null  null
MAY, 1960
50¢
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to improve performance and
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Low noise, high performance, moderate costprovided by the new RCA-6EU7, a high-mu, ninepin miniature twin triode designed especially for
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Noise and hum are minimized by the use of double-
wound, helical heaters, and a new base layout which
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Low microphonism, high mechanical strength, and reliability are assured by a short, rugged cage which
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New base arrangement
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stereo channels.
to Ste reo
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to Ster eo
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r"o thin ~ods (A) c~mposed of a new platinum·cobalt alloy having ex·
tremely hIgh coerclvlty, acting as armatures and diametrically mal'
netlzed alon& their lengths are supported b, special butyl rubber
'liearlngs and placed between two mu·metal pole pieces (8). The
stylus (e) Is attached to a lever (D). Also attached to lever (D) are
. vlscolold dampinl blocks (E) which are encased In a small metal
clip that is Inserted into the housing of the cartridge. lever (II) Is
connected to the magnetic rods. by a W-sbaped couplinll body (F).
Each half of this coupling body can conduct stylus vibrations in one
on only. In essence, this divides the overall stylus movement
its . two component vectors which correspond to th.- left and
channel modulations, and transforms these component vlbraInto ~ rotary movement of the corresponding magnetiC rod.
rl0tatoons induce a varyinl flux In tfie mu metal pole pieces
h, n turn, induce signal voltages in the coil systems (G).
be specific advantages forthcoml~, from this s,stem Include'
emely high vertical compliance (more tban 3.5 x 111- 5 em/drne):
mely hllh output (mare than 30 my per channel at 10 cm/see)
emely bleh chaanel separation (more than 22 db at 1.000 ke CPS);
I.. dynamic mass (2 mil. law st,lus pressure (3-5 ,rams) and vir.
Iy no distortion. Frequen., respOll .. II flat trom 50 cps to ,. kc.
4
fore the 1000-cps tone was filtered _ (Perhaps I should state here that harmonics
are frequencies other than th e one f ed into
the amplifier. They are always multiples of
the original, 01' fundamental, frequency.
The first harmonic, 01' fundamental, is considered to be the frequency in which we
are interested-lOOO cps in this case. The
second harmonic is 2000 cps, the third harmonic is 3000 cps, and so on. In describing the test I could have said that all the
first harmonic content of the signal appearing at the output of the amplifier is
r emoved. All other ha rmonics are distortion
since the note f ed into the amplifier did
not contain harmonics or a t least we hope
that it didn't. In practice we can never get
a source of tone which is complete ly free
from harmonics, although oscillator distortions of less than 0.1 pel' cent are r eadily
obtainable. I do not wish to give the impression here that all harmonics a re bad
and unwanted. Musical instruments produce harmonics in addition to their fu ndamental tones to a greater or lesser degree,
and it is in part, at least, by harmoni c
content that we can distingnish one musical instrument from another.)
Probably the measurement about which
we have heard the most is that of fj' equency l'esponse determination. We f eed in
a series of tones, all of which are at the
same intensity. The output of the amplifier should reprodnce th ese with th e same
relative intensity if we are to say that the
frequency r esponse of the amplifier is perfectly flat. To determine if this is true we
connect our same old resistor to the amplifier; we also connect a good a..f. voltm etel'
whose characteristics are good to the lowest
and to the highest tones in which we ar e
interested. In other words, the meter itself
must have a good - frequency r esponse.
Meters for this purpose often carry a
decibel (db ) scale so that we can read the
response directly in terms of db without
having to convert voltage r atios into db.
If the output of the amplifier is truly a
r efl ection of the signal being f ed into the
input, the meter will not change reading
r egardless of the tone being fed in. In
other words, t he intensity of the tone can
vary and cause a change ill meter indication, but the frequency of the tone can
change over a very wide r ange and should
produce no great change in meter indication.
Another type of distortion measu I'ement
in which we are interested is the squa1'ewav e response of an amplifier. A square
wave, because of its shape, is rich in harmonics. If we fed a 1000-cps square wa.ve
into our amplifier, we could see many harmonics. This measurement consists in determining how many of the harmonics containe£l in the square wave the amplifier is
capable of reproducing. These are harmonics which are introduced into the inzmt
of the amplifier and are not produced by
the amplifier itself. Note this fact in order
to differentiate between this type of distortion and harmonic distortion. (Here
harmonics are intentionally introduced, and
we are concerned with the amplifier's ability to reproduce them in the same strength
as they are contained in the original
sqnare wave. The amount by which the amplifier does not r eproduce these square
waves ill a measure of this type of distor·
tion. No' standards have been set r egarding
transient performance of amplifiers and
other audio equipment) 10,000- and 20,000cps sqnare waves are commonly used. The
output of the amplifier is loaded with the
same resistor and with an oscilloscope. This
last instrument gives us a picture of the
waves which are being reproduced by the
• (Contin1ted on page 65)
AUDIO
•
MAY, 1960
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5
NOW YOUR BEST BUY IN
SPEAKER SYSTEMS IS ...
LETTERS
Loudspeaker Linearity
SIR:
I am indebted to Mr. Novak (LETTERS, March, 1960 ) for
pointing out an error of mathematical interpretation in my
article in the January issue. While this error, outside of itself,
in no way affects any of the article's conclusions, it should be
corrected.
The gas equation P=KjV'·1 shows a non-linear relationship
between air pressure and volume on two counts-the exponent
1.4, and the reciprocal relationship between pressure and volume. When the exponent becomes 1, as in the isothermal case,
non-linearity due to the first cause disappears, but that due to
the second remains.
til
My mathematical explanation, while correct as it applies to
adiabatic VS . isothermal changes, covered only the first of these
causes. On the other hand, the graphical explanation of the same
conclusion, which employed successive blow-ups of Beranek's
gra,ph of air non-linearity took both causes into consideration.
The statement· from my article quoted by Mr. Novak, that
with fiberglass "even the tiny amount of distortion associated
with air non-linearity is not present," should be corrected by
changing "is not present" to "is reduced." Perhaps it was the
lack of practical significance of the vestigial distortion (no discemible changes in performance result from it) that allowed
me to slip on this point.
In any case, in the matter of vestigial distortion due to the
air in an acoustic suspension system, I stand corrected. It has
no significance, but neither is it zero.
EDGAR VILLCHUR,
Acoustic Research, Inc.,
24 Thorndike St.,
Cambridge 41, Mass.
Vertical Bases available
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w~o prefer a softer, '!lore delicate quality in the highs ; a Jensen compressiondrover horn tweeter IS supplied in the HFS-4 for those who want more brilliance and greater projection in the highs _ (In all other respects the HFS-3
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HWO: 26,¥s" X 13 7/s" x 14 5A1" .
Smartly-styled matching bases optionally available for either vertical or horizontal positioning of the enclosure. HFS-3 (includes cone tweeter) in unfinished bir~h, $7~.~0; in walnut, mahogany or teak, $87.50. HFS-4 (includes horn
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Frequency response is essentially uniform (±5 db) from 52 to 14000 cps
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Mahogany or walnut
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Many-Small-Speaker 'System
SIR:
I read with interest the article, "Hi-Fi Performance from
Small Speakers" by Charles F. Mahler in the December issue,
particularly since it suggested to me a possible solution to my
problem of obtaining a speaker system of higher impedance
than is normally available. I am using an O.T.L. amplifier which
would seem to work better into an impedance of slightly more
than 16 ohms.
I question, however, the reasoning of the author in his statement:
"We know that a lot of air must be moved before we can hear
these desira.b le low frequencies. Even though each speaker in
itself is ~oving only a fraction of air mass, the total air mass
moved by all 32 six-inch speakers is quite impressive. A rough
idea of how much air we are moving might be obtained by calculating the piston surface of the whole moving system. . . . It
. would take five 15-in. speakers to equal the piston area of our
32 six-in. speakers."
I think this would indeed be a very "rough idea" of the performance of the "total air mass" since the calculation is based
on area alone. Air mass to me would seem to be a function of
volume. When the third dimension is added, the comparison
could be a very different one.
Mr. Mahler states that the cone excursions must be "well
within the linear portion of the magnetic gap or filL"':." If the
cone excursion of a single 15-in. speaker were five times that of
each of the 32 six-in. speakers (as it might easily be), then it
would result in about a tie as far as air volume or air mass is
concerned.
I merely bring up this point of mathematics. As with most
reports on speakers, the hearing of the system is tbe test that
is most positive. Mr. Mahler states that this system is a "remarkable performer." Perhaps it is indeed, but it doesn't seem sound
to compare it to five 15-in. speakers . .
PAUL
6
R. SCHMITZ,
240 Oaklawn Ave.,
Elmhurst, Ill.
Electronic Instrument Co., Inc • • 33·00 Northern B'oulevard • Long Island Cit, I, N. Y.
See EICO 's best buys in tuners and amplifiers on page 11
.
AUDIO
•
MAY, 1960
AUDIO
•
MAY, 1960
7
cover that you no longer remember what tbe
first one sounds like and you can start all
over again. In his most headlong passages at
the keyboard , Mr. Williams r emains noncommittal but the blend of piano and orchestra
is very easy to take. Recorded du ring more
than one session, the orchestra is led by a
succession of condu ctors-Hal Kanner and
lIiarty Gold. This may explain why the piano
is hjlard in the right channel during som e
selections, in the left during others.
Listening to Jane Morgan-but only when
you have fini shed soldering-you may note
that tape has a way of smoothing out her
vowel sounds in a manner that reminds one
of t he British songstress, Vera Lynn. These
predominantly Latin love songs are sung in
English and Span ish but the listener seldom
is able to forget that Miss Morgan remain~ ,
throughout the undertaking, an int~res tingly
~g HT---------
~ThNi~~
normal Anle l'ican girl.
CHESTER SANTO N'::
The symbol 0 indicates t he United
Stereo Tapes 4 -track 7 V2 ips tape
number. When Mr. Santo.n has listened to t he ta pe only, t he ta pe
nu mber is listed first. Ot he rwise, t he
corresponding ta pe number is furnished by United Stereo Tapes.
ONDON RECOR'! lS, reversing a l ong-stand-
L
ing position on the question of tape vs.
elisc, decided a few months ago to
make its top recol'dings available on 7.5
ips, four-track reels . News of London's
agreement with United Stereo Tapes repolished the morale of eve ryone interested
in the future of tape as a home medium.
A few days before tile word l'eached the
secondary circle of insiders, tape dealers
in New York City were alrea dy tallying
their future profits in Mantovani tapes .
The prospect of more symphonies, concertos, and operas by top artists coul d be
the shot in the arm that reel -to-reel has
n eeded in the classical market. Pop fans,
who have never been starved for stereo releases from the earliest days of two-track
tape, can now roam in greener pastures.
STEREOPHON Ie
Mantovani Film Encores, Vol. 1 and 2
LPK 70003; London 124 and 164
o
Originally promised for release in the early
weeks of 1960, the first London tapes arrived in time for review in this fssue. Several
questions occupied my mind when I unpacked
the first shipment. Would a four-track tape
recording by London make possible a closer
approximation in the home of the sound contained in their master tapes? The answers began to tumble forth after the first dozen revolutions of the reel. On a wide-range system,
the characteristic London sound is very much
in evidence. A moderately experienced listener
will probably be able to spot a London tape
blindfolded even when the artist Is not so
well Imown as this one. My first move in playback was a reduction of treble Similar to that
dictated by mouo Londou LP's of pre-RIAA
days. (But then, my new ultra-narrow gap
playback head still gleams with a gem-l ike
flame.) Definition of the u pper str ings is
slightly better than that found In the disc
version of t hese film hits. Particularly in highlevel passages, the eighteen violins used in a
typical Mantovani arrangement show less tendency to coalesce or "bleed" together on stereo
tape. With the banks of strings mostly in the
left channel, many listeners may obtain a
more pleasing balance through u se of dissimilar rolloff of treble in the two chann els. I
found that a smaller amount of treble rolloff
in the right channel acted somewhat in the
manner of a balance control. It helped to
* 12 FOTest Ave., Hastings on Hudson,
N . Y.
8
bring up the presence of the right channel to
that of the left. Adjustment of levels alone
does not restore complete balance in this case.
Later stereo recordings by London exhibit bett er channel balance. When relegated to usage
as background mUSiC, this reel's length should
prove qui t e welcome. One of the complain ts
against two-track stereo was the playing time.
Items short enough for the average budget
provided a rel atively'-bri ef period of u ninterrupted music. This reel holds the contents
of two discs, giving side one th e dura tion
of two sides of a record. The twent y-four
movie tunes offer fe,,,, surprises,. unless you're
one of the rare mortals still unfamiliar w ith
Mantovani's treatment of Three Coin s in th e
Fountain. The t a pe really spotlights the actual
plunl, of objects that could be COins as they
strike the water in three locations--dead center and th en at ea ch side of the s tereo area.
Stanley Black: Cash Box Instrum e ntal
0 LPM "'70 0 11 ; London 158
Hits
Ted Heath: Hits I Missed
LPM 70007; London 116
o
If the in it ial release is an example, it will
be some time before London artists of only
average popularity appear on theil' tapes.
~'hese best sellers are logical candidates to
lead the parade. In a ll probability, dis c sales
will continue to be an important factor in the
choice of material selected for release on tape.
Neither of these gentlemen (nor Edmundo Ros
who is a lso prominent in the first release) can
be classified as unknown, in the field of popular
music.
Close miking brings out blazing detail in
the Stanley Black orchestrations. Holiday 101"
St.·ings, Ap,-il in Po,-tugal, Blue 'Pango, and
other top bits sound fresh all over again. The
harp is more prominent in t he shimmering
arrangement of Ebb Tide. If you take the trouble to memorize the -topmost layer of sound
that issues from the Latin percussion section
in DeUcado, you 'll have a handy reference indicating that all is well in the response of a
stereo playbacl, bead. Other four-track tapes
may have the range- covered in this particular
selection but very few of them have the cleanliness of sound ,
Tape does little to enhance the appeal of
the Ted Heath album. The sound is no better
than average, A good l ikeness of tbe ranks
of a large dance band is preserved in the
stereo la yout but some of the arra ngements
are not up to par for the Heath folio. The
Twelfth St.·eet Rag, with its overtones of
Spike Jones, is still rather hard to believe.
Roger Willi-a ms: Songs of th e Fabulous
Century
0 KT 45006; Kapp 5005·S (2)
Jane Morgan: Jane in Spain
KT 41016; Kapp 3014
o
The next time you're looking for "music
to solder by," investigate this reel starring the
qUiet pianist, Roger Williams. This twinalbum is so bland in nature you can play it
all evening during t h e connections of the
trickiest circuits. By the t ime you've finished
the eight h undred tunes on the reel (six hundred is probably a more accurate count- they
just sound llke eight hundred) you may dis-
If you ' tOe will in g to
place glamour above a search for a uthenticity,
you'll like this engaging coll ection of songs ill
which the vocalist, fortunately, was not allowed to crowd the mike.
Ray Conn iff: Conce rt in Rhythm Vol. 2
Columbia CS 82 12
Fl exibility in a s ter eo preamp is not a luxury when dealing with s ome of Columbia's pop
releases. Engin eering in Ray Connifi"s best
selling stereo a lbum s-this is his eighth in
th e la st two years-appears to be veering to·
ward the low-price console market. This Concert in Rhythm was geared to the a ssumption that playback in the hom e was going to
be effective only to tbe viCinity of 10,000 cps.
I took sbelter in the NARTB position. Other
major labels, apparently -more optimistic about
current playback conditions, manage quite
n icely with a reasonably fiat curve tbroughou t a greater part of the hearing range. In
that way, tbey have little or no need for the
echo Columbia introduces here in order ·to obtain presence. The rhythm section takes on a
gbostly ring when tbe chorus and or chestra
have their quiet moments. If you've beard
Vol. 1 of this series, you're partially prepared
for the new and u rbane designs that Conniff
fashions with a wordless chorus as he raids
t he opera house and concert hall. Mixing
voices and instruments in th e writings of
Pucc ini, Coward, and Lehar, he has evolved
a homogenized sound that is unique in th~
industry.
.
How The West Was Won
RCA Victor LSO 6070
RCA has farmed out the western balf of
the country to an ou s ide producer-Project
Records, Inc. T his is a West Coas t outfit in
which Bing Crosby has been taking more tha n
a fatherly intel"est. A wedding of popu la r and
follr talent, this recording is tied in wi th the
series of articles on the Old West that appeared not too long ago in Dile magazine.
The plan of the prod ucer, Simon Rady, calls
for a collection of songs actually used by the
pioneers. This two-record album, in its nine
sections, covers the days of t he first explorers, the ranche L·s and Indian raiders, the Gold
Rush and the railroads in addition to the inevitable desperadoes and cowboys. The cast
bas quite a contingent of Hollywood folkBing Crosby, Rosemary Clooney, the John Halloran Singers and conductor Bob Thompson.
However, with the aid of Jimmy Driftwood
(can you t op that Ilame for a folk singer?)
and Sam Hinton, who - bring a more direct
a u thority to the old songs, mhl imum r equirements are met for home-spun atmosphere. P erhaps the most vaIn able contribution is the
scholarship of John and Alan Lomax who
adapted and edited many of the songs. A lavish booklet, in color, offers paintings of pioneer life. The producers deserve credit for the
measure of a uthenticity maintained in an Item
a imed at the widest audience.
Music From Million Dollar Movies
RCA Victor LSC 2380
If the last word exists in b ig-orchestra recordings of current movie music, this may
well be it. There are several impressive factors "going" for us In this Boston Pops release. T he newest of t hese is the one that will
(Continued on page 69)
AUDIO
•
MAY, 1960
Ie
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HE NEW FISHER 800 is twice as sensitive as any other stereo receiver in the world-and at least 500/0
more powerful! THE STEREO AMPLIFIER features the new, revolutionaryType-7591 power output tube,
producing 60 watts of Music Power totally devoid of audible hum, noise and distortion! THE FM TUNER
provides 1 microvolt sensitivity for 20 db of quieting, with the identical GOLDEN CASCODE front-end built
into the FISHER tuners used by broadcast stations! THE AM TUNER delivers a signal of FM calibre,
free of hiss and birdies. THE STEREO MASTER AUDIO CONTROL has 22 controls, including an
exclusive, front-panel Center Channel Volume Control! Before you buy any stereo receiver,. protect your
investment-remove the bottom cover from the 800 and any other stereo receiver_ Compare the immaculate
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50
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7
FISHER RADIO CORPORATION· 21.29 44TH DRIVE' L. I. CITY 1, N. Y • .. '
AUDIO
(
•
MAY, 1960
9
edward latnall.Canby
1. COMPATIBLE PRICING
I take a dim view of the new move towards It "compatible" .LP record, that will
play both stereo and mono, which is now
agitating the inner circles of the record
business.
It's not that I am skeptical of its suc·cess, purely technically_ I don't doubt that
with a very small compromise in stereo
effect a record can be cut that will play
on a mono machine with reasonable safety_
This is water under the bridge; it has been
done before_ But at a time when confusion
aRd misunderstanding of the value of
stereo itself are at a maximum, this new
injection of more potential confusion seems
to me unfortunate_ I also feel that it opens
the way for a host of marginal, irresponsible, semi-stereo records that will merely
add more doubts to those so dismally evident already. For stereo's own sake, I say
no_ .
There is a much more important alternative step that is by now almost screaming
for a trial. Compatible pricing_ That is,
equal pricing of stereo and mono records.
Get rid of the crippling stereo surcharge!
This is the big thing we need most, I
think. It should be put into effect even if
it means a modest rise ill the price of some
or all ·mono discs, to meet the stereo price
halfway_ Competition, fair, open and equal,
will event~ally take care of that rise if
sales justify it. But above all, and quickly,
let's put stereo recQrding into the "standard" category, take it out of that deadly
de luxe area, where it has no business at
this late date.
The .plain fact is that stereo was introduced deliberately to supercede mono, as
the 45 and LP were intended to supercede the 78. Compatibility, as always, is
basically a holding action, to help the transition in the initial stage. The transition
was never meant to go on indefinitelyor receive a belated shot in the arm, too
late. That's what a "compatible" record
will do now.
The continued stereo disc surcharge says
clearly just the opposite, and says it where
it hurts, in terms of cash. Stereo, says this
extra charge, is still a de luxe specialty,
an '~extra" (and for most people of unproved value). The mono disc is still clearly
"standard."
How can stereo ever replace mono as the
intended new standard, as long as this
artificial price barrier, this class distinction, continues to block the transition'
Compatible Playback
The plain fact is, emphatically, that
stereo compatibility stems not from the
record but from the pickup cartridge.
Virtually all new phonograph equipment, of all grades except the very bottom, is already fully compatible-both
stereo and mono records may be played
]0
interchangeably, via the stereo-type cartridge.
Virtually every phono cartridge line on
the market a few years ago has now been
redesigned for stereo playing. The entire
complex ficld of pickup manufacture has
"converted" to the new standard, and with
a technical success that would have seemed
beyond belief only two years ago. Model
for model, the ne~~ereo pickups equal or
exceed playback st'fiii'ifards of the late mono
period.
Virtually every existing older phonograph that is capable of playing an LP
record can be made compatThle via a replacement cartridge-and will probably be
improved in the process. You can have a
compatible cartridge for as little as a dollar or so, if you want a bargain. You may
not get super-sound, but you will get compatibility.
In effect, the phonograph cartridge, and
hence the phonograph. itself, in all its
forms hi and low, is now already compatible to all intents and purposes. Only the
sluggish confusion of stereo itself, the mess
occasioned by speaker compromises, ignorance, false and .f aulty exaggerations,
holds back this compatibility process from
completion-aided, of course, by the stereo
disc surcharge, a heavy drag.
The 78 Bow-Out
Let's look backward, for enlightenment,
at another recent major transition, that
from the 78 rpm "standard" disc to the
new microgroove speeds and groove. That
transition is now safely accomplished,
though the 78 is still with us. How was
the all-important "compatibility" managed
in that situation'
A compatible LP-78 record was obviously
out of the question. So compatibility was
achieved-as now-via playback equipment, not via the record itself. We had a
really terrible problem--·then, what· with
two quite different stylus points and three
different speeds. There was, even then, some
oversimplification (and resulting confussion)-the "all-groove" needle, for example. But fortunately, wiser procedures prevailed in the main; the equipment sold to
the public fitted the needs of the time,
however zany we .may have thought it at
first. Three-speed changers and turnover
pickups seemed grotesque, but they did
provide the vital playback compatibility
that made possible the steady and assured
retirement of the 78 as "standard." The
old record made a gracefully slow exit and
has been retiring ever since with admirable
decorum, though tQ this day it is still alive
in a modest way. We still, to this day, have
78-LP playback compatibility. To this
moment, most home machines provide for
78 playing, thrown in, so to speak, on the
house; Ilnd you can play 78's on any grade
of component hi 1i you may choose, if you
so desire.
.
But the 78 is no longer "standard." The
problem of compatibility is no longer a
problem. It was beautifully managed, considering the mess back in 1949 and 1950 I
Note the retirement steps that are similar to those involved in our new changeover, from mono to stereo:
(1). New equipment that would play
both 78 and microgroove records very
quickly became standard and ordinary, at
a minimum increase in cost (even though
prices of everything were going up)" Same
thing today with stereo equipment: it is
now generally available in all lines, top
to bottom. Even without actual dual
speaker outlets, the essential element of
compatibility, the stereo cartridge itself,
is already virtually standard from top to
near-bottom. Also stereo-designed motors,
arms, and the rest.
(2) When the LP and 45 arrived, new
recordings were issued in alternative releases, first in LP and 78, then later in
three forms-LP, 45 and 78. The availabilities varied according to need; as the
relationship of the 45 to the LP was clarified, classicals were mostly on 78 and LP,
pops 78 and 45. Speaking generally, the
same is true today in respect to mono and
stereo. The dual release is widely prevalent,
with emphasis on one or the other type according to the situation.
Note again that in both of these periods
of multiple-form release, compatibility has
been achieved basicaUy through the playback equipment, not through the records
themselves.
But now look at some striking differences.
(3) LP and 45 recordings ' were issued
from the beginning at prices equal to or
below that of the old 78, and this in spite
of a painfully high expense involved in the
dual and triple processing-three sets of
masters, three types of album and packaging. The assumption was, of course, that
this would not last long-and it didn't.
During the period of alternative releases,
however, public confidence in the new-type
discs grew steadily, in spite of violent LP45 competition. First, the machines were
compatible, would play anything. And,
second, the new records were favorably
priced. What else could you ask for'
- Wbereas the stereo disc from the very
beginning has been saddled with a grossly
unfavorable surcharge, publicly justifiable
only in the period of immediate innovation. Worse, where the LP and 45 had
immediate and dramatic advantages to
offer-remember the huge pile of 78 albums standing beside the tiny stack of
equivalent music on LP'-the stereo disc
looks just like the ordinary LP, comes in
the same package and, alas, too often
through bungling and misunderstanding,
sounds just like an ordinary record.
Do It Now
It seems to me only too evident, right
now, that the st?reo-mono price difference
should have dtSappeared after a few
month.~ at the most. Say, by early 1959.
Hindsight is better than no sight!
Then, with compatible playing equipment on sale everywhere, the new-type disc
would have had a solid basis for the pre('ious growth of public confidence. If the
two types cost the same-people should
have been saying, all this time-then why
not try stereo' Might just as well. And
this is just what people would have done,
in droves, I assure you.
Considering the surcharge on stereo
records and the public's extreme doubt as
to stereo's true value, I think it's amazing
AUDIO..
MAY, 1960
100W Stereo Power Amplifier HF89
70W Stereo Power Amplifier HF87
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of speake rs. Provide s 28W monophonically.
Ganged level controls, sepa rate bal ance control,
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HF85 Stereo Preamplifier: Complete master
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Distortion bord ers on unmeasurable. Level , bass,
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"Extreme flexibility ••• a bargain." - HI·FI
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New HF89 1000·Watt Stereo Power Amplifier:
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AUDIO
•
MAY, 1960
3·Way Speaker System HFS3
2·Way Bookshelf Speaker Systems
HFS5 and HFS1
Stereo Integrated Amplifier AF4tt
FM Tuner HFT90: Prewl red, prealigned, tempera·
ture·compensated "front end" is drift·free. Pre·
wired exclusive precisi on eye-tronic® travel ing
tunin g indi cato r. Se nsit ivity: 1.5 uv for 20 db
qu ietin g; 2.5 uv for 30 db qU ietin g, full limiting
from 25 uv. IF bandwidth 260 kc at 6 db points.
Both cathode follow er & FM· multiple x ste reo
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- AUDIOCRAFT . Kit $39 .95 *. Wired $65.95*.
Caver $3.95. 'Less cover, F.E.T. incl.
AM Tuner HFT94: Matches HFT 90. Selects "hi-fi"
wide (20-9000 cps @ -3 db) or weak-station
narrow (20·5000 cps @ - 3 db) bandpass. Tuned
·RF stage for high se lectivity & sensitivity. Pre·
ci sio n eye-tronic® tuning. "One of the best
available." -H I-FI SYSTEMS. Kit $39.95. Wired
$65.95. Incl. cover & F.E.T. New FM / AM Tuner H~T92 combines renowned
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New AF·4 Economy Stereo Integrated Amplifier
provides clean 4W per chann el or 8W total out·
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HF12 Mono Integrated Amplifier (not iIlus.): Com·
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Wired $57.95. Incl. cover.
New HFS3 3-Way Speaker System Semi-Kit complete with factory·bu ilt 3/4" veneered plywood (4
. sides) cabinet. Bellows·s uspen sion, full-inch excursion 12" woofe r (22 cps res .) 8" mid-range
speaker with high internal damping cone for
smooth response, 3'/2" cone tweete r. 21J4 cu. ft.
du cte d-port enclosure . System a of '/2 for
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32·14,000 cps clean , useful respo nse. 16 ohms
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New HFS5 2-Way Speaker System Semi-Kit com·
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a
HWD: 24", 12 lf2", 10'12". Unfini shed birch $47.50.
Walnut, mahogany or teak $59.50.
HFSI Bookshelf Speaker System complete with
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HFS2 Omni·Directional Speaker System (not iIlus.)
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tShown In optional Furniture Wood Cabinet
WE71 : Unfinished Birch, $9.95; Walnut or
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ttShown in optional Furniture Wood Cabinet
WE70: Unfinished Birch, $8.95; Walnut or
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A-5
I Show me how to SAVE 50% on easy·to·bulld
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I Name............................................... .. .........................
1 Address ......................................................................
I1 ________________________
City ................................Zone ........State................... .
_
Li sten to the ErCO Hour. WABC·FM, N. Y.• 95.5
MC, Mon. to Fri. 7 :15-8 P.M. , Sat. 11-12 P.M.
© 1960 by ErCO, 33·00 N. Blvd ., L.
I. C. I , N. Y.
11
~.
=
=
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=
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12
C)
n:s
that stereo discs have sold as well as they
have so far.
An immediate price· equalizing can still
pump life and enthusiasm into stereo, and
you may forget all about the "compatible"
record. As described in this column before
the stereo disc was even marketed, the free
price interchangeability between the two
types, given all·stereo pickups, would reno
der ~he whole question of compatibility
meanmgless.
Equalize the price of stereo and mono
records, and compatibility will come of its
own accord and in its own way. You may
~:lUild any degree of stereo difference·signal
mto your record that you may see fitfrom none at all to the ma.ximum-and the
product will sell legitimately at the one
standard price.
In the end, as suggested by me 'way
back, the mono·and·stereo dual release wm
simply fade away. Remember my mock·up
ad, suggesting how a record company might
introduce a great, new advance in record·
ing technique, Variable Stereo~ (See
AUDIO, October, 1958, p. 97).
Now I'll admit that I've simplified some
aspects of the situation, in favor of the
broad viewpoint. The conversion to stereo
did cost plenty and th at cost must be paid
off somehow. Reducing stereo prices isn't
as simple as lowering the price of, say, a
ball·point pen. That amazing innovation,
that sold for $13 or so at first, was inher·
ently inexpensive to produce and inherently
a mass seller; the price could come down
fast, and did. I don't mean to suggest that
re·pricing the stereo record is as easy as
rolling off a ball point pen.
Nevertheless, the time has come to forget the higher price and look to larger
horizons. How many ball point pens would
you sell now a t $13 apiece'
I would not dare guess whether the conversion to dual stereo-mono releasing has
been more costly than our earlier conversion to 78-45-LP simultaneous release. At
this point I can't see that it matters. If
something isn't done about the stereo record's present cost vs. the mono, the entire
investment will have gone down the drain.
For a while, the public can be expected to
understand and tolerate an extra surcharge
on a new and special product such as the
stereo disc. But not now, not after so long!
Everybody knows that now almost any
recording is "available in both stereo ancl
mono," everybody knows that both types
can be had at all sorts of devastating discounts, and that many a stereo demo special is sold, apparently with profit, at the
low, low prices printed right on the label.
We are all aware, especially, that the two
types are now part of one operation, one
continuing production overhead, and anybody with common sense realizes th at the
cost could just as well be split evenly as
not. Why not!
Maybe people don't think this consciously, but you can bet that it floats
around in their brains, ready to pop out
at any time with a great whoosh of approval, the very moment stereo discs are
priced with mono discs. That will do it!
So I suggest that right now is the crucial
time for something dramatic, a ma jor
breakthrough in simplifying the stereo picture-and the breakthrough is EQUAL
PRICING. It is not the "compatible record," which has been tried at least twice
before and is guarlMlteed to add confusion
to confusion, still further to undermine
confidence in stereo sound (by suggesting
even more devast atingly that there really
isn't any difference), and, in the end, open
legitimate stereo to every imaginable degree of modification, dishonest or no.
Is a "compatible" stereo-mono record a
source for potential confusion and for dishonesty, yet an all-over "V.ariable Stereo"
disc, as I've suggested for the future, quite
OK' Yes, for there is a vital difference.
The "compatible disc" as now understood
is a compromise, variably so, intended to
make stereo records playable via mono
pickups. That means a compromise in the
vertical response that is basically determined by the old-type pickup. It ties the
"compatible" record not only to an obsolete type of pickup, but also to a mechanical consideration that is entirely extramusical. At its very best, it is bound to be
a compromised record-though Columbia's
ASRA "compatible" record of 1958 was,
to my ears, virtually undetectibly compromised.
At worst, the compromise in favor of
the mono stylus can be seriously detrimental to the stereo effect. Still worse-the
"compromise" record may be virtually nonstereo. Who is to say where the dividing
line is' Who is to "police" the variably
compatible discs, to weed out the fakes
th at are 100 per cent "compatible"-i.e.,
with no stereo component at alII Never
forget that every mono record is a highly
"compatible" - disc. There- are very serious
dangers here that can't be put aside as long
as stereos and monos carry different prices.
When Columbia fir st put forward its
ASRA scheme, so quickly withdrawn when
opposition to it became excessive, I was
enthusiastic. I was convinced then, and remain convinced, that with real ingenuity,
and with high-minded responsibility, a compatible stereo disc is quite feasible in which
the vertical component is selectively reduced by enough to make the elisc playable
via most mono pickups, yet t he essential
stereo message is retained in full, or so
nearly so as to be undet ectibly reduced. I
felt that Columbia's skill in just that sort
of thing was a strong point in f avor of a
compromise of maximum usefulness- and I
came out in favor of it, at that stage.
But not now. When ASRA was demonstrated, there were no stereo records at all
on the market. There were very few stereo
pickups commercially available and, at that
point, the quality of their performance was
much in doubt. Suppose that your old mouo
records sounded worse via the new pickups
than via the old ~ Should you junk a perfectly good mono pickup and perhaps jeopardize the sound of a whole librar y of
standard LP's in order to be able to play
the handful of new stereo discs that would
be available in the then near - future~
That, at least, was the buyer's point of
view in the spring of 1958 and it wasu't
any laughing matter, either. A "compatible" stereo disc would at least have softened the more painful aspects of the early
stereo stage. Buy the new stereo discs as
they appeared, play them on your old pickup for safe and secure sound-though
mono. When and if the stereo pickup was
developed to a point of real quality, matching the then mono units, you co uld retire
your mono cartridge for good and play
everything via the new cartridge. An excellent idea- at the time.
But things are utterly different now. The
qu ality of the stereo pickup is entirely
secure, as compared to the mono. No excuse at all now for any sort of major compromise in the disc itself.
So, I say, the "compatible" stereo disc
would have been an excellent idea in 1958,
if everyone had gone into it from the beginning. This is exactly what would have
happened, indeed, except for two dismally
unfortunate circumstances.
Columbia plugged compatibility but RCA
(Contimted on page 42 )
AUDIO
•
MAY, 1960
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AUDIO
•
MAY, 1960
13
AUDI'O MAN NO.' 8
Beginning as a "ham" in 1918 and adding audio as a hobby in 1921,
Fred W. Scholl, Jr. oJ Lancaster, Ohio, may be one of the earliest on
record-but very little was "hi-fi" then.
ITH A "PLAYI;G ESK" that is actu·
ally a desk constr ucted for the pur·
pose and a built in loudspeaker and
TV set to a conveniently located door, Fred
W . Scholl, Jr. likes comfort and accessibil·
ity. Even the phono turntable is b uilt into a
Chinese cabinet alongside his favorite arm·
chair .
The playing desk- a common term in
England, but rarely encountel'ed in the
U.S. -resembles an office fixture, but it is
obvious that it was built for one specific
purpose. T he top accommodates two Mcln·
tosh preamps- CS and CSS- a Fisher 90-X
FM tuner and MPX·IO multiplex adapter,
a Hamma1'lund arp.:)..teur receiver, the reo
mote control for the Fleetwood T V set, and
a Concertone 1051·D tape recorder. For
phono he uses a Pickering Gyropoise 800
turntable with a Weathers- C·501 stel'eo
pickup on a Weathel's arm, and the louel·
speakers ar e both -Altec- an 604·C built
into t he door un der the T V set, and a
Montel'ey for the right channel. F or recording he uses Shure microphones.
Since Lancaster is some 30 miles f rom
Columbus and over a hundred from either
Cleveland or Cincinnati, ·with all three at
widely differing points of t he compass, Mr.
Scholl uses Yagi TV and FM ant ennas on
a rotator.- the cont rol is to be seen under
the lampshade. The high gain of the Yagi
gives him excellent F M signals.
I n the course of his normal life, Mr.
Scholl is called
by friends, neighbors
and relatives for advice and guidance with
their high fidelity problems, and he will·
ingly helps them in the select ion of com·
ponents for their own systems. H e estimates
that he has helped over a hundred t his way,
and he has been instr umental in the over·all
design and planning for some f orty ot hers.
A long·time AUDIO reader- he was a sub·
scriber to our predecessor Radio continu-
W
ACRO'S PREAMPLIFIER
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This famous 60 watt ba.sic amplifier has long
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on
ously since the early '30's- Mr. Scholl was
kind enough to say that AUDIO'S ar ticles
were contributory in widening his scope
and background in high fidelity matters,
and he is an avid reader of Edward Tatnall
Canby. He is mechanically adept at all of
the skills requir ed for following audio as 9.
hobby-cabinet work, wiring; trouble-shoot·
ing, ancl so on.
T here are many hobbyists througho ut the
country whose interests in music reproduc·
tion lead t hem into high fidelity for the
pleasure i t provides for the entire family,
and Fred's wife Jeanne and his 19-year·old
Bennett college st udent daughter Martha
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hobby fo r next year's group of Audiomen 1
ACRO'S STEREO 20·20 AMPLIFIER
A t wo channel stereo amplifier which provides
a full 18 watts in each channel , or a total of
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write lor
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to:
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'410 Sl-iurs Lane, Phila. 28, Pa., Dept. AUD.5
.. Aero " " ., .the first name in audio!
14
AUDIO
•
MAY, 1960
THE PEERLESS K·241·D (20·20 Plus)
INPUT TRANSFORMER
The K-241-D is a 20-20 Plus transformer of comparatively small
size iri relation to its performance characteristics. Its primary balance
places it in a class with repeating coils (See Chart C) . It is magneticall y
shielded to 90 db. The following charts show its superb performance.
They demonstrate the quality of P eerless which can help
solve your input t r ansformer pr oblems.
:~fl-j 11111111111
;;r-ft
..
i~
" .... I--
."
11111111111
"
5
6
7
8 9 1
10 0
..
10000
- - . , ; . - - - - TERMI N ATED
FREQUENCY IN CY CLES PER SECO ND
,,
\
I--
DIAGRAM A-Frequency Response K·241·D
Frequ ~r\'cy response curves for four oper·
ating conditions, divided into two parts.
The first shows response at maximum
rated power level with the transformer
terminated resistively and unterminated.
Th~ same conditions of operation are
shown in the second part except for the
- 60 dbm level which is representative
of microphone output. Extreme perlormance
stability is illustrated by these frequency reo
sponses taken at widely different power levels and
under two extremes of operations; that is, with open cir·
cuited secondary and with fully loaded secondary. Performances
between these extremes 'are within the illustrated limiting ,curves . . '
D IA GRAM 8- Harmonic Distortion K-241·D
Distortion characteristics are shown under
three conditions.
a. Input at + 8 dbm, secondary open circuited
a
b.
Input at + 8 dbm, secondary resistively
terminated
C. Input at a dbm, secondary resistively
terminated
d. Oscillator residual distortion
I~ , ,
.
".J. .. ~
d
"
5
6
7 8 9 1
FREQUENCY IN CYCLES PER SECONO
- - - - - - UNT ERMINAT ED
.l l l ll l l lllll~H
3
5 67891
4
o
5 67891
100
FREOUE NCV IN CYClES PE R SECOND
D I A G RA M C - longitudinal Current Cancelling Characteristics of
the K·241·D
The attenuation of longitudinal currents, measured on the 600
ohm input connection is shown in db below the relative steadystate transmission level.
Frequency response is guaranteed on all 20·20 plus transformers
Descriptive Data
··Max. ' Impedance, Ohms Primary DC Mil
level
Primary Secondary
Max.
Unbal.
Dimensions, Inches
Height , Depth
Width
Weight
Lbs.
Net
Price
+ 8
500·280·
a
23/4
llh
2
f
$30.00
Frequency response, ± 1 db : 10·25,000 cps.
Primary balanced to attenuate longitudinal
dbm
125-31 70,000'"
currents in excess of 50 db. Secondary may
or
- or
be used single ended or in push·pull. Has 2
600·340· 84,000 ' "
secondary windings with balanced capaci·
150·3T.5
tance to ground. Electrostatic shield is provided between primary and seconda~y . ,Has 90 db electromagnetic shielding. Insertion loss 11/4 db.
Transformer will operate into open circuit or resistive load. Frequency response down less than 1 db at 15 KC, when operated into resistive
load shunted With 120 MMFD, capaCitance. High power rating makes translormer suitable for use as output transformer.
'This transformer may also be used.as a bridging transformer.
Complete application data in each packing box.
,
" Maximum operating level, 1 mw relerence.
'" Impedance is total of two separate windings.
Available only thTough authoTizedPeerless distributors.
Sinc'e 1935, Peerless. has designed and manufactured transformers of high·
est reliability to exact specilications for electronic application . Peerlesspioneers in size-reduction - established industry standards lor ruggedness
of packaging and reliability of sealing .
'
Peerless is the leader in the design and production of broadband transformers.
, ' Tf~Q,sformers engineered and built by Peerless include l units Irom '/6 of
a cubit: inch to r'ndr~ ·than 8 cubic feet ; Irom fractional voltages to 30,000 ;
from less than one cycle to approximately a 'half megacycle, and in one ,
12-68
two, and three·phase or phase·changing configurations. Construction cate·
gories cover ·the entire range from open-frame construction to potted,
hermetically-sealed and vacuum-impregnated units. Peerless transformers
can be varniSh-treated, fosterited, epoxy or silastic·impregnated and encapsulated . Hermetically-sealed un its can be compound, resin, mineral or
silicone oil·liled.
What!l.ver your transformer needs , Peerless engineers can design to any
given' military or' commercial specifications, and manufacture in any qua~­
lity. We invite your inqUiries.
Division of . . '
AUDIO
•
MAY, 1960
15
EDITOR'S REVI EW
LOW-SPEED TAPE SYSTEMS
RUMORS and rumors of rumors
about a new tape system which was being devel. oped jointly by Minnesota Mining and Maufacturing and CBS Labs, and there have been several
showings of the device to the trade within the past
few months. Mr. Canby has hinted at it, and in the
April issue he surmised that it would be announced
soon, perhaps in June. Actually it was first presented
to the pUblic- to all intents and purposes, although it
was at the IRE show-in the middle of March.
In order to present this information to AUDIO readers direct" from the horse's mouth," we have secured
the article beginning on page 19 from CBS Labs. It
is authored by Dr. Peter C. Goldmark and others of
the Laboratory staff and is, we believe, a thorough and
excellent description of the new system and the equipment used. There are many interesting innovations in
the tape player, and the job has been most thorough.
They have even developed a new reproducing curve
for the slower and narrower tape. But it is not yet on
the market, nor does Dr. Goldmark indicate that it is
expected to be in much less than a year.
And now we come to the reason for this comment.
While we feel it a duty to report on all new developments as soon as possible after they are "leaked" to
the public, we feel that the confusion engendered by
premature announcements of this nature is not good
for the industry, and not good, actually, for the consumer.
The prime example of this sort of lack of foresight
was the announcement of stereo discs several months
before (1) there were any such records on the market
and (2) before there were any stereo pickups to be
had. What was the effect on the record and equipment
markets? Practically everyone stopped buying anything at all-records or equipment. They seemed to
think that suddenly there would be a flow of stereo
records and equipment and until then they would just
wait. This reminds us of the man who says he wouldn't
buy a gas turbine automobile because they are not yet
perfected and yet he won't buy a car with a conventional engine because they might perfect the turbine
soon.
When announcements of this type are put before
the public, the natural reaction is to wait until the
new device.is ready. No one knows for sure yet how
well the system will work with production models, although it does appear to work perfectly with handbuilt models. We do not mean to indicate that it is
not capable of being perfected in the foreseeable future-only that it is not now here and that we do not
know when it will be available. The four-track reel-toreel cartridge introduced by RCA almost two years
T
HERE HAVE BEEN
16
ago has not completely taken over the tape recorderj
reproducer market yet, even though there are at least
two manufacturers who make equipment for it, and
some tapes-not a large catalog, to be sure-are available. In any case, the 7ljz-ips reel-to-reel system has already achieved a large degree of acceptance, and more
and more tapes are being made available every month.
The Magnetic Recording Industry Association has
taken the stand that its members will continue to provide 4-track reel-to-reel equipment and tapes" as long
as there is a market." Just what this phrase means,
we cannot be sure, but we hope it was just a poor
choice of wording rather than a hedging statement.
How many users does it take to constitut.e a "market" 1 Manufacturers cannot be expected to maintain
a constant source of supply for a market of, say ten
people, just as one doesn't expect to buy :film for a
camera type which has been obsolete for years or, more
to the point, cylinder records for one's perfectly good
Edison phonograph.
Ampex also came out with an annou,ncement stating
their position and pledging-both for itself and for its
subsidiary, United Stereo Tapes- a "continuing flow
of equipment and 4-track tape to serve" the stillgrowing 7ljz-ips reel-to-reel market. Furthermore,
"Ampex will devote every effort to bring about industry-wide standardization on a cartridge concept,
both through its own research and development and
through close co-operation with the rest of the industry, " and when the cartridge concept is standardized
they will serve both markets on t he assumption that
the two concepts will serve basically separate markets.
We can only agree with Ampex that "for the convenience-minded buyer, the cartridge holds great
promise," and that" for the discriminating, qualityconscious listener, the reel-to-reel concept will con.
tinue to offer unparalleled superiority. "
If a new tape is required to make the l%-ips system work satisfactorily, why couldn't the same tape
be used to still further improve the performance of
the 7lj2-ips system 1 'l'his would seem to be the logical
step . .
We do not hold that anything is automatically better
because it is cheaper-or, in more elegant terms, more
economical. Weare, possibly, skeptical, but we do not
presume to prejudge the new system this far in advance of its actual appearance. Nor was that the point
of these lines-all we were trying to get across was
that industry should keep quiet about its new products
until they are actually ready for the public to buy.
The automobile industry follows this precept religiously-no information is put out about next year's
line until the official unveiling throughout the country.
And the automobile industry has been a ve1'y successful one in spite of the many abuses heaped upon it.
AUDIO
•
MAY, 1960
lore
... so much more for eveJ;Yone ... for every
application ... in th.e complete Hne of
·Stanton Stereo Fluxvalves*.
Here is responsible performance ... in four
superb models ... for all who Qan
H~ar
the
difference. From a gentle pianissimo to a
resounding crescendo - every movement
of the stylus reflects a quality touch possessed only by the Stereo Fluxvalve.
STANTON Calibration
Standard: Model 381 An ultra-linear professional pickup
for recording channel calibration,
radio stations and record evaluation
by engineers and critics . .. from
$48.00
Collectors Series: Model 380-A precision pickup for th e disc r iminating
record collector . . . from $29.85
Pro-Standard Series: MK II-A professional pickup outstanding for
quality control ... from $24_00
Stereo Player Series: Stereo 90A fine quality stereo magnetic pickup for the audiophile .. . $16.95
LISTEN! _. _and you will agree Pickering has more for the best of everything in record reproduction-mono or stereo. More OutputMore Channel Separation-More Response-More Record Life!
In short .. _more to enjoy .. _because, there's more quality for more listening pleasure.
* U .S. Patent No. 2,917.590
roo
'"~o P~kering'"~"
PICKERING & CO., INC., PLAINVIEW, NEW YORI(
LISTEN!-Ask for a Stereo FLUXVALVE demonstration at your Hi-Fi Dealer
today!
Send for Pickering Tech-Specs-a handy guide for planning a stereo high
fidelity system ___ address Dept. B50
STEREO FLUXVALVE, STEREOPLAY ER, CQLLE.CTORS S ERIES, PRO· STANDAP n S ERIES. CALlB RA.TI ON STA NDAR D ARE TRA DEMA RKS USED TO DENOTE THE QU ALITY OF PICKERIN G & c o., IN C. PRODUCTS.
HAROLD S. BLACK, LAMME MEDALIST
A MAN ""INS A MEDAL ... AND
STRENGTHENS A PHILOSOPHY
The search for the "hitherto unattainable"sometimes ends in strange places.
For years Bell Laboratories engineer Harold S.
Black pondered a problem : how to rid amplifiers of the
distortion which unhappily accumulated as signal-transmission paths were made longer and amplifiers were
added. There had been many approaches but all had
failed to provide a practical answer.
Then one day in 1927 the' answer came-not in a
research laboratory, but as he traveled to work on the
Lackawanna Ferry. On a newspaper, Mr. Black jotted
down those first exciting calculations.
Years later, his negative feedba ck principle had
revolutionized the art of signal amplification. It is a
principal reason why telephone and TV networks can
now blanket the country, the transoceanic cable is a
reality, and military radar and missile-control systems
are models of precision.
For this pioneer achievement, and for numer'ous
other contributions to communications'since then (some
60 U. S. patents are already credited to him ), Mr. Black
received the 1957 Lamme Medal from the American
Institute of Electrical Engineers. He demonstrated that
the seemingly " unattainable" often can be achieved,
and thus strengthened a philosophy that is shared by
all true researchers.
He is one of many Bell Telephone Laboratories
scientists and engineers who have felt the challenge of
telephony and have risen to it, ranging deeply into
science and technology. Numerous medals and awards
have thus been won. Two of these have been Nobel
Prizes, a distinction without equal in any other industrial concern.
Much remains to be done. To create the communication systems of the future , we must probe deeper
still for new knowledge of Nature's laws, We must continue to develop new techniques in switching, transmission and instrumentation for every kind of
information-bearing signal. As never before, communications offer an inspiring challenge to creative men.
BELL TELEPHONE LABORATORIES
WORLD CENTER OF COMMUNICATIONS RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT
A 1 7/S-ips Magnetic Recording
System for Stereophonic Music
P. C. GOLDMARK, ':' C. D. MEE, ':' J. D. GOODELL, ':' W. P. GUCKENBURG':'
Rumors about the new tape system have been rampant for several months, but little actual
information was available. Here for the first time is a complete description of the tape, cartridges, and handling mechanisms from the best authorifies-those who developed it.
A
s PART OF A LONG RANGE development program in the field of magnetic recording which CBS Laboratories undertook on behalf of Minnesota
Mining and Manufacturing Company,
recorded tape systems for the' home have
been under study over a ' period of several years.
In order that recorded tape can take
an important place in the field of home
entertainment, one' must take ' into ac-,
count a great many requirements, some
of which are not easily met. For instance:
1. The tape must be contained in a
compact cartridge in such a way' that
no part of the tape is exposed.
2. The amount of tape must be small
and the cost of the cartridge low in
order that the price of the final product
can approach that of the disc record.
3. The 'sound should be stereophonic
with provision for three tracks for maximum flexibility.
4. A complete musical composition
should 'be played without interruptions;
that is without reversing the cartridge
or tape.
5. The quality of sound should be at
least as good as the best of existing
recorded media.
6. The durability of the tape and cartridge must be high enough so that after
several hundred plays, the sound remains unchanged.
7. It should be possible to place a
number of cartridges on a tape machine
equipped with a changer-type mechanism
so that one can provide music for several
hours.
Prototype of Columbia 1"Va-in. tape unit in cabinet.
new tape with characteristics that provided optimum matching into the overall performance.
Late last fall the new recorded system was in a sufficiently advanced stage
to demonstrate it to many members of
this industry.
3M had, at that time, stated that the
Here we will report on the outcome of
these studies and subsequent develop- Zenith Radio Corporation had joined
ments which we believe will satisfy the this effort and entered the design of
preceding conditions and requirements. commercial equipment based on these
It was clear from the outset that one ' developments.
Some of the important features and
was dealing with a system rather than
just a few components. Thus intensive parameters of the new tape cartridge
development work over ,a period of sev- system are as follows:
eral years progressed simultaneously in
1. Tape speed is 1% ips. The 'width
of the tape is 150 mils; the thickness 1
such areas as methods of signal recordmil, and there is provision for three
ing, magnetic transducers and playback
tracks. Each track is 40 mils wide.
heads, design of cartridges and tape
~ . The cartridge is approximately 3112
transport mechanisms. The Laboratories'
in. square and 5/16 in. thick. The carsystem work, in close cooperation with
tridge contains sufficient t ape to play
continuously for 64 minutes, and thus
3M, also included the development of a
will carry more than 98 per cent of the
music compositions available without in* CBS Laboratories, Stamf01'd, Conn.
terruptions. The space occupied by the
AUDIO
•
MAY, 1960
cartridge in its container is app roxi·
mately 4 cu. in. as compared with an
LP record in its envelope with approximately 20 cu. in.
3. The tape machine can take five
cartridges and play them automatically
one after the other. A car tl"idge can be
rejected during any part of its play
similar to a record changer.' The production versions of this machine now
under development by Zenith ,will have
fast forward and reverse speeds. The
same instruments will also serve as a
home recorder using the new cartridges
with blank tape.
The Third Track
Earlier reference was made to a third
track which is located. in the center of
the 150-mil tape.
Extended studies have been undertaken in the Laboratories to determine
the optimum acoustic conditions desired
by the listener in the average home
while playing recorded music. Conventional stereophonic music, as now recorded, provides only a portion of the
19
Fig. 1. Two-track playback head subassembly.
sounds that are perceived by the listener
sitting in a concert hall. A large percentage of the total acoustic energy
which reaches the listener's ears is reverberated and delayed sound which is
considerably depleted of its original
stereophonic character. Experiments in
the Laboratories have shown that in a
space simulating the average living
room, a much more exciting and realistic
sound can be produced giving an illusion
of "being there." Thus, it is intended to
record on the third track as an optional
feature on the new recorded tape system, the stereophonic sum signal delayed
and reverberated to an optimum degree.
The new medium will provide maximum flexibility and a new dimension in
sound. The reproducing instruments can
he manufactm'ed for two or for three
tracks.
Later some of the electrical and magnetic characteristics of the new system
will be discussed. The data and curves
shown are already hased on the newly
developed tape and represent the overall behavior of the entire system, that
is, recording, tape, and playback. The
new tape is now in pilot production at
3M, hut the cartridges p layed in cm'l'ent
demonstrations still use the older tape
on which these programs were recorded
last fall.
Following the section dealing with
the magnetic aspects of the new system,
some of the mechanical problems and
their solutions as encountered will be
described.
A comparison of the new tape system
with the original 15-ips tape master
from which both the stereo records as
well as the new tape cartridges have
been derived, has been demonstrated with
success. For this purpose, some sections
of music were alternately transcribed
from the originalJllaster and the 1 % -ips
narrow track version onto a 15-ips halftrack tape.
Magnetic and Electrical Characteristics
In order to achieve an adequate signal-to-noise ratio, frequency response,
and dynamic range at a tape speed of
1 % ips, significant developments of most
20
components used in magnetic recording
are required. For instance, due to the
shorter wavelengths encountered, developments have been aimed at reducing
wavelength-dependent losses.
Among the losses in r eproduction
which have been minimized in the system at hand are those attending (1)
separation of head and tape surface,
(2) azimuth alignment of head and tape,
and (3) playback-head efficiency. Losses
minimized in the r ecording process are
(1) tape-thickness loss, (2) recordingfield configm'ation loss, and (3) loss
caused by non uniformity of tape parti. cles.
(A) Losses in Rep1'oduction
l. There is an exponential reduction
of the playback-head flux with decreasing recorded wavelength due to the finite
separation between the surface of the
tape and the playback-head pole pieces.
of the l'~cording field when the critical
value for recording is reached after the
tape has passed the recording gap. In
addition to this, a further loss can occur
due to change in phase of the recorded
signal through the coating thickuess
caused by the vertical curvature of the
effective recording plane of the record.
ing-head field.
3. For high resolution of the effectIve
recording plane a sharp cutoff of the recording field must be accomp anie ~ bJ.' a
high uniformity in the magnetIzatlO~
characteristics of the individual particles of the tape. Elimination of particles
with low critical fields for switching will
also reduce self-demagnetization effects.
The separation loss has one advantage in
slow speed tapes for audio, since, due to
the shorter wavelengths involved, print
through is correspondingly reduced allowing new thin t ape backing materials
to be used with safety.
New Developments in Magnetic
Recording Components
c
'"(1)
""'"
50
t0
u:l 40
u::
Z
<{
301-.
I'
0-
~
~
~'"
2Or-- ......
10
"" "t-(2)
I""
1'1'..
r-tl'r--.,
(4)
0
'~
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r-- r---
tr(1)
",-
(2')
(3 ')
i
.
0
5
0-
~
:::;-
~
~_
(1 j
10
15
DISTAN CE FROM GAP CENTER -mil,
Fig. 2 . Rate of recording-field extinction
as a function of gap length.
At 15,000 cps and 1% ips, this loss is
almost 0.5 db per micro-inch separation.
2. Another important loss is associated
with the azimuth alignment between the
playback-head gap and the line of constant recorded magnetization across the
track width. For a conventional gO-mil
track a loss of 6 .db occurs at 15,000
cps and 1% ips. for a misalignment
angle of 3 minutes.
3. The proportion of playback-head
flux shunted by the gap will increase
when using the narrow gaps necessary
to resolve the shortest wavelengths recorded at a tape speed of 1% ips. In
order to maintain a high efficiency it is
necessary to compensate for a reduction
in gap length by a corresponding reduction in gap depth.
(B) Losses in Recording
l. A separation loss of the type described for reproduction occurs during
recording due to the finite coating thickness. Those particles remote from the
t ape surface will thereby give an attenuated contribution to the ta,pe-surface flux
and so will contribute less to the playback-head flux.
2. The magnetization of a recorded
tape will not be uniform throughout the
coating thickness since it depends 011
the rate of extinction and the direction
Although the major loss component,
called separation loss, is inherent in
presently known magnetic r ecording systems, it has been possible by improve. ments of tape and heads to achieve performance characteristics approaching
those presently obtained from 7.5-ips
machines. Such performance is achieved
with a track width of 40 mils. H aving a
narrow track reduces the alignment
problem.
It has been found that a conventional
la.minated ring-type playback head can
be constructed to be r esponsive up to
15,000 cps with a 1.5 mv output from a
tape having V3 mil. coating thickness. A
sub-assembly of the two-track version of
such a head is shown in F ig. 1. The playback-head coils fit over the proj ecting
lammations. Since the recorded wavelength at 15,000 cps is only Vs mil, it is
necessary to form an effective magnetic
gap of 1/16 mil (or 1.5 microns.). It has
been found that a I-micron spacer gives
satisfactory head resolution in pro-
+10
.IJ
."
......... "'"-
+5
;
I
~
0
z
• 0
/
~>
,
w
~
-- , \,
.....
,
""
,
" '"
'.
0-
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~
w
-5
""
-10
i'
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I - - - ORIENTED ACICULAR<pARTICLE TAPE
t- ---NEW SMAll-PARTICLE TAPE
........· PLAYBAC K SYSTEM NOISE
t-l
JllW
I I I III .
,
, . .
t
I
4
j'
10000
1000
FREQUENCY IN CYCLES PER SECOND
Fig . 3. Zero modulation noise curves with
correct playback equalization plus the
40-phon ear characteristic.
AUDIO
•
MAY, 1960
+10
'"....I
..,...1-'
I-
12
5
/"
"", ........
0
w
~
~
""
"" .... 1-'
....
./
-10
-20
~
,
. .
"
100
\
- --CONVENTIONAL SYSTEM
- -,NEW TAPE PLUS HIGHEFFICIENCY RECORD HEAD
I
20
,
FRE~UENCY
o db
= 1 my.
I
Ii
1111
t
.~
II II
,
1000
•
MAY, 1960
..
\
Fig. 4. Maximum
output curves for
1 'Va-ips tape.
Mechanical Design Problems and
Solutions
\
\
I
I
III
. , . ..I
'.
''-0000
20000
IN CYCLES PER SECOND
longed use. By manufacturing the multitrack head in two halves, automatic
colinearity of the gaps is assured and
in practice the 10,000-cps sensitivity of
the tracks differ by less than 4 db.
Similar mechanical refinement is necessary of course in the recording head.
Fig. 2 shows a plot of the field distributio~s at O.l-mil spacing for various gaps.
It IS seen that the field decrement increases somewhat with gaps which are
large compared to the spacing. Thus a
long gap might be thought advantageous
especially since the vertical field decrement is also reduced. In practice, however, the expected improvement does not
occur, probably due to the relatively
greater vertical component of the effective recording field. Considerable development has been carried out to improve the recording-field configuration
for the very short wavelengths involved
in this system. This work will be reported at a later date.
Significant advances have been made
by 3M in the recording media, leading
to considerable reduction of the separation loss effects. Firstly, a tape lacquer
form ulation has been developed which
is relatively soft, giving good head-totape contact. Particle rub-off on guides
and heads has virtually been eliminated
and the consequent amplitude variations
considerably reduced at the shortest
wavelengths. In addition, the L aboratories developed a higher-output and
lower-noise tape as a result of changes
in the magnetic "material itself. Previous
work has concluded that a reduction of
effective particle size results in lower
tape noise. The improvement achieved
is .shown in Fig. 3, where the weighted
nOIse response for existing tape is compared with the new tape using optimum
bias for each. A 4-db lower noise level
is obtained in the mid-frequency range.
Higher over-all output is also obtained
from the new material. It is found that
the short-wavelength efficiency is particularly improved. One reason , for this
is that a deliberate attempt was made
to reduce the sp eed of critical fields required for magnetization change in the
AUDIO
,
.'
,1--
...,'I)
....
...
..
0
quencies. Typical equivalen t signal-tonoise ratio for professional 7%-ips
half-track systems is 54 db with a correresponding 10,000-cps signal response
at - 6 db. Thus the new system with its
own recording and playback characteristics approaches the 7.5-ips performance
available today and has been fo und to
be entirely adequate for all types of
musical programs.
individual particles. For acicular particles better control of the size and shape
is required and for effectively spherical
or cubic particles it is necessary that
the acicularity be k.ept low enough to
make the crystal anisotropy dominant in
all particles. Figu?'e 4 shows the improvement resulting from recording with
the new tape using one of the · highefficiency recording heads compared to
that obtained with conventional 1 %-ips
recording.
Equalization Techniques and Performance
of the System
The recording equalization adopted
for the new 1 % -ips record-replay system
is shown in Fig. 5. This curve was derived by p erfo!ming many listening
tests on a variety of program material.
It is the characteristic which meets the
requirement to load the tape optimally
at all frequencies without overload danger. Using this in conjunction with the
playback equalization (also shown in
Fig . 5) a flat response is obtained from
30 to 15,000 cps at - 18 db relative to a
level giving 3 per cent distortion at
1000 cps. Under these conditions the
ratio of the maximum signal level at
1000 cps to the zero-modulation system
noise is 54 db. The 10,000-cps signal
response at this maximum signal level
is -12 db relative to that at low fre-
Fig . 5. Recording
and
playback
equalization
curves.
One of the central problems in recorded tape systems is the design of the
tape packaging. Obviously, it is necessary to satisfy requirements of convenience as well as to provide adequate
protection for the tape. Naturally highquality performance with respect to
music reproduction is a prerequisite.
In order to popularize recorded t ape
it is essential to eliminate the process of
manual threading between the reels. This
requirement is dictated by the need for
avoiding manual threading and also by
the requirement to make the cartridge
compatible with a practical automatic
changer mechanism.
On first examination the notion of
threading the tape permanently between
two side-by-side reels contained in the
cartridge is attractive. However, every
practical design incorporating both the
supply and take-up reels in the cartridge requires that sections of the tape
be exposed through op enings in the cartridge walls with consequent dangers of
damage. Even in a single cartridge
player there are many difficulties involved in coupling the tape of a dualreel cartridge to the drive system and
the heads, but when the design of ali
automated changer is considered, these
problems increase rapidly in number
and magnitude.
A basic consideration in any type of
cartridge is the need for relatively high
speed transport in so-called "sear ch"
operations. If flanges are used on ' the
reels inside the cartridge, the bulk is
considerably increased and many problems of stability are encountered. Thus,
~
+20
PLAYBACK EQUALIZATION
J>
....
...{
~ +10
~
>
;::
V -
....... .....,.
!:l
w
V
0
~
RECQRDING EQUALIZATION
"" -10
2.
,
.. .
100
,
-
...... V ...
-
(
"
.
.-
.
FREQUENCY IN CYCLES PER SECOND
..
, ,.
'''''
20000
21
Fig. 6 . Cartridge coupling members.
high-speed winding without flanges requires some method of maintaining a
separation between the tape and the
cartridge walls.
The three dimensional geometry of the
reeied tape, the driving spindle in the
transport mechanism, the walls of the
cartridge and other components call for
· strictly orthogonal relationships or some
automatic dynamic adjustment and an
accurate system of tape guidance. Otherwise, the cumulative errors in repetitive
reeling of the tape, even on the same
machine, will lead to telescoping or angular displacement of the tape reel with
respect to the cartridge walls. In brief
laboratory experiments these problems
may not be evident but in long-term field
use the increasing friction produces instabilities in the tape speed and eventually may completely block the reel
from rotating.
The problem of smooth reeliI).g without any flanges was solved . by introducing a, novel guiding member in the cartridge with adequate compliance to
insure a smooth rewind cycle. This arrangement allows a tape with an hOlli'
of playing time to be rewound in twenty
seconds. (A five-second rewind time has
been achieved in the laboratory.)
Threading of the tape is accomplished
by means of a leader permanently attached to the takeup reel in the mechanism. The end of the rewind cycle leaves
the p ermanent leader in the threading
P!lth of the machine.
Fig. 7. Tape deck,
22
A ver y simple and economic solution
was used for the design of the coupling
between the reeled tape and the permanent leader. This consists of a "U"
shaped device attached to the end of the
tape in' the cartridge and so shaped that
it seals off the only opening in the cartridge when the · tape is fully rewound.
The permanent leader terminates in a
dumbbell-shaped element that r eadily
mates with the "U" shaped clip. The
dumbbell attached to the permanent
leader can slip through the "U"-shaped
clip in a vertical direction with .only a
light detenting restraint but proviq~~
an absolute coupling in terms .of h~ri- .
-zontal pull when the two members ,are
Fig. 9. Close-up of cartridge spindle
engaged. (F'ig, 6).
and well.
In order to eliminate variations m
back tension with dynamic changes in reliable, and simple to assemble. The deeffective reel diameter, a felt pad IS vice selected consists of a linkage
mounted in the cartridge hub and spring'
loaded in a ratcheting relationship with
teeth molded in the cartridge wall. When
the cartridge is placed on the machine,
.
the spindle releases the brake automati•• , .•• '0"...
. '''UI
cally. The brake is shown in Fig. 8 .
. . . . . . . . eMA. . . .
The facility for driving the cartridge
hub during the rewind cycle must be designed so as to permit random rotary
orientations of the spindle with respect
to the cartridge hub in the loading process . . This is accomplished by means of
radial slots around the inner periphery
of the hub and a spring-loaded twotoothed drive in the spindle. See Fig. 9.
The cartridges are designed with mating surfaces that couple them (see Fig.
10) together in a stable vertical stack.
Fig. 8. Cart ri dge brake mechanism.
~
This feature contributes considerably
spring-loaded against the surface of the to the ease with which they may be
ta.p e as it leaves the cartridge and the handled and loaded in a changer mechasupply reel is operated in free-runlFing nism. The patterns are unsymmetrical
bearings. This provides excellent ten- so that the cartridges must be correctly
sioning characteristics and at the 'lame oriented or they cannot be fitted totime maintains the cartridge complexity gether. Other details of the mechanism
cost at a minimum. F 'i gm'e 7 shows the make it impossible to load the cartridges
tupe deck and the felt pad.
in any way that results in improper
Some kind of braking mechanism is operation.
essential in order to avoid partial unThe resulting cartridge design is comreeling and fouling of the tape within pact, inexpensive and dependable. Actuthe cartridge under normal conditions ally, of course, the cartridge design was
of handling. The brake must be positive, carried on in conjunction with the development of mechanisms capable of
handling it in a fully automated changer
so as to eliminate any mutulJ,lly exclusive
features. The actual changing mechanism consists simply of a' spring-loaded
platform in a well (Fig. 9) with which
the supply spindle is coaxial, and an appropriate escapement. The latter is an '
,e ssentially conventional device.
, There are two escapement levers that
operate in tandem on opposite sides of
the cartridge well. One of the escapement levers is placed close to the corner
from which the tape is fed in order to
maintain accurate positioning between
the clip 'terminal and the threading path.
The path for the tape is a straight
shOWing felt pad.
(Oontinp,ed on page 64)
~
~.
AUDIO · .
MAY, 1960
Polystyrene Foam Loudspeaker
Cones
P. B. WI LLlAMS'::
JAMES F. NOVAK ':"::
.
Good stiffness-to-mass ratio and controllable internal damping offer improved
. cone performance. Inherent high rigidity, moisture , resistance and dimensional stability indicate more bass output for a given amount of distortio'h.
rigid synthetic materials for speaker cones has stimulated many design efforts for at least
20 years. None of the resulting commercial products has enjoyed mu ch success.
In a business where even mere novelty of
difference can be an important sales
asset, this lack of success seems to be
due to manufacturing problems or deficiencies in performance . . The age-old
paper cone still is dominant in direct
radiator speakers, almost to the exclusion of other types. '
In 1937, 1. G. Farben of Germany applied for a British patent issued as
510,707, on a cone body of foamable condensation or polymerization resins.
These were solidified in a mold to give
a compact surface on drying. In 1937
also, Dr. Helmut ' Sell applied for
a British patent; issued as 513,289, on
cone bodies machined from solidified cellulose foam. Dr. Rudolf Bauer received,
in 1949, a German patent, 863,084, for a
cone made of glass fibers, lacquers, and
resins. French patent 1,059,899 was
granted to Emil Podzus in 1954. The
Podzus plastic foam cone had cells filled
WIth flakes, fibers, en; wires, to increase
elasticity. To increase solidity and conductab,ility as described in this patent,
light films of metal, paper or varnish
were applied to the surfaces. Several
years ago in this country, a large cone
speaker using polystyrene foam was produced by DeMars. This used a flat sheet
of prefoamed material joined to a short
paper cone carrying the voice cell. No
doubt other work was carried on to investigate low density plastics, aimed at
combining rigidity and lightness in a
practical loudspeaker.
Good single-cone speaker designs are,
as is true of ~ost good engineering practice, the result of skillful balancing of
coriflicting factors. Criteria for desirable
performance characteristics call for de-
I
NTEREs'r IN LIGHT)
* Chief Engineer, and ** Senior Engi·
neer, J ensen ManUfacturing Company, Di·
vision of the Muter Company, 6601 S. Laramie L1vemie, Chicago 38, Ill.
AUDIO
•
MAY, 1960
Fig . 1. Expandable polystyrene beads. Courtesy of Koppers Company, Incorporated.
sign factors sometimes diametrically opposed. Woofer operation needs a sturdy
moving system, which with most materials requires appreciable weight in the
cone. Tweeters must have very light moving system which are not necessarily
st.urdy, because only small forces are involved.
Efficiency Considerations
Let us in this discussion concentrate
as much as possible on only the cone, to
see, what may be done to minimize undesirabJe ,effects of comprohlise~ . ,f>.. priIfl8
need is lightness, to retain as much efficiency as possible. Efficiency greater
than absolutely necessary can always be '
swapped for other things, such as increased bass output or more high end, or
something else. This demand for lightness assumes that dead-weight mass in
the moving system is not decided on as
the method of lowering resonant frcquency. Non-working, efficiency-lowering mass can be added in the cone or at
other places in the moving system, of
course, at the expense of efficiency. At
least two reproducer systems on the
market now use metal weights attached
to the cones to lower resonant frequeney.
Despite the current trend to lower efficiency speakers, let us recognize that
low efficiency in itself is not a blessing;
it is a p enalty to be minimized as much
as possible. Some small speaker systems
need in ore than 20 watts for adequate
loudness. Since few amplifiers will deliver anything like rated power output
at minimum distortion levels over .long
periods of time because of changes in
component values and tube characteristics, such low-efficiency speaker systems
may need 30 or more watts of initially
installed amplifier capacity to maintain
the highest order of performance. It
seems quite safe to say that any speaker
design engineer would be quite happy
with more efficiency than his speaker system now possesses; lighter cones do increase efficiency.
23
Fig. 2. Internal
cross section of
polystyrene foam
(1 Ox)
from
expandable beads.
(Courtesy of Koppers
Company
Incorporated.)
At bass frequencies, we do not want
bending of the cone during its travel.
Bending loses power and increases distortion. For woofer operation, good rigidity is essential, and lightness is desirable for efficiency.
For high-frequency tweeters, the same
two qualities of rigidity and low mass
are paramount. High rigidity gives high
suspension stiffness, in the case of single piece cones such as used almost universally for tweeters. High suspension
stiffness and low mass of the whole cone
result in high resonant frequency, allowing greater efficiency and higher cutoff
frequency. Low mass is extremely impOl-tant, high frequency extension being
mostly limited by mass.
Cone Action
General-purpose and wide-range direct
radiator speakers and woofers required
to -operate to high crossover frequencies,
call for a peculiar cone action not yet
fully understood. The gap between practical cone design and theoretical work
on vibrations of conical shells still is so
wide that cone speaker design cannot call
on research results for much help. Cones
must operate in curious ways to produce
both low and high frequencies.! The two
1 M. S. Corrington, "Amplitude and phase
measurements on loudspeaker cones." Proc.
I.R.E., 39 : 1021-1026 (1951).
salient types of vibration pertaining to
conical shells are (a) radial modes, as in
a bell, and (b) symmetrical modes, as in
a disk. Radial modes are associated with
bending, while symmetrical modes depend upon bending and extension. Although vibrational modes of cylindrical
and spherical shells and flat plates have
lent themselves to mathematical analysis, those of conical shells still defy
mathematical treatment and depend
upon the experimental skills of the
acoustical engineer.
The main groups of radial modes
which would occur at frequencies considerably below 1000 cps are substantially
suppressed in most cones, although there
are tendencies for perturbations to occur
between the edge and the apex when use
is made of some of the soft wool stocks.
Radial-mode activity evidences itself in
the form of loud crinkles or rattles, especially during heavy transients.
The most important vibrational modes
are the symmetrical modes which generally occur above. 1000 cps. A cone
operating as a rigid piston throughout
the entire frequency spectrum would perform poorly at the higher frequencies.
Symmetrical modes maintain uniform
output above 1000 cps and in many cases
are used to increase the sound output.
In testing cones, it is sometimes found
that radial modes occur at half or even
one-quarter the driving frequency. ' To
obtain subharmonics from a cone, the
driving force must exceed a certain critical value, and once excited, the subharmonics will persist even after the
driving force is lowered below that critical point. These subharmonics usually
occur at the symmetrical vibrational
modes and particularly so in materials
having low internal dissipation. They are
usually called "breakup" or "cone cry."
It appears that a paradox exists here.
The cone should operate as a rigid piston
in. the lower part of the frequency spectrum because bending subtracts from
the output of the fundamental frequency. On the other hand, it is desirable to encourage "bending" at the higher
frequencies, otherwise the output wOul.d
fall off at 6 db per octave. And yet thIS
"bending" can produce increased output
in the form of alien frequencies which
are undesirable.
Requirements of the Cone
The main requirements of a good cone
material could be listed as low mass, high
rigidity, and high internal damping. The
art of paper cone making has given us
materials which meet these requirements
to various degrees. The high internal
damping characteristic of good paper
cones smooths the transitions from mode
to mode and subdues the unwanted
,
b .
noises emitted so freely from hard, nttle materials such as rigid polystyrene
and vinyl sheet.
It became evident early in the development of different .cone mat~rials ~t
Jensen that some easily determmed Cl'lterion of suitability of materials was
needed. Actually three criteria have been
in use. Perhaps it will be possible to
evolve a single criterion as experience
and knowledge are gained through their
use. At present each seems suitable for a
special class of speaker, the woofer, a
general purpose speaker, and the
tweeter. Each is obtained from the equation for the frequencies of the purel~
flexural modes of a circular ring of rectangular section.
where
t =thickness
Poisson's ratio
E = Young's Modulus of Elasticity
p = density
0==
Fig. 3. Magnified
(4 0x) cross section
of
experimental ,
m a Ide d
cone,
showing compaction at the sur·
face.
Since Poisson's ratio varies from 0.2
to 0.4, depending on the material, as a
first approximation V1 - 0 2 can be
taken as unity. McLachlan has determined that the frequencies of the symmetrical modes of a conical shell do not
increase directly as the thickness. For a
2 N. M. McLachlan, "Loudspeakers." Ox;
ford University Press, pg. 330, 1934.
24
AUDIO
•
MAY, 1960
"When we heard the Citations our immediate reaction
was that one listen-e d throug h the amplifier system
clear back to the original performance, and that the
finer nuances of tone shading stood out clearly and
distinctly for the first time." c. G. McProud, Editor, AUDIO Magazine
We know you will be interested in these additional comments from
Mr. McProud's report:
Performance: "The quality of reproduction reminds us of t he
solidity of Western Electric theatre amplifiers of some years ago
... The bass.is clean and firm and for the first time we noted that
t he low-frequency end appeared to be present even at low volumes
without the need for the usual bass boost."
Specifications: "Our own measurements gave 1M figures of 0.35
per cent at 60 watts; .08 per cent at 20 watts, and less than .05%
(which is essentially unmeasurable) from 10 watts down."
Construction: "It is obvious that considerable thought has gone
into the preparation of the Citation as a kit (and) when the amplifier is completed, the user may be assured of having a unit he can
be proud of . ; . The_kit is a jOy to construct."
For a copy of Mr. McProud's complete report and a Citation catalog, write Dept. A-5, Citation Kit Division, Harman-Kardon, Westbury, N . Y. The Citation I is a complete Stereophonic Preamplifier
Control Center. Price, $159.95; Factory Wired, $249.95. The Citation II is a 120 Watt Stereophonic Power Amplifier. Price, $159.95;
Factory Wil'ed, $229.95. Prices slightly higher in the West.
.. Build the Very Best CITATION KITS by
AUDIO
•
MAY, 19(;0
Himi.I!'.
kardon
I
25
polystyrene foam appears equally well
suited for all three applications.
TABLE I
CRITERIA FOR MATERIAL SUITABILITY
Choice of Material
Criterion
Material*
Cellulose Acetate
Nylon Type 6/ 6
Polyethylene
Polystyrene
Vinyl Butyral
Vinyl Chloride
Aluminum
Magnesium
Soft Cone Paper
Hard Cone Paper
Epoxy Foam
POlYSTYRENE FOAM
Phenolic-cotton
* Best when
1.36
1.42
.91
1.71
1.51
1.36
4 .9
4.8
1.1
2.1
.6
.78-1.2
2. 1
Low
given radius and apical angle it depends
upon tn, where n is governed by the
thickn ess and coil masR. An average
value for n seems to be about 0.3. Thr.
frequen cy is, therefore, given by
(J)
ex to' 3
~
(.2)
If thickness and r adius r emain constant, the only r emaining variable is the
radical which is equal to the velocity of
sound in the material. This velocity of
sound has been used in the cone industry as a means of grading cone p apers
in order of hardness, the hardness varying directly with velocity. It is generally
accepted that the softest p ap ers, (those
with lowest velocities of sound) usually
make the best woofers. The velocity of
sound through the material ap p ears,
therefore, to be worthy of consideration
as a criterion by itself.
T}le thickness, t = pJ p where PI is the
mass p er unit area and p the density.
Substituting this value of t into Eq. (2 )
we get
(J)
ex pO .3
IE
'if76
(8)
J n com paring the frequencies obtained
from shells of differ ent materials when
IE
{ph
'Jp:i
1.26
1.38
.93
1.69
1.45
1.23
3.64
4.03
1.6
2 .8
1.8
1.5-2.5
1.9
High
1.05
1.28
.96
1.62
1.33
.97
1.82
2.7
3 .3
5.8
1.9
7 .1-12.9
1.6
High
the mass, P" is fixed, the value of n will
do ubtless vary from 0.3 if there is a wide
difference in thickness. Experimental
data seems to indicate that the frequency
criterion V E / p 1.6 is sufficiently accurate
to compare the frequencies of conical
shells of equal radius, apical angle, and
mass, driven by identical coils. This expression appears to yield more readily
verifiable results for the general purpose type response-.than the velocity of
sound alone.
.
In the case of a disk, wher e n = 1, the
criterion is
(1)
The material with the largest V E / pS
gives the disk of smallest mass fo r a
given fl'equency and radius. This criterion appears to be the one best suited
for tweeter cones wbich gener ally have
' a small radius and large apical angle.
Table 1 lists the relative values of
these criteria for various materials.
Looking a t matei;als most familiar, we
find the soft p ap ers best suited for
woofer use and the hard papers best
suited for general purpose and tweeter
use. It is interesting to observe that
The figures of merit are only useful
for indicating p?'obable value of speaker
cone materials. In early development
work, prefoamed polystyrene looked
promising, for lightness, rigidity a nd
damping, but means were lacking to
form it into cones accurately and economically. Machining leaves a rough surface devoid of continuity of structure
which is needed for strength. Intuitively,
it was f elt that the surface should be
more dense than the body of the material, to approximate the "sandwich"
construction now used widely in structural materials. Further work created
cones made by a molding process which
is economical and which provides all the
essential qualities and mechanical structure we have outlined as goals. These
cones ar e made from polystYl'ene beads
shown in Fig , 1 which contain an expansion agent activated by heat. Raw or
partly expanded beads are compression
molded by steam or other heating methods, the cone prefer ably being cooled in
the Illold for greatest accuracy of dimensions. Some back pressure is ap plied to
the mold so that the cone surfaces are
compacted to form thin skins. The expansion process somewha t r esembles the
popping of popcorn, differing in an impOl-tant resp.ect, however, in that the expanded foam cells coalesce to form a
sturdy honeycomb-like mass. (See Fig.
2.) (Figu?'e 3 shows the surface comp action.
As described in the pa tent 3 covering
this development, many design features
and parameters are possible, most of
them not achievable in any other type of
manufacture. F eatures most easily obtained in this p rocess, or which are
unique, include: " ,y-;"" '\
O/?t
/.", /
('\ !
~r-
'oJ
b
U. S. P atent 2,905,260, issued Sept. 22,
1959. "Loudspeaker Diaphrag?l~," P. B. Williams, assigned to the Mnter Oompany.
3
Fig. 4. (Left to right) 8, 10, 12, and lS-in. experimental speakers using molded foam cones.
26
AUDIO
•
MAY, 1960
Acoustic Research introduced the acoustic suspension '
woofer to the audio field ; the AR-l and AR-2 speaker systems
altered the course of loudspeaker design.
'The tweeters' of the AR-l and AR-2 are conventional cone units,
whose quality we consider outstanding in their respective
price ranges. We have always taken the position that better '
tweeters existed, though at much higher prices.
Our second major research project was the development of the
hemispherical tweeter", two of which we combined with
an AR-l woofer in a new speaker model , the AR-3. These tweeters,
like _the AR-3 woofer, are no-compromise devices. They are
the ·best musical reproducers that we were able to design
and manufacture, regardless of cost.
~3st and ~3t
SEPARATE TWEETER SYSTEMS
The tweeter system of the AR-3, including crossover and
cabinet, is now available separately as the AR-3t. It will convert
an AR-l or AR-IW to the equivalent of an AR -3.
The super-tweeter of this system, al so with crossover and
cabinet, is available separately as the AR-3 st. It. converts an
AR-2 to the equivalent of an AR-2a, or it may be added to an AR-l.
Literature on these units is available for the asking.
' U. S. Patent 2, 775,309
" Patent appli ed for
R3t
Mid-range unit and super-tweeter, ready
to connect directly to an AR-l or AR-1W $87 to $96, depending on finish
*3st
super-tweeter only , ready to connect
directly to an AR-l or AR-2 $32 to $38, depending on finish .
ACOUSTIC RESEARCH, INC.
AUDIO.
•
MAY, 1960
24 Thorndike St.
Cambridge 41, Mass.
27
Variable Low-Pass Filter
RICHARD S. BURWEN ';'
A simple and easily constructed unit which can serve
in a variety of applications, both professional and home.
N
program material
can usually be cleaned up considerably by cutting off the high frequencies. Since the desirable cutoff frequency and r ate of attenuation vary with
the quality of the program material, a
completely flexible variable electronic
filter has been designed. The low-pass filter, Figs. 1 and 2, uses transistor s and
feedback to produce shutoff frequencies
variable from 30,000 to 3000 cps with
attenuation rates of either 6, 12, or 18
db ' p er octave and continuously variable
peaking.
Four transistors are used in a r esistance-capacitance feedback filter circuit
powered by mercury batteries. E stimated
life for the six flashlight size cells is
4000 operating hours. Separate controls
vary the turnover frequency of a 6-dbp er-octave rolloff, F ig. 4; a 12-db-peroctave cutoff, Fig . 5; and the peaking of
the 12-db-p er-octave filter, Fig. 6. At
minimum p eaking the 12-db-per -octave
curve is actually a gradual rolloff. At
maximum p eaking the response has a
7-db p eak.
Combination of the 6- and 12-db-peroctave curves can produce a fast roll off,
OISY OR DISTORTED
r-I
I
..
Fig . 2 . Six mercury ba tter ies eliminate power supply hum. Life may be several years
in home use .
OUTPUT
)2
* Minneapolis-Honeywell Regulator Com-
Bl
pany, Boston Division, 1400 Soldiers Field
Road, Boston 35, Mass.
-
4 ••
Illil-++--J.-.;R:::2:.:..1'..:,1::..2----0.
3RM42R
cs
25
II
lOOk
R15
8,
lQ
;;;
Fig . 1. Continuously variable low-pass
filter.
28
~CI
uO
u~
..
'""" §r-:
100
l'l
""
~
NOTES:
1. 51 POSITIONS: OFF, ON, FILTER
2. ALL RESISTORS 1
12 WATT, 5%
Fig. 3 . Variable low Pass Filter schematic.
AUDIO
•
MAY, 1960
Listening to a recording with excessive printthrough is like looking at a picture that
has a faint double-exposure.
Reducing print·through is like eliminating
the second exposure - and leaving a
clear, sharp recording.
Killing the "double exposure" of print~through
your enjoyment of a recorded tape ever been
marred by an occas ional, annoying "echo"? This
so-called "print-through" is sometimes found in recorded tapes that have been stored for a long time.
The longer the storage, the more magnetism is transferred from one layer of tape to another. Where recorded signals are unusually loud, print-through can
become audible on conventional tapes after about two
weeks of storage, but is seldom loud enough to be
bothersome until stored for much longer periods. Up
to about 18 months ago, professional recordists had
found only one way to avoid print-through: reduce
the recording level to the point where the print level
dropped below the noise level inherent in the recorder.
This meant sacrificing 6 to 8 db in signal-to-noise ratio.
Then Audio Devices introduced "Master Audio-
H
AS
Take
your
recorder
on
tape"- the solution to the print-through problem. By
the use of specially developed magnetic oxides and
special processing techniques, print-through has been
reduced 8 db in Master Audiotape-without changing
any other performance characteristics. Laboratory
studies indicate that stored Master Audiotape will
take decades to reach the same print-through level
that now mars ordinary tape in one week! So printthrough is "killed" for even the most critical ear.
Master Audiotape is available in 1200- and 2500foot lengths in two types-on 1 %-mil acetate and on
I1h -mil "Mylar." These are part of the most complete
line of professional-quality recording tapes in the
industry. Ask your dealer for Audiotape-made by audio engineers for audio engineers-and backed by over
20 years of experience in sound-recording materials.
vacation
It's almost second nature for a vacationing family to take their
camera with them. Why not do the same with your tape recorder?
Seaside sounds , church bells, barnyard noises, square dances, a
sound track for your home movies-there are literally dozens of
"priceless" sounds you'll hear, and want to record, on yo·ur
vacation . Your best bet for tape recording of this kind is Audio·
tape on Ph·mil acetate, type 1251. This economical , dependable
tape is the most popular type of Audiotape.
AUDIO DEVICES, INC., 444 Madison Ave .• N. Y. 22. N. Y.
In Hollywood: 840 N. hirfll Ave .• In ChicJIO: 5428 N. Milwaukee Ave.
.,
+5
0
+5
0
.s>
"I
5
....
....
-5
og
r-..... t"----"
I'..
-1
5 -1
~-
r-..,-
"
'"
r-... ""
f'.
"'"
"
.......
....
"
.. -
~-
-
\.
-5
... . . .. ..... . . . .. .
'-
I
'5 -20
, ""
I'"
. . . ..
FREQUENCY IN CYCLES PER SECOND
r-....
I\,
1\
\. \
I""'-
t\
1\
\. \
. ~-25
~« -30
....
f\
1\
\. 1\
\. r\
1\
\. I'
1\
"
... . . .. ..... . . . .. . . .1\ .. . 1'\
~
-35
1'0
i'
"
-15
5
1""
f""-.
-10
I\.
-40
.- -
.-
-45
FREQUENCY IN
CYC~ES
,
PER SECOND
.- -
Fig. 4. (left). Response at successive positions of the ROLLOFF control. Fig. 5. (right). Response at successive positions of the 12 db
.
per octave CUTOFF control.
an 18-db-per-octave sharp cutoff, or a
rolloff with a peak, as shown in Fig. 7.
Such fiexibility makes this filter highly
suitable for the low-pass section of an
electronic crossover network.
The filter is intended for use with other
transistor equipment delivering a maximum input signal of 1 volt r.m.s. from
a source impedance of less than 500
ohms. The input impedance is 33,000
ohms in parallel with 0.006 /-Lf. For use
with a high-impedance source an emitterfollower input stage could be added.
The filter has unity voltage gain and a
low output impedance of approximately
50 ohms. It can deliver 1 volt r.m.s. at
400 cps with only 0.15 per cent total harmonic distortion to a load of 4700 ohms
or higher. Output cables as long as 500
feet can be used.
Noise at the output is less than 10 /-LV
r.m.s. or 100 db below 1 volt at any setting of the controls. The response at low
frequencies is fiat within ± 0.1 db down
to 10 cps.
A three-position power switch having
one shorting wafer and one non-shorting
wafer provides a direct signal path from
output to input when the filter is switched
off. Thumps during turn-on are eliininated by pausing at the second OFF posi-
tion where power is applied and the coupling capacitors are allowed to charge.
A pushbutton an(l pilot light permit a
visual battery check:
resonance by varying the loop gain.
Following this 12-db-per-octave variable low-pass filter, the collector signal
from Q, passes through a 6-db-per-octave
rolloff filter, R16 and Oa, which produces
the curves in Fig. 4. Emitter follower
Q4 isolates this filter from the external
load and provides the low output impedance.
All the stages are temperature stabilized by a large amount of d.c. feedback.
Direct currents in the potentiometers are
eliminated by coupling capacitors in
order to minimize control noise. The unit
is constructed complete with mercury
batteries in an 8 x 6 x 3lh inch aluminum
box, as shown in Fig. 2.
The combined gain G versus frequency
I for the 6- and 12-db-per-octave filters
may be expressed by the equation.
Circuit Description
In the schematic, Fig. 3, a two-section
low-pass RC network at the input, consisting of R s, R 4, 0 1, and Os, produces
a 12-db-per-octave rolloff. The 'cutoff
frequency is varied by means of a twogang potentiometer Rs and R 4 • This network feeds an amplifier consisting of
two common-emitter stages having a
total voltage gain of 1.2 determined by
local negative feedback. To prevent a
change in gain due to loading as Rs and
R4 are varied, the input impedance of
this amplifier is made infinite by means
of positive or regenerative feedback
through Os to the bias circuit Rs and R 6 •
Regenerative feedback, from the collector of Qe through the PEAKING control
RII and emitter follower Qa to the network capacitor 01) causes the resonant
peak near the cutoff frequency. The
response, Figs. 5 and 6, is exactly the
same as that of a simple inductance capacitance-resistance low pass filter. The
PEAKING control RII adjusts the Q of the
."
1
G
[ 1+ 11j/ J[1+.iLQI, (L)'J
I,
where
11 = the 3-db-down frequency of
6~db-per~octave
the
filter
asymptotic cutoff frequency of the 12-db-per-octave filter
Ie =the
(Oontinued on page 70)
.;>
+5
0
-5
.s>
"I
-10
-'
+5
10'
r-...
I"-
0
1\
-5
og -10
-15
I
-15
~ -20
~
-20
~
&
-25
;::
~ -35
-40
-4S
20'
5
0 -25
"\
~ -30
.
r-
.-
. . .. .... . . . .. .
~ -30
....
..
I'-..
"
I-'
'"
~
\
1,\
r\
['I
--
. . .. ..
FREQUENCY IN CYCLES PER SECOND
1\
\
_\
-40
-4S
\
1\
~ -35
\.
,
.-
... . . .. ..... . . .. .
\
,
1\
.- -
. . .. .
L\ 1\
FREQUENCY IN CYCLES PER SECOND
Fig. 6. (left). Response at three positions of the PEAKING control. CUTOFF at 4 kc. Fig. 7. (right). A few of the numerous
combinations of the 6 and 12 db per octave cutoffs with variable peaking.
30
AUDIO
•
MAY, 1960
When Eleotro-Voice engineers set out to create a new series
of ultra-compact speaker systems, they recognized that it was
impossible to end with an instrument capable of satisfying
the audio perception of everyone. Thus, their primary aim became
(as always) the most natural reproduction of sound possible.
The theory lfehind such an obvious objective is to let the musical
acuity of the customer judge the performance of a speaker system to let the customer listen to the music rather than the speaker.
Cutaway of ESQUIRE 200
That such a fundamental approach to design and engineering was
successful has recently been verified by a series of listening
tests conducted among three groups of the most severe critics in
the high fidelity field. In New York, Boston and Los Angeles
nearly 300 sound room personnel of top high fidelity dealers
were given the opportunity to spend an afternoon listening to and
rating the "sound" produced by three of Electro-Voice's new
ultra-compact systems (Regal, Esquire, Ley ton) and six other
currently popular ultra-compact systems. All nine systems
were placed behind an opaque curtain and each listener's selector
switch was coded but unmarked so he had no way
of knowing which system he was hearing.
;,
More than 80% of the listeners ranked Electro-Voice Esquire
and Regal units either first or second. And, Electro-Voice's
'economical Leytop was ranked third by over 50 % of the listeners
- thus, out-scoring units at double its price.
We suggest that recognition such as this could not be earned
by merely "another" speaker system - but must result from our
earnest effort to create an instrument that takes nothing
away from nor adds anything to the music you want to hear.
SERIES OF COMPARISON TESTS BEFORE WORLD'S TOUGHEST
AUDIENCE PROVES VALUE OF NEW E~V SPEAKER SYSTEMS
We urge you to spend the time necessary to conduct your own comparative listening test. Visit
your own dealer and ask for a demonstration of these remarkable new Electro-Voice instruments.
Write directly to the factory for a complete description of these new units contained in High
Fidelity Catalog No. 137.
CONSUMER PRODUCTS DIVISION
e--~)6,c,® INC. DEPT.50A, BUCHANAN, MICHIGAN
AUDIO' •
MAY, 1960
31
Distortion
•
Tape Recording
HERMAN BURSTEI N':'
Types and causes of distortion should be understood by
the recordist if he is to obtain the best results. Various compromises are shown to be effective under different conditions.
IN TWO PARTS-PART ONE
the writer visits
some friends who have in their living r oom a pre-war r a dio console,
which cost over $500 and was consider ed
one of the finest units of its day . It r eceives good car e and enough service to
maintain it in "as good as n ew" condition. To one whose ears have become attuned to modern high fidelity equipment,
this console f alls noticeably short of the
mark in terms of f r equency r esponse an d
noise characteristics. But its most obvious deficiency, the greatest deterrent to
pleasurable listening, concerns distortion. The instrument just does not have
the smoothness and ease of reproduction
afforded by modern equipment.
The foregoing illustrates the p oint tha t
one of the most noteworthy developments
in the audio art in the high fid elity era,
at least to the ears of this writer, has
been the r eduction of distortion . While
the power am plifier has come in for a
gr eat shar e of attention, it is also true
tha t designer s of control amplifiers, tuners, cartridges, sp eakers, and other components have concentrated on r edu cing
distortion to imper ceptible amounts.
In these days when most audio equipment is built to exacting standards with
r :;sp ect to clean r eproduction-i.e. low
distortion-one loo~s for comparable r efinement in the tape r ecorder. The meticulous recordist will wish to preserve the
original quality of the ·sound so far as
possible. While satisfactorily low distortion can be achieved in tape machines,
this is far from a simple matter . Overcoming distortion remains considerably
F
ROM .TIME TO TIME
* 280 Twin Lane E ., Wantagh, N . Y.
32
more of a challenge in t ap e machines
than, say, amplifier s. When used with
today's better amplifiers, tuners, and
sp eakers, a tap e recorder must indeed be
of high quality, and must be properly
used, in order not to add no ticeable distortion .
I n tap e recording, distortion is inextricably linked with several other asp ects
of the process- signal-to-noise r atio, fre quency resp onse, equalization, bias current, and tap e sp eed. Therefore in · tho
fo llowing discussion we shall discuss distortion in ter ms of its r elationship to
these factors. First, however, it would
appear profitable to devote some sp ace
to a r eview. of what is meant by distortion. Such a n under standing can prove
(A )
PURE SINE WAVE
(1000 cps)
+-+--T--+--.l1-'
( B)
+_+-"-+-::::-t--1I-DISTORTE D WAVEFORM
(1000 cps)
( C)
+ _ + _ f - - - ' r - 1 I - 'ADDIT IONAL FREQUENCY
(2000 cps) GEN ERATED
BY THE AUDI O EQ PT
NOTE:
WAVEFORMS (A) AN D (C) ADD UP TO FORM (B)
Fig. 1. Ex ample of harmon ic distortion.
useful in various ways; for examp le, it
enables one to ap preciate why a given
r ecording level r esUlts in no noticeable
distortion for some kinds of sound and
quite p er ceptible distortion for othe r
kinds.
Meaning of Distortion
R eproduced SOlDl d is never totally devoid of distortion. But in the pr esent
sta te of the art it can be kep t so small
in most audio components as to be unnoticeable, p ermitting the repr oduced
sound to r etain the ease and naturalness
of the original. In somewhat larger quantity, it may still not be immedia tely dis·
cernible but instead may p ro duce a consciousness of aural fatigue after one has
been listening for a moder ate p eriod of
time. In successively larger quantities,
distortion causes the sound to become
gr ainy, gritty, coar se, and finally so
broken up as to be p artially or completely unintelligible.
Distortion consists of a change in the
orig inal waveform, due to in1 proper
fun ctioning of one or more audio components. Such improp er f unctioning is
called n on-linearity; tha t is, the wavefor m tur ned out by the comp onent is not
an exact r eplica of the incoming signal.
It can be demonstra ted, mathematically and by suitable test equipm ent, that
the change in the wavefor m actually con sists of the addition of new f r equencies
to ' those that wer e originally produced
by the sound source. This is illustrated
in F ig . 1. At (A) we see the original
wavef orm, a pure sine wave; (B) shows
a distorted version of the original. The
distortion consists of the waveform
AUDIO
•
MAY, 1960
URER.
Stereo·Record III
does best!
From the moment you hear its incomparable, high fidelity per-'_. 'in and fade-out, channel and speaker selection. Fingertip control of
pause, stop, rewind, fast rewind, forward, fast forward, speed selecformance-from the instant you realize the wide range of capabilities
tions of 7Y.z, 3%, or 1% ips, and a recording safety lock. Has an
the versatile controls put at your command - you know that the
accurate digital cueing meter.
Uher Stereo Record III is an exciting new experience in stereo tape
recording. Its performance is the sum total of superb engineering . . .
Monitoring facilities, plus dual recording level indicators, simplify
but let the specifications speak for themselves.
making stereo or mono recordings. High and low impedance inputs
accommodate any type of program source. Outputs for external
Here's what the Stereo Record III does ... and why it does it best!
speakers and for direct connection ·to external high fidelity ampliHigh Fidelity Performance, Unsurpassed- Broad 40 to 20,000 cps
fiers are provided. The simple flip of a switch will allow the program
frequency response; negligible wow and flutter 0.1%; high -55 db
to come forth from its self-contained high quality stereo amplifier
signal- to - noise ratio and constant speed hysteresis-synchronous
and stereo speaker system. Truly portable-weighs only 33 pounds.
motor assure the highest possible performance stanclards.
Complete with 2 .Dynamic High Imp edance Microphones, AmpliVersatility, Unlimited - Sound-on-sound! Play back on one track,
fiers and Carrying Case .. ................ ............................... ........... $399.50
record on the other - simultaneously. It plays either 2 or 4-track
FAMOUS UHER UNIVERSAL-High fidelity
pre-recorded tape. 4-tracks of Y.z mil tape, on a 7-inch reel, played
. at 1 'VB , ips provide more than 17 hours of play. The optional
performance - a most remarkable dic"
AKUSTOMAT automatically operates the tape transport only when
tating/playback inst~ument - 3 speeds
voice or program material reaches the microphone. The Stereo
from 15/16 ips-voice activated-autoe
Record III is adaptable for synchronizing automatic slide projectors.
matic continuous playback. With Remote
Control Microphone, Carrying Case ,
Flexibility, Unequalieil- Fool-proof and jam-proof controls proReel, Dust Cover ........ $299.95 plus f.e.t.
vide individual adjustments of each channel: Volume, tone, fadeYour dealer invites you to take the controls of the exciting Uher Stereo Record III.
For further details write: Dept. A-5, WARREN WEISS ASSOCIATES, .sole U. S. Agents, 346 West 44th Street, New York, New York
AUDIO
•
MAY, 1960
33
shown at (C) . If the distortion frequency
in (C) is added to the orig-inal frequency
(A), the result is the distorted waveform
of (B).
The new and undesired frequencies,
which are termed distortion products,
are produced by the audio equipment.
Unlike noise and hum, wh.ich are also undesired frequencies produced by (some)
audio components, distortion products
appear only in the presence of an audio
signal.
The principal kinds of distortion, those
most offensive to the ear, are harmonic
and intermodulation distortion. Harmonic distortion denotes the generatioll
of frequencies that are multiples of the
original frequency. To illustrate, in the
course of reproducing a 1000 cps tone
the audio equipment may, as the result
of its non-linear behavior, also generat.e
frequencies of 2000, 3000, 4000, etc. cps.
To an extent, the ear is not unduly offended by extraneous frequencies if they
are harmonically related to--exact multiples of- the original note. As a
rough rule, harmonic distortion products
are compatible with pleasant listening
when, in total, they constitute no more
than about I to 2 per cent of the total
sound; generally, 3 per cent is considered too great.
At the same time, the amount of harmonic distortion which is 'tolerable depends upon ·whether the distortion products are even or odd multiples of the
original frequency. Even multiples tend
to be less offensive. Furthermore, the
"order" of the harmonic products is a
determining factor. High-order products
are many times the original frequency;
low-order products are a few times the
original frequency. High-order products
tend to be more offensive. Thus if the
original frequency is 1000 cps, distortion products of 8000 and 9000 cps
would be more disagreeable than 2000
and 3000 cps. (It is appropriate to intersperse here that a tape recorder which
cuts off sharply above 9000 or 10,000 cps
Dlay offer cleaner sound than one which
goes out to 15,000 cps because the former
eliminates high-order distortion products
to a greater extent.)
Intermodulation distortion-1M for
short- occurs only when two or more
frequencies are simultaneously reproduced by the audio equipment. Deformation in the waveform of one frequency
results in deformation of a second fre"
quency, although it could well be that
the second frequency, if reproduced
alone, would not have been distorted by
the equipment in question . Thus 1M distortion refers to interaction among frequencies, with new frequen cies being
born out of this interaction. When a
substantial number of frequencies are
reproduced at once, as is often the case
with music, the interaction, namely 1M
distortion, becomes very complex.
34
Distortion Ratings for Tape Recorde rs
~ PURE
,. ,
...
SINE WAVE
-~
POSITI VE PEAK COMPRESSED (DISTORTED)
DUE TO AMPLIFIER
NON-LI NEARITY
REDUCED AMP LI TUDE
DUE TO INTERMO DULATlON DISTORTION
Fig . 2 . Ex ampl e af intermo du la t ion d istort io n. '
Figw'e 2 illustrates th~ process of intermodulation distortion. For simplicity,
it is assumed that only two tones, 100
and 1000 cps, are present and that they
are fed through an amplifier. Let us assume that the 100-cps signal is of substantially greater magnitude than the
other, so that it causes the amplifier to
operate in non-linear fashion at the positive peaks of the waveform. During these
moments of non-linear operation of the
amplifier the 1000 cps signal is also being
keated in non-linear manner, despite the
fact that this signal. in itself is of too
small magnitude to cause the amplifier
to behave in non-lin ear fashion. At (A)
we see the effect of amplifier non-linearity upon the 100 cps waveform. (B)
shows the resulting effect upon the 1000cps waveform due to the f act that the
amplifier is periodically operating- in
lion-linear manner. The 1000-cps waveform is compressed 100 times per second
by the 100 cps signal. In other words,
the 100-cps frequency is now present in
the 1000-cps one.
Unfortunately the new frequencies created by 1M distortion are not multiples
of the original frequencies. The distortion products consist of various multiples of one frequency plus or minus
multiples of the other frequency. For
example, 100 and 1000 cps will form 1M
products of 1100 cps (sum of the Ol'iginal signals) and 900 cps (difference between the original signals). They will
form 1200 cps (twice 100 cps plus 1000
cps) and 2100 cps (twice 1000 cps plus
100 cps). They will form 1900 cps (twice
1000 cps minus 100 cps) and 800 cps
(1000 cps minus twice 100 cps). And so
on and so forth. If there were more thau
two original frequencies involved, the
distortion products would be still more
complex.
1M distortion not exceeding 1 to 2
per cent is often considered compatible
with high fidelity. On the other hand, it
has been found that the ability to reduoe 1M to as low as 0.1 p er cent in
voltage amplifiers and power amplifiers
has produced noticeable improvement.
Extremely seldom does one find the
specifications for 'a tape machine having
anything to say about 1M distortion. The
reason will appear later, when we compare harmonic and 1M distortion produced by tape recorders. The nigh-univers8!1 practice instead is to r ate tape
machines in terms of harmonic distortion at a stated signal-to-noise ratio, for
example 50 db in moderate-quality machines or 55 db in high-quality machines.
The record-level indicator is adjusted to
provide an indication , of maximum permissible recording level when the level is
such as to prod~ce anywhere from as low
, as 1 p er cent to as high as 5 per cent
harmonic distortion (at a frequency of
400 cps or so) . The low-priced machines
, typically use 5 p er cent harmonic distortion as maximum p ermissible r ecording
level, while the top quality ones use 1 or
2 per cent. Many machines, of varying
quality, use 3 per cent harmonic distortion as the r eference. The official standard, applicable to 15 ips recording-, considers 2 per cent harmonic distortion to
be the maximum permissible quantity.
Distortion and Signal-to-Noise Ratio
In the process of recording and playing back a tape, there are two principal
sources ,of noise to contend with: tape
noise and amplifier noise. Tape noise is
of two kinds. One, known as tape hiss,
is due to incomplete cancellation of mag-netic fields when the tape is erased. These
magnetic fields are of random character
and therefore produce random frequencies with a characteristic "hissy" quality.
The other kind of tape noise is known as
modulation noise, which appears only in
the presence of an audio signal on the
tape. Modulation noise is due to impe!'fections in the base andlor magnetic
coating of the tape. When an audio signal is r ecorded, corresponding imperfections appear in the recorded sig-nal and
are manifest as noise. As the result of
the improvements that have taken place
in tape manufacture, modulation noise
is less serious a problem than tap e hiss,
Tape-amplifier noise occurs both in
recording and playback. However, the
signal fed to the tape amplifier is genemlly of much smaller magnitude in
playback-the tape delivers but a fraction of a millivolt at many frequenciesso that it is principally noise of the tape
playback amplifier which presents a
problem.
In sum, the principal obstacles to a
good signal-to-noise ratio are tape hiss
and the noise (including hum) produced
by the tape playback amplifier.
To achieve an adequate signal-to-noise
ratio it theref ore becomes vital to record
as much signal as pmctical upon the
tape. But the practical amount of signal
that can be impressed on the tape is
determined by the distortion characteristics of the tape, the tape head, and the
AUDIO
•
MAY, 1960
:111· 1111 111
0
1
-1
I
I
I
I,
J
-I
1
111 1
-
'.
~ N.easurements of input l eve l are bas ed
on the peak value of the tes t signals.
5 f- Bias c urre nt is approxi ma te ly optimum
z
o
;::
for the mac hine and tape used in mokf- ing these measurements.
0- db input leve l corresponds approxO ~ irnately to a zero-V U indication o n the _ t
tcpe rec order' s level-indic ati ng meter.
ot;;
o
5
.~
15
~
z
g
Fig. 3. Va ria tio n
of ta pe di sto rtion
w it h cha n ge s in
inpu t leve l.
I
I
0
I
Q.
HARMONIC DISTORTI ON
(1000 cps) /
IJ
S
V
-I S
- 10
-S
-
V
o
+S
- 1--'
RELATIVE INPu r LEVEL -
+10
•
MAY, 1960
V
+I S
+20
db
record amplifier. Ordinarily, the tape sets
the bounds to how mu ch signal can be
recorded . That is, the tape overloads, or
should do so, before the tape head and
the tape amplifier go into serious distortion.
However, there have been instances
where a poorly designed head has produced significant distortion in recording,
particularly at low fr equencies, although
the signal level was not such as to produce "!l'pPl'ecinhle -distortion on the tape.
Laminated heads, which contain a greater
amount of magnetic mater,i al, are generally apt to have superior distortion characteristics compared with those of nOlllaminar construction .
There have also been instances where
aI', improperly d esig~e d r ecording amplifier has gone into serious distortion at
too low a recording level. For example,
one insta nce of this kind involved a machine of professional calibre. Although
the amplifier did not produce appreciable distortion when conventional tape
was employed, it wept into excessive distortion when the recording level was incr eased to a p oint consistent with the
use of high-output tape, which can accept several db more signal for the same
amou nt of distortion.
For the most part, however, we can
,assume that it is the tape which sets the
limit to the recording level by overloading before any of the other components
do.
'
Figtwe 3 indicates the variation of
harmonic distor tion and of 1M distortion
with changes in input signal. The measurements were taken on a professionalquality tape machine operating at 15 ips.
While the r esults doubtless would be
AUDIO
iM DISTORTION _
(60 a nd 6000 cps)
different with other machines, tapes, and
speeds, nevertheless these curves can be
viewed as representative.
It may be seen in Fig. 3 that distortion , either harmonic or 1M, increases
.
quite slowly for a while as signal level IS
increased, but that the rise in distortion
becomes precipitous after a point. Severe
1M distortion occurs much earlier than
harmonic distortion. Hence at recording
levels which breed innocuous amounts
of harmonic distortion the 1M distortion
will have risen to unacceptable levels. It
is understandable, therefor e, why a recording may sound grating if made under conditions where the record level indicator p ermits 5 per cent maximum
harmonic distortion .
On th e other hand, a r ecording that
p ermits 1M distortion to reach 20 p er
cent or more is not always unacceptable.
Sounds r ecorded at such distortion levels
are tolerable if their duration is sufficiently brief. Characteristically, many
sounds have 'peak levels 10 db, 20 db, or
even more above their average level.
While the p eaks may be sever ely distorted, the major p art of the sound may
be at a level that escapes significant distortion. Whether the distortion in the
peru,s is tolerable depends upon their
c1Ul'ation and how frequently they come
along. If the peaks are occasional. and
very brief, large amounts of 1M dIstortion in the r eproduction of these peaks
may escape attention.
The extent to which distortion is acceptable also depends upon the natu~e
of the sound being r ecorded. Certam
kinds of music must be recOl'ded at lower
levels than other kinds in order to
maintain clean r eproduction . Generally,
higher levels of distortion are acceptable '
'in reproducing speech than music. In
ret,)Ol'ding a solo voice or a solo instruII lent, 1M distortion is less apt to be
sel'ious than when recording a group of
voices or instruments, because there will
be fewer intermodulation products when
there are fewer frequencies reproduced
at one time.
In deciding how high a recording level
one may employ for different source material, there is no substitute for experience. The neophyte recordist does well
to invest a: certain amount of time in
exp erimenting with various r ecording '
levels for various kinds of material. In
.any event, he should remember that the
desire for a slight improvement in
signal-to-noise ratio- i.e., by raising the
recording level just a few db- may bring
with it a ,great increase in distortion if
one happens to be at the point where
distortion rises rapidly with a slight increase in recording level.
All in all, the recordist has three
choices. First, hc may be willing to accept occasional noticeable distortion,
principally on signal peaks" for the sake
of a relatively high recording level and
therefore a superior signal-to-noise ratio.
Second, he may be unwilling to accept
any noticeable distortiun whatsoever, but
at the cost of a significant reduction in
recording level and therefore in signalto-noise ratio. Third, it is possible in a
sense to eat one's cake and have it too
by "riding gain." That is, one can record
at a moderately high level, well below
the point of noticeable distOl'tion, during
normal and quiet passages, then reduce
the recording level just before loud
passages come along. The last alternative
requires one to be prepared with a score
01' other means of knowing when loud
passages are about to occur. Also it implies that one is willing to compress the
dynamic range (difference between the
softest and loudest passages) in exchange for an improvement with respect
to distortion.
It must be taken into account that the
need to exchange signal-to-noise ratio, 01'
possibly dynamic range, for a reduction
in distortion depends upon the tape machine one is using . If the playback amplifier has superior characteristics in
terms of low noise and hum, and if the
head is specificruly designed for playback and therefore has higher output
tha~ one intended for both recording and
playback, the r ecordist's task of achieving a satisfactory compromise between
the conflicting considerations of noise
and distortion is lightened. On the other
hand, if amplifier noise is relatively high
and head output low, the r ecordist I!).ight
conceivably decide he is willing to accept
a fair amount of distortion in order to
keep noise down relative to the audio
signal.
To. Be Continued
35
36
AUDIO
•
MAY, 1960
FOR TRUE CONCERT HALL AUDIENCE PERSPECTIVE ...
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More ALTEC Duplex loudspeakers are used professionally, as broadcast and telecast
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A 15/1 loudspeaker complete with 1600 cycle network incorporating a
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has a low cone resonance of only 25 cps. The low frequency voice coil
is 3/1 in diameter a nd the high frequency voice coiI"is 1%/( in diameter.
The low frequency voice coil is of edge wound copper wire and the high
frequency coil of edge wound aluminum ribbon wire. The low frequency
section voice coil functions in a high magnetic flux of 14,750 gauss de":
rived from a heavy Alnico V magnet. This unit ·has a sensitivity rating
of 56 db (EIA). ' This high sensitivity provides greater listening volume
with less a udio power demand from the high fidelity amplifier than less
efficient types of speakers, with the result that the average amplifier will
not produce distortion during " peaks." The distribution of sound is uniform over a wide angle of goO
horizontal and 40° vertical. Heavy-lifetime construction-the speaker -weighs 37 pounds. $177.00
602B DUPLEX
Like the model 605A this unit is another member of the famous AL TEC
Duplex family. The 602B is a 15/1 speaker having the same general characteristics as the 605A. This model has a continuous power handling capacity
of 25 watts a nd a sensitivity rating of 54 db (EIA) distributed over the same
wide angle as the 605A type. Tlfe high efficiency of the 602B Duplex, with
a flux density of 13,500 gauss, together with its guaranteed frequency
response of 30-22,000 cycles, is reason for the great popularity of this model.
The loudspeaker complete with 3000 cycle network and variable shelving
control weighs 25 pounds.
. $143.00
60lB DUPLEX
The 60lB Duplex is recommended for the finest
of high fidelity reproduction in systems where
speaker enclosure space is limited. This model
being 12/1 in size does not require an enclosure quite as large as best suited
for the 15/1 size. This example of outstanding craftsmanship is a speaker
having the same high frequency resp.o nse as the models 602B and 605A,
and with low frequency reproduction to 40 cycles, and continuous power
handling capacity of 20 watts. The Altec design and precision workmanship
in this model has created a loudspeaker with a sensitivity of '5 3 db ' (EIA).
High frequ ency sound is distributed over the same wide angle of goO x 40°'
by means of an exponential horn. The high efficiency of the"60lB Duplex,
the magnetic field of I 1,400 gauss derived from a 1.8 pound magnet, its
guaranteed frequency response-is emblematic of perfection and quality.
Model 60lB complete with 3000 cycle network weighs 17 pounds. Here, too, a shelving contr0l
is provided as part of the network for high frequency attenuation.
$120.00
Visit your authorized Altec dealer and see Altec's complete family line of matched hi fidelity components. TUNERS . AMPLIFIERS . PREAMPLIFIERS . SPEAKERS . SPEAKER
ENCLOSURES· MICROPHONES '
Write for free catalogs. Address: Dept. AD-5D, ALTEC LANSING CORPORATION
1515 S. Manchester Avenue, Anaheim, California
161 Sixth Avenue, New York 13, New York
A subsidiary of Ling,Altec Electronics, Inc.
for thel,best in sO'l!tnd systems, r;hoose components by
AUDIO
•
MAY, 1960
'1
37
Converting the Grundig to Stereo
WILLIAM C. DILLEY*
The method of converting one type of monophonic recorder
can be varied to accommodate almost any variety of machine.
ADVE~T of stereophonic sound,
while provding greater musical enjoyment for many, has also rendered
obsolete much of the equipment now
owned by many others. Monophonic recorders, of course, fall into-this category.
One must either purchase another recorder possessing both stereo and mono
capability, or convert the mono to stereo.
The least expensive course of action is
to retain the monophonic recorder, but
most manufacturers do not provide for
such a conversion.
This article outlines such a conversion
for the Grundig 800 series recorders, but
the principles apply equally well to any
monophonic recorder.
Since most owners of tape recorders
possess tapes recorded on their machines,
and desire to play these, as well as prerecorded stereo tapes, it is imperative
that no part of the normal monophonic
operation be compromised. This requirement dictates that a separate stereo playback system be used, since the tape
equalization provided by this model
Grundig is not compatible with American tape curves.
The addition of a stereo palyback
head connected to two separate preamplifiers is the best and easiest solution to this problem. It allows playback
of either mono or stereo without switching within the recorder itself.
Since the Grundig is equipped with
two erase heads (one for each direction),
one of these heads can be removed without losing any capability. The playback
will remain unchanged, and the tape can
be turned over to record the second track
in the same direction. Recording can be
accomplished in either direction, of
course, with new or bulk erased tape.
, The advantages of mounting the
stereo record/playback in place of the
existing erase head are:
T
HE
. 1. An adjustable leveling plate is provided to facilitate head alignment.
. 2. Location insures good contact of
the tape with the stereo head.
3. No evidence of the modification is
visible, since this is a professional-looking job.
Fig. 1. Top view of Gnrndig tape recorder showing mounting of stereo heads. Left to'
right, the four heads shown are the Dynamu stereo record playback unit, the next
two are the Grundig R/ P heads, and the last is the Nort.ronics head . The two stereo
heads replace the original erase units.
on the face of the covel' plate will expose
the tape heads, as seen in Fig. 1. Loosen
the leveling plate of either erase head
(the erase heads are both located outboard, and the record/ playback heads
are located on either side of the main
drive capstan in the center) and cut the
three attaching wires to allow removal
of the complete head assembly. Tape
the ends of the wires. This operation
DYNAMU HEA
LEVELING
PLATE
Installing the Stereo Head
Removal of the knobs and four screws
* 577 E. Avel'Y St., San Bemardino, Calif.
38
Fig . 2. Details of mounting ' for Dynamu
heads.
does nothing excepJ; eliminate the erase
function in the opposite direction.
The head is then unplugged from the
bakelite socket and the socket r emoved
from the leveling plate. If it is desirable
to retain the sockets, the rivets may be
drilled out.
Figu.7·e 2 indicates dimensions for
drilling the screw hole for a base-mounting head and F ig. 3 illustrates method
and dimensions for a r ear-mounted head.
The dimensions given are for heads normally used in Viking Tape Decks : F 'ig. 2
is a Dynamu head and Fig. 3 is Nortronics. Other heads may be installed
with only slight placement changes.
For base mounted heads, the hole is
drilled to accommodate the head mounting screw. For rear mounted heads, the
existing oval hole is used to connect an
"L" bracket to the leveling plate, and
any small size machine screw or bolt may
be used. Flat head types should be used,
however, to allow the tape head to center
in the proper position without striking
the screw head.
After mounting the head on the leveling plate, the plate is attached to the
deck by the three leveling screws.
The head leads are then connected to
a double phono jack mounted in any
AUDIO
•
MAY, 1960
BOGEN-PRESTO
studio-standard turntables
Here are som e of the Bogen-Presto turntables:
(illustrated above ) 3 speeds • precision-ground
aluminum turntable · planetary, inner-rim drive · independent
idler fo r each speed· hysteresis-synchronous motor· positive
smooth lever-operated speed change • turntable shaft automatically distributes cylinder-wall lubricant for fri ction-free
motion • built-in strobe disc • 's n a p ~acti o n' 45 rpm record
spindle • 'radial-ridged' mat for improved record
traction and ease in cleaning. L ess (wm, $99.50.
MODEL TIS Powered by heavy-duty, recordingIt's logical that the p eople who m ake the equipment- type hysteresis-synchronous motorthat puts the quality into the records-are m ost likely to otherwise identical to TT4. Less arm, $129.50.
make equipment that will preserve this quality in play- MODEL TI3 Single speed (33% rpm }-beltb ack. Which is probably why there are so m any Presto driven by hysteresis-synchronous motor
- same turntable material and shaftturntables in professional use.
bearing design as TT4 and TT5.
The quality of a modern home music system need be L ess arm, $59.95.
no different from that of a professional studio. The same MODEL pAl Professional Tone-Arm, $24.95.
records are played, and the quality of the amplifier and
MODEL B60 Speeds continuously variable
speaker components can be quite comparable. Bogen- - click-stops fo r 16, 33%, 45 and 78 rpmPresto offers you this professional studio quality in the 4-pole heavy-duty motor-heavy steel
860
turntable- cueing device automatically rarses
record playback equipment, as w ell.
and lowers arm to assure gentle contact between stylus
Whatever other equipment you now own, the addition and record groove. With modified PAl Studio Arm, $49.95
of a Bogen-Presto turntable and arm will produce an
MODEL B61 7~" pound non-ferrous, turntable-otherwise idenimmedia te and m arked improvement in the playback tical to Model B60. With modified PAl Studio Arm, $54.95.
quality of your stereo and monophonic records. And you All prices are slightly higher in W est
will find the compactness of these
BOG E N _PRE S T 0
See your high fidelity dealer or
units particularly convenie nt
write for illustrated catalog describSERVES THE NATION WITH BETTER SOUND
where space is limited.
IN INDUSTRY. EDUCATION. THE STUDIO AND IN THE HOME . ing complete turntable line.
Consider the record you are about to hear. The original
recording may very well have b een made with a Presto
professional tape recorder. It is also likely that the master
w as made on a Presto disc recorder, using a Presto turntable, a Presto recording lathe and a Presto cutting head.
Presto has b een serving the recording and broadcast
industries for many years, and is the only m anufacturer
of both-professional tape and disc recording equipment.
@ B~~EN-PRESTO COMPANY
MODEL TI4
P. O. BOX 500. PARAMUS, NEW JERSEY
A DIVISION OF THE SIEGLER CORPORATION
~:.
"l" BRACKET
( 1;8" ALUMINUM)
NORTRONICS HEAD
Fig . 3 . Mo unting
deta ils for the
Nortronics heads.
convenient position. Two examples are
shown in the photographs. The right
head (N ortronics) is cotmected for access from <the top of the cover plate for
outboard use, and the left head is connected to -the side of the chassis for internal use. F -igu're 4 shows the compl\'!ted
unit.
Shielded cable patch cords then connect from the phono Jack to the input
of two tape preamplifiers. Almost all
commercial preamps have a "tape head"
position for this purpose.
Since both heads are of high impedance, short leads are desirable for maximum high-frequency output (IS-in.
patch cords ar e satisfactory- if .longer
leads are required, low capacitance cable
should be used ) .
Alignment and Operation
H ead alignment is quite simple with
the leveling plate, and all that is required is a standard alignment tape containing a high-frequency signal. Demagnetize a small screw driver by placing it
close to a:n a.c. magnetic field and slowly
withdrawing it to a distance of approximately three feet. A bulk eraser or coiltype soldering iron will provide the necessary field, Using the screwdriver, adjust the head to a perpendicular ' posi-
Fig'. 4 : View-of modified recorder. Knobs
at top control switching for the stereo
heads.
40
tion, centered in heig'ht by visual means.
Play the alignment tape and adjust the
leveling screws to obtain maximum signal output, while keeping the tape cent(;red, in height, across the head. If no
allg'nment tape is availahle, select a tape
containing the most continuou,s highfrequency sound, such as percussion instruments, and adjust the head as described until maximum clarity is
achieved. Inspect the head position from
the side to insure that face of the head is
parallel to the tape or high-frequency
losses may occur on one track.
Final head placement should allow- at
least 15 degrees tape "wrap around" for
adequate contact. The Nortronics ,"head
allows much more than this and is no
problem, but the Dynamu head has a
metal outside case with sharp edges
which limits this condition. Care should
be exercised to assure ma;x:imum tape-tohead contact without the tape touching
the metal edges of the head. Too much
"wrap around" will cause tape damage
or a path for static electricity discharge.
Not enough "wrap around" will result
in uneven tape tr!tvel and cause erratic
sound reproduction. If hum is enCOlilltered, one or both of the following actions should eleminate it :
1. Ground the Grundig tape deck to
the tape head input or chassis ground of
the external preamplifiers.
2. Ground the shielded leads from the
ster eo head to the tape deck.
3. The a.c. power plugs of all units
should be r:eversed in power outlets until
lowest hum level is attained.
The only required change in operating
procedure is during fast forward or fast
reverse operation. Since the position (of
the newly installed heads ) does not allow
the mechanism the mechanism to pull
the tape away from the heads, the fast
moving tape causes excessive head wear
and static electricity build-up which may
discharge upon the tape. This action is
avoided by removing either the selector
knob or the volume (depending up:- n
which side the head is installed ) a!l'l
using the shaft as a tape guide or cap-
stan. The l"ewind or fast forward operation is then smooth and trouble free.
Installation of two additional heads
instead of one allows simultaneous record and playback capability. The unit
described, has the left head permilllently
connected to playback preamplifiers for
p layback only. The right head is used
for an outboard recorder which is
plugged into the jacks on the face of the
recorder. This arangement allows stereo
tapes to be played back while they are
being recorded (new or bulk-erased tape
must be used). Monophonic recordings
may be made in either direction with the
stereo head, but may be monitored only
in one direction.
The approximate expenditure of the
two hours of time required to install .a
stereo head in your recorder is more than
amply repaid by the increased value &.nd
enjoyment as the result of this simple
IE
modification.
M EET.I NG N'O TRCE
The Tri·City Hi· Fidelity Association will
present a t i ts regular monthly meeting on
May 23, 1960, a lecture· demonst ration en·
titled " The Bi·phonic Coupler" by Abrahani
B. Cohen. This meeting w ill be held a t 8 : 00
p.m. at Yates School Auditorium, Salina
Street, Schenectady, New York.
Mr. Coh en is president of Advanced Acous·
tics, Inc., which manufactnres the Bi·pllOnic
Coupler, a new transducer which is attract·
ing widespread interest among auruofaus.
He is a noted inventor, lecturer, and author
of several articles and books on audio sub·
jects.
Our meetings a l'e open to the general public, and area a udio groups are especially
welcome.
NEW LITERATURE
• James B. Lansing Sound, Inc., 3249
Casitas Ave., Los Angeles 39, Cali f., is
distributin g a n ew catalog sheet which
covers the company's Mode l L E30 "linearefficiency" :->igh-frequency driver a nd
T ype LX3 m atchin g network . The LE30
is completely sealed and se lf -contained,
and m ay be mounted in the same enclosure with a low-freq u ency driver with
no special precautions. Ask for Bulletin
SB·I 01 8.
E-12
• Audiot-e,x Mfg. Co., 400 S. Wyman St.,
Rockford, Ill., lis ts more than 150 stereoa udio accessories in its just-rel eased 1960
catalog. D etailed descriptions and photographs of each item a re included in the
2· color 16-page bookle t . List prices are
shown. The comprehensive Audiotex line
inc ludes accessories for all types of soun d
reproducing equipm ent. These range from
durable plastic changer covers to gauges
and microscopes for measuring a nd ob·
serving record and stylus wear. A full se·
lection of interconnecting cables, adapters,
and jacks are illustrated in a variety of
length s for a ll connections. This catalog
is availab le witho ut cost. In Canada it
m ay be obtained by writing to Atlas R a dio
Corporation, Ltd., Toronto 19.
E-13
• Robins Industries Corp., 36-27 Prin ce
St., Flush ing 54, N. Y., has just pub lis hed a 48·page soft-cover book under
the title, "Television T ape Recor din g."
Written by George B. Goodall, it is a n informative , easy-read in g publication whi ch
cove r s the technica lities of video tape
recording a nd playback in practica l language. ,The non-mathematical and for ·
mula-free treatment of the Ampex Videocape' machine and its operation m a k es it
possible for the layman as well as the
expert to gain a n insight into the u se of
magnetic- tape recording for both video
and a udio appli ca t ions, with emph asis on
video. The book is priced at one dollar.
1
T . j'l. Ampex Corp.
AUDIO
e
MAY, 1960
AUDIO
()
MAY, 1960
41
AUDIO ETC.
([1'om p{Lge 12)
was agin it. AND the stereo disc was priced
above the mono, leaving compatibility ill a
sort of price limbo. So the "comp~tible"
disc died before it was born .
The idea was born again, on a rel a tively
small scale, in at least one l ater instance,
the "compatible" r ecordings on the Counterpoint label (ex-Esoteric) . Counterpoin t
discs were stated to be playable on both
mono and stereo equipment-but whether
this was a case of semantics I could not
say. It has been possible to argue all along,
of course, that a straight, non-compromise
stereo disc can be played safely via enough
mono picknps to call it compatible. The GE
mono cartridges, for instance, will play
most stereo discs without undue trouble.
They provide enough vertical compliance
cushion to p r event major damage.
Not wise, you'll say, to count on this
sort of accidental compatibility. Indeed,
yon may think it highly unwise to suggest
that there is any compatibility at all. But
the fact remains that the a rgument is not
black and white. A ster eo disc may be flatly
ter med compatible, in so many words, and
the statement is not 100 per cent unt rue
by any means.
Whether CounterpOint depended on this
somewhat doubtful use of language, or
act ually cut with reduced vertical excursion is an interesting question. You ask
them. Nor do I know whether the stereo
aspect of the r ecords was in any way compromised in favor of compatibility. But
t he discs were, indubitably, called compatible. And surely there have been other s
claiming the same which haven't reached
my notice.
Price.Compatibility AND Unig roov e ?
Now we have the "compatible" record all
over again, not from Columbia but from
Fairchild, and the story is essentially no
different as I see it. I don't even feel that
this is the place to argue wheth er the new
process "worl,s" or not. I'm quite SUl'e it
does (And if some Unigroove discs turn
out to have "blended" the two stereo tracks
into each other a bit, there's no saying it
might not be a good thing. Too much
ster eo separation can be a pain, and a bit
of compatible blending, especially in Pops
music, might be very healthy. I've hea r d
one such U nigroove disc already and it
sounds just fine-blended or no. ) See p. H
Unigroove may for all I know provide the
very paragon of compatibility, n eve rth ~­
less. I still must go on r ecord as feeling
that the whole thing is an unfortunate
development at this time, UNLESS . . .
Unless we have, first, the mu ch more dr amatic compatibility that would come with
equal pricing of "standard" mono and
"standard" stereo discs.
Then, by golly, t he "compatible" r ecord
might be a r easonable b et.
Look at it this way. If stereo a nd mono
prices wer e t he same everywhere, a compatihle disc would h a~'e no special price
ach-antage 01' disadvantage. It would not
have to mD ke the painful choice of attaching it~el£ to one price level or the other.
Therefor e it would sell strictly on its own
merits. Chiselers would not find it easy,
tben, to muscle in on the confusion.
If you had your choice of three types of
disc, all of the same p erformance at th e
Sal11e pl'ice, a ster eo, a "compatible" stereo
and a mono- which would y.ou choose'
'
Whatevel' your choice,.it would be realistic, practical and painless.
42
And th e chauces are, I'll bet, tha t it
would be the full stereo disc.
* * *
I rather doubt if compatible pricing will
come in via a sober, industry-wide conference and subsequent agreemeut. In our
competitive field it isn't likely to happen
that way. Remember the pre-war $1.00 disc
and the more r ecent LP price sl ashes~ All
such price cuts that I can remember have
been strictly unilateral and with a maximum of drama. The idea is to get a beat
on your rivals. Especially if you are big
and so ar e t hey.
So-go to it, somebody! Somebody
plenty big. Get the pUblicity for yourself,
g r ab the initiative and take the credit.
Act big, be dramatic.
P?'ice yo~t?' monos and stel'eos the same
am'oss t he bOal·d.
Only the biggest record companies can
swing this sort of thing, but any one of
them might try it with success. Or any two.
Which ones' I wouldn't know. But somebody'd better do it pretty dal'lled soon if
sterea is to be put on the rails for good.
FLASH! Since this was written, Everest
ha s advertised both at the same price. Good
for them!
2. THAT NEW TAPE CARTRIDGE
A big heading and not much to sayyet. My article in the April issue probably
looked a bit silly to you, considering that
it appeared only a week or so afler th e
public announcement of the new Columbia
cartridge system a t the New York IRE
meetings in March and slyly prophesied
t hat the cartridge might, perhaps, be anI!ounced in June! Natch, I had written the
piece long before and, natch, the IRE>announcement came j ust after we were safely
and irrevocably "in bed," gone to press. By
being a bit too forehaud ed, I missed the
boat beautifully.
No matter, fo r the ll ew device is not
scheduled to be put on sa le until 1961, as
had been previo usly hin ted ill one of our
wor thy rival magazines by Dr. Goldmark
himself, head of CBS Labs. The project is
being carried on in conjunction with
"3M," Minnesota Mining, and it seems that
at this point the tape itself, quite r easonably and logically, is the biggest bottleneck.
This strik es me as both an hon est and a
hopeful explanation. We all know of t he
r eally amazing p rogress in head gap construction and manufacture these last f ew
years, and we all are aware now that pitch
stability at the very low speeds is decidedly
attainable, even in relatively low-cost
equipment. (Remember when the 33 LP
r ecord was much too slow for steady
speecH)
Other factors iu slow-speed hi-fi on tape
have been improvin g right along; the apparent fact is that now the tape itself is
the major bottleneck. Reminds me of t he
problems of fine-grain film when tbe minia ture camera first came out. But there is
precious Jjttle doubt that with the right impetus, tape manufacturing staudards can
be r aised and tolerances narrowed nntil th!!
needs of lk ips r ecording can be met. That
evidently, is Columbia'S targe t along witl;
3M, before a major la unching of the new
tape recorcl.
Why the announ cement 110W, t hen ~ Aha
-there we rU11 into politics, no doubt . '
Never forget t hat there is, still officially on
the books a rival tape cartridge la unched
b~- our friends at RCA and not, at this
point, a n outstanding success. Perhaps an
announcement at this delicate point might
give. it a 'polite coup de grace. From CBS
to RCA with love~ My own idea-strictly
speculatiou.
I did suggest, last month, that this was
a year of decision for tape. The new announcement proves it handily. We still have
four-track N ips tape and this excell ent
medium has a year's grace in whicb to organize itself for its own best valu es or,
alternatively, to modify its aims towards
the inevitable slower speeds. Four-tr ack H
ips is fortunately not too expensive now
and it has the major advantage of being
in production-and playable on most present new machines. Make hay while . ..
3. DON'T THROW IT OUT CONT.
In our March issue we inadvertently put
my discu~sion of the new Dyna-Empire
stereo arm under the general heading of
"Don't Throw It Out" and I hereby bow an
apology to Dyna-Empire, in case that company thought I had ever had such an intention! (Apparently they dicZn't, fOI' they
didn't mention it. ED.) At this point I
would not even think of the possibility of
t hrowing out my Empire 98, and I suspect
I'll feel the same way for quite awhile to
come. What happened was simply that two
other items under that heading had to be
postponed due to sp ace limitations. Th en
the boldface typography in our leads somehow slipped a joint and found itself in the
wrong place. The culprit was myself-my
copy was very late.
The postponed items will follow, a nd I'll
add more from time to time, since I think
it's interesting to follow up on older equip:
ment now and then as a sort of perspectiYc
on the new.
Those Mono Ta bles
I a m still using no less than three old
mono-intended tUl'Iltables, built before the
stereo er a, and two of th em a re pl aying
stereo records very nicely. The third continues as a superb table for mouo broadcast tapings of both stereo and 111ono discs
-my r adio program is still, of course, inescapably mono throughout and will continue so until the F_C.C. comes to some
decision as to stereo broadcasting.
The best table I've ever h ad, if you take
the product of the equation tinle/quality,
is also my oldest table, the Rek-O-Kut (now
Rondine ) T-12H, with hysteresis .' motor.
This really superb old machine just plays
on and on and on, year after year. And th e
best thing of all is tha t it turns out to be
a very acceptable stereo table, with vertical rumble low enough so that there is only
a slight differeuce between mono and stereo
playback, r easonably acceptable for my
listening purposes.
I think this T-12H is a n excellent illnst ration of the important distinction betweeu professioual and ... well, consumer
quality . Professional equipment is generally
better in p erformance but its real superiority is in the simple matter of quality, of
strength, durability, r eliability. The "T"
lines of Rek-O-Kut t ables were originally
designed as professional equipment, or
modified from it . The t able was basically a
recording t able, the 12-inch model adapted,
if I'm right, from the fully "pro" 16-inch
job. It is enormously massive, the bearings
(Continued on page 67)
AUDIO
•
MAY, 1960
MONAURAL CONSOLE OWNER - WHY DON'T YOU.RELEGATE THAT ANTIQUE RELI.G
TO THE ATTIC AND GET INTO STEREO THE EASY WAY WITH THE PILOT "602"?
MONAURAL COMPONENT OWNER -YOU'LL NEVER BE ABLE TO PERFECTLY MATCH
YOUR PRESENT EQUIPMENT. GET INTO TRUE STEREO WITH THE PILOT "602".
MONAURAL EAVESDROPPER - STOP LISTENING TO YOUR NEIGHBOR'S STEREO
WITH ONE EAR. GET A STEREO SYSTEM OF YOUR OWN WITH A PILOT "602" .•
INTO STEREO THE EASY WAY WITH THE A·MAZING NEW PILOT
"602" • IT'S A STEREO FM / AM TUNER . IT'S A STEREO PREAMPLIFIER • IT'S A30-WATT STEREO AMPLIFIER • IT REPRODUCES STEREO OR MONOPHONIC SOUND . IT FEATURES PILOT'S NEW SIMPLIMATIC TEST PANEL-BALANCE OUTPUT TUBES USING YOUR SPEAKER SYSTEMWITHOUT EXTERNAL METERS • IT FEATURES PILOT STEREO-PLUS FOR CENTER
FILL • IT'S ONLY 239.95 • IT'S THE
Controls: Maste r Volume/Power, Automatic Shutoff, Loudn ess, Stereo Bal ance, Dual
TroLok Contro ls (Bass Channels A & B, Trebl e Channels A & B), 8 pos ition ,Selector,
FM tuning, AM t uning. Inputs: 2 pair non -s horting for permanent si multaneous connect ion of multiplex adapter, tape recorder or TV- l pair for turntable or changer.
Outputs : 4-Channe l A & B tape, Multiplex 1 & 2. Sensitivity: FM-2uv for 20 db of
quieting on 300 ohm antenna; AM -3uv for 1 volt DC at detecto r; Phono-3 millivolts;
Multipl ex-110 mill ivo lts; Tape reco rd er 110 millivolts. Tube complement: '16 tubes,
1 tuning indicator, 4 silicon diode power rectifiers, 3 ge rman ium diodes. Speaker
Impedances: 4, 8 and 16 ohms_ Weight: 26 Ibs. Write for complete specifications.
ONLY PILOT COULD
FOUNDED 1919
AUDIO
•
•
HAV~E~': BUILT
THE NEW H602"
PILOT RADIO CORPORATION, . 37-04 36 STREET, LONG ISLAND CITY 1, NEW YORK
MAY, 1960
43
Eau, piV\E~r·r
I 1- ::j~~~;~i:~::::j'i\)::}1
u
~
CI
oE]
PROfiLE
SONY WIRELESS
MICROPHONE, MODEL CR-4
Why any stage or, night-club performer
is content to drag around a microphone
cable while he goes through his act when
a device as effective as the Sony Wireless
Microphone is available is almost beyond
understanding_ Shown in F'ig, 1, the complete system consists of the transmitter,
receiver, microphone, antennas, lavalier
pouch, and the carrying case-the latter
having a drawer above the receiver section
to accommodate the transmitter, microphone, and cables in a. neat fitted case.
The transmitter uses three transistorsone as audio a.mplifiElr, one as a frequencymodulated oscillator, and one as doubleramplifier. The oscillator operates at 13.56
mc, resulting in an output signal at 27.12
mc, whieh is in the Citizens Band where
no license is required. The transmitter is
powered by two 9-volt batteries inside the
case, and current drain on the unit, tested
was only 4.7 mao The case is metal, to provide shielding against variation of fre quency due to changes in body capacitance
with the oscillator, and is 41;8 in. high, 2~
in. wide, and 1 in. thick. The dynamic
microphone has a maximum diameter of
1 3/16 in. taperu.1g down to % in. and is
2% in. long.
The r eceiver unit proper is 9% in. wide,
7~ in, deep over-all, and 4lh in. high, and
fits snugly into the leatherette-coveI'ed carr ying case which is 9 in. deep, 10lh in.
long, and B% in. high. A hole in the top
of the case permits operation with the receiver still in the case, although for permanent use it is more likely that it would
be removed and used in its own metal housing. The receiver uses a fairly conventional
FM circuit, with the r.f. aud mixer circuits
fixed-tuned and only the oscillator being
:variable over a narrow range. The output,
nnpedance is 50,000 ohms, and is available
at two output jacks-one a standard phono
jack and the other accommodating a telephone plug. The gain control affects only
the loudspeaker level, and may be turned
dowu without affecting the normal outputs.
~oth a.f.c. and squelch circuits are proVIded, and a rear-mounted switch permits
the user to disable the squelch circuIt when
Fig . 1. The Sony Model CR-4 wireless microphone.
desired. Two neon pilot lights al'e mounted
on the panel, along with the monitor
speaker. One, adjacent to the monitor volume control indicates when power is on,
and the other indicates the presence of a
signal -thus serving as a tuning indicator.
The squelch circuit silences the audio section of the receiver when no signal is present-this being necessary because of the
use of a Foster-Seeley type of discriminator instead of a ratio detector. The receiver
circuit uses a grounded-grid r.f. stage followed by t he mixer and three i.f. amplifier
stages, the third serving as a limiter.
Performance testing of this unit was carried out using a tape recorder to take down.
the signals as we walked away from the
receiver, and indicated the distance as we
waU,ed. Reliable operation was observed up
to 350 feet from the transmitter with th e
antenna draped over the shoulder and with
the squelch on, and all the way to 900 f eet
with the squelch off, With the transmitter
antenna held straight up, reliable operation
extended 50 and 100 feet farther, respectively, even though specifications call for
operation maxima of 300 and BOO feet respectively.
Using an oscillator to feed a signal into
the transmitter at the microphone j ac k.
frequency response was down 2 db from
the midrange response at 32 and 11,500
cps, with 1.5 per cent distortion (1000 cps)
at a receiver output of 1 volt. The microphone has an output iJupedance of 1500
ohms, and is claimed to be flat withul ± 3
db from 70 to 10,000 cps, which is about
normal for the lavalier types.
While many applications for wireless
microphones do not require broadcast quality, nothmg short of this will suffice for
the entertainment field. The principal application for a wireless microphone is in
sound r einforcement where it is not convenient to employ a trailing microphone
cable, and both the quality and performance of the Sony unit makes it ideal for
this purpose. Many other applications could
take advantage of the ,vireless feature, and
at the comparatively low cost it would seem
as t.hough this device should enjoy wide acceptance.
E-25
ALTEC MONTEREY AND
MONTEREY JR. LOUDSPEAKERS
Describing the performance of auy of
the many "bookshelf" speakers now 011 the
market is somewhat like trying to descl'ibe
the taste of some culinary concoction to
one who has never eaten it-there is too
much subjectivity involved. Furthermore
the terminology used in describing loud~
speakers is not sufficiently well established
that it is possible for a reviewer to conjure
up a facsimile of the performauce in the
mind of the r eader. Altec's Monterey line
does differ in sound, however, but the difference can only be descl'ibed as being
"subtle."
The smaller of the two models is the
Monterey, .:[1'., which is shown in Fig. 2.
This unit measures 23 m , high, 11~ in.
wide, and 11 ~ in. deep, and is available
il.l walnut, blond, and mahogany. It conSISts of a "coutrolled linear excursion"
cone speaker for the low-frequency portion
of the spectrum and a 3-m. direct-radiating tweeter for the highs, together with
the necessaJ'y crossover network. The entire system has a power rating of 15 watts,
and works at an input impedance of 16
ohms. The cabinet is finished on all four
sides so it may be used on a room dividerbookshelf, set on the floor, or mounted ou
t!l ~ wall in eit~er ver,tical or horizon tal posItIons as reqUIred wIthont showing an uu-
AUDIO
'.
MAY, 1960
•
pioneer
the manufacturers of over 350 models of speakers presents:
Highly efflcle,nt and with flat response,
the brlll'l ancy of Pioneer speakers are
enhanced by the use ,of these compact,
handsomely finished enclosures.
Cs·l 2A , , . , 12 " coaxial speaker system
Cs.aB .,.. a" coaxial speaker system
Cs.aA . . '. a" mechanical 2-way speaker
system
Cs-6A . . .. 6 '/,
II
mechanical
2-way
speaker
system
For particulars see below:
Model CS-12A
Type , Infinite baffle type
Speaker mounted, 12 " coaxial, 16 ohm
frequency response , 45 · 16,000 cps
Power input, 20 watt
Sensitivity, 101 db/watt
Dimensions , 15'/." ( H) x 23'10" (W )x 10'/," (D)
CS - SA '
Color, Cherry
Model CS-8A (BOOKSHELF TYPE)
Type, Infinite baffle type
Speaker mounted, 8" mechanical 2-way. 16 ohm
frequency response, 50-16,000 cps
Power input, 6 watt
Sensitivity, 99 db /w att
Dimensions , 12'10" ( H) x 20 ,/, " (W ) x 11 " (D)
Color, Cherry
Model CS-8B (BOOKSHELF TYPE)
ry pe , Infinite baffle type
Speaker mounted , 8" coa xial, 16 ohm
frequency response , 60-16,000 cps
Power input , 8 watt
Sensitivity, 99 db /watt
Dimensions, 11 'i." (H) x 22 '/." (W ) x 9 '/." (D)
Color, Cherry
Model CS-6A (BOOKSHELF TYPE)
Type, Bass-Reflex type
Speaker mounted , 6'/," mechanical 2-way, 16 ohm
Frequency response, 80-16,000 cps
Power input , 3 watt
Sensitivity, 96 db/watt
Dimensions, II" ( H) x 19" (W ) x 9" (D)
Color, Cherry
FUKUIN
ELECTRIC,
5 OTOWACHO
AUDIO
•
MAY, '1960
LIMITED
6-CHOME, BUNKYOKU, TOKYO,
CS -6A
JAPAN
45
,-
Fig. 3 . The Al te c Mo nte rey, w ith two w oofers and a horn -load e d high -fr e qu e ncy un it.
either bass or treble could be made by
grasping both knobs a nd turning t hem together. As th e unit is arranged, each p air
of concentric controls serves one channelthe inner knob for treble and the outer for
bass-so one needs two hands to change
both channels simultaneo usly. However,
the ability to feed separate so urces into
the two channels is one feature that we
consider desirable- we even went so f a r
as to change one amplifier over with a dualconcentric switch just to get this flexibility.
Not ever yone wishes to play phono or microphone on one channel and tape on the
other, apparently, though it is convenient
for comparisons sometimes. A j ack is provided on the back for stereo headphones.
The FM tuner uses a grounded-grid r.f.
stage ' and a triode mixer for low noise,
three Lf. st ages with the third acting as a
limiter, and a wide-band ratio detector.
The a.f.c. is quite effective, and holds a
tuned-in station excellently through nor mal warm-up drift. Both FM and multiplex outputs are provided, in addition to
the normal FM feed to the selector push
buttons. The AM section uses a t uned r~ f.
stage following a large rotatable ferrite
loopstick, and a single Lf. stage gives
sufficient sensitivity for any stations close
enough to give high-fidelity r eception. The
tuner sections have separate indicators, and
since the slide-rule dia ls are n ot superimposed, tuning is clearly indica ted.
The Series 440 is a handsome unit and
offers p ractically any control function that
the user might want. Since both t uners and
control unit are in the sam e enclosure, it
is a ver y easy instrument to use, and the
sound it produces is in keeping with its
impressive appea r ance.
E -27
MADISO N FI ELD I NG SERIES 440
STEREOPHONI C RECEI VER
Fig . 2 . Altec Mon te rey Jr. loud speaker
system .
finished surface anywhere. Altec gives this
unit a guaranteed frequency range of 45
to 18,000 cps, and on test it covered the
lower end of this range nicely- we don't
hear up to 18,000, but the high end was
perfectly adequate as far as we can hear,
which is around 14,000 cps. At higher levels
doubling was noted below 38 cps, but this
was only at sound volumes that were painful for continuous listening. The general
impression of the Monterey Jr: is that it
is clean and crisp, and while the low end
is not prepossessing, it is smooth enough
that minor adjustments of the tone control
will give excellent balance without introducing boominess. Used as an extra loudspeaker in another room from the normal
listening area-and thus being supported
by the bass response of the main systemthe Junior wa s ideal.
The Monterey is somewhat larger, measuring 26 x 14 x 14lh deep, and consists of
two low-frequency speakers and a sectoral
high-frequency horn for the treble end. It
is considerably richer on the low end, yet
still exhibits the smoothness and cleanness
of the smaller model. The t op end is
claimed to extend to 22,000 cps, but this
becomes ahnost academic since it is doubtful if any practical source- short of a live
orchestra pick-up in the next room- would
provide such a range. This model is also
finished on all four sides, and if it were to
be hidden it is likely that the listener would
t ake it to be a much, larger unit than it is.
Response is rich in the lower l'egister, with
no doubling noticed until the frequency
r eached 33 cps, again at a high volume.
Power r ating for this model is 20 watts,
and impedance is 8 ohms.
Both speakers are efficient, and a 100-mw
transistor r a dio will drive t hem to a satisfactory r oom volume. Using the two units
as a stereo system indicated some deficiency
in t he Junior model, but with control units
capable of individual channel adjustment
of bass response they could be set to provide a clean and well-balanced progr am.
E -26
46
Incol'porating the same circuitry in the
amplifier section as in the Series 360, this
new Madison Fielding ster eo r eceiver adds
what are essentially two separate tuners
and combines the entire assembly in a single case at a considerable economy over
separate amplifier-tuner set-ups. The Series
360 amplifiel' was descl'ibed in the J anuary
issue, and consists of a pair of 20-wa tt
amplifiers together with the necessary control f acilities for mono or stereo operation.
The new model also employs the "Aural
Zero Null" method 0'£ balancing the two
amplifier sections, described fully in the
February issue.
I n the ster eo mode, the preamplifier permits feeding ' any of ,the six inputs-tuner,
multiplex, auxiliary, microphone, t ape head,
and phono pickup-to either channel, with
indicator lights showiug t he inputs which
are connected. NOl'mally, FM appears on
Channell and AM on Channel 2, although
the mode switch permits reversal of this
arrangement. In the mono position, any
indicated input is f ed to both channels.
Noise (scr at ch ), rumble, loudness, speaker
phase, and monitor switches are provided,
and separa te channel level controls on the
front panel p el' mit balancing and allow the
user to select t he oper atin g point on the
ganged mastel' volume control so a s to obtain suitable compensation when the loudness switch is turned on. Bass an d treble
tone contl'ols are separate for the two channels, allowing individual adjustment, but
we would prefer to have both treble controls on one p air of knobs and both bass
contl'ols on the other so t hat changes in
~i!IV"J9ill
II!
n"'~~
~ _""~
. . . __ . - .
"'~iA-
.....;,a;.
. ..
~
..
.
~
.
~"".'
Fig . 4. Mad ison Fie lding Se ri e s 440 Stereopho n ic re ce ive r-two t un e rs, ,t wo p re amps, and two po w er amplifiers all in one package .
AUDIO
•
MAY, 1960
General Electric Bookshelf
Speaker System-Superior in
the four vital areas
No matter how good your other components, what you ultimately
hear from your stereo system will be no better than your
speakers. For this reason, exceptional care should be exercised
in speaker selection. The iniportant things to watch for are size
(remember, you'll need two), bass sound power level, high frequency performance, and appearance. Appearance is especially
important in speakers because they form an integral part of your
room decor.
Size: .General Electric's Model G-501 Bookshelf Speaker System
brings you G.E.'s famous Extended Bass performance in an ultracompact one cubic foot enclosure ideal for stereo. It measures
only 9%" x 13" x 22".
Bass: This dramatic new .design provides up to four times the
bass power output of conventional speakers in comparable enclosures. Low frequency response is unusually full and clean,
thanks to the G-501's sealed enclosure and high-compliance
woofer.
Treble: A new 3-inch tweeter achieves maximum dispersion of
highs for full stereo effect. A special cone and voice coil extend
response, while the dome improves reproduction at high volume
levels.
Appearance: The compact, distinctively-styled enclosure is
handsomely finished on all four, sides so that it may be used on
either end or either side to fit almost any room setting. Grille
cloth designs are individually patterned for each of four genuine
wood veneer finishes - walnut, ebony and walnut, mahogany,
cherry. $85.00 (manufacturer's suggested resale price, slightly
higher in the West). Other complete
speaker systems at $57.95 and $129.95.
General Electric Company, Audio Products
SeCtion, Auburn, ' N. Y.
GEN ERA(e ELECTRIC
AUDIO
•
MAY; 1960
"47
NEW DIRECTIONS
The ' 25-Year Retrospective Concert of
the Mus ic of John Cage (May 15, 1958)
(Ge orge Avakian, 10 W. 33 rd St.
New York 1, N. Y.) (3) ste reo
Now lool,-Iaugh your head oil' at this, but
don't fail to take it seriously, even so. This
famous New York con cert brought to a head,
so to speal" the works of one of the most
flamboyantly, brilliantly eccentric musical
minds of our time. '.rwo minutes of its sound
should show you that the man is no nambypamby but a tremendous brain , zany or no.
Dali is pallid by comparison.
Let me quote his words, as of no less than
23 years ago, from the inn e r fold of the brown
wrapping paper con traption that is the booklet in this al bum :
"I believe that the use of noise will continue and increase until we reach a music
produced through the aid of electr ical instruments wh ich will make available for musical
purposes any and a ll sounds tl\at can be heard.
Photo-electric, fi lm, and mechanical mediums
for the synthetic production of mu sic will be
explored. (Note : no tape in 1937.) Whereas,
in the past, the point of disagreement has
been between d issona.nce and consonance, it
will be, in the immediate future , between
noise and so-called musical sounds . . . . "
I'd quote more if I had room; for this is
an extraordinarily far-seeing prophesy out of
a youth of 25, back in 1937. It's typical that
these very words, in the present "booklet,"
are dispersed, in caps, over several pages of
other text in the form of seem ingly meaningless sub-heads; not even genuine prophecy can
be set forth in ord inary fa shion in this world
of avant-garde experiment! But the prophecy
is here, and so is the sound of Cage's work,
taken down at the actual concert.
.
I've onl y sampled it so far-it'll take me
weeks to absorb wha t I'd like to. I'm listening to the piano concerto, a whole side of
amazing squawks, blats, wheezes, crashes,
electronic bleeps, during which the audience
applauds heartily at a point where (it says)
the tuba player put the bell of one tuba up
against a n other and blew hard. There are cats
and mice and hippopotami i n the music
and it's very long, but I like it, definitely.
Wild applause and catcalls for minutes, at
the end.
.T he portfolio of r eproduced samples of
Cage's written scores is as interes ting as the
sou n d itself-indeed, they were exh i bited as
works of art and surely are just that. A fanatic with incredible persistence, patience, a
canny sense of eccentric drama and, under
the zanin ess, a mind that may well turn out
to Imow more about mu sic than most of those
around today_
The album has three LP r ecords pl us portfolio. Get it!
P.S~ I note, belatedl y, that the Concerto
above .does not exist in nny given stnte; the
pianist h as h is choice of 84 different bits of
composition in a bOOk, whi ch he may play
whenever and wherever h e wants ; t h e piece
can be long or short to choke and is never in
a final state though Mr. Cage suggests sublimely t hat he finds each pe rforma nce definitive.
* 780 Greenwich St. , N ew Y01'k 14, N . .y.
48
P.P.S. Just listened to a song for contralto
and piano. John Cage is the pianist. He just
thumps on the piano's wooden frame, bon gostyle. The strings never even get touched .
Nice.
P.P.P.S. Piece for twelve tom-toms . . .
one for electronic carillon-some carillon, by
golly. "Construction in Metal," just as it
sounds, and super-hi·fi in stereo. "W illiams
lI1ix, " an early (1952) tape mix, 600 or so
sound sn ippets spliced into less than five
minutes, the effect (calculated for nin e
months) superficially like random high-speed
radio tuning. Took a furth er look at those
scores-you engineers will find a kindred
spirit there! Incredible.
New Directions in Music 2/ Mo rton
Feldman
Columbia MS 6090 stereo
Here is more of the advanced thin king in
the art of organizing sound, from a younger,
more sophisticated a nd less overtly dramatic
thinker who has followed John Cage and
other artists too - Jackson Pollock, Philip
Guston- in his car acteristically mathematically orientated music structu res. This man
graphs his music. He employs "unpredictability reinforced by spontaneity" (which in
a very dill'erent musical area is also typical
of fol k music and jazz thinking) and sets out
his work in precisely beantifu l formulas , d elimiting the "plus-or-minus" exten t of permissible variation or randomness, both via conventional notation and via newl y invented
graphic systems. One piece for violin and
piano looks, on paper, like a sketch for several small modern houses, floor plan only.
This preoccupation with proba bility, with
preCise areas of random variation, is, you see.
highly typical of onr day. It is as legitimate
h ere as it is in jazz and in Jackson Pollock's
inspired pain t-dribblings. As always, there
must be minds, generally eccentric, to develop
the new lines of inqu iry; as always there are
creative geniuses (like Pollock ) who will tu rn
out good stull' whatever the theory, and maybe
in spi te of it.
.
You'll be more interested in t he theor ies
here than the music itself-but you can listen
to it if you wan t, thanks to Col umbia.
Scarcely room to credit all the live performers, seven of them, nor to give the titles
of the works (ll)-such as " I ntersection 3
for Piano," "Structures for String Quartet,"
"Extensions 1 for Violin and Piano." It's all
done with dedication and care, but John Cage
is more exciting. Personality makes the difference.
Hig hlights of VORTEX
Folkways FSS 6301 stereo
VORTEX is a dramatic sound-and-sight
show that is put on at various times in a
San Francisco planetarium, combining tapecreated "musique concrete" with visual proj ections and fan cy stereo sound. It has apparently been a huge success in that enthusiastic center of the u ninhibited arts, and here
is a two-dimensional sampl ing of the sound
part of the show, in conventional stereo and
a far cry from the all-around, mu ltispeaker
sound-blanket produced in the orjginal. It's
pretty solid, even so .
You've got to expect a certain display of
advanced-type airs and graces in such presentations; it seems to be a necessary part of
most artistic experimentation in public and
it does focus attention and draw the crowd,
for better or worse. Th e com posers h ere look
lil, e a group of high school students, but the
accounts of their music are gl'nnlliose enough
to knock you for a loop of tape. " In thi~
work," says a Mr. Lon gfelJow, HI bave endeavored to create musically the cycle of
cosmic beginning and ending." Anybody who
"endeavors" to do that is out for big ganle,
but I found this particnlar cosmos mostly
some rather pleasant twangs out of the In·
side of a piano, played fro ntwards and backwards and reverbera ted. Nothing very r evolutionary a bout that, these day s.
The so und, in other words, is mo re of that
increasingly familiar sort that is being produced in many another place than San Francisco, and I'll admit that, once the airy accounts are absorbed, the techniques used turn
out to be mostly competent and veu professional, with some striking effects along with
a good many that are by now commonplace--=that eternal tape·echo "Dah-dah-dah-dah-dah,"
fo r example, fading away or buildin g up to a
jumble of noise. I was fussing with that stull'
fiv e years ago, but then I 'm just an olel gray·
beard.
The niost impressive item to I11Y ear was
one of the simplest, a tape canon via the two
stereo speakers. The two chann els contain the
same recording but spaced apart a couple of
seconds or so, and the spatial-rhythmic play
between them is the essence of a bas ic musical device, neatly brought up to date. ("Three
F ifty Dash Two" is the title and all Ampex
owners will catch, natch.)
The Two Pianos of Leonard Penna rio
Capitol SP 8517 stereo
Foe one man to record two pianos is noth ·
ing special these days, but n evertheless, this
new recording does bring up interesting
questions.
I s it artistically, aesthetically, right to
have one pianist play both "parts" of a two·
piano piece? Well, judging from r esults here
I'd say yes in a ll situations where the two
pianists are not treated as two individuals.
There is actually litt le two-piano music
clearly fo r two protagonist players. Mostly,
the pianists merge their ell'orts for a twentyfingered piano "orchestra," like the players in
an orchestral work. Mr. Pennario simpl y gives
him self a double set of fingers here, pl us a
bigger sound and some incidental right-left
effects that are pleasing though of no great
importance one way or another. His teamwork with himself is, of course, excellent;
the problem of .playing to his own performance (via earphones?) is surel y no greater
than playing to that of another performer
and, wh en you .come down to it, not r eally
a ny more artificial. BartolI, for instance,
writes melodic lines in his two-piano m usic
clear across the printed page frOJn one pia no
to the other, as thou gh the two pianists were
actually one thinking person.
Note that there are other situations where
this doubling·up technique is musically very
wrong. The Bach Con certo for Two Violins,
for instance, is seriously hurt in its intended
impact when n single performer plays the two
parts. As written , they are almost identical
i n musical content; the idea, of course, is
that two dill'erent performers playing the
very similar music provide life and con trast
AUDIO
•
MAY, 1960
'-""'O ....OTl . . . _lIh
th_ Ph_nom_"_,
voLn
' ~L~E~ ~~G~~~EiiNil
New Orleans .. .
storyville ... high
stepp in' music with
the plunking pian!),
whom pin' tuba 'and
sliding trombones.
Selections include:
"Tiger Rag,"
"Original Dixieland
One Step," and
"Kansas City Stomp."
AFLP 1928/AFSD 5928
the.highest standard
in high· fidelity_
CARNEGIE HALL
CONCERT of the
phenomenal DU.KES
OF DIXIELAND!!!
Selections include:
" Muskrat Ramble,"
"Royal Garden Blues,"
and "Morita!."
AFLIt 1918/AFSD 5918
AL HIRT .•. America's newest
and greatest trumpet find!
Spontaneous and exciting
trumpet mastery with-original
'and unique interpretations of
such great numbers as "Birth of
the Blues," "Basin Street Blues,"
"After You've Gone" "Stardust "
"Tiger Rag," and ' "I Can't Get
Started With You." .
Vol. 1 AFLP 1877/AFSD 5871,
Vol. 2 AFLP 1878/AFSD 5878,
Vol. 3 AfLP 1926/AFSD 5926.
DIXIELAND BANJO _ . _
featuring Dave Wierbach and
his Dixieland Band playing
I>
PLAYS
DII
GLBEI
SI.Jomts Infirmary
fronScie& lohnny
A Hot TIme In The
Old Town Tonight
None Of My Jelly Roll
Big Butler & (gg Man
I Aln'f Got Nobody
ChimMBluH
Dr.Jou
My Old Kenluti<y Homf'
Drop Thai Sode
Jelly Roll BluK
Ponama
..
en
c
CJ
<
z
:
":r
.
AUDIO
FIDELITY
RECORDS ••.
CJ
'"
r
=;
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en
0
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z
CJ
SATCHMO PLAYS KING OLIVER
Louis Armstrong plays jazz favorites born in the early 1900's
__ . immortal classics that have withstood the test of time .. .
music that is as vibrantly aliye today as the day it was
written. Satchmo played all the selections
in this album with King Oliver, and, many of the
selections were written by King Oliver himself.
Listen now to Louis Armstrong play such classics as:
"Saint James Infirmary," "Frankie &
Johnny," "Jelly Roll Blues," " Big Butter & Egg Man,"
"Hot Time In The Old Town Tonight,"
"I Ain't Got Nobody," Dr. Jazz," " Drop That Sack," and
others. AFLP 1930/AFSD 5930
LEADER IN THE FIELD OF
TRADITIONAL AMERICAN
DIXIELAND JAZZ
proudly present the finest jazz albums ever
recorded ... performed by the finest jazz
artists in the world. Carefully selected material,
representative of the truly great jazz of
this decade, brilliantly recorded to bring you
the utmost in high fidelity reproduction.
Unforgetable performances reproduced with
presence and clarity never before achieved.
Truly great jazz, dramatically and artfully
showcased on the finest recordings
available today.
DEPARTMENT A 4
770 Eleventh Avenue, New York 19, N. Y.
THE HAPPY SDUND OF RAGTIME •• ; HARRY BREUER.
The startling and. exciting sounds of genuine Ragtime ,in
effervescent rhythm played in the authentic happy
manner of mallet virtuoso Harry Breuer. Selections include:
"Temptation Rag," "Bugle Call Rag," "12th Street Rag,"
and "Dill Pickles."
AFLP 1912/AFSD 5912
Suggested list prices •••
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STEREO (AFSD) $6.95
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AUDIO
•
MAY, 1960
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.:- ..
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,I... ·
49
t hroug h t heir d i ffe r ing a n d even oppos ing person a li ties. A singl e performer on both parts
removes the contrast a n d k ills the piece.
(Even a pair of twin violinists w h o once
recorded th is mu sic together prod u ced a
s imila rl y d eaden ed impact. )
T ry P errnario, th en, and note h ow the mu s ical in terest var ies from work to work according to the way th e two piano s are u s ed by the
composer. You' ll find Brahms and Dvora k
da nces a s w ell a s dan ces by Grieg, Arensky,
Ch opin , so me of th ese in t wo-pia n o a r r angemen ts. Th e Chas i ll s el abo r ation of the "Blue
Danube" waltz is rea lly a new piece, a sort
of fro t hy fin ge r-fa ntasy on the w ell-kn own
musi c. You w ill enjoy it. Ste reo is a l mo s t
essen tial, of course, for a ny s uch r ecor ding
as t hi s, toda y.
TAPE MARCHES ON
Ez ra Pound Reading His Poetry
Caedmon TC 1122
Ezr a P ound is not exact ly t h e a u dioma n 's
poet , bu t his r eco rd ing sh ould be noted for a
n u mber of good r easons. Pound , you m a y r e-
m em ber , is th e eccentric, n ow-elder l y genius
w h o wrote challeng in g, a n noying poetry, in flu enced a generation of t h i nker s a n d write r s.
took up Fascism a nd Mussolini : with enthus ia s m , gen erally managed to get him sel f in ba d
w i th jus t abo ut everybody but th e fa it hfu l,
w a s lock ed up for a good m a ny years in thi s
cou n try, t h en , a t la st r elea sed from h is h os pital, w ent sailing back to Ital y aga i n a s
tes t y as ever.
I n other w ord s, Pou n d is th e cla ssic example of the old saw tha t you h ave to tal,e
t h e ba d w i t h th e good . H e is high -powe r proof
(and proud of it) that art and poli tics, art
and ethics, art a nd any old t h ing, s impl y
ca n ' t be so rted out f r om .each othe r! A d rea df ul old man, maybe, bu t a ls o a fi rs t-rate creat ive mind .
T h e two Caedmon pa r t n er s - t w o girl s,
mind yo u- s ta r ted vi si t in g P ou n d \yi t h t h e
idea of a recording when he was st il l locked
up. To w h a t ends, pl eas e note, will today's
modern t a pe recordist go! It mu st h a ve been
hair-rai s ill g, and t heir firs t take w as mo s tly
in Proven cal or something (to be issued l a ter ) .
Hoots of oth er hosp it a l inmates h ea r d i n
backg roun d.
B u t by sh eer fem inine per s iste n ce a n d via
hel pf ul f r ien d s, t h e man w a s ca ught in a ll
h is magnificent irascibllity w h ile en route
f rom t h e h ospita l t o Europe, a nd h ere he Is.
" ' ha t a so nnel-portra it ! Everytb ing yo u 'ye
h eard a bou t Pou nd is righ t there, in two
m in utes of listening, t h ough the m aterial is n ' t
particu larly r evolting (as it co u ld well be) ,
A m a rv.elous s elf-portra it of a coutr ove r s ia l
. figure, s u ch as only our n ew au d io a rt h as
ever made p ossibl e. I m ag ine Thla ch ia velli , or
t h e Ma r qui s de Sa de ( Sadis m to yo u) s peaking bli th ely into Caedm on 's mikes !
Side-no te. Eccentr ic h e may be, but Po u nd
speaks ver y mu ch out of bi s n OW-bygon e gener a tion . His s in g-so ng poetr y , fancy r oll ed
R 's, u pt u r n ed phra se endin gs, h is occasi on a l
dramatic s langi s ll1 s, mixed in \vith h ighbl'ow
Latjn , I talian , Fren ch a nd w h at-huve-yo u , a re
in m a nn er s trai g h t o u t of t h e age of Chu rchill, J a mes Joyce, '1'. S. Eli ot, Ca rl Sa uduurg,
Sea n O'Casey. No d e:1 dpau mod el'll ism he r e,
Macl.eish: J. B. (E lia Kaza n Productio n)
RCA Victor LOS 6075 (2) ste reo
H e r e's the Broa dway pl ay itsel f fo r th ose
wh o h a ve, or h ,nen 's seen i t iu t h e fles h (I
haven ' t) a nd s u ffi ce it to say th at t his r eco l'lliug ma kes maximum u se of im aginat ive ster eo
to tra n sl ate the pla y i nto the r eco rded m ediu m . '1'he r e's eveu a s pokeu introcJu c tion .by
t h e pla ywright, MacL e is h him self, w h ich is
more t han yo u ' ll h eal' on Broadway e very
nigh t .
Much is made of a strict ly l egitim ate t wotrack t echniqu e that is not prop e rly s te r eo
a t a ll but i s en orm ou s ly u seful in r ecorded
drama (a nd even in oper a)-o ue actor in
ea ch s p eak er , close-u p. I f u ssed wi t h t his
techniqu e mys elf , experim entally, back i n
1952 a nd a m d elig h t ed t o see i t pu t to s u ch
w ides pread use to day. T h e o peni ng sec ti on
h er e, fo r in s ta n ce, fe at u r es t he t w o old m en
in conve rsati on, on e on ea ch side of your
hom e s ta ge; i ncid enta l effects occ ur in t h e
s t er eo backgr ound. Much is m a d e, too, of a
cavern o u s s ort of r everbe r ati on t h at is impr essi ve in r ecorded dram a t h ou g h co mpletel y
u n r elated to an y con ceivable live-stage e ffect ,
Good stuff, a nd commend a ti on s to RCA for
const ru c tive s te r eo op er ations.
Breton : La Verbena de la Paloma (The
Festiva l of the Dove). Iriarte , Ausensi,
Rivadenei ra; Coros Cantores de Madrid,
Gran Orque stq Sinfonica, Arg e nta.
London OSA 1102 (2) stereo
'I' h e odd thin g a bout th is en gagin gly popular Sp a nish oper etta (1894 ) is that it is so
very mu ch of t h e Fren ch sch ool, both Bi zet
(as in t h e p seudo-Spauis h "Ca rm en " ) a n d
Offenbach . The light, colorf ul, s h ow y s t yl e,
the easy-goin g mu s ic, the Slig htly l ech e r ous
h u mor , a r e a ll ou t of Fra n ce a nd pleas ura bl y
so. Yet t he mu s ic itsel f is in t he famili ar
Spani s h s t yle, incl nding so m e a sto ni s hin gly
" a u the nti c" F l uln en co- f or a tim e wh en r eal
nati ve-s t yle mu s ic wa s not con s ider ed ver y
e l eg~ n t u nl ess well dressed up.
T wo ol d Spa ni s h h ypoch ondri acs, talking
medi cal s h o p in c racl, ed ,"oices (o ne of th em
h as two l ovely chick s after him a nd hi s
money, se t the light satirical tone h ere and
t he "ca fe" s ce nes, inCludin g t he F l a m ell co.
carr y it onwa rd b rill ian t l y . T h e sin ging a n(l
play ing a r e both top- quali ty a nd t h e over-a ll
ear n estn ess a nd en thu si as m m ight set a n ex ample fo r OUI' own som etim es un spo n taneo ll s
s h ow bi z. The ste reo is s uperb ; L ondon's
opera ster eo ca n ' t be beat.
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De!!us: flodda Suite; Dance Rha psody
# 2; Over The Hills and Far Away. Royal
Philharmonic, Beac ham .
Ca p itol SG 7193 stereo
Th e ea r ly and yo uthf ul " F lorida" s uite by
D eliu s is a n u n ex pected pl easure, throwin g a
somew h at odcl n ew l ight upon t h e D el iu s
outpu t , from the America n viewpoi n t . T h e
l ater D eli u s, a ss iduou s ly ch a mpioned by Sir
Thom as, seem s to mos t of u s over h e r e pr etty
turg id stuff, a ll ,in· a ll, tho ugh f a r f rom un lis tenabl e. Gra nted t h at th e earl y " F lorid a"
m u sic is mu ch ligh te r in con te nt anll s peCifi c
gravity, it does, however , h nve a s pl'ightlr
a nd u n sel fcon sciou s ver ve, even a n innocence,
AUDIO
•
tb a t is lik ely to please a lot of Ame rican s.
And the mus ic is , to my s u r p rise, _ "ea lly
American, genuinely out of th at period befor e
.1900 wh en ou r musical Id n gs w e re Ste ph en
F oster and the like.
Delius was obliged to ' li ve on his f a mily 's
F lorida ora nge estate f or s om e t ime. He
began his m usic study there on th e s id e;
eviden t ly he also picked up som e mu sical local
Havor ther e a n"d in New Yorl( befo r e h e t ook
00' for Europe, wh ere this music was tu r n ed
ou t in 1888 a ud 1 890. Slight stuff, bu t a real
period Havor.
'l' h e la ter Delius is as mi ght be expected
here u nder Si r Thomas' di rec tion. It's a lot
mor e im por ta n t , but I do n' t lik e it a s mu ch ,
myself.
STEREODYNE PICKUP
FOR THE
AUDIO PERFECTIONIST
Hindemith : Symphonia Serena for Or·
chestra; Horn Concerto. De nnis Brain,
horn; Phil harmonia Orch., Hindemith.
Angel S 35491 ste reo
UNEQUALLED PERFORMANCE
The distinguished and inter es t in g An gel
H indemi t h ser ies con t inues he re , brin g ing
two more of the many big, importa nt pieces
t urned out by the beefy, sm iling Ge rm a n in
recen t year s. Dennis Brain r a n in to a t r ee in
195 7, but h e got t he Ho r n Concer t o down in
stereo f orm befo re hi s death.
It strikes m e as astoni shin g t he way Hindemith's music resembles t he man bimself, as
we see h im i n f requen t pictures. I-I e is big,
beefy , bald, round, 0 11 th e Kru sh ch ev model
but h ef t ier by a lo t. H is face is r ound bu t
strong-th a t cu rious an oma ly, t h e st r on g f at
ma n-a nd t hou gh w e ca n see in it ever y evidence o f decis ion and power , th e re is a lmost
alwa ys a faint but f ri endl y s mile a nd a sen se
of rela xa tion, a lack of pre te n t iousness.
Th at is precisely what yo u will h ea r ( in
gener a l te rms, of course ) 1n "his mu s ic f or
la rge o rch estra. It is indeed heavy, po nde r ous
mus ic, and yet oddly, it is a lso f ull of qu ick
movement, d ex t er ous a nd li gb t; it is u n compromi Sing , l o ng, e n orm Otl sly t hicli: in t ex ture
(as oppo sed to so mu ch sta rk , thin contempomry mu s ic ) a nd yet, ag ai n, th er e is -mu ch
gracio usness and n . mile, Do t to tme n tlou ou tright humor, lurl<in g jus t a round t h e li stening c o rn e~. Defi ni tely, m us ic f or t he ma n who
will list en twice. Th e firs t tim e, it'll w eigh
yo u down but the secon d pl ay ing will b ook
you.
I'll sa y n o mo re exce pt t o note a n in te resting device i n th e H orn Con certo_ H indemi t h
writes a sh ort poem, in Germ a n , h av ing t o
do with the qua lity of t he h orn in mus icth en he set s it in to a lrind of son g f or the
horn solo-not t h e w ords (l ike a wah -wa h
trumpet ) but t heir rh ythm s a nd phrasin g.
You can actua lly foll ow t h e poem os t h e horn
"spea ks" i t i n mu sic. I n ter esti n g.
Mahler: Symphony # 9. London Symphony, Ludwig_
Everest SDBR 3050-2 (2) stereo
Ooof. I hadn' t p reviousl y go t to Imow th is
piece a nd, sin ce I tiud Ma hler one of mu sic's
real geniu ses, I played s t raig ht t hrough it
her e. T ook an evening 00' to do it-it's a bit
like tackling "Hll mlet," " R omeo a nd Juliet,"
a nd " Macbeth " a ll a t once. I' d h a r dl y say I
had the mus ic by m emory a t thi s pOint, but
I got a once-over impression, a t least, s ubj ect
t o la t e r modification. D on ' t t hin k th at Mahler
is dill'use a nd dilute j us t becau se b e's lon gfa r f rom it .
The Nin th strikes m e as a so mewha t un f ocused step towards a n ew a nd alm ost a to n al
exp ression t h at s hows to m a rvelous a dva ntage in t h e unfinish ed T enth . In thi s on e, t he
const a nt emph asiS on wh ole-tone relation ships
- ma jor-ch ord h a rmonies s ucceeding each
oth er- is a bit d ated a nd unexci t ing fo r our
jaundiced ear s. Ma h le r w ent on f r om h er e,
but h e died t oo soon to la u n ch into wb a t
might in t heor y h ave been a s t u pend ous n ew
era of composition . Ther e's too mu ch " fo rmu la" in t he Ninth , con Sid erin g t he va st ness
of t h e symphony's emotional con cepts.
For t hose accu st om ed to t h e fi ercel y profound Ma h ler r eadings of Bruno W alter a nd
even Mitropoul os, thi s one is r el ati vely low
in voltage, t h ough plen ty musical. Ma ybe
tha t's th e best thin g f oJ' such a m a mmo t h
wo r k of d eath-passion. E ver est's clea n, non-
AUDIO
•
MAY, 1960
•
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d es ig n
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51
echo .recording (not a groove echo in the
whole piece, in spite of long sides) is a great
pleasure.
ORGAN AND BRASS
Music for Organ and Brass. E. Power
Biggs, Boston Brass Ensemble, Bu rg in.
Columbia MS 6117 ste reo
Listeners to the long-lived Sunl1ay morning
CBS broadcasts of hi s organ program wiII
fi nd this Biggs record familiar in sound,
though the brand new organ in the BuschReisinger l\IIuseum at Harvaru was installed
after the broadcasts were over .
The music is the familiar sort for old-type
organ, with brass fanfares; Roger Voisin , of
many Biggs broadcasts, is here represented
by a choir of two trumpets and two tro111bones and a n almost inaudible harpSichord.
One side of the record is Gabrieli, the other
Frescobaldi, who came a generatio n later.
I like th e record but I'm not enthusiast ic.
'.rhe over-all ·effect is somehow rather lukewarm and perhaps a bit too much like Sunday
morning. I played it in mid-wee!"
The new ' F lentro p organ itself is fine; It
is the latest model in "old" organs, even to
a complete tracker action, .dispensing WitJl
the modern electrical r elay system. '.rhis i '
ro ughly like reconverting a moderu railroad
to h and signalling, but the results are musically worth it in variety of rhythmic and
tonal impact, t he player's fingers directly connected to the organ 1 s aJr val ve via mechanical means.
The trouble h ere, I s uspect, is in the building. At least in the recorded sound, there Is
the same incipient dullness, a Slightly stuffy
quality, that I rem ember well in the older
broadcasts and r ecordings ou t of this very
same h all. (The recordings issued by RCA
over a number of years.) The organ sounds
sanctimonious, not glorious.
IdeaIly, this antiphonal music, tossed from
t rnmpet to trumpet, from brass to organ,
should make marvelousl y alive stereo. Actua lly, though the brass is imaginativ.ely picked
up by the mikes at a distance, the organ itself seems much closer, with a curiously lifeless quality and a somewhat disturbingly unreal spatia l effect. The organ, I'd say, should
seem even further away than the brass fo r a
natural impact.
The Frescobaldi makes the best effect.
There are too many short fanfares - on the
Gabrieli side for sustained interest-he did
n ot, after alI, write them · for playing In succession, one right after the other. Each was
for its own separate occasion, and should so
be h eard today, LP records or no.
Marce l Dupre at Saint Sulpice, Vol. 1:
Be ch. (Preludes and Fugues in D, A
Minor, E Minor).
MerculY SR 90227 stereo
Marcel Dupre is the "dean" of great French
organists and his reco rds can command a
hearing whatever he plays-especially on this
characteristically French Saint Sul pice instrument, Dupre's own fo r a quarter century.
However, if French organists of his school
reserve the right, so to speak, to play Bach
in their own manner on their own instruments (so do most organists), then I reserve
the eqnivalent right to dissent in the listening. A good many of ns are now "spoiled" b~'
hearing Bach on the smaIler , brighter instruments of t he Bach period . The colossal powe rhou se sou nd of the French organ, snbstitnting ,"olnme and reverberation for color and
clarity, jnst seems plain nnstylish . So, too,
are certain familiar rh ythmic anachronism~
that wiIl jar on the pnrists' ears, though most
organists do the same.
This is not to suggest unmnsicality on
Dnpre's part. Within the style and the instrnmental sonnd, his playing is a ll t hat it is
snpposed to be. But better to try him on
French music-and wait until Mercury records this organ playing the music intended
for it. That'll be something.
Th e stereo recording feat i s a brave one.
with vast technical difficulties over come. It's
safe to say that B ach never sounded so good
at Saint Snlpice, and es pecially in the live
performance. From -Mercury's precariously
hung mikes (roped across t he npper r egions
of the huge space) the soun d is both big and
in telligible. To those mortals who merely sit
down below, most of the Bach wonld be grand
a nd glorions bnt mn sically an uninspiring
blur in the endless reverberation. Bach didn't
write for this kind of .situation .
The Organ Concertos of Handel, # 13·
# 16. E. Power Biggs; london Philharmonic, Boult.
Columbia M2S 611 (2) stereo
This is merely to call attention to the fina l
volu me in this series, as above, and to note
that in some ways it is the most in terestine
in the gro up, what with the "miscellaneous""
concertos (no opus n n mber aSSigned) tbat i t
inclndes, whi ch are a mong tbe very best of
the batch, notably the richer, fuller-bodied
final Concerto, with h orn s and woodwinds
galore.
The organ is the British i nstrument "unearthed" by Mr. Biggs fo r the job, on which
Handel himself actnaIly played. It h ad to be
t u ned upwards for the recording, then put
back, a pr ocedure which h as cansed some disturbance among lovers of the British' ol'gans.
Probably didn't do any h a rm and at least wea ll could get to hear the mnsic.
To get the fancy explanatory bookle t yon
have to buy Volume One. I haven' t yet seen
it. There are adequate lin er notes her e, though
no book let.
"Fats" (Paul Curry Presents the Friends
of Fats).
Golden Crest CR 3070
("compatible" stereo)
Here's one of those occasional discs clea n
ou t of my field that I like-a nd therefore
like saying so. For more expert details, consult Colleague Robertson; I'm just passing It
51
MJOIO.
it
MAY, 1960
on to you a s a n ice itelll fo r a lm os t un y uodY 'ti
casual plea sure. 'I'her e's a t echnical consider ation h er e, t oo-compatibil ity.
Fats Walle r 's n a me is legitim a t el y u sed,
sin ce t hese a r e old co-work er s of hi s. F ats or
T hins, these aimable boys t urn out a l eiSUrel y,
offha n d , picturesque sort of conversa ti on a l
mu sic th a t is r eally quite a st oni shin g. Big
space, a few playe rs sca t ter ed h er e a nd th er e.
Rema r ks from r igh t f ront (Cu rry ) : nutty.
An swer f r om som ewh ere left r ear , even nuttier, zan y variation s on old-tun e ideas ("H ey,
wh en it could h a ve se n 'ed a vi lal t l'all sit iona l
p u rpose-now, it just m ea ns more conf usion
a nd mis unde rstand in gs, uuder t h e p resen t
ster eo-ni on o price dilIe rence.
But I'm n eve r a ve rse to listenin g to a n y
go od r ecor d fo r its ow n v n]ues. 'l'b is one's a
honey .
got som e gum, chum ?"). A goh geo u s w ah -w ah
New York Brass Q ui nte t "In Co nce , t."
Go ld en Crest CR 4 0 23
("comp a tib le" ste reo)
trumpe t- I t hought it w a s a noth er nu tty
voice f or a second. R eal brass. And all t his
in t h e mos t friendly m a n n e r im ag ina ble.
Ah yes- com patible ster eo. Well, I h aven ' t
t ried to ruin t his u nig roove disc via a m ono
piCk up and so on that sco re I do n ' t righ tly
know . . . but it'll play OK, I su s pect, un less you r mon o needle is ben t d ouble. Wh at
r eally cou nts is t h at t h ere i s plen ty of s t er eo,
but defi ni tely.
Now whether a pure (non-compatible) ster eo
d isc of t hi s su me m usic would bo ast even
mor e ster eo I do not k n ow . In m usic of t h is
sor t-wh ere ste reo is apt to be of the ext reme, black-find-white, r igh t-left sor t, a bit
of blending a nd bl u r r in g isn 't g oing t o do a ny
h a rm. It Su rely d oesn' t he re.
Yes, I'm aga inst t h e iu t rodu ction n ow , at
this late date, of a so-called co m patible r ecord. T he t ime fo r t h a t was at t he beginn ln g,
This new " com pati \lle" stereo d i:;c seems
to me disti n ctly la.cking in stereo effect. But
I h ave n o way of l(llowillg wh ether t hi s is
sim ply in t he reco rd ing itsel f or is a by-p rodu ct of the compa t ibili ty. I r ath er s uspect this
la tte r, bu t I can say 11 0 m OI'e tha n t ha t.
You see, wh ereas in pops-s tr le ste reo, wh e re
lef t-right sepa ration is often prnct ica ll y 100
percent, a bi t of blendin g of t he t\\"o ch a nn els
(toward s mO DO) ca n actually d o a lot of ·good
to t he effect, in cl assical reco l'd ing t he s ituation is diffel'ent. · Ste reo di',fe l'en ce is much
l ess crude, less obv ious, more ca refully ca lculated. A r edu ct ion in stereo dilIe rence can be
se ri ou s -if t her e is a redu c ti on- wh ere t h e
ste reo im pa ct is r ig h tly a ma tter of subtlety
a nd d elicacy.
An yh ow, t hi s brass g rou p plays st urd ily in
a bi g liveness a nd sou n ds ju st fine-o nly t her e
is precious li ttle d ilIerence betwee n ster eo
This is probably the last man who will ever see
the inside of your KLH speaker system.
pl uyiu g alld 1ll Oll U vi a t h e sa me pair of s peal< e l's. St l'l c tl y ci rcum stan tia l e \"ld ence.
'.rh e mu s ic, pa rt "a n cien t" a nd pa r t mode rn, is t h e so r t favo r ed by brass g rou ps t hese
days. 'l.' he Gabrieli is .ius t so-so; t h e lesskn own mu sic by o ne A n t hon y H olbo m e (d .
I G02) is r eally mo re in teresti ng as played
h e re. 'l'he mod ern pieces te nd t o be zi ppy,
hig hl y idi omatic, a nd ,-ery co m plex-t h ey get
fin e peri'onn a n ces but mu sica ll y a re n 't qu itr
ou t of t hi s w01'lcl .
STANDARDS
Rimsky-Ko rsakoff: Schehe r·a zade. London
Sy mp hony, Goosse ns.
Eve rest SDBR 3026 sle reo
' S funn y, t he standa rd classics ge t r eco rded
so often t hat man y a r eco rd re\' iewe r s im ply
cri nges at t h e sigh t of t h em a no goes qui ckl y
elsewh e re. I h a dn 't h ea rd "Schehe l'ezade"
str a ig h t t hrough, I r ealized, s in ce ste reo came
a lon g, a nd I was really d elig h tf ull y s urpri sed
by t hi s lovely r eco rd ing.
'I'he cred it mu st go severall y t o t h e ea rn est".
ca reful, s in cer e play in g of t he B r iti sh Orchestra u nder its British condu cto l', to th e
excellen t solo players h er e a n d t here, a nd to
Everest fo r a s u pe l'bly rig h t over-a ll so und .
T h e old wn rh or se ga in s a n un expected dign i ty
(Continued on pag e 611 )
K LH R ESEARCH AND DEVELOPM E NT COR PORATION
30 CROSS STREET . CAM BRIDGE 39, MASSACHUS ETTS
Descri1)tive litera/w'e , /(Ii /h the ?tame of
your nearest franchised K LH dea ler,
is available on reqllest.
AUDIO
•
MAY, 1960
53
in th e Acoll st ' c Ins truments Research Depa rtm€'nt.
A ·sequel planned to sh ow h ow some of t h e
same facto rs abply to stereo sh ould clear the
air even more. It ·might s u pply some adventnrous record company with ideas for demonstrating stereo benefits not yet exploited. For
instance, can a low tone, in stereo, be sounded
at a greater intensity before it masks a higber
frequency? Do two cbannels eliminate the need
for artificial echo? Then there is the diffe rence between the intensity of . a sound and its
loudness-an important consideration in determining wbether bass is heard in · natural
balance or as something contrived on the con:
trol console. Perhaps General Electric can do
the job, incorporating findings from its research on bass directionality. A shorter, onereco rd version is available on ·Fol kways
FX6136.
CHARLES A.
STEREOPHON Ie
Dixieland All Stars: The Golden Era of
Di x ieland Jazz
Design DCF1010
The Science Of Sound Folkways F,?C6007
If the stereo disc has accomplished nothing
else during t\yO years of exis tence, it has
caused many persons to reexamine their thinking about sound witb a frequency in direct
proportion to the length of time they h ave
listened to stereo in the home. The variety
of techniques employed and the great advances made have kept the medium anything
but moribund. The Dixieland album represents an improved method of cu tting compatible stereo and is the center of a certain
amount of controversy. Produced on two
monophonic records by Bel1 T elepbone Laboratries, t he otber set mal,es no men tion of
stereo in demonstrating basic pbenomena of
sound, knowledge of wbich t be average a u diofan may feel he acquired sometime i n the
dim past. As all the principles to ucbed u pon
have their stereo application, paying them a
return visit at this juncture is likely to clear
tbe brain of any stray decibels left over .fJ:Om
listenin g to tbe latest stereo opus.
T be Febl"Uary meetiug of the New York
chapter of tbe Audio Engineering Society
sen-ed as a forum for a panel discussion on
the compatible disc being marketed u nder tbe
DeSign label. Members wbo attended were presented with a speCia lly prepared demonstration record and a covering memorandum signed
by John Mosely. an audio consultant for the
labeL The record was played during t be mee ting and an A-B comparison made wit h tbe
master tape. As t h e gatberi·n g fi lled the 1200
sq uare feet of the main studio of the O-D-O
recordi ng Company, of 254 West 54tb Street,
and overflowed into the observation and control rooms, home listening conditions were
hardly approximated. If for no othe r reason.
it is just as wel1 that no ollicial conclu sion
was attempted by those assembled.
Tbe cutting tech nique was developed at
B eltone RecordIng StudiOS, where Les Cahan
worked with representatives of Faiycbild RecOJ"Cling Company to incorporate the necessary
features into the 641 cutt ing system. One
side of the test pressing was cut with 'Vestrex
3C equipment, and the otber with the Fairchild system. A frequency test band is included and each musical selection is heard
tbree times-monopbonic first, f ull stereo last,
and compatible stereo in between. The compatible tracks a re s]jghtly limited In the vertical and borizontal compone nts. In no case
i. the vertical limiting in excess of 3 db more
than above tbe late ral. Vertical rolloff is inserted, being down 3 dbs at 100 cps; 7 dbs
at 50 cps and 11 dbs at 30 cps, with refereuce to the RIAA curve.
Since the meeting was beld, the RIAA_ is
reported to ha\-e d enied a request to approve
this modification of the standard recording
characteristic. The first twenty Design releases are on sale in record sh ops and snpermarkets throughout the cou ntry, however, and
al1 interested parties can satisfy their curiosity abont the new product by conducting a
* 7032 Th e Pa,·7vway, Ma11la1·oneck, N . Y.
54
ROBERTSON ~:
listening tes t at home. A minimum outlay of
less than two dollars will put the Dixieland
All Stars on the turntable. Rex Stewart, Bu ster Bailey and Vic Dickenson are out in f ront,
supported by Marty Napoleon, Arvell Shaw,
and George Wettling. In addition to playing
a half-dozen old favorites , the group stretche~
out on R elaxation B 111 es, and Y ellow Dog
Blu es. Each side runs about twenty minu tes,
and f ew New York clubs let customers stand
at t he bar that lon g at tbe price.
Although large letters on the lin e r are used
to quote Danton Wall;er, wbo is better known
as a gossip columnist than an audio expert,
as declaring this method to be "a revo lu tion
in recording," most experienced li stener s are
aware that many stereo discs sound reasonably good on monophonic equipment. Some
even play back monophonically t h rough a
stereo system better than they do when the
two speakers are out of phase in full stereo.
This is not true of most operas and music
featuring wide s epara tion. Considerable pop
material and quite a few jazz groups can be
handled in this fashion without particular
damage. While the present example is no
equal for the bes t monophonic reproduction,
it is super ior to many earl y stereo p ressings
and anlply demonstrates tbe advances made
in cutting processes during the past two years.
Component dealers may encounter an influx
of inqu iries from people who neYer heard of
stereo befo re purchasing a Design record. A
blank look or abrupt dismissal of the subject
will not make cu stomers. Instead, a few questions about the equipm ent nsed can result in
an invitation to bring the record in and listen
to it on a proper setup. Most audio salesmen
are aware that a record the customer is familiar with often makes a greater impact than
more spectacular demonstration material. That
can com e later, after the advantages of component stereo are compared to the shortcomings of monophonic boxes or stereo packaged
with speakers less than four feet apar t. As
the Design product sounds much better in
stereo, it makes an excellent base to start a
neopbyte's education by providing an incentive
to buy stereo. A stamped , self-addressed envelope sent to P ickwick Sales Corporation.
Pickwick Bnilding, Long Island City 1, New
York, will bring a t echnical bro cbure in return .
Afte r attending the meeting, I emerged into
the night clutching the test record and the
firm conviction tbat the te rm psycb oacoustics,
which figured prominently in th e diSCUSSion,
has a diffe re nt meaning for recording eng;'
neers, component manufa cturers. a udiofans,
and record company offiCials, wi th the average home listener yet to be heard from. Listening to "The Science of Sound" se t a few days
later, I welcomed the plain recital of factual
information li ke a breath of fresh air. Designed to aid ins tructors in schools and colleges, it furnish es vivid demon s tratjon s of
textbool, terms and wili make a va lued addition to science classrooms. Thanks to a script
. prepared by Bruce E. Strasser of the Bell
Telephone Laboratories Pub]jcations Department, the narrator avoids using dry definitions to describe the numerous phenomena covered i n the nineteen sections. Techn ical con~
sultants were Floyd K. Harvey and associates
Wally Rose: Ragt ime Classics
Good Time Jazz S10034
Half a century ago, this mu sic would be In
every home, piled in stacks on the parlol·
plano and whistled on tbe stairs. It belongs.
tbere today, espec ially as played by Wally
Rose, a pianist who· has devoted more tha n
half as many years to studying ragtime and
perfecting a style that would make old Tom
Turpin jump for joy. After a winter like the
one just past, listen to the opening bars of
Sp,·ingtim.e Rag, a 1916 tnne from the Indi a n·apolis composer Paul Pratt, and feel the years
drop away as the shoulders straighten in an
irresistible u rge to dance. Personally, I won lll
rather buy a Wally Rose record than eat, so
tbis review is definitely biased.
Ever since first appearing with Lu Watte r's
Yerba Buena Jazz Band in the early 40's,
Rose has demonstrated a real affinity for ragtime and is now at the heigbt of his powe rs.
Few pianists have the ability or understa nding to match his performance on H enry
Lodge's Red Peppe,· Rag. Under his ministra tions much of the abuse heaped on ragtime
is wiped away, and all tbe great compose rs
are played-Scott Joplin, Tom Turpin, J a me
Scott, Joseph Lamb, and Jelly Roll Morton.
All in all , a choice bit of Americana that belongs in every collection. Mort Corb, bass, and
dru mmer Nick Fatool are discreet accompanists, and stereo brings ou t the pianist's tone
and dynamics.
Jim Timmens: Hallelujah! Spiritual s In
Stereo Brass
RCA Victor LSP2029
The Guitar Choir: New Jazz Sound Of
Show Boat
Columbia CS8216
If the arranger and conductor duo at work
on these sets bad been around du ring t h'l
swing e ra, every, jazz fan would bave sung
their praises. The story is different today, and
one reviewer in a h ighly respected jazz maga·
zine, duri ng remarks abou t a recent album
credited to Jim Timmens, questioned the existence of such a person. Well, a glance at
the arranger pages in the Local 802 blue book
will find h im listed, and not under a pseudonym. Let's hope audio enthusiasts appreciate
the rich brass voicings on the current gathering of spirituals, and wili encourage him to
pen more of the same. Each of the studio
groups involved Is pOSitioned so as to utilize
stereo to the utmost, and the scores feature
trumpet exchanges between Joe " ' ilde r and
Doc Severinson, Joe Ferrante and Mel Davis,
fo llowed by a drum battle between Don Lamond and Joe Venuto, witb the latter on tympa ni. And there is room among the special
effects for generous solos by Joshua, It' s Me
and Go T ell It On The M ountailt. Ray Hall is
responsible for the splendid engineering.
John Carisi is best known for i srael, a
work wr itten for tbe Mil es Davis band of
1949, but his many arrangements for dance
bands deserve more notice than they h a ve r eceived. The idea of a choir of fi\'e guitars
belongs to B a rry Galbraith, who plays a lead
voice along with Jim Raney, and it Is put to
the test on t he J erome Kern musical. As distribu ted in stereo, the gu itars form a WOllderful background for imaginative and melodic solos by Phil Wood s, alto sax, and trombonist Bob Broo];meyer. Three songs Included
were added d u ring later revivals and may
prove to be a new experience to some.
AUDIO
•
MAY, 1960
SR-445 AM-FM Stereo Tunar
When a tuner can accurately reflect the quality of the
broadcast ... you enjoy "Integrity in Music." Stromberg-Carlson manifests this concept in the exceptionally sensitive SR-445 stereo tuner. Its two separate and
complete tuners have individual circuits---:-ready for
any and all types of stereo.
The FM portion features balanced ratio detector,
wide peak -to-peak separation (475 kc), grounded grid
cascode front end, switched AFC, tuning eye, 20 to
20,000 cps response and 200 kc bandwidth.
The AM portion is equally exceptional, featuring a
tuned RF stage, three-gang variable tuning condenser,
20 to 7,000 cps response and 9 kc bandwidth. Both FM
and AM have Local/Distant switches for additional
quieting. The SR-445 is only $129.95.';' Top cover in
:.vhite, black, tan,or red available.
And, the budget-minded can buy the FM or AM portions separately. The specifications correspond to those
above. The FM portion, FM-443, is $79.95.* The AM
portion is available as model AM-442, with its own
power supply, at $59.95* or without power supply, for
use with the FM-443 as model AM-441, at $49 .95.*
Same top cover colors available.
Stromberg-Carlson now offers 16 equipment cabinets
in a wide variety of styles and finishes. They are designed to house complete Stromberg-Carlson stereo
component systems and are factory assembled. They
reproduce as faithfully as separately mounted components because of a unique mounting method that isolates the speaker systems from the other sensitive
components.
See your dealer (in Yellow Pages) or write for a
complete component and
cabinet catalog to: 1418-05
North Goodman St., Rochester 3, New York.
* Prices audiophile net, Zone 1,
less top cover, subject to change.
1/
There is nothing finer than a Stromberg- Carlson"
STROMBERG-CARLSON
A DIVISION OF GENERAL
DVNAMICS
AUDIO
•
MAY, 1960
55
Phil Napoleon & His Memphis Five
Capitol ST1344
Jimmy McPartland: That Happy Dixieland Jazz
RCA Camden CAS549
Where is the jazz res~archer who knows the
uumber of bands P hil Napoleon has called t he
Memphis Five? If the maestro himself can
tell, he boasts a better memory than most of
us. T his year's edition is one of the best, and
it buckles right down to dispensing Dixieland
from the leader's private stock. New York
style was the way it used to be described, but
today t he label could just as .w ell bear a
Miam i or L as Vegas imprint. Harry di Vito's
tailgate trombone provides a solid bass for
Ken Daver n to launch l ofty, agile solos on
cla rinet. J ohnny Var ro t akes a syncopated
piano chorus on O"eol e Rag. Anyone with as
many records to h is credit as Napoleon deserves to be allle to point to one and say,
"This is t he way I sound." H is new label
affiliation does t his for Napoleon, and owrers
of his previous recording will be agreeably
surprised at his trumpet tone on Oome Back
to Son'ento, t he one interloper among a dozen
jazz tunes.
Jimmy :McPartland, hardy su rvivor of Chicago's Austin High gang t hat he is, plays
Dixieland standards in a rrangements by DicIt
Cary, a man who has yet to be classified . J ust
about everyth ing new happening in this music
can be traced to Carey, or musicians he h as
worked beside. A few years ago, Bobby Hackett's band was enlivened by h is ideas. T hey
continue to be fres h and invigorating, with
imaginative ensembles to give soloists t he incentive to depart from stereotyped performances. Bob Wilber a nd Ernie Caceres team u p
fo r the clarinet parts on High Society, a nd
Harvey Ph illip's tuba dances roundly through
'i'h at's A-Pl enty. McPartland responds with
his wonted dri ve on t rumpet, even breaking
into song on Way Down Yonde,' I n New Orleans, and T he Saints. Next time, why not a
for the money
circuit by
\8A
·•••
·••••
tubes by
Amperex"
•
vocal du et with Eddie Condon? Cary tur ns up
on pia no, and other soloists are Cutty Cutshall and Georgr Wettling. Good, l ow-priced
stereo, in spite 01' an attempt to do too much
with t h e t uba sound.
Horace Silver: Blowin' Th ~ Blues Away
Blue Note ST84017
The Mastersounds Play Horace Silver '
World Pacific 1284
In addition to becoming jazz hits, several
of Horace Sn,'er's com positions, through no
fau lt of his own, have attain ed greater popularity wh en set to lyrics. Both of these al bums are devoted to' his works in the before
state, with nothing to impede the mu sician s
other t h an the hands of t he clock. But it i ~
only natural to speculate as to just how long
it will take someone to come u p with words
for one of the tunes introduced here by the
pianist and his men. And will it be Peace,
a balladic eYocation of a tender mood, 01'
t hat robust creature fervently shouting the
glories of salvation, Siste,· SadieY Por traying
different aspects of Silver's personality, they
r ank high on t he list a nd are bound to h ave
a long career.
The stereo verSion was awaited because it
is one of the first produced at Rudy Van
Gelder'S new studio in E nglewood Cliffs, New
Jersey. Excellent piano sound, parti cularly
on two trio numbers, and it is h eld i n good
balance with the bass, played by E ugene
Taylor, and drums. An explOSive and driving
drummer from the fir st •• Louis Hayes is now
completely acclimated t o t he leader's moods
and responds accordingly. Blue 1I1i tchell , trumpet, and J unior Cook, tenor sax, complete th e
quintet.
Since the release of thei r latest album, The
Mastersounds have disbanded a fte r developing
into a tight ly integrated group d uri ng three
years spent working together. B ubby Montgomery is now with Miles Davis touring
Eu rope, and t he new association .will u ndoubtedly increase his reputation as vibist, if not
as arranger. It is to be hoped that pianist
R ichie Crabtree will find another outlet fo','
his arranging talents because, for one reason ,
he is among the few wh o have attempted to
do a nythi ng more t h an popularize S i lver' ~
t unes. All t he composer's strictures for a
spontaneous and highly charged performance
are obeyed, while working his concepts into a
Quartet framewo r k, and the group delivers
with u nflagging zest. I n cluded are Dood1i,n' ,
Nica's Dreamt, and Ench antment. The vibes
are clearly defined in the intimate ster eo
setting.
Annie Ross: A Gasser
about hi-Ii tubes
'or hi-'i circuitry
Bell engineers, preliminary to the design of their Carillon
Model 6060, 2 channel, 60 watt Stereo Amplifier, canvassed the industry for tube types offering something
truly exceptional in the way of reliability, low distortion,
low noise, low hum and absence of microphonics.
As has frequently been their experience, the people at
Betl found these qualities best exemplified by Amperex
tubes. Thus, the tube complement of the Bell Model 6060
includes two Amperex 6CA7/ EL34's and three Amperex
12AX7/ ECC83's in each channel.
These and many othe r Amperex 'preferred' tube t ypes
have proven their reliability and unique design advantages in the world's finest audio components.
Applications engineering assistance and detailed data
are always available to equipment manufacturers. Write :
~mp e re x Electronic Corp., Special Purpose Tube DiviSIon, 230 Duffy Avenue, Hicksville, L. I., New York.
AMPEREX TUBES FOR QUALITY HIGH-FIDELITY AUDIO APPLICATIONS
POWER AMPLIFIERS
6CA7/EL34: 60 w. distributed load
7189: 20 w., push-pull
6BQS/EL84: 17 W. , push-pull
6CW5/EL86: 25 W.,. high current,
low voltage
6BM8/ECL82: Triode-pentode , 8 w.,
push-pull
VOLTAGE AMPLIFIERS
6267/EF86: Pentode for pre·amps
12AT7/ECC81: Twin triodes, low
12AU7/ECC82: hum, noise and
12AX7/ECC83: microphonics
6BL8/ECF80: High gain, triodepentode, low hum, noise and
microphonics
1
56
RF AMPLIFIERS
6ES8: Frame grid twin triode
6ER5: Frame grid shi elded triode
6EH7/EF!83: Frame grid pentode
for IF, remote cut-off
6EJ1/EF184: Frame grid pentode
for IF, sharp .cut-off
6AQ8/ECC85:
Dual triode for FM tuners
6DC8/EBF~9 : Duo-diode pentode
RECTIFIERS
6V4/EZ80: Indireclly h.eated, 90 mA
6CA4/EZ81: Indireclly heated: 150 mA
5AR4/GZ34: Indirectly heated, 250 mA
INDICATORS
.
6FG6/EM84: Bar .pattern
IM3/DM70: Subminiature "exclamation" pattern
SEMICONDUCTORS
2Nt517: RF transistor, 70 mc
2N1516: RF tranSi stor, 70 mc
2N151S: RF transistor, 70 me
IN542:
Matched pair discriminator
diodes
IN87A:
AM detector diode,
subminiature
World Pacific 1285
Joy·a She rriil: Sugar & Spice
Columbia C58207
Each of these lady vocalis ts possesses talenr
in such variety that it is almost certain
neither will ever become typed. Annie Ross,
aside from being the last named member of
the L ambert, Hen dri cks, and Ross Trio, is
equall y at home on sh ow tunes, ballads and
jazz numbers, be they fast or slow. A generous sampling offered here a llows her to range
f rom a sultry, romantic I D 'idn't Know About
You, to a breathless, pulsating Eve"ything
I ' ve Got Belongs To Yo,.. She also reaches
way back for No body's Baby, and Th'is Is My
Du.cky D ay. The accompanying quintet fea ·
t u res Russ Freeman a nd Zoot Sims, whose
tenor sax blends as closely with t he voice as
Gerry Mulligan's bar itone sax d id on one of
her previous LP's. Bet·ter begin to collect
Annie Ross now, before h er early effor ts are
as h ard to fi nd as Billy Holliday's first records. Stereo frames t h e voice beautifully, with
Jim Hall's guitar filling out t he picture.
J oya Sh errill sang with Du ke E llington's orchestra at the age of fiftee n, bu t a more per·
tinent bit of information is that she wrote
t he lyrics for Take T h e "An T"ain, his theme
song at the time. Her current pr oj ect is a
dozen nu rsery rh ymes, reset in topical hipstyle, a nd t h e words and mu sic are a ll her
own. As t he album t itle implies, the seasoning is var ied, not too cute and not too l'al'
out, but never as tasty as the E llington dish.
Lut her Henderson, w ho did t he arrangements,
conducts with a beat just r ight for teenagers
AUDIO
•
MAY, 1960
,
and their elders to enjoy dancing to Hmnpty
D umpty, Hickol'y Dickel'y Do el., and Little
Boy BI,'ie. Henderson , inci dentally, had a h a nd
in training ' Miss Ross as well as a host of
other singers. ' . ,
Carlos Montoya: From St. louis To Se.ville
' : " , ' ;. RCA Victor LSP1986
The Best Of Django R!!inhardt
CcipitC!1 TB010226 (Mono)
l!'Jamenco, like j azz, is a n improvised art
and tllese two guitarists bring an a ncient
gypsy heritage to everything they play. In
11Iaking his first excursion into t h e world of
jazz, Ca rlos Mon toya remains himself, in true
virtuoso fashion, a nd from the start takes
command of t h e rhythm ·section of New York
jazzmen engaged to act as a guiding influence. So persuasive are his powers that it Is
easy to credit the report noted on the liner,
which would have you believe everyone adjourned to t h e Montoya domicile and continued jamming after ,the session. ' Meeting
jazz on his own t erms, 'Montoya creates a mixture fu ll of su rprises and unexpected rhythmR.
He brings the contrasting mood a nd colors of
Spanish music to St . Louis Blues, and Blues
In The Night. He rhapsodizes with a ll the
lyric yearning 'of a "romantic gypsy ' on Raoi n
On The Roof;' and Que Se"a, Se,·a. An interlude of fl'ee imptovisatlon allows him to wander as his faucy . dictates before the jou rney
back to Seville begins. On the reverse side he
plays the music usually e>.-pected from him,
d,i splaying on five numbers a technique which
dazzles the aud ience and wins plaudits at con·
certs. But his admirers can find flamenco on
the first s ide as well, with: something 'else
added for the jazz fans. Stereo lets all the excit ement. through, and engineer . Ed Begley
keeps the setting intimate .
. Twenty·five years , after his first records and
eight years aftel'.his d~ath, Django Reinhardt's
playing is still an influence on American guitarists. The' gypsy strain which runs through
all his work was once thought to det ract
from his status in jazz. Since then it h as
defied intitation, and today is regarded as the
piquant touch t hat spells Django. It is par t
of a rich t radition of improvisation which
both he and Montoya represent with so much
fire and brilliance. Most of the twenty-fout'
performances on the two· volume set were firs t
issued on the French Swing label. When im·
ported Into this country ' in t he late '30's, t h ey
featured , excellent s ound a nd quiet surfaces,
in ' comparison with domestic releases, and
were well worth t he premium price asked.
They weather time well withou.t stereo, and a
rare treat is in store for anyone who meets
the guitarist with his friends In QUintet of
t he Hot Club of France a nd such American
visitors , as Bill Coleman, 'R e,x Stewa rt, Berney
Bigard, Big Boy Goudie, and Dicl'y Wells.
MONOPHONIC
Willie Dixon: Willie's Blues
Prestige 1003
Memphis Slim: At The Gate Of Horn
Vee Jay LP1012
Prestige gets a n ew blues series ' off to D
flying start by taking un der its banner Willie
Dixon, a true country blues man from Clarl,s·
dale, Mississippi, by way of Chicago's South
Side. Dixon proves to be a match for any of
his contemporaries, and the freedom he was
allowed in maldng his debut results in one of
the best examples of his brand of blu es yet
placed on LP. There is all the in formality , of
one of Big Bill Broonzy's sessions of ' the late
'30's, thanks to Bob Weinstock, with none of
the exaggeration effects which other recording
directors came to demand In- the search for a
juke·box hit. And due to Rudy Van Gelder's
engineering, Dixon is among the few of his
kind to be recorded with the care given
Jimmy. Rushing, Jimmy Witherspoon, and
other blues singers who work with jazz groups.
A former h eavyweight boxer, Dixon u sually
thumps a bass fiddle in blues bands, often
accompanying Memphis Slim for whom h e has
written many songs. This time the pianist r eo
turns the fayor, supporting the singer with
fertile blues phrases and turning in a n orlgi·
nal boogie·woogie instrumental. Dixon claims
AUDIO
10l
•
MAY', 1960
First in the -series: the--new award-winn-irig'* Model 312 12" 3-Way Diffaxial ...
The award-winning ,basket frame of the 312 is only one of the many advanced ;
acoustic design features that contribute to its extraordinarily clean and wide response range. Its specially damped cloth suspensions and rigid cone afford rich,
deep bass response down to 28 cps. Its high frequency response to 40,000 cps ...
with a clarity, transparency and sweetness never thought possible ... is provided
by the fabulous new Sphericon Super Tweeter. The highly efficient Model 312
can attain distortion-free "concert" volume even when driven by modestly
powered amplifiers, yet its rugged construction permits the use of high powered
amplifiers with complete safety. For both perfectly integrated performance and ·
convenience in installation, the new University Model 312 is your ideal choice!,
'For design that , "possesses all the rigidity and dimensional stability needed to assure permanent centering
of the speaker cone, magnetic pot assembly and other components ... " the radically new die-cast bas](et of "
the 312 was unanimously a.warded first prize in industrial design competition that attracted entries from l a ,
major industries. UNIVERSITY LOUDSPEAKERS, INC., WHITE "LAINS,N .Y . A s~bsidiary 0/ Ling-Allee Electronics, IlIc• •
Features of the Series 200 Model 312
Model T202 Sphericon Super Twe~ter
assures rigidity
and reliability for the entire structure.
N arrow struts reduce reflecting surfaces,
and eliminate peaks and valleys in the
frequency response.
EXCEPTIONALLY RIGID WOOFER CONE, between two highly compliant cloth suspensions, achieves large, unhindered piston-like
excursions for outstanding bass response.
MID-RANGE is provided by the patented
Dlffusicone, an auxiliary light cone that
produces uniform dispersion of the frequencies in the 1000-3000 cps range.
THE SPHERICON SUPER TWEETER has' its own.
specially constructed reflector baffle to
prevent acoustic interference from the
main cone.
SPECIFICATIONS : Frequency response : 2840,000 cps. P ower rating: 35 watts.* Impedance, 8-16 ohms. Cross9 vers : 1000. c~s mechamcal, 3000 cpselec!ncal. Mounll'!g. fr~nt
or rear of baffle. 13" dla., 6% " d. Pflce: With
adjustable brilliance control. 573.00 user net.
Frequency response from 3000- cps
to 40,000 cps, ± 2 db to 22,000 cps!
The Sphericon is available separately as
Mode! T202 for those who wish to add its
thrilling and complete high frequency reproduction to their present systems.
The entirely new concept of this direct radiator tweeter, with its special domed phenolic diaphragm and spherical diffractor,
results in a virtually linear response-with
true musical quality-far superior to even
the finest electrostatic tweeters. And unlike
electrostatics, the efficient Sphericon can be
matched to any system (especially high compliance) without sacrificing bass efficiency.
ONE-PIECE DIE-CAST BASKET
*integrafedprogram.
SPE-CIFlCATIONS:
111
Dispersion : 12.0°. Power rat-
ing: 30 watts'. Impedance: 8 ohms nominal
(use with any 4-16 ohm speaker). Crossover:
3000 cps. Mounting : front or rear of baffle.
4 51.11 d'a 4" depth Price' with built' in net78
I.,
.
•
.
work and adjustable control. 524.qs user net.
~
•
~ .
57
Here's what the
experts say abo ut
the Bell Carillon
Stereo Amplifier
HAROLD LAWRENCE ';:
New Directions in Mu sic-Let The
Notes Fall Where They May
E
Frank Lloyd Wright's beige
mushroom sprouted on New York's
upper Fifth Avenue, it has become the
center of controversy. Many rega rd it as a
sorely-needed reform of traditional museum
architecture while others see ' in it another
disturbing example of the late builder's
radical philosophy. The new Guggenheim
Art Museum is neither as tall as the Empire State Building uor as grand as Rocke·
feller Center, but it already ranks along·
side these New York landmarks as oue of
the city's most popular attra ctions- as the
daily queues will testify. The controversy,
which no doubt helps to swell public at·
tendance, also extends to the museum's
exhibition.
Projecting from the milk·white walls of
Aren't these the reasons
the spiral ramp is a' collection of contemyou'll want to own one
porary art that, in the main, makes preWorld War II modern art exhibitions seem
HIGH FIDELITY Magazine
mid-Victorian by comparison. The fact
(The Carillon Stereo Amplifier) IS that abstract expressionism (or "action
rated at 30 watts output (per channel) painting" ) is represented here in force
at 1000 cps with less than 1 % distortion, underlines the almost universal acceptance
but can, in fact , develop this power at o{'.this movement on the' part of museums
20 cps with less than 0.7% distortion. throughout the Western World, although
Its intermodulation distortion is so low 'ju'dging from the visitors' comments, the
that we would have considered 50 watts public is far from convinced that this is
pe r channel to be an honest rating."
really an art form after all.
One of the pioneers of abstract expres·
.HIFI/STEREO REVIEW Magazine
sionism, the late Jackson Pollock, leaped
"This amplifie r is going to be one of the into prominence in the 1940's with his
great ones. Our reviewers rank the Car- "horizontal" technique of painting. H e
illon the most flexib le (among those Iyould lay his canvas fl at on the floor and
tested in the last eight months) in all
walk around it, trickling, splashing, and
categories in its power rating."
slinging paint at it from a bucket. Follow·
ing the barrage, he would stand the canvas
AUDIO Magazine
on
its side and alIow gravity to take its
(The Carillon) "is good to listen to, just
as good to look at (as handsome a unit course. Rorschach's famous inkblots indio
as this reviewer has seen)."
. rectly affected another approach to abo
stract exp ressionism . The procedure here
Get full facts about the Carillon Stereo involves painting colors and forms at Tan·
Amplifier and new matching Carillon dom, in ::t completely spontaneous and
Stereo Tuner. Ask, too, a~out the fine "thoughtless" manner, and then permitting
Bell Stereo Tape Transpor ts to complete the haphazard result to suggest to th e art·
you r music system . Send coupon today. ist the ultim ate direction his work was to
take.
The element of chance figures signifi·
ca ntly in these approaches, regardless of
whether the artist drips, spatters, blots, 01'
Thompson Ramo Wooldridge Inc.
smears. Chance, too, applies to the neo·
555 Marion Road, Columbus 7, Ohio
Dadaists who place together co mmonly Ull·
related materials. A new abstra ct expres·
Please send free literature and specification s on
these Bell products:
sionist painting by Robert Rauschenberg.
Carillon Stereo AmpJificl', Model 6060
for example, has a real stuffed eagle pro·
jecting' from the canvas, and a stuffed pil·
Carillon Stereo Tuner. Model 6070
low suspended from the frame by a pi ece
Bell Stereo Tape Transports
of string.
VER SINCE
~A Sound Division
o
o
o
NAME ____________________________
ADDRESS, _________________________
ZONE_STATE:
LCITY
____________
______
____
Musi ca l Cousins
Close parallels ca n be drawn between th e
~
60
* 26 W. 9th St., New YOT7c 11, N. Y .
abstract expressionists and neo-Dadaists,
and certain contemporary composers. The
common ideals shared by these painters
aml composers revolve around the rej ection
of · traditional concepts of art and music,
and the belief that, in the wo rds of Heury
Cowell, "there should be more room . . .
for improvisatory factors, for the elements
of casual choice and chance."
In one of the most talked-about compo·
sitions of the Fifties-John Cage's I1nagi·
na1'Y Landscape- twelve radios co nstitu ted
the "instruments," and twenty-four opera·
tors the "performers" (two to a radio).
One operator selected stations while the
other manipulated the volume control.
Wave·length was indicated by kilocycles,
station·tuning by notes and rests, and dy·
namics by numbers. The first performance
of Imagina1'Y Landscape at Columbia Uni·
versity's MacMillan Theatre in 1951 was
disappointing beca.use the work was pre·
sented later in the program than originally
planned, at a time when radio programs
had less variety and contrast than at t he
height of the evening. Some of the per·
formers felt that the rehea;rsals prod uced
far more interesting results, but the composer was undisturbed: he wa's out to dem·
onstrate a principle, not to conduct a
"definitive" performance. Even so, Cage
would have to admit that there are only a
few radio·rich cities in America where his
11'01'1, co uld be given effectively.
A centuries·old Chinese game of chance
called I·ChvlIg (the Oriental equivalent of
dice utilizing coins or marked sticks) sup·
plied Cage with a compositional method.
He devised an arithmetical system govern·
ing tempo, duration, dynamics, and wave·
length tuning, and permitted COill·tossings
to dictate the work's progress. If the ulti·
mate r esult was of a certain contour and
over-all character, it was not the compos·
er's fault alone; in Madison·Avenue tenn i·
uology, "That's the way the cookie crum·
bles."
"The artist is a receptacle for emotions
that come from all over the place-from
the sky, from the earth, from a scrap of
paper, from a passing shape, from a spid·
er's web. That is why we must not discrimi·
nate between things. ' Where things are
concerned, there are no class distiuctions."
Pablo Picasso wrote this in 1923. Replace
the word, "emotions!' with "sounds," and
you have an explanation of Cage's "orches·
tration" of his Theatre P.iece. He:nd for
the first time at New York's Circle in the
Square early ill March, the work is scored
for piano, tuba, trombone, plastic bags
(filled with water ), movie projector, alarm
clock, broom, garbage·can lid, streamers,
AUDIO
•
MAY, 1960
•
and their elders to enjoy dancing to Humpty
Dumpty, Hickory Dickm'y Dock, and Little
Boy Bl1le.·,Henderson, incidentally, had a hand
in training ' Miss Ross as well as a host of
other singers.'
Carlos Montoya: f'rom St. louis To Se.' ": ' ;. RCA Victor LSP1986
yille
The Best Of Diango R4:!in~ardt
,
C~pitol TB010226 (Mono)
l!'lamenco, like jazz, is an improv.ised art
and tliese two ' guitarists bring an ancient
gypsy heritage to everything they play. In
making his first excursion into the world of
jazz, Carlos Montoya remains himself, in true
virtuoso fashion, and from the start takes
command of the rhythm ·section of New York
jazzmen engaged to act as a guiding influence. So persuasive are his powers that it Is
easy to credit the report noted on the liner,
which would have you believe everyone adjourned to the Montoya domicile and continued jamming after ,the session. Meeting
jazz on his own terms, 'Montoya creates a mixture full of surprises and unexpected rhythmR.
He brings the contrasting mood and colors of
Spanish music to St. LOlt'is Blues, and Bl'nes
In The Night. He rhapsodizes with all the
lyric yearning 'of a 'romantic gypsy on Rain
On The Roof;' and Que Sm'a, Sera. An interlude 'of fl'ee 'imptovisation allows him to wander as his fancy dictates before the journey
back to Seville begins. On the r eve rse side he
plays the music usually expected from him,
d,isplaying on five numbers a technique which
dazzles the aud ience and wins plaudits at concerts. But his admirers can find fl a menco on
the first side as well, ,vith something 'else
added for the jazz fans. Stereo lets all the excitement through, and engineer . Ed Begley
keeps the setting intimate.
. Twenty-five years , after his first records and
eight years aftel: his death, Django Reinhardt' s
playing is still an influence on American guitarists. The gypsy strain which runs through
all his work was once thought to detract
from his status in jazz. Since then it has
defied imHation, and today is regarded as the
piquan t touch that spells Django. It is part
of a rich tradition of improvisation which
both he and Montoya represent with so much
fire and brilliance. Most of the twenty-four
performances on the two-volume set were firs t
issued on the French Swing la bel. When imported Into this country ' in the late '30's, they
fe~tured excelle~t sound and quiet surfaces,
in comparison with domestic releases, and
were well worth the premium price asl<ed.
They weather time well withoQt stereo, and !I
rare 'treat is in store for anyone who meets
the guitarist with his friends In Quintet of
the ' Hot Club of France and such American
visitors as Bill Coleman, Rex Stewart, Berney
Bigard, Big Boy Goudie, and Dici"y Wells.
MONOPHONIC
Willie Dixon: Willie's Blues
Prestige 1 003
Memphis Slim: At The Gate Of Horn
Vee Jay LP1012
Prestige gets a new blues series ' oil' to 3
tiying start by taking under its banner Willie
Dixon, a true country blues man from Clarksdale, Mississippi, by way of Chicago's South
Side. Dixon proves to be a match for any of
his contemporaries, and the freedom he was
allowed' in making his debut results in one of
the best examples of his brand of blues yet
placed on LP. ,T here is all the informality , of
one of Big Bill Broonzy's sessions of the late
'30's, thanks to Bob Weinstock, with ' none of
the exaggeration efi'ects which other recording
directors came to demand in' the search for a
juke·box hH. And due to Rudy Van Gelder's
engineering, Dixon is among the few of his
kind to be recorded with the care given
Jimmy. Rushing, Jimmy Witherspoon, and
other blues singers who work with j azz groups.
A former heavyweight boxer, Dixon usually
thumps a bass fiddle in blues bands, often
accompanying Memphis Slim for whom he has
written many songs. This time the pianist returns the fa vor, supporting the singer with
fertile blues phrases and turning in an originlll boogie-woogie instrumental. Dixon claim$
AUDIO
•
MAY, 1960
I
First in the series: fhe -n-ew award-winnlng* Model 312 12/1 3-Way Diffaxial ,
The award-winning ,basket frame of the 312 is only one of the many advanced
acoustic design features that contribute to its extraordinarily clean and wide response range. Its specially damped cloth suspensions and rigid cone afford rich,
deep bass response down to 28 cps. Its high frequency response to 40,000 cps .. .
with a clarity, transparency and sweetness never thought possible ... is provided
by the fabulous new Sphericon Super Tweeter. The highly efficient Model 312
can attain distortion-free "concert" volume even when driven by modestly
powered amplifiers, yet its rugged construction permits the use of high powered
amplifiers with complete safety. For both perfectly integrated performance and
convenience in installation, the new University Model 312 is your ideal choice!
"For design that. "possesses all the rigidity and dimensional stability needed to assure permanent ceiltering
of the speaker cone, magnetic pot assembly and other components .. •" the radically new die-cast basKet of"
the 312 was unanimously awarded first prize in industrial design competition that attracted entries from III.
major industries. UNIVERSITY LOUDSPEAKERS,INC., WHITE PLAINS, N.Y.A s~bsidiary 01 Ling-Altec Electronics, Inc.- .
Features of the Series 200 Model 312
ONE-PII!CE DIE-CAST BASKET assures rigidity
and reliability for the entire structure.
N arrow struts reduce retiecting surfaces,
and eliminate peaks and valleys in the
frequency response.
EXCEPTIONALLY RIGID WOOFER CONE, between two highly compliant cloth suspensions, achieves large, unhindered piston-like
excursions for outstanding bass response.
MID-RANGE is provided by the patented
Dlffusicone, an auxiliary light cone that
produces uniform dispersion of the frequencies in the 1000-3000 cps range.
THE SPHERICON SUPER TWEETER has its own,
specially constructed reflector baffle to
prevent acoustic interference from the
main cone.
SPECIFICATIONS: Frequency response: 2840,000 cps. Power rating: 35 watts.* Impedonce.: 8-16 ohms. Cross,?vers: 1000. c~s mechamcal, 3000 cps e1ec!f1cal. Mountl~g. fr'!nt
or rear of baffle. 13" dla., 6%" d. PrIce: WIth
:~;:;::::"";:~=.'M","
Model T202 Sphericon Super Twe'7ter
•
Frequency response from 3000 cps
to 40,000 cps, ± 2 db to 22,000 cps!
The Sphericon is available separately as
Mode! T202 for those who wish to add its
thrilling and complete high frequency reproduction to their present systems.
The entirely new concept of this direct radiator tweeter, with its special domed phenolic diaphragm and spherical diffractor,
resuits in a virtually linear response-with
true musical quality-far superior to even
the finest electrostatic tweeters. And unlike
electrostatics, the efficient Sphericon can be
matched to any system (especially high compliance) without sacrificing bass efficiency.
SPECIFICATIONS: Dispersion : 120°. Power roting: 30 watts •. Impedance: 8 ohms nominal
(use with any 4-16 ohm speaker). Crossover:
3000 cps. Mounting: front or rear of baffle.
4'1./1 d' 4/1 d th P ice' with built~in net78
la., . ep . r . .
.",,, _ ~" ••, .,,0,""0 OM~O" "'." ~. ~.
57
STEREO AMP.
FEATURES:
.. Can receive stereophonic broadcasts of both
AM-AM and AM-FM independently at the.
SM-30 (OUTPUT 15W-15W)
SPEC1F1CATlONS:
4·german ium diod es, 23 tub es 6BQ 5p.p.x 2
Maximum Power Output: 15W-1 5W
Frequency Characteristics : 40 c/ s-70K
cI s, within -ldb (at lOW output)
Distortion : 1 % at 14W output
Gain (input for lOW output):
TAPE .... 1.23mV
MAG ... . 3.17mV
MIC . .. .. 1.34mV
X·TAL .... 54mV
AUX ... .74mV
Frequency Response:
88-108Mc /s x 2 for FM
535Kc / s- 1605Kc / s x 2 for MW
3.5Mc I s- l OMc I s for SW
same time and facilitates reception of any
kind of broadcasts-AM, SW, FM.
* By pushing the "presence switch", it con re·
produce powerful low sound which has
hitherto not been possible .
.. Ea sy to see " glamour magic eye" is equipped
for tuning indication.
.. By only changing the mode switch, output of
as much as 15W-15W fo r stereo and 30W for
ordinary broadcast can be obtained.
.. A highest closs versatile "mammoth" amplifier
that can also be used as a crosso ve r 3500c/s
channel amplifier.
SANSUI ELECTRIC CO., LTD.
460, Izumi·c ho, Su gin a mi ·ku, To kyo, Japan
The First Book of its Kind-No Other Like It!
SOUND in the THEATRE
by Harold Burris-Meyer and Vince'nt Mallory
N
,
,
'
othing like SOUND in the THEATRE
has ever been published. It is the first
book to set forth in authoritative detail what
. you can do with sound by electronic control,
and how to do it whenever the source (singer,
musician, speaker, etc.) and the audience are
present together. The book develops the requirements for electronic sound control from
the necessities 'of the performance, the characteristics of the audience (hearing and psychoacoustics), and the way sound is modified
by environment, hall, and scenery. Sound
sources a re considered for their susceptibility
of control a nd need for it, and the many techniques for a pplying electronic sound control
are described and illustrated in thirty-two spe·
~fiC problems. From these problems a re de-
,.
RADIO
rived systems a nd equipment specifications.
Complete procedures are given for: Planning,
assembling, a nd testing sound control installations-Articulating sound control with other
elements of production- Rehearsals and perforin a nces - Ope ra tion a nd mainten ance of
sound control equipment.
THE AUTHORS
During the past thirty years, the authors have developed
the techniques of sound control in opera, open·air amphi·
theatres, theatres on Broadway, theatres on·the·roafand
off·Broadway, in concert halls and night clubs, in Holly·
wood and in the laboratory. Some of their techniques are
used in broadcast and recording as well as in perform·
ances where an audience is present. From their laboratory
have come notably successful appl ications of sound con·
trol to psychological warfare and psychological screening.
~~
MAGAZINES, INC. " .
Dept. 2
"'
Post Office Box '629
Mineola, New York
I am .nclosing my remiltance for $10.00
Send my copy of
SOUND in the THEATRE postpaid.
(No C.O.D., all books sent postpaid in U.S.A.
and possessions, Canada, and Mexico.
Add 60c for Foreign orders.)
Name ____________________________________
Address ____________________________________
Oly _ _ _ _ _ _ _ Zone _
Siale _________________
credit for the eleven remaining tunes and they
make a rich addition to blues l iterature.
As befits a man weighing three hundred
pounds, Dixon never seems to hurry, even
when threatened by a grizzly bear on I Got
A Razor, or on the rapid Blt,lt Fo)' Co 11t/O)'t.
H is baritone voice has an engaging · trob, particularly when stammering throngh Nel"l) OIlB.
He shows no compunction about slapping the
bass, bouncing the strings again t its necl, for
an afterbeat, and his powerful hands can
make it sound like a big, deepthroated bu ll·
frog. Al Ashby appears to be an ordinary
rhythm and blues tenor sa.'l:ist until he also
throws convention to the wind on Sittin' And
C"yin' The Bl'lI es, the best number of the lot.
Here in mournful, earthy fashion, he ' sighs
like a creaky gate and then lows like a herd
of cattle coming t hrough. '''ally Richardson
slips in ra l'e touches on gu itar, and the drummer is Gus Johnson.
Memphis Sli m is moving around the folk
music circuit since Alan Lomax int roduced
him last year at Carnegie Hall (not Town
Hall as both l iner notes insist). Although he
appeared at Chicago's Gate of Horn, t here is
every indication that his present set is a collection of sides designed for juke·boxes. No
audience noises are heard, and from t he sound
it might easily have been recorded in the
nearest empty store. The overly amplified
guitar is well played, however, and the trans·
fer to LP keeps echo within reasonable limits.
As too little lIIemphis Slim is availab le, blues
collectors can ill afford to ignore it.
Joseph Spence: Bahaman Falk Guitar
Folkways FS3844
Anthems, Work Songs, & Ballads From
The Bahama Islands
Folkways FS3845
Samuel B. Char ters visited' Andros Island,
t he largest of the Bahamas group, during the
summer of 1958 to study and record the music
found in its southernmost settlements, an a rea
far removed from the beaten tourist track. So
much so, in fact, t hat his account of the trip
makes as fu lly engrossing a tale as hi s search
in Texas for the blues Singer Lighti n' Hopkins.
Anyone with a flair for adventure who reads
the two booklets enclosed in these fi l'st volumes is bound to look forward to the release
of the final chapter. It is due to appear
shortly, a long with a third volume devoted to
hymns and dances. In the meantime, let
Charters tell how he transfe l'l'ed his equip·
ment from a small skiff to a ma il boat in a
heavy swell. T hen listen to some of the musl·
cians discovered in his quest for nati ves who
remember older songs a nd the appI'opriate
style of performing each one.
J oseph Spence, who has t he first volume to
himself, is an exceptional guitarist by any
standards. Living in a commnnlty where music
is the on ly creative expression and almost
every you ng man plays the inst rument, he is
known as the best guitarist the inhabitants
can remember hear ing. Like many self·taught
musiCians, he essays simple tu nes and states
t he theme in a style that is primitive and
direct. But once the prelimina ries are out of
t he way, he commences a succession of sta rtling va r iations, retur ning to t he melody only
while pausing to gather his forces 0 1' reaSSure
the audience. H is ideas are shaped from
knowledge gained in learni ng t he capabilities
of the instrument and many of them are
highly or iginal. His voice on the spiritual,
['lit Go;"t To Live That Life, resembles the
work of t his country's early blues singers and
the words a re about as intell ig ible. Anthem.
and local dance tunes are treated with eq ual
zest, and the one popular song, Com inO In a..
A Wi.no a.nd A P..ayer, would indicate that
he crossed paths with GPs du ring World War
II. Spence ma.l,es his living as a stone mason,
plays without a pick, and tunes his gu itar a
tone low-aU of which makes for a powerful
sound and no amplification is needed .
If the impulse to star t packi ng a tape reo
corder is still dormant , then move on to the
next volume and meet F redericl, McQueen as
he leads the Singing at a boat launching.
Harry Belafonte should be willing to pay good
money to t he person who gives h im first
chance at a work song li ke Lono SlIl1tmer
Days. The boats are built on the beach and
the task of getting one into the wate l' involves a uni son response to the leader's chan t.
McQueen also sings original ballads, while
several anthems a re handled by a male -trio.
Students of folk mores will find mu ch of inte l'est in the unusual rhythmic patterns on
both albums. They seem to stem from environment rather than any African heritage. And
wilen preparing for your trip, consider the
recording conditions met by Char ters and A.
R. Danberg, his technical assistant, a nd make
sure of a power supply.
PHOTOGRAPHED I N THE MODEL DEMONSTRATION CLASSROOM AT NEW YORK UNIVERSITY
Dixie Anyone?
Music Minus One 1009
Bob Wilber: Classic Dixie
Classic Editions CJ2
Joe Wilder: Fascinatin' Rhythm
Classic Editions CJ 1
After meeting both the needs of fledgling
jazz players and more experienced improvisers
with a number of rhythm background folios,
the Music Minus One series now p rovides a ll
the basic ingredients for stimulating en semble
performances. Also, due to the fact that two
albums were produced from each of these sesSions, even those listener s who limit their
participation to a bit of compulsive foottapping are accommodated. The Dixieland
wing is invited to unlimber in . t he company
of a sept et hea ded by Bob Wilber, who learned
this music the h a rd way until Sidney Bechet
t Hught him tl~e secrets of the. trade. He u ses
the knowledge acquired then and later in his
career to arrange old reliable tunes, six of
whi ch a re transcribed and. bound in t he volume prepared for home cooke,'s.
Either to avoid ' complications or on the
theory that each aspirant mu st eventually
fend for himself. the "missing parts" which
MMO usua lly leaves unplayed a re filled. Instead of working with rhythm accom paniment
alone, fortunate owners are "able to s tep on
the stand and join a front line comprised of
Buck Clayton, trumpet, Vic Dickenson, trombone, Bud Freeman, tenor sax. a nd the leader
on cla.rinet. In keeping with the purpose of the
date, the performers are careful to suppress
eccentricties 'of-style, leav·ing all such liberties
to the guest artists. Ensemble passages are
fully plotted and steer clear of the collisions
likely to result during the customary free-foral!. Because of the meticulous playing, much
of the claSSic purity which enabled them to
endure the test of time is res tored to such
melodies as Wolvel'ine Blues, Keepin' Out OJ
Mischi ef Now, a nd T i n Roof Blues. Vocalists
will find no competition, however, a nd complete lyriCS are supplied. The practice of
limiting each side to three numbers should
ensure that the grooves withstand rough
usage.
Although somehow dropping Th e Man That
Got Away, Classic Editions presents six additional titles from the same group to complete
a normal LP. Meant for dancing and listening,
the release is likely to prove quite adequate
for many students as weI!. At least, rhythm
players who h ave mastered the rudiments
should be able to sha rpen their wits, especially when seated in a section con§isting of
bassist Ahmed Abdul-Malik, drummer Panama
Francis, and Dick Wellstood on piano. While
aiming at a model performance, the soloist·s
remain relaxed and the unit swings wholeheartedly on Chimes Bhtes, High Society, a nd
Wila Man Blues. It would be possible to point
out less restrained Dixieland sets, but certainly not one more perfectly played.
Joe Wilder lends lyric enchanment to eleven
Gershwin t hemes, blowing trumpet improvisations over rhythmic backgrounds contained on
previous MMO folios. Most of the titles listed
were released on Volume Foul' in the series
and such accomplished accompanists as Hank
J ones, Mundell Lowe, Wilbur Ware, and Max
Roach are featured. Also Oscar Pettiford a nd
Kenny Clarke, who are now living in Europe
as expatriates. Owners, of the earlier set can
complete their education by comparing their
efl'orts to Wilder's, perhaps adding a choru s
or two, while others will find enjoyable listening on Someone To Watc h Over Me, 'S Wondel'flt l, and B 1tt Not For Me. The value of
each album as an aid to self-instruction is
increased by Dave Hancock's engineering.
Naturalness of balance is achieved and the
separate parts are h eard with clarity and defi·
nition .
.2E
AUDIO
•
MAY, 19'60
as combination manual turntable, TH Eautomatic turntable
and automatic record changer, '0UAL truly capable of
authentic high fidelity stereo and 100 6 mono reproduction
IS IN A
GLASS
BY
ITSELF
You need not take our word for it. The United Audio Dual-l006 has
been thoroughly tested by many consumer and technical publications within
the high fidelity industry as well as by noted consumer testing organizations.
Without exception, it has been acclaimed for its flawless workmanship and its
many exclusive and significant features as both a professional turntable and
deluxe record changer. Its ability to track a stereo record with the most sensitive of turntable cartridges at the minimum recommended stylus force ensures maximum life of all records. Where permission has been granted, we
have ' reprinted these detailed evaluati0ns a nd will b-e glad to send you copies
on request. Or, if you can, we suggest you visit your authorized United Audio
dealer and submit the Dual-l006 Turntable/Changer to your own critical test.
united audio
PRODUCTS
OF
DISTINCTION
12 West 18th St. , N.Y. 11, N.Y.
59
,Here's what the
experts say about
the Bell Carillon
Stereo Amplifier
HAROLD LAWRENCE ':'
New Directions in Music-Let The
Notes Fall Whe re They May
Franl, Lloyd Wright',s beige abstract e}.1>l'essionists and n eD-Dadaists,
mushroom sprouted on New York's and certain contemporal·y composers. The
upp er Fifth A venue, it has become the co=on ideals shared by these painters
and composers r evolve around the r ejection
center of controversy. Many r egard it as a
of · traditional concepts of art and music,
sorely·needed reform of traditional museum
architecture while others see· in it another · and the belief that, in the words of Henry
Cowell, "there should be more room . . .
disturbing example of the late builder's
for improvisatory f actors,. for the elements
radical philosophy. The new Guggenheim
of casual choice and chance."
Art Museum is neither as tall as the Em·
pire Stat e Building nor as grand as Rocke·
In one of the most t alked-about compo·
sitions of the Fifties-John Cage's I 'magi.
feller Center, but it already ranks along·
side these New York landmarks as one of nary Landscape- twelve r adios constituted
the city's most popular attractions- as the
the "instruments," and twenty-four opera ·
daily queues will testify. The controversy,
tors the "performers" (two to a r adio).
which no doubt helps to swell public a t·
One operator selected stations while the
tendance, also extends to the museum's other manipulated the volume control.
exhibition .
Wave·length was indicated by kilocycles,
Projecting from the milk·white walls of station·tuning by notes and rests, and dy·
the spiral ram]) is a· collection of contem- namics by numbers_ The ·f irst performance
porary art that, in the main, makes pre·
of I1naginary Landscape at Columbia Uni·
World War II modern art exhibitions seem
versity's MacMillan Theatre in 1951 was
mid-Victorian by comparison. The f act disappointing because the work was pre·
that abstract expressionism (or "action
sented later in the program than originally
painting") is represented here in force
plalll1ed, at a time when radio programs
underlines the almost universal acceptance
had less variety and contrast than at the
, "of;.this movement on the· part of museum s height of the evening. Some of the per·
throughout the Western World, although
formers felt that the reheal·sals produced
'judging from the visitors' comments, the far more interesting results, but the com·
public is far from convinced that this is
poser was undistm-bed: he wall out to demreally an art form after all.
onstrate a principle, not to conduct a
Onl;l of the pioneers of abstract expres·
"definitive" performance. Even so, Cage
sionism, the late J ackson Pollock, leaped would have to admit that th ere are only a
few radio·I'ich cities in America where his
into prominence in the 1940's with his
"horizontal" technique of painting. H e
work could be given effectively.
would lay his canvas fl at on the floor and
A centuries· old Chinese game of chance
walk around it, trickling, splashing, and
called I·Ching (the Oriental equivalent of
slinging paint at it from a bucket. Follow·
dice utilizing coins or m arked sticks) sup·
ing the barrage, he would stand the canvas
plied Cage with a compositional method.
on its side and allow gravity to take its
H e devised an arithmetical system govern·
course. ROl·schach's famons inkblots indiing tempo, duration, dynamics, and wave·
rectly affected another approach to abo
length tuning, and permitted coin-tossings
stract expressionism. The procedure here
to dictate the work's progress. If the ulti·
involves painting colors and forms at r an·
ma.te result was of a certain contour and
dom, in a co mpletely spontaneous and
over-all character, it was not the compos·
"thoughtless" manner, and then permitting
er's fault alone; in Madison-Avenue termi·
the haphazard result to suggest to the art·
nology, "That's the way the cookie cr um·
ist the ultim ate direction his work was to
bles."
take.
"The artist is a receptacle for emotions
The element of chance figures siguifi·
that come from all over the place-from
cantly in these approaches, regal·dless of
the sky, from the earth, from a scrap of
whether the artist drips, spatters, blots, 01'
paper, from a p assing shape, from a spid·
smears. Chance, too, applies to the neo·
er's web. That is why we must not discrimi·
Dadaists who place together commonly un · nate between things. · Where things are
related materia ls. A new abstract expres·
concerned, there are no class distinctions."
sionist painting by Robert Rauschenberg, P ablo Picasso wrote this in 1923. Replace
for example, has a real stuffed eagle pro·
the word, "emotions:' with "sounds," and
jecting' from the canvas, and a stuffed pil·
you have an explanation of Cage's "orches·
low suspended from the frame by a piece
tration" of his Theatl·e Piece. Hearcl for
of string.
the first time at New York's Circle in the
Square early in March, the work is scored
Musical Cousins
for piano, tuba, trombone, plastic bags
Close parallels can be drawn between th e
(filled with water), movie projector, alarm
clock , broom, garbage·can lid, streamers,
* 26 W. 9th St., New York 11, N. Y.
E
VER SINCE
Aren't these the reasons
you'll want to own one
HIGH FIDELITY Magazine
(The Carillon Stereo Amplifier) IS
rated at 30 watts output (per channel)
at 1000 cps with l~ss than 1 % distortion,
but can, in fact, develop this power at
20 cps with less than 0.7% distortion.
Its intermodulation distortion is so low
that we would have considered 50 watts
per channel to be an honest rating."
,HIFI/STEREO REVIEW Magazine
"This amplifie r is going to be one of the
great ones. Our reviewe rs rank the Carillon the most flexible (among those
'tested in the last eight months) in all
categories in ·its power rating."
AUDIO Magazine
(The Carillon) "is good to listen to, j ust
as good to look at (as handsome a unit
as this reviewer has seen) ."
Get full facts about the Carillon Stereo
Amplifier and new matching Carillon
Stereo Tuner. Ask, too, aQout the fine
Bell Stereo Tape Transports to complete
your music system. Send coupon today.
~~ Sound Division
I
Thompson R amo Wooldridge Inc .
I 555 Marion Road, Columbus 7, Ohio
I Please send free llterature and specifications on
I t hese Bell products:
II
It
o
Carillon Ste r eo Amplifier, Model 6060
D
Carillon Stere o Tuner. Model 6070
o Bell Stereo Tape !Trans ports
NAME _________________________
I ADDRESS, ________________________
ILCITY
ZONE_STATE, ______
________________
~
60
AUDIO
•
MAY, 1960
fir eworks, and a dead fi sh. Ap art fl'om
setting up a time schedule for the half·
hour·long piece, Cage placed control of its
destiny in the hands of the eight p erform·
ers. Prior to the event, each p articipant
,vrote down on a series of cards "a noun or
verb or combination of both with which
[he] would care to associate [himself] ."
The cards were then mixed and 'the r andom
juxtaposition of words formed the compo·
sition's basic outline.
.
In Cage's musical wodd, the composer
abdicates his orthodox position vis·a-vis
the performer . He hop es in this way to
free his compositions of "individual t aste
and memory," and to achieve a stat e of
"indetElrminancy." This is where the similarity between Cage and the abstract expressionists ceases.
John Cage's best known adherent, Mort on F eldm an, applies the principle of p erformer freedom to standard musical in struments. In his work, tra ditional notation is
abandoned since the execu t ant, rather than
the composer, supplies the actual notes.
Using graph p aper, F eldman blocks in the
squares to indicate to the musicians in approximately what range they are to play
(low, medium, or high), and to specify the
duration of their "bits." From time to
time, the composer provides instructions
as to tonal production (Le., "what is desired in the execution is a pure non-vibrat ing tone"), or treatment of specific sqnares
( H for harmony, PZ for pizzicato ) . The
rest is up to the performers. Under this
f orm of controlled improvisation, an orchestra made up of "conserva.tives" will
produce more or less consCl'vative music,
while an avant-garde group will turn out ult ra-modern "sounds." Appropriately, F eldman titles his works I ntm'sections and
P1·ojections.
Across the Atlantic, the Frenchman,
Pierre Boulez, is also experimentiug with
chance. In his music, however, the score is
still king. Like a chemist whose job is to
break down and analyze the components of
a material, Boulez has isola ted what he
believes to be the stuff music is m ade of:
notes, dynamics, stresses and accents, and
rhythmic figures (which he calls "cells" ) .
To each of these components he has assigned numbers. In his system ther e are
twelve notes, twelve dynamic levels r anging from pppp to tttt, twelve manners of
sounding a note, a nd twelve rhythmic fragments. The possible changes which Boulez
can ring on these elements are endless.
Their variety can be illustrated by the
mathematical permutations of English
bellringing: the number of changes with
twelve bells totals 479,001,600 and would
take 37 yea rs and 355 days to ring. With
four sets of t welve "bells" each, not to
mention various instrumental ancl vocal
settings, Boulez need not fear of running
out of combinations.
Cage, Boulez and Co. f eel that t r a ditional music has nothing more to offer our
space age ; we mllst wipe the slate clean,
they say, and begin again. But, as P aul
H enry Lang wrote so eloquently in the
New York H erald Tribune (April 10,
1960 ) , " The march of time gives a new
physiognomy to style, but not a new heart;
the heartbeat of c,u lture remains the same."
NO TURNTAELE
REGARDLESS OF PRICE
VV'"ILL OUTPERFORM THE
Jj
• Hysteresis
synchronous
motor drive for 33Y3 and 45
rpm r ecordin'gs .
For the first ti me in tra nscripti on tUTIllablc desig n, you have
the ultimate in perform a n ce a t a
practica l price . This rem arka ble new 2speed Ster eo turntable, with its hysteresis
synchronous drive, assures you the superb
quaiity offered by an)1 fine turntable r egardless of its price . Custom-cr afted and
succinctly assembled , each is a work of art.
N o m ass production m e th ods here - m erely
the unsurpassed skill of fin e English craftsmen working to wa tch-like precision. Com p ar e these sp ecifica tions with any o ther
turnta ble on the m arke t costin g considerably
morc. You' ll be amazed !
• Rumble facto r: - 50 db when
referred to 7 em /sec. a t 1000 cycle
sig n a l.
• Wow content is less th~ n .15% and
lIutter down to .1 %,
• Hum level is down 80 decibels.
$59. 50 NET
Formica -covered base $14.95
optional for
CONNOISSEUR INTEGRATED
STEREO PICK-UP AND ARM'
for the price of a pick-up alone.
A superb qua lity compani on for o nly the finest of
turntables, this h and-crafted stereo pick-up
a nd autom a tic-control arm is unsurpassed.
.005/ 6" di amond stylus ; 3.5 g ram
.......IIIr.~"'!:;.;
stylus, force ; 20- 18,000 cps; ± 2 db;
25 db Channel separa tion.
Autom atic contro l a ction p ermits
arm to be r a ised or lowered delicately
and accurate ly without touching the pick-u p
a rm.
$49.50 NET
Old world precision se?'ving a new world of sound.
CORPORATION
(El ectronic Division)
Dept. A-5, 16 West 46th Street, New York 36, New York
J£
A.u.~ IO
•
MAY, 1960
61
NEW PRODlJCTS
• Tra nsistor ized A -F Voltmet e r . This extremely small and handy instrument was
developed to replace the bulky VTVM.
Its dimensions are 3 1/ 16 x 5 x 2',2 ins, and
it weighs 28 ozs. The TVM- 20 will measure
voltages and voltage levels in the r an ge
of 30 to 20,000 cps, while at the same tim e
encompassing a range of m easurement of
1.0 mv to 300 volts, or - 60 dbm to + 52
dbm. It m ay a lso be used as an amplifier
in a.c. bridge circuits. It indicates the
r.m .s . or effective value of the input v oltage; the w ave shape, therefore, has little
influence on the accuracy of the measurement. Transi stors are used throughout,
and operating voltage is supplied by a
hermetically-sealed, recha rgeable, nickel cadmium battery. Circuitry of the TVM-20
consists of a three- stage stabilized transistor amplifier with three p-n- p s u rface
transistors. Both b a lanced and unbala n ced
voltages may be meas ured. The amplifier
output is brought out to headphone jacks,
permitting u se of the instrument as a
listening amplifier, or the signal may be
fed to an oscilloscope. Gotham Audio Corporation , 2 W. 46th St., New York 36,
N. Y.
E-[
• Knig ht S t ereo Recorde,r . Engineer e d to
meet the exacting require m e nts of cri tical users, this recorde r combines versatility and simplicity with excelle nt
audio characteristics. A 3-speed m ac hine
equipped with built-in preamplifiers, the
KN-4060 records and p lays both 2- and 4t r ack stereo tapes. Design e d for use with
external amplifiers and speakers, it m ay
be added to any home music system. Pushbuttons control eve ry function. Bot h
r ecord and pl ay, wow a nd flutter content
is below 0. 25 p e r cent, a nd signal- to-noise
ratio is 45 db. The KN-4060 is equipped
with a solenoid which automatically shuts
the unit off after a t ape h as been played .
Complete information is available from
A llied Radio Corporation, 100 N . Western
Ave., Chicago 80, III.
. E -2
• Reeves M agnetic Tape. D evelop ed to
meet the intensified requi rements of multitrack stereophonic sound, this new tape,
which contains an exclusive oxide formulation called FA- 4, meets the raised stand-
ards of p erformance r eq uired of recordi ng
heads, amplifiers, speakers, and tape itself .
The increased efficiency of the new oxide
is said to offer improved operation with
n ew equipment, a l so to improve operating
qua lities . of ol der t a pe recorders. FA-4,
which stands for "fre quency adjusted"
oxide formu lation, will be availab l e with out additional cost on a ll So u ndcr aft reels
of Mylar a nd acetate t a pes. Reeves Soundcraft Corpor ation, Great P as ture Roa d,
D a nbury, Conn.
E -3
• U nive,r s ity Super Twee,t er . The Sphericon Model T - 202 has a frequency range
of 3000 to 22,000 cps ± 2.0 db, with output
extending to 40,000 cps a t - 10 db. In con struction it contains a number of i nteresting features. A domed phenoli c diaphragm
ing speakers. Unive r s ity L o udspeakers,
I nc ., 80 S. Kensico Ave., White Plains,
N. Y.
E -4
• Hom ewood Enclos u r e Kit. Ma de of f ullgrained whHe hardwood ply, the M odel 1
encloses four-and - one-half cubic feet of
baffle space, affording good bass r esponse
within a com pact area. Wh e n assembled,
the kit stands 29 i n . high and 20 in. wide.
It comes equipped with 5-in. legs: Weight
is only 25 lbs. Simple, exact instructions
accompany each kit. Assembly time is
only 30 minutes. The Model l is the la tes t
item in a compl ete line of unfiinished highfidelity furniture and speaker- enclosure
kits manufactured by Homewood Industries, In c., 26 Court St., Brooklyn, N. Y.
E -5
• B elden Low-Loss Ca ble'. Idea l for connecting hi-fi components where a shielded
low-loss cable is indicated, Be lden 8421
h as a cell u lar polyethylene insulation for
low capacitance, a nd a spiral tinnedcopper shield for easier and neater con nection. In a ddition, for increased mechanical a nd t e nsile s trength, the 25 -AWG
conductor consists of four strands of
tinne d Copperweld a nd three strands of
tinned copper. The n ew cable is available
on 15- , 25-, 50 -, 100-, and 500-foot reels
from Belden wire a nd cable distribu to rs.
Ma nufactured by B elden Ma nufacturing
Compa ny, Chicago 80, Ill.
E-G
• PACO AM/ FM S t e re<> Tuner K it. All
the builder n ee d d o i s proceed through
several minor wiring an d assemb ly steps.
and this tune r i s complete a nd ready to
operate. B eing entirel y pre-aligned a nd
fea turing printed- circuit board s, th e Model
*,
monophonic and stereo ope r a tion are provided at three speeds- 7 '1.., 3
and 1 %
ips. Recording monophonically at the
slowest speed affords up to 16 hours of
recording time on a singl e 7-in. reel. By
using the level-in d icating meters mounted
on t h e front panel, channel s may be b a l anced i n a matter of seconds. Also included is a digital cou nter for p i n-pointing any specifi c portion of a r ecor ding. At
7 ',2 i ps, response is 50 to 15,00 0 for both
is aco u stically loa d ed by a conoidal ring
to afford exceptiona lly s mooth response.
A diffractor s phere w id ens the dispersion
pattern to 120 degrees in a ll pla nes. The
unit i ncorporates a built-in networ]< for
3000-cps crossover, a nd a volume (bril liance) control compl ete with a 36 -in.
cable for convenient lo cation. Power r a ting
of the Sphericon is 30 watts of integrated
program material, an d nomina l impedance
is 8 ohms. This i s an excellent u nit for
use in the ' treb le range of m u lti- speaker '
systems, and to extend t h e range of exist -
ST-45PA n ee ds no additional minor a l ignment or "front-end" tracking a djustm en ts
to equ a l a f a ctory-wired a nd aligned unit.
Having sepa rate FM a nd AM circuitry,
the t u n e r can p lay simulcast stereo, FM
AUDIO
•
MAY, 1960
separa te. a nd AM separate. A socket is
p rovi d ed on the c hassis for a m ulti p l e x
adapter. The FM t un er h as a sensitivity
of 2.0 m ic rovolts for 30 db quieting.
Bandwidth i s over 200 k c. with harmonic
d istort ion l ess than 1.0 p e r cent from 20
to 20.000 cps. T he AM tun e r has a tun ed
r .f. stage with a 3- gang tuning capacitor.
The a nten na i s a s peci a l built-in ferrite
unit whi c h is rotatable as w e ll as removable. The AM circ uit includes a 10-1{c
whistle filter. Both AM a nd FM sections
have separate flywhee l tuning. cathodefollow er outputs . a nd indiv idual leve l controls on rear pane l. Further informa tion
may be obtained by writi n g PACO Electroni cs Company. Inc.. 70-31 84th St .•
Gle nda l e 27 . N. Y.
E-7
• Curre,n t Te·st Adapters. T h ese devices
permit e x act tub e -circuit current measurem e nt in operating eq ui pment with out com puta tion or cutting lead s. Supplied singly
or in a se t of 7-. 8-. and 9-p in types. t h e
adapters are inserted in the tu b e socket
between the c h ass is and the t ub e. C u rrent
r eadings are made by in ser ting a u niq u e
dua l- side d t est prod in th e expose d t est
tabs. as shown in the illustration. The
adapters a l so provide means for ad d ing
r esistors or capaci t ors in series with tube
element s. for conn ecting leads to externa l
circuits. and for making voltage and w aveform measurements. Vector E lectronic
Company. 1100 Flower St.. Glend a le 1.
Calif.
E-S
new TUNER
• Strobe Lamp. Handily mounted on the
end of a 6-ft. extension cord. the "Strobolamp" offers a convenient mea ns for
checking the speed of a tUrlltab le or record c h a n ger. A strobe disc supplied with
the un it conta ins dots which corre spon d
H.H.SCOTT· WIDE BAND .$114.95 *
') "
~.
Here at last is an H. H . Scott Wide-Band FM tuner at a modest price. The new 314
ranks with the very finest FM tuners available. H. H. Scott's exclusive WideBand design delivers more distortion-free sens itivity; long range reliability; better
station separation, even when measured by stringent IHFM standards. The fine
. pefformance of this unit is made possible by the use of special Wide-Band circuit
components manufactured exclusively for H. H. Scott. The new 314 measures a
compact 15V2 wide x 5 ~ high x 13 ~ deep. Listen to this fine tuner at authorized
H. H. Scott dealers everywhere. You'll be amazed at the fine performance it
offers at this exceptional price.
*West of Rockies $116.95
••••.........•.....••..•....••....•••.•
~ H~O~T~~l1 ~d212.!.!
Maynard, Mass.
'. ' .
w ith stan.dard recording spee ds. Opera tion
is conventio n a l-h old the Strobolamp over
the d ots: which correspond w ith the speed
a t which the table is supposedly turning.
a nd check ror motion. Further informa tion can be h a d by writing the manufacturer. Switchcraft. Inc.. 5555 N. Elston
Ave .• Chicago 30. Ill.
E-9
AUDIO
•
o Please ru sh me complete technical specifications on your
new 314 Wide-Band fM tuner.
o Also includ e your new catalog and award winning booklet
Technical Specifications
(I H FM Method)
Sig nal to Noise Ratio : 60 DB b elow 100%
Mod. ; Harmonic Distortion: 0 .8%; Drift:
0.02%; Capture Ratio: 6 DB; Audio Hum:
66 DB below 1 v; AM Suppression: 55 DB.
"Row To Use Hign Fid elity Components in Your Oecoratin g Plans".
rlame •.. •.... . •.. .. . ..... .. .•. . ...• . .••. .••....•....•
Address ... . . . ..... .... ............... . ... . ..• . .....••
City ..................... : •••• State ... ........ . .... . ..
Export: Tetesco tnternational. 36 W.40th St.. N.Y.C.
MAY, 1960
••
.••
l'l's-IPS MAGNETICRECORDING SYSTEM
(ll'om page 22)
line from the cartridge to the supply
reel during the threading operation.
When the tape has been pulled from the
cartridge and starts to wind on the supply reel, the pressure pad that supplies
the back tension and the pressure roller
are automatically brought into position.
(Fig. 13)
The takeup reel is operated with a
conventional slipping clutch drive.
The successive cycles of operation are
programmed by means of a multiposition rotary switch and several mechanical interlocks. The slipping clutches,
FIGHT
Eft
Fig . 10. Diagram sh ow ing cartr idge nesting ribs .
brakes, speed-changing idlers, and the
like are operated from the three-dimensional surfaces of a single complex cam
which programs all pressure-pad, pressure-roller, and escapement operations.
It is necessary to provide a number of
mechanical and a few electrical interlocks to prevent improper manual interference with machine operations, but
these are relatively simple and straightforward in design.
The straight-line character of the tape
path does not require intermediate idlers
and consequently the guidance problems
are minimized. However, as in all such
drives, it is important to maintain the
pressure roller axis p ar allel to the axis
of the capstan. This is accomplished by
introducing sufficient compliance in the
mounting of the pressure. roller so that
it is self-adj usting within small limits.
The spring loading provides a simple
adjustment for correcting major pressm'e differentials across the idler surface. (Fig . 11).
Obviously, there must be some means
for sensing the end of the tape and various other portions of the operating cycle.
I n this machine these results are obtained by means of a simple analog computing linkage that cannot be disclosed
in detail at this time. However, the
method is independent of the length of
the tape in a given cartridge and has
displayed a very high degree of r eliability.
. The authors wish to express their appreciation for the advice and assistance
during the course of this work by B. B.
Bauer, A. A. Goldberg, J . C. J eschke,
H. R . Sherman, E. L. Torick, and J. C.
Wish'and of CBS Laboratories and Barbara Ivins, formerly with CBS Laboratories. We also wish to acknowledge
whole-hearted cooperation of Dr. W. W.
Wetzel and his associates of 3M's Mag1£
netic Products Division.
WITH A
ECIUP
AND A
CEel
Send your gift to "CANCER"
in care of your local post office
®
AMERICAN CANCER SOCIETY
64
Fig. 11. Straight-line path for tape.
AUDIO
•
MAY, 1960
AUDIOCLINIC
Did you get a bum steer by being
directed to a pickup which is
stereo in name only? Many socalled stereo cartridges fail to
provide channel separation in the
vital midrange and high frequencies, resulting in only oneear rather than two-ear reproduction .
--
(from page 4)
amplifier. The scope cun also be connecteu
to the output of the square wave generator
(which is conn ected to tbe input of the
amplifier) and a comparison made betweell
the waves as they appear at the input of
the amplifier and those waves which a.re
recovered from the output of t he amplifier.
The ability. of the amplifier to r espond
to these squar e waves is a measure of the
tmnsient j'esponse of the amplifier . When
it is said that an amplifier possesses excellent transient response, it means th at
the amplifier can reproduce steep wave
fronts created by sudden stops and starts
in program material.
The type of measurem ent just discussed
can often tell you wbether the feedback
is adjnsted properly. If· there ar e wave
shapes at output which differ appreciably
from those of the square wave gener ator,
it probably means that the amplifier is on
the verge of oscillation. Fur ther capacitance may be needed in the feedback loop
of the amplifier in order to stabilize t he
high-end performance. If this remedy do es
not work, you probably will have to r ed uce
the over-all feedba ck loop gain.
'l'he last kind of measurement which I
shall discuss here is that of t he amount of
feedback which an amplifier is using. This
is a faidy simple measurement to make.
Connect your audio generator to the input
of the amplifier and connect our poor old
load resistor to the output of the amplifier.
Connect your a.f. voltmeter to the outputthe same one which you used when measuring frequency response. Disconnect th e
feedb ack resistor and feed in a 1000-Cp8
tone. Note the voltage which appears across
the meter terminals. Adjust the input signal so it is somewhere neal' full scale. Next ,
connect the feedback resistor, and again
take a reading. Be sure that no control settings have been changed. The difference
between the indication with no feedback
and the indication with feedback-expressed in db- represents the amount of
feedback present. There is one slight complication to this: If the feedback resistor
is small enough that it causes a change in
cathode bias when it is removed, you must
compensate for this change before making
your measurements. When the bias changes,
so does the gain of the amplifier. The gai n
of the amplifier also changes with varying
amounts of feedback, and if the gain is
changed by botl). of these factors, you won't
kno'w which is doing what.
Notice that all the measurements discussed in this month's column required the
use of an .a1ulio signa l genemt07', or audio
osc'iUa·tor to produce any frequency at will.
Such a device must have a l ow impedance
output, and should be capable of putting
out very low voltages, from th e millivolt
range up to the vicinity of 10 volts. These
instl'Uments should be capable of producing all the tones of the audio spectl'Um,
as well as some slightly below it and above
it. Some instruments have meters built
into them which register the voltage ap pearing at the output of the oscillatorwhich feeds into the amplifier. The oscilla tor should have as flat a response as possible, but there probably will be some
deviation. This deviation can be read immediately on the meter and t he needed
correction can be made. The oscillator
should also have a minimum amount of
distortion, especially when it i s to be used
to make harmonic and intermodulation distortion measurements.
IE
AUDIO
•
MAY, 1960
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AUDIO ETC.
(f7'om IJag e 42)
a rc .lJ ea vy aud big, the rubb er idlers are
immense; the whole thing is built like a
ba ttleship (but simpler ) and was intended
to last. It h as.
I doubt if the old T-12H can match th e
very best of new st er eo t ables. 'But it's
lik ely to outlast a fe w of them. The happy
"extra" in this model, the hysteresis motor,
i s probably tb e best r eason for acceptable
ste reo performance in t his pre·ster eo t able
thoug h generally good design ha s plenty to
do with it. Th e low vertical rumble might
be a sheer happensta nce- who car ed about
vertical vibra tions in those days ~-or it
could also be a by-product of over-all care
in t he design.
The other high-qu ality t able I'm still
using is the D & R, th e one that serves for
my broadcast t ap es. Tliis t able r at ed tops
when it was fir st produced, m aybe seven or
ei.ght yea r s ago or more, a nd I've found
few f a ults with it since then . It h as an
outside-drive rubber wheel, mounted fr ee
(you can lift the whole idlel' unit right out )
a nd held against the rim by a simple
spring ; speed change is clumsily done via
brass collar s tha t fit over the motor spindle
-but I don't have to change ver y often.
A mer cury switch tha t tip s do es the on-off
j ob as th e brass handle moves the idler
against the rim.
Only t wo difficulties ha ve ever cropped
up with this machin e. One is p etty. The
idler wh eel doesn't always r elease from the
rim when you turn the machine off, due to
mechanical slippage. Th e other would b e
serious if it m a ttered in my case. Though
th e la t eral rumbl e in the table is very low,
vertical rumble is quite sever e ; I cannot
use the t able a t all for st ereo pla ying. Just
goes to show wha t a tricky thing r umble
can be. This, too , is a b eautifully designed
t able ; but it s set of design p aTamet er s
happened to involve the once-unimportant
f actor of vertical rumble, where the RekO-Kut design hap pened not to.
The third t able is a f ar less exp ensive
model, the original Components "Junior"
sin gle· speed tabl e, la t er called t he G1 Special or some such name-1 forget exactly.
This was a modest version of the Components belt·driven t a ble tha t h ad been highly
praised; it uses a heavy ceramic weight
for the t able itself , covered by a soft aluminum shell (I had trouble with dents and
bending a t first ) and the drive is fixed, via
outside belt. The t able has one extra advantage-it will fit into a changer box or
the space where a cha nger ordina rily goes.
Tha t's wher e mine i s right now (though I
had to cut a hole in the box to give the
manual a rm room to move) . And, wonder
of wonders, this cheap little "Junior," selling 'way back f or around $25, does an excellent ster eo job, so good t ha t I have had
no special desire to get a nything newer .
This, mind you, with a p air of AR-3 speakers that show np rumble ver y precisely
when it occurs.
Between these three t ables I've been
doing so well that, b elieve it or not, I h ave
not yet b 'ied any post ·stereo t able, except
for a brief whir l with the amplifier-driven
Fairchild model- some time back. A good
table, let me tell you, is a good investment.
Pickering 240-D
In the fir st of these accounts, involving
the Colnmbia 360 phonograph (March)
AUDIO
•
MAY, 1960
1960), I mentioned the familial' des igmLt ion " just a pi ece of junk"-and th en described 110W I found t ha t t his l'elatively
a ncient Model. 360 ~vas a nything but th a t ,
once it h ad been fix ed up r ight.
W ell, her e's anoth er exa mple. My seOl'et a ry brought h er own home p hono gr aph
woes to me a fe w month s ago a nd I go t
interested, f or th e usual r eason s. "Wa nted
to find out exactly wh a t was wrong in her
syst em. She was as cryptic as you might
guess. The machine didn't play right b ut
she co uldn't get over to me wh a t was t he
ma tter. She'd sent it out once, a t great
cost , a nd it had gone bad again-the old
story. N ow, th e local service man said her
cartridge was no good and she'd have t o
get a nother one. Wh a t, she asked me, was
a cartridge ~
That intrigued me no end, for her e was
something I could cope with. H er s was detacha ble, on a plug-iiI changer a rm, and to
my surprise it turned out to be an excellent one-a Pickering 240-D turno ver b ackto·back model, one separate little suga r lump cartridge for LP and anoth er f or 78.
Tha t model was a di stinguished Ol1 e in its
day and you don't toss sueh valuable eq uipment on the junk pile without a second
thought. So I turned her cartridge over t o
my assist a nt f or exploration. Did it work ~
The elec trical continuity was OK. But as
we t ried it, the stylus seemed to produce
di stortion now and then , a buzzing . And
the p oint seemed sort of wobbly. V aguely
r ememb ering a simila r problem with my
own exa m pIe of the same model, I b egan
to specul a t e. So I ups and sends it b ack
to the Pickering factory with a note. Told
them I suspect ed it might be the st ylus
damping ma terial; I had heard of minor
t r ouble in th a t dep artment with that mo del.
W as it OK her e~ (Or the stylus might h ave
been broken, but didn't f eel so ). I said
please rep air and send bill.
It came right b aek from Pickering a few
days la t er . N o eha rge. Cryptic note saying
simply "Stylus is OK." N ot a word about
th e damping 01' an y other trouble. So I
gave it b ack to its owner to try again.
The story isn't finish ed yet. A week lat er
she was back~the phonogl'aph still didn't
work. So I dutifully explained the phonoplug amplifier test t ha t would indicat e
whether the trouble was beyond the changer
- unplug the signal lead halfway, breaking
the ground connection, and see if the-re's a
bla t. (Be sure to turn volume up and put
controls to PHON O. . • . ) Another w.eek
p assed. She came baek and said yes, there
was a bla t . But still no music.
That is as f a r as we've got to da te but
it is a long way, you'll r ealize, even if t he
d arned thing still doesn't play.
For at least I know that I ha ve saved
t his lucky lady the cost of a new P ickering
240-D, or equivalent, diamoncl a nd all, a nd
t hat ain't hay. Green stuff. It would ha ve
bronght tha t cr afty local serviceman a neat
little profit.
And, moreover, I know that heT trouble
i s no worse than a loose connectiou somewhere b et ween th e cartridge itself and the
amplifier. She askecl whether she should
send for the man again-1 said NO! "B~Lt
w hat'll I do ?" Well, I said, maybe one of
these days my assista nt can get up to your
place and check that loose connection .
'1'her e it stands. She's saved a mint. But
she'd ha d no music for something like three
or four montlls,
JE
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transparency, and smoothness throughout
the audible spectrum. Even elusive midd lerange nuances emerge clearly. Tracks at a
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'WHEN REPLACING STYLU S, don ·t acc ept inferior
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67
J
LOUDSPEAKER CONES
(F1·om page 26)
Radial ribs or corrugations molded in
for compliance or stiffness.
Variable density 01· thickness wherever
wanted.
Extremely low moisture absorption,
for stability.
Compression of selected sections after
cooling, for adjustment.
Forming to almost any angle or shape.
exte n (led Tan ge
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...
Wigo
•
therefore~ puts
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WEEGO internal engineering rather than external frills which cost more, but add
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range response surprising for its low cost.
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udio
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On the other size of tne ledger, however, there are problems and techniques
to be woi·ked out to make the most of
the potential we feel exists in foam for
speaker cones. Molding dies are much
more complicated and expensive than
dies which make paper cones. Variations
in angle, density, ribs, and other things
must be worked out in sequence, taking
considerable time. So far, molded foam
seems a bout on a par with paper for
woofers. Performance in tweeter cones
is very promising, but methods must be
perfected to make very thin sections.
These are now under investigation.
The need for rigidity to prevent bending has been described for woofer and
tweeter cones. Yet necessity for bending
was pointed out as necessary in a widerange speaker cone. It must be recognized that wide-frequency-range operation in a single cone always puts a heavy
burden on the design, and inevitably results in compromise of some perform ance factors merely to achieve that wide
range. Most generally, efficiency and distribution angle suffer when the band width is stretched out. Where will the
foam cone fit into this type of application ? Much more work needs to be done
here, but one facet of the foam cone is
encouraging. Its rigidity is high per unit
of mass. There is nothing to prevent
thinning of the cone over-all, or in selected parts, until cone areas allow
enough bending, except at low frequencies. Probably some compromise in cone
angle, extremity of travel or another factor will be worked out to give adequate
wideband performance. All these variables give the speaker design engineer
more variables to work with. No generalization can be drawn now as to the
way each should be incorporated in a
particular speaker design. Rather than
to rush foam cone speakers to the market prematurely, it is preferable to complete the work and utilize the full potential of this promising material. We
believe that judicious employment of the
capabilities of this molded cone will in
the future improve speakers of many
types for many applications.
lE
RECORD REVUE
(F1·om page 53)
and freshness, where in all too many r eco rdings it just sounds tired or--wor e-ove rflamhoyant and falsely brill iant.
I won't need to play another "Scheherezade" for some time, my feelings tell me.
(But I 'll probably heed duty 's call and play
the next one just the same).
Shostakovitch: Symphony # 5. New York
Philharmonic, Bernste in.
Columb ia MS 6 115 stereo
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Circle 6 8 B
68
"An international triumph !" says the cover
blurb on this record and It is, for once, exactly that. This Is not ol)ly a wonderfully
revealing and human performance, of a symphony that can sometimes be hard and synthetic In Its Intensity, but It Is one of the
finest stereo recordings I have ever heard,
somehow hitting a "natural," In point of
mike placement, that--to use an analogy--Is
like an exact resonance, so easily and ideall y
Is the musical sound projected. I would not
begin to try to account for it, but I extend
congrats to the Columbia officials who turn ed
the trick. 'Nuff said.
Sibelius: Symphony # 2 . Detroit Symphony, Paray.
Mercury SR 9 0204 stereo
It's a pleasure to listen to the dynamic M.
Paray go to work on sta ndard class ics, with
all his Inimitable bounce. Maybe t he r esu lts
aren't quite what Is average-on-a-high-level,
but the sonnd s is always interestin g.
So It is with Sibelius. T his somewhat
craggy composer, once the hope of the moderns and now retired into utter r es pectab ility,
is usually given the full "Northern" treatment: bleak, moody, full of paSSionate tonepaint. As the years roll by, t his tends to
sound ever cornier except in the hands of a
real conductorial maste r of the sty le--Ilntl
there are precious few of them left. The alternative approach is modernization, and that,
too , is a r isl,y affair. But it is what happens
here under Paray.
Brisk and breezy is the word. No nonsense, nC' tearing of hair ; no windswept pine
forests and deep-blue fjord s, etcetc. But no
modern harshness, either, and a lot of sparkle
where spar kle helps. I 'll adm it that a few of
the more poignant Sibelius passages sound as
though someone had choked him off with a
Ii ve herring down the guIlet--he sort of
gu lps, hastily, and swallows fast . But generally, the old piece Is neatly streamlined and
pleasan t to hear.
Schubert: Quartet in D Minor ("Dea th
and the Maiden"); Quartettsatz in C
Minor.
a. Juillard String Quartet.
RCA Victor LSC 2378 ste reo
b. Amadeus Qua rtet.
Deutsche Gr<l mmop hon
DGS 712037 stereo
Two maidens and two deaths here, and I
hadn 't heard a record of this famous old
quartet for years. (Its slow moyemcnt is a
set of variations on the Schuhert song of the
same name.) I enjoyed both of these distinguished performances.
Th e more lively of the two Is that of the
Amadeus, which puts forward a more outwardly passionate expression; the Juilll a rd
has always been a rather bland, well polish ed
ensemble that reli es ou the gracefu l per fection of its teamwork--a decidedly legitimate
approach. The Juilliard version is cast in a
lower emotional key bu t the effect, if you
know Schubert, is not necessarily less appealing.
Stereo for a string quartet is a tr icky
A UDIO
•
MAY, 1960
thing but a lso useful, given the r ight recording technique. Side· t o-s ide sepa ration is
dangerous; too much of it can spread the
qua rtet out into a highly false str aigh t lin e
across the home "stage"- as no qu artet has
ever been known to play! The stereo u sefulness is in two respects. Most importan t is
t he heightened r oom-sound, t he sen se of the
players being in a room or h all, which adds
much to the realism of t h eir musical presence. Less important is the slight spatial
va riation from on e in s trument to anotherSligh t, but enough to poin t up the sen se of
fou r individuals playing toge tber, exactly as
the same slight difl'erence operates in the
live situation.
On stereo grounds, RCA win s hands down
h ere. The Juilliard Quartet is placed just far
enough away so that it is ea sily imagined behind and between the stereo speakers, as
though in a room adjacent to your own. The
Ii veness is just right-not too big (for a
pseudo-orcbestral ell'ect) nor too dry. I could
not tell which way to put my two speakers,
so li ttle spatial difl'erence is t here from left
to right; but the sense of differentiation is
there and, even more, the sense of players
playing in a space. That's what counts.
The Deutsche Grammophon r ecording is
made closer, close enough so that with a
fairly wide speaker separation (normal, I
s hould say), the quartet is apt to be stretched
s idewise ou t of sllape. (It's fine if you use two
s t ereo speakers righ t nex t t o ea ch oth er!)
Th er e is t oo much separati on; it t ends to be
distmctin g. And t he sound seemed to me a
trace harsh where the RCA sound W II S bland
lind even a bit dull on th e cu tting edge.
Brahms: Symphony # 4. Columbia Symphony arch . Bruno Walter.
Columbia MS 6113 stereo
This is, indeed, a gentle r ecording, in th e
Bruno Walter tradition-at leas t so it seem s
at the beginning. But when you play all th e
way t hrough , you discover t ha t th is is a
matter of ove r-all a rchitecture ; the opening
movement is held baCk, but by the en d of th e
symphony it becom es dramatically a part of
a subtle build-up of ell'ect covering th e entire
work. Thi s i s very much to th e point in
Brahms, who characteristically built his great
climaxes la te in the course of hi s big movements. But it takes a Bruno Walter to a pply
th e principle on such a large scale.
The ster eo r ecordin g is conservatively elistant, somewhat diffu se in over-all effect but
gaining th er eby an accurately musical ensemble a nd ba la nce. No h a r sh and s teely
string-to-th e-left h ere !
Vi' e can a ssnme th a t th is is one of a complete stereo set of the fonr Bra hm s Symphonies, to ma tch the set of s tereo Bee thovens.
LIGHT LISTENING
(f1·0m page 8)
pay oll' the best on larger s te t·eo sys tems. In
recent months, RCA has been deploying the
members of the Bos ton Symphony orchestra on
the level floor of the hall ins t ead of the s tage.
The new a ngle of mike pickup almost doubles
the stereo depth in t he latest recordings of
Charles Munch at the helm of the Boston. All
signs point to t he use of the same techni que
in this stunning job by Ar thur Fiedler and
the Pops. The reflection of sound has greater
uniformity t han it did when t h e orch estra hau
the wall of the stage behind it. This is especia ll y noticeable in the Ma"ch of the Siamese
Children f rom "The King and I," wh ile th e
a ir above the orchestra is heavy with the soEt
drone of the oriental instrumen ta tion. Leo
Litwin is the pianist in the big flashy items
such as Warsaw Concerto and Corni.s h Rha1Jsody. Poise and musicianship carry the day
in smooth arrangements of Lam·a, Gigi, and
Intermezzo.
Tutti Camarata: Deep Purple
Everest SOBR 1079
Camarata underlines his loyalty to the
music of Peter De Rose in a second Everest
album on the subject. Few pop condu ctors
today can match Camarata in r ecalling the
uncomplicated era that produced Deep Purple
and the other De Rose h its. Depicted here in
Everest's best sound, the past four decades of
this composer's music already seem rather remote. De Rose, after all, saw the world through
an unusually well-fl tting pair of rose-colored
glasses. The orchestra alone is heard in some
of the more famous items. Dolly Dawn, Ralph
Young, and the Stuarts-a relatively refined
vocal group--take t urns handling the words
of the seldom-heard tunes. The lyrics of one
of these, Let's Dream Togethe,·, haven't been
recorded before . ' As part of the documentation
of the De Rose career, Camarata even includes
a hymn that Babe Ruth considered his favorite. The sound is on the bright side yet subject to the careful discipline of the latest in
recording studios.
The George Gershwin Story (Po pular)
Epic BN 552
appealing if the sound were rea lly firs t-rate.
The recording locale apparently di scourageo
top effort in later s tages of the recording process. There is a mu stiness in the over-all audio
quality tha t r eminds me of discs ma de t en
years a go. Thi s is diffi cult to fathom becau se
Epic has a stereo record ing of Gershwin's
CI/ban Ove,·tm·e (Cl eveland Pops Orchestra
B C-I047 ) t hat features some of th e better
sou ud in the current catalog. 'L'he selec t ion oE
tunes is exemplary, ranging from Swanee .
Gershwin's fi rs t important Broadway success,
t o th e movie score for "The Shocldng Miss·
P ilg rim" r eleased some time after hi s dea th.
Robert Ru ssell Bennett's famil ia r arrangemen t
of POI'gy an(/ B ess rounds out the release.
Trapp Family Singers: The Sound of
Warner Bros. WS 1377
Music
Alfred
Newman: Fiorello j Sound of
Capitol ST 1343
Music
Nothing has been spared
to incorporate the best of everything on one compact chassis. Specifications are truly an engineer's dream.
, Features 1.uv sensitivity; 2 power
supplies; 15 ir:lput and output
jacks; 22 controls-pro'
duces 60 watts.
Buy FISHER at
AUDIO EXCHANGE and Take
Advantage of
AUDIO EXCHANGE's UNIQUE
In some respects, Warner's Sounel of Mus ic
albu m surpasses the original ca st r ecording
on Columbia. It was a bright idea to record
some of the members of the Trapp Family
Singers in the mu sic used to tell part of their
life story on Broadway. While only the cast
headed by Mary Martin can recreate the flavor
of the Broadway production, this performance
of the songs does h elp to put the show into
perspective. As arra nged and conducted by
Father Franz Wasner, the family 's music
teacher, the score has only two numbers that
sound awlcward- Siroteen Going on S eventeen
and So Long, Fa,·ewell. Too much Tin Pan
Alley. Only the most jaded ea r could resist
t he freshness of the voices in the rest of the
son gs. The Alpine in s trumental work is in a
class by itself. The stereo version divides the
g roup into two sections-one for each channel.
III his la t est Capitol album, Alfred Newma n
leads his Holl ywood sound-stage orchestra in
tas teful a nd s traigh t forward arrangements of
s ix tunes f rom the same show and an equal
n umber from the other ranking hit, "Fiorello."
No high pressure here--just cogent translations of Broa dway's best into motion picture
s coring ' by an arranger-conductor who has
done the same for "The King and I ," "Carousel," a nd "South Pacific."
This cavalcade of Gershwin hits doesn't live
up to the entertainment values promised by
the size of the orchestra. D'Artega condu cts
a large Pops orchestra recruited f rom the
Jerome Kern: leave It To Jane (Original
ranks of New York City's Symphony of the
Cast)
Strand SL 1002
Air anel the songs are some of the best Gershwin wrote for Broadway and the films. The I The " ot·igina l cast" h eard in this release
routine performance would be somewhat more ..L does not ma t ch in origina li ty the one tha t
AUDIO
•
MAY, 1960
69
preceded It when t he m usical first opened on
B r oadway in 1917. T he 1959 revival a t the
inti mate Sheridan Sq uare P layhouse in Greenwi ch Village gives us th e cast currently u nder
consideration. It is not easy to estimate how
wi de an au dience t bls Strand album w ill ultimately embrace. The first in line will be
t heatre fans of J erome Kern who lmow hi s
early wor k from bearsay or manuscript. RCA
Victor, decades ago, released excer pts from
t his show in a cramped acoustical setting.
Those ancient· ·ounding 78's were the closest
r epresentation we had of the style found i u
t he book and lyrics of Guy Bolton and P. G.
·Wodehouse. T he documentary value of those
excerpts merited reissue on LP and they came
out on t be Camden label. The sound bad the
range of t he original discs bu t very little of
t he old clarity.
Kathleen ll'lurray is t he cur rent star in
this innocent picture of campus life based on
George Ade's play of 1904, "The College
Widow". 'rhe plot is as wbolesome as a Harold
Lloyd mov ie-tbe boys in blazers, th e flappers
busy with th e latest snappy sayings. T he
Cl eopatte,·e.· so ng, dealing w it h t he Siren of
t he Nil e, is a good example of t he comic lyriCS
employed. T he Si,'en Song and T he C,-ickets
a·r e Calling stim ulate the most nostalgia.
Mi rroring a happier age, this brigh t and neat
pr odnction s houl d prove a wel come chang;)
of pace.
TYPE
201·A
AMPLIFIER
A precision -built
plug-in amp li f ier only
1 Y4 in. wide; twe lve units
wi ll plug into one 5%in. rack- mounting cabi net.
Two-stage resistance -coupled, w ith t ransformers in both input and outpu t. For use
as microphone preampl ifier or as booster
or line ampli f ier. Panel knob releases for
instant removal.
ELECTRODYNE
CORPORA T ION
503 South McClay St., Santa Ana, Calif.
N.w York City: Robert Marcy and Assoc., 1776 Bway.
VARIABLE FILTER
(.fl·01n
Minol' deviations from this response occur above 50 kc due to stray wiring caIE
pacitances.
REl' ERENCE
Circle 70A
SOLVING TECHNICAL PROBLEMS FOR CUSTOMERS?
Here's a r eal opportu ni ty fo r young tecbnica l person nel to ser ve as customer corr espondents. E lectro-Voice, leading manufacturer
of bi gb-fidelity speake rs, phonog rapb cartridges, micropbones, pu blic a ddress aud communication eq uipment, and marine instrumen ts
bas immediate openings fo r customer ~e r vjce
personnel. Good men can look forwa rd 1·0 II
career witb growing responsibili ty. T b is is t b e
idea l time to j oin a you ng, agg ressive company a nd a congenial team.
Live and work in a small town in Southwestern Micbigan or live in Sout b Bend, Indiana, fifteen miles away. Paid vacations, b ospitalization, life insurance, pension plan; and
other benefits.
Send fu ll details Including pbotograph and
sala ry requ irements to Lawrence LeKasbman,
vice preSident, marketing, E lectro-Voice, I nc.,
Buchanan , Micbigan.
1 Rich ard S. Burwen, "Portable tra nsistor
music system." J.L1.E.S., Vol. 6, No.1, Januar y, 1958, pp 10-18.
1~Noitu •••
NEW YORX SHOW PLANS ANNOUNCED. P la ns for the 1960 New Yorl,
High FideU,ty Music Show to be held September 6 throu gh 11 at t h e New York
T rade Show b uildin g were u nvieled at a
membership meeting of the Institute of
Righ FideUty Manufa.cturers held recen t ly
i n the New York Coliseum. Milton Thal berg, IHFM treasu rer, a n no u nced that
regularly schedu led enterta.inment will be
a pa rt of the s h ow program, and that the
show will run on S unday for t h e first
time. A 10-m a n Sh ow committee, com posed of three man ufact u rers, fo u r dealers, and three r epresentatives, was named
Giant Electronics Catalog
plus every new issue for full year
Se e th e latest in e lectronic s
equipm e ntl Th e best in hi-fi,
ste reo, hom radio, topes, and
mor e l I5-da y no-r isk hom e
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$29.95
Outperfonns all portables under $100! It's
a radio, a speaker, a
P.A. amplifier. Only
6 ~x3-9 / 1 6 x H~"
sizel
RADIO SHACK CORPORATION
HIGH FIDELITY SPEAKERS REPAIRED
A mprite Speaker Ser vice
168 W. 23rd St., New York 11, N. Y. CH-3-4Sl2
ENJOY PLEASANT SURPRISES? Tllen wr ite
ns before you purch ase any hi·ft. You' ll be
glad you did. Unusual savings. Key E lect ron·
iCs, 120 Li be r ty St., New York 6, N. Y .
EVergreen 4-6071
WRITE for con fide nt ial money-sav ing p rices
your Hi-Fidelity amplifi ers, tuners, speakers tape recorders. Ind ivi dual qnotations on ly;
no 'catalogs. ClaSSified H i-Fi Exchange, AR,
2375 East 65th St., B rooklyn 34, '. Y.
ponl Rece ive Radio Shack's
b ig free 312-pag e catalog plus
every new iss ue for next 12
months-free and post pa idl
I
II
I
I
Sa tisfaction g uar an teed.
Radio Shack Corp., 730 Commonwealth Ave.
Boston 17, Mass. Dept. 60E12
Send FREE Electronics Catalog-Also every new
issue for 12 month s, a full year's suscription Free.
Name
SALE: 78 r pm recordings. 1900-1950. Free
lists. Coll ect ions boug ht. P. O. Box 155 (AUI.
Verona, N. J.
Low qn otes OLl everything. H i F i a nd Stereo
tapes. Bargain l ist. HIFI, Roslyn 4, Pa.
RENT STEREO TAPES-over 1 ,000 different
- all majo r labe ls . Free catalog. Stereo-Parti.
Sl1-H Centi nela Ave., Inglewood 3, California.
124 RARE BACK ISSUES Au dio Sept. 1947Dec. 1957 inclusive. Prepa id to first money
order for $75. R. Mitchell , 13085 SW 124 A,·e ..
Tigard, Ore.
INDUC'l'ORS for cro ·sover netwo r ks, 118 types
in stock. Send for broch nre. C & M Coil ... 3016
Holmes Ave., N. W. , H nntsvill e, Ala.
SELL: Weathers t u rntable. Weathers stereo
cartr idge, ESL arm . $65. Robert Staffo r d, 1650
Neil Ave., Apt. 21, Colu mbus 1, Ohi o.
AMPEX (S igma) 4 Cba nnel microphone mixer,
in guaranteed new cond it ion, $195. H. W hite,
2123 Kenmore Ave., Bethlehem, Pa.
SELL: Brush Soundmirror T ape Recorder.
$50; Monarch 3-speed record-changer, hase.
new cartridge, $15; Approved A-800 Audlu
preampli fier. $15. All excellent condition. V.
R. HelLl, 418 Gregory, Rockford , I llinoiS.
SEVERAL audio process AP-ll low resonance
woofers. 0.45 lb. magnet; rigid , low density
cone; fi lled cloth suspension. $14 each. G.
Cain, 15 Man et Cir cle, Chestn ut Hill, Mass.
FOR SALE: One 40 Watt amplifier using a
pair of
6550 tu bes, wit h a Dynaco A-430
t ransformer. One 20 Watt amplifier using a
pair of KT-66, w it h Dynaco A-420 trn nsformer. Also a Hartley-Lu t b 220 s peakel' i n a
Holton style A en closure. Kenneth E. Gonld,
509 Vine St., Lh' erpool , N. Y.
COllfPLETE FILE Andio fro m Aug. 1947. 6
\'ols. bound, make offer. L. Kranss, 1174 6th
Ave., N. Y. 36, N. Y.
II Mii i'a·li)4·] ~ I: t.t.!.
~I
I
I
I
I
Address
Postoffice
L~ City _ _ _ _ _ ~e=-~~-l
Circle 70B
70
ADVERTISING MANAGER seeks new, cha llenging, and rewa rd ing pOSition. Presen.tl y e~n ­
ployed by lead ing East Coast .electroLllc.s ~I.'­
tributo r and retailer. W ill conSIder aSSOCIatIon
with manufacturer, retailer, or ~ i stribu tor of
electronic consumer goods. ExperIence ILl sa les
promotion and advertising budget a llotments.
Able to visuali ze and present , p lan and execute nationa l, local and. point. of sales Clt!11paigns. For f u rther deta>]s wr>OO c/o Au dIO,
Box CE 1.
UNUSUAL VALUES Hi-Fi com ponents, tape"
and tape recorders. Send for package qu.0ra·
tions. Stereo Center, 18 W. 37th St. , N. Y. C.
page 30)
Q =a peaking factor dependent
upon the setting of R 11 •
/'l pnd f or l"tPOt Mtfllqo
with battery
Rates : 10¢ per word per Insertion for noncommercial
advertisements ; 25c: per word for commercial adver·
tls.ments. Rates are net, and no discounts will b.
allow.d. COpy must b. accompan ied by remittance In
full. and must reach the New York om.. by th.
ftrst of the month preceding th e dale of Issu •.
011
Gain : Input loaded , 31, 36, or 42 db; unload,d, 35,
40, or 46 db.
Output l,v,l : + 26 dbm ( Ib = 25 rna); + 18 dbm
(l b = 8 rna).
Distortion : < 0.2 % at 1000 cps ; < 1 % at
20,000 cps.
Noise l.v.l: 123 db b,low 0 dbm with AC un h.aters.
Power: 275-300 v, 25 or 12 rna; 6.3 v at 0.9 I ,
AC or DC.
N. t Prlce:wlthout jacks, $105.00; with jacks, $125.00
ENJOY
'--CLASSIFIED-
LOUDSPEAKER
DESIGN ENGINEER
Unique opportunity for young Design
Engineer with some experience in design of cone loudspeakers for O. E. M.
applications.
Entirely new product line with established manufacturer in pleasant Northeast Ohio location.
Reply in detail in full confidence to
Box DE 1
AUDIO
•
MAY, 1960
to o r g a n ize and db'ec t the s h ow.
Members of th e committee a r e :
Manufacturers: Mr. 'l'ha l b e "g, A udi o gersh
C o rp or atio n,
c lla i 1'111 <1.11;
Juliu s
G laser, G lase r-Steer s , a nd Herb e rt Horowitz, Audio Empire.
D eal e r s: Paul Sampson, Harvey Radio
Compa ny ; Sol Baxt, Hudson Radio; Jerry
Russell, Lafayette Radio; a nd William
Kolb e r t , Audio Exchange.
Representatives : J ock Brit tain, Be-Esco
Sal es ; J ack Sim on, Fiel d s & Sim o n, a nd
P a ul N i c hols , Land-C-Air Sales.
TELECTRO OPENS N_ Y. SHOWROOM:
A n e w display, inte nde d fo r the p e rm a nent
ex hibit of its co mmerci a l products, h as
been opened in New York b y Teleotro Industries Corpora.tion. L ocated i11 the 25 flo or penth ouse at 1776 Broadway, the
show-room will co ntai n t ape r ecor d e rs as
well as other indu stria l and co mmer c ial
products m a nufactu r e d by T e l ec tro. It
will b e manned by re presenta tives of
Robert E. M a r cy A ssociates, T e lec r o's
New York sal es r e p for professional e qu i pm ent, as well as b y T e lectr o per sonnel.
CANADA
High Fidelity Equipment
Complete Lines • Complete Service
Hi-FI Records - Components
and Accessories
BLECTRO~lJOlCE
SOUND SYSTEMS
126 OUNDAS ST. WEST. TORONTO, CANADA
Circle 71 D
THE FINEST OF ITS KIND •• •
Get more FM stations with the w orld' s most
powerful fM Yag i Antenna systems.
To be fully informed,
send 25~ for book
"Theme And Varia ·
tions" by L. F B. Carini
and conta ining FM
Station Directory.
APPARATUS DEVELOPMENT CO.
WETHERSFIELD 9,
CONN
Circle 71 E
LOOKING FOR a
pleasant surprise?
Write for our new hi-Ii
catalog. You' ll be glad
you did.
KEY Electronics
120 Liberty St.,
New York 6 , N. Y.
CL 8-4288
REK - O-KUT EASES CONTEST ENTRY.
As p art of its "Tropical Holiday" d eal er
co ntest, Rek-O-Kut Company la un c h e d a
promotion m a kin g it pos s ib l e fo r d eal e rs
to ordel' Rek- O -Kut a nd /o r Audax produ cts in April for M ay a nd June d e li very
a nd r ece ive poi nts to\va rd a Nassau vacati011. Ru l es s p eci fy that each 5000 p oints
acc u m ul ate d by a d eal er by April 30 will
ea rn a free wee k in Nassau . Th e vacati o n
wi ll take pl ace s h or tl y after the May
parts show.
FISHER IN SMITHSONIAN. Believe d
to b e A m eri ca's fir st a u th enti c hi g h-fidelity receive r, a Fi s h er Philharmon ic Futura
has been presented to the Smithsonian Ins titute in Washington by its design er and
bu il der, Avery Fishe r , pres i dent of Fishe·r
R a.dio COl"p o·r a.tiotn. Built in 19 37, the se t
w ill beco m e a part of t h e p e rm a11 e nt co l l ec tion of the division of e l ec tl'ic ity of
the Mu se um of History a nd T echn ol ogy.
EIA PUSHES ST'E REO DRIVE. Excel l e nt prog r ess h as b een reported by the
phonograph section of the Electronic Indus tries A s sociation in its e ffort s to d e ve l op a pub l ic re la tions campai g n to h e l p
c lear up pu b lic a nd d eal er confu s ion abo u t
stereophonic so und. L. M. Sa ndwi c k, vi cepreside nt in c h a rge of sal es for Pilot
R a dio COlop cratlon a nd c ha irm a n of the
EIA co mmittee, s t ates t h a t fina l results
wi ll not b e d e t er min e d unti l the g ,'ou p 's
a nnua l m eetin g during the M ay pa rts
s h ow in C hi cago. A r ecent meeting in
Washington w as affected consid e r a b l y by
a h eavy s n ows torm which grounded m a ny
of t h e m a j o r concerns sch e d ul ed to a ppear to di scu ss wheth e r they would take
p art in the projected promotion .
RCA MANUFACTURES TAPE. A n ew
li n e of magnetic tape, call e d the Vibrant
se ries, h as b een announced by RCA, and
is n ow in produc ti on in a n ew pl a nt at
Indian apo l is. "For t h e tim e being w e will
co n centra t e on the m a nufact ure of a u dio
tape," stated A . L. McCl ay, general p l a nt
ln all ager, man u fac turi ng, RCA Victor record divis ion. "Lat e r we wi ll t u rn o ut t a p e
fo r u se in e lectroni c d ata process i n g systems a nd t e l ev is i on t a pe r eco ,·de '·s ." The
Vibra nt t a p e lin e wi ll be avail a b l e i n 5a nd 7-in c h r ee l s izes, in le ngth s of 600,
900, 1200, a nd 1 800 f eet on a sp li ce-free
plas tic b a se. In a ddition to its pro duction
u nits , the n ew p la nt wil l h o u se a technica l
d eve lopm e nt g ,'o up for experim e'ntal a nd
t es t work in the magnetic tape fi e l d .
recording tape
$1.19
1200 ft.1 '''-c... r.ftt.....pllce-free
1100 ft.; '" • •• $1 .119. Incl... IOf fer
••• h ... 01 to COY'" poet••e .IHII h........
NO
DELAY
SERVIC E
I
"1..
a ud I~n
MAY, 1960
$67
and f or the stereo cartridge that
ElIMINATES HUM ...
get
A NOTE TO THE HI-FI BUYER
714-A Lexington Ave.
New York 22, N. Y.
Circle 71 K
STEREOTWIN 210/D
PERFECT FOR MONOPHON IC. TOO !
F I TS ALL STANDARD TONE AR MS!
NOW
$3450 audio ph ile net
For store nearest you ,and for Free catalogue,please write Dept. A
AUDIOGERSH CORP.
[;14 Bl'onc/w(ty , N. Y. 12 • WO 6-0800
Circle 71A
seX-l
COAXIALS
FOR
HIGH
FIDELITY
Circle 71 H
aunlimit
ud io
ed
•
• h eavyweight, professiona l-type turntable-and a f ully-automatic changer !
• p lays both stereo and monop hon ic !
• p ush-bu tton controlled t h rou g hout!
• Magic Wand spin dles elim inate
p usher 'p la tfo r ms a n d stabilizing
arms !
50 andioph ile ilOt
yet it costs only
2S·A Oxford Road
Massapequa, New York
WRITE TODAY FOR FREE CATALOG
AUDIO
MlRACORD X5-200
A ll orders rushed to you
in factory-sealed cartons.
Write fo r fr ee catalog.
AIR MAIL us your r equirem ents for
an IMMEDIATE WHOLESALE QUOTATION
Co mponents, Tapes and Recorders
SHIPPED PROMPTlY AT LOWEST PRICES
Circle 710
GET THE TURNTABLE
THAT CHANGES RECORDS!
BEST IN HI-FI VALUE S.'
Circle 71 F
special
fo r less 'W ork and m01"e p lay
SOUND REPRODUCER
a
MANUFACTURER
FUKUYO SOUND
2-25, Horifune, Kita -ku, Tokyo
Cable: CORALFUKUYO
Circle 71 B
71
ADVERTISING
INDEX
KT·250A 50 WATT INTETED STEREO AMPLIFIER
A completely new ste·r.o high fidelity amplifier
with a high quality of reproduction, versatility of
operation, and distinctive styling.
A full range of controls enables you to enjoy the
utmost in listening pleasure in any situation. De·
luxe features include: unique "Blend" control
for continuously 'variable channel separationfrom full monaural to full stereo, ... position
Selector, Mode, Loudness and Phase switches.
Also provided oro outputs for 4, 8 and 16 ohm
speakers . Hum-free operation is insured by the
use of DC on all preamp and tone control tubes.
Harmonic distortion, less than 0 . 25 %
1M d istor·
tion, less than .5 % Hun, and noise, 7.4 db below
full output. D.signed with the kit builder in
mind, assembly is simple-no special skills or
tools required . Complete with delu xe cabinet and
legs, all parts, tubes and detailed instruction
manual. Shpg . Wt .• 26 Ibs.
KT-2S0A St. reo Amplifier Kit ............ 5.00 Down
Net 74.S0
LA-2S0A Stereo Amp llfi.r. wired ........ 5.00 Down
Not 99.50
0
0
KT -500 FM-AM
STEREO TUNER KIT
More than a year of research,. planning and en·
gineering went into the making of the ~afayetfe
Stereo Tuner. FM specifications incfude grounded·
grid triode lo w noise front end with triode mixer,.
double-tuned dual limite rs with Foster·Seeley d is·
criminator, less than 1 % harmonic distortion, full
200 kc bandwidth and sensitivity of 2 microvolts
for 30 db quieting with full limiting at one mi·
crovolt.
The AM and FM sections have separate 3-ga"9
tun ing condenser,. sepa rate flywheel tuning and
separate volume cont rol. Automatic frequency
control "locks in" fM signal permaner:'l.tly. Two.
separate printed circuit boards make cons,ruction
and wiring simple. Complete kit includes all parts
and metal cover,. a step-by-step instruction man·
ual,. schematic and pictorial d iagrams . Size is
13'1," W )( 10V," 0 x 4%" H. Shpg . wt . • 22 Ibs.
KT-SOO ............ 5.00 Down ......... .. . Net 74.S0
LT-50. Same as abov e ~ completely factory wired
and tested ...... .. 5.00 Down, •....... Net 124.S0
•
Acoustic Research, Inc. . ........... .
Acro Products Co. ........ . •.......
Advanced Acoustics Co rp. ...........
A ll ied Radio Co rp. . . . ..............
Altec Lansing Corporat ion .. .. 15. 36,
American Electronics, Inc., American
Concertone Di vis ion .. . ...........
Am perex Electronic Corp. . . . . . .......
Apparatus Deve lopment Corporati on .. .
Aud io Bookshel f .. .... . ........... .
Audio Devices, Inc. . .... .. ... ... .. .
Audio Exchange .................. .
Audio Fide li ty Records . . . ... . .. ... . .
Audiogersh Corp. ........ . ..•.......
Audion .............• • .. . . . • . . . ...
Audio Unlimited
Belden . ..... . . ... ........ . .......
Bell Sound Division Thom pson Ramo
Wooldridge, Inc. . . . . ..... . .......
Bell Telephone Labo ratories ..........
Bogen-Presto Ccmpany ....... . .. .. .
Br it ish Indust ri es Corporati on
69
49
71
71
71
13
60
18
39
3
Dynaco,
Inc.
..... . .. . ... . _ . . . . . . .. 51
EICO ... . ..... . .. . .... . .. . ... . . 6, 11
Electrodyne Co rporation . . .. . ........ 70
El ectro-Son ic Labo rat o ries, Inc. .... . ... 65
Electro- Voice. Inc. . . . . ........ . ..... 31
Electro-Voice Sound Systems, Inc. . .... 71
Ercona Corp. ... .. ..... . . . .......... 6 1
Fisher Radio Co rp. . . . .............. . . 9
Fukuin El ect ric (P ioneer) .... . ...... 45
Fukuyo Sound Co., Ltd. (Coral ) ....... 71
General Electric ....... ...... ... ..... 47
Gotham Audio Sales Co., Inc. . . . Cov. III
Grado Laboratories, Inc. . ........... . . 52
. . ......... _ • . . . . . .. 25
KT·600 PROFESSIONAL
STEREO CONTROL CENTER
Key Electronics .................... 71
Kierulff Sound Co rporation ......... .. 71
KLH Research & Deve lopm ent Co rporation 53
Solves Every Stereo/Monaural
Control Problem!
Lafayett e Rad io ................ . ... 72
Lansing, James B. , Sound, Inc . .. ...... 4 1
Provides such unusual features a s a Bridge Con·
trol,. for variable cross-c hannel signal feed foe
elimination of "ping.pong" (exaggerated separa·
tion) eff.cts. Also has f ull input mixing of mona.u ·
ral program sources, special "null" stereo bal·
ancing and calibrating system. Also has 24 equal.
ization positions, all·concentric contcols, rumble
and scratch filters, loudness switch . Clutch type
volume controls for balancing or as 1 Master
Volume Control. Has channel reverse, electronic
phasing,. input level controls. Sensitivity 2 .2 mil.
livolts for 1 volt out. Dual low·impedance out.
puts (plate followers). 1500 ohms. Response 5·
40.000 cps ± 1 db. Less than .03% 1M distortion . Uses 7 new 7025 low-noise dual triodes.
Size 14" x 4V2" x 10'1,". Shpg . wt.,. 16 Ibs.
Complete with printed circuit board, cage, pro.
fusely illus tra ted instructions, all necessary parts.
LAfAYETTE KT-600-St.reQ Preamplifier kit5.00 Down ...... ................. ..................... Net 79.50
LAfAYETTE LA-600-Stereo Preamplifier. Wired
- 5.00 Down ....................... ........ ....... N.t 134.50
~~~~~::.si:=.----- Catalog 600
CUT OUT
AND
PASTE ON
I Address •••.....••••..••.. . . . . . . . . . . • . . . . . . . . • • . • POSTCARD
Name •....•..••....•.••......•.•.... . •. •.. •.•..•
- -----.
I
II
I
I
II
;~ity .~.:.:..:: :~.::... ~~:..:.:~~e::...:..:..::..:..::..:..::..:..: ____________,
72
50
56
71
66
29
Classified .. .. . .. . ................. 70
Connoisseur ...•. . ..... ...... .. • .... 6 1
Ha rman Kardon
.:.
27
14
12
68
37
Neat Onko Denki Co., Ltd. ... . . . .....
North American Ph ilips Company ......
2
4
Peerless Electrica l Products Division
of Altec .. ... .. . ... ... . .. .... . . . .. 15
Pickering &- Company . . . . . . .... .. .... 17
Pilot Radio Corporation ... . . . . .... . . . 43
Radio Corporation of America ... . . Cov. II
Radio Shack Corporation ........ . .... 70
Reeves Soundcraft Co rp. .... . .... . ... 5
Sansui ....... . ..... . ..............
Scott. H. H .• Inc. . .................
Sherwood Electronics Laboratories . . . ..
Shure Brothers, Inc. ................
Sonocraft Corp. ........... .. .... . ...
Sony . . ........ ... . . ...............
Stromberg-Carl son. Divis ion of
General Dynam ics Corporation ......
Superscope , Inc . ....... . ..... . ..... .
58
63
1
67
71
7
55
7
Tannoy (America), Ltd . . .•.•.. ....... 65
Transis-Tronics, Inc ........•.... Cov. IV
Uher .. . ... . ........... ... ........ 33
United Audio Products ... . _ . . . .. 59. 68
Univers ity Loudspeakers ...... . ...... 57
Weiss, Warren, Associates ........... 33
AUDIO
•
MAY, 1960
GOTHAM AUDIO CORPORATION, 2 W. 46 st., N. Y. 36, N. Y., Tel: CO 5-4111
Formerly Gotham Audia Sales Co . Inc.
Exclusive United States Sales and Service Representatives for: NEUMANN, "the microphone standard of the world."
TEe has NO TUBES ... TEe alone generates no tube heat, no hum, no
microphonics. TEe alone provides.. su ch superb transient response.
Precision engineering permits TEd to make a two year guarantee ort
both parts and workmanship. See ~ detailed specifications below and
listen to a TEe all transistor amplifier soon for unparalleled sound.
GENERAL SPECIFIC ATIONS: TEC S-25 STEREO PREAMPlIF!ER-AMPLIFIER. POWER RATING: Music power output each channe l 34 watts_
Steady power output each channel 25 watts. FREQUENCY RESPONSE : 20·20,000 cps. HARMONIC DISTORTION: 0.7% _ INTER MODULATION
DISTORTION: 0 .9% . TONE CONTROLS: ± 15 db bass control ±15 db t reble co ntrol. POWER REQUIREMENTS: 117 VAC or 12 to 18 volts DC .
70 watts maximum at full power, less than 15 watts at normal listenihg levels. HUM: Inaudible. 16 INPUTS: Each channel has 2 low level
. RIAA equal ized phono inputs, switch for high level phono, NARTB eq·u al ized low level playback for tape, low level microphone , 3 high l evel
tuner, and one. high level auxiliary input. OUTPUTS: 4, 8, 16 ohm for each channel. Tape recorder outputs for eac·h channel, and a mi xed
A+ B for a 3rd channel. CONTROLS: Functio n Selector: Monophonic A, Monophonic B, Monophonic A & B, Stereo, Reverse Stereo. SOURCE
SELECTOR : TV-TV, AM-AM, AM -FM, FM - FM , phono I , phono 2, tape, m ike, aux. TONE CONTROLS: Separate Bass and Treble each channel.
BALANCE CONTROL : Separate level adjust each channel for optimum setting. OTHERS: On-Off Volume Control , Loudness Contour Switch ,
Rumbie Filter Switch, Phase Reversal Switch, Phono Selector Switch.
UNIQUE all transistor high fidelity preamplifier-amplifier
TEC S-25 STEREO AMPLIFIER 68 WATTS, 34 WATTS EACH CHANNEL
TRANSIS -TRONICS INC_ (TEC ) / 1650 21st ST. / SANTA MONICA, CALIFORNIA
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