June 1983 - American Radio History
53.00
June 1983
Volume 14
i
STUDIO 1'ESIGN AN/,) CONSTRUCTION IN A PROBLEM ENVIRONMENT
- Number 3
- PAGE 74
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WHO MULTIMEDIA
PRODUCING AUDIO FOR
*PE
RECORDS
FILM
LIVE PERFORMANCE
VIDEO
- PAGE 88
20 BROADCAS
Dallas's newest statt -o(- the -art
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STANDARD FEATURES:
28 Inputs, 24 Buss, 24 Monitoring
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ANOTHER PRETTY
we created ANGELA
we knew she had to have
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finest low -cost 24 track console
in the world. For her to achieve
this, we had to maintain total
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When
design and construction. We
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Instead, we built her with the
same superior design and
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built! She has Mil-Spec Patch
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ft-e,' p 2 June 1983
130 dB
Phantom pow
Stereo Sub roups
Board, Gold Pin Edge
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are 5532 -4s and TLO 74s and she
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To find out more about
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R -e /p 3 D
June
1983
Making the Bist Even Ratter
ItNew Englan
biting New Syndaviir IlOpticii.s
New England Digital Corporation is pleased to announce
exciting new options to be available as additions to all
Synclavier Il's.
Once again, with the release of these options, New
England Digital honors its commitment to steadily upgrade the Synclavier II.
This consistency could only be possible from a company
whose product incorporates tremendous hardware /software flexibility and power. The Synclavler ll has them
both!
DIGITAL GUITAR OPTION
Guitar Players welcome to the world of computer
music! The synthesis power. creativity and flexibility of
the Synclavier II can now be offered to guitarists using
New England Digital's revolutionary new digital conversion process. Complete access to all of Synclavier II's
capabilities, such as digital synthesis, automated music
printing and Sample -to -Disk"' are now yours. A unique
16- button LED panel attaches simply to all Roland GR
guitars to allow convenient access to important
Synclavier Il real -time features. (Available August 1983)
-
t
-..
7.7
IMINID
=W.
ti.,.cWvk7 u
Optional Ebony Model Synclavler
II
Keyboard
Roland GR is a registered trademark of Roland Corporation, Japan
Synclavierm
II
is a
registered trademark of New England Digital Corporation
SAMPLE -TO -DISK "Polyphony"
STEREO OPTION
The company which offered the only high fidelity sampling system worldwide with a sample rate of 50kHz, 16 -bit
data conversion, and extended sampling time to Winchester Disk (pictured below) is planning an exciting new
enhancement for the Synclavier II's Sample-to-Disk option ... POLYPHONY. New England Digital engineers are
now working to expand the sampling capability to be
completely polyphonic. The same high -fidelity sonic
capability and high resolution presently offered will be incorporated. The new polyphony option promises to add
one more amazing capability to the Synclavier II.
Now any Synclavier II can be simply upgraded to produce fantastic live stereo results. Many elaborate stereo
control modes never before possible from any system or
recording environment come standard with Synclavier
II's new Stereo Option. Increase your Synclavier II's
sonic capabilities, plus save valuable production time
and expense by going direct from Synclavier II's 16 -track
digital recorder to 2 -track tape!
MUSIC PRINTING "Enhanced"
In March of 1983, New England Digital released a new,
enhanced version of software for Synclavier II's Music
Printing Option. Now, important aspects of western
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music printing system which is available today
and
works.
...
Z- 80 /C.P.M. OPTION
"Personal Computing"
Available for all Synclavier II systems is the convenient
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users to purchase computer industry standard C.P.M.
software programs to aid their personal or company
computing needs. Whether it is accounting, word processing, or computer games, New England Digital's
Z-80 /C.P.M. adds another dimension to the remarkable
Synclavier II.
To New England Digital these additional options are just
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day we believe the Synclavier II will be a complete music
production facility. We also know that it takes a series of
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Synclavier il Instruction Manual
--
i
--
-
--
--
_-
-
---
0111.1111WI
r--------_.___
D.C.
.
- waa
A complete and descriptive Instruction Manual is available
for $85 (USA & Canada) and $100 US (elsewhere).
For more information
please call or write
A
4.
CODA
or one of N.E.D.'s only
authorized distributors:
.
New England Digital Corporation
Box 546 Attn: B1
White River Junction, VT 05001
802/295 -5800
New York:
Digital Sound Inc.
2121977 -4510
Los Angeles: DJCS
213/274 -8512
Turnkey
202 -4366
Brussels: Trans European Music
569-1823
Montreal: Sound Box
514/489 -6851
Johannesburg: Sunshine Records
793-2913
London:
Actual Music Printing Sample. Reduced
For additional information circle #2
04141&e.45
new
nglond digital
R -e /p 5 D
June 1983
1983
N E D.
REGO ONG
Volume 14
- Contents -
ENG/NEER HflJDUCER
-
the magazine to exclusively serve the
RECORDING STUDIO and CONCERT SOUND
industries
those whose work involves the
engineering and production of commercially
marketable product for
Records and Tape
Film
Live Performance
Video and Broadcast
.
.
.
--
-
-- the magazine produced to relate recording
ART .. to recording SCIENCE ... to recording
EQUIPMENT.
-
-
...
Studio Practice
Soundcraft Series Four Consoles
-
Assistant Editor
SANDY ST. CLAIRE
Art Director
HOLLY FERGUSON
Advertising Service
Manager
LAUREL CASH
Business Manager
V L. GAFFNEY
Circulation /Subscription
Manager
CLAUDIA NEUMANN
-
AUDIO ANALYSTS' CONCERT SOUND FOR
THE STYX "KILROY WAS HERE" TOUR
Including Turbosound Speaker Cabinets and
MARTIN GALLAY
MEL LAMBERT
ROBERT CARR
- Consulting Editors
-
SYSTEMATIC APPROACH TO THE DESIGN AND
OUTFITTING OF A STUDIO MAINTENANCE SHOP
by Roman Olearczuk
page 40
A
Concert Sound
ROMAN OLEARCZUK
Technical Operations
DOUGLAS HOWLAND ... Broadcast
STEVEN BARNETT... Film
DAVID SCHEIRMAN
Live Performance
3
Production Viewpoint
Three decades in the recording industry ... sessions with Barbra
Streisand, Neil Young, Steely Dan, Bill Evans, Claus Ogerman
AL SCHMITT
winner of a 1983 Grammy Award for
co- production and engineering on Toto IV album
by Robert Carr
page 26
EMI
Editor /Publisher
Managing Editor
Feature Writer
1983
- June
Number
by David Scheirman
page 50
-
Creativity in the Studio
AN ENGINEER'S GUIDE TO MUSIC
Understanding the Basic Syntax of a Session
by Following Music Scores and Charts
by Jimmy Stewart
-
Studio Design and Construction
BABY 'O RECORDERS -A Second -Floor Studio Complex
with its Own Particular Sound Isolation Problems
by Larry Blake
4 1
"RECORDING Engineer/Producer"
(LISPS 768 -840)
is
published six times
a
year by GALLAY
-
tl
:
i
n
1
Controlled Circulation Postage
paid at
Los Angeles, California
Postmaster: Send form 3579
Address correction to:
RECORDING Engineer /Producer
P.O. Box 2449
Hollywood, California 90078
(213) 467-1111
R -e /p 6
June 1983
74
-
CONCERT, TORONTO
A Multimedia Extravaganza
Combining High -Quality Audio and Video Distribution for
FM
Broadcast, Theatrical Presentation, and Cable
Television
by Paul D. Lehrman
Technology Perspective
page 88
-
THE GRATEFUL DEAD -A Continuous Development
of Concert Sound Design for Twenty Years
by David Gans
page 98
Live- Performance Sound
RECORDING Engineer /Producer is not
responsible for any claim by any person based
on the publication by RECORDING Engineer/
Producer of material submitted for publication.
Material appearing in RECORDING
Engineer /Producer may not be reproduced
without the written consent of the publisher.
page
Audio/ Video Marriage
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COMMUNICATIONS, INC., 1850 Whitley
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One year (six issues) subscriptions may be
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page 64
-
NOTRE DAME COLLEGIATE JAZZ FESTIVAL
Overcoming Unfavorable Acoustics to Provide Complex
Sound Mixing and Monitoring Facilities
page 104
- Departments
- Exposing Audio
page
News - page
Mythology: Laying to Rest Some of the Pro -Audio Industry's More
Obvious "Old Wives Tales," by John Roberts - page
Industry
Inventiveness in The Eighties: Diversification and Specialization
-A Profile of Synthesizer Player and Studio Owner, Bruce Lowe, by
James Riordan - page 21 Studio Update - page 82 On The
Studio Trail - At The Plant, Sausalito, by Mel Lambert - page 86
New Products - page 112 Classified - page 127 Advertiser's
Index - page
El
Letters
12
12
14
130
!bold a seas tell to your ear and hear nature's pure and
natural sound. Compare it to the final sound produced by a
ti:ve. \ou'll begin to understand why Neve is far and away
the most respected name in audio mixing.
le Neve so Ind is so pore and natural, one might suspect
that nature herself had a Banc in the design. Perhaps.
Not every engineering achievement can be explained away.
Fiere are mysteries in nature, just as there arc mysteries
Some suggest that Neve's unique Form intSpcetrum Equalizers account for its unparalleled sound by taking into
account the psycho- acousti_ properties of voice aad music
while satisfying the critical demands of balance engineers.
natn -made.
For further information, call us, of wrille.
R
IN
Others claim it's superior technical performance. novel
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III agree on one thing: To capture sound at it %purest, aspire
to Neve.
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1
DO SOMETHING GOOD
FOR YOURSELF
The creation of the Audioarts Engineering 8X Series console marks a new turning point in the technology accessible -o
the 8. 16 and 24 track recording profession. This conso e
series affords the features and technical excellence previously available only in larger track formats
features like three band sweepable frequency semi -parametric equalization. full
24 track monitoring capability. mixdown subgrouping. stereo
monitor sends, electronically balanced inputs and outputs,
truly flexible effect send and return functions. and fully modular plug -in construction.
-
The features don't stop here: 8X Series consoles also
include super solo sections (giving instant access to pre fader post -fader and tape solo), comprehensive slate and
talkback systems. a built -in calibration oscillator. and a high
speed LED metering array in an easy -to -read meter bridge
assembly. Standard module features include XLR balanced
inputs (both mic and line), XLR balanced outputs (buss and
stereo master outs), continuously variable mic and line input
gain controls. switchable phantom power, phase reverse,
pad. 12dB octave high pass filter. EO bypass switch. channel
01 button (w LED indicator), channel peak clip LED. and the
e.<clusive Audioarts
p astic linear fader.
M -104
precision conductive
The 8X is an excellent choice for the small studio in need of
upgrading performance or expanding format. For he large
studio the 8X is an ideal system for your Studio B or 24 track
rrixdown room. Because it is compact the 8X is also ideally
suited to video and remote recording applications.
Whatever your application, the Audioarts Engineering 8X
recording console comes loaded with features previcusly not
found on medium format systems. The mixing engineer is
afforded maximum control and creative freedom. The tech nical excellence of this console approaches the theoretical
limits of today's technology. If you demand sonic excellence,
meticulous craftsmanship and flexible control take a good
look at the 8X.
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AUDIOARTS ° ENGINEERING
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COLLINS ROAD BETHANY, CT. 065251203i 393 0887
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Every sound engineer
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The I. trsa lajorr 8X32 digital revcnceratorr puts pure
magic at your fingertips. Touch a button and you're transported to a concert hall stage. Touch another and hear
sound roll through vast, empty canyons. And another. to
conjure up a bright. tight plate that adds body to brass and
drums. And then another: a larger plate, warm and beautifully balanced for voices.
In fact, the 8X32 lets you create and explore an almost
infinite universe of acoustic environments. Four pre-set
programs establish basic spatial qualities: then, the
microprocesso)r-based controls all( ny you to separately
fine tune all seven key reverberation parameters. For more
control, there's a full remote console. LEDs that constantly display all the panel settings, and 64 registers of
URSA MAJOR, Inc.
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ilatile memory to preserve and recall useful set -ups.
\nd the 8X 32's acoustic spaces sound real. Rich,
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If you'd like to add a little magic to your sound, spend
some time with an 8X32. We invite y(au to write us for
detailed system specifications, prices (surprisingly low),
and the name of a local Ursa Major dealer. See for yourself
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The 8X32 DIGITAL REVERBERATOR
Box 18, Belmont, MA 02178 USA
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For additional information circle #4
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URSAMAJOR BELM
R-e /p 11 O June 1983
990
THE BEST OP -AMP
Electronic design by Deane Jensen,
Jensen Transformers
Packaging and production design by
John Hardy, Hardy Co.
elte5 re
`J
:AUDIO MYTHOLOGY
/r,nn: Don Hopson,
engineering manager
KJQY -F M
San Diego, CA
I enjoyed John Roberts' article in the
April issue of R e p "Kxposing Audio
Mythology," page 21 and look forward
I
1.
to future discussions.
On the subject of absolute polarity:
have had mixed results with the experiments i have conducted. I would agree
that when care is taken throughout all
the recording and reproduction steps,
that the effect is audible. However, one
area where absolute polarity is important, and which should be of interest, is
when an announcer(orvocalist) is hearing his or her own voice on headphones
at the same time it is being broadcast or
recorded.
If the headphone polarity is reversed
relationship to the microphone, the
voice sounds like you are talking in a
barrel with a very "phasey" sound quality. This effect is noticed only in real
time. Play hack the saine voice through
the headphones. and it is difficult to tell
a difference one way or another.
Certain radio stations which have
"all -pass" polarit} scrambling networks in their audio processing have
had to resort to some sort of direct microphone audio to the headphones, in
order for the announcer to understand
himself. All other material can be monitored off the air as normal.
in
Some of the satisfied users:
MOBILE FIDELITY
JVC CUTTING CENTER
SUNSET SOUND, Hollywood
SONY, Digital Audio Div
CAPITOL RECORDS, INC
20TH CENTURY FOX
(Console by De Medio Engineering)
ARMIN STEINER
K -DISC
MASTERING
DE MEDIO ENGINEERING
JENSEN TRANSFORMERS
BONNEVILLE PRODS
WFMT, Chicago
Complete specifications and
documentation available.
Manufactured by and sold exclusively thru:
THE HARDY COMPANY
P.O. Box AÁ631
Evanston, IL 60204 USA
(312) 864 -8060
June
Thank you for your input: I was not
aware of the phenomenon. I suspect
that the problem is related to the parallel signal paths (conduction through the
head, and microphone/headphones),
since delay and phase shifts in parallel
paths can cause the described symptoms. I would like to hear of others'
experiences in this situation.
M79 REPAIR UPDATE
from: Rich Houston
Rohnert Park, CA
I recently re -read the December 1980
R-e /p article on modifying the 3M M79
recorder prior to performing a
ABC -TV
R -e /p 12
John Roberts replies:
1983
"transformer-ectomy" on a local studio's 24 -track machine. One problem
appeared that readers may be interested
to note. By including the suggested 5
kohm resistor in series with the input [ to
"mimic" the 10 dB voltage gain loss
caused by the input transformers, and
also increase the input impedance to 7.5
kohm], an apparent RC effect was
created in our particular case. High frequency response began to roll off
around 3 kHz, and was down 4 dB at 10
C
J
kHz. After removing the resistor, HF
response was restored. It should also be
noted that the jumpers that replace the
input transformer should be installed in
a criss -cross fashion on the PC board.
One final comment: if you modify all
channels on the machine first and then
test the result, you'll find your spare
parts inventory increasing dramatically.
NEW STUDIO ASSOCIATION
FORMED IN TEXAS
In reflecting the continued growth of
the audio production industry in the
region, a new alliance, known as the
Professional Audio Recording Association of Dallas /Ft. Worth (PARA), has
organized some 90% of the area's major
recording studios, and many related
facilities.
The purpose of PARA is to foster mutual understanding and support among
members through the exchange of ideas,
experiences, and knowledge; to present
the organization as one that represents
standards of excellence to both its
clients and industry peers; and to present the organization to the business
community and the public at large as a
creditable member of the communications industry.
Newly elected officers include:
President: Paul A. Christensen, president of Omega Audio & Productions,
Inc., Dallas.
Vice-President: Jim Hodges, president, Buffalo Sound, Ft. Worth.
Secretary: Norma Swafford, co- owner,
Edenwood Recording Studios, Dallas.
Treasurer: Les Studdard, general
manager, January Sound Studios,
Dallas.
Recently PARA participated in a teleconference with the Society of Professional Audio Recording Studios. The
New York, Atlanta, and Miami chapters
of SPARS were linked with the Dallas
chapter of PARA to discuss the subject
of Audio for Video.
PARA plans to sponsor four seminars
during the year, featuring prominant
speakers on revelant industry subjects.
In addition, the Association is cooperating with other area associations, including the Dallas Communication Council
(DCC), The Texas Association of Film
and Tape Professionals (FAFTP) and
The Texas Music Association (TMA),
the Dallas Producers Association
(DPA), and the Audio Engineering
Society.
For membership information contact
PARA, Les Studdard, membership
chairman, 3341 Towerwood, Dallas, TX
75234. (214) 243-3735.
...
NEWS continues on page 122
-
The pioneers of 24 track recording
make the best even better.
Less than ten years ago, MCI introduced a radical new
concept that made other multi -track recorders obsolete.
The design was based on a totally servo controlled transport.
all new and all D.C. And it made the pioneers of 24 track
recording the most imitated designers of professional tape
recorders in the industry.
Today, independent international surveys rank MCI multitrack recorders as the most popular in the world. Yet MCI
continues to refine, redesign and improve its professional
line -now adding totally new audio electronics for the
future. Contact your nearest Sony /MCI Professional Audio
dealer for details. And demand the best. Demand MCI.
For information regarding surveys contact: Professional
Audio Products. Sony Communications Products Company.
Sony Drive, Park Ridge. New Jersey 07656.
'
FOr
additional information circle
a9
14h1
\..m
C.wp. of America. ti..m
i,
a
registered trademark .d the
!,.. Corp.
EXPOSING AUDIO MYTHOLOGY
Laying to Rest ... or at least exposing the false premises
upon which they are based
some of the Pro -Audio
Industry's more obvious "Old Wives Tales"
...
by John Roberts
n the first part of this issue's
column on digital audio, I would
f
) like to look at some of the design
p in meters for digital technology, and
try to explain how they are decided.
While there will not be a single set of
correct solutions to the digital dilemma.
there will be different optimum compromises for different applications. In
part two, I'll be considering the "new"
RIAA replay Ell curve; more on that
later.
THE DIGITAL TRADEOFFS
from digital data is a smoothed stair
step approximation of the original; the
fineness of those stair steps determines
how close the digital reproduction
comes to the real thing.
Compromise #1: The number of
bits. It could be argued that analog signals are not really continuous, but
rather the combined effect of a very
large number of discrete electrons flowing through a circuit. If, _rom basic
physics theory, a one- ampere current
now equals 6.2.1 x 10I' electrons per
second, then milliamp for 20 microseconds (equivalent to a 5C kill. sampling
rate) will represent the fl )w of 1.25 x 10"
electrons. To describe 0- at with single
electron resolution woul require a digital word :17 bits long! If nstead we
choose the dy:tamic range of human
hearing to define the absolute, we end
up with a somewhat saner word length
of 2(1 bits (w1 ich represents 120 dB,
since each additional hit increases the
available dynamic range by 6 dB).
1
If
there's a myth to puncture about
Digital Audio, it would he that digital
often is considered to be a "no compromise system." Since an analog waveform
is quantitized along the amplitude axis,
and sampled along the time axis, the
only time the digital output will exactly
equal the analog input is for a very large
number of hits, and an infinite sampling rate. What we actually get when
reconstructing an analog waveform
..
.w.:4et.. i-k".:i..
-
1
+.ifZt'wJiiitnil:.-r'`ti»e.. rv.KatA:
While there is not much debate that 20
bits is more than enough (2 "' quantums;
1.048 million discrete levels). there is little agreement as to the acceptable minimum number of bits. I'm sure every
designer would love to spec in a 20 -bit
parameter for digital systems; however,
he'd soon be looking for another job!
First of all, the state -of- the -art in audio
speed analog -to- digital converters isn't
anywhere near 20 hits; and if it could be
done it would probably cost an arm and
two legs.
So what we end up with is a price performance tradeoff. How many bits can
we afford? And will anybody buy it at
that price? For that reason "consumer"
manufacturers have been pushing for
1.1 -bit standards (84 dB dynamic range),
while the professionals have settled on
16 -hit (96 dB theoretical) as the present
SOTA. Note: There is a lot of less than
16 -bit "pro" equipment out there, most
with some form of compansion noise
reduction. ('l'he problems encountered of
which has noise reduction will be the
subject of another column). The bit levels we have to work with are dictated by
cost considerations. If XYZ, Inc., wer.. to
come out with a $2.25 18 -hit analog-todigital converter there would he a stampede. But for now we must make do with
14 -and 16 -hit systems.
Compromise #2: Sampling Frequency.
àM r ,:.
To a lesser degree, sampling
frequency also is driven by cost considerations, although not quite as hard.
Once again there is no debate that sampling at 100 kHz would be wonderful.
However, it would take twice as much
memory (or tape, or whatever) to store
the same signal as a system using a :i0
kHz sampling rate. Although the price
of memory has come down quite a bit
during recent times (thanks to the blossoming market for personal computers),
it is still a factor in low -cost digital products. After all, how would you like your
"long- playing" digital wacker to only
play for five minutes? There are other
factors influencing the choice of a sampling frequency standard, including
A I) conversion speed, and compatability with existing high -bandwidth storage mediums, such as videocassette.
Thanks to information theory we can
define an absolute lower Emit for the
sampling frequency: "You must take at
least two samples per cycle to recover a
given frequency component-" As will be
well -known to K -c p readers, this relationship is known as the Nyquist Theorem, and simply predicts a sampling
frequency of two times the highest frequency of interest. The sampling frequency question is further complicated,
however, by a phenomenon known as
"aliasing." Signals that happen to be
more than one half the sampling frequency don't just disappear: instead
they heat against the sampling frequency, and pop up as some new frequency. ( For example, a 20 kHz signal in
a system sampled at 32 kHz would reappear as a 12 kHz "phantom" signal.)
While this may he interesting perhaps
for some special effects, its not too
musical.
And this leads into our third compromise, which is so closely linked to the
second that we should call it Compromise #2' Anli- aliasing filters. To avoid
contaminating the signal with those
nasty "aliases," we must filter the
incoming signal sharply above the
bandwidth of interest. Since real-world
filters don't roll -off like the proverbial
brick wall, we must allow a guard band
between the passband and Nyquist
limit (half the sampling frequency). 'l'o
achieve the maximum bandwidth for a
given sampling rate, or to get the minimum sampling rate for a given bandwidth, the anti- aliasing filters must be
¿wry steep, and usually are realized by
cascading multiple -pole filter sections.
Because it is impossible to "stop
band" filter a signal without causing
phase shift and other effects in the
passband, these anti -alias filters can
have a significant effect on the final
resu:t. I suspect the major audible difference between today's better digital
systems is related to the design of these
filters. (See reference #2 for further
comment on the audibility of anti aliasing filters.) It should also be noted
that the signal must pass through
another lowpass filter after the I) A, to
smooth out the stair steps into a continuous waveform. Phase and amplitude
errors produced by this filter will add to
those of the anti -alias filters.
I ligher sampling rates enable simpler
anti- aliasing filters for two reasons.
Firstly, the significant audio bandwidth stops somewhere around 20 kHz,
allowing a wider guard band between
passband and Nyquist limit (as sampling rates are pushed above I() kHz). In
other words, the wider the guard band,
the milder the roll -off needed for a given
attenuation. Secondly, the higher the
Nyquist limit the less natural energy
there is to filter out. If the sampling frequency was high enough, there wouldn't
even need to be anti -alias filters (except
perhaps to keep out high -frequency garbage like bias or multiplex noise).
Well, I hope I have adequately defined
the questions faced by today's digital
designer: how many bits, how many
samples, and how much filtering? Now i
would like to hear your comments as to
how well digital is working, or not working, for you in the practical reality of a
recording or production studio.
There is another interesting method
for digitizing signals, called Delta Modulation. instead of quanitizing an
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EXPOSING AUDIO MYTHOLOGY
amplitude sample to 12 or 16 bits 45
thousand times a second as with traditional PCM techniques Delta Modulation digitizes the difference between
the input signal and an internally generated approximation to one bit (that's
right, one bit), at sampling rates on the
order of 80(1 kHz. 'For a full description
of the various forms of Delta Modulation, see Richard De Freitas' guest editorial, "Delta Modulation -Fact from
Fiction," published in the February
1983 issue
Ed.
While it is a little difficult to try and
compare Delta Modulation with PCM
techniques, it is interesting to note that
--
-
because of its high sampling rates, the
former does not suffer from the typical
Nyquist- related problems. As usual you
don't get something for nothing, however. In certain designs, because of
sampling -rate limitations, Delta Modulation can suffer from a poor high -
frequency headroom characteristic
(slope overload), and an undesirable
quantization spectrum. (dbx has made
some interesting improvements to the
state of Delta Modulation; see reference
#3).
Modulator circuit to make the resultant
audio suitable for professional applications (such as companding noise reduction). This lack of easy manipulation in
the digital domain possibly makes
Delta Modulator designs less powerful
than PCM for the studio of the future.
However, it does offer great potential for
today's self -contained equipment
(analog -in/ analog -out).
Reading for Extra Credit
"The Digital Recording Science," by
Daniel Gravereaux; R-e /p December
1980, page 44.
2. "Time Correction of Anti-Aliasing
Filters Used in Digital Audio Systems,"
by John Meyer; AES Preprint #1911
1.
While it is possible to process and
operate on a Delta Modulated signal in
the digital domain, it becomes much
more complicated because of the analog
processing placed around the Delta
(E -7).
"The dbx Model 700 Digital Audio
Processor; Design Parameters and Systems Implementation," by Robert W.
Adams; R -e/p October 1982, page 150.
3.
THE "NEW" RIAA PLAYBACK
EQUALIZATION CURVE
I have noticed from manufacturers'
advertising (mostly relating to broadcast phono pre-amps) that there seems
to be a serious misunderstanding about
the actual RIAA playback equalization
standard. While the RIAA specs the
playback EQ as three time constants
(75, 318, and 3,180 microseconds) from
20 Hz to 20 kHz, several manufacturers
have added a fourth time constant of
7.95 milliseconds ( -3 dB at 20 Hz). A
broadcast consultant's newsletter even
went as far as to publish this new "sup-
VE
T
posedly" RIAA spec with values to 0.1
dB all the way down to 2 Hz!
This was indeed news to the RIAA,
since it hasn't changed the specification
in years. What these manufacturers and
that unlucky newsletter have latched on
to is an IEC (International Electro
technical Commission) bulletin issued
in late '77 or '78, proposing a 7.95 millisecond, playback -only rolloff. For
whatever reason, the RIAA declined
this proposed change and restated its
original three time constants over a 20
Hz to 20 kHz range (as specified in Bulletin E -1, dated November 1978). Prior to
1978 the RIAA curve was only specified
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1983
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from 30 Hz to 15 kHz.
Since the RIAA doesn't spec (or care
about) the response below 20 Hz, the
only conflict between the two curves is
at 20 Hz and the octave or two above.
Why the Fuss?
From my experience with phono preamplifier design, I can readily appreciate the logic of the IEC proposal. After
the oil price shocks of the early Seventies, the decline in record-pressing quality seemed to accelerate, with truly flat
records becoming the exception to the
rule. Add to this the availability of
higher compliance phono cartridges,
wide -range speaker systems, and DCcoupled power amps (for all that DC
music), and you've got potential prob-
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R -ei p 17 O June 1983
For additional information circle #12
SERIES 4 FEATURES. All
,
-
-
1
-
EXPOSING AUDIO
111
Tl l OLOGY
lems down in the infrasonic end of the
frequency range.
On a properly set up turntable, the
tonearm /cartridge mechanical resonance will fall within theta to 10 Hz range.
with warp energy peaking in the 2 to .5
Hz region. Since most single -stage pre
amps rely upon a blocking capacitor to
reduce 1)(' offset errors ( Figure 1), this is
an ideal place to roll off the gain. There
is a problem with doing that, however,
since it is virtually impossible to ensure
a flat response at 20 Hz, and have any
usable attenuation down at the 5 Hz
region where warp energy becomes problematic. To incorporate the IEC pole
the RC' network in Figure 1 must be
tuned for 7.95 milliseconds ( -3 dB at 20
Hz) and, presto, you've got 12 dB of
attenuation at 5 Hz (but at the cost of
being down dB at 40 Hz; -3 dB at 20
Hz).
-
1
How Does It Sound?
Since I am able to switch between
RIAA and IEC replay EQ on my reference pre -amp (there being an additional
-12 dB per octave roll -off filter below 10
Hz) I have been able to monitor and
compare many commercial pressings
with both equalizations.
On most records the IEC position
sounds better. On the few classical and
even fewer pop rock that have any
extreme low -bass information the I EC
a room.
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Not all equalizers are created equal. You know that
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They clearly appreciated the versatility and functionality of eight bands of EQ with fully adjustable
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I
orb an
R-e /p 18 O
June 1983
With the turntable only three
feet from one of the speakers, I expect
the IEC pole was supressing some low level acoustic feedback. Which tells me
150P
two things: first, the IEC pole can be
47K
useful in some real -world applications;
and, secondly, I should put my listening
room in order.
While it would be wonderful for the
RIAA to adopt the 7.95 millisecond time
constant as a record- playback characteristic, it is not likely to happen. The
RXC=7.95ms for IEC
errors introduced by using the 7.95 milRXC))7.95ms for RIAA lisecond constant as a single -ended roll
off( as proposed by the IEC) appear to be
acceptable, and are probably preferable
in mid -fi and some professional applicaFigure 1: Single -stage Phono Pre -Amp
tions (like discotheques, where high
position sounds "tighter," however SPI, and acoustic feedback could be
slightly diminished.
problematical). As elegant as the 7.95
Since i have made such a stink in the millisecond rolloff may be for the mass
past about using vague words to des- market, it just doesn't cut it for reference
cribe sound quality (see my column in pre -amps. After all, you can't be RIAA
the April issue on Audio Terminology), ±0.1 dB, and -3 dB at 20 Hz at the same
let me try to define what I mean by time!
"tighter" bass. Tight bass, and it's
As usual I invite other opinions on
opposite terms "flabby- or "sloppyy," is a this matter; write me care of the R -e /p
function of the attack and decay of low - office.
frequency sounds. For example, a tight
Incidentally, you can determine
bass sound would have a quick attack which equalization curve your pre -amp
and a quick decay, while the sloppy bass is designed for by using an oscillator
may overshoot or lag on attack, and and a wideband AC voltmeter. Apply a
tend to overhang or decay too slowly.
very low -level 1 kHz signal to the preWhile a simple one -pole roll -off filter amp input. (The signal will be on the
shouldn't affect the dynamics of a sig- order of a few millivolts, so use a -40 dB
nal, my listening room is a classic case pad if you have one.) Adjust the input
of having too much power in too small of level until you read -10 dB (ref: 0.7746
For additional information circle #13
TLX: 17 -1480
You can actually hear the difference.
Since its introduction, the Ampex ATR -124 has
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Standard features include
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Plus you get all the
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Why Beyer microphones give you more extraordinary
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Reer M
There are other microphone
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sound pressure is a factor.
When you need a rugged and
versatile microphone,
consider the alternatives.
As Sennheiser claims, the MD 421
undoubtedly stands up to extremely
high decibel levels and has other
features that have contributed to
For over 10 years, engineers have
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studio. And we feel that one of the
main reasons more engineers don't
use the Beyer M 201 in this context
is simply because they don't know
about it. Those who have tried
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The M 201's Hyper -Cardioid
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its popularity. But if you're already
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Documentaaon suppornni;
June
spec dic comparative
1983
You may not always need a
condenser microphone for
'critical "recording applications.
Some engineers prefer condenser
microphones like the AKG C 414
to accurately capture the subtle
nuances of a violin or acoustic piano.
But should you have to deal with
the complexity of a condenser system
every time this kind of situation
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The Beyer Dynamic M 160
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Beyer Dynamic microphones offer
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For additional information circle #15
EXPOSING AUDIO MYTHOLOGY
volts) at the pre-amp output (245 millivolts AC). Now change the oscillator
frequency from kHz to 20 Hz without
changing the oscillator level. You will
now read a much larger voltage at the
pre -amp output. A level of +9.3 dB, or
2.25 VAC, will indicate true RIAA
response, while an output of +6.3 dB, or
1.6 VAC will indicate IEC response.
1
(The accompanying table provides
comparisons for frequencies between 2
Hz and 20 kHz.)
COMPARISON OF IEC AND RIAA
REPLAY EQ CURVES
RIAA
IEC
20 kHz
-19.60
-19.6
16 kHz
-17.7
-17.70
8 kHz
-11.9
-11.91
4 kHz
6.64
-6.6
2 kHz
-2.61
-2.6
0.00
1 kHz
0.00
Frequency
400 Hz
200 Hz
100 Hz
50 Hz
30 Hz
31.5 Hz
20 Hz
10 Hz
5 Hz
2 Hz
+3.8
+8,2
+12.9
+16.3
+17.0
+16.3
+12.8
+7.6
-0.2
+3.81
+8.22
+13.11
+16.96
+18.61
on at least two major points. The first is
that as an industry, we grew too fast;
and the second is that the current
market conditions are forcing new, and
more substantial, practices within our
business. In short, the recording industry is growing up. The industry, of
course, will survive and grow both in
sales and good business sense, but what
of the individuals caught by this sudden
burst of adolescent awkwardness? How
are they surviving the transition?
Necessity, it is often said, is the
mother of invention, and the key to survival in today's record industry is
inventiveness. The purpose of this new
column is to examine the background of
individuals who have rolled with the
changes and continued to prosper, in
the hope that a lot can be learnt from
their experiences. However, this column
is not going to focus on the recognized
leaders of the industry because, in most
cases, they are too well shielded to feel
the necessity that produces the invention. Instead, I intend to throw a spotlight on several career professionals
who, R -e p feels, have applied a new
approach, or discovered a more precise
direction to use their talents. I would
like to encourage those of you who feel
you have something unique to share
through this column to write me, care of
the magazine, with a brief description of
your experiences and ideas.
Many of these short articles will dis-
SYSTCM
-
+19.30
*
*Note: the RIAA curve is not defined
below 20 Hz.
If you measure something higher or
lower than these two figures, it's probably a good idea to check some of the
other frequencies to the RIAA EQ table.
If your pre -amp is more than a small
fraction of a dB from the specification
between, say, 200 Hz to 10 kHz, you
should tweak it up, or ship it out.
A word of caution: Many meters are
not sufficiently accurate to a small fraction of a dB, especially when switching
between ranges. If enough R -e/p readers are interested, I'll offer a circuit for
an inverse RIAA network that will simplify such measurements. (The circuit
attenuates and pre -amphasizes the signal from the oscillator to look like it was
coming from a record.)
:-- .,.
t
.{{.t,t..
111111111111j
11
°
t
f
55
its
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* External
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INDUSTRY
INVENTIVENESS
IN THE EIGHTIES
A Profile of
Synthesizer Player
and Studio Owner,
-
BRUCE LOWE
by James Riordan
All of us are aware of the many
changes currently happening within
the record industry. Without becoming
too immersed with the myriad of different views regarding the causes and
solutions to the contemporary slump in
record sales, I think most of us can agree
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R-e /p 21 D
June
1983
INDUSTRY INVENTIVENESS
approaching one's career occasionally
they can work together. The subject of
cuss two of the best known methods for this first column, electronic music specoping with economic upheaval: Diver- cialist and multi -keyboardist Bruce
sification. and Specialization. Put Lowe, illustrates the application of both
simply, diversification can be explained methods with a respectable degree of
in terms of concentrating on new and success. Most of these profiles will be
additional directions for one's talent to with individuals who are either a masproduce earning power, while speciali- ter of diversification, or a master of spezation often is referred to in terms of cialization. From all appearences, Lowe
concentrating on a specific talent, or seems to be a master of both.
area of career interest. The former genBruce Lowe started out playing keyerally increases income by providing boards and guitar in his native Ohio,
more opportunities to work, and the lat- and eventually concentrated on piano
ter by increasing one's fee for the same at Ohio State University. Working his
type of work because of your additional way through college at a music store he
expertise. Specialization in the record- became exposed to synthesizers for the
ing industry also can mean additional first time, an instrument that would
work opportunities by cutting down on later result in his working with Stevie
one's competition; i.e., becoming an Wonder, Andre Crouch, The Commoexpert in a particular area, so that you dores, Michael Jackson, and many
are only competing for jobs with a very others.
few others. A good example of diversifi"The synthesizer opened up a whole
caiton would be the case of a recording new range of possibilities in the way
studio that gears up to do commercials that I approached my career," he
and film sound post- production, to make recalls. "It gave me new freedoms in
up for less album recording revenue. An that I soon learned that I could dupliexample of specialization would be the cate other instrument sounds with my
recording studio that purchases some synthesizer. I no longer had to put up
advanced SMPTE timecode equipment, with the difficulty of getting players
in order to handle some of the more dif- together, because I had an orchestra at
ficult audio /video synchronization my fingertips."
work that the majority of studios currently are unable to attempt.
Diversification
While diversification and specializaSeizing upon this freedom as a
tion seem to be at opposite ends of the method of developing faster, Lowe
spectrum, in regards to a method of threw himself into two areas simultane-
BRUCE LOWE
ously: synthesizers, and home studios.
Building up the quality of his home
recording equipment, and improving
his technique in procedures such as
track bouncing, allowed him to lay
down enough synthesizer tracks to
duplicate an entire musical ensemble.
This required that he learn synthesizer
programming in depth, and here we
come to his first area of specialization.
"I had gone from taking electronic
music classes to teaching them, but
there was so much to learn about programming, and very few places to learn
it at the time," he concedes. "A real
break for me in this area came when I
became one of only six people chosen to
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Solo switch w/LED, Electronically balanced line in, Transformer balanced mic in
Conductive plastic faders, EQ bypass
switch, High pass filter switch, 20 dB pad
switch, Phase switch, Direct outputs.
99 East Magnolia
R -e /p 22
June
1983
eY'ie#aacóned eVud>io ,9e2:,=iQea
Womita/rcy
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R-e /p 23
0 June 1983
INDUSTRY INVENTIVENESS
work with Alan R. Pearlman, the
founder of ARP Electronics Corp. They
offered an intensive training course in
Boston, where everyone shared programming ideas and patches. We
learned how to interface various key boards and new devices for an entire
month, and they paid for everything."
Becoming an expert in synthesizer
programming paid off handsomely for
Lowe. After graduating from Ohio
State, he relocated to the Los Angeles
area, and before long wound up working
with Stevie Wonder. "He was looking
for someone to program his synthesizers, do special effects, and computer
programming for his album, The Secret
Life of Plants. Usually we worked
together six days a week. He wanted certain sounds, and I would try to program
them."
By concentrating on his craft Lowe
had become a recognized expert in a rel-
atively short time. His specialization
produced results, but when the music
industry began tightening its belt, Lowe
learned to diversify his talents into
other areas.
"As a programmer i can do sounds for
video games, pinball games, and a
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Synthesizer programmers who also
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Performing live opens up more opportunities and as an accomplished key boardist Lowe performs regularly with
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Organ. I played all the synthesizers. My
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Currently, Lowe has in his collection
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R -e /p 24 D June 1983
Lowe's considerable attention to
home -recording techniques also has led
to substantial income as a producer and
studio owner. "i've been producing
demos for about seven years. I kept
upgrading my recording equipment
with good outboard gear and better mixing consoles. It makes a lot of sense,
especially in these times, to demo a project on four or eight tracks, even if you
have to stack them so that you can get a
real sense of direction when recording
the master. i've done a lot of demos in
my studio for songwriters and groups to
get them ready for a master, besides a
lot of work that is strictly geared as a
demo to shop for a recording deal.
"Of course, you can't make as much
money producing a demo as you can a
master, but it makes for a great way to
fill in those down times with a good
income. Producing demos is also a good
way to discover new talent that you
might want to later record in a master
situation."
His home studio also allows Lowe to
experiment with a lot of tape effects, and
record his own songs while playing
most of the instruments. He uses the
studio often to develop material for his
band, Himalaya, which currently is
recording an album project.
Control -room equipment at Lowe's
demo studio includes a four -track rig
(Tascam Model 5 mixer and Model 44
multitrack), and a separate eight -track
system (custom 24/8 console and Otari
MX -5050 MkIII). Monitoring is handled
by JBL and Yamaha NS -100 speakers
driven by SAE and BGW amplifiers.
... concluded on page
130 -
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Al SI:HNI,11,
lnlrrt
r, i[
ed h\ Robert Carr
1950, AI Schmitt started work at Apex Recording in New York ('ity, alongside chief engineer Tom
)owd. The studio thrived on sessions for many of the top R &B groups of the Fifties The Drifters, Clyde
1cPhatter, and The ('lovers. But by 1958. after stints at several smaller studios in the Big Apple, Schmitt
elocated to the West ('oast. His first job at Radio Recorders lasted only about a year and a half (long
nough to record Elvis' first post -army album G.I. Blues), at :which time he made the jump to the new RCA
itudios on Sunset and Vine in Hollywood. Schmitt won his f rst Grammy there for engineering duties on
lenry Mancini's ¡latari album.
Around 1964, the yen to become a producer was so strong that he took a cut in pay to work in RCA's A &R
lepartment. For five years Schmitt didn't touch a recording console. but his separation from engineering
wentually came to an end. Since 1968, he's been independent, and during that time has worked with
artists such as Barbra Streisand (The Way We Were), Neil Young (On the Beach), Steeley Dan (Aja), Bill
:vans, Randy Crawford. and Al Jarreau, and has earned two additional Grammy Awards for George
enson's Breezing and, most recently. Toto IV, which he shared with co- engineers Greg Ladanyi, Tom
knox, and David Leonard. Reflecting on his colorful 33 -year career seemed like the perfect place to start
n
he
-
interview.
R -e /p (Robert Carr): Throughout your
career you've produced, engineered sessions, and worked in A &R. Are you just
engineering now, or still doing projects
in other capacities?
Al Schmitt: Basically I'm just engineering, but I'll do some production if
it's a project I'm really into. I usually
like to produce something that's different and unique, like the Jefferson Airplane, Al Jarreau, and Jackson Brown
sessions. But I don't do production as
much anymore.
R -e /p 26
June 1983
I've found that it's awfully difficult to
engineer and produce at the same time,
at least for me. I tried that with Al Jarreau's fourth album [Fly Home], but
there were just too many things to concentrate on. I'd be trying to focus on
getting a sound right, and I'd miss
something else. So I ended up hiring
Hank Cicalo to engineer for me.
Doing both simultaneously could
work, but it depends on the artist. If it's
a group, and you have somebody from
the group sitting in the control room
with you who can be aware of the feel, or
whatever, it helps a great deal. But
doing both by myself is too difficult for
me anymore.
R -e/p (Robert Carr): Going to the other
extreme, what's it like working with
Toto, where everyone in the group is the
producer?
Al Schmitt: Toto is great to work with.
Whoever writes the tune seems to be the
one that's mostly in charge of what's
going on. David Paich wrote most of the
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our price.
So it was up to us to improve on our own standards.
Like fitting the interchangeable 16/24 track headblock
as standard, and incorporating an improved servo
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And that makes Soundcraft the all round winners for
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-
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R-e /p 27 C
June 1983
Long View Farm discovers a new range
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Long View Farm Recording Studios
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For additional information circle i22
R -e /p (Robert Carr):
OBOES
HIGH RISER
material on Toto IV, so he basically did
most of the producing, along with Jeff
[Porcaro]. But [guitarist Steve]
Lukather had a tremendous amount of
input on his own ballads. For the individual performances, like guitar solos or
piano solos, it was pretty much left up to
the individual player.
VIOLAS
BASSES
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Everybody moni-
tors themselves?
Al Schmitt: Pretty much so, with input
from everybody else. They're such great
pros. That's another aspect to consider.
Engineers who are just starting out
usually work with musicians who also
are just starting out. So it's tough for a
young engineer to get a good drum
sound on a drummer who doesn't have a
good -sounding set of drums, or doesn't
have them tuned right. If you can't get a
good sound on Jeff Porcaro, you're in
trouble. The same with Steve Gadd or
John Robinson; any of the big session
players. Once an engineer becomes
established, and begins working with
the better musicians, the job becomes a
lot easier.
These guys play in the studio everythey know what their instruday
ments should sound like. The first time
the group runs down a tune, I'll stay in
the studio, and listen so I know exactly
what they sound like live. Then when I
go into the control room I have a reference to work with, and it's just a matter
of trying to get in the control room what
I heard in the studio.
A lot of engineers have their own
drum sound that goes from record to
record, no matter who the drummer is. I
don't have an "Al Schmitt drum sound."
I try to capture the sound of the
drummer in the studio.
Another thing: some engineers screw
around for three hours trying to get a
sound on something. I don't know of
any album that's ever sold because of a
drum sound. I think if the "feel" is there,
that's what is important.
-
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ROOM AND MICROPHONE LAYOUT FOR KLAUS OGERMAN SESSIONS
AT CAPITOL STUDIOS, HOLLYWOOD. ENGINEER: AL SCHMITT
on their parts. If the drummer is worrying about the sound of his drums, it has
to take away from the performance.
Over the years, you build up a reputation as an engineer. The musicians who
have worked with me know they don't
have to deal with the sound. And I
always ask them if everything is
alright, and whether there is something
I can do to make them more comfortable. I value their opinion.
Some engineers get their sound, and
don't give a damn what the musician
thinks. You tend to get a little friction
there. The last thing you want is for the
musicians not to like you when you're
trying to record; you've got to have them
on your side. You are all there for the
to get this record to
same reason
sound good, and to get the "feeling."
The musician is the guy who's going to
do it for you, so you need .him on your
-
side.
R -e /p: Do you have a technique for get-
ting the bass guitar and kick drum R -e /p: Doesn't that tension in the studio
sounds to blend, and still stay separate? often show up on the record?
AS: If it sounds like they're muddying AS: I've seen it happen; situations
together, I'll try moving mikes on the where the drums or bass sounds bad,
kick, and maybe changing the EQ just a and the musician, after a while, doesn't
touch to get the parts to fall right. But, give a damn. At first, he's trying to get a
again, if you're working with good play- good sound, but the engineer maybe
ers, you usually don't have that prob- can't do anything to help him, or doesn't
lem. They can adjust immediately to know how to help him. Then, all of a
sudden, the player doesn't care any
what's happening in the earphones.
The players are your greatest allies. If more. He can't fight four or five hours
you have a good rapport with the guys, straight trying to get the sound. If the
they'll do almost anything you ask, engineer can't do it by then, he's in
especially if they know you're trying to trouble.
I've got to tell you, as fast as you can
give them a good record. But nine times
out of ten, you don't have to ask; they're put something down on tape and play it
always looking to see if everything is back for the guys even if you know it's
they'll hear it and adjust
not right
alright.
Once [the musicians] trust you, and themselves so the second take clicks
they know they don't have to worry into place.
about what's happening in the control
room, there's a whole diffferent rela- R -e /p: That makes your job a lot easier,
tionship between the engineer and too.
players. The musicians can concentrate AS: It sure does. I don't care who they
- -
are, nobody wants to fool around in the
studio spending an hour, two hours ...
I've heard of guys spending four or five
hours trying to get a drum sound. By
then, it's time to go home and come back
the next day. Everybody's burned out.
I try to get my sounds and balances
while the band is running through the
tune the first time. Then we're ready to
put one on tape so they can come in and
listen right away. It shouldn't take more
than 20 minutes.
R -e /p: Have you done a lot ofjingle work
during your career? It sounds like that
was a big part of your background.
AS: Yes. That was years ago, back in
New York, but I haven't done jingle
work in ages. When I first started making records, everything was monaural,
and all the parts were done at one time.
So you had to get your sounds quick. We
used to complete three or four tunes in
three hours. One album with Ray Charles and Betty Carter took 61/2 hours.
And that was with an orchestra. We'd
go direct -to -mono and direct- to -twotrack. At the end of the day, the producer
would give me the sequence, we'd
arrange the tunes in order, and the
album would be finished. It was great.
The first studio I worked at didn't
have a tape machine. We'd record on
16 -inch transcription disks with two or
three cuts on a side at 33-1/3 RPM. I had
to be extremely careful of my levels, or
during playback the needle would skip
all over the place. It was great schooling, because it really helped me keep my
balances and levels together. I had to
blend everything at one time, so I
learned quickly how to put a horn section together, or how to balance violins,
violas, and celli.
R -e /p: What is your technique for mik-
ing strings?
AS: When I do a large string section, I
R -e /p 29 Aune 1983
RECOLLECTIONS OF JAPANESE SESSIONS
Over the last few years, trade with Japan has escalated to phenomenal proportions.
While much of the flow is from East to West, in the form of cars, cameras, state-of-the-art
audio and video technology, musical instruments, and a myriad of electronic gadgets and
gizmos, the demand for American music in Japan remains practically insatiable.
Al Schmitt has had the opportunity to work in Japan, as well as engineer some sessions
in the U.S. for distribution in that island country. The point of departure for the following
conversation centered on a comparison of the two recording worlds.
"Many Japanese producers come to the United States," he offers, "primarily because
they want to use the musicians and the engineers that
are here. It's kind of a selling point, too. For some
reason, engineers are a lot more famous in Japan than
here in the States. When I was over there, I would get
people coming up to me asking for my autograph, or
too sign albums. One guy pushed an album toward
me, and I asked him, 'Where the heck did you get
this ?' It was some obscure album that I'd almost forgotten about. I think they sold about 20 copies, but it
was one of his favorite albums!
"I think the biggest problem in Japan at this point is
experience, in terms of how to record. I just did a project for distribution in Japan, and one
guy paid his own way over here just to watch me mix. What a great compliment.
"From what I understand, the Japanese spend most of their time mixing. Studio time is a
lot more expensive for recording than it is for mixing down, so they try to get the recording
done quickly. That translates into recording instruments really tight and then, in the mix,
trying to get the open sound that I get from recording techniques. When I recorded there, I
worked in two studios. One was really tiny, and the monitoring system was a bit strange.
Luckily I had brought a reference tape with me. I knew what it was supposed to sound like,
and was able to adjust the monitors accordingly.
"The second studio had everything
great equipment, great microphones, large
rooms, and a good monitoring system. I could make some great records there. But, again,
the biggest problem for the Japanese engineers is how to mike things. I'd be doing a
session, and when I'd get up from the board to take a break, there must have been 20 guys
there with cameras snapping pictures of the board to get the EQ settings, and everything
else. They shoot the mike set -ups, measure the heights of the overhead microphones from
the cymbals, and so on. They'd write all the numbers down as if that was the answer. 'Al has
the mike eight feet from here, so if we put it eight feet away it's going to sound the same.'
Well, the next time it could be 'Ph feet, or 8!, feet
it depends on your ear. I'm sure when
one of those guys did a session, he had the mikes exactly where l did, and if it didn't sound
the same he probably couldn't figure out why it wouldn't work.
"1 think the Japanese should send more of their engineers over here to learn our
techniques. Or, better yet, hire some of the American engineers to go over there and give
classes on mike techniques and mixing. That's really all they lack.
"Also the players are not as mature, which is understandable in a young industry. A
drummer over there may play like [session percussionist] Steve Gadd, or be influenced by
him, but probably wouldn't have his drums sounding like Gadd's. That will give the
engineer trouble, too, when he's trying to get the tracks to sound right. If the tom is boomy
in the studio, it's going to be boomy on the tape. Then when the drummer hears it back, he
goes into the studio and spends 10 minutes hitting the drum trying to get it to sound right. I
can't stand that ... it drives me crazy. And I won't go out and help a drummer tune his
drums. You can really dig yourself into a hole there.
"1 don't want you to think it was a bad experience. I had a good time. I'm looking forward
to going back again."
Turning to sessions recorded in the States for release in Japan, Schmitt recalls a recent
tracking date at Sunset Sound Recorders, Hollywood, with a band called Charizma. "We
had two drummers, Carlos Vega and Jeff Procaro," he remembers. "Lenny Castro on
percussion, David Paich on acoustic piano, David Garfield played Rhodes, Neil Larson on
organ, Dean Parks and Steve Lukather on guitars. Dean Cortez played bass, and Ernie
Watts and Tom Scott saxes. One more guy played a Steinerphone, an electronic wood
wind, sort of like a Lyricon. We did it all live
no overdubs; live solos. Everybody went for
it. We did it in 10 minutes. The sound was there; it was just a matter of doing the take. We
video-taped it, too. You don't get too many opportunities to do that anymore.
"Miking was conventional, with close mikes on the drums and a couple of room mikes. I
had the two saxes in a booth. They were isolated, but they could see out. The Leslie for the
I Hammond] B -3 was isolated in a room. Everything else was out in the main studio:
acoustic piano, two drummers. Both of them used a full set, and Jeff also had Simmons
[electric] toms that went direct. Rhodes and bass direct, too. Guitar amps were goboed off.
Once we locked it in, it was great. When you get that caliber of musicians together, each
guy stimulates the next. Everybody plays up to their full potential. And I got off on the
-
-
-
energy, too.
I{
p 30
June 1983
open up the mikes all the way around,
and get all the room [ambience) I can. I
go for the leakage among the sections,
so the violins aren't coming from one
direction, the violas from another, and
the celli from another. I want eveything
to blend. Omnidirectional mikes give
me that.
talking about all the microphones beingomnis, not just the room
mikes?
AS: Right. For example: Capitol [StuR -e p: You're
dios, Hollywood] has about 15 [Neumann] U -67s. I put them all up for composer /conductor Claus Ogerman's
recordings I for example, Cityscape and
Gate of Dreams
Ed.]. Every microphone was open all the way around
)omnidirectional], and up about 15 feet
above the strings.
Claus has so much control over the
orchestra. He'll listen to the first playback, and if he wants a little more of the
violas in one section, and a little more
celli in another, he won't ask me to dig
for those things. He'll tell the viola section: "Listen, on this bar I want you to
come out a little more." I leave everything set the same way, and that makes
a big difference.
-
R -e /p: ! assume
that you'd record a
string section the same way regardless
of whether it's for an orchestral piece, or
as background for a rock group?
AS: Pretty much. Unless somebody's
got a certain sound they're looking for.
If there's six violins and they want a
really "present" sound, of course I'll
bring the microphones in. That's a matter of the arranger's interpretation. Or
the producer may want a certain effect.
But, in general, you try to keep it the
same.
still use omnidirectional mikes if you were coming in close
to the string instruments?
R -e p: Would you
AS: I always do. I did a session at Sound
Labs [Hollywood] with 12 violins. The
ceiling is not very high, but I had two
microphones about a foot below the ceiling, and open all the way around. I was
amazed at how great they sounded -the
concert master, and everybody else who
came in the control room, had their
mouth open. It's a wooden room, and we
got the slap off the ceiling into the backside of the mike. I was amazed.
R -e p: Having recorded such a diverse
collection of musical styles and combinations of instruments, do you approach
each session a hit differently?
AS: It's a different approach as far as
the set -ups are concerned. If it's a full
40 -piece orchestra, you don't want a
really tight, small rhythm- section
sound. You want the rhythm section to
be open and airy, too. A lot of times I'll
use a stereo mike on the overhead drums
for a little room ambience. And depending on how I want that to blend with the
rest of the orchestra ... In other words, if
I'm overdubbing a 40 -piece orchestra to
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R -erp 31
June 1983
--
a rock, rhythm track
or any rhythm
track for that matter I want the two
recordings to sound like they were done
at the same time like the drums were
leaking into the strings. I don't want the
strings to sound like they're coming
from all over the place, and the drums to
be concentrated to a particular spot. I'll
keep the ambience recording on a
separate track, and blend in however
much I need to make the drums and
strings match.
-
front of the amp. It was a small amp
with not very much bass [output], so we
got a lot of top -end from there.
R -e /p: On several of your recordings, the
bass sound just jumps out of the record.
Not that it was unbalanced, but it has
such a "life" to it. Like on the Claus
Ogerman piece, "Time Passed
Autumn," from the Gate of Dreams. In
fact, the whole album had such a
smooth, natural ambience to it.
AS: You're talking about what we did in
Studio A at Capitol Records [Hollywood]. That room has such a marvelous
sound, especially for strings. The room
has a very even decay, and one of the
greatest live echo chambers. I just love
it, because it's so natural sounding. It's
great on vocals, too.
R -e /p: Going to the other extreme,
let's
consider the Bill Evans Trio, and the
album You Must Believe in Spring, produced by Helen Keane and Tommy
LiPuma. That session didn't have a
condensed sound to it, either; it was very
open.
AS: Right.
had a stereo mike on the
drums about 10 or 12 feet over the kit,
and one mike each on the kick and snare
just four mikes on the drums. I had
three microphones about five feet from
the piano, and a stereo mike about 15
feet away.
I
-
R -e /p: Were the players isolated, or
spread out from each other?
AS: The players were real close. We
tried to get that "trio" sound. We didn't
worry about the bass or drums leaking
into the piano, or piano into the drum
mikes, and so on. We tried to achieve
that [leakage]. Once we locked in the
sounds, we recorded one tune and
brought the group into the control room.
After they knew what it sounded like, it
was simple. I could have sat back, put
my feet up on the console, and just taped
it. They produced their own dynamics.
The album took about four days.
Somebody like Bill [Evans] is amazing. The grand piano sounded so great
when we started to record, but there
were just a few of the notes that were a
little louder than the others. After playing for a while, he learned which notes
rang out, and would play those softer.
All of a sudden the piano sounded even
and balanced, where before certain
notes were sticking out. Instead of trying to equalize a little more bottom from
the piano, he'd play the bottom a little
harder to even it out.
Those are things that most musicians
don't think about doing. But when
you're working with these kinds of pros,
"The players are your best
allies. If you have a good rapport with the guys, they'll do
anything you ask, especially if
you're trying to give them a
good record."
R -e /p: Well, the bass on "Time Passed
Autumn" certainly has a smooth
ambience sound to it.
AS: It's partly the echo chamber, and
partly leakage from the other instruments. We did most of those tracks live.
The player was Chuck Domanico.
R -e /p: So you
actually had three lines
coming into the board from the upright
bass?
AS: Right. I used a Neumann 47 tube on
the bass itself, aimed towards the middle of the f-hole, and about a foot in front
(primarily for arco passages); a direct
box for the direct signal; and a Neumann U -67 about a foot away from the
R -e/p: Just one bass player? It sounded
like a section.
AS: He's another guy with a big, fat
sound, yet it has a punch to it that
doesn't take up all the space, like a bass
sometimes can. He knows what his
ROOM AND MICROPHONE LAYOUT FOR TOTO BASICS. JUNE 1981
ENÇINEER /CO- PRODUCER: AL SCHMITT
GUITAR
EFFECTS
RACK
NOTE: VOCALS
IN BOOTH WITH
TELEFUNKEN M49
PEDAL
BOARD
R -e/p:
R -e /p: Eddie Gomez' bass sound on the
song "Sometime Ago" from You Must
R-ep 32 June 1983
strings with
the live echo chamber?
AS: A little. And also at Capitol, in particular, where the ceiling is so high, we
put a stereo mike about 35 feet up in the
air, so it would catch the ambient sound
as it bounced off the ceiling.
When I have an opportunity to work
in a room like that, I try to take advantage of the acoustics as much as I can.
Believe in Spring was very distinctive.
It was an upright bass, but the sound
was so punchy, almost like an electric
bass.
AS: Gomez has a great bass sound. We
had it wired with a pickup, and took it
direct as well as through his amp with a
mike in front of his instrument.
it makes the job a lot easier.
Didn't you have to worry about
the phasing effect of all the piano microphones being so close together?
AS: You'll get some phasing, but that's
natural. The leakage is what makes the
record sound good. Instead of living this
big, open piano sound, and a tight, little
drum sound, it sounded like atrio. They
were sitting right next to each other.
The drummer could have reached out
and touched Bill; that's how close they
were. It works.
R -e /p: You touched up the
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R-e /p 33
June 1983
Los Angeles
Lion's Share Studio.
Sessions at
instrument should sound like. After the
first playback, he automatically adjusts
his playing technique. Sometimes it's
just a matter of how hard he's playing,
or the articulation.
Re -'p:
We talked earlier about handling
big orchestra. and a small jazz trio.
When you work with a group like Toto, I
assume those sessions involve a lot of
overdub work?
AS: Actually, we did that album Toto
IV] at Sunset Sound Studios [Hollywood]. All the tracks were live. We
recorded drums, percussion, acoustic
piano, bass, and guitar all at one time.
"Rosanna" was a "second take." We did
it in about an hour and 20 minutes.
While they were running it down, I was
getting the sounds. The band came in
after the first playback, did another
take, and that was it. In fact, I think we
did nine tracks in seven days, although
we didn't use all those nine tunes. The
whole project just locked in.
a
[
R -e /p: How do you feel about the
adverse publicity that talks about the
Toto IV album being so "slick ?"
AS: It doesn't bother me, because that's
the sound that was there. The band was
well- rehearsed. They had played
together for quite a while, and that's the
way it came out. We didn't spend time
trying to get it to sound "slick." Everything just came together.
There were really no overdubs. [Bassist David] Hungate might have
punched in a note or two. The leads, or
some parts where [guitarist Steve]
Lukather wanted to play harmony with
himself, were overdubbed of course. But,
basically the rhythm guitar and piano
were all done live with bass, drums, and
percussion.
R -e /p: Hou' were the electric
guitar
tracks recorded?
AS: Lukather uses two amps in stereo.
He just tweaks one amp, and then the
other, until he gets exactly what he's
looking for. I don't have to do much to it.
Lukather and the rest of the players
come in the control room and listen to
their own instruments on the first playback, to make sure they're sounding
right. Lukather will tell me, "Maybe a
little echo here," or "Brighten it a little
here." Just so we're both on the same
wavelength. Very rarely do you ever get
into battles with guys like this, because
R -e /p 34
June 1983
they all have such great taste, and they
know what they want.
Sometimes I'll get players who want
all bass. They tell me to turn it up, and
j as a result] the rest of the tracks start to
wash out. So I have to draw the line
sometimes. But the members of Toto are
such good studio players, I never worry
about that.
We'll put most of the effects on during
the mix, when there's time to play with
them ... maybe just a little echo on the
track during the session, so everybody
knows it's going to be there in the mix.
But they all realize that it's not necessarily the same echo that's going to be
on the final [mix]; it's just a guide.
R-e p: How do you achieve so much sus-
tain on the guitar. Is that done live in
the studio, or through some outboard
effects?
AS: It's pretty much live, except for a
little echo we add during the solos. He
basically gets that sound, and I record
it. If I add 2 dB at 10 kHz, that's about it.
All the sound is taken right from the
amps, although sometimes we'll record
direct for a certain kind of sound. But
that's rare. The amps vary from tune to
tune, depending on what sound he
wants. They may be small, or they
might be Marshalls stacked up in the
room.
R -e!p: How do you record
the amp
STEREO
stack?
AS: I may put a mike [dynamic model,
such as a Shure SM -57] about five feet in
front of the amp, and then a second one
[omnidirectional patterned Neumann
U -87, AKG C451 or C452] about 30 feet
back to pick up the room. When he
cranks it up, I get a blend from both
microphones. I don't go any closer than
five feet, because there's too much power
there, and the mike may fold up. I'll
open the farthest mike first, and then
gradually bring in the closer mike until I
get the right amount of presence. The
farthest microphone gives me the big
room sound, and the closer mike adds
the "punch" and definition.
When I'm doing an overdub, and am
not worried about leakage coming in the
back of the microphone, I like to have
the distant mike open all the way
around, even though the sound is only
coming from the amp. That pattern
tends to provide more of the slapback
from the room coming in the backside of
the mike, and seems to make the
instruments sound bigger.
It's like the PZM concept, except better. When I was working at the Power
Station in New York a few years ago, the
[Crown] PZMs had just come out. We
tried them on everything. We'd put one
up everytime we'd record an instrument,
in every place we could think of. We
didn't waste time doing it; we'd just put
U47 DI
ON STRING BASS
SM69
STRING
BASS
AMP
(FIVE
FEET
FROM
PIANO)
PIANO: BILL EVANS
BASS: EDDIE GOMEZ
DRUMS: ELIOT ZIGMUND
AKG
C24
STEREO
ROOM AND MICROPHONE LAYOUT FOR
BILL EVANS TRIO SESSIONS AT
CAPITOL STUDIOS, HOLLYWOOD
ENGINEER: AL SCHMITT
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1983
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June 1983
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up the PZM as a spare with the regular
mike, and A /B'd them while the band
ran down the song.
When they put the headphones on, they
played the same. That subtlety shows
up in the music. The music breathes better; the dynamics are better.
R -e /p: Did you put them on a larger surface or backing plate, the way the
R -e/p:
manufacturer recommends?
AS: We tried everything, but they never
worked for me. Some guys [mount] them
on the wall behind the drummer, and
they get a good sound. It just never
worked for me.
I'm really a microphone freak. Anytime there's something new coming out,
I love to put it up and try it. I'd like to try
those new [Isomax] mikes by Countryr.ian.
R -e /p: Before we get too
far off track,
what kind of mikes would you use on
small guitar amps?
AS: I think I used [AKG] C451s. I try to
use good, clean condensers as much as I
can. Sometimes we'll use one mike on
one amp, and another mike on the other.
Those are run to separate tracks in stereo, of course, and placed left and right
in the mix.
Which brings up an interesting point
about placement in the mix. Sometimes,
when you bring up the guitar, for
instance, on the left side, it may not
sound [correct]. But if you move it to the
other side, without changing anything
else, all of a sudden there's a certain
clarity. Maybe something on the left
was getting in the way at that point. Or
taking away a certain frequency when
you move it to the right gives it that
clarity.
R-e /p: Is the
stereo?
guitar
a
mono source, or
AS: Could be either one. If it's stereo,
you're just flipping it back and forth. If
it's a mono guitar track, you're moving
the guitar from one side [of the mix] to
the other, or maybe just bringing the
stereo in a little closer together.
R -e /p: Was the bass on those Toto sessions recorded in the same way as the
guitar?
AS: The bass was recorded both
through an amp, and direct. We had a
Sennheiser 421 at least a foot away from
the bass amp. [David] Hungate is such a
marvelous player that all I had to do
was bring the faders up. When we mix, I
use basically the direct sound, and add a
little of the amp sound just to get a bit of
the room.
R-e /p: There were a lot
of pops and
thumbing on the bass part to
"Rosanna." Did you need much limiting
or compressing to combat the transients, and control the levels?
AS: No, I rarely ever use limiting on the
bass. But if the guy has the levels all
over the place, then sometimes I might
have to add like 2 dB of compression or
something, just to help it along. A lot of
guys use filters on the direct bass: they'll
cut off the low -end, or whatever. I rarely
do. Maybe just a little equalization, like
"I try to get my sounds and
balances while the band is
running through the tune the
first time ... it shouldn't take
more than 20 minutes."
a2 dB boost at 3 kHz, and another 2 dB
at
10 kHz.
do the same with the kick drum: 2 dB
at 10 kHz. It gives the sound a little
"edge." And maybe 2 dB at 15 kHz for
the vocal. You don't particularly hear it,
in the sense that it changes the voice,
but it seems to give the voice a little edge
on top ... some air.
I
R -e /p: Do you
usually gobo the bass
from the rest of the band?
AS: The bass was isolated, and so were
the rhythm -guitar amps. The amps were
in the same room as the rest of the band,
but we set flats between them, and
sometimes even between the stereo guitar amps, which might be only two feet
apart. We'd run a gobo down the center
to stop some of the leakage between
them, so we'd get a little more clarity.
We might put delay on one guitar amp
and not the other.
The members of self -contained groups
usually know what they want ahead of
time. By talking to them up front, you
know how to set them up. It's important,
I've found, to keep the musicians close to
each other in the studio. The music
sounds better, because the musicians
can hear beter, and adjust to the room.
Some engineers tend to separate the
players in order to get more separation
on the tracks. But guys tend to play differently, even if they have headphones
on. It may be psychological, but they
play louder when they are further away
from each othr. By moving them closer
together, they play a little softer, and
you get a tighter, punchier sound.
We did the percussion live on the Toto
dates, with the conga player [Lennie
Castro] almost in Jeff's lap. They were
right next to each other and there were
no flats in between. Jeff was up on a
riser about a foot -and -a -half high. When
they were fooling around together without headphones, they could hear each
other really well during the run -down.
What were your choice of mikes
for the piano?
AS: The microphone choices vary. I
may use an [AKG] C414 on the low -end,
and a C451 on top, or two 414s or two
251s; maybe something like a U -67 on
the low -end, and another mike on top. It
depends on the player, the piano, the
style of the music. Sometimes during
playback I'll go out in the studio and
switch mikes quickly, because it's just
not right for me. The present sound may
be acceptable to the players and producer, but I'll know the sound is still just
a bit off, and I'll go with another microphone, or move the mike just an inch one
way or the other. Those minor adjustments can make all the difference in the
world.
-
It's just a matter of experience
knowing the mikes, the players, etc. I've
used a certain microphone [Sony C -500]
on Jeff Porcaro's snare. He told me he
wouldn't let anyone put one there,
because he doesn't like them. But he
never questions it when I do, because I
can get a good sound with it.
"Rosanna" sound
really tight and clean. Did you use any
outboard effects on the vocals, maybe
double- or triple -track the background?
AS:As far as effects, there might have
been some delay, echo, maybe DDL or
Harmonizer here or there. But only
enough to "perk" up the track. It's not a
totally natural sound
just a little
touch added to it to give it some quality,
but not overwhelming.
There was some doubling. In a few
cases, we'd get one chorus down,
transfer it to another tape machines,
and then fly it back a smidge out of sync
with the first one. It gave the overall
track a unique sound. Sometimes we'd
fly the whole vocal section in to different
parts of the song, so we wouldn't have to
do the chorus over again!
R -et p: The vocals on
-
R -e /p:
Did you use SMPTE timecode, or
of sync tone?
AS: Just trial and error. We transferred
the background parts to two tracks of a
four -track machine, and punched it in at
the right time. Actually, with a lot of
help from David Leonard and David
Paich, it went pretty fast.
some kind
R -e /p: How do you perceive
your mix
visually or aurally?
AS: It's a little bit of both. When I record
drums, I set them up as though I was
playing the kit, so the high -hat is
always on the left, and the snare is centered a little to the left. It always
bothered me to turn them around, as
though I was in front of the kit. That's
just the way I learned.
Mixing is like a puzzle trying to put
all the parts together in the right place
so it sounds natural. Again I use very
R-e /p 37 D June 1983
-
Next time you're overdubbing a guitar, or something, try putting up a mike
in the cardioid position. Then flip it to
omnidirectional, and the difference is
amazing the sound just opens up. The
cardioid pattern has the back blocked
off. Opening up the back of the mike
seems to let the sound follow through
the mike.
Sometimes the weirdest things work
for me. I learned a long time ago that the
first place I go is to the exact opposite of
what I normally think would work, and
that's the answer.
-
R -e/p: On a few of your projects, you've
come in half way through to do over-
little limiting, because I like to keep the
dynamics natural. I'll use a limiter if
somebody wants an effect to squash
something. But, in general, I don't try to
level it all out so that everything is even
all the way across.
Horns are a good example. If the
horns are playing loud, they should be
loud, and soft parts should be soft. Too
many guys make the mistake of trying
to keep it even all the time. You lose the
dynamics and the feel.
R -e /p: What mikes do you
prefer for
horns?
AS: I use stereo mikes. For the Toto sessions, I started with a stereo mike about
that's the mike I
10 or 12 feet back
opened first to get my big room sound.
-
Then I added the mikes on the individual sections, gradually getting my presence. There was one U -47 on the two
trumpets, maybe five feet in front, and
one U -47 about three or four feet in front
of the one trombone. I used three U -87s
on the three saxes, open all the way
around so I could get some leakage back
and forth. The individual sax miking
gives me the definition.
That's interesting. Most engineers close -mike saxes with a cardioid
pattern rather than omnidirectional.
AS: Right. I try to back them off a little
bit. If there's two or three saxes, the alto
can leak into the tenor and vise versa.
The ambience seems to open up the
sound more.
R -e /p:
dubs, or maybe just mix. Is there ever
the chance of getting fouled up, because
you have no control over what's been
done before you stepped in?
AS: You can, but if you're following an
exceptionally good engineer, like Lee
Herschberg, who did the basics for the
Yellowjackets album, or Bill Schnee, or
Hank Cicalo, I know the tracks are
going to sound good. Sometimes engineers work a little bit harder if they
know someone else is going to be using
the tracks. The sounds may be a little bit
different than what you would have
done taste -wise, but in those cases just a
touch of equalization will put it where
you want it. Usually you don't need any
EQ.
R -e /p: So the track sheets you get have
only the track assignments on them and
no EQ settings?
AS: Right. That's pretty much left up to
the next engineer. Or the producer, like
Tommy LiPuma, knows what he wants.
He'll tell me to bring the kick up a little;
make something a little brighter, more
punch, or whatever. Besides, a different
room or board would change the EQ settings anyway. You really have to
depend on your ears.
R-e /p: Is there a procedure you may go
through to check out the tapes, or pre-
pare for the session with a partially
completed project?
AS: I always try to get to the studio
early, and find out what tune they're
going to work on. If someone else did the
basic tracks, I put that tape up and
listen to each track individually. Then I
try to put together an earphone mix that
will be suitable for what they're overdubbing. Plus, I get a mix for myself so I
can add echo, or take things off, and get
a chance to fool around with it even
while they're overdubbing. It's basically learning the tracks.
Then when it comes time to do the
final mix, I'll know exactly what I want
to do. I make mental notes of what to
pull out, what to boost when, and so on.
If you're working with a dynamite producer, and it sounds good when they
walk in, that's all that counts. Unless
there's something they particularly
want changed, they'll leave you alone.
They rely on you, so you've got to be
NNE
prepared.
R -e /p 38 D
June 1983
Low Noise
Studio
High Intensity
Studio
Microphone
Microphone
Balanced or single ended output. Line Level.
No- comprom se desicn. PowEring via Type
2812. Two Channel Microphor e Power Supply
Type 4003
Type 4004
Standard
Type 4006
Type 4007
P 4E
Phar tom Powe-
As< fo- our 16 -page colour brocnure for a thorough description of these new Bruel
&Kjr
s:udio products.
82 -484
Bruel & Kjaer Instruments, Inc.
185 Forest Street, Marlborough, Massachusetts 01752
World
Nudgrrlaf:
(617)481 -700 TWX: 498 0421
Nærum. Denmark Offices in 55 ,:ountries
For additional Information circle *28
R -e /p 39
June 1983
STUDIO PRACTICE
A SYSTEMATIC APPROACH
TO THE DESIGN AND
PLANNING OF A STUDIO
MAINTENANCE SHOP
by Roman Olearczuk
or a recording or production studio, maintenance is a lot like
insurance -you hope you'll
never need it, but when you do, it's good
to know that you're covered! But, just
like insurance, your maintenance "coverage" is only as good as the policy you
adopt. With that analogy in mind, this
article will present the following general considerations for planning and
implementing a well- organized maintenance shop:
Maintenance site selection
Shop layout
Selection of shop furniture
Test equipment choices
Information gathering
Parts inventory systems
Daily maintenance routines
These topics, to be discussed at length
later in the article, will provide technical personnel and also studio management with a practical guide that can be
used to improve any existing maintenance organization.
Selecting a Suitable Location
From this writer's experience at least,
maintenance shop locations always
seem to be an afterthought. The shop
usually winds up in the last available
space in the building, often crammed in
with a tape library, supply depot, or
along the way to some other unattractive office utility. The location and
"look" of the technical workspace
should reflect the attitude of the studio
to today's demanding and aware clients.
A top recording engineer simply will not
buy the studio manager's sales pitch
about "no studio down -time" if he sees a
disorganized, disheveled, and poorly equipped hole -in- the -wall shop. In addition, there is a good chance that a qualified technical engineer will make a fast
exit out the back door as soon as another
job offer promises him better surroundings and more money. The prudent studio owner, therefore, would be sure to
reap the benefits from both satisfied
clients and happy employees, once a
maintenance site has been professionally chosen and pleasantly appointed.
11-e
/p 40
D
June
1983
The following suggestions are a
checklist of desireable features to incorporate into a technical workspace site:
A central shop location, preferably on
the same floor level as the studios. Such
a site aids in fast response and ease of
equipment serviced remotely from the
control room.
Access to the shop should be through
wide doorways with easy approaches to
studio control rooms. Doorway thresholds should be flat, and there should
be no stips between all service areas.
A Minimum "comfortable" shop area,
for one or two people, should be approximately 144 square feet (possibly a 12 -by
12 -foot room shell without any furniture). By the time a bench, desk,
cabinets, and other equipment are
added, this room size is on the verge of
giving a technician claustrophobia.
Add an additional minimum space of
100 square feet for each additional
employee (over two) working in the
room at the same time.
The room also should be well lit and
well ventilated. The walls and floor
should be light colored, which can be
extremely helpful when small parts are
lost. Also, a flat floor covering helps
when heavy tape machines have to be
moved about.
The maintenance site should not be an
accessway to tape libraries, restrooms,
and other parts of the building. Constant interruption by wandering clients
and office personnel will only hamper
repair time during any critical downtime situations. If the room has to be
shared, consider partitioning the undesirable area away from the shop space.
If needed to protect shop equipment
inventory, consider controlling the shop
entrance with a self -closing door and
combination lock (electronic or mechanical). Such security still provides a fast
access, yet is quite useful during those
hectic sessions where there is a lot of
studio traffic present.
Shop Layout and Furniture
Once a location has been chosen, a
preliminary layout of the shop can be
done to explore alternate furniture
placements. A simple overhead scale
drawing of the floor plan showing the
wall boundaries and entrances of the
room can be drawn on grid paper, and
placed underneath a plastic sheet. Next,
scale pieces of the proposed furniture
(i.e., desk, bench, shelves, etc.) can be
drawn on an adhesive- backed paper,
such as Scotch Post -It note pads, and
then cut and placed on to the plastic
sheet. In this way a variety of room
plans can be tried until the ideal furniture setting is found. This exercise, for
example, can lead to the conclusion that
maybe a bigger room is needed, or perhaps custom shelving may be a
requirement in order to maximize existing wall space. In any event, a little time
spent with these paper renditions of
shop furniture will provide you with the
best solution for your own individual
shop requirements, with the least
amount of time and money spent.
The main focal point of the mainteI..ance shop is undoubtedly the lab
bench. Depending on budget, a bench
can vary from an inexpensive garage
workshop type, similar to the ones
stocked at Sears, for example, to custom,
heavy -duty professional units generally
produced for the aerospace industry.
(Table 1 provides a reference listing of
some of the better -know manufacturers
of lab benches.)
The following features should be considered when a bench is initially
specified:
Typical dimensions for a one- to twoman basic bench are: 8 foot long, by 3
feet deep, by 3 feet high (counter top to
floor). These dimensions provide the
bench with wide versatility. For example, a 36 -inch height is especially convenient whenever quick repairs are
done while standing.
An overhead test instrument shelf is a
highly -desirable feature for any mainTABLE 1: A SAMPLING OF LAB
BENCH MANUFACTURERS
Advance Engineering
18255 S. Hoover Street
Gardena, CA 90248
(213) 321 -3100
Formica Metal Products
Dept. 405
225 Corporation Way
Medford, MA 02155
(617) 395 -5656
Line- Master Products
14507 S. Hawthorne Blvd.
Lawndale, CA 90260
(213) 772-5255
Production Industries
12880 Pierce Street
Pacoima, CA 91331
(213) 896-0555
Sturdilite Scientific Furniture
100 Acorn Street
Plainwell, MI 49080
(616) 685-6400
-
The 6120 is an original
not just
a warmed -over copy of some other
duplicator. It's brand new, and offers
you more time -saving, quality
features in one compact package
than any other duplicator cr the
market today.
FAST
16 -to -1 copying speeds from reel or
cassette. Reel modules run at either
60 or 120 ips and cassettes run at
30 ips, which means you can copy
up to eleven one hour programs in
less than two minutes!
EFFICIENT
If u want
good duplicates
start wi
EASY AUTOMATED
OPERATION
The 6120 practically runs itself. The
system features automatic end- of-tape
stop and auto recue on the or
master, and a choi ce o manual or
auto rewind on the cassette master,
providing virtually urinterrupted
operation. Changes in equalization are
made automatically when ,rou change
speeds on the reel master, thereby
reducing setup time and avoiding
errors.
g_
a great original
The new
Telex 6120
The 6120 accepts either 7" (1 78 mm) or
101/2" (267 mm) reels, so ycu don't
waste time rethreading from one reel
format to another. All key setups and
adjustments are made easily from the
front of the system, so you don't have
to waste time moving or disassembling
the 6120. Accurate monitoring and
precise adjustments of audio and bias
levels are made possible even at nigh
speeds, because of quick response
LED level indicators. All cassette slaves
are independent, so a jammed tape
won't shut down the entire system, and
a LED indicator warns you of an
incomplete copy in case a cassette tape
jams or ends before the master.
EXPANDABLE
The modular, building block concept
lets you buy just what you need
today and expand the system to
meet your growing needs tomorrow.
Modules simply plug together.
There's no need to add people or
space as the system grows,
because the 6120 is so compact
that even a full system can be
operated by one person.
QUALITY TRADITION
You can produce eleven C -60 cassette tapes
in less than two minutes!
For over 20 years now, Telex has been the
choice of those who are fussy about the
quality of their duplicate tapes. The brand
new 6120 is made in the U.S A. in the
Telex tradition of quality, so parts and
service are always available. To learn more
about the 6120, write today or complete
specifications and production capabilities.
While you're at it, make an appointment to
see our special 6120 video tape
presentation entitled "Beating Real Time ".
TELEX COMMUNICATIONS, INC.
9600 Aldrich Ave So Minneapolis, MN 55420 U.S A
Europe Le Bonaparte- Office 711
Centre Affaires Pans-Nord. 93153 Le Blanc- Mesnil France
.
Call Toll Free in U.S. 800- 828 -6107
In Minnesota Call (612) 884 -7367
Send me literature
want an appointment to see the special
6120 video tape presentation.
I
Mail coupon to:
Telex Sales Information Center
P. o. Box 480 Cathedral Station
Boston, MA 02118
Name
Title
Comp.;
Addre
.
.
City
Best time to contact
Phone No.
State
Zip
tenance shop. The extra shelf aids in
keeping test equipment out of the way of
units under repair, yet provides easy
reach for the user. Usually the shelf is 14
to 20 inches above the counter top, and
14 to 18 inches deep. The added depth
also will accommodate a larger range of
test gear.
The counter top should be made of a
one- piece, smooth and mark-resistant
material, also in a light color, Formica,
as an example, is seamless, and popular
for this application. Some bench manufacturers even provide counter tops in a
static -free configuration. This extra feature is quite useful in protecting sensitve
MOS circuitry when printed- circuit
boards are being repaired.
Provide plenty of AC outlets! Benches
can be specified with a variety of power
strips that are even controlled by a convenient single on /off switch. Circuits
usually come in 15A configurations, but
heavy -duty 20A currents also are available. Even though these ideas seem
extravagant, once all the pieces of test
equipment and electronic tools are
plugged in, you always wish that there
were just a few more outlets.
Provide comfortable and adjustable
bench stools that can be altered for
height and back support. These stools
usually get a work -out in such a busy
environment, and only industrial quality chairs should be considered.
Next on the shopping list is shelving.
Some thought should be given to the
extent of all possible present and future
storage requirements in this newly organized shop. In addition to storage of
used equipment, outboard gear, and
miscellaneous hardware, reserve space
for "Repaired," "Needs Repair," "Needs
Parts," and "Projects" shelves. The
"Needs Repair" shelf would be a temporary storage area for reported malfunctioning equipment in order of individual repair priority. The "Needs
Parts" shelf aids in storage of disasTABLE 2: A SAMPLING OF PARTS
BIN MANUFACTURERS
Akro -Mils
1293 S. Main Street
Akron, OH 44301
(216) 253-5593
International Instrumentation
31131 -602 Via Colinas
Westlake Village, CA 91362
(213) 991-9614
Lyon Metal Products
47 Railroad Avenue
Aurora, IL 60507
(312) 892-8941
Techni -Tool, Inc.
Apollo Road
Plymouth Meeting, PA 19462
5
(215) 825-4990
Zero Corporation
777 Front Street
Burbank, CA 91503
(213) 846-4191
R -e /p 42
0 June
1983
Workshop bench and overhead test -equipment shelf at Soundcastle Studios, Hollywood
showing neat and uncluttered layout, with room for possible expansion to handle
increased work load.
sembled gear that is diagnosed, but not
completed due to a part shortage. The
"Projects" shelf will keep long -term
updates and additions to studio equipment better organized during periods of
incompletion.
Generally, there is quite a variety of
shelving available throughout the
country, so no special mention will be
made here of any specific manufacturers. However, there are a few features
that are musts. Purchase shelving that
is built strong, deep, and fully adjustable. The last requirement especially
gives you the flexibility to facilitate all
your changing storage needs of the
future.
Another useful shop organizer is a
supply of parts bins; Table 2 lists a sample of some of the better -known manufacturers. Usually these bins are made
of either paper or plastic. As an extra
feature, some of the plastic bins come
with divider slots for use in partitioning.
A simple location system, once all the
parts have been divided among the
boxes, is to label the bins alphabetically
and numerically in a grid -like fashion.
XLR connectors would be noted, for
example, by the label D5. By counting
down alphabetically to "D" and numerically across to "5" on the bin shelves,
you can find the desired box quickly.
An alphabetized directory of organized parts with their labels can be typed,
enclosed in a protective sheet of plastic,
and hung near the parts bins for easy
reference. This method works well for
large bins that are stored on metal
shelves. For small parts bins, since they
are usually enclosed in individual carrying cases, the most common method is a
sequential numerical label with a master list as a directory. These cases then
can be added as small parts inventory
increases, and new higher numbers
assigned for each new drawer addition.
To keep screws, nuts and all other
types of metal fittings arranged, consider using inexpensive, capped wide-
mouthed plastic bottles, available from
local pharmaceutical supply houses, to
contain all the individual hardware.
Labels can be easily fastened to the bottles, including the original packaging
label part numbers. This technique will
aid personnel in quickly restocking
popular items. These bottles, of course,
can then be kept neatly in the newly organized parts bins.
To organize cables and test leads, the
well- equipped shop should have plenty
of cable holders. Even though commercial units are available, perhaps a local
carpenter can be commissioned to construct a row of custom cable hangers.
Wooden dowels, a half-inch in diameter,
positioned two inches apart at a slight
TABLE 3: A SAMPLING OF TEST
EQUIPMENT MANUFACTURERS
B&K Precision Group
6460 W. Cortland Avenue
Chicago, IL 60638
(312) 889 -8870
John Fluke Manufacturing Co.
Box C9090
Everett, WA 98206
(206) 356 -5400
Hewlett- Packard
3000 Hanover Street
Palo Alto, CA 94394
(415) 8574101
Leader Instruments Corp.
380 Oser Avenue
Hauppaguge, NY 11788
(516) 822-9300
Sound Technology
1400 Dell Avenue
Campbell, CA 95008
(408) 378-6540
Tektronix, Inc.
Box 1700
Beaverton, OR 97075
(800) 547 -1512
orld-class consoles
should be judged on the basis of
performance, not price. Sophisticated and
functional design and proven reliability
at realistic prices are the basic factors that
distinguish Sound Workshop consoles.
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Sound Workshop Professional Audio Products, Inc.
1324 Motor Parkway. Hauppauge. New York 11788 (516) 582 -6210 Telex 649230
sound workshop
R -e /p 43
For additional information circle #29
,
June 1983
AL JARREAU'S MUSIC
HELPS MAKE COLORFUL
READING
ColorSounds is a unique
combination of music and
color that advances the reading capabilities of children.
Instead of getting turned
off to school because they
can't read, kids master reading
in an exciting new way...while
listening to popular music.
Al Jarreau contributed
one thousand dollars to support this special educational
technique. And the Ampex
Golden Reel Award made it
possible. It's more than just
another award. it's a thousand
dollars to a charity named by
R -e /p 44 June 198:3
artists receiving the honor
For Al Jarreau, Breakin'
Away was the album, Dawn breaker and Garden Rake
were the recording studios
and the kids of ColorSounds
were the winners.
So far, ove- a quarter of a
million dollars in Golden Reel
contributions have gone to
designated charities. For childrer's diseases. The arts.
Environmental associations.
The needy.
Our warmest corgratulations to Al Jarreau, Dawn breaker, Garden Rake, and to
For additional information circle e30
all of the other fine recording
professionals who've earned
the Golden Reel Award.
AM PEX
Ampex Corporation
Cne of The Signal Companies
Storage shelves for equipment currently under fault diagnosis and repair, or awaiting
replacement parts.
angle on a two- by four -inch length of
wood provide excellent results. As can
be seen from Figure 1, space has been
left above each dowel for identification
by adhesive labels. Larger dowels can
be used, as expected, for larger cables.
Each two- by four -inch piece can be conveniently mounted and removed from
any blank wall spaces. Large bundles of
cables can be kept tied with versatile
Velcro straps (available from: Velcro,
USA, Inc., 521 Fifth Avenue. New York,
NY 10175. (212) 953 -0900.). This company manufactures two unique new
products: the Nylon Back Strap Fastener (great for cable ties), and the
Nylon Velstrap Fastener. The minimum OEM order, from regional offices,
is 100 pieces, and the product comes in a
wide variety of lengths, widths, and
the following basic test gear:
Oscilloscope: preferably dual -trace
with no less than a 15 MHz bandwidth;
35 MHz or higher is preferred.
Frequency Counter: should cover at
least the audio range (20 Hz to 20 kHz).
Digital Multimeter: should measure
DC, AC and resistance; new units have
frequency counters, continuity checks,
and decibel scales.
Small VOM: still comes in handy!
A useful collection of parts storage bins.
Audio Oscillator: low distortion over
the audio range; a high output is
preferred.
Simple Logic Probe: for troubleshooting TTL and CMOS circuits [see
October 1982 issue of R -e p for a full
rundown on the use of logic probes
-Ed.].
World's Fastest
Trouble-Shooter
colors.
Test Equipment
As the complexity of studio equipment increases, so does the need for service through the use of sophisticated
test equipment. The days of repair with
only VOM in hand are long gone. No
maintenance shop should be without
TABLE 4: TEST EQUIPMENT
RENTAL COMPANIES
Continental Resources
Middlesex Turnpike
Bedford, MA 01730
175
(617) 275-0850
Electro-Rents
4131 Vanowen Place
Burbank, CA91505
(213) 849-5791
Gen Star Rental Electronics
The TENTELOMETER
in -line dynamic tape tension gauge is the
fastest, easiest, most accurate method of diagnosing potential and
existing problems in recording tape transports.
°
Tentel has just introduced a NEW hand held tape tension gauge. designed specifically for
1/4" and 1/2" audio tape recorders. The NEW T2 -L20 -A simply slides over the tape to
read running tension in either grams (up to 600) or ounces (up to 20). and shows
dynamic tension to diagnose WOW and Flutter problems. The gauge comes complete with
a carrying case and instruction manual.
6307 De Soto Avenue
Woodland Hills, CA 91367
Price: $198.00, Use your Mastercharge, Visa. or we can ship UPS COD. Tentel pays U.S.
(213) 887-4000
Other models are available for 2" tape. Call Tenter Sales engineering TOLL FREE at 800
538 -6894 (except CA) for orders and to answer your technical questions.
U.S. Instrument Rentals
2988 Campus Drive
San Mateo, CA 94403
(415) 572-6600
shipping.
TENTEL
(408) 379 -1881
CAMPBELL, CA
5008
TWX 910 590 8801
R-e/p 45
June
151s:t
2
DESIRED LENGTH
J
4
2
index that is numerically cross referenced. Files can be cataloged by
using the supplied pressure- sensitive
labels on your own third -cut file folders.
This product index saves numerous
hours normally needed to catalog
information.
Semiconductor data catalogs, which
INCHES j4---11
INCHES
3
INCHES
INCHES
Figure 1: An Example of a cable holder
constructed from 2 4 lumber and wooden dowels.
Beyond these basic units, the sophisticated shop can be equipped, depending
on your needs, with a great variety of
test equipment, ranging from pulse generators to tape test systems. It can
become as state -of- the -art as you may
want to get! However, the next few
points should be kept in mind when
determining what to purchase for the
shop. Buy equipment from reputable
and well -recognized manufacturers.
There is plenty of variety, within everyone's budget, provided for by even the
best of brands. As an alternative cost
savings, consider purchasing used test
equipment that was demonstration or
reconditioned models from the manufacturers, or former rental units from
test equipment rental firms. (Tables 3
and 4 provide a listing of the better known companies). In either case, you'll
get a better choice in a well- maintained,
less expensive unit with a solid company reputation behind it, rather than a
lower cost, unknown brand that may be
dropped once the company realizes the
TABLE 5: A SAMPLE OF ELECTRONICS
INDUSTRY PUBLICATIONS
EDN
270 St. Paul Street
Denver, CO 80206
product doesn't sell well.
Access to Information
One of the important concepts behind
an efficient maintenance organization
is availability of instant information. In
order for information retrieval to be
instant, it must be gathered and then
organized for fingertip access. There are
a number of periodicals (listed in Table
5) that deal specifically with the electronics world. All the major periodicals
produce annual product guides that
cross -reference a huge amount of part
manufacturers (from company representatives to local distributors). Forms
are available from the publishers for
complimentary subscriptions to qualified readers. All these magazines have
reader service cards for product information retrieval, which will help build a
technical library quickly.
The EEM annual catalogs also offer a
feature that is a must for file organization, since the company prints a master
file system with a complete product
(303) 388 -4511
Electronic Design
50 Essex Street
Rochelle Park, NJ 07662
(201) 843-0550
(Annual Product Guide:
Gold Book)
Electronic Products
Hearst Business Communications, Inc.
645 Stewart Avenue
Garden City, NY 11530
(516) 222-2500
(Annual Product Guide:
EEM
Electronic Engineers Master)
-
Electronics
McGraw -Hill, Inc.
1221 Avenue of the Americas
New York, NY 10020
(212) 997-3469
(Annual Product Guide:
Electronic Buyer's Guide)
STOP THE 'HUM'
ROUND OUT?
It
Before you invest in expensive equipment to eliminate the 'Hum'-Bug ...talk
to the Grounding Experts at ECOS. Our SK -B service kit can accurately
diagnose the 'Hum' problem and 'GROUND-IT OUT
DETECTING GROUND IMPEDANCE-At ECOS, we know that low
impedance is critical to the proper operation of your most sensitive
equipment. Our Model 7106 ACCU -TEST" gives you the ability to
measure the impedance of the neutral and grounding conductors. Our
SK-B Service Kit contains the Model 7106 ACCU -TEST " With this kit
you can detect neutral /ground shorts, isolated ground shorts and neutral /ground reversals All tests
are performed under dynamic conditions; that is, with the LOAD ON!
SK-B CAPABILITIES
Tests for neutral /ground shorts (ground loops)
Tests for neutral /ground reversals
Indicates ground path impedance and neutral conductor
impedance on circuits and equipment
Tests isolated (dedicated) grounds
Automatically indicates line undervoltage
Indicates 7 wiring errors
Tests 120/208/240VAC 1f l four wire circuits and equipment
qlFOR FURTHER INFORMATION CALL:
ONLS"14160
ecos
ACCU -TEST
ECOS ELECTRONICS CORPORATION
ft -e /p 46
MODEL 7106
205 WEST HARRISON STREET
June 1983
For additional information circle #32
OAK PARK, ILLINOIS 60304
(3121
383 -2505
TELEX 20 -6448
Now you control
how much bett& ycull sound!
jalancec and smooth with just
Wait until you Lear how g :mod
enough prey ence to clarify with you sound with a new AucoTechnim AT831 pick -ng up your out harshness. And the saune
guitar, mandolin, violin, or ether stays cons :ant nc matter how
acoustic inst_unent. And,
or where you move.
There's a major bonus only
you th:rlc 311 ultra -miniature
mikes are ah curi alike, read on
with the AT331. Want a "latter."
The AT831 is a card ioid
fuller sound' Just sl_ce it doser
(directional pickup) rnicrophor_e. :o the strings on its adjustable
Which means it picks up rr-cre
mount. Want a "lear-er "sound'
of you and less of the stage
Simply slide the ÁT831 furtae:
noise around ycu. It also mesar_s away. The felt- covered sip -or_
better feedback control, even
mount hods with ger-tie preswhen you re pl ayi:ig pjp. It s a
sure, so there's nothir-ç to mar
more in :innate sound, well
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Or yo s can use tte traditional
'tie clasp" mount to put the
AT831 almost anywhere you can
-macine (even on a :le, if you're
:nto :hat)! And with eight feet
of super- flexible cable between
microphone and battery module,
your freedom to mc-;e is assured.
Better sound and =ore conven_ence. _just what you've come
ro expect from Aucto-Technica.
Find ou: more at yc.0 nearest
dealer or write for cu_ latest
cata=o3.Your audience vv-ll live
-you for :t!
'\
"'",'"' 'mom. .__
If/
--
-
New ÁT831 Directional
ultra- miniature electret
microphone with adjustable
slip -on mount.
Under $120.
-
audio -technics.
AUCIO-TECHNCA U.S. INC
,
1221
Commerce Dr., Stcw, OH 44224
216 686-2600
For additional in'ormati on circle
#
/p,N
A SYSTEMATIC
APPROACH
TABLE
6:
FAILURE RATES FOR MILITARY APPLICATIONS
TO THE DESIGN AND
PLANNING OF A STUDIO
MAINTENANCE SHOP
used to be available free for the asking,
can be obtained from local semiconductor representatives at a nominal printing cost. If you have some salemanship
in you, perhaps a studio tour to an interested field sales engineer can even get
you a free set of data catalogs! Data
catalogs are a great help, since they
provide internal circuit details, and
cross- reference information to other
semiconductor brands. With this infor-
mation on hand, part inventory systems
can be implemented much more easily.
Parts Inventory
In order to provide 100% coverage, the
maintenance shop should stock every
spare printed- circuit card and part that
is used in each of the major pieces of
studio equipment. This action, although
costly, does provide the ultimate in preparedness for the eventual down -time
situations. Usually a compromise is in
order, however. A good approach is to
analyze the critical pieces of equipment,
and the consequences of a failure on
separate PCBs. Also, consider the situation of what would happen if the studio
does not own a spare replacement for
the failed card; how long the actual
repair will take (assuming the studio
has stocked the part, and a technician is
on duty); and how much time will be
credited as down -time (including the
sticky issue of idle union scale musicians' costs).
When viewed in this light, some critical one -of-a -kind circuit boards actually
will pay for themselves in down -time
savings after a few maintenance incidents. A discusion with your local technical equipment representative will
pinpoint the problem areas for which
additional circuit cards would be a wise
Component
1.
(%
0.02
0.005
0.013
0.015
0.05
0.002
0.0002
0.5
0.04
Capacitor
2. Connector contact
3. Diode
4. Integrated circuits, SSI, MSI,
5. Quartz crystal
6. Resistor
7. Soldered joint
8. Transformer
9. Transistor
10. Variable resistor
11. Wire- wrapped joint
and LSI
A word of caution: this exercise only
deals with reliability in military applications. Industrial circuitry, as a rule, is
not designed with the same kind of
stress limits, so these failure rate
numbers would be greater than indicated on the chart. Also, the MTBF rates
do not take into account the quality of
circuit design. Obviously, poorly etched
circuit traces, on environmentally warm
circuit boards, will lead to greater failure occurrences, especially after defective parts have been replaced and resoldered. In addition, components exhibit
different failure rates over time.
Figure 2 shows a gross average
representation of failure rate versus
component life. As shown, components
usually fail at a higher rate when they
are either new or old. If your good quality equipment is new, and has been
burned in by the manufacturer( which is
not always the case), it should perform
Failure Rate
Per 1,000 hours)
0.01
0.00002
Percentage 1.000 Hour,
Fallure Rate
INFANT
l
I
MIDDLE
OLD AGE
(FIVE YEARS)
AGE
Figure 2: Failure Rate
versus Component Age.
well in a hospitable environment for a
number of years before things start acting up. If your equipment is more than
five years old, you can count on compo-
nent failures occurring much more frequently than has been previously
noticed. The best maintenance policy,
idea.
If the manufacturer does not supply a
spare component kit with the equipment
purchase
or if it is available at an
additional cost let's consider a logical
method of analyzing individual compo-
- -
nent coverage. Table
6
presents
parameters used by the military when
making statistical averages of failure
rate versus hours of use for equipment in
service. As an exercise, take a circuit
board and count all the individual ICs,
transistors, capacitors, resistors, diodes,
solder joints, and other listed components, and multiply each quantity by
the related failure rates. The total will
give you a mean time between failure
(MTBF) percentage for 1,000 hours of
use. How many hours before á failure
occurs? Simple divide 1,000 hours by the
MTBF (in percent). Now, if you have 24
of these particular cards, divide the total
by 24, which will give you an estimate as
to the number of hours before a failure
rate occurs on any one card.
R-e /p 48 O
June 1983
- "THE LATE NIGHT MAINTENANCE CALL" A Photographic Study by Michael Boshears
then, is preparedness for this eventual
component failure.
An analysis of component use can be
made by keeping a running total of
actual parts found in a circuit, and their
re- occurrence in other circuits. A spare
component count of one can be assigned
for each increment of five re- occurring
coniponents. For example, a quantity of
one to five of 7474 TTL dual -D flip -flops
would be assigned a one spare IC, while
a quantity of 20 to 25 4116 -16K RAMS
would be assigned five spare ICs. This is
just a starting point. Actual frequency
of spare component use will dictate
future spare component purchases. In
this way, all critical circuits can be
checked and a small parts inventory
will have been properly established.
Maintenance Routines
Once all these steps have been completed, daily maintenance routines can
now be efficiently introduced. The main
concept here is communication. The
engineers, studio manager, and maintenance personnel have to work closely
together to satisfy the client's needs. For
example, the maintenance department
should know the technical requirements
of incoming sessions, as well as their
correct starting and, if possible, ending
times. In turn, the studio manager
should know the status of all equipment
out of service. This type of dialog aids
greatly in minimizing embarrassing
down -time incidents.
As an aid to equipment repair, all
malfunctioning equipment is reported
on a form generally known as a trouble
report. Figure 3 shows an example of a
well -designed trouble report that is currently in use at Sound Castle Studios in
Los Angeles. For larger, multiroom studios, additional spaces for equipment
location, machine number, and work
order number might also be useful additions to this form. The large 81/2- by 11inch format is preferred over the popular 3 -by 5 -inch card, since this form
lends itself to easy filing reference in a
three -ring binder. A convenient equipment repair history can be compiled in
this way. Multipart NCR paper forms
can be specified for large-scale bookFIGURE 3
keeping routing.
To operate efficiently, the maintenance department should consider these
additional organizational aids:
Monthly planning schedule
Bulletin board
Line cards of local part distributors
Part order lists
File cabinet using EEM system (mentioned earlier)
Purchase order system
Multicopy memo letter forms for
handwritten correspondence
This list can go on forever. The ideas
included in this article only form a basis
for a streamlined operation; they are not
intended to be all- inclusive. The maintenance shop can be only organized to
the extent that personnel are willing to
organize it.
In this brief discussion, a method has
been demonstrated to show the logical
process needed to systematically pull
together a recording or production studio maintenance shop. Even though
many topics have been covered, other
subjects (such as tool selection, etc.)
were simply beyond the scope of this
article. Hopefully, the reader's imagination will be sparked by these few ideas,
and will go on to provide better work
surroundings for themselves within an
efficient operating structure.
IN
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op
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A CALIFORNIA CORPORATION
8650 Hayden Place Culver City, CA 90230
213 / 559 -6704 (TWX- 910 -328.6100)
R -e /p 49
0 June 1983
CONCERT SOUND
AUDIO ANALYSTS' SOUND SYSTEM
FOR STYX'
"KILROY WAS HERE" TOUR
by David Scheirman
promote their latest album,
Kilroy Was Here, the rock group
Styx is spending much of 1983
performing in theaters and arenas
across North America. The chart topping band has been consistently filling the largest available venues for the
past several years. The current tour,
however, offers several interesting
twists: an initial "small- hall" tour of
classic theaters; a new stage show in
tune with the Kilroy theme, complete
with motion -picture projection and
robot costumes; and a new sound reinforcement company for the first
time in nearly a decade Audio Analysts, a concert sound specialty company with offices in Plattsburgh, New
York, and Montreal, Quebec.
The 1983 American tour started in
early March with a series of shows held
in smaller, older theaters (Styx has
shown an interest in promoting this
type of venue since its Rockin' The Paradise album told the story of a vintage
Chicago-area theater due to be torn
down by developers). The first stop on
To
-
R-e /p 50
June
1983
this leg of the March tour was at downtown San Diego's Fox Theater, an
aging, high -ceilinged room with well preserved and ornate plaster proscenium mouldings. The characteristics
which make theaters such as this one so
picturesque often can contribute to poor
acoustics. The high ceiling and thrust
balconies create three (or more) separate
acoustical zones, each presenting the
sound man with its own problem to be
solved.
The high balconies typically get little
direct sound, due to the physical problems involved with accurately focusing
temporary loudspeakers at extreme
angles (Figure 1). Seating areas underneath the thrust balcony often suffer
from a lack of low- frequency response,
and the high -frequency program mateTurboSubWoofer", TurboBassDevice", and
TurboMidDevice' are registered trade marks
of the Turbosound Group, Ltd., of London, England, and Turbosound, Inc., of New York.
Ultramonitor'"
is a registered trade mark of
Meyer Sound Laboratories, Inc.
rial can become very irritating at the
back wall due to the beaminess of horn loaded systems. Forward seating areas
either get "blown away" by excessive
sound pressure levels, or else hear only a
jumbled bunch of reverberated sound
from the other two problem areas.
House System Loudspeakers
Perhaps the Styx tour's greatest challenge faced by a sound company was
that the same loudspeaker system to be
used for the small -hall portion of the
tour also had to serve the arenas. The
show's house mix engineer, Rob Kings land, settled on the patented TMS -3
speaker enclosures
from Turbosound, of
London, England. "I
knew that whatever
speaker system I
picked, I had to live
with for six months,"
explains Kingsland,
who has been involved with Styx's
sound for the better
ROB KINGSLAND
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Each microphone in
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a choice of four cables.
Example, if you choose the
CD -20" for vocal
application, you have the
option of a 25 foot XLR low
impedance cable WITH OR
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plug assembly. The plug resembles
nothing so much as the front end of a
turbo -jet engine hence the name. The
cone drivers provided with the TMS -3
are designed by Turbosound engineers,
and assembled by a subcontracted
-
acoustical transducer manufacturing
facility. Turbosound supplies the
cabinet with a TAD 4001 compression
driver for the high -end.
For the Styx tour, Audio Analysts'
chief sound engineer Albert Leccese had
some ideas of his own for modifying the
'l'MS -3 cabinets. The boxes were
shipped from England with only the 10inch drivers pre-loaded. Then the box
underwent acoustical testing in an
anechoic chamber at the Canadian
government's National Research
Figure 1: Four Turbosound TMS3 cabi
nets are flown by chain host per side, to
cover high thrust balcony area with direct
sound.
part of the last decade, both in the
recording studio and on the road. "The
TMS -3 system offers very high efficiency in a relatively small package,
has excellent fidelity, and is versatile
enough to handle both the small theaters and the large arenas. Of course, I am
not bringing all of the system into the
small halls; as you can see here [at San
Diego] I have a total of 22 cabinets
including the subwoofers. I'll start the
arena tour with 48 cabinets."
As provided by Audio Analysts, the
house loudspeaker system consists of
two basic types of cabinets: the TMS-3
box, a three -way composite loudspeaker
package, and the TSW -124, a Turbo
SubWoofer with single 24 -inch speakers
(Figure 2). The TMS -3 measures only 33
by 40 by 23 inches, and weighs 298
pounds when fully loaded with two LF
15 -inch drivers, two MF 10 -inch drivers,
and a HF driver mounted on a Northwest Sound 340F 90- by 40- degree constant directivity foam flare. Turbo -
Council. Basing his decision partially
on this data, Leccese decided to install
15 -inch MI, 2225 units in the low frequency compartment, and JBL 2445
drivers on the high -frequency horns.
Audio Analysts also is experimenting
with additional super-high -frequency
units to be used with the TMS -3
cabinets, a new JBI, prototype tweeter.
The already sturdy speaker boxes
(constructed of 17 -ply Finnish birch,
butt- jointed, and sealed with marine
glue) were then covered over with a
super-tough epoxy -bonding paint. "We
discovered this black paint almost by
accident," comments Leccese. "A
Canadian chemical manufacturer was
throwing this stuff out; it was a byproduct of their regular products. It has
turned out to be so good, scuff- resistant
and scratch -proof, that we now use it on
everything."
When asked why Audio Analysts had
chosen to purchase the Turbosound
TMS -3 cabinets for the Styx sound sysFIGURE
tern, Leccese provided a perfect
advertising- brochure answer: "It is a
very high -Q device ... a very high directivity factor. The painstaking care that
has gone into the research and development really shows. The cabinet acts
as a very coherent sound source." Audio
Analysts placed an initial order with
Turbosound for 48 TMS -3s, and took
delivery of the first 18 for the theater
portion of the Styx tour.
Styx engineer Rob Kingsland echoes
Leccese's sentiments about the TMS-3
system: "Wherever you point these
things, that's where the sound goes," he
emphasizes. "I also was particularly
3
NORTHWEST
SOUND
-
sound claims an unequalized response
for this cabinet of 55 Hz to 20 kHz, ±3 dB.
It is designed for both stacking and flying. Typically, the cabinets are supplied
in equal amounts of "left" and "right"
boxes. When stacked, the mirror-image
cabinets are designed to allow for vertical and horizontal acoustical coupling
of the low- frequency chambers, and vertical coupling of the mids and highs.
Low -frequency speakers are horn loaded in the TMS -3 box, one above the
other. This low- frequency section of the
cabinet, utilizing the TurboBassDevice,
is a separately patented unit developed
by Turbosound (Figure 3). Also patented
is the TurboMidDevice that gave the
cabinet, and the sound company, its
name: each 10 -inch speaker is loaded to
a specially moulded horn and phasing
Figure 2: TSW -124s and TMS -3 cabinets
& splayed for improved coverage.
stacked
90
40
HORN ON
JBL 2445
DRIVER
METAL
HANGING
PLATE
LOW -FREQUENCY SECTION:
TWO 15 -INCH JBL 2225
CONE SPEAKERS, EACH
HORN- LOADED WITH THE
TURBOBASSDEVICE
TURBOMIDDEVICE'
(PHASING PLUG
COUPLED TO EACH
10 -INCH SPEAKER)
CUT -OUT
HANDLES
R- a /p53O June 19ti:l
Albert just bought
eighty-eight of our
best amps and
thought he got
a deal.
Albert Leccese is the Chief
Sound Engineer and partner with
the Paré brothers at Audio
Analysts, Inc. The company is
a prominent supplier of sound
reinforcement systems to
major national and international
touring groups.
Albert has no room for error or
failure. He doesn't put his stamp
of approval on any piece of audio
support equipment unless it
meets a rigid set of standards.
QSC Series Three amplifiers
exceeded all of Albert's tough
requirements. In fact, he spent the
better part of a week trying to
default one of the units in a test
of reliability under stress.
Albert failed, QSC didn't. Series
Three stood up to whatever abuse
he could dish our
So Albert and the Paré brothers
were impressed enough to add
88 units to their stable.
But it wasn't just the bulletproof
reliability that overwhelmed them.
The true dual -mono configuration
with front -panel access modules
and comprehensive input /output
interface also supported their
decision. And Series Three puts
more power into less rack space,
'Weil be happy to supply the actual test conditions upon request. Albert Leccese, the Pare brothers and Audio Analysts,
R-e /p 54
June
1983
a big plus for sound systems on
the road.
So take a look at Series Three
from QSC. Explore all the features
and benefits that these truly revolutionary amplifiers have to offer.
Whether you purchase 1 or
88, you'll realize what a deal Series
Three is.
Just ask Albert.
Inc.. did
not receive any compensation for this endorsement.
FRONT VIEW
BAOK VIEW
PASSIVE COOLING
No fan noises. No infernal dust build -up.
10. OVER-TEMP WARNING LIGHT
1
Begins flashing 10 °C before thermal protect.
-: inc i spacing for stereo or bridged mono.
2. FRONT REMOVABLE CHANNEL MODULES
All electronics for each channel can be
exchanged while amp is in rack.
11.
3. HIGH POWER/LOW PROFILE DESIGN
To
Using high efficiency output circuits *Jr cool,
`sigh reliability opera- ion.
13. POWER/PROTECT INDICATORS
1.
A. FLOATING INTERNAL CONNECTOR SYSTEM
Prevents contact damage from load vibration.
All gold contacts in signal level path.
5. CENTRAL WELDED STEEL AC AND
TRANSFORMER BAY
For maximum strength and shielding.
5-WAY BINDING POSTS FOR SPEAKERS
Flashes during all types of amp distortion.
2. BARRIE P :STRIP INPUTS AND SPEAKER
TEI7 IVI NALS
12. LEVEL INDICATORS
Forgas tight permanent connections.
CLIP INDICATOR
3. MULTI -C)LOR INPJT /OUTPUT LABELS
monitor output.
Monitor status of Load Groundingr" protection
relays. Relays provide delayed turn -on, instant
turn -off, DC, sub -audio, power interrupt, and overtemp protect on.
For clear separation of functions.
4. BALANCED XLR INPUT JACK
5. OCTAL SOCKET
Accepts octve and passive input accessories
6. REAR SI. PPORTS PROTECTS..ACKS
14. SEPARATE AC SWITCHES
And Octal ModuCes. Supports rear when rack
Enable single channel tc be powered up or
down. Useful for emergency speaker changes
mounted
7 GO _D CONTACT INPUT
ACCESS COVER
SWIT'IES-UNDER
6. TRUE DUAL MONO CONFIGURATION
Two completely separate amps sharing common AC cord for maximum reliabilityand flexibility All protection separate for each channel.
during performance.
16. RECESSED CONTROLS
Bypasses Octal Socket instead of external
jumpers. Engages B iidge Mona. mode, and
combines both channels for b-omping, etc.
7
HIGH DYNAMIC HEADROOM AND MULTIPLE
PARALLEL, LOW ESR FILTER CAPACITORS
Provides exceptionally tight, high -impact bass
Prevent damage and accidental movement.
8. GROUND LIFT STRAP
17 MASSIVE OUTPUT SEMI -CONDUCTOP
Permis droit and chassis grow ^ds to be joined
or separated for control of ground loops.
performance.
Assures long term reliability under abusive
conditions.
8. REINFORCED FRONTAND REAR RACK MOUNTS
15. FRONT MOUNTED CIRCUIT BREAKERS
No fumbling around in the back of the rock.
SECTION
9. BALANCED
:.ti
-INCH INPUT JACK
9. PRECISION 31 -S7P DETENTED GAIN CONTROL
Gold plated wiper and sealed body design
assures accuracy and freedom from sonic
degradation.
Sc
Al '/)/(!
CSC AUDIO PRODUCTS, 1926 P1 jcentia Ave., Costc Mesa, CA 92627
CANADA: SF MARKETING, INC , 312 Benjamin Hudon, Montreal, Quebec, Cana 1-14NU4
INTERNATIONAL: E AND E INSTRUMENTS INTERNATIONAL INC., 23011 Moulton Parkway, Buiding F7 Loguna Hills. CA92653
For additional information circle #37
Write for details and specificaiions on these and other products.
R -e /p 55 0 June 1983
drawn to this speaker design due to the
very real mid -range reproduction. Right
in the vocal range, the most critical area
for me, this box is unbelievably
smooth." Kingsland also commented
that the Styx system packs more
"sound- per-pound," and thus saves on
labor costs, truck space, and set -up time.
(Of course, the same could be said for
most composite speaker systems.)
TurboSubWoofer Cabinet
Although the TMS-3 speaker system
was designed as a self-contained, full range system, some customers, including Albert Leccese of Audio Analysts,
had asked for the development of a subwoofer system to complement the threeway box in the lower register. A foot or
so deeper than the TMS-3, and not quite
so tall, the subwoofer cabinet houses a
single 24 -inch cone driver that loaded
into an identical and larger version of
the Turbo -based device. A year of R &D
by Turbosound engineers Tony
Andrews and John Newsham went into
the design of the 24 -inch speaker. The
first run of speakers was hand -made by
Andrews and News ham. "This speaker
has a 4 -inch voice
coil, and we rate its
power-handling capacity at 700 watts,"
Newsham says. "It
took us months to
find just the right
paper to use for the
JOHN NEWSHAM cone. We tried everything, and finally settled on a heavy
craft paper. We hand -formed the cones,
and bonded them initially with quickset adhesive. We get the baskets cast
from one supplier, and the magnets
from another." Newsham is currently
on the road with the Styx tour, overseeing the system, and working as Kings land's assistant house mix engineer.
According to Alan Wick, president of
Turbosound, Inc., "The 24 -inch speakers are still being made by hand at our
plant in England. We can only put out 8
or 10 a month, as it is a very laborintensive process." Wick also comments
that demand for the TSW -124 with its
24 -inch cone has been high.
capabilities of their product," Leccese
says. "These amps really dish it out, and
are practically bullet -proof." I Leccese
claims to have left QSC's prototype Series Three operating on the test bench
with an overloaded input into a dead
short for several days with no ill effects,
failure, or overheating.)
7'he Series Three boasts a true dual mono design configuration, with front
panel access modules, and a very comprehensive input -output interface. As
well as utilizing passive cooling (no
internal fan noise), the amplifiers feature a floating internal connector system to prevent contact damage due to
road vibration.
"These amps really do run cool," Leccese says, referring to a hank of QSC
amplifiers loaded four to a rack (Figure
4). "They cut our cooling requirements
down to half of what was required for
my old (amplifiers]." Each rack develops in excess of 4,400 watts RMS.
One complete rack was assigned to
four subwoofer cabinets, left and
the
Figure 4: Audio Analysts' amplifier rack
right channels of each amplifier in that
housing four QSC Series Three amps per
rack being bridged to mono, and the
rack for both main and monitor systems.
resultant 1,100 watts traveled down a
doubled pair of 14 -gauge speaker cables
thrust balcony. The lower stacked to a single 24 -inch driver, with the purcolumns were splayed out from each pose of providing over twice the normal
other slightly, with the back center of amount of headroom. The nine TMS -3
the theater being on -axis with the two cabinets per side were powered by the
remaining three racks.
inside columns (detailed in Figure 2).
Audio Analysts' crew chief Everett
Power Distribution
Lybolt comments that all 22 cabinets
AC power for the Audio Analysts'
-18 TMS -3 and four TSW -124 subwoofers could be stacked, hung, and wired sound system and the band's stage gear
within less than one hour ... a definite was supplied by a distribution panel of
the company's own design and manuplus, he offers.
facture. A fairly typical road AC system, it supplies up to
amps per leg,
Power Amplifiers
Prior to the Styx tour, Audio Analysts three -phase. A digital voltmeter on each
took possession of 88 of QSC's new Ser- leg is constantly reading voltage, and
ies Three amplifiers. This new can be switched over to register current
generation unit is capable of developing draw in amps. Distribution lines runapproximately 550 watts intd an 4 -ohm ning out to various demand areas are
load. "QSC really underrates the output joined to the panel with Hubbellock
-
-
-
Figure 5: Soundcraft Series Four 40-in/16-out monitor mix consoles.
House System Stacking
For the theater portion of the Styx
tour, a stack of two subwoofers and five
TMS -3s is positioned on each side of the
stage, with the boxes in vertical
columns of three and four. Additionally,
overhead groups of four TMS-3s are
flown from a single hanging point per
side with a chain motor hoist.
"Ideally, we would have the overhead
speakers positioned in a single center
cluster, but it was not possible here
because of the plaster sculptures above
the proscenium," Leccese points out.
"The single point source would have
been better, but this is certainly an
acceptable compromise?'
The flying clusters were positioned at
approximately the mid-point of the
R-e/ p 56 0 June 1983
'
;
t
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-. ^?i1.1.
i1..
.4411411:
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1
1
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\
cymbals.
A tenth side received its own
mix, which was then available to be
brought up in any monitor mix that
needed more definition. "'l'he Exciters
give the listeners in this case the per-
connectors.
Monitor System
The stage monitor system utilized for
the Styx tour was perhaps as complex as
any currently in use.
Two brand spanking
new Soundcraft Series Four mixing consoles were overseen
by Mike Cooper, the
- -
formers themselves
a subjective
impression of greater intelligibility."
Cooper explains. "'l'he words are easier
to understand, and they are worth using
for that reason alone."
Each monitor mix followed an interesting signal path from the con sole to its
band's personal
monitor mix engineer for the past five
years (Figure 5).
"What I have here MIKE COOPER
is a 40- channel board and an auxiliary
26- channel board, giving me 66 inputs,"
Cooper explains. "These really are the
first Series Four consoles in use
I
have serial numbers #0002 and #0003.
The primary board takes the vocal
mikes and solo instruments; I've loaded
extra percussion, auxiliary keyboards,
and tape returns from the house on to
the 26 -input board."
The two monitor consoles are tied
together via bus transfer, and were set
up by Soundcraft to be a linked pair; a
circuitry modification was incorporated
into the units by the factory at Audio
Analysts' request. As of this writing, 11
of the available 16 mix outputs were in
use on the tour, as detailed in the
accompanying table. (Cooper did feel
that he might add another mix or two as
the tour got underway, however.) Five
mixes covered the downstage areas; two
were used for overhead mixes left and
right; and three covered the upstage performance areas. The remaining mix
was a feed to one of the EXR Exciter
sides, primarily vocals and percussion,
which was then brought back into
selected primary mixes.
respective amplifier channels as
detailed in Figure 7. At the Soundcraft
console, insertions were made into the
mix output summing amp. 'l'he signal
first hit a dbx three -band parametric
equalizer. and then a Phase Linear
third -octave graphic, before returning
to the console. "'Phis lets me visually
shape a curve, and still have filters left
over which I can sweep the program
material with to locate feedback rings,"
Coupe/. 5:t\5. "I don't have to use :i lot of
heavy EQ. but its sure there when
need it.''
From the mix output on the console,
the signal is fed into a John Meyer crossover and signal prucessor. and finally
into (1S(' amplifier channels that power
the low- and high -end components in
the monitor cabinets. When this writer
remarked that C'ooper's graphics were
depicting an unusually smooth system
response, he attributed this to the Meyer
Sound Laboratories' electronics and
speaker cabinets. "The Meyer system
...
I
Figure 6: Stage monitor electronics
includes Phase Linear graphics, dbx three
band parametric EQ, EXR Exciters, and
Valley People Kepex Il gates.
-
which really lets me get a crisp snare
sound with tons of gain, but very little
bleed through of the stage instrument
noise."
Nine sides of EXR Exciter were used
as individual channel inserts on each
voc: mike, the hi -hat, and overhead
1
THE MEANER Mtt
ect-cf. Alive
Monitor Signal Processing
Four monitor electronics racks were
used to house a host of processing devices: graphic and parametric equalizers,
compressor- limiters, EXR Exciters,
noise gates, and a real -time analyzer
(Figure 6). "Much of my processing is
done with individual channel inserts,"
Cooper comments. "I am using a noise
gate on every single drum; six individual [Valley People] Kepex IIs. Additionally, I have a side of dbx 160 compression for each of two kick drums, the bass
guitar, and the bass pedals. I also use a
frequency -triggered noisegate [Omni
Craft GT-4] on the top snare drum mike,
MAx i
Wit%
ISOMAX PRO-B
TM
M
FIGURE EIGHT
GETS TWO TOMS
ON ONE MIC
...
REJECTS CYMBOL
AND SNARE!
Monitor Mix Output
Assignments for Styx Tour
Mix
Mix
Mix
Mix
Mix
Mix
Mix
Mix
Mix
Mix
Mix
#1: Stage Right, Downstage.
#2: Downstage Center; two cabinets.
#3: Stage Left, Downstage.
#4: Stage Right Overhead Sidefill.
#5: Stage Left Overhead Sidefill.
#6: Stage Left Sidefill, floor.
#7: Stage Right Sidefill, floor.
#8: Keyboards.
#9: Bass guitar.
#10: Drums.
#11: EXR Exciter.
DRUMS COURTESY
Of LEO'S MUSIC
OAKLAND, CALIF.
!
CO
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NTRYIIIV CITY4
FORD AVE.-REDWOOD,
IATESINC.
341
415-364-9988
A.
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^
:tll.--
R -e /p 57
0 June
1983
offers a speaker system which is very
flat to begin with," he explains, "and
their crossover is not just a crossover; it
has amplitude and phase- coherency
correction, as well as three limiters.
There are two broad-band limiters and a
peak limiter; the high-frequency limiter
is a sort of sliding-type which narrows
or widens its effect to take out only the
peaks which are altering the system's
correct frequency response. And, it is a
very fast circuit, so it works well for pulling out feedback transients."
cubic displacement of five feet. These
three subwoofers were stacked a mere
two feet behind the drummer's stool,
and inadvertantly projected the amplified kick drum well out into the audience
seating area. The effect of this interference would not have been noticeable in
an arena setting, but was evident in the
smaller theater.
Setting up the Monitor System
At load -in, Audio Analysts' engineer
Sean Webb placed the monitor speaker
cabinets on stage, and cabled them up.
First to go in were the flying side- fills,
which were hung from the downstage
Meyer Monitor Speakers
All stage monitor speakers on the
Styx tour are John Meyer products, and
are owned by the band. Meyer advises
that the amplifier used to drive one
cabinet should produce at least 250
watts driven into 8 ohms. As in the
house system, Audio Analysts uses QSC
Series Three amps to drive all of the
monitor lines in a bi- amplified mode.
Three different Meyer speaker cabinets
were in use for the Styx tour the UM -1,
the UPA -1, and the USW.
The UM -1 Ultra- Monitor is the smallest Meyer speaker cabinet available.
Intended to be used as a "spot" monitor,
the cabinet contains a single 12 -inch
speaker in a ported chamber (Figure 8),
and is used by Cooper as spot reinforcement at each vocal mike. A high frequency driver is mounted on a conical horn with a narrowly controlled
pattern. Six cabinets were placed along
the edge of the downstage line, with a
pair angled up at each of three vocal
stands; cabinets also covered the bass
guitar and keyboard positions.
With the same single 12-inch speaker
and HF driver, the Meyer UPA -1 differs
from the UM -1 only in choice of horn,
and contains a radial to provide wider
coverage. The box has slightly different
FIGURE
MONITOR
BOARD
INPUT
MODULE
MIX ASSIGNMENTS
y
exterior dimensions than the UM -1 to
maintain a constant internal cubic-inch
displacement. Four UPA -ls were used
for wide -area coverage, and were placed
offstage.
The drummer's monitor mix was
heard through five stacked cabinets:
two UPA -1 s, and three USW s. The latter
is a dual -fifteen cabinet with an internal
FIGURE 9
-
LIGHTING
TRUSS
RATCHET
STRAP
7
dbx THREE -BAND
PARAMETRIC EO
i
I
MIX OUTPUT
Figure 8: Meyer UM-1 stage monitor slant
houses a single 12 -inch bass driver, and a
conical horn mid- range.
lighting truss, and required immediate
attention. For this application, a pair of
Meyer UPA -1 boxes were strapped
together and hung from each end of the
truss with nylon webbing and metal
hooks. The cabinets were secured at an
extreme downward angle with ratchetstraps, as shown in Figure 9. These
small cabinets developed an amazingly
high sound- pressure level from such a
high over -head distance
strong
enough that Rob Kingsland out at the
house console was moved to comment
that he noticed a slight interference
with the house sound during the show's
louder passages.
After the Meyer speakers were positioned and wired, monitor engineer Mike
Cooper used a White Model 200 real -time
analyzer with pink -noise to perform an
initial level check of the various monitor
zones. "We'll use the analyzer, to a large
degree, to give us an idea what we are
SUMMING AMP
PHASE -LINEAR
THIRD- OCTAVE EO
V
MEYER CROSSOVER
AND SIGNAL PROCESSOR
LOW
OUT
HIGH OUT
r
OSC AMP
LEFT
CHANNEL
OSC AMP
RIGHT
CHANNEL
APPROXIMATELY
TO MEYER
TO MEYER
MONITOR
LF COMPONENT
R -e/ p 58
MONITOR
HF COMPONENT
June
1983
ATTACHED
SHACKLES
METAL BINDING
PLATES
25- DEGREE ANGLE
Fc
artistiì sound coloration use
EQUALIZATION
Le
For darity. intelligibility and presence use the
EXR EXCITER
-n
loi
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oorporatkir
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THE PRICE OF BEING
A PERFECTIONIST IS HIGH.
We're not out to sell TAD professional
loudspeaker components to everyone.
Only those who can afford to eliminate the
word "compromise" from their vocabulary.
Obviously, you won't hear that word bandied
about amongst the engineers at TAD.
Because our entire existence is dedicated to
the perfection of audio. To accomplish this you can't
be willing to skimp, to cut corners, to make sacrifices,
to settle for less than the best.
That's why every device we make is assembled
entirely by hand.With the precision you'd expect of a
watchmaker. Our diaphragm assembly, for instance,
is mounted with a gap precision of ±1 millionth
incr to ensure high reliability.
We use tremendously expensive evaluation
and testing techniques with the aid of computers
and esoteric acoustical equipment like a Doppler
Laser, a Laser Holograph, an Impulse Generator, and
an Anechoic Chamber, to mention just a few
Finally, we feel to make first -rate products you
can't settle for second -rate materials. So we use the
finest money can buy. Such as Beryllium diaphragms
and Alnico magnets.
Consequently, the sound we produce is totally
uncolored, uncluttered, and unmatched.
Which is why our professional loudspeaker
components are preferred by musicians, audio -system
designers and recording engineers who are
perfectionists when it comes to sound.
And who feel that the price of not beinga
perfectionist is high.
Al
Technical
Audio Devices
Professional Products Division of Pioneer Electronics (USA) Inc.
4201 Long Beach Blvd.. Long Beach, CA 90807. (213) 639 -5050. Telex 656431
For additional information circle #40
experiencing as far as acoustical problems go on a given stage," he explains.
"But, we don't live by the analyzer
after I see what needs to be seen on it, I
then look for problems. Often things like
poor mike placement show up. The ears
though, are the real thing. If the display
doesn't correspond with the ears, go
with the ears."
Cooper explains that, for this act,
vocals and drums are most important.
"I really have to spread the snare and
hi -hat over the stage," he says. "And,
the EXR Exciters go a long way towards
giving me a really bright, present sound
on the vocal mix anywhere on stage. My
downstage mixes are important, but the
sidefills actually carry the show, since
these boys move around a lot." In addition to the overhead sidefill pairs, a
Meyer USW and UPA -1 are placed at
stage level on either side of the front
vocal line, and fed separate left and
right mixes.
Feedback, with all those monitors?
"Not really," Cooper claims. "I never
have all of my 64 inputs open at the
same time. Drums and vocals are a constant, but the many keyboards and guitars come and go. I probably average
about 22 open channels at any given
time during the show, and half of those
are likely to be direct inputs, so acoustical feedback problems are not really
that common. It really depends on two
things: how loud the band plays; and
how well we tuned them beforehand.
But, the Meyer speakers give me just as
much level and it's cleaner as any
huge triamplified stack I ever used for
sidefills."
According to Cooper, unlike some
tours that basically are done in a spontaneous, "seat -of-the- pants" method,
the Styx show places a great demand on
him for proper monitor cues. As he
explains, "What happens is this: we
have a lot of cues ... some instruments
may be used on only one tune during the
entire show, maybe only for a few bars.
But it has to be there on time. I also have
four tracks of tape return from the house
console, and a film audio track to bring
in and out. And there are three different
(Audio- Technical wireless lavalier mike
channels, each one used twice during
the evening."
.
.
Stage Miking
With three multi- instrumentalists in
the band, Styx featured many different
guitars and keyboards and that eats
up a lot of channels. There were three
separate keyboard positions individually mounted on a rolling cart or riser
(Figure 10). Keyboard instruments
included two Roland Jupiter synthesizers, a Fender Rhodes electric piano,
Korg electric organs, among others. All
keyboard inputs were taken direct,
including the acoustic grand piano
pickup. A Leslie cabinet was miked with
an AKG D12E on the low -end, and a
Sony ECM -22P on top.
Electric and acoustic guitars were all
-
THREE
TWO
MEYER USW. MEYER UPA'.
I
MONITOR
00
WOO
Z1
l
MEYER
UPA,
KEYBOARD
AMP
SIDEFIL L
MONIT OR
B
LESLIE
.
-
-
MEYER UPA
SIDE PILL
GUITAR
AMPSTACK
GUITAR
AMP STACK
ei
BASS
AMP
MEYER
UPA -1
LARGE ROLLING
KEYBOARD RISER
DRUM RISER
ROLLING
KE TB CInnu
4-
OFF -STAGE
\\
CART
-
SIDEFILL
MONITOR
0
SIDEFILL
MONITOR
Figure 10: Stage layout for
1983 Styx concert tour.
SMALL ROLLING
KEYBOARD RISER
UPA1
MET R
UP/1,1
USW
Off
USW
STAGE
f
1
C\
OVERHEAD
SIDEF IL LS
MEYER
UM I
TWO MEYER UPA Is
METERUM
equipped with Nady wireless devices.
One of the band's stage technicians
spent the entire show overseeing a bank
of 20 wireless receivers. Guitar amp
stacks received mikes, while the bass
guitar and the Moog Taurus bass pedals
were taken direct. Hard -wired vocal
microphones were Beyer M600 models.
The drum kit took up 15 input channels with its double kick drums (ElectroVoice RE -20 mikes), the four rack toms
(Sennheiser 421s), and the top and bottom snare mikes. A third mike was
placed on the snare drum for use exclusively in the monitors. Hi -hat and overhead cymbals were covered by AKG
C451E condensers, as were the various
percussion "toys." A large pair of conMIC SALE
MIC SALE
VOCAL
VOCAL
VOCA
V//
1
\
SIDE FIL
L
TWO MEYER
UP, t'
MEYER
UM t
cert tympany completed the set.
Console Interface
Stage lines were picked up by satellite
boxes situated in various parts of the
performing area. 'l'hese I1 -pair boxes
utilize Amp g -2 connectors to feed signal
into two identical 40 -pair splitter boxes,
providing lines from stage to the console
areas. The junction boxes have three
discrete outputs for house, monitor, and
recording. "These three outputs are
completely isolated from each other,"
Albert Leccese explains. "I won't say
whether or not we use transformers in
there to split the signal, but we do use a
I am surprised it is
very simple idea
.
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R -e /p 61
June
1983
the splitter box is stuffed with PCs, and
a lot of wires
we have had great success with it." Two input snakes run from
the splitter box to the house mix position, and two identical (though shorter)
snakes feed the two monitor consoles.
-
House Mix Position
Two identical Gamble HC40 -24 consoles provided 80 inputs at the house
mix position. House engineer Rob
Kingsland handled the primary board,
while John Newsham assisted on the
secondary board. I n addition to the
myriad lines coming from the stage,
Kingsland returned a host of effects
lines into the Gamble boards, along
with a four -track music tape feed
tunes from the current album into which
was mixed live vocals from the wireless
lavaliers and a film soundtrack, used
as the opening sequence of the show.
Newsham found the Gamble consoles
to be versatile when it came to having
enough "ins- and -outs," but had encountered a couple of problems with the pair
in use on the Styx tour. "I get bleed through from the cue circuit into the
main outputs if the headphone amp
input is overloaded," he recalls. "Audio
Analysts plans to modify this particular
-
-
console and replace the graphic section
with an auxiliary effects return panel,"
Newsham added. The tour was due to
receive, by the end of May, a second pair
of Soundcraft Series Four desks with 40
inputs routing to 16 discrete mix outputs
for front of house. Shane Morris, technical manager for Soundcraft, says that
the Series Four house console is
equipped with eight stereo subgroups
and eight mono effects returns, and has
a full patch -panel, with easy access to
the auxiliary and program group
busses.
Audio Analysts engineer Ray Dilfield
was the third man in the house mix
area. As tape operator, it was his job to
handle the Otani MX-5050 which fed
four tracks of music into the system. Dilfield also had a TEAC 3300X reel -to -reel
standing by as two -track backup, in
case of primary tape transport failure.
Both machines were started in sync and
ran simultaneously, thus providing him
with instant access to the two -track
should problems arise with the Otani.
House Processing Equipment
formidable array of processing
A
devices lined the wall behind the house
consoles. Four separate equipment
SOUNDCRAFT SERIES 4 FRONT -OF-HOUSE
AND MONITOR CONSOLES
As with all other modular Soundcraft consoles, the Series 4 mainframe design is based on
custom aluminum extrusions between aluminum plate profiles, which is said to result in a strong
yet reasonably lightweight structure. Internal wiring is based around insulation displacement
techniques that eliminate the need for a fixed mother board system with fragile, unreliable edge
connectors.
The Series 4 front -of -house console, available with a maximum mainframe configuration of 40
inputs routing to eight stereo subgroups, is divided into an upper and lower section, with two
modules per input. The upper module contains an LED bar -graph meter, input gain and equalizer
controls, while the lower module contains routing, auxiliary sends, fader, and the programmable
grouping controls. The sub -groups are contained in the lower modules to the right -hand end of
the console; the modules above the sub -group modules contain the 8x8 matrix controls and
effects return channels. Between the input and sub -group sections is the master and intercom
module, above which is found the auxiliary master modules. At the right-hand end of the console
is the patchbay sunken beneath a plexiglass cover that can be retained in place whilst patch
cords are inserted in the jacks.
The Series 4 monitor console is similar in format, and uses the same upper input module with a
dedicated lower module containing 16 rotary pots with an overall master fader. To the right -hand
end of the console are 16 group output modules, eight in the lower section, and eight above. In
addition, the monitor board can be built with a customer -specified stage distribution system as an
integral part of the console. Facilities for outboard record splits can also be provided. A mike
patch bay can be provided to allow the monitor operator to assign the mike inputs differently to
the house, or so that a monitor console with less inputs than the house board can be used.
R-e/ p 62 D
June 1983
racks were packed with enough gear to
stock a major recording studio or two
(Figure 11). Rack #1 contained 10 Valley
People Kepex II compressor- limitergates, which were applied to each individual drum. including the snare. Omni Craft G -4 noise gates were used on the
effects returns. Four dbx 160 limiters
were patched into channels assigned to
handle bass guitar, bass pedals, and
two kick drums. Four sides of EXR Exciter were used on the left and right overhead drum mikes, and on the toms. A
spare crossover and a Dietz parametric
equalizer completed the rack.
Rack #2 housed a Crown RTA -2 real time analyzer, connected to an AKG
C414 -B mike for ambient frequency
response readings. Two Technics M -85
stereo cassette decks were included for
recording and playback. Also contained
within this rack were the main sound
system processing gear. Console outputs first were put through a pair of
Klark- Teknik stereo third -octave graphic equalizers, and then through a custom Brooke -Siren crossover. These
English -made units are built specially
for Turbosound with additional phasecorrection circuitry, adjustable at the
front panel, and are specifically recommended for use with the TMS -3 system.
A four -way stereo crossover drives the
stacked speakers, with crossover points
at60 Hz,280 Hz, and3.7 kHz. The flying
clusters had a separate three -way crossover that allowed the TMS -3 cabinets in
the air to start receiving signal at 30 Hz.
The third house electronics rack contains most of the show's special effects
devices. A Lexicon Super Prime Time II
(with 40 programmable memories), a
standard Lexicon Prime Time, and two
Eventide H949 Harmonizers were
available for vocal processing. Also
included was an URSA MAJOR Space
Station for reverb effects on the drums,
a DeltaLab DL-1 for vocal special
effects, and a new Lexicon 229X digital
reverb unit that served as the primary
drum and vocal reverberation system
for the show. "It's interesting, this
224X," says Kingsland. "It offers very
long reverberation times [up to 70
seconds
Ed.] with a good, natural
sound."
Rack #4 primarily houses the
channel- insert gear, including eight dbx
Over -Easy compressors that were
placed on vocal mike channels. Two deessers were included for dialog and
sound effects, along with six dbx Model
905 parametrics for vocal channel
inserts. Omni -Craft GT -4 noise -gates
and Bi -Amp Quad- limiters were put inline with the synthesizers as a safety
factor for the main sound system. Other
processing devices included a Hanger
for the drums, two more parametrics
and compressor channels used as
inserts on the lavalier mikes, and two
sides of dbx noise reduction for the Otani
tape deck (two tracks being run with
dbx, and two without). An Eventide
H910 Harmonizer was included in the
rack for the Fender Rhodes; six more
-
Figure 11: Two of four house electronics
racks used on the Styx tour.
EXR Exciter sides were inserted on the
vocals. A few more spare Dietz limiters
completed the rack.
Speed of System Construction
Perhaps the most astonishing thing
about the sound system put together for
Styx is the fact that it was built in the
month prior to the tour going out. Audio
Analysts did not receive final confirmation of the tour until December 17, 1982.
(Styx has been known for last -minute ally, this writer would not have known
decisions in the past. Rob Kingsland that the system had only been bits and
sent mild shock waves through the con- pieces 30 days prior to the tour, had he
cert sound business in 1979 by mailing not been told. The system seemed to be a
out a bound set of specifications for well -built and finely -tuned package,
essentially this same system, bids being right down to the last road case.
sought for a tour hardly eight weeks
Show Sound
away!)
As stated earlier, the smaller, high According to Albert Leccese of Audio
Analysts, "The recession actually ceilinged San Diego Fox Theater can
helped us to prepare for this tour. Ware- offer great challenges to a sound engihouses were full, and many of our supp- neer and his system. During the course
liers were able to ship items right from of the first night's performance, I spent
stock." Leccesse offers that the com- a great deal of time trying to locate spots
pany's biggest worry was the monitor in the room which had poor sound. I
consoles. "I flew straight to England found none. Words were clearly heard
and laid out the specs," he recalls. even in the back row of the high bal"Graham Blythe and Phil Dutteridge at cony, though the low- frequency
Soundcraft were very helpful; those response was, expectedly, somewhat
guys got these consoles out in less than attenuated up there. The TMS -3 system,
to my ears, was able to clearly reproduce
30 days." Betty Bennett, general manager of Soundcraft, Inc., confirmed that the music program material in such a
the console manufacturer had only manner that I was not even aware that
three week's notice. "We were just get- I'd been listening to 115 dB peaks until I
ting ready for the holiday season, and stepped out into the lobby to find my
Audio Analysts ordered two of our new ears ringing. Inside, the system was
monitor consoles. We had not even seen very easy to sit and listen to. Odd frethem here yet in the States. And Albert quency peaks and harmonic distortion
were practically non -existent. The lack
wanted delivery in three weeks."
According to Alan Wick of Turbo - of distortion in the system definitely
sound, the purchase order for the TMS-3 helped to make listening to it a pleasure.
cabinets was received on December 16, The PA looked good, and sounded bet1982. By January 21 the boxes had been ter. A wide range of audio effects actuloaded, painted, and tested in Audio ally attracted the audience's attention
Analysts' Plattsburgh facility. Con- to the high -fidelity sound system. And,
soles, speakers, cabling and electronics for a system assembled in 30 days,
were all hastily ... and expertly ... put heard on the first night of a complex
together as the parts arrived. Person- tour, that says a lot.
ÇJ Turbosound
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R -e /p 63
4142
June
1983
cAn `Engírleer's Quide `To c%Vlusíc
Understanding the Basic Syntax
of a Session by Following
Various Musical Scores and Charts
by Jimmy
Stewart
A creative engineer
is one that is sympathetic to the musical goals of the producer, artist and musician, and
who can utilize his or her knowledge to ensure that the recording technology is being used to bring life to
the musical performance. Without doubt the "catalyst" for any session is the musical score. Even if an
engineer is unable to read music (which is not to say that it can be a great advantage for them to follow a
score sheet), the ability to gain a grasp of the musical "punctuation" and "syntax" of the piece to be
recorded can be extremely useful, to say the least.
This article will consider the various ways in which an engineer can gain some insight into the myriad
details contained within the written music, ranging from a simple appreciation of a song's structure,
through the markings on a rhythm chart, to understanding the important landmarks to be found on a full
orchestration score.
pop records, the song is the
most important element we are
dealing with," Quincy Jones
told R -e p in the October 1982 issue.
On
"The engineer has to understand and be
able to relate to its musical structure."
Pop songs can be made up from basically six types of Blueprints, or internal
structures, as shown in Table 1. The
individual sections within a song are
labeled on most lead sheets in the form
of (A) for verse, and (B) for the chorus;
sometimes a song may have a tag,
labeled (C). These sections may be
repeated again in the song, in the form
of (A2) (B2) (B3), and so on. Such a
lettering system is used by music reading musicians, and will appear on
their music sheets. It's useful for an
engineer to be able to relate the two sets
of terms: the letters that relate to the
musician's chart; and the verse and
chorus indications on the lyric sheet.
song sections most generally are eight
bars in length, although you may come
across variations.
The strongest lyric line and /or
melodic line in a song is the "hook," and
is the part that, as the name suggests, is
easiest to remember. Also, song arrangements use an introduction, which can
vary in length from two to eight bars, or
more. Other parts in the song arrangement could be a link or setup. A bridge or
release could be added as a diversion
from the song, keeping the listener
entertained before the payoff(hook) in a
song. An " outro" it a groove section or
vamp used before the last chorus hook)
is stated. The turn -around in the song
arrangement is a repeat of the chorus
(hook), and appears at the end of the
song.
R-e/p 64 June 1983
-
-
(
"Although you are watching the VU
meters and getting
balances, start to
learn the song form
as soon as possible,"
says engineer Chris
Minto, whose most
notable recordings
have been with Pat
Benatar, Rick
CHRIS MINTO
Springfield, and
Carlos Santana,
produced by Keith Olsen. "I'm not a
trained musician, although I played
guitar by ear for several years, and also
experimented with drums and some
vocals. I learned by listening; I trust my
ears. I had to learn to communicate with
musicians at a musical level, and
understanding song form is one way we
can communicate."
In Table 1, Minto's six basic blueTABLE
Blueprint
Al
A2
2nd Verse
B
AS
Chorus 3rd Verse
B1
-
Chorus
A2
B2
2nd Verse Chorus
A3
B3
3rd Verse
Chorus
C
Bridge
Chorus
-
-
-
UI:
1st Verse
BI
Chorus
A2
B2
Verse
Chorus
Blueprint IV:
Al
1st Verse
Blueprint
Al
B2
Chorus
repeated
II:
1st Verse
Blueprint
Al
THE SIX BASIC BLUEPRINTS FOR A POP SONG
I:
1st Verse
Blueprint
Al
1:
prints for a pop song, the various letters
relate to the musical structure. For
example: section A melody, same as section A2; B section change in melody,
same as section B2; section C, new melody. It should be noted that the C section
is a bridge, as shown in Blueprint III,
and usually is a surprise in the song; it's
always memorable, and stands on its
own. It could be called a tag. Some
songs, for example Blueprint IV, eliminate the chorus by building the cumulative emotion on the sections already
introduced. The words change, but the
musical sections are identical.
"When I'm recording a song, I learn
quickly the Blueprint," Minto continues.
"And once we get a version on tape we
like, I'll write out on paper the Blueprint
and arrangement." The accompanying
chart is Minto's script for production of
the Tane Kain song, "My Time to Fly."
A2
AS
A4
2nd Verse 3rd Verse 4th Verse
B3
--
V:
1st Verse
Blueprint VI:
Al
1st Verse
A2
B1
A4
2nd Verse 3rd Verse Chorus
A2
2nd Verse
B
A3
A5
B2
B3
4th Verse
Chorus
Chorus
A4
Chorus 3rd Verse 4th Verse
B2
C
Chorus
Tag
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"When we are working on vocals, I'll
use a lyric sheet with verses and chorus
labeled, and reel time numbers from the
tape recorder. My way of getting into a
song is tapping my foot lightly, and this
is done after I determine the meter of the
song.
"In working on punches, I like to play
the section through to find out where the
punch -in and -out will be, counting with
the song meter: 1234, 2234, 3234, 4234,
etc. With some tape machines you have
to anticipate the punch, because the
erase head is far away from the record
head, and you also have to worry about
getting out of the punch. I'll subdivide
the beats within the bar one, and, two
and, three and, four ... and so on. And
for a very tight punch, I'd count one e
and ah, two e and ah, three e and ah,
four e and ah . .. to give a subdivision on
SONG STRUCTURE OF TANE KAIN SONG,
"MY TIME TO FLY," ANNOTATED
BY SESSION ENGINEER CHRIS MINTO
Song Form
Heel Time
(From multitrack tape
position counter)
[Tape Starts]
0.00
0.09
0.22
0.46
Introduction
Verse
Intro
#1
#2
Verse #2
Chorus #1
Intro
#3
Verse #3
Chorus #2
-
each count."
A good sense of rhythm is very important for an engineer, especially in multitrack work, Minto offers. "I know the
punching times for different recorders.
Take the MCI, for instance: it might
take a 1 /30th of a second before the
machine takes hold, and longer when
dropping out. Depending on the style of
music and tempo, I will have to anticipate by a 16th note, or whatever. Being
able to subdivide notes really helps me
1
2
3
[0.50... Band Entrance ...
#2
#3
#4
End
4
5]
0.51
1.17
1.40
6
1.48
8
7
2.13
2.36
3.02
3.26
3.33
3.50
3.59
4.16
Bridge
Verse #3
Outro
Turnaround
Turnaround
Turnaround
SMPTE Labels
(From Neve NECAM console
automation system)
getting in and out of punches cleanly."
When you're working on a line from a
section in a song, Minto advises, always
give the artist the line just before it, and
catch the breath before the word at the
punch -in. Getting out is just as difficult;
you want to make sure you don't erase
the breath for the next line, just in case
it's a keeper.
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
"Sometimes a singer may not be right
on pitch," Minto continues. "If they
hear too much track in the earphone
they go flat, if they have too little track
in the earphone they'll go sharp. I
always wear earphones [in the control
room] so I know what they are hearing."
An engineer will always look better, and
gain respect and confidence if you can
count rhythm and recognize song Blueprints, Minto concludes.
LIVIN'
Frod.OUINCY JONES
Title
0000 -END OF LEADER
22 -COUNT OFF 14 SMPTE
ea
18SMPTE
INTRO IN A
- --
-
IN AMERICA
,:-:
-
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3 -4 -82
(EDIT 2-TRACK)
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BRUCE
SWEDIEN
SMPTE FROM
BTS 4500 READER
ARE AUTOLOCATOR NUMBERS
CHOROSYMBOL
(REVERB UP SYNTH)
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June
1983
E
Writing Your Own Chart
script tells an engineer what
the song Blueprint
will be, and outlines
the song arrangement. This can be
elaborated on by
writing the script on
A music
music paper. Bruce
Swedien, considered
by many to be the
dean of recording
engineers, has
BRUCE SWEDIEN
received many awards for his engineered records dating from the late Fifties. In recent years, Swedien and
Quincy Jones have become one of the
most successful producer engineer
teams. He's also an able pianist.
"I like to write out my own chart,"
Swedien says, "because it helps me
understand the song, and is my way of
seeing the production as a script. The
way I work on pop records nowadays,
with many rolls of multitrack tape, I'm
able to keep a record of the song as it
develops. I'll refer to my music sheet
during all the stages of production."
Swedien starts his script by blueprinting the song on music paper, and writing out the bars and bar numbers. As
the rhythm track is recorded, autolocater numbers are added, along with the
SMPTE timecode references. This musical script will be his instant, fast, and
concise reference to the music being
recorded. As the production develops,
Swedien notates elements that he feels
will be important for the final mix; for
example, edit marks, the key or keys
n
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The Physics
of Music
varying and contrasting
intensity
The
degrees of
or loudness in musical tones
are refered to as dynamics. Increases or decreases in volume are indicated by the
following terms: pianissimo (PP), very soft; piano (P), soft; messo piano (MP),
moderately soft; mezzo forte (MF), moderately loud; forte (F) loud; fortissimo
(FF), very loud; forte piano (FP), loud and immediately soft; sforzato and sforzando(SF, SFZ), heavily accented; cresendo(CRES, or<), getting louder; decrescendo and diminuendo (DECRESC and DIM, or )), getting softer.
Rhythm
Rhythm has several dimensions that need to be coordinated by the mind and ear:
meter, tempo, and duration. Meter is the structure of regularly occurring accents
NOTE EQUIVALENTS AND THEIR CORRESPONDING RESTS
NAME
DURATION
(WHEN QUARTER NOTE
GETS ONE BEAT)
WHOLE NOTE
4
HALF NOTE
2 BEATS
QUARTER NOTE
1
SIXTEENTH NOTE
1/4 BEAT
HALF NOTE
TRI PLET
4
1
SIXTEENTH NOTE
TRIPLET
June
1983
3
1
BEATS
BEAT
2
1
DOTTED HALF NOTE
DOTTED QUARTER
NOTE
-1
4
BEATS
2
EIGHTH NOTE
TRIPLET
R -e /p 68
BEAT
1/2 BEAT
BEAT
BEATS
2BEATS
Using a Conductor's Score
Jim Mooney is a trumpet- player/
engineer, and the owner of Sage and
Sound Studios in
Hollywood. He specializes in recording
small groups and
stage bands.
"A two-line con-
ductor part can
BEATS
EIGHTH NOTE
QUARTER NOTE
TRIPLET
EQUIVALENT REST
being played as the song progresses,
bass -line elements, set -ups, breakdowns, links, special equalized notes,
sections or instruments that need reverb
attention, plus the song form (see
accompanying chart for "Livin' in
America ").
r
make a nice production sheet for me,"
Mooney says. "It's
JIM MOONEY
especially convenient to see all the musical lines in the
treble clef. This form of conductor's part
tells me what instruments enter, and
blueprints the arrangement for me.
Once I get my levels set on the first run
through, I'll look at the chart for
instrument blends that I might work on
with mike placement, and circle them on
my score. For example, during the intro
to 'April In Paris,' second bar, the trombone line and trumpet line answer in bar
#4 will need some touching up [see
accompanying chart]. I can tell by the
trumpet register [high pitch] that there
will be loud 'shout.' I also like to mark
modulations [changes of key], which
helps me understand what the form is,
and build in the arrangement.
"It's a glamorous business, isn't it ?"
glamorous, all right
If you like all night sessions. Recording and re- recording dozens of times. Trying to please yourself and everybody
else in the stud o.
At dbx, we think it's a very difficult job that demands
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Which is why we ve spent the past 12 years constantly
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Our lasest example is the dbx 610 AutographicTM
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These are many more examples.
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Visit the authorized obx professional dealer near you.
fessional Products
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Processing
..
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June 1983
APRIL IN PARIS
continued2
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FOR ENTIRE
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2
Electro Voice Sentry 100A
Monitors
Apple II Computer
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Demos by appointment.
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R -e /p 70
June
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1983
For additional information circle .46
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June
1983
APRIL IN PARIS...
).,
continued
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The Physics of Music
.. continued
or pulses, which underlines the particular rhythm of a melody or harmonic
progression. The rhythmic pulses (which also may be called counts) lead us to
divide sequences of notes into groups called measures. This division makes the
grouping of the time relationship between segment of the melody easier for the
eye and mind to grasp. The different measures are separated by bars, or straight
lines drawn vertically across the staff, which is a series of horizontal lines upon
which tones and their durations are represented. The notes are of different
durations, but a pattern of accented and unaccented notes or rests usually repeat
themselves throughout the piece.
A whole note, represented as an unfilled oval, is the standard by which all
other notes are measured. It is divided by fractions of two into half- notes,
quarter- notes, eighth- notes, and so forth, as shown in the accompanying table of
note equivalents and their corresponding rests. The series of rests represent
silences of equivalent duration to the corresponding notes.
Since writing out each set of equivalents can be a tedious process, shorthand
symbols have been developed for common combinations. The dot and the tie are
two of these. A dot after a note indicates that the note is to be increased by half its
normal duration. That is a dotted quarter note is equivalent to a quarter note /eighth -note combination. Dots also work with rests in the same way.
Meter refers to the patterns and spacings of beats within the bar, while tempo
refers to the speed of the beats within it. The song tempo ordinarily is indicated
at the beginning of a piece by a word or phrase of instructions, fast, medium or
slow.
Tempo indications can be coupled to the Time Signature (also called the Metric
Signature) to establish the performance rhythm of a piece. The Time Signature is
also found at the beginning of a piece, and resembles a fraction. The numerator
(top number) refers to the number of beats in a measure, while the denominator
(bottom number) indicates which length note gets one full beat. The basic pulse
is always counted as an integer. Try tapping as you count out the patterns below:
QUARTER
NOTE
ONE
BAR
OF
4/4 TIME
ONE
-
TWO
EIGHTH
NOTE
SIXTEENTH
NOTE
-
ONE
ONE
-
E
-
AND
AND
-
A
TWO
TWO
-
r
-
THREE
E -
AND
AND
-
A
THREE
-
-
FOUR
-
THREEE AND
-
FOUR
AND
4
-
A
4
FOUR
-
-
AND
4
E -
ANO
-
A
EIGHTH
NOTE
TRIPLET
R-e /p 72
0 June
1983
e
ONE TRIP LET
TWO
TRIP -LET
THREE
TRIP -LET
FOUR TRIP -LET
"In the second bar of(A), I have piano
fills in back of the vocal group, so I may
want to nudge up the keyboard fader.
No problems with the brass leakage; I
can see on the chart that they are not
playing. Everything is straight ahead
until letter (Dl). I'll have to make my
decision about maybe using a `sweeting'
mike for the soft trumpet solo that
enters at that bar, if he will be playing
with a mute on the horn.
"My next spot to watch will be two
bars before letter (E): trombones and
trumpets shouting after the soft trumpet
solo, so I need to watch my levels. The
sixth bar of letter (F) has the trumpets
starting the lick, and are joined by the
trombones. I need to think about the
blend, and balance. When I'm recording
direct to two -track, I'll have to ride the
faders because I'll be pulling up solos.
I'm not saying that I go crazy on the
faders; you'd be amazed how much 2 or3
dB pull can help you in a soft spot, and
pulling down the same amount in a loud
spot. As long as it's subtle, the listener
won't really hear it.
"When I'm recording a big band, I'll
study the score looking for solos,
ensembles, and the basic orchestra for
my mike setup. I try and hear the parts,
and visualize presence and dynamics as
if I'm hearing it on the monitors. I have
learned from experience in recording
stage bands that I can spot most problem areas. With top professional players, the horn sections are always in balance, but with college bands there is
always a problem. For example, on a
four -way sax solo the lead players sound
may be `brittle'; this calls for a different
mike. Some sax players may change a
reed on me, which alters their sound. All
of these things relate to the music. If I
didn't read [charts] I might think that
something is going wrong at a technical
level."
A conductor's score tells you what
instruments will be playing, and how
they relate to the production of a recording. In many ways, it's like driving
along the freeway; the score is your road
map. It's telling you what to expect,
where the curves are going to be, where
the turn -off is, and a lot more. It can
even tell you "weather conditions," as in
the case of dynamics raining is akin
to heavy fortes, and clear weather the
case where everything is smooth, and
you can sit back and enjoy the
performance.
"Some musicians and producers have
a tendency to put down engineers if they
can't follow orchestrated music," Mooney offers. "I was once recording a classical pianist, and we had to make a difficult punch. I asked if he would give me
the music. I was able to follow the passage, and he did a complete turnaround.
Everyone was very happy with the session after that."
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In part two of this article, to he
published n the :August issue,
.limply Stewart will prove on to
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consider more complex musical
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explain what sort of production
information he can glean front a
Master Rhythm ('hart, while Rick
Riccio, who engineers sessions for
'l'V and film music soundtracks,
will consider the increased detail
found on a full score sheet.
Editor.
TRIANGLE
CYMBALS
SNARE
TYMPANY
!
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ORGAN
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For additional information circle a4?
R -e /p 73
June
1983
acquisition.
Along with the "vibes" came a few
problems, primary among them being
that the conveniently high -ceilinged
handball courts were not only located
on the second floor, but in the rear of the
building, making the first -floor entrance
on Sunset Boulevard inconvenient, at
best. A bridge entrance leading out to
the rear parking lot was constructed at a
cost of $12,000. In addition, an enclosed
forklift was necessary, as Perrotta
notes: "The [necessary] legal requirements to allow handicapped people to
enter your building makes the cost of
whatever you're doing much higher. We
were going to put in an elevator, instead
of a forklift, which would not have cost
that much money. Actually, the elevator
would have cost about the same as the
forklift about $5,000 but to make it
suitable for handicapped people would
have driven the cost up to about $9,000.
So it was cheaper to buy a forklift, which
was not subject to any of those regulations." [Useful advice to studio owners,
provided they fully understand their
legal obligation to provide access to
handicapped engineers, producers, and
musicians. Ed.]
"You can make a studio sound good,"
he continues, "whether you're on the
second floor or the fiftieth. But, being on
a non -ground floor means spending a lot
-
-
9O
-
2[3.AOW
EECCDIDDEE0
A Second -Floor Studio Complex With its
Own Particular Sound Isolation Problems
more bucks!"
Just as the bridge has proved to be a
great convenience, another costly problem proved to be a blessing in disguise.
by Larry Blake
today's buyer's market, a
smart shopper for session time
can find 24 -track studios available in most larger cities for $50 an hour.
Conditions like this are driving many
facilities out of business, and demand
that studio owners think long and hard
about any new purchases, much less
building a new studio.
By the same token, no smart businessperson hesitates to seize the opportunity to expand with success. For the
recording world, in this era of specialization, expansion often means increasing a facility's flexibility. Just such an
expansion took place in April 1983, with
the opening of Baby 'O Recorders' Studio B in the Berwin Entertainment
Complex in Hollywood. With the facility's Studio A booked solid by Kenny
Rankin, Ambrosia, and Lakeside,
among others, since its opening in April
1982, the owners of Baby 'O consulted
with Chris Huston, designer of Studio
A, regarding the possibility of adding a
second, smaller studio. In addition to
handling overflow from Studio A, "B"
was designed from the start as a mix down /production room.
The idea for Baby 'O Recorders
initially came from Rafael Villafane, coowner of the popular they often have
lines around the block at 8 AM discotheque in Acapulco. (Incidentally, the
name "Baby 'O" comes from the title of
an old Dean Martin song.) Villafane
also is a musician, and has spent many
n
-
R -e /p 74
June 1983
-
session dollars with L.A. studios while
recording a number of albums. One of
the studios that he patronized frequently was Golden Sound, a Los
Angeles facility in which Rick Perrotta
had a partnership. Realizing that the
amount he was spending out of pocket
every year at other people's studios was
more than a down payment on a state of- the -art facility, Villafane, Perrotta,
and Enrique Senker, one of his partners
at the Acapulco disco, decided to build a
studio from the ground up. (Well, not
exactly, as we shall see later.)
Berwin Complex
"Rafael [Villafane] and I were driving
around," Perrotta recalls, "feeling out
prospective areas that were centrally
located. We happened to drive by this
building [in Hollywood] and we said, at
the same time, `Look at that beautiful
building.' When Gary Berwin showed us
around, it was an automatic decision
parking lot, large rooms that were once
handball courts and the building had
vibes."
Built in 1926 as the Hollywood
Athletic Club, the complex counts
almost any star ( male, that is) that you
care to name as a former customer.
(Film buffs will remember Mike
Hammer finding The Bomb there in
"Kiss Me Deadly. ") Gary Berwin had
bought the complex in 1979, the building having housed The University of
Judaism for 24 years prior to his
-
-
"When we moved into the building,"
Perrotta remembers, "we assumed,
because everybody else in here was able
to turn lights on and have typewriters
going, that there was a source of power
for us. We though that the building had
a power vault.
"But when we applied for a permit to
hook up our electricity, the electric company told us that the present vault was
completely over-taxed, and we couldn't
take any more power.
"At that point we had no choice but to
build to some very, very rigid specifications
completely new vault. And
even though we knew that this would
cost a lot of money $20,000, or the cost
of two Studer two -tracks
we didn't
mind doing it because we knew that we
would be doing further development in
the building, and we would have first
rights, legally, to access the vault. So we
built the new vault under Hudson
Street, and ran our power in from there
via three big distribution transformers.
"A further benefit to us is that it's all
new equipment, and is overrated beyond
our present needs. The power, including
the lighting, is again isolated at each
studio via isolation transformers. So, if
someone comes in wanting to do a video
shoot, not only is the audio power going
to be clean, but if they need to hook up
lights, the lighting power will be pure,
too. We don't ever anticipate having a
problem from outboard sources coming
in and hooking up to our power. We have
continued overleaf ..
- -a
-
-
-
.
T
t
.:`.
xi
Studer's Secret of Success
In years pa:-t the Studer A8OVU has a irned +widespread accept.tince by the world's premb r recording
studios. And this SUCC(SS story is far fix m over: top
studios :lint i :Inc to (hcx.sc the A8OVU MKII over other
all new" machines. The secret of this success lies in
three basic riles:
1. If it can't he made better, don't change it.
2. If improvements can be made. make them - even
if they don't show on the outside.
3. Use longer production runs to hold down final
.
cost.
Now in its th:rd generation, the Studer A81)VU series
once again offers state-of -the -art performance at a
surprisingly modest price. The new A80111 MKIII system incorporates several significant improvements,
including:
Transformerless Line Amps: Low output
impedance assures optimum performar.ce even with
long cable runs.
New Headblodc: Tight spacing of
erase and record heads permits exceptionally accurate punch -in and punch -out.
Remote Unit: Full channel remote with 20address memory autolocator.
Instead of repackaging these changes in an all
new" machine, Studer kept the basic transport -a design with an unprecedented reputation for reliability.
Also, because basic tooling costs have long since been
amortized, the A80VU MKIII's price has been held
down, thus offering .i better price/performance ratio.
How much better? Call your nearest Studer representative for details. He'll help make our secret the
key to your success.
STUDER
Studer Revox America Inc. 1425 Elm Hill Pike. Nashville, TN 37210 (615) 254 -5651
Offices: Los Angeles (213) 780 -4234 New Ycrk (212) 255.4462 Dallas (214) 760 -8647 Canada: Studer Revox Canada, Ltd.
For additional information circle #49
K 1]
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such overkill that it's ridiculous!"
Design of Studio B
constant bookings schedule for
Studio A
despite being financially
satisfying
became somewhat frustrating for Perrotta, "because I would
have to turn a whole album over to a
friend [at another studio]. Whenever I
did this, it was like giving away
A
--
$30,000!"
The decision to build Studio B was
made in the summer of 1982, with construction beginning that November.
The new control room and studio area
was designed by Chris Huston as a selfcontained facility; the amenities necessary during a lock-out session have been
provided, including its own kitchenette,
bathroom and lounge attached to the
studio.
"I've always found that when musicians take a 20- minute break, it is
always an hour and 20- minute break,"
Huston offers. "That's downtime to a
studio owner you can't rent the time.
You can't give it away, and you can't
charge for that time. With this in mind,
Baby 'O Studio B provides an area
where people never have to leave the
studio. We provide drinks, fresh fruits,
and vegetable and even bagels to
make it easier to stay within the environment and create ... where the music is
the most important thing."
Notable among the creature comforts
that form part of Studio B is a Jacuzzi.
"I know that the idea was worn out in
the Seventies," laughs Huston, "when
they were used as a communal hot tub.
We had a totally different idea in putting it in Studio B, though. Even if the
clients don't use it, we will. There are
many times during a mix when you
can't go any further, creatively. What's
the problem with taking 15 minutes to
relax and get your mind off the music ?"
Chris Huston has incorporated into
-
-
R -e /p 76
0 June
-
1983
the design of both studios numerous
ideas that have evolved over 20 years of
working as a musician, engineer, producer and, latterly, studio designer.
Although Huston's initial passion,
while growing up in Liverpool, England, during the late Fifties, was art
he was well on his way to becoming a
commercial artist at the age of 15 he
found that there was more money to be
made playing guitar in his band, The
Undertakers.
Later, having relocated to New York,
Huston found himself on the other side
of the glass, producing and engineering
at Talentmaster Recording Studios. In
the period from 1965 thru '68, he engineered for many Atlantic Records
-
-
STUDIO B CONTROL
ROOM EQUIPMENT LIST
Console: 56 -input Trident Series 80, linked
to Melkuist GT -800 disk -based automation
system (shared with Studio A); 46 -track
operation and video sweetening with Audio
Kinetics Q.Lock 3.10 SMPTE synchronizer.
Multitrack: Studer A800 24 -track with 16track headblocks, plus Dolby and dbx
noise -reduction.
Tape Machines: Studer A80 and Ampex
ATR -102 half -inch two-tracks, and ATR -104
half -inch four-track; plus various Technics
cassette decks.
Monitor Speakers: Custom -designed with
JBL, TAD and Gauss components, plus
UREI 813 Time Aligns, Yamaha NS -10M,
JBL 4311, and Auratone Sound Cubes.
Outboard Effects: EMT 140 stereo plate,
Lexicon 224 and 224X digital reverberators,
EMT 250 Gold Foil, Lexicon Prime Time
effects unit, UREI 1176LN, dbx Model 162
and Model 165 compressor -limiters, Orban
Model 526A Sibilance Controller, EXR Exciter, Valley People Kepex II noise gates and
Gain Brain II compressor- limiters, Eventide
H910 and H949 Harmonizers, Sontec and
Trident CB9066 parametric equalizers, plus
a live echo chamber.
artists, including the Young Rascals
("Flow Can I Be Sure ?," "Groovin','
plus two albums for the band), Sam and
Dave, Solomon Burke, and Wilson Pickett. In addition, Huston recorded the
Who's "Sell Out" album, "96 Tears" for
? and the Mysterians, Mitch Ryder, and
two albums for the hardest -working
man in show business, James Brown.
Huston remembers that creative era
of three- and four -track recording during the Sixties. "In the old days," he
says, "musicians would play with each
other; they were in tune with each other,
and had visual contact. There was
something happening in the room that
you had to get down. I can remember
recording string sessions with tears in
my eyes
the emotion of that many
people playing as one."
Against this background, in 1968
Huston was able to merge his musical
and artistic skills when he was placed in
charge of redesigning Talentmasters
Studios after the facility had been purchased by Atlantic Records. Later studio design assignments included Mystic
Studios in Hollywood, a remote truck for
Far Out Productions, and the design of
George Benson's Lahaina Recorders,
-
based in Hawaii.
During the Seventies Huston grew up
with multitrack along with the rest of
the industry, engineering and producing such acts as War, Blood, Sweat and
Tears, and Jimmy Witherspoon. Both
studios at Baby 'O reflect his opinion of
the effect that 16- and 24 -track recording
technology has had not only on the
modus operandi of rock music sessions,
but also on studio acoustic design. "In
the Seventies," he offers, "with the
advant of 24 -track recording everybody
wanted everything to be totally isolated,
and the acoustics in recording studios
were correspondingly treated to be very
dead. It got to the point where the bass
[in those studios] tended to get sucked
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Remote mix control between pure
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The new AKG reverberation unit has
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The essential Features:
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Patented circuitry prevents any direct
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Initial delay for the reverb signal
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The two discrete reflections for each
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Every BX 25 E may be easily adapted
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into the walls immediately, and the
highs would tend to continue travelling
in a straight line. Maybe this is because
today we create a performance, whereas
15 to
years ago we were documenting
a performance. If you listen to a lot of
records from the Seventies, you will
notice that they have a lot of highs, a lot
of lows, and a shallow mid -range,
strange as it sounds. The lows after
reaching their physical limits turn back
into the room, thereby 'modulating' the
other acoustic information. In broad
terms, this can be stated as excitement,
or musical energy.
"My idea at Baby 'O was to build a
lint' studio, where the music comes back
at you, to put it bluntly. A musician
should be able to feel the air mote, and
feel the effect of the studio. In the broadest sense, I'm trying to put more 'live ness' back in the rooms. I feel that a
musician is much more comfortable if
the creative surroundings are pleasing
to him, and he doesn't feel oppressed by
them. He has to feel that the room is
going to work for him, and is not bigger
than he is.
"One of the funny things about mixing in the Seventies that I noticed and
it took a long time to realize was that
you'd do a track, and spend a couple of
- -
weeks overdubbing. But, when you
came to mix it, you could never recapture the original magic- the reason you
chose the track to begin with. The pianist had overdubbed his part, and the guitar player had done his part again. In
fact, the drums might be the only
instrument you have left from the basic
tracks.
"Recording 24 -track gave you so
many options that it took the intrinsic
value of the music away. You came to
mix it, and all the overdubs seemed to be
going parallel. In order to find the mix
you'd have to go back to when the musicians played against each other
played with each other. If you're listening on headphones while doing overdubs, it's easy to play at a continuous
volume level, with a continuous sort of
feel. What he's playing will not reflect
the dynamics of the track."
-
Studio Acoustic Design
The main room at Baby 'O, Studio A,
measures 50 by 30 by 25 feet (length/
width /height), and occupies the area of
one of the converted handball courts.
The control room, two iso rooms (one
live, with reflective wall surfaces, and
the other dead) plus bathrooms fill a
second court, and office and workshop a
third. By comparison, the whole complex of the recently opened Studio B
occupies the space of a single court, with
its main recording area half the size of
Studio A's.
"Pretty early on I realized that I
would have to tune the part of the room
that would be used for drums," Huston
continues, "and also the part for the
acoustic piano. So, in designing the
room I made the baffling around the
drum area [on the right rear looking
R-e /p 78
June 1983
View from
partially
completed studio,
looking towards
the control room
(top), and detail
of wall mounted microphone and foldback connector box.
from the control room] consistent with
taking away the very, very lows around
40 to 160 Hz that you are liable to get
from kick drums. The baffling around
the piano area soak up the frequencies
around 200 to 400 Hz, so that the second
and third harmonics from the drums
would not affect the piano.
"In doing the room tuning I used
rough cedar planking, which has a very
good absorption coefficient, and is very
is controllable because of the drapes,"
Huston says.
"Concert halls traditionally are not
acoustically perfect," he continues, referring to the general acoustics policy
adopted at Baby 'O. "Part of the glory
and bigness of an orchestra comes from
the acoustic enhancement of all those
random modes. When building a live
studio, you would be leaving something
out if you didn't build in some of those
'natural' sounding. The specific random reflections and absorptions
[absorbed] frequencies are arrived at by that they have in concert halls. For
the use of Helmholtz resonators. These example, we have the ability to create a
calculations "play" the depth of cavity flutter echo, if you need it."
behind the wood slats with the width of
Baby 'O Recorders' second -floor locathe wood itself and, most importantly, tion poses not only potential sound isothe width of the space between the slats. lation problems for the studio, but also
The principle of the Helmholtz system sticky legal problems should the nuiallows for the wood slats to vibrate sance clause in other tenants' leases be
sympathetically, thus absorbing trou- violated. Unable to float the preferred
blesome modes of sound energy."
three- or four-inch concrete slab in StuBoth Studios A and B feature mova- dio B, because of the large unsupported
ble, sound -absorbent drapes of velour on area, the builders instead "poured to
the side walls, and which can be flat." This resulted in a concrete slab no
brought in to further deaden selected more than 1.5 inches deep at the thickest
parts of the room. The rear corners of part, with some areas, due to the
each room are rounded, one being fully unevenness of the original floor, concovered with wood, and the other a 50% sisting of only a scraping. Perrotta says
version intermixed with felt over that, so far, the studio has experienced
masonite, so that the latter is not quite no problems with regard to sound either
so reflective as the other corner. "The leaking into the studio or, possibly more
roundness focuses the sound to the importantly, given the facility's close
radius, and adds a coloration to it which
continued overleaf . .
-
.
We knew the successor to our popular
410/420 Dyna- Mite'" and Dyna -Mic
signal processors would have a hard
act to follow. After all, these units are
prevalent multi- purpose
audio tools to he found in recording
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But, take a close look at the
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because soon it will he appearing
everywhere. No doubt about it, the
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These units are tough!
Consider the attractive, rugged,
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It'll look great in your rack, hut it's
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Of course, there's more to success
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the most
Detection. The advantage? When
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With the Dyna -Mic, we modified
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Here, the three EQ frequencies are
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The 430 series from Valley People...
truly a tough act to follow.
interfacing is provided not only for
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and semi -pro gear.
So, what does all this multifunction processing muscle cost?
Our two channel packages (shown
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The Model 430' -Two channels of IOyna -Mite
processing capaarv. Each channel is c.ip.ihle
d performing IN specific operating nudes
including: limiting. expanding, noise- gating,
keying. FM limiting. Jeecsing and voice -over.
The two channels may be coupled tior stereo
operatin.
The Model 431' -A combination tit one
IX,n,rM channel and one hynaMic
channel. This unit will accept a variety of
Input impedances and levels and optimize then
for routing through the 3-hand EQ section
and/or the t'vnaMite.
f
The Model 432' -Two channels. each offering
independent. transformerless rreamps with
3 -hand EQ. Each .4 the mpt.rs may
optimized for nucrnphone, line. or musical
instrument impedances and levels. The single
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teed line, musical instrument amplifier, or
video and semi -pro audio levels.
on -hoard
he
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OW/RATION.
NY. NY/TELEX I:91tvt
'Each model is shown with the optional, front panel lack, which allows the user ready access to Inputs. exte nal inputs. outputs, patch points and
control/meter functions by use of a patch cord at the rear panel. This accessory is especially useful for level alignment checks. control r.rom tir rr duct on
room overdubs, remote metering applications and direct musical instrument inputs at the front panel.
For additional information circle 451
R -e /p 79
June 1983
neighbors, passing to the outside world.
Control Room Design
Since a major use of Studio B is
expected to be for mixdown, Huston tailored the control room acoustics with
this application in mind. As he explains,
"When we calve to do Studio B, we had
the option of putting in a 14 -foot ceiling,
as in Studio A's control room, or a 12foot ceiling. i opted for a 12 -foot ceiling
in order to load the sound a little tighter
bass -wise. As a result, some of the
things we have to do electronically to
compensate for the volume of the room
as in Studio Al, we didn't have to do in
B. You really can't notice it, but by having the ceiling two feet lower there are
actually a couple of hundred cubic feet
that the bass can't go to."
The main monitors in the control
room are three -way systems custom
made at Baby 'O, and utilize a pair of
BI, 2235H 15 -inch woofers,JBL2221H
10 -inch mid -range drivers, and TAi)
'l'I) -4001 high- frequency drivers working to Gauss 8263 horns. The system is
tri- amplified with BGW 750 power
amps, at crossover points 4400 Hz and
1.2 kHz. Why go to the trouble of designing and building your own system, we
asked, when there are so many studio
monitoring systems available off-theshelf? Rick Perrotta explains: "First of
all, we felt that since we were in a position to build a studio from scratch, why
not build our own monitors? Everybody
has his or her own concept of monitors,
and there doesn't seem to he any real
standards, other than the UREI /TimeAligned l system, or lAlteci 604s.
"Second, we wanted a large system
that would be relatively maintenance free, with a lot of 'overkill.' We proved
this with a group that blew out four
pairs of JB1. 4311s, two pairs of INS 10M Yamahas and, in our big system,
only two of the mid -range drivers. Had
we not had overkill in the big system, we
would have been tearing up the speakers every other day, which would have
meant down time for the studio, maintenance expenses, etc. etc. We felt that
building a system of this nature would
Recording area interior of Studio B, showing rounded corners for focusing sound and to
provide individual character acoustics for recording drums and keyboards.
make the studio more trouble -free."
Less exotic and more familiar monitoring is available in the form of UREI
813s, and JBL 4311s. "Real- world" monitoring is provided by Auratones and
Yamaha NS -10Ms, which can either be
powered by the studio amps, or a consumer receiver rated at 35 watts per
channel.
Equipment Selection
Baby 'O Recorders makes use of a Trident Series 80 /Studer A800 combination in both of its control rooms. "I like
the simplicity of the Trident board,"
offers Huston. "Trident made their
name on the transparency of the signal.
They didn't choose to cut down the signal bandwidth to help improve the
signal -to -noise ratio."
"We were in a position, financially, to
buy any board that we wanted," notes
Perrotta. "We considered all of them.
The more complex the board is, the more
problems a studio has in aiding an
engineer in the operation and mainte-
CROSS SECTION OF STUDIO WALL ACOUSTIC TREATMENT
EXISTING
WALL
2 FAIRING
STRIP
1
HALF -INCH
SHEETROCK
HALF -INCH
SIX -INCH AIR
SPACE FILLED
WITH CELLULOSE
FIBER
/
y
2
2K
4
STUDS
1/4 -INCH PEGBOARD
WITH CARPET OVER
5/8-INCH
SHEETROCK
.X
June 1983
FAIRING
STRIP
ROUGH CUT CEDAR
"RANDOM" WIDTH
SOUNDBOARD
R-e /p 80
2
1
nance of that board. So, we opted for a
very simple board with no frills, and no
extra BS. I feel I can sleep at night with
the Series 80; if something putzes out,
it's real easy to get it going."
Some of you may be wondering why,
since price was no object while outfitting the studio, Baby 'O didn't purchase
a "top -of- the -line" Trident TSM console? Rick Perrotta explains: "Although
the TSM was a nicer console, the noise
factor and crosstalk were higher. [An
unavoidable fact of life, Trident USA's
VP Ken Bray concedes, because of the
additional circuit complexity and larger
mainframe size of TSM consoles Ed.]
"What led us more to purchase the
Series 80
was
and it wasn't dollars
that the Trident name, with the success
of the old 'A Range' consoles, put us in a
good position. When people ask us what
kind of console we have, the minute we
-
say 'Trident'
-
it's automatically
accepted."
While the Series 80 boards in both
rooms have 24 output busses, the new
console for Studio B is equipped with 56
inputs, compared to 40 in Studio A, thus
enabling SMPTE- locked, dual 24 -track
mixdown. The Trident Series 80 design
is of a split rather than in -line format,
and is made available with separate
monitor modules, which in the layout
adopted for Studio A. A separate monitor section was not purchased for Studio
B, however. Instead multitrack returns
are dedicated to console inputs 1 thru 24.
In this manner, full equalization is
made available during tracking and
playback and overdubbing. Monitoring
during both modes of operation is
handled via the Series 80's dedicated
stereo remix bus.
Huston offers his own thoughts on
this somewhat unusual console layout:
"I prefer to monitor exactly what is coming off the tape, but I find that a lot of
clients rely on equalization of the play-
back during overdubbing. They have a
very logical way of explaining it they
want to be able to equalize what they
have on tape as they go along, so when
they get near the final mix it's that
much easier.
"I also have a pet peeve [with in -line
consoles], in that the monitor sections
always have rotary pots, or a mini fader. They are like after thoughts, all
packed together, in almost every console I've ever seen."
Perrotta feels that on most in -line
designs, "the monitor section sounds
different. In addition, I think you get a
more realistic picture, sound -wise, by
just using a standard input module.
There are less amplifiers, noise and
stuff in the chain, and it sounds better.
Also, using input modules [to provide
monitoring] allows the producer to fool
with his levels and equalization, and
not affect what the engineer is doing."
In regard to the choice of A800 multi tracks, Perrotta says that "we bought
Studers because they will probably run
longer over a period of time with less
maintenance costs overall than any
other machine. We bought [the A800] for
the ruggedness of construction, which
is, I think, the only thing that the more
expensive machines have over the others. All 24 -track tape recorders sound
pretty good; there's not a bad one on the
market.
"But I definitely feel that for the
amount of money a Studer costs, its
-
--
has better 'transparency' than a brand new Studer A800. And I think a Stephens machine sound better than all of
them.
"In fact, I think the American
machines have been able to achieve better audio performance, electronically, in
terms of noise and headroom, than
European machines. The Europeans
seem to want to so completely control
the parameters of an amplifier that they
tend to put in self-limiting factors, such
as many points of feedback. They actually over -design [their circuits], and the
amplifiers are too stable; they like to
make things so tight that they only like
to run within a certain set of parameters. But I'll have to give the European
manufacturers this: they have the
mechanics worked out to perfection."
Perrottta also keeps a 16 -track head
block on hand for the Studer multitracks. "That was part of Chris' design:
to go for a `liver' recording environment,
with less overdubs," he recalls.
An Audio Kinetics 3A0 Q.Lock
SMPTE synchronizer and a Melkuist
GT -800 disk -based automation system
are shared by both rooms. Mixdown is to
a collection of Studer A -80 1/2-inch and
Ampex ATR -102 'b -inch two -tracks, plus
ATR -104 1/2 -inch four-track decks.
Future Expansion Plans
Having run out of deceased handball
courts, so to speak, there's no further
space at the Berwin Entertainment
Complex to construct a Studio C. However, there is plenty of room at a 350year -old castle owned by Villafane, and
situated on a 1,000 -acre ranch 40 miles
outside of Mexico City. Containing
eight living quarters, the castle will
have plenty of room for a proposed Studio C within it two -foot -thick walls.
Construction is scheduled to begin this
summer.
Closer to home, plans are in the "lease
negotiation" stage to develop a nightclub, a video shooting stage. and a video
post- production room, all of which are
planned for the first floor of the Berwin
complex. The proposed video stage will
be located directly beneath Studio A,
where at present there is an Olympic size swimming pool dating from the
Hollywood Athletic Club days. 'l'he
video post -production room will he used
not only for on -line editing, but also as a
control room when taping acts either on
the video stage, or in the nightclub
scheduled for the complex. "The nightclub will be a showcase for bands where
we can do 24 -track recording and video
recording. tied together with SMPTE
timecode, in a live-mix situation," Per
rotta adds. "This way a band can walk
out the door after a performance with a
-inch master and a multitrack audio
tape."
-
1
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Less Expensive
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operational efficiency, and above all their accuracy and reliability the Suntronics 8 -track
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or the Mini to meet the requirements of an operator who already has a power and monitoring system ...
SYSTEM
production system
start -up facility
audio performance isn't a justification
of the price. To my mind, the old 3M
Model 79 which I've had a lot of experience with with all of its 14- and 15year -old technology and op -amps, still
lencelth ,
The
,
,
Maxi System: $7,850
JBL 4312's
BGW 250-D
Tascam Model 3B
The
Tascam Series M -50
Mini System: $6,000
The Suntronics Mini System consists of the new Tascam Series M -50 12 -by -8 control console, matched to the newly
introduced Tascam Model 38, 8-track recorder. The Maid System adds a BGW Model 250 -D power amplifier, and a pair of JBL
4312s for an ideal monitoring environment. Both systems include interface cabling.
in stock, ready foi set -ay!
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For additional information circle rrS2
Northeast:
EDITEL -NEW YORK (New York City) has opened the Editel Sound Mix Room for audio -video post- production sweetening. The new
room features an automated Solid State Logic 6000 series console with 32 inputs and 6 mix busses
(three stereo pairs for effects, dialog, and music), and equipped with SSL's Events Controller used to
roll cart players, cue non -synchronous tape machines, fire cue lights or switch digital processors.
Tape machines include Studer A800 24/16- and 8/4- tracks, and A80 2- track; all are equipped with
Dolby noise reduction. The system includes 35/16mm mag playback, as well as stereo audio cart
machines used primarily for sound effects and sweetening. The mix room can interface to any of the
facility's 27 one -inch VTRs or 2 -inch quad machines. In- session video is serviced by a Sony BVU 800
with high speed search. An Audio Kinetics Q.Lock synchronizer utilizes a serial interface to expand
its capabilities to control five tape machines at a time from a single keyboard. Outboard equipment
includes AMS 1580, Lexicon Super Prime Time, Audio + Design Scamp modules, Pultec equalizers,
UREI limiters and notch filters, EMT 140, Lexicon 224X, and AKG 6X10. The new post- production
sound mixing room was designed by audio consultant Vin Gizzi, acoustical consultant Carl
Yanchar of Lakeside Associates, and Editel staff designer Ralph Potente. 222 East 44th Street, New York, NY. (212) 876 -4600.
FISHTRAKS RECORDING STUDIO (Portsmouth, New Hampshire) has recently acquired a Marshall Time Modulator, Loft Delay, a
Fender Rhodes, and a Hammond organ with a Leslie. 62 Congress Street, Portsmouth, NH 03801. (603) 431-5492.
AIR CRAFT COMMUNICATIONS (Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania)has recently upgraded its facility from 8- to 16- tracks. The new
equipment includes an Ampex MM- 1200, and an Allen & Heath /Brenell Syncon Series B 26/24 console. An Otani MX -5050 MKIII 8 -track will
remain in service. The studio's outboard gear includes Orban and Ecoplate reverb units, DeltaLab digital delay, UREI, Symetrix and Orban
effects equipment. The monitor system consists of JBL 4430s and 4311s, and Auratone speakers
powered by Crown, SAE, and Nikko power amplifiers. Staff engineers are Barney Lee, Gary
Hohman, Henry Yoder, and Cy Anderson. The studio also offers a full- service repair shop,
graphic arts services, and an equipment sales department. Dormont Square, Pittsburgh, PA 15216.
(412) 343 -5222.
QUADRASONIC RECORDING STUDIO (New York City) has recently installed a new
completely automated Harrison 3232C console, and Ron Johnson has been added to the engineering staff. 723 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY
FEDCO AUDIO LABS (Providence, Rhode Island) has installed a Trident Series 80 32x24
console in its mobile unit. With the addition of the Trident console, the 48 -track remote recording
unit now carries 56 inputs, each with full equalization. Providence, RI.
FEDCO AUDIO
RIK TINORY PRODUCTIONS (Cohasset, Massachusetts) has opened a new 16 -track audio
production studio featuring a Soundcraft Model 1600 console. Tape machines include a Tascam
85-16 16 -track with dbx noise reduction, Ampex AG -440 2- track /% -inch and 4- track/y2 -inch, and
Ampex AG -500 2 -track and mono -inch. The monitor system is by JBL, Auratone, and Altec
Lansing powered by Crown DC300 II Amps. Microphones available include Neumann, AKG,
Electro Voice, Shure and RCA models. Full audio/video production and duplication services
continue to be available. Living accommodations, helicopter and limosine services are available on
special request. 180 Pond Street, Box 311, Cohasset, MA 02025. (617) 383 -9494.
GREENE STREET RECORDING (New York City) has recently installed an Aphex Studio
RIK TINORY
Aural Exciter. A newly added AMS Model RMX -16 digital reverberation system features a full 18 kHz
bandwidth and 90 dB dynamic range, and can also store 90 user programmed settings, according to studio manager Michael Rubinstein.
112 Greene Street, New York, NY 10012. (212) 226-4278.
SHEFFIELD RECORDING (Phoenix, Maryland) has updated its equipment list by adding a Lexicon 224X digital reverb, Studer A80
' 2-inch/2-track recorder, and a Real -Time Cassette Duplication System. The studio also now has 48 -track capability with the addition of a
3M M -79 24 -track recorder interlocked with a BTX Shadow Synchronizer. 13816 Sunny Brook Road, Phoenix, MA 21131. (301) 628.7260.
V,2
11
-
Southeast.
DOPPLER STUDIOS (Atlanta, Georgia) has recently added two new Otani MTR-90I124-track tape machines, four new Otani MTR- 10
stereo mastering machines, and an Ampex ATR -102 for 1h -inch stereo mastering. Also, Curt Bush has joined the engineering staff. 1922
Piedmont Circle NE, Atlanta, GA 30324. (404) 873-6941.
Southcentral:
TOMLYN RECORDING STUDIO (Flint, Texas) has recently upgraded to 16 -track with the addition of an MCI JH-114 24/16 recorder
with Autolocator III; also installed was an MCI JH- 110B -14 mastering machine. Outboard additions include a dbx 165A and two 160X
compressor /limiters, and a Lexicon 224X digital reverberation unit. Microphones by AKG, Sony and Sennheiser were added to the studio's
equipment list, as was a new Sony PCM F -1 digital processor. The equipment package was put together by Milam Audio, and the new studio
was designed by Russ Berger of Joiner, Pelton, and Rose in Dallas. Rt. 1 Box 696, Flint, TX 75762. (214) 894 -7713.
DALLAS SOUND LAB (Irving, Texas) is scheduled to open Studio A in June. The new room is a 24/48 track recording studio with
video/film interlock capable of 50 -piece orchestra scoring, video sweetening, and album -jingle production. Audio tie lines to the three sound
stages at Las Colinas will be provided for live television and concert recording. Equipment includes Otani MTR 90.11 24-track, MTR 10 -4
4- track, and MTR 10 -2 tape machines, and MCI JH -114 24/16- track, JH -110 4- track, and JH -110B 2 -track recorders. The control room
features an MCI JH -536 automated console. Monitor speakers are by UREI, Eastlake, JBL, ElectroVoice and Auratone. A full complement
of microphones by Neumann, AKG, Electro- Voice, Sennheiser, Beyer, Crown, Sony, Shure, and RCA are supplied. The studio is also
equipped with Lexicon 224 digital reverb and PCM 41 digital delay, Eventide H910 and H949 Harmonizers, in addition to plate reverb and
live chambers. Recently purchased video /film equipment includes an Audio Kinetics Q.Lock 310 synchronizer, MTM 16/35mm high speed
projector, MTM dubbers and recorders, JVC CR- 8250-U and CR- 8200-U % -inch video recorders, Sony CVM -2560 video monitor, and a
Nagra 4.2L for location recording. Available instruments include a Steinway 9 -foot concert grand piano, Yamaha CS -50 synthesizer,
Sequential Circuts Prophet -5 ployphonic synthesizer, Prophet -1005 poly sequencer, Mini -moog Model D synthesizer, Hammond B -3 with
Leslie, Hohner Clavinet, Linn Drum Machine, and Roland Bass Line and Drumatix. John P. Marshall is the studio manager for the new
facility. Four Dallas Communications Complex, Suite 119, 6305 N. O'Connor Boulevard, Irving, TX 75039. (214) 869-1122.
R -e, p 82
June
1983
-
[Tr STEREO IMAGING ACCURACY NOT FLATTERY
CWDISPERSION
C°PHASE ALIGNED
IWPORTABLE
O EXPENSIVE
Knowing exactly "what's on the tape" is of paramount importance
to the professional recording engineer and producer. Unfortunately,
many recording, mixing, mastering and listening rooms are less than
ideal, making truly accurate monitoring difficult.
For over a decade, permanently installed Westlake Audio studio monitors have been the worldwide choice of professionals who demand
accurate reference monitors. Now, that same precision is available in
the Westlake Audio BBSM series of Portable Reference Monitors.
The BBSM's pinpoint stereo imaging, wide bandwidth, totally symmetrical polar pattern and coherent wave front, even when monitoring as
close as 18 inches, are a result of a unique combination of drivers, crossover and mounting configuration. Best of all, this has been achieved
in a size that makes these Reference Monitors easy to carry with
you from studio to studio.
BBSM-12F
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Midwest.
4 -,
RAINBOW RECORDING (Omaha, Nebraska), has installed a new Interface 30x 16 mixing console to complement Otani MX -5050 2 -,
and 8 -track machines, according to owner Nils Erickson and studio manager Rick Schwartz. A new Baldwin 7 -foot concert grand has
also been added to Studio A. 2322 South 64th Avenue, Omaha, NB 68106. (402) 554-0123.
TALDEK SOUND (Newton Falls, Ohio) has upgraded its facility with a new control room and 24 -track capability. New equipment
includes MCI JH -24 and Otani MX- 5050 -B tape machines, and a rebuilt Tangent 3216 console. Also added was an URSA MAJOR 8X32
digital reverb unit and UREI 813 -B Time -Aligned monitors. 530 Arlington Road, Newton Falls, OH 44444. (216) 872-5719.
UNIVERSAL RECORDING (Chicago, Illinois) has added Bob Miller to its engineering staff. 46 E. Walton Street, Chicago, IL 60611.
(312) 642 -6465.
STUDIO A (Dearborn Heights, Michigan) has added a New England Digital Synclavier II synthesizer. The 16 -voice 40K system has a
built -in 16 -track recorder, control over all sound parameters, and synchronizing capability. This latter feature allows the instrument to be
driven from tape, drum machine or almost any analog rhythm device. A Linn Drum Machine was also recently purchased. 5629 N. Beech
Daly. Dearborn Heights, MI 48127. (313) 561.7489.
Southern California.
W.E.D. ENTERPRISES (Glendale) recently acquired a DMX 16E Digital Preview Editor System for use with its 3M 32 -track digital
recorders. The new DMX unit contains a total of 21 seconds of audio delay memory and allows capture of pre- and post -edit material from
the two recorders. plus SMPTE timecode from each. 1401 Flower Street, Glendale, CA 91201. (213) 956-6500.
CONWAY RECORDING STUDIO (Hollywood) has just completed a major upgrade of its facilities. New equipment includes a Neve
48- channel 8108 console, and a Studer A-800 tape machine with Q -lock system. The control room
was remodeled with consultation from Waterland Design and George Aushburger. 655 N. St.
Andrews Place, Holywood, CA 90004. (213) 463-2175.
GROUND CONTROL (Santa Monica) is a new facility equipped with a 36 -input AMEK M3000
automated console, a Lyrec 24- track, Ampex ATR -102 and AG -440B with VSO for mixdown and
tape delays. etc., plus a full array of signal processing gear, including an Eventide H949 Harmonizer,
MXR Delay Ils, Phasor and Flangers, Marshall Time Modulator, Publison Fullmost processor, EMT
140 plate, Ecoplate, AKG BX -20E, a live room chamber, and AMS RMX 16 digital reverb. Outboards
include UREI LA -2A, LA -3A, LN 1176. dbx Model 165, Spectra Sonics 610, Valley People Gain Brain
compressor -limiters, and Valley People Kepex II gates. A custom -designed, tri-amped monitoring
system uses H&H and Bryston MOSFET amps; Westlake BSM -6s, Yamaha NS- lOs and Auratones
GROUND CONTROL
also are available. The main recording area measures 40 by 30 feet, with 16 -foot ceilings, and two
large isolation booths. The studio is owned by producer /engineer Paul Ratajczak, and studio manager is Lisa Roy. 1602 Montana
Avenue, Santa Monica, CA 90403. (213) 453-1255.
Northern California.
BEGGAR'S BANQUET (Santa Rosa) has moved to a new facility featuring a "live- end/dead -end" control room designed by Tom
Kraus. Tape machines include Tascam 4- and 16- track, and Otani and Technics 2 -track recorders, all interfacing with a Sound Workshop
24x16%16 console. Other new equipment additions include a Studio Technologies Ecoplate reverb unit, Eventide H949 Harmonizer,
DeltaLab digital delay, Valley People limiter/compressor, and an Ashly parametric equalizer. Monitoring is supplied by JBL and Auratone
units. Warren Dennis is owner /engineer, and TheresaStoops the studio manager. .540 B East Todd Road, Santa Rosa, CA 95401. (707)
585.1325.
HARBOUR SOUND (Sausalito) has added Lexicon 224X digital reverb, and an Eventide Harmonizer to the equipment list of its
automated 24 -track facility. 301 Harbor Drive, Sausalito, CA 94965. (415) 332 -0983.
PHIL EDWARDS RECORDING (San Francisco) has added a new Adams -Smith 605B 3- machine SMPTE synchronizer to facilitate
audio post- production for video. PER has also recently upgraded its remote truck with the addition of two 3M M79 24-track tape machines,
UREI 811B Time Aligned monitor speakers, and an API console expansion to 40 -in /32 -out. 1338 Mission Street, San Francisco, CA 94103.
-
(415) 861 -4439.
Canadian Activity:
ZAZA SOUND PRODUCTIONS (Toronto) has opened a new 24 -track facility which, according to owner Paul Zaza, is "truly
designed to meet the needs of the musicians." The new control room centers around an MCI JH -600LM console with full automation, and
MCI JH -24 and JH -110 tape machines, linked with a JH -45 synchronizer. Additional recorders from Scully and Ampex are in service.
Monitor speakers are Altec Super Reds and Big Reds, plus Auratones. Outboard equipment includes an Eventide Harmonizer, UREI 964
digital metronome, Audio + Design F760X -R Compex limiter/compressor and gate, Orban Parasound parametric equalizer, Aphex Aural
Exciter, and a Lexicon PCM41. An EMT 240 Gold Foil reverberation unit and Eventide digital delay are also in- house, and other outboard
equipment is available on request. The studio is also equipped with 34 -inch video, 6 -foot monitor, audio/video lockup facilities with EBU,
Drop Frame and SMPTE timecodes. 322 Dufferin Street, Toronto. Ontario, M6K 1Z6.
Great Britian.
BRITISH BROADCASTING CORPORATION (London, England) has recently purchased four Otani MTR -90 Series II 24 -track
recorders. London, England.
ULTRA VOX (Chiswick, West London) member Midge Ure recently purchased a Harrison MR3 36 -input console for his new studio as
part of a system supplied and installed by F.W.O. Bauch. Also included in the package were Studer A80/VU 24- track, A80 -RC and B67 tape
machines, and various effects processors from UREI, Valley People and EMT. Chiswick, West London, England.
ECO (Cardiff, Wales) recently purchased Soundcraft Series 2400 consoles for each of two dubbing suites in its new post -production
center. The console supplied for the video dubbing suite is equipped for 16- tracks in /out, and is interfaced with Studer 16 -track and B67 tape
machines. The film dubbing suite console is also a Series 2400 24/16 which has been set -up for 12 -in/6 -out. Exchange Building, Stuart
Square, Cardiff, Wales.
R -e /p 84
June
1983
JBL Compact Monitors.
o
ffJ
Refined.
And Redefined.
In 1967, the introduction of the first professional quality compact monitor created a small
revolution in the recording and broadcast industries. Combining high power capacity, accuracy,
and exterded bandwidth, the loudspeaker was ideal for close monitoring, yet flexible enough to
provide a practical alternative to full size monitors. That speaker was to evolve into the JBL 4311.
And since its introduction, it has literally set the standard for compact monitors.
At JBL, we're proud of this heritage. So over the years we've worked to maintain it through
design improvement and innovation. And now, JBL engineers have created a new generation
of compact monitors loudspeakers that range from the subtly refined to the totally redefined.
Our new 4312, for example, represents the next step in the evolution of the 4311.
Improvements include a new high resolution dividing network for better transient response and a
mirror- imaged design that provides enhanced stereo imaging. These refinements significantly
improve the loudspeaker's performance, yet maintain the unique sound character that made it an
industry standard. And best of all, the 4312 is still priced to fit comfortably in even
modest budgets.
For those that require a more flexible or compact monitor, we've created the 4411 and 4401.
These loudspeakers incorporate our most advanced component and design technologies. Both
the 4401 and 4411 utilize newly developed transducers arranged in a tight cluster to provide outstanding coherency of sound for close monitoring. This design also minimizes off -axis variations
in the far field. Additionally, the 4411s are mirror imaged for improved stereo perspective.
For maximum flexibility, the continuously variable levels controls on the 4411 are calibrated
for both a flat direct -field response and a rising axial response that produces a flatter power response.
And for ease of adjustment, each of the monitors' level controls are baffle mounted. Finally, the
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For additional technical data and a complete demonstration of the 4312, 4401, or 4411,
contact your local JBL Professional Products dealer. And discover the next generation of compact
monitors. From the refined to the redefined.
-
4
4
r
JBL
Professional
Products
Division
JBL Incorporated
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P.O. Box
Northridge, California 91329
R -e/p 85
For additional information circle a54
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June 1983
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South America.
TV MANCHETE (Brazil) has installed six Soundcraft Series 240028/24 consoles with bargraph meter displays. Seven additional Series
800B 24;'8 consoles are to be installed in studios in five major cities, including the main production center in Rio de Janeiro. The purchase
was handled through Soundcraft agents, Peerless Imperial of Sao Paulo, Brazil, and was probably the largest single order for studio sound
equipment ever placed by a Brazilian buyer, where foreign exchange restrictions strictly limit imports of professional audio equipment. TV
Manchete is a completely new television network owned by magazine publishers Block Editores, and is being built with the assistance of
consultant Sam Tolbert of SST Enterprises Ltd. Oklahoma. Rua de Russel, Rio de Janiero, Brazil.
South Pacific.
TIARE TAHITI RECORDS STUDIO (Tahiti) recently acquired a Soundcraft Series 240028/24. custom equipped for 28/8, along with
2 -inch 16 -track
and 1-inch 8 -track tape machines. The equipment was purchased through Tahitian professional audio dealer, Oceanic
Garage. Tahiti, French Polynesia.
PAPUA NEW GUINEA PARLIAMENT (Papua) recently installed two Otani MTR -10 -2, four MTR 10-4 and two MX-5050-B-H tape
machines, plus an Otani DP4050 -C2 cassette copier. The equipment will be used to record the proceedings of parliament for future
reference and publication. The system was supplied through joint effort by Klarion Enterprises, of Australia, and Andrew Sweeney
Electronics. Papua, New Guinea
JANDS (St. Peters, Australia) has taken delivery of an Otani MTR -90 Series II 24 -track tape machine to be used in its new mobile
recording van. The mobile also features a modified Jands JM -7 console, Otani MX -5050 MKIII -8 tape machine, Tannoy Super Red monitors,
Jands amplifiers, and a dbx 900 Series rack with compressors and noise gates. The new 24 -track was supplied by Klarion Enterprises, of
Australia. St. Peters, Australia.
ON THE STUDIO TRAIL
Mel Lambert ... At The Plant, Sausalito
"We like to look upon the change of name as being more a
case of 'Old wine in new bottles,'" offers Paul Broucek, general
manager of The Plant studios, Sausalito, Northern California.
As the more astute R -e, p reader may already be aware, in 1980
Record Plant supremo Chris Stone sold his Sausalito facility to
Laurie Necochea, with an agreement that the new owner could
make use of the existing name for a period of three years. May of
this year marks the end of the three -year period since the studio
changed 'hands, and so it's time for The Plant to make itself
known under a slightly different guise.
In preparation for the May deadline, and the effective
"relaunch" of the facility
"making," as he says, "The Plant
visible again with its own identity as a world -class studio"
Broucek has been busy over the last several months
refurbishing, retooling, and upgrading the studio's two existing
control rooms, as well as installing a completely new studio area.
-
-
-
Studios A and B
both of which feature Tom Hidley- designed
acoustics and control -room monitoring
now boast mirror
image 40- input /24- out/32- monitor Trident TSM consoles
equipped with Melkuist VCA faders and a GT800 disk -based
automation package (the latter currently shared between both
rooms). Mastering duties are handled by Ampex ATR -100 two
tracks, and Studer A80 Mark II 24- tracks.
Of particular interest to nostalgia freaks is the fact that
probably the most famous of The Plant's recording areas, "The
Pit," designed by original studio co -owner Gary Kellgren in
cooperation with Sly Stone (no relation), has undergone some
interesting changes during the recent renovations. In its original
guise, The Pit lived up to its name: a sunken area in the middle of
the studio floor into which had been squeezed a coñsole and
outboard equipment. The Pit hasn't seen much recording
activity in recent years, the sunken mixing area having been
boarded over a few years ago, and the room serving mainly as a
rehearsal area.
Like a proverbial Phoenix risen from the ashes, The Plant's
new Studio C has at least as interesting a genesis as Kellgren
and Stone's "Pit." According to Broucek, ex- Doobie Brothers
Keith Knudsen and John McFee were on the look out for a
permanent home for their personal-use 28 -input Neotek Model
III console, which for want of a better location had been
-
-
-
R -e p 86
June 1983
languishing in Knudsen's Marin County house. As soon as
friend Tim Goodman entered the picture with his 3M M79
24- track, the germ of an idea came upon the trio. Instead of
having the bother of maintaining their collective "studio," and
also putting up with all the fuss of booking the facility between
personal recording projects, why not contribute the equipment
to The Plant, have the staff install it in the former Pit, and then let
the studio rent the space as a normal recording facility?
To cut a long story short, late April saw the official opening of
Studio C, which comprises the original Pit now serving as a
more conventional recording area, working with a brand -new
control room designed by Terry Delsing and Randy Rand, in
conjunction with contractor Craig Sams. New monitor cabinets
include a Meyer phase -aligned ADM system, JBL 4315s, and
Auratone 5C Sound Cubes; a full selection of outboards also is
offered, ranging from a Valley People Kepex II rack and dbx
Model 165 Over -Easy compressor -limiters, to a Lexicon Model
93 Prime Time. After a couple of check -out sessions, Broucek
reports that the room is working out well, and proving popular
for tracking dates.
But Broucek is quick to stress that the recent hardware
upgrades are only part of the changes being made at The Plant.
"It's the equipment and people that attract interesting projects
to a facility, and who enjoy working in good studio with a good
staff," he offers. To this end Broucek has assembled a
formidable collection of technical talent to look after day -today
running of the studio. The maintenance crew is comprised of
Mick Higgins (an expatriot Brit from Trident, with a wide range
of experience in TSM consoles), Bob Knox (ex -Sigma Sound),
and Jim Weyeneth. Engineering duties are covered by Jim
Gaines ( "the closest thing we have to a chief engineer, and who
serves as our engineer -in- residence," Broucek says), and Ron
Nevison, who recently relocated from the L.A. Record Plant,
and now is using Studio A as his home base.
All in all, the combination of recording hardware and
technical talent should stand The Plant in good stead during the
transition period.
Next time
the Commercials Production Scene in
Chicago.
...
NFVI 5TAN00
IN 8 TRACK RECORDING CONSOLES
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SUBGROUPS Cont.
Separate monitor control and feed to master out per each sub
Aux and 2 returns with assignment switches (for quick inrout on
Electronically balanced inputs
MIC/Line switch plus separate pad switch
Parametric sweepable MID and bass E.Q.
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48v Phantom Power
2 track outs ( + 4 or -1C)
Submaster outs at -4 (easily changeable to -10)
defeat
auxiliaries (aux 2 w Pre'Post switch)
Solo switch with solo LED indicator
Separate master left and right assign
Independent submaster assigns
Channel overload near fader
3
Packaging - Servicability
Sturdy metal front panel with wooden sides and bottom
Available with flite case
PC boards all with locking edge connectors (no buss bars)
Subgroups
Khz slate tone
Tape monitor switches on subs for remix (allows for monitoring 8
tracks without using up inputs)
2 track to monitor (allows for monitoring final mix as it is laid down
on 2 track)
Talkback (with assign to aux 3)
1
Electronics
State of the art IC's used throughout (TL072 and 5534 chips)
The new Studiomaster 16 x 8 x 2 gives you true professional features
and quality at an affordable price. With the price of 8 track
reel -to -reel machines coming down, you can now have that 8 track
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A DIVISION OF
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BOX 2344 FORT WORTH, TEXAS 76113
PHONE: (817) 336 -5114 CABLE:INTLMUSIC TELEX:203936 IMCTX UR.
Fcr additional information circle #55
AUDIO /VIDEO MARRIAGE
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THE WHO'S NORTH AMERICAN
FAREWELL CONCERT
A
Multimedia Extravaganza Combining High -Quality
Audio and Video Distribution for FM Broadcast,
Theatrical Presentation, and Cable Television
by Paul D. Lehrman
North American farewell concert of December 17,
1982 from Toronto's Maple Leaf
Gardens (which soon will be experienced by an even greater audience,
thanks to delayed broadcast, and home
The Who's
videotape and disk equipment) brought
together the latest equipment and techniques from a number of diverse disciplines: sound reinforcement; recording
and broadcast mixing; live multiple -
camera video switching; post -
production (in what usually are considered incompatible video formats);
landline and satellite distribution; wide screen TV projection; and pay-per -view
cable television.
While hundreds of technicians in
dozens of cities around the country contributed to the effort, a few companies
were central to the success of the event,
including Showco and the Record Plant
(New York) Mobile for audio production,
and Glen- Warren Productions of
Toronto for video facilities. For distribution, five different systems were used to
get the live show out to the Canadian
and American audience. City -TV in
R-e /p 88
June 1983
Toronto set up an ad hoc network for 16
Canadian free-TV stations, and a
second network fed a couple of dozen
Canadian FM stations for simulcast. In
the US, Campus Entertainment Network (CEN) delivered video and high quality audio to 40 theaters and clubs
around the country, where audiences
payed $8 or more per head to see the
event on huge projection -TV screens,
and hear it over multikilowatt sound
systems. Twentieth Century Fox Cable
signed up 50 cable -TV systems in every
state except Alaska for pay - per -view
delivery to subscribers' home screens.
DIR Broadcasting, producers and syndicators of numerous radio shows,
including King Biscuit FlowerHour[see
October 1981 issue of R-e/ p Ed.], delivered a stereo audio signal to 60 FM
stations in the US.
All of these' companies were aided,
abetted, organized, and /or contracted
by World Showvision, AT &T, Telesat,
Videonet, Canadian Bell, National Public Radio, Greene, Crowe and Co., CLOS
Video Associates, Schlitz Brewing, several hundred local promoters, cable sys-
-
tems, and radio stations and, of course,
the dozens of individuals who make up
the entity known as the Who.
Producing the Audio
Glyn Johns, longtime engineer /producer for the Who, was brought in well
before the tour began to supervise all
aspects of the required audio feeds. He
rehearsed with the band in England,
setting up mike plots for both concert sound and recording. Through most of
the subsequent tour, it was Johns and
Showco president Jack Maxson who
mixed the front-of-house sound.
On the very first date, at the Capitol
Center in Washington, DC, Johns and
Maxson were joined by David Hewitt
and the Record Plant "Black Truck."
Hewitt and his crew recorded a rehearsal, some of which was used on a commercial for Schlitz, sponsors of the tour,
and some of which ended up on the
Warner -Amex MTV channel. "We used
the occasion to prove ourselves to
Glyn," Hewitt recalls.
All told, the Plant mobile recorded
about 20 of the concerts, with Johns
Introducing the MOSeries. A new line of highly
affordgble mixers that rail se
to comprotiise with audio
performance. Or with
your needs. ,
.,
You get thetona_ ftexiPifityl
ofa 4 -band EQ,on eact ehanel
mad the added flextiitpf
per -channel ecño art; foldback
4110
sends. Plus a pair of master program 9 -band graphic
equalizers. And direct interface
flexibility with per-channel dual
input switching.
There's also the depend ability and service convenience
of a modular layout with each
charm/es cgrnponents mounted
i.9 separaté internal printed
circuit board. The MQ- Series.
Right on the money, right down
the line.
Visit your Yamaha dealer
or write us for more information.
Yamaha, Box 6600, Buena Park,
CA 90622. In Canada, Yamaha
Canada Music Ltd., 135 Milner
Ave., Scarb., Ont. MIS 3 R 1.
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THE WAY IT WILL BE.
YAMAHA
R-e /p 89
0 June
1983
Clockwise from above: Richard Wolfe of
Twentieth Century Fox: Glyn Johns. Jack
Calmes of World Showvision: and video editor
Phil Tweedy (left) with director Richie Namm.
handling all of the recording mixes.
Certain modifications had to be made in
the truck to accommodate him. "He
didn't like our monitors," says Hewitt.
"He went through a lot of different
speakers. We finally built custom
speakers for him, based on Altec Big
Reds, driven by Bryston amps. We built
a new overbridge, and tuned the room
for him."
Johns used very little processing
equipment in his mix; to quote David
Hewitt, "It was all in the miking." The
kick drum mike was sealed and suspended inside the drum (which had both
heads on). There was a snare mike and,
at the beginning, the only other drum
mikes were a stereo pair of Neumann
U87s placed between and a couple of feet
in front of the toms and cymbals. Later
on, Johns added a snare -bottom mike
and a cymbal mike. Bass and guitar
also were miked simply, from a distance. There were no limiters used at all
Hewitt recalls, the only piece of outboard gear called in being an AMS stereo digital delay line, used to process
some vocals and guitar solos.
At New York's Shea Stadium the
truck recorded a concert, and from there
followed the band through the Western
and Southern legs of its tour. "On some
of the shows, they were also shooting
video," Hewitt explains. "We recorded
everything on 24 -track with timecode,
and when they were shooting we would
also put the monitor mix on four -track
tape with code. We kept everything, but
most of the dates served as rehearsals
for the crews for the live concert."
Audio for Video
When the Record Plant truck was on
hand to tape a show, all of the signals
from the stage went to its Jensen splitter
boxes. The truck got a direct feed, while
the PA system took its signals off the
transformers. There were 32 stage
inputs, plus six audience mikes. "We
were going to mix the live concert in
R -e /p 90
0 June
1983
Dolby- surround," says Hewitt, "but we
ruled it out as being too complicated,
and also nobody in the home audience]
could pick it up."
"Glyn had never mixed in quad," says
Jack Calmes of World Showvision, Dallas, Texas, producer of the broadcast,
"and he was real nervous about it. It
also would have meant doing even more
mods on the Record Plant truck. Fox
was pushing hard for it
they had
about 1,000 Dolby-surround decoders
out in the field
but I think it was
mainly because they were having a
party during the concert with 1,000 people on their lot. They ended up listening
to it in stereo, with a rear -channel
-
-
simulator."
Inside Glen -Warren's 45 -foot Mobile I
audio /video center( known as "The Blue
Van ") was a custom 26- input, six subgroup Ward Beck stereo console,
equipped with four pre -mixes and four
auxiliary send busses on each channel.
The Record Plant fed Glen -Warren with
two sets of left, right, and mono audio.
David Brown of the Record Plant set up
a mult line to feed signal back from the
Glen- Warren truck, on which was to be
found stereo audio, switched video for
monitoring, timecode, and video vertical sync drive.
On stage during the concert was a
Scully four -track containing prerecorded synthesizer tracks for five of
the band's songs, along with a click or
"thump" track feeding Kenny Jones'
headphones
so that the drummer
could keep the band in sync with the
-
taped tracks. The tape signal looped
through the Record Plant truck, and
also to Glen- Warren's Mobile I, so that
video director Richie Namm could cue
the start of a videotape containing visual effects used on the air during a synthesizer solo for "Won't Get Fooled
Again."
In addition to the sound mix from the
Record Plant mobile, Glen- Warren took
pre -fader feeds from the audience mikes.
"A TV broadcast needs more audience
than a recording," comments Michael
Jones, who handled engineering duties.
(Vision sound was mixed by Doug
Drew.)
Another function of the video company's audio equipment was to boost
program levels coming from the Record
Plant's console and the various distribution systems from studio -standard +4
dBm, to broadcast- standard +8 dBm.
(This was to make sure that Telco lines
carrying the signal away from the video
truck were operating at maximum efficiency. and to maximise signal -to -noise
ratios.)
Also coming from Glen- Warren were a
pair of Interrupted Foldback lines:
mono monitor feeds routed to two on -site
announcers who were stationed at the
back of the hall for a three- minute pre show warmup, and backstage after the
concert. Both monitor feeds could be
overridden by director Namm's intercom. An RTS intercom system was
brought in (and continually cranked up)
to ensure that signal levels at
the announcers' headphones were
Garfield Electronics
1
0 ET
Fi
CLICki
the world of
The Doctor Click Rhythm Controller makes it possible for the first time to synchronize
or commarket
the
on
systems
the
of
one
sequencer, drum machine, synthesizer composition with any
drum
sequencers,
cause
will
Click
Doctor
the
binations of the systems on the market. Furthermore,
and
sync
tracks
click
read
also
will
It
drummer.
a
human
with
in
time
machines and synthesizers to play
calibrations.
beat
codes. The internal metronome provides both beats per minute and frames per
THE DOCTOR CLICK RHYTHM CONTROLLER BREAKS THE BRAND BARRIER
SYNTHESIZERS
DRUM MACHINES
SEQUENCERS
Modular Moog Juno 6
5
Prophet
CR5000
LM
-1
Linn
TB303
Line
Bass
DSX
Juno 60
OBX
10
Prophet
CR8000
LinnDrum
CSQ600
Prophet 10
Polysix
OBXa
600
Prophet
CR68
DMX
SH101
Polysequencer
Poly 61
OB8
Prophet T8
CR78
Drumulator
Emulator
Pro One
Voyetra -8
JP4
Minimoog
-77
KPR
TR808
Falrlight
Model 800
JP8
Memorymoog
TR606
Drumatics
Microcomposer MC4 Synclavier
Chroma
(VCA. VCF, VCO, Gate, Trigger or Arpeggiator as provided on each unit.)
Warranty is one year.
Call or write for location
of your nearest dealer
Measures
171/2" x 11" x 41/2" x 21/2".
Weight is 8 pounds.
ONE DOCTOR CLICK CONTAINS ALL OF THESE PROBLEM SOLVING DEVICES
4 Fixed Clock Outputs
2 Variable Clock Outputs
2 Metronomes
2 FSK Sync Code Decoders
Headphone/Speaker Output
Roland 5 Pin DIN Sync Output
External Clock Input
Footswitch Controls
Rhythm Envelopes
Pulse Counter
Pulse Shaper
Gate Output
2
(Covers Linn. Oberheim. Roland)
The brand to brand problems of timebase. voltage level and polarity
are solved by the Doctor Click's diverse output capability.
The ability of the Doctor Click to connect to many units at once
coupled with its footswltch control capability makes it ideal for multiple sequencer. drum machine. synthesizer live applications.
Since the Doctor Qick metronome produces beats per minute and
frames per beat calibrations it is always convenient to get Just the tempo you need. It is even possible to get fractional tempos such as 1181/2
beats per minute.
The Doctor Click's two independent rhythm actuated envelopes allow
VCF. VCA and VCO parameters of synthesizers to be modulated in 32
rhythm values ranging from four measure cycle to 64th note triplet with
variable attack, decay, sustain and amount. This eliminates the problem of rhythmic drift when using a conventional LFO.
The ability of the Doctor Click to transform metronome click tracks
into timebase clocks allows frames per beat music film work to be
done with virtually any sequencer, drum machine or synthesizer.
The ability of the Doctor Qick to read live tracks allows sequencers.
drum machines and synthesizers to play in sync with the varying tempos of a human drummer or a built click track.
The ability of the Doctor Click to accept external clocking or either of
the types of FSK sync to tape codes allows sequencers. drum
machines and synthesizers to be synced to any existing track.
The pulse shaper circuit turns a pulse from an instrument into a trigger waveform allowing synthesizers to sync to a drum fill.
The headphone output allows click tracks in multiples of the tempo to
be generated and is capable of driving a speaker.
The pulse counter can be used to program sequencers in higher
timebases. quickly combining greater rhythmic resolution with step
programming accuracy.
The step programming switch can be used to step program sequencers that normally do not have this capability.
Used on tracks by Brian Banks, Tony Basil, John Berkman, Michael Boddicker, Kim Carnes, Suzanne Ciani, Joe Conlan,
Chris Cross, Bill Cuomo, Jim Cypherd, Paul Delph, Barry DeVorzon, Don Felder, Paul Fox, Dominic Frontier, Terry Fryer,
Albhy Galuten, Lou Garisto, Herbie Hancock, Johnny Harris, Hawk, James Homer, Thelma Houston, Michael Jackson,
Quincy Jones, Jeffrey Kawalek, Gordon Lightfoot, Jerry Liliedahl, Johnny Mandel, Manhattan Transfer, Paul Marcus,
Jason Miles, NBC Movie of the Week, Randy Newman, Keith Olsen, Paramount, Joel Peskin, Oscar Peterson, Greg
Phillingaines, Jean -Luc Ponte, Steve Porcaro, Phil Ramone, Lee Ritenour, Steve Schaeffer, Mike Sembello, Mark Shifman,
John Stdnhoff, Sound Arts, Ian Underwood, Universal, Donna Washington, Stevie Winwood, Pia Zadora.
riltir
I tirfli
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el*
TCEicñn,o
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GARFIELD ELECTRONICS P.O.B. 1941, BURBANK. CA 91507 (213) 840 -8939
PATENT PENDING
©GARFIELD ELECTRONICS
For additional information circle 557
R-e'p
91
June
198,3
WEST AR
IV
(SPARE
TRANSPONDERS)
NRP
DATE
NPR
DOWNLINK
.
CEN
NE
TWENTIETH
CENTURY
DIR
WORK
T
FOX
CANADIAN
CITIES
FOR
REBROADCAST
VIDEO
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STEREO
AUDIO
DISTRIBUTION
16
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AND CLUBS
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FM
CABLE
NETWORKS
STATIONS
(0 6
MICROWAVE
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VIDEO
PRERECORDED
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CITY-TV
CHANNEL 79
TORONTO
STEREO AUDIO
CANADIAN
TV
VIDEO
MONO
AUDIO
BROADCAST
TRACKS
MAPLE LEAF
GARDENS
ARENA
SHOWCO
CONCERT SOUND
-
VIDEO
REPLAY
AUDIENCE
TRACKS
RECORD
PLANT
BLACK TRUCK
r
STEREO
MONO
MIXES
GLEN WARREN
MOBILE
BLUE VAN
VIDEOMI
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ISO
VIDE
VIDEOTAPE
RECORDING
TRUCK
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VIDEO EDITING
FOR VIDEOCASSETTE
AND VIDEODISK
RELEASE. PLUS
WORLDWIDE BROADCAST
SPLIT OF
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MIKES
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AUDIO AND VIDEO SIGNAL DISTRIBUTION
high enough to compete with the
Showco concert -sound system.
Other audio signals came from a VTR
containing a half-hour pre- concert show
seen in Canada, and by fans at the CEN
venues. Audio for the pre -show was
Dolby -encoded. "The playback machine
had its channel A and B audio boards
removed," Jones explains, "and
replaced with Dolby -A boards. Channel
C, which is usually the timecode track,
had the mono audio signal, and we used
an external Dolby decoder on that."
Except for the pre -show segments, no
noise reduction was used anywhere in
the signal path, and no processing took
place after the audio left the Record
Plant truck, save for a little soft limiting
to prevent overload of the microwave
landlines for which the signal was
headed, and also to discourage local FM
stations from over -limiting the signal
themselves.
Producing the Video
Director Richie Namm came aboard
the Who's travelling road show at the
end of October, in preparation for the
December concert at the Maple Leaf
Gardens. "Usually I get a week's notice
for this kind of gig," he recalls. "This
time they gave me over a month."
Namm's previous experience with live
visual music included REO Speedwagon, the Charlie Daniels Band, and
Frank Sinatra. "On those shows I made
some mistakes," he laughs, "This was
my opportunity to learn from them."
R -e /p 92
June 1983
Namm and the video crew, in an effort
to familiarize themselves as much as
possible with the Who's stage show,
shot several concerts on the road using
five cameras, and constantly reviewed
the tapes on wide -screen projection televisions. Frank O'Connell of CLOS
Video Associates, based in New Jersey,
and who was hired by World Show vision to coordinate technical efforts
with Fox, explains that some lighting
modifications had to be made along the
way to accommodate the TV cameras.
"It was important that we didn't disturb
the theatrical aspects of the lighting,"
he says.
Glen-Warren gathered all its equip-
ment at Toronto's Maple Leaf Gardens
arena on the Monday prior to the Friday
night broadcast. For three days, cameras were checked, and lines, lights, and
the stage put in. A major obstacle to the
set -up was that a hockey game was
scheduled for Wednesday evening, just
two days before the Who's concert. "We
had to raise the lights to the roof and
take down the stage and the ramps,"
says Namm. "We color -coded and
marked everything."
In addition to The Blue Van, Glen Warren had two other trucks at its disposal. According to Jack Calmes, a lot of
equipment (including one of the trucks)
had to be rented for the event. The Blue
Engineer David Hewitt aboard the Record Plant "Black Truck" remote vehicle.
i
,;"=14FMili
the first time on Wednesday night after
the hockey game, hung from the scoreboard above the stage, and was wired
with remote -control pan and tilt.
The entire put -in took from 11PM
Wednesday to 8PM Thursday. The
hand's Thursday night concert also was
taped, as a "dress rehearsal" for the
crews. "It was incredibly neat and tidy,"
says Glenn-Warren's Michael Jones,
"considering we didn't even have time
to eat an apple!" At LOAM on Friday, the
previous night's tapes were screened,
and suggestions made for finishing
touches for the live broadcast that
night. "Actually, the Thursday show
was better," recalls video engineer Win ikoff, "in terms of the performance,
lighting, and direction. We wanted to
see how we could improve it for the
second night, but somehow it didn't gel
as well."
Video mixing and monitoring area in Glen- Warren's Mobile
Van contained audio and video control,
audio distribution, and room for
Calmes, Namm, and an assistant director. Also available was a two -channel
Quantel DPE -5000+ digital effects generator, a Telemation character generator for end -of-show credits, and a still store. Two timecode generators were
located on- board, running in sync with
one another. "There was no room for
failure," Namm concedes. "We had a
dual -trace 'scope on which we could
compare the code with the video, and
make sure that the sync word was
always in the right place. If for some
reason one of the generators unlocked.
we could instantly switch in the other
one."
The second truck housed eight Sony
BVH -1100A one-inch video recorders.
all being fed with stereo audio, time
code, and vertical sync drive. Two of the
machines (main and backup) recorded
the switched video feed going out over
the air; one handled the signal from a
separate iso switcher; and another
received a dedicated single- camera iso
(to provide cutaways during the subsequent video editing processes). Since the
show was to run longer than 90 minutes,
for overlap each video line had a second
VTR assigned to it. There also were several .'i4-inch videocassette decks, plus
audio and video distribution equipment
were mounted on cranes, one stationary
camera located at the back of the house,
another mounted on stage, two on a
platform in the center of the audience,
two hand -helds used on stage, and
another at the base of the stage, plus a
Steadicam- mounted unit whose operator wandered through the house. "We
wanted to put the Steadicam on an RF
link," says Winikoff, "but it proved
unreliable, so we wired it with co -ax
instead." Another camera, installed for
Audio and Video Distribution
The completed video and audio mixes
exited Maple Leaf Gardens via several
paths. A link with stereo audio and
video went to City -TV, Channel 79 in
Toronto, where the audio was summed
into mono for broadcast, and commercials inserted. From there, the signal
went up to the Canadian communications satellite Anik C, via an uplink in
suburban Toronto's Allen Park, and
then down to stations in 16 cities. Some
stations carried the concert live, while
others in Western time zones recorded it
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In the third truck were located two
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the pre- and post -concert shows, titles,
graphics, and the animation for "Won't
Get Fooled Again."
Inside the Maple Leaf Gardens arena
there were 11 Ikegami HL -79 cameras to
cover the concert. Most were HL -79As
which, according to video engineer
Keith Winikoff, of Greene, Crowe, and
Co., have less tendency to "burn in"
than the later Model HL -79Ds, a necessary attribute for cameras that were
going to be shooting much of the time
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June 1983
for delayed broadcast. All of the Canadian TV broadcasts were over conventional ( "free ") stations, which created a
rather sticky problem during the planning stage. Most of the major affiliate
stations of CBC and CTV (Canada's
government and commercial television
networks, respectively) broadcast on
VHF, and have a powerful signal with a
long reach that often extends over the
US border. The signal from CFTO,
Channel 9 in Toronto, for example, a
CTV station originally designated to
carry the broadcast, spills over into
upstate New York. Since Fox was charging all US home audiences for the show,
_=
[._`
and HBO planned to rebroadcast the
concert over its pay-cable system during
June of this year, this signal spillage
could have led to a serious conflict.
+.
Eventually, the Canadian stations
signed to carry the concert were care- I
fully chosen so that none of their signals One of a pair of crane -mounted Ikegami
reached a significant audience in the HL-79 video cameras covering the Maple
US.
Leaf Gardens concert. Nine other
For distibution on the Southern side stationary and hand-held cameras were
of the border, the linking setup was a bit sited at various locations around the arena.
more complicated. A full signal package
(video, plus left, right, and mono audio) used by FM stations in Canada.) The
went up to Anik D satellite via a porta- Westar IV signal was received at Wold
ble uplink provided by Telesat and the Communications in New York City,
Canadian Teleconference Network, and where it then was relayed to the three
set up in the parking lot of Maple Leaf US distribution systems. Another porGardens. The signal was picked off the table dish at the site, this time a downsatellite by a commercial downlink in link, allowed the engineers to monitor
Buffalo, New York, and then sent up what was happening on all the
again to AT &T's Westar IV. (It was also satellites.
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At the same time, a microwave /cable
landline carried the signal package
from Toronto, over the Peace Bridge in
Niagara Falls, to Wold Communications in New York City. The landline
was supposed to be a backup in fact, it
ended up as the primary link. Richard
Wolfe of Fox explains: "The quality on
the landlne was better. Part of that was
clue to the satellite signal having to
double -hop, but most of it was because of
Canadian regulations [governing] portable uplinks. Since they operate at a
relatively low power, and don't saturate
the transponders on the satellite, the
signal -to -noise ratio suffers a bit. For
political reasons we couldn't bring in an
American, higher -power uplink, or else
we would have used the satellite signal
exclusively."
International treaties prohibit ground
stations in the US from receiving signals from Canadian satellites, and vice
versa, so special authorizations had to
be granted to allow the Buffalo downlink to tune into Anik and the portable
dish in the Toronto parking lot to monitor the US satellites.
Because of the double hop, the satellite signal to New York arrived 0.6
seconds behind the landline signal. Had
Wold decided, because of some equipment failure, to use video from one
source and audio from the other, they
would not have been able to do so,
because the video and audio would have
been out of sync with one another. Fortunately, this problem did not arise.
However, as Wolfe says, "We didn't
know which circuit we were going to use
up until air time." Needless to say, engineers at the concert site and Wold personnel in New York maintained continuous telephone contact with each other.
The half-hour pre- concert show with
hosts Pringle and Nightingale, which
had been prerecorded at the studios of
City -TV, was carried over the Toronto /New York satellite link for eventual
distribution to CEN's clubs and theaters. During the same time period, the
landline carried prerecorded music, and
test and timing signals.
From New York, the program went
out over four uplinks. Most American
local cable head -ends are equipped with
two satellite dishes: one is tuned to Sat com IIIR, which carries HBO and most
of the other popular pay -cable services;
and the other is tuned to either Westar
IV, or Westar V. To cover all eventualities, Fox put video and mono audio on
transponders on both Westars IV and V.
Another transponder on Westar IV carried video and both stereo and mono
audio for CEN's portable downlinks.
The CEN receiving dishes were supplied
by Videonet of Woodland Hills, California, which located and arranged to rent
privately -owned portable dishes in the
appropriate cities, and supplied operating personnel at each site.
Yet another Westar IV transponder
( "It was busy that night," says Richard
Wolfe), leased for the occasion from
National Public Radio's DATE service,
-
and accessed by an uplink at New York
City's public station, WNYC, carried
stereo audio for the 60 FM stations
signed on by DIR Broadcasting. In
those cities where NPR downlinks were
not available, DIR arranged for portble
dishes or AT &T landlines to provide the
signal. About half of the CEN venues
took their audio from the local FM station, while the rest used the stereo signal
on the transponder carrying their video
feed. Pay -cable systems told their viewers, where possible, to turn down the
sound on their TV sets (the vast majority of local cable systems do not have the
capability of broadcasting stereo audio
and few viewers
on video channels
have the equipment to receive it), and
turn on their FM radios.
To simplify the setting up of the various satellite networks, all of the land line and transponder orders were
arranged through Fox. "The only way it
was going to work was if all of them
came out of one office," says Frank
O'Connell of CLOS Video. "It helped
that Wold's Los Angeles office is right
down the street. We were still making
changes up to a week before the show."
Toronto /New York landline was distorting. The source of the signal distortion was tracked down (it was in the line
from the concert site to Toronto's toll network switcher), and the signal
switched on to a spare Telco circuit 10
minutes before air time. At the beginning of the concert, some Canadian
audiences experienced a two- minute
signal loss, because a routing switcher
inadvertently had been turned off. One
of the engineers monitoring back-feeds
discovered it, and rectified the problem.
(Peter Kauff reports that a car crashed
into the transmitter tower of an FM station carrying the concert in Florida, putting it off the air. So it goes.)
In sum, to quote Jack Calmes, "It was
the most complex and successful distribution of a music event ever."
-
Worldwide Distribution Plans
As well as the idea of broadcasting in
quad, several other great notions fell by
the wayside as the December 17 concert
grew closer. One was to beam the concert overseas via Armed Forces Radio
and a few foreign pay- per -view networks. "It would have been 4AM in
Europe and LOAM in Australia," says
O'Connell, "and it just wouldn't have
been worth the expense. We were also
thinking of bringing signals back from
venues overseas to put on the air here. It
would have been interesting .. switching satellites like that."
In order to prevent pirating of the
satellite signal, scrambling it at its
origin was considered. The idea was
rejected, according to Jack Calmes of
World Showvision, because "there just
aren't enough decoder boxes out there to
service all the different outlets we had."
An alternative was formulated: the
credits at the end of the broadcast
announced a prize(unspecified) to viewers who wrote in, telling Fox where they
saw the show. "The purpose was to
catch folks who paid someone to watch
the show illegally," says Calmes, like
private satellite -dish owners who
charged admission for access to their
living rooms. The results have not been
made public yet, but apparently some
viewers of pirated signals were indeed
dumb enough to write in.
.
A Multimedia Success
On the night of the Who broadcast,
the months of preparation paid off it
went so smoothly that, as Record
Plant's David Hewitt offers "it was boring." "Everybody worked together,"
enthuses Michael Jones. "They were all
terrific," Peter Kauff of DIR says, "The
Who told us that if they could buy the
problems off, they would. This isn't a
-
Audio /Video
Post -Production Stages
Although they had been heavily promoted, Fox did not make money on the
home-cable broadcasts. Relatively few
US cable systems have the equipment to
individually address subscribers' decoders (in a few cases, local systems provided viewers with individual, disposable "traps" for unscrambling the signal,
but the procedure for distributing these,
even within a small system, is cumbersome), and so the paid home audience
was no more than 200,000. (By contrast,
the free -TV Canadian broadcasts
reached an audience estimated to be
One truck housed 8 Sony BVH -1100A 1-inch
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sync from main video mix, plus 2 iso feeds.
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mildly.
There were a few rough spots, however. An hoLr prior to showtime, it was
discovered that the mono feed on the
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0 June
1983
between four and six million.) Richard
Wolfe says of the live broadcast, "It was
more successful technically and artisti-
cally than financially."
To recoup its considerable investment, Fox licensed the show for later
release in several forms: a two-hour version (the live show ran about two hours
and 20 minutes) which, as you read this,
should be in release on both Pioneer
LaserVision and RCA SelectaVision
CEI) vidcudisks, as well as VHS and
Beta videocassette, all with matrixed
Dolby- surround sound, and all on the
CBS Fox label; a 90- minute version
simulcast for the first time on June 7 via
Home Box Office cable; and a 60-minute
version for future domestic and foreign
broadcast syndication.
Besides the obvious editing that must
be done, an effort is being made in post production, to quote Richard Wolfe, "to
make the home video and later broadcast product have more diverse cutting." Director Richie Namm was faced
with the unenviable task of making the
live show look good on both large and
small TV screens, which is somewhat
more difficult than making an audio
mix sound right on, for example, UREI
813s and Auratones. This reporter
watched the show on a 25 -inch television set, and there were times I thought
things could have been done differently.
I am told, however, that the video mix
looked extremely effective in CEN's
theaters.
Satellite uplink dishes routed the video and stereo audio to Anik D for distribution to various parts of
the country. A separate downlink enabled on -site engineers to monitor traffic on U.S. satellites.
Editing a show like this would seem to
rather conventional, albeit long,
process for an up -to -date post production house, but there was a fly in
the ointment. While the show was
recorded using the North American
be a
NTSC video standard, and both audio
and video tapes were striped with
SMPTE timecode, all of the editing decisions and audio mixing were to be done
in England.
As this article is being written, the
various post- production processes are
still in progress on two continents, so it
is difficult to pin down exactly who is
doing what. According to Richard
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R -e /p 96
0 June
1983
Wolfe, of Twentieth Century Fox, the
scenario goes something like this:
From Toronto, the video tapes were
taken to Audio Plus Video in New York,
where they were dubbed on to -inch
videocassettes, using Sony's high -band
PAL format, and the cassettes striped
with new EBU (25 frames -per-second)
timecode. The cassettes then went to
CETA Video in London, where post ,
production director Phil Tweedy
bumped them up to one-inch PAL and,
under the supervision of the band,
edited them into the 60 -, 90 -, and 120 minute programs. Tweedy also drew up
detailed edit lests from the EBU time code numbers, and struck Vi -inch work
prints from his edited one -inch tapes,
In February of this year, Tweedy
brought the work cassettes and his edit
lists to Complete Post in Los Angeles,
There, the edit lists were recalculated for
the SMPTE timecode striped on the
original tapes. This operation was done
by hand
due to the differences in
frame rates between 29,97/30 FPS
SMPTE and 25 FPS EBU, there is no
way of automatically achieving frame accurate conversion from one code to
the other. Using the new numbers, a
second set of off -line edits was prepared,
The English and American edits were
compared, and final edit numbers
decided "ton. During the final assembly from the original one-inch tapes,
special effects were added,
Meanwhile, Glyn Johns took the multitrack audio tapes to his studio in London for mixing. Although Who bassist
John Entwistle was acting as musical
director for the editing and post production stages, Johns completed his
work before Entwistle had the opportunity to hear the final mixes.
Johns set up his control room for the
Dolby- surround format (the matrixed
two -track format on Dolby stereo optical
cinema releases), which as well as deriving left, right and (phantom) center,
provides surround information for rear
channels. He had access to SMPTE
equipment, so no restriping of timecode
on the audio tapes was necessary
which was fortunate, since there was no
room on the tapes for another code
-
-
track.
The tapes were recorded and monitored through a Dolby DS -4 surround
encoder, which provides a two-channel,
stereo- compatible signal that can be
decoded for four-channel replay systems. The finished master, which consisted of two audio channels and
SMPTE timecode on half -inch tape, was
laid back on to the completed video at
Compact Video in Los Angeles.
According to Richard Wolfe, "95% of
the finished product is from the second
show. Occasionally we filled in shots or
tracks from the first night. But even
though some of the songs had click
tracks, we didn't do any audio crossfading it just wouldn't have worked."
-
ability to perform, via satellite, for large future. And he isn't exactly resting on
audiences in many locations at once. the laurels he won for the Who concert.
"They could do 10 nights in one place," He won't say which artists or backers
he considers, "and we could have 10 or are involved, but he reports that six
20 mobile units, with portable satellite more such shows already are in the
dishes, large- screen projectors, and works.
For better or worse, Calmes' is proba20,000 -watt sound systems, moving to
theaters in different cities every night. bly a prophetic vision. As audiences
That way they could play to a couple of demand more elaborate and expensive
hundred audiences without ever taking shows from their favorite rock acts, and
as ticket prices skyrocket while record
their equipment down."
The mechanism for accomplishing companies continue to tighten their
this, he feels, would not be at all difficult tour -supporting belts, live video, with
to put together. "We only did 40 cities for the assistance of high- quality audio and
the Who concert," he says. "There was the best possible distribution and presno reason why we couldn't have done entation systems ( as well as a hefty dose
of sponsorship from well -heeled corpo100."
Calmes is convinced that presenting rations like Schlitz), will surely become
rock concerts this way is the wave of the the next best thing to being there.
Will History Repeat Itself?
Everyone involved in broadcasting
and taping the Who concert now knows
that such a colossal undertaking is possible. The question is, will it be done
again? The answer is: yes and no. For
one thing, pay - per -view cable television
is still in its infancy. The relative lack of
technical sophistication of local cable
systems makes the potential audience
and therefore the resultant revenues
for such an event rather small in light
of the huge expense and complicated
logistics involved in handling such an
event. This situation will not change
quickly. The Who concert was only
Fox's second attempt at pay -per -view
(the first being a boxing match), and
while movies like The Pirates of Penzance and other special events have
been and will continue to be distributed
this way, there appears to be little motivation to do more live music. "It was a
memorable event," Wolfe says. "The
kind you don't get to do very often."
On the other hand, Jack Calmes sees
his company, World Showvision, and
Campus Entertainment Network, in
which he holds a minority interest,
thriving on rock concerts. "We may stay
away from small screens entirely," he
offers. Besides the comparatively lower
profits, he feels that home viewing is
"not that good for rock." Instead, he
sees "superstars" like Pink Floyd and
Supertramp, who travel with huge entourages and mammoth stage and
sound setups, taking advantage of the
--
Author's Note:
In the course of researching such a complex story as this, it always is
possible for some inaccuracies to slip in.
Since most of the research was done after
the fact, I was slightly hampered by the inevitable incomplete recollections of some of
the participants, and by occasional contradictory information from two or more sources. lam sure, however, that the vast majority of this article reflects the events as they
actually occurred.
I would like to thank my sources (including, but not limited to, Jack Calmes, David
Hewitt, Michael Jones, Peter Kauff, Richie
Namm, Frank O'Connell, Ann Weldon,
Keith Winikoff, and Richard Wolfe) for their
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R-e /p 97 0
June 1983
The Grateful Dead have been
playing their unique brand of
improvisational, eclectic music
going on 18 years now. Though their
records are modest sellers, and more or
less ignored by radio and the "establishment" press, the Dead are consistently among the highest -grossing concert acts in the country. What they do
musically is improvisational, existential, and not always satisfactory; but
since the beginning the Dead have been
attended and experimented upon by
forward -looking sound specialists,
always seeking to improve the quality of
their live sound.
Dan Healy has been mixing the
Dead's concerts
since the band first
took to the San
Francisco clubs and
ballrooms, and he
says he's never been
bored. To Healy, the
Dead is "a vehicle
that enables an
aggregate of people
to experiment with
musical and technical ideas. It's a
workshop and a breadboard, as well as a
dream and a treat. There's no place in
the world that I know of that would give
me this much space to experiment and
try new things and also to hear good
-
music."
The Dead's own people have developed equipment and techniques to
improve the state of the sound
reinforcement art, and they have
-
invited others to use Grateful Dead gigs
as live testing grounds. "We live on the
scary side of technology, probably more
than we ought to," guitarist Bob Weir
concedes. But you don't learn much
from maintaining the status quo, and
the Dead have always encouraged
experimentation and sought new
knowledge in many areas.
The Early Days
The first PA system Healy operated,
at the Fillmore Auditorium in San
Francisco, consisted of a 70 -watt amp,
two Altec 604s, and a two -input microphone mixer. "And that was far out
compared to what was there the week
before," he recalls.
When Healy and his fellow soundmen
started trying to put better systems
together, they found that the hardware
available was not very advanced. "The
first thing we did was go get tons of it,
only to find that that was only a stopgap
measure," Healy remembers. "It was
obvious that there was nothing you
could get off the shelf that you could use.
Furthermore, there were no answers to
our questions in journals or texts; where
the equipment ended, so did the literature and research. What we needed was
past the point where R &D had taken
sound equipment."
So they set out to find the answers for
themselves. Healy and the Grateful
THE GRATEFUL DEAD
A CONTINUAL DEVELOPMENT
OF
CONCERT SOUND SYSTEM DESIGN
FOR TWENTY YEARS
by 1)at'id Gans
R -e /p 98
June 1983
Dead became willing guinea pigs for
John Meyer, then of McCune Sound;
Ron Wickersham of Alembic; and others
on the scene who were looking for ways
to deliver music painlessly and efficiently at the often ridiculously high
SPLs of the San Francisco sound and
rock music in general.
"Those guys were long in the design
and prototype area," Healy explains,
"and we were long in the criteria. We
built a system and scrapped it, built
another one and scrapped it. We never
had a finished system, because by the
time we'd get one near completion it was
obsolete in our minds, and we already
had a new one on the drawing boards."
The concept of speaker synergy and
phase coherency in particular
was
understood by the early Seventies, and
several designers had come up with
ways of implementing it. John Meyer
and McCune Sound developed a three way, tri-amped single- cabinet system
with crossovers that reduced phase shift
considerably. It was a significant
improvement, but there was plenty of
work yet to do. While Meyer was in
Switzerland studying every aspect of
speaker design, acoustics and the electronics of sound, Healy and Alembic
and the rest took off in other directions.
The Dead debuted a new system at
San Francisco's Cow Palace on March
23, 1974, in a concert dubbed "The
Sound Test." Bassist Phil Lesh calls it
the "rocket gantry" and maintains that
it was the best PA the Dead ever had. "It
was the ultimate derivation of IM cleanliness," Healy explains. "No two things
went through any one speaker. There
was a separate system for the vocals
and separate systems for each guitar,
the piano, and the drums. You could get
it amazingly loud, and it was staggeringly clean
cleaner than anything
today. It still holds the record for harmonic and
most especially
inter modulation distortion."
Healy calls this system's theory of
operation the "as above, so below theory. If you stack a bunch of speakers
vertically and stand close to one, you
hear the volume of that one speaker. If
you move a little farther away, you hear
two speakers; move away some more
and you hear three. If you have a lot of
them stacked up high, you can move
quite a ways away and the volume stays
the same."
There was no mixing board in the
house. Each musician controlled his
own instrumental volume, because his
speaker stack was its own PA system.
Guitarists Bob Weir and Jerry Garcia
each had about 40 12 -inch speakers in
vertical columns, and bassist Lesh had
a quadrophonic system.
Vocals also were delivered to the band
and the audience by the same speakers.
Each singer had a pair of mikes, wired
out of phase so that background sound
arriving equally at both was canceled,
while what was sung into one mike was
passed on to the amplifier.
Healy recalls one unfortunate inci-
--
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-
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R -e /p 99 D June 1983
GRATEFUL DEAD CONCERT SOUND SYSTEM, circa 1974.
Drawing by Mary Ann Mayer.
VOCAL
dent a year before the gantry system
was officially unveilded, when some of
these principles were tested at a concert
in Stanford University's basketball
areana. "We spent maybe $20,000 on
amplifiers, crossovers, and stuff," he
recalls, "and we rebuilt a lot of ElectroVoice tweeters. We pink- noised the room
from the booth and got it exactly flat. If
you flatten a system from a hundred feet
away, it'll sound like a buzzsaw and it
-
did.
"We started the show, and in the first
two seconds every single one of those
brand -new tweeters was smoked. We
went through all those changes to put
protection devices in, and they never
worked
they blew long after the
speakers were gone." There was no hope
of replacing the 80 or more tweeters
they'd blown, so Healy says they
"opened up the tops of the crossovers,
equalized a little bit and faked it." Healy
points out philosophically that recovery
from such catastrophes is "another
thing that you learn after enough years.
Recovery is your backup buddy." He
also notes that the years of experience
make it much easier to estimate what
will work and what won't, so it's easier
to avoid disaster.
[This writer happened to have been in
attendance at that Stanford concert.
Although there were some rather long
pauses while the equipment was worked
on, the show itself was a good one, and a
high time was had by all.]
It was economics that caused the
"Sound Test" system to be dismantled.
The gasoline crisis of the mid -Seventies
made it unfeasible to truck tons of
speakers, amplifiers and spares plus
R -e /p 100
June 1983
-
-
two complete stages which leapfrogged
so that one could be set up before the PA
arrived from the last gig. "It began to
eat us up after a while," says Healy.
"Remember that we were trying to take
this across the country and interface
with halls: setup the equipment, play a
show for 20,000 people, tear it down,
then show up the next day in another
Ultra Sound concert system for a Grateful
Dead concert at the Oakland Auditorium.
December 1981. Main flown speaker system is made up of Meyer Sound Laboratories' MSL3 cabinets. Shown left is a detail
of the right -hand cluster.
:
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city and do it again for three weeks in
a row, or a month, or six months."
"We were damn lucky," Healy adds.
"We got a tremendous amount of knowledge out of that system before it became
such a burden that it started to distract
from the music."
Smaller can be Beautiful
When the I)eacl resumed touring in
I4) 6. after a 20- month hiatus. PA technology had advanced sufficiently that it
was no longer necessary to isolate each
instrument and run it through a separate speaker system not to mention the
fact that it was economically impossible
o truck those mountains of gear
around. "Efficiency comes down to the
-
number of boxes that you have to carry,
of weight in a semitruck going down the
highway," Healy observes. Not only
was it impractical, but it was no longer
necessary. In the intervening years,
what Healy and the Dead wanted
a
system that performed as well as the
"wall of sound," but which was "one
fourth the size and four times as efficient" came into existence. "The system we have now is better than the '74
system, overall, even though the '74 system may have been better in certain
ways."
The Dead currently tour with a PA
owned by Ultra Sound, using speaker
systems and associated electronics by
Meyer Sound Labs. [Meyer's principle of
-
-
GRATEFUL DEAD SOUND SYSTEM
AT THE OAKLAND AUDITORIUM, DECEMBER 1982
According to Howard Danchik of Ultra Sound, "The Dead's system, as always, was run
stereo. The main speakers were flown, and comprised 12 MSL3s at each side of stage,
plus a center cluster of eight (four left and four right channel), also above band.
"Suspended from the side clusters are three [Meyer Sound Laboratories] UPA cabinets,
angled downward to fill in for those at the front of the audience. There are also four UPAs
below the lip of the stage at the center (two left and two right) for the spectators at the very
front -center, plus one UPA at the rear of each main cluster, pointed up and back for
spectators in the balcony directly to the sides of the stage.
"Each MSL3 is driven by 650 watts RMS of amplification 225 to each 12 -inch speaker
(two per cabinet), and 200 to the four piezo tweeters. One MSL processor is used to drive
all the MSL3s on each side; two (one per channel) to drive the center cluster; and two (one
per channel) for the front and sidefill UPAs.
"The Subwoofers were made up from eight MSL 652 -R2 subwoofer road cabinets (two
18 -inch drivers, front -mounted) on each side, stacked on their sides, four wide and two
high. Each speaker is driven by 225 watts of Crest amplification. The processor takes a full
bandwidth signal from the house mix, and extracts 80 Hz and below for the subwoofers.
"Additional speaker systems included: for the lobby four UPAs (stereo, via Meyer
processors); for the bars one UPA in each bar (mono, one processor each); the kitchen one
UPA (mono, one processor); and the kids' room a pair of Hard Truckers five -ilich cubes
(mono, no processor).
"All power was provided by Crest amps, 225 WRMS per channel into 8 ohms.
"House mixer was a Jim Gamble custom board, 40 -in/8 stereo submasters, with automatic built -in mono output. The monitor mixer was a Gamble custom 40/16 console.
"House Effects included a Lexicon 224X digital reverb and Super Prime Time; dbx Boom
Box subharmonic synthesizer; a collection of vocal gates; and an autopanner, homemade
by Dan Healy & company.
"Microphones included Shure SM -78s for vocals, plus a new Neumann mike for Jerry
Garcia, and Sennheiser 421s, AKG C451s and C414s."
in
-
-
LE T
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R -e /p 102
June
1983
1$$$N1
ili Nh
single point source, phase coherent
speaker arrays is explained in the article, "Time Alignment of Sound Reinforcement Equipment," to be found in
the December '80 issue of R -e/p.] "Meyer
has been able to extend the low and high
frequencies without hopelessly distorting the rest of the sound," Healy notes.
"That's actually the main significance."
And by arranging the speaker cabinets
to work together in a very precise way
across the whole frequency spectrum, it
takes fewer drivers to cover the desired
area, and intelligibility is uniformly
good nearly everywhere.
With the quality of the PA hardware
firmly in hand, Healy says that the
Dead's concert setup these days goes
through subtler changes and refinements. One interesting development
came to Healy almost by accident, and
resulted in a very useful device to make
his job easier. "The vocal mike is the
loudest one in the mix," he explains,
"and if it's open on the stage it's picking
up drums or guitars from 15 feet away,
and adding them in 15 milliseconds
later -which is that many degrees of
phase cancellation and the net result
is a washing -out of the mix. You can't
use audio amplitude to gate those mikes,
because the guitars are frequently
louder at the mike than the voice that's
standing right in front of it. So a certain
amount of me always had to be on the
watch for the singers so I could turn
their mikes on. That was annoying, and
it kept me from being able to listen on a
more general level.
"The Paramount Theater in Portland,
Oregon, has a balcony that's right on
top of the stage. I was looking down at
the guitar players, and it all connected
for me. I'm a musician myself, and I
know that one of the most embarrassing
things that happens when you're playing rock 'n' roll is running into the mike
and banging yourself on the lip -or
being a mile away from it when it's time
to sing.
"That night in Portland I realized
that every musician has a kind of home
base where he puts his foot in relation to
the stand so he knows he'll be right at
the mike. It was duck soup: I got the kind
of mats they use to open doors at the
grocery store, then designed and built
the electronics that gated the VCAs [to
control the mike -preamp gain], and lo
and behold, it worked!"
For keyboardist Brent Mydland, the
situation wasn't so simple. John Cutler,
who works with the Dead in R &D as
well as other capacities, designed a system around the sonar rangefinders used
in Polaroid cameras. Using discrete
logic rather than a full -blown microprocessor, Cutler came up with an automatic gate that opened the mike when
Mydland's head came within singing
distance of either of his two mikes. "It's
just one of those things that came about
as a means to an end," says Healy. "I
built the floormat[device] just so I could
be freed from switching on microphones."
-
to the end of the show, it's a continuous
progression, figuring out how to spend
the watts of audio power that you have
in such a way that it's pleasant and
human."
It's been years since Healy went into a
hall and pink- noised the sound system.
"I leave my filter set flat, and I dial it in
during the first couple of songs. After
enough years of correlating what I see
and hear, I know what frequencies, how
much, and what to do with it." Test
equipment is on hand for reference, but
Healy prefers to rely on his ears. "You
have a speedometer in your car, but you
don't have to use it or even necessarily have it. You don't need it to know
how fast you're going, but it's there for
reference. That's how I use the SPL
meter and the real -time analyzer."
In the "hockey- hall -type spaces" the
Dead play in these days, Healy likes to
set up about 85 feet from the stage. "In
my opinion and my opinion only, for
that matter the ideal combination of
near-field and far -field is 85 feet. I don't
like to be far enough into the far field
that it's a distraction, but for me it's
important to hear what the audience
hears.
Healy considers himself the audience's representative to the band, comparing notes with the musicians after
shows, and telling them things they
might not want to hear "if I feel I have
to." He also encourages within reason
those members of the Dead's follow-
-
Side stack of Ultra Sound system at Ven-
tura County Fairground, July 1982.
Rather than get involved in marketing a device like this, which Healy says
is "not my business," he just has a few
extra circuit boards made. "If somebody
comes by and wants to try it, we give
them the cards and a parts list."
Because every Grateful Dead gig is
different no songlist, plenty of room
for instrumental improvisation, no prearranged sound cues to speak of
mixing for the band has never settled
into a routine for Healy. "Some nights
they start out screaming and get softer,
and some nights they start in one place
and stay there. There isn't really any
good or bad in it
it's just a different
night in a different way. From the start
-
-
-
--
-
-
ing who bring their recording gear to
concerts. "I'm sympathetic with the
tapesters, because that's what I used to
be," he says. "I remember buying my
first stereo tape machine and my first
two condenser microphones, sweating
to make the payments, and going
around to clubs and recording jazz. So
I've sided with the tapesters, helped
them and given them advice and turned
them on to equipment.
"I learn a lot from hearing those
tapes," he continues. "The axiom that
'microphones don't lie' is a true one. If
you put a microphone up in the audience
and pull a tape and it doesn't sound
good, you can't say, 'It was the microphone,' or 'It was the audience.' You've
got to accept the fact that it didn't sound
good.
"When you stick a mike up in the
audience and the tape sounds cool, it's
probably because the sound was cool. So
it's significant to pay attention to the
tapes."
Even after 18 years of working with
the Dead, Healy says he still enjoys
going to work every day. "I've been
doing it so long that I don't even look at
it as a job," he explains. "It doesn't get
stale for me on any continuous basis I
react more to 'Tonight was a good
night,' or 'It wasn't so good.' I can have
a bad night and go home discouraged
and kicking the dog, grumble -grumble,
but I'm always ready to start again
tomorrow."
-
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R -e /p 103 D
June 1983
THE NOTRE DAME COLLEGIATE JAZZ FESTIVAL
Overcoming Unfavorable Acoustics to
Provide Complex Sound Mixing and Monitoring Facilities
Sound contractors on occasion face far from ideal acoustic environments. And if you need to provide
high -quality sound for a two -day band competition where no sound checks could ever be made; for which
three discrete mixes change throughout the job; and where a floating feather can create problems in a
venue alive with sound reflections ... a sound engineer is in for a complicated time.
The Notre Dame Collegiate
Jazz
Festival (CJF) is just such a
demanding event. The Jazz Fest,
held annually at the university's Stepan
Center in South Bend, Indiana, and this
year celebrating its Silver Anniversary,
offers collegiate bands from all over the
United States an arena for displaying
their talent before a judges' panel of
well-known jazz performers that has
included Quincy Jones, Billy Taylor,
"Cannonball" Adderly, and others. The
CJF performers, many of whom later
attain greater fame in the world of professional jazz, play to a house of over
2,000 jazz enthusiasts that swing in and
out of the performance sessions over a
two-day period.
The Jazz Fest's two -day agenda, last
April 15 thru 16, included performances
by 15 or more collegiate bands, a High
School Festival conducted in conjunction with CJF featuring high school tal-
R-e/p 104 0 June 1983
ent, and a "judges jam" during which
the judging panel takes to the stage.
HSA- Heather Sound, a local sound
contracting firm, secured the CJF sound
and lighting contract knowing that the
event posed some unusual mixing and
acoustic requirements. As Rick Johnson, owner of HSA- Heather sound,
recalls, "We actually set up three mixes:
one for the house; one for the performers; and one for the judges. And the
venue is quite interesting. Through past
experience on jobs at Stepan Center we
TECRON ^ and TEF are registered trade
marks of Crown International, Inc. Our
thanks to Don Eger, TECRON division
manager, Richard Johnson, owner of
HSA-Heather Sound, the 1983 Notre Dame
Collegiate jazz Festival Committee, and
the University of Notre Dame for their
valuable assistance in the preparation of
this article Editor.
A
-
had identified many of the acoustical
effects that require some form of treatment. For CJF we've tried to accommodate those needs with our pre -event
planning, sound set -up, and mixing. At
the festival, each band's performance
must be presented in an unbiased
manner for judging, and this year the
event was video-taped for broadcast
over local cablevision TV."
To provide a fair showing for all the
bands, HSA solicits pre -planning
information, such as stage layouts and
requirements, musical arrangements
and cue sheets, from each participating
band a few weeks prior to the event. At
the time of performance, HSA's stage
manager moves the bands into place on
stage, while making last -minute mike
adjustments and handling special
requests from each performing group's
director. It's a system that keeps the
CJF on schedule, but there are
ALL LOUDSPEAKER/BOX SYSTEMS
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The revolLtionary new 3000/8000 Series of
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R -e'p
REP
June
c 1983
1983
ALTEC CORPORATI?N
unknowns that require on- the -spot
expertise.
"Once the CA.' starts swinging,"
Johnson says, "there are 15 or more
bands of different sizes that we have
never heard before, playing composi-
tions that we may have never heard
before. We get about 10 minutes between
bands to plot a final diagram, make
mike selections and channel assignments for the main and monitor mixes.
Of course, the time constraint, and
nature of the competition, does not
allow us to make any sound checks,
although a few minutes before the first
performance on opening night we were
able to make a half-hour sound check
with the host band."
HSA sound system on either side of stage
included Electro -Voice and Renkus Heinz
components on scaffold supports.
A Difficult Venue
Complicating the house and performer monitor mixes is Stepan Center's open 40 -foot wide by four -foot high
stage, and the 52 -foot ceiling. "The
stage is located in the northern section
HSA SOUND SYSTEM EQUIPMENT FOR COLLEGIATE JAZZ FESTIVAL
Main Consolez RAMSA 8716
16 -in/4- subgroup
board.
Monitor Console: Allen & Heath Brennell Series 8 Model 168
Record /Video Console: RAMSA 8118 18- input /4-subgroup desk.
16- into -8
mixer.
Processing: Two Ashly SC66 EQs on Main Mix; Klark Teknik DN27 graphics on
Judges' Monitors; Klark Teknik DN30/30 on Stage-Left and -Right
Monitors; Ashly SC80 crossover on House System; and Brooke
Siren System crossover as back-up.
Amplification: Six Crown PSA -2s for House Speaker system; two QSC Series Ill
3500s for monitors /mix monitor/stage left, stage right; two Ashly
FET 200s for Judges' Monitors.
Loudspeakers: Four Intersonics bass enclosures, eight HSA 1501 15 -inch enclosures, four E -V HR40 horns on DH1012 drivers, and two Renkus
Heinz 820 horns on 3301 drivers for the House System (two E -V
HR60 horns on DH1012 drivers as spares); three EV100S speakers
for side and rear fills/monitor mix; two E -V Sentry 500 for Judges'
Monitors; and two HSA 12T stage monitors for left and right
monitors.
Microphones: Shure SM81s on piano; E -V CH15E with hyper head as drum
overhead; E -V RE20s for kick drum, and stand -up solo mike; E -V
RE18s and 16s on horns /woodwinds; E -V CS15Ps on percussion;
Beyer M88s on upright bass, and vocal; and E -V PL80 for vocals.
What
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0 June
1983
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Crown PSA -2 amps powered the main system, while Ashly FET200 and QSC Series
Ill amps served as backup units.
of the building," Johnson continues.
"During performances, the delay paths
are unreal! There are narrow focal
points on stage right that retain information from stage left, at what we estimate to be 0.25 seconds later. There is a
slap from the rear wall that can kill."
To accommodate this condition, for
performers HSA provides two stage
monitor speakers, each with its own discrete mix. But the stage position and
mix change for every group. The challenge is to adjust position, levels, and
mix for the groups while preserving as
much of an un- monitored feel as possible. "And we try to convey a bigger,
more open sound for the large bands,
and simulate a close, intimate sound for
the combos," he offers.
The judges' table, located eight feet in
front of the stage, has its own monitor
mix that is subject to dramatic changes
during the first few group performances
of
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R -e /p 107
June
1983
TECRON TEF SYSTEM 10 SPECTRUM ANALYZER
Technical Description and Operation Abstracted from Manufacturer's Literature
.
The TECRON TEF System 10 utilizes the principles of Time Delay Spectrometry (TDS)
developed by Richard C. Heyser, a senior staff member at the Jet Propulsion Laboratories,
Pasadena, California. (Crown International has been licensed by the California Institute of
Technology to manufacture the new unit.) The system, which comes in a 22- by 18- by
71,2 -inch metal case, can perform a complete spectral analysis (DC to 31 kHz) of a concert
hall, for instance, in much less than half a day, TECRON claims.
The major physical components of the TEF system include a 92- character keyboard on a
hinged cover, a 7 -inch green - phosphor CRT, 512 -inch mini -floppy disk drive (dual disk
optional), a rear panel with all input/output connections, three Z80 microprocessors plus
96K of random -access memory, and sealed lead/acid batteries to provide emergency
power in the event of a main -power failure while operating in the field.
Principle of Operation
When in use, the TEF output sweep signal if fed to a system under investigation (which
can be a room, component, structure, and so on). A transducer (for example, a
microphone) picks up the signal coming out of that system, and feeds it to the TEF tracking
filter whose sweep exactly matches that of the test signal. The System 10 provides for an
adjustable delay to be programmed into the filter operation, so that any desired time
portion of the received signal can be processed through the TEF spectrum analyzer. This
TDS type of analysis is said to eliminate any ambient effect on the received signal, so that
the filtered signal is a true anechoic response, whose characteristics are only those of the
system under investigation.
Since the investigation of late arrivals (whether reflections or indirect transmission
paths) forms an important part of audio-range signal analysis, an Energy -Time Curve
(ETC) is available as a separate program in the TEF machine, and is the one normally first
used in spectral analysis. In addition, operator selection of setup parameters is
automatically saved on disk, so the conditions of the test can be recalled at any time.
The TEF System 10 also is said to make comparison checks very much easier to
accomplish. In a quick difference mode, the unit will automatically display the difference
QUIET...
PROGRAM EQUALIZATION
L -C ACTIVE
The model 4100A features Active. Inductor -Capacitor
(L -C) Tuned Filters. The resonant frequency of each
filter is derived PASSIVELY by a Tuned L -C Pair. This
drastically reduces the number of active devices necessary to build a Ten Band Graphic Equalizer. Only
seven operational amplifiers are in each channel's signal path: THREE in the differential amplifier input:
TWO for filter summation: ONE for input level control:
ONE for the output buffer. The result
the LOWEST
"Worst Case" NOISE of any graphic equalizer in the
industry
90dBv. or better.
...
...
P
wR -e /p 108 D June 1983
J.
1.
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--
what they need to
hear. According to Johnson, "They are
very specific about the sound they
expect to be reproduced in order to fulfill
their responsibility as judges of the
good, and the exceptional. And they like
to know we can handle whatever they
can produce during the 'judges jam'
performance."
Considering the wide variety of jazz
presented ( "Everything from straight
swing to something a director called
'Zen Jazz'," Johnson considers), HSA
designed the triple -mix sound system
for CJF to a high- performance standard.
"We set a split stack array of equipment on scaffoldings on either side of
the 40 -foot stage," Johnson explains.
"We used six Crown PSA-2 amplifiers to
drive the system, two ElectroVoice
HR40 140- by 20- degree) constant directivity horns with EV -I)H 1012 drivers on
each side for overall coverage, with the
inside EV -HR40 on each scaffolding
positioned to create a 'deadened' zone
straight down the wide center aisle of
the seating area. A single Renkus Heinz
830 horn and 3301 driver combination
on each side provided fill -in for the front
rows, and fed a sampling of the house
mix to the judges. We used eight of our
custom -designed single 15 -inch, vented
enclosures loaded with EVM 15Bs to
handle the upper bass and low mids
four per side).
"CJF '83 gave us an opportunity to try
out an innovative new enclosure from
1
-:,./.-_.
..
e.
;
ti..,......;:
THE WHITE INSTRUMENTS ADVANTAGE
Channel Octave Band
Graphic Equalizer
4100A
2
as the judges decided
CRAFTSMANSHIP
-
Hand Tuned Filters
Brushed, Painted Aluminum Chassis
Captive,
Screws
Threaded
Fasteners -No Sheet
Metal
Integrated Circuits in Sockets
Glass Epoxy Circuit Boards -Well Supported
High Grade Components
Highest degree of Calibration in the Industry
100% Quality Control Throughout the Manufacturing Process
Instant Above and Beyond the Call of Duty Response to Field Problems.
N
instruments, inc.
\sID
For additional information circle #7)
P.O. Box 698 Austin, Texas 78767
512/892 -0752
TELEX 776 409 WHITE INST AUS
TECRON TEF SYSTEM
10 ANALYZER
... continued --
between two successive tests on the CRT immediately following the second test.
Differencing also can be done as part of the post -test analysis, during which data from
different jobs can be compared
All received data is available for analysis through Hilbert or Fast Fourier transforms.
Time Delay Spectrometry sweeps can be analyzed by the TEF system in various domains:
Time versus Energy (decay curves);
Energy versus Frequency (frequency response);
Phase versus Frequency; or
Phase versus Energy (Nyquist).
In addition, a complete Time -Energy- Frequency (TEF) analysis can be performed, in
which the machine automatically makes 31 separate TDS sweeps over a selected time
window, and displays the final result as a three -dimensional display of amplitude versus
time at various frequencies, which is characterized as a "waterfall" display.
All operations of the TEF System 10 are software controlled, including the selection of
sweep rates, bandwidth, time window, and delay. A cursor mode enables the cursor
position to be keyboard controlled, with automatic computation and display of the point
values of the cursor. Distance of reflections or transmission paths can be read easily on the
ass
display from this data.
Intersonics, Inc. These devices are a
product of aerospace servo technology,
and use a rotary power -to -force converter. They measure approximately 22'
inches wide by 30 high, and 451/2 inches
deep, and do not use dynamic or conventional drivers. The design, which is
without a voice coil, thereby eliminating
magnetic-gap position problems, pro-
duces unprecendented diaphragm
excursion, low harmonic distortion,
very high efficiency, and is highly resistant to burnout. We tested the enclosures at 136 dB SPI, with 300 watts in at
one meter at 39 Hz!"
Mixing Consoles and Outboards
The triple -mix system included a 16input RAMSA 8716 mixer, two Ashly
parametric equalizers, and an Ashly
four -way crossover for the main house
mix. The right house master was fed to a
single EV 100S enclosure on each main
stack, to give coverage behind and to the
sides of the stage. For the judges' mix,
and the stage left/ stage right monitors,
HSA used an Allen & Heath Brenell
System 8 16 -in /8 -out board.
"The Allen & Heath monitor section
gave us the flexibility to punch any of
the mixes channels into a monitor
speaker six foot in front of, and pointing
at, our monitor mix engineer," Johnson
says. "That's really important in a
situation where sound checks cannot be
taken." USA also used Klark Teknik
third -octave equalizrs to process sends
to EV Sentry500 reference monitors (for
the judges), and HSA -designed enclosures with EV conponents for the two
stage mixes. The monitors were powered
by a combination of the new QSC Series
HI 3500 and Ashly FET 200 amplifiers.
Split from the AHB System 8 board
was a RAMSA 8118 console used to pro-
vide a separate stereo mix for the video
production group, Gemini Video Productions, Inc. According to Thomas
continued ..
-
.
Designed
Sold and Serviced
A Division of Sony Corporation of America
-P2711419.1 gr
1V57:#S
FEATURING MCI AND OTHER FINE
PROFESSIONAL STUDIO EQUIPMENT
11057 8th Avenue N.E.
Seattle, Washington 98125
For additional information circle
'7I
(206) 367-6800
R -e /p 109 D
June 1983
Smith, president of Gemini Produc- cedes that HSA came into this year's
tions, "Videotaping the CJF event was CJF event realizing that there were still
much like doing live TV -[there was] no unknowns. "We suspected acoustic
opportunity for retakes. Most impor- treatment of the venue itself may be
tantly, we regarded our function as needed," he concedes.
secondary to the audio function. We
Many of HSA's suspicions were conknow good audio reproduction is a key firmed two days before CJF opening
factor for high -fidelity, high -definition night with the use of a new acoustical
audio/video. For CJF we knew the suc- measuring device, the TEF System 10.
cess of our final product depended upon Manufactured by TECRON, the industhe quality of the soundtrack that would trial division of Crown International,
actually give 'life' to the performances. the System 10 is a microprocessor HSA provided us a discrete signal
based, two -port test instrument
balanced stereo feed that enables us designed for quick and easy audio specto offer the CJF taping for stereo simul- tral analysis (see accompaning sidebcast, as well as for a regular format.
ars). For HSA, the 40 -pound suitcase "We used JVC CY2700 cameras to do size machine provided critically
the CJF in a three -camera production important information about the unique
with Panasonic recording and special acoustic behavior of the Stepan Center.
effects equipment on .Vs -inch videoUsing the TEF machine, Don Eger,
cassettes. The result is a fine audio/ TECRON division manager, completed
video production of a swinging event!"
the analysis in less than an hour. In
that time Eger was able to determine
Acoustic Measurements
where each echo originated, its spectral
While the overall sound system results response, and level relative to the
have been satisfactory, Johnson con- source.
-a
-
TEF ANALYSIS OF NOTRE DAME
UNIVERSITY'S STEPAN CENTER
The accompanying graphs represent Energy -Time Curves made at the Stepan Center
by TECRON division manager, Don Eger. While it had been determined that the hall,
which comprised a pair of handball courts with reflective walls, floor, and ceiling, was
producing a pronounced 0.25 -second echo from the stage to the listening area, the source
of this echo and hence how to reduce it to manageable proportions for the jazz contest
-still had to be discovered.
Graph #1, produced with the excitation speaker at stage center and half to the right, and
the measuring microphone downstage and to the right, clearly shows a cluster of reflections centered approximately 200 milliseconds after the direct sound arrival. Although the
perceived echo appeared to consist of a single "slap," from the TEF display it is clear that a
group of sound reflections are responsible for the echo phenomenon. By re- orientating the
loudspeaker /mike array, and taking into account the velocity of sound, Eger says, it is
possible to pinpoint the surfaces responsible for producing the echoes.
Graph #2, produced with the speaker at the front center of the stage, and the mike
centered between the courts, shows a couple of "hot" reflections projecting above the
reverberation -time decay envelope.
Graph #3, taken with the speaker located center stage front, and the mike on the east
edge of the east court, shows that in this orientation the direct sound is much lower in level
than the reflected sound. Also, there are a series of closely-spaced reflections spread out
along the RT60 decay envelope. All of which, Eger says, leads to the conclusion that the
acoustic difficulties in the Stepan Center are being caused by extreme reflection problems,
and not reverberation time anomalies.
Graph #4, taken with the loudspeaker at stage front and slightly to the left, and the mike
stage front slightly right, corresponds to an on -stage monitoring situation
the idea being,
Eger recalls, to try and come up with a "sweet spot" for the performers. As can be seen,
even on the front of the stage there are multiple reflections being produced, a situation that
was to be found throughout the performing stage area.
-
"With the TEF machine we uncovered
an interesting phenomenon at Stepan
Center that is becoming more widely
understood as we identify it in concert
halls around the world," Eger explains.
"TEF analysis shows that what often
are perceived by the ear as reverberations are actually hot echoes. The TEF
analysis of Stepan Center shows a cluster of several hot echoes that pierce the
RT60 curve. Combined, these hot echoes
nearly equalled the original sound
source. For CJF, the phenomenon
mainly affects the performers who
experience a myriad of delayed 200 millisecond echo returns."
Eger and Johnson agree that an effective acoustic treatment to overcome this
echo -related phenomenon is primarily
diffusion, combined with absorption.
"For Stepan Center we know that
acoustic treatment will require absorption to suppress the high -end, mechanical movement for low -end reflection,
and a way of diffusing very lively
echoes," Johnson offers. The combination of absorption and diffusion would
break up the cluster of hot echoes, reflect
them in multiple directions, and cause
the reflections to fall into the reverberation range, is Eger and Johnson's
diagnosis.
With highly detailed Energy -Time
Curve(ETC) measurements provided by
the TEF analysis, specific reflective
wall areas can be identified and isolated
at Stepan Center. To achieve the desired
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PERFORMANCE
STAGE
diffusion, Eger and Johnson suggest
that convex panels could be attached to
walls that have been shown to be highly
reflective.
There are other acoustic treatments
that could be considered, such as polycylindricals, and/or geometric shapes
suspended from the ceiling; the construction of a "live" band shell, or positioning the portable stage on a perpendicular point to a wall surface that is
less conducive to hot echo returns,
Johnson and Eger suggest.
"Combined with proper wall acoustics, the band shell especially would
enhance each band's ability to hear
itself as a cohesive unit, and the structure would simplify monitoring," Johnson says. He also noted that even simple
treatments greatly affect hot echoes at
Stepan Center. "We noticed a lower bass
echo this year than we remembered
from last year's CJF. After investigation we realized that portable concession trailers at the southeast and
southwest areas of the building, not
used last year, were providing bass -end
diffusion and bass trapping during performances this year."
"The important result of the TEF testing at Stepan Center," Eger concludes,
"is that the venue can be acoustically
treated effectively and economically.
And such treatment would simply
enhance the good sound reproduction
that is already possible for events such
as the CJF."
Ill MONITO
0
MIXERS
Or
1.
SPEAKER
SCAFFOLD
SPEAKER
SCAFFOLD
JUDGES
TABLE
ti
MIXING AREA
The RTW A to D interface translates
PCM -F1 code directly to PCM -1610 standard, enabling use of the F1 with Sony's
professional editing systems, and for
compact disc mastering. It also provides
balanced line level inputs and outputs
with headroom adjustment, selective or
parallel interface to two VCR's, manual
pre- emphasis control, and expanded
display of the error correction status.
o
.°......._.,r,
For additional information circle #72
Available now, exclusively through
0
auditronics. inc.
3750 Old Getwell Rd.
Memphis, TN 38118 USA
Tel: (901) 362-1350
Telex: 533356
R-e /p 111
0 June 1983
ew Prod
LEXICON MODEL 1300
AUDIO DELAY FOR
VIDEO SYNCHRONIZATION
The new Model 1300 audio -delay synchronizer allows production facilities
and broadcasters to effectively solve
"lip- sync" problems that result from the
increasing use of digital video processors and synchronizers. The system
decodes the hysteresis and frame offset
information from any video synchronizer, to provide frame -accurate audio
synchronization.
Three standard decoding options are
supplied: pulse -width decoding; "wild feed" genlock decoding; or serial data
decoding, each with its own interface
panel and software. The removable
Delay Configuration Control Module
can be set up to conform to any delay/
sync decoding scheme presently in use,
and provides software 'hardware flexibility for future configurations.
The Model 1300's digital audio delay
section offers up to two seconds of delay,
a quoted 20 Hz to 20 kHz bandwidth,
distortion less than 0.025 %, dynamic
range greater than 90 dB, and channel
separation greater than 70 dB.
LEXICON, INC.
60 TURNER STREET
WALTHAM, MA 02154
(617) 891 -6790
For additional information circle #146
MXR INTRODUCES NEW
DRUM COMPUTER
The new Model 185 Drum Computer
features 12 drum sounds that have been
digitally transferred to the unit's programmable read -only memory chips
(PROMs). Each of the 12 voices has its
own output level control, and separate
output jack. Recording capacity of the
unit is 100 patterns, with up to 99 click
track beats each, and 100 songs.
Seven accuracy levels
from 1/8
notes to 1/32 triplets
are available,
and built-in error correction places the
programmed drum sound on the nearest
note according to the accuracy level
selected. Any time signature can be programmed in merely by setting the patt-
STL
ern length and accuracy level, MXR
says. Tempo is adjustable from approximately 40 to 250 beats per minute.
To operate, the pattern length and
accuracy levels are set as required, the
tempo adjusted using the built-in click
track, and the appropriate drum voice
key depressed. The click track automatically emphasizes the first beat of the
selected pattern length, so multiple
drum tracks can be laid down. Pattern
lengths can be extended or shortened
with the push of a few buttons.
- -
G¢t Aligned
Stau Aligned
with
c-s
precision magnetic
test tapes
These dependable tapes are used by broadcasters,
recording studios, equipment manufacturers,
governments and educators throughout the world.
On playback, both Tempo and Pitch
can be adjusted, and a human "feel" can
be induced by using any of the four levels of Shift (sometimes called "swing" or
"shuffle "), a feature which offsets the
drum voices slightly, positioning them
either just before or just after the
selected primary rhythm beat.
The Model 185 Drum Computer has a
suggested retail price of $1,250.
MXR INNOVATIONS, INC.
740 DRIVING PARK AVENUE
ROCHESTER, NY 14613
(716) 254 -2910
For additional information circle #147
UREI UNVEILS MODEL 1620
COMPACT MIXER
The Model 1620 is a multi -input stereo
mixer optimized for the heavy use in
production, sound reinforcement,
broadcast and any other professional
applications.
STL offers the most accurate reference in the widest variety...
Alignment, Sweep, Pink Noise, Level Set, Azimuth and
Flutter /Speed. Available on reels, in broadcast carts, in home
carts and in cassettes...2" to 150 mil tape widths. Also avail.
able is the Standard Tape Manual and the Magnetic Tape
Reproducer Calibrator.
Write or phone for fast delivery or free catalog.
T
STANDARD TAPE LABORATORY, INC.
5 HAYWARD CALIFORNIA 94545 A151 %86.3546
R -e /p 112
0 June 1983
The new unit features two stereo
phono inputs (each with its own level
control), one transformer-isolated mike
input, plus five stereo line-level inputs.
The mike, line, and up to three additional optional phono and /or mike
inputs are assigned by a flexible switching matrix to four auxiliary level controls. Each input control has its own
balance control for precise adjustment.
Separate outputs are provided for on-
air (house) and monitor (booth) amplifiers, each with its own level control. A
separate headphone circuit allows the
operator to select any of the six inputs or
the program output. An isolated mono
output is provided on the rear panel.
Two separate tape outputs also are provided for recordings, and a processor
loop allows connection of equalizers or
signal processors.
UREI
8460 SAN FERNANDO ROAD
SUN VALLEY, CA 91352
(213) 767 -1000
For additional Information circle #102
FURMAN SOUND LC -3
LIMITER/COMPRESSOR
In addition to continously adjustable
attack, release, and compression ratio
controls, the LC -3 also features "sidechain" and "de-ess" modes of operation,
an LED -style meter displaying gain
reduction, and separate input and output level controls.
-
itself and a totally silent mike mute
switch enables the talent to turn off the
audio without breaking the RF link. An
advanced squelch circuit prevents
audible RF dropouts, as well as
unwanted pops when the transmitter is
turned off.
The System 85 is available for $2,535,
including a fitted flight case.
HM ELECTRONICS, INC.
6151 FAIRMOUNT AVENUE
SAN DIEGO, CA 92120
(714) 280-6050
option, and line-level inputs with separate insert points for connection of
effects devices. PFL is offered on each
channel, plus an input pad giving 20 dB
attenuation on mike signals.
For additional information circle #104
ALLEN AND HEATH MODEL 168
SYSTEM 8 MIXING CONSOLE
Designed as a 16-input recording or
sound reinforcement console, the Model
168 features electronically balanced
microphone inputs with phantom -power
Three -band EQ is available with LF
and HE offering selectable shelving at
60/120 Hz and 8/12 kHz. Three auxiliary sends, one pre -fader, one post -fader
and one switchable pre /post, are fea-
A NEW ON -LINE
NOISE REDUCTION
SYSTEM
The input control automatically
adjusts the gain of the input stage, maximizing the signal -to-noise ratio. This
feature, in addition to carefully tailored
bias currents through the VCA, results
in extremely low noise and low distortion at all levels and with all amounts of
gain reduction, Furman says.
Suggested list price of the new Model
LC -3 compressor-limiter is $335.
FURMAN SOUND, INC.
30 RICH STREET
GREEN BRAE, CA 94904
(415) 927 -1225
For additional information circle #103
MINIATURE SYSTEM 85
WIRELESS MICROPHONE
FROM HME
The all -new hand -held wireless mike
combines a Shure SM85 cardioid condenser element with the smallest 9 -volt
powered transmitter available, HME.
claims. A 9 -volt alkaline battery will
provide eight hours of continuous life at
50 milliwatts of radiated power.
The 11 -ounce System 85 transmitter'
element combination is less than nine
inches in length; shorter than a standard SM85 plus cable connector.
Dynamic range is quoted at over 115
dBA greater than that of the element
-
dynoftxm
No Encoding or decoding
Simple, Trouble-free Operation
30 dB of Noise Reduction
Useful on Any Audio Signals
The Dynafex is a single -ended system that does not require
encoding or decoding. With this device, noise can be virtually
eliminated on cart machines, VTR audio tracks, mixdown recording,
film sound tracks, or any other audio source. It is also capable of
removing noise from old, noisy tapes, and can be used to reduce
surface noise on phonograph records.
With the advent of higher quality audio in radio, television, and
motion pictures, Dyrafex provides an immediate and dramatic
improvement in audio quality at a price any budget can afford. Call
or write for further technical information. Dynafex is available from
professional audio dealers throughout the world.
MICMIX Audio Products, Inc.
2995 Ladybird Lane
Dallas, TX 75220
(214) 352 -3811
ew products
tured, plus direst routing to the main
stereo mix.
System 8 provides instant monitoring
of all signals without disturbing the
recording in process. A one-shot PFL
function with PFL-Active LED indicator overrides monitor mix, outputs, and
metering. The control room monitoring
system, with independent level control
of headphones and loudspeakers, may
be driven by the main stereo mix, stereo
master recorder, or cue system. Cue
mixes can be set up from the channels,
track monitors (or a combination of the
two), or the stereo mix.
Two or more mixers can be cascaded
without sacrificing any inputs or outputs, since rear -panel sockets allow
direct access to and from the monitor
and remix groups, auxiliary sends, PFL
system, and the main output groups.
This same facility enables the add -on
8 -input expander module (EX8) to be
used for increased input capacity.
ALLEN AND HEATH BRENELL
USA, LTD.
FIVE CONNAIR ROAD
ORANGE, CT 06477
(203) 795 -3594
For additional information circle #148
OTARI MODEL CB -116
AUTOLOCATOR FOR
MARK III SERIES MACHINES
Designed for use with Mark III two -,
four -, and eight -track machines, the new
CB -116 autolocator also will function
with all new Otani recorders (5050 Mark
III Series), and most existing machines
in the field.
The new unit features six one- buttonstorage cue location memories; onebutton search to any cue location; repeat
mode for continuous rehearsal between
any two cue locations; Play and Park,
which plays to any selected cue location,
and then stops; Head and Tail Guard
Points, which stops tape from winding
past selected points at head and tail of
selection; and Automatic Cue Offset
that recalculates all cue locations when
local time display is reset.
In addition, time settings may be
entered into Cue or Guard point memories, and there is provision for foot
switch punch -in.
Price of the new Model CB -116 autolocator is $695.
OTARI CORPORATION
2 DAVIS DRIVE
BELMONT, CA 94002
(415) 592 -8311
For additional information circle #149
BANNER REAL -TIME
ANALYZER DISTRIBUTED
BY MXR
The new RTA 1232 third -octave real time analyzer /SPL meter from Banner
Electronics is said to provide very high
selectivity without the loss of interband
frequencies. This high -Q performance is
the result of an entirely new electronic
filter- shaping circuit that exhibits the
steep skirts and somewhat flat-top
shape of conventional double- tuned,
four-pole filters, but does so with about
half of the electronic parts of single tuned (two -pole) designs.
The RTA 1232 provides 31 ISO bands
from 20 Hz to 20 kHz, with frequency
distribution displayed on a 12 -by -32
LED matrix. Features include the ability to accurately measure broadband
SPI, with an optional calibrated microphone; two phantom -powered mike
inputs, and two line-level inputs. Meter
reference range is 65 to 120 dB, with
selection of 1, 2 or 3 dB per step. Digital
pink and white noise generation is
built-in.
Suggested retail price of the Banner
RECORDING ENGINEER /PRODUCER
CLASSIFIED ADVERTISEMENT
RATES & INFORMATION
Dollar- for -Dollar R -eïp Classified Ads reach more people,
creating more sound, and using more equipment. To make use of
this unique service for the Pro -audio Industry, simply type or print
clearly your message, and send it to the address below. To estimate
how much the ad will cost, bear in mind that there are 8 lines to a
classified column inch, and that each line will take approximately 35
characters.
Our Classified Rates are as follows:
$65.00 per Column Inch (Minimum)
If your ad runs over the minimum inch, you will be billed for each
additional quarter -inch increment. Our maximum length for a
classified ad is four inches. There are no additional charges for bold
type, borders, or camera -ready logos.
Send your check or money order, for a minimum of $65.00 (the
first inch must be prepaid). to the following address:
RTA 1232 is $1,250.
MXR INNOVATIONS, INC.
740 DRIVING PARK AVENUE
ROCHESTER, NY 14613
(716) 254 -2910
For additional information circle #150
YAMAHA MODEL RM804
RECORDING MIXER
The RM804 has eight input channels,
each with an electronically balanced
XLR mike /line input, and an unbalanced RCA jack tape input, routing to
four main program mixing busses.
Separate two -track tape inputs and outputs are provided for mixdown and
monitoring.
z
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use
Ye.
DIIA.V.r-
R -E /P
CLASSIFIED ADS
P.O. BOX 2449
HOLLYWOOD CA 90078
The Deadline for thf, AUGUST 1983 ssu, is July 22. 1983.
R -e. p 114
June
1983
The XLR inputs have continuously
variable gain trim controls for levels
from -60 to -20 dB. A three -band equalizer and channel insert point also are
featured, along with direct output jacks.
In addition to the main program mixing busses, there is an echo send bus and
a stereo bus. The stereo bus derives its
signal from one of two points after the
channel fader, or from the tape input
jack
and these sources can be
assigned to the stereo bus for control
room and performer headphone cue
monitoring. The echo send bus may be
fed by the channel's post -fader signal or
the tape input, allowing a choice of wet
or dry monitoring and recording. Two
echo returns are provided.
The RM804 has a suggeted retail price
of $1,195.
YAMAHA COMBO PRODUCTS
P.O. BOX 6600
BUENA PARK, CA 90622
(714) 522 -9134
-
-
APHEX ANNOUNCES
NEW COMPELLOR
COMPRESSOR /LIMITER
The new unit, a combined compressor/
leveler /peak limiter, is said to provide
complete dynamics control, smooth
inaudible compression, increased loudness, with freedom from constant gain
riding. High audio quality results from
use of the Aphex 1537A VCA chip,
which is controlled by two partly interdependent side chains.
The Leveler section maintains longterm audio output level within 1 dB for a
20 dB input level change, while the
Compressor operates over a 30 dB range
of input levels, varying the ratio from
about 1.1:1 to 20:1. The resulting "soft
knee" prevents the usual "choked"
sound associated with deep compression. Attack and release times are
dependent on program material. The
Peak Limiter holds an absolute ceiling
12 dB above the average level.
Another feature is the Silence Gate,
which prevents gain reduction release
when the input drops below a predetermines level. This prevents gain
and noise build -up when program material stops, or between pieces of material.
Also made possible by the Compel lor's interdependent side chains is Ste-
For additional information circle #151
RTW DIGITAL STUDIO
PROCESSOR FOR SONY PCM -F1
Now available in the U.S. from Audi
-
tronics, the RTW Studio Processor Set
utilizes a modified Sony PCM -F1 digital
audio processor, and a specifically
designed interface unit to enable digital
recording on any commercially available EIAJ standard videocassette
recorder.
SONY
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Operation is improved over the
standard PCM -F1 by the inclusion of
balanced line -level inputs and outputs,
headroom optimization, more extensive
status and error correction displays,
and data translation to the Sony PCM
1610 standard, thereby enabling direct
digital copying and editing capability.
Representing the first unit to interface between the PCM -F1 (14/16 -bit)
and PCM -1610 (16 -bit) standards, the
RTW Studio Processor has many applications in studio mastering, and audio/
video production.
AUDITRONICS, INC.
3750 OLD GETWELL ROAD
P.O. BOX 18838
MEMPHIS, TN 38118
(901) 362 -1350
-
For additional information circle #152
the art of
shaping sound.
Anywhere.
AlphaAudio
2'_149 Wes amad Street
Rchmond VIglnla 23.2J
f.041 358 3852
Acoustic Products tDr he Audio Industry
Sonex Is nanufacti red by II1Druck USA
cw
PCOGUCtS
reo Enhance. When activated, the dual
channel's compressor can be triggered
by certain audio information that
such as the CK -1, CK -22, CK -8, etc. Its
mechanical construction is said to
ensure lower sensitivity to handling
noise, and maintains a consistent low
impedance connection between the
housing of the capsule and the microphone pre -amplifier.
causes widening of the stereo image
that is fully mono compatible.
Retail price of the Compellor is $995,
and the unit will be available mid -1983.
APHEX SYSTEMS, LTD.
7801 MELROSE AVENUE
LOS ANGELES, CA 90046
(213) 655 -1411
For additional information circle #153
mastery of the system by even inexperienced operators, Lexicon claims.
Registers for user- created programs
in the 224X will store up to 36 setups,
which can be off- loaded to a cassette by
the LARC, and reloaded in less than one
minute. This feature allows relocatable
setups and program to be transported to
any location with a LARC- equipped
224X.
THI) at kHz is a quoted 0.01% at
maximum SPL: equivalent noise level
15 dB SPL; dynamic range of 123 dB
and maximum SPL of 138 dB at 0.5%
THI) over the full frequency range.
AKG ACOUSTICS, INC.
77 SELLECK STREET
STAMFORD, CT 06902
(203) 348 -2121
1
AKG ACOUSTICS LAUNCH
C -460B CONDENSER
MICROPHONE SYSTEM
The C -460B modular mike system is
an addition to, and is compatible with,
all existing C -450 components (except
for the CK -9 and VR -2 capsules). Standout features include: wide dynamic
range (sound pressure levels of 138 dB
SPL over the full frequency range; 148
dB SPL with pad); low self -noise (measured at 15 dB SPI. to IEC 179 -A); minimum current consumption when connected to any powering voltage from 12
to 52 volts; and built -in 50, 70 and 150 Hz
roll -off, and O or 20 dB attenuation.
An electrically conductive rubber
adapter ring is supplied with the C -460B
as a means of using existing capsules,
For additional information circle #154
REMOTE CONTROLLER FOR
LEXICON 224X REVERB SYSTEM
The Lexicon Alphanumeric Remote
Controller (LARC) is an option on new
224X systems, and easily retrofitted to
existing installations. A 48- character
alphanumeric display guides and
prompts users in applying the full range
of capabilities of the 224X, and speeds
L
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The most respected audiophile-quality power amplifier line in
the world was available first to professionals! Bryston amplifiers bring
with them years of hands -on experience in sound -studios, where they
have proven their unique accuracy; on the road, where they have
proven absolutely unmatched reliability; in hundreds of professional
installations all over the world, where they continue to prove every
day that for uses requiring flawless sonic quality, tremendous load driving ability and zero down -time, Bryston has no equal.
Discover the advantages of the Bryston philosophy for sonic
perfection and on-the -road reliability.
For further, more detailed information, and a list of dealers in
your area, contact one of our Distributors:
:3L
(A IIVERMONT
Montpelier, Vermont 05602
(802) 223-6159
RFD134, Berlin,
R-e /p 116
June 1983
ill
s
57 Westmore
Dr.,
tì
MARKETING LTD
Rexdale Ont., Canada M9V 3Y6
(416) 746 -0300
The LARC measure 6 by 10 by 3
inches, and may be operated up to 1,000
feet away from the mother chassis.
LEXICON, INC.
60 TURNER STREET
WALTHAM, MA 02154
(617) 891 -6790
For additional information circle #155
MCI /SONY AUDIO LAYBACK
TAPE MACHINE FOR
ONE -INCH VIDEOTAPE
The Audio Layback Recorder 'Reproducer, based on the MCI JH -110B
transport, is a post -production recorder
for layback or transfer of audio to one inch, Type -C videotape. By employing
specialized heads and electronics
design, the new unit optimizes signal -tonoise ratio, and wow and flutter of the
final edited videotape's audio tracks.
The new machine will record two
audio tracks for stereo sound, and a
SMPTE timecode control track. Signal to -noise ratio is quoted at greater than
60 dB, frequency response from 30 Hz to
20 kHz, and wow and flutter less than
0.025 %. The system is available for NAB
A or B, one-inch tape reel sizes.
SONY COMMUNICATIONS
PRODUCTS COMPANY
SONY DRIVE
PARK RIDGE, NJ 0765
(201) 930 -6432
For additional information circle #156
CROWN INTRODUCES PZM 2.5
FOR DIRECTIONAL PICKUP
The PZM 2.5 low -profile, minimum
visibility microphone combines a
precision-calibrated pressure capsule
with nearly invisible corner boundary
to achieve improved directionality.
According to Crown, the new mike effectively captures and emphasizes sounds
approaching from its front, while rejecting sounds from behind, thereby effectively eliminating audience noise
pickup during theatrical productions,
conferences, and public meetings.
WA
98043
suie pressure gradiant.
According to Neumann, the new KMR
(206) 774 -7309
NEUMANN KMR 811
SHOTGUN MIKE
In miking situation where "reach" is
required, the 9 -inch KMR 81i is said to
form a perfect complement to Neu
-
mann's 151/2-inch shotgun, the KMR 82i.
Both microphones use an especially
developed capsule and amplifier located
inside an interference tube, which is
acoustically open but results in a high
diaphragm driving force at a low cap-
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combines a high degree of sound
rejection at its sides with an excellent
front -to -back ratio. The microphone is
largely insensitive to wind and popping,
and has an internal elastic suspension
to suppress handling noise.
Suggested user price is $695.
GOTHAM AUDIO CORPORATION
741 WASHINGTON STREET
NEW YORK, NY 10014
(212) 741 -7411
81 i
For additional information circle #158
For additional information circle #159
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Ill
In operation, the microphone can be
placed on a surface such as a floor, table
or lectern and aimed at the desired
sound source. The corner boundary
design increases the microphone's sensitivity, and is said to actually improve
speech articulation through its specially tailored frequency response.
The PZM 2.5 microphone plugs
directly into a 12- to 48 -volt phantom
power supply, includes a transformer
balanced, low- impedance output, and a
permanently attached 15 -foot cable.
CROWN INTERNATIONAL
1718 W. MISHAWAKA ROAD
ELKHART, IN 46517
(219) 294 -5571
MORE FOR LESS
For additional information circle #157
MM12 MONITOR CONSOLE
FROM RANE
The MM 12 compact 12- input /6output mixer features three-way input
EQ, mike output patching, two -stage
parametric output EQ, stacking inputs,
send /receive loops, and submixing.
The RCF N -480 High Technology Compression Driver gives
you more power handling, more extended response, less
distortion, and it will cost you at least 50% less than
any comparable driver on the market today.
More Power Handling for 50%
less .... 150 watts continuous
program. 75w rms long term sine
wave @ 1.200 Hz and up. 100w
program and 50w rms long term
@800Hz and up
More Extended Response for 50%
....
equal to the finest aluminum and titanium compression
drivers in high frequency response.
less
More Fidelity for 50% less ....
with low inherent distortion thanks
Of special interest, Rane says, is an
"output- oriented" layout design for
improved ease of operation. The MM 12
measures 21 by 19 inches, by 21/, inches
deep in an all -steel chassis.
Suggeted list price for the MM 12 monitor mixer is $1,299.
RANE CORPORATION
6510 216TH SW
MOUNTLAKE TERRACE
More Quality for 50% less
....
the RCF N -480 High Technology
Compression Driver features a high
flux (19.000 Gauss) ferrite magnetic
structure. composite type 44 mm
diaphragm and self canceling
surround. The bottom line is
high power. low distortion and
extended frequency response
capabilities. And you're paying
about 50% less.
to a high dampening composite
material diaphragm.
For more information, contact us today.
EASTERN
ACOUSTIC
WORKS
PO. Box
Framingham. Mass. 01 /01
(617) 620-1478
1
1
1
R -e, p 117
June 1983
,ew roc
.
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AUDIOARTS ANNOUNCE 8X
SERIES MIXING CONSOLES
Intended for 8- to 24 -track recording
production studios and video editing
rooms, the SX features three -band
sweepable EQ, HI'F', stereo monitoring,
four mixdown effects sends, phase reversal switches, phantom powering, and
assignable direct outputs.
jack, and talkback/ slate switching.
The 8X Series is available in 12- to
40 -input configurations, with or without
built -in patchbay, and is available with
8 -, 16- or 24-track VU or LEI) metering
systems.
1
up to
100
watts continuous program
power (8 ohms). Frequency range is
quoted at 60 Hz to 16 kHz, ±6 dB.
The S2112H has a suggested retail
price of $365.
YAMAHA COMBO PRODUCTS
AUDIOARTS ENGINEERING
5 COLLINS ROAD
BETHANY, CT 06525
(203) 393 -0887
P.O. BOX 6600
BUENA PARK, CA 90622
(714) 522 -9134
For additional information circle #161
For additional information circle #160
YAMAHA COMPACT STAGE
MONITOR SPEAKER SYSTEM
The new S2112H slant -type, two-way
monitor speaker features a compact
Thiele -aligned enclosure housing a
JA310S 12 -inch woofer. A built -in crossover network protects the JA3201 compression driver and flush- mounted horn
from frequencies below 2.5 kHz.
The S21 12II delivers 97 dB SPL at
meter with watt input, and can handle
AUDITRONICS
PROGRAMMABLE
PARAMETRIC EQUALIZER
The PPEQ -1 Programmable Parametric EQ System is designed for production use in audio -for -video, disk mas tering, or film. The unit includes up to
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A Super Solo section includes solo
switching for pre - and post -fader, tape
return and bus outputs. In addition, all
mike, line and return inputs are electronically balanced, as well as all bus
and direct outputs, stereo masters, effect
send, control room, and studio outputs.
Standard features include the M104
conductive plastic fader, a 20 Hz to 20
kHz oscillator, full control room and
studio listening function. headphone
Announcing
ECMP
four mono- or stereo-tracking, threeband parametric equalizer units, each
with variable Q, variable frequency,
and variable boost, cut. High and low
bands also include peak shelf capability, and each band features an independent ins out switch.
Each equalizer unit has 32 on- board,
non -volatile memories, and an interface
the New Cost -Effective
0
ETM 1
size 56 "x 38"x 9", scaled for the Cost -Effective Studio
J
IF YOU'VE BEEN "GETTING BY" WITH SOMETHING LESS THAN A TRULY
PROFESSIONAL REVERB SYSTEM, THEN THE NEW ECOPLATE III IS FOR YOU.
PLATE REVERBS ARE THE STANDARD OF THE INDUSTRY WITH THE SMOOTH.
BRIGHT SOUND OTHER SYSTEMS TRY TO IMITATE. NOW, FOR ONLY $1695,
YOU CAN STEP UP TO THE BEST. OR. IF YOU ALREADY OWN AN ECOPLATE OR
OTHER FINE REVERB, THE III CAN GIVE YOU A SECOND SYSTEM FOR A
MODEST PRICE.
Reverb Time: Variable .5 to 5 sec.
Signal to Noise: 65 db
Frequency Response: 80 -20 KIIz
Input: - 10 or + 4 dhm 10K ohms. unbalanced.
10K ohms
Stereo Outputs:
+ 4dbm ( + 24d1)m max.)
50 ohm unbalanced
Size & Weight: 56 "x 38 "x 9 ". 109 Ib.
Equalization: Both Hi and Lo Variable
New Shock- Mounted Plate Tension System
is Pre -tuned at the Factory
i:linlin,lting Tuning Problems.
STUDIO
TECHNOLOGIES, INC.
6666
N
R-e /p 118
Onl}
Lincoln Ave.. Lincolnwood. IL 60645 (312) 676-9400
An affiliate of Programming Technologies. Inc.
June 1983
51695
For additional information circle #79
available to accept serial or parallel
data for external sequencing or pro gramming from an external editor or
computer. All parameters are software
controlled, and displays are provided
for each parameter to enable all settings
to be viewed at a glance.
AUDITRONICS, INC.
3750 OLI) GETWELL ROAD
Y.O. BOX 18838
MEMPHIS, TN 38118
(901) 362 -1350
For additional information circle 4162
TEF SYSTEM 10 SPECTRUM
ANALYZER FROM TECRON
Investigation into audio and other
vibration phenomena is said to be
greatly simplified with the TECRON
TEF System 10, a microprocessor based, two port -test instrument for spectral analysis in the DC to 31 kHz range.
Manufactured by the TECRON division
of Crown International, inc., under
license from Jet Propulsion Laboratories, California Institute of Technology,
Pasadena, California, the TEF machine
utilizes the principles of Time Delay
Spectrometry (TDS) developed by
Richard C. Heyser, a JPI, senior staff
member.
77011"vYr::t
4
BASF INTRODUCES FERRO
SUPER LH OPEN -REEL TAPE
BASF Ferro Super LH is a -mil- thick,
back -coated quarter -inch tape available
in 1800 -foot (7 -inch reels), and :3600 -foot
(10'x, -inch reel) lengths. Designed for
studio mastering use, the tape's special
oxide formulation is said to deliver high
output, very low distortion, and reduced
noise.
According to BASF's marketing
director Mark Dellafera, "Ferro Super
LH has a special back- coating which
virtually eliminates static and dust
debris, and it guarantees the superb
winding properties that have always
distinguished BASF mastering tapes,
even (luring high -speed shuttling. This
means remarkably smooth, even winds,
and no crushed edges which cause signal losses."
BASF SYSTEMS CORPORATION
CROSBY DRIVE
BEDFORD, MA 01730
(617) 271 -4000
1
MAGNETIC SCIENCES
For the Finest
Tape Recording
Heads and the
Ultimate
Relapping
Services.
We carry a full line of heads
in stock including ...
1/2-inch, 2 -track heads.
We also provide precision
relapping and optical
alignment of all magnetic
recording heads and
assemblies.
If you need
optimum
performance
from your tape
recording
equipment you
need our services. Call or
write:
For additional information circle 4164
LONGER LENGTH MASTERING
TAPE FROM AGFA -GEVAERT
Agfa PEM 428 is a -mil version of the
company's PEM -168 two -inch studio
mastering tape. Available as 4,800 feet
on a 12''2 -inch reel, a full -hour recording
can he made at 15 IPS.
A high -outputs low -noise tape offering
improved dynamic range and print through. PEM 428's polyester base is
in
1
JRF COMPANY
101
LANDING ROAD, LANDING, NJ 07850
201/398.7426
Into Audio?
Then you need the SP -100!
In use, an output sweep signal is fed ti
a system under investigation, a trans
ducer(a microphone, for example) picks
up the signal coming out of that system,
and feeds it to the TEF tracking filter
whose sweep exactly matches that of
the test signal. An adjustable delay can
be programmed into the filter operation
so that any desired time portion of the
received signal can be processed
through the TEF spectrum analyzer.
This TDS type of analysis is said to
eliminate any ambient effect on the
received signal, so that the filtered signal is a true anechoic response. iA feature article published elsewhere in this
issue provides full application details
-
Ed.]
The TEF System
10 is
offered with
standard equipment and software at
$14,500.
TECRON DIVISION OF
CROWN INTERNATIONAL, INC.
1718 W. MISHAWAKA ROAD
ELKHART, IN 46517
(219) 522 -1274
The perfect tool for the
audio professional, the
SP -100 is a super rugged
Q.)
belt pack headphone amp. It
is invaluable for monitoring
mic or line level signals as well
as general audio system troubleshooting. The unit's high input
impedance allows for minimum
circuit loading, is ideal for tuning
wireless microphone receivers, setting
up and balancing piano pick -ups, quality
test ng microphones and as a "listen only"
intercommunication headset amp with variable
gain .. all within a 4 oz. micro -size belt pack.
The SP-100 features long battery life, low noise, wide
frequency response and can accommodate almost any
audio signal source... high or low impedance... balanced
or unbalanced ... mic or line level. Your toolbox should
include the SP-100. You will wonder how you got by without it!
ARTISTS X- PONENT ENGINEERING
BOX 2331 RP
MENLO PARK, CA 94025
[415) 365 -5243
1983 AXE
For additional information circle 4163
R -e /p 119
June
1983
cw
PrO UCt
tensilized and, according to Agfa, consequently much stronger than other
tapes that use a thicker but weaker conventional base.
ECOS MODEL 1023 POW -R -MATE
AC POWER TESTER
Designed specifically for testing AC
power systems and equipment rated
through 600V, the Model 1023 Pow -RMate is said to incorporate several unique features, including:
Complete analysis of grounded and
ungrounded single- and three-phase circuits and equipment rated through
tures in a single lightweight instrument, the Model 1023 eliminates the
need to carry several different testers,
and provides maximum safety and
accuracy.
ECOS ELECTRONICS CORP.
205 WEST HARRISON STREET
OAK PARK, IL 60304
(312) 383 -2505
For additional information circle *166
600VAC.
TRIDENT LAUNCHES SERIES 70
Phase rotation, open phase, and
phase -to- ground reversal testing.
Phase -to-phase and phase-to- ground
voltage measurement at the touch of a
switch.
Leakage- current testing of portable
and cord- connected equipment to
determine safety.
By combining all these testing fea-
MULTITRACK CONSOLE
The new Series 70 is a 28- input, 16track routing and 24- monitor recording
board with more than enough flexibility
to be used as a PA console, Trident says.
The input section is based on the successful Trimix Series, and features
include four echo returns; full VU or
PPM metering; 16 output group faders
with 24 -track monitoring capability;
and a 306-point patchfield integrated in
the frame.
Typical price for a 24- into -16 Series 70
is $19,500 list.
TRIDENT (USA), INC.
Quality slitting assures consistent
edge tracks. even transport across the
head, and accurate phase relationship
from edge to edge. Batch number and
webb position on the back coating
assure permanent tape -type identification.
AGFA -GEVAERT
652 GLENBROOK ROAD
STAMFORD, CT 06906
(203) 357 -8337
For additional information circle *167
TAPE DIVISION
275 NORTH STREET
TETERBORO, NJ 07608
(201) 288 -4100
DLS -1 ULTRA -MINIATURE
MONITOR FROM DL SYSTEMS
The new loudspeaker system's small
size, coupled with true high -fidelty performance, is said to make the DLS -1
For additional information circle *165
UNCOMPROMISING
WIRELESS
MICROPHONES
Finally, you can choose a wireless mic to fit the application. The Telex WHM -300, the electret wireless
transmitter mic for uncompromising speech
clarity. Or a Telex WHM -400 dynamic wireless transmitting mic for vocal entertainment with rich, full bodied audio quality
Both elegantly tapered and without
trailing antenna wires. Or select
the miniature electret WLM -100
lavalier mic (or any standard
dynamic mic) with our belt4?
pack transmitter.
`
4
*
Combined with the superb
Telex dual diversity* FM
receiver, you'll have a
wireless system that is
as good as any hard
wired mic, and at a
reasonable price.
Write us today for
full details.
Quality products for the Audio Professional
.Att
TELEX
TELEX COMMUNICATIONS, INC.
'U S Patent No 4293955 Other patents applied for
R -e /p 120 D
June
1983
urnpe
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Bonaparte
For additional information circle #82
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('cnrre Affarres
USA
153 (e Blanr Mesnol France
ideal for use as a monitor in the studio,
on remotes in vans, as portable monitors, and other professional applications.
The system can deliver 100 dB SPL at
one meter with peaks in excess of 113
dB. To achieve this dynamic range, DL
Systems employ Transform Matched
component speakers and Compression
Compensated crossovers.
for a stand -alone unit, or around $1,000
as a plug -in accessory for MTR- Series
tinct waveforms, or chorusing effect. A
Chorus Mode automatically varies the
phase relationships of left and right
outputs for stereo applications, and is
switchable to mono for single- channel
transports.
OTARI CORPORATION
2 DAVIS DRIVE
BELMONT, CA 94002
(415) 592 -8311
use.
An LEO Mode offers two modes of
operation: a Preset configuration of Tri
Chorus; and/or the Manual controls of
Rate, Intensities I, II, and Ill. This latter feature is said to allow up to six
waveforms and two speeds of chorusing
to occur simultaneously.
For additional information circle #169
STEREO CHORUS UNIT
FROM DYNO MY PIANO
The new Tri Stereo Chorus 618 ( monoin/ stereo-out) incorporates three dis-
PULSAR LABS
Consisting of a pair of two -way desktop speakers and one subwoofer containing two low- frequency drivers, the
entire three -way stereo system displaces
only 0.54 cubic feet, and weighs 271/2
pounds.
Prices range from $525 for ash and
oak, to $1,600 for the complete system in
solid rosewood enclosure.
DL SYSTEMS
P.O. BOX 398
SIMI VALLEY, CA 93062
(805) 526 -2230
For additional information circle #168
OTARI UNIVERSAL RESOLVER
FOR AUDIO /VIDEO ANI)
FILM INTERFACE
The new Universal Resolver was
designed as a multi -purpose speed controller for all audio tape machines in
film and video interface applications,
and also will be made available as a
plug -in accessory for Otani MTR -Series
machines.
The UR will lock an audio transport's
speed control track over a ±30% speed
range to an external or internal crystal
reference source, for quoted playback
speed accuracy of better than 0.001 %.
Internal crystal-controlled references
are provided, or the unit may be referenced to the AC line, composite video,
SMPTE /EBU timecode, or an external
source.
The tape track may be either Mono
pilot (mono audio with a superimposed
bi -phase pilot tone, and compatible with
Neo Pilot) or FM pilot (stereo audio with
an FM modulated pilot tone in the center guard band of the NAB stereo format, and compatible with Nagra Sync).
Additionally, the UR can record the
Mono or FM pilot tones for field compatible playback. The selected
timebase frequency also is available as
a sine wave for recording as a pilot
track.
Delivery of the new Universal
Resolver is slated for late 1983 in the US.
Prices will range from less than $2,500
Matrix Mixing Consoles
COMPARE
PRICES
SEE US AT NAMM
BOOTH #932
COMPARE
SPECIFICATIONS
PULSAR
SOUNDLABS
CRAFT
80 SERIES
800 B
I
MODELS AND
FEATURES
Retail cost 32
x
8
console'
AUDIO ARTS YAMAHA
8000
PM -2000
$10,700
$22,500
$18,587
yes
no
no
no
20, 28, 32
16, 24, 32
16, 24, 32
24, 32
no
Totally modular
(no point -to -point wiring)
Mainframe sizes
COMPARE
FEATURES
I
533,000
Active balanced mic input
yes
yes
no
Active gain stages for
low noise & extended
dynamic range
yes
no
no
no
Balanced line input
yes
no
yes
yes
Line /mic switch
yes
yes
yes
yes
Phase reverse switch
yes
yes
no
yes
48v phantom power
yes
yes
no
yes
Hi -pass filter
yes
yes
no
yes
yes
yes
no
yes
EC)
in /out switch
Choice of
input EO
3 level, 3 LED
Mute (on/off switch)
yes
Sends (Main)
Balanced outputs
EIN (150 ohms, unweighted,
band limited 20 -20K)
LED
yes
no
1
LED
no
1
yes
LED
yes
8
8
8
8 into 2
10 x 8
optional
no
14 x 8
28
18
10
22
- 128 dBv
not
published
75 dB
94 dB
10
Matrix mix
1
8 into 2
8
Submixes
Max. mic gain
no
yes
Input metering
into 8
- 129 dBv
101
dB
14
into 8
- 128
dBv
94 dB
Output metering
LED
VU
VU
VU
Talkback
yes
yes
yes
yes
Oscillator
yes
yes
yes
yes
Made in USA
yes
no
yes
no
Prices effective as
of January 1, 1983
DEALER INQUIRIES INVITED
likAR
PULSAR LABORATORIES, INC.
3200 GILCHRIST RD.
MOGADORE, OHIO
(216) 784.8022
1
NOISE GATE GT -4
The remarkable low cost noise gale that is
so simple and economical to use
that people are finding new
applications for them every day.
Us. one
channe for each
mice in your P.A.
System and drastically increase loudness without
feedback. Gate your echo returns to adjust
de:ay lime without running to the chamber.
Gete your cue feeds and rid the headphones of distracting hum and noise. Gate each
mice on the drum kit, the sound is spectacular!
For the full story and a list of dealers call or write
Ornni Craft Inc. Rt. 4 Box 40, Lockport, Illinois 60441
The Rate control's delayed response
allows a gradual increase or decrease of
chorus speed after an engineer's fingers
leave the dial, and also is controllable
with a footswitch. The output level indicator LED bar graphs are in three colors
for improved monitoring.
Recommended retail price is $1,195.
DYNO MY PIANO
P.O. BOX 1007
BURBANK, CA 91507
(213) 845 -7864
For additional information circle #170
(815) 338 -1285
°LL05
OMNI CRAFT INC.
RT. 4 BOX 40
LOCKPORT, IL. 60441
ew products
815- 838 -1285
AUDIO + DESIGN
D60 STEREO DELAY OPTION
FOR F601 LIMITER
Intended for use with the recently
introduced F601 Super-Dynamic Limiter, the D60 Dual Mono /Stereo Feed
Forward Limiter Delay Line option consists of the delay path, and a master
control VCA providing control voltage
for the limiter.
The F601 with its greater than 100 dB
dynamic range has been designed to
meet the challenge of the digital era. 16bit PCM systems can provide a dynamic
range in excess of90 dB, but when headroom and what some call "low -level
granular distortion" are considered,
this 90 dB Range can shrink to that of
better analog systems, ADR says.
For better sound,
try this on your
PZM:
The 1)60 F601 Superdynamic feed
forward delay line limiter package
obviates the need for a clipper, and eliminates all problems associated with
clipping, it is claimed.
Prices of each unit are: F601 -R mono
$990; F601 -RS dual-mono/stereo $1,490;
and D60 Delay -Line Option $560.
AUDIO + DESIGN RECORDING
P.O. BOX 786
BREMERTON, WA 98310
(206) 275 -5009
For additional information circle p171
,
ue:linurd from page
12
-
SOUNDCRAFT STEALS
LOPEZ FROM R -E/P
In a surprise tactical move, Sound craft Electronics stole Erika Lopez from
the staff of R -e/p. Since no ransom has
been asked, it is widely believed that
they intend to keep her in their
advertising department in Santa
Monica.
Brave R -e p publisher, Martin
(:allay, was heard to mutter, "Our loss
is Soundcraft's gain."
R-e/p 122 0 June 1983
-
-
News Notes
Simon Systems has changed its
address to 14201 Foothill Boulevard,
Suite #29, Sylmar, CA 91342. Telephone:
(213) 362 -4000...
Fairlight Instru-
ments, USA, has opened a New York
office at 575 Madison Avenue, New
York, NY 10022
telephone (212) 6050296
to be headed up by Jim Roberts
Jr
and Clive
-
Smith
DeltaLab
Research, Inc. has relocated to a
.
.
.
larger facility, whose new address is: 19
Alpha Road, Chelmsford, MA 10824.
The company's telephone number
remains unchanged: (617) 256 -9034.
JBL TO MARKET UREI
PRODUCTS IN U.S.
Ron Means, VP of marketing and
sales for JBL's Professional Products
Division, has announced that the company will begin marketing UREI brand
name products in the United States,
effective July 1. The URC Corporation,
of which UREI is a division, recently
was acquired by JBL parent, Harman
International.
According to Means, JBL and UREI
will share a combined sales organization, including common representatives, regional managers and national
sales manager. No major changes are
anticipated in the UREI dealer distri-
ville, TN; Pro Audio Systems, Seattle,
WA; Southwest Pro Audio, Austin, TX;
and Studioworks, Charlotte, NC.
BARRY ROCHE APPOINTED
PRESIDENT OF NEVE
On the occasion of his recent
appointment, Neve president Barry
Roche had some interesting words to
say about the state of the audio industry: "While some companies may look
like they're moving ahead by adding
lots of `bells and whistles' to their latest
consoles, they're probably moving away
from the real -world human requirements. For example, our newest analog
console, the 8128 Series, certainly has
lots of features, hut first and foremost it
sounds good. I feel that nothing sounds
as good as a Neve, yet at the same time
is so easy to use.
"In the 8128 we combined ergonomics
with the famous Neve sound. We simplified track assignment chores by literally eliminating over 1,500 separate
buttons! Now instead of track assignments being a cumbersome chore, and
sometimes a trap for the unwary engineer, they are easy and fast. You can
even store your favorite assignments
into memory, so that typical resetting
chores for the next day are greatly
reduced.
"The audio console of the future will
have fewer buttons," Roche concluded
"yet be even more versatile and easier to
use than its predecessors."
It would cost you more to
..
.
STEAL
WI
AKAI's sensational GX -747
quarter track recorder /reproducer
bution.
SOUND WORKSHOP APPOINTS
EVERYTHING AUDIO AS
SO CALIFORNIA DEALER
Everything Audio will act as exclusive Southern California dealer for
Sound Workshop Series 20, 30, and 40
mixing consoles, ARMS Automation,
and the DISKMIX Automation Storage /Editing System.
According to Emil Handke, Sound
Workshop's sales manager, "This new
agreement was a natural because of
Everything Audio's broad market base,
and their thorough knowledge of mixing consoles and console automation
[for] recording studios and video post production facilities. We look forward to
Everything Audio becoming deeply
involved with retro- fitting existing consoles [of all manufacturers] with both
ARMS Automation and DISKMIX
Automation Storage."
MCI /SONY APPOINTS THREE
NEW PRO -AUDIO DEALERS
The three recently appointed MCI,
Sony Professional Audio dealers are:
Recording Studio Equipment, North
Miami Beach, Florida, Leo's Profes-
sional Audio, Oakland, California,
and Westlake Audio, Los Angeles,
California. Sales, demonstrations, and
service for all MCI consoles, tape
machines, and accessories, and Sony
Professional Audio products, will be
available at all three locations.
Existing MCI /Sony dealers are:
Audio Industries, Hollywood, CA;
Audiotechniques, Stamford, CT; Milam
Audio, Pekin, IL; Studio Supply, Nash-
Position for 10' Reel Capacity
Multifunction Counter
6 -Head System Including 4 GX Heads
Symmetrical 3 -Motor Direct Drive
Motorized Tension Arms
EE
$699.00
Suggested Retail
Cue and Review Switch
Pitch Control *Large 2 -Color 16- Segment LED Bar Meter
-
$1,250
Reverse Selector
At either location, or send check or money order for freight collect delivery.
5575 WILSHIRE BOULEVARD
LOS ANGELES, CA 90036
(213) 936-5118
6609 VAN NUYS BOULEVARD
VAN NUYS, CA 91405
(213) 908-1500
DIGITAL ENTER'T'AINMENT
CORPORATION FORMED
BY TORE NORDAHL
The new company was set up by Nor dahl to develop, assemble, and market
interactive digital audio storage and
processing systems for professional
applications within recording and
broadcast.
In making the announcement, Nor dahl also stated: "Currently available
digital audio and computer technologies
make it possible to drasticálly reduce
the cost of a complete digital audio studio facility, compared with the total cost
of purchasing separate storage and processing systems from different manufacturers in today's market. Digital
Entertainment Corporation's purpose is
to bring the various technologies
together in a comprehensive system at
half of today's price. I believe we can
accomplish this by mid -1984. To that
end, we are presently discussing joint
venture opportunities with several
tie
genera spring reveres on
e
best reputation In the world. Their bassy
twang' is only a rough approximation of
natural room acoustics. That's a pity because
it means that many people will dismiss this
exceptional product as just another spring
reverb
And its not In this extraordinary
design Craig Anderton uses double springs,
but much more importantly 'hot rods the
transducers so that the muddy sound typical
of most springs is replaced with the bright
clarity associated with expensive studio
plate systems.
Kit consists of circuit board. instructions
all electronic parts and two reverb spring
units User must provide power I ±9 to 15 v)
and mounting
reverb units are typically
mounted away from the console)
In
.
(
CHARGE TO VISA OR MC TOLL- FREE
-800-654 -8657 9AM 10 5PM CST MON -FRI
1
DIRECT INQUIRIES TO
BMA Electronics, Inc.
Deal LIE 1020
FL]
W
Wilshire Br Oklahoma City
Ok 13116
Send the 6740 REVERB KIT
shipping
enclosed or charged
S:i
Send Free Catalog
name
I
1
-
_
Iaddress
Lay
state
l
405 843 -9626
55995 plus
zip
-
prominent companies."
Nordahl recently resigned as president and deputy chairman of Neve, a
company with heavy involvement in
digital audio processing areas. He has
more than 17 years of experience from
the entertainment industries, primarily
professional audio, broadcasting and
I
J
Call
,/
cable television.
The new address for DEC, of which
Nordahl serves as chairman and president, is P.O. Box 95, U.S. Route 7, Brookfield, CT 06804. Telephone (203)
775 -4465.
HARRISON SM -5
MONITOR CONSOLES FOR
SHOWCO AND CLAIR BROS.
In late April, the company delivered
the first of its new SM -5 stage monitor
mixing consoles to Showco, for use on
an upcoming summer tour with David
Bowie. Showco has ordered 10 boards,
and Clair Brothers six.
The SM -5 console, which is the result
of a joint design effort between Harrison, Showco, and Clair Brothers, is capable of generating 32 separate mixes. Of
particular significance is the fact that
two of the world's largest sound reinforcement companies, despite being
competitors, pooled their experience
and design expertise with a major
equipment manufacturer.
Other features of the new SM -5
include 16 main mixing busses, 16 group
re- assign busses, four -band fully parametric EQ, a group muting matrix, and
VCA grouping. The main frame is fabricated from welded box steel, and can
hold up to 32 inputs.
Clair Brothers will take delivery of its
first SM -5 for use on an upcoming tour
continued on page 130..
-
Call
PLANNER'S
Toll Free
800 - 558 -0880
.
Toll Free
800 - 558 -0880
PROAUDIO,INC.
Serving The Recording & Broadcast Industries
Now
Offers You
The Best of Both
Worlds
AUDIO
2323C Bluemound Road
Waukesha, Wisconsin 53186
IDEO
NEC
OTARI
NEOTEK
JVC
TASCAM
AMPEX
PROTONE
DBX
AND OTHER
VIDEO PRODUCTS
FUJI
AND OVER 100 OTHER
MANUFACTURERS
For all of your
audio /video needs
we stock the most sought after
products at nationally competitive prices
Sales
R -e /p 126
June 1983
Service
Design
For additional information circle 487
Consultation
THE PLATINUM RAINBOW"
CC
ass
hng Your Soul) by Grammy Award winning record producer Bob Monaco and
syndicated music columnist James
Riordan. Complete sections on producing and engineering including the practical aspects of pursuing e career. Also
contains a complete DIRECTORY of the
music business including studios and
engineering schools.
$11.00 Postpaid
R -e /p Books
P.O. B3x 2449 Hollywood, CA 90028
RATES
Column Inch
(2'. x
One -inch minimum payable in advance Fourinchesmaximurn Space
over lour inches will be charged for
at regular display advertising rates
-
-
S65 00 Per
1
)
BOOKS
Pages: N uin en iL)s Tables and
.
Illustrations. l'rov:des a fasc,nating
glimpse at the way engineers pert give
sounds. This book deals with a wide
range of psycho- acoustic effects. and
their importance to the psychology of
music.
-
24
Call us First for
estimates and bids
tables, curves, schematic diagrams, photographs, and cutaway v ews of equipment.
$21.95 each, Hardbound
R -e /p Books
P.O. Box 2449
Hollywood, CA 90028
.
_
hour delivery for most
JBL, UREI, ORBAN,
AMPEX. DORROUGH. ETC.
.
please mention that you saw it in Recording Engineer/Producer
People
Excellent selection of
professional equipment for the
recording & broadcast industries including:
- Studio Sound
9(H)2H
PAX
Ampex parts
355 Pages, Illustrated with 232
-
silili.me-
AM
thoroughly recommended."
$50.59
Hardback
Including Postage
R -E /P BOOKS
P.O. BOX 2449 Hollywood
California
The
SOUND RECORDING
by John Eargle
JME Associates
"The best book on the technical side of recording
THE PSYCHOLOGY OF MUSIC
Edited by Diane Deutsch
ia)
Research
Associates
The Platinum Rainbow (How To Succeed rn The Music Business Without Sel-
prices,
In Los Angeles Call 463 -9655
In Denver Call 694 -9390
All Other Areas Call
(303) 594 -9464
RESEARCH ASSOCIATES. lac.
Suite 209
Colorado Springs. CO 80907
-
4445 Northpark Drive
-
..
GREAT RECORDINGS START HERE
Your console is the heart of your studio. When it comes to producing a great recording,
your choice of equipment makes all the difference. APSI makes that choice easy with
the Model 3000 Multitrack Recording Console. The Model 3000 will help you maintain
control of your signals and voices - control that is critical to good recording.
The Model 3000 provides a powerful and comprehensive operating system with mixing
flexibility and features never before available. It is modular and adapts le to an extraofdinary degree, and the quality and versatility have been proven over y rs of use. When
every signal counts, can you afford to settle for less
Make the Model 3000 your choice. Call us and let's discuss your. requirements we'll build a Model 3000 especially for you.
1
Photo. Sound Design Recording Studios
Burlington, MA
AUDIO PROCESSING SYSTEMS, INC.
Innovation and Excellence in Sound, 90 Oak St., 4th Floor, PO Box
8,
Newton Upper Falls, MA 02164
R -e /p 127
June 1983
HANDBOOK OF
MULTICHANNEL RECORDING
by F. Alton Everest
201 illustrations
320 pages
The book that covers it ail ..
a comprehensive guide to all
facets of multitrack recording...
acoustics ... construction .. .
equipment ..
studio design
techniques ... and much,
much morel
Paperback: $9.95
R-e/p Books
P.O. Box 2449
Hollywood, CA 90028
F..,1.4
_\
-
N
.
SERIES 200
.
-
.
-
-
SERIES 400B
SERIES 800B
SERIES 2400
EMPLOYMENT
VIDEO /AUDIO
TECHNICAL /ENGINEER
N.J.-based major Japanese manufacturer of magnetic tape looking to
establish technical support staff.
Thorough knowledge of video and
audio essential, and experience in
magnetic media and or video camera
electronics preferred. Also desire good
communication skills. Send resume
and salary history to:
Department K
P.O. Box 2449
Hollywood, CA 90078
SLM RECORDERS
If it's Soundcraft, we've got it.
And we can design the
best system to fit your budget.
Just give us a call.
THE MASTER HANDBOOK
OF ACOUSTICS
by F. Alton Everest
Numerous Illustrations
353 Pages
A thorough guide to all aspects of
-
acoustic design for recording studios...
sound propagation ... air conditioning
provides the
design examples
essentials to understanding how rooms
affect the sound we hear.
...
...
-- Paperback:
$15.00 Hardback: $21.00 Including Postage
ABAOON SU
INC.
IN SAN ANTONIO CALL 512 -824 -8781
IN DALLAS CALL 214 -327 -1014
Sound advice for
a
sound investment.
R -e/ p Books
Hollywood, CA
P.O. Box 2449
90028
please mention ..
.
YOU SAW IT IN R -E /P
ELECTRONICS TECHNICIAN
Opening at large sound reinforce-
ment company. Responsibilities
include repair and maintenance, as
well as routine testing of analog and
digital audio signal processing
equipment. Minimum requirements
include 2 -year Associate degree in
electronics and one year repair experience in audio circuitry, or equivalent, and the ability to use test equipment. Must be willing to relocate.
Send resume in confidence to: Box
ABC, Recording Engineer Producer,
P.O. Box 2-1.19. Hollywood. ('A 4002H.
EQUIPMENT for SALE
FREE
tRadio T
[The Affordable
Digital Real Time
Third- Octave
Spectrum Analyzer
for professionals
Full 30 Bands
Six Memories
w.
,T
..
.
mn
1033
N
su
r,
ro
c.
ur
r
into.
nsc
¡pÑO."
mo.
®OPAMP LABS INC
TV
Audio
A
Reca Prod Consoles
(213) 934 -3566
Sycamore Au LOS ANGELES CA, 90038
For additional information circle #106
Quartz
Controlled "Switched Capacitive Filtering"
to eliminate drift Ruggedized for Road
Microprocessor Controlled Built -in
Use
Pink Noise Source "Flat;'"A;' or "User Defined" Weighted Curves may be employed
ROM User Curves Available.
32pg Catalog d 50 Audio Video Applic.
p
dbx 160 Owners!
Improve the sound & performance of
your dbx 161) limiter. Our V('A retrofit
card uses the Allison Valley People
KG(' 202. (' omplete instructions and
parts kit included. Retrofit card only:
$25.01). Retrofit card with V('A:
$60.011. Send ('ash or M.O. only to:
REEL TO REEL TAPE
Ampex, 3M. All grades.
On reels or hubs.
CASSETTES, C- 10 -C -90
With Agfa, TDK tape.
LEADER & SPLICING TAPE
EMPTY REELS & BOXES
All widths, sizes.
Competitive!
Shipped from Stock!
Ask for our recording supplies catalog
Poly
Rand Rd.
MODEL 30
Affordable at just
$1895.00
GOLD LINE
P.O. Box 115
Des Plaines. IL 60016
15
SEND FOR COMPLETE LITERATURE:
NAME
June
1983
For additional information circle #107
# FOR SALE #
complete Mobile Recording Studio
in a customized 18' truck. A 16/8/2
Harrison mixing console, Ampex
recorders, dbx compressor limiters,
Urban reverb. For more info call:
(804)973 -6347
A
#
FOR SALE #
APSI 2000 24.4x4 °2 Console with
Roadcase
$10,000.
JBL 4333A Monitors
$1,600.
Call Mat at:
(703) 573-5764
- -
STREET
CITY
STATE_
R -e/p 128
West Redding, CT 06896
(203) 938 -2588
COMPANY
312/298 -5300
Corp.
TB Technical Services
P.O. Box 40512
Nashville, TN 37204
ZIP
For additional information circle #93
-
FOR SALE
-
FOR SALE '
Blank Audio and Video Cassettes:
Direct from manufacturer: Below
Wholesale! Any length cassettes.
Four different qualities to chose
from. Ampex & Agfa Mastertape:
from 1i4 -inch to 2 -inch. Cassette
Duplication also available.
Brochure.
ANDOL AUDIO PRODUCTS. INC.
Dept. REP
4212 14th AVENUE
BROOKLYN, NY 11219
TOLL FREE: 1- 800 -221 -6578
N.Y. Res: (212) 435- 7322/Ext. 5
Soundcraft 1624 Console, Fully
Loaded, Immac., $25,900. OBO
(805) 482-7495
P.O. Box 651, Camarillo, CA 93010
BTX SYNCHRONIZER
New 4500 Never Used. Still in box
with cables. Manual. $2,100.00
(615) 356 -0372
FOR SALE *
116 MCI Auto -locator III ... $1 7,5(íO.
*
.1
1
..
El -Tech 16x16 -25 Rec. Console
.
$15,50(1
Scully 280 2 -trk. (sync.) ... $2,001).
AKG BX 10 Revert; ... $2,000.
Eventide I larmonizer 1191(1... $ .'250.
loll mint)
MISCELLANEOUS
I
TONI('A SOUND STUDIO
I)IO
'l'ONI('A, ILLINOIS 61370
(tí15) .112 -3415'2
FOR SALE
ADM, 24 -in /16 -out audio console, 8
years old, $85,000.00 new, sell for
S5,000.00. Contact Ray Klineman at:
(801) 378-4321
FOR SALE
NEUMANN VMS -7)) SAL SX -74
Technics SP -02 motor cutting system.
New condition, 5 yrs old. KAWA! 9'
concert grand. Ivory keys, 5 yrs old
PROFESSIONAL SOUND SYSTEMS
designed by the nation's leader with
offices in Hollywood, Las Vegas &
Atlantic City. The most complete
selection for rentals or sales.
A -1 AUDIO SYSTEMS
(213) 465 -1101
PROFESSIONAL SERVICES
System design, Installation, Maintenance. Studio, Film, Video Sweetening.
Custom work specialists.
45 RPM
To
Album Package
Records and Printed covers
Album Package includes full color
stock Jackets or custom
black and white jackets.
Package includes full processing
Re- orders available at reduced cost.
We make full 4 -color Custom Albums, tool
For full ordering specifications call
DICK McGREW at (214) 741 -2027
foot ribbon cable interface
remote box.
i
'l'he RS -1 Remote Control Strip,
which measures :r' by I i'I inches, has
an adhesive hacking for mounting on
any flat surface. such as a blank mixer
I
module.
Professional list price:
$49.95
Interfaces with TEA( 'l'ascam tape
recorders, and can be special ordered to
interface with Postez and Otani tape
machines.
A Suntronics Co.
11151 Pierce
Riverside, CA 92515
(714) 359-6058
record manufacturing corp.
l.`'4) fat 20:.
Teaaa
CA
91406
MUM
R -TEK,
Boulevard Dallas
new)
RENT
`:41` '
9C2 In0u51ria1
RESTORATION
you can now
connector allows record, play, fast
forward, rewind, stop, and pause
functions without the need fora bulky
12
12" 33 -1/3
Send for your FREE brochure.
Northeast U.S.
lathe 455X74 cutter
(FOB Dallas)
remue fus Special price, this ad must accompany orde
Restoration also offers a complete
line of refurbishment services, BASF
alignment tapes, replacement heads
tor studios, film and duplicators.
the fabulous
$399. $1372.
(
LIFE+ heads have been field tested and
proven to be far superior to
conventional heads currently available.
forTascam, Otani L Fostex Machines
2))
7
Record Package
another effort to "Lick the high cost
of tape heads" Restoration announces
the distribution of Minneapolis
Magnetics LIFE+ heads for the
Broadcast field.
In
in the
All metal parts and processing
VMS711
2
CONTROL STRIP
color printed labels
Mastering with Neumann
HIGH END
LIFE
Viii Nuys,
15904 Strathern St
Phone: 213 9946602
vinyl records in paper sleeves
One
3 TO 5
lefurf) repair
ACKAnix
1.000 pure
- SUPERIOR SOUND & BETTER
TIMES LONGER
- YEAR WARRANTY
- IN STOCK & AVAILABLE
Box 35053
Dallas, TX 75235
(214) 827 -3286
NEW RS -1 REMOTE
°°QUALITY` °
REDUCED BY 100%
with LIFE+TMI HEADS
TECHNICAL SERVICES CO.
Excellent condition, $I0,51(8) oho.
(213) 204 -2854
T'E
MAINTENANCE & NEW
HEAD PURCHASES
224X
at the
lowest daily rental
rates
Call...
PRS
(617) 254 -2110
Professional Recording & Sound
1616 Soldiers Field Road. Boston. MA 02135
/52r;
For
additioral information circle a95
R -e /p 129 O
June
1983
assistant, reporting to Jim Cassily,
ne
THIS ISSUE OF R -E /P IS
SPONSORED BY THE FOLLOWING
LIST OF ADVERTISERS
... continued Irote page
A & R Record Mfg. Co
Abadon/Sun Inc
Adray's
AKG Acoustics
Allen & Heath Brenell
Alpha Audio
Altec Lansing Intl
AMEK
Ampex Corporation
Analog Digital Assoc
Audioarts Engineering
Audio Engineering Assoc
Audio Processing Systems
Audio Technica US
Auditronics
AXE
BASF
Beyer Dynamic
Bruel & Kjaer
Brystonvermont
Carvin Manufacturing Co
Countryman Associates
Cramer
Crown International
dbx, Inc.
Deltal.ab Research
Digital Services
Eastern Acoustic Works
Ecos Electronics Corp
Electro- Voice, Inc
EXR Corporation
Fairlight Instruments. USA
Manner's Pro Audio
Full Compass Systems
Garfield Electronics
Goldline
Gotham Audio Corp
Hardy Co.
Harrison Systems
129
128
125
77
21
115
105
2
19,44
16
8
31
127
47
lll
119
101
20
39
116
67
57
71
36.122
69
3,52
33
117
46
23
59
65
73,126
61
91
128
96
12
17
JBI
Jensen Transformers
JRF Co
Lexicon. Inc
Magnetic Reference Labs
MCI /Sony
Meyer Sound Labs
MI('MIX Audio
Microphonics
85
93
119
28
106
l'3
97
113
49
93
Neutrik
7
Rupert Neve, Inc
4,5
New England Digital
122
Omnicraft
18
Orban Associates
25
Otani Corporation
126
PAIA Electronics
51
Peavey Electronics
128
Polyline Corp
22
Professional Audio Services
109
Pro Audio Systems
Professional Recording & Sound ....'24
129
PRS Rentals
121
Pulsar Labs, Inc
54,55
QSC Audio Products
94
Renkus Heinz
127
Research Associates
129
Restoration
129
R-TEK
49
Saki Magnetics
132
Shure Brothers
95
Simon Systems
99
Sony Pro Audio
27
Soundcraft
43
Sound Workshop
103
Stage Sound Inc
112
Standard Tape Labs
Studer Revox /America
75,131
87
Studiomaster /IMC
118
Studio Technologies
Summit Audio
38
Suntronics
81
TAD /Pioneer
60
Tascam Div. /TEAC Corp.
35,107
Telex Communications
41,120
Tentel
45
TOA Electronics
14,15
Turbosound, Inc
63
URSA MAJOR
11
Valley Audio
70
Valley People
79
Westlake Audio
83
White Instruments
108
Yamaha
89
R-e /p 130
June
EXR's chief executive officer.
Steve Williamson has been
5
126
-
with Rod Stewart. The remainder of the
orders were scheduled to be delivered by
the end of June; at that point Harrison
will begin offering the console to the rest
of the sound- reinforcement market.
After July, a limited number of SM -5s
will he offered on a short term rental
basis.
PEOPLE ON THE MOVE ...
Michael Bernard has been appointed
to the new position of manager, Special
Products Division at Otani. In a parallel
development, John Carey has been
promoted to the position of national
sales manager, from his former position
as MTR sales manager.
Larry Schara, formerly of AVC Systems in Chicago, has been appointed
field sales manager at Soundcraft Electronics USA. His responsibilities
include administrating Soundcraft's
national rep network and dealer sales
training. Also, Erika Lopez will handle all advertising and public relations
for the company, while Mary Gutierrez, will serve as sales administrator,
and Gary Lynn, formerly of Westlake
Audio, as service manager.
Rick Olsen, formerly of Ampex and
United Western Studios, has been
appointed chief of maintenance at Restoration, which now also is offering a
complete reconditioning and head
refurbishment service for Ampex Series
350, AG350, and AG440 tape machines.
Melanie Rogers has been appointed
to the position of president of EXR Corporation. Ms. Rogers was formerly gen-
eral manager and administrative
INDUSTRY INVENTIVENESS
h_'James Riordan
... continued from page 24
-
Since Lowe is active as a player, programmer, producer, and studio operator, conscientious scheduling is an
important part of his career. "I have
control over most of the work except
when a master session will suddenly
pop up so I try to keep things flexible
with the artists I'm producing demos
for. That war I can still do master sessions as a player or programmer. I usually work with one or two demo sessions
in the studio each week; I allow one day
a week for film work; a couple of days for
master sessions and other programming work. I also schedule in a little
office time to make it all flow smoothly."
Bruce Lowe sees a bright future for
synthesizer players and programmers:
'I think the public has become much
more acquainted with the synthesizer
sound. They can identify it, and accept
it much easier today than in the early
Seventies, when many people were saying all we did was duplicate other
-
-
1983
1
appointed to the position of northeast
regional sales manager for Nortronics,
responsible for coordinating the sales
efforts of seven of the company's representative organizations in that region.
John P. "Jack" Jenkins, general
manager of International Tapetronics
Corporation, Inc. (ITC), a subsidiary of
3M, has resigned that post to pursue
other personal interests. Jenkins, who
says that he is making the change
because the transition of ITC into the
3M organization had been completed
smoothly, was one of the founders of
ITC in 1969, and was its president when
3M purchased the company in late 1981.
Jack B. Hanks has been named his
replacement as general manager of the
3M subsidiary.
R. Dale Scott, formerly general sales
manager of HM Electronics, Inc., has
joined Bowen and Associates, a San
Diego-based advertising agency that
provides advertising and public relations services as well as sales and marketing support for several high technology electronics firms in the
Southern California market.
Philip J. DeSantis has been named
Lexicon's new director of marketing.
Prior to assuming his new position,
DeSantis was field sales manager for
Lexicon's broadcast product line. Also,
Virginia Casale has been named to
the newly created position of manager,
marketing services at Lexicon.
George F. Currie has been named
vice president and general manager for
Sony Professional Audio Products. Currie, who began his career with Sony
Corporation of America in 1973, most
recently was central regional zone
manager for the Communications ProImo
ducts Company.
instruments. Today the same people see
the viability of having so much capability within one instrument, plus the
exceptional originality it has to offer. I
believe that the analog, digital, and
computer synthesizers are the first of
the instruments of the future."
That belief not -withstanding, Lowe is
wise enough, and resourceful enough,
not to stake his entire future on the public's love of synthesized music. He has
specialized and diversified to ensure
that whatever future directions fo the
recording industry will take, he at least
will be a part of it.
"I think we are seeing today what it
really takes to succeed in the music business, and the industry is toning down
its overhead to keep a profit margin," he
concludes. "Today is a good time to reevaluate what you've been doing, and to
see how you can become more efficient.
It's a great time to look at the amount of
free time that you have, and see what
else you could be doing to produce
income."
In the next column, we'll look at the
"Careers of Tomorrow."
For roughly $10,300, you
can own the ult mete
analog mastering deck the Studer A8ORC half inch two -track recorder.
Beyond your budget?
Well, for about 1 5 the price
you can own a Revox PR99
compact professional
recorder. Its made by the
same compan,/, i- draws or
the same weal-h of
engineering expertise, aid it
reflects the same philoscphy
of design and :olstructi on -a
philosophy estab ished by Willi
Studer over three decades ago.
The PR99's bloodlines are
evident in every detail... n he
precision- mac-iired headblock, the
rugged die -ccst chassis the servo controlled capstan motor, and the Studer made heads. 'rcfessional design features
include a flat kaceplate for easy head
access; edit switch to defeat tape lifters and
fast wind latchng; tape dump button;
balanced XLR inauts and outputs switchable for
calibrated or uncalibra'ed mode; and two -way
self -sync with auto input switching. The PRA may
be ordered with 33/4 -71/2 or 7t/2 -15 ips tape speeds.
Van-speed, f1,11 remote control, and monitor panel
available as optons.
The PR90 n3w cones in console, rack mount
and transportation case versions. Check it out Call
or write today fo- the location of your nearest
dealer.
The PR99. From the world's most
respected name in recording.
REVOX
STUDER REVOX
AMERICA, INC.
1425 Elm Hill Pike Nashville, TN 37210
(615) 254 -5651
'tkonal information circle #100
R -e p I:;1
.June 1983
NO IN
Mill
1
MII
Y
1
ti'
MO
The world's least conservative profession
has maintained one rigid tradition.
The SM58.
the finish totally
In an industry that discards electronic products
like ice cream wrappers, the SM58 and its close
cousin, the SM57, have remained the overwhelming choice of rock, pop, R & B, gospel
and jazz vocalists for the last 16 years.
Why?
Simply because there is no sound quite like
the SM58 sound. Its punch in live vocal situations, coupled with a distinctive upper midrange presence peak and fixed low- frequency
rolloff, give it the trademark quality no other
manufacturer can imitate, although others have
tried.
And to protect that sonic perfection, the
SM58 is extraordinarily tough. Even six -foot
drops on hardwood floors won't faze it. Ask
any roadie who has used -and abused -one.
Performers the world over
favor the weight and balance of
the SM58, especially in hand-
is
held situations. Even
looks as
that
grey
-glare
non
-a
professional
great on stage as it does on camera.
The crispness of the closely related SM57
enhances musical instruments the way the
SM58 handles vocals. Beautifully.
Musicians are tough to please, but with
the world -standard SM58 and SM57, they'll
tell you, "when you've got a good thing
going, why give it up ?"
For more information on the
complete line of professional
performance microphones, call
or write Shure Brothers Inc.,
222 Hartrey Ave.,
Evanston, IL 60204,
(312) 866 -2553.
THE SOUND OF THE PROFESSIONALS '... WORL
For additional information
:DE
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