Robert Heinlein (or economist Milton Friedman) popularized the expression, “There ain’t no such thing as a free lunch.” The
acronym, TANSTAAFL, arises from this quote and is one of the great truisms
of modern times. Everything has its price. And although the iLife application
integration isn’t free, you get it at a significantly reduced price when compared to working with all the pieces separately. For example, accessing your
iPhoto Library through the Photos pane in iMovie increases the iMovie
requirements for RAM, but that increase is not as great as the RAM requirement for running copies of iPhoto and iMovie simultaneously. Besides,
selecting from the Photos pane is easier than dragging an image from an
iPhoto window into iMovie.
This chapter shows you how to take maximum advantage of the integration
and what it costs you to do so. I discuss the costs in terms of effort, memory,
and hard drive space; the dollar costs fluctuate with component pricing.
Knowing What You Need
When Apple or any other software developer lists system requirements
for software, you should take those requirements as being the minimum
498
Knowing What You Need
environment in which the developer affirms the software can function.
That’s not necessarily the same thing as saying that it is an environment
where you’ll be happy with the software’s performance. In fact, even the
“recommended” environment might be insufficient to please you.
These caveats are particularly relevant for graphics- or processor-intensive
applications like GarageBand, iPhoto, iMovie, and iDVD. iTunes generally
functions well at or near the minimum recommended configuration, but
(trust us on this one) you’ll want more memory even for iTunes if you run it
in the background while doing real work in more demanding applications.
Helping iPhoto run smoothly
The first way to smooth iPhoto’s path is to upgrade to the most recent versions of iPhoto and Mac OS X, which (at the time of this writing) are iPhoto 4.2
and Mac OS X 10.3.3, respectively. iPhoto’s performance is better in Panther
(OS X 10.3.2 or newer) than in Jaguar (OS X 10.2.x) and is better in Jaguar
than in Cheetah (OS X 10.1.x) because Apple is continually optimizing for
performance, within both iPhoto and the system routines that applications
(like iPhoto) use.
Though it isn’t immediately obvious, iPhoto gobbles memory. The larger
your Photo Library or the more photos you have in an album, the more
memory iPhoto requires to image the photos in the Viewer pane.
You can do two things to deal with the iPhoto appetite — make more
memory available or reduce the number of photos that need imaging.
Making more memory available is, generally, a hardware solution — simply
add more (or larger capacity) RAM modules to your Mac.
Reducing the number of photos that require imaging is a solution that you
can manage in the following ways:
✦ By archiving older or less important photos to CD or DVD and then
removing them from your Library. If you need to retrieve photos stored
this way, just insert the archive disc. iPhoto makes the disc’s contents
available as a subordinate library in the source list, as described in
Book II, Chapter 3, and as shown in Figure 1-1.
✦ By emptying the iPhoto Trash when you are sure you want to throw
out the photos you deleted. You should also delete images that are
flawed or unusable that you really don’t want.
✦ By choosing View➪Arrange Photos➪by Film Roll and collapsing the
disclosure triangles. Doing this hides the photos you’re not currently
interested in and makes scrolling much faster. Figure 1-2 shows a Photo
Library with lots of collapsed film rolls and only one open roll.
Knowing What You Need
499
Figure 1-1:
CDs and
DVDs
burned in
iPhoto show
up in
iPhoto’s
source list.
✦ By using a third-party utility such as iPhoto Buddy, iPhoto Library
Manager, or iPhoto Librarian. Each of these utilities (available for
download from www.versiontracker.com/macosx) helps you break
your Photo Library into multiple, smaller libraries, and switches
between them.
Figure 1-2:
Collapsing
film rolls
that you
aren’t using
speeds performance.
Understanding Your
iEnvironment
Of course, you can also combine the techniques outlined in this bullet list,
and that will probably give you the best results of all.
Book VII
Chapter 1
500
Knowing What You Need
To optimize iPhoto’s performance, you need to take note of other memorygobbling applications that may be running. For example, if you have iDVD
encoding a movie in the background while you’re working in iPhoto, less of
your Mac’s memory is available to iPhoto. And iPhoto gets a smaller percentage of the available processor time when other applications are running,
which also slows performance.
Optimizing iMovie and GarageBand performance
Other than purchasing a faster Mac, you really have only one way to wring
the best possible performance from iMovie and GarageBand: Make more
memory available by adding RAM to your computer.
Having a lot of RAM makes rendering of effects and transitions in iMovie
faster and improves encoding performance (exporting to QuickTime). iMovie
also offers you some keyboard shortcuts that can make your editing faster,
more accurate, and easier.
Although dragging the playhead (or a crop marker) in iMovie to the approximate frame you want is easy and convenient, dragging a slider isn’t the easiest way to position on a specific frame. Use the arrow keys to move the
playhead (or crop marker) one frame at a time — the left-arrow key moves
back a frame, and the right-arrow key moves forward a frame. If you press the
Shift key while using the arrow keys, the playhead moves 10 frames at a time.
In GarageBand, more memory lets you increase the maximum number of
instrument tracks in your songs. You should refrain from opening other applications or even having them open in the background when using GarageBand.
You can change the maximum number of Real Instrument and Software
Instrument tracks in GarageBand by choosing GarageBand➪Preferences; in
the Preferences window that appears, click the Advanced tab. In the Advanced
pane, choose the number of Real Instrument tracks (8, 16, 32, 64, or 255)
from the Maximum Number of Real Instrument Tracks pop-up menu, or
the number of Software Instrument tracks (8, 16, 32, 64) from the Maximum
Number of Software Instrument Tracks pop-up menu. But don’t set these
numbers higher than your computer can support, as Apple says performance
will be affected (and we don’t mean your performance).
You can optimize the performance of GarageBand and your MIDI keyboard by
choosing GarageBand➪Preferences and clicking the Audio/MIDI tab. In the
Optimize For section of the Audio/MIDI pane, select the Better Performance
option.
If you selected the FileVault option in the Security pane of System Preferences,
it may slow down the process of retrieving files from your Home folder. You
may want to deselect the FileVault option, or save your GarageBand songs in
a folder outside of your Home folder.
Leveraging iMovie and iDVD
501
Getting the most from iDVD
Like iMovie, iDVD benefits from copious RAM and fast, unfragmented hard
drives. Encoding your movies into the MPEG-2 format used on DVDs is a
memory- and processor-intensive operation. Because the default procedure
is to encode your movies, slideshows, menus, and buttons in the background while you continue to work in iDVD, having a lot of RAM available
cuts down on editing sluggishness.
If you find your authoring tasks becoming sluggish while iDVD encodes in
the background, you have two choices:
✦ You can deselect the Enable Background Encoding option in your
iDVD Preferences. Choose iDVD➪Preferences, and in the Preferences
window that appears, click the General tab, and deselect the Enable
Background Encoding option. Turning off background encoding smoothes
the actual editing and authoring process, but you pay the price when
you’re ready to burn your DVD. That is, you’ll have to wait longer at this
point while iDVD encodes everything that isn’t already encoded.
✦ Alternatively, you can find something else to do while iDVD does the
encoding. Not a very satisfactory option, but if your computer is lacking
in memory, it could be your least obnoxious choice.
Finally, if you can keep your iDVD projects on a separate, unfragmented hard
drive (maybe the same one where the related iMovie projects reside), you
can minimize problems with disk latency (the time required to move the heads
from one disk sector to another) and contention (conflicting read or write
operations). A hard drive can read from or write to only one place at a time,
so if you have multiple disk operations going concurrently, the head has to
move from one area to another — often hundreds or thousands of times. All
this movement results in a slowing down of the whole disk access process.
Leveraging iMovie and iDVD
Both iMovie and iDVD are based around the concept of a project. iMovie
stores this project in a folder that contains a document and a Media subfolder of the clips, images, and audio files that make up your movie.
Figure 1-3 shows an example iMovie project. iDVD hides more from you
by making your project appear as a single icon. This icon is really a special
Book VII
Chapter 1
Understanding Your
iEnvironment
Another iDVD general preferences setting that can impact your authoring
performance is the Delete Rendered Files on Closing a Project check box.
Selecting this check box minimizes the hard drive space used while you’re
not running iDVD. But this setting has a downside: If you haven’t finished
and burned your iDVD project during the session, then all the background
rendering that iDVD did is gone and will have to be redone the next time you
open this iDVD project.
502
Leveraging iMovie and iDVD
kind of folder called a package, just as most of your OS X applications are
packages masquerading as single items. As shown in Figure 1-4, you can
Control+click on an iDVD package and choose Show Package Contents from
the contextual menu that appears to see what’s inside the package.
As discussed in the two preceding sections, both iMovie and iDVD see performance benefits when you use a large, fast, unfragmented, and dedicated
hard drive. Although iMovie has a larger appetite for hard drive space
(about 210MB per minute of video) than iDVD (about 70MB per minute at
high quality or just under 50MB per minute at the 90-minute setting), neither
can be accused of being light eaters.
Figure 1-3:
iMovie
keeps all
your project
files visible
in a folder
and its
Media
folder.
Figure 1-4:
Choose
Show
Package
Contents
(left) to
navigate
your
project’s
parts (right).
Leveraging iMovie and iDVD
503
Backing up an iMovie Project
When you complete the work on your project and want to free up hard drive
space, you can archive (back up) the entire project to tape or CD/DVD. Doing
this requires backup software — such as the Apple Backup utility that comes
with a .Mac subscription or Dantz Software’s Retrospect — but this is the
route to go if you think you might want to make modifications later or to
repurpose portions of the project.
Unless your project is fairly small, backing up to CD is going to be a painful
process. After all, you can fit less than 30 seconds of digital video (DV) on an
iDisk, a little over 3 minutes on a single CD-R (or CD-RW), or about 20 minutes on a DVD-R (or DVD-RW). Given these limitations, we recommend one of
the following choices:
✦ Backing up to DAT (tape) or DVD-R/RW by using a commercial backup
solution such as Retrospect.
✦ Backing up to another hard drive by using a tool such as Mike Bombich’s
Carbon Copy Cloner (www.bombich.com/software/ccc.html).
Carbon Copy Cloner is a great donation-ware tool. It is free to educational
institutions and comes as totally uncrippled shareware (with a request for a
donation from the rest of us). Pay what you think it’s worth. If you’re honest
with yourself, you’ll make a nice donation — we did.
We found a shareware utility named DV Backup (around $25 at www.
coolatoola.com) that backs up a hard drive folder structure to a camcorder’s miniDV or Digital8 tape through your FireWire connection. We’ve
tried it out and it seems to work, but our experience with DV Backup is not
extensive enough to put in an unequivocal recommendation. This utility
does offer a nice compromise, though, by keeping all your project’s pieces
intact while still providing the relatively inexpensive 10GB to 15GB storage
of a tape.
Backing up an iDVD project
Preserving your iDVD project includes some hidden gotchas. The largest of
the gotchas is that iDVD doesn’t include the original media (movies) in the
project package but instead includes just the rendered MPEG-2 files and
Understanding Your
iEnvironment
As an alternative to backing up, you can export the completed movie back to
your DV camera. The downside to this solution is that you get a DV Stream
with all your edits, transitions, effects, and so forth cast in concrete and
none of the supporting or original files present. Multiple audio tracks are
now merged into a single track and, if you re-import the footage, you don’t
have access to the original clips or to any of the edited clips that were still
in the Clips pane when you exported. The upside is that you can fit a full 60
(or 90) minutes on a single small tape that can be purchased for under $6.
Book VII
Chapter 1
504
Surfing the Apple Web Site
pointers to the original movie files. Further, if you choose to delete rendered
files when you close the project, even the rendered data won’t be available.
Our recommendation is to archive your iDVD project with any iMovie projects it uses if you think you might want to modify it at a later time. Use the
Archive Project function of iDVD that gathers all the source files, including
videos, and stuffs them into one project file. Choose File➪Archive Project,
and select a location for the .dvdproj file. You can then copy or transfer the
entire project to another computer.
If all you need to do is burn more copies of your DVDs, you can do that fairly
easily as described in Apple’s Knowledge Base article 42724 (http://docs.
info.apple.com/article.html?artnum=42724).
Surfing the Apple Web Site
The Apple Web site provides a wealth of information on the various iLife
applications and the iPod. You can go to the individual product pages, which
are found at www.apple.com/ilife/productname. (Replace productname
in this URL with iTunes, iPhoto, iMovie, iDVD, or iPod, as the case may
be.) These product pages are actually mini-Web sites on their own, with links
to pages that
✦ Show off the technology in QuickTime tutorials and demos
✦ Offer (frequently free) downloads for extras and add-ons
✦ Link to Apple Feedback pages where you can report bugs or tell what
you like and don’t like about a particular program
More importantly, you can go to http://kbase.info.apple.com/index.
jsp to search the extensive Knowledge Base to satisfy your curiosity or to
find answers to questions about issues that frustrate you — like bugs. The
Knowledge Base articles frequently acknowledge anomalous program behavior and, more importantly, detail any known workarounds for the problem.
Another area to check, especially if you want to extend your iLife application’s functionality, is the AppleScript section. Other than iMovie, the iLife
applications (iTunes, iPhoto, and iDVD) each have their own pages within
the www.apple.com/applescript hierarchy (just add /productname to the
URL). AppleScript is a powerful, easy-to-use programming language to control
scriptable applications. Even if you don’t want to learn how to program, you
can take advantage of hundreds of freely available scripts and enhance your
iLife experience.
Calling for Help
505
Calling for Help
Apple provides online help for iLife applications that you can read at any
time while using the applications. The Apple Help Viewer is really a specialized Web browser, and the help you find there comes from HTML pages.
These pages aren’t only on your hard drive. If you have a live Internet connection, Help Viewer is set up to search the Apple Web site, where it can
download the latest help information and update the pages stored on your
hard drive. Figure 1-5 shows you the Help Viewer, ready to search iDVD’s
Help pages.
Book VII
Chapter 1
Understanding Your
iEnvironment
Figure 1-5:
Help Viewer
is a browser
where you
can search
for help on
most applications.
The little round Back button on the left end of the toolbar behaves just like
the Back button in a Web browser, taking you to the previously viewed page.
This button even has the same keyboard shortcut (Ô+[ ) as the Back button
in Safari or Internet Explorer.
The toolbar’s Help Center button shows and hides the drawer (visible at the
right of the main window in Figure 1-5). Each entry in the Help Center drawer
is a link to the Help pages on the named application or technology. Click one,
and you briefly see a progress indicator (below the Ask a Question text box),
which tells you that Help Viewer is retrieving information.
That Ask a Question text field, though, is the heart of Help Viewer. To get to
the heart of the matter and find the help you need, follow these steps:
506
Calling for Help
1. Type a question or keywords into the Ask a Question text field and
press Return.
Help Viewer searches the Help databases for matches and displays all
the matches it finds — along with an indicator of how relevant its algorithms determine the match to be. Figure 1-6 shows example search
results.
When you search the Help databases, relevance is, primarily, how
closely together and how frequently the keywords in your query appear
in the topic found. As you can see from the list of topics in Figure 1-6, the
search is exhaustive but far from perfect. The lower the relevance, the
more likely it is that you got a hit from just one of the keywords and that
the topic probably isn’t relevant to your query.
2. Select a topic from the matches listed.
In the window’s (resizable) bottom pane, Help Viewer shows you the
topic name, the first few words or sentence from the topic, and where
the topic is located.
3. Click the link in the bottom pane, and you’re transported to the
topic’s full page, as shown in Figure 1-7.
Many pages include a Tell Me More link which, when clicked, refines the
search, giving you yet another list of topics and their computed relevance.
Figure 1-6:
When asked
about
equalizer
presets, this
is what Help
Viewer
found.
Troubleshooting Problems
507
Figure 1-7:
Check out
the information on
the topic
you
selected.
Troubleshooting Problems
If anyone ever tells you that a piece of software is bug-free, you can assume
that either they’re blowing smoke or the program is very constrained in
what it can and will do. The more complex an application, the more (minor)
bugs it is going to contain. Fortunately, the iLife applications are used so
often by so many people — and Apple is so responsive in releasing updates
to fix bugs — that the bugs that do exist tend to be quite minor and, even
then, only rear their ugly little heads in unusual circumstances.
The most frequent problem encountered, and not just with the iLife applications, can appear as a program crash or application freeze (where the program stops responding to input from the mouse or keyboard).
If the program crashed, attempt to relaunch it. If the program froze, you
should Force Quit (Ô+Option+Escape to display the Force Quit dialog) and
attempt to relaunch. If the program relaunches okay, the problem may be the
Book VII
Chapter 1
Understanding Your
iEnvironment
To increase or decrease the font size used by Help Viewer, choose Edit➪
Increase Font Size (Ô++) or Edit➪Decrease Font Size (Ô+-). If you think that
you’re going to need to refer to a page frequently and don’t want to have to
go through Help Viewer to find it again, choose File➪Print and either print
the page or save it as a PDF for future reference.
508
Troubleshooting Problems
result of some strange, not easily reproducible interaction (or maybe even
sunspot activity). However, if the problem persists and you can narrow
down the sequence of steps that causes the misbehavior, you can check the
Apple Knowledge Base to see whether the problem is known. And, if not,
report the situation via the Feedback pages mentioned in the “Surfing the
Apple Web Site” section, earlier in this chapter.
Running at or near minimum system requirements can make bugs more obvious (and, thereby, the need for troubleshooting more frequent):
✦ Using an older release of your OS X can make you more likely to
encounter System-related bugs (those involving an interaction between
the application and core System routines and libraries).
You should also check to see whether either Software Update or the
Apple Web pages have a newer version of the application you’re running. If so, we recommend updating to the current version.
✦ Running with minimal RAM or free hard drive space, particularly on your
startup volume, is also begging for trouble. OS X makes extensive use of
virtual memory (hard drive space used to simulate RAM) and not having
sufficient free (and preferably contiguous) hard drive space to allocate
as virtual memory can grind things to a halt.
✦ We recommend keeping at least 10 percent (we run closer to 20 percent)
of your startup hard drive space available for OS X to use as needed.
Remember, iPhoto, iMovie, and iDVD use lots of memory and temporary
hard drive space to perform their magic.
Corrupted preference files seem to be at the root of so many application
problems that removing the preference file(s) and then relaunching the
application should be one of the first remedial actions you attempt. You can
usually find the preference file(s) in the Preference folder within your Home
directory’s Library folder. The iLife applications’ preference files are
✦ iTunes: com.apple.iTunes.plist
✦ iPhoto: com.apple.iPhoto.plist
✦ iPod: com.apple.iPod.plist
✦ iMovie: com.apple.iMovie3.plist
✦ iDVD: com.apple.iDVD.plist
✦ GarageBand: com.apple.garageband.plist
✦ Other related preference files: com.apple.iApps.plist, which is
used by iTunes to track databases used (like the iTunes Music Store)
and com.apple.iTunes.eq.plist for equalizer preferences.
Chapter 2: Enhancing Your iLife
Environment with Other Tools
In This Chapter
Adding plug-ins
Scripting your iLife applications
Getting freeware and shareware assistance/assistants
Enhancing iLife with commercial tools
S
ince the early days of personal computing, popular software packages
have provided ways for users to get more out of the product than was
originally envisioned. From the Peek and Poke commands in BASIC, external
commands in dBASE, and the XCMDs and XFCNs in HyperCard, through
today’s Web browser and Photoshop plug-ins, whole industries have grown
to fill niche markets.
This modular approach to function availability is (mostly) a win-win situation for software developers and users. By providing the hooks for third parties to add functionality rather than trying to provide every function that an
imaginative marketing person can conceive, software developers can ship a
working product in less time, at lower cost, and with a smaller hard drive
and memory footprint. Users benefit because you pay for the additional
functions only if you want them and because a smaller product can be more
thoroughly tested and is usually more reliable. If a plug-in is buggy, you can
just remove the plug-in without affecting the stability of the rest of the program. The one downside is that you have more files to keep track of. You
need to make sure that you have the plug-in installed in the right directory
and that you keep up to date with the most recent version.
The enhancements made available via AppleScript to communicate between
programs, automate repetitive tasks in an application, or just add functionality are yet another way the Apple iLife applications (except for the currently unscriptable iMovie) enable you and others to extend the iLife domain.
You can use other programs to work with the output from your iLife applications. If QuickTime doesn’t provide you with the export encoder you seek,
you can use another tool to work with iMovie’s reference file. Similarly, if
iPhoto doesn’t provide sufficient editing tools or print formats for your
needs, you can use an external editor for that task as well.
510
Plugging In
In this chapter, we cover all these ways to expand your iReach, delving into
examples of each along the way.
Plugging In
All iLife applications (with the exception of GarageBand as of this writing)
support one or more types of plug-ins — external code or graphics modules
that expand upon the application as shipped by Apple. GarageBand supports additional Apple Loops and Software Instruments, and “plug-in settings” for amplifier simulation and other effects.
As a general rule, plug-ins are installed in a special folder:
✦ The PlugIns folder inside the Contents folder in the application package
(as in iPhoto, iDVD, and iMovie).
✦ The Library folder at the root level of your startup disk. For example,
iTunes plug-ins can be installed in the iTunes Plug-ins folder in the
iTunes folder inside the Library folder. Extra loops and instruments for
GarageBand are installed in the GarageBand folder inside the Application
Support folder in the Library folder.
✦ Your Home folder’s Library folder, if you don’t want the plug-ins available to other accounts on your Mac. For example, iTunes plug-ins can be
installed in the iTunes Plug-ins folder in the iTunes folder inside the
Library folder.
iTunes plug-ins
The iTunes visualizer isn’t your only choice for adding a visual effect to your
music. At the time of this writing, 17 visual effects plug-ins (also known as
visualizers) for iTunes are available for download via VersionTracker (www.
versiontracker.com/macosx). They’re all freeware or inexpensive shareware. They range from variations on the iTunes visualizer, such as Fountain
Music from Binary Minded Software (www.binaryminded.com), to a plug-in
that plays QuickTime movies based upon the selected song — Satoshi
Kanmo’s ShortCut74 plug-in, available at http://homepage.mac.com/
smalltalker/english.html. Figure 2-1 shows EasyViewX from Trinity
Software (www.trinfinitysoftware.com/easyview.shtml) in use.
The button-of-many-personalities in the iTunes upper-right corner bears the
label Options when a visual effect is running. Not all visual effects include a
Preferences or Options dialog, but if they do, the Options button is enabled
(not dimmed). If enabled, click the Options button to set preferences for that
visual effect. Figure 2-2 shows the Options dialog for the EasyViewX plug-in.
Plugging In
511
Figure 2-1:
EasyViewX
displays
information
about the
current
song in your
choice of
font, size,
and color.
Book VII
Chapter 2
Enhancing Your
iLife Environment
with Other Tools
Figure 2-2:
Some
visualizers
offer an
Options
dialog,
accessible
through
iTunes’
Options
button.
If you’re interested in writing your own visualizers, you can download the
iTunes visual plug-ins SDK for free from http://developer.apple.com/
sdk. All it requires is that you sign up for a free membership in ADC, the
Apple Developer Connection.
iMovie plug-ins
If you thought that iMovie came with a lot of transitions, titles, and effects,
a quick check of the offerings from such companies as GeeThree (www.
geethree.com), Virtix (www.virtix.com), eZedia (www.ezedia.com/
products/eZedia_plug-ins), and CSB Digital (www.csbdigital.com) will
512
Plugging In
boggle your mind. You can find even more iMovie effects packages via a
VersionTracker search for iMovie plug-ins.
Whereas most of the iTunes plug-ins are free, iMovie plug-ins are almost
exclusively commercial offerings. Most of the plug-in developers offer free
samplers, and Apple includes download links to these samplers on the
iMovie Web pages (www.apple.com/ilife/imovie/visual_effects.html).
As a .Mac member, you can download free Freeplay Music and Skywalker
Sound sound files for iMovie — the files are in the Members Only folder of
the Software folder of your iDisk.
Figure 2-3 shows a preview of GeeThree’s Picture-in-Picture Frame visual
effect, part of its Slick Transitions & Effects suite. Just a few of the other
effects in this package include a camcorder effect, where the white framing
rectangles you see in a camcorder’s viewfinder are added, a lens flare, and
an effect that turns your clip (or a portion of a clip) into black and white,
with a white outline around the edges of distinct objects.
Additional title styles are also in the GeeThree package, such as the Marquee
title effect shown in Figure 2-4. Marquee comes in two flavors, solid semitransparent letters or letters that display a gradient effect. One of our favorites is
News Flash, which takes the text you provide and scrolls it across the bottom
of the screen, just like the news ticker messages that television networks use.
Figure 2-3:
Picture-inPicture is
just one of
the dozens
of effects
available
from
GeeThree.
Plugging In
513
Figure 2-4:
New title
styles,
such as
GeeThree’s
Marquee,
are also
available via
plug-ins.
iPhoto plug-ins
You can really expand the iPhoto export photos capabilities (choose
File➪Export) by using plug-ins. Each plug-in adds another tab to the iPhoto
Export dialog, as shown in Figure 2-5. The standard iPhoto installation offers
only three tabs: File Export, Web Page, and QuickTime.
Unlike iTunes, where the plug-ins remain in a Library folder visible to the
user, iPhoto plug-ins are installed into a PlugIns folder inside the Contents
folder in the iPhoto application package. If you select the iPhoto application
in the Finder and choose File➪Get Info (Ô+I), you see a Plug-ins panel in
the iPhoto Info window. Click the disclosure triangle next to Plug-ins to see a
list of your installed plug-ins, as shown in Figure 2-6. In this pane, you can
disable (deselect) and enable (select) your installed plug-ins; add new plugins by clicking the Add button and navigating to the plug-in you want to
install; or remove an installed plug-in by selecting it and clicking the Remove
button.
Enhancing Your
iLife Environment
with Other Tools
The bulk of the plug-ins available for iMovie fall into the Transitions category. Like the transitions included with iMovie, most of these are eyecatching but could easily distract your viewer from your movie’s content.
Therefore, use them sparingly and only when you want to call attention to a
scene change.
Book VII
Chapter 2
514
Plugging In
Figure 2-5:
The Export
Photos
dialog.
You must quit iPhoto to make changes to the Plug-ins list. The changes show
up when you relaunch iPhoto.
Although we have yet to see any third-party printing plug-ins, iPhoto plug-in
architecture also supports custom print formats. In fact, the various Print
formats, such as Contact Sheet and N-Up, are implemented as plug-ins and
are visible in the Plug-ins list.
Figure 2-6:
You can
add,
remove,
disable, and
enable
iPhoto plugins in the
iPhoto Info
window.
iDVD plug-ins
iDVD plug-ins are installed into a PlugIns folder inside the Contents folder in
the iDVD application package. If you select the iDVD application in the
Plugging In
515
Finder and choose File➪Get Info (Ô+I), you see a Plug-ins panel in the iDVD
Info window. Click the disclosure triangle next to Plug-ins to see a list of your
installed plug-ins (just like the iPhoto Plug-ins described in the previous section). In this pane, you can disable (deselect) and enable (select) your
installed plug-ins; add new plug-ins by clicking the Add button and navigating to the plug-in you want to install; or remove an installed plug-in by selecting it and clicking the Remove button.
New themes show up in the Customize drawer’s Themes pane. Just click the
Customize button and, if necessary, click the Themes button to display the
Themes pane. Click the pop-up menu, and if you installed third-party themes,
an entry for that theme collection appears in the menu — see ThemePAK in
Figure 2-7, available at www.idvdthemepak.com.
At www.apple.com/ilife/idvd/themes.html, you find a link to
iDVDThemePAK, as well as two free sample themes (at least, that’s what’s
available as of this writing).
Interestingly enough, a number of actual code plug-ins are available within
the iDVD application package. These include such code as the encoder that
turns your movie into a DVD-compliant MPEG-2 file. So far, though, Apple
hasn’t publicized how to write iDVD code plug-ins. If it ever does, you can
look forward to additional encoding, importing, and exporting capabilities
becoming available.
Book VII
Chapter 2
Enhancing Your
iLife Environment
with Other Tools
Figure 2-7:
Custom
theme
collections
such as
ThemePAK
show up in
the Themes
pane’s popup menu.
516
Enhancing iLife with AppleScript
GarageBand loops and instruments
You can never have enough Apple Loops and Software Instruments.
GarageBand Jam Pack adds more than 2,000 prerecorded loops and more
than 100 new instruments. You can now play a synthesized vibraphone, a
concert grand piano, and even a twelve-string guitar. You can also choose
from vintage or modern amplifier sounds and use over 100 new effects
settings.
GarageBand Jam Pack is an extra software application you can purchase
from Apple that is supplied on DVD. Just insert the DVD, open the DVD on
your desktop, and then double-click the installer package. The pack is
installed in the GarageBand folder inside the Application Support folder in
the Library folder at the root level. You need Mac OS X version 10.2.6 or
newer with at least 256MB of RAM and a 600 MHz PowerPC G3 processor or
faster; a G4 or G5 is required for some instruments. You also need a
DVD-ROM drive and 3GB of hard drive space just to install the pack.
You can also add loops from third parties. You can drag and drop loop files
or an entire folder of loop files in the Apple Loop format into the GarageBand
Loop Browser. The new loops are copied to the Loops Library and automatically indexed so that they appear in the Loop Browser.
Enhancing iLife with AppleScript
With the exception of iMovie, the iLife applications (and the iPod, as well)
are scriptable. That means that you can write AppleScript code to automate
repetitive tasks, communicate data from one program to another, and perform operations that are inaccessible from the program’s menus and buttons.
Even if you don’t want to learn to program, you shouldn’t skip over this
material. Untold numbers of useful AppleScripts are ready for you to use.
You don’t have to know C++, Objective-C, Pascal, Java, or some other language to use programs written by others in these languages for iMovie,
iTunes, iPhoto, iDVD, Photoshop, and so on.
Of course, if you’re a little curious and willing to put some time and effort
into learning AppleScript programming, you’ll have an even richer experience because most of the AppleScripts you can download are easily modifiable, allowing you to customize them to do exactly what you want.
We mention the product-specific pages of Apple’s AppleScript Web minisites
in the previous chapter, but those pages are just the tip of the iceberg. You
also may want to check out these sites:
✦ www.scriptbuilders.net, a large script repository for MacScripter.net,
a great resource if you want to enhance your AppleScript knowledge
Enhancing iLife with AppleScript
517
✦ http://cocoaobjects.com/applescript/index.php, another site for
finding AppleScripts
Scripting iTunes
Of all the iLife applications, iTunes has the longest, richest AppleScript history and the greatest AppleScript support. iTunes even includes a Scripts
menu (the little scroll icon between Window and Help) to provide easy
access to your iTunes scripts. These scripts live in one of two locations:
✦ A Scripts folder contained in your Home Library’s iTunes folder
✦ A Scripts folder in the iTunes folder of your startup disk’s Library folder
The scripts in your startup disk’s Library folder are accessible to any user
on your Mac running iTunes. The scripts in your Home Library’s iTunes
folder are accessible only by you.
Smart playlists are cool, but have you ever noticed that you can’t mix the
tests to get all your five-star songs in the Musical and Soundtrack genres?
AppleScript can easily create this playlist, but it doesn’t have a live update
option like a smart playlist. The script shown in Figure 2-8 creates the
described playlist.
This isn’t to say that the boilerplate is unimportant, just that it doesn’t differ
much from one script to the next. Mainly, it just makes your scripts a little
friendlier and more robust. We’d like to thank Apple for its sample scripts,
from which we shamelessly borrowed the version checking and access_
website code.
For those of you who also have AppleWorks, Apple provides some scripts
that create CD case covers in AppleWorks for your iTunes playlists. These
scripts come in handy when you burn a CD and want to remind yourself
what’s on the disc.
AppleScripting iPhoto
Although iPhoto doesn’t offer a Scripts menu of its own, you can get the
same effect by using the system-wide Scripts menu. Inside the AppleScript
folder within your Applications folder is a file that bears a folder icon named
Script Menu.menu. Double-click this folder icon to add a system-wide Scripts
Book VII
Chapter 2
Enhancing Your
iLife Environment
with Other Tools
Don’t be intimidated by the number of lines of code here. The guts of this
script are the eight lines starting with making a new playlist and ending with
the second end tell following the duplicate command. The rest of the
script is just boilerplate error-checking to make sure that the version of
iTunes supports AppleScript, to offer those users with an old version the
chance to download a current version, and to display progress dialogs
telling you what’s going on.
518
Enhancing iLife with AppleScript
menu to the right side of your menu bar, as shown in Figure 2-9. The systemwide Scripts menu provides a home for the scripts used with applications
that don’t provide Scripts menus of their own.
Figure 2-8:
This
AppleScript
creates a
playlist with
all your fivestar Musical
and
Soundtrack
songs.
Figure 2-9:
The systemwide Scripts
menu.
Apple makes a nice assortment of example scripts available at www.apple.
com/applescript/iphoto. Not only are these great examples from which
you can figure out scripting techniques, but most of them are also extremely
useful in their own right. One example, Find Unassigned Images, creates an
album for you consisting only of images from your photo library that aren’t
already in at least one album. Not only is that script useful, but you can also
easily modify the script to create a list of albums to which an individual
photo belongs. As authors, we maintain separate user accounts where the
only items in our photo library are the screenshots used for figures in our
projects. Using the Photo Summary script, we can easily produce an HTML
(or RTF) file showing all the images and listing where they are and any other
information about them. This summary is useful to us, and to our editors, in
tracking the artwork for a project.
Enhancing iLife with AppleScript
519
AppleScripting iDVD
As with iPhoto, you can most easily access iDVD’s scripts by using the
system-wide Scripts menu. A good starter set is available at www.apple.
com/applescript/idvd.
One nice feature in iDVD is that you can position your menu buttons wherever you want on the menu if iDVD’s default arrangement is not to your
liking. AppleScript makes distributing your buttons where you want them
easy, as shown in Figure 2-10.
Figure 2-10:
The result of
running a
script that
tells the
user to
select
exactly
three
buttons.
Book VII
Chapter 2
Figure 2-11 shows the iDVD window with the iDVD Companion window displaying its Nudge tab. Using the Nudge tab, you can move selected buttons
in 1-, 6-, 36-, or 72-pixel increments to the left, right, up, or down. Select the
Include Title check box, and the menu’s title also moves.
If you’ve ever wanted to reposition the Back button on an iDVD menu, but
were frustrated because you couldn’t, iDVD Companion provides a solution.
Choose Edit➪Select Back Button and use the Nudge tab to move it where
you want.
Enhancing Your
iLife Environment
with Other Tools
But, even as handy as those scripts are, a full-blown application named iDVD
Companion is available from the AppleScript iDVD Web page. iDVD
Companion is written in AppleScript Studio, a pure OS X development environment where you use AppleScripts to do your work and Apple’s development tools (they’re part of your OS X distribution but aren’t installed by
default) to create the user interface. Note that some scripts may not work
with the current version of iDVD.
520
Enhancing iLife with AppleScript
Figure 2-11:
iDVD
Companion
enables you
to nudge
buttons by
exact
distances.
iDVD Companion’s other two tabs are the Align and Title tabs. Using the
Align tab, you can line up the left, right, top, or bottom edges of two or more
selected buttons. Use the Title tab to set the location for the menu’s title.
The iDVD Companion menu bar includes other helpful shortcuts. In addition
to the Select Back Button choice, the Edit menu also includes commands
allowing you to Select All buttons, Deselect All buttons, and Delete All buttons.
Be careful, though, with the Delete All buttons command; no undo is available.
Navigating your menu structure in iDVD to make changes to subordinate
menus can be time-consuming and annoying. iDVD Companion provides a
Go menu that enables you to select your destination menu from a list and
then tells iDVD to display that menu, eliminating the need to navigate a possibly complex menu structure. The Themes menu sports a handy little
Layouts submenu with four predefined button layouts. The menu named
Menu was more useful with iDVD 2.1 than it is with the current version of
iDVD, because iTunes and iPhoto are now accessible in iDVD’s Customize
drawer. Nevertheless, the first item, Name Current Menu is handy because it
allows you to use the previously cited Go To Menu command conveniently.
Similarly, the Button menu enables you to name buttons, specify exact positions for buttons, and swap the positions of two selected buttons.
Supplementing iLife with Other Programs
521
One of the best features of iDVD Companion is that all of these palette and
menu operations take place by calling AppleScripts, and the source code for
all those scripts is present for you to look over and modify as you desire.
Supplementing iLife with Other Programs
The iLife applications are a wonderful collection of multimedia products,
enabling you to collect, organize, present, and repurpose your music,
photos, and video. In many cases, they are all you need to fulfill your needs
or desires. But (isn’t there always a but?) sometimes you want to do more or
just do something a little different.
Users of Mac OS X are blessed with some wonderful supplementary programs, most of which are free or relatively inexpensive. The fact that OS X is
built upon a Unix framework has opened the doors to a wide collection of
Unix utilities, and to make things even better, the OS X development tools
made putting a Mac interface onto these command-line tools a simple task.
Freeware and shareware
In the next few sections, we cover some of the free and shareware tools that
are available and invaluable additions to the iLife user’s tool chest.
One of the most popular MP3 encoders on many platforms (Mac, Windows, and
various implementations of Unix and Linux) is LAME, which stands for LAME
Ain’t an Mp3 Encoder (because, in the beginning, it wasn’t). Implemented for
iTunes users as an AppleScript around the Unix command-line tool, you install
the script, which is a free download from VersionTracker; then you select the
songs you want encoded with LAME and in iTunes, choose Scripts➪Import
with LAME. The iTunes-LAME window appears, and you just click the Import
button when you’re ready to start the encoding (as shown in Figure 2-12).
Another handy utility, this one shareware ($5), is Josh Aas’s iTunes Publisher.
iTunes Publisher is the iTunes File➪Export Song List command on steroids.
You can save your playlists as HTML files, which iTunes Publisher links back
to your iTunes Library. iTunes Publisher also provides a simple interface to
producing QTSS (QuickTime Streaming Server) playlists, as well as generating
the m3u playlists used by many MP3 players (such as WinAmp), or text- or
tab-delimited text files.
Though not really an enhancement to iTunes, MacMP3CD (www.mireth.
com) is a useful adjunct to iTunes. To switch from burning audio CDs to MP3
CDs in iTunes requires that you change your Burning preferences (and then,
Enhancing Your
iLife Environment
with Other Tools
iTunes and iPod enhancements
Book VII
Chapter 2
522
Supplementing iLife with Other Programs
probably, switch them back when you’re done). With MacMP3CD, you can
build your MP3 playlist and burn it directly. Additionally, iTunes doesn’t recognize MP3 CDs when they’re inserted as it does with audio CDs. MacMP3CD
also plays back your MP3 CDs.
Figure 2-12:
The LAME
encoder
even
converts
AC3 files
to MP3.
You might want to print liner notes to go along with the CDs you burn.
Disclabel (www.smileonmymac.com/disclabel), JewelCase Illustrator (www.
blueline-studios.com/jcMain.html) or iTunes CD Printer (www.smashin.
com/itcd) do the job quite well.
You can download and use the very cool AppleScripts that work with the
iPod and the ScriptMenu (www.apple.com/applescript/ipod). Many
scripts make use of the Notes folder in iPods that use iPod software version
2.0 or newer (the iPod mini, and iPods that use the dock connector). You can
even use an AppleScript to transfer Web pages from Safari to the iPod.
iPhoto enhancements
If you want more control over the Web pages you export from iPhoto, check
out BetterHTMLExport (shareware, $20, from Simeon Leifer’s Drooling Cat
Software, www.droolingcat.com). BetterHTMLExport is an iPhoto plug-in
that adds a Better Web Page tab to the iPhoto Export Photos dialog. Choosing
the Better Web Page tab displays another row of tabs, as shown in Figure 2-13:
✦ The Pages tab: Controls the overall look of your Web pages.
✦ The Thumbnails tab: Controls the small image links and how they look.
✦ The Images tab: Controls the size and organization of the exported
images.
Supplementing iLife with Other Programs
523
Figure 2-13:
The Pages
tab of the
Export
Photos
dialog.
✦ The Custom tab: Adds additional text in a table form (such as author,
date, and venue).
Book VII
Chapter 2
✦ The Info tab: Tells you your registration information, accesses the documentation, and checks for updates.
Enhancing Your
iLife Environment
with Other Tools
Additionally, you can build and save your own page templates. (A template
exchange service is even set up at Drooling Cat.) Other applications are
available, such as the freeware program Galerie (www.myriad-online.
com/en/products/galerie.htm), which generates Web page galleries with
customizable templates from iPhoto.
iPhoto slows down as the iPhoto Library gets larger. One way to circumvent
this slowdown is to have multiple libraries, but iPhoto doesn’t support multiple libraries as shipped. At least three handy utilities work around this barrier: iPhoto Buddy (donationware), iPhoto Library Manager (freeware), and
iPhoto Librarian (freeware). Each utility approaches the problem a little differently, but all have large followings among iPhoto users. You can find all of
them at www.versiontracker.com/macosx.
iPhoto Mailer Patcher is a free but handy gizmo that adds Mail support for
e-mail clients other than the four (AOL, Eudora, Entourage, and Mail) Apple
built into iPhoto. In fact, it even extends support to such classic mail clients
as Claris Emailer and Outlook Express. Check it out at http://perso.
mycable.ch/jacksim/software.
524
Supplementing iLife with Other Programs
If you have Roxio’s Toast Titanium software (either version 5 or version 6),
you’ll find iPhoto Toast Export Plugin (free from www.elgato.com) a handy
way to write photos or albums to hard drive, especially if you want them in a
format usable by friends who don’t have iPhoto. We talk more about Toast in
the section, “Toast goes well with iLife,” later in this chapter.
iPhoto’s slideshows are nice, but they’re pretty staid and traditional. One
picture follows the next, filling your display area. David Ahmed’s ExhibitionX
($15, www.davidahmed.com) offers another way to view your iPhoto albums.
It offers six viewing styles and provides direct access to your iPhoto Library
and albums via a pop-up menu:
✦ Gallery: Emulates your photos hanging on the walls of an art gallery, as
shown in Figure 2-14, which you traverse with the keyboard arrow keys
(left and right rotate; up and down zoom in and out).
✦ Carousel: Rotates a virtual carousel consisting of your photos.
✦ Book: Flips the pages of a book, each containing one photo.
✦ Cube: Shows four rotating cubes (similar to the old Rubik’s Cube
puzzle), with your photos coming into view on any of the four cubes.
✦ Flat: Shows a traditional slideshow.
✦ Circle: Displays the circular centers of your photos, rotating around a
vertical axis.
Another option is switching back and forth between full-screen viewing and
viewing in a window.
Figure 2-14:
ExhibitionX
offers six
views,
including
Gallery.
Supplementing iLife with Other Programs
525
So, you want to create panoramas of scenes that are too expansive for a
single frame? Check out REALVIZ’s Stitcher EZ ($33, www.realviz.com).
Just take a sequence of overlapping photos (REALVIZ recommends about a
30-degree rotation for the typical 35mm camera or digital equivalent) and let
Stitcher EZ combine them into a beautiful panorama with just a single click
of the mouse. It even performs color equalization for you as the lighting
changes from frame to frame.
iMovie enhancements
iMovie is a great tool for creating QuickTime movies and creating finished
productions to use on videotape or DVD through its interaction with iDVD.
But what if you want to create a DivX file to share with your Windows-using
friends, or a Video CD or Super Video CD? Or what if you want to create a
DVD and your DVD burner is not a SuperDrive? Freeware and shareware software, originating in the Unix community, is available to help you out.
These programs are relatively easy to use, but generally do not sport the
interactive smoothness or pleasant appearance of the iLife tools. The first
tool in our arsenal of enhancements is ffmpegX (http://homepage.mac.
com/major4), the main window of which appears in Figure 2-15.
Book VII
Chapter 2
Enhancing Your
iLife Environment
with Other Tools
Figure 2-15:
ffmpegX
enables
you to
encode
to and
transcode
among
various
MPEG
varieties.
The secret to making ffmpegX easy to use is the Quick Presets pop-up menu
at the bottom of the window. Choose your destination format, and ffmpegX
sets appropriate parameters for you in all the tabs. Then you can just click
the Open button to choose your source file (such as the reference iMovie in
an iMovie project’s folder) and then click the Save As button to specify a
name and location for your encoded movie.
526
Supplementing iLife with Other Programs
If encoding movies was all that ffmpegX did, the $15 shareware fee would be
more than covered; however, ffmpegX offers even more tools, including the
following:
✦ A demuxer (the opposite of multiplexing, which is to join the audio and
video) to let you split multiplexed MPEG files into their component
audio and video streams.
✦ A split tool that enables you to properly segment a movie into multiple
files so that they will fit on a CD.
✦ Authoring tools that allow you to create IMG files or CUE/BIN pairs,
ready for burning to disc.
Best of all, it can encode to DVD-compatible MPEG-2 files, even on a G3 or
some other Mac that doesn’t run iDVD.
Just so you can’t accuse us of not telling you ahead of time, downloading
ffmpegX does not give you the complete tool. Due to licensing restrictions
on MPEG-2, the encoders and decoders must be downloaded separately and
installed in ffmpegX. Fortunately, Major has built a small “run me first” application that tells you where to download the pieces and, after you point the
application at the downloaded items, performs the installation for you.
Sizzle (www.thegoods.ath.cx/~hmason/sizzle) is a simple, free DVD
authoring application, but not for the novice who wants easy-to-use themes
for menus. Unlike iDVD, it won’t encode your movies to MPEG-2; you have to
supply it with MPEG-2 video and compatible audio streams, but that is easily
taken care of by ffmpegX, which we just discussed. The main Sizzle window,
shown in Figure 2-16, is pretty straightforward. You build your menus in the
large pane on the left. You can change the background image for a menu, as
well as its audio, by dropping an image or sound file into the appropriate
well on the right.
Although Sizzle doesn’t offer such iDVD niceties as Themes, drop zones, and
motion menus, it does offer something that iDVD doesn’t — support for subtitle tracks. Buttons are text-only, but you can overlay them against a background graphic that has images in the places you want buttons. Sizzle builds
a DMG file that you can burn to DVD with any DVD-burning software that
supports your DVD burner, even if it isn’t a SuperDrive.
If QuickTime Player doesn’t play all the various movies you find — for example, the DivX files with .avi extensions common in the Windows world —
two free video players are available that handle a lot more: VideoLAN Client
(known as vlc) and MPlayer OS X. You can find both on the VersionTracker
Web site (www.versiontracker.com/macosx). VideoLAN Client also plays
VCDs and DVDs.
Supplementing iLife with Other Programs
527
Figure 2-16:
Sizzle is a
pretty
simple DVDauthoring
program
that doesn’t
rely on your
having a
SuperDrive
or a G4.
Mireth Technologies (www.mireth.com) has a couple of handy offerings to
augment your iMovie creation and MPEG viewing. Its iVCD program ($29.95)
encodes and burns Video CD and SuperVideo CD discs from the movies you
give it. Figure 2-17 shows the iVCD interface.
Book VII
Chapter 2
Enhancing Your
iLife Environment
with Other Tools
Figure 2-17:
iVCD’s
straightforward
interface
lets you
encode and
burn Video
CDs and
SVCDs.
528
Supplementing iLife with Other Programs
One known limitation of iVCD applies only to users with the Pioneer 104
SuperDrive, which is the 2x model. iVCD’s bundled burning tool (a Unix program called cdrdao) is not compatible with that specific SuperDrive model,
so you need to use another burning solution, such as Roxio’s Toast
Titanium.
MacVCD X, also from Mireth ($19.95) is a player for Video CDs and Super
Video CDs.
VCD Builder (donationware from Johan Lindström) enables you to create
Video CD and Super Video CD disc images ready for burning with (optional)
still or motion menus. You also have control over what various buttons on
your DVD remote do, including going to specific chapters within a movie
(which you can also define in VCD Builder).
iDVD enhancements
Not many free or shareware enhancements to iDVD have been developed so
far. The best one, though, in our opinions is the 3.0.1 update to iDVD. For the
first time, you can use iDVD to encode your projects even if you don’t have a
SuperDrive (it just won’t burn them). You still have to copy the files to a Mac
with a SuperDrive to burn your DVD.
Once again, we recommend checking out iDVDThemePAK for additional
themes to augment the ones that come with iDVD.
DVD Imager (http://lonestar.utsa.edu/llee/applescript/
dvdimager.html) is an AppleScript that makes a burnable copy of a
noncommercial DVD — if you made a great DVD in iDVD, but didn’t keep the
project file, you can use this to make a copy of the DVD. DVD Imager creates
the image of the DVD, which you can then burn onto a DVD-R with Disk Copy
(in the Utilities folder in your Applications folder).
Here are some Internet references that can help answer compatibility questions as well as provide the nitty-gritty, low-level details of DVD, SVCD,
and VCD:
✦ www.dvdrhelp.com: This is one of the most extensive sites about digital
video in existence. Most of the material is slanted toward Windows
users, but Mac- and Unix-related discussions are available as well. Mostly,
the DVD players compatibility and user feedback pages are a great reference when trying to determine whether a commercial DVD player meets
your needs.
✦ rec.video.desktop: This Internet newsgroup covers the history, current state, and future trends in desktop video. You find coverage of cameras, techniques, burners, players, and much more related to creating
your own DVDs and Video CDs.
Supplementing iLife with Other Programs
529
✦ The Macintosh Digital Video Mailing List: This e-mail list is available in
individual message or digest form from www.themacintoshguy.com/
lists/MacDV.html. Similar in concept to the rec.video.desktop
newsgroup, this mailing list is a subscription-based, Mac-only discussion.
Commercial enhancements
Many commercial programs and add-ons are available to enhance your iLife.
We touch on a few of the best here.
Toast goes well with iLife
The number one commercial enhancement, in our opinions, adjunct to iLife
is Roxio’s Toast 6 Titanium. The number one CD and DVD burning solution
on the Mac just keeps getting better with every version. Toast 6 brings
numerous new features to the product, ones tying into iLife very well (particularly in the video realm). Figure 2-18 shows the main Toast 6 window, and
Figure 2-19 shows the Audio and Video drawers, displaying their Advanced
tabs.
We just hit the high points here. Toast does so much stuff so well that it
merits a book in its own right.
Book VII
Chapter 2
Enhancing Your
iLife Environment
with Other Tools
Figure 2-18:
Just click
the button
for the type
of disc you
want Toast
to burn.
530
Supplementing iLife with Other Programs
Figure 2-19:
Toast 6
gives you
lots of
options for
audio discs
(left) and
video discs
(right).
In Book IV, Chapter 3, you discover that you can include a data portion on an
iDVD disc containing material accessible to a Mac (or Windows) computer.
Toast includes similar capabilities for audio CDs, with the Enhanced Audio
CD option. You can include photos or even QuickTime movies that supplement the audio tracks. Some older computers don’t support this multisession format, so you also have the option of creating Mixed Mode CDs,
which contain separate audio and data tracks recorded as a single session.
The Video pane is a little deceptive because it supports far more than you
might think at first glance. For example, if you drag a bunch of image files
(say from iPhoto) into the pane, Toast creates a slideshow for you from
those pictures, waiting to be encoded to your choice of Video CD, Super
Video CD, or DVD-Video. Select the slideshow entry in the window and click
its Edit button to display a sheet where you can customize the slideshow:
✦ The Text tab is where you specify what will appear beside the resulting
movie’s menu button.
✦ The Slideshow tab lets you specify the picture to be used for the button,
add or remove slides, reorder the slides, and set independent durations
for each slide (if you want), as shown in Figure 2-20.
Supplementing iLife with Other Programs
531
Figure 2-20:
Toast
enables you
to specify
independent
durations
for each
slide.
Book VII
Chapter 2
For Video CDs, Super Video CDs, and DVDs, Toast also (optionally) creates
an on-screen menu for the disc. Toast allows three buttons per menu but creates additional menus and links between them as needed.
The new ToastAnywhere feature is great for those of you with networked
Macs, only some of which have burners. ToastAnywhere enables you to
share burners with other Toast 6 users on your network or across the
Internet.
Toast It is a contextual menu plug-in allowing you to Control+click a Finder
icon and choose Toast It from the shortcut menu to burn your files without
having to manually add them to the Toast window.
Enhancing Your
iLife Environment
with Other Tools
Even better is Toast’s Plug & Burn capability. If you have a digital camcorder
attached, turned on, and cued to where you want to start importing, the
Video pane displays a camera icon. Just click the Import button, and Toast
starts importing and encoding the video. You even have a thumbnail view of
what’s coming in and remote-control buttons to control the import process,
such as pausing, rewinding, and fast-forwarding the tape.
532
Supplementing iLife with Other Programs
The features included within the Toast application are just the tip of the iceberg. The Toast package includes these supplementary programs:
✦ Déjà Vu: A backup program that allows for automatic or manual backups
of your important data.
✦ CD Spin Doctor 2: This program lets you digitize vinyl records, cassettes
or other tapes, or even live recordings. CD Spin Doctor includes a
number of filters to reduce clicks, pops, and other noises, but you can
also add VST filters for even more control.
✦ Discus RE (Roxio Edition): A version of the Discus label-making software
that assists you in creating your own labels, case covers, and inserts.
Using iTunes Artwork feature, you can emulate professional covers.
✦ Motion Pictures: A new tool added to the Toast 6 package. It’s similar to
the iMovie Ken Burns Effect, but in addition to the Pan & Zoom effects,
cross-fades and soundtrack support are included directly.
One piece from the Toast 5 package that’s missing in Toast 6 is the handy
iView Media utility, a slightly scaled-down version of iView Media Pro. If
you’re upgrading to Toast 6 from Toast 5, you may want to make sure not to
delete this folder because iView Media is a great tool to complement iPhoto.
Elements of Photoshop
When it comes to touching up digital images, iPhoto’s tools can best be
described as “good but minimal.” The only special effect offered is to drain the
color and convert photos to black and white. Fortunately, iPhoto supports
external photo editors. In fact, right from the original iPhoto introduction,
Apple points out that you can use external editors to touch up and otherwise
process your photos without losing the organizational advantages of iPhoto.
The undisputed King of the Mountain when it comes to image editing is
Adobe Photoshop, which comes with a princely price tag at $650. You lose
very few features by choosing Adobe’s personal image-editing application,
Photoshop Elements 2, with a list price under $100. Photoshop Elements
enables you to enhance your artwork, embellishing it with special effects
and dozens of filters. Figure 2-21 shows a simple case cover design produced
for a Super Video CD about Spenser the Boston terrier. Using Photoshop
Elements to simply crop a photo and insert some text using Layer Styles
adds a three-dimensional effect to the caption and improves the cover’s
appearance.
Filters, transitions, and titles, oh my!
We touch on the various iMovie filters, effects, and transitions available from
third parties like GeeThree, Virtix, and eZedia earlier in this chapter. We
mention them again here because they offer you so many options for
enhancing your video:
Supplementing iLife with Other Programs
533
✦ The QuickTime Pro upgrade: ($29.95) This upgrade unlocks a large
number of editing and display capabilities not present in the standard
QuickTime Player application. From adding text tracks to your QuickTime
movies to providing alternate audio tracks and iMovie-like trimming,
QuickTime Pro is a virtual must for the serious iLife videographer. The
Pro upgrade also provides more capabilities when editing your audio
files, although it doesn’t provide filters such as the VST filters used in
CD Spin Doctor.
✦ Totally Hip Software’s LiveSlideShow: (www.liveslideshow.com) This
is yet another slideshow tool for converting your photo collections into
compelling video presentations. It has an iMovie-like interface, but with
features dedicated to slideshow creation. You have control over the
transitions from one slide or group of slides to the next, as well as extensive control over the accompanying soundtrack.
Book VII
Chapter 2
Enhancing Your
iLife Environment
with Other Tools
Figure 2-21:
Using the
tools in
Photoshop
Elements,
you can
repurpose
your photos
to great
effect.
534
Supplementing iLife with Hardware
LiveSlideShow creates QuickTime movies that you can then import into
iDVD, iVCD, or Toast 6 to burn. Or you can just make the QuickTime files
available to other Mac- or Windows-using friends (make sure the Windows
users have QuickTime).
Supplementing iLife with Hardware
The iPod is the most obvious hardware enhancement to your iLife, giving
you the best portable MP3 player available today. Similarly, CD and DVD
burners are obvious hardware accessories to improve your iLife. Here are
some of the (slightly) less obvious possibilities:
✦ Headphones: The ear buds that come with an iPod provide excellent
quality for their size, but what if you want something more or if you find
sticking the bud in your ear less than comfortable? A vast array of headphones, including infrared wireless ones, produce higher fidelity sound
and are more comfortable to wear.
✦ Speakers: The built-in and external speakers that come with most Macs
are okay, and they are actually better than most standard-issue computer speakers. However, they’ll never be the equal to some of the external speakers from JBL, Harmon-Kardon, and others.
✦ Scanners: Digital cameras are great, but many of us have old photographs that we would like to preserve. You can find excellent scanners in
the $100 to $300 range from companies such as Hewlett-Packard, Epson,
and Umax. Many of these scanners even come with slide attachments so
that you can scan slides as well as photos.
✦ Media converters: Just like old photographs, old VHS, VHS-C, Super-8,
and even Beta tapes beg to be digitized. You can copy them onto a
miniDV or Digital8 tape and then import that to iMovie, or you can use a
media converter to go directly from the VCR to iMovie. The Dazzle
Hollywood, Formac Studio DV/TV, and Canopus ADVC are all well
regarded and generally available for under $300. If you know that you’re
going to be going directly to Video CD, though, you can cut out the
iMovie step altogether with Elgato’s EyeTV (www.elgato.com). EyeTV
takes your video input, converts it to Video CD-compatible MPEG-1, and
stores that through a USB connection onto your hard drive. The accompanying software even enables you to do some editing (cutting out
footage, for example) before burning to Video CD with Toast.
✦ Tripods: Tripods are an invaluable tool for both the still and motion
photographer. Using a tripod improves your focus, removes jitter,
smoothes any panning operations, and generally improves your photos
and movie footage.
Chapter 3: Taking a Cue
from the Media Pros
In This Chapter
Shooting tips from digital photo and movie gurus
Recording strategies and techniques for audio
Planning the shoot and shooting the plan
Authoring the DVD
F
irst things first. All we can do in this chapter is show you some of the
techniques used by expert photographers, videographers, and scorers.
How you apply those techniques and your artistic sense are left to experience and genetics, respectively. Like Lt. Commander Data of Star Trek fame,
you can create a technically perfect composition and still have it lack “soul.”
Many subjects discussed in this chapter can easily fill a book (or more) of
their own, and we mention some additional references along the way if
you’re curious enough to explore a topic further.
Taking Better Photos and Movies
The guidelines to create more visually appealing photos and video are so
similar that discussing them separately is redundant. Being static entities,
photos lend themselves to more after-the-fact fixes and repairs. This section
is geared toward photographs; however, the general composition rules
apply equally well to movies.
You rarely see a photo that doesn’t have a subject and a background. The
closest exception we can think of is a field of stars in the night sky or an
expanse of terrain or a water shot from above. Even in these cases, though,
you have a subject. Positioning your subject against the background and
taking advantage of that positioning to highlight your subject is the gist of
photographic composition.
If you have a camera with a high enough resolution, you can work around
many composition problems by cropping appropriately. We show examples
throughout this chapter of how you can fix less-than-optimal compositions.
See Book II to find out more about cropping photos with iPhoto.
536
Taking Better Photos and Movies
Some excellent references on taking better photos and fixing the ones that
aren’t quite right include 50 Fast Digital Photo Techniques (by Gregory
Georges) and Digital Photography: Top 100 Simplified Tips & Tricks (by
maranGraphics) both published by Wiley Publishing, Inc.
Obeying the rule of thirds
Going back to ancient (or Renaissance) times, artists have applied the rule
of thirds to focus attention on their subject or a specific aspect of their subject. The rule states that the focal points in a picture tend to fall along the
lines that divide the picture into thirds, both horizontally and vertically.
Check out portraits, and you find that the principal feature is almost precisely one-third of the way from the top of the picture, as shown in
Figure 3-1. The famous and enigmatic smile of Mona Lisa rests on that line.
Figure 3-1:
Mona Lisa’s
famous
smile rests
atop the
one-third
dividing line.
Taking Better Photos and Movies
537
You can focus attention on your subject by positioning it within a cropped
image if you have enough pixels to spare. This is one of the great advantages
in having a camera that can take shots at a higher resolution than you actually require for your normal printing needs. Check out Figure 3-2, where we
cropped a 1600 x 1200 resolution photo to 1024 x 768, repositioning Maggie
to the upper-right intersection described by the rule of thirds.
Figure 3-2:
Position
your subject
within a
subset of
the frame
and crop.
Book VII
Chapter 3
The more distinctive objects (and people) in your photo, the more likely
your subject will get lost in the clutter. A few things you can try to simplify
your background are
✦ Avoid busy backgrounds. When possible, have a neutral background
behind your subject. A wall or a plain backdrop works much better than
a busy street or a store window.
✦ Zoom in or move closer to your subject. The more your subject fills the
frame, the less the background intrudes. Figure 3-3 shows an example of
how you can zoom in to make your subject stand out.
✦ Try a different angle. Sometimes, by rotating your scene, you can avoid
or minimize the distractions. Similarly, you can lower the camera and
shoot slightly upward to avoid many intrusions at eye level.
Taking a Cue from
the Media Pros
Simplifying the background
538
Taking Better Photos and Movies
Figure 3-3:
Zooming
in (left)
eliminates
most of the
distractions
present
(right).
✦ Change the orientation. If your subject is a person (pretty common situation), portrait orientation puts more of your subject in the picture and
avoids a lot of background. On the other hand, if your subject is a horse,
a landscape shot usually works better.
✦ Mute the background with an image-editing program’s filters. The selection techniques in a graphics program, such as Photoshop Elements, can
allow you to isolate your subject from the background and then apply a
filter to tone down the background, making your subject stand out. For
example, in Figure 3-4, we used the Photoshop Elements Magic Lasso to
select and exclude the subject, and then applied the Gaussian Blur filter
to the background to make Spenser stand out.
Figure 3-4:
Blurring the
background
makes the
subject
stand out.
Taking Better Photos and Movies
539
If your camera takes pictures of a high enough resolution, you can still get a
good print after cropping the image to eliminate background distractions.
Sometimes, you have just one little element disrupting your background,
such as a light switch or electrical socket on the wall. In such situations,
Photoshop Elements or a similar tool works wonders by letting you clone
good portions of the background to cover the intrusion.
Adjusting the altitude
When you want to emphasize a person or object, shooting the picture from
below the subject can help. Conversely, shooting down on a subject tends to
minimize it. Check out Figures 3-5 and 3-6 to see what we mean.
Book VII
Chapter 3
Taking a Cue from
the Media Pros
Figure 3-5:
Shooting up
can make
even a
toddler
seem larger.
Stabilizing the camera
Your camera captures an image during a very short interval while the shutter is open. Tripods are inexpensive accessories that help greatly to avoid
the following problems:
✦ If your camera moves during or just before that interval when the shutter is open, you end up with a blurred image or the subject may not be
framed the way you intended.
540
Taking Better Photos and Movies
Figure 3-6:
Taking a
picture from
above
diminishes
the subject.
✦ When taking panoramic shots that you want to stitch together at a later
time, a lack of stability translates into a panorama requiring a lot of
cropping to avoid white gaps at the top and bottom.
✦ When you’re filming a scene with a camcorder, you want a stable frame
of reference to avoid an amateurish effect of the scene bouncing around.
The darker it is when you shoot, the longer the shutter stays open to capture a clear image. Tripods are even more important in low-light shots.
Throwing some light on the subject
Keep in mind that your camera is an electronic device and that it doesn’t
perceive color in quite the same way as the human eye. In fact, not all people
see color in the same way — many men suffer from some degree of colorblindness (yes, that’s a sex-linked characteristic).
Your pupils dilate in low-light conditions and can lead you to believe sufficient light exists for your shots. In low-light conditions, using reflectors or
fill lights to increase the lighting on your scene and subject will give better
pictures than if you rely on the camera’s flash for additional light. Think of
your flash as the lighting of last resort.
Taking Better Photos and Movies
541
One time when a flash comes in really handy: If you’re in virtually total darkness, you can take a picture of someone (or something) and get a great shot
with almost no background involvement.
The human eye compensates for the color casts inherent in light. A camera
faithfully renders the color of light. Incandescent lights tend toward a yellow
cast, sunlight tends to blue, and fluorescent lights tend toward green. Many
digital camcorders and still cameras have specific settings you can apply for
differing lighting conditions. Check your camera’s user manual to see what
adjustments you have available.
Shooting more than you need
Just as professional photographers shoot multiple images (often staccato
fashion) and filmmakers shoot multiple takes of a scene, you should take a lot
of shots with your camera and extra footage with your camcorder. You never
know exactly which one is going to be best, and having a variety of shots to
choose from enhances the likelihood you’ll produce a better product.
If you can arrange for a second camcorder, try to film the same scene from
two angles, even if they differ only slightly. Sometimes, you get better audio
fidelity from one camcorder than the other. Generally, though, you can swap
angles during your iMovie editing, resulting in a livelier, more realistic scene.
Both digital cameras and camcorders advertise two zoom settings: optical and
digital. We recommend using optical zoom (digital zoom is almost useless).
Digital zoom selects a portion of the captured image and blows it up, similar
to the way you resize an image in a graphics program (such as Photoshop
or Photoshop Elements), discarding the remainder of the captured image.
But you don’t get a detailed magnification of the image, just larger pixels.
Figure 3-7 shows an unzoomed scene; Figure 3-8 shows the same scene,
digitally zoomed.
Optical zoom, shown in Figure 3-9, functions like a telescope or magnifying
glass. It captures the detail by changing your camera’s focal length. Two
types of lenses offer an optical zoom:
✦ Telephoto lenses attach to the camera and provide a fixed magnification.
The advantages to telephoto lenses are that they don’t put a strain on
your camera’s batteries and you can obtain a wide range of magnifications if your wallet can handle the expense of multiple lenses.
✦ Zoom lenses are built into the camera and adjust the magnification incrementally. Zoom lenses, on the other hand, make your camera setup more
portable and allow you to change the zoom more quickly and conveniently.
Taking a Cue from
the Media Pros
Watching the zoom
Book VII
Chapter 3
542
Taking Better Photos and Movies
Figure 3-7:
We shot
this scene
without a
zoom.
Figure 3-8:
The same
scene
shown in
Figure 3-7,
shot with a
digital zoom.
The more you zoom, the more likely you are to need a tripod as even tiny
motions are magnified. Additionally, your camera’s depth of field decreases
as zoom increases — the objects around your subject are less likely to be in
focus (just as items at the periphery of a telescope image are less sharp).
Taking Better Photos and Movies
543
Figure 3-9:
The scene
shown in
Figure 3-7,
shot with an
optical
zoom.
Reading the fine manual
All this means is that you need to read the manual, even with it’s usually
egregious English. Carry it with you whenever you plan to take a lot of pictures until you know your camera inside and out.
Carrying the manual with you becomes more important when you own more
than one type of digital camera, lest you start confusing their feature sets.
Enhancing the sound with an extra mic
Your camcorder’s microphone won’t cut the mustard for most serious
efforts. For one thing, it’s inside your camera where it picks up ambient
mechanical noises and has a limited range, which means that you won’t pick
up speech more than a few yards (or meters) away.
Don’t rely on your camera’s built-in mic. Use an external microphone whenever possible, attached to your camera’s Mic jack, and positioned as close as
practical to your subject. Additionally, use a set of headphones (even the ear
Book VII
Chapter 3
Taking a Cue from
the Media Pros
New camera models appear constantly. Each has different features and capabilities. More than that, some of them have the same feature called by different names (such as shutter priority mode and time value, which allow you to
specify a shutter speed and the camera adjusts the lens aperture to compensate). To make things even more difficult, you may find the same feature on a
menu, a dial, or even a switch, depending upon the camera make and model.
544
Taking Better Photos and Movies
buds that come with your iPod do the job) plugged into the camera’s headphone jack. This lets you hear what the camera is recording. You may be surprised at some of the sounds it picks up that you don’t even notice without
the headphones.
Many microphones come with foam covers. Keep the foam cover on when
recording as, contrary to what you may think, their purpose isn’t to protect
the mic — they’re windguards that filter sibilant sounds, such as wind, as
well as mitigating the presence of some popping sounds, such as the sound
of a b or p.
Finding out more on the Internet
While most everyone is at least a little bit familiar with the Web, a bulletinboard-like system, called Usenet, predates the Web and is still very active.
With tens of thousands of newsgroups (topic areas) available, newsgroups
are an excellent vehicle for interactive learning. Two newsgroups, in particular, are especially useful to photographers or videographers: rec.photo.
digital and rec.video.desktop.
If you are unfamiliar with Usenet newsgroups and the software to access
them, check out what’s available at www.newsreaders.com/mac/clients.
html or www.macorchard.com/usenet.html. These sites also contain links
that tell you more about Usenet newsgroup organization and operations.
Figure 3-10 gives you an idea of the discussion topics available on a random
day in rec.video.desktop.
Depending on your ISP, the shelf life of Usenet messages can be very short.
Some high-volume groups (particularly those with large binary postings in
addition to text messages) can have messages being purged in under one
day. The established discussion groups, such as rec.photo.digital, do
not fall in that category. In most cases, messages are still there after a week
or more, so you can trace through the related messages as well (these are
called threads).
A superb digital camera and camcorder Web site with an enormous collection of information, reviews, and links is Steve’s DigiCams (http://
steves-digicams.com). You even find discussion forums for specific
brands of cameras as well as general question and answer (Q&A) forums.
Many (and we’re tempted to say most) camera manuals are very poorly written. If, as is likely, your manual falls into that rather large niche, you can seek
out a better one at www.shortcourses.com. The books are all written on
heavy stock and spiral bound. In addition to the available manuals for most
major brands, you can also find tutorials, camera pocket guides, and digital
photography and video references.
Capturing Better Audio
545
Figure 3-10:
The rec.
video.
desktop
newsgroup
is an active
discussion
board with a
wide range
of desktop
video topics.
When you want the latest reviews of camera models, probably the best site
to check is the Digital Camera Resource page (www.dcresource.com).
Capturing Better Audio
“Garbage in, garbage out” is every bit as true of audio as it is video or any
other kind of data you process. Whether you’re making a QuickTime movie,
ripping music for your iPod, or making a DVD doesn’t matter — you need the
best audio you can get as a starting point. Given a choice, you should start
with AIFF or WAV (the PC world’s equivalent of AIFF) files rather than
already-compressed formats, such as MP2, MP3, or AAC. If you must work
with compressed formats, find the highest bit rate that you can.
Using the right hardware and software
As built-in microphones go, the ones built into iMacs, PowerBooks, and so on
are near the top of the heap; however, built-in is a huge qualifier. Compared to
traditional microphones, they aren’t all that great. In fact, the PlainTalk mics
that came with many older Macs were appreciably better, and professional
Book VII
Chapter 3
Taking a Cue from
the Media Pros
Although Kodak tends to push its own brand, you can also find a lot of useful
general information at the Kodak Web site (www.kodak.com). Just click the
Consumer Photography tab and then the Taking Great Pictures icon.
546
Capturing Better Audio
mics and USB microphones, such as the iVoice (Macally Peripherals, www.
macally.com) or the Verse-704 (Labtec, www.labtec.com) are better yet.
The Griffin Technology iMic (www.griffintechnology.com) is a USB device
allowing you to plug in almost any kind of microphone. In fact, with a simple
cable connection, you can plug a stereo tape deck or turntable into the iMic
microphone port to capture your audio.
Roxio Toast 6 Titanium comes with a support program, CD Spin Doctor 2,
built specifically to capture audio input from tape players and stereos. The
program then helps you clean up the hisses, whistles, and pops that are so
common in analog media, divide the capture into tracks, and store your
tracks on your hard drive. Figure 3-11 shows the CD Spin Doctor 2 window,
with the Filter drawer open.
Figure 3-11:
CD Spin
Doctor 2
imports and
helps you
clean up
your audio.
The version of CD Spin Doctor that Roxio included with Toast 5 was accompanied by a cable with RCA mini-plugs at one end and a line-in plug at the
other to facilitate attaching an audio device to your Mac. This cable is not
included in the Toast 6 box.
Another way of capturing high-quality audio is to record it on your digital
camcorder. Use the analog input jack to capture the audio from your original
source and then import it into iMovie, where you extract the audio track,
discard the video, and export the AIFF file to your audio editor of choice,
such as CD Spin Doctor or Amadeus II ($25 shareware from HairerSoft, www.
hairersoft.com/Amadeus.html).
Preparing the Shoot
547
When recording a movie on your digital camcorder, make certain that the camcorder is set to record 16-bit sound rather than 12-bit audio. Not only is 16-bit
sound higher quality, but synchronization problems occur when you export an
iMovie with 12-bit audio. If you do have 12-bit audio and want to avoid the synchronization problem, use QuickTime Pro to convert the 12-bit audio back to
16-bit audio before you encode your QuickTime movie or use iDVD.
DVDs not only use 16-bit audio, but that audio is sampled at 48 kHz — even
higher than the 44.1 kHz used for CD audio. If you import your audio at 48
kHz, you save some time during the iDVD encoding process.
Recording narrations
iMovie includes a Record Voice button in its Audio pane and, after you set up
the hardware (or choose the Mac’s built-in mic), you may think that you’re
just about done. You’d be wrong, though. Speaking into a microphone and
getting good results is not as easy as TV shows make it seem. Here are a few
tips for improving your recording:
✦ Clear your throat and do a little test count before you start recording to
make sure that you’re really ready.
✦ Test the microphone to make sure it is turned on and operational.
✦ Eliminate background noises wherever possible. This includes closing windows and turning off electronic devices (such as TVs, radios, and stereos).
✦ Have a script and practice it before you record. The first reading or two
are likely to be somewhat stilted and artificial. Extemporaneous presentations tend to have uhs, hmms, and ers, besides being of unpredictable
duration.
✦ Time your presentation so you know whether to speed up, slow down,
or adjust the material in order to match the footage in length and timing.
Recorded audio clips are also limited by iMovie to just under 10 minutes.
Where iMovie continues importing video and creating new clips seamlessly,
recorded audio narrations terminate when the limit is reached. Plan your
narration accordingly. Break it into separate recordings based upon your
rehearsals. In addition to working around the length limit, limiting a session’s length results in a clearer, more engaged voice.
Preparing the Shoot
You may think that preparing a storyboard, script, shot list, budget, and so
forth are only applicable to commercial moviemaking. Au contraire, mon frère!
Taking a Cue from
the Media Pros
✦ Get close, but keep a few inches of separation between the mic and
your lips.
Book VII
Chapter 3
548
Preparing the Shoot
In fact, you’ll find that equipment lists come in handy even for casual photography, such as when you take pictures of the kids at the park or the
beach. Preparing a checklist of such items as extra batteries, additional
memory cards, and whatever lenses and filters you may need prevents you
from missing some possibly great memories.
The preparation and groundwork becomes even more critical when making
movies. Unless you’re just stringing together a haphazard collection of
footage, you need to think about what message you want your project to
convey. Similarly, you need to consider why you’re making the movie and
who your intended audience is. Answering these questions lays a solid foundation for the scenes you want to shoot and what sort of effects and soundtrack you employ.
Planning the scope
After you answer the fundamental questions, start planning your project.
You can consolidate a plan in many ways, but all of them share one set of
goals. They list the tasks you need to perform and show dependencies
between the tasks as well as the costs arising from the tasks — you may
have to license some audio, rent some equipment, pay an access fee, and
consider travel costs in both time and dollars.
You can create an outline (something that would make your old teachers
beam with pride), chart the movie out the way a programmer or systems
engineer flowcharts a software project, or use the bureaucrat’s planning tool
of choice, a PMS (Project Management System). Some tools in these categories include:
✦ Outliners: Microsoft Word and AppleWorks both include quite functional
outliners. If you want a clean, stand-alone outliner, though, check out
Omni Group’s OmniOutliner ($30, www.omnigroup.com/applications/
omnioutliner) or DEVONthink PE ($35, www.devon-technologies.
com/products/devonthink.php).
✦ Charting tools: You can just draw and connect boxes using the
AppleWorks Draw module, but updating a chart of this type is a tedious,
manual operation where you have to rearrange all the subsequent boxes
and connectors when something changes. If you’re a visual person, consider OmniGraffle ($70) or OmniGraffle Pro ($120) from the Omni Group
or Kivio mp ($90 download or $100 on CD from theKompany.com, www.
thekompany.com/products/kivio). A portion of an OmniGraffle project plan can be seen in Figure 3-12.
✦ Project Management Systems: If you want to go the full Gantt and PERT
chart route, with bill of materials, automatic cost tracking, and all the
other amenities and intricacies of a professional project planning and
tracking tool, then you want a Project Management System. If you don’t
know what those terms mean, then a PMS is probably not for you.
Preparing the Shoot
549
A couple of inexpensively priced PMS products are Creative Manager
Pro ($35, Creative Manager, Inc., www.creative-manager.com/al0003)
and Intellisys Project Desktop X ($89, Intellisys Inc., www.webintellisys.
com/project/desktop.html).
Project Management Systems require tremendous discipline, extreme
attention to detail, and fastidious maintenance to produce status
reports, schedules, and budgets that are grounded in reality. Using a
PMS and understanding its nuances is the subject of many books far
thicker than this one. If you fail to accurately account for every detail,
your results will be misleading or just plain crazy reports. But, if you
have the experience and discipline, you’ll be able to recognize problems
well in advance — a major help in minimizing the problem’s impact or
avoiding it altogether.
Director’s Notebook is a shareware application that simulates the production notebook for a television producer or director (http://homepage.
mac.com/directors_notebook/index.html). It organizes all the information you need for preproduction, production, and postproduction (which
means it is useful if you already organize your projects the way TV or video
producers do). You can try the scaled-down version, NotePad, designed for
iLife users, available from the same site.
Book VII
Chapter 3
Taking a Cue from
the Media Pros
Figure 3-12:
OmniGraffle
helps the
visual
planner lay
out a
project.
550
Preparing the Shoot
Filling in the details
If your project requires narration, or if you’re creating a non-documentary
film, you need to write a script. In addition to providing the words your audience hears, a script also gives direction to the performer as to where to look,
enter, exit, or pause. A script can be a casual text document created in
TextEdit, Word, or AppleWorks (for example). If you want to be even more
professional about it, consider professional scriptwriting software, such as
Final Draft AV ($179, www.finaldraft.com).
Whether or not your movie has dialogue, narration, or scripted action, you
still need part of what a script provides: the shot list. Determine what scenes
you’re going to use as well as where, when, and how you’re going to shoot
them. Preparing a shot list helps you avoid missing any of the shots you
need. Some scenes may end up on the cutting room floor, but you probably
won’t have to scramble at the last minute trying to fill in a gap.
Additionally, take your script and list the scenes where you want to set chapter markers. Play with rough menu designs until you get something that fits
both your vision and the material you have on hand. This is often called a
storyboard. To find out more about chapter markers in iMovie, see Book III.
Budgeting time and money
You’ve probably heard the adage, “Time is money.” We don’t think they’re
exactly the same, but when you’re developing a project, they bear a lot of
similarities. Both need to be budgeted (though budgeting time is usually
called scheduling).
This is where your script and, in particular, the shot list come in handy. Go
through the shot list and note any equipment you need to purchase or rent,
any locations you need to rent or arrange, the tapes and discs you need to
record and burn your project, and any people (actors, writers, or stage help)
you need to hire. If you do a cost analysis before you start shooting, you can
avoid running out of money partway through by either arranging more funding or refining the project so that you stay within your means.
Don’t forget about miscellaneous items that require budgeting, such as
tapes, cables, batteries, microphones, lights, and (probably) a tripod or gyro
stabilizer. Keeping an inventory of needed equipment and scheduling its use
helps ensure that you have what you need when you need it.
Similarly, after you have the list of shots itemized, figure in how long they
require for shooting (including travel time and making allowances for multiple takes to make sure you get what you’re after). You may find that you
can’t do everything you want to do in the time allotted for the project.
Planning for the DVD
551
Planning for the DVD
Creating the DVD involves more than just exporting an iMovie, slapping
a button or two on the screen, and telling iDVD to burn the disc. The
storyboard is a big part of planning your DVD. It tells you how many menus
you need and how to navigate them. This design also gives you a heads-up
on which still images, audio, and video you want to extract from your iMovie
to use as buttons and menu backgrounds.
If you’re distributing your DVD to friends, family, or business associates, also
consider the artwork you’ll use for the DVD case cover, an insert, or even a
label to place on the DVD. Still images extracted from the movie make great
illustrations for such items.
Make sure that you know the precise running time of your movie. If you have
high-action scenes, you want the highest bit-rate encoding iDVD has to offer.
That means that you want the movie to be less than 60 minutes in length. Go
over 60 minutes, even just by a hair, and iDVD encodes at the 90 minute bit
rate, which can show a quality loss in fast-moving scenes.
Keep in mind that a movie can have only 36 chapters when you’re planning
your scenes and menus. Prioritize wisely.
Book VII
Chapter 3
Taking a Cue from
the Media Pros
552
Book VII: iLife Extras
Index
Numbers &
Symbols
1-Click technology, iTunes
Music Store, 21
8mm analog
videocassettes, using
with digital equipment,
208
35mm cameras,
photographs,
converting to digital
images, 102
A
About option (iPod), 477
ACC Encoder
dialogs, settings, 57–58
non-music files and, 63
overview, 55
procedure for using, 57–58
ACC file format,
overview, 56
accessing
Desktop Preferences, 117
shared music over
network, 51
accounts, Music Store,
18–19
Across option (contact
sheets), 180
Activation pane (Screen
Effects pane), 115
A-D (analog-to-digital)
converters, 225
Add to Library command
(iTunes), importing
music files, 25
addresses, importing into
iPod, 487
Adjust Colors option
(iMovie Effects pane),
250
Advanced Options button
(Print dialog), 177
Aged Film option (iMovie
Effects pane), 250
AIFF encoder
CD-R capacity and, 74–75
importing music for CD
burning, 75
overview, 55
procedure for using, 61–62
AIFF file format,
overview, 56
alarm (iPod), 475–476
albums (iPhoto library)
arranging photographs,
110–112
creating, 108–110
desktop and, 112–117
duplicating, 112
overview, 88, 107–108
photographs, removing,
112
screen effects and,
112–117
slideshows, creating, 156
slideshows, speed
settings, 160
smart albums, creating,
117–118
albums (iTunes library),
displaying contents
of, 33
Always display song info
option (Visualizer
Options dialog),
overview, 15
analog videocassettes,
using with digital
equipment, 208
analog -to-digital (A-D)
converters, 225
animation, screen effects,
112–117
antique (sepia)
photographs, creating,
151–152
AOL, You’ve Got Pictures
service, 102
Apple ComboDrive,
capabilities, 72
Apple ID, prints, ordering
from Kodak, 181–183
Apple Loops, overview, 374
Apple SuperDrive,
capabilities, 72
AppleScript
iDVD, 519–521
iLife applications and, 516
iPhoto, 517–518
iTunes, 517
archive, photographs
backups, 131–132
moving libraries, 132–133
overview, 130
arrow keys, iMovie
playback and, 212
arrows indicator (iTunes
library), 34
artist names (iTunes),
editing, 38
Artwork option (Song
Information dialog), 42
Audible
audio books, importing
into iTunes, 27
bookmarks (iPod),
476–477
audio. See also music
capturing, enhancements
for, 545–547
capturing, recording
narration, 547
audio books, importing into
iTunes, 27, 62–63
554
iLife ’04 All-in-One Desk Reference For Dummies
Audio button (iMovie
media pane), 212
Audio CD option (Disc
Forma