null  null
exmpealft4Ify6te abl6ae4ydet4./
La'
"The lowest noise figure and highest sensitivity
permitted by the present state of the art" harman kardon
For High - Fidelity FM Tuners. HARMAN -
KARDON, nationally recognized as a manufacturer of stereo and hi -fi components of the
highest quality, has designed the front end of its
Citation III FM Tuner to take advantage of the
exceptional performance capability of the RCA 6CW4 nuvistor triode. Why :' Because in the words
of Harman -Kardon, "The revolutionary nuvistor
furnishes the lowest noise figure and highest sensitivity permitted by the present state of the art."
For Television Tuners.
RCA -6CW4 nuvistor
triode in VHF TV Tuners makes possible satisfactory reception in fringe areas and other locations where signal levels are extremely weak. This
tiny tube with giant performance gives RCA
Victor's New Vista tuner up to 45',1 more picture
pulling power in weak signal areas than the best
tuner previously available. It has proved so successful that RCA Victor has introduced 12 new
color -TV receivers with the nuvistorized tuner.
Nuvistors can make extraordinary contributions to industrial and military as well as entertainment
electronics. Discuss them soon with your RCA Field Representative or write Commercial Engineering,
RCA Electron Tube Division, Harrison, N. J.
The Most Trusted Name in Electronics
RADIO CORPORATION OF AMERICA
RCA FIELD OFFICES:
EAST: 744 Boad Street. Newark 2, New Jersey, HUmboldt 5-3900 MIDWEST: Suite 1154. Merchandise Mart Plaza, Chicago 54. Illinois, WHitehall 4.2900
WEST: 6355 E. Washington Blvd.. Los Angeles 22, California, RAyrrsond 3 -8361
1838 El Camino Real, Burlingame. California, OXford 7.1620.
MAY, 1961
VOL. 45, No.
RADIO.
Successor to
Est.
5
1911
C. G. McPROUD
Editor and Publisher
uDI0
DAVID SASLAW
SHERWOOD
Managing Editor
JANET M. DURGIN
Production Manager
HENRY A. SCHOBER
Representatives
Bill Pattis & Associates,
6316 N. Lincoln Ave.,
Chicago 45, Ill.
James C. Galloway,
6535 Wilshire Blvd.,
Los Angeles 48, Calif.
Business Manager
SANFORD L. CAHN
Advertising Director
EDGAR E. NEWMAN
Circulation Director
Contributing Editors
EDWARD TATNALL CANBY
JOSEPH GIOVANELLI
HAROLD LAWRENCE
CHARLES A. ROBERTSON
CHESTER SANTON
Articles
AUDIO
.''
.:
{'
Feedback Techniques in Low -Level Amplifiers
Confessions of a High Fidelity Widow
Tape Guide -Questions and Answers
The Indispensable Engineer
How High is Fi?
19
24
30
36
40
Intraducs
Donald L. Shirer
Christopher Faye
Herman Burstein
Norman H. Crowhurst
George Fletcher Cooper
New S]UUU
AUDIO Reviews
Light Listening
Record Revue
Jazz and All That
8
55
60
Chester Santon
Edward Tatnall Canby
Charles A. Robertson
AUDIO
Fisher FM -200 FM Tuner
Garrard Type "A" Turntable
FICO ST-40 Stereo Amplifier
Goodmans "Alpha" Speaker System
Audio Dynamics ADC -1 Stereo Cartridge
Profiles
46
48
50
52
52
Stereo FM/AM
Receiver
50 watts
only for those who want the ultimate..
... a
AUDIO in General
Audioclinic 2
Letters 6
AUDIO ETC 10
Editor's Review 16
IHFM Page 28
New Products 66
New Literature 69
About Music 70
This Month's Cover 81
Industry Notes 83
Advertising Index 84
'299"
Joseph Giovane /li
Edward Tatnall Canby
triumph in combined components,
the S -7000 brings together in one unit
the incomparable features of
Sherwood's FM and AM tuner circuitry
along with two 25 -watt amplifiers,
two pre -amplifiers and stereo controls.
The S -7000 needs only the addition of
speakers to complete a basic stereo
system. Overall size, just 16 x 4 x 14
inches deep.
... a dramatic
Harold Lawrence
AUDIO (title registered U. B. Pat. OR.) is published monthly by Radio Magazines, Inc., Henry A. Schober, President; C. 17. McProud, Secretary. Executive
and Editorial Offices, 204 Front St., Mineola, N. Y. Subscription ratas
B.,
Possessions. Canada, and Mexico, $4.00 for one year, $7.00 for two years; all
other countries $5.00 per year. Single copies 5o e. Printed in U.B.A. at 10
McGovern Ave., Lancaster. Pa. All rights reserved. Entire contents copyrighted
1961 by Radio Magazines, Inc. Second Clase postage paid at Lancaster, Pa.
-
new furniture concept
Sherwood Correlaire Modules
styled with a contemporary flair in
hand -rubbed Walnut and Pecan woods.
Sixteen interchangeable modules for
truly flexible room arrangements,
the perfect setting for your Sherwood
components. Sherwood Electronic
Laboratories, Inc., 4300 N. California
Ave., Chicago 18, Illinois.
-
-U.
-1
FOR COMPLETE TECHNICAL DETAILS WRITE DEPT. A -5
RADIO MAGAZINES, INC., P. O. Box 629, MINEOLA, N. Y.
Postmaster: Send Form 3579 to AUDIO, P. O. Box 629, Mineola, N. Y.
AUDIO
MAY, 1961
1
20,
000
D OLLARS
14°
e
The NEUMANN PA2a
AUTOMATIC INTEGRATED TURNTABLE,
...built to satisfy the playback re-
quirements of the $20,000 *Neumann- Teldec AM -32b lathe and
stereo cutting system, is now available in limited number for home use.
Frankly, the PA2a was never meant to
be sold on a mass basis, because the
engineering and precision that goes
into its manufacture, unavoidably
raises the cost of the PA2a above the
range of most ordinary turntables. But
the audiophile who seeks rumble free
operation, wow and flutter at less than
0.06% RMS, the realism achieved
through the incomparable Neumann
DST Stereo Cartridge and the automatic integrated tonearm, and who
places perfection above everything,
will recognize the economy in this
once -in -a- lifetime investment. To see,
hear, and compare the PA2a is an experience no one should miss ... but
the next best thing is detailed literature available on request.
exclusively imported by Gotham Audio Corporation
write to sole U.S. Distributor:
NORTED
AUDIO CORPORATION
72 West 45th Street, New York 36, N.Y.
2
JOSEPH
GIOVANELLI
The compatible record?
Q. Stereo records have been with us for
quite some time now, and yet I have heard
recently of a disc which is called a compatible stereo disc. I thought that the discs
we are already using are compatible with
monophonic requirements. What is this new
disc? Nario Brenes, New York, N. Y.
A. You are, of course quite correct in
saying that the present stereo disc is compatible with monophonic discs, at least
in that the stereo cartridge can, merely by
strapping its two outputs together, reproduce a monophonic recording as well as
the standard monophonic cartridge.
Of course, record dealers and manufacturers would like to make a record which
could be played equally well with standard
monophonic or stereo cartridges. This
should be done with no degradation to the
sound quality or of record life, regardless of
which cartridge is being used. As I have
stated previously, the monophonic disc can
be successfully reproduced by a stereo cartridge, however the stereo record cannot
be reproduced so satisfactorly by a monophonic cartridge because the monophonic
unit is likely to have poor vertical compliance. Further, the poor vertical compliance
of monophonic cartridge leads to reduced
record life.
After considerable experimentation, Design- Records came to the conclusion that it
was the vertical signal at low frequencies
which caused most of the wear. They
further believed that it would not make
much difference to directionality or spaciousness if the lows were removed from
the vertical component of the stereo disc.
The bass would still appear in the lateral
component which represents the sum of the
two channels, and hence, would be reproduced as well as on the conventional stereo
disc. (Remember that the vertical information represents the stereo information,
equal to the difference between the signals
of each channel. This is the same sort of
thing which is encountered in multiplex
broadcasting where the stereo information
is represented by the difference subchannel
and the monophonic component is represented by the main carrier signal.) Recordings have been made using this principle, and some reports indicate that these
recordings have good wear characteristics
on monophonic equipment.
3310 Newkirk Ave., Brooklyn
3, N. Y.
However, some studies indicate that
some stereo information is carried by the
bass component in the music. This would
indicate that removing the lows from the
vertical component of the record would
lead to sonic degradation of quality in
terms of special realism.
This, then, is the design philosophy behind the compatible disc. It seems to me
that we should really call this recording
technique the "more compatible" record.
After all, we already were talking about
compatiblity, and this system brings us,
so some say, more compatibility than merely
compatible. It is something like the idea
of high fidelity, and as Edward Tatnall
Canby often writes. "How high the fie"
Solid -State Tube Replacement
Q. I have read recently about solid -state
tube replacements. Are these units transistors? Arthur Darrow, Albany, New York.
A. I believe that what you have in mind
is the replacement for standard tubes. What
this is is merely some diodes placed in an
ordinary octal base. These are silicon diodes
so wired that the unit is directly interchangeable with the tube it replaces.
The purpose of such a unit is to improve
voltage regulation of the power supply and
to permit cooler operation of the equipment with which it is associated. You see,
silicon diodes have a considerably lower
forward resistance than vacuum tubes have,
and this means that the voltage drop within
the solid -state tube replacement rectifier
will be less than that for the standard
vacuum tube. I measured the difference in
performance myself, using an amplifier
with a pair of 6í.6's in the output. The
circuit called for a 5Y3 and I measured
the voltage appearing on the cathode of
this rectifier. When I substituted the solid
state tube replacement, I found that the
voltage was higher by some 50 volts.
This fact should indicate caution in substituting these units in a circuit. Suppose
that you have an amplifier which has a
capacitor input filter and which has 425
volts appearing between the cathode of
the rectifier and ground. If you substitute
the solid -state device, this voltage can rise
to 475 volts or higher, depending upon the
amount of current taken by the external
load. This added voltage may be sufficient
to break down the electrolytic filter at the
cathode, especially when the filter is rated
at 450 volts. It may not break down when
-
AUDIO
MAY, 1961
ï
W 70... Achromatic three speaker system ... latest expression of the
WONDER OF WHARFEDALE!
Today, a premise of perfection is fulfilled. It's tt e promise of Achromatic high fidelity
reproduction ... the pure sound, non -colored by extran ®u: modulations ... providing
a musical
justifying cri ical comparison with the ve per'ormince it reflects. The natural sound image
which
distinguishes -he W 70 is achieved through Whar -cdile s exclusive inert sand-filled panel.
Vibrations
are damped, taise cabinet resonances eliminated; aid tte three Wharfedale speakers,
integrated with
the handsome enclosu -e, are free to perform as a single unit. The full range
of sound is exceptionally smoo t, never strident; transient response ir the bass is exceptionally
clean. Your dealer in
fine high fideity components will be pleased to der.ortrate the remarkable
qualities of the W 70.
the only spea <er system which can claim to outperform the W 60,
which with its smaller companion the W 50, keynoted the year's deve!opmert in speakers.
1
-S. Available it decorator -designed true
wood veneer. Oiled Walnut. Polished
Walnut, Mahoginy and Limed Oak.
W 70 164.50 Utility Model 146.50
W 60 116.50 Utility Model 101.50
W SO 99.50, Utility Mcdel 84.50
The unfinished utility models are
styled without curved moldings, dividers.
MAIL TNI. tOQON TO GEIT. WEl1,
l'iras,
ard
1-
INn1O INIISTIIES CUP., PINT "ATTRITION,
NEW YORK
'harfedale achnon,,,tir series literature.
Name
Addrem
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State
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AUDIO
MAY,
1961
3
the unit is first installed, but it may break
down after a day or a week.
Because of the higher voltage and the
better regulation, it is logical to expect
that the equipment will perform better
than it did with the ordinary rectifier in
the circuit.
however, there is another advantage to
this arrangement; the solid -state rectifier
will run cooler than its vacuum tube
counterpart. The heat from the rectifier is
a major source of heat, and since solid state units run cold, it is easy to see that
this factor can be important, especially
in those installations in which good air
circulation around the equipment is difficult
to achieve.
There are two reasons why the rectifier
of the solid -state variety should run
virtually at room temperature. First, the
solid -state rectifier does not have a heater
to stimulate electronic emission. Second,
the internal resistance of such a device is
quite low, and this, in turn, results in a
low internal voltage drop across the recti-
fier. This means that the power dissipated
within the rectifier in the form of heat
will be greatly reduced.
No
stereo cartridge in the world outperforms the
Sonotone Ceramic "Velocitone"
with your own magnetic ... or with any magnetic you can buy
Listen!.. today
-at any price. Then replace it directly in your component
system with Sonotone's new "VELOCITONE" STEREO CERAMIC
CARTRIDGE ASSEMBLY. Listen again! We challenge you to tell
the difference. Experts have tried ... in dozens of A -B listening tests. And, in every single one, Sonotone's "VELOCITONE"
performed as well as or better than the world's best magnetic.
perfectly flat response in the extreme highs and lows (better
than many of the largest -selling magnetics).
Listen! ..excellent channel separation-sharp, crisp definition.
highest compliance -considerably superior tracking ability.
absolutely no magnetic hum -quick, easy, direct attachment to
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D.C. Transient Response
Listen!..
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'EADING MAKERS
OF
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SPEAKERS
TAPE HEADS
ELECTRONIC APPLICATIONS DIVISION,
MIKES
ELECTRONIC TUBES
ELMSFORD, N.Y.,
DEPT.
IN CANADA, CONTACT ATLAS RADIO CORP.. LTD., TORONTO
4
BATTERIES
Another minor factor toward the maintenance of a cool- running amplifier which
these solid -state devices afford is that the
absence of a heater means that less power
will be taken from the power transformer,
which in turn will also run slightly cooler.
One disadvantage of this kind of rectifier
is that it will not stand for much in the
way of long -sustained overloads created
by shorted filter capacitors and the like.
The conventional vacuum tube has a high
internal resistance as has been pointed out,
and this helps to protect the tube and
other power supply components in the
event of overloads. Since the solid -state
device does not have this protection, both
it and the power transformer can be subject to damage. I would recommend, therefore, that in addition to the normal fusing
of the equipment, that a fuse be placed in
the hot "B" lead of a solid -state rectifier
so that it can blow before the rectifier
and other associated Components blow out.
'
Q. I have heard that amplifiers are
tested sometimes for a parameter known as
"d.c. transient response." I don't understand this because d.c. does not contain
transients so far as I can see. Would you
please explain this test and its significance?
Name Withheld.
A. The test to which you are referring is
one which often is used for performance
criteria of a particular piece of apparatus
for use in home music systems. I am sorry
that this is not a more widely known test.
Suppose that we have an amplifier which
delivers its maximum power with an input
signal of a volt. (By maximum power I
mean that power which is within one per
cent intermodulation distortion.) A suitable
load resistance is connected across the output terminals of the amplifier in the usual
manner. An oscilloscope is connected across
the same terminals as the resistor. Then a
d.c. voltage is adjusted to give the one volt
corresponding to maximum input signal
required by this particular amplifier. This
C26 -51
(Continued on page 73)
AUDIO
MAY, 1961
A
*from the leading magazine
in the jazz field:
TN. 4 4r R..r.R.
_,4N 40 d1RIfd due.
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UNTO
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CLAN O-IRVIL7
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the
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$TMIItX,
l n,r,
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DL.1\
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M
InCAj. TIME
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LOCAL TIME .1 pnM
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PD =K1 NEW
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YORK NY
27 1101A EDT=
INC=
ACOUSTIC RESEARCH
24 THORNDIKE ST CAMBRIDGE MASS.
AT PICK
n.T'_LiTIO!I.
TIE DO'.'f't
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SPEAKER WAS SELECTED AS
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SPEAKER.
AWARDS
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APPEAR
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AR-2A AR-3
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OF
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BEST LUXURY SPEAKER.
DECEMBER 8 I SSUE OF DOWN BEAT=
BEAT=
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ft){.,.INrIONf
FROM iTR
MOONS CONCRRMINO ITR NRVICR
will be glad to send you a reprint of down beat's` "Picks of the Year" for 1960, listing the magazine's choice
of components for three hi -fi systems (economy, medium -priced, and luxury).
The AR speakers referred to above may be heard at AR Music Rooms, on the west balcony of Grand Central TerWe
minal in New York City, and at 52 Brattle Street in Cambridge, Massachusetts.
ACOUSTIC RESEARCH, INC.,
AUDIO
MAY, 1961
24 Thorndike Street,
Cambridge 41, Massachusetts
5
The
Pro's
Nest
Saul 1. While
Chief Engineer, Audax. Inc.
NO. 3
-
TESTING OF LOUDSPEAKERS
Back In 1917, listeners described
phonograph as "lifelike" and "splendid in the
If we continue to evaluate speakers sonority."
by means
of listening tests. we stand in danger of for-
getting the real thing.
Some thirty years of listening evaluations
have convinced me of the unreliability
of
subjective testing. I would state further that
listening tests are completely unrealistic.
abound with personal taste, are influenced by
the emotional character of the program and
are affected by the musical conditioning of
the listener. Taste in speakers, as in music.
is woven into the total fabric of our experiences. There is a significant difference of
choice between age levels.
in loudspeaker response is affected Preference
by the physiology
of the individual listener. Further
unreliability resides in the surroundings In which the
tests are performed.
The listening panels used by Consumers
i-nion in its report on speakers
show merely
that it is the illusion of satisfaction
under
one particular set of conditions that matters
not the objective scientific values. The result of listening is a qualitative statement
in linguistics.
In spite of an excellent laboratory, Consumers Union's subjective testing.
particularly their report of December, 1958,
neither formal nor logical, because it was was
not
the loudspeakers per
that were undergoing
tests, but the sensory senature
of
the
audience.
In these remarks I am eliminating the
obviously bad speakers and I am only considering a large group of decent speakers manufactured by a considerable number of reputable manufacturers.
-
I feel compelled to conclude that each listener wants different
unrealities. It is a matter of how you like your
distorted. We
are ruining our auditory music
to reproduced music. More than response
one
entrepreneur
has asked me to design a woman's
loudspeaker. By this was meant any old, muddy
bass and highs which slough off above
4
ke,
rendering what some call mellowness. Such
are the demands of subjective appeasement.
There
the
audio field (' ceptthrotgh
objective measurements.
By measured Instrumentation of a mechanical linkage we can have a clearcut quantitative statement in machine communication. An
audio reproducing chain, including the acoustic environment, is o
to measurement and
comparison against thp e original
The
essential fidelity of a speaker willsource.
be nothing
but Its conformity to realism as indicated
by
laboratory tests. We do not have perfection
in the best of our loudspeakers but we
somewhere on the road, as we have been are
for
fifty years. It takes objective measurement
by the best of instruments and best of technicians to determine our position on that road.
Both C.U. and myself have
common concern, namely. the validity ofa testing
tech niques, i.e. the principles of reliable inference.
C.U. needs a better understanding of factors
affecting subjective evaluations. They should
recognize that there are no scales for nneasuring sensations or discrimination.
Let C.U. read
the following parable of "The Blind
Men and
The Elephant."
Six blind Hindus approached an elephant.
The first touched the elephant's broad side
and said it was a wall; the second, feeling
the tusk, said it was a spear ; the third took
the swirling trunk and was sure he had
seized a snake. The fourth felt the leg and
concluded it was a tree ; the fifth touched the
ear which felt like a fan
;
seizing
the tail, said, "flow likethea sixth,
rope is an
In
elephant."
"Tho each was partly in the right,
yet all were in the wrong."
O
6
AUDAX, Inc. Manufacturers of Fine Speakers
Division of Rek -O -Kut Company, Inc.
38 -19 108th St., Corona 68, N. Y.
LETTERS
Artificial Reverberation
Sir:
The article on artificial reverberation was
very interesting. However, I would like to
take exception with the statement, and I
quote -"there is practically no reverberation in the concert hall for frequencies
below 250 cps." A little investigation will
immediately show the fallacy in this remark.
First, consider that reverberation consists of nothing more than sound reflecting
back and forth from the walls (and floor
and ceiling) of the concert hall. If the
walls are good absorbers, then the sound
is attenuated considerably at each reflection and we can say there is a small
amount of reverberation. If the walls are
poor absorbers the sound suffers many
more reflections before being reduced to
inaudibility. Iu this case we can say there
is a large amount of reverberation.
On page 502 of Olson's "Acoustical Engineering" there is a chart of absorbtion
coefficients for architectural and acoustic
materials, including values for the audience. For every material listed the absorb tion coefficient decreases at low frequencies. The crossover point seems to be in the
region of 5(10 cps. On page 507 there is a
curve showing decreasing :tltsorbtion down
to 120 cps (which is as far as the curve
goes) with no sign of leveling off.
From these facts it is obvious that reverberation in a concert hall is greater at
low frequencies. This is readily apparent
to anyone who has ever attended a live
concert (and I fear that too few audio
engineers have ever done this). The richness of sound and impression of tremendous bass so characteristic of a live performance listened to in the concert hall,
is due almost entirely to low- frequency reverberation.
Werner G. Zinn Jr.
2025 Golf Vista Ct.
Orlando, Fla.
No Tone Controls, Anyone?
Sir:
In your April "Editor's Review" under
the above heading you say: "But in general
there never scents to be any need for operating the tone controls anywhere except
'flat.'" I wonder whether this really represents the majority view among serious listeners?
I have a large record collection of classical orchestral music, and, having an exceptionally flexible system of tone control
(and plenty of time to play with it), I have
coded the tone settings for each record
which, to me, give the best balance in each
case. The variations in these optimum settings are so great that it seems to me that
anyone who plays everything on the straight
RIAA setting (or any fixed modification of
it) must be missing a great deal. Although
the optimum setting is no doubt a matter
of great personal taste, the degree of variation between different records must be
substantially the same for everyone.
Quantitatively, these optimum deviations
are mostly within 5 db on either side of the
RIAA curve, but the trouble is that they
seldom conform to the shapes imposed by
the average tone -control curves, which usually "hinge" at around 1000 cps. For instance, one record may be deficient in
"presence" and require a 5 db boost in
the 250 -750 cps range, and at the same
time have an exaggerated bass requiring
sharp attenuation below 150 cps. The next
one may have an objectionable violin
screech in the tuttis, and require a sharp
rolloff at around 5000 cps. And so on.
What is wrong with our present tone
controls is not that they are unnecessary,
but that they are not sufficiently flexible.
What is wanted is a device that could produce any curve within plus or minus 5 db
of the RIAA line, and be operated by not
more than three knobs, or preferably less.
Surely it should be possible in this age of
"electronic miracles"?
Reid A. Railton
241 The Uplands
Berkeley 5, Calif.
Electrons Flow Agoin
Sir:
Mr. Goeller and I on this one point agree:
It's tough to challenge authority.
it's so cozy and clanny in that ivory tower
To disturb them at all takes a sizeable
power.
But don't underestimate us engineers:
We relish all progress, in spite of our fears.
My counsel to those who would enter the
field
Is: Never to doctrinaire theories yield.
fir. Goeller would rather be righteous than
right.
Argumentum ad hominetn is his guiding
light.
Electrons and ions, impervious to scare,
They don't give a damn who says they go
where.
Please tell me, kind sir, since the facts you
resist,
Of what does this stuff you call current
consist,
That slips like a snake through the innocent wire,
From the plus to the minus, as the moth to
the fire?
'Though the fiction might be a convenience
to use,
To forget that it's fiction is truth to abuse.
If you prove its existence I'll be first to
arise
And congratulate you on your Nobel Prize!
Robert J. Nissen
525 Fourth St.
San Francisco, Calif.
Tapesponding
Sir:
I have been interested in high fidelity
and electronics for a long time. For the
past five years I have had a hobby which
has given me, as well as thousands of
others, a great deal of pleasure. It is tape sponding with people throughout the world.
As well as talking about our hi -fi equipment and listening to music, one can 'talk"
about anything in general.
Although there are a number of tape sponding clubs, there are still some people
who may not know enough about it. I
would be glad to help anyone get started.
Those interested, reply by letter giving
me their "tape speeds." It is customary to
start off with a 3 -in. reel at 3'% ips and
then later on switch to a 5 -in. reel at 7%
ips, if desirable.
Thomas A. Bradford
427 Beach 69th Street
Arverne 92, N. Y.
AUDIO
MAY, 1961
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AUDIO
MAY, 1961
7
Eileen Farrell: I've Got a Right to Sing the
Blues
,. LgHT-
LTeNin9
CHESTER SANTON:::
Q indicates the United
Tapes 4 -track 7' /z ips tape
The symbol
Stereo
number.
Gus Farney at the Wurlitzer Pipe Organ
Warner Bros. Q WSTC 1409
It would have been nice if this reel had been
available a month ago when the merits of a
recent two -track tape were discussed in this
space. Here's one four-track release that can
just about hold its own with the two -track
jobs. Although its predecessor was no slouch
( "Colossus," Warner WSTC 1359), this Far ney release is an even better recording. The
musical program is somewhat more attractive
too. The tape is obviously a product of a
master made under optimum conditions. The
physical layout of the recording locale, the
Bray Organ Loft in Salt Lake City, boasts
some logically- spaced pipe chambers. The engineering is such that, at higher than normal
volume, there are none of the mechanical
thumps that sometimes accompany an organist's switch of tonal colors. The spread of
sound is gratifying in scale yet full stereo is
achieved without moving the mikes back to
a point where the typical warmth of a well maintained Wurlitzer begins to cool in the
monitor speakers. The signal-to -noise ratio is
certainly conducive to genuine relaxation.
Even in the lowest-level passages in the sentimental ballads of the Twenties, the signal
easily overrides the tape background. If you're
adequately endowed with amplifiers and
speakers of true low -end response, one of the
more fascinating attributes of this tape Is the
easy definition of the pedal notes at low volume. With enough increase in gain, it's no
outstanding feat to bring out the harmonics
of pedal notes in recordings that go down part
of the way. What I like about this tape is the
bass definition without boost in the curve.
Gus Farney, who at one time was a staff
demonstrator for Wurlitzer In the days when
the unveiling of a new theatre installation
was a great event, concentrates on music
popular in the Twenties. Novelties of that era
include Doll Dance and impressions of n piano
In Dili Pickle Rag. The ballads have real meat
on them. There's Peg of My Heart, Auf lViedereehen, My Dear and a favorite of mine you
never hear these days How Am I To Know?
The grand finale, The National Emblem
March releases a tide of sonority in drum
and low brass effects that few marching hands
could ever hope to match. If I may be permitted one rave a month in the tape field, this
reel is the current choice.
Marty Gold: It's Magic
RCA Victor LSA 2290
When the stereo disc was first left on the door
step of the record industry, unwanted movement of instruments in the stereo listening
area was considered a problem. Now RCA has
decided to make a selling point of what was
once considered a fault of the stereo process.
In their "Stereo Action" series, the sound
source is deliberately moved as the singer or
instrumentalist performs in a stationary
position. This trick goes one step beyond the
12 Forest Ave., Hastings -on- Hundson,
New York.
8
shift of sound brought about by switching of
soloists from channel to channel. Now we are
able to follow a performer as he is pulled
across the width of the listening area. At
best, this is only a moderately interesting
stunt the first time one hears it in this chorus
and orchestra recording. The sound effects
used to introduce some of the tunes lend
themselves to movement with better logic.
shuffle Off to Buffalo starts with a locomotive
lumbering through from left to right. High
On a Windy Hill moves the sound of a small
gale across the room as though it were a
pre-packaged little hurricane.
The amount of electronic gear required
to pull off these tricks definitely affects the
nature of the sound. The singer's voices, in
particular, sound quite hollow and artificial.
Normally I suppose I would take some interest
in whatever steps will be necessary to clear
tip such a problem. In this case I must say I
fail to see any point in the entire project.
After a half hour of sliding around, the
steadiness of a normal stereo record felt
mighty good.
Frederick Fennell Conducts Gershwin
Mercury PPS 6006
At least one trend under way in the treatment of light music should hearten anyone
tired of the strictly Broadway approach.
Could it he that some of the musicians who
have operated solely within the sphere of
Tin Pan Alley are losing some of their
influence in the record industry? In its latest
pop releases, Mercury is placing more and
mere responsibility in the hands of Frederick
Fennell whose conducting career has rolled
along far from the tinsel of Broadway. Fennell,
in turn, has turned over the arranging assignment for these Gershwin orchestral favorites
to an Eastman School associate. Rayburn
Wright, who is presently chief arranger for
musical productions at Radio City Music
Hall. Consequently there is a wholesome and
cosy "Sunday Matinee" feeling in the approach.
The personnel of the orchestra are fully at
home do Carnegie Hall as well as New York
recording studios. The two pianos and harp
play a vital role in the setup of the orchestra.
preserving the distinctive characteristics of
the Gershwin era is S' Wondermul, Liza, and
I've Got Rhythm. The strings and woodwinds
have their subtly-colored innings in slower
favorites such as Love Walked In and The
Man I Love.
From a technical standpoint, this record
may shed some new light on a longstanding
argument concerning the number of microphones to be used in a conventional session.
Mercury decided on a total of nineteen mikes
for this orchestra of 47 players. In the past,
I've sided with those who contend that, beyond an irreducible minimum needed for
stereo "fill in." The fewer the number of
mikes used in any given situation, the easier
it is to get clean sound. It has been pretty
easy to spot Mercury sessions employing six
or more microphones, but they fooled me in
this one. Advocates of microphone forestry
may be pleased to learn that I was not aware
of nineteen mikes as I listened to the record.
I had to rend the liner notes to discover the
fact. The secret may lie in the fact that all
instruments of the orchestra were allowed
ample breathing space without unsettling the
pickup of their neighbors.
Columbia Q CO 343
Is Columbia applying to its line of current
7.5 ips tapes some of the theories developed
while working on a much slower -speed tape
system? How else does one explain the recording curve used on this reel? Of course
the highs on this tape will not be excessive
tinder all playback conditions. Some listeners,
without realizing it, may have a playback
head that has taken on a magnetic personality.
On normal equipment, rolloff at the high end
will have a beneficial effect. Anyone familiar
with the disc version of this release will agree
that a little knob twirling is well worth the
effort. Tape explores with new veracity the
excitement of this extraordinary pop session
by one of our leading concert and opera
stars. This is the Eileen Farrell some of us
used to hear when she was a CBS staff
vocalist many years ago. Although a current
attraction at the Met. The album should not
he confused with stunts along the lines of the
recent Gala Performance recording of "Die
Fledermaus" issued by London Records. There,
a collection of guest opera stars quite selfconsciously tried their wings in the lyrics of
popular tunes. Every resource of the stunning
Farrell vocal arsenal is applied with complete
conviction and gusto in perennials (On the
Sunny Side of the Street, September Song,
and the albums's title tune) as well as
relatively esoteric ditties. Among the latter
are a flawlessly -paced Ev'rytime from an old
musical "Best Foot Forward," Suppertime an
Ethel Watels tune in Irving Berlin's "As
Thousands Cheer," and the almost forgotten
Ruth Etting favorite Ten Cents a Dance. The
album is sure to be a conversation piece
wherever tape is played.
Bob Eberly and Helen O'Connell
Warner Bros. Q WSTC 1403
Here's a stereo salute to Jimmy Dorsey by
the vocalists once featured with his great
band. In recalling the sound of the Thirties,
the studio orchestra led by Lou Busch is
fortunate in having the services of Skeets
Ilerfurt.
A member of the original Dorsey
Brothers band, Ilerfurt revives the famous
Jimmy Dorsey alto sax and clarinet style do
the Busch adaptations of the old arrangements. Contrasts, the band's theme, is the
only instrumental In a program concentrating
on the vocal hits made famous by Ilelen
O'Connell and Bob Eberly. Each vocalist has
ample chance to take the solo spotlight but
the duets (Green Eyes, Amapola, Yours,
Tangerine, and Time Was) are heaviest in
nostalgia. I- Iabitues of the band's favorite
hangouts -Meadowbrook and what was then
the Hotel Pennsylvania -will be amazed to
hear how little the perky O'Connell stlye has
been affected by the passage of time. Green
Eyes still has that patented break in the
voice toward the end of the chorus. Her unique
rapport with the listener still lights up All of
Me and the new lyrics written by Johnny
Mercer for Arthur Murray Taught Me Dancing
in a Hurry. Bob Eberly's voice has deepened
without affecting the smoothness of his
manner. Despite the fact that vocals predominate in this recreation, Dorsey fans will find
the tape extremely handy in clarifying arrangements of exceptional taste and percep-
tion.
Grandes Chansons Vol. 4 /Jacqueline
Francois
Columbia WS 326
Not the least of France's exports Is the
chanson -and the people who sing it. This
release is part of an especially useful project
that has already presented definite collections
by such luminaries of the French popular
song as Patachou, Yves Montand, and Julliette
Greco. Mlle. Francois, whose voice is the
most luxuriant of the group, has under her
jurisdiction some of the smoothest tunes
Paris lias made famous. A good indication
of the care that has been lavished on this
series is the orchestral accompaniment. Here
the assignment went to composer-conductor
Paul Durand who supervised Jacqueline
Francois' first prize -winning recording. His
(Continued on page 81)
Les
AUDIO
MAY, 1961
L angevin
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MODEL EQ -251 -A PROGRAM EQUALIZER
FEATURES
New Concept Gives Variable Equalization at 6 Important Points.
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Flexible
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No tubes or power required
-
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Low Insertion loss of only 14 db.
Uses etched
Torpid coils
circuits of military quality for super- compactness.
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EQ -251A Equalizer is Langevin's miniaturization of an instrument that has long been standard for corrective equalization in recording and reproduction of sound. The diminutive size of this precision
instrument permits mounting adjacent to mixer controls, thereby making
possible multiple installations of several units in close proximity.
The Model
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levers for equalization and attenuation. The perpendicular sliding action
is more functional than rotary action, and facilitates reading of knob
positions. Adjustable in 2 db steps at specified frequencies, with a
range of 12 db maximum equalization to 16 db maximum attenuation,
this instrument is an ideal tool for dubbing and frequency response
corrections.
The Model
TECHNICAL SPECIFICATIONS
Circuit, Briige T; Impedance, 600, 600 ohms; Insertion Loss, 14 db; Input
Level, minimum: --70 dbm, maximum:
20 dbm; Phase Shift, negligible;
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satin finish, anodized aluminum with engraved markings. Chassis parts are
nickel plate on brass. Dimensions, panel: 11/2 inches wide by 31/2 inches
high; 51/2 inch depth behind mounting panel.
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This assembly is a passive,
require power supply, tubes
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ORDERING INFORMATION
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MAY, 1961
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D
How would you like to own a portable
stereo playback system for tape recorders
that would, perhaps, incorporate (here's
a free suggestion) a KLH -type miniature speaker system, two shoe -box cabinets,
separate (for necessary separation), in
each of them a built -in power amplifier of
generous wattage and about as big as that
cigarette case? I'd like it. I need it.
No point in going into further possibilities at this stage, but let's keep eyes and
ears open for useful miniaturization in
audio. Then.'ll be a lot of it, sooner or
later.
61ward ratnall Canby
"ELECTRONICS"
-
A SIDE -REVIEW
WHAT NEXT?
Last week I had a pleasant lunch with
two representatives of Allied Radio, the
"biggest" big outfit in the electronics-and hi -fi -by -mail business. (There's Lafayette
and Radio Shack and more too, but I didn't
happen to have lunch with them.) The
first question these two threw at me was
a poser. I had to order a cocktail first,
before I tried to answer.
"What's going to be the next sensation
in audio and hi fi?"
This from a sales outfit that has its
fingers on every hi -fi pulse in the country!
Well, I said, I dunno. I've been wondering
myself ; I need material for articles. If the
industry will oblige, I'll be all set to discuss
whatever comes along next. But what?
Well, let's see. There's reverb. I'd say
reverb is maybe here to stay (stay, stay,
stay), but it's not exactly any longer a
new sensation. Besides, I've written about
that already. Nope, reverb isn't it. Not for
next year, anyhow. So what else looms/
. how about stereo
Let me think
broadcast/ Now there's something really
It might break any
hot. Well, yes, but
time, but that's what I thought a couple
of years ago. I've stopped thinking about
broadcast stereo, at least until the reconstituted F.C.C. digs its heels into the
ground and begins pulling hard at the
traces.
As everybody knows, stereo radio has
been in the F.C.C.'s hands for these many
months and until a decision is arrived at
not a thing can be done other than the
now -usual provision of optional plug -in
multiplex facilities on FM tuners. Optional,
when and if. Until the basic conflict is
resolved between the background music
services that use multiplex (and send out
"good music" on their main channel, paid
for by the background corn) and those
who want no- compromise, all -out high quality- multiplex stereo, we -all are
going to have to wait. Even, the helpful industry panels on the subject,
set up to aid the F.C.C. in the electronic jungle, can't precipitate the final
decision. They, too, must wait, and perhaps
it was just as well they were given plenty
of time for their very complex and contentious fact -finding jobs. The whole area of
...
discussion is one of genuine complexity
and of reasonable and legitimate interests
that are in technical competition. The
F.C.C. decision is going to be a tough
one, any way it comes. Self stereo radio breaks this year, it will
surely be our main hi fi and audio sensation.
There's enough right there to keep hundreds of thousands of us busy, from
manufacturers right through to stereo
programmers on the air.
If not that, then what? Well, there's
that Columbia -3M miniature tape "cartridge" still on the books, an unknown
quantity that will not appear at least until
10
this summer, if then. It still packs explosives, if only by being revolutionary in
technique. New speeds, new tape size, new
heads, new tape (yes, even the tape is
being overhauled), a whole new step towards
new ratios between mechanical tape speed,
track -size, and available sound quality.
Maybe the little cartridge won't bowl
over hi fi, and in any case it is inherently a
mass product, I'd say, rather than a component hi fi item. But wherever it goes,
its technological implications are bound to
be great.
Perhaps any sensations resulting from
this development will be for year -after -next.
So then -what/ I've already suggested
that this year's tape sensation ought to
may well he- two -channel home
recording, via four -track tape machines.
The machines are now out in force and
more are coming. The bugs will blossom and
fade, the public will begin to catch on,
and two -channel -in- the -home should soon be
worth talking about, too. But as of right
now there is merely the machinery, not the
understanding of home possibilities.
Take, for example, a notable European
four -track recorder now widely sold that
offers full stereo recording in the home
on two channels-via a single joined mike,
its dual units permanently fixed at a
given angle within the same case. This
seems to me a singularly unimaginative
approach in view of the immense versatility
in the home offered by two mikes, separate,
free, movable, for close -up dual recordings
of dozens of sorts. See the February issue.
And so, what else?
Well, you've got me. The old rumor trail,
the department of Scuttlebutt, hasn't
brought me a thing of real note lately
but then I didn't get out to the West Coast
for the big shows, nor am I a Chicago fan.
So maybe I'm just a week or so out of
date.
By next week, I'll bet, the 1962 sensation
will hit me full in the face. Wonder what
be-and
-
it'll bet
P.S. 19641 Well, that's easy. How about
some really miniaturized components, out
of Space Technology, on the order of those
match -head component assemblies and
matchbox modules now being turned out
under governmental auspices? Tremendous
possibilities here for us in audio and home
hi fi, though I hastily add, in forms much
modified from those useful in space vehicles
and missiles.
We can use the tiny components, but
our space requirements are relatively light
and we appreciate low cost where the
government can't even think about it. Just
where the match -head devices will be useful
in home audio will have to be determined
with a lot of imagination and plenty of
planning. But the mere sight of a pair of
binaural glasses with a complete audio
system built into each arm of the spectacles
is enough to make my mouth water-for a
stereo amplifier in a cigarette ease.
-
Elsewhere in this issue Harold Lawrence
has written at length on a new all- electronic
taped piece of music by Remi Gassmann
and Oskar Sala, on which the recent and
sensational ballet "Electronics" was based
-the ballet choreographed by Balanchine
and "created" in actual sound via Stu
Hegeman's equipment. I was not privileged
to hear the electronic preview of the music,
but I did go to the premiere of the ballet
itself. I found it so tremendously important, from many viewpoints, that I am
appending here some first -off comments on
my own, to supplement Mr. Lawrence's
authoritative article.
Let me divide my reactions into two
categories. They'll overlap, but no matter.
Aesthetic. Technical. Aesthetics will come
first.
This ballet score was "composed" in
Germany, at the sound studio of Oskar
Sala in West Berlin, assembled from sounds
1 reduced wholly electronically via an instrument called the "Studio Trautonium,"
which I gather is the equivalent of the
American RCA Music Synthesizer in its
Mark II version. No "concrete" or actual
sounds were used ; all was synthesized and
directly recorded on tape. The end -product
was presumably produced, from Mr. Gass mamn's directions, via complex mixing and
rerecording. The music at the ballet premiere was obviously heard via at least two
tracks (Ah !-so I thought at the time.) but
could have been on many more, maybe five
or ton, for all I could tell in the actual
performance. That was one of its intriguing
aspects. A whale of a sound- curtain.
.
Trombones and Trumpets
My first point is that in spite of its all electronic nature, this electronic score
struck me in the listening as more like the
sound of "live" music than any "tape
music" I've heard to date -in fact I was
astonished and a bit nonplussed. I'm not
entirely sure this is what I would have
expected.
I'm always leary of imitation in taped
sound. The most important attribute it has
is its very freedom from the effects and
sounds of "live" music, so why "imitate"
them? An interesting question.
Anyhow, in this ballet "Electronics" I
was really amazed to hear -or seem to hear
sort of supernatural "super" orchestra.
Darn it, you could hear trombones and
trumpets, oboes and strings, triangles, percussion!
Not literally, of course. Most of these
sounds were actually a kind of suggestive
cross between four or five instruments; only
the trombone noises really seemed almost
literal, every so often. I don't mean that
you would confuse this taped sound for
that of an actual orchestra. But somehow,
the sound of an orchestra, the sound of
live music, was incorporated in it. And
-a
AUDIO
MAY, 1961
4-TRACK STEREO TAPE DECK
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AUDIO
MAY,
1961
C. 1, N. Y.
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this, I felt, was in radical contrast to that
dead, synthetic, "loudspeaker" sound that
we are already much too familiar with in
many an earlier example of taped "music."
This sound was extraordinarily unelectronic, then. But it did, without any
question, serve as a glorious imitation of
many an aspect of literal, acoustic music.
And this poses some vital aesthetic questions. Should electronic music sound like
regular music- even merely by suggestion?
Well, by doing so it insures a big impact
on a present -day audience. No question
about it, this music was immediately impressive because to the audience it sounded
like music, not like electronics. I mumbled
to my companion, in a brief lull part -way
through, that I'd bet the ballet would be a
hit
was so "conventional." It was a
hit. At the end, the audience yelled and
stamped and shouted bravo, until the lights
went up in its face.
-it
The Built -in Concert Hall
There's more to this. Yes, the score for
my ear did have a peculiarly orchestral
sound and was in that sense conservative.
If you doubt it, just try a really radical
electronic work, say, one by Edgard
Varèse. There is not the slightest sug-
gestion of any "orchestra" or any ordinary
musical sound! He works in a wholly new
world, doesn't even use the word "music"
but prefers (in order to bypass arguments)
his own term, "organized sound." In contrast, "Electronics" is much closer to
normal, standard, "regular" music. Other
elements of the score reinforce this conservative pattern. Notably, reverberation.
Now here is a fine aesthetic poser: We all
know that reverberation, as of an enclosed
large hall, seems to add a lustre and
realism to music. The proper amount of
liveness varies greatly from one type of
music to another, from one person's taste
to another, from one period's taste to
another. (In the 1930's, recordings were
far less live than they are now.) But with
all this variation, liveness remains as an essential in "ordinary" music and in recorded
sound, because in the last analysis music
was composed to be played in an enclosed
space -most of it, anyhow-and we are
therefore accustomed to reverberation as
a normal attribute of musical sound.
But all-electronic sound is something else
again. Should it be "reverberated "? Is
there any aesthetic reason at all for
creating a "space" in which a purely
synthetic sound seems to be occurring
except the same old reason, to make it
sound like familiar music, to make it
resemble what it is not?
I was impressed, when "Electronics" got
under way at the ballet premiere, to discover that the huge sounds we were hearing
were not only spread out, via an array of
big speakers, but were merged solidly
into an unbroken sound- curtain that extended far beyond each side of the stage.
(Two pairs of speakers were located
beyond the proscenium arch, out on the
sides. There must have been others, either
backstage or in the orchestra pit out of
my line of sight.) No pinpointing of the
sound, at "speaker A and speaker B." No
ping pong. This was genuine superstereo,
synthesized.
And moreover, as the ballet continued I
was startled to realize that the entire
music occurred within a huge space that, to
the best of my observation, was far larger
than the actual space within the City
Center theatre
second "apace" created
for the ears within and beyond an already -large listening hall. A huge "hole
in the wall."
This must have been achieved by re-
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corded reverberation, multi- track. That was
my conclusion. It's possible, I thought,
that I'm hearing merely the normal reverb
in this quite -large auditorium. But experience with the relatively picayune live
orchestra (only a few moments before)
seemed to deny this strongly. Live music in
that theatre is relatively unreverberated,
theatre-style rather than concert -hall. My
conclusion-without factual evidence -was
that this electronic score had its own built in concert hall, via added reverb.
Neo- Post-Romantic
You see what a nice aesthetic problem
this poses. Here is a score that: (a)
sounds like a sort of "super" orchestra, an
innaginitive recreation of live musical
sound, and (b) sounds as though it were
being "played" in a hall like real music.
Two strongly conservative tendencies. And
there's a third, even more fundamental.
How about the actual "music" itself, the
so- called "score "? What is its musical
language, its structure, themes if any,
harmony if anyt Radical? Not so radicali
As a music critic I can answer this quite
positively. Not so radical. In fact rather
strangely conservative. To tell the truth, I
thoroughly enjoyed the pseudo -orchestral
effects and marvelled at their lively and
convincing complexity. I was really thrilled
by the expertly managed effects of reverberation, whatever any doubts about its
ultimate suitability in the music of the
electronic future. But when it comes to the
music itself, I was less happy.
Indeed, in view of such extraordinary
technical virtuosity, I heard this score as
oddly conventional, even old -fashioned.
Skillfully, imaginately so, without a doubt,
but still a re -make in electronic terms of
ideas, musical ways of thinking, that could,
almost be called time -worn. Hard to believe,
but it's not the first time I've run into
this.
You won't believe me, of course. Conservative -that screaming, booming whirlwind of taped conics? Yes, I say. It was
specifically conservative: the general impact
was not so much of the present as of the
post -Romantic period centering on the
early 1900's. I thought first of Respighi,
then of Richard Strauss (in his early
works). The sounds were big, lush, overblown, as of that period in the past.
was
There was even a "motto theme "
gently borrowed, note for -note, from some
ultra-familiar big piece that for the
moment I can't put my mental finger on;
I was humming it for hours afterwards
trying to locate the "original" in my
mental filing cabinets. No matter -this
"motto" was right out of the late 19th
Century and early 20th, in sound, in its
treatment.
There were not only electronic trumpets
but rather conventionally fanfare -like big
trumpet calls. There were "choirs" of
pseudo -instruments, acting much like the
elements in a large orchestra-that is, a
somewhat old -fashioned large orchestra.
The whole "orchestration" was strongly
suggestive (again, with much imagination)
of a particular sort of "live" music, a
particular period, as opposed to many
another period -style. (Definitely not Mozart,
and not at all Stravinsky, for instance.)
And this in spite of plenty of outward
"dissonance" and sonic complexity.
There were themes, musical motives;
there was even much distinct harmony and
occasional key -sense, in the post- Romantic
manner. And this in a medium that was
heavily promoted, you see, as having no
connection with any actual, living, acoustic
sound, let alone any musical sound.
-it
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MAY, 1961
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AUDIO
MAY, 1961
cord sets and portable cordage
power supply cords
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9-11-0
13
You
Say
AUDIO
Is
Publishing
-if
A
Cookbook?
-
Yes, AUDIO is publishing a cookbook
not that we intend to extend the subject
of gastronomy to include recipes in future pages of AUDIO.
You may ask...why?
And we would answer -Simply because
we feel that people who read AUDIO,
and enjoy the finest quality music reproduction also enjoy really good food on
their tables.
Your next question may be...Is it a different kind of cookbook?
Of course our reply would be -Yes! Oh,
it doesn't have a revolutionary format
and it appears to look like any ordinary
cookbook. But, the secret of its goodness
is the recipes that fill its 148 pages...
recipes responsible for the heart warming, flavorsome, homespun aromas experienced only in the kitchen of an Adirondack country home.
The name of the book is PLACID
EATING, and it is chock full of palatetempting recipes compiled by Climena
M. Wikoff, owner of the Mirror Lake Inn
..at (you guessed it) Lake Placid, New
York.
Actually, the first edition (now out of
print) was discovered by Mr. AUDIO
(C. G. McProud) during his stay at Mrs.
Wikoff's Mirror Lake Inn, where, in Mr.
McProud's own words -"... every meal is
so tasty that eating becomes a real joy,
where each night's dessert excels the one
from the night before, where one has to
push himself away from the table before
upsetting the daily calorie count."
Here is a cookbook that will enable you
to recreate in your own homes superb
dishes experienced only at the Mirror
Lake Inn -dishes like Lake Trout Baked
In Wine and Adirondack Apple Pie, recipes for which are reproduced below
-
LAKE TROUT BAKED IN WNIrE WINE
Remove heads and nib from a 2 -pound fish. Split open down
back and rinse well. Remove backbone and rub inside with lemon,
salt, pepper and thyme to taste. Knead I tablespoon of butter
and anchovy paste the sire of a large pea; placing mixture ¡ride
fish. Place fish in a greased baking pan and cover with ii cup
of white wine. Bake 25 to 30 minutes in moderate oven, 330
degrees. Baste frequently. Garnish with parley and lemon
and serve with plain boiled potatoes.
ADIRONDACK APPLE FIE
c sagas
3 tbsps. white corn syrup
tbtpa sifted flour
6 to 8 tart apples, thinly
V, tsp. grated nutmeg
sliced
S4 e. orange juice
pastry
Vs C. melted butter
Mix together the sugar, flour, nutmeg, orange juice, corn
syrup and melted butter. Add the sliced apples and mix thorough.
ly. Butter a pie pan heavily before putting in your pastry. Fill the
pie shell with the apple mixture and make pastry strips far the
top which should be dipped in melted butter before putting on
the pie. Bake in 400 degree oven for IS minutes: reduce heat to
250 degrees and hake 35 to 40 minutes longer.
I
2
This colorful book, plastic bound for easy
handling, will contribute many wonderful adventures in food for everyone in
the family. Order a copy today, the Lady of- the -house will adore you for it. Incidentally...it makes a wonderful gift for
anyone. PLACID EATING. 152 pages,
Plastic Bound: $3.95.
RADIO MAGAZINES, INC., Dept. K99
P.O. Box 629, Mineola, New York
Enclosed is my remittance of
please send me
copies of
PLACID EATING @ $3.95 each.
(No C.O.D., all books sent postpaid in U.S.A. and possessions,
Canada, and Mexico. Add 50c for Foreign orders.)
NAME
CITY
14
ADDRESS
ZONE
STATE
Thus I suggest that this "Electronics" is
a work of virtuoso conservatism. And I
predict that it will be successful on these
very grounds, constructively, usefully so.
After all, conservatism means the conserving of things judged worth keeping.
"Electronics" is a forward -looking conservatism. It makes highly imaginative and
very skillful use of the familiar elements
that most music listeners (and ballet -goers)
find natural and satisfying. If it is a
compromise, then it is a currently practical
compromise. By now it is about time somebody showed that electronic sound is
versatile enough to rival real orchestral
sound! This does it.
If reverberation is an essential for
practically all our present music, if live ness makes the ear grow fonder
a
reverbed sound seems somehow more
"natural" to us than a non -reverbed electronic creation -then let's use reverb. At
least for the present, until it can be
retired as a transition substitute, or integrated finally into electronic music as one
of its technical sound resources. And if
post- Romantic music à la Respighi is at the
moment a suitable base -idiom for demonstrating the skill and the scope of electronic
sound, then by all means let's use it. For
the present.
Only one more comment under aesthetics.
The ballet. This music was "composed"
first; the ballet came later, choreographed
by that old ballet pro, Balanchine. (Indeed,
rumor told me that the ballet production
was actually put together at the last
moment in typical artist fashion.) To the
electronic score Balanchine added an "electronic" ballet, danced however by strictly
eon- electronic human beings, every one of
whom had two recognizable arms and a
pair of Iegs, dressed up in white undies
(white skin -tight leotards). Towards the
end, black human figures came on briefly.
The stage setting was highly "synthetic"
forest of litige cellophane -like stalactites vaguely waving in the breeze, plus
weird, interplanetary lighting. But the
dancers, were just dancers, so to speak.
How did the visual ballet go with the
audible sound t
Well, for the first few minutes I was
bothered by these quite obviously unelectronic dancers. They should have been
spacemen or something, with five legs and
six antennae apiece. Not far -out enough,
-a
I thought.
But before long, as I began to digest the
electronic music itself, I felt very differently. Old Balanchine, that infallible choreographer of new music, had hit it exactly
right. He combined "electronic" innovation
in the dancing with standard, human -like
movement, in proportions just right for
the music. It was a conservatively modern
dance sequence, in a violently modern stage
set-precisely as the music was conservative in idiom in a violently modern setting,
electronic sound. Balanchine, I thus suspect, heard what I have heard, that there
were many conservative elements in this
mainly radical score.
Maybe the French weren't as illogical as
they seemed when they named a political
party the "Radical Conservatives." In electronic music I'd say there was a big place
for radical conservatism.
Audio's Baby
On the technical side, I can sum up my
personal reactions to "Electronics" on
points, and I'll bet they agree with most
other opinoins you'll run into. I'll do it
in number-style.
(Continued on page 78)
AUDIO
MAY, 1961
a real SWEETHEART
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ances 200 Ohms or 200/50K Ohms
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performs mikes at triple the price. At better audio dealers. For details on D 19 B and
other outstanding AKG microphones from Vienna, The Home Town of Music, write
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AUDIO
MAY, 1961
15
EDITOR'S REVIEW
SHOW COMMENTS
the time this issue is in the hands of readers,
the two West Coast High Fidelity Shows-San
Francisco and Los Angeles -and the 1961 International Audio Exposition, which is the new name of
what has heretofore been known as the London Audio
Fair, will be past, and the memories they invoke will
remain with most of us during the rest of the year.
We trust that those who attended these three shows
will have pleasant memories and will feel that they
spent a few worthwhile hours in the halls of sound.
One of the greatest dividends accruing to the manufacturer-either of equipment or of magazines and
books-is the opportunity to discuss with customers
those problems which may have come up since the last
time we saw them. Some of these problems may be the
result of some deficiency in the products themselves,
while others may be the result of some constructive
thinking on the part of the customer as to how he
may use the products to his own advantage. We know,
for example, that as "manufacturers" of magazines
we are able to keep a "finger on the pulse" of the
reader to a better degree than if we simply sat in our
ivory tower and dreamed up our articles or picked
them indiscriminately from those which are proffered
by enthusiastic experimenters and home constructors.
We learn, among other things, what readers want in
their magazine, how they want the material presented,
and where we may have been remiss in past months.
And in addition, we glean glimmerings of ideas which
lead to a still more interesting editorial content. On
the whole, we feel that shows are well worth the time
and expense to us for these reasons.
By the same token, manufacturers of equipment
can also gain a lot from direct contact with their
customers. It is quite possible that the relatively high
quality of component high fidelity equipment is the
result of a closer contact between manufacturer and
user than can possibly exist in industries where the
customers never get an opportunity to talk over their
likes and dislikes with those responsible for the product.
In San Francisco, the event combined the high fidelity show with a home show, with a reported turnout of some 37,000 people. Undoubtedly many of them
came on account of the home show, but while they
were there they walked through the high fidelity section, and this is one method of introducing component high fidelity to people who didn't think they
were sufficiently interested in hi -fi to go out for that
reason alone. The arrangement of the booths was essentially the same as that employed in the 1960 Show,
and for a non -permanent set -up it was excellent. Unfortunately, when most buildings large enough to
house a hi -fi show were built, no one had the foresight
to envisage the type of structure which would be required. Think what we could do if we were to design
B\.
16
a building exclusively for this purpose today. In the
meantime, we must continue to use the best available
facilities, present our products in the best way we
know how, and then hope that we may engender sufficient interest that the attendees will visit their
dealers for a more thorough demonstration in more
suitable surroundings and in a more leisurely manner.
In Los Angeles, the IHFM- presented show returned
to the cottages at the Ambassador Hotel-which in
our opinion provide the best facilities of any we have
attended in the United States. Taking its cue from
the excellent facilities, the weather provided a perfect setting during the show. From the preliminary
reports we have received, audiofans welcomed the
fortuitous combination of weather and location in
sufficient numbers to produce an optimistic attitude
in the exhibitors.
AWARDS
While we are mentioning attitudes, we would like
to extend our humble thanks to the IHFM for the
award presented to us during the Los Angeles show
"for outstanding contribution to the high fidelity industry." We take this method to thank them because
we were not in Los Angeles when the award was presented-and, as we noted before, editorial policy
evolves as an interaction between the readers and the
editorial staff. Consequently we offer our own award
to the readers of AUDIO "for outstanding contribution
to the high fidelity industry."
NEW SHOW FORMAT?
There are always some who feel that Shows as we
now know them have served their purpose. We are not
among this number. Shows are undoubtedly expensive for the exhibitor, and since no equipment is sold
directly at the shows, it is very difficult to assess the
over -all advantage of the show until perhaps several
months have elapsed. Possibly some modification of
the show format could be adopted which would permit the on- the -spot sale of equipment, either by
having dealers' salesmen on the floor to help out
manufacturer personnel in closing sales right then
and there, or by making direct sales by the manufacturer to the pro -rata credit of the dealers in the
area. In the days of the automobile shows, there were
always salesmen on the floor-not just demonstrators
or the actual designers-and each one had a pad of
order blanks in his pocket.
We might just take a few hints from the automobile industry-after all it doesn't do too badly.
LONDON
We did finally find an excuse to go to London for
the show, and a full report will follow in the June
issue.
AUDIO
MAY, 1961
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WE'RE REACHING INTO SPACE
Laboratories research with
chilled ruby amplifiers speeds the
day we may telephone via satellites
Bell
A strange combination of Nature's forces at Bell
Laboratories foreshadows the day when world -wide
phone calls may be relayed via man -made satellites
orbiting the earth. It is a union of synthetic rubies and
extreme cold, making it possible to amplify microwave
signals from these satellites clearly.
Synthetic rubies possess an extraordinary property
when deeply chilled and subjected to a magnetic field.
They can be excited to store energy at the frequencies
of microwave signals. As a signal passes through an
excited ruby, it releases this energy and is thus amplified a thousandfold.
Bell Laboratories scientists chose a ruby amplifier
because it's uniquely free of "noises" that interfere with
radio signals. For example, it doesn't have the hot
ca:liodes Or hurtling electrons that generate noise in
conventional amplifiers. It is so quiet that only the
noise made by matter itself in heat vibrations remains.
But at a temperature close to absolute zero, this also is
silenced. Even very faint signals from satellites can be
clearly amplified and studied for their possibilities.
Bell Laboratories scientists were first to discover
that matter itself generates electrical noise. They also
discovered that stars send radio waves, and thus helped
found radio astronomy. It is particularly fitting that
the same scientists, in their endless research on noise,
should now battle this number -one enemy of telephony
in the dramatic new field of communication via satellites. The ultimate goal, as always, is the improvement
of your Bell System communications services.
BELL TELEPHONE LABORATORIES
WORLD
CENTER
OF
COMMUNICATIONS RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT
v
Feedback Techniques in
Low -Level Amplifiers
DONALD L. SHIRER
Although more widely used than in previous years, feedback in low -level ampliers is still not used as widely as its' advantages would indicate. For those
"on the brink," here's as persuasive argument fcr -plus a large helping of how.
IT IS CURIOUS in this day when the principles of negative feedback are
almost universally used in audio
power amplifiers, to find that there seems
to be some reluctance to apply them to
the lower -level stages of the amplifier
chain as well. Perhaps there may be
some justification for this, since one of
the principal uses of negative feedback
is to reduce distortion, and low -level
stages do not distort the signal as much
as amplifiers which must handle large
signal voltages, but this is only part of
the story. By judicious choice of the
feedback paths and components, not only
can distortion in the output signal be
reduced, but the frequency response can
be controlled, the effective input and
manner. At audio frequencies, we can
gladly simplify our calculations to
neglect such complictations as circuit
and tube capacitances, and treat transistors and vacuum tubes as "perfect"
amplifiers having a gain independent of
frequency. Although the consequences of
such a sweeping assumption would
Basic Feedback Circuits
'0=A( vi
" 1309
AUDIO
Fairlane, Valparaiso, Indiana.
MAY, 1961
+
vf)
= A(vi +A vo)
A
(1-A
' vi(-1/M
IABI»
IF
output impedance of the amplifier may
be changed and at the same time the
circuit may be adapted to other functions
such as mixing or tone control. The price
that must be paid for this flexibility is
a reduction in amplifier gain, which
sometimes (but not always!
see the
discussion on equalizers) necessitates an
additional amplifying stage at a slight
increase in cost and complexity. However, this is usually far less significant
than the advantages gained through the
use of feedback.
Only so- called negative feedback will
be discussed here, and its application to
units which are primarily low -level current or voltage amplifiers. It is assumed
that these units either themselves accept
an audio -frequency signal from a microphone, pickup, or other transducer and
deliver an amplified (and perhaps modified) signal at a higher level that can be
fed to a power amplifier, or else that
these separate units may be combined
into a more complex preamplifier which
performs this function. We thus regretfully ignore here the many interesting
applications of feedback to oscillators,
relaxation circuits, and to amplifiers designed to handle extremes of frequency
at either end of the audio range, which
are best treated in a more rigorous
usually be drastic in power amplifier
design, I have rarely encountered stability troubles from this particular
simplification in preamplifiers, and even
if they arise, they may generally be
eliminated without radical redesign of
the circuit.
vo=
)
I
A(vi+vf)
-
RFvo
A(vl+/!
RL+
I-
A
AARE
)
RF
RL+ RF
-v{ RL+RF/
IABI»
IF
-I
°
i°- RLRF°
Fig.
1.
RF
(7r)
I
Voltage amplifier.
io
A
(ii
if)
R
Rf
RL
A
Rf+RL
Rf
A
RL
IF
IABI,
R
(A)
)
(R+R
f
L
Fig. 2. Current amplifier.
+R
RL
Two feedback circuits are shown in
Fig. 1, in which the triangular block
represents a "perfect" voltage amplifier
whose voltage output is A times the
input signal voltage, v{, over the entire
audio frequency range. This amplifier
may be a single vacuum tube, several
R -C coupled tube stages or even a "black
box" exhibiting the specified raw gain A.
In (A) of Fig. 1, a certain fraction ß
of the output voltage, v°, is fed back to
the input of the amplifier through the
voltage divider indicated by the rectangular box which is assumed to have
an impedance much greater than the
load resistor, RL, so as not to overload
the amplifier. The feedback voltage, vt,
is then inserted in such a manner that
= [A(14+ v1) ] is less than the output
(Av{), which would occur if the feedback path were broken. It is clear that
you should not connect the feedback
voltage so that it increases the output,
,r the increased output would cause a
larger feedback voltage, which in turn
vauses a still larger output, which causes
,I bigger
, etc., and you soon have
;I dandy oscillator instead of an amplilier. With the proper connections,
though, the amplifier soon settles down
at its lower output voltage. Now vf =
ßa°= ßA vi + ßdv,, so evidently the condition that v1 oppose v{ (that is, be out of
phase with v4) requires that M, the
gain "around the feedback loop" be
negative -thus "negative" feedback. If
the voltage divider, ß, consists of passive
elements (resistors, capacitors, inductors,
etc.) only, inversion of the signal cannot take place there, so either A must
he negative, which is the same as saying
that the amplifier contains an odd
number of phase-inverting stages, or
...
19
LIMITS OF "FLAT' RESPONSE
WITHOUT FEEDBACK
-0.-
-Q-A
r
<
LIMITS OF "FLAT" RESPONSE
WITH FEEDBACK
FREQUENCY
'
-411..-
else if an even number of stages are
used, the feedback signal must be inserted at a point where it will produce
the effect of an input signal of opposite
sign, usually at the cathode of the first
stage. (For this criterion to be applied,
remember that cathode followers and
grounded -grid amplifiers do not invert
the signal.) Examples of both types of
amplifiers will be given later. This connection is known as parallel, shunt, or
voltage feedback.
Series or current feedback is shown
in (B) of Fig. 1. Here the output current passes through a resistor R1 which
converts it to a voltage signal (usually
R1C RL), then through the voltage
divider, ß, to a point in the amplifier
which will provide the proper negative
feedback polarity. In either case, if the
amplifier gain is sufficiently high, it
drops out of the equation for the total
gain when feedback is included, as does
any mention of the load resistance, so
that we have "stabilized" the gain
against changes in vacuum tube p. or
changes in the load resistance. The factor
ß can be rather small (if A is large
enough) without violating the simplifying condition All 11, so that the gain,
including feedback, which depends on
1 /ß, may be quite large. The difference
between the two cases appears in the
equations below each figure. It is evident
that for (A) of Fig. 1 it is the output
voltage which is a stabilized function of
the input voltage. Voltage feedback has
thus made it appear as though this
amplifier has a very small effective output impedance, so that RL may be
varied without affecting vo as long as it
is not so small that greater output currents are demanded than the output
stage in the amplifier can supply. On
the other hand, the current feedback in
(B) of Fig. 1 stabilizes the output current, so that now the amplifier behaves
as though it had a very large output
impedance. The change in output impedance in each case is in about the
same ratio as the reduction in gain
caused by the application of feedback.
(See Appendix I.)
The same two feedback configurations
20
--.
Fig. 3. Extension
of frequency response with negafeedback.
can be applied to amplifiers incorporating transistors, or any "black box" in
which the current output
is A times
the current input it. In (B) of Fig. 2,
a certain fraction, (3, of the output current is extracted by means of the lowimpedance current divider indicated by
the rectangular box, and fed back to
the amplifier in such a manner as to
oppose the input current.
In (A) of Fig. 2, the output voltage is
converted to a current by placing R1
between the amplifier output and the
low- impedance input of the current
divider, then a fraction, ß, of this current is fed back to the input. Again
voltage feedback stabilizes the output
voltage ((A) of Fig. 2) and lowers the
output impedance of the amplifier ; current feedback stabilizes the output current and increases the effective output
impedance as in (B) of Fig. 2.
i
Stability Considerations
If the divider network, ß, contains
only resistive elements, the adjusted gain
of the amplifier including feedback will
be flat over a range greater than that
of the amplifier itself. This is so because
even though A is decreasing at the extremes of the frequency range, the adjusted gain will not seriously decrease
until A becomes comparable to 1 /0. The
adjusted gain will then drop off with
further fall in A itself somewhat as
shown in Fig. 3. Phase shifts in the output voltage always accompany this de-
Fig. 4.
R
-C
crease in A at high and low frequencies,
but should not contribute to instability
in properly-designed amplifiers. Proper
design in this case usually amounts to
little more than making only one R -C
coupling element contribute to the amplifier droop at low frequencies and one
other network cause the high -frequency
rolloff.
In the typical flat amplifier shown in
Fig. 4 for instance, the time constant
R,C, is made, say, five times less than
R,C R,C4, or R,C, so that the first
coupling network contributes most of the
low- frequency droop in the amplifier
response. The high -frequency loss is
limited here by all the tube and circuit
capacitances. To ensure its proper "ruin"
by only one R -C network, a small capacitor, C, may be tied across R5 to start
drooping the amplifier's gain above
20,000 cps or so. These simple expedients
will generally suffice in the great
majority of preamp circuits.
Adding capacitances or inductances
to the current or voltage divider, ß,
will enable you to produce an amplifier
having a frequency- varying gain which
is dependent only on the feedback network. Several voltage dividers are shown
in Fig. 5, accompanied by sketches of the
behavior of their division ratio, ß, and
the total amplifier gain, 1 /e, as a function of frequency. Remember that in
order for the adjusted gain to be given
by 1 /0, A must be several times the
highest value of 1/ß over the desired
frequency range (if you measure gains
in db, A must be approximately 6 db
more than the maximum value of 1/(3
for the approximation to hold). Since
the impedance of the divider circuit will
probably also change with frequency, be
sure that your voltage dividers have
high impedances and the current dividers
low impedances compared to the impedance level of their associated circuits. A
single R -C network will give slopes up
to 6 db /octave on the gain curve, and
the responses can be easily sketched by
joining the flat portions and the 6 db/
octave slopes with smooth curves near
the crossover frequencies.
coup-
ling networks in
typical feedback
amplifier.
AUDIO
MAY, 1961
Networks of this type can obviously be
combined to forni quite complicated frequency response curves which are useful
in equalizers and tone-control networks.
Inductances are not usually used in feedback networks because of their size,
weight, cost, and tendency to pick up
hum if not well shielded, but R -L -C
circuits can give much sharper slopes
than a single R -C network. For instance,
the feedback divider shown in (D) of
Fig. 5 was found to be useful in designing an equalizer for a tape recording
aoplifier needing considerable treble
boost around 15,000 cps. Several other
types of feedback networks are considered later.
So far, nothing has been said about
distortion reduction, though it is fairly
and demand "flat" amplification up to a
level of at least 0.2 volts before the
signal can drive most power amplifiers
to full output. While part of this amplification may be provided later, generally
it is wise not to insert level or tone
controls until the signal level is brought
up to 0.1 v or so, to avoid hum and
noise pickup in an excessive number of
low-level stages. It is usually worthwhile to expend considerable effort to
avoid noise in the input stages so that
the amplifier may handle as wide a dynamic range as possible.
A transistor circuit which has shown
considerable adaptability as a low-level
amplifier for medium -to-low impedance
inputs is shown in Fig. 6. Without the
feedback path (F -F in the figure) it has
easy to show (see Appendix II) that the
distortion produced by the amplifier
without feedback is reduced by the same
factor (Aß -1) as the gain when negative feedback is applied. It is true that
sonic additional higher -order harmonic
distortion may arise because the feedback allows the initial distortion products to pass back through the amplifier,
but the usual low -level amplifier has only
a small degree of distortion to begin
with, until overloaded, so that the higher -
order distortion products are nearly
always negligible.
"Flat" Amplifiers
Dynamic microphones and many types
of vibration transducers produce signals
in normal use of about 1 my or smaller,
FEEDBACK VOLTAGE
DIVIDER
FED -BACK
DIVISION RATIO /d
GAIN
I,Q
1
}
GAIN
HERE
-RI
R2
6
o
db/OCTAVE
O
=
f2
f2
P.-
LOG FREQUENCY
R2((RI (USUALLY)
LOG FREQUENCY
f
2.R2C2
db/OCTAVE
6
cl
aI
.,!v,C
2
fl
R
2
<< RI
`-3
\
Ì\
GAIN
RI
f2
fl
1
fl
2.RIC3
ir
f3
f=
3
2.R2C2
°
fl
HERE
'RI
R3 "R-
GAIN HERE+RI /R2
f2
2.R3C3
21, LC
Fig. 5. Gain curves produced by sample feedback dividers.
AUDIO
MAY, 1961
21
FEEDBACK NETWORK PROVIDES GAIN OF 330
I8v(4ma)
CurrJr
C=
Ipf(NO
(SEE TEXT/
FEED-
BACK)
c =.
331+f (100k
RESISTOR)
Fig. 6. Low -level
transistor preamplifier.
;O
ó
C=. I5 A(33k
RESISTOR)
MF=METAL
FILM
DC= DEPOSITED CARBON
ALL TUBES 12AX7
2
locations, and the power supply was
designed to be taken either from two
9-volt batteries in series, or dropped
through a decoupling network from a
higher -voltage supply.
Connecting a 33,000 -ohm resistor between the points F-F effectively converts
this amplifier into the circuit of (A) in
Fig. 2. The divider consisting of the
33,000 -ohm and 100 -ohm resistors provides the negative voltage feedback
which is properly applied to the first
stage emitter since there are two (an
even number) phase-inverting stages in
the feedback loop. Neglecting the shunting effect of the first transistor's base
resistance, the dividing ratio, ß, is approximately 100/33,100, giving an adjusted gain (1 /13) of 330, or about 50
db. The gain reduction is thus 69 -50, or
19 db, a factor of 90 times, which serves
Fig. 7. Low -level
vacuum -tube pre-
amplifier.
IN
50
O
-
500
LOG FREOUENCY(cps)
w
2120
Ai
oS rv
oMID-FREOUENCY GAIN
MF
METAL FILM
F
Z1
F
R3
I
DC= DEPOSITED CARBON
GAIN IZf /S00
DECOUPLING CAPACITOR,C,MAY
a gain of 69 db. About 6 db of this is
used for local feedback, by means of the
unbypassed emitter resistors in each
stage, which acts to improve the stability
of the bias levels as well as providing
some distortion reduction. D.c. coupling
after the input capacitor leaves only
the R -C time constant in the second
emitter circuit to provide the low frequency cutoff, but also demands an
inner d.c. feedback path back to the first
base to stabilize the bias potentials on
the two grounded -emitter stages. The
inclusion of three local feedback paths
in addition to the over -all feedback loop
makes this circuit rather insensitive to
different transistors, although for optimum results the first base bias resistor
(marked 0.4-0.5 megohms) should be
adjusted to provide exactly 0.58 ma
emitter current in the input transistor.
The operating points are chosen for
low transistor noise, although this will
also depend on the impedance level of
the input signal. An input impedance
of 1000 ohms will produce the best
signal -to-noise ratio in the 2N220 stage,
but a 250 -ohm microphone can be di-
22
BE
INCLUDED IN
Z1
rectly connected to this stage with a
loss of only 2.5 db in signal -to-noise
ratio. This will entail no loss in gain
since the effective impedance of the first
base will be raised by the over -all feedback up to a value in the range 1050,000 ohms. This amplifier can provide
an output for almost four volts into a
10,000 -ohm load without clipping, giving
a great overload reserve and eliminating
the need for a volume control at the
preamp input. The frequency response
is flat from below 15 cps (which is "all
the further" my oscillator goes) to
15,000 cps, where it is 3 -db down without
the over -all feedback path -supplying
as little as 6 db or more of over-all
feedback produces flat response to beyond 20,000 cps. The emitter follower
is not strictly needed for most purposes,
but serves to keep the output impedance
low over the entire frequency range if
the preamp is used as an equalizer, and
can drive output circuit impedances
down to about 3000 ohms without too
much restriction on the output level.
Low -noise metal -film and depositedcarbon resistors are used in strategic
50cP.1,2vR1CI
500c1i2*R2CI
2120cP.-1,2.R7C2
Fig. 8. RIAA playback curve with required
network.
Fig. 9. NARTB playback curve and re-
quired feedback network.
AUDIO
MAY, 1961
division ratio is 500/500,000) with a
comfortable 24 db of feedback reserve.
The feedback voltage is correctly applied
to the cathode of the cascode stage since
there are only two phase -inverting stages
-the grounded -grid and cathode -follower tubes producing an output in
phase with the input signal. To realize
the low-noise possibilities of this circuit, it should be well decoupled from
the power supply and d.c. should be
used on the filaments.
Equalization
The previous amplifiers can easily be
converted to phono preamps by adding
frequency-sensitive elements to the feedback path to make the gain follow the
RTAA playback curve, shown in (A) of
I'ig. S. This has a 6 db /octave rise in
the bass region with a turnover frequency of 500 cps, a treble turnover at
2120 cps followed by a 6 db /octave
!,ni,ll, ;nnl
;1
Ln
1,l:lte ;nt of 50 ep ?.
Fig. 10. Summing chains.
to reduce the output impedance and harmonic distortion figures by the same
ratio. Many people will refer to this a,
convenient short"19 db of feedback "
these values, but capacitors may be asmuch as 20 per cent off their nominal
ratings. To produce accurate equalization then, you must buy several capacitors of the nearest EIA tolerance and
select the ones reading closest to the desired value on a capacitance bridge.
The specified amount of gain (40 db
at 1000 cps) will only bring extremely
low-level signals from the stereo cartridge up to about a 0.2 volt level, but
additional gain may be provided in the
following stages. The gain at low frequencies is approximately 60 db, since
the rise in impedance of C2 makes the
effective feedback ratio 100/100,000, but
the amplifier still has about 9 db of reserve which is useful in reducing distortion. Do not worry if you remember that
the input impedance is not as great with
less feedback; magnetic pickups have
inductive reactances and so their impedance only becomes large at high frequencies where the feedback is much
,,neater, thus providing the droop in the
RIAA curve and at the same time increasing the effective input impedance.
You can obtain more gain with the
circuit of Fig. 7 if you are willing to
put up with a slightly worse signal -tonoise ratio. If we pick
R2=0.15 megohm.s
R,:= 1.5 megohms
-a
hand phrase. In this amplifier it make,
the harmonic distortion unmeasureable
if the output is below 1 volt. Exceptionally low -level microphones may demand
a gain of 60 db, which may be obtained
by a division ratio of 1 /1000, that is,
by replacing the 33,000 -ohm resistor
with one of 100,000 ohms. There is still
9 db available for distortion reduction,
although now the input impedance has
come down to about 6000 ohms. This
variation should not be used with high impedance microphones without a step down transformer.
A vacuum tube preamp which may be
used with crystal or other high- impedance microphones is shown in Fig. 7.
A double triode is connected in the
grounded- cathode grounded -grid cascode
arrangement to provide a low noise level
and at the same time a considerable gain
in the first stage. One unusual feature
is the 120,000-ohm bypass resistor to
the plate of the grounded- cathode half
of the cascode tube. This increases the
current drawn by this section, raising its
g,,, and giving an extra 5 db of gain
over an ordinary cascode circuit. The
second tube is R-C coupled with a cascode follower direct -coupled to its plate
to provide a low impedance output. The
slightly higher raw gain of this circuit
(84 db) permits a higher effective gain
than the amplifier of Fig. 6 with the
same amount of distortion -reducing feedback. For instance, a 0.5 meg feedback
resistor will provide a 60 -db gain (the
AUDIO
MAY, 1961
R4 = 7500 ohms
Cl =0.0021 if
C5 = 500 IRf
(Continued os page 74)
-9 TO -12v DC
Fig. 12 Mixing amplifiers.
The divider network shown in (B)
of Fig. 8 will produce this characteristic in a circuit with voltage -feedback. The elements between F -F would
be inserted in place of the simple feedback resistor in Figs. 6 and 7. C, and R2
produce the bass boost below 500 cps,
C2 shunts R2 at high frequencies to produce the treble rolloff, and R, limits the
rise of the impedance in series with R2
to produce the shelf below 50 cps. R,
is a safety factor to reduce excessive
phase shift and possible oscillations at
very high frequencies. If it is chosen
about R5 /20, then it only affects the
treble response above 40,000 cps, well
out of the audio range. Values for these
components which seem to work well
in the transistor amplifier of Fig. 6
where R,3 is the 100 -ohm emitter resistor,
are, for a mid- frequency gain of 40 db
R2 =10,000 ohms
R, = 0.1 megoluns
R4 =500 ohms
C, = 0.0032 µf
C2=750 µµf
It is easy to buy one per cent, deposited carbon, low -noise resistors in
lA1
X
33
-6, v2w3)(33/15.X»
t OUTPUT =15
I
OUTPUT =2v1
.050
o
5
4(v2 v3)
10
MEG
OUTPUT
1/2 12Ax7
()
.25 MEG
2
EG
Fig. 11. Plate -to -grid feedback and feedback summing circuits.
23
Confessions of a High-Fidelity
Widow
TRANSCRIBED BY CHRISTOPHER FAYE-
This manuscript was found in the charred ruins of a large home near Tuuglewood, Massachusetts.
The officials who investigated the disaster were puzzled by the finding of such apparently unrelated
items as several skeletons of deformed rhinoceroses, a colony of a rare species of African wasp, a
Santa Fe engine that had been reported stolen during 1953, and what experts proclaimed to be the
full dress regalia of a long extinct Zulu tribe.
"While this manuscript connects and explains the presence of these bizarre remnants, it is now being
brought to the attention of the public for a far more important reason. It is hoped that its publication
will alert our readers to the menace of a most dangerous and resourceful group that has apparently
attained a large following within the last few years.
The manuscript follows.
it is possible to present
a written report on the "top-secret"
strategems to be employed by those
unfortunate enough to be "high- fidelity
widows" (hereafter referred to as victims). As the methods about to be de-
A
TLONG LAST
scribed represent the culmination of
many years of study of this heinous
problem, it is fervently hoped that their
application will be marked by devout
attention to detail and also such as to
preclude their falling into unscrupulous
male hands.
We shall begin by explaining the
malady of "high- fidelity widowhood" in
such a manner as to enable you to recognize the degree of severity of your individual case. We will then outline the
various combative and remedial steps to
be taken during each stage of the disease. As is well known, even perfectly
normal and uninflicted males, while undeniably useful members of society, are
generally incapable of sustained periods
of rational behavior or continuous progress toward any goal. Therefore armed
with the knowledge about to be imparted,
the victim of even the most advanced
case can be reasonably sure of the ultimate cure.
*
81.5
Main, Mankato, Minn.
Fig.
1.
Deformed rhinocerous skeleton, one of several found in charred ruins.
A home containing a victim of Stage
I (or mild) "high -fidelity widowhood"
is readily recognizable by the daily descent thereon of a deluge of propa-
ganda, manuals of edification, and an interminable series of current and back
issues of so- called magazines dedicated
to a number of propositions that are of
considerable interest to the unbalanced
mind. The husband (hereafter referred
to as the addict) in these homes has just
been stricken and is actively engaged in
a futile attempt to catch up on all high-
fidelity literature published for the past
five years, and an equally futile attempt
to read all the current outpourings on
the subject. These pathetic efforts always result in a state of virtual cataleptic obsession. As the disease in this stage
is highly contagious, great care must be
taken to insure the addict's isolation
from all his male friends so that the
problem does not assume epidemic proportions. As all efforts at oral communication during this phase are useless,
several of the larger distributors are
marketing blank folders bearing such
typical high -fidelity titles as-
"What Frequency Causes Resonant
Brain Tissue Disintegration ?"
"A Study Concerning the Inverse
Relationship Existing Between the
Amplifier's Wattage Output and Contiguous Property Values"
"Recent Statistically Significant
Results Obtained by Applying BinauFig. 2. Stolen Santa Fe engine and African Wasp colony also found in burned -out
home.
24
ral Techniques to Schizophrenic Therapeutics"
AUDIO
MAY,
1961
You should purchase a complete set
of these folders. Whenever you find it
necessary to communicate with the addict, you should insert a set of typewritten pronouncements in one of these
folders and place it on top of the literature to be read. Your typewritten statements are to be in edict forni. They
should contain unequivocal commands
such as:
1. Stand up.
2. Walk into the kitchen.
3. Sit down at the table.
4. Eat your dinner.
It will be found that the addict's state
of trance -like concentration due to uninterrupted technical reading will be
such as to insure absolute and unquestioned obedience to any literature given
him bearing a high- fidelity connected
title. Some wives have been known to
amplify their typewritten statements to
include commands more than those necessary for continuing the addict's physical existence. For example :
1. Mow the lawn.
2. Wash the dishes.
3. Hang the storm windows.
4. Give nie $500.00.
During periods of bargains in furs,
diamonds, and other necessities, Stage I
widowhood is not without certain advantages. However, this is purely a transitory stage. No oppositional or corrective
actions should be attempted during its
brief span.
Generally within three months, the addict will attain a state of pseudo consciousness or Stage II existence. During this stage, addicts have occasionally
into everyday society. The main problem
encountered, and indeed the distinguishing characteristic of a Stage II addict,
is his highly vexing and completely
irrepressible desire to visit establishments (hereafter more simply referred
to as dealers) which specialize in the
sale of the various instruments involved
in the nebulous pursuit of high fidelity.
After spending a pupa -like period of
some three months encased in the chrysalis of the subject's literature, the addict
now is driven by an elemental urge to
emerge and revel in the environment for
which he has been preparing. This environment is to be found at the dealers.
While this author has no wish to criticize the dealers-after all, they are a
group of well-intentioned men who are
highly capable in a very specialized
field
should be pointed out that they
are simply out of their minds. Somehow
that does sound like criticism. Let's reword it. The dealer, through no fault of
streets and general assistance in negotiating traffic, it will not be difficult for
the victim to arrange to accompany him
on his trips to the dealers. Whenever
unenlightened victims (victims who do
not apply this article's recommended
procedures) go to a dealer with their addict, they find themselves relegated to a
position of total insignificance. This is a
consequence of total rapport which in-
his own, was left to his own devices
when he was in the early stages of addicthood. The fact that he is now a
stantly arises between dealer and addict.
Needelss to say, during these periods of
what appears to be complete communion
of soul, great and possibly irreparable
-it
dealer is only an inevitable consequence
of lack of care during the disease's
period of incubation. It could happen to
anyone.
Undoubtedly, the dealer, thoroughly
experienced as he is in the reprehensible
art of goading the addict into a state of
completely maddened insensibility, constitutes the second stage's greatest hazard. This is as unfortunate as it is needless. For it is during this stage that the
properly forearmed victim can paralyze
the dealer and so start the addict back
on the road toward sanity.
What are the counter -tactics to be
Fig. 4. Wounded Rhinocerous Wasp.
damage can be done to the addict. The
victim must therefore take immediate,
and due to the circumstances, attention compelling action. While the overly fastidous may object to the picturesque, or
even slapstick, aspects of the following
method, it is emphasized that it actually
works, and that extreme methods must
be adopted in dealing with extreme
cases. Regardless of the ethical implications of utilizing a pragmatic approach, here is the system in capsule
form.
Dealer and Addict Shock Therapy
Purchase or otherwise procure the following items :
1. A police type of blast whistle.
2. Several squares of coarse grade
sandpaper.
A jeweler's optical eyepiece.
A pair of long white gloves.
An African safari -type pith helmet.
Several yards of gauze (to attach
as a veil to the helmet).
7. Several hives of wasps. South African "Wounded Rhinoceros Wasps"
(noted for their unstable social behaviour and general attitude of
hostile frenzy when confronted
with unfamiliar humans) are
highly recommended.
These items are utilized in the following manner:
1. Within five minutes of the time
that the dealer begins the seance which
normally concludes with both the addict
and dealer in a trance, blow several
piercing blasts on the whistle.
2. As the state of trance has not yet
been attained, the addict and dealer will
3.
4.
5.
6.
Fig. 3. Equipment for dealer and addict shock therapy.
been known to give intelligible answers.
Normal conversation is, needless to say,
out of the question ; all attempts to elicit
replies must be at an extremely elementary level or couched in high- fidelity
terminology.
Care of the addict during this stage
proves simpler. The saine diligence of
supervision need not be exercised. The
typical Stage II addict can be depended
upon to take care of his fundamental
needs. They are, generally, able to dress
themselves, eat their meals without too
much help and occasionally even venture
AUDIO
MAY, 1961
employed by the victim? The prerequisite to their proper application is a realization that you are faced with the complex psychological problem of dealing
with an addict suffering from a combination of a self induced state of stupor
and an externally stimulated state of
madness at the saine time that you must
engage a monomaniac (or dealer) in his
specialty. Once this fundamental is
grasped, the recommended counter -tactics stand revealed as a logically rigid
structure.
As the addict needs aid in crossing
25
now casually give you their attention.
Announce that you are interested in
realistic recording and request that the
dealer tape a performance of you and
your whistle.
3. The dealer will condescendingly decide to do this, reasoning that you will
thus effectively be eliminated from the
seance that had been starting so promisingly.
4. As the dealer makes the arrangements necessary to record your selection,
you clothe yourself in your long gloves
and veiled helmet.
5. You now release one hive, or approximately 1200 "Wounded Rhinoceros
Wasps."
6. The addict and dealer will now give
you their attention and in a manner
which can no longer he described as
casual.
7. Explain to the dealer, who generally by this time has assumed a delightful shade of purple-the color may not
be purple, however it always is a rich
and vivid color altogether dissimilar
from the flat pastels which render characterless so many of today's men -that
since you are especially interested in the
treble end of the sound spectrum you
have brought along some of your insect
friends (emphasize the word friends, it
seems to heighten and otherwise intensify the dealer's color) so you can observe their reactions to the highs and
can consequently better judge the quality of his various systems. Then explain
to the dealer, in as great length as possible (so you can be sure that there is no
misunderstanding) about the difficulty
that humans have in hearing above 16,000 cps and how insects can hear up to
or even higher than 45,000 cps. You will
generally find the dealer to be in a state
of visible agitation during your fourth
or fifth repetition of this explanation.
The exact reason for this often observed
reaction is unknown, but the most likely
cause is his natural gratefulness for
having the matter of human and insect
hearing explained with such thoughtful
thoroughness.
8. By this time the wasps will have attained such a state of animated playfulness that your veil and gloves will seem
a good thing. The dealer now generally
occupies himself with some futile types
of unorganized and primarily violent
gesticulation. As this will only tire the
dealer and further incense the wasps
which by this time are laboring under
the misguided impression that the dealer
is their natural prey or wounded rhinoceros, you should divert the dealer's
attention by discussing various aspects
of high fidelity.
9. As the dealer's attention is likely to
wander during your attempts to set his
mind at ease, you again must take positive action to secure his undivided attention.
26
10. This is done by going to several of
his highly polished mahogany enclosures
and rubbing off some of the veneer with
your sandpaper, examining the result
with your jeweler's optical eyepiece in
position, and then announcing in a clear
voice that you question whether his enclosures will match your furniture.
11. It is now time to leave. Explain to
the dealer that you enjoyed your visit,
that you hope to come again soon, and
since he is such a nice man you are going
to give him the wasps. If the dealer
seems to protest your generosity, say
that it is no use, that you won't dream of
taking his money for the wasps, and
that you are giving them to him as one
friend to another.
12. On your way out pick up the addict who will invariably have relapsed,
due to all the excitement, into the cataleptic state associated with the disease's
first stage. Gently pry loose whatever
literature he is senselessly reading, patiently help him to his feet, and then
guide him to home and bed for at least
a week's recuperation.
At the end of this week, the addict is
either cured or back in Stage II. It is
quite easy to determine which is the
case. If the addict is no longer interested
in the subject of high fidelity, you are
to be congratulated upon your effective
administration of the cure. If the addict persists in his desire to visit dealers,
you are faced with the alternative of
continuing the form of dealer and addict shock therapy already outlined or
permitting the addict to proceed to
Stage III. In any event, the addict will
have no conscious knowledge or remembrance of the shock therapy regardless
of the number of times it is administered, due to his almost instantaneous
defensive retreat into a somnambulistic
state. However, it has been empirically
determined that if six such treatments
produce no measurable result, this form
of therapy should not be continued and
the addict should he permitted to proceed to Stage III. Stage III is the final
stage and is the stage in which the addict actually purchases high -fidelity
components.
It should be here noted that from a
technical standpoint, the addict is not in
Stage III until he actually is the owner
of at least one high -fidelity component.
Little is to be done during the actual
buying periods. During these periods
you should expect, and not be alarmed
at, the addict's increasingly haggard appearance and erratic behavior reminiscent of Stage I's stupefaction. Upon
ownership of high-fidelity components,
the addict's insensibility gradually turns
into Stage III's prevalent attitude of
morbid dejection unless engaged in the
obsessive pursuit of imperfection.
The addict, after purchasing equipment, devotes all his waking hours to
discovering and taking a delight in real,
but more generally imagined, flaws in
his equipment. In short the addict is
only interested in seeking defects. All of
the many problems posed by the Stage
III addict are a direct consequence of
this peculiar mental state. Fortunately
the mental depression into which the addict invariably lapses when not engaged
in the quest of aberration, is readily dispelled. Curiously enough, the addict can
he easily roused from his despondency
simply by commenting disparagingly
about his components. The astonishing
fact is that the more derogatory you are
in your conversation, the greater becomes the addict's degree of animation
and general liveliness. This knowledge
can be put to good use whenever it is
necessary for the addict to make a public appearance. If, immediately before
the necessary appearance, the victim will
devote thirty or forty minutes to a vilification of the addict's system, the addiet's entire temperament assumes a
good natured malleability which will be
the subject of widespread envy. Indeed,
ninny victims have concluded that this
easily attained euphoristic state constitutes a considerable improvement over
the behavior that could be expected
should the addict be cured. These victims, of course, abandon their efforts
toward a cure and instead content themselves with the fact that they possess
complete control over their husband's
emotional state. In all fairness, it must
be admitted that many cogent arguments can be advanced in favor of this
system; as a matter of fact, some of
the addicts who have been permitted to
continue without interruption in Stage
III occasionally even present an almost
human appearance. Despite the undeniable domestic advantages of having pushbutton emotional responses from the
addict, the very real danger of permitting the addict to continue without
remedial action lies in the possibility of
his becoming a Super Stage III addict,
or dealer. Should this happen, cure is
impossible. Therefore, the victim should
not succumb to the temptation of abandoning the curative process.
While over the past few years many
methods of cure have been proposed,
attempted, and even found reasonably
successful, only one method stands out
as being universally applicable and
practically infallible. Its excellence is
primarily due to the fact that it is
directed at the heart of the problem.
As in our discussion of the shock therapy
recommended for dealers and addicts,
one must judge the method solely by its
results rather than by the stilted standards of behavior that society has imposed
upon so many.
Before presenting the cure in a step
by step form, it is necessary for the
victim to master a few fundamentals
AUDIO
MAY, 1961
concerning the Stage III addict's behavior when a member of a group
formed entirely of his own kind. While
an addict in any stage is incapable of
any form of social intercourse, nevertheless you will find that a number of Stage
III addicts will nightly descend upon
your home. These addicts are not visiting
your home in a spontaneous demonstration of amicable neighborliness. Rather
they are engaging in'their grim pursuit
of imperfection. These addicts will
ignore you so completely that you will
begin to doubt your own reality. Actually
their inattention to you is not due, as
many have thought, to their state
of apparent continuous malevolence.
Rather, it is a surprisingly little known
medical fact that the Stage III addict's
optical structure has difficulty in focussing on objects that are not directly
connected with high fidelity. Since the
administration of the cure depends upon
your establishing yourself in a position
of confidence, it is necessary for you
to gain both the attention and cooperation of the addict. This is quite simply
done by indicating in your conversation
with these people that you have heard
that they have a faulty amplifier, or
tuner, or speaker system. It makes no
difference that you have never seen these
people before. Of course, they all have
faulty amplifiers, tuners, and speaker
systems. All of their components are
faulty, and they know it. They consider
you an extraordinary female for having
the social grace to point out the fact that
they own inferior equipment.
Once you have ingratiated yourself
with all of the group's members, you
may put the following plan into action
-the plan which has rightly earned the
title of :
temptation to retain any record that
does not fall into these three basic
categories. (One case is known of a
victim who absolutely refused to eliminate any of the addict's records. This, as
will later become apparent, imposed
upon her the duty to secure the services
of a number of organizations and
agencies sufficient to duplicate the sounds
of all the addict's records. The outcome
of this interesting approach is unfortunately unknown due to the inexplicable
disappearance of the victim, the addict,
and, in fact, the very home in which
they lived. While many have attempted
to ascribe significance to the fact that
the last record purchased by this particular addict was one entitled "Sounds of a
Tidal Wave," this should merely be
considered an amusing coincidence.)
3. Having made these advance preparations, you now present to the group
of addicts a so called "table phonograph." (These table phonographs are
manufactured by a number of large
companies and come in ready -to -use
form.)
4. This phonograph will delight the
addicts. The scorn and ridicule devoted
to these units will at times reach inspirational levels.' The addicts will be truly
operate a lighting system in an adjoining
(and well hidden) room.
6. This room, which in addition to being well concealed, is to be of sufficient
size to accommodate several- hundred
people. This room and the room in which
the addicts meet must be conjointly designed by an acoustic engineer so that
sounds emanating from the hidden room
reach the area of addict assembly without undergoing sonic distortion.
7. After the addicts have evaluated
your phonograph for some 45 minutes,
you should terminate the discussion by
offering to play some records. This suggestion is accepted with unanimous
eagerness. You place a prearranged
series of dises on the changer. (Due to
your earlier condensation of the addict's
collection into three fundamental groups,
the discs you place on the changer will
seem quite representative.) Your performers, stationed in the hidden room,
operating in conjunction with the signal
lights, present a synchronized performance of each record as it noiselessly
revolves on the turntable. The addicts
now go into utter ecstasy. They acclaim
this phonograph as, beyond a doubt, the
most imperfect and thoroughly miserable that they have ever had the wonder-
;:.
The Ultimate Cure!
1. You must secure the services of a
large municipal symphonic organization,
the use of several assorted sizes of fire
and locomotive engines, and the aid
of an entire Zulu tribe complete with
war drums. The following advice from
the A.S.P.C.Z. (American Society for the
Prevention of Cruelty to Zulus) is of
interest here : "As young Zulu warriors,
especially when armed with their assagais
(or throwing spears) are not noted for
stoic behavior, and since musicians are
of a volatile and occasionally pyrotechnic
nature, the indiscriminate mixing of
these two groups should not be encouraged."
2. You should go through the addict's
record collection and discard any disc
that is not symphonic, engineering, or
tribal. As the fantastic variety of currently recorded sounds is difficult to
describe without resorting to transcendental numerics, you must resist any
AUDIO
MAY, 1961
Fig. 5. Secret room for ultimate cure.
happy ; they will believe that they have
progressed toward their goal of imperfection.
5. This phonograph is to be secretly
modified so that while seemingly engaged
in the playback of records, the only
function that it actually performs is to
1 Apparently the most telling objections
to this type of phonograph are the follow-
ing:
A. They have an improper appearance.
Instead of giving the pleasing visual impression resulting from the scientific exposure of wires, tubes, capacitors, transformers, etc., they resemble living room
furniture.
ful fortune to audition. You will be
interested to learn that chief among the
defects of your phonograph is the fact
that it lacks realism.
S. As soon as you can make your
voice heard above the shouts of good
(Continued on page 72)
B. They actually seem to work. As is well
known among Stage III addicts, equipment
in an operative condition is properly subject to intense suspicion. All addicts, naturally keep their components in a "torn down" or unusable condition so as to expedite their program of- continuous circuit
refinement.
27
THE
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HIGH FIDELITY 1
MANUFACTURERS
INC.
-
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28
-
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PAGE
courage(' the manufacturers to try out ideas which he and
his fellow fans originated. He spelled out the shortcomings of even the best available components at any
given time ; he rejected the spurious and kept all of us
on the straight track to purer and more accurate sound
BELIEVE the time is long overdue for recognition
to be accorded to the men who, in reality, are
principally responsible for the audio industry as
we know it today.
No, we are not referring to the basic developments of
Thomas Edison, nor the research accomplished in the
field of audio and acoustics by such organizations as
Western Electric Company and Bell Telephone Laboratories. Nor are we referring to the many advances in
audio equipment developed by the numerous dedicated
engineers who have worked in our industry. We are
talking here about the individuals who are often referred
to as audiophiles or "Audiofans"-the intense enthusiasts
who are bound and determined, no matter the effort or
cost, to have the best music system possible in their
homes, studios, or workshops. These are the men intensely curious about all phases of sound reproduction,
electronics, acoustics, physics, yes, and the esthetic
aspects of music too.
Not very long ago, between fifteen and twenty years
E
perhaps, most of the present manufacturers of audio
component equipment who were in business at that time
were making professional audio equipment for theatres,
auditoriums, and stadiums, for radio stations and networks, for motion picture and recording studios. This
equipment reproduced sound far better than anything
available to the non-professional. There were people who
heard it and wanted it for private use.
Some of this equipment could be secured through radio
parts jobbers and distributors; some was literally
"conned" from the manufacturer. Some enthusiasts got
what they wanted through a friend in the business;
others even went into the sound business just so they
could put together a "dream system" for their personal
enjoyment. In those early days, a truly dedicated "Audiofan" might work harder to get his hands on one coveted
component than we do today in selling these products in
an entire territory.
It might also be observed at this point that in their
search for better ways to reproduce sound, the "Audiofan" most naturally gravitated to professional periodicals
essentially edited for professional sound men. AUDIO
magazine was certainly one of those that they found to
their liking. Here they found discussions, descriptions,
appraisals, and advertisements of amplifiers, preamps,
pickups, tuners, turntables, and loudspeakers that gave
many of the answers they were looking for.
With the introduction of the microgroove records and
the advent of FM radio, it became absolutely essential
to the "Audiofan" that he have equipment that would enable him to cash in on this newly -minted sonic wealth.
The ranks of the "Audiofan" and their influence
spread until it became economically feasible for people
to establish businesses supplying audio components of
professional quality for use in the home. These people
went by many names, but essentially they are the audio
specialists that we know today.
Although there has never been a clear -cut definition
to the general public of the meaning of component high
professional component audio equipment for
fidelity
as contrasted to the "appliance
home music systems
type" radio -phonographs, this professional component
business has continued to flourish and is today a thriving
national industry.
And who was responsible for continuing developments
in audio equipment? The "Audiofan," of course. He en-
:7
Audio/an
Accolade foi' Ehe
W
- -,,,
reproduction.
The "Audiofan" is the true pioneer in the high fidelity
industry And, like all true pioneers, he has on occasion
been subjected to ridicule. Cartoons by the hundreds
!
`
have lampooned his alleged excesses. Comedians in all
the popular media have made the "Audiofan" the subject of mirthful comment. He is called a "high fanatic"
and a "bug," though not very often with any real malice.
He is pictured in an exploded tangle of wires and vacuum tubes, or crouched in the mouth of an exponential
horn oblivious to any external crises, foreign or domestic.
He has been accused of seeking sound levels that would
demolish all the picture windows in the neighborhood.
They say that the cacophony his demonstration records
create is guaranteed to deaden all normal social intercourse.
Through all of this ridiculing and needling, the
"Audiofan" has never lost his urgent desire to come
closer and closer to complete realism in music reproduction. He did more to influence his friends and neighbors and to whet their appetites and enthusiasms for
professional component music equipment for their
homes than, perhaps, the sum total of all of the advertising that has appeared on the subject thus far.
Many manufacturers in the professional component
field today will readily admit that the criticisms and suggestions from the "Audiofan" and his urgent desire for
something continually better has been responsible in a
large measure for the fantastic improvements that have
been made in listening equipment during the past fifteen
years. Fantastic? We use the word advisedly. Remember
how you used to work to get theatre equipment into
your homes? Today the objective has rotated one hundred and eighty degrees; we are trying to get equipment into theatres and public places that sounds as good
as the installations "Audiofans" have built into their
homes.
There is no question that the "Audiofan" has been criticized by some members of our industry. This has occurred because they have neglected to appreciate the
basic honesty of intention and the pursuit for perfection that these men exemplify. There are many "Audio fans" who were discouraged and disillusioned by the
rapid -fire changes which took place with the introduction of the stereo record. Hindsight would certainly point
out that the industry, as a whole, would have been benefited by taking counsel with this group. The confusion
in the mind of the general public which resulted from the
introduction of stereo has still to be clarified. I believe I
am expressing the thoughts of the bulk of our industry
when I say that you, the "Audiofan," can help us immeasurably in disspelling this confusion Your efforts
in this regard will most certainly result in the conception
and production of equipment that will further fulfill your
quest for perfection. The continuing progress of our
industry, in large measure, lies in yours, the "Audio fan's" hands! We welcome your criticisms, your quesand most certainly
tions, your ideas, your experiments
all of your continuing enthusiasm !
RAYMOND V. PEPE, President,
!
-
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AUDIO
MAY, 1961
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AUDIO
MAY, 1961
29
Questions and Answers
HERMAN BURSTEIN
My series of articles under the heading of "The Tape Guide" have brought
forth a number of questions from readers. With the thought that other readers
might have the same questions, and to
save both myself and these other readers the effort of writing individual letters, I would like to quote some of the
questions and my answers to them. For
the most part these are exact quotes,
although some are slightly abridged for
conciseness and clarity.
Before turning to these questions and
answers, I would like to note that not
all the letters have asked questions. A
few have taken me to task. For example,
one reader dislikes my use of the term
prerecorded tape; he feels that the term
recorded tape would be enough. Compliments have been received from some
readers, and I would like to take this
opportunity to thank them. Modesty forbids quoting any of the latter. On the
other hand, I fear, some of these may
have been left- handed compliments. Following is one shot that traveled around
the world on a postcard from the Far
East; this is calculated to take the
"esteem" out of any author : As a rather
ignorant person in hi fl I have admired
your articles."
While I have attempted to reply to
every letter containing questions, not all
have been answered with equal speed.
The letter that asks numerous questions,
particularly in a scrawl, tends to go to
the bottom of the pile, waiting for the
day when the author has the time and
energy to cope with it. The letter that
comes with a stamped, self- addressed
envelope invites, in fact commands, a
speedy reply. After all, there are only
two parts to a letter : the envelope and
the contents. If the envelope is already
prepared, it seems as though the job is
already half done. Besides, it seems
ßs0 Twin Lane E., Wantagh, N. Y.
30
..
larcenous to appropriate the other fellow's stamp.
A substantial number of inquiries
were received as to the name of a company making components, including bias
oscillator coils, for transistorized tape
amplifiers. The firm that gave this information to the writer is the Nortronics
Co., 1015 South Sixth St., Minneapolis,
Minnesota.
could change in fairly short time. I am
mindful of the fact that at the end of
the period when mono prevailed, the best
commercial discs were as good as or
better than the best commercial tapes.
The same kind of thing can happen
again in stereo."
QUESTION "I am a high fidelity enthusiast who is thinking of taking the
plunge into 4 -track prerecorded stereo
tape. Two articles by Mr. °° have given
me pause, however. He claims that as of
early 1960 crosstalk between physically
adjacent channels on 4 -track prerecorded
tape was an annoying effect for about
5 per cent of the playing time; and he
asserts that the fault is in the design of
playback heads. How free are the new
heads from this type of crosstalk ?"
ANSWER: "My experience has been
that crosstalk is now inaudible in the
best home machines. Vertical misalignment of the playback head can be responsible for crosstalk. It is also possible
for crosstalk to occur in the playback
amplifier rather than in the head."
satisfactory?"
:
"Do you personally feel
best commercial 4 -track pre-
QUESTION
that the
recorded
than the
or other
:
tapes are significantly better
best stereo discs on symphonic
demanding program material.
I assume all the audio equipment
to be
first class."
ANSWER : "Until recently, I thought
that stereo records on the whole were
terrible from the distortion viewpoint.
They were much harsher than stereo
tapes. In the past months, however, I
have conic across some stereo discs that
approach the quality of mono discs in
terms of distortion. Still, I feel that the
best 4 -track stereo tapes today surpass
the best stereo discs. But the situation
QUESTION : "I am interested in buying
a tape transport to be used with my
preamplifier for playback. Will this be
ANSWER : "If you plan to use a transport with a separate playback preamplifier, be careful about the cables from
the head to the preamp. They should
have low capacitance, be as short as
possible, and be routed away from
motors, transformers, and other possible
sources of hum pickup."
e
The letter which asks for advice on
specific brands of equipment is the most
difficult to answer. The reader asks
either for an opinion on certain brands,
or he asks for the name of the "best
brand of all." Following is a typical
answer to one of these letters. "It is difficult if not impossible to give useful advice on specific brands because of the
varying requirements of different users,
and because the quality of products
keep changing. I think perhaps the best
course would be for you to visit a good
audio salon."
Another reply was : "Some differences
among brands of audio equipment can
be heard and yet not measured, while
other differences can only be measured
but not heard. The best guide to what
is suitable for you is to actually listen
to various components. To an extent,
equipment reviews can be helpful."
QUESTION : "I appeal to you for advice on a technical problem concerning
the
**C
tape recorder. Can this machine
playback?
be converted to 4-track stereo
AUDIO
MAY, 1961
NOW, FOR THE FIRST TIME ANYWHERE
"COLE PORTER
SWINGS EASY
IN STEREO"
tZ
G'
UCGF
17©LLR
CM :0
THE SOUNDCRAFT
PREMIUM PACK
It's Delovely
What Is This Thing Called Love
My Heart Belongs Io Daddy
Love Paris
I
-
-
Here is the fourth and greatest
Soundcraft Premium Pack promotion. Featuring one of the most exciting stereo recordings ever made! Eight
all -time Cole Porter favorites recorded exclusively for Soundcraft by
eight of the top musicians playing
today! Directed by Larry Clinton
Cozy Cole, Charlie Shavers, Bob Hag gart, Buddy Weed, Sol Yaged, Barry
Galbraith, Urbie Green and Sam
( "The Man ") Taylor swing through
three decades of America's most
haunting, most lasting music. The result is pure gold. Not only a stereo
"first" but a musical "first" too, as
eight Cole Porter perennials receive
-
AUDIO
MAY,
1961
Begin the Beguine
Night and Day
an updated treatment of the lush
swing styles of the big band era.
This 30- minute collector's item is
yours only in the Soundcraft Premium
Pack ... the original Soundcraft recording tape package that gives
you two seven -inch (1200 ft.) reels
of tape one blank, one recorded
with "Cole Porter Swings Easy In
Stereo ". You pay the regular price
for the two reels of tape plus $1.00.
-
This is a recording you won't want to
miss. See your dealer today ... if he
doesn't have Premium Packs in stock,
ask him to order them right away.
Other Soundcraft Premium Pack recordings are also available through
It's All Right With
Me
Just One of Those Things
your dealer. For a real musical treat
add these famous recordings to your
tape library: "Sounds of Christmas"
(monophonic only) "Sweet Moods
of Jazz in Stereo" "Dixieland Jamfest in Stereo ".
Soundcraft Premium Pack stereo recordings
are recorded 4 -track stereo on just two
tracks so that the recording may be enjoyed
without stopping to turn the reel over. Two
track stereo versions available on request.
REEVES
SOUNDCRAFT
CORP.
Main Office: Great Pasture Road, Danbury, Conn.
NEW YORK
CHICAGO
LOS ANGELES
TORONTO
IO EAST 52nd STREET
28 EAST JACKSON BLVD.
342 NORTH LaBREA
700 WESTON ROAD
31
Can you please advise which head replacements are available? Can my machine be panel mounted for use as a
tape deck ?"
ANSWER: "These kinds of questions
are best addressed to the manufacturer
of the tape recorder. However, for what
they are worth, here are my answers :
(1) Most tape machines made in the last
couple of years can be converted to 4track operation, and yours is probably
among them. Perhaps the manufacturer
can give you the desired information on
how to go about this. (2) Companies
offering 4 -track replacement heads for
most popular machines include, I believe, Shure, Viking, Nortronics, and
Michigan Magnetics. (3) For panel
mounting, I assume you intend to place
the tape deck vertically instead of horizontally. Some machines will not operate properly in this fashion. Check with
the manufacturer."
QUESTION : "You recommend a VTVM11
to check frequency response. Not being
inclined to invest in this instrument at
the present time, would you please tell
me if the
(a certain company's instrument similar to a VU meter, requiring 1.2 volts of drive) could work satisfactorily instead ?"
ANSWER : "I have considerable doubt
that the meter of which you write will
be satisfactory for measuring record playback response. Such a measurement
should be made at least 20 db below
maximum recording level. If maximum
level corresponds, say, to 1 volt output
from the tape machine, then 20 db down
meter
means only .1 volt output. The
requires 1.2 volts to drive it to "0" VU.
Accordingly, you would be getting readings at the low end of the scale, where
they are difficult to read accurately."
QUESTION : "I have two tape recorders,
and I find that there is a difference in
equalization between the two. Tapes
made on one are too "heavy" in the very
low bass and "weak" in the high treble
-when played on the other. Tapes made
on the second machine sound a little thin
and shrill when played on the first one.
How do you account for this ?"
ANSWER: "The fact that tapes recorded on your first machine sound
heavy and treble -deficient when played
on the second results from the fact the
first machnie, being European -made,
employs CCIR instead of NAB equalization. CCIR equalization involves less
treble boost in recording and less bass
boost in playback than NAB equalization. However, many of the European
machines of recent vintage have been
coming through with NAB equalization."
QUESTION : "I plan to purchase the
tape recorder. I am undecided whether
32
quarter -track or half track stereo heads. I have no intention
to play prerecorded tape, and I am not
concerned with the economy of saving
tape through quarter -track recording.
Would the quarter -track heads give as
good performance as half -track heads ?"
ANSWER: "My vote is for the quartertrack heads. Quarter -track stereo has
become virtually standard, for one thing.
For a second, some day you may want
to play prerecorded tapes, even though
you don't care to do so at present; many
such tapes possess a quality that you
will seldom or never obtain from off-theair recording. Thirdly, continual progress in the art of making tape and tape
heads has brought us to the point where
virtually as good results can be had
today with quarter -track heads as were
obtainable with half -track heads yesterday. This does not mean that the quarter -track head is fully as good as the
half -track one. But the former should
be good enough for your purposes. A
professional recording studio goes
through .three, four, or more generations
of tape in proceeding from a live performance to a commercial disc or tape.
Therefore they seek maximum signal -tonoise ratio by using a relatively wider
track, because each generation of tape
adds several db of noise. Besides, they
could not edit quarter -track tape. But
you are dealing with first- generation
tape or, at the most, second -generation
tape after dubbing. Therefore it is less
urgent to use half -track heads in your
case. Finally, azimuth alignment is less
critical for quarter-track heads than for
half -track ones."
to order it with
QUESTION : "I am in something of a
quandry. I have the opportunity to dub
some stereo tapes and am desirous of
obtaining the best possible results. I will
not have an opportunity to re -copy any
of the tapes that I might fluff. I have
used several brands of tape with varying degrees of success. I'd be grateful
for any suggestions you might have as
to brand of tape."
ANSWER : "I doubt that you will have
a real fluff if you use a top quality tape
of a major brand. At your first convenient opportunity, you might collect
four or five brands of virgin or bulk erased tape, copy the same high -quality
phono disc on each, and A -B each recorded tape with the disc. If there are
noticeable differences as to frequency
balance, distortion, and noise, in the
future use that brand of tape which
gave you the best over -all results."
QUESTION : "Bargain tapes are often
advertised. How can I ascertain whether
a particular tape of this sort is any
good ?"
ANSWER : "The chances are that you
get what you pay for. Bargain -priced
tapes may or may not be inferior, depending upon the uses you make of them
and your standards of performance.
You might not find a difference between
a $3.00 tape and a $1.69 one, or you
might find a world of difference, depending on how revealing your equipment
and your ears are."
A reader inquired why the tape deck
he purchased failed to work properly in
conjunction with the record -playback
tape amplifier of another make. He
complained that recordings were "weak"
and distorted, and he sent along some
particulars on the tape deck and its
heads. It turned out that the erase head
was a very low-impedance type, which
drew so much current from the tape
oscillator that there was not enough left
in the way of bias current for the record
head. Insufûcient bias current resulted
in a small amount of signal impressed
on the tape, and severe distortion. In
addition, though the reader did not mention this, there was probably substantial
noise in recording due to the distorted
bias waveform caused by heavy loading
of the oscillator.
Another reader stated that he had revamped an old tape recorder, and to obtain bias control he had done the following: He fed a high frequency from an
oscillator into a 60 -watt audio amplifier,
and fed the output of the audio amplifier into the record head. Despite this
staggering arrangement, he could not get
sufficient bias current into the record
head. The diagram accompanying his
letter revealed that he had placed a 16ohm resistor across the power amplifier
as a load. At the bias frequency, the impedance of the record head was about
10,000 times as great as the load resistor,
which drew nearly all the current. Consequently, even if the power amplifier
were able to deliver a full 60 watts at
the bias frequency of about 50,000 to
75,000 cps the record head could get
only about one -fifth of the needed bias
current.
QUESTION "Is there any way in which
I can set the recording level, using the
:
VU meter on my machine as a guide, so
that I can be assured there will be no
more than 2 per cent harmonic distortion? I have a friend in England who
frequently checks his machine before recording, and he writes that his peak recording level is 2 per cent. His machine
has a peak -level meter rather than a VU
meter. His tapes are excellent."
ANSWER : "With a machine such as
yours, which has separate record and
playback heads and therefore permits
simultaneous recording and playback, a
good way to insure distortion -free recording on the basis of the VU indication is as follows : Take advantage of
AUDIO
MAY, 1961
FOR A LIMITED
TIME ONLY!
SAVE also
ON THESE TWO VALUABLE
REFERENCE BOOKS
BUY BOTH FOR ONLY $495,,,
The 5th AUDIO ANTHOLOGY reg.
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MORE THAN 50 ARTICLES COVERING STEREO RECORDING AND REPRODUCTION;
STEREO MULTIPLEX; MEASUREMENTS; STEREO HIGH FIDELITY TECHNOLOGY;
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144 PAGES WITH COMPLETE ARTICLES BY WORLD FAMOUS AUTHORITIES
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ATTRACTIVELY PRINTED AND BOUND FOR EVERLASTING USE. AN IMPORTANT
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If you've missed the 4th AUDIO ANTHOLOGY ..
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.
here is a wondertll opportunity to buy it at more than
Use handy order form below. We pay postage anywhere in the U.S.
This offer good only while the supply of the 4th lasts,
and may be withd *awn without notice.
odd 500 for Foreign orders.
RADIO MAGAZINES INC., Dept. 452
P.O. Box 629
Mineola, New York
Enclosed is my remittance for $4.95. Send me both, the 4th and 5th AUDIO ANTHOLOGY Postpaid.
Enclosed is my remittance for $3.50. Send me only the 5th AUDIO ANTHOLOGY Postpaid.
NAME
ADDRESS
CITY
ZONE
STATE
See the
TandI,erg
dealer
in your
area!
Audionics
_DeMambro Radio
Supply
John E. Lauer,
Audio Consultant
Hi -Fi Center of
Fairfield County
Boston, Mass.
Boston, Mass.
Boulder, Colorado
Bridgeport,
Conn.
Buffalo, N.Y.
M. Sound
Equipment Corp.
Auchter's House
of Music
F.
Burlington, Vermont
Cambridge, Mass.
Castro Valley, Calif.
Cleveland, Ohio
Columbia, S.C.
Hi Fi Labs
Calbar Music Center
Audio Craft Compony
Records Co.
Arthur
P.
Griggs
Piano Co.
..
..Detroit Audio Co.
-_Hi
Fi
Systems, Inc.
_-High Fidelity Sound
Center
Modern Photo
.. Van Leeuwen &
Fall River, Moss
Hollywood, Calif.
Assoc.
Honolulu.
Islip,
Hawaii
_ -Audio
Jamaica, N.Y.
Electric Corp.
Sheridan High
Fidelity Center
Kenmore, N.Y.
Long Beach, Calif.
Manhattan Beach, Calif.
Mi
polis, Minn.
Mobile, Alabama
Montclair, N.J.
Newark, N.J.
New York, N.Y.
New York, N.Y.
New York, N.Y.
New York, N.Y.
New York, N.Y.
New York, N.Y.
New York, N.Y.
New York, N.Y.
New York, N.Y.
New York, N.Y.
New York, N.Y.
Omaha, Nebraska
Paramus, N.J.
Pass Christian, Miss.
Paterson,
N.J.
Rochester, N.Y.
Roslyn, Pa.
St. Louis, Mo.
St. Louis, Mo.
St. Paul, Minn.
San Clemente, Calif.
San Jose, Calif.
Springfield, Mass.
Studio City, Calif.
Minnesota Audio
Visual Co.
Hoover High Fidelity
_Perdue Radio Co.
Schaeffer Camera Co.
Airex Radio Corp.
Audio Unlimited, Inc.
Bryce Audio
Durant Sound, Inc.
Sam Goody, Inc.
Grand Central Radio
Harvey Radio
Leonard Radio, Inc.
Liberty Music
Music Masters, Inc.
Sonocraft Corp.
House of Hi Fi
Music Age, Inc.
The Music Box
Magnetic Recording
Danby Radio Corp.
Magnetic Recorder
IS Reproducer Corp.
Craig Audio
Laboratory
Grove Enterprises
Aeolian Company of
Missouri
Newberry Radio Co.
Smith Music & Hi -Fi
Stereo Sound Center
Alco Paramount
Commercial Appliance
Center
Del Padre- Custom
Audio Labs
Valley Tape
Washington, D.C.
Recorders
The Sound Shop
Electronic
Washington, D.C.
Wholesalers
Stereo Galleries
Tucson,
Aril.
'Ta11d hi! ry
;4
L. M. Barcus
Greenlee's Camera
Shop
Co.
Philadelphia, Pa.
Philadelphia, Pa.
Seattle, Wash.
Center Ltd.
Islip Electronics, Inc.
_.Lafayette Radio
N.Y.
noticeable distortion."
...Hi -Fi Sound &
Davenport, Iowa
Detroit, Mich.
Detroit, Mich.
Eatontown, N.J.
the tape -monitor snyiteh in your preamplifier and compare it tape that you
are recording with the incoming signal.
For this purpose, use :t high quality
mono disc with wide frequency range
and wide dynamic range. See how high
it recording level you can employ without noticeable distortion in playback.
Note the naxiutuut readings of your VU
meter. Then, in staking other recordings,
do not allow the meter to exceed the
maximum readings noted during the
previous test. If the meter pointer tends
to kick out of sight to the right when
umking the test recording, or if it always
stays fm' below '0' VU, ('heaves are
that the meter is improperly calibrated.
In your particular tape recorder there
is an internal control marked 'rec. cal.'
for calibrating the meter. Don't 1w afraid
to trust your ears as the measuring instrument. The VU meter should begin to
read above `0' VU on signal peaks just
when the recording starts to acquire
of America. Inc.,
Pelham,
N. Y.
tlt'f:sTloN: "I would be rery gralcfed
if dort would mark on the enclosed schematic of the sound section of my TV
the point best suited for sound tale -off
to my recorder. The machine is located
at a distance of about 20 feet front the
TV. Should I //se the high or mike
input r"
ANS\yER: "To answer your last question first, by all means use the high -level
input. You can take off the TV sound
at the high side of the gain control. But
there are several problems: (1) The
s(healatie shorts :t capacitor which provides bass ho,,st prior to the gain control; this capacitor (marked by the
author) can he removed if you want a
flat signal in the bass region. (2) The
20 -foot cable would cause a good deal
of treble attenuation. (3) Analysis of
the circuit ntakse it appeau' that part of
the FM decalphasis takes place after the
gain control; in other words, the signal
prior to the gain t'ontItti has sonic treble
boost. Fortunately, the treble loss referred to in point (2) and the treble
boost referred to in point (3) will can eel each other, more or less. With good
luck you will about break even, but you
won't know until you try."
Qt'ESTat .Y: "My tape recorder uses tt
neon la 7H p its it record Ierel indicator.
I ant plrnrning to acid u VU meter to
use as an indicator- instead. Can yon
please atlri..e me on the proper pro-
cedure!"
ANSWER: "The Vt. aster Bust be
(driven froid a Lott-- ilipcdaun'e sctuco.
find probathiV the easiest tt-ay fur yon to
do this is to install a cathode follower
to drive the meter. A suitable circuit is
enclosed (see ¡''ig. 1). ('ion a'et the present signal take -oft' point ti) the voltage
B.
I
'2
I 2AU7
OR 6C4
.050
SIGNAL
:SU.. ..~V_METER
Fig.
1.
Cathode -follower circuit for driving a VU meter.
divider preeediag the cathode follower.
Connect the output of the cathode follower to the meter. It will be necessary
to adjust the voltage divider so that the
proper amount of signal is fed to the
tube, resulting in a correct VU reading,
namely a "0" VU indication at maximum permissible recording level. Record
a 400 eps signal, from an audio oscillator
or test record, so that it barely causes
the neon lamp to light ; this is maximum
permissible recording level. Then reduce
the 400 cps signal 6 db, using a VTVM
or other suitable device to measure it,
and adjust the voltage divider so that
the VU ureter reads "0" VU. All this
assumes that the neon lamp lights up at
the 3 per cent harmonic distortion level.
If you know that it lights up at some
ether distortion level, then reduce the
400 cps signal an additional 3 db for
each 1 per cent distortion above the :3
per cent point. To illustrate, if the lamp
ignites at 5 per cent harmonic distortion,
which is quite often the case, then reduce the 400 eps signal 12 db instead of
0 db."
"i hure recently acquired
tape recorder, incorporating
separate record and playback heads. It
appears to do an excellent job. However,
when taping my records, one character QUESTION
the
:
..`
istic sloes not particularly satisfy me.
11-ith the tape recorder connected to nti,
/l,etnnplifier, I eau use the tape -monitor
switch to compare tape playback with
the dise that I am re(- ording. Level controls are adjusted to obtain the same
roltn,re from the tape and the disc. I find
that the sound is different when switching back and forth. When plat/irtg the
tape, there is some degree of treble boost
and bass atlemmutiou. The tape output
jack on my preamplifier is ahead of all
lone controls, so That the signal going
In the tape recorder is flat. I would appreciate your explanation of trlutt
causes the deviation from fiat response."
ANSWER
"The difficulty may be due
to: (1) incorrect record equalization.
:
(Cantinnrd
on
AUDIO
mg,
i'.?
MAY. 1961
why
is
Tandberg the
better tape recorder?
because it sounds
better, clearer and
more natural...and is
more dependable.
Ask anyone of the many thousands of Tandberg
owners. Your authorized dealer will gladly dem-
onstrate any model for your critical selection.
relaidherg
AUDIO
MAY,
of America, Inc.,
1961
8
is the Tandberg Model 6,
speed -4 track Stereo Record Playback
one of a selection of
Tape Deck
6 Tandberg models including
the new Model 65 Stereo Playback
Tape Deck and the 5 -4 -3 -2 and
F models -all for industrial,
educational, professional and music
use as well as for home enjoyment.
Illustrated
3
...
Third Avenue, Pelham, New York
35
The Indispensable Engineer
NORMAN H. CROWHURST
Producing a superb recording nowadays requires an unusual blending of the engineer
and the musician. Often we are told of the strong and valid case for the "indispensable" engineer- herein we present the case for the equally "indispensable" musician.
1'\'T 1T, to feel that your indispensable to some one, or for
something'? Kind of good for the
old ego! Small wonder then, if a recording engineer, who provides an indispensable link between a wonderful performance and those who rely on records to
hear it, might have an inflated ego. But
maybe it's not that....
Look at it this way. You've listened to
records. By and large, IJ "s achieve a
very good standard of "quality "
least to suit the great majority who buy
them. If the recording companies keep.
say 95 per cent, of their customers
happy, that's a pretty good record; the
engineer is entitled to consider himself
a success at his job. But I guess that
most of the Odd 5 per cent read this
magazine; the ones with a more highly
developed musical critique, who find that
few records achieve really 100 per cent,
all-round satisfaction. The reennl companies may regard this 5 per rent as the
"screw -ball" hi -fi addict. But they know
enough to realize they are really a sort
of advance guard. Defects their more
eritical faculties detect today will annoy
the majority tomorrow. So something
should be done.
What is lacking? Sometimes, as those
"in the know" will tell you, there is a big
difference -too big- between the original master tape and the ultimate pressings the public get: too much is lost in
the process, or some distortion creeps in.
This often gets blamed on "poor recording technique" although strictly it is a
production problem -the original recording may have been good.
Often though, a record is crystal clear
as far as its "audio quality" is eon cerned. The trained ear of the engineer
-or you and cannot detect any of the
usual forms of distortion, and the frequencies are all there, at least when you
use the best playback equipment. The
engineer who recorded it is probably
proud of the faithful job he has done in
transcribing the performance -good or
bad ( "it's what people like" he may say
to himself) -onto the disc. But it does
not satisfy the musically critical listener.
Some reviewers would give such a record a top mark for recording quality,
NICE,
-at
I-
A16-18
36
4011t
Are., Bayside 61, N. Y.
and say the performance is lacking the
impact or satisfaction that other performances of the same score may give.
It's not that the musicians, or some Of
them, lack correct tempo, synchronism,
or accurate pitch. The intonation may be
technically perfect. But some of the instrumental parts may sound weak, or
unconvincing; or the whole performance
may seem to lack the "spirit" appropriate to the piece.
We could outline the changes a bit
more perhaps, but from here it looks as
if the man at the recording knobs has
pretty good reason to be happy 95 per
cent of the people who buy the ultimate
products are quite satisfied and of the
complaints he does get, those blamed on
recording technique are really faulty
production procedure, and the rest are
due to the fact that even the best musicians are not always on top form -or
maybe he didn't have the best musicians!
But just a minute Mr. Recordist, don't
go away. Are you sure your efforts can
really be exonerated from blame, or
maybe "contributory negligence," every
time ? I believe there are a number of
trays in which you can be partially responsible. A little incident may help
:
;
show bow.
Two bass players, friends of mine,
were comparing the amplifiers they use
to reinforce their instruments. 'l'Ihey !mil
one instrument there, with its internal
pickup or "mike," and the tiro wmplitiers. One of the players was fingering
the instrument, a technician was plug-
ging the jack alternately into the amplifiers, and indicating which, and the other
player was listening. The player at the
instrument said "'Phis one is definitely
the better amplifier, the other one just
dues not have it." The other player declared he could hear no difference.
So the man at the instrument said
\\'ell you come and feel the difference
for yourself." Su they switched places.
And, to the amazement of both of them,
in fart of everyone present, switching
places switched impressions. To the inactive listener, even the professional
player, both amplifiers seemed to do an
equal ,job; but with his fingers on the
instrument, he did tint feel he was get-
hag the .,tun re. piai e" t7oma his instrument.
One amplifier made the instrument
feel responsive, like a "good bass." With
the other one the player had to work
harder -which any good player would
do subconsciously -and even then, the
"feel" no longer gave him the satisfaction of a "good instrument."
What was different between the amplifiers? \Ve could. presumably, turn
this question over to a test lab, and find
out, in db's, percents, and what -haveyou. But I doubt very touch whether any
cif us would be much
the wiser. And
what has titis to do with recording'?
Artists don't hear the sound from the
amplifiers used to record their efforts
while they're playing. That's true. But
this incident provides two angles from
which to proceed.
Front what I have seen of laboratory
tests on amplifiers, I am morally certain
that the differences our musician friends
observed would not be accounted for by
the test results. In this experience, the
player subconsciously "made up" for the
poor amplifier's deficiency. But if he
doesn't hear it (as when playing at a
recording session), one amplifier is the
same as another to him. He is not to
know that one amplifier will record him
giving a sensitive performance, while
the other one will make him have
"wooden fingers." But both amplifiers
would satisfy the usual performance
checks for their job. This is one way that.
musicians can be blamed for deficiencies
that are really electronic.
That's one angle. The other we might
preface with the remark : "Musicians
are people." I believe, when a musical
program is being recorded, the musicians
are the VIP's. But this sometimes gets
overshadowed by the indispensable part
the engineer and his equipment plays
in trapping the sound and getting it on
the record.
In those almost- forgotten days of
acoustic recording, when the performers
clustered round the mouth of the recording "trumpet," subordinating the musieiau's customary comfort at his instrument to the necessity for concentrating
the sound was justifiable. But as recording techniques and equipment have
AUDIO
MAY, 1961
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MAY, 1961
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37
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AUDIO
MAY, 1961
improved, there becomes more and more
reason why the opposite trend should
prevail. But doesn't it, already? Yes, I
guess so, but I also feel it often could
be taken further, with more consistently
"high performance" results.
A musician's performance can be influenced, for good or bad, by a number
of things, besides an amplifier : the state
of his liver; domestic problems (although it has been known for mental
stress at home to induce better performance at work, too) ; the quality of
his instrument; the atmosphere (decoration, styling, lighting) of his surroundings; the studio acoustics (often
in more detail than just the number
known as "reverberation time ") ; and
his position relative to his fellow players (comfortable, strange, etc.).
Most top -rate musicians will, it is
true, give apparently impeccable per formance under a wide range of the
permutations among these variables;
some of them, I believe, when their liver
is virtually afloat in alcohol. But the
above-mentioned conditions, particularly
the ones outside the musician's immediate
control make a difference to him. His
intense musical training and experience
enable him to give -« faultless performance in spite of what is probably only
a subconscious discomfort after the first
few minutes of warming up, long before
the red light goes on. But his subconscious discomfort may well make the
difference between a flawless performance and a superb one.
Let's be more specific. Since electrical
recording began, and techniques changed
for the better, one of the main problems
for the recordist ..has been that of obtaining aural balance-not only between
individual instruments or groups, but
between the composite program coming
from the orchestra and the "background"
contributed by the studio or auditorium
where the recording is made. This last
point is important both to the players
and the recordist.
Playing in a concert, just for the
benefit of the audience, the members of
the orchestra take their places dictated
by tradition, with minor variations according to the whim of the individual
conductor or leader. Each one hears the
complete work from an aural perspective
unique to himself -one from which, by
long familiarity, he can contribute his
part with confident facility, born of
long training and practice. The conductor even, who has the best perspective
(as regards balance) of anyone in the
whole group, hears a very different
version from that received in a average
audience seat. But his training too has
enabled him to judge what he hears so it
will sound superb to the audience.
But it is a typical audience impression
that the record has to capture. Many,
who have never had it to do, imagine
that all you need to capture this impression is a hig- quality microphone
placed in a "typical" audience seated
position. Anyone who thinks that should
try it sometime. He'll have the shock of
his life! What happens and how can we
explain it? Like this.
Although our ears faithfully transmit
every little sound that is audible along
the auditory nerve to our brains, the
complex of nerve cells at the receiving
end do quite a job of work on it before
it comes into the conscious area of the
brain to be recognized as "sound." As
proof of this, pay particular notice next
time you have a meal with a friend in
a crowded restaurant, or when you are
at a cocktail party with a room full of
guests.
When you talk to your companion, all
the other conversations seem to be just
an unrecognizable babble in the background. You notice it. It lends atmosphere. But it does not intrude into your
conversation. But maybe, if two or three
of you are conversing, in a group, the
others will wander into a subject that
does not hold your interest. Your concentration on this particular conversation weakens, and you become much more
aware of the babble which before was
only a background. What a noise it
suddenly seems !
Then maybe one of the group speaks
directly to you by name, or the subject
arrests your attention once more. If you
observe carefully, your hearing faculty
seems to turn down the volume on the
babble again, so it's only a background
once more.
A similar thing happens, but you will
have much more difficulty observing it,
when you go to a concert
fact all
the time, in everyday life. People who
live by a commuter track never notice
-in
the trains passing (unless they get interested in hi -fi!). The summer crickets'
incessance fades toward the end of their
season; but when an extra-cold fall night
suddenly silences them, we become aware
of the silence.
In the concert auditorium, in fact
everywhere, we make the same kind of
discrimination between the direct sounds
we want to hear and the reverberation,
or echo effect, of the same sound traveling 'round the room. You can realize
this is true if you ever completely change
the furnishing of a room. Maybe you
decide to carpet the floor, use upholstered
furniture and heavy drapes, where previously there were none of these sound absorbent surfaces. You will become
abruptly aware of the difference.
So your hearing concentrates on the
program directly from the orchestra
and relegates the reverberation to the
background. If it wasn't there you would
(Continued on page 65)
39
How High is Fi?
Puzzled by the poor sound of an amplifier with excellent statistics?
This explanation answers the puzzle and points out the way to Fi.
GEORGE FLETCHER COOPER
I expressed in another monthly my growing doubts
about a lot of this hi -fi business.
Angry readers sprang to their typewriters (though fortunately not in Old Chicago) and pointed out that bats could
hear this frequency and Venusians, in
their space suits, could hear that. Now
all I want is that the bats in my belfry
should keep out of my hair, and I just
will not try to keep up with the Jones'
from Venus : I don't even know how to
drive a space -ship.
The sudden expansion of hi fl in the
last ten years or so has been a very remarkable phenomenon. Twenty years ago
it was very difficult to find a broadcast
receiver which would pass the highest
frequencies handled by an up -to-date
carrier telephone system. I do not mean
a program channel, but just the ordinary
speech channel. To sell carrier equipment then you needed to offer 2 db down
at 3400 cps : it was a good receiver which
had a 6 db bandwidth of 6000 cps at
i.f., which means 6 db down at 3000 cps.
At the low-frequency end the broadcast
receivers were better and anyway you
could always tap out after the detector.
It was, indeed, the low- frequency end
which got most of our attention. The
domestic loudspeaker in a domestic box
might have a limit of 200 cps but the
original signal went down to 30 cps or
50 cps and the hi -fi fans of those days
were after the low notes. They were
after high notes too, but recording techniques were not much good above 8000
cps and although the broadcasters talked
glibly about 6000 cps no one in politics
ever had the sense to stand up and say
that one clear channel is worth three
with monkey chatter. This statement is
true about politicians throughout the
civilized world, of all colors and parties.
The result was that even with tweeters
we settled for about 10,000 cps.
All this is before the days of feedback,
at least feedback as we use it now, and
it is surprising to look back and notice
that the professional amplifiers of those
days were designed to give only 1 per
cent distortion. I don't think this sort
of figure was obtained in the domestic
amplifiers and the limitation of quality
AYEAR OR SO AGO
ZS
40
Essex Villas, London, W.8, England
in the home was almost entirely due to
intermodulation in the amplifiers. Just
over ten years ago there came a great
change : amplifiers with some 20 db or
more of negative feedback appeared on
the market. The first ones were good and
they sold, and then there appeared some
feedback amplifiers which were not so
good. The only difficulty came in finding
out why they were not so good. Once
you have bought the amplifier and if you
have the full range of professional test
equipment it is not too hard to work
through the system and find out what is
wrong, provided you know what you are
looking for and y6u realize you will
never get your money back. Most of the
hi -fi addicts who got caught with the not
so good amplifiers had no real test equipment. They knew their amplifiers covered 20 to 20,000 cps, that the 400 cps
distortion was 1/2 per cent or whatever,
and yet it didn't sound so good. When
the fellow next door (name of Jones)
showed off his amplifier, flat from 5 to
50,000 cps, it sounded better. Here was
the answer, bigger and better bandwidths. Away we went happily doing the
right thing for the wrong reason.
I have no real objection to doing the
right thing but it seems to me best to do
it for the right reason, because otherwise
there may be side effects which undo
much of the good. Let us go back to the
basic amplifier and see if we can see
why the bad amplifiers were bad. They
had a good frequency response, flat
from 20 to 20,000 cps. They had 26 db
of feedback, perhaps. I am not describing any particular amplifier, by the way,
but these numbers are chosen just for
something to reason about. The designer
was perhaps a bit lazy because he used
large coupling capacitors and he saved
his money on the output transformer.
Knowing he had 26 db in hand for feedback he designed the output transformer
to be 3 db down at 400 cps, thus saving
a lot of iron and copper. At 20 cps it
would be 26 db down and therefore,
roughly speaking, the feedback would
just hold up the response. I do not propose to calculate all this out in detail
because all I want to do its illustrate the
scale of things. At 400 cps there is more
than 20 db of feedback so that up to a
reasonable load level the distortion is
knocked down by a factor of 10 and the
quoted distortion figures are obtained.
Now consider that deep organ note at
40 cps. Here the gain is 20 -db down so
that we have only 6 db of feedback. Actually, things are better than they seem,
because the second harmonic at 80 cps
finds 12 db of feedback and the higher
harmonics even more. However, at 40
cps the transformer reactance, which
already equalled the load at 400 cps, has
fallen to one -tenth of the proper load.
The unhappy output stage is now working not into its proper resistive load but
into a much smaller inductive load. Any
attempt to get the sort of voltage swing
needed is doomed to failure. What
makes this situation particularly unpleasant is that it is not easy to hear
these low frequencies. Consequently, the
musical instruments used to produce
them are powerful engines delivering
quite high levels to the air; our loudspeakers must therefore deliver high
levels if we are to have faithful reproduction. The lower the frequency the
more power we need and the harder it
is to get it because of the falling off of
the transformer impedance.
As the output stage is driven to the
limiting points by these very low frequencies, its gain necessarily drops to
zero. You will see this quite easily by
noticing that for a small increase in instantaneous input near the peaks of the
40 cps signal, there is no change in the
flat-topped output. The remainder of the
orchestra is thus cut off completely during this period and the 40 cps signal
acts as a modulating signal to the remainder. It is this intermodulation which
is fatal to quality.
When we apply the same rough calculation method to an amplifier which
has a response flat down to 2 cps and
has 26 db of feedback, we can see at
once that the output transformer is
probably only 3 -db down at 40 cps and
will not run us into nearly as much
trouble at this sort of frequency. Even
so, the effective load for the output tubes
is only 70 per cent of what it should be
and the load line has become an ellipse
so that the 2 cps amplifier will not give
full undistorted power at 40 cps.
Before we explore this topic further,
let us see what happens at the other
AUDIO
MAY, 1961
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AUDIO
MAY,
1961
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41
end of the frequency scale. Matters are
much more complicated here, and I suspect that there are some rather queer
things happening even with the good
feedback amplifiers. The designer of the
output transformer is faced with
1. Response shaping network to be
substituted for the simple feedback re-
Fig.
sistor.
a
choice between two methods of construe
tion. He can make a very simple struc-
ture, with relatively high leakage inductance, which will have a clean smooth
cutoff beginning at perhaps 8000 cps,
or he can use a multi- section structure
to get a much lower leakage inductance,
and a cutoff at, perhaps, 16,000 cps,
with a whole bunch of resonances in
the region between 20,000 and 100,000
cps. In either event he is faced with
the fact that the output transformer
will have a top cutoff which soon aver
ages 12 db per octave and therefore gives
a phase shift of 180 degrees. To keep
the amplifier stable, he adds those neat
little C -R step circuits in the plate loads
of the early stages. Usually, therefore,
the gain of the amplifier without feedback starts to fall at around 8- 10,000
cps.
Just as at the low frequency end, the
use of feedback enables a nice imposing
response figure to be quoted, with the
sort of numbers I have been using, the
response might be flat up to 50,000 cps,
and a little bit of faking would take it
even higher. Faking may seem a hard
word but up in this region the phase
shift through the amplifier has come
round nearly 180 degrees, so that the
feedback will be positive and can be
used to lift up the response. Even without this extra frill the feedback situation up in the 20-50,000 cps region is
not so good. I do not think we need
discuss the load line of the output tubes
up here because the signal level will be
pretty low; as you would expect the
load line moves to make matters worse.
Does it matter? After all I have said
that only bats can hear these high frequencies so why should I trouble my
head about them? The answer lies in
the compromise nature of musical scales.
In a pure scale we divide the octave into
a number of intervals, five in the pentatonic bagpipe scale so that:
fs =
f,
fs =\/2f2
f4
f5
=v2fy
=:/2f4
fs= V2f5 =2f,
This is all right, but when the scale becomes a complex of whole tones and
half tones some difficulties appear. So
long as instruments can produce any
frequency the situation is still unchanged provided that the player has a
good enough ear but with the introduction of the piano, with its fixed tuning,
matters really came to a head. As soon
42
I postulated earlier that in an imperfect amplifier there might not be
really enuogh feedback at 96 cps. But
this frequency is produced by inter modulation of these two harmonics and,
because of lack of feedback, appears at
the loudspeaker. The chance that this
"compromise difference tone", multiplied
will not be thoroughly unpleasant is
slight. But worse is to come. It is known
that certain harmonics completely ruin
the sound of a compromise chord and
makers of musical instruments try to
eliminate them by arranging for the
hammer of a piano or the bow of a
o
o
violin to apply the excitation at a node
of the unwanted harmonic. Our amplifier may not be so fussy, however, and
o--AAA. can generate these particular harmonics
up in the region above 10,000 cps where
our feedback no longer operates propo
o
(B)
erly. Round they go, mixing and intermixing, with the nonlinearities of the
loudspeaker and of the ear doing all
they can to make matters worse.
One more effect deserves mention. We
have seen that it is inherent in our music
that the harmonics of instruments playing in harmony should be slightly dif(C)
ferent in frequency. The difference frequency will appear on the supply line
Fig. 2. (A) In the middle of the band. (B)
At low frequencies. (C) At high frequen- to the output stages, which is almost
invariably push pull and biased well
cies.
down. Unless a regulated supply unit
as there is a change of key some notes with nearly zero impedance is used,
this
should change frequency but unless you difference frequency will feed
back to
have one of the ingenious machines built provide some plate modulation or screen
in the early days of the piano which modulation in earlier
stages.
could actually do this you are stuck.
I do not know of any other survey
The answer, of course, is to arrange the of these
imperfections of the feedback
tuning so that it sounds nearly right all amplifier, possibly because
it took quite
the time. By now, indeed, we are so used a long time and
quite a lot of propato it that we do not notice anything at ganda to persuade
people that they
all, so used to it, in fact, that even with- could be designed
to be really stable
out a piano around most players of and that the
advantages are worth the
other instruments adjust to the piano.
extra trouble. Now, however, we can
The difficulty arises as soon as the take feedback
for granted and start
music becomes complex enough to call looking
at the effects more critically.
for more than one note at a time, which
Before going on to the amplifier probis of course almost all music. If we have
lem I should like just to mention my
two notes, f, and f,, they sound dis- own distrust
of the low-frequency loudcordant if fills. m /n, where after di- speaker.
I
am eagerly awaiting the prodividing out common terms m and n duction
of a loudspeaker with a very
are both fairly large, and concordant low -mass
electrostatic microphone
if m and n are small. But now we have stretched right
across in front of it.
modified f, and f!, so that instead of
Suppose that the spacing between the
f, /f, being, say, 4/3, it is now .1 /.? microphone diaphragm
and the speaker
(1 + 8) where 8 is a small quantity. Let
diaphragm is 6 inches. Then at 1100 cps
us take some numbers, not particularly
the phase shift will be 180 degrees, at
musical ones but arithmetically con550 cps the phase shift will be 90 devenient, with f, = 808 cps and f, = 600
grees. I would guess that up to 400 -500
cps and 8 = 0.01. The ear would accept
cps it should be possible to apply feedthis as a concordant interval with ampliback which
tude flutter and there would be no un- loudspeaker would include the actual
itself in the loop.
pleasant subjective reaction. All musical
After that short digression let us turn
instruments worth considering produce
back to the amplifier. How can we get
harmonics and let us consider just the
the best results, assuming of course,
convenient pair
that we want to keep the cost within
reason ? The first step must be to get
12f, = 9696 cps
and
16f2 =9600 cps
(Continued on page 65)
-o
R
AUDIO
MAY, 1961
NEW
OLYMPUS
LINEAR -EFFICIENCY LOUDSPEAKER SYSTEM
EPITOME
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MUSIC
REPRODUCTION
The JBL Olympus represents a new sonic
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-
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AUDIO
MAY, 1961
43
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In the past year the high fidelity industry has strongly reaffirmed its pursuit of
excellence
renewal of its original declaration that quality is the raison d'etre of
component high fidelity. Perhaps its the
weather, or, more important, a rediscovery
of the fact that there are a sufficient number of consumers willing to pay for the
best. Anyhow, the Fisher FM -200 is a clear
expression of this; an FM tuner for those
who appreciate the best and are willing to
pay for it. As an aside, we would like to
record our delight with this trend
is
-a
-it
bound to have beneficial effects on all
price levels. Certainly the design and development know -how accrued in producing
the FM -200 is, and will he, reflected in the
entire Fisher line.
Features
In models previous to the FM -200, Fisher
found it unnecessary to include a.f.c.; they
really did not drift. As we all know, a.f.c.
has certain disadvantages as well as advantages; it prevents pulling in weak stations which are close to stronger ones and,
in some instances, tends to increase distortion. The method devised by Fisher to overcome these handicaps (they call it "Micro Tune") is to automatically cut out the a.f.c.
during tuning, and automatically cut it
back in afterwards. By this one stroke
both objections are substantially overcome;
weak stations are easily tuned in and, because tuning is accomplished with the aid
of a sensitive meter, the center of the pass band is more accurately located. Of course
one may well ask: "Why is a.f.c. necessary
if the tuner is drift -free?" Primarily, in the
FM -200, it is because of the wide -band
design which makes it extremely difficult,
if not impossible, for tuning assisted only
by a meter to find the exact "center" for
minimum distortion. On the other hand,
a.f.c. will finish the job started by the tuning meter; it will pull the signal into the
center of the channel after being brought
close by the meter.
The method whereby "MicroTune" is accomplished is quite-interesting. When the
operator's hand is placed on the tuning
knob, the 60 -cycle hum normally transported by the human body is amplified to
operate a relay which cuts out the a.f.e.
Conversely, when the hand is removed, the
relay is de- energized and the a.f.c. reinstituted. This method is obviously more elaborate than the a.f.c.- defeat switch, but it
does have the virtue of simplicity of operation; the lady of the house will never
.
"forget."
Circuit Description
The antenna input circuit of the FM -200
makes provision for a 72 -ohm coaxial input
as well as the usual 300 -ohm line. The 72ohm input is of great value for those who
reside in industrial or metropolitan areas
where a great deal of interference is common. In addition, both the 300 -ohm and
72 -ohm inputs employ balan transformers
for a balanced line. A local- distance switch
permits reducing the signal level by 20 db
before it reaches the r.f. amplifier stage,
thus preventing overload.
The single -tuned input goes to the cascode r.f. amplifier (Fisher calls it a
"Golden Cascode" because of the use of
frame grid tubes with gold-plated grids
which is supposed to reduce, significantly,
secondary emission by the grids) and from
there, through a double-tuned circuit to
the oscillator -mixer. Both the r.f. amplifier
and the oscillator -mixer are double triodes.
Following this are six i.f. stages with 12
tuned i.f. circuits. The last four i.f. stages
also act as limiters, as does the wide -band
ratio detector, so that there are effectively
five limiters. Audio output is by means of
a cathode follower. The oscillator, ratio
detector, and a.f.c. circuits are temperature
compensated so that drift is really no problem, even without a.f.c.
Another feature of the FM -200 is the
incorporation of i.f. muting ; between -station "hash" is reduced to a bearable level
by cutting off the last i.f. stage when
"that" level is reached. This feature is obviously meant for those sensitive souls who
cannot be bothered to turn down the volume control while tuning.
Performance
Now we are at the "moment of truth,"
as the bullfight aficionados call it -"How
well does it perform ?" Simply stated, the
FM -200 is a superb FM tuner. Its usable
sensitivity, by IHFM standards, is 1.6 uv,
which places it in the top rank in this category. We were able to tune in stations
more than 75 miles away with the folded
dipole supplied. The signal received was
exceptionally free from noise, interference,
and distortion. Also, in answer to those who
might wonder if such great sensitivity
might be a problem with strong signals,
we received all local stations undistorted
without using the "local" switch.
This tuner carries current engineering
practice to its logical extremes. The use
of six i.f. stages is certainly an example
of this -we can think of no other current
nonprofessional tuner with as many i.f.
stages. Equally important, careful examination of the circuit and construction
clearly indicates that the FM -200 will perform at optimum level for many years.
There are many other "statistics" which
we gathered in the process of evaluating
this tuner -but suffice it to say that the
music lover will be delighted with the FM200. It is a real step forward.
E -26
Fig. 1. The Fisher FM -200 FM tuner (above).
Fig. 2. Bottom view of the FM -200 showing the excellent
construction (right).
46
AUDIO
NAY,
1961
WHAT IS THE SECRET OF MAKING A SATISFACTORY MULTI -WAY SYSTEM ?
The prerequisite, of e' ursr,
i`; that the
individual loudspeakers used are of
high- periì)rn)Ance type. The woofèr,
squawker and the tweeter must be
capable of faithfully reproducing the
sound range for which they are rese ctively responsible. Another import1nt
factor is that the loudspeakers used are
well- balanced in the matter of tone
quality and efficiency. Other vise, full
effect of a multi -way system can never
be achieved.
PIONEER woofers, squawkers and
tweeters are acclaimed highly for their
efficiency and high tone quality. Moreover, their performances are well balanced in every respect. When you
are making a multi -way system, do not
forget to collect a complete set of
PIONEER hi -fi loudspeakers. You will
he sure to obtain sound reproduction
from the dynamic bass to refreshing
treble that will charm you to your
hearts content.
1 2-inch
Woofer PW -30C
8
sonant ircgitency
}'requcnty Range
Xu
I
tal
ins
I
Iox
I-
I)cmit
oluru
:
220.000 maxwcli
:
S.:nsítisity
16
:
:
input
Passer
or
35 -50 cps
30 -4.00n ,
20 tear
105
:
:
I(r!xr0 gauss
6'/2 -inch Mid -Range Speaker
PM -16B
(:oil Imp .lan,
wttant Frequent,
.:quencv Kante
Power Haut
8 or 1(ìohms
360 420 cps
40) 6,00) cps
25 watts
(:nr,.n,
Loss; 5(10-8(0 cp.:
101
er Lector Io
irai Flux
F
I
ux,ity.
l
t:
v
db:sv.ut
Ili;h;
6`; xtO
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2.000- '..1/00 ,_,
rnaxwelt
Q.ur,:
Horn Tweeter., PT-4
Voice
(oil Impecianc
8 or 16 ohms
>[u0 cps
500 -16,00) ep-
('.irtulT Frequency
Frequency Range
Input
Sensitivity
Posner
atte
Übltvatt
:
(:rossover Frequency
Total Flux
I
-1,1x
I),
:
t;ity
:
ove 3.(xx) cps
22,5(0 tnaxwell
I.1. -1(Xt gauss
FUKUIN ELECTRIC, LIMITED
'10\1:F.R
nots oiTerz you .ts crossover net,
i)1-i, I)\-ô c4'I1:\-' ft,rntak.ng
,..r,
AUDIO
MAY,
1961
Any one r+f these
complete sat.sfartion.
nr.
is
a
rnulti-
guaranteed
up
pioneer
:.
Onile
dw.
..
47
GARRARD TYPE A
AUTOMATIC TURNTABLE
The Garrard T pc A turntable is a transcription -type turntable and dynamically
balanced tone arm with the well -known
Garrard record -changing mechanism superimposed on it. At first thought, it would
appear as if two contradictory elements
are being united: on the one hand we have
a desire for the utmost fidelity as evidenced
by the transcription -type turntable and
arm; on the other hand we have a desire
for convenience as embodied in the record
changing mechanism. On second thought,
however, we began to realize that a certain
proportion of our record playing time
would be well served by a record changer
-for instance the background music we
enjoy while concentrating on other activities. The question then becomes: "Can
these two functions be successfully combined without compromising either?"
unusual canted vertical pivots and the horizontal bearings. Points of departure are
the adjustable counterweight for dynamic
balance and the stylus force spring with
calibrated scale. With these, after the
cartridge is installed, the arm can be dynamically balanced and then the stylus
force set. In general, this is the procedure
followed for most of the high -quality arms
extant today. The result of being dynamically balanced is that the stylus will exert
its force perpendicular to the record plane,
no matter what angle the record plane is
to the floor (or ceiling if you're inclined
that way). We have all seen this demonstrated, and indeed, being curious, we
tilted this turntable to some ridiculous
angle. It works. (It is definitely not recommended for turntables however; they are
not designed to operate for long at "ridiculous" angles.) This means that this
possibility of hum from the motor being
induced in magnetic pickups. (Along this
line, it should be noted that the cast turntable is made of a nonferrous metal.) The
motor is isolated from the turntable by
special shock mounts to avoid transferring
vibrations from this source to the record.
All Together Now
Now that we have examined the parts,
can return to the question of whether
this unit can satisfy transcription turntable
requirements with the convenience of a
record changer. As we have noted, the individual parts are really quite excellent, and
together they come as close as is possible to
performing both functions. We must keep
in mind, however, that a record changer
must have its arm set at a height appropriu-e
Operation
Before answering this question at length,
it might be well to take a quick look at how
this unit works. First off, it should be noted
that the Type A offers 4 -speed operation:
78, 45, 333, and 16% rpm. This 4 -speed
operation is accomplished by means of a
4- stepped pulley on the motor shaft which
drives a rubber idler, which in turn engages the inside rim of the turntable.
Speed change is effected by shifting the
height of the idler, thus engaging the correct pulley step. The idler is disengaged
from both turntable and pulley in the OFF
position.
For manual operation, the record -pusher
mechanism is pushed out of the way (note
the lever beside the mechanism in Fig. 3
-pushing this lever to the rear also moves
the pusher mechanism to the rear) and the
MANUAL switch is set in the ON position.
Although the automatic record changer is
not in operation, the end -of- record cut -off
switch and arm return still function. Oddly
enough, in appearance anyhow, the record size feeling arm rotates out to "feel" for
a record after the arm is returned to the
rest. This, of course, highlights the small
difference between the automatic and
manual modes. Manual operation is really
automatic operation minus two steps: the
initial determination of record size so that
the stylus will "fall" in the lead -in groove;
and pushing the following record into
"ready" position. In reality, if one were to
leave the pusher mechanism in position and
place a stack of records on the spindle.
operation would be completely automatic.
even in the MANUAL mode, after the first
record is played. The point here is that the
unit is really an automatic record changer
with two functions disabled one records
worth for manual operation.
Functioning of the mechanism is quite
preciso and effortless, as we might expect
from Garrard. This mechanism, in essence,
has been available for a good many years
-and it has received many well- deserved
tributes during these years. The changer is
certainly one of the strong points of the
Type A.
The Arm
This arm is obviously the culmination
of many previous Garrard arms; its outward resemblance to the TPA /12 and to
the arm used on the Garrard Model 411 F'
leaves no room for question about its antecedents. Other points of similarity are the
48
1
Fig. 3. Garrard Type A automatic turntable.
arm will track even warped records. This
arm is certainly out of the standard
changer-arm class.
The Turntable
The turntable is really one of the most
unusual elements of the entire mechanism
is really two turntables in one. On top
there is a heavy, cast turntable which
weighs some six pouds; underneath there
is a drive table, which in appearance is the
same as an ordinary changer table. Between the two turntables is a foam -plastic
mat. The effect is as if a changer such as
the RC88 "Mark II" had a cast turntable
superimposed over the existing one. In any
event, the system works exceedingly well
wow and flutter measure below 0.2 per cent.
The motor driving this turntable is a
four-pole shaded unit with a dynamically
balanced armature. The motor is shielded
top and bottom to eliminate the slightest
-it
ate for a stack of records. Thus, there will
he some tracking error OS all records but
the one which is at the correct height. In
addition, stylus force for a record changer
must, for various reasons, be greater than
a transcription trait. The minimum value
we could achieve was 2 grans. Although
this is a very low figure, it does not permit
taking full advantage of the excellent pickups available nowadays which can operate
well at a stylus force of 1 gram or less. A
side note here is that we had to use a
stylus -force gauge to determine the 2 -grain
figure we arrived at because the graduated
scale on the arm is not calibrated below
3 grams.
In summation, the Garrard Type A automatic turntable is a fine record changer transcription unit combination. For music
lovers desiring the convenience of a record
changing mechanism, the Garrard Type A
E -27
is an excellent choice.
AUDIO
MAY, 1961
MEA3.E
AT NORMAL LISTENING LEVELS THE ONLY
DISTORTION COMES FROM THE TEST EQUIPMENT!
Measuring intermodulation, harmonic or phase distortion on the new Citation Kits can be a unique experience
for any engineer. He will find that at normal listening
levels the only measurable distortion comes from the
test equipment.
But let's put the numbers away. The real distinction of
remarkable as
Citation is not in its specifications
they are. It is, rather, in its performance which goes
well beyond the point of numbers. Citation actually
sounds recognizably best. The "Citation Sound" has
created so profound an impression, that the words have
become part of the language of high fidelity.
-
-
AUDIO MAGAZINE, editor C. G. McProud, wrote:
"When we heard the Citations, our immediate reaction
was that one listened through the amplifier system
clear back to the original performance, and that the
finer nuances of tone shading stood out clearly and
distinctly for the first time."
In
Build the Very Best
The basic quality of the "Citation Sound" was summed
up by the Hirsch -Houck Labs in HIGH FIDELITY: "The
more one listens ...the more pleasing its sound becomes."
Another glowing tribute to Citation and its talented
engineering group, headed by Stew Hegeman (shown
above), came from Herbert Reid who said in HI -FI
STEREO REVIEW: "Over and above the details of design
and performance, we felt that the Citation group bore
eloquent witness to the one vital aspect of audio that
for so many of us has elevated high fidelity from a
casual hobby to a lifelong interest: the earnest attempt
to reach an ideal not for the sake of technical showmanship but for the sake of music and our demanding love of it."
Perhaps the ultimate tribute came from ELECTRONICS
ILLUSTRATED when it classified Citation as : "The Rolls Royce of the kit field."
For complete information on all the new CITATION KITS,
including a portfolio of reprints of independent laboratory
test reports, write Dept. A -5, Citation Kit Division,
Harman-Kardon, Inc., Plainview, N. Y.
-
-
CITATION KITS by harman kardon
J
EICO ST -40
STEREO AMPLIFIER KIT
The Eico ST -40 is 40 -watt (20 watts per
channel continuous sine wave power) stereo
integrated amplifier kit, one of Eico's new
"Medalist" line of kits. This line features
handsome styling with a clearly evident
family relationship between the various
units in the line. Although "window dressing" is a must in todays market, it is the
performance of this amplifier which is of
major concern to us. This is not meant to
deny the importance of appearance, it is
really a question of priorities. (As you
might guess from this, we are of the "form
follows function" school.) In any case the
Eico ST -40 exhibits all of the well -known
Eico electronic design know -how. There's
an old expression to the effect that experience will show through -and Eico is
one of the oldest names in the kit business.
The ST -40 is a lot of amplifier for the
money.
Circuit Description
The ST -40 is an audio control center as
well as a power amplifier and thus contains
provisions for accepting a wide variety of
signal sources, with appropriate switching
to handle them. There are six low -level and
seven high -level inputs. Two of the low level inputs in each channel are phono inputs, one with a 47,000-ohm load and the
other with a 100,000 -ohm load. Both feed
the preamplifier tube (12A 2I7) and are
equalized (RIAA). The remaining low level input in each channel is for tape
head, which follows essentially the same
path as the phono inputs -naturally, the
equalization in this case is NARTB. At this
point the high -level inputs enter the circuit. The signal now goes to the Baxandalltype tone -control circuit which uses a
12DW7/7247 double triode as an amplifier.
Another 12DW7 is used as the driver/
phase -splitter which drives the 7591 output tubes. The power supply utilizes a
ßZ34 rectifier tube with capacitor input.
All heaters are supplied from special windings on the power transformer ; a separate
winding for each channel. Hum- bucking
potentiometers are across the filament
winding for each channel.
In addition to the tono controls, there
are high- and low- frequency filters for
rumble and scratch, each filter consisting
of two separate sections for maximum effectiveness. In addition there is a loudness
switch to insert a bass- boosting network
for those who must listen at low -volume
levels. There is also a balance check switch.
Feedback, for distortion reduction in the
power output stage is taken from the 16ohm tap of the output transformer and
fed back, through a network, to the cathode
of the driver tubo.
Fig. 4. Eico ST -40 stereo amplifier kit.
Construction
The kit designer has several factors to
consider which are considerably different
from what other designers must face: his
designs may be constructed by people with
absolutely no knowledge of electronic techniques and with only the most rudimentary
measuring instruments available, even if
they know how to use them. Therefore if
the potential of the circuit design is to be
achieved, considerable thought must be
spent in anticipating potential trouble
spots. In reality he must design for the
least common denominator. Let us consider
an example of what this means.
Most of the time, in fact in 99 44/100
per cent of the cases,' we build the kits
which are reviewed just as any kit builder
would. Then, of course, we make measurements with our more than normal amount
of measuring equipment. In this case,
however, we found it necessary to have the
kit constructed by someone else. In a way
this is valuable. The knowledge and dexterity we have achieved after several tons
of kits and other projects makes it difficult for us to spot certain types of construction problems. Anyhow, the person
who built this kit was certainly representative of the "average" audiofan buying such
equipment today -he loves music and
knows very little about electronics. After
he had completed the kit we lugged it to
our "lab" and started the usual testing
procedures. The measurements were so erratic that it was obvious that a more
searching look at the "innards" would be
necessary. First, we took voltage measurements at the tubes. The heater voltage was
very low. Next, we spent some five to six
hours trying to determine the reason for
that low heater voltage with no success,
Finally, we carried the unit back to the
Eico factory. Naturally it took one of their
engineers (actually the engineer who designed this amplifier) just a few moments
Fig. 5. Frequency
response of the
ST -40.
IN
moo
FREQUENCY
50
IN
CYCLES PER SECOND
10000
me
to determine where that heater voltage was
disappearing to. Now we have arrived at
the point of this lengthy explanation. The
reason for the disappearing heater voltage
was due to that type of human error which
not even the most perceptive kit designer
would anticipate: a screw and nut had
been oriented in the wrong direction.
In the circuit description we noted that
potentiometers were used across the filament windings of the power transformer
in order to balance out hum. With this arrangement the metal case of the potentiometer is "hot" and therefore must be isolated from the chassis. For this reason, the
potentiometer mounting hardware must be
oriented with the head underneath the
chassis and the nut above -or else the nut
will touch the caso and ground it to the
chassis. Naturally this is exactly what did
happen. Once this hardware was reversed
the amplifier began to behave the way an
amplifier should.
Oh yes, of course the instruction manual
carefully described the correct orientation
of these screws but our "average" constructor "corrected" the manual because
"these were the only screws with their
heads underneath the chassis."
Other strong points of this manual are
the large, clear pictorial diagrams and the
large type size used in the instructions.
Too often we find ourselves "seeing double"
after a kit-building session because of
small, closely spaced type.
On the debit side of the ledger -there
was a capacitor missing from the kit. This
isn't a calamity but it can be a highly
annoying occurrence for the audiofan
without a "junk box."
Performance
The performance of an amplifier, or indeed any electronic instrument, may be
considered in two aspects. First, does it
meet its published specifications t Second,
are these specifications "good"!
First, we can state that the Eico ST-40
meets its published specifications (with
only two very minor variations-probably
a result of instrument error). Fig. 5 shows
that the frequency response from 30-20,000
cps is within plus or minus .55 db at 20
watts output (published rating is 4020,000 cps within plus or minus .5 db).
Iutermodulation distortion at 20 watts is
1.05 per cent (published rating is 1 per
cent). Harmonic distortion at 20 watts
output and at 40 cps is 1.9 per cent. At
1 db down from 20 watts it is only 1 per
cent at 40 cps. Residual hum in either
channel is minus 76 db or better. Channel
separation at 1,000 cps is over 31 db.
In summation, therefore, the Eico ST -40
is an easy building integrated stereo amplifier kit of handsome appearance with
excellent specifications in its category
an excellent buy for those with a modest
E -28
budget.
-
AUDIO
MAY, 1961
NWRATLE IN SOUND
After two ÿe s of research and
system we
development, a spe
A%
can offer to the public on
P11110M1(
MONEY BACK GUARANTEE. Corrtpare the A. E. S. Gigolo, to any
bookshelf speaker, regardless of
price and if you do not feel that the
Gigolo is the most outstanding unit
you have heard, you may return it
or a full purchase price refund.
housands of these gigolos are
now in
e all over the country. The
been unbelievable.
acceptance
Never before a so
o realistic to
so many people in so manyáìffé?eTW
homes! These are the facts that enable A.E.S. to make this bold offer.
Size
-
24" wide, 12" high, 91/2" deep.
Power Handling Capacity
The Gigolo is extremely flexible.
May be used with small economy
amplifiers of very low wattage, as
well as with the highest power
component amplifiers with satisfactory results.
-
Frequency Response
The Gigolo
-
will reproduce both
high and low frequences in excess
of the requirements of even the
most critical home listener.
Order now to insure prompt delivery
Price
$15.00, F.O.B. factory
Unfinished only
-
YII
10046
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A.E.S., Inc.
3338 Payne Avenue, Cleveland, Ohio
Gentlemen please ship
GIGOLOS.
I
understand these units are guaranteed and if I am not satisfied
return for a full refund of sales price, $15.00 each.
I
may
Nome
Address
_...
City and State
Enclosed find check
_
_.
__._..........
money order
Price subject to change within thirty days
of the issuance of this magazine
AUDIO
MAY, 1961
51
GOODMANS "ALPHA"
SPEAKER SYSTEM
Goodmans, a British firm, is an old and
respected name in the loudspeaker industry.
Up to now they have concentrated on
speakers rather than systems. The "Alpha"
is their first entry into the systems field.
Not only is this a first for Goodmans as
a system but it also marks a turning point
in their marketing philosophy. Prior to the
introduction of this new system, a Goodmans speaker was generally intended for
the advanced audiofan. Now for the first
time, Goodmans is inviting the neophyte to
"get his feet wet." They are offering him a
Goodmans system at a very inviting price.
For those music lovers who up to now have
had their music "strained" through the inadequate speakers of the high -volume
"package" manufacturers, here is an excellent opportunity to markedly improve their
Fig. 6. Goodmans
"Alpha"
speaker
system.
system economically.
The System
Inside the hand- rubbed walnut- or
mahogony -finish cabinet are two Goodmans
speakers: an eight -inch full -range unit and
a rigid -cone 3% -inch tweeber. The woofer
has a 7%-ounce magnet and a foam plastic
surround. The tweeter has a fully enclosed
metal back. The enclosure is acoustically
lined and a crossover network is built in.
In addition to being economical in price
the Goodmans "Alpha" is also economical
of space. The dimensions are a mere 21%"
X113 "x 11% ".
Performance
The stated frequency range for the Goodmans "Alpha" is 40- 17,000 cps. Obviously
they are not claiming the full rich bass of
units such as the Goodmans "Audiom" 955
-nor indeed would we expect it. On the
other hand, within its range, the "Alpha"
provides a clean well -balanced sound of
great smoothness. It is definitely a nonfatiguing type of sound. Many small systems are rather fatiguing to listen to over a
period of time. Although we couldn't be
explicit as to the reason for this, we are
inclined to think that balance and how well
high- frequencies are handled would be of
extreme importance here. Perhaps the best
way to communicate what we mean by
fatiguing sound is to compare it to the
sound of heavy brass passages coming
through a very cheap table radio. In our
experience listening to that type of sound
over a period of time is extremely nerve
racking and actually exhausting.
Refocusing on the Goodmans "Alpha,"
in our estimation it offers clean, well-balanced sound at an exceptionally low price.
For those music lovers who cannot afford
the more elaborate Goodmans speakers
here is a financially painless way toward
E -29
better sound.
which gives the appearance of high quality.
Of course, the mumetal shield does have a
practical function
prevents stray magnetic fields from inducing unwanted signals.
This is very close to having your cake and
second, output was 6.9 millivolts per channel at 1000 cps. Channel separation at 1000
cps was 31 db; at 20,000 cps channel separation was 18 db. Recommended stylus force
for the ADC -1 is .75 -1.5 grams. We were
able to track well at .9 grams. Although we
were unable to measure lateral and vertical
compliance, it is stated to be 10 x 10 -6
cm /dyne. From the way this cartridge performed, coupled to the accuracy of the
specifications we did check, we could well
believe it.
In listening tests, A -B'd against two extremely fine cartridges, the ADC -1 proved
itself a first -class performer. It introduced
the smallest amount of coloration of any of
the cartridges we compared it with. An exceedingly fine first product, well able to hold
E -30
its own against "old" names.
AUDIO DYNAMICS ADC -1
STEREO CARTRIDGE
Some eight months ago a fledgling company announced its intention to introduce
a new, high quality stereo cartridge. From
their description, this new cartridge would
reveal hitherto unsuspected sounds in our
records. As usual, when we hear such claims,
we took a very positive position: we would
be very happy to have these virtues demonstrated. After having tested, and "lived
with," the ADC -1 for a period of time we
must report we are happy; it does indeed
reveal shadings and nuances we had not
known were in the recording.
Features
Before reporting on the vital statistics
of the ADC -1, we would like to indicate
some of its features. One convenient feature
of this cartridge is the ease with which the
stylus may be replaced. The view shown in
Fig. 7 indicates the simple, single -finger
procedure for removing the stylus assembly. A flick of the thumb is all that is required. Reinserting the stylus assembly is
equally simple.
Another, and probably the most important, feature of this cartridge is the extremely high compliance which is a prime
reason for its ability to track at a stylus
force of one gram or less. Certainly this
can substantially reduce record wear, which
makes it a very fine feature. More important, high compliance reduces distortion.
One feature of this cartridge only became apparent after a considerable amount
of records had been "tracked " it does not
seem to accumulate dust. This is a valuable
virtue in a pickup which tracks with such
a small vertical force-an accumulation of
dust can produce an unusual amount of
"distortion."
Although it has nothing whatever to do
with performance, the ADC -1 cartridge is
encased in a gold -plated mumetal shield
-it
eating it.
Performance
Previously we noted that the ADC -1 is
an excellent cartridge. By this we mean
that it easily meets all of its published
specifications, and that these specifications
are excellent. Indeed, in several cases it
exceeded its specifications. For instance
frequency response is stated to be 10- 20,000
cps within 2 db. Our measurements showed
them to be within 1.7 db. It is easily possible, of course, that instrument (and human) error could account for this difference,
but at least it is on the credit side of the
ledger. At a recorded velocity of 5.5 cm per
;
52
Fig. 7. Audio Dynamics ADC -1 stereo cartridge.
AUDIO
MAY,
1961
In
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AUDIO
MAY, 1961
53
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AUDIO
MAY,
1961
RECORD REVUE
Edward Tatnall Canby *
illl1`1
.,
TESTING
Dixie Special
The Orchestra -The Instruments. Vienna
State Opera Orch., Bauer -Theussl.
Shure Bros., Inc.
(Special recording
This is a 1'.ii produced and interesting
purely musical 'test record," minus spoken
comment and minus test tones, all but one
example consisting of fairly complete short
excerpts from a variety of classical works
illustrating instrumental and recording problems, principally in concerti ranging from
trombone (Rimsky- Korsakoff) to double bass
(Dittersdorf), trumpet, clarinet, oboe, harp,
and numerous more. The recording was done
by Westminster, with the orchestra set up in
a standard concert array on the stage and-an
interesting point -each solo concerto played
with the soloist in his normal orchestral
position, without special miking.
Excellent and concise boxed notes in columns
give paragraphs of comment on the music and
its background and ( "What to listen for ") on
the stereo recording. There Is a welcome
minimum of fancy language and practically
no exaggeration, which is something to marvel
at.
The first band takes apart and puts together
a complex climactic passage from Tchaikowsky's "Fifth Symphony," the printed score
reproduced complete in miniature with a
quite elaborate discussion. For musical old
hands this won't prove very much but for
many others it should be very interesting.
Lovely recorded sound and excellent playing
of the excerpts by a first -class orchestra.
To my mind the most significant aspect of
this record for the record specialist is the
exceptionally good results provided by the
solo recording
a distance, in normal stage
balance with the orchestra, entirely minus
accent or other special miking. With not a
single exception, these concerto recordings are
wholly musical and surprisingly realistic.
Perhaps the best way to record, after all,
Is the simplest. Recording directors please
take note, and give ear.
N.B. The musical examples were not from
previously made recordings nor are they
available in complete form. All were especially
made for this disc. Makes a difference.
-at
TestingTestingTesting. A Comprehensive
Tool for Testing Equipment. Produced by
Dr. Kurt List.
Westminster SRX stereo
At deadline time I had only fully absorbed
part of this complex and useful test record
but I'll get it in here, along with the above.
The leaflet in this one goes to unusual lengths
to explain many factors In equipment performance, along with the tests devised for
their checking, and the amateur will have
to work had to absorb all It offers ; but the
results should be worth it. The language and
approach are specifically for the home listener
(not the engineer or hi fl expert), but this
does not entail oversimplification, except inasmuch as any such explanation -short of a
professional engineering course
bound to
be compressed and simplified.
-ls
'780
Greenwich St., New York 14, N. Y.
AUDIO
MAY, 1961
Whistling Thru Dixie. (Steam locomotive
sounds).
Mobile Fidelity MF 6
(P. O. Box 1156, Burbank, Calif.)
This RR disc concentrates on the sound of
the old -fashioned train whistle, and the collection of eloquent sighs, whoops, and groans
that echo through these assorted Dixie hills
and valleys (including New Mexico and Arkansas) are something to hear. Naturally, there
is much choo -chooing as well since whistles
aren't any good without a locomotive to whistle from.
-
I had thought the steam railroad was dead
back with the last O. Winston Link disc. But
here we go again as of the summer of 1960'
I gather, however, that what remains in steam
is largely small-time freight, coal, and assorted mining and the like, minus passenger
runs and on local lines like the Warren &
Saline River here, an outfit slightly smaller
than, say the B & O or the C & O.
Whistles seem even more picturesque on the
little lines than on the big ones. The engineers
are more cooperative
fact, some of these
seem to oblige more than might be expected
if a large tape recorder were not set up next
to the right of way. Probably against regulations, but genial and friendly -like. One recording in which a whistle gets stuck halfway open is just too good to be true. Imagine
your Buick auto horn stuck fast where everybody within ten miles could hear you ! Takes
quite awhile to get this whistle stopped.
I miss here the imaginative long sequences
of time, the eloquent little side -effects, the
crickets, kids playing, church bells, the living
country silence, that so enliven the O. Winston
Link RR discs. These are mostly shorter ex-
-in
cerpts though nicely edited and to the point.
But Link has no whistles to match these incredible instruments, each one with a personality and nary a one that doesn't wail like a
hound baying to the moon.
Steam whistle blowing was, of course, a
true folk art and a kind of musical expression. Every roan had his own "signature" ;
the whistles gave each artist an astonishing
range of expressive sound with which to work.
As the concert hall liveness completes the symphony, so too does the mournful liveness of
the mountain valleys complete the sound of
the steam whistle. The two are unforgettable.
That's what's on this disc and I admit I was
aesthetically moved by the sheer humanity of
it all.
Interesting how the mechanics of business
technology are always turning into artistic expression. Take the steel drum, now . . .
The first side presents numerous right and
left test tones, some of which test via the
ear, others requiring a meter to read levels.
Good. If you're going to test, then test. (I
didn't.) Most of the testable attributes of a
stereo rig come up for treatment here, from
phasing to wow and flutter, separation, frequency response, etc.
Side 2 goes in for musical tricks
played
-I
this side awhile hack but want to hear it
again before commenting in detail. In any
case, some of the printed accompanying remarks will give you the idea -"Motion from
left to right for proper balance and separation.
The harp wanders across the room
"Motion from rear sides to front center for
separation and depth perspective. An oboe
(back right) is answered by a horn (back
left). Roth gradually move forward until they
meet in the center, with pizzicato strings
providing the accompaniment." And so it goes.
including broken
right to left.
glass being
hurled from
My impression is that these stunts sound
more effective in print than they do in stereo
itself, but they can still be useful in correcting
equipment unbalance and In delineating the
practical limits of stereo directionality and
motion as far as your equipment is concerned.
P. S. No spoken commentary, no voice, Including test -tone bands.
"Wall to Wall Stereo " -Laboratory Test
Record. Assorted pops excerpts.
United Artists UAL 96 stereo
In contrast, this "test record" is no more
than an obvious promotion for the company's
recorded products, introduced by commercial style plugs from an announcer, pointing out
the hi ti "marvels" of each of the numbers.
There's a test pattern in the first band, to
give some semblance of "laboratoriness" to
the disc; the rest is catalogue material. Both
-in
sides are the same
case you ever wear out
one side by too much playing. Not much
chance I will.
Vanguard Stereolab Test Record.
Vanguard VSD 100 stereo
This is a more concise and businesslike test
than Westminster's. It is shorter,
covering similar ground in respect to right
record
channel, left channel, balancing, phasing, etc..
but in this case with accompanying spoken
explanation by an announcer. He's an announcer, but not as objectionably so as some
of the unctuous individuals who narrate
many test and scientific discs (see the Bell
Labs "Science of Sound" album, for instance,
on Folkways).
Things move rapidly here and a lot is
covered in a short time. The concise printed
discussion is on the album rear. Side 2 is
identical with side 1, in this case an obviously
useful feature.
Musical examples are confined to two, on
the last band (deliberately, to emphasize
possible tracking and similar inner- groove
errors in playback), a brief large -organ piece
and the ultra -familiar Sabre Dance from the
"Gayne" Suite of Khatchaturian. I must say
I was relieved to find that both excerpts
played on my system without noticeable distortion. I was expecting the worst.
The record sells at Vanguard's demo price.
and a cryptic label says that the stereo version
is $2.98, mono $1.98. Now just how does one
test stereo speaker balance and right -channel
response on the mono version? Especially at
$1.98 ! (Answer : There isn't any mono.
version
was just a stock label.)
-it
55
SPECIALTIES
The Art of Julian Bream. (Guitar).
RCA Victor LSC 2448 stereo
Guitarists come in three general types:
folk, Spanish, and Classical. Julian Bream is
England's contribution to the last of these
and his British modification of the school of
of today's classical guitarists
Segovia
highly musical, tastego back to Segovia
expert In technique and
knowledgeable,
ful,
-all
-Is
unassuming. You won't be jounced off your
feet by these gentle sounds (unless you use
all 200 watts of your super -system) but if
you'll keep quiet and pay modest attention,
you'll sure be pleased. lle's good.
The classical guitar repertory revolves on
a couple of bases : music for lute and older
guitar-like instruments, from the 16th century
on, Is the primary foundation, followed
closely by the school of Romantic -minded
recent composers who flocked to dedicate
works to Segovia over the many years
perhaps that is why so many of them have
a rather Spanish air to them. A third basis
is the arrangement, or transcription, (from
music for other instruments. notably piano)
and this ranges all over the lot. Finally there
-
are new "modern" pieces, mostly of a very
mild modernity, sporting a few little dissonances and plenty of guitar trickery but
seldom of any great or atonal profundity.
The guitar ain't that kind of instrument.
Bream follows a respectable course here
through these areas. There are a few mildly
modern works, notably a sonata by Lennox
Berkely (scarcely modern at all, though quite
virtuoso) ; some Scarlatti and Cimarosa, as
of the 18th century harpsichord : an inevitable Spanish Albeniz (from the piano)
a Ravel arrangement-and a piece by the
Frenchman Roussel entitled significantly,
Segovia. That puts things in the proper frame
of reference.
Bream is an easy, fleunt player, not wooden
nor clumsy as are some classical guitarists;
he isn't a very vigorous performer (as in
Flamenco guitar) but this is quite OK for his
music. If you like any sort of guitar, this
should be an enlightening disc.
Maurizio Pollini: Chopin. (Piano Concerto
No. 1.) Philharmonia Or :h., Kletski.
Capitol SG 7241 stereo
Records, I suggest, have a sober way of
giving a long second -look at prodigeous per-
The KLH model eight
FM Receiver
is simple and small.
Yet it speaks
with the KLH voice.
56
formances, far from the excitment and the
furor. The Judges who picked this winner were
people like Artur Rubinstein, Nadia Boulanger, Malcuzynskl-they ought to know.
And therefore it is, figuratively, in even
smaller type than usual that I say I found
Signor Pollini's Chopin fingering brilliant
but in musical respects just what one ought
'teen -age virtuoso job, shallow,
to expect
superficial, studied, not really feeling the
musical expression as a more adult mind
could do, not even hearing the harmonies
rightly, as evidenced by what seemed to me
poor pedalling, unmusical blurring of chords
together at the wrong places. Out of the
dozens of recordings of this overplayed work,
this is the last one I'd ever pick for my own
pleasure. Not even the orchestra -the world's
best -is very convincing.
Well, darn it, whaddya expect? With all
the hoopla publicity attendant upon these
huge international musical contests, with all
the flowery winning claims, like the Mobilgas
Economy Runs (ever notice how every car
seems to win something or other ?), there's
bound to be a built -in let down in a recording
of this sort, barring extraordinary circumstances
. unless you are the kind of guy
the record companies hope for, who site down
to this record and eats up the accompanying
-a
KLM RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT CORPORATION
30 CROSS STREET. CAMBRIDC87f. MASSACHUSETTS
Descriptive literature, with the name of
your nearest franchised KLH dealer,
is available on request.
AUDIO
MAY, 1961
publicity until he is glazed with the marvel
of it all, hypnotized into sheer trance -like
wonder.
Well, go get yourself into a trance, then.
and listen to this prizewinner. There'll be
another one waiting for you tomorrow. And
of course I could be all wrong. (That's what
keeps critics awake nights.)
Ivan Davis Playing Piano Works of Liszt.
Columbia MS 6222 stereo
(Mono: ML 5622)
Well, here's anot her prizewinner, right here
but this one is an elderly 28 (he looks 17 and
cross -eyed on the cover), publicity is milder,
and the music very satisfactory indeed. He's
OK, this man.
The old and original tradition of Liszt
playing, blood -and -thunder, is possible only
for a very few gifted and /or older pianists
nowadays. Inevitably most of our younger
pianists must try to find a more modern
approach to this ultra -Romantic music and
;
very few of them do. They bang and whang.
or they play glittery and tinny. They seldom
get over the grand style, the big, impressive
manner, the long line, that so bewitched our
grandpas and their grandpas. And above
all, too many younger pianists miss the real
musical modernism, the strong, first -class
musical mind at work. underneath the Liszt
glitter and the Liszt big noise.
Davis doesn't put on a beard for an old
fashioned effect. He sounds modern and new.
But, first, he does Indeed hear Liszt's musical
strength, and he can project its musical
sense, which is three quarters of the battle.
Second, he phrases well and does not pound;
his glittering decorations are faultlessly
shaped and always within the harmony (as
they should be). And he plays with soberness
and no apology, putting forth the outdated
planistic pyrotechnics for what they really
are, decorative embellishment of a solid
musical foundation. (Nothing is more dreadful
than Liszt played apologetically as so much
frittery show stuff!)
The long, grand line is not fully realized
here as the old masters of thunder used to do
it. But maybe nobody really can do that any
more, within the modern school of "pianism."
Anyhow, Davis is a real musician and you'll
enjoy listening to him.
Included are Liebeatraurn and La Campanella, the Concert Etudes No. f and No. S.
the ñfephfato Waltz, F'unérailfee, Hungarian
Rhapsody No. 6
-
MATCH LIVE SOUND WITH THO f EN
TD -124
Shakespeare: The Tempest. The Phoenix
and the Turtle. Marlowe Society recording.
London OSA 1318 (3) stereo
Ever heard of Shakespeare's "The Phoenix
and the Turtle "? Not in my school days, I
didn't.
For many months, I've been watching helplessly while two great piles of complete
Shakespeare on stereo LP grow on my living
room floor (a third pile waits from last year).
I'll not be likely to catch up in a lifetime. nor
until I give up music altogether In favor of
Shakespeare alone.
The London Records pile, to which this is
the current addition. is already impressive.
I've sampled only a bit, part of one play, but
I liked it -the production is high- level. under
the British Council, in association with the
Cambridge University l'ress, etc., etc. It's oddest feature is anonymity -not an acting name
listed anywhere. But even so, I gather that
Britain's top acting talent is involved.
I urge all who are interested, then, to try
this series, and also the competing complete
Shakespeare product from Caedmon (with
names). Sometime, I hope to get to a direct
comparison of two of these many huge albums. Meanwhile
.
.
Russian Easter. A Russian Christmas. St.
John's Russian Orthodox Choir, Lavriliak.
Cook 1096, 1095 mono.
set ears on
seasons.
St.
n Cook
me-I hadn't
record for a good many
John's is, if I am right, somewhere in
AUDIO
MAY, 1961
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Adjustment is so fine that records can be used to
accompany live vocal and instrumental performances.
Swiss precision engineering ensures longer record
life, performance to match the finest components
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Somebody referred these to
The
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MUSIC BOXES
SPRING - POWERED SHAVERS
LIGHTERS
57
New Jersey, U.S.A. and the excellent Russian
singers are recruited from the local ranks,
presumably second or third generation. No
matter-they have the traditional Russian
style very much in hand, or in voice. And
they sing in tune, in the old church language
of Church Slavonic which sounds like
"Roosian" to you and me and (it says) is
related to Bulgarian and Greek.
The Russian Orthodox music is interesting
because it reflects past Western influence upon
Russian musical practice, dating perhaps back
to Peter the Great, who Westernized Russia.
The music is always unaccompanied (as is
correct Western Gregorian chant, the traditional music of the Catholic church) ; but
the Russian product is harmonized, and in a
peculiar style that ever so clearly comes
straight out of the West in the middle to
late Eighteenth century. On the other hand,
the actual harmonized body of this music
developed only in the late Nineteenth century,
and so it preserves a quite passionately
Romantic style, full of swoops and slides and
mystery. Moreover, the harmonies, so much of
the period of Mozart and Haydn, do not move
from key to key but stay put, with much
chant -like repetition, an aspect that is wholly
unlike any corresponding Western music,
which "modulates" from key to key.
The music here is evidently all "composed"
by one man, A. L. Vedel, but the style and
content is very much that of the Russian
church composers from Bortniansky to Kastalsky and Rachmaninoff.
I have had time to listen only to the Easter
record. Better try both.
microgroove line; but there's plenty left for
this record as a sequel. I'd suggest, though,
that Volume 1 is a necessity before you 90
much os try this. Both can be had in amusing
stereo -more stage -like than the mono version.
Don't let me spoil the fun by anticipating
any of the stories and comment. Just listen.
Trio- Tijuana Jail, etc.
Capitol Double Compact 33 MA1 -1577
Maria Callas Sings "O mio babbino caro,"
"In quelle trine morbide" (Puccini). PhilMore of Hal Holbrook in "Mark Twain
harmonic Orch. Serafin.
Tonight!"
Capitol Compact 33 F -4529
Columbia OS 2030 stereo
Soviet
Army
Chorus
and Band: Volga
(mono: OL 5610)
Boat Song; Tipperary.
Here's a laugh-dozens of them. I think the
Capitol Compact 33 F -4530
cream of the Mark Twain impersonation by
Hal Holbrook went into Volume 1 of this
I can guess that some of the people over
series, which was absolutely lovely in every
at RCA Victor aren't very happy these days
as the big, hard, brassy pops industry quietly
gets ready to ditch the 45 disc, RCA's last
stand in its 1949 "revolution" that lost to the
LP In the classic field. The above three records
represent a couple of million others, available
and in the works, if publicity is indicative.
Evidently the 7 -inch 33 -rpm record had to
await a reintroduction until a proper name
came along for it to hang on. "Compact" was
Just the thing, natch. That did it.
(Columbia introduced a 7 -inch 33 back near
the beginning of Microgroove, but it didn't
pan out. There weren't any compacts then.)
No reason why quality shouldn't be reasonably OK on the under- three-minute compact
33's, and passably good on the double- length
double compacts (around 5 -6 minutes per
side, two standard numbers). But maybe the
Juke box and beach portable determine quality
in these items. I didn't find this sampling so
wonderful, though it really doesn't matter
much -these aren't exactly carriage -trade hi
fi numbers, nor so intended.
I'll admit I am shocked to hear the degree
of hard -boiled banality that has grafted itin
introducing
new
We take extreme pride
a
series of electroself onto the once -isolated art of folk singing.
Those Kingston kids can play and sing
dynamic, moving coil stereophonic phonograph cartridges
perfectly well, and in good style, but the
which are destined to completely revolutionize stereo record
pops approach, for the millions (bucks, not
people), so sloshes them in gloppy reverb and
reproduction.
slick miking that the mixture is Just so much
From these cartridges you the audiophile will realize the
gluey Juke. The Rea Army's Tipperary win
make your hair stand up, a real bear hug,
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in "Roosian" and "Anglitch." Maria Callas,
The d :sastrous distortions due to overcut records, the harsh,
excerpted (I suppose) from ber fancy full.
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strident, plastic resonant type stereo sounds are now a thing
right speed for her brand of musicianship.
of the past.
(Nope, she's no favorite of mine.)
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Anyhow, all hail the new king; and a fond
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Tchaikowsky: Serenade for Strings, Op.
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48. Suk: Serenade for Strings, Op. 6.
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Of the two works, the Suk was to me by far
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AUDIO
MAY, 1961
a significant advance
to my mind. The players are apparently New
Yorkers ; the music, in any case, is perfectly
suited to the brilliant, shiny somewhat high tensioned discipline that is common in New
York performances.
in high -fidelity reproduction
Vivaldi: The Four Seasons. Strings of the
Kapp Sinfonietta, Vardi.
AFTER
Kapp KC 9056 -S stereo
The same brilliance and good ensemble, the
same fine recording heard on their Tchaikowsky -Snk record is found in this performance
too, but the music is of a very different sort
and the playing is not as intimately suited to
this earlier style of music.
"The Four Seasons" has had umpteen recordings since the first that I can remember,
the Concert Hall Society LP that was one of
the earliest LP recorde (other than Columblas)
to be released, back in the fall of 1948. This
new one is, of course, an outstanding Job of
hi -fi- stereo expertise, the latest and best. But
on musical grounds it would require a fan
tastically special performance to make another
recording especially worthwhile. The trouble
with this one is simply a rather characteristic
unawareness of certain elements of "Baroque"
styling, as currently practiced in the rest of
the Western world. It is mainly in the
excellent soloist. David Nadien, who continually offends my slightly sensitive ear with
his wrongly played cadence trills, done In good
Nineteenth century manner from the bottom
up -they should trill from the top down. In
the louder, faster sections there is also a
certain Jounciness of rhythm, where a
smoother phrasing would have helped. Not
overly important, and the many plus factors
easily outweigh my minor complaints.
The best competition that I know of comes
from "I Musici" and from the "Solisti di Zagreb." These three recordings tell us together
about all there is to know about Vivaldi's now
popular survey of the year's weather, unless
you want to know how not to play the music,
in which case I refer you to the Philadelphia
Orchestra. Ugh.
Beethoven: Piano Concerto No. 1, Op. 15:
Piano Sonata No. 31, Op. 110. Andor
Foldes; Bamberg Symphony, Leitner.
Deutsche Grammophon 138636 stereo
The "First Concerto" is actually not
Beethoven's first (it merely picked up a low
opus number in the publishing) and it already
flaunts one of the Beethovenian innovations
plenty of length and breadth. The gruff composer is already in his own here, in spite of
a relatively minor "Mozartean" inheritance,
but it isn't one of his most original works nor
is there much depth of soul.
The Foldes interpretion is good. Skillfully
deadpan is one way of describing it; or
economically classical. The whole performance
(with Leitner and the Bamberg orchestra)
stresses the utmost in accuracy, every phrase
shaped to perfection- nobody ever did
Beethoven harm by this The more passionate,
more humanistic playing so common back
twenty or thirty years could not do much
for this work anyhow, except perhaps in the.
Joyous final rondo, where I seem to hear old
Schnabel's almost polka -like forcefulness in
comparison to the relatively mellifluous Foldes
accuracy.
A worthwhile performance, and nicely recorded with the piano at a proper concerto
distance, in perspective with the orchestra.
(Thank goodness, the ultra -close-up technique
of microphoning for concerto sound is going
ont.)
The solo piano sonata, last half of side 2,
gives a better nearby look at Foldes in his
present playing. This man has always had a
fantastically abundant reserve of technique
in sheer finger work : his problems, and solutions, have from the beginning of a long
-
!
career been strictly matters of interpretation,
how to make use of those ten high -power
finger-hammers. He used to play hard, cold,
steely music, brilliant but not often affectionate, the sound frequently ugly through sheer
finger- power. Now, if the mikes aren't misleading me, he is going through a classic
phase, using more pedal, a carefully tailored
and graded tone with hardly ever any harsh(Continued on page 8E)
AUDIO
MAY,
1961
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59
when allowed to stomp about like Peer Gyni
himself on hall Of The Mountain King, or
bounce away in terpsichorean flights on
Ultra's Dance. Ray Nance, Booty Wood,
Timmy Hamilton, and Paul Gonzalves all perform like Norwegian folk heros.
The Monterey Jazz Festival commissioned
Suite Thursday, and it was recorded immediately after the concert premiere last
September. The most important effort of the
collaborators to date, it will repay continued
study and is essential to any jazz library.
Monterey officials are missing out on some
excellent promotion by not reprinting Ellington's description of the four parts from the
program notes and sending copies to Columbia
for inclusion in each album. Paul Horn substitutes for Johnny Hodges on alto sax, and
a
Lawrence Brown's trombone brings Cannery
Row to life, aided by a fine stereo recording
job.
Helen Humes: Songs
STEREO
Franz Jackson and the Original Jazz All Stars: A Night At The Red Arrow
Replica PLP104S
The large recording companies are rarely
successful in requiting the demand for traditional jazz, either through indifference or
plain lack of common sense in the studio.
Some of the more fervid fans attempt to correct the situation once in a while, recording
favorite bands and hoping against hope that
a professional job will result. Ewing Nunn,
Bill Russell and a few others consistently
beat the odds, but too often something along
the line goes awry. Franz Jackson is the first
old -time leader to try his luck at the game,
directing his own septet on the stand at the
Red Arrow just outside Chicago, engineering
the date himself. and taking on all the other
production problems. Good fortune attended
this example of rugged individualism, and the
recording is causing fans and critics alike to
applaud right along with the club patrons.
The youngster of the band at forty -eight,
Jackson started his professional career with
Carroll Dickerson at the Grand Terrace In
1932, and then worked with such Chicago
leaders as Jimmy Noone, Roy Eldridge, and
Earl Hines. While playing under Frankie
Newton and Red Allen in New York, he
studied broadcast engineering at RCA Insti
tutee in 1945. Steady employment as a performer kept him from putting this knowledge
to work. until the decision was made to assume both roles in an effort to record his
band the way he thinks is best.
Like many other jazz musicians, Jackson
never feels too comfortable in a studio, and
his position as lender only compounds the difficulties of pleasing a producer. "The musiclan must adjust to acoustics which are
strange to his usual playing circumstances,"
he explains, "and the arranging and placing
of instruments to certain microphones all
tend to put the performer ill at ease. I wanted
the band to sound as it does in the club where
we have played together for the past five
years. The microphones were placed in the
same positions as that of the public address
system. Only one setting of the controls was
used so that the true dynamic quality of the
band as it is actually heard is there. No
special coaching or lectures were given to
the musicians about playing louder or softer
during the recording. The entire idea was to
get the feeling of the musicians under usual
working circumstances.
"In most cases, the feeling dies after the
first playing. Repeating becomes all forced
after that-the feeling is : 'I must do this and
not make a mistake !' This does not make
good jazz One plays best when he is relaxed
and each jazz chorus is an adventure during
which time anything might happen, and often
does. The interest is always high when the
public can see and hear. The best jazz chorus
has musical and technical errors. That is to
say, often a musician hears something coming
out of his horn that he did not intend. It is
then that one must invent something to give
!
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60
I
Like To Sing!
Contemporary 57582
CHARLES A. ROBERTSON
continuity. This happens to me often-and
from listening. I believe it happens to others
just as frequently."
From the first round, pure tones of Jackson's clarinet on Red Arrow Blues, traditionalists will realize a treat is in store. Any
lingering doubts are erased when Bob Shoffner
joins in on trumpet and recalls the days when
he replaced Louts Armstrong in King Oliver's
band. A veteran of the Strekfus river boats,
he still plays in the regal Oliver style and
solos throughout with a vigor that belies his
sixty years. Also the same age and the other
senior member is drummer Richard Curry,
who went to London with James P. Johnson
in 1923. Rozelle Claxton started out as a
pianist with Jimmie Lunceford's original
Chickasaw Syncopators, and trombonist John
Thomas played under Erskine Tate at the
Vendome.
The sparkplug of the band is a light fingered banjoist named Lawrence Dixon, and
few dancers will resist his compelling heat.
Besides doing a specialty on Mr. Banjo Man,
he has something new to say about Mack The
Knife. This scoundrel never deserved all the
punishment administered by the pop singers
who followed Louis Armstrong. The band
treats him better than any of the high -priced
arrangers, proving that its venerable members
do keep up with the times. Schoffner and
Jackson engage in entertaining vocal chit -chat
Isere and on such tunes as St. James Infirmary, and Ice Cream, with a channel for
each voice in stereo. Their humorous byplay
is less effective when compressed into a
single channel.
Jackson readily admits that a studio
recording would smooth off rough edges and
give better technical results, including a
fatter sound for Bill Oldham's tuba. The
banjo is favored instead, and justly deserves
the prominence it receives. A Concertone
505E tape recorder and Electro Voice 655C
and 667 microphones were used, with two
microphones in front of the band and an
extra one to pick up the piano. This equipment, well within the price range of many
home recordists today, permits Jackson to
turn out a far better job than professionals
could when he went to school. A musical ear
enables him to select a more natural balance
than is found on quite a few stereo spectaculars. Few dealers and no discount stores stock
this release, but Jackson can be reached at
"358 South Wells Street, Chicago 9, Ill. The
band's only other recording is no longer
available, although Mercury may now issue an
LP made a year or so ago.
A recent return to the recording wars on
this label started Helen Humes on the second
stage of her career with a bang that awoke
the public and critics alike to what a jazz
singer should be. The term Is misapplied
more often than not, and this sequel is
another exact definition of all the essential
requirements for the part. Besides providing
arrangements to show her special qualities.
Marty Paich heads a fourteen -piece band set
up like the old Count Baste band with which
the singer first made a name for herself as
featured vocalist in 1938, Encored among the
dozen numbers are two she recorded then.
If I Could Be With You, and Don't Worry
'Bout Me. Her natural and effortless swing
indicates what a prize asset she would be tothe present Basle band. Especially noteworthy
is Million Dollar Secret, one of her own blueswhich she made into a hit single before'
retiring ten years ag.o
Patch also gratifies her desire to record
with strings. Unite many jazz singers, Miss
Humes possesses the emotional maturity and
depth to take this attempt in her stride.
nobly assisted by Ben Webster's tenor sax
on Mg Old Flame, and Imagination. Engineer
Howard Holzer gives the band the full benefit
of stereo.
Al Hirt: The Greatest Horn In The World
RCA Victor LSP2366
After blowing stellar horn on two Audio.
Fidelity LI "s made in New Orleans. Al Hirt
bursts the bonds of Dixieland and begins an
ambitious career on the club and hotel circuit.
fart of the build -up involves a label change.
along with some uncertainty about what sort
of backing best suits his big, brash trumpet
toue. One thing positive is that both studiogroups heard here are large enough to match
his massive frame and 299 pounds of avoirdupois. The first is a big band of twenty
pieces, and the other a thirty -man outfit
which includes twelve string players. Henri
René conducts. and each rhythm section
boasts a harp, along with two drummers and
two guitarists to fill out the stereo extremities.
Aided by strings. Hirt envelops melodies.
with the loving care of a Billy Butterfield,
and he exerts the rhythmic drive and acrobatic style of Harry James to swing the"
band. Either combination is irresistible, but
Hirt sounds best when emulating CharlieShavers on Undecided. Hirt belongs in front
of a big band of his own, and his searing
trumpet seems to predict the future on an old
spiritual, I'm On .11 .0 11-att.
Les McCann Ltd. In San Francisco
Duke Ellington: Peer
Suite Thursday
Gynt Suites and
Columbia CS8397
Following on the heels of a successful jazz
collaboration on Tchaikovsky's Nutcracker
Suite, Duke Ellington and Billy Strayhorn
turn their attention to another familiar
classic and to a John Steinbeck novel. Their
special delights are those portions of Edvard
Grieg's music which permit them to draw
on the richest colors of the orchestral palette
on .Morning, or blend delicate voicings on Ase'a
Death. The featured soloists are happiest
Pacific Jazz PJ16
Almost as much a subject of controversy
during the past year as Ornette Coleman in
critical writings, Les McCann enjoys the
advantage of seeing the public continue to
buy his recorded output. The pianist's latest
effort was recorded in San Francisco, near the
end of a country -wide tour, during an engagement nt the Jazz Workshop. Herbie Lewis, a
promising youngster who replaced Leroy
Vinnegar, is heard on bass, and the drummer
is still Ron Jefferson. McCann introduces four
more of his popular gospel- tinged blues, then
proceeds to well- planned examinations of Red
AUDIO
MAY,
1961
rot
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gLettlifer.
Sails In The Sunset, I ans In Love, and
Jeepera Creepers. As on a previous in- person
LP made in Los Angeles, the trio establishes
a close and immediate rapport with the
audience. and engineer Reece Hamel surveys
the whole scene in tine stereo.
George Russell: Stratusphunk
Riverside RLP9341
This is George Russell's first effort as leader
of a regular working group, despite several
LP's to his credit and a considerable reputation as composer and arranger. One of the
major difficulties facing jazz writers is obtaining adequately rehearsed performances of a
serious work. Another is frequently cited by
Ellington and concerns the need to hear
theories tested out in practice. Pleasant as
the prospective solution of these problems may
be, Russell first must develop a group capable
of carrying out his ideas, and this initial
progress report on his new sextet is highly
encouraging.
The written parts of the title tune are lese
noticeable than in previous recordings by
studio groups. Dave Young, tenor sax, and
Al Kiger, trumpet, exercise with fire and
intensity on New Donna, and Things New.
Most significant is the fine spirit of all concerned on Kentucky Oysters, a potent gospel
waltz contributed by trombonist Dave Baker.
Ray Fowler engineered the date at Plaza
Sound Studios.
Charles Mingus Presents Charles Mingus
Candid 9005
After recording two remunerative Columbia
albums to propitiate the "gods of mammon,"
Charles Mingus switches labels and leads his
disciples along a more rigorous path. The
imminent departure of Eric Dolphy and Ted
Curson from the fold is one reason for
choosing such an intransigent course, as both
omen are anxious to show all that was learned
during the year they attended the Jazz Work
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shop. Little space is wasted on frivolity, although Mingus endeavors to create a club
atmosphere in the studio by dimming the
lights and introducing each number with short
satirical comments. His humorous remarks
on bass are more to the point, whenever the
students become too serious, and sly phrases
serve as constant reminders that the spirit
of levity also is a part of jazz.
Another Mingus precept is to throw away
the rules and allow complete freedom of
expression, a pursuit he encourages with
hearty rhythmic support on Folk Forms, No.
1. The source material employed here is
similar to that probed by John Benson Brooks
on his Alabama Concerto, which derives from
Harold Courlander's recordings of field cries
and hollers. Both composers seem to be speculating on what other forms or directions the
pioneers of jazz might have picked to develop
a new music. By going back beyond first
formal origins, they give the players a clean
slate for improvised solos that should intrigue
traditionalists and modernists alike. Curson's
trumpet statements sound spontaneous and
fresh in this context, yet he can scarcely be
called a great innovator. Dolphy, who works
hard on alto sax for this distinction and may
eventually attain it, also switches to buss
clarinet for an enlightening conversation
with Mingus on What Love.
The member of the quartet who has lasted
longer with Mingus than anyone else is
drummer Dannie Richmond. and together they
form one of the great rhythm teams of all
time. While the technique of both is advanced
and Mingus handles the bass with the speed
of a guitarist, they still remember to be as
functionally exciting as Pops Foster and
Baby Dodds. Mingus exerts poetic license In
making another version of Faubua Fables,
adding the spoken words which Columbia
omitted out of deference to record club
subscribers. The music is graphic enough to
stand alone, and Mingus should consider the
implications of his remaining title, All The
Things You Could Be By Now If Sigmund
Freud's Wife Was Your Mother. All of his
problems might be solved by setting up a
separate identity that would be less evasive
of commercial success. There is never anything evasive about his bass playing, and
engineer Bob d'Orleans gives the firm, plump
tones the full benefit of stereo.
Gil Evans: Out Of The Cool
Impulse 54
up any
apt
to
spring
New jazz labels are
time of the year, in any part of the country,
and this year's crop promises to be more
bounteous than usual. The current entry
turns out to be a subsidiary of Am-Par
Records, one of the saddest names picked for
a label yet, and is an attempt to revitalize the
parent company's jazz line. Some bright
executive evidently thought a word like Impulse might sell as many records as Command,
the profitable trademark of another subsidi-
ary. The guiding genius is Creed Taylor, who
left Bethlehem Records to produce the earlier
jazz releases, of which only those bearing
Oscar Pettiford's name are worth preserving.
The project is more ambitious this time and
includes albums featuring Ray Charles, J. J.
Johnson, and Kai Winding.
Of primary interest is the recorded debut
of the new Gil Evans orchestra, augmented to
fourteen pieces on the date, and those
listeners who can stand the thought of more
snow are invited to mush along for a good
fifteen minutes on La Nevada. Budd Johnson.
tenor sax, and guitarist Ray Crawford are
warming influences, but the leader seems bent
on duplicating the commercial success of his
albums with Miles Davis on Columbia. Ilis
LP's for Prestige and World Pacific are more
bracing examples of Evans, but the Columbium
are the ones that sell. The featured solos of
Johnny Coles, a promising young trumpeter,
now sound the same as those of any other
Davis Imitator. Trombonist Jimmy Knepper
remains highly individual on John Benson
Brooks' Where Flamingos Fly, and Evans 1s
as colorful as in scoring Kurt Weill's Bilbao,
and George Russell's Stratosphunk.
Apparently having learned a lesson from
Command's success with stereo spectaculars
and public reaction to the dubious sound of
previous jazz items, the company decided to
invest in a good engineering job. Rudy Van
AUDIO
MAY, 1961
Gelder handled the tiret four releases at his
studios in Englewood Cliffs, N. J. The Evans
orchestra is heard in natural balance and the
only special effects are in the arrangements,
so perhaps it was also decided that the market
for gimmicked stereo might be waning.
Bob Prescott: Cartoons In Stereo with Cy
Harrice
Audio Fidelity DFS7008
Earle Doud: Sounds /Funny
Epic BN598
Sound effects alone used to be good enough
to show -off plain old -fashioned high fidelity
equipment, but new stereo rigs demand
demonstrations of larger and fancier dimensions. The coughs and snorts of each racing
car are dramatized on these two productions
in sketches of varying hilarity. Cy Harrice,
who developed a large repertoire of voice as
a TV -radio announcer, portrays assorted characters as they become entangled with sound
effects drawn from the extensive library of
Robert J. Prescott. All three major networks
have engaged Prescott's services since he
began creating appropriate noises in 1935.
Today his son, Peter, assists him in recording
rocket flights to outer space, submarine descents, games of Russian roulette, and other
decible- producing events.
Epic awards top billing to Earle Dowd,
writer and performer of the comic incidents,
and mentions engineers Ralph Curtis and
Garry Gladstone only in passing. This team
covers several additional happenings, including a visit to the old swimming bole, the
serving of a fifty- gallon drink, a persistent
kitten, and the inevitable ping-pong game.
Both narrators enter into the action, ensuring
plenty of stereo movement on either album.
Bob and Ray engaged in similar exploits for
RCA Victor during the early days of stereo, but
now another cycle seems on the way and
other companies will probably be beard from.
Entertaining as they are to some, the funny
men never quite catch the true excitement of
sound vibrations. If Audio Fidelity wants to
keep ahead of the game, it should cover a
bet missed this time. Eavesdropping microphones in the head office when Sidney Frey
first hears a new and sensational sound could
beat anything yet. His enthusiastic reaction
would be both vocal and physical. When
Prescott shows up with tapes again, the place
had better be wired for stereo.
Andy And The Bey Sisters
RCA Victor LSP2315
Andy Bey and his sisters, Salome and
Geraldine, were born in Newark, N. J., but
first drew attention when such authorities
and Richard Gehman and George Wein heard
the trio in Europe and began sending back
reports. When they returned home, George
Avakian decided Chet Atkins was the man
and Nashville the place to produce this debut
album. That the Beys survive the journey
from continental boites to the stronghold of
country music in such fine shape should be
proof enough of their adaptability. They sing
just about any type of material, in any
number of styles, with originality and their
own special sound. There are jazz scat vocals
on Arnett Cobb's Smooth Sailing, and a quiet
mood on Dreamy. A sophisticated side appears
on A Felicldade, and Leonard Bernstein's It
Must Be So. Andy, who is pianist of the
group, also takes vocal honors on Ellington's
Mood Indigo. Atkins devises a huccolic setting
for Trees, but that's only half the story. The
rest is well worth hearing.
Jonah Jones: The Unsinkable Molly Brown
Capitol ST1532
Chico Hamilton: Irma La Douce -Bye Bye
Birdie
Columbia CS8390
Both of these jazz treatments of Broadway
show tunes are reasonably respectful of the
original scores and the composer's intentions.
The unsinkable Jonah Jones is the perfect
choice for the buoyant Molly, and the melodies
are never lost overboard in his spirited
quartet versions. Most of Meredith Willson's
themes are just right for the trumpeter's
perky style, and be adapts readily to the
AUDIO
MAY, 1961
others. No second invitation is needed after
Jones asks everyone to Belly Up To The Bar,
Boys, and his shuffle rhythms are equally
irresistible to dancers.
Chico Hamilton tackles two assignments in
making his debut on Columbia, and the
"'Irma La Douce" score fits his quintet as
snuggly as a pair of French kid gloves. "Bye
Bye Birdie," an unrestrained lampoon of
rock -and -roll singers, is another matter, and
turn about becomes fair play when the
drummer solves the problem by gently satirizing Charles Strouse's boisterous music. The
youngsters are now almost too perfect on
Kids, and adults will have nothing to complain about. Three new members settle into
Hamilton's style of chamber jazz with a
minimum of disturbance. Guitarist Harry
Pope is featured on Our Language Of Love,
bassist Bobby Haynes on Put On A Happy
Face, while Charles Lloyd doubles on flute
and alto sax to work up a head of steam on
There Is Only One Paris For That.
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Cecil Taylor: The World Of Cecil Taylor
Candid 9006
According to Buell Neidlinger, bass player
on all of Cecil Taylor's LP's to date, the
pianist practices eight hours each day, at the
least, and has done so over a period of almost
twelve years. Brilliant technique and complex
ideas distinguish Taylor's playing on his debut
album, released about four years ago on the
Transition label, so to say that his ideas seem
clearer and the technique less noticeable today
may be somewhat of a tribute in reverse. Once
word gets around that Taylor is easy to understand, his position as a ranking member of
the jazz avant -garde will be threatened. But
if practice has made him more accessible, he
still is far from being dull or merely competent. His atonal passages sound more personal
and less like exercises borrowed from European
composers. On hearing Taylor's three new
originals, collectors lucky enough to have a
copy of the deleted Circle LP in their libraries
are likely to want to refresh memories of
Henry Cowell playing his own plano compositions.
The present quartet was one of several
groups to work at various times in Jack
Gelber's play "The Connection," and Taylor
composed a tension -filled ending for the first
act titled Air. Archie Shepp, his newly acquired tenor saxist, delivers an emotional solo
on this agitated piece, then relaxes on Lazy
Afternoon. Taylor also relaxes briefly on a
lyric trio version of This TT'as Nearly Mine,
and his fully developed left hand is a joy
to hear in Bob d'Orlc:uns excellent recording.
Henry Mancini: Mr. Lucky Goes Latin
RCA Victor LSP2360
Even private eyes take vacations, and
Henry Mancini goes along on this one to
introduce Mr. Lucky to colorful and exotic
Latin rhythms, fashioning a dozen melodic
themes about those selected. All are polished
to appeal to dancers accustomed to hotel
ballrooms rather than plantation compounds.
Care is also taken to outfit each with effects,
both gaudy and subdued, for stereo listeners.
Bob Bain and Laurindo Almeida strum
romantic guitars and mandolins, and Erna
Neufeld heads the large string section.
Jimmy Rowles plays tinpanola (Brazilian
piano), and Bobby Hammack backs him up on
Hammond organ. Another veteran of Mancini's
television series making the trip is Shelly
Manne, who invites fellow percussionists
Frank Flynn, Larry Bunker, and Milt Holland.
Engineer Al Schmitt gives everyone a cheerful
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(-
MONO
1: Jass
My Name
At Town
Address
Folkways FJ2841
As the great late masters Sidney Bechet.
James P. Johnson, and Baby Dodds are among
the principal performers, this Town Hall
concert is a part of jazz history that can
never be relieved except on records. One in
Mail this coupon to:
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send-off.
Jazz Of The Forties, Vol.
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63
a series organized by Bob Maltz, it was held
September 21, 1946, and the billing also lists
such stellar attractions as Muggsy Spanier,
Miff Mole, Pee Wee Russell, Pops Foster, and
Art Hodes. George lioefer's notes were
evidently written four or five years ago,
indicating a hitch in plans to hand this well preserved live recording down to posterity.
The delayed arrival is opportune, however,
as most studio recording involving similar
personnel fifteen years ago are now off the
market.
All the excuse Baby Dodds needed to put
on an act was a concert. and audience attention often centered on the little drummer's
antics. A favorite trick was to tick off time
on woodblocks and snare -rim, then reduce
the dynamics to the whisper of two drumsticks vibrating in one hand, and finally
burst into the fatuous shimmy beat which
brought the entire drum set and his whole
being into play. The critics went pale with
exasperation even then, but the customers were
entranced -just as most purchasers of this
album will be. Judging from the recording
balance, the engineer was also a Dodds admirer
intent on making the drums audible throughout. Or, knowing how horn players move
about at such gatherings, he simply decided
to play safe. Listeners can consider it an
extra bonus when Spanier steps to the fore
on Relaxin' At the Touro, or Bechet solos on
China Boy, and Dear Old Southland. Johnson's
piano is featured on Maple Leaf Rag, and his
own Snowy Morning Blues.
Jeannie Robertson: The World's Greatest
Folksìnger
Prestige /International 13006
The Best Of Peggy Seeger
Prestige /International 15005
The burgeoning Prestige label has just put
forth another line to supplement the four jazz
offshoots already in its catalog, and the
collector of folk music should bave no trouble
spotting one or two plums ready for picking.
Several importations front the British Isles
THE MOST
SOUGHT-AFTER
STEREO
RECORDING..
are included, but not to the neglect of our
home -grown American product. with Kentucky's Jean Ritchie heading the list. That
this reviewer should turn his attention first
to a singer bearing the same last name is
only natural, especially since reports from
abroad about her prowess had aroused his
curiosity. Clan loyalty and forebears who
came from the part of Scotland where Jeannie
Robertson grew up undoubtedly color any
opinions expressed here, but Irish partisans
of Mary O'Hara are welcome to dispute the
"world's greatest folksinger" claim. Before
they do so, however. they will need to listen
to songs racy enough to be banned in Ireland,
even though some of the most improper are
traditional ballads which Child collected. The
singer is entirely unaccompanied on the first
of her albums to be issued in this country.
except when her daughter joins in on several
Aberdeen street game songs. Informative notes
by Hamish Henderson and a printed text are
enclosed.
Peggy Seeger, who is married to Scottish
folksinger Ewan MacColl. now lives in Britain
where her concerts are well received, perhaps
because she often returns English songs to
their native heath in American versions. Both
she and her husband are represented in the
new series with LP's sent back from overseas.
Distance seems to add a touch of nostalgia
to fifteen songs she learned in this country,
or it may be due to the inclusion of such
childhood songs as Pretty Little Baby, Raccoon And Possum, and The Old Woman And
Her Little Pig. Ken Goldstein produced both
albums.
Elmo Hope With Frank Butler And Jimmy
HifiJazz J616
Bond
A veteran of the Bud Powell era in New
York, Elmo Hope settled in Los Angeles about
five years ago and became a direct influence
on several of the younger pianists around
town. Club owners were not bowled over by
his arrival, however, and the effect on the
listening public was less noticeable. This
album, his first in four years, should go a long
way toward remedying the oversight, mainly
because of the presence in the trio of Frank
Butler, a drummer fleet enough to punctuate
Hope's swift lines at will. Together with bassist Jimmy Bond, they romp through several
uptempo Hope originals in a manner guaranteed to leave jazz fans breathless. When Hope
turns his attention to ballads, the commercial
properties of the group become strikingly evident. A particular treat for the audio minded
is Butler's finger drumming on the Latin styled Something For Kenny. Butler is the
leading candidate for the role left vacant
when Kenny Clarke went to Europe, and
proper presentation should make him a drawing card equal to Jo Jones or Dave Brubeck's
Joe Morello.
Capitol 710258
Waller In London
During a memorable European tour in 1939,
Fats Wailer spent an August afternoon at
the H.M.V. studios near London, and the six
magnificent solos he recorded there on the
great Compton organ are foremost among the
prizes contained in this reissue package. Faithful Waller fans will remember that Victor
once pressed the sides in this country and may
still cherish copies of Deep River, Lonesome
Road, Go Down Moses, and the rest. How
altered overseas alliances permit Capitol to
make the collection available on LP for the
first time is easy to understand, but why the
transfers from original masters were done in
Paris by engineers of Pathe -Marconi is one
of the mysteries of the recording trade. The
refurbishing job is good, however, and all
organ fanciers will quickly realize that a
master of the console was at work.
Waller also alternates between organ and
piano to wreak havoc on tunes of the day,
and vocalizes with accustomed abandon on
his own Ain't Misbehavin', and Flat Foot
Floogie. Edmundo Ros turns up on drums,
along with trombonist George Chisholm,
among the Britislters who man the stellar
assisting group. A serious Waller, a joyous
Waller, and Waller nt his best make this an
al
essential I.P.
Fats
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64
AUDIO
MAY, 1961
ENGINEER
(from page 39)
miss it, but you are not dominantly
conscious of it, as you are of the per-
formance itself.
This the microphone, sitting in your
seat, cannot do. And once the sound has
been picked up, recorded and played
back, our ears cannot make the separation any more, either. Apparently, now
all of it, program complete with reverberation, comes from the same loudspeaker, our ears have no means of
"knowing" which is which.
So the recording people have to resort
to some kind of "subterfuge" to make
a record that sounds like our hearing
faculty thinks it should. One way to do
this is to use a "dead" studio for the
players to perform in. Then the recordist
can add "adjustable" reverberation from
echo chambers or other units to get just
the right amount and kind.
If the orchestra or musicians have had
a background of recording music for
movies in this kind of studio, or in fact
any experience in it, they may be as at
hone this way as any other. Of course
it is something anyone can get used to.
But many really get the "feel" for their
performance partly by the reverberation
"coming back" to then. The "dead"
studio gives them a sensation rather
like you get when you talk in such a
room, an unnatural "sucking up" of your
voice. Can you imagine how a church
organist would feel, playing a console
in a silent room, without being able
to hear the music he is making's It's a bit
like that.
Most musicians will do better work,
more likely to fall in the superb category, by using a studio that is not too
dead, and in which they feel comfortable
with their instruments.
Another, and I think better, method is
to spot as many microphones as may be
necessary, "close in" to various sections
of the orchestra, so the recordist can
achieve balance between instruments
without any unnaturalness. But in doing
this it is still important, as far as
possible, to allow the individual musicians to work in their normal manner,
and get the recording right by proper
attention to the microphones. An additional, distant microphone then picks up
the natural reverberation separately, and
the recordist can adjust the over -all
balance between program and reverberation.
As far as indispensability is concerned, the engineer in the recording
business does occupy a rather unique
position. The musicians with whom he
works are usually quite unfamiliar with
modern electronics. If they think they
know something about microphones or
amplifiers, it is often wrong-technically.
So the "informed" engineer has his little
castle all to himself. Some recordists,
it is true, know very little more about
the equipment they use than the musicians with whom they work. But they
have "grown up" in the job. Now that
books have been written on the subject,
and classes can be found that teach it,
the situation will undoubtedly change.
But, until recently, a record company
could not just go out and hire a "trained
recordist " -except one who had learned
by doing.
So we should progressively see better
work from the "indispensable" engineers,
resulting in a higher proportion of recordings that will please at least most
of that odd 5 per cent. And a step
towards this, in some areas, will be an
increased recognition of the importance
of the musician, the real VIP.
range the network is effectively that
shown in A of Fig. 2, but at low frewanted phase splitting for the output quencies it turns into the form shown
stage. They must not produce too much in B of Fig. 2. The high -frequency perdistortion and it will not be too difficult formance is shown in C of Fig. 2. Of
I
transformer.
the best possible output
course, the network suggested gives at
would not be sure that the best way of to make sure that the phase characterismost a slope of 6 db per octave while
wanted
the
to
apply
us
will
allow
tic
transformera
doing this is not to use
at
the top cutoff due to the output transhave
written
I
of
feedback.
less output stage although this involves amount
do
not
former will be at 12 db per octave but
I
and
elsewhere
this
length
about
are
how
good
two additional problems;
there is quite a considerable advantage
here.
After
it
further
discuss
propose
to
the available high impedance loudspeakto be gained, especially if the network
is
first
generation
a
response
control
all,
the
necessary
ers and how much will
6 db per octave can begin at a lower
the
oband
problem
amplifier
feedback
supply regulation cost? On balance,
frequency than the transformer cutoff.
dethe
with
deal
of
study
is
to
ject
this
of
the
perhaps, the extra complexity
My feeling is that here it is every man
amplifiers.
first
generation
of
fects
power supplies compared with the solid
without
for himself, that the best balance beamplifier
an
have
now
We
will
transformer
permanence of a good
tween high harmonic intermodulation
-all
the
over
measure
can
\Ve
bring us back to the conventional solu- feedback.
reand wide frequency response depends
must
we
Now
response.
frequency
tion.
both on the material and the listener.
that
you
law
natural
basic
the
The output transformer is, for all member
We
it.
eat
and
cake
Quite deliberately this has not been
your
have
cannot
I
stage.
output
the
practical purposes,
non
reduce
to
in
any sense an article on amplifier deour
feedback
use
to
myself would always use pentodes rather want
improve
it
to
use
sign.
Within reason one can always decannot
so
we
linearity
manufacturers
tube
the
than triodes but
is
an
abThis
an amplifier to have a specified
response.
sign
frequency
give me all the details of bias and screen the
canwhich
concept
: the only requirement is
fundamental
performance
solutely
maker
is
the
tube
In
general,
supplies.
is
response
the
Where
should really be
evaded.
be
performance
that the
interested in getting the maximum not
feedback
of
benefit
full
the
Most hi -fl
improved
start.
you
before
specified
sometimes
it
is
and
quotable output
worth while moving away from the in the reduction of distortion is lost, amplifiers appear to be designed to a
recommended conditions and trading and in the extreme cases the distortion cost plus bandwidth specification. I beoutput for linearity. But the basic fre- may actually be increased. The feedback lieve that this is based on some false asquency response of the amplifier is de- path must therefore contain extra ele- sumptions and that bandwidth is less
termined by the output transformer and ments which will shape the response to important than intermodulation. I am
this must have enough iron and enough follow the response of the amplifier not prepared to be as dogmatic about
copper to keep up the inductance at without feedback. Instead of a single this as my critics will be: all I suggest
high levels and low frequencies, a bal- feedback resistor, for example, we may is that for a given price there is a comanced structure, low leakage and ca- split this resistor into two, R11 and R12, promise solution which will give the
pacitance to keep the high frequency and add, as I have shown in Fig. 1, a greatest satisfaction. I do not even sugresponse good. It is here that your low-frequency correcting network C1R1
which suits
and a high -frequency correcting network gest that the compromise
dollars really buy quality.
suit
you.
will
me
frequency
of
the
middle
The earlier stages of the amplifier C2R=. In the
HOW HIGH
AUDIO
MAY, 1961
will rarely raise any special difficulties.
They must provide the wanted gain, the
65
NEW PRODUCTS
AM -PM Stereo Receiver. A compact
stereo receiver, Sherwood's Model S -7000
combines on AM -FM tuner with a 50 watt
stereo amplifter. Featuring 19 front panel
controls and switches and 9 inputs, the
S -7000 is compact in size, measuring only
16% x 14 x 4% inches. All that is required
to complete a stereo music system is the
speaker system, a record changer or turntable, and a tape deck. The tuner section
-
-
-
l
`--
includes separate tuning eyes for FM and
tuner operation for stereo simulcast reception,
a.f.c. in the FM section. Typical FM sensitivity, by IHFM standards, is 1.8 microvolts; AM sensitivity is 2 microvolts at
60 per cent modulation for 0.5 volt output,
6 db signal -to- noise. Continuous amplifier
output is 24 watts per channel; hum and
noise is 80 db below 24 watts; frequency
response is + 1 db 20- 40,000 cps. Inter
modulation distortion is 1.5 per cent and
harmonic distortion is 0.5 per cent at 21
watts continuous power output. Th,
damping factor is 5. For stereo tape recording, two cathode follower output
and front panel tape monitoring switch
combine to make the system highly flexible. Model S -7000, less case, is priced at
$299.50. A brown leatherette case is available for $7.50. Sherwood Electronic Laboratories, Inc., 4300 N. California, Chicago
18, Illinois.
E -1
AM, independent FM and AM
of this principle yields lower record wear,
lower distortion, and other related benefits. The TA -16 can track at stylus forces
as low as one gram with a tracking error
of less than one degree. Tracking force Is
determined by a linear spring set by a
simple, easily read slide which permits
accurate settings to fractions of a gram.
The TA -16 gives flat response within 2 db
from 30 to 15,000 cps, with 30 db of channel separation up to 10,000 cps. Output is
7 millivolts. Dynaco, Inc., 3912 Powelton
Ave., Philadelphia 4, Pa.
E -3
French Provincial Cabinets for High Fidelity Components. Featuring authentic
French Provincial design, the new Rockford Special Furniture Co. Model 11001101 ensemble combines an equipment
:iltinet and twin free -standing speaker
-
Soldering -Tip Cleaning Sponge. Hexacon
Electric Company announces a new soldering -tip cleaning sponge which saves time
and extends soldering -iron tip life. It
eliminates the excessive tip wear caused
by use of abrasives. It also eliminates
contamination caused by use of wiping
rags. Cleaning takes place while the tip
is hot, without removing protective solder.
The fine porosity of the sponge makes it
ideal for cleaning small tips, while the
size of the sponge is large enough for even
the largest tips. Another advantage of the
fine porosity is that the sponge will hold
more water, which in addition to the adequately sized aluminum tray, keeps the
sponge wringing wet. Hexacon Electric
Company, 266 W. Clay Avenue, Roselle
Park, N. J.
E -2
enclosures.
In the equipment cabinet,
Model 1100, the upper right compartment
is designed for record changer, transcription turntable, or tape recorder; the lower
right compartment has space for 150
records; the upper left compartment is
designed to house amplifier and /or preamplifier, or tuner. Lower left compartment provides additional space for unclassified use. Over -all size of the equipment cabinet is 41 x 32 x 19% inches. The
Model 1101 speaker enclosure is designed
to house up to 15 -in. loudspeakers. An
adapter board for 12 -in. speakers is provided. Over -all size of the speaker enclosure is 21 x 32 x 19% inches. For further
information, write for Bulletin R -19 to
Rockford Special Furniture Co., 1803 W.
Belle Plaine, Chicago 13, Illinois.
8 -4
66
which contract into an exclamation point
at the exact center of each broadcast
channel. Two completely independent sets
of controls allow the ST96 to be used for
separate and simultaneous FM and AM
reception, or for FM -AM stereo. It will
also receive FM- Multiplex upon addition
of an adaptor. The FM section has a.f.c,
a.f.c. defeat, a.g.c., and a broadband ratio
detector for improved capture ratio and
easier tuning. FM frequency range is 2015,000 cps. The AM section features
switched "wide" (to 14,000 cps) and "narrow" (to 7000 cps) bandpass. AM frequency range is 20 -9000 cps (wide), 204500 cps (narrow). Panel controls include:
separate AM, FM tuning; separate AM,
FM level controls; selector switch for
choosing AM only, FM only, AM -FM
stereo, or FM- Multiplex. The ST96 sells
for $89.95 in kit form; wired, the price is
$129.95. Both prices include a metal cover.
Eico Electronic Instrument Co., Inc., 33 -00
Northern Blvd., L. I. C. 1, N. Y.
8 -6
Compact Speaker System. In keeping
with the modern trend towards decreased
size, the new Tannoy "Cadet" is a mere
11 x 13% x 24% inches in size. Of course
the scant size is not an indication of performance; within its 1%- cubic -foot volurne is contained a 10 -in. Tannoy dual concentric loudspeaker which was designed
specifically for an enclosure of this volume. In common with the other Tannoy
dual concentrics, this speaker incorporates
Custom Tape Deck. A new custom deck,
the Model 199D, and record -playback amplifier, Model A905, have been introduced
by Roberts Electronics. The 199D is the
same deck-mechanically modified to
adapt it to custom installation -used in
Roberts Model 990 stereo tape recorder,
and features the patented Roberts multiple adjustment head that offers rapid
16-in. Professional Integrated Tone
Arm. A new 16 -in. tone arm and cartridge
combination manufactured by Bang and
Olufsen of Denmark is now being distributed by Dynaco, Inc. This arm, the TA -16,
features the "Isodyne" principle of inertial balance to attain dynamic equilibrium.
This concept, on which patents are pending, maintains equal pressures on each
side of the record groove regardless of the
frictional forces which tend to make conventional arms slide inward. Application
AM -FM Stereo Tuner. Prewired, pre aligned r.f. and i.f. stages of both the FM
and AM sections make the new Eico ST96
an easy kit to construct and reduces the
problem of alignment. The new tuner
features Eico's traveling tuning indicators
selection of recording and playback functions. The deck provides 4 -track monophonic record -playback and 2 -track stereo
playback. The record -playback amplifier
feature bias oscillator circuits, rear jacks,
chassis enclosures, a.c. outlets, and record playback levers. Two are required for a
stereo installation. Price of the 199D is
$209.50 and of the A905 is $124.50. Roberts
Electronics, Inc., 829 North Highland
Avenue, Los Angeles 38, California. E -5
two completely separate loudspeakers: a
horn- loaded high-frequency unit and direct radiator low- frequency unit. The low frequency unit has a curvilinear cone,
plastic- terminated surround, and the whole
unit is dustproofed by means of an acoustically transparent center dome and rear
suspension. Although not claimed to have
all the "brawn" of its 12- and 15 -in. big
brothers, this speaker will provide the
extended range coupled with low harmonic
distortion for which its elders are already
well known. Power handling capability is
20 watts and impedance is 16 ohms. The
Cadet is available in oiled walnut at
$145.00, or in a Deluxe version with polished walnut or mahogany finishes for
$157.00. Tannoy (America) Limited. P. O.
Box 177, East Norwich, L. I., N. Y.
E -7
AUDIO
MAY, 1961
rsght, kneeling: Leo wrl
speaker performance in home of Hermon Ilosmer .Scott, LGncotn, Wass. Left 10
Distinguished panel of musicians from Boston's famous o'mphony orchestra evaluate
.gsghera (Piano), Herman Scott, Roger Voisin (Trumpet!,
(Violin), James Stagltana (Horn), Berj .'amko,haan (Organ), Everett Firth (Tympani). Standing: Bernard
.5
Loss
Famous musicians first to hear
remarkable new H. H. Scott speakers!
To assure perfection in his new speaker systems, Hermon Scott subjected them to
home listening as well as technical tests. For the listening test he invited the most
critical audience available .. highly skilled professional musicians from Boston's
to hear their own performances reproduced over the
famous symphon orchestra
new H. H. Scott speakers. Here aie their enthusiastic reactions:
...
"The closest I have heard
to the true sound of the violin.
I was
not even aware
I
was listening
in
uniform and consistent
to a recording." Lesuatd Moss, Violinist- "The trumpet sound was
unheard of in any other
virtually
a
feat
note
higher!
to
the
the
lowest
every range, from
have never heard any
speaker." Roger Voisin, First Trumpet; Recording Artist, Kapp Records.
which sounded so faithful to the original. Ifelt I was sitting in the center
...
"I
reproduction of organ
sounded nasa!
of Symphony Hall." Berj Zamkochian Organist. "Every other speaker I ever heard
and Pianist.
Harpist
First
Zighera,
Bernard
not."
did
one
that
the
first
was
This
and artificial.
speakers.
new
these
through
Played
made.
was
recording
"I was in the control room when this
ever heard before"
I've
than
performance
original
the
to
closer
was
reproduction
the
Kapp Records. "The percussion came
James Stagliavo, First Horn; Recording Artist, Boston and
the tympani and the bass drum all
drum,
the
snare
cymbals,
The
clarity.
amazing
with
through
Firth, First Tympanist.
Everett
I
play."
when
sound
they
were equally true to the way
new techniques in both construcAs with its tuners and amplifiers, H. H. Scott uses
in the state of the art. New conadvance
a
significant
represent
tion and testing that
New testing techniques and
struction methods assure excellence in performance
from speaker to speaker,
in
quality
variations
reduce
substantially
quality controls
...
H. H. SCOTT MCDEL S
H. H. SCOTT MODEL S -3 WIDE
RANGE SPEAKER SYSTEM:
A Ihree-way acoustic compliance system of tsue book shell sire Consists of
high excursion woofer, !we dual-cone
mid -range ends, and a special wide
dispersion aphencal tweeter. Dinan
sans: 23i. H x 14:4. 5 , I2 S-, D.
a
-2 WIDE
RANGE SPEAKER SYSTEM:
This tour- driva:, acoustic camplence
system consists of a low rewn. nee,
oil
9
Aysilable in
ilwood
ndl
0199.95).
finish
(5199.95) and unfinished (1179.95).'
1
4i
I3. H.
specially designed low resonance
woofer, a mid-ranee unit and a wide dispersion super Tweeter Cimensnns:
W x9t, O. Avadatle
23y5 It
in mahogany (5129.95), oil fin,sh walnut ($129.95). truilwood ($'29 95) ur d
unfinished ($114.95).
(Sluahtly highs west of Reckes)
II'í
sco'r'i'
Stott snc.. 111 Powdermlll Road, Dept. 03..-07., Maynard. Mass.
Please sad me omelets ieformation on your new soaker/ and your now H. H.
H. H.
common until now.
Scott GUMS to Cestom Stereo.
rigid adherence to
Every H. H. Scott speaker is individually tested to assure
new S -2 and S -3
the
Hear
2
year
guarantee.
specifications. Each speaker carr,es a
speakers are the finest
these
that
agree
will
you
sure
We
are
soon.
dealer
at your
musical reproducing systems ever made.
Mame
Address
City
Export: Telesco International Corp.,
Ste
171
Madison Avenue, I.Y.C.
3
YEARS
Stereo Dynamic Microphone. A new
stereo dynamic microphone utilizing two
separate dynamic microphone elements
within one single compact unit has been
introduced by Lafayette Radio. Completely
OF HIGH
American Philips Co., High Fidelity Products Division, 230 Duffy Ave., Hicksville,
E -9
L. I., N. Y.
New Mylar Recording Tapes. Reeves
soundcrat't has just added two new Mylarbased recording tapes to its "Hi -Fi" line.
Hi -Fi 50M is on a 1 mil Mylar base and
provides a 50 per cent increase in length
FIDELITY
It was 1927... Amos and Andy had not yet
become a national pastime ... and radio
listeners were more familiar with a cat whisker than with a vacuum tube. Yet it
was in this year 1927 that the concept of
high fidelity was born.
It was brought to life by a company of unusual vision, a group of skilled radio engineers who early foresaw the day when
people would no longer be content with
the mere reproduction of sound, but who
would demand that it be reproduced with
the highest possible degree of fidelity.
That degree of fidelity was amazingly high,
even in 1927, for those listeners fortunate
enough to own an SR -7, the first audio
product made by the young Sargent Rayment Company. There are still SR -7s in
existence today, capable of functioning
perfectly, after a third of a century.
The principles laid down in 1927 still hold
good today. Testifying to their basic
soundness, S -R components over the years
have always out -performed and out -lived
ordinary units. Backing this up is the
strongest, longest guarantee in hi -fi history. Any S -R unit you buy today is guaranteed for 15 months, on a pro- rated, moneyback basis (except for tubes, which carry
a 1 -year warranty, 4 times longer than
normal).
,l
,
SR-7.
introduced in 1927
over standard tape reels. Hi -Fi 100M is on
a tensilized % mil Mylar base and provides
double the playing time of standard tape
reels. Both tapes feature Soundcraft's
"FA -4" oxide formulation. The tapes are
available in attractive,
multi- color,
hinged -box packages. Reeves Sounderaft
Corp., Danbury, Conn.
E -10
flexible,
Model PA -263 eliminates the
need for two separate microphones during
stereo recording at home and is equipped
with a switch for selecting stereo or
monophonic operation. The Individual dynamic microphone elements are equipped
with separate transformers and provide a
polar pattern, in effect achieving two
omnidirectional patterns 90 degrees apart
for an almost complete pickup within 360
degrees. Frequency range is 50 -15000 cps
and the response is essentially flat from
80 to 10,000 cps. Impedance is 50,000 ohms.
Equipped with a heavily weighted metal
base, the PA -263 is easily adaptable for
use with all types of floor stands. The
PA -263 is priced at $17.95 Lafayette
Radio, 165 -08 Liberty Ave., Jamaica 33,
N. Y.
Bulk Tape Eraser. Designed to serve a
dual function, the new "Magneraser" offered by the Amplifier Corp. of America
completely erases tape on the reel, without rewinding, and also demagnetizes
record- playback and erase heads. The
erasing process is so efficient that even on
severely overloaded tape the background
noise level is lowered 3 to 6 db below the
E-8
Lightweight 4 -Track Stereo Tape Recorder. A lightweight version of the
Norelco "Continental" tape recorder, the
new "Continental" 200 (Model EL3541)
operates at 7% ips and incorporates a narrow -gap, 4 -track record- playback head.
The "Continental" 200 will play standard
4 -track
stereo tapes (head output)
through an external system, and will
record and play back monophonically on
4- tracks. The 200 is provided with input
noise level of virgin tape. Wear and tear
the tape is reduced because erasure is
effected on the reel. Also, because of its
light weight, the "Magneraser" is easy to
use in demagnetizing record- playback and
erase heads, thus reducing background
noise further. The unit operates on any
alternating current (50 or 60 cps), and
furnishes the necessary gradually diminishing magnetization field which the tape
MI
:.
J
' --
SR -1040,
_
introduced in 1960
If you've not yet had
an
normally encounters during supersonic
erasure. Features include a spring- loaded
pushbutton type on -off switch which automatically cuts off the unit when released.
The "Magneraser" is available in two
models: Model 200C for 100 -130 volt operation; Model 220C for 200 -260 volt operation. Price of either model is $18.00.
Amplifier Corporation of America, 398
Broadway, New York 13, N. Y.
E -11
opportunity to
learn about Sargent- Rayment's "seven steps
to superior reproduction," check today with
your dealer. And if you're planning a component system, ask him for a copy of the
S -R High Fidelity Planning Folder.
S
Sargent -Rayment
4926
E.
12th Street, Oakland
1,
Co.
California
30 Rockefeller Plaza, New York 20, N.Y.
68
jacks for recording from microphone,
tuner, or phonograph, with facilities for
mixing (two sources), and for "sound -onsound" recording. The machine also includes an output jack for monitoring with
headphones. The 200 may also be used as
a self- contained public address amplifier
and speaker system. A foot switch is
available as optional equipment. North
Bookshelf Speaker System. Billed as a
"dangerous loudspeaker," the new EMI
"Dutton" bookshelf -sized loudspeaker system features a handmade elliptical -cone
woofer and two cone -type high-frequency
units. Designed by Dr. Dutton (whence the
name of the unit) and built in England,
this unit is claimed to be an adaptation of
their professional studio monitor system,
AUDIO
MAY, 1961
also designed by Dr. Dutton. The danger
potential, as claimed by the manufacturer,
is that this speaker system will make
owners of bulkier and higher -priced systems dissatisfied when they chance to hear
EXCITING NEW HARMONIOUS ELEGANCE!
Authentic Provincial Design
ACOUSTICAL CABINETRY
for Your High- Fidelity Components
IN
this miniscule unit. Perhaps the manufacturer's claims are accurate but we
ourselves would hesitate to predict as to
what would disturb the audlofan. In any
case, for all those daring souls willing to
risk the danger, information may be obtained from Scope Electronics Corp., 10
Columbus Circle, New York 19, N. Y. E-12
Italian
Provincial
CABINET ENSEMBLE
Model 600-601
New Literature
Turntables. An illustrated, 8 -page brochure which details prices and specifications for the complete line of Rek -O -Kut
stereo turntables is available free. The
line includes seven models, all of which
feature hysteresis synchronous motors. In
addition these tables feature a new belt
drive system. Also described is a new
stereo turntable kit. The two -color brochure also includes such accessories as
bases and acoustical mounts, and the
S -320 stereo tone arm. Rek -O -Kut Company, Inc., 38 -19 108th St., Corona 68, N. Y.
H -13
Tape Recording Reference. The Nortronics Company, Inc. announces the publication of comprehensive tape recording reference intended to dispel the "veil of
mystery" regarding tape recording. Basic
principles of tape recording and how to
convert to 4 -track stereo is explained in
the simplest possible terms. Several features appearing in print for the first time
are: clear photographs of "treated" recorded tapes; "phantom" views of erase
and record /playback heads; the most complete reference tables to date on 4 -track
conversion and replacement. The reference
guide is available directly from the company or at any of its dealers for $.25. The
Nortronics Company, Inc., 1015 South 6th
Street, Minneapolis 4, Minn.
Cartridges and Tone Arms. A revised
edition of a brochure describing its line of
cartridges and tone arms has been issued
by Shure Bros. The 8 -page brochure gives
complete performance specifications and
prices of the company's Laboratory Standard, Professional, Custom, and Standard
Stereo Dynetic phono cartridges. Also included are details on the Professional tone
arm and the Studio Stereo Dynetic integrated tone arm and cartridge. Other
equipment described is the new M60 stereo
line preamplifier and the M66 broadcast
stereo equalizer. The brochure is available
free from Shure Brothers, Inc., 222 Hart rey Ave., Evanston, Ili.
E -14
Flutter: Its Nature, Cause, and Avoid of a booklet available
free of charge from the Amplifier Corp. of
America. Written by N. M. Haynes It provides a technical description of flutter and
its associated disturbances, wow and drift.
The 12 -page brochure also details causes
and methods of measuring flutter. Finally,
specifications and price are given for a
professional flutter meter manufactured
by the company. Write to Amplifier Corp.
of America, 396 Broadway, New York 13,
ance-is the title
N. Y.
AUDIO
Beautiful way to combine the warmth and elegance of authentic provincial design with your own choice of famous -name high- fidelity components for finer
mono or stereo. Decorator -styled, acoustically -engineered and furniture- crafted
for long -life enjoyment.
Center Equipment Cabinet (Model 600 ) with lift top is
designed to house amplifier and /or preamplifier or tuner, any record changer
or most transcription tables or tape recorders. Space for 100 LP records, and
books or decorative display. Free -Standing Twin Speaker Enclosures ( Model
601 ) permit proper stereo separation for desired listening in any room. Each
houses up to 12 -inch loudspeaker. Cabinet Ensemble (Model 600-601) in Fruit wood or Oil Walnut finish. Also available on special
order in Iland- Rubbed Mahogany, Blonde, or Ebony.
ITALIAN PROVINCIAL
Open view at right shows compartments in either o'
the Italian or French Provincial Equipment Cabinets
French
Provincial
CABINET ENSEMBLE
Model 1100 -1101
FRENCH PROVINCIAL Center Equipment Cabinet (Modt.l 1100) is designed
for any record changer, transcription table, or tape recorder, amplifier and /or
preamplifier or tuner. Has space for 150 LP record albums and other use. Free Standing Twin Speaker Enclosures (Model 1101) permit proper stereo positioning for thrilling reproduction. Each houses up to 15 -inch loudspeaker. Includes
adapter board for 12 -inch speaker. Also accommodates tweeters. Cabinet
Ensemble (Model 1100-1101) of Cherry finished in Fruitwood.
See Your High -Fidelity Dealer
or Write Now for Bulletin R -20-A
Most versatile line of high -fidelity
cabinetry created by specialists
in acoustic design and
fine furniture manufacture.
KFURNITURE -CRAFTED BY
IOCFOD
SPECIAL FURNITURE CO
CO.
2024 TWENTY -THIRD AVE
ROCKFORD, ILL.
H -15
MAY, 1961
69
SPOTS
BEFORE
11.
HAROLD LAWRENCE
YOUR
Electronics By Leaps And Bounds
EYES?
gathered in the
New York City Center on March
19 for the preview of the music for
APRIVATE AUDIENCE
Cherry spots, that is?
Of all the precautions taken to insure
long -life and maximum performance in
high -fidelity circuits, conservative tube
operation is possibly the most important.
Yet this rule is often ignored in an
attempt to squeeze higher wattage from
the circuit.
You can often see the result, in the form
of "cherry spots" on the tube, indicating
significantly shortened tube life.
You can often also hear the result in the
form of distortion, drift, and noise.
You'll never see
a
cherry spot in
a
Sargent-Rayment high fidelity tuner or
amplifier. Years of experience have taught
S-R
that following tube manufacturers'
recommendations not only makes good
engineering sense, but also permits
S -R
to guarantee its products 15 months, and
tube life
a
a new Balanchine ballet, "Electronics."
None of the usual sights and sounds accompanied the event: the fire curtain bearing the legend, "Asbestos," was down ; the
music stands in the pit were bare; and no
orchestral players were tuning up in the
wings. The only signs of activity were to
be found in a side box where Stewart
Ilegeman hovered over banks of gleaming
amplifiers and preamplifiers, which were to
drive some 31 loudspeakers deployed
through the auditorium. Cued up on a tape
machine was the recording of the ballet
music itself, ready to be played at the push
of a button. The Wilts dimmed, a relay
clicked, and the hall suddenly filled with
sound.
.
"Electronics" was composed by Remi
Gassmann on an electronic instrument
called the Studio Trautonium, which was
invented before the war by Friedrich
Trautwein, and developed by Oskar Sala.
The work makes no use of basic sound materials, natural sounds, or sine-tone generators, in contrast to other electronic
compositions. Yet it is essentially diatonic,
and its textures often closely resemble
those of existing instruments. Clear -eut
melodies, not far beyond the reach of conventional notation, aré heard in such recognizable timbres as trumpet, trombone, piccolo, bass clarinet, violin, snare drum,
cymbal, gong, bells, and harpsichord. There
are, to be sure, sounds of strictly electronic
character: some recall the optical film engravings of the Canadian movie man, Norman McLaren ; others, familiar to tape
* .96
W. 9th St., New York 11, N. Y.
editors and sound engineers, include the
stutter of untaut tape bouncing off the
playback head ; pitch and rhythmic changes
due to manipulation of tape transport
speeds (e.g., bassoon turned oboe at twice
the normal speed; full orchestra attack
transformed into a chaotic roar at half
speed) ; and the effects of filters, resonating panels, and echo chambers. As the work
progressed, and the listener adjusted to the
instrument's sonorities, it became increasingly clear that, stripped of its electronic
garb, "Electronics" represented no radical
departure from symphonic music.
At the press conference following the
performance, Mr. Gassmann conceded that
his work was symphonic in texture; his aim
was not a total rejection of traditional
sounds, but rather a "logical extension of
orchestral means." How far was this extension, and what was gained in the process?
In decibels, frequency range, and 'sonic
mobility,' the Studio Trautonium easily
transcends the capabilities of the symphony
orchestra. Thanks to Stewart Hegeman's
audio installation, the composer had at his
disposal 960 watts of power. Naturally,
not all of this was brought to bear, although the peak output actually utilized
approached the threshold of pain. (A little
more, and Mr. Gassmann, whose dynamic
palette seems to crave Cinerama -like levels,
would have ended with no loudspeakers
and no audiences.) In frequency range,
too, "Electronics" surpasses "live" instruments, producing sound above and below
the range of normal hearing: 10 to 40,000
cps. Finally, the Studio Trautonium enables the composer to perform transmutations of sounds, such as changing a twittering "piccolo" to a ponticello "viola."
full year, four times nasal.
Ask your dealer about Sargent -Rayment's
"seven steps to superior reproduction,"
and,
if you're planning
tem, ask for
a
a
component sys-
copy of the S -R High Fidelity
Planning Folder.
Sargent -Rayment Co.
4926 E. 12th Street, Oakland 1, California
30 Rockefeller Plaza, New York 20, N.Y.
70
Fig. 1. Rehearsal of "Electronics" ballet at New York City
Center.
(Photo by Martha Swope)
AUDIO
MAY, 1961
c
According to Mr. Gassmann, the Studio
Trautonium is the ultimate instrument.
Sonically self- sufficient, it requires no external source material, and can produce
"just about any sound imaginable." To
prove this, the Trautonium people have
brought out a demonstration tape that includes, in synthesized form, the sounds of
a mine explosion, a steam locomotive, a
small town band "amusingly out of tune,"
a full military band, and the ambience of
a chemical factory. "Until the turn of the
century," Mr. Gassmann explained, "four
simple methods were used to produce musical sounds: instruments were scraped,
blown, plucked, and knocked. An American
composer, Thaddeus Cahill, was the first to
develop an electrical approach to sound
production." Cahill's invention, the Tel harmonium (1906), was the grandaddy of
all electronic instruments. Ferruccio Busoni
heard it demonstrated in New York and observed: "Only long and conscientious experimentation and an advanced education
of the musical ear will make this unfamiliar material accessible to a new generation
and useful to the art of music."
Electrophonic instruments have now been
with us for over half a century, and Busoni's reference to long and conscientious
experimentation still applies. In the case
of "Electronics," for example, it took Remi
Gassmann no less than three years merely
to "prepare to compose with the Studio
Trautonium." The composer explained the
use of the word, "with," instead of "for ":
"The creativeness of the instrument itself
ushers the composer into the magic realm
of the 'controlled accident' where, in the
final analysis, he must make the right
choice in his selection of tonal material."
The conventional image of the composer
seated at his work table, physically removed from the instruments or voices for
which his music is written, is replaced here
by the electronic composer who deals directly with his medium, thus bypassing the
intermediate steps of notation and interpretation. The elimination of music's
middle man, the performer, puta the composer on the same footing with the painter
and the writer, whose works are presented
to the public exactly as they were created.
What is the Studio Trautonium, and
how does it operate? "It looks like a harmonium with a lot of dials," Mr. Gassmann reported. The composer manipulates
two strings which do not produce music,
but electrical impulses. The impulses are
chased through complex circuits and
emerge as tones from a loudspeaker. Each
tone may undergo dozens of transmutations before achieving its final registration.
Unlike the R.C.A. music synthesizer, the
Studio Trautonium is capable of transmitting "those intangible elements that
only a performer can bring to a performance; that is, the shades between the tones.
The possibilities for the composer," continued Mr. Gassmann, "so extend beyond
the traditional means of musical expression
that one can easily foresee a time when
our present instruments will become as obsolete as the sackbut and the lute."
It is really difficult to evaluate the
Studio Trautonium on the basis of Gass mann's composition. In this mixture of
purely electronic material with conventional timbres electronically produced, the
AUDIO
MAY, 1961
WEATHERS PROFESSIONAL
STEREO PICK -UP SYSTEM
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It took five years of painstaking research and uncompromising design
to develop what is undoubtedly the world's finest pickup system. To
accomplish this amazing engineering feat, Weathers created the unique
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.
..
with it
you achieve a freshness and fidelity of sound that defies duplication by
any other pickup system! Weathers professional pickup reaches down
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...
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Your present Weathers FM or regular system can
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Write for free folder and name of your nearest dealer to:
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71
old- fashioned sounds won out. One could
our
components
are
not
so
hot
We mean
that literally, and fact is, we're
proud of it:
No high
fidelity unit
can be expected to
not escape the feeling that, at heart, "Electronics" was a symphonic work that had
been 'transcribed' for electronic instrument.
This impression was engendered not only by
pitch and timbre, but by the music's
thematic treatment, plan of dynamics, and
rhythmic character. Now that Mr. Gass mann and the Studio Trautonium have
gotten thoroughly acquainted, perhaps they
will travel down a more adventurous path
ill the future.
"Electronics" was performed on some of
the finest audio equipment available today.
The music seemed to come from all parts
of the hall. (This "wall -to-wall" effect is
the aim of several electronic composera, including Karlheinz Stockhausen, who wants
"to be able to bring sounds from every
surface area of the room.") Distortion was
imperceptible, and the reproduction was
truly wide- range. Yet something was
missing. The Studio Trautonium, like all
other electronic instruments, lacks the
quality of "liveness" associated with traditional instruments. Of course, by its very
nature, electronic music is non- objective.
The electronic composer is totally unconcerned with realistic sound since, through
his work, he is creating a new "realism."
"Live" tone, a blending of numbers of
partial tones according to the laws of
acoustics, has no place in the world of the
electronic composer, who breaks up the
components of sound, isolates pure tones,
and constructs his own series of partials.
Theoretically, there should be no external
coloration to the sound of electronic music
beyond that which might be caused by the
playback system itself. In practice, however, all pure electronic music is encased
in a sonic envelope which somehow diminishes its claim to "limitless kaleidoscopic tonal possibilities." Even while
"Electronics" was sounding forth from all
corners of the hall, the music had a peculiar
boxed -in quality. We found ourselves
yearning for an honest -to- goodness, open window sound, say, of a trombone glissando,
a plucked string, or the snap of a twig
anything to relieve the instrument's built in "color."
But let us be fair to the electronic composer. We have no right to expect his music
to sound "live" in the usual sense. One
cannot propel the raw material of sound
into new musical space without upsetting
old listening habits. And, judging from the
reaction of the City Center audience, there
was less to adjust to in Remi Gassmann's
"Electronics" than in most other electronic
-
scores.
How did George Balanchine feel about
electronic ballet music? "It has one advantage over normal ballet scores-no
orchestra, no musicians to pay."
provide long, reliable performance unless
its components are completely stable.
HIGH FIDELITY WIDOW
This is why Sargent -Rayment design
(front page
;.f
engineers take extreme care to minimize
heat dissipation within the chassis of
S-R
tuners, control centers, and amplifiers.
For example, all heat -producing resistors
are mounted on top of the chassis, rather
than inside, which effectively prevents
the internal ambient temperature from
rising and damaging sensitive components.
Try the hand heat test on conventional
equipment, then on Sargent -Rayment.
We guarantee S -R
will
be cooler by far.
Ask your dealer about Sargent-Rayment's
"seven steps to superior reproduction,"
and,
if you're planning
tem, ask for
a
a
copy of the
component sysS -R
High Fidelity
Planning Folder.
Sargent - Rayment Co.
E. 12th Street, Oakland 1, California
30 Rockefeller Plaza, New York 20, N.Y.
4926
72
natured derision and jollity, explain to
the group that you have some friends
that you would like them to meet. Then
dramatically reveal the hidden room,
and its cosmopolitan atmosphere of
musicians, firemen, locomotive engineers,
and Zulus.
9. In the moment of stunned silence
that follows, the enormity of the deception will penetrate to even the most obtuse. The addicts, accustomed to the
relative perfection of records which are
produced by creating a composite of the
best segments of many performances,
and every step of manufacture of which
is marked by the utilization of all known
technical developments, are unaccustomed to and unprepared for the total
inadequacy of an actual performance.
However, it must be admitted to the
addicts' credit that even though in a
state of bewilderment, they will rationally consider the implications of the
just concluded demonstration and act
upon their conclusions. They will correctly reason that since they are dedicated to the quest of imperfection, high
fidelity is not their vehicle. They will,
ill fact, enter a state of true happiness
for they will realize that they have
discovered a fundamental truth of prodigious import.
They will realize that REALITY IS
TIIE ULTIMATE IMPERFECTION!
9. Once the
addict makes this dis-
covery, he immediately resolves to have
nothing further to do with high fidelity
and you have triumphantly completed
his cure.
The criticism has often been raised
that even though the preceding method
does cure those stricken with the high fidelity pestilence, it does give rise to
problem that evianother problem
dences itself as a compulsive desire to
attend actual musical performances. The
cured addict, still driven by his relentless pursuit of imperfection, now realizing that his quarry lies in the realm
of "live" rather than recorded performance, seemingly obtains total gratification from what he regards as the com-
-a
plete wretchedness emanating from
today's concert stage.
In short, the former addict becomes
a critic.
While the supervision and care of a
critic is beyond the scope of this article,
it is emphasized that critics are model
husbands. This is a consequence of their
realization that their scathing diatribes
are worth money and should not be
wasted on household matters. The critic
therefore assumes a gentleness of speech
and manner that simultaneously conserves his vitriolic inspiration, insures
domestic tranquility, and publicly
demonstrates your wisdom in adminisÆ
tering the cure.
AUDIO
MAY, 1961
C
TAPE GUIDE
(from page 34)
(2) incorrect playback equalization, (3) sistors only in the first stage or two of
or insufficient bias current, resulting in the tape preamplifier, namley as the
too much treble. If the discrepancy in plate load and cathode resistors. The
frequency response between the source only advantage of using them elsewhere
and the tape is substantial, I suggest is that, being also precision resistors,
that you return your tape recorder to they may provide slightly more accurate
your dealer or to an authorized service equalization."
agency. But if the difference is in truth
QUESTION : "I am 17 years old and
a slight one, I suggest that you be toler- have designed a tape amplifier. I believe
ant about it. The particular brand of I have something in which one of the
tape you use, changes in line voltage, audio magazines would be interested,
and similar factors can be responsible and would appreciate your advice on
for minor deviations from flat response." hew to go about writing an article and
presenting it to one of these magazines."
QUESTION : "I hare read your article
ANSWER: "There are perhaps two
on tape recording in which you briefly
discuss intermodulation distortion, about schools of thought on trying to sell an
which I would like much more informa- article. One is to submit an outline. The
tion. however, highly mathematical other is to submit the article itself. My
treatment would be of little value to me." preference is to submit the article itself,
although this might seem to call for a
ANSWER : "Following are some articles
good deal of work with the possibility of
in
tape
distortion
on intermodulation
recording and in general, which you may no compensation. However, to construct
be able to find in your local library: a really good outline, good enough to inHerman Burstein and Henry C. Pollak, terest an editor, you have to expend
"Distortion in Tape Recording," AUDIO, almost as much effort as in writing an
October 1956; Mannie Horowitz, "Un- article. With a good outline, the article
derstanding Intermodulation Distor- almost writes itself. Moreover, even if
tion," Aunao, August 1957; W. Phil - your article does not sell, you will at
brook, "Methods of Measuring and least have the benefit of this experience
Specifying Audio Distortion," Radio toward your next article; often you will
receive comments and suggestions from
cf. TV News (now Electronics World),
August 1956; R. D. Keller, "Distortion," the editor, provided you have included
return postage with the manuscript.
Audiocraft, March 1956.
Finally, a finished article has the flesh
QUESTION : "If I replace all the reand personality to do a selling job that
sistors in my tape recorder with de- a cold, bare outline may fail to accomposited carbon resistors, will I improve plish. You can go about preparing the
the performance of my instrument?"
article as follows: (1) Write down in
any order whatsoever all the points you
ANSWER : "So far as noise reduction
is concerned, my experience with de- wish to discuss. (2) Eliminate those
posited carbon resistors, at least those points which are of low order of immade in this country, is not particularly portance and interest. (3) Determine
good. Deposited metal film ones, how- three to five main topic headings that
ever, are generally very good, although will cover what you have to say. (4)
a bad egg can sometimes sneak in. I Group the points in step (1) under the
have had good luck with the Davohm appropriate headings and in proper
Series 850. You need use low -noise re- order."
T
N
>
Q3
(c3
CL
N
E
E
E
o
o
ó
K..91110tixR*.1R11: ....v+.W.M/1.4
AUDIOCLINIC
(from page 4)
frequency transient response of the amplifier whereas the squarewave test will tell
him something about the high frequency
transient performance of the same ampli-
d.c. voltage is fed into the amplifier via
a switch. This switch is used to make or
break the circuit supplying the d.c. The
observer views the 'scope each time the d.c.
is applied or removed from the input of the
amplifier. If the amplifier were perfect,
you would see a sudden transient on each
application or removal of the signal. How over, with some amplifiers the observer
sees a few oscillations, each one possessing
a slightly lower amplitude than the one
before it.
You can see that if an amplifier fails this
test, a low frequency supplied to it is
likely to remain even after the source of
such signal has stopped producing it. This
is another way of saying that the amplifier
has poor transient response. This test will
tell tl)v observer something about low-
AUDIO
MAY,
1961
fier.
llave you ever tuned across an FM
signal and found it hard to adjust the
tuner for exact centering? Did you find
that you had to turn the bass control
nearly all the way out in order to be able
to tune the system quickly? This is the
result of the amplifier's inability to recover
quickly from very low- frequency signals,
and this fact would be noticed when making
the d.c. transient test.
In an article which I believe will be
ready soon, you will read about an amplifier
I designed which was tested in this way. Æ
73
/
DESIGNED
FOR
FEEDBACK
STEREO
(front page 23)
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(R, is, of course, the 500 -ohm cathode
resistor), the mid-frequency gain will be
about 50 db. Even at low frequencies
where the actual gain is nearer 70 db,
there will still be 14 db of feedback reserve, and at mid -frequencies, 24 db or
more of feedback is available to reduce
distortion.
NARTB equalization for tape playback heads has a single bass turnover at
3180 cps for the 15 -ips speed, with a
shelf appearing below 50 cps, and the
same curve is used at 7.5 ips by general
adoption. A feedback network such as
is shown in Fig. 9 will provide the equalization for the preamp of Fig. 7, with
a high- frequency gain of 44 db (ß =
500/75,000). Although the extreme bass
boost demands an extra 35 db of gain at
50 cps, this amplifier still has 5 db of
reserve gain at this point, with much
more feedback at higher frequencies. If
additional distortion -reducing feedback
is desired at the low frequencies, some
gain must be sacrificed for this privilege.
Other equalizers may be similarly designed, choosing the feedback network
arrangement to give the proper shape to
the response curve. The amplifier must
have a gain without feedback equal to,
or greater than, the desired gain at the
highest point on the gain curve, plus
the minimum amount of distortion -reducing feedback desired at this point.
There will be a greater amount of feedback at all other frequencies as a result.
While in most cases, the same response
curve may be obtained with losser -type
equalizers followed by an amplifier to
bring the gain up to the desired level,
the advantage of the feedback equalizer
is that the gain which is "thrown away"
in the losser pad is used to reduce the
amplifier distortion in the feedback circuit. It takes no more tube stages to do
this unless a great deal of feedback reserve is desired at the point of maximum
equalized gain.
Transformers for Transistor Circuits
Power Transformers
Input Transfomers
Output Transformers
Choke Coils
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Mixers
Often the occasion arises to add several signals together, as in a microphone
mixer. The use of a triode for each signal, as in the common -plate or common cathode networks shown in Fig. 10, is
wasteful of tubes and space, when the
same job can be accomplished by one
tube section connected as a feedback amplifier. Since the necessary phase inversion is supplied by the single amplifying
stage, we must insert the feedback signal
at the grid, instead of the cathode. A
simple way to do this is shown in (A) of
Fig. 11 where the resistors R1 and RI are
used as a summing network. If the
AUDIO
MAY, 1961
output impedance of the tube is much
lower than R1, and the impedance of the
input generator is smaller than Ri, the
feedback ratio is just Rd(RI +R1) so
that the gain from grid to output =1 /ß =
(Rt +R,) /Rt. But the input signal is
reduced at the time it reaches the grid
by a factor Rf/(Rs +R,) by the dividing network acting backwards as it were,
so that the total gain from input to out-
put is
R
RI
Rt
Rt + Rf
Rt +Rf
Another way of looking at it is that
since the stage gain is quite high, for
any reasonable output, the voltage at
the grid will be very small, essentially
zero. Then the current flowing into this
virtually grounded summing junction
(vt/Rt) must be equal to the current
vo /R;) by Kirchoff's Law,
flowing out
Bo that the gain = vo /vt = Rf /Rt again.
Increasing the number of inputs will
not affect this result. In spite of the fact
that the additional input resistors shunt
some of the input signal to ground, the
feedback ratio is also reduced, and by
the same amount, so that the total gain
from, say, input point no. 2 in (B) of
Fig. 11 to the output is still Rf /Rt. A
limit on adding inputs comes as usual
when the feedback factor is so small
that Aß 1. But until that point is
reached, the summing junction acts like
a virtual ground, there is no interaction
among the signal sources, the gain in
each channel may he adjusted individRt
(
ually, and the load impedance presented
to the generator feeding channel N is
just RN.
Figure 12 shows two amplifiers utilizing this method of mixing circuits. The
transistor amplifier in (A) of Fig. 12
mixes three inputs of equal current level,
amplifies each by a factor of about 2,
provides a fourth input of adjustable
current gain from 1 to 2 and still has
over 15 db of distortion- reducing feedback. The vacuum tube feedback mixer
in (B) of Fig. 12 shows a volume control added to each channel, with channel
1 amplified by a factor of 2 and the
other two by a factor of 4. The grid and
base resistors used as bias returns do not
alter the design significantly. Note that
the feedback resistor is used as part of
the base bias network in (A) of Fig. 12
to reduce the number of circuit elements
at the expense of some additional current drain, but that a blocking capacitor
must be used to prevent the vacuum tube
plate voltage from affecting the grid
bias.
It is entirelytpossible to use frequencysensitive networks for the input and
feedback impedances and combine the
job of mixing and equalization in one
stage. The same method of feedback
may be used with a three -stage amplifier
providing mixing, equalization, higher
gain and the possibility of increased distortion reduction in one package. Many
times, though, if R -C coupling is used
between all the stages in a high -gain
three -stage amplifier, instability and
Circle
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STEREO HI-FI
extremely interesting and highly
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when used with
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AUDIO
MAY,
1961
75
even oscillation may result the first time
the feedback loop is connected. If some
of the stages may be d.c.- coupled without
causing bias instabilities, there will be
less possibility of inadvertently designing a feedback oscillator. Seldom are
more than three low -level stages needed
in a preamp, and if they are, it is better
to provide a combination of several one -.
two -, or three -stage feedback amplifiers
than to attempt over -all feedback from
the output to the input, unless, of course,
you are either an expert or lucky.
(A)
BASS
AMPL IFIER, A, MAY BE SINGLE
PENTODE OR HIGH-GAIN
TRIODE
Tone Controls
The configuration just discussed,' the
odd number of amplifying stages, voltage feedback, and the combination of
the feedback and input signals at a virtually- grounded summing junction, is
characteristic of the "operational" amplifiers having ubiquitous application in
electronic analog computers. A more
prosaic use in audio amplifiers is as a
tone -control stage in preatnps. Figure 13
shows four R-C networks which will
produce high and low cut and boost
characteristics. One possible adaptation
of this circuit would be to fix the input
and feedback resistors for the desired
mid-frequency gain and to select the
capacitors by a Inultipoint switch to give
the proper response and turnover frequency. This produces the constant slope, variable -turnover characteristic
many experts think desirable for music
tone -controls; a different arrangement is
necessary for the older fixed -turnover,
variable -slope controls .2 Some ingenious
feedback arrangements, notably the Baxendall -type illustrated in Fig. 14, provide an adjustable lift -cut characteristic
by adjusting one separate potentiometer
for the treble and bass frequencies, at
the cost of some interaction between the
functions, which is usually not noticeable in practice. This configuration can
also be applied to a two -stage amplifier.:'
Potpourri
Before concluding this article, I would
like to point out several applications of
the feedback techniques which may be a
little beyond the well -travelled path of
most audio experimenters.
In Fig. 15, the symmetrical conduction characteristic of back -to -back Zener
diodes is used to provide an amplifier
which limits sharply at an output level
TREBLE
EQUIVALENT CIRCUIT AT LOW
FREQUENCIES,R2 MAXIMUM
EQUIVALENT CIRCUIT AT HIGH FREQUENCIES,R5 MAX
Fig.
14.
Baxendall -type feedback tone
control.
z
MO:
c)
+ -.-v
OUTPUT
Fig. 15. Limiting feedback
amplifier.
76
Appendix
I
Output Impedance of
Feedback Amplifier
fz
e
O
FRED.
-
Fig. 16. "Notched" amplifier.
i Sometimes called an anode follower.
See Charles P. Boegli, "The Anode Follower," AUDIO, Dec. 1960, p. 19.
2 Barhydt, "A Feedback Tone Control
Circuit," AUDIO, Aug. 1956, p. 18.
3 Dynaco Preamp -Deseribed in Audio craft, March 1958, p. 16 -See "Errata,"
Audiocraft July 1958, p. 33.
equal to the Zener breakdown voltage
of the silicon diodes. These can now be
obtained with Zener voltages ranging
from about 4 to 200 volts. Feedback
limiting requires no special 4 -grid tubes
or large output power capabilities and
the gain below the clipping level is practically unaffected.
An operational amplifier with a twin -T
network as an input "impedance" is
shown in Fig. 16. The sharp notch may
be useful as a rumble filter or harmonic
distortion analyzer in some cases. The
notch may he sharpened by including
the twin -T network inside the amplifier
feedback path, or if the network is used
as a feedback "resistor," the notch becomes a peak and we have a frequency selective amplifier.
Thermistors, strain gages or other
resistive transducers may be inserted
into the feedback path of a high -gain
amplifier instead of the input, to provide an output which is the inverse of
their normal response, which may be an
advantage in some cases, and to eliminate their elaborate bridge-bias networks.
At audio frequencies, the application
of negative feedback techniques can be
generalized to a few simple practices.
Its benefits-reduction of distortion to
almost unineasurable amounts, extension
of frequency response, hand -tailoring of
response curves, multiple use of stages
-so far offset the additional gain it requires, that there is no reason why it
should not be an integral part of the
design of every low -level amplifier. A
careful follow- through of the small
amount of arithmetic used in this article,
particularly in the examples, will provide most of the mathematical sophistication (not much!) needed for a reasonable grasp of the feedback principle. 1A
Fig. 17. Equivalent circuit.
-
a
The output of an amplifier may be
thought of as coming from a zero-impedance voltage amplifier in series with
the resistance R0, the output resistance,
if no feedback is used. Since the load
resistor RL will drop the output voltage
by a factor of RL /(RL +Ro) from the
output supplied by the equivalent generator vegJ the generator output must be
vo (RL + R0)/RL, and as defined previously, vo = A (vi + yd. Suppose we temporarily short the input to the amplifier
to eliminate extra distractions and pretend that the load tries to impose a little
signal vL onto the output circuit. Perhaps this might represent noise pickup
or a signal induced by feedthrough from
the following stage. The circuit of our
amplifier, including a voltage feedback
loop, now looks like Fig. 17.
AUDIO
MAY, 1961
The current which flows because of the
action of DL is just the output current i,
since we have eliminated other signal
sources. It passes through the combination of RL + R° and the internal generator, which inserts a voltage
(vi +
v,)A(RL +R°) /RL into series "aiding"
with vL. Even though vi is zero, a voltage
of = ß v° is fed back to the amplifier input in proper phase to produce the polarities shown. The current must then be
bigger than that which would normally
flow, for now by Ohm's Law:
v=
v -v A ß
(RL + R) /RL
R°
8o
and the effective output impedance is
v
i
= 1
-Aß
R°
(RL +R) /Rf.
RL
1
(
R
(RL +R)
-Aß)
if All is much larger than 1, or a factor of 1 /( -Aß) smaller than the paralI
I
R
lel combination of
and Rf,, which is
what we would expect to find perhaps,
without feedback. (Remember that Aß
must be negative.) Thus in a voltage
amplifier the output impedance is reduced by the same factor as the gain.
We may use the same method to analyze a current amplifier to avoid the use
of a more unfamiliar equivalent circuit
if we change the value of the equivalent
generator slightly and take a feedback
current No back to the input. Since
io= vo/(Ro +RL) =A (if +i4),
rrq= (if +ii) A (R +RL) _
OA (no +RL)
i
if the input is shorted. Then by Ohm's
Law,
v = i Ro - ßA
(Ro + RL) io
and the effective output impedance is:
=Ro
=R
$°
°
[1
+(- Aß)(R
+RL) /R]
and the amplifier now looks as though it
had a greater output impedance than it
does if there is no feedback present, and
again the increase is by about the same
factor that the gain is reduced.
Appendix II
Distortion Reduction in
Feedback Amplifier
a
No real amplifier produces an output
which is an exact multiple of its input;
let us suppose that for a certain pure
sine -wave input signal, S, producing an
output voltage
(or current)
S
A/
(1 -An), there also appears on the output a small distorting signal, D. In
most cases the amount of distortion is
primarily dependent on the level of the
AUDIO
MAY,
1961
signal at some point inside the amplifier,
being caused by curvature in tube characteristics, etc., so that the larger the
signal, the greater the distortion.
Perhaps the gain of the amplifier actually changes at different signal levels,
providing a limiting (or expanding) effect. This would correspond to a distortion signal of the same frequency as the
sine wave but with varying phase. It is
also possible that the pure sine -wave
appearance of the output signal will be
altered, which would he caused by distortion components of the second, third,
or higher -order harmonic frequencies.
The latter case is reported and discussed
Most often, but the gain- changing effect
of a fundamental frequency-distorting
signal is present in every amplifier to
sonie extent (and can he dramatically
seen when the amplifier overloads!).
In either circumstance, when a fraction, ß,,,,, of the output voltage is fed
back to the input, it contains a part of
the output distortion signal, ßD. This is
amplified and appears at the output as
AOD, so that the distortion signal D actually appearing at the output is the
combination of the distortion produced
inside the amplifier, D', and the fed -back
voltage, so:
D=D'+AßD
and hence
D= D' /(1 -A(3).
Thus the distortion signal measured at
the output is reduced by the same factor
as the gain through the application of
feedback.
The main part of the distortion produced by the amplifier is cancelled by
feeding a portion of the distortion signal
back to the input and amplifying it out of -phase with the originally distorted
wave, but a small amount remains. Unfortunately, since the fed -back signal
looks just like an input signal to the
amplifier, it will be distorted too as it is
amplified. Thus there will be an additional hit of residual distortion because
the distorted correcting signal cannot
eliminate all the original departure from
a sine -wave output. If the distortion is
small in the first place, these additional
terms will be much smaller, but they
have an effect disproportionate to their
size.
No longer will the output look like
the signal as the amplifier originally distorts it, but it will not be quite identical
to a sine -wave either, indicating that its
harmonic structure has changed. Suppose the amplifier produces mainly second-harmonic distortion. Then the fed back signal contains the essentials of the
difference between the output and the
input, that is, the second -harmonic term.
When re-amplifying this, the second
harmonic of the second harmonic, or the
fourth harmonic, appears in the output.
This in turn will be reduced when it is
ACRO
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A number of people who saw our last
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superlative generalities long enough to explain clearly and unequivocally why we
feel t he Stereo 120 is so good. So, by popular
request, we are devoting one whole column
of space tor, at least, what's left of the
column) to a listing of technicalia specilìea
for the Stereo 120.
POWER OUTPUT... for those who wish to
raise t he roof. Each channel of the Stereo 120
will deliver 50 watts ut less than
harmonic distortion, within 0.1 db from 20
to 20,000 cycles. Ability to deliver full
power over t he entire audio spectrum mean,
an amplifier won't be overdriven by tom
arm resonances, musical subharmonica,
the intense transients that are on man
current stereo recordings.
Let's be modest. about Distortion...
rate the Stereo 120 at below 1'; IM at full
power, but the fact is that most listening is
done, not at 60 watts, but at between and
5 watts. Distortion at these levels is r_,
mentioned on specification sheets, b.
in most amplifiers the IM never goes i.
0.5'; at any power level. In each channel of
the Stereo 120, IM is less than 0.1'.;, at any
level below 20 watts, which is why its sound
is so startlingly lifelike and transparent.
1
.
FREQUENCY RESPONSE at 1 watt is
5 to 55,000 cycles, yet
the Stereo 120's square wave response is
virtually perfect from 20 up to 20,000
cycles, regardless of the load that's hung
on the amplifier.
within ±1 db from
HUM AND NOISE are more than 90 dl,
below do watts output, which is 72 db
below 1 watt and is thus completely in-
audible under any conditions. Sensitivity is
1.5 volts in for 60 watts out, and the channels are balanced to within 1 db. Damping
is variable from 0.5 to 10, without the usual
increase in distortion, and can he switched
out if desired to give a fixed damping factor
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and test facilities, and its high -rated components (including output tubes) assure
long, trouble-free life.
Any further questions?
ACRO ELECTRONIC
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77
returned out -of -phase to the input
through the feedback network, but it
will not be entirely eliminated, and a
further very small eighth-harmonic signal is generated.
Human ears are much more sensitive
to equal amounts of fourth harmonic distortion than to second, so it is fortunate
that its level is much lower. If, say, the
amount of second -harmonic distortion
present is 1 per cent of the output, the
amount of fourth harmonic distortion
created by adding the feedback path will
only be .01 per cent of the output-usually insignificant compared to the fourth harmonic distortion produced directly by
the amplifier. This is not true when the
primary distortion is large, and the
sudden increase in high -order distortion
products near the overload point causes
a feedback amplifier to actually sound
worse than an amplifier without feedback operating in this region.
Treats your treasured records respectfully,gently,
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present together. The book develops the requirements for electronic sound control from
the necessities of the performance, the characteristics of the audience ( hearing and psychoacoustics), and the way sound is modified
by environment, hall, and scenery. Sound
sources are considered for their susceptibility
of control and need for it, and the many techniques for applying electronic sound control
`are described and illustrated in thirty -two specific problems. From these problems are de-
r
rived systems and equipment specifications.
Complete procedures are given for: Planning,
assembling, and testing sound control installations- Articulating sound control with other
elements of production -Rehearsals and performances Operation and maintenance of
sound control equipment.
-
THE AUTHORS
During the past thirty years, the authors have developed
the techniques of sound control in opera, open-air amphitheatres, theatres on Broadway, theatres on-the -road and
off-Broadway, in concert halls and night clubs, in Hollywood and in the laboratory. Some of their techniques are
used in broadcast and recording as well as in performances where an audience is present. From their laboratory
have come notably successful applications of sound control to psychological warfare and psychological screening.
e
rut
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SOUND
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1. "Electronics" is technically by far the
most advanced tape music I've heard to
date, whether electronically produced or
recorded from "concrete" sounds. (The
distinction is interesting but artistically
not vital -one can be conservative or
radical via either source.) Considering that
every bit of this complex score represents
in the ultimate sound a corresponding
element of audio equipment, it is clear that
electronic music is now advancing technically at breathtaking speed, in every aspect from the production of the "sounds"
themselves right through to the mixing and
rerecording.
Part of this high -speed expansion is in
the human technique -how to use the equipment. You have to learn to "drive" it like
a car. And you have to learn to "say something" with it. But a major part, too, is
in the equipment itself.
It seems to me that the audio industry
has here a special baby of its own, more
intimately audio than any conventional
recording and reproduction. There, audio
is merely the means, the transducer. Here,
audio is everything. Audio makes the
musical raw material, audio puts it together, and audio reproduces it.
When you have a chance, just try "Electronics" for a purely technical listening
session. As the ads say, you'll be amazed.
2. The use of more than a single track
can free electronic sound from one of its
biggest limitations, the one-dimensional
sound- product. Now it has two and even
three dimensions and at last can place itself
on a technical equality with "live" sound.
The special quality in "Electronics" as I
heard it was the genuinely "stereo" effect
i.e., not a group of discrete "tracks" but
a continuous curtain of sound.
3. "Electronics" also seems to have freed
tape music from a tonal limitation that
should theoretically never have been there
in the first place -the feeling of limited
-
AUDIO
rot
,.
MAY, 1961
ti
frequency range that somehow has muffled "Electronics" was five times as loud as the
and pillowed -up so much tape music. Added loudest orchestral sound in the same
to this has been distortion (via too much evening's entertainment. That's loud. In
rerecording), also surprisingly absent in terms of db, bels, phons, mels and what
this new score. Finally, and most important, have you, the measurements should be
the over -simplified electronic sounds of the positively terrifying! The next day, I
earlier taped music made for a lifeless, couldn't hear a 10,000 cps signal at all.
impact, lacking in presence, in too much of It's a wonder I heard anything.
what we heard. Not enough overtone color6. One of the biggest problems in the
ation, not enough sound -life. The "Studio large scale reproduction of electronic music
Trautonium" -and no doubt the RCA in auditoriums or concert halls, is that of
Mark II-now produces all-electronic loudspeaker directionality. When the Varèse
sounds with real bite and life, which seem "Deserts" was produced in Bennington,
"out in the open" instead of buried in the Vermont and later in Town Hall in New
loudspeaker. Taped sound is coming of age. York, I was hauled in as unofficial conIt sounds real.
sultant and counseled, as the best and
4. One of the finest technological feats
wisest procedure, that the huge speakers
in "Electronics" went probably unnoticed be turned back side to the audience, aimed
by most listeners, the absence of back- into the corners. Otherwise the front rows
ground hiss and pop, even at extremely high would have been simply mowed down
volume levels
mean pot levels. At no wholesale, while the balconies would have
point was I aware of any tape sound at lacked volume. You can't beam big speakers
all, nor of course any a.c. hum, though right at big audiences -unless you have
the maximum sound in the auditorium was dozens of them, discreetly held down to
perfectly enormous. (Perhaps there was a moderate individual sound levels.
certain amount of volume expansion,
Stu Hegeman's upward -directed speakers
manual or otherwise; no matter. Even so, have posed some minor problems before
the level of background noise was out- this in home use -you may remember the
standingly good.)
"beer can" description I let fall in my acThis has been a major problem in elec- count of his little Eico job : what happens
tronic music and, indeed, forced the entire if you spill beer on the top and into that
remaking of Varèse's big score "Deserts," conveniently upward -pointing paper cones
about which I wrote at length here some But in the new Harman -Kardon Citation
years ago. Tape equipment at that time X system (which directs sound both upward
evidently was not good enough to stand and outward) the perfect speaker for
the rerecording necessary for assembly of large- audience use has been found. The
the music. (And without a doubt, more four speakers I could see from my balcony
advanced sound -source techniques now re- seat were exactly right for the job. There
quire less rerecording than formerly.)
was directionality in many elements of the
5. Next -volume. It was probably so
sound, but in no case did I feel that the
intended, but I'm sorry to admit that I had power was beamed at me directly from the
to put my fingers in both ears for many speakers themselves. They were unobtrusive.
minutes at a time during the loudest The sound was everywhere.
portions of "Electronics." The maximum
Some of this pleasant effect was due to
volume was just plain excruciating. Maybe
clever positioning of the outboard speakers,
you can take it ; I couldn't.
mounted outside the proscenium on each
Granted that it is a temptation to make side so that their upward component prouse of overwhelming volume when you have jected up the in- curved proscenium "surit at your easy disposal (thanks to Stu round" and reflected out from the arched
Hegeman). Granted that it may be aesthe- curve at the top. A naturally excellent
tically desirable to curl the ears. Even so, sound- distribution device, though probably
I deplore the tendency to play everything not so envisioned by the architect.
loud, on the same grounds that I deplore
Most other speaker systems, even so,
overly-loud hi fi in the home. Similar would have had to be laid clumsily down
grounds, anyhow. In ordinary home music, on their rears, or tipped giddily upwards
there is the original "live" music to be and sidewise, in order to avoid destructive
considered ; here there is no such limiting beaming. Not so the Citation X with its
factor. But volume is still volume.
upward-travelling component.
How loud? Well, we had a full ballet
So much for first -night commentary. I still
symphony orchestra right on hand for don't know such elementary things about
comparative purposes. It made a pipsqueak "Electronics" as how many channels were
noise at its most powerful, compared with used, whether there really is built -in reverMr. Hegeman's nuclear sound- bombs. Let's beration and how it was produced, how the
skip the db -in lay terms, I'd say that
"Studio Trautonium" works and how
Messrs. Gassmann and Sala worked. Let's
hope that this important music will appear
soon on stereo disc or home tape, for
further study. It's worth it.
-I
P.S. Flash. As I was in the act of putting
this piece into its mailing envelope I got
a call from the people who handled the
public relations for the audio portion of
"Electronics." Had time just to ask some
two or three questions. How many tracks?
Astonishing-they said ONE TRACK. The
stereo effect that I heard (as you may have
discovered already) was via ingenious treatment of the sound through the stereo
system -and 31 speakers. I could see only
four of them. Reverb? They weren't sure,
but thought maybe. 'Nuff said. My reaction that this was a highly successful
example of pseudo stereo was thus technically correct. It was exactly that!
Perhaps it was just as well I didn't know
a thing ahead of time.
AUDIO
MAY, 1961
new
700 series
MARK IV
speakers
matchless performance,
unbeatable price!
High fidelity enthusiasts "in the know" have
long recognized the fact that top -notch performance does not necessarily depend on high
priced equipment. Speakers, for instance, have
been subjected to claims, counter -claims, and
a mass of debatable statistics. The surest test
of all is your own judgement. And the British built, 700 series has passed this self- judgement test with flying colors, again and again.
Now there's a new level of R&A quality . . .
at the old, familiar budget -loving prices. It's
the new MARK IV. And you'll find even higher
performance quality than ever before . . .
higher than you ever would have thought possible at such low cost. Here are just a few
exciting features of the MARK IV loudspeaker.
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avail-
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"the best of AUDIO"
A new compendium of AUDIO knowledge.
Here is a collection of the best of AUDIO -The AUDIOclinic
by Joseph Giovanelli...noted audio engineer and the original
high fidelity answer-man- EQUIPMENT PROFILES edited by
C. G. McProud ... Editor of AUDIO. Here is a wealth of hi -fi
and audio information. Answers to the most important issues
in high fidelity and a valuable reference on the performance of
leading makes of high fidelity components. Volume I $2.00
No. 120
THE 4th AUDIO ANTHOLOGY
$2.95 Poctpoid
Audio Anthology ever!
wealth of essential high f delity
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Prepared and edited by C. G. McPr,ud,
publisher of Audio and noted authority
and pioneer in the field of high fidelity.
Contains a wealth of ideas, how to's,
what to's and when to's, writtet. so
plainly that both engineer and layman
can appreciate its valuable corlext.
Covers planning, problems with decoration, cabinets and building hi -fi firniture. A perfect guide. $2.50 Postpdd.
HANDBOOK OF SOUND REPRODUCTION
by Edgar M. Villain-
NEW! Greatest Reference Work on Audio & Hi
TAPE RECORDERS AND TAPE RECORDING
by Harold D. Weiler
A complete book on home recording by the author of
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recorders. Covers room acoustics, microphone technique..
sound effects, editing and splicing, etc. Invaluable to re.
cording enthusiasts. Paper Cover $2.95 Postpaid.
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This offer expires May 31, 1961
Good only on direct order to Publisher
CIRCLE OS100
AUDIO Bookshelf
RADIO MAGAZINES, INC.,
P.O. Box 629, Mineola, New York
Please send nie the books I have circled below. I am enclosing the
(No. C.O.D.)
full remittance of $
All U.S.A. and CANADIAN orders shipped postpaid. Add 50c` for Foreign orders
(sent at buyer's risk).
124
123
05100
BOOKS:
120
112
115
110
NAME
CITY
ADDRESS
ZONE
STATE
LIGHT LISTENING
(from page 8)
use of woodwinds and strings combines resourcefulness and a rich melting quality that's
for international favorites such as
Fascination, Just A Gigolo, The Sea, and
Under the Roofs of Paris. It would be pointless to attempt to give this album a comparative rating because it stands alone in its
ideal
class.
Percy Faith: Carefree
Columbia CS 8360
The original compositions of conductor arranger Percy Faith have now reached a
number sufficient to fill an entire LP. The
twelve selections recorded here fall into two
natural divisions. Side one of the album
is given over to bright and bustling novelties.
Inspired for the most part by the rhythms of
Latin America, these tunes are bound together
by an insouciance that runs through most of
Percy Faith's fast -tempo output. Ills Brazilian
Sieighbells is a good example of an improbable
concept carried off with saucy good humor.
The harpsichord and plucked violin strings in
Pizzicato Polka suggest a visit by a present clay hep American to the Vienna of Strauss'
day. The reverberation favored by Columbia
for the Faith sessions is less noticeable on
side two of the album where the strings have
a chance to unleash their tenderest eloquence
in a fine group of ballads.
of Hollywood
Medallion .) MST 47013
Several factors raise this release above the
run -of-the -mill movie album. In the first place,
the Medallion Strings are under the direction
of a seasoned New York conductor -Emanuel
Vardi. Vardi came to this country at the age
of four, attended the Juilliard School of
Music and then proceeded to establish himself as one of America's leading violists. His
classical releases on the Kapp label already
testify to his skill In balancing a string
orchestra. IIis viola and cellos certainly stand
an equal chance with the more assertive
The Sound
violins. Because he has not devoted too much
time to the generally thankless job of conducting movie background music, Vardi
musters adequate enthusiasm for this assignment. In assembling a representative collection
of current movie themes, Medallion Is stretching a point in labelling this the "Sound of
Hollywood." The scores sampled include such
colorful foreign entries as Never On Sunday
and Black Orpheus.
Don Costa: Echoing Voices and
Trombones
United Artists Q UATC 2218
What else can you do with voices and trom-
bones these days? Last year's search for
novelty in demonstration-of-maximum-directionality recordings was already beginning to
run dry of ideas when UA decided to join
the parade. Tape, of course, is providing a
supplemental audience for the channel
switchers but surely only a hermit, hearing
his first stereo recording, would find his
attention riveted by the sudden appearance of
voices in alternate speakers. The voices (male
and female) offer no words in this reel of
popular songs and the trombones merely keep
the opposite channel busy. Hardly an inspired
release.
AUDIO
MAY, 1961
Finest Microphone
used by all of Japanese
Taperecorder Makers
Stable quality
Excellent efficiency
This is Norman Luboff
RCA Victor LSP 2342
After amassing a total of fifteen currently available choral albums on the Columbia label,
Norman Luboff has switched his allegiance to
RCA. Victor. Whatever the reason for the
move on Luboff's part, this new alignment of
forces gives RCA the services of a mixed
chorus that can handle a most generous
variety of assignments in the popular field.
Certainly this point is underscored in the
program selected for the choir's first effort in
Victor's spacious Hollywood studios. In what
amounts to a sampler of the group's gamut of
styles, the selections range from drinking
songs and folk ditties all the way to Blues
and the more sophisticated show tunes. Luboff
fans will find the sound of the chorus a bit
different in its new setting. Gone is the
enhancement once provided by Columbia's
judicious use of reverberation. It's loss, however, will not be judged a problem on any
sound system capable of realistic response.
Marty Paich Piano Quartet
RCA Victor
LSP
2259
An easy way to discover what you've been
missing in single- channel recordings of music
for four planos is to sample any band of this
stereo disc by Marty Patch's piano quartet.
Much of the pleasure of this disc can be
traced to the avoidance of stunts on the
part of the arrangers. In these days of frenzied
control -room activity, this recording crew was
content to supervise a simple setup of four
concert grands placed In a straight row calculated to span one wall of a listening room. A
rhythm section that finds its busiest moments
in the Latin and jump tunes is part of the
accompaniment which includes some strings
for the romantic ballads. Marty Patch, at right
end, sets the pace for pianists John Williams,
Pete Jolly, and Jimmie Rowles. The arrangements avoid the excesses of earlier four plano
recordings in stereo where the melody was
forced to scramble from keyboard -to- keyboard
just to prove the existence of multiple
channels The mike pickup is close enough to
satisfy any pent up craving for the combined
bass of four planos in full cry. The Patch
touch is most evident in the jazz -derived
treatment of Hanky Tonk Train, a popularized
Honeysuckle Rose and a multi -voiced One
O'Clock Jump. The quartet hits its easiest
stride while toying with the sonorities of
2E
Misirlou and Stella By Starlight.
This Month's Cover
The installation shown on the cover
this month is in the home of Hector
Allen, who represents himself as a writer
and world traveller. In any case, Mr.
Allen is clearly a man with a great deal
of interest in both reading and musicas indicated by this partial view of his
home. One of the outstanding thoughts
conveyed by this installation is that a
high- quality component system can be
placed on shelves. Note the absence of
enclosures excepting, of course, the
speaker systems. Here's a list of the
components used :
72.r.javirs
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
McIntosh MR66 AM -FM stereo
tuner.
McIntosh C20 preamplifier.
(2) McIntosh MC60 60 -watt power
amplifiers (hidden in closet).
Pickering Model 199 "Unipoise" arm
with Stanton stereo "Flux valve."
Pickering Model 800 "Gyrapoise"
turntable.
Garrard Model "A" automatic turntable with Stanton stereo '`Flux valve."
(2) KLH Model Six speaker systems.
Viking Compact Model 85 4 -track
stereo tape recorder.
i
Compact Lightweight
Dynamic Microphone
with switch
DM-192
type Dynamic Microphone is equipped with remote control or "Press -to- talk"
switch and featured for the use of transistor
amp and communicating instrument.
DM -192
Specification
Response
±
100-9,000 ops.
:
Impedance
50k
600 12
:
8 DB
S2
-77 DB at 600 S2
Sensitivity
Height 75 x Width 48 x17mm (Thickness)
Size:
:
Weight
178 gr.
:
Switch capacity
Volt
:
24v
:
Currency
DC
IA
:
DC
STEREO CARTRIDGE
C-75
MOVING MAGNET TYPE
WITH DIAMOND STYLUS
Specifications
Response
:
Isoration
:
20- 17.000 cps.
-24
Channel Balance
Output
:
DB
:
at 1,000
-t
1
c
s
DB
9mV Scm Sec.
Suitable load resistance
:
70k
S2
Suitable stylus pressure
:
3 -4
gr.
CS
PRIMO COMPANY LTD.
2043, MURE, MITAKA -SHI, TOKYO, JAPAN
Q
1
i
t:::
..-
erof/ax
CLASSIFIED
RECORD REVUE
10e per word per Insertion for noncommercial
advertisements; 250 per word for commercial advertisements. Rates are net, and no discounts will be
allowed. Copy must be accompanied by remittance la
full. and must reach the New York orne. by the
first of the month preceding the date of issue.
Rates:
(from page 59)
SNEER PLEASURE
Hess, a tremendous emphasis on perfect
phrasing and shaping, note by note. Interesting
he can go on (he's under 50) to combine
style A with the new style B plus a still larger
dash of human warmth. Foldes will end 'way
up on top and a great elder statesman.
-if
Mozart: Piano Concerto No. 21 in C, K.
467. Rosina Lhevinne; Juilliard Orch.,
Morel.
Columbia MS 6182 stereo
The best part of this recording of a worldfamous 80- year -old piano teacher is that
listener- tested
permoflux foses
Listen soon and discover the concert
hall quality made possible in headset engineering by Permoflux. You
will find that Permoflux Fones meet
the challenge of your own fine mon-
aural or stereophonic sound system.
Permoflux for the finest. At better
dealers, or write for free brochure.
PERMOFLUX PRODUCTS COMPANY
4101 San Fernando Road
Glendale 4, Calif.
Circle 82A
anybody with half an ear -and no knowledge
of either the Lhevinne name or of piano
pedagogy -can enjoy the quality of the music making. It's that good.
The old lady was the wife of Josef Lhevinne
and for decades the two, out of Russia, were
top -drawer piano teachers at the Juilliard
School ; when he died in 1944, she took over
most of his teaching along with her own and,
almost for the first time, she allowed her
own piano performances once in awhile to
emerge on the concert stage. She is still
primarily a teacher. But. when she's willin',
what an exquisite performer
You'll find her Mozart, as might be expected,
of an extraordinary preciseness and accuracy.
Every note is weighed and placed just so, and
one can almost hear the teaching comment, as
to shape of wrist, drop weight, phrasing,
posture
.
but unlike most teacher -style
playing, this is music too. That's what is so
surprising.
After all, ideally every teacher should
practice what she preaches. This one actually
does. Amazing.
26
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Send FREE Allied Sale Book No. 205
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82
Zone
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-
FOR SALE : Viking FF-75 tape playback
deck with new quarter track stereo head
plays quarter or half track stereo and half
track monophonic tapes. Sherwood 36 watt
monophonic amplifier. Elect ro -Voice Regency
speaker system (dark mahogany cabinet).
MagnavoxAM /FM radio with phono input and
recording output. Any of the above for $95.00
or make me an offer. Norman Reed, Crater ford, l'a.
FOR SALE : Ampex 2- channel stereophonic
tape recorder, 350 mechanism (like new) with
403 amplifiers and head assembly and carry ing case. $900.00. Also 400 console and mechanism with new 350 amplifiers and 1,¡_ track
head assemby. $400.00. Mechanism needs capstan motor replaced or repaired. Write : AudioVideo Company, 609 Hill Avenue, Pittsburgh
21, Pa.
DON'T BUY HI -FI components, kits, tape,
tape recorders until you get our low, low return mall quotes. "We guarantee not to he
undersold." Wholesale catalogue free. Hi-FIdelity Center, 220UC East 23rd St., New York
10, N. Y.
NEW and unopened, warranties intact
Sherwood S -5500 dual 24 -24 watt stereo amplifier with or without cover $134.00. Shure
1f7D pickup with N21D stylus $56.00. G. Cain.
15 Manet Circle, Chestnut 11111s, Mass.
:
AMPEX 3761 MIXER. Sigma manufactured. Four balanced microphone inputs, balanced output. Discontinued model, brand new,
full warranty. Were $315.00, now $165.00.
Stereo version also available. Sigma Electric
Co., Inc., 11 E. 16th St, New York 3, N. Y.
SELL : In excellent condition : Marantz
Audio Consollette blonde cabinet, $100.00 ;
Model Two amplifier, $140.00. Rek -O -Kut
B12H turntable, $90.00. John Honer, 683 Locust, Galesburg, Ill.
SELL : Acrosound stereo preamplifier S -1001
& 20 -20 amplifier, perfect condition, $95.00
for both. Two Stromberg AP -437 40 watt amplifiers, new, $70.00 each. All equipment
shipped in factory boxes. Schultz, 373 Carling
Road, Rochester 10, N. Y.
Get the latest issue of the SCHWANN
LONG PLAYING RECORD CATALOG at your
record dealer's now. A complete monthly 250 -
page guide to all widely available recorded
music, it lists over 25,000 monophonic and
stereo records, including over 550 new releases each month. If your record dealer
doesn't carry it, send 350, with your name
and address and name and address of your
dealer, to W. Schwann, Inc., 137 Newbury St.,
Boston 16, Mass.
JAMES B. LANSING PARAGON, oil wal-
nut, perfect condition. $1200.00. Will trade
for pair James B. Lansing D5057's. Roy
Thompson, 3710 Cloudland Drive N.W., Atlanta 5, Ga.
30% OFF LIST, any record hi -fi or stereo.
$3.98 list-$2.79, $4.98 list- $3.49, $5.98 list
-$4.19. Packing charge 500 for first record.
150 each additional. Order now or send 350
for catalogue. LP's Unlimited, P.O. Box 294,
Rutherford, N. J.
SELL : 200 2400 ft. 14 inch tapes on cores,
used once. Make offer. Technisonic Studios.
Inc., 1201 Brentwood Blvd., St. Louis 17, Mo.
AMPEX 300 3CSS. Ampex 351C, Neumann
AM31A, Preston SN, 3 Gotham Grampion
feedback cutterhend systems, 3 Altec preamplifiers, 2 Cinema Dialogue equalizers, 2 Gates
transcription turntables with pickup arms and
preamplifiers. Ampex 300 console cabinet.
Above equipment less than year old. Make
offer. John P. White. Jr., 363 South Acadian,
Baton Rouge, La.
WANTED : schematics for multiplex receivers Browning R-1500 & Harkins FM mus -cast.
Write : N. Carter, 20524 Alameda, Cleveland
28, Ohio.
SELL : James B. Lansing 375 driver, horn lens. Marantz Electronic crossover. Excellent
condition. Best offer. Donald C. Jackson, 1905
N. Lamar, Austin 5, Texas.
ELECTRONIC KITS CONSTRUCTED,
WIRED AND TESTED. Satisfaction guaranteed. Send inquiries to J. R. Simpson, 46A
Cedar St., Waltham 54, Mass.
AUDIO
MAY, 1961
9dsraísr Noue....
THE FINEST OF ITS KIND . .
Get more FM stations with the world's most
powerful FM Yogi Antenna systems.
To be fully informed,
send 250 for book
"Theme And Variations" by
L. F B.
Carini
and containing
FM
Station Directory.
APPARATUS DEVELOPMENT CO.
WETHERSFIELD 9, CONN
Circle 836
1111=1111.
ELECTROSTATIC TWEETER
THRILLING
HI FREQUENCY
RESPONSE
ONLY $19.95
ORDER BY
1015
FIGUEROA
LOS ANGELES
CALIFORNIA
Circle
Pickering' Promotion. Offering a free
78 -rpm records with the
purchase of a replacement LP stylus in
the new "V -Guard Playmates" pack. Owners of the Models 380 or 381 Stereo Flux valves, whether in automatic changers or
in transcription tone arms, can benefit
from this offer. Models are available
which will fit either category.
Mining and Manufacturing Co. began recently in Needham in suburban Boston,
Mass. The new building will contain 54,000 square feet, more than twice the space
available at 3M's present office in Newtown Center, Mass.
AMPEX RECORDERS,
DUPLICATORS.
ACCESSORIES
and other professional equipment.
Write for your free copy of our new illustrated eataloe 6561.
Visit our Stereo Theater and Professional Showroom.
SONOCRAFT CORPORATION
ERS, ACCESSORIES. Ill FI COMPONENTS
Dletributors of all leading TAPE RECORD115 Watt 45th Street. New York 36, N. Y.
H.12-1750
Circle 830
CANADA
High Fidelity Equipment
Complete Service
Complete Lines
Components
Hi -Fi Records
-
and Accessories
E;LECOO10E
SOUND SYSTEMS
Regular Price $373.10
YOUR COST $222.50
for FREE
Quotations on
Your Package or
Send
You Save
over 40%
Single Component
.
$150.60
Our policy: We Will Not Be Undersold."
send for quotations on package
Test us
or single components. FREE WHOLESALE
CATALOG.
...
HI -FI RECORDING TAPE
7" Spools
-
Splice Free Freq. Resp. 30.15KC
12 -23 24&Up
3 -11
12A 1200' Acetate $1.29 $1.17 $ .99
1.45
1.59
1.79
18A 1800' Acetate
1.85
1.99
2.09
18M 1800' Mylar
2.59
2.49
2.69
24M 2400' Mylar
Any assorement permitted for quantity dis cound. Add 15C per spool postage. 100 24
or more
PRE -RECORDED TAPES -RCA -VICTOR, BEL
CANTO 2 Cr 4 Track. Write for Complete
Catalog FREE, and Wholesale Discounts.
JR. TAPE SPLICER Reg. 56.50 Special $2.95
3.95
"
DELUXE TAPE SPLICER" 8.50
Ampex Appoints. Dr. Walter H. Cobbs,
Jr., formerly research manager on films
for E. I. duPont de Nemours Co., has been
named manager of research and development at Orr Industries Co., a division of
the Ampex Corporation.
recovers from
New Concertone Western Sales ManaO. Williams has been appointed Western Division Sales Manager
American
for
Concertone, a Division of
Astro- Science Corp. of Los Angeles, Calif.
According to the company, Mr. Williams
was appointed because of an over -all expansion of company activities.
ger. Barton
Circle 83E
A NOTE TO THE HI -FI BUYER
AIR MAIL us your requirements for
an IMMEDIATE WHOLESALE QUOTATION
Components, Tapes and Recorders
SHIPPED PROMPTLY AT LOWEST PRICES
WRITE TODAY FOR FREE CATALOG
190-A Lexington Ave.
New York 16, N. Y.
If not, you'll love our
low, low, hi -fi component prices. Write for
audio
unlltnitd
free money- saving catalog A -12 and seal
KEY ELECTRONICS CO.
120 Liberty St., N.Y. 6. N.Y.
Circle 83H
Circle 83F
HI
FI
or SINGLE COMPONENTS
You'll find our prices low
and service fast.
Write for our quotation
Center Industrial Electronics, Inc.
New York 7, N. Y.
Circle 83G
MAY, 1961
220 -U East 23rd St., New York 10, N. Y.
Circle 83A
THE
ROAD
HAVE MONEY
TO BURN?
PACKAGE
"The House Of Low Low Prices"
Rek -O -Sut and York County Chair
Create Line. A line of interchangeable
stereo cabinet- components combinations
have been created jointly by the York
County Chair Co. and Rek- O-Kut. The line
is designed to cater to a full range of consumer budgets and tastes.
126 DUNDAS ST. WEST. TORONTO, CANADA
AUDIO
-24
W Stereo Amp. . $119.95
Bogen DB212
65.20
Bogen B61- Turntable and Base ..
24.00
Shure M7D -Diam. Stereo Cart. ..
Two TF3- Jensen Spkr. Systems .. 159.00
4.95
Interconn.
Cables
All
of a new branch sales office of Minnesota
co,eat CATALOG
74-A Cortlandt St.
HNFI
Minnesota Mining Builds. Construction
8 C
COMPLETE
PTo je
Burgess Battery Enters Audio Tape
Market. Burgess Battery Company, Division of Servel, Inc., has entered the magnetic tape field as the result of a 6 -year
long research and development program.
For the past 5 years the company has operated a pilot production line turning out
tape of optimum quality. A separate Magnetic Tape Division has been established
to handle the production and marketing of
the new line.
stylus to play
MAIL
S.
Everest Studio Bought by Fine Recording. Belock Instrument Corp. has sold the
lease of its Everest Sound Recording Studio at Bayside, N. Y., including all equipment, to Fine Recording of N. Y. Harry D.
Belock, President of Belock Instrument,
said that the Everest Division would continue to employ the studio for its stereo
and mono recording. The studio is the
only one in the East designed and constructed primarily for rerecording.
SAV[OV[R40%
CIAO
CLARITY
send for
BACK
When
a
patient
mental illness he
often encounters
prejudice and antagonism rejection
that may lead to another breakdown. But,
the recovered patient
is no longer alone. Now,
when he leaves the hospital, the mental health
association is by his side
to help him find a job, a
warm welcome. Support
your mental health association.
-
DUO PHONIC INDOCTO
increases your
PRESENCE
THE AUDIONICS CO.
West Walnut St., Metuchen, N. J.
8
Circle 83K
t/
DEPTH
on both STEREO & MONO systems
the facts
money back guarantee
$29.90
Il
GIVE AT THE SIGN OF
THE RINGING BELL!
83
F.AYETTE
RAD X O
-
"Let Your Ears Be The Judge"
Guaranteed or Money Refunded with Lafayette's
15 -Day
ADVERTISING
INDEX
Satisfaction
Free Home Trial.
.
Acoustic Research, Inc.
A.
GARRARD
LAFAYETTE LA -250A
50 -WATT STEREO AMPLIFIER
RC210
/(OPTIONAL)
LAFAYETTE
ELIPTOFLEX SERIES
BOOKSHELF ENCLOSURES
LAFAYETTE
brilliance of stereo, featuring Lafayette's
remarkable LA -250A, 50 -watt stereo amplifier.
The dynamic
SK -58
FREE EDGE
12" COAXIAL
OUR BEST STEREO SYSTEM BUY
SPEAKERS
LAFAYETTE 50 -WATT
STEREO PHONO SYSTEM
STEREO SYSTEM with mahogany,
walnut or blonde changer base (specify
finish).
HS103WX
5.00 Down
194.50
Same as HS- 103WX, plus 2 Lafayette
Eliptoflex Series Bookshelf Enclosures in
mahogany, walnut, bionde or oiled walnut finish (specify finish).
HS -104WX
10.00 Down
257.50
HI -FI
MATCHED COMPONENTS
LAFAYETTE LA -250A 50 -WATT STEREO AMPLIFIER
GARRARD RC210 4 -SPEED RECORD CHANGER
PICKERING 380C DIAMOND STEREO CARTRIDGE
LAFAYETTE WOOD CHANGER BASE
2 LAFAYETTE SK -58 FAMOUS FREE EDGE 12"
COAXIAL SPEAKERS o 29.50 EACH
99.50
44.50
29.85
3.95
59.00
Regular Catalog Price
236.80
194.50
LAFAYETTE SPECIAL PRICE
LAFAYETTE'S
CRITERION LINE
Pacesetter of the High -Fidelity industry . . . renowned for its perf ormance. The ultimate for those who
NEW! KT -550 100 -WATT
KT -600A PROFESSIONAL
STEREO CONTROL CENTER
Kit Form
134.50
KT -600A
LA -550
LA -600A
5.00
ar
c.,
Kit Form
79.50
Completely Wired
1
34.50
Response 5-40,000 cps ' 1 db.
Precise "Null" Balancing System
Unique Stereo and Monaural Control Features
Concentric Input Level Controls
Easy -To-Assemble Kit Form.
new "Laboratory Standard" dual 50 -watt amplifier guaranteed to outperform any basic stereo
amplifier on the market. Advanced engineering
techniques plus the finest components ensure
flawless performance. Distortion levels so low
they are unmeasurable. Hum and noise better than
90 db below 50- watts. Complete with metal enclosure. 9''/,x121/2 "D. Shpg. wt., 60 lbs.
inimiummonfitomimiiminecomosom
M-1
P
0. Box 190
Name
Address
ir±FAYETTE
a'ai
RAD I
City
LOCATIONS
'
JAMAICA 33, NEW YORK
77
82
7, 37
83
80
38, 39
41
54
83
83
Belden
Bell Telephone Laboratories
13
18
British Industries Corporation
3
Center Industrial Electronics, Inc.
L lassi f ied
Dynaco,
83
82
Inc.
59
EICO
11
Electronic Applications, Inc.
clectro -Sonic Laboratories, Inc.
Electro- Voice, Inc.
electro -Voice Sound Systems Inc.,
Ercona Corporation
15
75
61
83
79
44, 45
47
Fisher Radio Corporation
Fukuin Electric Works
Glaser- Steers Corp.
Gotham Audio Corporation
Grado Laboratories, Inc.
78
Cov. III
58
Harman -Kardon, Inc.
Hi Fidelity Center
49
JansZen
73
83
Loudspeakers
1
Key Electronics Co.
Kierulft Sound Corporation
KLH Research & Development Corporation
83
83
56
Lafayette Radio
Langevin, a Division of Sonotec
Incorporated
84
Sensitivity 2.2 my for 1 volt out. Dual low impedance "plate follower" outputs 1500 ohms. Less
than .03% IM distortion; less than .1% harmonic
distortion. Hum and noise 80 db below 2 volts.
14x10sréx41/2 ". Shpg. wt., 16 lbs.
r--- --
9
43
Lansing, James B., Sound, Inc.
Neat Onkyo Denki Co., Ltd.
Neshaminy Electronic Corporation
Norted Corporation
North American Philips Co., Inc.
12
73
2
Parmax Company
Permoflux Products Company
Pickering & Company, Inc.
Pilot Radio Corporation
Primo Company, Ltd.
75
82
R
5.00 Down
A
Lafayette Radio, Dept.
40
_.
Rated at 50 -Watts per Channel
Made in
Response from 2- 100,000 cps, 0,
U.S.A.
-1db at 1 -Watt
Grain Oriented, Silicon Steel Transformers
Multiple Feedback Loop Design
Easy -To- Assemble Kit Form
84
In
84.50
Down
5
51
Inc.
demand the .finest.
Completely Wired
1
YOU SAVE
BASIC STEREO AMPLIFIER KIT
KT -550 In
E. S.,
Acro Products Company
Allied Radio Corp.
Altec Lansing Corporation
Apparatus Development Co.
Audio Bookshelf
Audio Devices, Inc.
Audio Dynamics Corporation
Audio Fidelity Records
Audionics Co., The
Audio Unlimited
PICKERING 380C
CARTRIDGE
WITH
DIAMOND STYLUS
Fi
A
RCA Electron Tube Division
Reeves Soundcraft Corp.
Rek -O -Kut Company, Inc.
Rockford Special Furniture Co.
62
17
53
81
79
Coy. II
31
6
69
Sansui Electric Co., Ltd.
74
Sargent -Rayment Co.
68, 70, 72
Scott, H. H., Inc.
67
Sherwood Electronic Laboratories, Inc.
I
Shure Brothers, Inc.
64
Sonotone Corp.
4
Sonocraft Corporation
83
Superscope, Inc.
29
amaica 31, New York
------- - - - --Zone
34, 35
74
Coy. IV
57
State
NEW YORK 13, N.Y.
PLAINFIELD, N.J.
Tandberg of America, Inc.
Tannoy (America) Ltd.
Transis-Tronics, Inc.
Thorens
I
BRONX 58, N.Y.
PARAMUS, N.J.
L NEWARK 2, NJ.
I
Weathers Industries
71
BOSTON 10, MASS
AUDIO
MAY, 1961
NEUMANN WILL CREATE ONLY 400 NEW
J-ß7
MICROPHONES IN 1961!
THE LATEST FROM NEUMANN! The unhurried hands that assembled the famous U -47, exploit
that incomparable experience in creating the new multi -purpose U -67 condenser microphone.
When you've checked these outstanding features ...you'll want
to be in on this )ear's U.S. quota:
1. Electronically switched directional characteristics: Cardioid,
Omni -directional, Figure -8.
2. Frequency response with virtually no peak at the high end.
3. A newly developed input circuit permits flat response to 40
cps with sharp roll -off below, making the U -67 virtually "pop" -
proof. (This circuit readily disabled for flat low -end response
to below 10 cps.)
4. Separate "Voice-Music" switch raises the roll -off starting
point from 40 cps to 100 cps.
5. A third switch on the microphone itself permits reduction of
the capsule's sensitivity by approximately 14 dB BEFORE the
amplifier section. Prevents overload of amplifier from extremely
close placement of the microphone. This is the first time that
such overload protection is available in a studio microphone,
at the INPUT to the amplifier.
6. "Calibrating input" connection on power supply permits
direct testing of microphone preamplifier with oscillator.
7. Regular EF -86 tube readily replaceable.
8
Complete protection against radio frequency interference.
9. Built -in pad for U.S. nominal input impedances and levels;
fully compatible with all domestic microphones.
Complete system includes: U -67 Microphone, NU -67 Power
supply, UC -6 Interconnect cable and stand mount.
U.S. std. fuse, pilot light, AC cord etc.
Write for full specifications and possible
U -47 trade -in allowance.
GOTHAM AUDIO CORPORATION
2 W.
46 St., New York 36, N.Y. (212)
CO 5 -4111
1710
N. La Brea,
Hollywood 28, Cal. (213) HO 5 -4111
Gotham Audio Div. IN CANADA: A. T. R. Armstrong Ltd.. 700 Western Rd., Toronto, Ontario
,TEL'S
TAKEN
TUBES
OUT OF
r.
;
96
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t
98
t
t
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t
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102
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.
30
40
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106
104
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FM
TUNE RS.FVWEROFF.
MUTING
i:
,n
60
FM AFC
ON
OFF
'RANGE'
J
LOCAL
FUNCTION
TUNING
FM
finally here ... high fidelity's first all- transistor FM
tuner is quite naturally, from Transis- Tronics. The Ttc FM -15 iS the
most efficient tuner on the market today. Double cone Sion provides
far superior image rejection, significantly reducing interference from
unwanted signals. And t- ecause of its all- transistor circuitry, the FM -15
has no neat, no hum, no microphonics and exceptionally low power
requirements. HEAR THE FM -15 WITH ITS PERFECT COMPANION, THE S-15
ALL -TRANSISTOR STEREO AMPLIFIER. Here is a combination which truly
obsoletes all others. Hearing is believing. In the mea
Transis- Tronics for complete specifications on both unit
Long awaited
1111
...
TRANSIS-TPONICS, INC
.
16C1 W
OLYMPIC HLVD.. SANTA MONICA, CALIFORNIA
w
.a1
..
"T
MOIN. 11.10111
r r
NANIIP
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