Tableof Contents
Tableof Contents
T able of Contents iii
Preface to the First Edition ix
Acknowledgments xi
Colophon xi
Dedication xi
Preface to the Second Edition xiii
Dedication xiii
futroduction xvü
Sound for film and television defined xvii
Roles of sound xviii
Sound is often "hyper-real" xviii
Sound and picture xix
Sound personnel xix
The technical vs. the aesthetic xx
The dimensions of a sound track xx
Chapter 1: Objective Sound 1
An old story 1
Properties of physical sound 2
Propagation 2
A medium is required 4
Speed of sound 4
Amplitude 5
Wavelength and frequency 6
Wavelength 6
Frequency 6
Infrasonic frequencies 7
Ultrasonic frequencies 8
Importance of sine waves 8
Sympathetic vibration and resonance
11
Phase 11
Influences on sound propagation 12
Source radiation pattern 12
Absorption 13
Reflection 15
Diffraction 16
Refraction 16
Constructive and destructive
interference and beating 16
Doppler shift 18
Room acoustics 19
Sound fields in rooms 20
Direct sound 20
Discrete reflections 20
Reverberation 21
Sum of effects 22
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Standing waves 24
Noise 25
Scaling the dimensions 26
Frequency range 26
Amplitude range 27
Chapter 2: Psychoacoustics 29
Introduction 29
The physical ear 29
Hearing conservation 31
Auditory sensitivity vs. frequency 33
Threshold value-the minimum audible field 33
Equal-loudness curves 34
What's wrong with the deciBel- magnitude scaling 35
Loudness vs. time 35
Spectrum of a sound 35
Critical bands of hearing 35
Frequency masking 36
Temporal masking 37
Pitch 37
Spatial perception 38
Transients and the precedence effect
38
Influence of sight on sound localization 38
Localization in three dimensions:
horizontal, vertical, and depth 39
The cocktail party effect (binaural
discrimination) 41
Auditory pattem and object perception 42
Information used to separate auditory objects 42
Timbre 42
Fundamental frequency 43
Correlated changes in amplitude or
frequency 43
Location 43
Contrast with previous sound 44
Time-varying pattem 44
Gestalt principIes 44
Similarity 44
Good continuation 45
Cornmon fate 45
Belongingness 45
Closure 45
IV
Attention to streams 45
Multisense effects 46
Speech perception 46
Speech for film and television 46
Conclusion 48
Chapter 3: Audio Fundamentals 49
Audio defined 49
Tracks and channels 49
Signals: analog and digita150
Paradigms: linear vs. nonlinear 52
Level 52
Microphone level53
Line level 53
Speaker level 54
Level comparison 54
Interconnections 54
Balanced vs. unbalanced lines 55
Impedance: bridging vs. matching 56
Connectors 56
Quality issues 59
Dynamic range: headroom and noise
59
Linear and nonlinear distortion 61
Linear distortion: frequency response, amplitude, and phase 61
Nonlinear distortion 61
Wow and Hutter 63
Digital audio specific problems 64
Resolution 64
Sampling and aliasing distortion 65
Jitter 65
Quantizing distortion 65
Dither 66
A digital audio system 66
Oversampling 67
Chapter 4: Microphones and T echniques for
Their Use 69
Introduction 69
Pressure microphones 69
Boundary-layer microphones 71
Wind susceptibility 71
Pressure-gradient microphones 71
Wind susceptibility 73
Combinations of pressure and pressuregradient responding microphones 73
Super- and hyper-cardioids 74
Table of Contents
Sub-cardioid 75
Variable-directivity microphones 75
Interference tube (shotgun or rifle microphone) 75
Microphone types by method of transduction 76
Carbon 76
Ceramic 76
Electrodynamic (dynamic) 77
Electrostatic (capacitor, condenser)
77
Microphone types by directivity (polar
pattern) 80
Microphone specifications 80
Sensitivity 80
Frequency response 82
Polar pattern and its uniformity with
frequency 82
Signal-to-noise ratio 82
Maximum undistorted sound pressure level 82
Dynamic range 82
Susceptibility to wind noise 83
Susceptibility to pop noise 83
Susceptibility to magnetic hum fields
83
Impedance 83
Power requirements 84
Microphone accessories 84
Pads 84
Shock and vibration mounts 84
Mike stands 85
Mike booms 85
Fishpoles 85
Windscreens 85
Silk discs 86
Microphone technique-mono 86
Distance effect 86
Microphone directivity 87
Microphone perspective 87
Using multiple microphones 88
Choice of microphone frequency response 89
Typical monaural recordíng situations 90
Production sound 90
Production shooting and microphone technique 91
Narration or voice-over 93
ADR stage recording 94
Foley stage recording 95
Typical problems in original recordings 95
Microphone technique of singers 96
Multichannel production sound recording 96
Demonstration CD 97
Stereophonic microphone technique 97
Worldized or futzed recording 99
Chapter 5: Production Sound Mixing 101
Introduction 101
Production sound consoles: processes 101
102
Accommodating microphone dynamic range 102
Other processes 104
Production sound mixers: signal routing
105
Mixing 105
Level setting 106
Getting a shot started 106
Dialog overlaps 106
Crowd scenes107
.
Auxiliary functions of mixers 108
Logging 108
Shooting to playback 112
Time code and audio sample rate 112
Other technical activities in production
112
Set politics 112
Chapter 6: Recording 115
Introduction 115
Direct analog magnetic recording 115
AFM recording 116
Digital recording 116
Distinguishing features among the formats and media 116
Reference level-analog 117
Reference level-digital117
Headroom 118
Signal-to-noise ratio 119
Dynamic range 119
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Table of Contents
Wow and flutter, scrape flutter 119
Setting the level121
Meters 122
Recording for film and television 124
Double-system recording 124
Sound on videotape 124
Double-system digital sample rates
125
Analog tape recording formats 125
Playback equalization 125
127
Ultrasonic biasIRecord equalization
128
Erasure 128
Companding noise reduction 129
Film recording formats 129
Playback equalization 130
Companding noise reduction on
film 130
Toning reels 130
Digital tape and disk recording formats
130
Tape/film transports 132
Tape and film electronics and heads 132
Three-head vs. two-head machines
132
Physical damage to tape or film 133
Magnetic damage 134
135
Aesthetic factors in tape recording 137
Chapter 7: Synchronization 139
Introduction 139
Sprocket hole sync 139
Pilot tone sync 140
FM sync 140
Resolving 140
When sync is lost 141
Requirements for synchronization 141
Telecine Transfer 141
The European alternative 142
SMPTE time code sync 142
Types of time code 144
Time code slates 147
Jam syncing 147
Syncing sound on the telecine 147
Latent image edge numbers 148
VI
In camera time code 148
Synchronizers 148
Machine control 148
Time code midnight 148
Time code recording method 148
Conclusion 150
Slating 150
Time code for video 151
Locked versus unlocked audio 152
2-pop 152
PrincipIe of traceability 152
Chapter 8: Transfers 155
Introduction 155
Digital audio transfers 156
Transfers into Digital Audio Workstations 156
Types of transfers 156
File transfers 156
Audio file formats 157
Common problems in digital audio
file transfers for film and television
158
Streaming digital audio transfers 165
Problems affecting streaming transfers 165
Audio sample rate 165
Locking sample rates in streaming
transfers 166
Wrong sample rates 167
Revert to analog 167
Digital audio levels 167
Analog transfers 167
Methods for standardizing transfer levels
168
Analog systems 168
Direct analog magnetic recording
168
X-copy 168
Using companding noise reduction
170
FM recording 170
Analog-to-digital and digital-to-analog
systems 170
Modifications during transfer 171
Chapter 9: Editing 173
Introduction 173
Table of Contents
Overall scheme 174
Feature film production 176
Syncing dailies 176
Dialog editing specialization 177
Sources for dialog 177
Track breakdown 178
Presence or fill 179
Sound-effects editing specialization
180
Hard or "cut" effects 180
Foley sound-effects editing 182
Ambience sound-effects editing 183
Music editing specialization 184
Types of cuts 185
Premix operations for sound editors
186
Television sitcom 187
Documentary production 188
Conclusion 189
Computer-based digital audio editing 190
Digital editing mechanics 191
Fade files 192
Cue-sheet conventions 192
Sound design 192
Film sound styles 195
Chapter 10: Mixing 199
Introduction 199
Sound source devices used in re-recording 200
Mixing consoles 201
Processes 202
Level 202
Multiple levelcontrols in signal path
203
Dynamic range control 203
Compression 203
Expansion 205
Limiting 206
De-essing 207
Conclusion 207
Processes primarily affecting frequency response 207
Equalization 207
Filtering 209
Developing an ear for timbre 209
Processes primarily affecting the time
domain 209
Reverberators 210
Echo effects 210
Pitch shifters and subharmonic
synthesizers 211
Combination devices 211
Configuration 211
Early re-recording consoles 211
Adding mix in context 211
Busing 211
Patching 213
Panning 213
Auxiliary and cue buses 214
Punch-in/punch-out (insert) recording
215
Automation 216
Chapter 11: From Print Masters to Exhibition 217
Introduction 217
Print master types 217
Print masters for various digital formats 218
Low bit rate audio 218
Print masters for analog sound tracks
219
Other types of delivered masters for
film uses 220'
Masters for video release 221
Television masters 222
Sound negatives 222
Theater and dubbing stage sound systems
223
A-chain and B-chain components
223
Theater sound systems 223
Theater acoustics 225
Sound systems for video 227
Home theater 227
Desktop systems 227
Appendix 1:The Eleven
Commandments of Film Sound 229
Appendix ll: Recording Details 231
Ingredients of tape recording 231
Tape or film 231
A little history 231
Tape recording formats 232
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of Contents
Playback equalization 236
Ultrasonic bias 236
Record equalization 237
Reference levels 238
AFM tracks 238
Leve! setting 238
Print through 239
Companding systems 239
Dolby 240
AFM recording 241
Digital recording 242
Appendix ID: Magnetic Film Editing 243
Film editing mechanics 244
Film editorial operations 245
Head and tailleaders 245
Fillleader 245
Vlll
Edit sync vs. projection sync 246
Track breakdown 246
Saving and organizing trims and outs
246
Conforming to changes in the picture cut 246
Impact of companding noise reduction 246
Appendix IV: Working with deciBels 247
Calculating dB gain 249
Bibliography 251
Glossary 253
fudex 277
fustructions for Accompanying CD 283
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