Untitled - PDF Archive

Untitled - PDF Archive
1
CONTENTS
1
GETTING STARTED
1.1
Installation and Activation
1.2
About this Manual
2.
PAGES
9
9
13
17
2.1
Start
17
2.2
Song
19
2.3
Project (Studio One Professional)
20
2.4
Quick Switch
21
3.
FUNDAMENTALS
22
3.1
Nondestructive Editing and Undo/Redo
22
3.2
High-Precision Mix Engine
22
3.3
Automatic Delay Compensation
22
3.4
Look Mom, No MIDI!
23
3.5
Drag-and-Drop
23
3.6
Control Link
23
4.
SETUP
24
4.1
System Requirements
24
4.2
Set Up Your Audio Device
25
4.3
Audio Device Input/Output Setup
27
4.4
Set Up Your MIDI Devices
29
4.5
Managing Your Content
35
2
4.6
Creating a New Song
38
4.7
Advanced Options
40
5
RECORDING
45
5.1
Audio Tracks
45
5.2
Instrument Tracks
49
5.3
Activating Recording
55
5.4
Metronome Control
57
5.5
Loop Recording on Audio Tracks
58
5.6
Instrument Track Recording Modes
60
5.7
Track Layers
61
5.8
Audio Recording Format
62
5.9
Creating a Good Monitor Mix
62
5.10
Cue Mixes and Zero-Latency Monitoring
63
5.11
Print Effects While Recording
66
6
EDITING
67
6.1
Events
67
6.2
Arrange View Mouse Tools
69
6.3
The Grid
73
6.4
Common Editing Actions
75
6.5
Audio Loops and Music Loops
80
6.6
Edit Groups
82
6.7
Timestretching
83
6.8
Comping
86
6.9
Transient Detection and Editing
88
3
6.10
Track Transform
94
6.11
Event Effects
96
6.12
Edit View Event Editing
97
6.13
Pitch Correction with Melodyne Integration
104
6.14
Editing Commands
106
6.15
Undo History
106
6.16
Navigating with Zoom
107
6.17
Editing Suggestions
108
7
THE BROWSER
109
7.1
The Browser Tabs and Search
109
7.2
Importing Files with the Browser
110
7.3
The Pool
115
7.4
File and Folder Commands
117
7.5
Instruments and Audio Effects
118
7.6
Sound Sets
120
7.7
Browsing Song and Project Content
120
7.8
Importing Other Application Project Files
121
8
ARRANGING
122
8.1
Quickly Duplicating Events
122
8.2
Duplicating Tracks
122
8.3
Tempo Track
123
8.4
Time Signature
124
8.5
Bouncing
125
8.6
Adding Time to the Arrangement
126
4
8.7
Deleting Time from the Arrangement
127
8.8
Folder Tracks
127
8.9
Track List
129
9
MIXING
130
9.1
The Console
130
9.2
Signal Routing
140
9.3
Groups
148
9.4
Metering
149
9.5
Automatic Plug-In Delay Compensation
150
9.6
Manual Audio Track Delay
151
9.7
Using the Marker Track
151
9.8
Looping During Mixing
153
9.9
Mixing Down
153
9.10
Export Stems from your Song
155
9.11
Mixing Suggestions
157
10
AUTOMATION
161
10.1
What is Automation?
161
10.2
Track Automation
161
10.3
Editing Automation Envelopes
164
10.4
Automation Modes
167
10.5
Instrument Part Automation
168
11
11.1
5
CONTROL LINK
What is Control Link?
171
171
11.2
Set Up Your External Devices
171
11.3
Map Your Keyboard
171
11.4
Control Linking
173
11.5
Global and Focus Mapping
175
11.6
Automation with Hardware Controllers
177
12
MASTERING
180
12.1
Creating a New Project
180
12.2
Adding Tracks
181
12.3
Track Sequencing
184
12.4
Editing Tracks
184
12.5
Using Insert Effects
186
12.6
Master Device Rack
187
12.7
Metering
188
12.8
Publishing Your Project
189
12.9
Song and Project Integration
192
13
BUILT-IN EFFECTS
195
13.1
Built-in Effect Micro Views
195
13.2
Built-in Effect Metering Options
195
13.3
Metering, Analysis, and Signal Generation
196
13.4
Delay
202
13.5
Distortion
207
13.6
Dynamics
213
13.7
Mastering
219
13.8
Mixing
222
6
13.9
Modulation
228
13.10
Reverb
233
13.11
Pipeline (Studio One Professional)
240
BUILT-IN VIRTUAL INSTRUMENTS
244
14
14.1
SampleOne
244
14.2
Impact
250
14.3
Presence
255
14.4
Mojito
261
15
VIDEO PLAYBACK AND SYNC
265
15.1
Video Player Interface
265
15.2
Supported Video Formats
266
15.3
Import Video
266
15.4
Sync to Video
266
15.5
Platform Differences
267
16.
16.1
7
EXTENSIONS
SoundCloud Client (Studio One Professional)
268
268
INTRODUCTION
Thank you for purchasing PreSonus™ Studio One™ software, and welcome to the Studio One
Reference Manual!
Studio One is a groundbreaking music-creation and production application for Mac® OS X and
Windows® that makes audio recording, MIDI sequencing, and (in the Professional version)
audio mastering easy and fun—the way it should be. From tracking to mixing to mastering
and distribution, Studio One is a creative environment built for intuitive use, speed, and
efficiency–yet it's robust enough for the most complex productions. Version 2 adds a wide
range of new features, improvements, and advanced technologies.
This manual is a great place to start learning about Studio One, and it also provides an indepth reference for experienced and new audio-software users alike.
We encourage you to contact us with questions or comments regarding this product. Our
forums are a great source of information from our staff and from other Studio One users.
Users in the USA also can reach us by email at [email protected] or call us at +1225-216-7887 between 9 a.m. and 5 p.m. U.S. Central Time (GMT 05:00). Users in other
countries should contact their local PreSonus distributors for technical support. PreSonus is
committed to constant product improvement, and we value your suggestions highly. We
believe the best way to achieve our goal of constant improvement is by listening to the real
experts: our valued customers. We appreciate the support you have shown us through the
purchase of this software.
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1
Getting Started
1.1
Installation and Activation
Studio One can be installed from either an installation disc or a downloaded installer package,
depending on which you purchased. If you have a physical disc, simply insert the disc into
your computer’s DVD drive. The installer will run automatically; then follow all onscreen
instructions.
If you downloaded an installer package from your user account, double-click to run the
installer, and then follow all onscreen instructions. Be sure to download the installer specific to
your operating system.
1.1.1 Activation
Once installed, Studio One should be activated. The following outlines the required steps to
activate Studio One.
Step 1: Create a User Account
After installing Studio One, launch the program, and the Activate Studio One menu will
appear.
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If you are a new Studio One user, you will need to create a user account. Click on Create New
Account, if your computer is connected to the Internet, and fill in your desired user-account
details.
If your computer is not connected to the Internet, go to a computer that is connected to the
Internet and visit this URL: http://www.presonus.com/registration. Once at the registration
page, click on the Register link, fill out the form, and click Submit.
An email from PreSonus Registration will be automatically sent to the email address you
provided in order to verify your email address. Please be certain that the email address you
provide is correct and that email from PreSonus will not be filtered or deleted by a spam filter
or other software. Click on the link in this email to activate your account. If you do not see the
email within a few minutes of clicking Submit, then the email probably ended up in a spam
folder or was deleted automatically by your email client. In this case, please contact
[email protected] to have your account manually activated.
Step 2: Activate Studio One
Now that you have created and activated your user account, you can activate your copy of
Studio One. If you have not already done so, launch Studio One and open the Studio
One/Activate Studio One menu.
Online Activation
If the computer on which Studio One has been installed is connected to the Internet, click on
the Activate Online link. Then enter your previously created account username, password, and
the product key you received either with the Studio One installation disc or via email, if you
purchased the software online. Click on the Activate button to finish the activation process.
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Offline Activation
If the computer on which Studio One has been installed is not connected to the Internet, click
on the Activate Offline link in the Activate Studio One menu and make note of the activation
code shown in Step 3 in the instructions. Then go to a computer with an Internet connection,
visit http://www.presonus.com/registration, and log in to your account. Click on the Software
Registration link and enter your product key, as printed on the Studio One package or
provided via email. Click on Submit, and you will be taken to your Software List, which should
list your version of Studio One.
Next, click on the Activate link listed next to your version of Studio One and enter the
activation code, as given in the Offline Activation menu. You may list a computer name to help
you keep track of your five allowed activations; for instance, if you intend to install Studio One
on a desktop and laptop, you may choose to name the activations "DESKTOP" and "LAPTOP."
You will then be given a link to download your User License file. Save this file to some external
media (CD, thumb drive, etc.), and then copy the file to the computer on which Studio One is
installed. Finally, you may locate the file in the Offline Activation menu, or simply drag-anddrop the file on top of the menu, to activate Studio One.
1.1.2 Content Installation
Studio One comes with many audio loops and instruments that are organized into Sound Sets,
as well as demo songs and tutorial videos. The number of Sound Sets available for installation
will depend on the version of Studio One you have installed (Artist, Producer, or Professional).
To install the Sound Sets and demo/tutorial material, launch Studio One and open the Studio
One/Studio One Installation menu.
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Note that you can install the content from either the DVD from your retail package or directly
from your user account if you have an internet connection. Also, you can install any content at
any time you like from this menu.
By default, each package included with your version of Studio One will be selected for
installation. You can set the Install To location to any desired location on your computer (many
people choose to store audio files on a hard drive other than the OS startup drive), then click
on Install Packets. If you are installing content from discs, you will be prompted to insert the
required DVDs during the installation.
After installation, you will find all of the installed content in the Sounds tab of the Browser,
which is on the Song page. Demos and tutorials can be accessed from the Start page. You will
also find instrument presets listed under the related instrument in the Instruments tab of the
Browser.
Install the Included Third-Party Content
We have partnered with third-party software manufacturers Toontrack, Native Instruments,
and Celemony to bring you some very cool instrument and effects plug-ins. The following will
guide you through installing and activating each package.
Installing the third-party software is relatively simple. Open the Studio One/Studio One
Installation menu and click on the Third Party tab. Depending on the version of Studio One
you have activated, you will see the following listed:
•
•
•
Toontrack EZDrummer Lite Plus (Artist, Producer, and Professional)
Native Instruments Komplete Players (Artist) or Komplete Elements (Producer and
Professional)
Celemony Melodyne Trial (Artist) or Melodyne Essential (Producer and Professional)
Notice that next to each package, serial numbers are listed with a Copy button; these serial
numbers will become important after installation, when you need to authorize these plug-ins.
To install each of the plug-ins, click on the arrow button to the far left. This will launch the
third-party installer for the plug-in. Follow all installer instructions carefully.
After installation has been completed for each plug-in, restart Studio One so that it can scan
for and find each plug-in. You will need to authorize each plug-in the first time you open it.
Authorization
Native Instruments Komplete Elements/Players:
The NI Service Center is installed with this package; use this to authorize Komplete
Elements/Players. NI Service Center should open automatically the first time you open any
plug-in in the package but it can also be launched as a standalone application. You will need
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to create an NI user account, if you do not already have one, and then enter the serial numbers
for each plug-in. Your serial number is listed in the Studio One Installation menu, next to the
Elements/Players listing.
Celemony Melodyne Trial/Essential:
To authorize Melodyne, load the plug-in on a channel in the Song page of Studio One; the
Melodyne Licensor window will open.
If you are running Studio One Artist or Producer, click on “Activate Trial Mode” to activate the
trial period online. Note that during the trial period, you will need to be connected to the
Internet each time you launch Melodyne editor. If you are running Studio One Professional,
click on “Enter Serial Number” and follow the instructions to activate Melodyne Essential.
1.2
About this Manual
1.2.1 Versions
There are three versions of Studio One 2: Artist, Producer, and Professional. Studio One uses a
single installer for all versions, and the product key with which you activate Studio One will
determine the version you run. The following describes the key differences between the three
versions. This manual may reference features not included in your version, so please
familiarize yourself with your version’s capabilities.
Studio One Artist
•
Unlimited audio and MIDI tracks, unlimited simultaneous record inputs
•
Content browser with user tabs and search
•
Advanced editing features, including comping, transient detection and editing, pitch
correction (Melodyne trial version), and much more
•
25 Native Effects and 4 virtual instruments
•
EZDrummer Lite Plus
•
Native Instruments Komplete Players
Studio One Producer
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•
Includes all Artist version features and content
•
Adds ReWire and third-party VST and AU plug-in support
•
Native Instruments Komplete Elements
Studio One Professional
•
Includes all Artist and Producer features and content
•
Adds the Project page, an integrated mastering solution
•
Adds fully licensed Melodyne Essential pitch correction
•
Adds SoundCloud™ Support
•
Adds video playback and sync
•
Adds Groove Delay, Multiband Dynamics, OpenAIR, Pipeline, and IR Maker Native
Effects plug-ins
All screenshots provided in this manual are taken from the Windows version.
1.2.2 Info View
The Info View panel, accessed via the Question Mark icon in the top toolbar on the Song and
Project pages, displays all possible actions for the selected mouse tool, as well as showing the
possible modifiers and their related actions. This helps you to discover features and provides a
convenient, context-sensitive reference.
Also note that if you float the mouse over any tool, button, or window in Studio One for a few
seconds, a Tooltip will appear that names the function the tool, button, or window serves.
1.2.3 Key Commands
Many operations in Studio One have associated key commands, or keyboard shortcuts, that
can be used in lieu of navigating menus with the mouse. Some key commands use modifier
keys, and some modifier keys differ depending on the operating system.
In this manual, key commands with modifier keys are shown with the Windows modifier key
first, as follows: [Win modifier key]/[Mac modifier key]+[key]. For example: [Ctrl]/[Cmd]-[C]
means “press [Ctrl]+C in Windows, or press [Cmd]+C in Mac OS X.”
Where there is no difference between the Windows and Mac version of a key command, only
one key command will be displayed. Example: [F3].
In several instances, options are located in the Studio One menu in the Windows version but in
Preferences in the Mac OS X version. In these cases, the Windows location is given first, and
the Mac location follows in [brackets].
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A complete list of key commands is always available via Studio One/Keyboard Shortcuts,
which will render an HTML document and open it in your browser with the currently
configured key commands.
1.2.4 Key Commands for Migrating Users
If you are migrating from another DAW to Studio One, you might find it helpful to switch the
key-command set to one specifically created to make the transition from another DAW easier.
In the Studio One/Options/Keyboard Shortcuts menu, you will find a heading called Keyboard
Mapping Scheme. Here, you can select from keyboard maps for several DAWs; select a map,
and Studio One will recognize and apply common key commands from that DAW. You can
then customize the key-commands to fit your workflow.
The key commands used for each DAW can be viewed in the Key Command menu and can be
exported in several file types for external viewing.
1.2.5 Mapping Custom Key Commands
In the Studio One/Options/Keyboard Shortcuts menu, you can modify the existing key
commands to be anything you like, as well as adding commands for functions that don’t have
default key commands.
To modify any key command:
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•
Find the function for which you wish to edit the key command by typing in the
name of the function in the Search field.
•
When the function is found, select it by clicking on it in the list on the left.
•
Click in the Enter Key field and then input any key combination, using your
computer keyboard. Your key combination should then be displayed.
•
Click Assign to assign this key command to the selected function.
•
If the key command you are trying to assign is already in use, the current use will
be displayed below the Enter Key field, along with a Show link that will select that
function for you so that you can change it.
•
Click on the Keyboard Mapping Scheme selection box to choose from the
following options:
Import: Select to import a Studio One Keyboard Mapping Scheme.
Export: Select to export your Studio One Keyboard Mapping Scheme.
Export as Text: Select this to export your Studio One Keyboard Mapping Scheme as
a text file so that you can create a reference guide to your custom mappings.
A complete list of key commands can be viewed via Help/Keyboard Shortcuts, which will
render an HTML document that shows the currently configured key commands and will open
the document in your browser.
1.2.6 Menu Functions
Many functions can be reached using hierarchical menus. Where menu navigation is
referenced in this manual, it will appear as follows: Menu/Menu Entry/…/Function.
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2.
Pages
Studio One is a complete music-production environment featuring three main pages: Start,
Song, and Project (Studio One Professional only). Each page is designed to help you
accomplish a specific task, and each is accessible at all times.
In this chapter, we will discuss the general layout of the user interface for each page. For more
detailed information on anything mentioned in this chapter, please refer to the Index.
2.1
Start
When Studio One is launched, by default you will be taken to the Start page.
On this page, you will find document-management and device-configuration controls, as well
as an artist profile, a news feed, and links to demos and tutorials. The following section
provides a brief description of the Start page.
2.1.1 Tasks
In the top portion of the Start page, you will find three options: Create a New Song, Create a
New Project, and Open an Existing Song or Project. A Song is where you can record, edit,
arrange, and mix audio and musical data. A Project is where multiple Songs or audio files can
be arranged and mixed on a single timeline for mastering purposes. Songs are accessed in the
Song page, and Projects are accessed in the Project page.
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2.1.2 Recent Files, Songs, Projects
The Recent Files list will include links to the most recently accessed documents. Click on any of
these links to quickly open the associated Song or Project. Floating the mouse to the left of
any listed document will reveal a Pin icon that, when clicked, will pin that document to the
Recent Files list until it is unpinned. [Right]/[Control]-click to access specific saved Versions of
any document, or to remove it from the recent files list.
The Songs and Projects list will list all Songs and Projects contained in the User storage
location.
2.1.3 Setup
This window will display your currently selected audio device and contains links to configure
your audio device, configure external devices, check for updates, and view information about
Studio One.
2.1.4 Configure Audio Device
Studio One automatically selects, from a list of devices installed on your computer, an audio
device (such as an audio interface) to use for audio input and output. To select a different
device, click on the Configure Audio Device link to access the Audio Setup tab in the Options
menu. For in-depth information on how to set up your audio device, refer to the Set Up Your
Audio Device section of the “Setup” chapter.
2.1.5 External Devices: Keyboards, Instruments, and Control Surfaces
Studio One can send and receive musical data to and from any MIDI device connected to your
computer. Studio One’s advanced use of MIDI devices requires you to tell it a few things about
your devices. For details on how to set up these devices, refer to the Set Up Your MIDI Devices
section of the “Setup” chapter.
2.1.6 Check for Updates
From time to time, PreSonus will issue software updates for Studio One to incorporate bug
fixes and add features. To manually check for updates, click on the Check for Updates link.
Your version number, as well as the most current version number, will then be displayed. If a
newer version of Studio One is available, a link to download the new version will also be
displayed.
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2.1.7 About
Click on the About link to view your current license and version information, as well as
information about the Studio One development team.
2.1.8 Artist Profile
Here you can specify certain meta-information that is used to tag your Songs, including an
image, artist name, genre, and artist Web URL. To add an image to the artist information, dragand-drop it onto the image icon from any location on your computer. In addition to enabling
you to personalize Studio One, this feature saves you the effort of filling in meta-information
for every Song.
2.1.9 News Feed
The Studio One news feed comes directly from PreSonus. This news feed contains helpful
information related to Studio One and will update automatically if your computer is
connected to the Internet.
2.1.10 Demos and Tutorials
Installed demos and tutorial songs appear in the Demos list, which can be launched by
clicking on the demo-song name. Use these demo songs to check out various aspects of
Studio One.
2.2
Song
When a new Song is created, or an existing Song is opened, you will be taken to the Song
page. This page contains all of the necessary tools to record, edit, arrange, and mix multitrack
audio.
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2.2.1 Song Page Workflow
The Song page is a complete multitrack audio-production environment with a single-window
interface. On this page, any number of audio and instrument tracks can be recorded, edited,
and arranged. Any number of audio effects, virtual instruments, and external effects and
instruments can be used, and almost any parameter can be automated using track or part
automation.
An integrated Browser makes it fast and easy to find and import audio and musical data files,
VST/AU audio effects, and VST/AU virtual instruments and applications. Audio files can be
imported and automatically time-stretched to fit the current tempo. Virtual instruments can
be dragged from the Browser directly into the Song for instant setup of all parameters,
allowing a fast workflow when inspiration hits.
2.3
Project (Studio One Professional)
When you create or open a Project in Studio One Professional, you will be taken to the Project
page. This area contains the tools you need to master and publish audio.
2.3.1 Project Page Workflow
The Project page is a dedicated mastering solution integrated into Studio One Professional.
Here, you can burn industry-standard Red Book audio CDs, create high-quality MP3 albums,
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and standard disc and DDP images. Songs and audio files are arranged as a sequence of tracks
on a continuous timeline.
You can apply effects to individual tracks, as well as to the master output track, in order to
achieve sonic continuity throughout the Project. An integrated Browser makes importing
Songs, audio files, and audio effects quick and simple.
High-quality master-output metering is displayed at all times, including Spectrum, Peak/RMS,
and Phase meters. These tools will help you know at a glance exactly what is going on in your
Project.
As mentioned, Songs can be imported directly into your Projects without having to export a
Song mix. After importing a Song into a Project, you can go back and change the Song mix,
and the Project will be automatically updated.
For detailed information on the Project page, refer to the Mastering chapter.
2.4
Quick Switch
In Studio One Professional, you can have multiple Songs and Projects open simultaneously
and can switch between them quickly. The fastest way to switch between any open Song or
Project, as well as the Start page, is to press [Ctrl]+[Tab] and continue to hold [Ctrl] on the
keyboard. This will display a pop-up list of all open documents.
While holding [Ctrl], press [Tab] to cycle through the open documents. Release [Ctrl] when the
desired document is selected; now you can view that document.
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3.
Fundamentals
The following chapter presents important, fundamental design aspects of Studio One.
Familiarity with these aspects of Studio One will help to ensure that your experience is as
enjoyable and creatively stimulating as possible.
3.1
Nondestructive Editing and Undo/Redo
Almost every editing action in Studio One can be undone and redone. There is no limit to how
far back actions can be undone and to how far forward actions can be redone once they have
been undone. Most actions that cannot be undone or redone are accompanied by verification
dialog boxes. Even Console and plug-in changes can effectively be undone by using the
Console’s Trash Bin.
So feel free to explore without fear that you will permanently alter anything. In fact, just
pressing buttons might be the quickest way to learn, and it often leads to results not
achievable in any other way!
3.2
High-Precision Mix Engine
Studio One features a cutting-edge high-precision mix engine. A mix engine is the “number
cruncher” that does the mathematical summing required to mix multiple sources of digital
audio. Studio One employs a 32-/64-bit floating point, mixed-mode engine. This means that
the audio engine can automatically switch between using 32-bit, single-precision floatingpoint and 64-bit, double-precision floating-point math on the fly, depending on the capability
of the plug-ins (VST/AU effects, etc.) inserted into the signal chain.
In Studio One/Options/Audio Setup (Mac OS X: Preferences/Options/Audio Setup), set Process
Precision to Double (64-bit) to activate 64-bit processing. Otherwise, all processing will be
done in single precision (32-bit).
Studio One will process audio as accurately as current technology allows, ensuring that your
audio maintains the highest quality possible.
3.3
Automatic Delay Compensation
Studio One automatically compensates for the time delay that results from some VST and AU
processing. This saves having to manually realign tracks to compensate for the delay and
keeps all tracks perfectly in sync regardless of the number of virtual plug-ins and effects you
run. If you do not want Studio One to automatically compensate for this, select Ignore Plug-in
Latency from the Transport menu. For more information on this topic, refer to the Automatic
Plug-in Delay Compensation section of the “Mixing” chapter.
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3.4
Look Mom, No MIDI!
The Musical Instrument Digital Interface (MIDI) specification was created in 1983. While it has
served musicians well for more than 25 years, it has limitations. Ironically, while the MIDIdevice integration in Studio One provides revolutionary flexibility and ease of use, much of
this functionality is made possible by not using MIDI internally.
As an example, nearly jump free parameter automation is provided within virtual instrument
parts, rather than much lower-resolution (128 steps) MIDI control-data automation. The
Control Link system is also made possible by abstracting MIDI from our internal processes. As
MIDI evolves, and new potential standards are developed, Studio One remains prepared for
the innovations of the future.
3.5
Drag-and-Drop
Many functions in Studio One have integrated drag-and-drop support. This means that objects
can be clicked on and then dragged to various locations and over other objects in order to
accomplish certain tasks. For example, you can find an audio effect in the Browser, and then
click-and-drag it directly onto a track to insert the effect onto that track. You can then clickand-drag that effect onto another track to copy that effect and its settings to a new track.
You can drag a virtual instrument from the Browser and drop it in a blank space in the Arrange
view to create a new Instrument Track with that virtual instrument. You can also drop the
virtual instrument on top of an Instrument Track to replace the existing virtual instrument.
These, and many other drag-and-drop features, allow you to work very quickly, without having
to stop for menu navigation or other distracting processes. Give your left brain a break and
stay in the creative zone!
3.6
Control Link
In order to use hardware MIDI devices to control software parameters, one has generally
needed a thorough understanding of MIDI architecture—and lots of patience. Studio One
changes all this with the Control Link system, the most intuitive MIDI-mapping system
available. With very little configuration, you can achieve a lot of control over your software and
external equipment. Simply moving the hardware and software controls to be linked and then
clicking the Link button accomplishes in seconds what used to require an entire afternoon.
Furthermore, with Global and Focus Mapping modes, the Control Link system offers
unparalleled flexibility.
For more on the Control Link System, refer to the “Control Link” chapter.
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4.
Setup
This chapter contains information about system requirements, hardware-device setup, and
software setup. A thorough knowledge of this information will be helpful before attempting
to work in Studio One.
4.1
System Requirements
The following are the system requirements to run Studio One.
MAC® OS X 10.6.8 OR HIGHER
Minimum Hardware
•
•
Intel® Core™ Duo processor
2 GB RAM
Recommended Hardware
•
•
Intel Core 2 Duo or Intel Xeon processor or better
4 GB RAM
WINDOWS® XP, VISTA™, 7 (32- OR 64-BIT)
Minimum Hardware
•
•
Intel Core Duo or AMD Athlon™ X2 processor
2 GB RAM
Recommended Hardware
•
•
Intel Core 2 Quad or AMD Athlon X4 or better
4 GB RAM
OTHER REQUIREMENTS
•
•
•
•
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Internet connection (This is not required for operation but is needed for activation.)
DVD-ROM drive
A monitor resolution no lower than 1280x768 pixels
20 GB available hard-drive space
4.2
Set Up Your Audio Device
Studio One automatically selects, from a list of devices installed on your computer, an audio
device to use for audio input and output. To select a different device, navigate to Studio
One/Options/Audio Setup (Mac OS X: Preferences/Options/Audio Setup).
Then follow these steps to configure your audio device for use in Studio One:
25
1
Select a device from the Audio Device drop-down menu under the Studio
One/Options/Audio Setup (Mac OS X: Preferences/Options/Audio Setup) menu.
2
If you wish to change the settings for the selected device, click on the Control Panel
button next to the device-selection drop-down menu and make your changes within
the device’s control panel.
3
When using a Core Audio device, you will see a Device Block Size setting. The Device
Block Size is the audio device’s buffer size, which has a direct impact on your audio
device’s performance. You can increase or decrease the Device Block Size by sliding
the horizontal fader left or right. The appropriate setting depends upon your specific
use of Studio One. For more on this refer to the Maximizing Computer Processing
Power section of the “Mixing” chapter.
4
In the Windows version of Studio One, Internal Block Size can be locked to the Device
Block Size by checking the Lock box (checked by default). The Internal Block Size is the
software buffer size, which will have a direct impact on your computer system and on
Studio One’s performance. For more on this refer the Maximizing Computer
Processing Power section of the “Mixing” chapter.
•
If unlocked, the Internal Block Size can be selected from a drop-down menu. If you are
unsure of the best setting, leave Internal Block Size locked to Device Block Size.
•
For hardware-driven effects and virtual instruments, such as the TC Electronic
PowerCore and Universal Audio UAD card, locking the Internal Block Size of your
Audio Device is critical to ensure proper operation.
5
By default, Studio One’s process precision is set at Single (32-bit). You may choose
double precision (64-bit) from the Process Precision drop-down menu.
6
If your computer has multiple processors or processing cores, Enable Multi-Processing
will be checked by default. Unless you experience performance issues, it is
recommended you leave this at the default setting for best performance.
7
When the aforementioned settings are selected, your system’s current total input and
output latency, sample rate, and bit depth will be reported below the Audio Setup
menus.
4.2.1 Supported Devices
Studio One supports most audio devices, including ASIO, Core Audio (Mac OS X), Direct Sound
(Windows XP), and WASAPI (Windows Vista/7) devices.
When using a WASAPI audio device in Windows Vista/7, note that WASAPI supports an
Exclusive and Shared mode. In Exclusive mode, lower latency can be achieved but other
applications (such as Windows Media Player) cannot use the audio device at the same time.
Refer to the Windows Control Panel/Hardware and Sound/Sound to configure the options for
your WASAPI device.
4.2.2 Performance Monitor
When setting up your audio device—specifically when determining appropriate Internal or
Device Block Size, or selecting Single or Double Process Precision—you need to take into
account the related performance demands on your computer.
Open the Performance Monitor by selecting it from the View menu, or by clicking on the word
“performance” in the Transport. This monitor will display the current relative overall CPU and
disk performance, as well as the performance of instruments and automation.
When these meters approach or reach the top of their range, you may need to consider
altering your audio-device settings, or changing the Song or Project, to avoid audible clicks
and pops or possible instability. For instance, it is common to lower the Device and/or Internal
Block Size while recording to keep monitoring latency low but then to increase Block Size
while mixing to provide as much CPU headroom as possible for effects processing.
If any playback issues are encountered with third-party virtual instrument or effect plug-ins
that have their own multiprocessor support implementation (e.g., NI Kontakt, FL Studio), it is
26
recommended that this support be disabled in the plug-ins. In this case, Studio One will
manage all processor scheduling.
4.3
Audio Device Input/Output Setup
4.3.1 What Are Software I/O Channels?
In most recording applications, audio tracks directly use your hardware audio device’s
channels. In Studio One, there is a layer of software I/O (input and output) channels between
your hardware audio-device channels and your tracks. This setup affords many advantages
over the traditional method.
For instance, let’s say you produce a Song in your studio, using a multi-channel interface, then
take your Song file to your friend’s studio, where you will use a different audio interface.
Simply connect your friend’s hardware audio-device channels to the correct software I/O
channels. When you get back to your studio, the original I/O configuration for the Song will
automatically be loaded for you, as if you never left. You can do the same thing if you need to
open the Song on your laptop using its built-in audio hardware.
This is possible because Studio One stores I/O configurations with your Song, per computer
and per audio-device driver, ensuring that your Song remains highly portable and is never
“broken” by changing audio devices.
4.3.2 Audio I/O Setup Menu
Each track in a Song will receive a signal from an input source and will route to an output
destination. The input sources and output destinations made available to each track are
determined by the software I/O channel configuration created in the Audio I/O Setup menu.
To view this menu and set up a default I/O configuration for each Song, create a new Song by
clicking on Create New Song in the Start Page and navigate to Song/Song Setup/Audio I/O
Setup.
The configuration of the Audio I/O Setup is
done within each Song, so that it is possible
for each Song to have a separate I/O setup.
As discussed in the Default I/O Setup
section, a default I/O setup can be created
so that each new Song defaults to a
particular I/O setup if you desire.
In the Audio I/O Setup menu, you will find
two tabs: one for input configuration and
one for output configuration. In each tab, a
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Matrix Routing view shows the current configuration, with the vertical columns indicating
hardware audio-device channels (hardware I/O) and the horizontal rows indicating created
software I/O channels. Software I/O channels function as the input sources and output
destinations available to individual tracks in Studio One.
4.3.3 Add or Remove Software I/O Channels
Click on the Add (Mono) or Add (Stereo) button to add an Input or Output Channel,
depending on which tab you are currently viewing. When a new channel is added, the next
unassigned hardware inputs or outputs will be assigned to the new channel by default.
To remove any channel, click on the channel to select it and then click on the Remove button.
To rename any channel, double-click on the name of the channel, type a new name, and press
Enter. In order for software I/O changes to occur, be sure to click Apply before exiting this
menu.
4.3.4 Assigning Hardware I/O to Software I/O Channels
Hardware inputs and outputs are assigned to software I/O channels in a matrix router, which is
a visual representation of the routing. Software channels (mono and stereo) are each given a
horizontal row, and hardware inputs and outputs are given vertical columns. The points at
which these rows and columns intersect represent potential connections, or routes, between
the hardware I/O and software I/O channels.
By default, Studio One creates three Input Channels: one stereo and two mono. These
channels will be labeled Input L+R (stereo), Input L (mono), and Input R (mono). By default, the
stereo Input Channel will receive input from the first stereo hardware input pair of your
selected audio device. The two mono channels will receive input from the same stereo
hardware input pair.
The Output Channel is labeled Main Out (stereo) and will be routed by default to the first
stereo hardware output pair of your selected audio device.
To create a route between software I/O channels and hardware I/O, click on the empty square
at the intersection of the desired hardware input or output and the software channel input or
output. A colored square will appear with an M, L, or R label, indicating whether the route is a
mono route (M) or the left or right side of a stereo route (L or R).
While it is uncommon for Audio I/O Setup changes to be required in the middle of Song
production, the audio I/O routing can be changed at any time. However, you should be aware
that routing changes will affect all associated tracks, possibly switching inputs for audio tracks,
changing the hardware output for the Main Output, and so on.
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When making new routes in the Audio I/O Setup menu, notice the meters to the left of the
software I/O channels. By displaying signal levels on each channel, these meters help you
ensure that the appropriate routings have been made.
4.3.5 Default Device I/O Setup
We recommend that you create a default Audio I/O Setup that can be a starting point for all
new Songs. This will allow you to immediately begin working in your new Song with little or
no preliminary setup.
To do so, create software I/O channels for all of your audio device’s commonly used inputs and
outputs and name them appropriately. Then, click on the Make Default button in the Audio
I/O Setup menu, and a popup window will appear to confirm that you wish to make the
current I/O setup the default for new Songs. Click on Yes, and from that point forward, all new
Songs will be created with this audio I/O setup.
4.3.6 Audition Channel
The Preview Player in the Browser and in the Import File menu uses the Audition channel for
audio playback. Any stereo Output Channel can be used as the Audition channel, allowing you
to audition sounds from an output other than your main output.
4.4
Set Up Your MIDI Devices
All MIDI-capable hardware devices are collectively referred to as External Devices in Studio
One. There are three types of External Devices, including Keyboards, Instruments, and Control
Surfaces. While each device type functions in a slightly different way, there is one menu to add
and set up any External Device. The menu can be found by navigating to Studio
One/Options/External Devices/Add Device (Mac OS X: Preferences/Options/External
Devices/Add Device).
4.4.1 Set Up MIDI Keyboards
A MIDI keyboard controller is a hardware MIDI device that is generally used for playing and
controlling other MIDI devices, virtual software instruments, and software parameters. In
Studio One, these devices are referred to as Keyboards. To use a Keyboard and record a
performance, the hardware must first be set up. Once a Keyboard is set up, it will be available
at all times for use in Studio One.
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To set up your Keyboard, navigate to Studio One/Options/External Devices (Mac OS X:
Preferences/Options/External Devices) and follow these steps:
1. In the Options/External Devices menu, click on the Add button.
2. In the Add Device pop-up menu, select Keyboard.
3. Choose your device from the predefined device list or set this to New Keyboard if you
do not see your device in the list.
•
If set to New Keyboard, you may wish to type in a Manufacturer Name and a Device
Name in the appropriate fields. This will make working with your Keyboard easier.
4. Specify which MIDI channels will be used to communicate with this Keyboard. All MIDI
channels are selected by default.
•
If you are unsure of the appropriate MIDI channels to use, just leave this at the default
setting.
5. Engage Split Channels if you would like to create a separate Instrument Track input for
each MIDI channel from the Keyboard.
6. Specify the device to which the Keyboard is sending and the device from which it is
receiving via Studio One. Select your device driver name from the drop-down menu
for both Receive From and Send To.
7. You can choose to use this Keyboard as your Default Virtual Instrument Input by
checking the appropriate box. If you are using only one Keyboard with Studio One,
you should check this box.
8. Your Keyboard is now ready for use in Studio One.
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•
Click on the Add External Device button in the External window of the Mixer to quickly
set up a new Keyboard or other External Device.
4.4.2 Set Up External Hardware Instruments
In Studio One, an External Instrument is an external MIDI hardware synthesizer, workstation, or
other device that can generate or manipulate sound. External Instruments are set up globally
and then are available for use in any Song.
To set up your Instrument, navigate to Studio One/Options/External Devices (Mac OS X:
Preferences/Options/External Devices) and follow these steps:
1. In the Options/External Devices menu, click on the Add button.
2. In the left-hand browser, choose your device from the predefined device list. Set this
to New Instrument if you do not see your device in the list. If set to New Instrument,
you may wish to type in a Manufacturer Name and a Device Name in the appropriate
fields. This will make using your new Instrument easier.
3. Specify which MIDI channels will be used to communicate with this Instrument. MIDI
Channel 1 is selected by default. If you are unsure of the appropriate MIDI channels to
use, just leave this at the default setting.
4. Specify the device to which Studio One is sending MIDI and the device from which the
software is receiving MIDI. Select the appropriate MIDI device from the drop-down
menu for Send To and (optionally) Receive From. It is likely your External Instrument is
not connected directly to your computer. In this case, your External Instrument must
31
be physically connected to another MIDI device (such as a MIDI interface) that does
connect to your computer; you will need to select the driver for that device.
5. You can choose to send MIDI Clock to this Instrument and/or use MIDI Clock Start by
checking the appropriate boxes. You should send MIDI Clock to your Instrument if it
has a built-in sequencer or components (such as LFOs) that need to sync to Studio
One. Enabling MIDI Clock Start will send MIDI Clock Start signals to your Instrument.
6. Finally, you can choose to send MIDI Time Code to this Instrument. You can set a
Display Offset under Song/Song Setup/General to correct for time-code variances with
external devices.
Your External Instrument is now available for use in any Song. To use an External Instrument in
a Song, be sure that an Instrument Track is routed to it and that the appropriate Audio Tracks
have been added and configured. Refer to Monitoring an External Instrument for more on this
topic.
Note that if your External Instrument is also a controller (such as a keyboard workstation), you
need to set it up twice. First, set it up as an External Instrument without a Receive From
selection, and then set it up as a Keyboard, without a Send To selection. This allows the
keyboard-controller section of the workstation to be used as a source for Instrument Tracks,
while allowing the synthesizer section to be used as an External Instrument.
4.4.3 Set Up Control Surfaces
In Studio One, a Control Surface is a hardware device that includes transport controls, faders,
and other specialized controls. The control surface might use MIDI directly or via a special
control layer such as Mackie Control.
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To set up a Control Surface, do the following:
1. In the Options/External Devices menu, click on the Add button.
2. Choose your device from the predefined device list. Set this to New Control Surface if
you do not see your device in the list. If set to New Control Surface, you may wish to
type in a Manufacturer Name and a Device Name in the appropriate fields. This will
make using the Control Surface easier.
3. Specify the device to which the Control Surface is sending and the device from which
it is receiving via Studio One. Select your MIDI device-driver name from the drop-down
menu for both Receive From and Send To.
4. You will not need to specify the MIDI channels your Control Surface will use, as control
surfaces use alternative protocols, such as Mackie Control, to communicate with
Studio One.
5. Your Control Surface is now ready for use in Studio One.
4.4.4 Custom Placement of Control Surfaces
If you are using multiple surfaces with motorized faders, you can customize the placement of
the fader banks so that channels in the Studio One Console are spread across your surfaces in
the desired order.
33
To customize this placement, click on Placement in the Options/External Devices menu after
adding your surfaces. All ungrouped surfaces will appear under the Ungrouped tab. To place a
surface in a group, select a Group tab, then click-and-drag the surface from the Ungrouped
area to the selected group area. To adjust the order of the grouped surfaces, click-and-drag
them left or right. Channels in the Console will then appear in order across the surfaces from
left to right.
Up to four Groups can be created, to allow for mirroring of channels across multiple surfaces.
This is helpful if you have more than one location in the studio where you wish to use control
surfaces (e.g., an A room and B room or a control room and live room).
Only supported and predefined Control Surfaces will appear in the Placement menu. Userdefined devices will not appear in this menu.
4.4.5 Use Your Computer Keyboard as a MIDI Keyboard
You can use your regular QWERTY computer keyboard as a MIDI Keyboard to play virtual
instruments and record musical data in Studio One. To do this, add a new device in the
Options/External Devices/Add Device menu, choosing the QWERTY Keyboard device from the
PreSonus device folder.
34
With the device added, to use your keyboard as a MIDI Keyboard, open the interface for the
QWERTY Keyboard device by double-clicking on it in the External panel of the Console. Any
record-enabled Instrument Track will then receive input from the QWERTY Keyboard, as
shown in the QWERTY Keyboard device interface. Your keyboard will only transmit data to
Instrument Tracks while the QWERTY Keyboard device interface is open.
4.4.6 Using the PreSonus FaderPort
If you have a PreSonus FaderPort connected to a computer running Mac OS X or Microsoft
Windows Vista or 7, Studio One will automatically recognize it and configure it for use. Just
open a Song or Project to use the FaderPort immediately.
If you are using Windows XP, follow the Set Up Control Surfaces instructions to set up your
FaderPort, which can be selected from the list of predefined devices in the External
Devices/Add Device menu.
4.4.7 Reconnect Devices
In most applications, when MIDI devices become disconnected while the application is
running, you usually have to restart the application, and the software may crash. In contrast, if
an external MIDI device becomes disconnected while Studio One is running with a Song or
Project open, the device can be reconnected without restarting Studio One.
If this occurs, navigate to Studio One/Options/External Devices (Mac OS X:
Preferences/Options/External Devices) and click on Reconnect at the bottom of the menu.
Then reconnect your devices and click OK. The devices will now work normally in Studio One.
If an external device is not present when Studio One is started—for instance, if you’re traveling
and don’t have some of your gear with you— the application still will run normally. You
should see a warning message that makes you aware of the situation. If your setup frequently
changes, you may wish to turn off this warning message by disengaging the Notify Me If
Devices Are Unavailable When Studio One Starts option.
Later, when you start Studio One with the device connected to your computer, Studio One will
recognize the device automatically, and it can be used exactly as before, with no further setup
required.
4.5
Managing Your Content
Content management and file management can become unwieldy quickly when working with
digital audio workstation software due to the sheer volume of loops, effects, song ideas,
individual tracks, and so on. In Studio One, you only need to locate your preexisting content
once, after which all of the locations will be remembered. Any content you create using Studio
One will be similarly managed. In Studio One, your content is kept in distinct categories.
35
The following describes the process of managing your content using Studio One’s Studio
One/Options/Locations (Mac OS X: Preferences/Options/Locations) menu.
4.5.1 User Data
Any content you create using Studio One will be automatically stored in the location you
specify. This includes Songs, Projects, Effects Presets, and all of the files these categories
contain. All of your creative output will be logically organized and kept in a single place, which
makes future location and backup a breeze.
When creating a new Song or Project, the User Data folder will be the default save location.
While we recommend using this location, you can specify any save location when creating any
new Song or Project.
It is also possible to engage Autosave, which will automatically save any open document at a
specified interval of time.
When saving a Song, if any files being used in the Song exist outside of the Song's media
folder, you will be asked if you would like to Copy External Files to the Media Folder.
4.5.2 File Types
All supported file extensions are listed in the Studio One/Options/Locations/File Types menu.
Only these supported file types will be displayed in the Browser.
It is possible to add file extensions to this list by clicking on the Add button. In the pop-up
menu, you can choose an icon, enter the file extension, and provide a description for the file
type. Select a user-added extension from the list and click on Remove to remove it.
4.5.3 Sound Sets
Preconfigured packages of loops and samples are bundled with Studio One. The Browser’s
Sound Sets folder makes finding this content quick and easy. These packages also contain
information about each content vendor, which is displayed in the Browser when a package is
selected. Click on the Vendor link in the Browser for more information about the vendor and
the content they supply.
4.5.4 Instrument Library
Studio One includes a native virtual instrument called Presence that utilizes built-in sounds
and Sound Fonts (SF2 and SFZ). Sound Fonts contain one or more audio samples that can be
resynthesized at different pitches and dynamic levels. Using the Instrument Library, Presence
can browse for sounds, which are seen as presets.
36
To add Sound Font files to your Instrument Library, in the File/Options/Locations/Instrument
Library [Mac OS X: Preferences/Locations/Instrument Library] menu, click on the Add button
and specify a file location, then click OK. You can specify as many locations as you need.
For more information on the Presence built-in virtual instrument, refer to the Presence section
of the “Built-In Virtual Instruments” chapter.
4.5.5 Locating Plug-ins
When Studio One is started for the first time, most of your plug-ins are located automatically
and are ready to use immediately. If Studio One fails to find certain plug-ins, adding them is
easy.
To add any missing VST plug-ins to Studio One, navigate to the Studio
One/Options/Locations/VST Plug-ins (Mac OS X: Preferences/Options/Locations/VST Plug-ins)
menu and click on the Add button, then specify a location and click OK. You can also dragand-drop any folder from the Explorer/Finder into the Locations list. Studio One will then scan
these locations at startup, including searching for new plug-ins you’ve added. You can always
add more locations if needed.
AU, VST 3, and ReWire-enabled plug-ins and applications have their own file path in the OS
and will not have to be located manually.
4.5.6 Failed Plug-ins
If any plug-in fails to start correctly when scanned at startup, a notice will appear next to its
name in the startup message list, and a warning message should appear. If the plug-in
continues to fail at startup—for instance, if it is not authorized correctly or a required iLok key
is not present—Studio One will put the plug-in in a blacklist and ignore it at startup from that
point on.
To reset this blacklist and force Studio One to scan missing plug-ins again at startup, navigate
to Studio One/Options/Locations/VST Plug-ins (Mac OS X: Preferences/Options/Locations/VST
Plug-ins) and click on Reset Blacklist. The next time you start Studio One, the previously
blacklisted plug-ins will be scanned again. If the issues that caused the plug-ins to fail the scan
have been resolved, the plug-ins will be made available.
4.5.7 VST Support
Studio One Producer and Professional support VST 2.4 (including VSTXML for hierarchical
parameter structure) and VST 3.
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4.6
Creating a New Song
A Song is where all recording, editing, arranging, and mixing takes place. To create a New
Song, do one of the following:
•
From the Start page, click on the New Song link.
•
Navigate to File/New Song.
•
Press [Ctrl]/[Cmd]+[N] on the keyboard.
•
From the Project page, if no Song is currently open, click on the Song quick-access
button.
4.6.1 Song Templates
On the left side of the New Song creation menu, you will find a list of preconfigured Song
templates, which are designed to help get you started quickly with various recording tasks.
The templates can include particular I/O and track setups, effects plug-in and virtualinstrument processing, and all other aspects of a Song. By default, the Empty Song template is
selected, which will create a completely empty Song with no tracks or preconfigured I/O
setup.
4.6.2 Create a Song Template
If there is a particular Song setup you will use again and again, it can be helpful to create a
template. To do so, first create a new Empty Song. Next, configure the I/O and create and
configure all tracks, and virtual instruments, effects plug-ins, and any other aspects of the
Song that you need in your template. Then, in the File menu, select Save as Template.
Type in a title and description, choose an image for the Template icon, if you like, and select
OK. You can also drag an image from Windows Explorer/Mac Finder onto the image icon to
use that image. The exact current state of the Song will now be available as a template in the
New Song creation menu.
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4.6.3 Title and Location
The title of your Song will be the Song file name (Title.song) and the name of the default folder
that contains all data related to your Song. The default location where new Songs and all
related data will be saved is in your User Data location, under Studio
One/Options/Locations/User Data (Mac OS X: Preferences/Options/Locations/User Data). If
you like, you can choose a different file location by clicking on the New Location button and
browsing to any location.
4.6.4 Sample Rate
“Sample rate” refers to the rate at which incoming analog audio is sampled per second during
conversion to a digital signal. The most common setting is the standard sample rate for audio
CDs: 44.1 kHz, meaning 44,100 samples per second.
The Studio One sample rate should match the sample rate of your audio interface, so by
default, the sample rate is set to your current audio interface’s sample rate, and changing this
setting will initiate a sample-rate change in that device. If the sample rates don’t match, Studio
One will resample all audio files to match the sample rate of the hardware, but this can cause
performance problems and should be avoided. Studio One is capable of recording at any
sample rate your hardware audio device offers.
Not all devices allow a third-party software application to change the hardware sample rate.
The desired sample rate should be set before creating a New Song.
File size is directly proportional to the sample rate and resolution. The higher the sample rate
and resolution, the larger the resulting audio file will be.
4.6.5 Resolution
“Resolution” refers to the bit depth of digital audio, which is related to the audio’s dynamic
range. Standard CD audio has a 16-bit resolution, which results in roughly 96 dB of dynamic
range. Thus, with “CD-quality” audio, the difference between the quietest and loudest sounds
possible is 96 dB. The most common resolution setting in professional recording is 24-bit,
which produces a dynamic range of approximately 144 dB.
Studio One can record audio with 16, 24, or 32-bit (floating point) resolution. Which resolution
to use is a matter of preference. If you are unfamiliar with these concepts, try experimenting
with recording at each resolution and comparing your results.
4.6.6 Timebase and Song Length
The timebase of your New Song will determine the way the timeline is represented. The
timebase selection can be changed at any time. You have the option of the following:
39
•
Seconds: The timeline division will be an expression of hours: minutes :seconds:
milliseconds.
•
Samples: The timeline division will be an expression of samples.
•
Bars: The timeline division will be an expression of musical bars and beats.
•
Frames: The timeline division will be an expression of frames.
4.6.7 Stretch
When creating a new Song, you can choose to automatically time-stretch any imported audio
file that has tempo information in order to match your Song’s current tempo. This is highly
recommended to avoid having to manually stretch audio or place tracks in Timestretch mode.
However, if you do not intend to work with Timestretching in your Song and want to ensure
that nothing gets timestretched automatically by mistake, make sure this option is deselected.
Only audio tracks with encoded tempo information will be stretched automatically with this
option engaged. Studio One will remember tempo information you specify within the
Inspector view for any audio file.
4.6.8 Select a Default Song or Project
In the Studio One/Options/General menu, you can choose to open a Default Song or Project
when launching Studio One. To set the Song or Project that will be opened in this case, set up
a Song or Project and save it, with the name “default,” to the Songs or Projects folder located
at the current User Data location set in Options/Locations.
4.7
Advanced Options
Studio One offers the following ways to customize your workflow. Click on each tab in the
Studio One/Options/Advanced menu to access these options.
4.7.1 Editing
Click on the Editing tab to access the following options.
4.7.1.1 Tools
The Cursor Overlays Editor Window option is engaged by default. This will prevent a flickering
timeline cursor in Windows Vista and 7 but may cause unwanted window-management
problems. If you experience such problems, try disabling this option.
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The Enable Crosshair Cursor for Tools option is engaged by default. It enables a large, white,
vertical-and-horizontal crosshair in the Arrange view that aids in displaying the exact position
of the various mouse tools.
Locate When Clicked in Empty Space is not engaged by default. When engaged, it allows the
timeline cursor to be located based on clicking in empty space or clicking where there are no
events.
4.7.1.2 Event Appearance
The Don’t Show Event Names option will remove the name labels from events in the
Arrangement view. This is purely an aesthetic difference and will not change any functions.
The Draw Events Translucent option is not engaged by default. It enables the Timeline grid in
the Arrange and Edit view to be seen in the background, through Events. Seeing the grid may
help with various editing tasks.
The Smooth Edges of Automation Envelopes option provides anti-aliasing support for the
graphic lines of automation envelopes, helping them to look smooth and straight. This option
only affects the look of the envelopes themselves and does not affect the behavior of
envelopes.
4.7.2 Automation
Click on the Automation tab to access the following options:
The Automation Follows Events option is engaged by default. This means that automation
envelopes will lock to events so that moving an event with automation “under” it will also
move the automation.
The Disable Events Under Automation Envelopes option is also engaged by default. This
makes Events unavailable to the mouse tools while viewing an automation envelope, which
helps prevent you from unintentionally editing underlying Events while editing automation.
The Automatically Add Envelopes for All Touched Parameters option is not engaged by
default. Engage this option if you would like an automation envelope to be added
automatically for any parameter that is touched by a controller (this means the device the
parameter belongs to is in Touch automation mode, and a hardware control assigned to this
parameter via Control Link is moved).
The Default Envelopes for New Audio Tracks allows you to specify if Volume, Pan, and Mute
envelopes will be created for new audio tracks automatically. Volume and Pan are engaged by
default, Mute is not.
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4.7.3 Audio
Click on the Audio tab to access the following options:
Play Overlapping Events is not engaged by default. When engaged, this means when audio
events overlap, you will hear a mix of both events. If you prefer for one to play, and the other
to be silenced, leave this option disengaged.
The Use Non-Buffered Audio File Access option is not engaged by default. This option disables
the caching done by the operating system when reading from a file. The operating system
usually reads more data than was requested by the application when caching, which can have
a negative impact on playback performance, especially on slow machines. We recommend
you leave this option disengaged unless you encounter a related technical issue.
The Use Cache for Timestretched Audio Files option is engaged by default. It is described in
depth in the Using Timestretch Cache section of the “Timestretch” chapter.
The Record Tempo Information to Audio Files option is engaged by default. When engaged,
this option enables tempo tagging for any audio file recorded in Studio One. The Song tempo
at the time position of the recording will be saved with the file, so that automatic
timestretching can be accomplished. If another application has issues reading audio files from
Studio One, try disabling this option.
Use Dithering for Audio Devices and Audio File Export is engaged by default and means that
triangular dithering (with no noise-shaping) will be applied when the audio signal’s bit depth
is reduced from a higher bit depth by a device or during file export. Turn this off if you would
like to use a third-party dithering solution, such as a limiter insert effect on the main output
that has built-in dithering with characteristics you prefer.
Engage the Use Realtime Processing When Updating Mastering Files option to ensure that
real-time processing is used when the mastering file for a given Song is automatically
updated. This is necessary when Songs utilize certain devices, such as External Instruments,
that require a real-time mixdown in order to be included in the mix.
Stop Playback When Opening Options is engaged by default. It simply stops playback within a
Song or Project when the Studio One/Options (Mac OS X: Preferences/Options) menu is
opened. This will prevent changes in Studio One options from immediately affecting the
sound during playback.
Release Audio Device in Background is not engaged by default. When engaged, the currently
used audio device will be made available to other applications when Studio One is minimized.
Process Audio in Safe Mode is not engaged by default. When engaged, more processing
bandwidth is given to audio-processing tasks, resulting in higher latency. This option may be
useful on low-powered computers or on computers that exhibit performance issues.
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Ignore Audio Device Timestamps is not engaged by default. When engaged, Audio Device
Timestamps are ignored, and the system clock is used to generate timestamps instead. This
option may be useful when the audio device exhibits timing issues.
4.7.4 MIDI
Filter Aftertouch and Filter Program Change are not engaged by default. They can be used to
allow Studio One to filter, or remove, these messages from an incoming MIDI device.
Timecode Follows Loop is engaged by default and allows MIDI Timecode to remain in sync
when Loop is active in a Song or Project. With this disengaged, MIDI Timecode will continue to
run linearly (counting up) while Studio One's transport is looping.
Chase Long Notes is engaged by default. When engaged, if playback starts after a note start,
the note will be played as though its start time were at the position at which playback started.
For instance, if a synth pad note starts at bar 1 and lasts through bar 8, and playback is started
at bar 4, the note will play from bar 4 as it would normally from bar 1. With this option
disengaged, in the above example, the note would not play at all.
Cut Long Notes at Part End is not engaged by default. When engaged, this means that notes
will be cut at the end of a Part where it would otherwise extend beyond the part end. This
effectively places the note-off at the Part End.
Record Offset allows you to input a value, in milliseconds, by which any recorded musical
performance should be offset in the arrangement, thereby compensating for device/driver
latency.
Windows MIDI (these options only appear if running Studio One in Windows):
•
•
•
Hide Emulated DirectMusic ports is engaged by default and eliminates possible
redundancies in how MIDI device ports are presented in Studio One
Use Legacy MIDI instead of DirectMusic is not engaged by default. Engaging this
means Studio One will ignore DirectMusic MIDI devices and will access MIDI devices
through Legacy MIDI instead.
Ignore MIDI Timestamps is not engaged by default. This option is useful when a MIDI
device exhibits timing issues, such as drift or a general offset.
4.7.5 Devices
The Device Editor Follows Channel Selection Option is engaged by default and causes
currently viewable channel devices, such as virtual effects or instruments, to automatically
switch when a channel is selected. This ensures you are only viewing the devices related to the
selected channel.
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If you would like Audio or Instrument Track monitoring to be enabled automatically when
recording is enabled on a Track, engage the Audio Track Monitoring Follows Record and
Instrument Track Monitoring Follows Record options.
The Fader Mode option is set to Touch by default, which means you must click on the fader
handle itself to move the fader for a channel in the Mix Console. Set this to Jump if you would
like to be able to click anywhere in the fader lane instead, and have the fader jump to that
position.
4.7.6 Services
It is possible, in Studio One, to selectively enable and disable particular services, or modules,
that enable specific features. This may be helpful when troubleshooting. For instance, if a
ReWire device seems to be causing a problem, you can disable the ReWire service to see if that
resolves the issue. This kind of troubleshooting will enable the Studio One technical-support
team to quickly locate and resolve specific issues with your computer system and to identify
any previously unknown problems in the program.
All services are enabled by default. To disable any service, click on the Services tab in the
Studio One/Options/Advanced menu and click on the confirmation button, paying special
attention to the disclaimer message. Then click on any service in the list and click on the
Disable button to disable that service. You must restart Studio One for these changes to take
effect.
If a service has been disabled, follow the instructions above, and click on the Enable button for
the service in order to re-enable it. Again, Studio One will need to be restarted for any of these
changes to take effect.
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5
Recording
The following chapter discusses aspects of recording in Studio One, including Audio and
Instrument Tracks, recording modes and formats, and recording tips.
5.1
Audio Tracks
Before recording can take place, you need at least one track on which to record. Studio One
has two types of tracks for basic recording: the Audio Track and the Instrument Track. Audio is
recorded to Audio Tracks, while musical-performance data is recorded to Instrument Tracks.
5.1.1 Creating an Audio Track
To create an Audio Track, navigate to Track/Add Tracks or press [T] to open the Add Tracks
menu.
The following options are available in this menu:
•
Name: Click here and type in a name for the new track.
•
Count: Choose the number of tracks you would like to create.
•
Format: Choose a mono or stereo Audio Track.
•
Preset: Choose an FX Chain to be preloaded on the tracks.
•
Color: Choose a color.
•
Auto-Color: Check this box if you would like your tracks auto-colored.
Once these options are configured, click on OK, and the tracks will appear in the Arrange view.
Navigate to Track/Add Audio Track (mono or stereo) to quickly add an audio track.
[Right]/[Control]-click in blank space in the Track Column and select Add Tracks For All Inputs
to quickly add a track for every configured input in Audio I/O Setup.
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Alternatively, you can [Right]/[Control]-click in any blank space in the Track Column of the
Arrange view and select Add Audio Track (Mono) or Add Audio Track (Stereo) to quickly add
an audio track.
5.1.2 Use and Create Presets
In Studio One, you can store presets of an entire chain of effects plug-ins as an FX Chain,
allowing quick recall of complex effects setups on any track. Any factory-preset or user-created
FX Chain can be selected as a Preset when creating a track. For more information, refer to the
FX Chain section of the “Mixing” chapter.
5.1.3 Configuring an Audio Track
This section describes the editable Audio Track parameters.
5.1.3.1 Input/Output Selection
An Audio Track’s I/O channel(s) can be selected from three places: the Track Column, the
Console, and the Track Inspector.
Selecting an Input Channel from the Track Column:
•
Set the Arrange view Track size to medium or larger to be able to access the current
Input Channel selection for any track.
•
Click in the window immediately below the horizontal track fader to choose from any
configured Input Channel.
Selecting an Input or Output Channel from the Console:
•
Open the Console by clicking the Mix button, or press [F3] on the keyboard, and be
sure either All Channels or Audio is selected in the Banks window.
•
Click in the window above each track’s Fader and Pan controls to choose an Input
and/or Output Channel. The Input Channel selector is on top, with the Output Channel
selector beneath.
Selecting an Input or Output Channel from the Inspector:
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•
Open the Inspector window by clicking on the Inspector button above the Track
Column or pressing [F4] on the keyboard.
•
In the channel area of the Inspector window, you will find the currently selected track’s
Channel Mode toggle (mono or stereo) and Input and Output Channel selectors.
•
Click on the Input or Output Channel selector to choose a channel.
Stereo Tracks can select from both mono and stereo Input Channels, while Mono Tracks can
only select from mono Input Channels.
5.1.3.2 Tempo Mode
The Tempo mode, found in the Inspector, affects the way in which Audio Events are handled
on any audio track.
There are three Tempo modes:
•
Don’t Follow. Audio Events on the selected track will not be affected by Song tempo.
•
Follow. The start position of Audio Events on the selected track will be adjusted with
tempo changes, so the events stay in sync with their Bars (bars and beats) position.
The length of the Event will not be affected.
•
Timestretch. Assuming that the Song file contains tempo information, tempo
changes will cause Audio Events on the selected track to be dynamically stretched so
that the events’ start and end times stay in sync with their Bars (bars and beats)
positions. The length and internal timing of the Event will be affected in the stretching
process but the pitch of the audio will remain unaffected.
If the Stretch Audio Files to Tempo option is selected when creating a new Song, Timestretch
will be the default tempo mode for all new Audio Tracks.
5.1.4 Record-Enabling an Audio Track
To record to an Audio Track, the track must be record-enabled. To record-enable an Audio
Track, click on the track’s Record Enable button once or select the track and press [R] on the
keyboard. Select multiple tracks and record-enable any of them to record-enable all selected
tracks. The Record Enable button will turn red when active, and the track’s meter will begin to
move up and down if there is live audio input on the track’s selected Input Channel.
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Alternatively, if you press and hold [Alt]/[Option] on the keyboard, and then click on Record
Enable, you will both record-enable the related track and disarm record-enable for all other
tracks.
In the Options menu, you will find the Audio Input Follows Selection option. Engaging this
automatically record-and monitor-enables the last track selected in the Arrange view.
When an Audio Track is record-enabled, a clip indicator will appear at the top of the inputlevel meter for that track in the Arrange view. If clipping occurs at the input, the clip indicator
will turn on. When clipping occurs, you should adjust the input gain/level on your audio
interface, as once the distorted signal is recorded, it cannot be fixed.
Once an Audio Track is record-enabled, you are ready to record. Refer to Activating Recording
for more on this topic.
5.1.5 Software Monitoring
To monitor (listen to) live audio input on an Audio Track in Studio One, click on the Monitor
enable button once. This button should turn blue, and you should begin to hear your live
audio input and see its input level on the track meter. You can also hold [Alt]/[Option] on the
keyboard and then click on the Monitor enable button to simultaneously engage monitoring
on a track and disengage monitoring on all other tracks.
It may be helpful to picture the signal path to understand exactly what is happening. For
example, if you are listening to a guitar plugged into channel 1 on your audio interface, then
Studio One receives the guitar input on Hardware Input 1.
In Audio I/O Setup, you will have created a mono Input Channel with Hardware Input 1 as its
source. Your Audio Track will have that Input Channel selected as its input. The output of your
Audio Track is likely to be the Main Output, which is a stereo Output Channel. The Output
Channel will send to a designated stereo pair of outputs on your hardware audio interface,
which presumably are connected to your monitor speakers or headphones.
When monitoring live audio input from a microphone, avoid listening with speakers that are in
close proximity to the microphone. Otherwise, you might create a feedback loop that could
quickly generate dangerously loud audio levels, possibly harming your ears and your speakers.
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5.1.6 Hardware Monitoring
Some audio interfaces feature the ability to monitor the hardware inputs and outputs directly,
as opposed to monitoring through software. This is referred to as “hardware monitoring” or
“zero-latency monitoring.” When using this type of interface, we recommend that you monitor
live audio input via the hardware, rather than through the software. This will help avoid
common problems that result from software latency, such as hearing a delay when you record
vocals, or recording off-beat.
5.1.7 Setting Input Levels
Setting good input levels is critical to making a good recording. This begins with the hardware
audio interface. If the hardware’s input level is set too low, and you increase the level later in
Studio One to compensate, you will also raise the level of any noise in the signal. If the level is
too high, you can overload the hardware input, causing unpleasant clipping distortion that
cannot be fixed. Therefore, you should set the input gain on your audio interface as high as
possible without overloading the input. There is usually a clip indicator for each input on the
audio interface to assist you in detecting overloads.
As long as the input levels are not clipping in your audio interface or on the track to which you
are recording in Studio One, you can always adjust the levels of recorded material after the
recording is made. To visually monitor the input levels for any input in Studio One, it is best to
view the Input Channels in the Mix Console by clicking on the Inputs tab in the Console.
5.2
Instrument Tracks
Instrument Tracks are where performance data is recorded, drawn, and edited. This data
usually comes from a Keyboard, which is used to play a virtual instrument or hardware sound
module. Performance data is not audio; the virtual instrument or sound module is the audio
source.
In Studio One, MIDI controllers are referred to as Keyboards. If you have not set up a Keyboard,
refer to the Set Up Your MIDI Devices section of the “Setup” chapter.
5.2.1 Creating an Instrument Track
To create an Instrument Track, navigate to Track/AddTracks or Press [T] to open the Add Tracks
menu.
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The following options are available in this menu:
•
Name. Click here and type in a name for the new track.
•
Count. Choose the number of tracks you would like to create.
•
Format. Choose Instrument Track.
•
Color. Choose a color.
•
Auto-Color. Check this box if you would like your tracks auto-colored.
Once these options are configured, click on OK, and the tracks will appear in the Arrange view.
It is important to note that Instrument Tracks do not appear directly in the Console, as they do
not output audio. The virtual instruments generate sound and are represented in the Console
by Instrument Channels.
Alternatively, [Right]/[Control]-click in a blank space in the Track Column of the Arrange view
and select Add Instrument Track from the pop-up menu to quickly add an Instrument Track.
5.2.2 Configuring an Instrument Track
In Studio One, an Instrument Track can only receive input from a Keyboard that has been set
up in the External Devices menu. To set up a Keyboard, refer to the Set Up Your MIDI Devices
section of the “Setup” chapter. If you have a Keyboard set up as the default Instrument Track
input, all Instrument Tracks will default to using that Keyboard.
An Instrument Track can trigger a virtual instrument that has been set up in a Song or an
External Instrument. The Instrument Track Input and Output can each be selected in one of
two places:
Selecting an Instrument Track Input or Output from the Track Column:
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•
Set the Arrange view Track size to medium or larger to be able to access the current
Instrument Track Input.
•
There are two selection windows on the Instrument Track. Click in the bottom window
to choose from any configured Keyboard input. Click in the Top window to choose an
output to any previously set up virtual or external instrument.
Selecting an Instrument Track Input or Output from the Inspector:
•
Open the Inspector window by clicking on the Inspector button above the Track
Column or by pressing [F4] on the keyboard.
•
Click in the Input or Output selector window to select from any configured Keyboard
input or to trigger any previously set up virtual or external instrument.
Press [F11] to open the instrument editor for the selected Instrument Track.
Note that it is possible to select All Inputs as the input for Instrument Tracks, which combines
the input of all defined keyboard devices. If Default Instrument Input is not checked for any
Keyboard device, new Instrument Tracks will automatically use All Inputs.
This item is always in the inputs list, even if no keyboard device is defined. However, for any
MIDI input to be received on an Instrument Track, your MIDI input device (Keyboard
Controller, etc.) must first be set up in the External Devices menu as a Keyboard.
5.2.3 Set Up a Virtual Instrument
Studio One Producer and Professional support VST and AU virtual instruments, ReWire
applications, and Studio One's Native virtual instruments. The difference between these types
of virtual instruments is transparent to the user in Studio One, as they are all handled in the
same manner. To use any VST or AU virtual instrument, you will need to be sure Studio One
knows where they are installed on your computer. Refer to the Locating Plug-ins section of the
“Setup” chapter for more information on locating your plug-ins.
5.2.4 Add a Virtual Instrument from the Browser
To add any VST, AU, ReWire, or built-in virtual instrument to your Song, open the Browse view
and click on the Instruments tab to view your virtual instrument. Then do one of the following:
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•
Click on and drag any virtual instrument to an empty space in the Arrange view to
simultaneously add the virtual instrument to your Song and create an Instrument
Track with its output routed to the virtual instrument. The Instrument Track will
conveniently inherit the name of the virtual instrument.
•
Click on and drag any virtual instrument on top of an existing Instrument Track to
replace the track’s current virtual instrument.
•
Click on and drag any virtual instrument to the Instruments window in the Mixer to
simply add the virtual instrument to your Song. In order to control or play this virtual
instrument, you will need to select it as the output for an Instrument Track.
•
The virtual instrument is now set up and ready to play and will have one or more
dedicated audio channels in the Mixer.
Once a virtual instrument is added to your Song, be sure that an Instrument Track is routed to
it so that the instrument can be played.
5.2.5 Set Up Multiple Virtual Instrument Outputs
Many virtual instruments have the capability to send audio on more than one channel. In
Studio One, only the first output or output pair of any virtual instrument will be active by
default.
To activate the other possible virtual-instrument Output Channels in the Console:
•
Open the Console by pressing [F3] on the keyboard, then open the Instruments panel
(open by default) by clicking on the Instr. button to the far left of the Console.
•
Click once on the virtual instrument in the Instruments panel, and the Output Channel
activation menu will expand.
•
Click on the checkbox next to any output to activate that output for the virtual
instrument.
•
Each active virtual-instrument output will have a dedicated audio channel in the
Console.
You can also activate virtual-instrument outputs in the plug-in window. Any virtual-instrument
plug-in that offers multiple Output Channels will have a Channels button at the top of the
plug-in window. Click on this button to view and activate the available outputs.
5.2.6 Set Up a ReWire™ Application
ReWire applications are set up in a similar way to virtual instruments. Any ReWire applications
known to Studio One Professional or Producer will be listed in the Browser Instruments tab,
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along with all known virtual instruments. You can drag in the ReWire application just like an
instrument, and Studio One has a special ReWire object to represent the application.
The ReWire interface window is similar to the virtual-instrument interface windows. There are
also two special controls, Open Application and Close Application, which can open and close
most ReWire applications, so you do not need to leave Studio One to open or close the ReWire
application.
If clicking on Open Application does not immediately launch your ReWire application, this
means that the ReWire application does not support this function, so you need to manually
launch the application. The application should launch in ReWire slave mode.
Engaging “Allow tempo/signature changes” in the ReWire interface window allows the ReWire
application to make tempo and time-signature changes within Studio One. To suppress these
changes from the ReWire application, disable this option.
5.2.7 Record Enabling an Instrument Track
To record musical performance data to an Instrument Track, the track must be record-enabled.
To record-enable an Instrument Track, click on the Record Enable button once; it should turn
red.
Also, note that monitor-enable is, by default, automatically engaged when Record Enable is
engaged. This behavior can be configured in the Studio One/Options/Advanced/Devices
menu. If musical data arrives from the track’s selected Keyboard, the Instrument Track’s meter
will move up and down, corresponding to that input.
Once an Instrument Track is record-enabled, you are ready to record musical performance
data to that track. Refer to Activating Recording for more on this topic.
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5.2.8 Monitoring an Instrument Track
Instrument Tracks record and output musical-performance data, not audio. The virtual or
external instrument to which the Instrument Track is routed generates the audio. The
following describes how virtual and external instrument audio output is monitored.
5.2.9 Monitoring a Virtual Instrument
Virtual instruments usually load with a default sound; however, you should be sure that the
virtual instrument you wish to monitor is set up correctly to generate audio. With the output
of an Instrument Track routed to the virtual instrument you wish to monitor, click on the
Monitor button, and it will turn blue.
You should now be able to play the Keyboard that you selected as the input to the Instrument
Track and should see the track meter moving, as well as hear the audio output of the virtual
instrument. If you cannot hear the audio output of the virtual instrument, make sure that your
virtual instrument is set up correctly and that the corresponding audio channels in the Mix
Console are not muted.
If you select the Instrument Input Follows Selection option in the Options menu, any
Instrument Track you select will automatically have Monitor and Record enabled, and all other
Instrument Tracks will have these disabled.
5.2.10 Monitoring an External Instrument
To monitor and record the hardware audio output of an external instrument, one or more
Audio Tracks need to be created to receive that output. This means that your external
instrument needs to be physically connected to one or more inputs on your audio interface.
Thus, monitoring an external instrument involves the following:
•
The output of an Instrument Track is routed to the external instrument, which has
been set up to receive MIDI input from Studio One.
•
The Instrument Track is monitor-enabled.
•
One or more Audio Tracks have been created and configured to use the Input
Channels to which the external instrument’s audio output is connected.
•
The Audio Tracks are monitor-enabled.
With the above conditions met, you will be able to play your Keyboard and see the Instrument
Track meter moving. You will also see the related Audio Track meters moving, as well as hear
the live audio input from the external instrument.
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5.3
Activating Recording
Once you have the desired tracks created, setup, and record-enabled, the next step is to
record. The following illustrates several ways to activate recording, each associated with a
different purpose.
5.3.1 Manually
Manually activating recording is the most basic way to record. Recording will start at the
current playback-cursor position and will continue until you manually stop recording. To
manually activate recording, click on the Record button in the Transport or press [NumPad *]
on the keyboard.
The Record button in the Transport will turn red, the playback cursor will start to scroll from
left to right, and a new Event will be recorded to any record-enabled tracks. Recording will
continue until you manually stop it.
5.3.2 Pre-Roll
Recording with Pre-Roll engaged allows you to specify a number of bars that will play before
recording begins. For instance, when you want to record a vocal part for a chorus, the vocalist
will need to hear some reference portion of the recorded tracks before beginning to sing, and
a guitarist recording a solo will need to hear the music leading into the solo. Pre-Roll allows
you to specify the number of bars you will hear before recording automatically starts and
saves you the trouble of deleting the space before the recorded part begins.
Follow these steps to use Pre-Roll:
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•
Click on the Pre-Roll button in the Transport or press [O] on the keyboard to engage
Pre-Roll.
•
Click on the Metronome Setup button to open the Metronome Setup menu.
•
Under Precount in the Metronome Setup menu, enter a number in the Precount Bars
field for the number of bars you wish to play before recording begins.
•
Set the playback cursor to the timeline position at which you wish to begin recording.
•
Click on the Record button in the Transport or press [NumPad *] to begin recording.
Playback will begin at the specified number of bars before the position you chose,
with the playback cursor moving from left to right.
•
Recording will automatically activate at the position you chose. The Record button in
the Transport will turn red, the playback cursor will continue to scroll from left to right,
and a new Event will begin recording to any record-enabled tracks.
•
Recording will continue until you manually stop it by pressing [Space Bar] on the
keyboard or clicking Stop in the Transport.
5.3.3 Auto Punch
It is sometimes useful to automate the point at which recording will begin and end. For
example, if you wish to record over a specific phrase of a vocal part, but not before or after
that phrase, you can automatically begin and end recording at specified points. This process is
commonly referred to as “punching in and out,” and the resulting new Audio Event is referred
to as the “punch-in.”
In Studio One, punching in/out is achieved with the Auto Punch feature. Follow these steps to
engage Auto Punch:
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•
Set the Left Locator in the Timeline Ruler of the Arrange view at the position you wish
to punch in—that is, where recording should begin.
•
Set the Right Locator in the Timeline Ruler of the Arrange view at the position you
wish to punch out, that is, where recording should stop.
•
Click on the Auto Punch button in the Transport, or press [I] (the letter ‘i’) on the
keyboard.
•
With tracks record-enabled, begin recording at any point before the Left Locator
position.
•
Playback will begin and recording will automatically activate at the Left Locator
position. The Record button in the Transport will turn red, the playback cursor will
continue to scroll from left to right, and a new Event will begin recording to any
record-enabled tracks.
•
Recording will automatically stop at the Right Locator position. However, playback will
continue beyond the Right Locator position until you manually stop it by pressing
[Space Bar] on the keyboard or by clicking Stop in the Transport.
If you use the Auto-Punch feature in Studio One to record your punch-ins, or if you punch in
manually, the newly recorded audio is automatically crossfaded at its edges with the existing
Audio Event, so the transition between the old and new audio is not audible. The crossfade
time will be very small and not audible; however, you can edit the crossfade manually.
5.4
Metronome Control
A metronome makes audible clicks or other sounds that correspond to beats at a selectable
tempo, providing the musicians with a tempo reference while recording. This is especially
useful when recording drums or other rhythm-intensive tracks, as the editing and arranging
processes are made much easier when the recorded audio lines up with musical bars and
beats.
In Studio One, the metronome can be engaged and disengaged both globally and for each
hardware output in the Console, including the Main Out and any Sub Outs.
5.4.1 Turn the Metronome On/Off Manually
In the Transport, the Metronome button is to the left of the Master Volume fader and meter.
Click on the Metronome button, or press [C] on the keyboard, to globally engage and
disengage the metronome. The metronome is globally disengaged by default.
The Output Channels in the Console also feature Metronome buttons and level controls to the
right of the Mute and Solo buttons. These controls allow you to choose, for each output,
whether or not the metronome will be heard and its level.
5.4.2 Set Up Metronome Behavior
The Metronome settings menu can be accessed by clicking the Metronome Settings button,
located next to the Metronome button in the Transport. In this menu, you will find Audio Click
and Precount settings.
In the Audio Click settings, you can choose a Click sample
and corresponding level, as well as an Accent sample and
corresponding level. The Accent will always be the
downbeat, or first beat, of each new bar. You can choose
from four default samples for the Click and Accent,
including Click, Clave, Rim Shot, and Tambourine. By
default, the Accent Level setting is higher than the Click
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Level setting, as most musicians like to have the downbeat of each bar emphasized to help
keep time.
The metronome can also click at double tempo. For instance, if the time signature is set at 4/4,
the metronome can output eight-note clicks instead of quarter-note clicks, providing a
subdivision of the beat. This may help keep time at slower tempos, or guide a performer
through a complex rhythm. Engage the Double Tempo option to enable this behavior.
5.4.3 Click in Playback
The Click in Playback option in the Metronome setup menu allows you to enable/disable the
Metronome during playback, as opposed to while recording. Disabling Click in Playback allows
you to leave the Metronome engaged in the Transport at all times, so that if you are recording,
you will hear a click, but if you are playing back, you will not hear the click. Click in Playback is
engaged by default; click on the Click in Playback checkbox to disengage the Metronome
during playback.
5.4.4 Click in Precount Only
When recording is triggered with Pre-Roll engaged, as discussed in the Pre-Roll section of this
chapter, a specified number of Precount bars will play before reaching the current playback
cursor position. The number of Precount bars is specified in the Metronome Setup menu. In
this same menu, there is a checkbox to engage the Click Only in Precount option, which is
disengaged by default.
With Click Only in Precount engaged, the metronome will provide a traditional count-in
during the Precount bars and will not be heard beyond those bars.
5.4.5 Use Custom Sounds in the Metronome
It is possible to use any audio sample in the Metronome. To add samples to the Metronome
Settings menu, browse to the User Location, as specified in Options/Locations, and then copyand-paste any WAV, AIFF, or MP3 audio file to the Clicks folder. Any audio file added to the
Clicks folder will become available as a choice for the Downbeat and Accent Level sample in
the Metronome Settings menu.
5.5
Loop Recording on Audio Tracks
It can be very useful to loop a specific section while recording in order to capture multiple
performances or takes of the same musical passage. In Studio One, this is called “Loop
Recording.”
Follow these steps to accomplish Loop Recording:
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•
Set the Left and Right Locators in the Timeline Ruler at the beginning and end,
respectively, of the area in which you wish to record.
•
Click on the Loop button in the transport or press [NumPad] on the keyboard to
engage Looping.
•
Activate recording manually or via Pre-Roll or Auto Punch.
•
When the playback cursor reaches the Right Locator position, it will loop back to the
Left Locator Position.
•
Recording will continue until you manually stop it by pressing [Space Bar] on the
keyboard or clicking Stop in the Transport.
When Loop Recording with Audio Tracks, multiple Takes will be created. These Takes
represent each recorded pass over the looped region. If Record Takes to Layers is engaged in
the Record panel, opened from the View menu or with [Shift]+[Alt]+[R] on the keyboard, the
takes will automatically be placed in separate layers which are expanded when recording is
stopped. Refer to the Comping section of the “Editing” chapter of this manual for more
information.
5.5.1 Selecting Takes of an Audio Event
When there are multiple Takes available for an Audio Event, the Take icon will appear in the
lower left corner of the Event in the Arrange view.
By default, the last recorded Take is selected. To select any other take, [Right]/[Control]-click
on the Audio Event to expose a list of Takes. Click on any numbered Take to select it. Takes are
edited as a single Audio Event, so sizing or splicing any Take will splice all of the Takes
contained in the Audio Event.
It is possible to splice an Audio Event that contains multiple Takes, then select a different Take
for each splice of the original Event. For example, if you recorded three Takes for a vocal verse,
you could split that Audio Event in between each vocal phrase, and then, for each phrase,
select the best of the three Takes.
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5.5.2 Unpack Takes
When two or more Takes exist for an Audio Event, it is possible to unpack the individual takes
to separate Events on new Tracks, new Layers, or existing Layers. To do this, [Right]/[Control]click on the Event and click on Unpack Takes in the contextual menu.
Choose Unpack to Tracks to place each Take at the appropriate time on its own new Track.
Note that the settings of the originating Track are not duplicated for the new Tracks.
Choose Unpack Takes to New Layers to place each Take on its own Layer. This is usually done
for comping, discussed in detail in the Comping section of the “Editing” chapter. Choose
Unpack Takes to Existing Layers if you would like to unpack the Takes to existing Layers.
5.5.3 Set and Shift Loop
Several key commands that you may find helpful when loop recording are available in the
Keyboard Shortcuts menu and by default have no key command assigned.
Set Loop Start and Set Loop End allow you to place the left and right locators at the current
playback-cursor position. The same commands might be used when setting left and right
locators for a punch-in using Auto Punch.
Shift Loop and Shift Loop Backwards allow you to move the loop range to the next or previous
range of equal time. For instance, if you have eight bars looped, Shift Loop would move the
loop range to the next eight bars.
5.6
Instrument Track Recording Modes
There are several modes for recording to an Instrument Track. To switch between these
modes, navigate to the View menu and select Record panel, or press [Shift]+[Alt]+[R] on the
keyboard. In the Record panel, you can engage Record Mode Overdub or Record Mode
Replace, and Loop Record Takes or Loop Record Mix. The following describes each Instrument
Track recording mode.
5.6.1 Record Mode Overdub and Replace
When in the Overdub recording mode, recording over any existing Instrument Part will result
in the newly recorded material being overdubbed, or added to, the existing material. While
recording, you will hear the previously recorded Event playing, along with the material
currently being recorded, assuming that you are monitoring the Instrument Track.
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When in the Replace recording mode, recording over any existing Instrument Part will result in
the new material being recorded to a new Event, which replaces that portion of the original
Event. While recording, you will not hear the previously recorded Event playing back, as the
purpose of this mode is to replace the existing material.
5.6.2 Loop Record Takes and Mix
If Loop is engaged in the Transport while recording, the recording mode will change either to
Loop Record Takes or Loop Record Mix, depending on the selection in the Record panel. These
modes are functionally similar to the regular Record Mode Overdub and Record Mode
Replace.
When Loop Record Takes is selected, each pass through the looped region is recorded to a
new Take within a single new Instrument Part. When recording is stopped, each Take is
individually selectable by [Right]/[Control]-clicking on the Instrument Part and choosing one
of the numbered takes from the top of the pop-up menu. Only one Take can be selected at a
time for any Instrument Part.
Takes on Instrument Parts can be unpacked to new Instrument Tracks, as with Audio Event
Takes, described in the Unpack Takes section of this chapter.
When Loop Record Mix is selected, each pass through the looped region is added to the
existing material within a single new Instrument Part. For instance, if you loop a four-bar
region to record a new drum part, this would allow you to play one piece of the drum kit
during each pass until you have recorded the whole part.
5.6.3 Note Erase
If Note Erase is selected in the Record panel, any notes played during the current recording
pass will erase existing notes of the same note value. For instance, if you start recording a
drum pattern, and the kick pattern is on C1 and has an extra eighth-note hit on beat four, you
could switch to Note Erase while recording and play C1 on beat 4 for one eighth-note, and
that would erase the previously recorded note.
You can also specify an Erase Key in the Record panel, which functions as a switch for Note
Erase. While this note is held, Note Erase is active and any notes played during the current
recording pass will erase existing notes of the same note value. This can be more convenient
than using the mouse to click on Note Erase to switch the mode.
5.7
Track Layers
In Studio One, both audio and instrument tracks have optional layers that can be used to
record multiple different ideas to a single track. For instance, you might want to compare one
set of lyrics for a vocal track to another set of lyrics. In this case, you could record two different
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performances to two separate layers on a single track and quickly switch between the two
without needing a second track.
To create a new layer on any track, open the Inspector by pressing [F4] on the keyboard and
select Add Layer from the Layer selection box. The new layer is effectively like having a whole
new track without duplicating inserts, sends, and I/O setup. You can also duplicate layers by
selecting Duplicate Layer from the Layer selection box, which enables you to try out and
compare two different edits of the same events on two layers.
Layers are also used in the comping system of Studio One, as described in the Comping
section of the “Editing” chapter of this manual.
5.8
Audio Recording Format
Studio One records in the Broadcast Wave file format. This is the only format supported, as it is
the most widely used format, and it contains timestamps that mark when recordings start
within a Song. When recorded Broadcast Wave audio files get bigger than 4 GB, the RF64 file
format is automatically used as the standard file format.
The recommended file system for the recording partition on your computer is NTFS for
Windows and HFS+ for Mac OS X.
5.9
Creating a Good Monitor Mix
When recording any performance in the studio, take the time to build a great monitor mix for
the performers. It’s critical that they clearly hear their performance and that of the other
musicians, and a good monitor mix helps inspire a better performance. Ideally, each performer
should feel like they are playing on a finished record.
For instance, it is common in many styles of music for the lead vocals to have some reverb so
that they sit well in the space of the overall mix. Therefore, when recording vocals, it is
sometimes a good idea to include reverb in the vocalist’s monitor mix. This way, the vocal will
sound more like a finished production. This approach often helps when recording guitars,
keyboards, and other instruments, as well.
If your audio device supports zero-latency hardware monitoring, use that as the primary
monitor source, so that no delay is heard. In addition, you can use sends and FX channels in
the Console, as you normally would in a mix, to build a better monitor sound. For instance, on
the audio track to which you are recording, you could add a send to an FX channel with a
reverb. You could then route the FX Channel output to a Sub Out Channel and back to your
audio interface, where it can be mixed with the zero-latency dry signal.
When adding time-based effects, such as reverb or delay, you generally don’t have to be
concerned about plug-in delay and latency that could result from using software plug-ins on a
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live input source. A few milliseconds of processing delay on a reverb will probably not be
audible.
5.10
Cue Mixes and Zero-Latency Monitoring
Studio One features powerful hardware integration with certain audio interfaces from
PreSonus. In this section, we will discuss how to take advantage of this integration to create
cue mixes and use zero-latency monitoring.
5.10.1 Creating a Cue Mix Output
In Studio One, it is possible to quickly and easily create multiple cue mixes. A cue mix is
separate from the main mix and is usually provided to musicians for monitoring purposes
during recording.
For instance, when recording vocals, the engineer and vocalist will probably want to hear
different mixes. Most vocalists want to hear more of their vocals in the mix, possibly with some
reverb to make it sound natural, while the engineer might focus on how the performance
balances with the rest of the mix. Together, Studio One and a FireStudio™-series interface
make this simple.
The first step in building a cue mix is to create another Output Channel. To do this, open the
Song/Song Setup/Audio I/O Setup menu in a Song, switch to the Outputs tab, and add a new
Stereo Output channel. Next, specify that this output is a cue-mix output by clicking on the
channel’s Cue Mix checkbox. You can create as many cue mixes as your audio interface has
available stereo outputs.
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Now that you have created a Cue Mix output, you will notice a special Send object in the
channels of the Console. This Send object is called a Cue Mix object. In the Small Console view,
Cue Mix objects appear in the far left column of the extended channel. In the Large Console
view, Cue Mix objects appear below the Send device rack on each channel.
Each Cue Mix object features an Activate button, horizontal level and pan faders, and a Lock to
Channel button. When using a PreSonus FireStudio-series interface, on audio channels with an
assigned audio input, the Cue Mix object will also feature a Zero Latency switch, the function
of which is described below.
5.10.2 Mixing the Cue Mix
Cue mixes are built using Cue Mix objects. By default, the level and pan values are locked to
the channel level and pan faders. This means that each Cue Mix will be identical to the main
mix in the Console. Changing the level or pan in the Cue Mix object will unlock both settings,
allowing independent control of level and pan for each channel in each Cue Mix. Thus, the
level and pan for channels in a Cue Mix can be completely different from the related level and
pan in the main mix.
At any time, you can lock the cue-mix level and pan back to the channel settings by clicking on
the Lock to Channel button. To completely remove any channel from a cue mix, simply
deactivate the Cue Mix object for that channel.
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5.10.3 Monitoring Live Input in a Cue Mix
Cue mixes are normally used in a recording situation in which one or more live inputs need to
be monitored. This is where Studio One’s Cue Mix functionality, integrated with a PreSonus
FireStudio-series interface, gets really cool.
FireStudio-series interfaces feature internal hardware mixers that provide zero-latency
monitoring. While these mixers are easy to use, Studio One makes it even easier by allowing
you to control the mixers from within the software. Using this feature only involves clicking on
one button.
Let’s return to our example of recording live vocals. For a vocalist to be comfortable and
perform well, it is important that the performance sound as natural and as polished as
possible. Vocalists need to hear themselves well, with no audible delay of their voices in the
mix. Adding some reverb provides a little ambience so the voice is not dry and lifeless.
Here’s how this scenario would look in Studio One:
•
Set up a Cue Mix output for the vocalist.
•
Record-enable and monitor-enable the vocal track.
•
Engage the Zero Latency button on the Cue Mix object for the vocal channel. This
enables zero-latency monitoring straight from the hardware (as opposed to
monitoring through software) for that channel in the Cue Mix.
•
Create a Send on the vocal channel to an FX Channel with your favorite reverb effect.
•
The vocalist will then hear the live, zero-latency input from the hardware, as well as the
rest of the cue mix, including the output of the reverb. Adjust the level of the vocal
and other channels in the cue mix to the vocalist’s liking, and you’re ready to record.
In a few seconds, you can ensure that vocalists hear their voices with no latency, in a custom
mix that includes effects. Simultaneously, you can listen to a completely independent main
mix, allowing you to focus on engineering while the artist focuses on the performance.
Note that when monitoring with the Zero Latency button engaged, you will not hear insert
effects on that channel, as you are monitoring the signal before it is processed in software. If
you need to hear insert effects, do not engage the Zero Latency button.
5.10.4 The Main Output as a Cue Mix
It is possible to designate the main output in Audio I/O Setup as a cue mix. This is helpful if you
often record yourself with a FireStudio-series interface and require quick access to zerolatency monitoring for live inputs. When the main output is designated as a cue mix, a Zero
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Latency button will appear on any audio channel with an assigned audio input in the Console,
below the Mute, Solo, Record, and Monitor buttons.
With the Zero Latency button and Monitor Enable both engaged, you will hear the live zerolatency input straight from your FireStudio-series interface (not through the software). As
such, you will no longer hear the effects of any inserts on the channel. However, you will still
hear the result of any sends on the channel, as Bus and FX Channels will still output normally.
5.11
Print Effects While Recording
Some people prefer to place insert effects on Input Channels so that those effects may be
printed to the track while recording. For instance, you might place a compressor, EQ, or other
effect on a vocal Input Channel in order to save time and computer resources later, when
mixing. This is easy to accomplish in Studio One. It may be helpful to
review the “Mixing” chapter in order to better understand these
instructions.
To insert an effect on an Input Channel, open the Console and click on
the Inputs tab on the far left to view the Input Channels. If you’re
working in the Small Console view, double-click on the Input Channel
to open its Insert Device Rack.
Insert an effect in the Insert Device Rack on any of the Input Channels,
and those effects will be recorded at the input of any track that uses
that source. Studio One will automatically compensate for any latency
caused by the insert effects.
Note that when insert effects are used on Input Channels, and effects are recorded to a track,
there is no way to go back and change the sound of the recording. To avoid this scenario, you
might consider placing effects on the audio channels to which you are recording for
monitoring purposes only and printing with effects at mixdown.
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6
Editing
After recording, the next step in production is usually editing the recorded Events to achieve a
desired sound. The following chapter discusses aspects of editing in Studio One, including
Arrange view and Edit view editing, mouse tools, Event envelopes, edit groups,
timestretching, comping, integrated Melodyne pitch correction, and transient detection and
editing.
6.1
Events
All audio and musical data that exists within the timeline of your Song are visually represented
by Events. Events that contain audio are called Audio Events and can only be located on Audio
Tracks. Audio Events are distinct in that they display audio waveforms. Audio Parts are Events
that contain multiple Audio Events.
Events that contain musical data are called Instrument Parts and can only be located on
Instrument Tracks. Instrument Parts are distinct in that they display musical-performance
information.
Audio Events and Instrument Parts are referred to collectively as Events in this manual. Event
editing can take place both in the Arrange view and the Edit view. Audio Events and
Instrument Parts can be edited in similar ways, but each has special considerations.
Right [Control]-clicking on any Event will display the Event contextual menu, which contains
all related Editing actions, logically grouped. At the top of the contextual menu, you will find
the Event Name, which can be edited by double-clicking on it and entering a new name. You
can rename all events on a Track by renaming the Track and holding [Shift] while pressing
[Enter] after typing in the new name. You can also change the Event color by clicking on the
color bar next to its name and selecting a color or scrolling through the colors with the mouse
wheel.
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Common editing actions are listed under the Event name, as well as a Recent Items list that
contains the five most-recently used actions. In this way, you have instant access to the editing
actions you most likely want to use.
Note that the available actions listed in the Event contextual menu depend on whether you
are working with an Audio Event or an Instrument Part, and the actions may vary slightly
depending on your version of Studio One.
6.1.1 Tool and Event Snapping
Snapping allows editing actions to occur only at specified divisions in time, such as bars and
beats. For instance, Snapping makes it possible to rearrange specific beats from a bar of a
drum loop while keeping the rest of the loop in time. Snap is engaged by default and can be
disengaged by clicking on the Snap button. You can also temporarily defeat Snapping by
pressing the [Shift] key while moving the mouse.
If Snap is engaged, the current Snap Setting will affect the behavior of tools and Event editing
by snapping the tool or Event to nearby time values, as follows:
•
Adaptive. The default setting, where snapping will occur at the nearest logical
subdivision of the current Timebase, based on the current Time-line zoom level.
•
Bar. Snapping will occur at the nearest musical bar line.
•
Quantize. Snapping will occur at the nearest musical subdivision of the current
Quantize Setting.
•
Frames. Snapping will occur at the nearest frame subdivision.
There are four optional behaviors that can be selected, and will apply to any of the four modes
above:
•
•
•
•
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Snap to Cursor and Loop. This option enables snapping to the playback cursor and
Loop locators.
Snap to Events. This option enables snapping relative to Events in the Arrangement.
Snap to Grid. This option is engaged by default, allowing tool and Event snapping to
the grid.
Relative Grid. This option will maintain the time relationship relative to the grid for
any Event, so that when the Event is moved, the snap position maintains the original
position relative to the grid, instead of snapping directly to the grid.
6.2
Arrange View Mouse Tools
The mouse tools allow direct interaction with Events, using the mouse. It is helpful to
remember that actions done using the mouse tools can be undone at any time, so feel free to
explore them. Click the middle mouse button (scroll wheel) to display a list of the tools; then
left-click to select the desired tool.
In the Arrange view, the following mouse tools and related functions are available from left to
right in the toolbar.
6.2.1 Arrow Tool
This tool is selected by default. Click on the Arrow tool button or press [number 1] (above the
regular QWERTY keys) on the keyboard to select the Arrow tool.
Holding [Ctrl]/[Cmd] on the keyboard while the Arrow tool is selected will temporarily switch
to the Range tool.
The Arrow tool can be used for the following purposes:
6.2.1.1 Move an Event
To move an Event using the Arrow tool, click anywhere on the Event and drag left, right, up, or
down. Dragging the Event left or right will move the Event backward and forward in time,
relative to the current Timebase and Timeline zoom. When dragging an Event left or right
beyond the viewable arrangement, hold [Space Bar] on the keyboard to speed up the
scrolling.
Dragging the Event up or down will move the Event to another existing track of the same
type. If the Event is dragged to a position where no track currently exists, Studio One will
create a new track of the same type.
When dragging an event from one track to another (up or down), the position of the event will
be constrained within an automatic snapping range to make it easy to keep the event at the
same time position. To defeat this snapping, hold Shift while dragging the event up or down.
6.2.1.2 Size an Event
Events can be thought of as windows into audio files and musical performances, where what
you see is what you hear. Sizing is a fundamental technique wherein Events are made shorter
or longer, so that only a portion of the audio or musical data they contain is seen and heard.
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To size any Event using the Arrow tool, float the mouse to the left or right edge of the Event to
reveal the Sizing tool. When this tool appears, click-and-drag left or right to size the Event.
Events can be sized and resized nondestructively any number of times.
Two adjacent events can be sized simultaneously so that no gap is created between them. To
do this, float the Arrow tool to the bottom of where the two Events meet in the Timeline,
where you will see the sizing icon with both left and right arrows illuminated, and then clickand-drag left or right.
Holding [Alt]/[Option] on the keyboard and then sizing an Event from the right edge will result
in the Event being freely timestretched. Refer to the Timestretching section of this chapter for
more information.
6.2.1.3 Adjust Audio Event Volume Envelopes
All Audio Events feature a basic volume envelope that allows the volume of the audio to be
shaped in several ways. Using the volume envelope, you can create a fade-in and fade-out, as
well as set a constant volume level between the fades. The volume envelope applies gain
changes to the audio clip in the Event and is therefore at the front end of the audio signal
path.
To create a fade-in or fade-out, click-and-drag left or right on the Fade Flag in the upper left or
right corner of an Audio Event. By default, a linear fade will be created over the length you
have moved the Fade Flag. Fade times, as well as event gain, can also be edited in the
Inspector for any selected Event.
To change the curve of the fade, click on the Fade Curve box in the middle of the fade curve
and drag up or down. The fade curve will determine how quickly or slowly the fade occurs and
changes over time. If you press and hold [Shift] while editing the fade length or the curve, you
can edit both at once. Dragging up or down edits the curve, and dragging left or right changes
the length.
It is also possible to drag a complete crossfade left or right, or up or down, in order to change
the location and characteristics of the fade. Float the mouse to the center of the crossfade
until the Hand icon appears, then click and drag to adjust. Dragging left or right will adjust the
location of the fade, extending or shortening the crossfaded events. Dragging up or down will
alter the shape of the crossfade.
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To adjust the overall volume level of an Audio Event, click on the volume box in the center of
the volume envelope and drag up or down. As you adjust the volume envelope, the audio
waveform will be redrawn to approximate the effect of the adjustment.
6.2.1.4 Select Multiple Events
Multiple Events can be selected in order to edit them all at once, with a single action. To select
multiple Events with the Arrow tool, do one of the following:
•
Click outside of the range of an Event, and then drag over any other Events; a gray box
will be drawn while you drag over the target-selection area. Release the mouse button
once the box is drawn over all of the Events you wish to edit, and these Events will be
selected for editing.
•
Click on any Event; then, while holding [Shift] on the keyboard, click on any other
Events to select them. This allows you to select multiple Events that are not in close
proximity to each other. All selected Events can then be edited at once.
6.2.2 Range Tool
The Range tool is used to select a range, or area, within Events. Click on the Range tool button
or press [number 2] on the keyboard to select the Range tool.
To select a range within an Event, using the Range tool, click-and-drag over the area to be
selected; a gray box will be drawn over the target selection area. Release the mouse button
when the box is drawn over the range of the Events you wish to select. The range you have
selected is now treated as a single, consolidated Event.
For instance, you can use the Range tool to select the content of several Audio Events across
multiple tracks in bar 12, and then use the Arrow tool to move that section of audio to bar 14.
Another common use of the Range tool is to quickly select and delete a range of audio within
an Event, rather than using the Split tool to make two splits, then select and delete the section
with the Arrow tool.
When you float the mouse cursor over a selected range, the Arrow tool will temporarily
appear. This makes it easy to quickly select and edit a range of Events.
To select multiple, discontiguous ranges across any Event, on any track, hold the [Shift] key
while using the Range tool. Continue to hold [Shift] and use the Arrow tool to select whole
Events. For instance, when using the Arrow tool, if you press and hold [Ctrl], you get the Range
tool. Press and hold [Ctrl] and [Shift] to select multiple ranges, then continue to hold [Shift] but
release [Ctrl]; now you have the Arrow tool and can select whole Events. All of your selections
will remain selected.
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Selected ranges can be sized by floating the Range tool at the left/right edge of the selection.
You also can split a selected range at the left and right edges of the selection by choosing Split
Range from the Edit menu or by pressing [Ctrl]/[Cmd]+[Alt]+[X] after selecting a Range.
6.2.3 Split Tool
Using the Split tool, single Events can be split into multiple Events. Click on the Split Tool
button, or press [number 3] on the keyboard to select the Split tool.
With the Split tool selected, a vertical and horizontal line will be drawn near the current
mouse-cursor position. The vertical line indicates the exact time position of the Split tool,
while the horizontal line underscores the track on which the Event to be split resides. The Split
tool is directly affected by the current Snap settings.
Click on any Event with the Split tool to split the Event at that position. By splitting a single
Event, you create two Events that can be edited independently. If multiple Events are selected
across multiple tracks, the Split tool will affect all of the selected Events in the same way.
It is also possible to split selected Events at the timeline cursor, without using the Split tool, by
pressing [Alt]+[X] on the keyboard.
6.2.4 Eraser Tool
The Eraser tool is used to delete an Event. Click on the Eraser Tool button or press [number 4]
on the keyboard to select the Eraser tool. To delete any Event using the Eraser tool, simply
click on the Event. The Eraser tool is unaffected by the current selection and will only affect the
Event that is directly clicked on.
However, if you click on a selected element with the Eraser tool, all currently selected elements
will be erased.
6.2.5 Paint Tool
In the Arrange view, the Paint tool can only be used to create an empty Instrument Part on an
Instrument Track. Click on the Paint Tool button or press [number 5] on the keyboard to select
the Paint tool.
To create a new, empty Instrument Part on an Instrument Track with the Paint tool, click-anddrag over any empty area in the track lane of the Instrument Track. Clicking once with the
Paint tool will create an empty Instrument Part that varies in length according to the current
timebase setting.
The Paint tool will become the Arrow tool when the mouse cursor is floated over any area of
an Audio Track.
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6.2.6 Mute Tool
In the Arrange view, the Mute tool is used to mute Audio Events and Instrument Parts. Click on
the Mute Tool button or press [number 6] on the keyboard to select the Mute tool. To mute
any Audio Event or Instrument Part, simply click on it with the Mute tool. When an Event or
Part is muted, it will appear grayed out, and an “m” icon will appear in the lower left corner of
the Event or Part.
To unmute an Event or Part, click on it with the Mute tool. Clicking and dragging the Mute tool
over any number of Events and Parts in one motion will mute or unmute all of the Events and
Parts touched by the tool.
6.2.7 Bend Tool
In the Arrange view, the Bend tool is used to manipulate, add, and remove Bend Markers. For
more information on Bend Markers, refer to the Transient Detection and Editing section of this
chapter.
6.2.8 Listen Tool
In the Arrange view, click and hold on any Audio Event or Instrument Part to instantly solo the
related track and start playback from the position where you clicked. Playback will continue as
long as the mouse click is held. When the mouse click is released, playback is stopped, and the
related track is unsoloed.
6.3
The Grid
The Arrangement grid is comprised of the ticks in the timeline and the vertical lines extending
from those ticks through the background of the Arrangement. This grid uses the Timebase
setting as the basis for its display. The Timebase settings are Seconds, Samples, Bars, and
Frames, and they determine the behavior of Event and tool snapping. The Timebase can be
changed at any time, without directly affecting the arrangement.
Perhaps the most common Timebase setting is Bars, which will display time in a musical
format of bars and beats. With this Timebase setting, the grid will be determined by the
settings in the Quantize panel.
6.3.1 Quantize Panel
The Quantize panel can be opened from the toolbar by clicking on the Quantize Panel button,
or by selecting Quantize from the View/Additional Views menu. The Quantize panel can be
detached and freely placed on the screen. In this panel, you can edit all settings related to the
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Quantize grid that are displayed in the Arrangement. From left to right in the panel, you will
see areas for Grid or Groove mode; note-value selection; note grouping and Swing amount;
Start, End, Velocity, and Range percentages; and preset management.
With Grid mode selected, you can choose a note value between a whole note and can select a
64th note, and the following musical note groupings: Straight, Triplet (3 notes in the space of
2), Quintole (a quintuplet with 5 notes in the space of 4), or Septole (a septuplet with 7 notes
in the space of 8). These settings will determine the look and behavior of the grid in the
Arrangement. For information on the Groove mode of the Quantize panel, refer to section
6.9.6.
The Start percentage defaults to 100%, which means that the start of a selected note, Event or
transient will snap to the grid if quantized. This is effectively a quantize-strength parameter,
where anything less than 100% will move the note, Event, or transient a relative amount closer
to the grid, instead of all the way to the grid.
The End percentage only affects notes in Instrument Parts. The function is similar to the Start
percentage, except that it affects the note end, effectively making quantized notes shorter or
longer. The Velocity percentage also only affects notes, and will adjust note velocity according
to an extracted groove if the Quantize mode is set to Groove (refer to section 6.9.6 for more
information).
The Range percentage sets the relative range from grid lines within which notes, Events, or
transients will be quantized. notes, Events, or transients beyond this relative range will not be
quantized. As there is no display indicating the Range, quantizing several times while
adjusting this setting may lead to the best results.
The presets area of the Quantize panel allows you to quickly switch between up to five
Quantize panel settings, so that working with multiple complex quantization setups is very
easy. You can also store and recall Quantize panel settings, just as you would store an effect or
instrument preset.
Above the Apply button are two buttons to change the quantize mode: Quantize and
Quantize on Track. The default mode is Quantize, which means that quantization will happen
within selected events. In the case of an Audio Event, this means that transients will be
detected and then quantized. In the case of an Instrument Part, the notes within the part will
be quantized. This mode is equivalent to what happens if you select any Event and press [Q] to
quantize.
If Quantize On Track mode is selected, the selected events themselves will be quantized as
single objects. For instance, if a selected Audio Event starts between two different eighth
notes, and the quantize note value is set to eighth notes, pressing Apply in the Quantize panel
will shift the entire event to start on the nearest eighth note. Note that quantizing with this
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mode can only be done by pressing Apply in the Quantize Panel, and using the [Q] keyboard
shortcut will result in the default Quantize mode being used.
6.4
Common Editing Actions
6.4.1 Cut, Copy, Paste
As with most software applications, Studio One supports cut, copy, and paste actions. Once
you have selected an Event or a range of Events, you can perform these actions:
•
Cut. Press [Ctrl]/[Cmd]+[X] on the keyboard to cut the current selection.
•
Copy. Press [Ctrl]/[Cmd]+[C] on the keyboard to copy the current selection.
•
Paste. Once a selection is cut or copied, press [Ctrl]/[Cmd]+[V] on the keyboard to
paste the selection. The Events will be pasted on the selected track, at the current
playback cursor position. If you select and copy Events on multiple tracks, then select
another timeline location on the first track, and then paste, the copied Events will be
pasted in the appropriate tracks and locations, starting with the first (selected) track.
Let’s say you wanted to copy and paste an Event from one Song into another Song or another
version of the Song, and you want the Event to be at its original location in the timeline. You
can do this by copying the Event and then pasting with [Ctrl]+[Shift]+[V].
6.4.2 Audio Event Slip
Often, after an Audio Event has been sized to fit a particular region of time, the audio clip the
Event contains needs to be moved ahead or behind in time without changing the Event’s
length and volume envelope. This action is commonly called “slipping” or “slip,” and it is often
used alongside splitting, or splicing, to correct the timing of rhythm tracks. For instance, if one
snare-drum hit is off the beat by a little bit, you could split the Event on either side of that
section and then slip the audio into perfect time.
To use Slip, select the Arrow tool, and then press and hold [Ctrl]/[Cmd]+[Alt] on the keyboard,
while floating the mouse over an Audio Event. The Slip tool icon will appear. Click-and-drag on
the Event to slip the audio left or right across the timeline. Multiple Audio Events can be
selected and slipped at once, even across multiple tracks.
When slipping the audio in an Audio Event, note that all of the Event characteristics remain
unchanged, including the Event size, position, Inspector parameters, and volume envelope.
An Audio Event can be slipped only as far as the length of the audio clip it contains.
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6.4.3 Audio Event Transpose and Tune
The ability to transpose and fine-tune audio adds a lot of flexibility when working with audio
files. For instance, if you have a keyboard loop collection in which every loop is in the key of C,
being able to transpose these loops to any other key opens up many possibilities.
In Studio One, transposing and tuning are a part of the same set of advanced algorithms as
timestretching, so the quality is extremely high.
To transpose any audio event, select it and open the Inspector by pressing [F4]
on the keyboard or clicking on the Inspector button above the Track Column.
Then enter a value in the Transpose field, from -24 to +24 semitones.
Tuning is similar to transposing but the pitch is changed in cents, rather than
semitones. Enter a value from -100 to 100 cents in the Tune field to fine-tune
the audio event.
Any number of events can be selected and transposed or tuned simultaneously.
6.4.4 Nudge
Nudging is an alternative to moving Events and notes across the timeline with the mouse. To
Nudge any Event or note, select it and do one of the following:
•
Nudge. Press [Alt]+[Right Arrow] on the keyboard to move the Event or note forward
in time by the current snap value in the Arrangement or Editor. With Snap disabled,
nudging will adjust in milliseconds.
•
Nudge Back. Press [Alt]+[Left Arrow] on the keyboard to move the Event or note
backward in time.
•
Nudge Bar. Press [Ctrl]/[Cmd]+[Right Arrow] to move the Event or note forward by
one Bar.
•
Nudge Bar Back.[Ctrl]/[Cmd]+[Left Arrow] to move the Event or note backward by
one Bar.
Any number of Events or notes can be selected and Nudged simultaneously. The Nudge
commands are also available in the Edit menu.
6.4.5 Duplicate
The Duplicate action essentially combines the Copy and Paste actions and intelligently places
the pasted selection based on the musical timing of the selection in the Song. Press [D] on the
keyboard to duplicate the current selection. The duplicated Event will always be placed after
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the original Event, and it is automatically selected once duplicated. As with the other editing
actions, Duplicate can apply to any number of currently selected Events.
A good use of the Duplicate command is to quickly create copies of a loop across a region in a
Song by selecting an Event and repeatedly pressing [D] on the keyboard. Another interesting
use involves selecting very short regions within a loop, using the Range tool, and duplicating
them several times, consecutively, in order to create a stutter effect that is popular in
electronic music.
If you would like to duplicate an Event and push existing material to the right across the
timeline to make room for the duplicated Event, press [Alt]+[D] on the keyboard to use the
Duplicate and Insert command.
6.4.6 Explode Pitches to Tracks
It is sometimes helpful to explode existing pitches within an Instrument Part to new tracks,
placing each pitch within individual Instrument Parts on separate Tracks. For instance, if you
have a MIDI loop to use with a virtual drum instrument, you may want to have each piece of
the drum kit on its own Instrument Track.
To do this, [Right]/[Control]-click on an Instrument Part in the arrangement and select Explode
Pitches to Tracks from the Part menu.
6.4.7 Strip Silence
It is quite common that, as the result of continuous recording, some Audio Events may have
gaps of silence or relatively low levels between performances. It may be helpful in these cases
to remove the gaps and only keep the desired sections of the recorded Event. Studio One's
Strip Silence function, controlled from the Strip Silence panel, is designed to handle this task.
Open the Strip Silence panel by clicking on the Strip Silence button in the toolbar, or select
Strip Silence from the View/Additional Views menu. Select the Audio Events from which you
wish to strip silence, make the desired settings, and then click on Apply. Click on the Default
button to return all settings in the panel to their defaults.
The result of the Strip Silence process is similar to using a gate processor to only allow the
desired signal to be heard, except that the Event will be edited.
When the small light indicator next to the Apply button is lit, this means that changing the
Detection or Event options and then clicking Apply will automatically undo the previous
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operation, making it easier to find the right settings by viewing the result of the Strip Silence
process, then tweaking the settings if needed without having to undo manually. Any change
in selection, or other editing operations, will lose this automatic state, and the indicator will
not be lit.
The following describes each setting:
Detection. This determines how Studio One will identify silence in the areas you wish to
process.
•
•
•
•
Material. The first three options set the Open and Close Threshold for the gate
algorithm automatically.
o Lots of Silence. Choose this for material that contains lots of silence and
single hits—for instance, a clean, typical single-drum recording (hat, kick).
o Little Silence. Choose this for material that has some action going on but still
has some silence—for instance, minimal techno/single drum loops, ride, or
snare tracks.
o Noise Floor. Choose this for material where there is almost no real silence—
for instance, noisy drum recordings, overheads, drum mixes, and drum loops.
o Manual. Allows the Open and Close Threshold to be manually edited.
Open Threshold. Set between -80 and 0.00 dB.
Threshold Link. Engage to link the Close Threshold to the Open Threshold.
Close Threshold. Set between -80 and 0.00 dB.
Events. This section determines the nature of the Events created after removing silence.
•
•
•
•
•
Minimum Length. Determines the minimum length in seconds for any resulting
Event.
Pre-Roll. Determines the amount of time in seconds that should remain at the
beginning of resulting Events from the time at which the previously detected silence
ends.
Post-Roll. Determines the amount of time in seconds that should remain at the end of
resulting Events from the time at which newly detected silence begins.
Fade-In. Determines the length in seconds of the linear fade-in applied to resulting
Events.
Fade-Out. Determines the length in seconds of the linear fade-out applied to
resulting Events.
6.4.8 Audio Parts
It is often convenient to merge multiple separate events into a single object in order to move
them all together or simply to clean up the Arrangement. This is accomplished with Audio
Parts.
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To create an Audio Part, select the Audio Events and then press [G] on the keyboard. This
makes the separate Events appear and function as a single Event in the arrangement while
also appearing and functioning as separate Events in the Editor. It is then much simpler to, for
instance, duplicate a chorus in the arrangement and retain access to the individual events for
editing crossfades and other details.
An Audio Part can also be created with the Pencil tool in the Audio Editor, and then Audio
Events can be dragged in or out of the Part. Note that an event must be completely inside or
outside of the Part to enter or leave it.
Note that Audio Parts support shared, or ghost, copies, with the exception of any Event FX
which are strictly per Event instance.
An Audio Part has two options in the Event Inspector:
•
•
Play mode.
o Normal will only play the topmost Events, and any overlaps are not played.
o Overlaps will allow any overlapping audio to play back mixed, rather than
cutting off at the end of each individual slice. This often happens if individual
slices are have been quantized but not timestretched.
o Slices is optimized for REX and Audio Loop files, and will add short fades to
slices during playback. Each slice is triggered only once, and no overlaps will
be played.
Stretch Events will timestretch events inside the Audio Part to match the Song
Tempo.
To dissolve an Audio Part, right-click on the Audio Part and choose Dissolve Audio Part from
the context menu.
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6.4.9 Editing Options
The following options are related to Editing workflow.
6.4.9.1 Return to Start Position on Stop
Many people prefer that when playback is stopped, the playback cursor returns to the position
from which it started. This allows fast auditioning of edits by repeatedly starting and stopping
playback from a specific position in the timeline.
To enable this behavior, select the Return on Stop option in the Options file menu.
6.4.9.2 Locate to the Mouse Cursor
To quickly locate the playback position to the mouse-cursor position, press
[Ctrl]/[Cmd]+[Space] on the keyboard. This is very useful when you want to quickly navigate to
multiple edits for auditioning or further editing, without clicking in the Timeline.
6.4.9.3 Follow Song and Follow Edit Position
If you would like the Arrange view to follow the current playback-cursor position, engage
Autoscroll in the toolbar, or press [F] on the keyboard. This will keep all audible events in view.
If you would like the playback-cursor position to follow the current edit position, engage
Follow Edit Position, which is next to Follow Song in the toolbar. With this engaged, the
playback-cursor position will jump to the beginning of any Event or note being moved, or to
the position of any marker being moved.
6.5
Audio Loops and Music Loops
Studio One features two proprietary file formats, Audio Loop (.audioloop) and Music Loop
(.musicloop), that greatly enhance your ability to create and reuse original material in your
productions and to share your material with other Studio One users. The following describes
these formats and how to use them.
6.5.1 Audio Loops
Audio Loops are essentially Audio Parts tagged with a tempo and rendered with lossless
compression. To create an Audio Loop, drag any Audio Part to the File Browser. You will then
see the Audio Loop listed, along with a drop-down arrow in the Browser that, when clicked,
reveals the Slices that the Audio Loop contains.
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Audio Loops allow fast creation of flexible audio loops from any source. For instance, you
might take part of a drum recording you just made and turn it into a loop by doing the
following:
•
•
•
Export a stem for the Drum bus for the desired range to a new stereo track.
Detect transients on the new track and then apply the Slice action, with the Merge
option checked in the Audio Bend panel.
Drag the Audio Part to Browser to export an Audio Loop you can use in any Song and
can share with other Studio One users.
6.5.2 Music Loops
A Music Loop consists of everything required to recreate a musical performance, including the
virtual instrument preset, multichannel FX chain presets for the virtual instrument outputs, the
music-performance file, and an audio loop. Music Loops can be dragged in from the Browser,
just like a MIDI file, but they are much more powerful in that they can re-create the exact setup
used to make the original performance.
To create a Music Loop, drag any Instrument Part into the Browser. You will see a pop-up
display indicating whether you are exporting a Music Loop or a MIDI file. By default, Music
Loop is selected. To change this selection, press [Alt]/[Option] on the keyboard. Once
exported, you will see the .musicloop file in the Browser.
You can now drag this Music Loop into any Song to instantly
re-create that performance, including creating the Instrument
Track, loading the virtual instrument, and loading any effects
on the virtual instrument outputs. A Music Loop can be
previewed in the Browser, just like audio; the Browser will
play the rendered audio file.
To see the contents of the Music Loop, right-click on the Music Loop and choose Show
Package Contents. You will now see a drop-down arrow that, when clicked, reveals the
elements described above. Each element can be dragged in separately; for instance, if you just
wanted to load the instrument preset from the Music Loop. Another nice benefit of Music
Loops is that the rendered audio can be used even if the instrument and effects used to create
the Music Loop are not installed.
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Note that when creating Music Loops, the related channel volume, pan, FX sends, and/or
busing is not a part of the rendered audio or stored preset.
Music Loops are an excellent way to store a personal library of original material very easily and
to share that material with others without worrying about what instruments or effects they
have.
6.6
Edit Groups
It can be useful to group multiple tracks together so that any edits done to an Event on one
track in the group are automatically done to all Events for each Track in the group. For
instance, you may wish to group all of your drum tracks together so that when the Events are
cut and moved, the relative timing between the tracks remains intact.
6.6.1 Creating Edit Groups
To create a new edit Group, do the following:
•
Select the Tracks you wish to group.
•
[Right]/[Control]-click on any currently selected Track.
•
Choose Group Selected Tracks from the pop-up menu.
All Tracks that were selected will now be a part of the new Edit Group. Edit Groups are
automatically named based on the order in which they are created, and they are shown as
Group 1, Group 2, and so on. The name of the new Edit Group will be shown in the Edit Group
selector box under the Track Type icon on all Tracks in the Group. You can rename an Edit
Group by clicking in the Group selection box on any track in the Group and selecting Rename
Group.
To add a Track to an existing Edit Group, click on the Edit Group box
(under the Track Type icon) on the desired Track in the Arrange view.
Then, in the pop-up menu, choose the Edit Group to which you wish to
add the Track.
When a Track is included in an Edit Group, selecting the Track will select
all Tracks in the Group. Edit actions performed on any Event for any Track
in the Group will be performed on all Events for each Track in the Group.
In Studio One, Edit Groups also group the faders for the related channels in the Group. This
topic is discussed further in the Groups section of the “Mixing” chapter. Note that it is also
possible to create an Edit Group from a Folder Track.
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If a Track is in an Edit Group, and an Event from the Track is viewed in the Edit view, the Group
icon will appear at the top left of the Edit view, indicating that any edits performed on the
Event in view will affect other Events.
6.6.2 Dissolving Edit Groups
To dissolve, or ungroup, an Edit Group, [Right]/[Ctrl]-click on any Track in the Group in the
Arrange view. Then select Dissolve Group (1, 2, 3…), and the Group will be dissolved.
Grouping and dissolving actions can be undone and redone, as with most user actions.
6.6.3 Temporarily Suspending Edit Groups
Certain actions—such as moving a fader, muting, and soloing—can be performed on a track
within an Edit Group, without affecting the group as a whole, by temporarily suspending the
group. To do this, hold [Alt]/[Option] on the keyboard while performing an action on a track.
6.7
Timestretching
It is possible to stretch an Audio Event to fit a tempo other than its original tempo, without
changing the pitch. This is called Timestretching, and it can be used to effectively slow down
or speed up an Audio Event. For instance, a 1-bar drum loop recorded at 120 bpm (beats per
minute) can be stretched to fit into 1 bar at 100 or 140 bpm without significantly changing the
pitch and overall sound of the original audio.
Timestretching and defining a file tempo are nondestructive, so they can be undone and
redone. It is also possible to switch Tempo modes for any Audio Track, on the fly. For example,
switching to Follow or Don’t Follow from Timestretch will return any timestretched Audio
Event that Track contains back to its original state.
When timestretching, if the tempo is drastically changed (by about 30 bpm or more), the
audio can become slightly distorted. While this can lead to interesting effects, you should be
aware of the limitation of this technology.
In Studio One, timestretching can occur automatically or manually. The following describes
these functions.
6.7.1 Manual Timestretching
With manual timestretching, you can stretch an Audio Event independently of the Song
tempo or audio file tempo.
To manually stretch an Audio Event with the Arrow tool, float the mouse cursor to the edge of
the target Audio Event and hold [Alt]/[Option] on the keyboard. The Timestretch tool will
appear, allowing you to click on the edge of the Event and drag left or right to timestretch the
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Event, making it shorter or longer In this case, the length of the Event will change, using the
Speedup factor, but the pitch of the audio the Event contains will remain the same. Only the
Event that you selected for timestretching will be affected.
Speedup factor is a timestretching function for making an audio clip shorter or longer while
maintaining its pitch. Values greater than 1 increase the length of the clip, while values less
than 1 make the clip shorter. This is used to stretch audio events when you do not wish to
define a tempo for the original audio clip, which would affect all events associated with that
clip. The Speedup factor can be entered in the Event Inspector.
6.7.2 Automatic Timestretching
Automatic timestretching is based on the relationship between the Song tempo and the audio
file’s tempo.
Each Audio Track has a Tempo mode that controls the behavior of the events on the track,
based on the Song tempo. The Tempo mode can be selected in the Track Inspector. The
following modes are available:
•
Don’t Follow. Events on this track are independent of the Song tempo. They are never
moved or stretched automatically.
•
Follow. The start positions of Events on this track are tied to the musical grid. Thus,
the Events move when the Song tempo changes but they are not stretched.
•
Timestretch. Event start positions follow the Song tempo, as in Follow mode. In
addition, the Events are stretched to fit the Song tempo.
6.7.3 Audio File Tempo Information
For automatic timestretching to work as described, Studio One needs to know the original
tempo of an audio file. The software can then calculate how to stretch the file to fit the Song
tempo. Many audio loops have this information encoded.
Files without tempo information will not be timestretched, even if the Track’s tempo mode is
set to Timestretch.
Studio One offers two ways to define or change the original tempo information of an audio
file.
If the original tempo for an Audio Event is unknown, the Arrow tool Timestretch function can
be used to manually fit the Audio Event to a specific length of time (bars and beats, etc). To do
this, set the Tempo mode of the track to “Timestretch.” Float the mouse cursor to the edge of
the target Audio Event and hold [Ctrl]+[Alt]/ [Command]+[Option] on the keyboard. The
Define Tempo tool will appear, allowing you to click on the edge of the Event and drag left or
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right to stretch it. In this case, the tempo for the original clip will be set based on the musical
length to which the Event is stretched, and all Events in the Song that use this original clip will
be updated.
If the original tempo for an Audio Event is known but is not encoded in the original file that
the Event references, you can easily set the file tempo for the Event in the Inspector. Click in
the File Tempo box, type in a new value and press [Enter] on the keyboard to enter a new file
tempo. If the corresponding Audio Track’s Tempo mode is set to Timestretch, entering a new
value in File Tempo will stretch all Events in the Song that use this original clip, based on the
entered tempo value.
6.7.4 Tap Tempo
You can use the Tap Tempo function to set the current Song tempo to the tempo that you
hear in your Audio Events. To do this, repeatedly click on the word “Tempo” in the Transport,
clicking once on every beat you hear. Studio One will determine the Audio Event tempo based
on the timing of your clicks and will set the tempo for the Song accordingly. Be sure that the
Tempo mode for the Audio Track is set to Don’t Follow; otherwise, the Events will be stretched
or moved while you are using the Tap Tempo function, making it impossible to find a
consistent tempo.
6.7.5 Timestretching Material Modes
Studio One features several optimized timestretching modes that may yield better results with
certain types of audio material. To access these modes, open the Inspector by pressing [F4] on
the keyboard and click in the Material display. Click on any mode to select it for the currently
selected Track. The modes are:
•
Drums. Use this optimized mode on any percussion track to achieve the best results
when stretching percussive audio.
•
Sound. Use this general mode on any other type of track.
•
Solo. Use this optimized mode on any solo instrument or vocal track to achieve the
best results.
•
Audio Bend. Use this optimized mode when manipulating Bend Markers in any Audio
Event on the Track.
6.7.6 Using Timestretch Cache
By default, Use Cache for Timestretched Audio Files is engaged. This option also can be
selected in the Studio One/Options/Advanced/Audio menu (Mac:
Preferences/Options/Advanced/Audio Engine). Timestretch Cache creates a cache file at the
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correct tempo for any files that need timestretching, based on what is currently being
stretched in your Song. This improves Studio One’s performance, as the timestretch process
no longer needs to occur during playback. Studio One also can use a higher-quality
timestretch setting when it creates the cache file.
Using Timestretch Cache requires a certain amount of available space on your hard drive. If
you know that space is relatively limited on your hard drive, or if performance issues arise,
disable this feature. When Use Cache for Timestretched Audio Files is deselected, Studio One
will timestretch the file in real time, during playback, as the file is being read from the
computer hard drive.
6.7.7 Default Tempo Mode for New Tracks
When creating a New Song, notice that the New Song setup menu includes a Stretch Audio
Files to Song Tempo checkbox. With this option engaged, any new Track that is created in this
Song will have the Tempo mode set to Timestretch, and the software will attempt to
automatically stretch audio files to the current Song tempo when they are imported into the
Song. Otherwise, the default Tempo mode for new Tracks will be Follow.
6.8
Comping
Comping is the process of piecing together multiple performances into a single, continuous
performance. For instance, you might record the vocals for a verse a number of times, then
edit the best parts of each pass into a single, hybrid performance that, ideally, sounds as
though it was performed in one pass. Comping and related information are covered in the
following sections.
6.8.1 Takes and Layers
The most common comping scenario involves recording multiple takes of audio and then
editing those takes. In Studio One, takes are created when recording on one or more tracks
with Loop engaged. A new take is created each time the right locator is reached and the
transport loops back to the left locator. In order to then comp these takes together on the
track, they must be placed in Layers.
Takes can be recorded directly to Layers by engaging the Record Takes To Layers option in the
Record panel, opened with [Shift]+[Alt]/[Option]+[R], before loop recording. With that option
engaged, all recorded takes will be placed on Layers, with one Layer per take, and the Layers
will be shown as soon as recording is stopped. The last recorded take will be placed on the
Track automatically. Note that this option also applies when loop-recording Instrument Parts if
the Record Takes option is engaged in the Record panel.
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By [Right]/[Control]-click ing on a Track, you can choose Add Layer to manually add a Layer at
any time. You can then drag audio or MIDI to the Layer just as you would drag it to the Track.
This allows some very interesting creative comping possibilities beyond simply recording and
editing. To rename the currently selected Layer, [Right]/[Control]-click on a Track and choose
Layers/Rename Layer from the context menu.
Layers are displayed as lanes directly under the Track to which they belong.
To hide or show Layers, right-click on a Track and click on Expand Layers. Layers have their
own Track controls, including Solo, Activate, Duplicate, and Remove. Click on the Solo button
on a Layer to solo the Layer on the Track. Clicking on the Activate button will place that Layer
on the Track, and the current contents from the Track will take the place of that Layer on a
new Layer under the Track. Duplicate will create a duplicate of the Layer on a new Layer, and
Remove will remove the Layer from the Track.
6.8.2 Auditioning Takes
When comping, it is helpful to be able to quickly audition the various takes to determine the
desired parts of each take. Soloing Layers allows you to quickly switch between takes
exclusively, as only one Layer of a Track may be soloed at any time. Note that Track Solo is
independent of this, so you can solo the Track or not, depending on whether you would like to
hear the performances you are comping in the context of the other Tracks in your Song.
Alternatively, the Listen tool is well suited to auditioning takes. With the Listen tool selected,
you can simply click anywhere on any take to instantly hear it. Note that using the Listen tool
will also solo the Track.
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6.8.3 Copying Ranges to the Track
Studio One makes the comping process very simple. With the Arrow tool selected, floating the
mouse over any Layer will switch to a special Range tool, indicated with the Range cursor icon.
Click-and-drag with this tool to select any range of a take, then float the mouse over that
selected range, and the tool will switch back to the Arrow tool. Now double-click on the
selected range to copy it to the Track.
Once a range has been copied to the Track, its color will change so that you can always be sure
where material on the Track is coming from. Where a newly copied range overlaps with an
existing range on the Track, an automatic 10 ms crossfade will be applied to help avoid clicks
or other undesirable artifacts. This crossfade can be edited just like any other, and it can be
removed.
If one or more Tracks are in a Group, and comping is performed on any of those Tracks,
identical edits will be performed on the other Tracks in the Group. For instance, comping can
be performed on a single Track within a drum Group, and those identical edits will be
performed across the other Tracks in the Group. While it may be best to avoid the scenario,
comping can be performed across grouped Tracks with a differing number of Layers; Layer
positions under the Tracks determine the behavior of the edits.
6.8.4 What Next?
After the comping on an Audio Track, it is common to consolidate, or bounce, separate Audio
Events into a single, continuous Event. You can do this quickly by selecting the Audio Events
on the Track and pressing [Ctrl]+[B] on the keyboard. This will render a new Audio file and
Event, and place it on the Track at the correct position. A more flexible way to gain a similar
convenience is to merge the separate Audio Events into an Audio Part by selecting the Audio
Events and then pressing [G] on the keyboard.
6.9
Transient Detection and Editing
Transient Detection is the process of determining the location of transients within audio
material, which can then be used as the basis for editing. A transient can be defined as a shortduration signal that represents a non-harmonic attack phase of a musical sound or spoken
word. It contains a high degree of non-periodic components and a higher magnitude of high
frequencies than the harmonic content of that sound. When looking at the waveform of a
recorded snare drum hit, the first part of the hit—the attack—will look distinctly louder than
the rest of the signal; the “louder” part is the transient, and the rest of the signal is commonly
called the “tail.”
Transients usually indicate rhythm in musical material, so that when the positions of transients
are known, it becomes possible to quantize, or correct the timing of, recorded audio. For
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instance, if a drummer was early on the downbeat after a killer fill, you could fix it so that it is
perfectly in time. In fact, it is possible to alter the entire feel of a performance and even extract
the feel of one recorded performance and apply it to another.
6.9.1 Detect Transients
To detect transients in any audio in an arrangement, select an Audio Event and open the Bend
panel from the top toolbar, then choose Analyze from the Detection area. Alternatively,
[Right]/[Control]-click on an Audio Event and choose Detect Transients from the Audio/Audio
Bend context menu.
The original audio clip that the Event uses is then analyzed, as indicated in the lower left of the
Event with a “percentage complete” display. After detection, the Event will become slightly
translucent, and blue Bend Markers—vertical lines the height of the Event—will be placed at
every transient.
Two modes can be used for transient detection: Standard and Sensitive. These modes are
accessed in the Bend panel; for more information refer to section 6.9.2.2.
If you intend to quantize or slice the Audio Event, you don’t need to detect transients first; you
can go straight to the Action area of the Audio Bend panel. Any applied action will detect
transients.
6.9.1.1 Tab to Transient
It is possible to tab to transients in both the Arrange view and Audio Editor by pressing [Tab]
on the keyboard, even if transients have not yet been detected for the Event. This will move
the playback cursor to the next transient in the Event.
6.9.2 Bend Markers
Bend Markers are used in Studio One to stretch audio inside an Audio Event, without the need
for slicing the Event into multiple pieces. They are added to an Audio Event when detecting
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transients from the Bend Panel, and can also be manually added. When detecting transients,
the default Threshold used to placed Bend Markers at transients is 80%, which can be adjusted
at the top of the Event context menu or in the Inspector, so that Bend Markers are placed only
at the transients with which you want to work. It is also possible to manually insert Bend
Markers, before or after detecting transients.
While it is possible to insert and edit Bend Markers with Bend Markers hidden, you will likely
want them to be shown while editing. Check the Show Bend Markers box in the Bend panel or
Event context menu to show or hide Bend Markers.
If Bend Markers have been inserted as the result of transient detection, a very short,
highlighted range—visible if zoomed in far enough—will precede the Bend Marker. This range
represents the entirety of what has been detected as a transient, and it is important when
Studio One quantizes audio based on Bend Markers.
Note that Bend Markers are properties of the audio clip that an Event references, meaning that
multiple events referencing the same audio clip in the Pool (i.e.; a drum loop duplicated
several times) will share the same Bend Markers, and be effected by any Bend Marker editing.
If you want to process duplicated Events differently, for instance to provide rhythmic variation
with a duplicated drum loop, then bounce the event to a new file prior to editing.
6.9.2.1 Editing Bend Markers
To manually insert Bend Markers, switch to the Bend tool, then float the mouse over any Audio
Event and click where you would like to insert the Bend Marker. Double-click on any Bend
Marker with the Bend tool to remove it; any effect the Marker had on the audio will be
undone.
With the Bend tool selected, click-and-drag on any Bend Marker to manually manipulate the
audio left or right on the timeline. Doing so will stretch or compress the audio surrounding the
Bend Marker, and the Bend Marker will display a left- or right-facing flag at the bottom,
indicating the direction in which it has been moved. If the audio is stretched, the waveform
will be colored red, with the intensity of the color increasing the more the audio is stretched. If
the audio is compressed, the waveform will be colored green.
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If you are manipulating Bend Markers on a Track, you should set the Timestretch mode of the
Track to Audio Bend, so that the audio is processed with the correct algorithm. This algorithm
will ensure that transients are unaffected, only stretching or compressing the “tail,” or
harmonic content, that follows the transient.
Note that for audio to be stretched or compressed by manipulating a Bend Marker, at least
one other Bend Marker should exist to the left or right of the one being manipulated, to be
used as the basis for stretching or compressing. If no other Bend Marker exists, the beginning
and end of the audio clip for the Event will be used. For instance, if you want to change the
rhythmic phrasing of a word in a vocal part, you will want to add a Bend Marker to the left and
right of the word you want to alter before attempting to move the word itself.
Multiple Bend Markers can be selected and edited at once with the Bend tool by holding Shift,
clicking-and-dragging to select the Bend Markers, and then performing the desired edits.
You can reset a Bend Marker to its original position by right-clicking on it and selecting Reset
Bend Marker. Multiple selected Bend Markers can be reset at once, making it possible to easily
restore the original timing if editing produced undesirable results.
6.9.2.2 Use The Bend Panel
When working with Bend Markers, you may find it useful to have the Bend panel displayed, as
this is where the most common Bend Marker-related actions are found. To open the Bend
panel, click on the Bend-panel button in the toolbar or select Bend from the Views/Additional
Views menu. The Bend panel can also be detached and freely placed onscreen.
In the Detection section, you can change the transient-detection mode, which is set to
Standard by default. If this mode does not accurately locate transients to your liking, switch
the mode to Sensitive and analyze the audio again.
In the Bend Marker section, you can Remove all Bend Markers or Restore all Bend Markers in
the selected Event by clicking on the respective buttons. You can also adjust the Bend Marker
Threshold, using the slider.
In the Track section, you can set the Timestretch mode for the Track on which the selected
Event resides and can select Guide Tracks if that Track is in a Group.
In the Action section, Quantize is selected by default, and a Strength percentage slider is
displayed. Click on Apply to quantize any selected Event. The Strength setting will alter the
Start percentage in the Quantize panel, providing a simple way to alter the strength of the
quantize process.
Alternatively, you can choose the Slice action, which will slice the selected Event, using its
Bend Markers as a basis, with different results depending on the selected options. Check
Autofades if you want the resulting individual slices to each have a short fade-in and fade-out
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in order to avoid audible clicking. Check Merge if you would like the individual slices to be
merged into an Audio Part after processing. Check Quantize if you would like to quantize the
resulting individual Events, and set the Strength using the percentage field. Note that in this
process, no timestretching will occur; instead, a single continuous event will be sliced at its
detected transients, and the resulting multiple events themselves will be quantized across the
timeline.
As with the Strip Silence panel, when the small light indicator next to the Apply button is lit,
this means that changing the Detection, Bend Marker, Track, or Action options and then
clicking Apply will automatically undo the previous operation, making it easier to find the
right settings by viewing the result of the Bend Panel process, then tweaking the settings if
needed without having to undo manually. Any change in selection, or other editing
operations, will lose this automatic state, and the indicator will not be lit.
6.9.4 Quantize Audio
It is very simple to quantize audio in Studio One. Select the Audio Event, then press [Q] on the
keyboard to quantize. Transients will be detected for the selected event, the audio will
instantly snap to the current quantize grid, the Bend Markers will indicate they have been
moved left or right, and the waveforms will be appropriately colored as described in section
6.9.2.1.
When quantizing audio, the Audio Track's Timestretch mode is set to Audio Bend to ensure
the best sonic results.
The same quantize commands are available for transient-detected audio as for Instrument
Parts. [Q] will quantize the selected Events, [Alt]/[Option]+[Q] will quantize 50%, and
[Shift]+[Q] will restore the original timing.
6.9.4 Phase-Coherent Multitrack Quantization
When multiple microphones are used to record the same instrument onto multiple Tracks, as
with a drum set, it is very important that the phase relationships across the multitrack audio
remain unaltered. You can think of phase relationships as the time it takes sound to reach each
microphone from the source, such as a snare drum. How the waveforms align across each
Track is critically important to the sound achieved; if a snare hit is moved in time on one Track
and not the others, the resulting collective sound of the snare hit can be drastically altered.
Therefore, when quantizing or slicing multitrack audio, it is important that all edits are
performed across every Track in a way that preserves the phase relationships. This is referred
to as phase-coherent editing. In Studio One, all that is required to ensure this happens is for
the Tracks to be grouped. Once the Tracks are grouped, Studio One takes care of phase
coherence for you.
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For instance, let us consider a scenario with four Tracks of drums: kick, snare, and left and right
overheads. Prior to editing on any Track individually, you would group the Tracks by selecting
them and pressing [Ctrl]/[Cmd]+[G] on the keyboard. If you then quantize audio on any Track
in the group, Studio One will determine the phase relationships between the Tracks and then
will quantize or slice the audio across all Tracks based on transients on the individual Tracks.
For instance, where there is a snare hit, the first transient found (within the range of the snare
hit) in the tracks from top to bottom will be used as the basis for quantization for all four
Tracks; the other Tracks will simply maintain their existing phase relationships to the
quantized Track, and thus will be quantized in a phase-coherent manner.
In the above scenario, you can check exactly what Studio One has done by zooming in on any
Bend Marker. You will see that the Bend Marker Range on each Track has been adjusted to a
common start time, with the Bend Marker used as the basis for quantization. Manual Bend
Marker edits on grouped Tracks will perform the same process.
It is also possible to exclude any Tracks in a Group from transient analysis and therefore not
use them as a reference in the quantizing or slicing process. When Events are selected that are
contained on a Track in a group, a Group selection box will appear in the Track area of the
Bend panel, along with a Guides-selection drop-down menu that contains all Tracks in the
Group. To exclude Tracks from analysis, simply uncheck them. As an example, you may only
want to use the kick and snare Tracks as the basis for quantization or slicing of the group, in
which case you would uncheck all Tracks except the kick and snare and then apply the desired
action from the Bend panel.
6.9.6 Groove Extraction and Quantize
Groove Extraction is an extremely powerful, yet simple, feature. Let us consider the scenario in
which you want a poorly played bass part to closely follow the kick drum. To make this
happen, open the Quantize panel and switch to Groove mode. Next, drag the kick-drum Event
into the Groove panel, and then quantize the bass Event. In those few moves you have
effectively detected all necessary transients, extracted the kick-drum groove, and quantized
the bass to that groove.
Similarly, you could drag an Instrument Part into the Groove panel to extract the groove and
then quantize audio to that groove. Note that the Event or Part can be of any length. When
you extract the groove from an Audio Event or Instrument Part, the grid in the arrangement is
then based on that groove, and anything in the arrangement can be quantized to that grid..
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This is extremely useful for cleaning up multi-instrument performances, and it’s equally useful
for creative purposes, such as extracting a great groove from a funk loop and applying it to a
straight-eighth drum loop.
You can also drag the groove itself to an Instrument Track, which will render the groove as a
series of notes, one for each hit in the groove, even tweaking note velocity according to the
relative level of the hits. This allows you to instantly build a virtual instrument bass part, for
instance, that exactly match a drum performance. Just drag the drum performance into the
Groove area, then drag it out to the bass Track, and change the notes to the pattern you want.
Or, you might prefer to drag in an audio event, drag it to an Instrument track to tweak the
groove musically, then drag that Instrument Part in, and quantize the original audio event to
that. The possibilities are endless!
6.10
Track Transform
6.10.1 Audio Track Transform
Audio Tracks always have a directly related channel in the Mix Console on which insert effects
can be configured. In the editing and arranging process, it is sometimes necessary to render
an Audio Track so that the insert effects become a part of the audio waveform on the Track in
the arrangement. You might do this for creative purposes or simply to enable you to remove
the insert effects in order to save CPU power.
Studio One makes this incredibly simple with the Track Transform feature. With any Audio
Track that has effects inserted on its corresponding channel selected, right-click on the Track
and select Transform to Rendered Audio from the context menu. Check Preserve Realtime
State if you would like to be able to transform back to the original Track. Specify a Tail amount
in seconds if there is a delay, reverb, or similar effect that you will want to render beyond the
Event length on the Track.
Click OK, and the Audio Track will be bounced, with its
insert effects; then the original Audio Track will replaced
with the newly bounced audio on a new Audio Track with
the same name. If a Tail amount was specified, you will
notice that fade-outs have been applied automatically
across the specified Tail duration for each Event. The
insert effects will not be inserted on the new track, as they
have been rendered into the audio on the Track.
If you checked Preserve Original Track State, then it is possible to transform back to the
original Track, with effects inserted on the corresponding channel, by Right [Control]-clicking
on the Track and selecting Transform to Realtime Audio from the context menu.
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Track Transform will also maintain output routing and Send configuration between the
original and new Tracks, eliminating manual management of this aspect.
6.10.2 Instrument Track Transform
Instrument Tracks contain MIDI music performances that control virtual instruments. The
virtual instruments output to one or more audio channels in the Mix Console, and you can
configure insert effects, sends, and output routings for the channels. With this approach, it can
be difficult to render Instrument Tracks to audio correctly.
Studio One makes it simple by transforming Instrument Tracks into Audio Tracks in one step.
Right-click on any Instrument Track and select Transform to Audio Track from the context
menu. You will then see several options in the pop-up menu:
•
•
•
•
•
Render Inserts. If you would like to render the insert effects on the related virtual
instrument Output Channel, check this option. If not, the inserts will be applied to the new
Audio Track.
Preserve Instrument Track State. If you would like to be able to transform from the new
Audio Track back to the original Instrument Track, check this option.
Remove Instrument. If you would like to remove the virtual instrument in order to save
CPU power, then after rendering audio and creating the new Audio Track, check this
option.
Tail (seconds). Specify a Tail amount in seconds if the virtual instrument sound is such
that audio exists beyond the end of any Instrument Part on the Track.
Channel. Select the desired virtual-instrument Output Channel in the Channel field.
(Some virtual instruments may have more than one Output Channel.)
Click OK, and all of the parts on the Instrument Track will be rendered to audio and placed on a
new Audio Track.
If a Tail amount was specified, you will notice that fade-outs have been applied automatically
across the specified Tail duration for each Event. Also, the send configuration and output
routing of the new Audio Track will be identical to the original Instrument Track.
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6.11
Event Effects
It is possible to insert effects directly on an Audio Event in the arrangement, as opposed to
inserting effects on the entire audio channel for the related Track, thereby affecting all Events
on the Track. Event Effects are commonly used to add variety to the arrangement or to insert
utility effects, such as pitch correction, into specific Events.
6.11.1 Insert Event Effects
To insert an effect on an Event, select the Event and open the Inspector by pressing [F4] on the
keyboard. In the Event Inspector area of the Inspector, you will see an Event FX tab with an
Enable button. Click on Enable, and an Insert Device Rack will open.
Insert effects or FX Chains here, as you normally would, and the Event will
then be processed accordingly, in real time, during playback. The resulting
sound will be exactly as if you had inserted the effect on the Track: You will
hear all other tracks play and can make effects-parameter changes while
hearing the results in context with the rest of the mix.
As Event Effects may alter the relative volume of an Event, thereby skewing
existing volume fade envelopes, an option has been provided to process
volume envelopes after Event Effects. Click on the far left icon next to Tail,
in the area above the Insert Device Rack, to enable this option.
6.11.2 Render Event Effects
Once the intended sound is achieved via an Event Effect, it is likely a good idea to render the
audio in order to conserve CPU resources. Studio One provides a very flexible way to do this
that allows you to revert to real-time processing at any time in order to make changes.
To render any Audio Event with inserted Event Effects, click on Render above the Event FX
Insert Device Rack. The Insert Device Rack will collapse, a new Audio Event with the rendered
audio will replace the original Event in the arrangement, and the Render button will be
labeled Restore. At any time, click on Restore to replace the rendered Event with the original
and restore any inserted effects to their pre-rendered states.
When rendering Event FX, note that the Tail setting above the Insert Device Rack allows you to
specify a length to render beyond the end of the Audio Event. This is critical to properly
capturing reverb tails, delay lines, and other similar audio tails caused by inserted effects.
When a Tail value is given, a volume fade will be applied across the entire length of that tail on
the rendered Event after rendering to ensure smooth-sounding results. This fade envelope can
then be modified, as usual.
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The ability to seamlessly move back and forth from real-time Event FX processing and
rendered audio is unique to Studio One and enables you to add variety to your arrangements
and use CPU-intensive plug-ins without continuous strain on your computer.
6.12
Edit View Event Editing
In many cases, editing actions will require a close look at the Events being edited. To perform
these edits in the Arrange view would require zooming in to a level that would make it difficult
to retain your sense of the overall Song structure, then zooming back out after the edits are
performed. Edit views allow you to avoid this inefficiency. To open the Edit view for the
selected Event, click on the Edit view button, press [F2] on the keyboard, or double-click on
any Event. While there is a common Edit view, Audio Events open in the Audio Editor, and
Instrument Parts open in the Music Editor.
The Edit view will display the currently selected Event on a timeline that is independent of the
Arrange-view timeline. By default, the Edit-view timeline is zoomed in further than the default
Arrange-view timeline. The center position of the display is based on position in the Event that
was last clicked in the Arrange view, and clicking on a new position in the Event in the Arrange
view will re-center the Edit-view display.
The Editor can be detached to its own sizable window by clicking on the Detach button at the
upper right of the Editor. Any Track can be selected from the Track drop-down selector to the
upper left of the Editor, under the toolbar.
6.12.1 Audio Editor
The Audio Editor display operates independently of the Arrange view and has an independent
Timebase setting. Options that appear in the Editor are the same as in the Arrange view and
will affect tools and Events in the same way. Note that the Quantize, Snap, and Timebase
settings are not shared between the Arrange view and Editor; they remain independent. A
Snap to Event Hotspots option is found in the Editor Snap dropdown menu; it allows tool and
Event snapping to hotspots such as Bend Markers.
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The displayed level scale to the left of the waveform lane in the Audio Editor can be adjusted
by clicking on it and dragging left or right. This effectively zooms the waveform amplitude,
which may be useful when editing audio with relatively low levels. [Right]/[Control]-click ing in
this area allows the selection of a percentage- or dB-based scale.
6.12.1.1 Tools
Most of the tools in the Arrange view are available in the Audio Editor and function there
exactly as they do in the Arrange view.
6.12.2 Music Editor
Instrument Parts contain notes, which represent musical-performance data and are a type of
Event. Notes can be moved, cut, copied, pasted, duplicated, and drawn using mouse tools, key
commands, and certain Event menu commands. Multiple notes can be selected and edited
together, as with other Events.
For quick editing of all notes in a Part or on the Track, use [Ctrl]/[Cmd]+[A] to select all of the
notes in the focused Part in the Music Editor, or [Ctrl]/[Cmd]+[Shift]+[A] to select all notes in all
Parts on the Track.
6.12.2.1 Timebase, Quantize, and Scale
The Music Editor has independent settings similar to those in the Audio Editor. While Quantize
affects the horizontal time-value snapping, the Music Editor also features Scale (vertical notevalue) snapping. The Scale settings allow snapping to specific note values within different
musical scales. Select a scale by choosing the starting note and the musical scale in the
respective selectors. The notes contained in the selected scale are marked on the singleoctave keyboard display, below the Scale selector.
6.12.2.2 Arrow Tool
The Arrow tool in the Music Editor is used with notes in essentially the same way as the Arrow
tool in the Arrange view is used with Events. Multiple notes can be selected and edited
together in the same way as Events.
To move a note using the Arrow tool, click anywhere on the note and drag left, right, up, or
down. Dragging the note left or right will move it backward and forward in time, relative to
the current Edit view timebase and timeline zoom. Dragging the note up or down will
transpose (change the pitch of) the note. The transposition interval can be determined by
using the vertical keyboard display to the left of the Music Editor.
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To size any note using the Arrow tool, float the mouse to the left or right edge of the note to
reveal the Sizing tool. When this tool appears, click-and-drag left or right to size the note. As
with Events, notes can be sized and resized nondestructively any number of times.
When sizing multiple selected notes in the Music Editor with the Arrow tool, two additional
behaviors are now possible with modifiers. Clicking on a note and then holding [Ctrl]/[Cmd]
while sizing will result in the all selected notes snapping to the same musical length of the
note on which you clicked. Clicking on a note and then holding [Alt]/[Option] will result in the
Note Off positions (ends) of all of the selected notes snapping to the same Note Off position of
the note on which you clicked.
To duplicate selected notes using the Arrow tool, hold [Alt]/[Option] on the keyboard, click on
the selection, and drag left or right. Release the mouse button when the desired position is
reached, and the selection will be duplicated to this position. To temporarily switch to the
Paint tool, press and hold [Ctrl].
6.12.2.3 Split Tool
The Split tool in the Music Editor allows you to split notes so that they become two separate
notes. Clicking on any note directly will split it at that position, while selecting multiple notes
and then splitting, will split all selected notes. Holding [Alt] when clicking with this tool will
perform a split of any selected notes, as well as a split of the part itself, so that one part
becomes two.
6.12.2.4 Paint Tool
The Paint tool in the Music Editor is used to draw notes in an Instrument Part. The Paint tool
will snap when drawing to certain vertical and horizontal positions based on the Scale and
Quantize settings. When the mouse cursor is floated over the Music Editor with the Paint tool
selected, the note value for the current cursor position is highlighted on the keyboard display.
Note that the Keyboard display can be switched to a Drum Map display by clicking on the
Drum Map button above the Keyboard display. The Drum Map display essentially removes the
virtual keyboard and allows more room to display sample names horizontally for each vertical
note position.
The pitch names in the Drum Map can be edited by clicking on the Edit button and then
typing names for each pitch in the pop-up menu. You can then save the Map to recall at a later
time by clicking on the Store Preset button. Select any Map from the list to load it. (A General
MIDI Drum Map is provided.)
To draw a note with the Paint tool, click at the desired position. If you click once, the new note
will have a length equal to the time value of the current Quantize setting. If you click-and-drag
to the right, you can make the note any length you desire. With the Paint tool selected, float
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the mouse cursor to the edge of any existing note to size the note, as with the Arrow tool. To
delete a note, click on it using the Paint tool.
To edit the velocity of a note while drawing the note with the Paint tool, drag up and down
after you click to draw the note. To edit the velocity of a single note, using the Paint tool, hold
[Alt]/[Option] on the keyboard and click-and-drag up or down on the desired note.
You can also edit the velocities of notes in the Part Automation lane of the Music Editor, which
is discussed in the Instrument Part Automation section of the “Automation” chapter.
Press and hold [Alt] on the keyboard with the Paint tool selected to enter Line Drawing mode.
In this mode, you can draw a line of note Events in the Music Editor, and you can draw lines in
automation envelopes, as discussed later in this manual.
To momentarily select the Arrow tool while using the Paint tool, hold [Ctrl]/[Cmd] on the
keyboard.
6.12.2.5 Eraser Tool
The Eraser tool in the Music Editor is used to delete notes. With the Eraser tool selected, click
directly on any note to delete it.
6.12.2.6 Mute Tool
The Mute tool is used in the Music Editor much as it is used in the Arrange view. With the Mute
tool selected, click on any note to mute it, and click on any muted note to unmute it. Click and
drag over any number of notes in one motion to mute or unmute the entire group of notes.
6.12.2.7 Cut, Copy, Paste, and Duplicate Notes
You can cut, copy, paste, and duplicate notes exactly as you can with Events in the Arrange
view, as describe in the Common Editing Actions section of this chapter. It is also possible to
cut or copy notes and then paste them directly into the Arrangement onto a selected
Instrument Track.
6.12.2.8 Transposing Notes, Instrument Parts, and Tracks
Transposing notes, or changing a group of notes by a given interval, is a common action that
takes advantage of the flexibility of musical data. It is possible at any time to transpose notes, a
whole Instrument Part, or all of the contents of an Instrument Track.
To transpose a note or group of notes within an Instrument Part, open the Music Editor by
double-clicking on the desired Part, and do the following:
•
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Select all of the notes you wish to transpose.
•
Select Transpose from the Musical Functions submenu.
•
Choose from one of the preset transpositions or use the horizontal fader to set the
number of semitones by which the selected notes will be transposed. A positive
number results in the notes being transposed up, and a negative number results in the
notes being transposed down.
To transpose an entire Instrument Part:
•
Select the Part you wish to Transpose in the Arrange view.
•
Select Transpose from the Event menu.
•
Choose from one of the preset transpositions, or use the horizontal fader to set the
number of semitones by which the selected Part will be transposed. A positive number
results in the Part being transposed up, and a negative number results in the Part
being transposed down.
When transposing notes or Parts, the musical notes will be moved graphically to represent the
change. In this case, the notes displayed will be the notes you hear.
To transpose all of the contents of an Instrument Track:
•
Select the Instrument Track you wish to transpose.
•
Open the Inspector by pressing [F4] on the keyboard.
•
Enter a value in the Transpose field for the number of semitones by which the Track
will be transposed.
When transposing a Track via the Inspector, the transposition will not be reflected graphically.
The positions of the notes in all Parts on the Track will remain unaffected. In this case, the
notes displayed may not be the notes you hear. This parameter will also affect the notes you
hear when you play your Keyboard.
6.12.2.9 Quantizing Instrument Parts
Quantizing Instrument Parts allows you to realign notes in time to match a given musical time
subdivision or other grid more closely. In practice, quantizing is generally used to clean up
musical timing to more closely match the intended timing, although it can also be used
creatively.
The results of quantizing are determined with the Quantize settings as found in the Quantize
panel. The Quantize panel allows very precise over all quantize settings. Refer to section 6.3.1
for more information.
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It is possible to extract a groove from an instrument part by dragging-and-dropping it into the
Groove section of the Quantize panel, just as with an Audio Event. Any Instrument Part or
Audio Event can then be quantized to that extracted groove.
To enable quantizing notes while recording, click on the Input Quantize button just below the
quantize selection box. Input quantization can be undone if you want to use the performance
as it was played.
It is possible to split a single note into multiple notes based on the current Quantize setting.
Select any number of notes and choose Split Events from the Musical Functions menu. Notes
will be split based on their position relative to the bar line, with splitting occurring only up to
the next bar line after the note start time. It is also possible to apply Split Events to whole
Instrument Parts and Audio Events.
6.12.2.10 Quantize and Restore Timing
To quantize an entire Instrument Part, select the Part in the Arrange view and press [Q] on the
keyboard or choose Quantize from the Musical Functions menu. To quantize an individual
note or notes, select the notes in the Music Editor and then apply quantization, as before.
Alternatively, if notes are selected in the Music Editor, and then the Quantize value is changed
with Auto engaged, the selected notes are automatically quantized using the newly selected
Quantize value.
Furthermore, you can quantize note ends, which will adjust the Note Off time for any selected
notes, by selecting Quantize End from the Musical Functions menu.
To restore the original timing to quantized Instrument Parts or notes, select the Part or notes
and press [Shift]+Q on the keyboard, or select Restore Timing in the Musical Functions menu.
6.12.2.11 Freeze Quantize
It is sometimes very helpful to make note quantization permanent so you can quantize again
based on the current quantized positions, rather than the original note positions. To do this,
select the notes and select Freeze Quantize from the Musical Functions menu. You will not be
able to Restore Timing for these notes, as the newly quantized positions will effectively
become the original positions.
6.12.2.12 Humanize
Strictly quantizing every note so that rhythms are perfectly precise can cause music to sound
lifeless and mechanical. The Humanize function alters note start and end times and velocity
within a very small threshold, based on rules modeled on common human performance
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patterns. This provides just enough variation to make a performance sound more like a human
played the parts.
To use this function, select any notes and then choose Humanize from the Edit/Musical
Functions menu. Note that the exact results cannot be directly controlled. You can also choose
to Humanize Less, which alters the notes in a similar fashion as Humanize but based on rules
designed to result in less-humanized performance patterns.
6.12.2.13 Music Editor Inspector
When a note is selected, its start and end positions are labeled, as are its pitch, velocity, and
mute status. Each of these parameters can be edited directly in the Inspector. When editing
notes using the Inspector, all selected notes will be affected.
The simplest way to edit start and end positions, pitch, and velocity is to place the mouse
cursor over the parameter and scroll the mouse wheel up or down. Another way to edit a
selected note’s velocity is to click-and drag the horizontal Velocity fader in the Music Editor.
When you release the mouse button, the Velocity value will be applied to all selected notes.
6.12.3 Multitrack Music Editing
It is possible to view and edit more than one Instrument Track at a time in the Music Editor. To
quickly view more than one Track in the Music Editor, hold Shift and select Instrument Parts on
different Tracks in the Arrangement. More Parts can be added at any time by holding Shift and
selecting them in the Arrangement.
Double-click on any Part in the Arrangement to quickly make its Track the only viewed Track in
the Music Editor. This will also automatically size the Music Editor zoom horizontally and
vertically to show all the notes the Track contains, at the highest zoom level.
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The Music Editor also has its own Track List, opened via the Track List icon at the far left of the
Music Editor Toolbar. In this Track List, you can show or hide tracks via the Show/Hide button
to the left of the Track name and can independently set each Track to Edit Active via the Pencil
icon button to the far right of the Track name. If a Track is shown, and Edit Active is not
engaged, the Track’s notes will not be selectable, allowing it to be easily viewed as a reference
without concern about altering it accidentally.
When multiple Parts are displayed, the notes for each Part are colored with their Track colors
and will audition normally through their Tracks. Selected notes will be displayed in red. Also,
when multiple parts are displayed it is possible to transfer notes from one part to another
using the [Right]/[Control]-click context menu item Transfer Notes. This will remove the
selected notes from the original Part, indicated with a checkmark in the Transfer Notes list, to
the selected Part.
Click on the Link button next to the Track List button to link the Track selection in the
arrangement with the track selection in the Music Editor.
6.12.4 Note Chase and Cut
In the Studio One/Options/Advanced/MIDI menu, you will find two options: Chase Long Notes
and Cut Long Notes at Part End.
Chase Long Notes should be engaged if you would like Studio One to play back a long note
even if playback begins after that note's Note On position, effectively treating the playback
position as the Note On. This is very useful when working with long, synthetic drone parts, for
instance, which may have a Note On at bar 1 and then continue throughout the rest of the
Song.
Cut Long Notes at Part End should be engaged if you would like a note to stop playback if the
related Instrument Part ends before that note's Note Off position.
6.13
Pitch Correction with Melodyne Integration
Studio One features a unique pitch-correction solution: It tightly integrates Celemony’s
Melodyne, the award-winning commercial pitch-correction software. This is accomplished
with new co-developed technology and it is only possible with Studio One. Studio One
Professional features a fully licensed copy of Melodyne Essential, while Studio One Producer
and Studio One Artist feature the Melodyne Trial version. If you already own any version of
Melodyne, update to version 1.3 or later for the integrated support to function in Studio One.
For specific information on how to use Melodyne, please refer to the Melodyne
documentation and to the helpful online materials, such as tutorial videos and FAQs, found at
www.celemony.com.
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6.13.1 Edit with Melodyne
Any Audio Event can be edited with Melodyne. To do so, select the Event and press
[Ctrl]/[Cmd]+[M] on the keyboard, or [Right]+[Control]+Click on an Audio Event and select Edit
With Melodyne from the context menu. Melodyne will be inserted in the Event FX Device Rack
for the Event, and the integrated Melodyne Edit view will open, found in the same location as
the Audio and Music Editors.
The audio in the event is analyzed automatically, and the detected notes are displayed, ready
for editing. Note that the Melodyne Edit view can be maximized and detached in the same
way as the Audio and Music Editors.
When the Melodyne Event Effect is active (meaning the Event FX have not been rendered),
double-clicking on the Audio Event will open the Melodyne Edit view. To switch to the Audio
Editor, press [F2] on the keyboard, or click on the Edit button.
6.13.2 Real Time and Render
As with other Event FX, Melodyne runs in real time by default. This allows immediate
auditioning of the material being edited alongside the rest of the mix. However, it is probably
best to render the edits once you are finished in order to reclaim CPU resources. To do so, click
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on the Render button for the Event FX Insert Device Rack in the Event Inspector for the Audio
Event.
As with other Event FX, the state prior to rendering is stored, allowing you to return for further
editing. Melodyne can also be removed entirely from the Audio Event by removing it from the
Event FX Insert Device Rack for the Event, in which case all edits will be lost.
6.13.3 Drag Audio to Instrument Track
When an Audio Event is edited with Melodyne, the notes resulting from analysis will appear on
the waveform, as with Music Loops. In this state, it is possible to drag the Audio Event to an
Instrument Track lane in the Arrangement to extract the notes, resulting in an Instrument Part
that perfectly matches the audio performance. The notes and velocity for the Instrument Part
are derived from the Melodyne analysis and editing.
This makes it possible, for instance, to sing a melody and then drag it to an Instrument Track
for a virtual instrument to play, rather than trying to figure out how to play it on a keyboard
controller. You might also wish to replace or enhance an acoustic-instrument performance
with a virtual instrument. These techniques and many more are now possible with a single
drag-and-drop.
6.14
Editing Commands
6.14.1 Common Music Editing Commands
When editing in the Music Editor, several editing commands are likely to be used often. We
have placed these commands in a menu that allows quick access, located to the right of the
Tool icons in the upper left of the Music Editor. Click on the Action button to reveal a dropdown menu of commands with which you can edit any selected notes in the Music Editor.
6.15
Undo History
The Undo History menu, accessed under Edit/History, enables you to view and step through
virtually every editing function that has occurred since a document was opened. Simply click
on any edit in the list to instantly roll the document back to the point where that edit was
made.
Note that the history is cleared when a document is closed but remains intact when the
document is saved and kept open.
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6.16
Navigating with Zoom
When editing or arranging in a Song, zooming in and out on the timeline can be beneficial in
both the Edit and Arrange views. Studio One’s key commands make zooming a quick and easy
alternative to using a mouse. The following key commands affect zooming:
Zoom horizontally
•
•
Zoom In [E]
Zoom Out [W]
Zoom vertically
•
•
Zoom In (vertically) [Shift]+[E]
Zoom Out (vertically) [Shift]+[W]
Other zoom commands
•
•
•
•
Zoom to Loop [Shift]+[L]
Zoom to Selection Toggle (horizontally and vertically) [Shift]+[S]
Zoom to Selection Toggle (horizontally) [Alt]+[S]
Zoom Full [Alt]+[Z] (zooms out horizontally as much as possible)
It is also possible to set key commands to directly access the Track Heights available on the
Arrange page in the Keyboard Shortcuts menu.
6.16.1 Zoom History
The most recent horizontal and vertical zoom states in an arrangement or editor are
remembered in the Zoom History. You can go back to the previous state using Undo Zoom
[Alt]+[W] and can move forward with Redo Zoom [Alt]+[E].
6.16.2 Toggle Zoom
You can quickly toggle between two zoom states with the Toggle Zoom command [Z]. This
command swaps the current zoom state with a stored zoom setting. The current state is
stored, and the state in memory is restored. Pressing [Z] again takes you back to the original
state.
The Store Zoom State command [Shift]+[Z] only stores the current state and does not switch
states. This can be used to set an anchor zoom position that you want to recall later with the
Toggle Zoom command [Z].
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6.17
Editing Suggestions
6.17.1 Making Clean Edits
In audio production, the editing process can be unforgiving. Small inaccuracies when splitting,
moving, or performing other actions on recorded audio can lead to unwanted audible
artifacts. The following describes some recommended editing practices.
6.17.2 Listen While Editing
Listening to your edits as you make them will save time and frustration in nearly every case.
For instance, when sizing the edges of a vocal part to remove unwanted sounds between
words, it is tempting to make edits based on the graphic representation of the waveform.
Sometimes that works, but even when you edit visually, it is a good idea to loop the section
you are editing and listen as you size the Events to be sure you are not removing a critical part
of the vocals.
To quickly loop a precise selection, select a range with the Range tool, and then press
[Shift]+[P] on the keyboard to set the Left and Right Locators precisely around that range.
Then, click on the Loop button in the Transport, or press [Num Pad/] on the keyboard, to loop
the playback over the selected range.
You can also use the Listen tool to quickly solo and listen to any element in the arrangement.
6.17.3 Eliminating Audible Artifacts
In Studio One, we make every effort to streamline the editing process and avoid tedious tasks.
For instance, we apply fades automatically to punch-in recordings to be sure the new audio
blends seamlessly with the existing audio. However, inevitably, there will be cases when
editing audio leads to audible artifacts. These artifacts may sound like short clicks or ticks of
noise, and they usually occur at the beginning or end of an audio event that has been split or
cut. When this happens, use the fade envelope provided on every Audio Event to apply a
quick fade-in or fade-out, experimenting until the artifact can no longer be heard.
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7
The Browser
The Browser is a powerful feature that allows quick navigation of virtual instruments, effects,
and a variety of file types on your computer, including audio and musical-data files. The
Browser works somewhat like Windows Explorer or Mac OS X Finder, in that it allows you to
navigate file directories on your computer in specific ways. Audio and musical-data files, as
well as virtual instruments and plug-in effects, can be dragged from the Browser directly into
your Song or Project.
7.1
The Browser Tabs and Search
The Browser is divided into five tabs that organize your content into Instruments, Effects,
Sounds, Files, and the Pool. A Home tab gives access to all tabs. All native and third-party
virtual instruments and effects will appear in the Instruments and Effects tabs. All Studio One
Sound Set content will appear in the Sounds tab. The Files tab gives you direct access to your
computer’s file system, and the Pool allows quick access to all files associated with the current
Song.
It is possible to search within any tab and within any location a tab may contain. Clicking on
the Search icon at the top right of the Browser will open a search text field and will show the
location being searched. Typing text into the search field will immediately begin the search,
and only results matching the search text will be displayed in the Browser.
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Once search results are populated, the found content can be used directly. You can also
[Right]/ [Control]-click on any search result and choose Show in Context or Show in
Explorer/Finder in order to quickly access content in the same location.
The Browser plays a key role in the workflow of Studio One, so be sure to familiarize yourself
with everything it offers.
7.2
Importing Files with the Browser
It is possible to import several file types from the Browser into your Song or Project, including
WAV (BWF and RF64), AIFF, REX, Apple Loops (CAF only in Mac OS X), Ogg Vorbis, FLAC, and
MP3 audio files, as well as Standard MIDI Files, and of course Studio One's Audio Loops and
Music Loops.
7.2.1 Find Audio Files in the Browser
Open the Browser by clicking on the Browse button, or press [F5] on the keyboard, and click
on the Files button at the bottom of the Browser to view files and locations on your computer.
You also can press [F9] on the keyboard to open the File Browser directly.
By default, the File Browser will display four folders:
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•
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Desktop. This will contain all folders and files on your desktop.
Documents. This is the default Documents folder for your computer (Windows
and Mac OS X).
Content. This is the Content folder as specified in Studio
One/Options/Locations/User Data setup menu (Mac OS X:
Preferences/Options/Locations/User Data), which will contain all Songs, Projects,
Presets, and other Studio One files. This location is named 'Studio One' in the
Browser.
Volumes. This folder will contain all file-storage locations on your computer, such
as the C: drive in Windows.
Servers. This folder will contain specific server locations that Studio One interfaces
with, such as SoundCloud (in Studio One Professional).
Navigate the Browser by clicking on any folder to view its contents, as you would with
Windows Explorer or Mac OS X Finder.
When browsing Audio Loop files and REX audio files, notice the drop-down arrow that
expands to reveal the slices of the REX file. If you drag in either of these files, the slices will be
contained in an Audio Part.
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It is possible that files added to, or moved in, your computer while Studio One is open will not
appear in the Browser. If you encounter this, [Right]/[Control]+Click in the Browser and select
Refresh to reload the views of the storage locations on your computer.
7.2.2 Preview an Audio File in the Browser
When an audio file is selected in the Browser, the bottom window of the Browser will become
the Preview Player, displaying transport controls and information about the selected file.
When the Preview Player appears, you can listen to the selected file directly within the
Browser. To start file playback, double-click on the file in the Browser or click on the Play
button in the Preview Player with the desired file selected.
Preview Player playback is independent of the main Song playback, so you will notice the
playback-position cursor does not move across the Arrange view while previewing a file. The
Preview Player has its own playback-position indicator that moves left to right to indicate the
current playback position in the selected file. The position indicator can be clicked-anddragged to navigate through the selected file during playback. A volume fader controls the
playback level of the Preview Player.
Preview Player playback can be synced to Song playback to allow auditioning of files along
with Song playback. Click on the Play at Song Tempo button, which is engaged by default, to
allow the Preview Player to sync to the current Song tempo.
If the currently selected file’s tempo is known, and Play at Song Tempo is engaged while
previewing, the file will be timestretched on the fly to match the current Song tempo. To
preview while hearing your Song, start Song playback first, and then select a file and preview
it.
To loop the selected file during preview playback, click on the Preview Player’s Loop button,
which is engaged by default. Looping during preview playback makes it easy to listen to the
selected file in the context of your Song.
An easy way to audition many audio loops from a single folder, such as a loop library, is to set
the left and right locators around the range of the Song into which you will import the loop,
then loop playback in the Transport within that range. Next, preview the first loop in the folder
and then use the up and down arrow keys on your keyboard to cycle through every loop in
that folder.
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7.2.3 Import an Audio File into Your Song
Importing an audio file from the Browser into your Song is as easy as clicking on the file and
dragging it into the Arrange view of the Song. When the file is dragged to empty space, a
mono or stereo Audio Track will be created with the file placed on it as a new Audio Event,
located at the position to which it was dragged. When the file is dragged to an existing Audio
Track, it will be placed as a new Audio Event on that Track, at the position to which it was
dragged. If you import a stereo file to a mono Track, the Event created will be stereo, but the
output will be mono, since the Track is mono. If you import a mono file to a stereo track, the
output will be dual mono, that is, the same signal equally on both sides.
It is possible to select multiple files in the Browser and drag all of them in at once, making the
transfer of recordings done in another DAW a one-click process.
For virtual instruments that support audio-file importing using drag-and-drop (such as many
drum samplers), you can drag-and-drop audio files from the Browser directly onto the
instruments to load audio files.
You can also [Right]/[Control]-click on any audio file and select Send to New SampleOne to
instantly load the file as a sample in the built-in SampleOne™ virtual instrument. If you do this
with an Audio Loop or REX audio file, its slices will be automatically mapped across the
keyboard (up to 96 slices).
7.2.4 Automatic MP3 to WAV Conversion
When you import an MP3 file into a Song, or any other file type, it is automatically converted
to a WAV file. This is done to ensure high-quality audio playback and performance, helping to
make the overall production more uniform and consistent.
The WAV file created during conversion will be stored in the Media folder of the Song in which
the file was imported and will have the same name as the original file, with the .wav file
extension. The newly created WAV file will inherit the Song’s sample rate and resolution (bit
depth), as set in Song/Song Setup.
7.2.5 Audio File Browser Operations
Audio files can be processed directly from the Browser using the [Right]/ [Control]-click
contextual menu as follows. Note that in every case, the original audio file is left unmodified. It
is possible to select multiple audio files of the same format and apply processing to all of them
at once.
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•
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Split a multi-channel audio file into two separate mono files
Merge L/R mono audio files to a single stereo file
Select two mono audio files, then [Right]/ [Control]-click and select Merge to
Stereo File
Convert a non-Wave format audio file to a Wave file. This can also be used to flatten
sliced files such as Audio Loop and REX, wherein the slices will be rendered at their
original tempo.
Convert any audio file to an Audio Loop.
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•
7.2.6 Importing MIDI Files with the Browser
To import a MIDI file using the Browser, navigate to the desired file, as you would for an audio
file, and click-and-drag it into your Song. If the MIDI file is dragged to an empty space in the
Arrange view, a new Instrument Track will be created with that file placed on the Track at the
position to which it was dragged. If the file is dragged to an existing MIDI Track, the file will be
placed as a new Instrument Part on the Track, at the position to which it was dragged.
Some MIDI files will contain more than one MIDI Part in the sequence. If this is the case, a dropdown arrow will be next to the file in the Browser; click the drop-down arrow to reveal the
independent Parts. If you drag in a file with multiple Parts, they will all be shown when
dragging the file into your Song.
As with all Instrument Tracks, you will need to ensure the new Instrument Track is routed to a
virtual or external instrument in order to hear the new Instrument Part. Refer to the
Monitoring an Instrument Track section of the “Recording” chapter for more information.
You can also drag a MIDI file directly onto virtual instruments that support drag-and-drop MIDI
importing.
7.2.7 Preview MIDI Files from the Browser
When any MIDI file is selected in the Browser, you can preview the MIDI file through any virtual
instrument loaded in the Song. To do this, select a MIDI file, then select Instrument Track in the
arrangement and it will appear in the Preview Player as the selected channel.
Now, when you start playback with the Preview Player, the MIDI file will play through the
virtual instrument to which that Instrument Track is routed. You can switch Instrument Tracks
on the fly to audition a part quickly through many different instruments.
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7.2.8 Export a MIDI File
To export an Instrument Part to a MIDI file, [Right]/ [Control]-click on the Part and select Export
Parts to MIDI File. Choose a file name and storage location in the pop-up menu and click OK. A
Standard MIDI File will be created with a .MID file extension.
Multiple Instrument Parts can be exported at once to a single file. To do this, select the desired
Parts and use the same process as above. One MIDI file will be created that includes individual
MIDI clips for each Part, in the correct sequence, with a common start time.
You can also drag-and-drop any Instrument Part to a location in the File Browser to export a
MIDI file to that location. If you drag-and-drop multiple parts at once, they will be written to
one MIDI file with multiple Parts.
Standard MIDI Files exported from Studio One can be used by virtually any application that
supports MIDI.
7.2.9 Export Music Loops and Audio Loops
You can drag any Instrument Part to the Browser to export a Music Loop, or press [Alt] while
hovering the Part over the Browser to switch to exporting a Standard MIDI File. You can also
drag any Audio Part from the Arrangement to the Browser to export an Audio Loop.
7.2.10 Make Finding Your Favorite Files Easy
It is common that groups of files, such as drum loops, are stored in one folder on the
computer. If you know you will constantly access such folders in the Browser, you can create
Tabs for these locations. By default, there are two Tabs at the top of the File Browser, called
“Files" and "Studio One". The Files tab gives you access to the entire file structure of your
computer, and the Studio One tab shows you the User Data location as set in the
Options/Locations/User Data menu.
To create a Tab for any file location, navigate to that location and drag it onto the top bar. This
will add a new Tab at the top of the File Browser with the name of the folder, allowing instant
access. You can also [Right]/ [Control]-click on any location, or any file within that location, and
select New Tab From Here in the pop-up menu.
To rename a Tab, [Right]/[Control]-click on the tab and select Rename Tab. Type a new name
in the pop-up menu and click OK.
Tabs you create in the File Browser will appear for all Songs and Projects, and you can create as
many Tabs as you need. When the Browser runs out of space for Tabs to be displayed, a dropdown list is created to the far right of the Tab bar. Click on the Tab drop-down button to
choose a Tab from the list.
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To close or remove Tabs, [Right]/[Control]-click on the desired Tab and select Close Tab from
the pop-up menu. To move up one level in the File Browser, [Right]/[Control]-click and select
“Up.”
7.3
The Pool
When you import an audio file or record on an Audio Track, an Audio Event is created in the
Arrange view of the Song, and a representation of the original audio file associated with the
Event, called a Clip, is placed in the Pool. The Pool will thus contain all audio files that are at
any point associated with an Audio Event in your Song.
To open the Pool, first open the Browser by clicking the Browse button, then click on the Pool
button. You also can press [F10] on the keyboard to open the Pool directly.
7.3.1 Navigate the Pool
The Pool displays audio Clips as waveforms. These Clips can be sorted using the Sort By menu
at the top of Pool. The following Sort By options are available:
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Flat. View all Clips alphabetically.
•
Track. View Clips by the Track on which they are currently used or were previously
used.
•
Type. View Clips by Clip Type (Audio or Sounds).
•
Location. View Clips by the storage location in which they exist on your computer.
•
Record Take. View Clips by the order of record takes within your Song.
7.3.2 Use Audio Files from the Pool
The audio Clip associated with any Event in your Song will always be available in the Pool,
regardless of whether the Events associated with that Clip remain in the Arrange view of the
Song. This means that the original state of a Clip with which an Event is associated can be
quickly restored by loading it directly from the Pool.
Click-and-drag any Clip or video from the Pool into the Arrange view, as you would when
importing any file from the Browser.
Some audio clips in the Pool show an attachment icon:
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•
•
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Music Loops imported to tracks will show the musical performance as an attachment.
Audio clips edited with Melodyne will show the detected notes.
Audio clips with transformed Event FX will show the original event as an attachment.
Attachments can be dragged separately into the Arrangement, or deleted via the
[Right]/[Control]-click context menu (caution: no undo possible in this case).
7.3.3 Import Audio Files to the Pool
If you know a certain set of files will be used in a Song but do not want to import them into the
Song directly, you can simply import the files into the Pool. Later, you can quickly import files
from the Pool. If you want copies to be placed in the Song’s Media folder when you import
files into the Pool, [Right]/[Control]-click in the Pool and select Copy External Files from the
pop-up menu. This ensures that all of the elements of your Song are contained in the Song
folder.
To import a file into the Pool, [Right]/[Control]-click on it in the File Browser and select Import
to Pool. Alternatively, you can simply drag files from Windows Explorer or the Mac Finder into
the Pool.
7.3.4 Copy External Files to the Song Folder
If audio loops and other files used in your Song are stored in many different file locations on
your computer, it can be difficult to find them, especially if files are moved or deleted.
Scattered files also make it difficult to back up your Song and all of its contents to a single
location or to share your Song with a collaborator.
To quickly copy all external files used in your Song to the Song’s Media folder,
[Right]/[Control]-click in the Pool and select Copy External Files from the pop-up menu. Only
those files that did not previously exist in the Song folder will be copied and placed into the
Media folder.
You are also asked, when saving your Song, whether you would like to Copy External Media if
any new media has been added to the Song since the last save.
7.3.5 Back Up or Share Your Song
Once all of the external files have been copied to your Song folder, you can back up your Song
and all of its contents simply by copying the Song folder to an external hard drive or DVD. To
share your Song with another Studio One user, you can simply compress the Song folder in a
.zip or .sit archive and email or transfer the archive.
It’s unwise to rely on a compressed archive for backup, as future compatibility with the archive
type is uncertain, and file-write errors could lead to an unusable archive. The best practice is to
create a Wave file for every track in your Song and store these files, uncompressed, along with
the original Song file.
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7.4
File and Folder Commands
[Right]/[Control]-click on a file or folder to access the following commands in the File Browser:
•
Set as Root. Select to set the folder to the root of the current Tab.
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Import to Pool. Select to import the file to the Browser Pool.
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Show in Explorer/Finder. Select to show the file or folder in Explorer [Mac OSX.
Finder].
•
New Folder. Select to create a new folder within another folder.
•
Rename. Select to rename any file or folder.
•
Delete. Delete any file or folder permanently. This will place the file or folder in the
Recycling Bin or Trash.
You can also move or copy any file or folder to another location within the File Browser. To
move a file or folder, click-and-drag on top of another folder. To copy a file or folder, hold
[Ctrl]/[Cmd] while dragging.
Use [Alt]/[Option]+[Up Arrow] to collapse all of the directories when navigating the Files
Browser.
7.2.7 Pool Commands
[Right]/[Control]-click in the Pool Browser window to select from the following commands:
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•
Rename File. Rename the currently selected Clip.
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Locate File. Locate a file for the currently selected Clip (e.g., to find a missing file).
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Show in Explorer. Open the file location for the currently selected Clip in Windows
Explorer/Mac Finder.
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Select on Track. Select any Events associated with the currently selected Clip in the
Arrange view.
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Remove from Pool. Remove the currently selected Clip from the Pool. This does not
delete the file.
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Delete File Permanently. Permanently delete the file associated with the currently
selected Clip.
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Convert Files. Convert selected files in the Pool to the current Song’s sample rate and
bit depth. The Convert Files menu will appear with file options. A new file will be
created for each selected file and placed in the current Song’s Media folder.
•
Refresh. Refresh the contents list of the Pool to reflect the current state of your Song
and computer.
•
Locate Missing Files. If any files are missing in your Song—usually this occurs
because the files were moved—use this command to locate the missing files.
•
Remove Unused Media. Remove any Clips from the Pool that are not currently used
in the Song. This will not delete the files.
•
Show Media Folder in Explorer. Open the Media Folder for the current Song in
Windows Explorer or the Mac Finder.
7.5
Instruments and Audio Effects
The Browser makes finding and using your virtual Instruments and audio effects fast and easy.
The following describes this feature.
7.5.1 Browse for Virtual Instruments
Click on the Instruments tab in the Browser or press [F6] on the keyboard to browse your
virtual instruments.
7.5.2 Sort the Instruments View
The list of virtual instruments can be sorted to help you find what you are looking for. Click on
the Sort By window at the top of the Browser to sort by the following:
•
Flat. Sorts the instruments in alphabetical order in a continuous list.
•
Folder. Sorts the instruments based on the storage location folders in which they
reside.
•
Vendor. Sorts the instruments in folders by vendor.
•
Category. Sorts the instruments in folders by type (Native, ReWire, VST2, VST3, AU).
7.5.3 Drag a Virtual Instrument into Your Song
When you have found a virtual instrument you wish to use in your Song, you can simply clickand-drag it into the Arrange view from the Browser. If you drag the instrument into blank
space, the virtual instrument will be loaded in the Instruments Device Rack, and a new
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Instrument Track will be created that is routed to the Instrument. The new track will be recordenabled and monitor-enabled by default, so you can play the virtual instrument immediately
with your default Keyboard.
If you drag-and-drop an instrument from the Browser on top of another instrument or onto an
existing Instrument Track that is routed to another virtual instrument, the previously loaded
instrument will be replaced by the new instrument. A pop-up menu will appear to verify this
action.
7.5.4 Instrument Presets
The presets for Studio One’s built-in virtual instruments, including Impact, SampleOne, and
Presence, can be loaded into your Song in the same way as the instruments. Drag-and-drop a
preset from the Browser to load the instrument into your Song, with that preset already
loaded. Alternatively, when the instrument is open, you can load any preset for that
instrument by simply double-clicking on the preset in the Browser or by clicking on the preset
to select it and then hitting [Return].
7.5.5 Browse for Audio Effects
Click on the Effects tab in the Browser or press [F7] on the keyboard to find your audio effects.
7.5.6 Sort the Audio Effects View
You can sort the list of audio effects to help you find what you are looking for. Click on the Sort
By window at the top of the Browser to sort by the following:
•
Flat. Sorts the effects in alphabetical order in a continuous list.
•
Folder. Sorts the effects based on the storage location folders in which they reside.
•
Vendor. Sorts the effects in folders by vendor.
•
Category. Sorts the effects in folders by the type of plug-in (Native, VST2, VST3, AU, FX
Chains).
7.5.7 Drag an Audio Effect into your Song
Audio effects can be dragged into your Song in a number of ways, with slightly different
results. To load an effect on an existing Audio Track, drag-and-drop the effect from the
Browser onto the Track in the Arrange view. You can also drag-and-drop an effect onto any
channel in the Console. If you prefer, you can even drag-and-drop an effect from the Browser
directly into a particular position in the Insert Device Rack of any channel.
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To create a new FX channel in the Console with a particular effect preloaded, drag-and-drop
the effect from the Browser into any blank space in the Console or into the send of any
channel. The new FX channel will automatically be given the name of the effect.
7.5.8 Audio Effects Presets and FX Chains
The presets for Studio One’s built-in audio effects can be loaded into your Song in the same
way as third-party audio effects. Drag-and-drop a preset from the Browser into your Song to
load the effect with that preset. Alternatively, if an Audio Effect is open, you can load any
preset for the effect by double-clicking on the preset in the Browser or by clicking on the
preset to select it and then hitting [Return]. FX Chains can be loaded in the same way, as
described in the FX Chains section of the “Mixing” chapter. This makes configuring even the
most complicated mix quick and easy.
7.6
Sound Sets
The audio loops, samples, and instrument presets included with Studio One are bundled into
Sound Sets and can be quickly located and used by clicking on the Sounds tab in the Browser.
The Sound Sets are carefully organized to make finding what you want very easy.
7.7
Browsing Song and Project Content
When working in a new Song or Project, incorporating previously used elements can be
helpful in a variety of ways. For instance, you may want to reuse a particular synth sound or
Instrument Part, or perhaps you want to use a particular effect setting or chain of effects on a
channel. Browsing the contents of previously created and saved Songs and Projects is a quick
and easy way to find reusable material.
To browse previously created Song content, open the Files tab in the Browser and navigate to
the Content folder (which contains all of your Songs, Projects, and associated files, by default)
or to the location you have chosen for these files. Open the Song or Project folder to view the
Song or Project file and then [Right]/[Control]-click on this file and select Show Package
Contents from the pop-up menu.
The file will then have a navigation arrow next to it that, when clicked, will expose one or two
folders—Performances and Presets— depending on the contents of the Song or Project. The
Performances folder contains all Instrument Parts recorded in a Song, which are saved as an
internal “.music” file type. The Presets folder contains a Channels folder that stores the current
settings for each audio effect used, and an Instruments folder that contains the settings for
any virtual instruments.
Simply click-and-drag any of this content directly from the Browser into a new Song or Project.
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7.8
Importing Other Application Project Files
Studio One can open several other application project-file types. These include PreSonus
Capture™ Sessions (.capture), Steinberg Cubase Track Archives (.xml), Steinberg Sequel
Projects (.steinberg-project), Kristal Audio Engine Projects (.kristal), and Open TL (.tl). To open
any of these project-file types in Studio One, navigate to File/Open, and select the desired file.
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8
Arranging
Arranging can entail repositioning recorded or imported audio and musical data to change
the song structure, inserting tempo or time-signature changes, and many other processes. The
following chapter discusses aspects of arranging in Studio One, including importing files,
working with audio loops, the Tempo Track, and more.
8.1
Quickly Duplicating Events
Events are often copied and pasted across a certain region to quickly build an arrangement.
For instance, you might want a 1-bar drum loop to continue for 8 bars, or you might want a 4bar synth melody to continue for 12 bars. You can use the Duplicate function to quickly copy
and paste any Event in this fashion.
To Duplicate an Event, select it and press [D] on the keyboard. The results are affected by the
current Arrange view Snap and Timebase settings. With Snap disengaged, the Event will be
copied, and a new instance of the Event will be placed precisely at the end of the original
Event. With Snap engaged, when an Event is duplicated, the new instance of the Event will be
placed at the next logical Snap position. For example, an Event approximately one bar in
length will be placed at the beginning of the next bar, whereas an Event one-half bar in length
would be placed at the next half-bar.
Press [D] on keyboard multiple times to quickly copy and paste a selected Event across any
region. If multiple Events are selected, they can all be duplicated simultaneously in the same
way as a single Event. For instance, you could duplicate an entire verse and chorus for 24
tracks in a few seconds. This is often done to build a rough arrangement of a Song, after which
unique parts for each section are recorded.
To understand the Duplicate function in Studio One, experiment with Events of various
lengths and with various Snap and Timebase settings in the Arrange view.
8.2
Duplicating Tracks
Tracks can also be easily duplicated, with or without the Events they contain. To duplicate a
Track, select the Track or any Event it contains and then select Duplicate from the Track menu.
This will duplicate the Track and all of its settings, including inserts and sends.
If you want the Events the Track contains to be duplicated, as well, select Duplicate with
Events from the Track menu. If multiple Tracks are selected when the Duplicate Tracks
function is used, each of the selected Tracks will be duplicated. To select multiple tracks in
order, select a Track, hold [Shift], and then press the Up or Down Arrow keys to select adjacent
tracks.
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Alternatively, you can duplicate selected Tracks by holding [Ctrl] on the keyboard and clickingand-dragging the Tracks up or down in the Track Column. A horizontal blue line will appear in
the Track Column while dragging the Tracks to indicate the Duplicate function, as opposed to
simply reordering Tracks in the Track Column.
8.3
Tempo Track
Many modern recordings sound mechanical, like a machine playing music. This is often
because the recording has a single, static tempo, whereas the tempo in a natural performance
tends to drift slightly. Interesting and musical results can be achieved by varying the tempo in
your recordings. Tempo changes will not affect your ability to sync recordings to the tempo, as
the click track and all other elements in Studio One will follow the tempo dynamically as it
changes.
8.3.1 Inserting Tempo Changes
To insert a tempo change, open the Tempo Track by clicking on the Tempo Track button
above the Track Column. Then select the Draw tool in the Arrange view. Click at any position
in the Tempo Track to insert a tempo change and drag up or down to adjust the Tempo value
at that position.
To change an existing tempo value in the Tempo Track, float the Draw or Arrow tool to the top
of the Tempo region and click-and-drag the tempo value up or down. You can also click-anddrag the beginning of any new Tempo region left or right across the Timeline to reposition the
tempo change in the Tempo Track.
The value set by the tempo change will continue for the rest of the Song or until the next
tempo change. Also, the tempo value in the Transport will be immediately updated at the
appropriate time, according to each tempo change.
If the related Audio Tracks are in Timestretch mode, Audio Events will be stretched
dynamically to reflect any tempo change on the fly, with no need to split or otherwise edit the
Events.
Note that it is also possible to drag an Audio Event for which the tempo is known from the
arrangement into the Tempo Track to define the tempo for the time range of the event. This is
a very fast way to adjust the tempo track to fit material in the arrangement.
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8.4
Time Signature
The time signature is a convention used in Western music notation to specify how many beats
are in each bar and what note value constitutes one beat. The time signature is notated as a
fraction, where the numerator (the upper number) equals the number of beats in the bar, and
the denominator (the bottom number) equals the note value for each beat.
By default, the time signature is set to 4/4 for all new Songs. This means there will be four
quarter-notes per bar. To change the time signature for your Song, do one of the following:
•
Click on upper or lower number of the time signature in the Transport and select a
new value from the pop-up menu.
•
Double-click on the Time Signature Marker to the far left of the Ruler in the Arrange
view and select new values from the pop-up menu.
Metronome behavior is affected by the time signature. The downbeat and other beats
determine the sample and level used for the Accent and Click, respectively.
8.4.1 Inserting Time Signature Changes
It is possible that your Song requires more than one time signature, in which case you will
want to insert time-signature changes at various places. To insert a time-signature change,
[Right]/[Control]-click in the Timeline ruler where you wish to insert the change and select
Insert Time Signature. Enter the values for the new time signature in the pop-up menu and
click OK, and a new Time Signature marker will be inserted at that position.
You can click-and-drag a Time Signature marker to any bar-line position in the Ruler; the time
signature must change on a new bar. Double-click on the Time Signature marker and choose
new values to change the time signature at that marker’s position.
Your Song can contain any number of time-signature changes, and the current time signature
is always displayed in the Transport.
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8.5
Bouncing
8.5.1 Bouncing Instrument Parts
When working with musical-performance data, users often want to print the audio being
generated by external MIDI and internal virtual instruments to audio so that the part can be
treated like a normal Audio Track. Studio One offers a special feature to accommodate this.
To quickly bounce any Instrument Part to an Audio Track, select the Instrument Part, and then
select Bounce Selection in the Event file menu or simply press [Ctrl]/[Cmd]+[B] on the
computer keyboard. This will render the selected Instrument Part to a new Audio Event and
place it at the correct Timeline position on a new Audio Track.
When an Instrument Part is bounced, the Part will be muted, since the new Audio Event is
taking its place. The Instrument Part will be grayed out to indicate this. To toggle the mute on
the Part, select the Part and press [Shift]+[M] on the keyboard.
Any number of Instrument Parts can be selected and bounced to audio at once, even across
multiple Instrument Tracks. A new Audio Track will be created for each Instrument Track
whose Part is bounced to audio.
If you want to create a single Audio Event, you should first merge various Instrument Parts on
an Instrument Track to create a single continuous Instrument Part. To do this, select the
desired Parts and choose Merge Events, or press [G] on the keyboard.
8.5.2 Bouncing Audio Events
When many edits have been performed across an Audio Track to one or multiple Audio
Events, the arrangement can become difficult to look at and hard to work with. For instance, if
a drum loop has been cut into many slices, with some parts duplicated, other parts deleted,
and so on, moving or rearranging the Events can become difficult.
In this case, it may be helpful to render some or all of the contents of a Track to a single,
continuous, new Audio Event. To do this, select the desired Audio Events and press
[Ctrl]/[Cmd]+[B], or select Bounce Selection from the Event menu. A new Audio Event will be
created for each Track that has an Event selected. The new Audio Events will be created and
placed according to the position and range of the selected Events for each Track.
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Note that Bounce Selection is unaffected by Track Volume, Pan, and Insert settings, as it is only
dealing with the Audio Events exactly as they exist in the Arrange view. Thus, the result of this
process will not affect what you hear; it is simply an organizational tool.
Similarly, drag-and-drop any Audio Event or selected range of audio to a location in the File
Browser to export an audio file to that location.
8.5.3 Creating Audio Parts
It is also possible to clean up the arrangement by using Audio Parts, where multiple separate
Audio Events can be placed into a single container in the arrangement, while keeping the
separate Events accessible in the Audio Editor. To do this, select multiple Audio Events in the
arrangement and then press [G] on the keyboard, or [Right]/[Control]-click and select
Event/Merge Events from the context menu.
An Audio Part can also be created with the Pencil tool in the Audio Editor, and then Audio
Events can be dragged in or out of the Part. Note that an event must be completely inside or
outside of the Part to enter or leave it.
If you drag-and-drop an Audio Part from the arrangement to the File Browser, you will export
an Audio Loop. For more information on Audio Loops, refer to the “Editing” chapter.
To dissolve an Audio Part so that the separate Audio Events are again accessible in the
arrangement, [Right]/[Control]-click on the Audio Part and select Audio/Dissolve Audio Part
from the context menu.
8.6
Adding Time to the Arrangement
It is often useful to insert a range of silence into an arrangement, effectively adding time to a
section. To do this, select the Range tool in the Arrange view, then select a range across any
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tracks on which you wish you insert silence. With the range selected, press [Ctrl]+[Alt]+[I] on
the keyboard to insert silence in that range.
Any events that were in the range where silence was inserted will be split, if necessary, and
moved to the right across the timeline.
8.7
Deleting Time from the Arrangement
It can be very useful to remove a section of the arrangement across all tracks while
simultaneously moving any material that comes after the removed section back in time, rather
than leaving a gap of silence. To do this in Studio One, select a range with the Range tool and
then select Delete Time from the Edit menu or press [Ctrl]/[Cmd]+[Alt]+[D] on the keyboard.
8.8
Folder Tracks
Keeping the Arrange view organized can be critical to workflow, and Folder Tracks have
traditionally helped in this area. Studio One's Folder Tracks also include Grouping and Busing
options, extending improvements to editing and mixing workflow.
8.8.1 Create a Folder Track
If organizing existing tracks, the simplest method of placing the tracks into a new Folder Track
is to select them all in the Track Column, then [Right]/[Control]-click and choose Pack Folder
from the contextual menu. This will create a new Folder Track and place all of the selected
tracks in it. Alternatively, you can drag-and-drop any track onto an existing Folder Track. It is
also possible to create a Folder Track from the Add Tracks menu, just like any other Track.
Folder Tracks can contain Audio, Instrument, Automation, and even other Folder Tracks.
Clicking on the Folder icon on a Folder Track will show and hide the Tracks within the Folder in
the Arrange view.
8.8.2 Folder Track Grouping
Clicking on the Group icon on a Folder Track will create a Group with the name of the Folder
Track and will place all Tracks it contains in the Group. This is exactly the same as selecting all
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of the Tracks and grouping them with [Ctrl]/[Cmd]+G: The Tracks will be selected together in
the Mixer and Arrange views, and the events on the Tracks will be edited together. If the
Group icon is engaged on a Folder Track, clicking on it again will remove the Group.
If a Track is already in a Group prior to being placed in a Folder Track, and the Folder Track
Group is engaged, that Track will be placed in the Folder Track Group when placed in the
Folder Track. If removed from the Folder Track, a Track will retain its Group setting.
8.8.3 Folder Track Busing
Clicking on the Bus selection box to the right of the Group icon on a Folder Track will allow the
selection or creation of a Bus Channel. Choose from an existing Bus Channel or Add a Bus to
switch the output for all Tracks contained in the Folder Track to a Bus Channel. If adding a new
Bus Channel, the Bus will take the name of the Folder Track.
If a Bus selection is made, the Folder Track will act as an effects-drop target for the Bus
Channel when dragging effects from the Browser onto the Folder Track.
As with Folder Track Grouping, if the Folder Track has a Bus Channel selection, any Track
added to the Folder will be routed to that Bus when placed in the Folder Track. If removed
from the Folder Track, a Track will keep the Bus as its Output Channel selection.
For Instrument Tracks, the Track's related audio channel will be routed to the Folder Track Bus
channel. The related audio channel is the one shown in the Inspector under the Out and In
selections for an Instrument Track. As noted elsewhere in this manual, the Audio selection for
an Instrument Track is purely organizational and allows Studio One to accomplish workflow
enhancements like the aforementioned. If a virtual instrument is using multiple Output
Channels, you should take the time to organize which Instrument Tracks routed to that virtual
instrument are related to which Output Channels in the Inspector.
8.8.4 Folder Track Nesting
When Folder Tracks are nested—that is, when one Folder Track is placed inside another—the
Folder Track Grouping and Busing options still only apply for the Tracks within each folder.
Here is an example:
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Tracks 1 through 8 are in Folder Track A, which has Group enabled and is routed to Bus A.
Tracks 9-12 are packed to a new Folder B, Group is enabled there, and a new Bus B is created.
Folder B is then dragged into Folder A. The Tracks in Folder B are still grouped in Group B, and
are still routed to Bus B. The only difference is organizational: Hiding Folder A Tracks will also
hide Folder B.
8.9
Track List
The Arrange view Track list is opened by clicking on the Track List icon in the upper left corner
of the Song page. The Track list gives an overview of all existing Tracks. Each Track has a dropdown arrow next to it that, when clicked, will display related Tracks, Envelopes, and Layers.
Level meters to the far left of Track names indicate levels during
playback for every Track. Clicking-and-dragging on the Track icon
next to the Track name allows you to move the Track to change
the Track order. If any Track is in a Group, the Group name will be
displayed next to it in the Group column of the Track List.
As with the Console Banks panel, Tracks can be hidden or shown
by clicking on the Hide/Show icon to the left of the Track name. It
is possible to click-and-drag up or down to quickly hide or show
any number of tracks. Hiding a Folder Track will also hide all of the
Tracks it contains.
At the bottom of the Track List, you will notice icons for each Track
type. Clicking on these icons will hide or show all Tracks of that
type. The Track List can be synced to the Mix Banks panel so that
any Tracks hidden or shown in the Track List have their related
Audio Channels hidden or shown in the Mix Console, and vice versa. Click the Link icon to the
right of the Track Type icons to enable this syncing.
8.9.1 Track List Presets
Configurations of shown and hidden Tracks can be stored as Presets, making it possible to
quickly focus on desired Tracks in an instant. To create a new Track List Preset, configure the
hidden and shown Tracks as desired, then click on the "+" icon under the Track Type icons at
the bottom of the Track List. Name the Track List Preset, and it will then appear in the Track
List Preset selection menu. Selecting a Track List Preset will instantly restore its hidden and
shown settings.
If you will want to focus on certain Tracks again and again, it may be helpful to store Track List
Presets in order to quickly show and hide what you need with one click.
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9
Mixing
Mixing is the part of the production process where all recorded and arranged material is
balanced in relative volume, frequency, and dynamic content in order to achieve a desired
cohesive sound.
The following chapter discusses basic aspects of mixing in Studio One, including the Console,
the channel types, and inserts and sends. For more advanced mixing topics, such as
automation, please refer to the later chapters.
9.1
The Console
Mixing in Studio One is primarily done in the Console. Open the Console by clicking on the Mix
button or by pressing [F3] on the keyboard.
Each channel of audio in your Song is represented by a channel in the Console. Audio Tracks in
the Arrange view are directly represented by Audio Channels in the Console, whereas
Instrument Tracks have no direct representation in the Console. Instead, Instrument Channels
represent the audio output of virtual instruments. There are several other Channel types
discussed below, including Input, Output, Bus, and FX Channels.
It is important to note that the Console opens by default in Small mode, and the following
descriptions assume this mode is engaged unless otherwise noted. For more on this topic,
refer to the Alternative Console Layout section of this chapter.
9.1.1 Channel Features
Certain features are common to all Channels.
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9.1.2 Input/Output
At the top of each channel is a display of its configured input and output, with the input
shown at the top and the output shown at the bottom. All channels are configured with Main
Out as their output by default.
Audio Channels show the hardware audio-input selection, and Bus and FX Channels display no
input, as their input source is usually from multiple channels. Instrument Channels display the
name of the virtual instrument from which they get their input.
Click on any input or output to display and choose from a list of available routing options for
any channel. Clicking on the Input for an Instrument Channel will open the interface for the
source virtual instrument.
9.1.3 Panner and Fader
All channels feature a horizontal panner and vertical fader below the I/O-selection display. The
panner can be clicked-and-dragged horizontally, allowing the audio for each channel to be
positioned left or right in the stereo field. Numerical values may also be entered for pan.
Studio One uses a -3 dB pan law for all channel panning. On stereo channels, the panner
adjusts the balance of left and right signal levels. The fader can be click-and-dragged vertically
to control the output volume for each channel.
9.1.4 Mute/Solo
Channels can be muted or soloed by clicking on their Mute and Solo buttons, respectively. You
can also press [M] for Mute or [S] for Solo on the keyboard to mute or solo selected channels.
Muting will silence the channel’s audio from the Console so you won’t hear it. Soloing will
silence all except the audio for the soloed channel, so you will only hear the soloed channel.
Any number of channels can be muted or soloed at one time.
You can perform a Global Solo Off, which disengages Solo on any track that has it engaged, by
pressing and holding [Ctrl] on the keyboard and then clicking on any Solo button. Performing
the [Ctrl]+Click again will recall the previous solo settings, returning any previously soloed
channels to the solo state. This can be useful when comparing a group of soloed tracks to
other tracks in your mix.
9.1.5 Automation Mode
The Automation mode for each channel is displayed at the bottom of the channel. By default,
this mode is set to Off. Click on this display to choose an Automation mode or to add and
remove automation parameters.
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9.1.6 Name
Channel names are shown at the bottom of each channel in the Console. Double-click on the
name, type a new name, and then press Enter to change the name of any channel.
9.1.7 Expand Channel
All channels feature an Expand Channel button, which expands the visible channel to the
right, revealing further Console routing possibilities. Audio, Instrument, and Bus Channels will
include Insert and Send Device Racks. FX Channels will only have an Insert Device Rack.
9.1.8 Channel Types
9.1.8.1 Input
Input channels represent the configured hardware audio inputs. They can be mono or stereo,
depending on the configuration of the hardware input they represent. Use the Input Channels
to accurately meter inputs or to add effects processing to an input.
9.1.8.2 Audio
Audio Channels are direct representations of Audio Tracks in the Arrange view. Each Audio
Track will have a corresponding Audio Channel in the Console, with corresponding Record
Enable, Monitor Enable, Solo, and Mute controls.
9.1.8.3 Instrument
Instrument Tracks in the Arrange view have no directly corresponding channels. An
Instrument Track outputs to a virtual instrument, and the virtual instrument then creates
sound. Thus, virtual instruments output audio to Instrument Channels in the Console. A virtual
instrument might have any number of outputs, as described in the Set Up Multiple Virtual
Instrument Outputs section of the “Recording” chapter, and each will have a corresponding
channel in the Console.
9.1.8.4 Bus
The audio output of multiple channels can be routed directly to a single Bus Channel, which is
always a stereo channel. This lets you create a submix so that the audio from several channels
can be processed together before being routed to the main output. Although less common, it
is also possible to use sends to route audio to Bus Channels.
For instance, several drum tracks might be routed to a Drum Bus, where the audio is
compressed and equalized, and then routed to the main output. That audio could also be
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routed to an FX Channel, through a Send, to apply a reverb effect, which would be applied to
all audio routed to that FX Channel.
9.1.8.5 FX
The FX Channel is used to apply effects to audio via sends from other channels. Audio can be
routed from any channel through a send to an FX Channel, which can have any number of
effects inserted in its Insert Device Rack. For instance, several keyboard tracks and a guitar
track could be routed via sends to an FX Channel with a reverb inserted so that they sound like
they are in the same space.
9.1.8.6 Output
Output channels are routed directly to hardware audio outputs and can be stereo or mono,
depending on the configured outputs to which they connect. Every Song will have at least one
stereo Output Channel, which is named Main Out by default. The Main Out is, by default,
where the entire Console mix of all other channels is routed. You will generally listen to this
output when monitoring your mix, as this is the output from which exported mixdowns are
derived.
The Main Out Channel is always locked to the far right end of the Console and cannot be
moved. This output features a stereo Peak/RMS meter, as well as K-System Metering options.
Other configured hardware outputs are represented in the Console by a type of Output
Channel called a Sub Out. Sub Outs will appear to the right of the mixer when the Outputs
panel is open, to the left of the Main Out channel.
The Main Out and Sub Out Channels feature Metronome controls, allowing independent
metronome on/off and level control for each hardware output. Note that every stereo Output
Channel also features a Mono switch to allow for quick summed-mono monitoring, which is
commonly used to check a mix for mono compatibility.
9.1.9 Console Panel Overview
The Console features several panels that can be shown or hidden as needed. Each panel has
different functions and is accessed from the Console navigation column to the far left of the
Console.
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9.1.9.1 Inputs and Outputs
The Inputs panel is closed by default and can be opened and closed by clicking on the Inputs
button in the Console navigation column. The Inputs panel will display Audio Channels in the
Console for each configured hardware audio input, as described in the Channel Types section
of this chapter.
The Outputs panel is closed by default and can be opened and closed by clicking on the
Outputs button in the Console navigation column. The Outputs panel will display Audio
Channels in the Console for each configured hardware audio output.
9.1.9.2 Trash Bin
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The Trash Bin panel is closed by default and can be opened and closed by clicking on the
Trash button in the navigation column. The Trash Bin panel displays a list of removed Console
objects, including channels, virtual effects, and virtual instruments. Each object in the list will
contain the exact state of the entire channel, effect, or instrument when it was removed,
making it possible to restore previous settings and states in the Console at any time.
To restore an object in the Trash Bin to its previous state and location in the Console,
[Right]/[Control]-click on it in the Trash Bin and select Restore from the pop-up menu. To
permanently remove an object from the Trash Bin, [Right]/[Control]-click on it in the Trash Bin
and select Delete from the pop-up menu.
9.1.9.3 External
The External panel is closed by default and can be opened and closed by clicking on the
External button in the navigation column. The External panel displays a list of configured
External Devices, including Keyboards, External Instruments, and Control Surfaces.
The configuration for each device can be accessed and edited by clicking on the menu arrow
for the device and selecting, from the pop-up menu, either Edit for mapping configuration or
Setup for device configuration. Click on the Add External Device button to add an external
device.
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9.1.9.4 Instruments
The Instruments panel is open by default and is closed and opened by clicking on the
Instrument button in the Navigation column. The Instruments panel displays all currently
loaded virtual instruments. If no Instrument Track is connected to the Instrument, it will
appear grayed out.
Open the interface for a virtual instrument by double-clicking on it in the Instrument panel or
by clicking on the virtual instrument’s menu arrow and selecting Edit from the pop-up menu.
By clicking on the menu arrow and selecting Save Preset from the pop-up menu, you can save
the current settings for any virtual instrument as a Preset. Selecting Remove from the pop-up
menu will remove the virtual instrument from your Song.
9.1.9.5 Banks
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The Banks panel is open by default and is closed and opened by clicking on the Banks button
in the Navigation column. The Banks panel controls which channels in the Console are visible,
as well as which channels are available to a configured Control Surface.
Channels that appear in the Banks panel list can be shown or hidden in the Console. Click
directly on any channel name in this list to show or hide the channel; hidden channels are
highlighted in gray. Each channel type has an associated button at the bottom of the Banks
panel that can be clicked to show or hide all channels of that type in the Console.
Channel banks can be stored and switched-between in the Banks panel to allow very fast
navigation of certain sets of channels in the Console. Click on the Plus button at the bottom of
the Banks channel list to save the current Banks setup as a channel bank. Any number of banks
can be saved and recalled within each Song. Click on the Minus button to remove the current
Console channel bank.
Channel numbers and level meters can be displayed in the Banks list to help you understand
where sound is coming from during mixing, regardless of which channels are shown or hidden
in the Console. To do this, [Right]/[Control]-click in the Banks panel and select View/Levels
and View/Channel # (number).
9.1.10 Alternative Console Layout
The Console has been designed to meet the needs of most users. It has two possible modes:
Small and Large. Additionally, each mode can be made Narrow. The Console can also be
detached from the rest of the single-window user interface. The Console layout is strictly a
matter of preference: There is no audible difference between the Small and Large mode, nor
does detaching the Console affect its functions.
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9.1.10.1 The Large Console
The Console is in Small mode by default. To switch to Large Console mode, click on the
Maximize button at the top of the Console Navigation column. Alternatively, you can press
[Shift]+[F3] on the keyboard when the Console is open.
In Large mode, you can see the Insert and Send Device Racks at the top of each channel,
allowing faster access to these elements. The lower portion of the channel is slightly larger as
well, allowing easier viewing of meters and other elements.
Insert and Send Device Racks can be sized vertically by clicking-and-dragging on the divider
between them. Hold [Shift] while dragging to only size the Device Rack for the current
channel. Hold [Ctrl]/[Cmd] while dragging to set the size for all Device Racks across all
channels.
9.1.10.2 Narrow Mode
Both the Small and Large Consoles can be made narrow via the Narrow/Normal button to the
far left of the Console. Narrow mode has been designed to maximize the number of visible
channels from left to right in the Console.
When in Narrow mode, the Small Console channels will change so that a volume-fade handle
is overlapped on the channel level meter, with Mute and Solo controls below the meter. It
remains possible to expand a channel to reveal its inserts and sends, using the Expand button
at the top of the channel.
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The Large Console in Narrow mode replaces the Insert and Send Device Racks with channel
level meters, in addition to narrowing the other controls. To expand any channel to show its
Insert and Send Device Racks while in Narrow mode, double-click on the its level meter.
9.1.10.3 The Detached Console
The Console can be detached from the main window and placed in an independent window
so that it can be located freely onscreen or on a second computer monitor.
To Detach the Console, click on the Detach button at the top of the Console navigation
column. The Detached Console can be in Small or Large mode, and the window can also be
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sized and maximized to fit the computer monitor. To reattach the Console to the main
interface, click on the Detach button at the top of the Console navigation column.
9.2
Signal Routing
Effects processing, including dynamics processing and modulation, is critical when mixing.
Effects are traditionally applied to audio via an insert or a send.
9.2.1 Configuring Inserts
An insert is used to apply an effect directly to a single channel. The effect is literally inserted
into the audio signal chain within the channel.
9.2.2 Add an Insert
The Insert Device Rack contains all insert effects on a given channel and is visible in the
Console. To add an insert effect to any channel, drag-and-drop an effect from the Browser into
the Insert Device Rack of a channel in the Console or click-and-drag directly to a Track or Track
Lane in the Arrange view.
You will notice, when navigating audio effects in the Browser,
that some effects have a navigation arrow next to them. Click on
this arrow to expose the presets for the effect. Click-and-drag a
preset into the Insert Device Rack on any channel to add the
effect with the preset already loaded.
Alternatively, you can click on the Add Insert button at the top
of the Insert Device Rack to add an insert effect to a channel
from a pop-up menu. You can navigate this list using the
[Arrow] keys on your keyboard and can also quickly find effects
in this list by typing any text.
9.2.3 Edit an Insert
To edit an insert, double-click on it in the Insert Device Rack or click on the menu arrow and
select Edit from the pop-up menu. This opens the user interface for the insert effect, where
you can edit the effect’s parameters.
When audio effects are inserted on the same channel, all of the plug-ins will appear in tabs at
the top of the plug-in header GUI. This makes switching between effects in the same Insert
Device Rack and signal path quick and easy.
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The user interfaces for effects from third-party manufacturers will vary drastically; for more
information, please refer to the documentation for each effect. Studio One’s built-in effects are
discussed in depth in the “Built-In Effects” chapter.
9.2.4 Reorder Inserts
Inserts affect the audio signal path in the top-to-bottom sequential order in which they are
inserted. An insert can be reordered by clicking-and-dragging it above, below, or in between
other inserts. It is helpful to experiment with different signal paths to achieve the best possible
sound or a particular effect.
9.2.5 Navigating Inserts
By default, only one window displays the user interface for an open insert effect. This keeps
screen clutter and window juggling to a minimum. To quickly switch between insert effects on
a single channel, open one of the insert effects and do one of the following:
Click on any other effect tab at the top of the plug-in header GUI to switch to an effect on the
same channel.
Click on the left or right arrow at the top left of the Insert Effect window to step sequentially
through the interface for each insert on the channel.
Click on the down arrow at the top left of the Insert Effect window and choose from the list of
inserts to select the interface for a specific insert on the channel.
Select Show in Console at the bottom of this list to quickly view the related channel in the
Console.
Float the mouse cursor over the down arrow at the top left of the Insert Effect window, then
mouse-wheel up or down to step sequentially through the interface for each insert on the
channel.
Alternatively, press [F11] on the keyboard to open the effect editor for the selected Audio
Track, then press [Ctrl]+[Page Up]/[Page Down] to cycle through the effects in that channel’s
Device Rack.
By clicking on the Pin button in the upper right of the Insert Effect window, the interface for
any insert can be made to stay open in an independent window until you choose to close it.
With an insert effect pinned, opening another insert effect will open a new Insert Effect
window. Any number of Insert Effect windows can be pinned and open simultaneously.
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9.2.6 Copy an Insert to Another Channel
It is often helpful to be able to copy an insert effect, including its current settings, to another
channel. To do this, click on the desired insert effect in the Insert Device Rack and drag it
directly onto any other channel or into the Insert Device Rack on any other channel. Dragging
an insert effect to the left or right edge of the viewable Console will scroll the Console left or
right to expose any channels beyond those currently viewable.
It is also possible to click on the Copy button in the plug-in header GUI, then switch to another
instance of the same plug-in and click on Paste to copy settings from one instance to another.
9.2.7 Compare
The Compare button in the plug-in header GUI allows you to compare the current settings for
a plug-in to the settings stored the last time the Song or Project was saved.
This makes it possible to freely compare potential changes for a plug-in to existing settings,
while retaining a quick way back to existing settings.
9.2.8 Bypassing and Deactivating Inserts
It is possible to bypass, as well as deactivate, insert devices. When deactivating an insert effect,
the insert is turned completely off, which can free up CPU resources. When an insert is
bypassed, the audio signal is simply rerouted around the insert. Bypassing is automatable;
insert activation is not.
To bypass an insert effect, click on the Bypass button found either in the top left of the effect’s
GUI header or within the effect GUI, depending on the effect.
To deactivate, or turn off, an insert effect, click on the Activate button for the insert effect in
the Insert Device Rack. There is also an Activate button at the top left of every Insert Effect
window. Deactivating an insert effect will stop all processing related to it, which frees the
computer processing resources previously dedicated to that insert effect.
To deactivate or activate all insert effects in any Insert Device Rack, click on the Activate All
button at the top of the Insert Device Rack.
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9.2.9 Remove an Insert
To remove an insert effect from the Insert Device Rack, do one of the following:
•
•
Click on the menu arrow for the insert effect in the Insert Device Rack and select
Remove from the pop-up menu.
Click on the insert effect in the Insert Device Rack and drag it into the Trash Bin panel
of the Console.
All inserts can be simultaneously removed from an Insert Device Rack by clicking on the menu
arrow at the top of the Rack and selecting Remove All. When any insert effect is removed, it is
placed in the Trash Bin, where it can be restored to its original state and location at any time.
9.2.10 Hardware Inserts
You can insert external hardware processors into audio channels in the Console, using the
Pipeline plug-in (only in Studio One Professional). The Pipeline plug-in can be found in the
PreSonus folder of the Effects Browser when sorted by Folder, Vendor, or Category.
The Pipeline plug-in routes audio to a hardware processor and then back from that processor
through specific inputs and outputs on your audio interface, while automatically
compensating for the round-trip latency incurred in the process. You can insert an instance of
Pipeline in any Insert Device Rack.
To learn more about Pipeline, refer to section 13.11 of this manual.
9.2.11 Configuring Sends
A send is used to route the audio output, pre-or post-fader, from one channel to another
source, such as an FX Channel.
9.2.12 Send to an FX Channel
To simultaneously create a new FX Channel and create a send to that FX Channel from an
existing channel, click-and-drag an effect from the Browser into the Send Device Rack on a
channel. This will create a send for the channel to a new FX Channel with the selected effect
loaded in its Insert Device Rack.
You can also drag an audio effect into a blank space in the Console to create an
FX Channel with that effect loaded into its Insert Device Rack. To route audio
from a channel to an existing FX Channel, click on the Add Send button in the
Send Device Rack and choose the FX Channel from the list.
Alternatively, you can create an FX Channel by [Right]/[Control]-clicking in
blank space in the Console, or on any channel, and selecting Add FX. This will
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add an FX Channel to the Console with no inserts, which can be the destination for any send.
FX Channels can only output to the Main Out channel of the Console.
To quickly view the effects in the Insert Device Rack of a send’s destination channel, doubleclick on the send. You can then navigate the Insert Effect window as usual.
9.2.13 Send Level and Pre/Post Fader
Once a send has been added to a channel, the send device will appear in the Send Device Rack
for that channel. You will find an Activate button, horizontal Level and Pan faders, and a
Pre/Post Fader button. Click on the Activate button to activate/deactivate the send; this does
not affect the send’s destination channel.
Click-and-drag on the horizontal Level fader to adjust the send level between -∞ and +10 dB.
Click-and-drag on the Pan fader to adjust the balance of the source material going to the send
destination. Click on the Pre/Post Fader button to switch the send source to pre-fader or postfader. Pre-fader allows you to set a send level independent of the channel fader so that the
level is unaffected by fader position.
The send source signal is always post-inserts.
9.2.14 Sidechaining
Certain effects can accept an input from an audio source that dynamically changes the
behavior of the effect. This is called “sidechaining,” and it facilitates processes such as keying,
ducking, and de-essing. Sidechaining is accomplished by using a send to route audio to a
special Sidechain input on an insert effect.
It is possible to send to the Sidechain input of any insert effect, whether or not the sidechain is
engaged in the effect. For the sidechain to work in the effect, it must be engaged in the effect.
An example of sidechaining is when a gate is triggered by a specific audio signal. In this case,
the gate will open and close dynamically in response to the audio signal coming in the
sidechain, rather than responding to the program signal on the channel where the gate is
inserted. Several of Studio One’s built-in effects support sidechaining, including the
Compressor and Gate. For more information, refer to the “Built-In Effects” chapter.
9.2.15 Send to a Bus
It is possible to use a send to route audio to a Bus Channel. This is done in the same manner
that a send is used to route audio to an FX Channel, except that the Bus Channel is selected.
This can be used, among other things, for “multing”—routing a channel to multiple places—
which is a convenient way to layer sounds.
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9.2.16 Copy a Send to Another Channel
Sends can be copied from channel to channel in the same way as inserts. To do this, click-anddrag a send from one Send Device Rack to another one. This will create an identical send on
the channel.
9.2.17 Navigate and Create Effects Presets
At the top of every plug-in window is a set of standard controls. In the upper left, next to the
Activate button, are Preset controls, including a Store Preset button and a Presets window. To
view the presets for an effect, click on the Presets window and browse the pop-up list. To
select a preset, click once on the preset in the list.
9.2.18 Store a Preset
To store a preset containing the current settings of an effect, click on the Store Preset button
and choose Store Preset. Type a name for the preset in the pop-up menu and click OK to store
the preset.
To replace an existing preset, select Replace Preset from the pop-up menu. The settings for the
preset currently displayed in the Preset window will be replaced with the current settings of
the effect.
You can also store any effect or Instrument preset by dragging-and-dropping the insert effect
or instrument from the Console to the Browser. If dragged to a location in the File Browser, the
preset will be stored in that location. If dragged to the Effects or Instruments Browser, the
preset will be stored in your User Data location (as set in the Studio One/Options/ Locations
menu) and will become available in the preset dropdown lists of the Browser and effect or
Instrument.
9.2.19 Store a Default Preset
It is possible to store the current settings of an effect as a default preset so that the effect will
open with these settings when loaded in a Song. To store a default preset for any effect, click
on the Store Preset button and select Store as Default Preset.
9.2.20 Use Presets to Build a Unique Sound
Studio One’s preset system is very easy to use. If you take the time to load plug-in presets and
tweak them even a little bit, then save your personalized sounds as unique presets in Studio
One, you can build a distinctive library. After that, you can quickly locate your custom presets
in the Browser; no digging through every preset just to find the one you want.
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9.2.21 FX Chains
You may wish to insert certain combinations of effects together on a channel. For instance,
you might regularly apply a compressor, EQ, and chorus to your vocal tracks.
In Studio One, FX Chains are used to save the exact setup of an Insert Device Rack so that the
entire chain of effects, including all settings, can be recalled instantly. To create an FX Chain:
•
•
•
Configure an Insert Device Rack on a channel with the desired effects and settings.
Click on the menu arrow at the top of the Insert Device Rack, next to the Insert label,
and select Save Preset from the pop-up menu.
Type in a unique name for the FX Chain and click OK or press [Enter] on the keyboard.
Alternatively, you can drag and drop the Insert Device Rack header to the Effects Browser to
instantly create an FX Chain with the name of the channel.
FX Chains can be found in the FX Chains folder in the Audio Effects Browser. To insert the FX
Chain in the Insert Device Rack of a channel, drag any FX Chain from the Browser to the
channel.
Click on the menu arrow next to the FX Chain name in the Audio Effects Browser to view and
select the individual effects. You can then click on the menu arrow next to each effect name
within the FX Chain to view the presets used for each effect in the FX Chain. Both the
individual effects and each preset can be dragged to the Insert Device Rack of any channel.
It is also possible to access FX Chains from the Insert Device Rack by clicking on the menu
arrow at the top of the Rack and selecting an FX Chain from the list. This will load the selected
FX Chain in the Insert Device Rack.
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9.2.22 Busing
Buses can be extremely useful when mixing. You can route channels directly to buses to help
organize a mix into common elements, such as routing all Drum Tracks directly to a drums
bus. Sends are often used to route a channel to multiple buses in order to layer a signal into
various elements of a mix.
To create a new Bus, [Right]/[Control]-click in blank space in the Console, or on any channel,
and select Add Bus. You can also select any number of channels, then Right]/[Control]-click on
one of the selected channels and choose Add Bus for Selected Channels to quickly create a
new Bus and route the selected channels to that new bus.
You can then choose that bus as the Output or Send destination for any Audio or Instrument
Channel in the Console. The bus sends its summed signal to the Main Out by default but can
also be routed to Sub Out Channels. Buses have sends that can be used the same way as other
sends in Studio One.
It is possible to nest buses infinitely (A to B, B to C, C to D, and so on). Feedback prevention is
in place so that you can’t create a bus routing that would cause a feedback loop (e.g., A to B, B
to C, C to A).
9.2.23 Save Solo
It is possible to place Console channels in Save Solo mode. When any channel in the Console is
soloed, all channels with Save Solo engaged are also soloed, and all other channels are muted.
To engage Save Solo on any channel, [Shift]+Click on its solo button in Console. The Solo
button will be green when Save Solo is engaged.
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Note that FX Channels have Save Solo engaged by default because effects may be critical to
how soloed channels sound in the mix, so when any channel is soloed, you will probably want
to hear the applicable FX Channel output as well.
9.3
Groups
As discussed in the Edit Groups section of the “Editing” chapter, it is possible to group multiple
tracks together so that any edits done to an Event on one track in the group are automatically
done to all Events for all Tracks in the group. These same Edit Groups affect how their related
channel faders will behave in the Console.
9.3.1 Create or Dissolve a Group in the Console
To create a Group in the Console, select the desired channels and then [Right]/[Control]-click
and select Group Selected Tracks from the pop-up menu. To dissolve, or ungroup, grouped
channels in the Console, [Right]/ [Control]-click on any channel in the Group and select
Dissolve Group from the pop-up menu.
When a channel is in a Group, the Group icon will appear on the channel.
9.3.2 Group Behavior in the Console
When a channel is placed in a Group, its fader will be linked to the faders for all other Tracks in
the Group, so that all of the faders will move when any of them is moved. The movement of
faders in the Group will be relative to one another, maintaining the correct dB value
relationships among the faders. Note that Channel Pan is not affected by grouping, as
channels within a group are very often panned separately.
Solo, Mute, Record Enable, and Monitor Enable controls will also be linked for all channels in a
Group. No other aspect of the channel in the Console is affected by grouping.
Instrument Tracks in the Arrange view have no direct representation in the Console. The audio
outputs of the virtual instruments to which they are routed will have channels in the Console.
It should be noted, however, that grouping Instrument Tracks in the Arrange view only affects
editing those Tracks and has no effect on the Instrument Channels for the virtual-instrument
audio outputs.
9.3.3 Temporarily Suspend Groups
It is possible to temporarily suspend a Group so that, for instance, the fader for a channel in a
Group can be edited without affecting the other channels in the Group. To suspend the Group,
hold [Alt]/[Option] on the keyboard while clicking on the Fader, Mute, Solo, Record Enable, or
Monitor Enable controls.
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9.4
Metering
Metering is a critical part of the production process. Studio One’s meters visually display audio
levels that closely correspond with perceived loudness, and you can meter these levels at
various stages in the signal path. Peak meters can be found on every channel in the Console
except the Output Channels, which appropriately feature a more informative Peak/ RMS meter
with K-System Metering options.
9.4.1 Peak Meters
Peak meters measure the instantaneous audio level from moment to moment at a very fast
resolution and display the highest output level at any instant. These meters help ascertain the
relationship between a given audio level and other audio levels in the mix. Many effects plugins feature peak meters at the input and output so that any level attenuation the effect
imparts on the audio signal can be seen.
[Right]/[Control]-click on a peak meter to adjust its VU Hold and Hold Length settings.
The peak meters in Studio One will automatically be mono or stereo depending on the audio
source.
9.4.2 Peak/RMS Meters
The Main Out and Sub Out channels feature Peak/RMS meters, which simultaneously show
both peak and RMS levels. Whereas a peak meter will show the highest output level at any
instant, an RMS meter will show an average of the peaks and troughs of an audio signal over
time. An RMS meter is intended to indicate the perceived loudness of the audio being
measured by functioning in a way similar to the human ear and is therefore often used as a
true measure of effective loudness.
9.4.3 Main Out Clip Counter
The Main Out channel features a Clip Counter above its Peak/RMS meter.
The counter will turn red when the Main Out signal clips, and it will count the total
number of clips that occur. Use the counter to help prevent clipping the final
stereo mix of your Song. The counter will reset when clicked or when the Main Out
fader is adjusted.
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9.4.4 K-System Metering
The Peak/RMS meters in Studio One also feature K-System metering options. The K-System is
an integrated metering system tied to monitoring gain, and it is intended to standardize the
levels at which sound is mixed and mastered. This metering system features three different
meter scales called K-20, K-14, and K-12. These three scales are meant to be used with different
types of audio production and have been described by K-System inventor Bob Katz in his
Audio Engineering Society technical paper “An Integrated Approach to Metering, Monitoring,
and Levelling Practices.” Katz wrote:
“The K-20 meter is for use with wide dynamic-range material, e.g., large theater mixes, ‘daring
home theater’ mixes, audiophile music, classical (symphonic) music, hopefully future
‘audiophile’ pop music mixed in 5.1, and so on. The K-14 meter is for the vast majority of highfidelity productions for the home, e.g., home theater and pop music (which includes the wide
variety of moderately compressed music, from folk music to hard rock). And the K-12 meter is
for productions to be dedicated for broadcast.”
To switch to any K-System meter, [Right]/[Control]-click on any Peak/RMS meter and choose
an option from the menu.
When using any of the three K-System scales, the 0 VU mark should be calibrated to 85 dB SPL
from your monitors, which you should measure with an SPL meter. For instance, playing back
a -14 dBFS sine wave in Studio One while using the K-14 scale will cause the meter to read 0
VU for both the peak and average levels, and your monitors should be adjusted so that the SPL
meter at the listening position reads 85 dB SPL.
9.5
Automatic Plug-In Delay Compensation
Some plug-in effects inherently have some delay, or latency. It takes a certain amount of time
for these plug-ins to process the audio routed to them, which means the resulting output
audio is slightly delayed. This especially applies to dynamics-processor plug-ins that feature a
look-ahead function, such as the included Compressor.
In Studio One, this inherent delay is managed with plug-in delay compensation through the
entire audio path. There are no settings to manage, as this feature is completely automatic.
The sync and timing of every audio channel in your Song are automatically maintained, no
matter what processing is being used.
The current total plug-in delay time is displayed in the left-side Transport, below the current
sample rate.
If you desire, you can turn off plug-in delay compensation by selecting Ignore Plug-in Delay in
the Transport file menu. When this mode is selected, the sync of all audio channels will need
to be handled manually by adjusting Event positions or Track Delay times in the Track
Inspector.
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9.6
Manual Audio Track Delay
It is sometimes necessary to manually delay the playback of audio to keep it in sync with other
audio. A classic example is in the case of recording a live performance, where tracks are
recorded directly from the mixing console, while ambient microphones capture the audience
sound from a position well away from the stage. The direct sound from the console arrives at
the recorder almost instantaneously; it takes longer for the sound to reach the ambient mics
from the stage. When the signals are mixed, the time difference results in audible delay and
phase problems. To properly align the recorded audio from the ambient mics with the rest of
the recorded mix, you can apply a negative amount of manual delay to the ambient recording.
Open the Inspector view by clicking on the Inspector button or pressing [F4] on the keyboard.
Enter a positive or negative Delay value, in milliseconds, to apply a delay to the Track.
To calculate the value to apply to ambient mics in the example, do the following:
•
•
•
9.7
Measure the distance from the stage to the ambient mics.
Divide the distance in feet by 1,129, which is roughly the speed of sound (at sea level,
at 1 atmosphere of pressure) in feet per second. (Divide the distance in meters by 343
for meters per second.) The resulting value is the amount of seconds it took for sound
to reach your ambient mics. For example, if the distance was 100 feet, the resulting
amount of time is 0.0885 seconds (100/1,129=0.0885), or 88.5 milliseconds.
For the stereo ambient mic Track, or for each mono Track, you will enter a Delay value
of -88.5, which removes the recorded delay and puts the Tracks in sync with the rest of
the recording.
Using the Marker Track
You’ll probably want to quickly navigate to various areas of your Song during mixdown. In
Studio One, the Marker Track is used to place Markers at desired places in the timeline, after
which navigation to the Markers is easy. To open the Marker Track, click on the Marker Track
button above the Track Column in the Arrange view.
Notice the Timebase button to the right of the Marker Track in the Track column. The musicalnote icon on the Timebase button indicates that Markers will adhere to their position based
on bars and beats, so if the tempo changes, the Markers will move forward or backward in
time in relation to their musical position.
If you click on the Timebase button, it will switch to a clock icon, indicating that the Markers
will adhere to their absolute position in time. If the tempo changes, the Markers will not move,
as they are locked to an absolute time position in the timeline.
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9.7.1 Inserting Markers
To insert a new Marker into the Marker Track, with playback running or stopped, click on the
Add Marker button or press [Insert]/[Y] on the keyboard. Each new marker will be numbered
sequentially by default (1, 2, 3…). To rename a Marker, double-click on it in the Marker Track,
type in a new name, and then press [Enter] on the keyboard.
9.7.2 Navigating Markers
You can quickly jump the playback cursor between Markers in the Marker Track. Click on the
Previous Marker button in the Transport, or press [Shift]+B on the keyboard, to jump to the
previous Marker. Click on the Next Marker button in the Transport, or press [Shift]+N on the
keyboard, to jump to the next Marker. Jumping to Markers during playback enables quick
comparisons between sections of your Song.
You can also jump to up to seven different Markers from the Transport/ Goto Marker menu.
9.7.3 Song Start and End Markers
When a new Song is created, you can specify a Song Length. The default length is 5 minutes or
151 bars at the default 120 bpm tempo. At the beginning and end of the specified region,
Song Start and End Markers are automatically placed in the Marker Track. These markers can
be used in the Export to Audio File menu to define the timeline region to be exported, and
they are used by default in the Update Mastering File process.
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9.8
Looping During Mixing
Looping a section of audio (for instance a chorus) while mixing allows you to focus on a
particular area of your overall Song without having to constantly stop, rewind, and resume
playback.
To quickly loop a section of audio, first select the audio you want to loop by either selecting a
range with the Range tool or directly selecting an Event or multiple Events with the Arrow tool
in the Arrange view. Then press [P] on the keyboard to set the Left and Right Locators around
your selection. Alternatively, press [Shift]+[P] on the keyboard to ignore Snap while setting the
Locators. Finally, click on the Loop button in the Transport, or press [Num Pad /] on the
keyboard, to loop the playback between the Left and Right Locators.
You can manually set the Left and Right Locators to a desired range and then engage Loop in
the Transport. To do this, float the mouse cursor to the top of the Timeline Ruler until you see
the Draw tool appear. Then click-and-drag to the right to draw the loop region (Left and Right
Locators) around the area you wish to loop. Hold [Alt] on the keyboard while dragging to
simultaneously engage Loop in the Transport.
You can also manually move the Left and Right Locators by clicking and dragging them left or
right in the Timeline Ruler.
9.9
Mixing Down
Most often, you’ll record multiple tracks in each Song, but you will need to mix these tracks to
stereo for distribution on CD, DVD, or the Web. With a DAW such as Studio One, this simply
means saving your mix to a stereo file.
9.9.1 Create a Mixdown
To create a mix of your Song in Studio One, navigate to
Song/Mixdown to Audio File or press [Ctrl]/[Cmd]+E on the
keyboard to open the Export to Audio File menu.
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9.9.2 Location
The top section of the Mixdown to Audio File menu is where you will select a location and
name for the mix file. Click on the Location button to choose a file location. Double-click on
the filename, type in a new name, and press [Enter] to choose a name for the file.
9.9.3 Format
Select the format for your mix file in the middle section of the Export to Audio File menu.
Choose from Wave, AIFF, Ogg Vorbis, or MP3 file, and then choose the desired resolution and
sample rate.
If you want to put your mix on a standard audio CD, create a 16-bit, 44.1 kHz Wave file.
9.9.4 Options
The bottom section of the Export to Audio File menu has several options that affect how the
mix file is created.
Choose from Export Loop Range or Export between Song Start/End Marker. The Export Loop
Range option will only export the range of your Song between the Left and Right Locators.
Export Between Song Start/End Marker will export the range of your Song between the Song
Start and End Markers, as seen in the Marker Track. The duration of the range to be exported is
displayed in the Duration field.
Choose an output from which the mix will be created in the Output selection box. Only the
Main Out will appear in the list, by default, but if there are any Sub Outs in the Console, they
will appear in this list as well. Check Import to Track if you would like the mix imported to a
new Track in your Song.
Check Realtime Processing if you wish to export your mix in real time. This option should be
used if your Song requires External Instruments or external hardware processing so that
musical data and audio will flow to and through these external sources during mixdown.
Check Close After Export if you would like to close the Mixdown to Audio File menu after
exporting your mix.
Check Bypass Master Effects to bypass the insert effects on the Main Output Channel of the
Console when rendering the mixdown. This is useful if you have inserted effects to simulate
the mastering stage, such as a compressor and limiter, but would like to render the mixdown
without them in order to address this in a mastering Project, or to preserve flexibility for
another mastering engineer.
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9.9.5 Song Meta-Information
Certain file formats, such as MP3, can contain additional information about the audio which is
referred to as "meta-information". In the Song/Song Setup/Meta Information menu are many
fields of data that can be filled in for each Song. These fields are used to tag audio files, so that
they are labeled correctly for playback in software and various media players. All audio files
exported from a Song that can contain meta-information will be tagged with the metainformation supplied here.
At the bottom of the Meta Information menu, you can choose to display the Song’s metainformation when the Song is opened. The information can also be viewed at any time by
selecting Song Information from the Song menu.
The meta-information displayed represents what listeners will see in their media players when
playing the Song. Displaying this info could also be helpful in remembering aspects of the
Song production later.
Meta-information filled in for any Song will be automatically filled in for that Song when it is
imported into a mastering Project. For more on this, refer to the Meta-Information section in
the “Mastering” chapter.
9.10
Export Stems from your Song
It can be helpful to quickly export individual tracks from your Song. For instance, you might
wish to send the tracks to someone who will prepare a different mix or will remix the Song.
The Export Stems feature in Studio One provides an easy way to accomplish this.
9.10.1 Select Tracks and Channels
To export stems from your Song in Studio
One, navigate to Song/Export Stems to
open the Export Stems menu.
Once in this menu, you will see two tabs
labeled Tracks and Channels. The list of
Tracks will be the Tracks in the Arrange
view, while the list of channels will be the
list of channels in the Console. Muted Tracks
and channels will be grayed out in this list.
Select the Tracks and channels you wish to
export by checking each Track or channel in
the list.
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Note that the audio file created for any selected Track or channel will be the equivalent of
soloing the Track or channel in the Console and listening to the result. The audio file will
include the results of all inserts and sends, and fader and pan on the Track or channel. If you
don’t want the inserts or sends included in the exported audio, disable them before exporting.
9.10.2 Location
You can select a location and name for the exported files in the top section of the Export
Stems menu. Click on the Location button to choose a file location. Double-click on the
filename, type in a new name, and press [Enter] to choose a name for the file. The name of
each track in the Song that is being exported will be appended to the user-specified filename.
9.10.3 Format
Select the format for your mix file in the middle section of the Export Stems menu. Choose
from Wave, AIFF, FLAC, Ogg Vorbis, or MP3 and then choose the desired resolution and
sample rate.
9.10.4 Options
The bottom section of the Export Stems menu has several options that affect how the files are
created.
Select a time range to export by selecting Loop, Between Song Start/End Marker, Between
Each Marker, or Between Selected Markers. The Export Loop Range option will only export the
range of your Song between the Left and Right Locators. Export Between Song Start/End
Marker will export the range of your Song between the Song Start and End Markers, as seen in
the Marker Track.
The Export Between Each Marker option will export separate audio files for the range between
each marker in the Song for each track, placing them in folders named after the markers. The
Export Between Selected Markers option allows you to choose any time range between two
markers in the Song. The duration of the range to be exported is displayed in the Duration
field.
Check Keep Mono Tracks Mono if you would like mono tracks to render mono audio files. If
you are using stereo effects with mono tracks, you may wish to disengage this option. Check
Import to Track if you would like the exported tracks to be imported to new tracks in your
Song.
Check Realtime Processing if you wish to export your tracks in real time. This option should be
used if your Song requires External Instruments or external hardware processing, so that
musical data and audio will flow to and through those external sources during mixdown.
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Check Close After Export if you would like to close the Export Tracks as Audio Files menu after
exporting your tracks. Check Overlap and specify a duration if you would like to add an
overlap to the exported range so you can create crossfades between them later on.
9.11
Mixing Suggestions
9.11.1 Before Mixing
The production work done before mixing has a great impact on the mixing process. Here are a
few guidelines you may find helpful:
•
•
•
•
Finish the arrangement of your Song before attempting to mix. The addition, deletion,
and rearrangement of parts can change the relationships between all of the parts in
your Song, which will affect the mix.
If any part of your Song is problematic, it is unlikely to work well in a mix. The “fix it in
the mix” approach usually leads to a lot of wasted time, only to achieve poor results.
Be sure you are pleased with the individual parts of your Song before attempting to
mix.
Some parts of your Song might rely on a certain amount of mixing and effects
processing to achieve the desired sound and character in the arrangement. It is very
easy to let this type of “mixing” carry over into mixing the entire Song. If you find
yourself working on many tracks at once, you are probably mixing the Song, rather
than a particular part.
If your Song lacks personality, vibe, or feeling before you start mixing, it is unlikely to
gain any of these subjective qualities during mixdown. In this case, take the time to rerecord certain parts, rearrange the Song, or even start over from scratch.
9.11.2 Mixing Workflow
While mixing requires an objective knowledge of many tools, the process is an art form. If you
were to ask ten mix engineers to mix the same Song, each mix would sound different. There
are no step-by-step or “mix by numbers” instructions you can follow to achieve good results.
The following broad concepts may help guide you in the mixing process.
9.11.3 Balance
Mixing is largely about balance. The various elements in a mix are balanced with each other so
that each element can be clearly heard and contributes as desired to the overall mix. This
entails using the faders to vary levels and equalizing sounds so that there is no “competition”
between elements with similar frequency content. There is a limited amount of space in the
mix, based on individual energy levels for each frequency in the audible spectrum and the
relationships of the sounds within the stereo field.
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A popular view on mixing maintains that auditory perception occurs within a threedimensional space, wherein the principles of mixing are highly visual. A number of variables
determine how we perceive location, including frequency, phase, reflections, and relative
amplitude (level).
Therefore, while mixing, various elements can be positioned in the 3-D listening space using
faders, equalizers, ambient effects, and panning to achieve appropriate balance across the
entire mix.
9.11.4 Busing
Busing can make mixing much easier by creating submixes of certain elements. For instance, a
live drum set may be recorded across eight or more individual channels. In this case, the
drums can first be submixed to their own bus or stereo channel, and then the submix can be
blended into the overall mix. To accomplish this in Studio One, refer to both the Busing and
Groups sections of this chapter.
Busing is also used to build on individual tracks to create a “larger” sound. For instance, a vocal
track might be bused to an FX Channel with a chorus effect inserted, as well as to a bus where
all of the vocals are mixed and sent to a reverb. These various elements are all mixed using
individual faders and add to the overall vocal sound in the mix.
Busing can be used creatively to achieve an endless variety of results. Experiment with this
concept to help achieve a unique sound.
9.11.5 Preparing Your Mix for Mastering
Too often, mixes are sent to the mastering phase of production after they have been
compressed, equalized, limited, and generally processed to the loudest possible levels. This is
usually the result of people comparing their unmastered mixes to finished, mastered,
published songs. Indeed, it’s tempting to make your mixes as loud as possible while mixing.
However, mixing is mostly about achieving excellent balance. It is not about making the mix
loud, especially when compared to mastered mixes. During mastering, you can bring the
overall loudness up without affecting the balance achieved during mixing. But if your mixes
are already as loud as they possibly can be, little can be done during mastering to make the
most of the balance you achieved in the mix, nor can you easily balance one mix with another
to create a cohesive album.
Therefore, when listening to reference material (which we highly recommend), try to ignore
the overall loudness and just pay attention to how the individual elements are balanced.
Avoid placing compressors/ limiters on the master channel of your mix.
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9.11.6 Maximizing Computer Processing Power
If you are only listening to playback of previously recorded tracks, and not to live inputs being
recorded, input and output latency (the time it takes to get audio into and back out of your
computer) is irrelevant. Besides, Studio One’s automatic delay compensation will keep all
playback tracks in sync with each other, regardless of plug-in processing. Therefore, during
mixdown, the Block Size can be increased to allow more time for processing to occur before
the audio is heard, which will enable you to use more plug-ins and other processing.
To adjust the Block Size, navigate to the Studio One/Options/Audio Setup menu (Mac OS X:
Preferences/Options/Audio Setup). In Windows, if your audio interface allows it, as most ASIO
devices do, adjust the Hardware Block Size by clicking and dragging the horizontal fader. The
value of the Hardware Block Size is reported next to the horizontal fader. In Mac OS X, there is
a popup menu to adjust Block Size.
In the Windows version of Studio One, the Internal Block Size is locked by default to the same
value as the Hardware Block Size. Click on the Lock selection box to unlock the Internal Block
Size. Then click on the Internal Block Size value to choose from the list of available values.
In Mac OS X, there is no difference between Internal and Hardware Block Size.
9.11.7 Rendering and Deactivating Virtual Instruments
Virtual instruments can require a lot of computer resources, which limits the computing power
that’s available for other processes. Therefore, it is sometimes worthwhile to render the audio
output of an Instrument Track to an Audio Track and then deactivate the virtual instrument.
The most flexible option you have is to use Track Transform to render Audio and Instrument
tracks and temporarily remove the related virtual instruments or effects, as described in the
“Editing” chapter.
Alternatively, you can do the following to accomplish this:
•
•
•
Select all of the Instrument Parts on the Instrument Tracks that you would like to
render to audio.
Select Bounce Instrument Parts from the Event menu or press [Ctrl]/ [Cmd]+[B] on the
keyboard. Each Instrument Part will be rendered to an Audio Event and placed
appropriately on a new Audio Track.
Click on the Instrument icon on the Instrument Tracks to open the user interface for its
virtual instrument and click on the Activate button to deactivate it. This will free any
computer resources previously being used by the virtual instrument.
The same concept applies to resource-intensive Audio Effect plug-ins. You can export audio to
a new Track using the Song/Export to Audio File menu, then remove the pre-rendered Audio
Track.
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9.11.8 Audio Engine Overload
Computers have a limited amount of processing power, and you can reach a point where the
system can’t support all of the running processes. If this occurs while using Studio One, the
Studio One audio engine will overload, causing the application to become unresponsive or
frozen.
If this happens, and Studio One becomes unresponsive for more than 15 seconds, the system
is automatically stopped, and the audio device is suspended. A warning message will be
displayed to notify you that this has happened.
When you see this message, immediately save your Song or Project. After saving, disable some
plug-ins, including audio effects and virtual instruments, to reduce the amount of computer
processing needed to play the Song or Project. When you resume playback, the audio engine
will function normally. If you see the warning again, try disabling more plug-ins.
This feature is intended to make the experience of using Studio One stable and enjoyable on
less-powerful computers. If you are using a relatively powerful computer, you will probably
never overload the audio engine.
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10
Automation
Automation is a critical part of modern mixing. The following chapter discusses aspects of
automation in Studio One, including Track and Part automation, automation modes, and
automation envelopes.
10.1
What is Automation?
Automation lets you record changes in parameter values; thereafter, Studio One can perform
these value changes for you. For instance, you can record level changes in a Track by capturing
your fader movements during playback; from then on, Studio One can perform the level
changes.
Before the advent of automation, mixing was very much a performance. Sometimes it took
many pairs of hands on the mixing console to accomplish all of the fader, mute, solo, and
other movements to achieve a mix. Automation makes it possible to record the mixing
performance in any way you desire and endlessly tweak every parameter until the desired mix
is achieved.
In Studio One, automation is recorded in automation envelopes, which are a series of data
points connected by lines that represent the changing values of the parameter being
automated.
10.2
Track Automation
Nearly every parameter in Studio One can be automated. Several ways to automate
parameters are provided, including Track automation, Automation Tracks, and Part
automation. The following sections describe these automation types.
10.2.1 Track Automation
Track automation allows you to automate any parameter related to an Audio or Instrument
Track and the Events it contains. Automation can be viewed via the Show Automation button
at the top of the Track Column in the Arrange view or by right-clicking on a Track and
selecting Expand Envelopes.
Note that automation envelopes on Instrument Tracks control the parameters of the virtual
instrument to which the Instrument Track is routed. All other aspects of Instrument Track
automation envelopes work in the same way as with Audio Track automation.
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10.2.1.1 Automation Envelopes On the Track
To view automation envelopes one at a time, superimposed on top of Events on the Track,
Press [A] on the keyboard or click on the Show Automation button at the top of the Track
column in the Arrange view. With this engaged, the Track column of the Arrange view
changes to reveal automation parameters, including an On/Off button, the parameter name
for the currently shown Envelope, and automation-mode selection.
Click on the Automation Parameter display, which is labeled “Display: Off” by default, to reveal
the available automation envelopes for a Track. (“Display: Off” indicates that the events on the
Track will be displayed, instead of an automation envelope.) Volume and Pan automation
envelopes are available by default on every Audio Track. Select a parameter from the list to
view and edit the automation envelope, or click on Add/Remove to open the Automation
menu for the Track.
10.2.1.2 Automation Envelopes In Lanes
To view multiple automation envelopes at once, with each in a lane under the Track, rightclick on a Track and select Expand Envelopes. Alternatively, you can click the drop-down
arrows for a Track in the Track List to expose its automation envelopes in the same way. To
hide the automation envelopes, deselect Expand Envelopes in the Track contextual menu.
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10.2.2 Turn Automation On/Off
Automation envelopes can be turned on and off, so you can decide when they will affect the
controlled parameter. To turn an envelope on or off, click on the On/Off button for that
Envelope. Each automation envelope can be turned on/off independently. Turning an
automation envelope on/off during playback has different results depending on the current
Automation mode for the Track.
10.2.3 Add Automation Envelopes to a Track
Any number of automation envelopes can be added to a Track. The fastest way to add an
automation envelope to a Track is as follows:
•
Modify any parameter for an Audio Track or its inserts or sends, and that parameter
will be displayed in the Software Parameter window in far left of the Arrange view
toolbar in the Song window.
•
Click on the Hand icon in the Software Parameter window, and drag it to the Track to
add an automation envelope for that parameter to the Track. If the envelope already
exists, it will be displayed, and a new envelope will not be added.
An alternative way to add automation envelopes to a Track is described as follows.
•
Press [A] on the keyboard to show automation.
•
Click on the Parameter window on the Track in the Track column of the Arrange view
and select Add/Remove from the list. This will open the Automation menu for that
Track.
•
On the left side of the Automation menu, the existing automation envelopes will be
listed, along with their associated automation mode and device. On the right side of
this menu are the parameters for which new automation envelopes can be added.
•
Select any parameter on the right and click on Add to create a new automation
envelope. Click on any parameter on the left and click on Remove to remove the
existing automation envelope.
At the top of the Automation menu, you will notice that you can browse through all Tracks in
your Song to view and edit the automation envelopes for any track. You can also click on the
Add Automation Track button to add a new Automation Track.
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10.2.4 Automation Tracks
Studio One features a track type dedicated to automation that only contains automation
envelopes. An Automation Track can contain automation envelopes related to any Track and
any plug-ins. To add an Automation Track, press [T] on the keyboard to open the Add Track
menu, and select Automation. Note that at least one envelope on Automation Tracks is always
visible, and the envelopes can be viewed on the Track itself or in lanes, just as with the other
Track types.
Only those parameters for which an automation envelope does not already exist will be
available for automation. However, you can drag and drop an automation envelope from any
other Track to an Automation Track. All other aspects of Automation Track automation
envelopes work in the same way as with Track automation.
You can use Automation Tracks to automate bus, FX, and Output Channel parameters and
inserts and to keep critical automation envelopes organized in one place and easily accessible.
10.3
Editing Automation Envelopes
Automation envelopes can be edited directly, using the mouse, as well as with external
hardware controllers. The following describes editing automation envelopes with the mouse.
Refer to the Automation with Hardware Controllers section of the “Control Link” chapter for
more on editing envelopes with external hardware controllers.
To edit an automation envelope, you first need to show automation by clicking on the Show
Automation button at the top of the Track Column or by choosing Expand Layers from the
Track contextual menu.
10.3.1 Arrow Tool
Editing an automation envelope with the mouse, using the Arrow tool, allows you to add new
points to the envelope, move existing points, and select and delete existing points. Be sure to
select the Arrow tool in the Arrange view before attempting the following processes.
10.3.2 Add a New Automation Point
To add a new point to an automation envelope using the Arrow tool, float the mouse above
the envelope in the Track Lane so that the Hand cursor appears. Click to create a new point,
hold the click, and move the mouse to move the new point.
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10.3.3 Move an Automation Point
To move any point on an automation envelope, using the Arrow tool, click-and-hold on any
existing point on the envelope. While holding the click, moving the selected point vertically
changes its parameter value, and moving the point horizontally changes its time position.
When moving an automation point, notice the pop-up value indicator. This displays the
current parameter value. The range and the type of value depend on the parameter being
automated and on the current time value displayed in the Timebase selected in the Arrange
view.
In Studio One, you can drag an automation point as far beyond the position of other
automation points as needed. Moving an automation point beyond other points on the
envelope will cause the other points to move as well. The other points being moved will be
restored to their original positions on the timeline if the point that caused them to be moved
is moved back beyond their original positions.
Note that when Audio Events or Instrument Parts are moved, any underlying track automation
will be moved along with the events, by default. To disengage this option, see the
Options/Advanced/Editing/Tools menu and uncheck the Automation Follows Events option.
10.3.4 Delete an Automation Point
To delete an existing point on an automation envelope using the Arrow tool, first click on a
point to select it. Then, press [Delete] on the keyboard to delete the point. Alternatively,
[Right]/[Control]-click on any automation point and select Delete from the pop-up menu to
delete it.
10.3.5 Editing Multiple Points at Once
It is possible to simultaneously edit any number of points on an automation envelope. Using
the Arrow tool, click in the Track Lane, away from any existing automation point, and then
drag to draw a selection box around the points you want to edit. With multiple points
selected, click-and-drag, using the Arrow tool, on any of the selected points, in order to move
them all. Moving multiple points vertically to adjust the parameter values will adjust each
parameter value relative to the point being moved.
10.3.6 Paint Tool
Editing an automation envelope with the Paint tool allows you to draw many automation
points with a single move of the mouse, effectively painting an envelope. You can choose
from several figures when using the Paint tool or you can use the Transform editor. Be sure to
Show Automation and select the Paint tool in the Arrange view before attempting the
following processes.
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10.3.6.1 Draw an Automation Envelope
To draw an automation envelope using the Paint tool, click-and-drag in the Track Lane. While
you are drawing the envelope horizontally, points will be added at different time increments
based on the current Timebase. However, when the mouse button is released after drawing an
envelope with the Paint tool, the drawn curves of the envelope will be intelligently and
accurately approximated to achieve the desired result with as few points as possible, which
may or may not remove some unnecessary points from the envelope. If Snap is engaged in the
Arrange view, the envelope points being drawn will snap to the grid accordingly.
Drawing an envelope with the Paint tool over existing points on an automation envelope will
cause the existing points to be overwritten with the newly drawn points. These actions can be
undone and redone.
10.3.6.2 Draw with Figures
When selecting the Paint tool, scroll the mouse wheel to reveal several figure-drawing tools,
including a Line tool and square, saw, triangle, and sine waveform tools. With any of these
tools selected, click-and-drag on any automation envelope to draw the desired envelope.
When using the waveform tools, hold [Alt] to adjust the frequency of the waveform while
dragging.
10.3.6.3 Transform Automation
You can also choose the Transform tool from the Paint tool drop-down list to alter existing
automation, or add new automation. With the Transform tool selected, click-and-drag a
selection box around any area of an automation envelope; then adjust the selection box by
clicking-and-dragging on one of eight handles (four sides and four corners) to scale the
selected automation points.
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This tool is unique to Studio One and can be used to create automation-envelope patterns
that otherwise would be impossible to create.
10.4
Automation Modes
In Studio One, automation modes are specific to devices on each Track. A delay effect on an
Audio Track might be in Touch mode, while the volume, pan, and other effects on that Track
are in different modes. This allows a great deal of flexibility.
With Show Automation selected, the current automation mode is visible. To select any mode,
click on the Automation Mode window and select from the list. The following describes the
automation modes.
10.4.1 Auto: Off
When Auto: Off is selected in the Automation Mode window, all automation for the current
parameter and for all related parameters will be turned off.
For instance, if you are currently viewing the Attack envelope for a compressor inserted on an
Audio Track, and you select Auto:Off, all parameter automation for the compressor will be
turned off. However, automation envelopes for parameters that do not belong to the
compressor can still use a different automation mode.
This is not the same as turning an individual automation envelope on and off, as described in
the Turn Automation On/Off section of this chapter, as that on/off button only affects the
currently visible automation envelope.
10.4.2 Read
When you select Read in the Automation Mode window, any existing automation envelopes
on the Track for the related device will be read, and these envelopes will control their related
parameters. Read mode will automatically be engaged when you draw a new automation
envelope with the mouse.
•
Press [J] on the keyboard to switch to Read Automation Mode manually on the
selected Tracks.
10.4.3 Touch
When Touch is selected in the Automation Mode window, automation envelopes can be
affected by touch-sensitive, external hardware controllers, so that new automation is written
when a hardware control is touched, and automation is read when the hardware control is not
being touched. This allows the user to manipulate the control at any time in order to write
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new automation or overwrite existing automation. Studio One will resume reading
automation when the control is released.
•
Press [K] on the keyboard to switch to Touch mode manually on the selected Tracks.
Touch mode can be used even if your hardware controller does not have touch sensitivity. In
this case, automation is written when you move the hardware controller, and existing
automation will be read when you are not moving the hardware controller.
10.4.5 Latch
When Latch is selected in the Automation Mode window, automation will be read until a
hardware control is manipulated, at which point automation will be written continuously until
playback is stopped. When playback is resumed, automation will be read until a hardware
control is again touched.
10.4.6 Write
When Write is selected in the Automation Mode window, automation is continuously written
based on the current position of external hardware controllers. Existing automation will not be
read at any point and will instead be overwritten with the new automation.
10.5
Instrument Part Automation
In a feature unique to Studio One, automation envelopes for any given virtual instrument can
written and accessed directly within Instrument Parts, just like musical-data parameters such
as velocity and pitch bend. Part automation is integrated into Instrument Parts, so that no
matter where an Instrument Part is moved, or how it is edited, the automation will stay in
place. In this way, virtual-instrument automation can be kept where it belongs with the
Instrument Parts in your Song.
Thus, Instrument Part automation is functionally similar to the track-automation system but is
dedicated to Instrument Parts and the virtual instruments they control, offering enormous
flexibility.
10.5.1 Recording Part Automation
When an Instrument Part is being recorded, and any of a connected virtual instrument’s or
External Instrument’s controls are manipulated with the mouse or with an external hardware
controller, those control changes are recorded into the Part as Part automation. At any time,
Part automation can be recorded live to a new or existing Part by enabling Record and
manipulating the virtual-instrument controls.
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The related Instrument Track must be connected to a virtual instrument or External Instrument
in order for Part automation to be recorded.
10.5.2 View Part Automation
To view and edit Part automation for an Instrument Part, select the desired Instrument Part
and open the Edit view by pressing [F2] on the keyboard, double-clicking on the Instrument
Part, or clicking on the Edit button.
Below the Music Editor (which shows the musical notes for the selected Instrument Part), you
will notice the Part Automation lane. At the upper left of the lane, the Parameter tab shows the
parameter currently displayed in the lane.
10.5.3 Manually Add and Edit a Part-Automation Envelope
Click on the Parameter tab to choose a parameter to view and edit in the Part Automation
Lane. By default, Velocity, Modulation, Pitch Bend, and Aftertouch (Pressure) are available.
To add a new automation envelope to the Part Automation lane, select Add/Remove from the
list to open the Automation menu. This menu is identical to the Automation menu mentioned
in the Automation Envelopes on the Track section of this chapter.
Alternatively, you can edit the parameter of the desired instrument, then click on the hand
icon in the top left parameter window and drag the parameter to the Music Editor to add a
Part Automation envelope for that parameter to the Instrument Part.
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The parameters that you can add to the Part Automation lane are based on the virtual
instrument to which the Instrument Track that contains the selected Instrument Part is
connected. Only those parameters for which an automation envelope does not already exist
will be available.
Editing Part-automation envelopes is nearly identical to editing Track-automation envelopes,
as described in the Editing Track Automation Envelopes section of this chapter. The one
exception is that if you press [Alt]/[Option] on the keyboard when using the Paint tool to draw
an automation envelope, you can draw straight lines of any length, which will only use two
envelope points.
It is possible to view and edit two different parameters in separate Part Automation lanes.
Click on the two Part Automation Envelope buttons to the bottom left of the Part Automation
lane to show/hide the two Part Automation lanes. Any written Part automation will be read,
regardless of whether it is currently being viewed in either Part Automation lane.
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11
Control Link
Studio One features Control Link, a cutting-edge system for integrating external hardware
controllers with your virtual instruments, effects, and other software parameters. The
following chapter describes this system.
11.1
What is Control Link?
In most DAW software, you can use external hardware devices to control software parameters.
For instance, you could map several knobs on a hardware MIDI controller to the software
knobs of an EQ effect, so that when the hardware knobs are turned, the software knobs will
turn. However, in most cases the implementation is limited and difficult to learn.
Studio One has revolutionized hardware and software control integration with the Control
Link system. This system requires no knowledge of MIDI, and it eliminates the complex MIDImapping systems used in other DAW software. Control Link is also capable of contextsensitive mapping, so the same hardware controls can control many different things based on
the current context in Studio One.
The following sections describe how to use the Control Link system.
11.2
Set Up Your External Devices
To use any external hardware device with Studio One, the device must first be set up so that
Studio One recognizes it. Once an external device is set up, it will be available for use in any
Song. To set up an external hardware controller, refer to the information in the Set Up Your
MIDI Devices section of the “Setup” chapter.
11.3
Map Your Keyboard
For the Control Link system to work with your Keyboard, a software map must be made of the
hardware controls you wish to use. This simple process works as follows:
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Open the Mix view by pressing [F3] on the computer keyboard, and open the External
panel by clicking on External in the Console navigation column to the far left of the
Console.
•
Double-click on the desired device in the External panel to open the Device Control
Map.
•
In the upper left corner of the Device Control Map window, click on the MIDI Learn
button to enter MIDI Learn mode.
•
With MIDI Learn enabled, simply move any hardware control to map it. As controls are
mapped, you will see the default Knob object created for that control, which will move
in correspondence with its related hardware control.
•
When editing the control map for a Keyboard device (MIDI Learn enabled), you can
select Transmit Value from the contextual menu for each control. This option will send
parameter updates for a given hardware control out of the Keyboard device's MIDI Out
port when the software parameter to which the control is linked changes. This makes
it possible for user-created Keyboard devices that have soft controls (endless rotary
encoders with LED indicators, motorized faders, etc.) to reflect the correct current state
of any parameter that is being controlled. (This option is also available for Control
Surfaces.)
•
When you have mapped all of the desired controls, click on the MIDI Learn button to
exit MIDI Learn mode.
Now that the hardware controls for your Keyboard have been mapped, they can be used to
control almost any software parameter, as discussed in Control Linking below.
Keyboard control maps are global in Studio One and are used across every Song, so you will
only need to map your Keyboard once.
When using predefined devices from the Keyboards menu, it is not possible to map new
controls for the device. You must follow the instructions in the Add Device window (for
example, select a certain preset).
11.3.1 Controller Map Object Types
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The default Knob object is used when hardware controls are mapped for the first time. This
object can be changed for each control to better reflect the actual hardware control type,
making your mapped controls much easier to recognize. To change the object for any
mapped control, do the following:
1. Click on MIDI Learn to enter MIDI Learn mode.
2. In MIDI Learn mode, you will see a description box beneath each control, with an
arrow in the upper left corner.
3. Click on the arrow to expose the Object Selection list, where you can choose a Knob,
Fader, Button (On/Off), or Button (Press/Release).
4. Choose one of the object types and notice the graphic change for that control.
5. When you are finished changing the control objects, click on the MIDI Learn button to
exit MIDI Learn mode.
Note that there is a functional difference between the two button object types. Some
hardware controllers send MIDI messages to Studio One when a button is pressed or released,
and some send messages when the button state is toggled between on and off. You must
know how the buttons on your controller behave in order to select the correct button-object
type. Use the MIDI Monitor to view this behavior directly.
To use the MIDI Monitor, choose MIDI Monitor from the View file menu. The MIDI Monitor will
be displayed and will list all incoming MIDI messages sent to Studio One. Press the buttons in
question to view their behavior so you can choose the correct map-object type.
It is highly recommended that the control objects be made to look similar to the controls they
represent, using the map-object types, as this will help make the relationship of the software
object to the related hardware control easier to recognize.
11.4
Control Linking
With a Keyboard set up, and its control map created, you are one click away from controlling
almost any software parameter using Control Link. The following describes the various ways to
use Control Link.
11.4.1 Parameter Windows
To the far left of the Arrange view toolbar in the Song window, you will notice two windows
separated by a button. The windows are empty by default. The left window displays the name,
value, and other related information regarding the last-changed software parameter; the right
window displays the MIDI name and value of the last-changed, mapped hardware control.
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You also can open Parameter windows in each plug-in window. To do this, click on the Edit
Mapping button at the top of the plug-in window.
11.4.2 Link a Hardware Control to a Software Control
The fastest way to link a hardware and software control is:
1. Manipulate the desired software control with the mouse.
2. Manipulate the desired hardware control; for instance, turn a knob. That control
should appear in the right parameter window.
3. Click on the Link button in the middle of the two parameter windows, or press
[Alt]/[Option]+[M] on the keyboard, and the button should light up.
4. Your hardware control is now linked to the software control; manipulating the
hardware control will manipulate the linked software control.
A second way to link hardware and software controls is:
1. Open the control map for the desired Keyboard by double-clicking on it in the External
panel of the Console.
2. Manipulate the desired software control with the mouse.
3. Click on the Hand icon in the left parameter window and drag it over the desired
hardware control in the control map, then release the mouse button.
4. Your hardware control is now linked to the software control; manipulating the
hardware control will manipulate the linked software control.
Finally, you can [Right]/[Control]-click on any knob or fader in the Console, or in a plug-in
editor, to link a hardware control to a software control. To accomplish this, do the following:
1. Manipulate the desired hardware control; for instance, turn a knob. That control
should appear in the right parameter window.
2. [Right]/[Control]-click on the desired software parameter and choose “Assign X to Y,”
where X is the software parameter and Y is the hardware control you just manipulated.
3. Your hardware control is now linked to the software control; manipulating the
hardware control will manipulate the linked software control.
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11.5
Global and Focus Mapping
There are two modes for mapping hardware and software controls: Global and Focus mode.
11.5.1 Global Mapping
With Global mapping, hardware and software controls maintain a one-to-one relationship,
where a single hardware control is linked directly to a single software control. Some controls,
such as Track fader, pan, and mute, can only be mapped globally. To map a plug-in control
globally, be sure Focus is disengaged in the plug-in window by clicking on the Focus button
for the Keyboard you are using, so that it is no longer highlighted.
11.5.2 Focus Mapping
While only one software control can be manipulated at a time by a single hardware control, a
hardware control can be linked to any number of software controls, based on context, using
Focus mapping. For instance, a single hardware knob could control the release of a Gate plugin, or the Gain of a distortion plug-in, or any number of other parameters, depending on which
plug-in is in Focus.
The process of Focus mapping is identical to Global mapping, with one critical difference. To
see this difference, open the interface for any virtual instrument or effect. By default, all virtual
instruments and effects open in Focus mode, and the Focus button in the plug-in window’s
toolbar is highlighted. The Focus button will display the name of the related Keyboard.
Only one plug-in window can be in Focus at any time. Click on the Focus button to enable
Focus in any open plug-in window.
When a parameter has been mapped in Focus, the link icon used in the parameter window is
different from the icon used when a parameter is mapped globally.
Control maps only apply to the plug-in window that is in Focus. For instance, a hardware knob
might be linked to a software knob in an EQ plug-in that is in Focus. When another plug-in is
brought into Focus, the hardware knob will no longer affect the software knob in the EQ, and
it is possible to link this hardware knob to a different control for the plug-in that is in Focus.
In this way, Focus mapping allows different control maps to be made for each plug-in, using
the same hardware controls for each. Each Focus map is stored with the plug-in, making it
usable in any Song. Thus, you can make Focus maps for each of your favorite plug-ins and
never worry about them again. In practice, this means that your external hardware always
controls the plug-in that is currently in Focus.
Certain parameters cannot be Focus-mapped, including Track controls such as fader, pan, and
mute.
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11.5.3 Control Link with External Instruments
Using the Control Link system, it is possible to control your MIDI-capable external hardware
instrument just like a software instrument. The first step in this process is to add your
hardware instrument as an external device, as discussed in the Set Up Your MIDI Devices
section of the “Setup” chapter. Once you have the device set up, create a new Song and open
the External panel of the Console.
Double-click on your External Instrument in the External panel to open the control map for the
Instrument. If you created a new Instrument (that is, you are not using a predefined device), all
possible Continuous Controller commands (MIDI CCs) are active and are represented by knobs
in the control map. If you are using a predefined map, only relevant controls will appear. Also,
notice the MIDI-channel selector above the control map. Only MIDI channels you enabled for
the Instrument will be selectable.
When working with a new Instrument, you will want to customize its control map to include
only the relevant controls with the appropriate parameter names. To customize the control
map, click on the Wrench icon, which opens the control list. As mentioned, all Continuous
Controllers are enabled by default, and they are labeled by their common uses. To add or
remove any CC from the list, click its corresponding check box. To edit the title of the CC, click
on the title and enter a new one.
Related controls can be grouped together in the control map by placing them in the same
folder in the control-map list. Click in the Folder field of any control in the control list and type
a folder name to group that control with other controls that have the same folder name.
Once you have finished editing the control map for the Instrument, using the mouse to move
any knob in the control map should adjust the linked parameter on the hardware Instrument.
The parameter shows up in the left Parameter window, just like any virtual software
instrument parameter. This means the same Control Link functions described previously in this
chapter for virtual software instruments are now available for controlling (and even
automating) your hardware Instrument.
11.5.4 Using Multiple External Devices
Any number of External Devices can be used simultaneously. As long as the device has a
control map with some learned controls, it can be used with the Control Link system. In each
plug-in window, you will notice mapping controls to the right of the preset and automation
controls. Only the External Device displayed in the Focus button can be used to Focus-map
controls. If the External Device you are using is not displayed there, the mapping will be
Global.
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To choose a different device with which to Focus-map a plug-in’s controls, click on the downarrow menu button and choose the External Device you wish to use.
11.6
Automation with Hardware Controllers
As mentioned earlier in the Editing Track Automation Envelopes section of the “Automation”
chapter, external hardware controllers can be used to edit automation. When an external
hardware controller has been mapped, and controls are linked to various parameters using
Control Link, hardware-controller movements, and therefore the movements of the software
parameters they control, can be recorded in automation.
Combining Studio One’s automation system with Control Link delivers a powerful integrated
hardware-and software-automation platform. The following describes how these systems are
used together.
11.6.1 Hardware Controller Capabilities
You need to understand the capabilities of your hardware controllers. For instance, some
controllers offer touch-sensitive faders and knobs, and others do not. Some controllers have
endless rotary encoders, and others have fixed-position knobs. These capabilities affect how
the hardware controllers will integrate with the automation and Control Link systems.
11.6.2 Touch Sensitivity
Various automation modes are discussed in the Automation Modes section of the
“Automation” chapter. These modes directly relate to the specific capability of your hardware
controllers. Touch automation mode is most effective if the hardware control is touchsensitive. However, you can use Touch automation with hardware controls that are not touchsensitive.
11.6.3 Endless Rotary Encoders and Fixed-Position Knobs
The type of controls offered with hardware controllers varies widely. Many controllers offer
knobs called “endless rotary encoders.” These encoders can be rotated continuously in both
directions. They increment and decrement values, rather than sending absolute values based
on fixed positions, as with fixed-position knobs. Therefore, you will get different results when
automating an endless rotary encoder versus a fixed-position knob.
For example, if you are using a touch-sensitive, endless rotary encoder to control a software
parameter that has an automation envelope on a track, setting the track to the Touch
automation mode will have the following results:
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•
During playback, touching the rotary encoder will begin to write automation until the
encoder is no longer being touched. When the encoder is not being touched, any
existing automation will be read.
•
If automation is being read during playback, and then the rotary encoder is turned,
automation will begin to be written by incrementing/decrementing from the current
automation position. In this way, the new automation effectively picks up from the
existing automation.
If you do the same thing with a touch-sensitive, fixed-position knob, the following will result:
•
During playback, touching the knob will begin to write automation until the control is
no longer being touched. When the control is not being touched, any written
automation will be read.
•
If automation is being read during playback, and then the knob is turned, automation
will begin to be written at whatever the current value of the knob is, based on its
absolute position. The new automation being written will not pick up from the existing
automation.
11.6.4 Writing Track Automation
There are three track-automation modes in which automation can be written using external
controls: Write, Touch, and Latch. It is recommended you be familiar with these modes, as
described in the Automation Modes section of the “Automation” chapter.
To write Track automation using an external control, first link a control to a software
parameter, as described in the Control Linking section of this chapter. Then show automation
by pressing [A] on the keyboard, add an automation envelope to a track for the desired
parameter, and enable Touch, Latch, or Write mode. Finally, start playback and manipulate the
hardware control to write the desired automation.
Automation can be written using hardware controls only during playback.
When overwriting existing automation, the three automation modes give different results.
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•
Touch mode allows automation to be read until a touch-sensitive control is
manipulated; automation will be read again when the control is no longer being
manipulated.
•
Latch mode results in automation being read until a control, touch-sensitive or not, is
manipulated, after which automation is written until playback is stopped.
•
When in Write mode, no existing automation is read, and automation is written for the
duration of playback.
Track automation cannot be written using an external control if Read or Off mode is selected
on the track.
11.6.5 Writing Instrument Part Automation
Using external controls with Part automation is similar to using them with Track automation,
except that there are no automation modes. Existing Part automation is read and can be
overwritten, and new automation can be written at all times while recording to a Part, as
explained in the Recording Part Automation section of the “Automation” chapter. Part
automation is an integral part of the Instrument Part and therefore is accessible at all times.
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12
Mastering
Mastering is the process of preparing and transferring the final mix to a master copy from
which all distribution copies will be made. In the mastering process, the source material is
usually processed using equalization, compression, and so on. Editing, level adjustments,
fades, noise reduction, and other signal restoration and enhancement may also be done
during mastering. Individual Songs are put into their final order at this stage, a process
commonly called “assembly” or “track sequencing.” The mastered material is then ready for
CD/DVD replication, vinyl pressing, Web distribution, etc.
Studio One Professional features the Project page, a complete mastering solution that is
integrated into Studio One. Before Studio One, users had to rely on at least two separate
applications—one for multitrack audio production and the other for mastering—to complete
their audio production. This can be very inefficient.
The Studio One Professional Project page redefines this process into one that is smart, simple,
and efficient. In the Project page, your Songs can be mastered and arranged on a single
timeline and then published to many professional formats. The following chapter describes
the mastering process, Project workflow, and how Songs and Projects are integrated to
provide a total solution not available in any other DAW.
Many of the capabilities of the Song page are available in the Project page, such as Control
Link. As such, you should become familiar with the Song page. The following describes in
detail only the workflow specific to the Project page.
12.1
Creating a New Project
To create a new mastering Project, do one of the following.
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•
Select Create a New Project from the Start page.
•
Navigate to File/New Project.
•
Press [Ctrl]/[Cmd]+[Shift]+[N] on the keyboard.
•
From the Song page, click on the Project quick-access button if no Project is currently
open.
12.1.1 Project Setup
In the New Project menu, you can specify a Project Title and save a location, as well the Project
sample rate. Click on OK to create the New Project.
12.2
Adding Tracks
The first step in the mastering process is to place the desired source material into a Project.
12.2.1 The Browser
Just as on the Song page, the Project page has an integrated Browser, allowing you to browse
for audio effects and files to add to your mastering Project. Press [F5] on the keyboard, or click
on Browse in the lower right hand corner of the Project page interface, to open the Browser.
12.2.2 Add a Song
Any Song created in Studio One Professional can be added directly to a Project by importing
the Song file into the Project. There is no need to create a mixdown of the Song first, as this
process is automated.
By default, your Song files are contained in the Content/Songs folder of the File Browser, with
each Song file contained in its own Song folder. To add a Song to your Project, browse to the
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desired Song in the File Browser and then click-and-drag the Song file to the Track column or
Track Lane.
Adding the Song to your Project will place it in the Track column. If no master file exists for the
Song, you will be asked if you would like to create a mix of the current state of the Song, which
can then be rendered and added to the Track Lane.
When Studio One renders a mix of the Song you added, the length the of the mix is
determined by the Song Start and End markers, as seen in the Marker Track of the Arrange
view. Be sure these markers are set to the desired locations in the Song.
12.2.3 Add an Audio File
Of course, any Wave, Ogg Vorbis, AIFF, REX, or MP3 audio file can also be added to the Project
by dragging it into the Project from the Browser, just as you would with a Song. Imported MP3
files are converted to Wave format using the sample rate of the current Project.
12.2.4 Track Column
All Songs and audio files in your Project will be listed vertically in the Track column, with the
name of the Song or audio file clearly displayed.
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12.2.5 Meta-Information
At the top of the Track column, you will notice three meta-information fields, including Disc,
Artist, and Length. The Length field is updated automatically based on the total length of your
Project. To edit the Disc and Artist fields, click in the space next to the field, type your text, and
then press Enter.
Beneath the file-type icon for each Track in the Track Column, you will notice a Down Arrow
button. Click on this button to reveal all other meta-information fields. These fields may be
edited on a track-by-track basis, or multiple Tracks may be selected and their fields edited
simultaneously.
Meta-information is used when publishing your Project
to any medium. You should fill in this information so
your production is accurately labeled when published
and distributed to your adoring fans. When selecting
artwork, the image size is limited to 512x512 pixels, and
can be automatically scaled to fit.
Meta-information that has been filled in for any Song
will automatically be imported to any mastering Project
that includes the Song.
12.2.6 Pause
It is common for the tracks on audio CDs to be separated by a brief pause. By default, any
Track added to the Project will have a Pause setting of two seconds, as per the Red Book
standard. In practice, this means that two seconds of silence will be appended to the
beginning of the Track, so that although the Track begins immediately after the end of the
previous Track, there will be a brief pause in playback in between.
The Pause setting can be set to any amount of time up to 10 seconds, as per the Red Book
Audio CD standard. The timing between Tracks is an important creative part of the mastering
process and often differs between Projects. To change the Pause setting, click in the Pause
field for a Track in the Track Column and type in a value or click-and-drag the audio events in
the Timeline.
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12.3
Track Sequencing
To sequence the Tracks in your Projects, simply click on the file-type icon for any Track and
drag the Track above or below the other Tracks in the Track column.
Notice that the Tracks are automatically relocated in the Timeline of the Track Lane, with all
other Track sequencing still intact, including Track pauses. Most standalone mastering
applications don’t offer this feature.
12.3.1 Track Lane and Timeline
The Track Lane is where your Tracks are represented as Audio Events. You will notice that the
Tracks are staggered in the Track Lane, alternating between an upper and lower position
across the Timeline. This allows two adjacent Tracks to overlap. By default, the Tracks will be
separated by an amount of time dependent on the Pause setting for each Track.
To move any Track manually across the Timeline, click-and-drag the Track left or right. Notice
that the sequencing of all other Tracks in the Project is maintained when any Track is moved
across the Timeline.
12.4
Editing Tracks
12.4.1 Sizing Tracks
Tracks in the Track Lane can be sized with the Arrow tool, as described in the Size an Event
section of the “Editing” chapter. The relative sequencing of all other Tracks in the Project is
maintained when any Track is sized. Note that a Track cannot be sized to less than 10 seconds
in length, per the Red Book CD standard.
12.4.2 Volume Envelope Editing
Each Track in the Track Lane features a volume envelope, which can be edited like the volume
envelopes of Audio Events, as described in the Adjust Audio Event Volume Envelopes section
of the “Editing” chapter. A volume envelope lets you create fade-ins and fade-outs.
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12.4.3 Crossfading Overlapping Tracks
When a Track is manually moved across the Timeline so that it overlaps in time with another
Track, it is possible to crossfade the two Tracks so that one will fade out as the other fades in.
To crossfade overlapping Tracks, select the two tracks and press [X] on the keyboard. A linear
crossfade will be drawn that can be edited by clicking-and-dragging on each Track’s fade
handle.
Any Track that begins after another Track in time will normally be the beginning of a new
Track on a CD or other medium, with the starting position serving as the beginning of the
Track, regardless of the timing of crossfades.
12.4.4 Splitting Tracks
To split any Track, set the playback cursor where you want the split and press [Alt]+[X] on the
keyboard. The resulting two Tracks can now be edited like any other, including editing metainformation in the Track column. Splitting a track for a Song will not adversely affect the ability
to automatically update that Song's mastering file, so it is possible, for instance, to split a long
live performance into many Tracks in a Project and still edit the related Song normally.
Note it is not possible to split a Track where the resulting two Tracks would not be at least 10
seconds in length, per the Red Book CD standard.
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12.4.5 Enabling and Disabling Tracks
Any Track can be disabled at any time. Disabling a Track will remove the Track from the
Timeline but will keep the Track in the Track column, with the label “This Track is disabled.”
This is helpful if you need to remove a Track from the Project timeline but are unsure of
whether the Track should be removed completely.
To disable any Track, select it in the Track column and choose Disable Track from the Project
file menu. To enable a disabled Track, select it and choose Enable Track from the Project file
menu.
12.4.6 Track Markers
All tracks in a Project automatically have a track marker attached to the beginning of the event
in the Timeline. It is possible to manually insert other Track Markers by floating the mouse
between the Timeline ruler and the Track lanes until the Arrow tool turns into the Marker tool,
then simply clicking where you want to put the Track Marker. Manually inserted Track Markers
are green in color, while automatically placed markers are blue in color. Track Markers can be
moved across the Timeline by clicking-and-dragging left or right.
Note that Track Markers are only used when burning a CD, or exporting an image file or DDP
file. When exporting a digital release, manually placed Track Markers are ignored, and separate
files are only rendered for actual Tracks, as listed in the Track column.
12.5
Using Insert Effects
Insert effects can be used in the Project page in much the same way as on the Song page. Each
Track has a dedicated Device Rack, and there is also a Master Device Rack. Inserts are handled
in the Project page as described in the Configuring Inserts section of the “Mix” chapter,
including the ability to use FX Chains and the built-in effects Micro Views.
12.5.1 Track Device Rack
Inserts in the Track Device Rack can be used to process each Track individually. The most
common use is to achieve a balance with other Tracks in the mastering Project, so that any
Master Device Rack processing will affect each Track in a similar way. For instance, each Track
will probably require individual equalization. A Track fader is available in the Track Device Rack
to fine-tune the output level of each track, and an Insert Device Rack Activate All button
enables you to quickly A/B any processing.
At the top of the Track Device Rack, a Loudness Information dropdown menu is available, in
which you can detect Loudness for the Track. Dynamic Range, R128 Loudness, and left and
right channel peaks, RMS, and DC levels are measured and displayed here. This information
can help when making level balance decisions from Track to Track across the Project.
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12.5.2 Copy A Track’s Effects to Another Track
To quickly copy any effect from one Track’s Device Rack to another, simply click-and-drag the
effect from the Device Rack onto another Track in the Track column.
You can also save the entire Device Rack as a single preset, called an FX Chain, by clicking on
the arrow next to “Inserts” at the top of the Device Rack and selecting Store Preset. Then locate
the FX Chain in the Browser under Audio Effects and drag it onto any Track in your Project.
12.5.3 Using Hardware Inserts in a Project
As fully discussed in section 13.11 of this manual, you can use hardware inserts by means of
the Pipeline plug-in in Studio One Professional. When using Pipeline, you may need to access
the audio I/O setup for your Project (found in the Project/Project Setup/Audio IO Setup menu)
in order to configure the inputs and outputs your hardware insert will use.
Note that when Pipeline is inserted anywhere in a Project, it will no longer be possible to
render audio exports offline for CD burning, disc-image creation, or digital-release creation.
Real-time processing will be used, as this is required to incorporate your hardware insert into
the audio export.
12.6
Master Device Rack
Inserts in the Master Device Rack affect every Track in the mastering Project. Peak limiting,
multiband dynamics processing, and other similar processes are commonly used in the Master
Device Rack to finely adjust the overall sound of the Project. Generally, a certain amount of
balance and equalization between all Tracks in the mastering Project should be achieved
before applying Master Device Rack processing.
Pre- and post-fader Insert Racks are provided, each with Activate All buttons, for ultimate
flexibility in adding and auditioning any processing. If you plan to use a third-party plug-in to
provide dithering, place the insert post-fader and be sure to disable the Use Dithering for
Audio Devices and File Export option in the Studio One/Options/Advanced/Audio menu. Note
that by default, Studio One only dithers when necessary (e.g., for reducing bit depth within a
device or during file export) and always uses triangular-type dither with no noise-shaping.
A Master Channel output fader is available to dial in the master output level of your Project,
and you can select the output for your audio device (audio interface). Note that this directly
affects the output level of your Project for all export mediums. All of the output pairs provided
on your audio interface can be accessed by clicking on the currently displayed audio output.
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12.7
Metering
High-quality metering is critical during the mastering process. The Project page offers three
types of meters, each visible at all times, to help you make creative and technical decisions
while processing your material.
12.7.1 Spectrum Meter
The Spectrum Meter is a flexible audio-spectrum meter that offers octave, 1/3-octave, and FFT
displays. The Spectrum Meter displays standard peak levels and can be adjusted to display
Peak Hold levels for Short, Medium, and Long time intervals, as well as average (RMS) levels
within Fast, Medium, and Slow time intervals.
When using the FFT display, a -3 dB/octave line is displayed in addition to the frequency and
level crosshair. This line represents compensation for the shrinking frequency-width of the FFT
bands towards the higher end of the spectrum, which leads to a lower energy content. A wellbalanced mix should somewhat approximate the slope of this line.
12.7.2 Level Meter
The Level Meter is located directly beneath the Spectrum Display and is capable of displaying
high-resolution peak/RMS levels, as well as the three K-System scales described in the KSystem Metering section of the “Mixing” chapter.
Nowhere is it more important to accurately meter levels than at the mastering stage of
production. It is critical to be sure that the levels across all tracks are as consistent as desired
and that the signals are never clipped. When any amount of clipping occurs in your Project, a
red clip indicator will illuminate at the top of the Spectrum Meter display, which can only be
cleared by clicking on the indicator.
12.7.3 Phase Meter
The Phase Meter, located to the right of the Level Meter, is helpful when checking stereo
playback issues and mono compatibility. There are two components to this meter: a
Goniometer at the center of the plug-in window and a Correlation Meter at the very bottom.
The Goniometer displays left- versus right-channel amplitude on an X/Y oscilloscope. A
vertical line in the Goniometer represents a mono signal. The horizontal Correlation Meter
compares the amount of in-phase and out-of-phase audio signal in the left and right channels.
The parameters of the Correlation Meter range from +1 (mono signal) to -1 (reversed-phase
mono signal), with 0 indicating the presence of totally independent signals (true stereo).
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12.8
Publishing Your Project
When your Project has been mastered, the next step is to publish it. The Project page offers
many options, categorized into three main operations, including burning an audio CD, making
a disc-image file, and making audio files.
12.8.1 Burn an Audio CD
You can burn your mastered Project to a standard Red Book audio CD directly from the Project
page. Red Book is the most widely adopted technical standard for audio CDs, and it includes
specifications for minimum and maximum track durations, maximum number of tracks, and
how audio is encoded to the CD. Because the Project page adheres to this standard, you can
be sure your audio CDs will be compatible with almost any CD player.
To burn your Project to an audio CD, click on the Burn CD button at the top of the Project
page. In the Burn CD menu, you can select the device you will use to burn the CD, as well as
the speed of the burning process. In general, using slower speeds in the burning process
reduces the chance for errors.
12.8.2 Burn Options
Several options in the Burn CD menu are intended to prevent common CD-burning errors:
Test Write, Use Burnproof, and Use Temporary Imagefile. These options usually increase the
time it takes to burn a CD in the Project page but they help to prevent wasting time and blank
CDs on failed attempts.
The Test Write option will run tests before attempting to burn the CD in order to be sure the
necessary computer resources are available.
Burnproof is a technology capable of preventing buffer under-run errors with some CD
burners, in which the CD-writing process is interrupted, and the CD writer is forced to stop
burning the CD before it is finished.
The Use Temporary Imagefile option will change the burn process so that an image of the CD
to be burned is created before attempting to burn the CD. This helps to eliminate potential
problems related to data not being made available fast enough while writing to the CD.
12.8.3 Make a Disc Image
Publishing your project might require a disc-image file. For instance, sending your Project to a
professional CD duplicator might require digital transmission of the content of your CD, rather
than sending a potentially imperfect physical copy. Also, you may wish to use a different
application to burn your CDs, in which case you need an image file. There are many file
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formats for disc images, some better suited to audio-CD creation than others. Studio One uses
a continuous audio Wave file and a cue file to achieve the most universal support.
To create an image of your Project, click on the Make Image button at the top of the Project
page. This will create a cue file and a single, continuous Wave file of your entire Project and
will place them in your Project folder. The cue file contains all of the necessary information to
create the separate audio tracks for your CD by referencing the continuous Wave file. Many
third-party CD-burning applications can create a CD using the Wave and cue files together.
12.8.4 DDP Export
DDP images are quickly becoming the standard method of getting a disc image from
mastering to disc manufacturing. The DDP image contains all the contents of your master disc,
plus formatting information that ensures your replicas will exactly match your master. To
create a DDP image of your Project, click on the DDP button at the top of the Project page.
All of the DDP image data will be exported to a single folder with the name of the Project
appended with "DDP." This folder can be delivered to a duplicator.
12.8.5 Digital Release
It is possible to publish your Project to a single folder containing all Tracks in your Project,
properly tagged with the appropriate meta-information. A common use for this would be to
quickly create an MP3 album in one folder and then upload it to a Web site or online retailer
for distribution. This process is similar to creating a mix on the Song page, as described in the
Create a Mix section of the “Mix” chapter.
Click on the Release button at the top of the Project page to open the Digital Release menu. In
this menu, you can choose whether you want to create WAV, AIFF, Ogg Vorbis, or MP3 files,
and where you wish to store the files. You can also choose a sample rate and a resolution (bit
rate), depending on the format.
The folder to which all new files are written will be named according to the Disk field in the
Project meta-information at the top of the Track Column. The name of each Track in the Track
column is used for the name of the new files created. In the Options section of this menu, you
can include Track numbers and the artist name in the name of each new file to be created in
the album. All other meta-information supplied for each Track will be used to tag the new files
appropriately.
You can also do a real-time mixdown for the digital release.
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12.8.6 SoundCloud Integration (Studio One Professional)
PreSonus has partnered with the popular SoundCloud Web service to make it possible for you
to upload your music to SoundCloud from within Studio One. This integration is the first of its
kind.
12.8.6.1 Connect with SoundCloud
To publish your music to SoundCloud, you will first need a SoundCloud account. Visit
http://www.soundcloud.com to create your free account. Then, go to the Studio
One/SoundCloud Client menu and click on Connect with SoundCloud. Assuming your
computer is connected to the Internet, which obviously is required for this feature, log into
your PreSonus user account; then your Web browser will open to a special page to allow
Studio One to connect with your SoundCloud account. Log in to your SoundCloud account on
this page, click on Allow Access, and then copy the verification code.
Then, in Studio One, paste the verification code into the pop-up menu and click Authorize.
Studio One is now connected to your SoundCloud account.
12.8.6.2 Upload to SoundCloud
Once Studio One is connected to SoundCloud, you can upload music from your Project to
SoundCloud directly from Studio One. To do this, create a digital release from any Project and
choose Upload to SoundCloud in the options, or open the Studio One/SoundCloud Client
menu.
If creating a digital release, the Tracks from the digital release will be added to the SoundCloud
Client menu automatically, with the appropriate meta-information already filled in. If
accessing the client directly, click on Add Tracks to add any audio file to the menu.
SoundCloud supports the upload of any audio file from Studio One, at any resolution, and at
any file size. Any number of Tracks can be uploaded at once, added from a digital release or
manually.
After adding your Tracks, select any Track in the
list to edit its information in Track Info and More
Info. If you want the Track to be available
publically, meaning any SoundCloud user can see
it, select this option under Track Info. If you want
the uploaded file for Track to be downloadable or
streamable, select the corresponding option
under More Info.
When finished editing all Track information, click
on Upload to upload the Tracks to SoundCloud.
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The progress of the upload will be displayed under State, next to the Track listing, as a
percentage. The Tracks will appear in your SoundCloud account once the upload has
completed.
12.9
Song and Project Integration
At the center of Studio One Professional’s design is Song and Project integration. This is where
the usual gaps between mixing and mastering have finally been eliminated. When Songs are
placed in a Project, a link is established that allows the Song and Project to be intelligently
aware of each other so that changes to either are known to both. This integration, as described
in the following sections, is sure to change the way you think about mixing and mastering.
12.9.1 Open a Song from Within a Project
During mastering, changes are often needed in various Tracks in a Project, after which
changes to the mix are made. Traditionally, this process can be grossly inefficient, taking many
hours, if not days or weeks.
In Studio One, however, you can quickly make changes to the mix of a Song in your Project. To
open a Song in your Project, click on the Edit button in any Track in the Track column. Your
Song will open on the Song page, where you can make your changes. When finished, save and
close the Song.
When you go back to the Project page, or open the Project in the future, you will be prompted
with a message informing you that the master file is no longer current for the Song to which
you just made changes, and you will be given the opportunity to update the master file. The
Automatic Update of Mastering Files section below explains this option.
12.9.2 Automatic Update of Mastering Files
Of the most common questions that arise when mastering is also one of the most timeconsuming: “Are these mixes the most current versions?” Often, changes are made to
multitrack mixes in response to problems found during mastering. When these changes are
made, new mixes have to be created and reinserted into the mastering project.
There can be many rounds of changes for each track, resulting in a potentially confusing
situation in which it is hard to tell which mix is which, and which is the final version that
should be in the mastering project. When the right mix file is finally found, the old mix is
removed, and the new mix is added back into the project, usually requiring resequencing the
tracks in the project.
Studio One Professional solves this problem with automatic updating of mastering files for any
Song in a Project. When you change any Song included in a Project, and then open the Project,
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you will be asked if you would like to update that Song’s mastering file. If you choose to do so,
the following will happen:
•
The Song will be automatically opened in its last saved state.
•
A mixdown of the Song will be rendered.
•
The new mix file will replace the old one in the Project.
•
The Song will be automatically closed.
•
A report will be displayed in the Project indicating which files were updated and how
long the entire process took.
Note that when Songs are automatically updated, and a new mix is rendered, the length of the
mix is determined by the Song Start and End markers, as seen in the Marker Track of the
Arrange view. Be sure that these markers are set to the desired locations in the Song. If an
update of a Song fails, check the Song for missing files and plug-in effects and then try the
update again.
Any number of mastering files can be updated in a single process. This way, every time you
open a Project, you can be sure you have the latest mix of each Song.
When a mastering file in a Project is not up to date, a red light will appear to the left of the
track name in the Track column, as well as in the lower left corner of the track in the Track
Lane. You can choose to manually update any of these files by [Right]/[Control]-clicking on the
Track and selecting Update Mastering File. When the file is up to date, a green light will
appear.
You can also update every mastering file in the Project at once by clicking on the Update
button at the top of the Project page. Any files that need to be updated because saved
changes have occurred to the Songs will be updated in the same process described earlier.
12.9.3 Add Currently Open Song to a Project
To add a Song you are currently working on to a new or open Project, select Add to Project
from the Song file menu. Select any open Project from the list or select New Project. This will
add the Song file to the desired Project and will automatically render a mixdown that will be
placed in the Project timeline.
12.9.4 Update a Mastering File from the Song Page
To update a mastering file for the currently open Song from within the Song page, select
Update Mastering File from the Song file menu. This will update the mastering file for the
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Song, which can exist in any number of Projects. The next time any Project that contains the
Song is opened, the new mastering file will appear automatically for that Song.
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13
Built-In Effects
Studio One features a number of high-quality, 64-bit, built-in audio effects and virtual
instruments. The following chapter describes each audio effect in detail. Virtual instruments
will be covered in a separate chapter.
13.1
Built-in Effect Micro Views
All of the built-in effects feature Micro Views, which are small, expandable control panels
within the Insert Device Rack that allow control over the critical parameters of each effect.
Using the Micro View in the Insert Device Rack will often prevent having to open the entire
effect interface, and it also allows easy monitoring of compression, gating, and other effects.
Try the built-in effects Micro Views in both the small and large Console views.
To expand the Micro View for any built-in effect, open the
Console and click once on the effect in the Insert Device Rack.
The Micro View will expand downward, revealing certain
parameters of the effect. Not all parameters of each effect are
available in the Micro View, only those you are likely to change
frequently.
In the large Console view, notice the arrows at the very top and
bottom of the Insert Device Rack. Click on these arrows to scroll
up and down in the Insert Device Rack to view any number of
open Micro Views. To collapse any Micro View, click once on the
effect name at the top of the Micro View.
13.2
Built-in Effect Metering Options
Some of the built-in effects that feature Peak/RMS meters can optionally use K-System
metering, as discussed in the “Mixing” chapter. To view and select a K-System metering
option, [Right]/[Control]-click on the Peak/RMS meter of the effect.
Visually keeping track of various elements of audio playback while mixing and mastering can
be very helpful when making critical production decisions. The following audio effects are
excellent tools for visually monitoring your audio.
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13.3
Metering, Analysis, and Signal Generation
13.3.1 Phase Meter
The Phase meter is helpful when checking stereo-playback issues and mono compatibility.
There are two components to this meter: a large goniometer at the center of the plug-in
window and a correlation meter at the very bottom.
The goniometer displays left versus right channel amplitude on several axes. A line in the
following directions of the Goniometer display would mean:
•
M-Axis. Mono signal
•
+/-S Axis. Mono with one channel totally out-of-phase
•
L/R Axes. Mono on one channel (left or right)
•
M/S Axes. Channels in a Mid-Side (MS) encoded or recorded signal
The correlation meter shows the average amount of in-phase and out-of-phase audio signal.
Correlation meter parameters are:
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•
+1. Mono signal
•
-1. Reversed-phase mono signal
•
0. Independent signals (true stereo or dual mono)
13.3.2 Spectrum Meter
The Spectrum meter is helpful when determining the frequency content of an audio signal.
For instance, you might know that a drum loop needs some EQ, but you might not be sure
what frequencies to bring up or down. Or there might be an annoying ring in a guitar part that
you want to get rid of but you do not know the frequency of the ring. The Spectrum meter will
help diagnose these problems and many others.
The Spectrum meter is fully adjustable using the following parameters at the bottom of the
plug-in window:
Channels
•
When the Spectrum Meter is inserted on a stereo track, you can choose from the
following channels to be analyzed in the meter:
o
L. Left channel only
o
R. Right channel only
o
L+R. Sum of left and right channels
o
L-R. Difference between left and right channels
Analysis
•
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Oct-Band. Octave Band displays frequency content divided into octaves, useful for
determining broad balance across the frequency spectrum.
•
3rd-Oct-Band. Third-Octave Band displays frequency content divided into 1/3 of an
octave, useful for determining balance with good precision across the frequency
spectrum.
•
FFT. A Fast Fourier Transform, or FFT, displays frequency content divided into many
bands. It’s useful for accurate metering of a specific range of the frequency spectrum.
o
When FFT is selected, you can select the FFT window size (FFT size = time vs.
frequency resolution). You can choose from 16,384; 8,192; 4,096; and 2,048. The
default setting is 16,384.
o
As FFT measurements are divided into bands, exact frequencies across the entire
spectrum are not measured.
o
When using the FFT display, a -3 dB/octave line is displayed in addition to the
frequency and level crosshair. This line represents compensation for the shrinking
frequency-width of the FFT bands toward the higher end of the spectrum, which
leads to a lower energy content. A well-balanced mix should somewhat
approximate the slope of this line.
Level Range
•
Min. Level. Minimum amplitude to be displayed for all frequencies. Variable from -144
dB to 6 dB less than the maximum level.
•
Max. Level. Maximum amplitude to be displayed for all frequencies. Variable from 0
dB to 6 dB more than the minimum level.
Frequency Range
•
Min. Freq. Minimum frequency to be displayed. Variable from 20 Hz to within 10 Hz of
the maximum frequency.
•
Max. Freq. Maximum frequency to be displayed. Variable from 20 kHz to within 10 Hz
of the minimum frequency.
The Min and Max Level/Freq values can be changed by typing in a new value, or by
clicking-and-dragging up or down on the value.
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13.3.3 Tuner
The Tuner proves invaluable when inserted on guitar, bass, and other instruments that require
frequent tuning. The Tuner features a switchable standard/strobe display, with exact
Frequency and Difference readouts in the upper left-and right-hand corners. A Calibration
knob enables calibrating the Tuner to a center frequency from 415 Hz to 465 Hz. Click on the
Strobe Mode button to enable the strobe display, in which the rotation speed is a measure of
the amount you need to tune.
There is a center-note indicator with an arrow to either side. When the left arrow is displayed,
the signal is tuned below the closest note; when the right arrow is displayed, the signal is
tuned above the closest note. When both arrows are displayed, the signal is perfectly tuned.
13.3.4 Level Meter
The Level Meter plug-in is a level meter that can be sized as a horizontal or vertical display
type. The following parameters are available in the Level Meter:
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•
Conf. Choose from Peak/RMS, K-20, K-14, and K-12 modes, and set RMS and Hold
Lengths
•
Show Corr. Engage to display phase correlation.
•
ISM. Enable to display intersample metering.
13.3.5 Scope
The Scope provides the functions an engineer would expect from a digital oscilloscope and is
useful for debugging problems in the studio, such as analyzing crosstalk and noise levels.
There are three signal channels and one math channel. Each channel can either show the left
or right signal of the insert channel, or sidechain input, while the math channel can show the
difference between two of the signal channels. (B and C can be inverted to sum instead, or to
do a polarity flip.)
Each of the channels can be scaled and offset in the y axis, and scaling is shown as percent of
full scale per division. (Full scale is 1.f, equivalent to 0 dB.) All channels can be
activated/deactivated by clicking on the colored channel letter.
The time (x axis) can also be scaled and offset. This setting is for all channels. The units follow
the samples/seconds switch on the left, and offset is shown with a green vertical line.
The scope is triggered from one of the following sources:
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•
Normally. When the signal level on a selected signal channel (not the math channel)
crosses a threshold level (which is adjusted by the Level control) in the right direction
(selected by the Slope button).
•
Transients (selected by the Transients button). This uses the same audio channel,
and the Slope and Level controls still apply, but the transient level is usually much
more narrow: somewhere above 0% and typically around 1.5%.
•
External Signals. Notes sent to the scope MIDI input or not sent at all (free).
Engaging Oneshot means that the next trigger will turn triggering off. Retrig will wait for one
new trigger in case you get the wrong signal or change the signal.
Note that the scope does not clear its buffer on stop, so there may be unwanted signal shown
until another display trigger occurs.
The Hold control adjusts the length of time shown for a trigger signal, and during this period,
no new signal will trigger the scope. This is adjusted in percent of the display width and is also
shown in the selected time unit and as a green vertical line. The display is clipped on a new
trigger.
Finally, there is a crosshair for measuring the signals. It has a tool-tip readout using the units
displayed in relation to the selected channel. Use this for measuring distances/differences for
the selection, where dB levels are rectified signal levels, so you can compare positive and
negative peak levels.
13.3.6 Tone Generator
Tone Generator is capable of generating noise, frequency sweeps, and other signal types
commonly used for signal-path testing and calibration. The Scope would commonly be used
in conjunction with Tone Generator to analyze return signals at the end of the signal path
being tested or calibrated.
The following parameters are available in Tone Generator:
•
•
•
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Waveform. Choose from sine, saw, rectangle, pink noise, and white noise.
o Anti-Alias. The saw and rectangle waveforms have Anti-Aliasing engaged by
default in order to prevent aliasing artifacts from appearing.
Frequency. Set the tone frequency from 1 Hz to 22 kHz.
Modulation.
o Wobble. Engage this to make the tone frequency move from the set
frequency to the modulation Target Frequency, according to the Modulation
settings.
o Log Sweep. Engage to make the frequency sweep logarithmic instead of
linear.
Length. Set the length in time of the sweep from Frequency to Target
Frequency; range is from 10 ms to 59.9s.
o Phase Shift. Set the phase shift that occurs over the Length time, from 0 to
180.
o Target Frequency. The end frequency to which the tone is swept during
modulation.
Off/Gated/On. Default is Off. Gated allows the output to be turned on via a note
played on a Keyboard (set the output of an Instrument Track to Tone Generator), and
On simply turns on the output.
Level. The output level of Tone Generator, from -144 dB to +24 dB. (Use caution!)
o
•
•
13.4
Delay
13.4.1 Analog Delay
The Analog Delay emulates a one-head tape delay with optional tempo sync, LFO, filtered
feedback, and other features. It can be used to create deteriorating echoes, echoes with
changing delay and pitch, and flanging/chorus effects. These types of sounds are often used in
Dub Music or ’70s rock.
The following parameters are available in the Analog Delay:
Time. The base delay time.
•
Sync. Optional Sync mode for Time.
o
Sync disengaged will result in speed expressed as time from 1 ms to 3s.
o
Sync engaged will result in time expressed as beats from 4/1 to 1/64, with triplet.
Speed.
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•
Factor. Modifies tape speed. Variable from 0.5 (double the delay length) to 2 (half the
delay length).
•
Inertia. Modifies speed of changes over time, based on Factor. Variable from 0 to 5.
LFO.
•
Mod. Modifies the effect of the LFO on delay speed. Variable from -50% to 50%.
•
Shape. The shape of the LFO waveform; select from triangle, sine, sawtooth, and
square.
•
Sync. Optional Sync mode for LFO Speed.
o
Sync disengaged will result in Speed expressed as frequency, from 0.01 Hz to 5 Hz.
o
Sync engaged will result in Speed expressed as beats, from 4/1 to 1/64, with triplet
and dotted-time variants.
Synced LFO and synced delay with LFO slower than delay means that modulation will not be
perceptible (except with high inertia).
Damping.
•
Low Cut. Filter from the delay feedback all frequencies below this value. Variable from
Off to 20 Hz to 3.2 kHz. Filter is 6 dB per octave.
•
High Cut. Filter from the delay feedback all frequencies below this value. Variable
from 400 Hz to 16 kHz to Off. Filter is 6 dB per octave.
Feedback.
•
Feed. Feedback percentage; that is, the amount of delayed signal to be fed back into
the delay input. Variable from 0 to 100%.
o
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Boost. Enable this parameter to boost feedback levels.
•
Width. Regulates the stereo width of the delay feedback. Variable from inverted
stereo (ping pong) to full stereo width.
•
Sat. Saturation; emulates tape saturation. Variable percentage from 0 to 100%.
•
Mix. Adjusts the mix of Analog Delay-processed signal and the original dry signal.
Variable from 0 to 100%. A setting of 100% will very likely increase feedback, so use
caution!
13.4.2 Beat Delay
The Beat Delay is a tempo-synced delay with optional cross-delay and filtered feedback. Use
this effect for adding/changing the feel of rhythmic parts (e.g., adding off-beats) or “spatially
doubling” parts (for instance, slap-back echo). Beat Delay has the following parameters:
•
Cross Delay. When not set to Off (center), the input will be sent, in mono, to the left or
right channel, with the delayed signal sent to the other channel. Variable from L 50 ms
to R 50 ms. Setting to L 50 ms or R 50 ms will create a pronounced stereo effect.
•
Beats. Delay time expressed as beats. Variable from 4/1 to 1/64, with triplet and
dotted-time variants.
o
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Offset. Adjusts a time offset from -30 to +30% of the specified Beats value.
•
Feedback. Percentage of delayed signal added back into the delay input. Variable
from 0 to 99.99%.
•
Width. Regulates the stereo width of the delay feedback. Variable from inverted
stereo (ping-pong) to full stereo width.
•
Low Cut. Filter all frequencies below this value in the delay feedback signal. Variable
from 20 Hz to 1 kHz. The filter is 6 dB per octave.
•
High Cut. Filters all frequencies below this value in the delay-feedback signal. Variable
from 1 kHz to 20 kHz. The filter is 6 dB per octave.
•
Mix. Adjusts mix of Beat Delay-processed signal with the original dry signal. Variable
from 0 to 100%.
13.4.3 Groove Delay (Studio One Professional)
The Groove Delay is a four-tap, tempo-synced delay with variable filters and a variable beat
grid. Use the Groove Delay to create tempo-synced delay patterns ranging from simple
subdivision taps to intricate evolving grooves or granular effects.
The Groove Delay has the following parameters:
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•
Grid Display. This display shows the current value for each tap for either Level, Pan,
Cutoff, or Swing, based on the selected view mode across a grid of beats. The current
value for each tap is color-coded and can be edited with the mouse directly within the
display.
•
Tap 1, 2, 3, 4. Click on these buttons to select the respective Tap parameters in the
Tap Edit menu in the bottom left of the interface.
•
Level, Pan, Cutoff, Swing. Click on these buttons to display and edit the respective
parameter for each tap in the Grid display.
o
Level. Adjusts the output level and timing for each tap.
o
Pan. Adjusts the pan and timing for each tap.
o
Cutoff. Adjusts the filter cutoff frequency for each tap.
o
Swing. Adjusts the Groove parameter for all taps that fall on off-beat positions
between straight and dotted values, while simultaneously adjusting Tap 4 and
possibly Tap 2 levels (for all on- or off-beat positions). Helps achieve “swing”
grooves.
Tap Parameters.
•
Beats. Adjusts the delay length for the currently select tap, in beats. Variable from one
beat to two bars.
•
Groove. Adjusts the delay time relative to the Beat setting as a percentage. Variable
from Triolic (= 66.67%, the last note of the previous triplet) to Dotted (= 150%).
•
Filter. Click on the Filter button to engage the filter for the currently selected tap.
•
X/Y Grids
o Cut/Reso. Adjust the cutoff frequency and resonance of the filter by dragging
the point around the X/Y grid.
o Cut Mod. Drag the horizontal fader to adjust the relative amount that the
Cutoff Mod LFO can affect the cutoff setting for the filter. Variable from -1 to 1.
(Negative values differ from positive only in phase.)
o LP, Peak, HP/BP. Adjusts the character of the filter (x axis: low-pass to highpass; y axis: bandpass to peak) by dragging the point around the X/Y grid.
•
Level. Adjusts the level of the currently selected tap as a percentage of the input level.
Variable from 0 to 100%.
•
Pan. Adjusts the pan of the currently selected tap. Variable from Left to Center to
Right.
Tap 4 has an additional Feedback output (unfiltered and not panned), which is normally used
as a feedback control only.
•
Grid.
o
•
•
Cutoff Mod. The Cutoff Mod is an LFO that can affect the cutoff value of the filter for
each tap, depending on each tap’s Cut Mod setting.
o
Beats/Speed. Adjusts the speed of the LFO. Beats variable from 4/1 to 1/64 with
triplet and dotted time variants. Speed is variable from 0.1 Hz to 30 Hz.
o
Sync. Click to engage Cutoff Mod LFO sync; enables LFO speed adjustment in
beats (synced to Song position).
Mix.
o
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Beatlength. Adjusts the Grid subdivisions by note value. Variable from 1/2 to 1/64.
Dry/Wet. Adjusts the mix of Groove Delay-processed signal with the original dry
signal. Variable from 0 to 100%
13.5
Distortion
13.5.1 Ampire XT
Ampire is an easy-to-use amplifier-modeling plug-in that features a wide range of guitar- and
bass-amplifier models, convolution-modeled speaker-cabinets with variable microphone
positioning, and effects stompboxes. Use this effect to emulate guitar amplifiers and cabinets
and create rougher and harmonically enriched sounds. The following parameters are available
in Ampire XT:
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•
Amplifier Model. Select the characteristics of the amplifier directly by clicking on the
Model selection box. The amp model changes the characteristics of the entire
amplifier, including preamp and power-amp distortion and amplification, A- and Bchannel differences, and tone-stack behavior. Select Legacy Amp from this menu to
access the models available in Studio One 1.
•
Input Gain. Trim the input gain directly at Ampire’s input to pull up weak instrument
signals or to attenuate loud, processed signals. With a good input level, the signal will
be in the optimal range for dynamic distortion within Ampire. Variable from -12 dB to
24 dB.
•
•
A and B Channels. The A and B channels have different distortion and amplification
strength, depending on the selected amp model. Use the channels to create two
different sounds (e.g., rhythm and solo, or chorus and verse) and switch between
them.
o
Drive. Adjusts the degree of overdrive/amplification in the preamplifier. Variable
from 0 to 11.
o
Bass, Mid, Treble, Presence. Controls the emulation of the tone-stack model
(results dependent on the selected amp model). Each parameter is variable from 0
to 10.
o
Gain. Adjusts the degree of overdrive/amplification in the power amplifier.
Variable from 0 to 11.
Cabinet Model. Click on the Cabinet Model selection box to choose a cabinet model,
or choose Bypass from that menu if no cabinet is desired. You can also drag and drop
Impulse Response wave files into the slots for User Cabinet. Select Legacy Cabinet
from this menu to access the presets available in Studio One 1.
o
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Edit Mic. Click on Edit Mic for any of the supplied cabinets in order to alter the
characteristics of the microphones used in capturing the sound of the cabinet.

Mic A/B Blend. Adjust this horizontal fader left or right to achieve the
desired mix of Mic A and Mic B, from 100% Mic A to 100% Mic B.

Mic B/C Additional Distance. Add distance to Mic B and Mic C
processing, from 0 to 1 meter.

C Mix. Adjust the mix of Mic C with the A/B mix, from 0 to 50%.

Body. Adjust the character of the cabinet by altering the length from 0
to 100% of the audio impulses used in the convolution process.
•
Mic Mix. This parameter is only shown when a Legacy Cabinet is selected. Select the
relative front and back microphone mix for the cabinet. This effectively adjusts balance
between speaker emulation and cabinet emulation. Variable from 100% front to 100%
back.
•
Output Gain. Distortion and amplifier emulation may result in massive level changes.
Use Out Trim to adjust the signal to normal levels. Variable from -24 dB to 12 dB.
•
Stomp Boxes. Ampire XT features the following effects, which are each bypassed by
default. The Pre/Post switch sets the effect for pre- or post- amplifier processing. All
effects are pre-cabinet processing, except for the Delay and Reverb which can be
switched to pre- or post- processing. Note that all effects can be disabled at once with
the Disable button.
o
o
Wah-Wah.

Type Selection Box. Selects the type of wah-wah desired.

Amount. Adjusts the amount of the wah-wah effect from 0 to 100%,
equivalent to rocking a traditional wah-wah pedal forward and
backward.
Tube Driver.

o
o
Amount. Adjusts the amount of drive from 0 to 11.
Equalizer.

Guitar/Bass. Selects the appropriate style, which adjusts the
frequency values for each band of the graphic EQ.

Band Faders. Adjusts each band fader up or down to achieve the
desired EQ setting.
Modulation.

Chorus/Flanger/Phaser. Selects the type of modulation.
•
•
Chorus.
o
Delay. Adjusts the delay of the chorus signal from 2 to
20 ms.
o
Speed. Adjusts the chorus speed from 0.01 to 10 Hz.
o
Feed. Adjusts the amount of feedback from 0 to 100%.
o
Depth. Adjusts the chorus depth from 0 to 100%.
Flanger.
o
Delay. Adjusts the delay of the flanged signal from .2
to 4 ms.
o
Speed. Adjust the flanger speed from 0.01 to 10 Hz.

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Sync. Engage this if you want to sync the
flanger speed to tempo.

•
o

Feed. Adjusts the amount of feedback from 0 to 100%.
o
Width. Adjusts the flanger LFO width from 0 to 100%.
o
Depth. Adjusts the flanger depth from 0 to 100%.
Phaser.
o
Phase. Adjusts the frequency of the phaser from 240
Hz to 8 kHz.
o
Speed. Adjusts the speed of the phaser from 0.01 to 10
Hz.

Sync. Engage this if you want to sync the
phaser speed to tempo.

Beats. Selects a beat value for the synced
phaser speed.
o
Feed. Adjusts the amount of feedback from 0 to 100%.
o
Width. Adjusts the phaser LFO width from 0 to 100%.
o
Depth. Adjusts the phaser depth from 0 to 100%.
Speed. Adjust the pan speed from 0.01 to 10 Hz.
•
Sync. Engage this if you want to sync the pan speed to tempo.
•
Beats. Selects a beat value for the synced pan speed.
Depth. Adjusts the pan depth from 0 to 100%.
Tremolo.

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o
Pan.

o
Beats. Selects a beat value for the synced
flanger speed.
Speed. Adjusts the tremolo speed from 0.01 to 10 Hz.
•
Sync. Engage this if you want to sync the tremolo speed to
tempo.
•
Beats. Selects a beat value for the synced tremolo speed.

o
Delay.

o
Depth. Adjusts the tremolo depth from 0 to 100%.
Speed. Adjusts the delay speed from 0.01 to 10 Hz.
•
Sync. Engage this if you want to sync the delay speed to
tempo.
•
Beats. Selects a beat value for the synced delay speed.

LC. Sets the frequency of the low-cut filter from 20 Hz to 1 kHz.

HC. Sets the frequency of the high-cut filter from 1 kHz to 20 kHz.

Feed. Adjusts the amount of feedback from 0 to 100%.

Mix. Adjusts the mix of the delayed signal with the original signal from
0 to 50%.
Reverb.

Size. This control affects several parameters to approximate an overall
room size. It adjusts the size of the reverberated signal from 0 to 100%,
with lower percentages representing smaller rooms and therefore
shorter reverb tails and higher percentages representing larger rooms
and longer tails.

Mix. Adjusts the mix of the delayed signal with the original signal from
0 to 50%.

LC. Sets the frequency of the low-cut filter from 20 Hz to 1 kHz.

HC. Sets the frequency of the high-cut filter from 1 kHz to 20 kHz.

Damp. Adjusts the dampening of the reverberated signal from 0 to
100%.
13.5.2 Red Light Distortion
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Red Light Distortion is an analog-distortion emulator with several selectable distortion
models.
The following parameters are available in Red Light Distortion:
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•
In. Input gain to the distortion. Variable from -12 dB to 24 dB.
•
Distortion. Only for Hard and Bad Tube types, this is the tube working-point
adjustment (bias). Variable from 0 to 10.00.
•
Low Cut. Filters all frequencies below this value. Variable from 20 Hz to 5 kHz,
depending on the High Cut setting.
•
High Cut. Filters all frequencies above this value. Variable from 800 Hz to 16 kHz.
•
Drive. Amplification during overdrive. Variable from 0 to 11; drive increases a lot
between 10 and 11 for really distorted sounds.
•
Stages. Number of overdrive stages used serially in the signal path (including filters).
Select from 1, 2, or 3 with the horizontal fader.
•
Model. Select the type of distortion emulation by clicking on the display and selecting
Soft Tube, Hard Tube, Bad Tube, Transistor, Fuzz, or OpAmp from the list.
•
Bypass. Click to Engage/Disengage bypass of the entire Red Light Distortion signal
path.
•
Out. Adjust the output gain of Red Light Distortion. Variable from -12 dB to 24 dB.
13.6
Dynamics
Dynamics processing is a key aspect of mixing and mastering. Studio One features very highquality dynamics processors that give you complete control. The following contains
fundamental information on dynamics processors to help in your use of Studio One’s
dynamics processors.
13.6.1 Compressor
The Compressor is a full-featured, RMS-based mono/ stereo compression processor with
internal and external sidechains. Use this effect to reduce the dynamic range (signal peaks) of
any signal.
The following parameters are available in the Compressor:
•
Ratio. Adjusts compression range. Variable from 1:1 (no compression) to 20:1.
•
Threshold. Adjusts the lower limit for compression. Variable from -48 dB to 0
dB.
•
Knee. Adjusts the soft-knee width. (Width refers to the distance from the
threshold to the end of the soft knee.) Variable from 0.1 dB to 20 dB.
•
Look Ahead. Click to engage/disengage 2 ms Look Ahead function.
•
Stereo Link. Click to engage/disengage Stereo Link. Stereo Link will sum a
stereo input signal to mono for signal-power detection.
•
Display.
o
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Input Level. Displays input level + RMS.
o
Reduction. Displays level of compressor attenuation (-60 dB to +3 dB) and
the maximum reduction amount. The highest peak is held until surpassed
by another peak or until parameters are adjusted or clicked on.
o
Compression Curve. Click in the display to control curve settings.
o
•
o
Ratio. Click the top right handle to adjust when Auto-Gain is not
engaged.
o
Threshold. Click the middle handle to adjust when Auto-Gain is
not engaged.
o
Knee. Use the mouse wheel while floating the cursor over the
middle handle to adjust when Auto-Gain is not engaged. If you
don’t have a mouse wheel, type in a value or use the Knee knob.
o
Gain. Click the bottom left handle to adjust when Auto-Gain is not
engaged.
o
Auto-Gain Engaged. Click on the middle handle to adjust all
parameters.
Output Level. Displays output level + RMS.
Input Gain. Attenuates or amplifies the compressor input. Variable from -12
dB to 24 dB.
Auto-Gain. Engage to automatically fix the 0 dB input level to the 0 dB
output level (guarantees a 0 dB input level will result in a 0 dB output
level). When Auto is not engaged, Gain (output gain) is variable from 0 dB
to 48 dB.
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•
Attack. Adjusts attack time for dynamics processing. Variable from 0.1 ms to
400 ms.
•
Release. Adjusts release time for dynamics processing. Variable from 1 ms to
2s.
•
Speed.
o
Auto. Engage Auto to automatically set varying attack and release settings
based on signal content.
o
Adaptive. Engage to automatically vary attack and release times in order
to avoid pumping. This will result in less-aggressive but smoother
compression.
•
Sidechain. Engage by clicking Sidechain button at the top of the effect
window to allow other sources to control the Compressor or use the internal
filter sidechain.
o
Sidechain Channel Display. Displays the current sidechain channel
source.
o
Internal Sidechain. Click to activate internal filter sidechain (for
frequency-dependent compression). Uses 48 dB filters.
o
Listen Filter. Click to listen to the filtered control signal of the internal
sidechain. Helps find specific target frequency for control signal when
de-essing, transient damping, etc.
o
LC/HC Freq. Frequency selection for internal-sidechain filters. LC is
variable from Off to 20 Hz to 16 kHz; HC is variable from 20 Hz to 16
kHz to Off.
o
Filter Type Display. Shows notch or bandpass characteristic of filter.
o
Swap. Click to swap the frequencies used for LC and HC.
13.6.2 Expander
Expander is a fully variable downward expander with range control. It features sidechain
capability, including an internal sidechain filter with variable low-cut and high-cut. Expanders
increase the dynamic range of a signal such that low-level signals are attenuated while the
louder portions are neither attenuated nor amplified. This is effectively the opposite of
215
compression. Use Expander to decrease the levels of unwanted noise or bleed from other
sources in the desired signal or to restore dynamic range to a compressed signal.
The following parameters are available for the Expander:
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•
Threshold. Adjusts the maximum amplitude at which processing will occur. Variable
from -60 dB to 0 dB.
•
Range. Adjust the maximum amount of attenuation applied to the signal. Variable
from -72 dB to 0 dB.
•
Ratio. Adjust the ratio of the Expander. Variable from 1:1 to 1:20.
•
Look Ahead. Click to engage/disengage 2 ms Look Ahead function.
•
Attack. Adjusts attack time for dynamics processing, reaction speed to falling signal.
Variable from 0.1 ms to 500 ms.
•
Release. Adjusts release time for dynamics processing, reaction speed to rising signal.
Variable from 50 ms to 2s.
•
Sidechain. Engage by clicking the Sidechain button at the top of the effect window to
allow other sources control the Expander.
o
Sidechain Channel Display. Displays the current sidechain channel source.
o
Internal Sidechain. Click to activate internal filter sidechain (for frequencydependent compression). Uses 48 dB filters.
o
Listen Filter. Click to listen to the filtered control signal of the internal
sidechain. This helps find a specific target frequency for the control signal
when de-essing, transient damping, etc.
o
LC/HC Freq. Frequency selection for internal sidechain filters. LC variable
from Off to 20 Hz to 16 kHz; HC variable from 20 Hz to 16 kHz to Off.
o
Filter Type Display. Shows notch or bandpass characteristic of filter.
o
Swap. Click to swap the frequencies used for LC and HC.
13.6.3 Gate
Gate is a noise-gate processor with range control. It features sidechain capability with an
internal sidechain filter that includes variable low cut and high cut. Gating is an extreme form
of expansion that severely attenuates the processed signal or silences it entirely. Use Gate to
eliminate unwanted noise or low levels in any track or to creatively control the level of a given
track using another track via the sidechain.
The following parameters are available for the Gate:
•
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Threshold.
o
Open. Threshold, adjust the level at which the Gate is to attenuate below. Variable
from -60 dB to 0 dB.
o
Close. Set the level at which the gate closes relative to the threshold. Variable
from -24 dB to 24 dB from the Threshold value.
•
Range. Adjusts the maximum amount of reduction. Variable from -72 dB to 0 dB.
•
Reduction Display. Displays the amount of reduction, ranging from -72 dB to 0 dB.
•
Attack. Adjust the amount of time it takes for the gate to open and let signal through.
Variable from 0.05 ms to 500 ms.
•
Hold. Adjust the amount of time the gate is held open once the signal has dropped
below the Threshold setting. Variable from 1 ms to 1s.
•
Release. Adjust the amount of time it takes for the gate to close after the Hold period.
Variable from 50 ms to 2s.
•
LkA (Look Ahead). Click to engage/disengage the 2 ms Look Ahead function.
•
Send Trigger. Click to engage sending a trigger when the gate opens. Adjusts the
note and velocity to send. Select the gate as an input on any Instrument Track.
•
Sidechain. Engage by clicking Sidechain button at the top of the effect window to
allow other sources control the gate.
o
Sidechain Channel Display. Displays the current sidechain channel source.
o
Internal Sidechain. Click to activate internal filter sidechain (for frequencydependent compression). Uses 48 dB filters.
o
•
o
Listen Filter. Click to listen to the filtered control signal of the internal
sidechain. Helps find specific target frequency for control signal when
removing narrow-band noise.
o
LC/HC Freq. Frequency selection for internal sidechain filters. LC variable
from Off to 20 Hz to 16 kHz; HC variable from 20 Hz to 16 kHz to Off.
o
Filter Type Display. Shows notch or bandpass characteristic of the filter.
Swap. Click to swap the frequencies used for LC and HC.
Duck (for external sidechain). Engage to invert the external-sidechain source signal.
13.6.4 Limiter
The Limiter is a brickwall-limiting processor with optional K-System metering. Use it to prevent
your output signal from clipping or to maximize signals with very dynamic peaks.
The following parameters are available for Limiter:
Input. Adjusts the input level into the limiter. Variable from 0 dB to 18 dB.
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•
Ceiling. Adjusts the ceiling—that is, the maximum output—of the limiter. Variable
from -12 dB to 0 dB.
•
Threshold. Allows Limiter to be used as a leveling amp. When Threshold is below
Ceiling, a soft knee and 1:20 ratio between Threshold and Ceiling values is used.
Threshold setting is relative to Ceiling. The numerical display is an absolute value.
Variable from Ceiling value to 12 dB below Ceiling value.
•
Release. Adjust the amount of time it takes for the limiter to stop processing once the
input level has fallen below the Ceiling setting. Variable from 2 ms to 1s.
•
Softclip. Reduces square-wave clipping characteristics when the limiter is clipped.
Click to engage Softclip.
•
Metering.
o
PkRMS. Click to engage Peak/RMS metering.
o
K-14, K-20, K-12. Click to engage a K-System metering option. Refer to the KSystem Metering section of the “Mixing” chapter for more information.
o
Reduction. Displays the amount of limiting reduction, ranging from -24 dB to 0
dB.
o
13.7
Max. Displays the maximum reduction level reached in dB.
Mastering
13.7.1 Multiband Dynamics (Studio One Professional)
Multiband Dynamics is a compressor/expander with five completely independent
compression/expansion bands, optional simultaneous adjustment over all bands, and
multiband metering. Use it to reduce unwanted signals or banded noise and to emphasize or
limit instruments. In practice, this effect can function as a dynamic equalizer or can be used for
mastering compression on a complete mix.
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This type of compression is regarded by many as an art form, and can be difficult for beginners
to use. We recommend you load the factory presets as a starting point and learn how
Multiband Dynamics works by using it.
The following parameters are available for Multiband Dynamics:
•
Global Display. Float mouse in display to view parameter-editing Tooltips above the
display.
o
Input. Horizontal lines represent Low and High Threshold for dynamics
processing.
o
Output. Horizontal lines represent transformation of the High and Low Thresholds
using Gain and Ratio. A signal at the Low Threshold on the Input would be at the
low level on the Output.
o
Color Coded Output Gain. Red means attenuation, green means
amplification.
Dynamic changes will occur only between Low/High Threshold and Low/ High Gain. If the
signal is above or below these settings, only linear gain will be applied.
•
Bands.
o
L, LM, M, HM, H. Low, Low Mid, Mid, High Mid, High.
o
Frequency Knob. Adjust crossover frequency between bands. You must
have at least one octave between adjacent bands.
o
M, S, Bypass. Mute, Solo, and Bypass engage buttons for each band.
Editing the crossover frequencies in the display will move other bands when the bandwidth is
below one octave. Editing using automation will be limited to a one-octave bandwidth.
Moving the crossover to limit frequencies will disable bands.
•
220
Metering.
o
Range Low. This is the lowest amplitude to be displayed in band meters. Click to
select from -120 dB, -80 dB, -48 dB, -24 dB, or -12 dB.
o
Range High. This is the highest amplitude to be displayed in band meters. Click to
select from +12 dB, 0 dB, -12 dB, -24 dB, or -48 dB.
o
Metering On/Off. Click to engage/disengage metering for all bands.
•
Edit All Relative. Click to engage/disengage relative dynamics-settings editing for all
bands. When engaged, changing dynamics settings for the selected band will change
the same settings for all bands by the same amount.
•
Auto Speed. Click to engage/disengage Auto Speed for the dynamics for all bands.
Sets adaptive Attack and Release times for all bands globally.
•
Dynamics. Click on any band to select it and view/edit dynamics settings for that
band.
o
Dynamics Display. Click on handles in display to adjust dynamics settings.
o
Thresholds. No dynamics processing occurs for signals outside of the Threshold
settings—only gain amplification/attenuation.
o
Low Threshold. Adjusts the lower limit for signal to be processed. Variable from 60 dB to 2x the knee length.
o
High Threshold. Adjusts the upper limit for signal to be processed. Variable from
0 dB to 2x the knee length.
o
Ratio. Adjusts dynamics-processing range. Variable from 1.10 (gating) to 20.1
(limiting).
o
Gain. Adjusts output gain. Variable from -36 dB to 36 dB.
o
Attack. Adjusts attack time for dynamics processing. Variable from 1 ms to 200 ms.
o
Release. Adjusts release time for dynamics processing. Variable from 4 ms to 200
ms.
Dynamics speeds are adapted to provide a comparable smoothness at the same setting
for expansion and compression, so expansion will be slightly slower than the shown
length.
13.7.2 Tricomp™
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Tricomp is a three-band compressor. It provides automatic threshold and ratio settings for all
three bands and relative control for the low and high bands, as well as switchable automatic
attack and release controls. Tricomp can be used to finalize your mix or to add brilliance or
punch to frequency-rich signals.
The following parameters are available for Tricomp:
•
Input Meter. Displays Tricomp’s input level.
•
Low. Adjusts the relative amount of compression to be applied to the Low
compression band. Variable from -5 to 5 depending on the Compress setting.
•
Low Freq. Adjusts the upper corner frequency of the Low compression band. Variable
from 80 Hz to 480 Hz.
•
High. Adjusts the relative amount of compression to be applied to the High
compression band. Variable from -0.50 to 0.50, depending on the Compress setting.
•
High Freq. Adjusts the lower corner frequency of the High compression band.
Variable from 800 Hz to 12 kHz.
•
Compress. The relative amount of compression to be applied to all three compression
bands. Variable from 0 to 10.
•
Speed. When Auto Speed is not engaged, this adjusts the compressor attack and
release times simultaneously. Attack is variable from 0.1 ms to 10 ms; Release is
variable from 3 ms to 300 ms.
•
Auto Speed. Click to engage adaptive settings for the compressor attack and release
times, based on signal content.
•
Knee. Adjusts the distance/curve of the compressor knee. Variable from 0 dB (hard
knee) to 6 dB (soft knee).
•
Sat. Saturation emulates the saturation sound found in famous leveling amplifiers.
Variable from 0 to 100%.
13.8
Mixing
Many tools can help to achieve proper balance and create space for the various parts of your
mix. The following effects will help you craft your mix with precision and excellent sound
quality.
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13.8.1 Binaural Pan
The Binaural Pan is a stereo-panning effect that can pan from mono to double stereo width.
Use the Binaural Pan on any stereo track to tightly control its stereo width and pan, as well as
to check for mono compatibility using the Mono switch.
The following parameters are available for the Binaural Pan:
•
Width. Adjusts the stereo width of the stereo track. Variable from 0 (mono) to 200%
(double stereo width).
•
Mono. Switch to mono playback of the stereo track.
•
Pan. Adjusts the balance in the left and right channels for the stereo track. Variable
from 100% L to 100% R.
The Binaural Pan can only be used on stereo tracks. If loaded onto a mono track, the plug-in
display will simply say “MONO TRACK.”
13.8.2 Dual Pan
Dual Pan is a fully variable stereo panner with input balance control, selectable pan law, and
independent left/right panning. The following parameters are available for Dual Pan:
•
•
•
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Input Balance. Adjusts the balance of the stereo input signal from full left to full right.
Pan Law. Select a pan law, choose from -6 dB Linear, -3 dB Constant Power Sin/Cos, -3
dB Constant Power Sqrt, 0 dB Balance Sin/Cos, and 0 dB Linear.
Pan.
o Left. Adjusts the pan of the left input signal from full left to full right.
o Right. Adjusts the pan of the right input signal from full left to full right.
o
Link. Link the Left and Right panning.
13.8.3 Mixtool
Mixtool provides common track utilities, including independent left- and right-channel
inversion, left- and right-channel swap, and MS transformation of stereo signals. Use Mixtool
when inverting channels to correct for phase cancellation and correlation issues, as well as to
provide MS transformation to decode signals recorded with Mid-Side stereo configurations.
The following parameters are available for Mixtool when used on a stereo track:
•
Block DC Offset. Remove any DC Offset in the audio signal.
•
Invert Left. Click to invert the phase of the left playback channel for a stereo track.
•
Invert Right. Click to invert the phase of the right playback channel for a stereo track.
•
Swap Channels. Click to swap left and right Mixtool Input Channels. Stereo tracks
only.
•
MS Transform. Click to perform a Mid-Side transform on the Mixtool Input Channels.
Stereo tracks only. Generally used to decode MS-recorded signals or to create MS
signals for stereo image processing.
When used on a mono track, the Mixtool plug-in has one control to invert the phase of the
signal.
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13.8.4 Pro EQ
Pro EQ is a seven-band parametric equalizer with optional spectrum metering; variable lowcut, high-cut, low-frequency, and high-frequency multimode filters; and an optional Auto-Gain
output-gain setting. Use Pro EQ on any mono or stereo track to accurately apply highly
musical equalization to any signal.
The following parameters are available for Pro EQ:
225
•
Display. Click-and-drag on frequency-band handles in the display to edit Gain
(up/down) and Freq (left/right) parameters. If you click on a handle, the mouse wheel
edits the Q. (If you don’t have a mouse wheel, click on the desired Q knob or type in a
value below the knob.)
•
Show Curve All/Current. Click to select All or Current.
•
All. Simultaneously displays curves for each band and for the resulting EQ curve being
applied to the signal (white).
•
Current. Displays the resulting EQ curve (white), as well as one curve for any band
being actively edited.
•
Spectrum. Click to engage/disengage Pro EQ output-spectrum metering. The meters
are drawn behind the EQ curves in 1/3-octave bands.
•
The Spectrum display is fixed at 20 Hz to 20 kHz and -24 dB to 24 dB.
•
High Quality. Click to engage High Quality mode, allowing more accurate
equalization. This is achieved using 2x oversampling and requires more computerprocessing power.
•
Bands. Click Activate button to engage/disengage each band.
o
o
•
LC, HC. Low-cut and high-cut filters.
o
Freq. Adjust point at which filter cut begins.
o
Slope. Select from 6, 12, 24, 36, and 48 dB per octave. This affects the
shape of the filter curve.
LF, HF. Selectable low-frequency and high-frequency, shelf or peaking filters.
o
Q. Adjust the Q of the frequency band. Q = the ratio of center frequency to
bandwidth. When the center frequency is constant, Q is inversely
proportional to bandwidth (i.e., higher Q = narrower bandwidth).
o
Gain. Attenuate/amplify frequency band.
o
Filter Mode. Select from Peaking and Shelf, with 6, 12, or 24 dB per octave
slope.
o
Freq. Adjust the center frequency of the band.
o
LMF, MF, HMF. Peaking filters.
o
Q. Adjust the Q (center-frequency:bandwidth) of the frequency band.
o
Gain. Attenuate/amplify frequency band.
o
Freq. Adjust the band center frequency.
Auto. Click to engage Auto-Gain, which adjusts Pro EQ output level to match the
original input-signal power (guarantees a 0 dB input signal equals a 0 dB output
signal).
Output Meter. Peak/RMS meter; RMS level is represented by a white horizontal line.
226
13.8.5 Channel Strip
Channel Strip features three processors in one, including a low-cut filter, dynamics processor,
and three-band parametric EQ. Channel Strip optionally applies automatic gain correction to
the EQ so that the input-signal power matches the output-signal power. Use Channel Strip on
any mono or stereo Track that needs basic channel processing.
The following parameters are available for Channel Strip:
•
LC and Freq. Click on the Activate button to engage/disengage the Low Cut filter.
Adjust frequency to change the filter-cutoff frequency.
•
Compress. Adjusts the compression amount. Variable from Off to 100%.
Simultaneously adjusts threshold (0 dB to -20 dB) and ratio (2:1 to 10:1).
•
Expand. Adjusts the expansion amount. Variable from Off to 100%. Simultaneously
adjusts threshold (-64 dB to -24 dB) and ratio (1.5:1 to 2.5:1).
•
Active gain reduction is indicated by red “LED.”
•
Fast, Medium, Slow. Adjusts the RMS averaging speed, slower speed may reduce
artifacts with some audio material. Default is Medium, and Studio One version 1
presets will open set to Fast.
•
Display. Displays low-cut filter and parametric-EQ settings. Click on handles to adjust
gain (up/down) and frequency (left/right).
•
Low, Mid, High. Adjusts gain and frequency for each band of the parametric EQ. Each
band has fixed Q.
•
Gain. Adjusts the output gain of the Channel Strip. Variable from -12 dB to 12 dB.
o
227
Auto. Click to engage automatic output-gain setting. This guarantees that a 0 dB
input signal equals a 0 dB output signal.
13.9
Modulation
Modulation processors are great tools for creating interesting and innovative sounds. Studio
One features the following modulation processors.
13.9.1 Auto Filter
Auto Filter features two resonant filters with six selectable filter models. The filter-cutoff
frequency and resonance can be modulated by an LFO using standard waveforms, a 16-step
sequencer, and an envelope. Use Auto Filter to create filtered effects from basic filter sweeps
to complex tempo-synced rhythmic filter patterns.
The following parameters are available for Auto Filter:
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Filter 1 and Filter 2. Select from 6 filter emulation types, including Ladder LP 12 dB,
18 dB, and 24 dB; Analog SVF 12 dB and 24 dB; and Digital SVF 12 dB.
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SVFs. State Variable Filters can blend between low-pass, bandpass, and high-pass.
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Click-and-drag the Filter Mix horizontal fader (below the filter-model selection) to
blend filter types.
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FLT Spread. Adjust the spread between Filter 1 and Filter 2 Cutoff Frequencies.
Variable from -2 octaves to 2 octaves. (Filter 2 Cutoff is the result of the Cutoff
setting and FLT Spread amount.)
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Chained/Parallel. Switch the two filters between chained in series (Filter 1
followed by Filter 2; good for adding peaks, creating band-reject filters, etc.) and
parallel (Filter 1 and Filter 2 process and output the same signal simultaneously;
good for creating wide bandpass filters).
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Drive. Adjust the filter’s feedback overdrive. Variable from 0 to 100%.
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Cutoff. Filter cutoff frequency. Variable from 30 Hz to 16 kHz.
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Can be modulated by the envelope and LFO.
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Reso. Adjust the resonance of the filters. Variable from 0 to 100%.
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Can be modulated by the envelope or LFO.
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Adjust the modulation amount from each using the Env and LFO vertical faders.
Variable from -100% to 100%. Negative values are phase-inverted. LFO modulates
around the value.
Envelope Length. Adjust the attack and release times of the volume envelope (Env),
affecting cutoff and resonance.
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Auto. Click to engage/disengage automatic envelope-length selection
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Sidechain. Click the Sidechain button at the top of the effect window to engage
sidechain for envelope detection. (Use another track to control the envelope.)
LFO. Click on waveform buttons to select from 16-step, triangle, sine, sawtooth, and
square waveforms.
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LFO Speed. Can be synced to tempo or run free.
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Sync. Click to engage/disengage LFO tempo sync. When tempo is synced,
the speed is variable from 4/1 to 1/64, with various triplet and duple time
variants.
16-step. When 16-step is engaged, click in the display to edit values for each step.
It divides current Speed/Beats time into 16 steps, each step variable from -1 to +1.
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Gain. Adjusts Auto Filter output gain. Variable from -6 dB to 6 dB.
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Mix. Adjusts the mix of the Auto Filter-processed signal with the original dry signal.
Variable from 0 to 100%.
13.9.2 Chorus
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Adjust the modulation amount from each using the Env and LFO vertical
faders. Variable from -100% to 100%. Negative values are phase-inverted.
LFO modulates around the value.
The Chorus is a one- to three-voice chorus processor with optional LFO delay-time modulation
and stereo width control. Chorus processing is often used on vocal tracks to help create a
more full vocal sound so the track fits better in the overall mix. Guitar and synth parts
sometimes feature chorus processing for similar reasons.
The following parameters are available for the Chorus:
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Spacing. Adjusts the delay of the Chorus voices.
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The Spacing value is the delay time between voices.
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Voices. Adjusts the number of added voices in the chorus; select from 1, 2, or 3.
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LFO. The LFO modulates the Spacing parameter.
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LFO Speed. Adjusts the speed of the LFO.
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LFO Width. Adjusts the range of the LFO modulation of Spacing. Variable from 0
to 100%. A value of 100% would modulate the Spacing parameter from 0 to 2x
Spacing.
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Depth. Adjusts the mix of the processed chorus output with the dry input signal.
Variable from 0 to 100%.
Stereo Width. Adjusts the spreading of the chorus voices in the stereo field.
13.9.3 Flanger
Flanger creates spatial depths, swirls, timbre shifts, and percussive effects. Flanging is often
used on guitar tracks to create interesting shifts in timbre and tone, and it can help create lush
synth sounds, as well. It works by splitting an audio signal into two identical signals; applying a
varying, short delay to one signal; feeding its output back to its input by varying amounts; and
mixing the processed and unprocessed signals. You can modulate Flanger’s delay time with an
LFO, which can be tempo-synced.
The following parameters are available for Flanger:
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LFO. The LFO modulates the Speed/Beats parameter.
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LFO Width. Adjusts the range of the LFO modulation on delay time (speed).
Variable from 0 to 100%. A value of 100% would modulate the Spacing parameter
from 0 to 2x Speed.
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Speed/Beats. Adjust the speed of the LFO.
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Sync. Click to engage LFO tempo sync. Time will be expressed as Beats.
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Speed. Variable from 0.01 Hz to 10 Hz.
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Beats. Select from 4/1 to 1/64 with triplet and dotted-time variants.
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Depth. Adjusts the wet/dry mix of the Chorus output.
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Feedback. Adjusts the amount of delayed output to be fed back into the input.
Variable from -90% to 90%. Negative value results in inverted feedback.
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Delay. Adjusts the delay time for the copied input signal. Variable from 0.25 ms to 10
ms.
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Depth. Adjusts the mix of the processed flanger output with the original dry input
signal. Variable from 0 to 100%.
13.9.4 Phaser
Phaser applies a variable number of allpass filters in series (one fed into the other), along with
one overall feedback loop, to the input signal. Phaser features an LFO to modulate the center
frequencies for each all-pass filter.
The allpass filters function as frequency-dependent delays, so that when the filtered output is
added to the original input signal, certain frequencies can be attenuated or amplified as the
result of phase shifting. Phasers are commonly used on many types of tracks, including synths,
guitars, and even vocals, to create a distinctive frequency-shifting effect.
The following parameters are available for Phaser:
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LFO. Modulates the center frequency for the allpass filters between the range set by
Range Low and Range High.
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Range Low. Adjusts the lowest center frequency for the allpass filters. Variable
from 10 Hz to either 8 kHz or the Range High value.
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Range High. Adjusts the highest center frequency for the allpass filters. Variable
from either 10 Hz or the Range Low value to 8 kHz.
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Speed/Beats. Adjusts the speed of the LFO.
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Sync. Click to engage LFO tempo sync. Time will be expressed as Beats.
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Speed. Variable from 0.01 Hz to 10 Hz.
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Beats. Select from 4/1 to 1/64, with triplet and dotted-time variants.
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Feedback. Adjusts the amount of the filtered output signal to be fed back into the
input. Variable from 0 to 95%.
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Stages. Adjusts the number of allpass filter stages for the phaser. Variable from 2 to
20.
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Spread. Adjusts the spread of each delay stage from 0 to 100%
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Depth. Adjusts the mix of the processed phaser output with the original dry input
signal. Variable from 0 to 100%.
13.9.5 X-Trem
X-Trem is a tremolo effect that applies amplitude modulation at a varying amount and rate
over time. The X-Trem features tempo sync and a variable LFO with selectable 16-step and 16gate sequencers, as well as auto-pan capability. Use Tremolo on any track to create anything
from subtle shifts in amplitude to tempo-synced, glitchy, gated drums; trancy, gated pads;
panned hi-hats; and other popular sounds.
The following parameters are available for the Tremolo:
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Depth. Adjust the relative amount of maximum amplitude modulation. Variable from
0 to 100%.
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Speed/Beats. Adjust the speed of the LFO.
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Sync. Click to engage LFO tempo sync. Time will be expressed as Beats.
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Speed. Variable from 0.01 Hz to 30 Hz.
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Beats. Select from 4/1 to 1/64 with triplet and dotted-time variants.
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Pan/Trem. Click to switch the mode of the Tremolo to affect overall amplitude (Trem)
or the left- and right-channel balance (Pan). Pan is only selectable on stereo tracks.
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LFO Mode. Select from triangle, sine, sawtooth, or square LFO waveforms or a 16-step
or 16-gate sequencer.
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16 Steps. Click in the LFO display to adjust each step. The steps divide the current
Speed/Beats time value; the value of each step represents amplitude/pan at that
step from 0/hard left to 100%/hard right.
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16 Gates. Click in the LFO display to open/close the gate at each step. The steps
divide the current Speed/Beats time value. For each step, no color fill means the
gate is closed, and total color fill means gate is open.
13.10 Reverb
Reverb effects are used in almost all music productions and for a variety of purposes. In
everyday life, reverberation is the result of the many reflections of sound that occur in a given
room or other space. In an ambient space, sound may travel directly to your ear and also be
reflected many times off the walls and ceiling of a room before again reaching your ear. With
each reflection, the sound is attenuated as sound energy is absorbed by the reflecting surfaces
and dissipated by traveling through a medium (usually air). This collection of reflected and
attenuated sounds is what we know as reverb.
Reverb provides essential aural cues about the nature of any given space. As such, reverb is
commonly used in music production to create virtual spaces in which the various parts of a
mix can interact.
Studio One features three built-in reverbs: MixVerb, Room Reverb, and OpenAIR(Studio One
Professional). The following describes these reverb effects.
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13.10.1 MixVerb™
MixVerb is a simple and efficient reverb that is meant to be used as an insert on mono or
stereo tracks. MixVerb features adjustable size, predelay, and damping, as well as an
adjustable gate and stereo-width control.
MixVerb offers the following parameters:
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Predelay. Adjust the predelay time. Variable from 0 ms to 500 ms. Predelay is the
amount of time before the first reverberated signals will be heard.
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Size. Adjust the relative size of the reverberating space. Variable from 0 to 100%.
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Damp. Adjust the relative amount of damping (attenuation of the upper frequencies)
of the reverberated signal. Variable from 0 to 100%.
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Gate. The gate is applied to the reverb output signal.
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Gate. Click to engage/disengage the gate.
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Gate Thresh. Adjust the threshold of the gate. Variable from -36 dB to 12 dB.
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Gate Release. Adjust the release time of the gate. Variable from 10 ms to 250 ms.
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Width. Adjust the width of the stereo field. Variable from 0 to 100%. Only for stereo
tracks.
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Mix. Adjust mix of MixVerb-processed signal with the original dry signal. Variable from
0 to 100%.
13.10.2 Room Reverb
Room Reverb is a room-simulator reverb that adjusts its internal reverb parameters based on
virtual-room models. It is meant for use as a send effect or as a main Output Channel effect.
Room Reverb features variable room parameters and geometry, selectable room models, and
population, damping, and surface-smoothness controls.
Room Reverb provides the following parameters:
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Display. Displays the overall reverb characteristics across a self-adjusting time scale.
Early reflections are represented by vertical lines, and the reverb tail is represented by
a colored envelope.
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Pre. Adjusts the offset for room-derived natural predelay amount. Variable from 0 ms
to a higher value determined by current Room settings.
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Length. Adjusts the offset for room-derived natural reverb tail length. Value range is
variable based on current Room settings.
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Room.
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Size. Adjusts the geometric average of the width, depth, and height of the virtualroom model. Variable from 1m to 20m.
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Width. Adjusts the width relative to size. Variable from 0.1 to 2.
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Height. Adjusts the height relative to size. Variable from 0.1 to 1.
Geometry.
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Dist. Adjusts the relative distance between the source and the listener position
within the virtual room. Variable from 0.1 to 1.
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Asy. Adjusts the left and right asymmetry between the source and the listener
position. Variable from -1 (listener position far right) to 1 (listener position far left).
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Plane. Adjusts the relative height of the stereo source and listener position within
the virtual room. Variable from 0 (half the height of the room) to 1 (ceiling).
Room Model. Select a synthetic reverb model: Small Room, Room, Medium Hall, and
Large Hall.
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Character.
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W, D, H Display. Displays approximate room-dimension values based on current
Room settings.
Population. Adjusts the relative population of people in the virtual room. Variable
from 0 to 1.
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Value of 0 results in enhanced bass, “static” tail.
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Value of 1 results in attenuated bass, “moving” tail.
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Dampness. Adjusts the relative humidity of the air in the room. This has the effect
of attenuating the upper frequencies of the reverberated signal. Variable from 0 to
1.
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Reflexivity. Adjusts the relative smoothness of the surfaces of the virtual room.
Variable from 0 to 1. Higher values evoke a more echo-like reverb tail.
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Reverb Mix. Adjust the mix of the reverb tail and early reflections. Variable from 0 to 1.
Reverb display is updated to indicate this mix.
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Send Mix. Adjust the mix of the MixVerb-processed signal with the original dry signal.
Variable from 0 to 100%.
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Perform/Quality. Quality mode is selected by default. Engage Perform mode
(economy performance mode) to use fewer CPU resources by disabling floor and
ceiling reflections and reducing the calculation accuracy for the reverberation.
13.10.3 OpenAIR (Studio One Professional)
OpenAIR is a highly efficient convolution reverb capable of delivering ultra-realistic
reverberation based on impulses captured from both real spaces and classic hardware reverbs.
OpenAIR provides the following parameters:
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Predelay. Defaults to 0 ms; adds predelay to the impulse response with a positive
value, or truncates existing predelay in the impulse response with a negative
value. Values range from -150 to 300 ms.
Length. For values smaller than the original impulse-response length, this cuts the
end (that is, shortens the reverb). For larger values, the range between the ER/LR
(early reflections/late reflections) crossover point and the impulse response end
gets timestretched. The beginning (up to the ER/LR crossover point) will not get
stretched, so the room impression created by the early reflections stays intact.
[Ctrl]/[Cmd]+Click restores the length to the impulse response length.
IR Display and Selection.
o Log Time. When engaged, this shows more details for the early
reflections, making it easier to set ER/LR crossover point.
o Log Level. When engaged, this makes it easier to see RMS curves.
o IR Name. Click to open file selector, or drag and drop any IR file here.
o Prev/Next. Switches the impulse response to the previous or next file in
the same file location as the existing impulse response.
Reverb. Scales volumes before and after the ER/LR crossover point, from 0 to 1.00.
Mix. This is the wet/dry mix, from 0 to 100%.
Envelope.
o Fade-In. Fades in the impulse response, from 0 ms to 2.0s.
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ER/LR Crossover. Sets the crossover point in time for early and late
reflections; affects the impulse-response processing. Range is from 0 to
500 ms.
Fade-Out. Fades out the impulse response, from 1 ms to the length of the
impulse response.
Shorten with Stretch. When this is activated, and the length is smaller than the original
impulse response, the impulse response is not cut and is instead timestretched between the
ER/LR breakpoint and impulse-response end. (The content of the impulse response before the
ER/LR breakpoint is not stretched or compressed, preserving the character of those reflections
and thus a large part of the reverb character.)
Stretch with Pitch. When this is activated, timestretching is not used for
length changes, and resampling is used instead. This scales the early
reflections as well.
Processing. As OpenAIR does not feature true stereo processing, channel crossfeed and cross-delay is built-in.
o Cross-Feed. Adjusts the amount of the delayed “other” channel that gets
fed into the left and right IR channels, from 0 to 100%
o Cross-Delay. Adjusts the delay of the cross-fed channels, effectively acting
as stereo distance, from 0 to 25 ms.
o Asymmetry. Adjusts delays and the mix of cross-feed to simulate an
asymmetric recording setup, from full left to full right.
o 6-band Parametric EQ. Scales frequency ranges in the impulse response.
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13.10.4 IR Maker
IR Maker is a utility plug-in that allows you to capture your own impulse responses for use with
OpenAIR and with the cabinet section of Ampire XT. The following describes general
guidelines on how to use IR Maker to create impulses:
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In the Song/Audio IO Setup menu, create an Output channel configured with the
physical output on your interface that the IR Maker sweep signal will route through.
That output might be connected to a speaker in the space for which you want to
capture an IR, or to the Effects Return on an amplifier connected to a cabinet for
capturing a guitar cabinet IR.
Then, create an Input Channel in Song/Audio IO Setup, configured with the physical
input on your interface that IR Maker will get the return signal from. A microphone, or
the output of a hardware processor, will connect to this input when capturing the IR.
Now create an Audio Track in a Song, set it's input and output to the input and output
you just created, and insert IR Maker on the Track.
Signal-path latency is important. That latency may vary because of the distance of the
mic from the source, for instance, and may be a part of the impulse response to be
captured. So, it is easiest to detect the signal path latency with a loopback from
interface output to interface input. To do this, you need to route the physical output
directly into the physical input, creating a loopback for the IO you created before.
Then, press Detect in the Latency Compensation section. If the latency box still shows
zero after testing, then something is wrong with your audio setup (levels, audio I/O
ports, monitors, cables, interface settings, etc.).
After detecting latency in the signal path, disconnect the loopback from before.
Connect the output to the device that will receive/output the IR Sweep signal (a
speaker in a room, a guitar amplifier Effects Return, etc), and the input to the device
that will capture the IR (a microphone in a room or in front of a guitar cabinet, or the
output of a hardware device).
The file Output Path is structured as a base part (the path to the folder where your IRs
reside), a device part (the subfolder for that cabinet, space, etc.), and an IR base-name
(mic/mic-position).
Select the Sweep Length (longer = higher-frequency resolution and less noise). In
general, 60 seconds should be enough for high fidelity. IR Length can always be
shortened later to save CPU resources but it should be long enough to contain the
whole response. As a default for cabinets, we recommend using 0.1s. Shorter Sweep
and IR Lengths get calculated much faster.
Normalizing ensures maximum loudness in IR but can be done later, and can destroy
loudness relationships between different devices.
Usually you need to trigger the sweeping several times to adjust the levels. It helps to
show input and Output Channels in the mixer to watch the metering closely.
Check the Open checkbox to have your computer's file browser open the newly
created impulse response after calculation. You can then drag that onto a new track to
view the IR and make any edits you desire, such as fades; or drag the IR into OpenAIR
or Ampire XT for immediate use.
13.11 Pipeline (Studio One Professional)
As mentioned in section 9.2.9 of this manual, Pipeline allows hardware processors to be
inserted on audio channels in much the same way that virtual effects are inserted. This feature
is commonly called a “hardware insert.”
13.11.1 Configuring an Instance of Pipeline
Insert an instance of Pipeline on any channel just like any other effect, either by dragging it in
from the Browser, or through the Add menu in the Insert Device Rack. Note that there are
Mono and Stereo versions of Pipeline; use the version that is appropriate for your hardware
processor.
The Pipeline interface features the following controls:
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Signal Scope. Displays an overlay of the send and return signals.
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Label. Click in the empty space to type in a label. This is used to clearly identify the
inserted hardware.
Send controls:
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Gain. Adjust the send gain to prevent clipping the hardware input.
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Output Selection. Select the Output Channel that is used to route audio from Studio
One to your hardware processor.
Offset. Set an offset value in samples to account for the latency induced directly by AD/DA
converters and hardware processors.
Return controls:
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Gain. Adjust the return gain as needed to prevent clipping after the hardware insert.
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Input Selection. Select the Input Channel that is used to route audio from your
hardware processor into Studio One.
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Mix. Adjust the mix of send and return signal. This makes parallel processing possible.
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Phase Invert. Invert the phase of the return signal (relative to the send signal). This is
useful when auditioning for calibration purposes
To the far left and right of the Pipeline interface are Send and Return meters with separate clip
indicators, enabling you to accurately monitor send and return levels.
13.11.2 Automatic Latency Compensation
Pipeline will automatically compensate for the latency involved in routing audio from Studio
One to your audio interface and back. This is based on the reported input and output latency
from your hardware-interface driver. The roundtrip latency being compensated for is
displayed in milliseconds at the bottom of the Pipeline interface.
13.11.3 Manual Offset
For practical purposes, analog hardware processors do not introduce latency (aside from the
latency introduced by the interface), as their processing takes place at close to the speed of
light. However, a few other sources of latency may affect the signal, including DA/ADconverter latency and digital signal processing (DSP) latency.
This latency is not compensated for automatically, which could result in the signal being
delayed very slightly, altering its phase relationship to the rest of the mix.
Adjust the Offset knob to compensate for latency introduced by the hardware processor. The
Offset value is added to the total roundtrip latency. Setting a positive value will increase the
latency-compensation time, and setting a negative value will decrease the latencycompensation time. Therefore, set a positive Offset value when compensating for hardwareprocessor latency.
To assist in determining the appropriate Offset value, Pipeline includes a signal scope that can
display the send and return signals simultaneously, and it offers a Ping function to pass a
specific waveform through the signal path for calibration.
Once an instance of Pipeline has been configured to route audio between your hardware
processor and your interface, you should calibrate the Offset value using the Ping function.
You will want the hardware processor to be in Bypass, if possible, so that no processing is
done on the signal, and you will want the send and return signal levels to match as closely as
possible.
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Click on the Ping button. This will send a short sound through the entire signal path.
The send signal will be displayed in red on the scope, and the return signal will be in
blue.
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The return signal is likely to be slightly behind the send signal in time, indicating some
amount of signal-path latency is present. You will compensate for this time using the
Offset value. You can turn the knob, or enter a value directly, to set a positive Offset
value that will bring the return signal back in time to align with the send signal on the
scope.
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As you move the knob or set a value, the signal path will be automatically pinged
again, and the scope will update to provide instant feedback on the calibration.
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You can also click on the Difference button to see the difference between the send
and return signals. The smaller the waveform becomes (less amplitude), the more
aligned the signals will be. This is also helpful for matching send and return levels.
Once you have the correct Offset value established, you should store a preset, as described in
the next section.
When Ping is disabled, the real-time send and return signals are displayed. Using the Sense
fader, it is possible to trigger the display to only update based on detected transients. For
instance, you may want to see how the kick and snare drums are lining up from a drum-bus
channel, and you’d want to avoid having the scope display the entire signal all of the time. To
do this, move the Sense fader to the right until the only the transients you want to see—in this
case a kick or snare hit—are displayed.
13.11.4 Storing Pipeline Presets
Once Pipeline has been configured for a particular piece of hardware, you should store the
setting as a preset so that the configuration can be recalled at a later time, as with a virtualeffect preset. Any number of presets can be stored, which allows you to recall configurations
for any number of hardware processors. These presets will appear under the Pipeline effect in
the Browser, just like a preset stored for a virtual effect.
If you create new I/O channels in the Audio I/O Setup while configuring a Pipeline preset, be
sure to click on Make Default before exiting the menu. This will ensure that the required I/O for
that Pipeline preset is available in every Song and Project.
Normally, you would use only one instance at a time of Pipeline with a particular I/O
configuration. However, it is possible to insert the same Pipeline preset on multiple channels,
in which case the signal from each channel will effectively sum at the specified output, and
that summed signal will return from the hardware processor to every channel simultaneously.
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While this might lead to interesting possibilities, exercise caution, as levels could easily
become excessive.
13.11.5 Mixing Down with Pipeline
When Pipeline is being used in any Song, you must render a mixdown in real time, as this is
required in order for your hardware insert to be incorporated in the mix.
This is handled automatically, so that when any instance of Pipeline is inserted in a Song or
Project, the mixdown will always be done in real time.
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14
Built-in Virtual Instruments
Studio One has three built-in virtual instruments: SampleOne, Impact, Presence, and Mojito.
These instruments provide a solid foundation for music production in any style. The following
sections describe each instrument in detail.
14.1
SampleOne
A sample player is closely related to a synthesizer. However, instead of generating sounds, a
sample player starts with an audio clip, or “sample,” and then plays that sample based on how
the instrument is configured.
SampleOne is a basic sample player with adjustable keymap range and loop capabilities, pitch,
amplifier, filter envelopes, and LFO-modulation parameters. The following describes how to
use SampleOne.
14.1.1 Interface
The main display shows the currently selected sample waveform and allows playback/looprange and keymap-range editing, as well as sample zoom. To the right of this display is the list
of all currently loaded samples, which will trigger simultaneously and can therefore be
considered sample layers. Below the main display are the amplifier, filter, and LFO parameters
that can be set for each sample.
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14.1.2 Add and Play a Sample
To add a sample to SampleOne, drag any audio clip from the Browser, or any Audio Event or
selected range from the Arrange view, into the sample list. The waveform for the audio clip
will appear in the main display. If you drag in a selected range from the Arrange view, the
range will be bounced to a separate audio file and then added to SampleOne.
Note you can quickly access samples that are in the same file location as a loaded sample by
using the Previous and Next button to switch to the previous or next sample in that file
location.
By default, the keymap range is set from C0 to B5, with C3 set as the sample’s root note. With
the SampleOne instrument track properly set up, and Monitor engaged, press any key within
the default keymap range on your keyboard to play the loaded sample. C3 is set by default as
the sample’s root note, so playing the C3 (middle C) key on your Keyboard will play the sample
at its original pitch and speed. Playing the keys above C3 will shift the sample pitch higher,
and playing below C3 will shift the sample pitch lower and will slow down playback speed.
As mentioned in section 7.1.3, when adding a REX file to SampleOne from the Browser with
the Send to New SampleOne command, the REX file’s individual slices will be mapped across
the keymap (starting at C3 by default, dependent on number of slices), with each slice given
its own note.
Samples can be tuned by adjusting the Tune parameter near the Pitch Envelope controls. Float
the mouse over the Tune parameter and use the mouse wheel to adjust the parameter, or click
and enter a value. The Tune parameter is expressed in cents.
By default, up to 32 voices can play simultaneously, meaning you can play 32 separate notes
before the first note you played will be cut off to allow more voices to play. Click on the
Monophonic button if you want only one voice to playback at a time.
Click on the Glide button to engage Glide, and adjust the relative amount of Glide using the
horizontal fader. Glide will create gradual shifting over time between consecutive notes, as
opposed to the usual immediate switch from one note to the next.
Adjust the PB Range value to change the range of the pitch-bend wheel, expressed in
semitones.
14.1.3 Adjust Sample Playback Range
To adjust the time range of the sample that will play when triggered, float the mouse to the
left or right edge of the sample until the Hand cursor appears, then click-and-drag left or right.
The range highlighted in blue will play when the sample is triggered.
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14.1.4 Loop a Sample
To loop playback of a sample, click on the Loop button above the main display. A Loop Range
display will appear above the sample waveform, indicating the section of the sample to be
looped. Any range of the sample can be looped. If the loop range begins after the initial
playback range begins, the sample will play from the beginning of the playback-range
position to the end of the loop-range position; then it will play from the start of the loop range
to the end of the loop range and back for as long as the sample is triggered.
14.1.5 Change Root Note and Keymap Range
To change the Root note, click-and-drag the root-note handle (displayed immediately above
the keyboard display, C3 by default) left or right across the keyboard display. The notes on
your keyboard that will trigger the sample are indicated in the Keymap Range display, which is
the blue bar extending to the right and left of the note handle. To restrict the range of notes
that will trigger the sample, click-and-drag on the left or right edge of the Keymap Range
display.
14.1.6 Playing Multiple Samples
Up to 96 samples can be loaded into SampleOne at once, with each loaded sample displayed
in the sample list. Select any sample in the list to edit its playback, loop, and keymap range, as
well as its root note and loop status. All loaded samples will be triggered simultaneously,
depending on the keymap range for each sample. For instance, if C3 on your keyboard is set to
trigger every sample, pressing C3 will trigger every sample at once. In this way, multilayered,
or multitimbral sample-playback can be achieved.
Note that the amplifier envelope, filter envelope, and LFO are global and affect the overall
output of SampleOne.
14.1.7 Replace a Sample
To replace a sample in SampleOne, select, in the sample list, the sample that you wish to
replace. Then drag any audio clip from the Browser, or any Audio Event from the Arrange view,
into the main display. The sample will replace the previous one in the sample list, and the
previously displayed sample waveform will be updated to reflect the new sample.
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14.1.8 Edit Pitch, Filter, and Amplifier Envelopes
The output of each sample loaded in SampleOne can be modified with pitch, filter, and
amplifier envelopes. Note the Edit All button, which allows the simultaneous editing of all
sample parameters at once when engaged. The following describes the use of these
envelopes.
•
Pitch Envelope. Modifies the pitch characteristics of the audio output. Click the
Activate button to activate/deactivate.
o
•
o
LFO. Adjusts the range within which the LFO affects pitch. Variable from -1
octave to 1 octave.
o
Env. Adjusts the range within which the envelope affects pitch. Variable
from -1 octave to 1 octave.
o
Attack. Adjusts the amount of time it takes to reach the Env value from the
original pitch of the sample once a sample has been triggered. Variable from 0.98
ms to 1,024s.
o
Decay. Adjusts the amount of time it takes to reach the sustain level after reaching
full volume. Variable from 0.98 ms to 1,024s.
o
Sustain. Adjusts the Sustain level. Variable from -64 dB to 0 dB. The sustain period
continues until the sample trigger stops.
o
Release. Adjusts the amount of time it takes to reach the original pitch after
sample trigger has stopped. Variable from 0.98 ms to 1,024s.
Filter Envelope. Modifies the frequency characteristics of the audio output. Click
activate button to activate/deactivate.
o
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Tune. Adjusts the tuning of the sample. Variable from -100 cents to 100 cents.
Frequency. Adjusts the filter cutoff frequency. Variable from 19.4 Hz to 19.913
kHz.
o
Velocity. Adjusts the maximum range, in octaves, within which note
velocity can affect the maximum filter range (the value used when velocity
equals 127).
o
Wheel. Adjusts the range, expressed as distance in octaves, within which
the modulation wheel on your Keyboard can adjust the instantaneous
filter cutoff frequency (the value used when the mod wheel value equals
127).
•
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LFO. Adjusts the range within which the LFO affects the cutoff frequenecy.
Variable from -6.7 octaves to 6.7 octaves.
o
Env. Adjusts the range within which the envelope affects the cutoff
frequency. Variable from -10 octaves to 10 octaves.
o
Resonance. Adjusts the relative resonance of the filter. Variable from 0 to 100.
o
Filter Type. Selects the filter type. Choose from LP, BP, and HP and between 12
and 24 dB.
o
Attack. Adjusts the amount of time it takes for the filter cutoff frequency to move
from the frequency value to the envelope value once a sample has been triggered.
Variable from 0.98 ms to 101.6s.
o
Decay. Adjusts the amount of time it takes to reach the sustain level after reaching
the envelope value. Variable from 0.98 ms to 101.6s.
o
Sustain. Adjusts the sustain level, which is the mix of the signal filtered at the
envelope value with the signal filtered at the frequency value. Variable from -96 dB
to 0 dB. The sustain period continues until the sample trigger stops.
o
Release. Adjusts the amount of time it takes the filter to reach the frequency value
after the sample trigger has stopped. Variable from 0.98 ms to 101.6s.
Amplifier Envelope. Modifies the amplitude characteristics of the audio output. Click
the Activate button to activate/deactivate.
o
•
o
Volume. Adjusts the maximum volume of the audio output. Variable from -∞ to 6
dB.
o
Velocity. Adjusts the amount, in dB, that note velocity affects the
maximum amplitude. Variable from -144 to 0 dB (the value used when
velocity equals 127).
o
Wheel. Adjusts the range, expressed in dB, with which the modulation
wheel on your Keyboard can adjust the instantaneous amplitude at any
time. Variable from -144 to 0 dB (the value used when the mod-wheel
value equals 127).
o
LFO. Adjusts the range with which the LFO affects the cutoff frequency.
Variable from -∞ to 0 dB.
Pan. Adjusts the stereo pan of the audio output. Variable from full L to full R.
•
Attack. Adjusts the amount of time it takes to reach full volume once a sample has
been triggered. Variable from 0.98 ms to 1,024s.
•
Decay. Adjusts the amount of time it takes to reach the sustain level after reaching full
volume. Variable from 0.98 ms to 1,024s.
•
Sustain. Adjusts the sustain level. Variable from -64 dB to 0 dB. The sustain period
continues until the sample trigger stops.
•
Release. Adjusts the amount of time it takes to reach a level of -∞ after the sample
trigger has stopped. Variable from 0.98 ms to 1,024s.
14.1.9 Modulate Parameters with LFO
Various parameters of SampleOne can be modulated, or varied over time, with the LFO. The
following describes how to use the LFO to modulate parameters.
•
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LFO. Click the Activate button to activate/deactivate.
o
Sync/Free. Choose to sync the modulation speed to tempo (variable from 1/64T
to 4 bars), adjust the speed freely as frequency (variable from 0.01 Hz to 500 Hz), or
sync to note-on by selecting neither Sync nor Free (variable from 0.01 Hz to 500
Hz).
o
Waveform. Click to select, from top to bottom, the triangle, sine, sawtooth, or
square LFO waveform.
o
Delay. Adjusts the amount of time before the LFO affects anything once a sample
is triggered. Variable from 0.98 ms to 18s.
o
Wheel. Adjusts the peak amplitude amount with which the modulation wheel will
control the LFO signal strength (LFO strength when mod wheel value equals 127).
Variable from -144 to 0 dB.
14.2
Impact
Impact features a grid of pads into which samples are loaded and played back independently,
as with many popular hardware drum-sample players. Each pad has its own pitch, amplifier,
and filter controls with accompanying envelopes. There are multiple stereo and mono outputs
for each pad, making sophisticated output busing simple.
14.2.1 Interface
Impact is arranged as a 4x4 grid of pads, with controls for each pad. Below each pad are Solo
and Mute controls, as well as an Output Channel assignment. Click on any pad to select it and
view its parameters, located on the right side of the interface. In the lower left corner of the
waveform display are Offset Start and End buttons to offset the playback of a sample start or
end from -0.5 to 0.5s. To the right of these controls you will find Add and Remove sample
buttons for adding or removing a sample from the currently selected pad, as well as Previous
and Next buttons to select the previous or next sample in the same file location as the existing
sample.
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Above these controls on the far right is a sample-zoom control, with a scrollbar to the left.
Click on the Zoom control to zoom in or out on the sample, and use the scrollbar to scroll
across the sample left or right if zoomed to a level where the entire sample is not viewable.
14.2.2 Add and Play Samples
To add a sample to a pad, drag any audio clip from the Browser, or any Audio Event or selected
range from the Arrange view, directly onto the desired pad. If you drag in a selected range
from the Arrange view, the range will be bounced to a separate audio file and then added to
Impact. Dragging a sample to a pad that already contains a sample will replace the old sample
with the new one, by default. To clear a pad of all samples, [Right]/[Control]-click on the
desired pad and select Clear Pad.
Once a sample has been added to a pad, you can trigger the sample by clicking on the pad
with the mouse or by playing that pad’s assigned note on your Keyboard. There are two note
assignments per pad, displayed at the bottom left and right corners of each pad. You can
change the note assignment by clicking on a pad, then clicking in the Trigger 1st or 2nd fields
in the lower left corner of Impact and either entering a value or playing a note on your
Keyboard.
Each pad has a selectable playback mode in the lower right corner of Impact. You can choose
from the following:
•
•
•
•
•
One Shot Poly. This mode means the pad trigger will start playback of the entire
sample, which will not stop until the end of the sample is reached. If multiple triggers
occur before the end of the sample is reached, the sample will be played multiple
times at once, with each new triggered sample overlapping the any other playing
voices.
One Shot Mono. This mode means the pad trigger will start playback of the entire
sample, which will not stop until either the end of the sample is reached, or another
pad trigger occurs.
Toggle. This mode means the pad trigger will start playback of the sample, and if
another pad trigger occurs while the sample is playing, the sample will stop playback/
Note On/Off. This mode means that the note-on event for the trigger will start sample
playback, and the note-off event will stop it.
Sync. To the right of the Play mode selection box is a Sync checkbox. Engage this
option if you would like sample playback to start on the nearest beat to the trigger
time, as determined by the Arrange quantize value.
To solo a pad so that you will hear only its sound when it is triggered, click on the Solo button
beneath the desired pad. To mute a pad, so that pad will not be heard when triggered, click on
the Mute button beneath the desired pad.
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Note that each pad has its own Pitch, Filter, and Amplifier controls.
14.2.3 Multiple Velocity Layers
It is possible to add more than one sample to a pad, enabling you to trigger different samples
based on velocity. For instance, you may want to have three different samples for a single
snare drum pad: one soft, one medium, and one loud. This way, when you play Impact, the
snare drum will sound much more realistic than if you used a single sample.
To do this, hold [Shift] when dragging a sample or clip to a pad. This will add a new layer to the
pad, indicated by the bar graph in the sample display. Click-and-drag the bar graph left or
right to alter the velocities at which the samples will trigger. The velocity range for the
currently selected sample will be highlighted.
14.2.4 Pitch Control
You can modify the pitch for each pad’s sample using the Pitch controls.
•
•
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Pitch Envelope
o
Attack. Adjusts the amount of time from when the pad is triggered to when the
envelope value is reached. Variable from 0s to ∞.
o
Hold. Adjusts the amount of time the envelope value will be held after the attack
period and before decay begins. Variable from 0s to ∞.
o
Decay. Adjusts the amount of time it takes after the hold period to return to the
envelope value. Variable from 0.98 ms to ∞.
Pitch
o
Envelope. Adjusts the detune range of the pitch envelope in cents. Variable from 1,200 to 1,200 cents. (The default value is 0, meaning the pitch envelope has no
effect.)
o
Velocity. Adjusts the maximum detune value, in cents, that pitch is affected by
velocity (the maximum detune value when triggered note velocity equals 127).
Variable from -1,200 to 1,200 cents.
o
Trans. Adjusts the transposition in semitones for the selected pad. Variable from 10 to 12.
o
Tune. Adjusts the tuning, in cents, for the selected pad. Variable from -100 to 100
cents.
14.2.5 Amplifier Control
To adjust the amplitude for each pad, use the following parameters:
•
•
Amp Env
o
Attack. Adjusts the amount of time from when the pad is triggered to when
maximum amplitude is reached. Variable from -∞ (no attack, sample starts at
maximum amplitude) to 0s to ∞.
o
Hold. Adjusts the amount of time the maximum velocity will be held after the
attack period, before decay begins. Variable from 0s to ∞.
o
Decay. Adjusts the amount of time it takes after the hold period to reach an
amplitude of -∞ from the maximum amplitude. Variable from 0.98 ms to ∞.
Amplifier
o
Velocity. Adjusts the maximum amplitude value, in dB, affected by velocity (the
maximum amplitude value when triggered note velocity equals 127). Variable
from -∞ to 0 dB.
o
Pan. Adjusts the sample’s stereo pan for the selected pad. Variable from -1 (L) to 1
(R).
o
Gain. Attenuates or boosts the amplitude, in dB, of the sample assigned to the
selected pad. Variable from -∞ to 6 dB.
14.2.6 Filter Control
Each pad features a variable filter to allow anything from subtle tonal shaping to heavily
processed filter sweeps.
•
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Filter Env
o
Attack. Adjusts the amount of time it takes for the filter cutoff frequency to move
from the frequency value to the envelope value once a sample has been triggered.
Variable from 0s to 10.1s.
o
Hold. Adjusts the amount of time the envelope value will be held after the attack
period and before decay begins. Variable from 0s to ∞.
o
Decay. Adjusts the amount of time it takes to return to the cutoff level after
reaching the envelope value. Variable from 0.98 ms to ∞.
•
Envelope. Adjusts the range of the filter envelope in octaves, relative to the cutoff
value. Variable from -10 to 10. (The default value is 0, meaning the filter envelope has
no effect.)
•
Velocity. Adjusts the maximum value in octaves affected by velocity . Variable from 10 to 10 (the maximum value when triggered note velocity equals 127).
•
Cutoff. Adjusts the cutoff frequency of the filter. Variable from 30 Hz to 16 kHz.
•
Reso. Adjusts the resonance of the filter. Variable from 0 to 100.
•
Filter Type. Selects the filter type. Choose from LP (low-pass), BP (bandpass), and HP
(high-pass) and between 12 and 24 dB slopes.
14.2.7 Grouping Pads
Pads can be grouped so that when one pad in the group is triggered, the other pads in the
group will be choked, or silenced. You can add pads to one of four groups by doing the
following:
•
Select a pad you wish to assign to a Group by clicking on it.
•
Click on the Group select box in the sample display window and choose 1, 2, 3, or 4.
•
Repeat the process for any pad you wish to assign to a group.
Now, when a pad that is in Group 1 is triggered, all other pads in Group 1 will be silenced. This,
for instance, can be used to silence different hi-hat samples, so that when a closed hi-hat
sample is played following an open hi-hat sample, the open hi-hat sample will be silenced to
prevent it from ringing through the closed hi-hat sound. This can add realism to your drum
sounds.
14.2.8 Using Multiple Outputs
Impact provides eight stereo outputs and eight mono outputs for each pad. To change the
output routing, click on the Output selection box below the desired pads and choose the
desired Output Channel for each pad. If the Output Channel does not already exist in the
Mixer, it will be added automatically.
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14.3
Presence
Presence is a virtual sample-player instrument that enables you to play an enormous variety of
sounds. Presence uses a native sound format packaged into Sound Sets and can also load and
play any SoundFont. The Sound Sets include a wide variety of instruments, such as pianos,
strings, horns, and percussion. These sounds can be extensively shaped using the built-in
amplifier and modulation envelopes, filter, and effects.
14.3.1 Load and Play a Preset
The Sound Sets included with Studio One can be found as presets in Presence. To browse the
presets, click on the Preset window. Click once on any preset in the list to load the preset in
Presence. When loaded, the preset is immediately playable by clicking on the keyboard
display or by using your Keyboard.
Presence is capable of 96-voice polyphony, meaning up to 96 voices can playback
simultaneously. A voice is often equivalent to one note; however, the underlying samples can
be stereo, in which case a single note will use two voices. The number of voices being used at
any moment is displayed in the upper left corner of the main display.
14.3.2 Add SoundFonts to Your Library
In order to be accessed directly in Presence, SoundFonts must be added to the Studio One
Instrument Library, found in Studio One/Options/Locations/Instrument Library [Mac OS X:
Preferences/Options/Locations/Instrument Library]. To make your SoundFonts directly
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accessible in Presence, simple add the storage location in which they reside to the Instrument
Library.
To do this, click on Add in the Instrument Library menu, browse to the appropriate location,
and click OK. SoundFonts found in the specified location will be added to the preset list in
Presence.
14.3.3 Relative Control Parameters
Multiple samples are used to create sounds in a single instrument, and presets can potentially
comprise multiple instruments. Expressive playback is achieved by modifying the samples
within a preset, using relative controls, as each sample in any given preset can have different
absolute settings.
The parameter values for the controls in Presence are relative to the absolute settings for the
samples in the loaded preset and are expressed as percentages or something similar. While
this might appear confusing in theory, in practice these controls are very easy to use.
14.3.4 Filter Control
The Filter allows you to shape the tonality of the audio output using the following parameters:
•
Cutoff. Adjusts the relative filter cutoff frequency. Variable from -100% to 100%.
•
Resonance. Adjusts the relative resonance of the filter. Variable from -960 to 960.
•
Filter Type. Select the filter type. Choose between LP (low-pass), BP (bandpass), and
HP (high-pass) and between 12 and 24 dB.
•
High Quality. Enable a high-quality filter mode.
•
LFO. Adjusts the relative amount of modulation of the filter cutoff frequency. Variable
from -100% to 100%.
•
Envelope. Adjusts the relative amount by which the modulation envelope will affect
the modulation of the cutoff frequency. Variable from -100% to 100%.
•
Velocity. Adjusts the maximum range within which note velocity can affect the
maximum relative cutoff range (the value used when velocity=127). Variable from 100% to 100%.
14.3.5 Amplifier Control
The Amplifier allows you to modify the amplitude characteristics of the audio output using the
following parameters:
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•
Volume. Amplifies or attenuates the relative volume. Variable from -100% to 100%.
•
Pan. Adjusts the relative pan of the audio output. Variable from -100 (L) to 100 (R).
•
Attack. Adjusts the relative amount of time it takes to reach full volume when a note is
played. Variable from -100% to 100%.
•
Decay. Adjusts the relative amount of time it takes to reach the sustain level after
reaching full volume. Variable from -100% to 100%.
•
Sustain. Adjusts the relative sustain level. Variable from -100% to 100%. The sustain
period continues until the note trigger stops.
•
Release. Adjusts the relative amount of time it takes to reach a level of -∞ after the
note trigger has stopped. Variable from -100% to 100%.
•
Velocity. Adjusts the relative amount by which note velocity affects the maximum
amplitude. Variable from -100% to 100% (the value used when velocity value equals
127).
•
LFO. Adjusts the relative amount of volume modulation. Variable from -100% to 100%.
14.3.6 Pitch and Vibrato Control
The Pitch control allows you to modify the pitch using the following parameters:
•
LFO. Adjusts the relative amount of pitch modulation. Variable from -100% to 100%.
•
Envelope. Adjusts the relative amount by which the modulation envelope affects the
pitch. Variable from -100% to 100%.
The Vibrato control allows you to modify the pitch with an independent LFO using the
following parameters:
•
Delay. Adjusts the relative amount of time it takes for vibrato to begin. Variable from 100% to 100%.
•
Speed. Adjusts the relative speed of the vibrato. Variable from -100% to 100%.
•
Depth. Adjusts the range within which the pitch will be affected by vibrato. Variable
from 0 to 2.
14.3.7 Modulation Control
Use Modulation to change Presence parameters over time, using the following parameters:
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•
Attack. Adjusts the relative amount of time it takes to reach full modulation when a
note is played. Variable from -100% to 100%.
•
Decay. Adjusts the relative amount of time it takes to reach the sustain level after
reaching full modulation. Variable from -100% to 100%.
•
Sustain. Adjusts the relative sustain level. Variable from -100% to 100%. The sustain
period continues until the note trigger stops.
•
Release. Adjusts the relative amount of time it takes to reach a modulation level of -∞
after the note trigger has stopped. Variable from -100% to 100%.
•
Speed. Adjusts the relative speed of the LFO. Variable from -100% to 100%.
•
Sync/Free. Choose to sync the modulation speed to tempo (variable from 1/64T to 4
bars). Adjust the speed freely as frequency (variable from 0.01 Hz to 1 kHz), or adjust it
as a relative amount by selecting neither Sync nor Free (variable from -100% to 100%).
•
Delay. Adjusts the onset delay of the modulation envelope. Variable from -100% to
100%. Not available when using Sync or Free speed adjustment.
14.3.8 Performance Controls
Presence is capable of playing back up to 96 voices at once. The following performance
controls are available to the left of the keyboard display:
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•
Glide. Enable/disable glide, or ramping to the pitch of the currently played note from
the pitch of the last played note.
•
Glide Time. Adjusts the amount of time to reach the pitch of the currently played note
when Glide is enabled. Variable from 9 ms to 1s.
•
Pitch Bend Wheel (PB). Adjusts pitch based on Pitch Bend Range. Variable from -1 to
1.
•
Pitch Bend Range. Adjusts the range of the pitch bend. Variable from 0 to 24
semitones.
•
Mod Wheel (Mod). Adjusts the modulation amount. Variable from 0 to 1.
•
Monophonic (MN). Click to engage Monophonic mode. This will allow only one note
to trigger at a time.
14.3.9 FX
Presence has seven built-in effects processors, which can each be enabled independently. The
processed signal can then be mixed with the original signal.
The following global effects controls are available:
•
Bypass. Bypass all effects.
o
Each effect can be bypassed independently directly from the main Presence
display by clicking on its name.
•
Edit FX. Click to switch to the FX panel and edit effects.
•
FX Mix. Adjusts the global mix from 0% to 100%.
The following effects are available:
Modulation
•
Type. Choose from Chorus, Flanger, and Phaser.
•
Chorus
•
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o
Delay. Adjusts the onset time of the chorus from 0.01 ms to 40 ms.
o
Speed. Adjusts the speed of the chorus from 0.1 Hz to 30 Hz.
o
Width. Adjusts the relative width of the chorus from 0 to 100%.
o
Depth. Adjusts the relative depth of the chorus from 0 to 100%.
Flanger
o
Delay. Adjusts the onset time of the flanger from 0.01 ms to 10 ms.
o
Feedback. Adjusts the feedback for the flanger from 0% to 99%.
o
Speed/Beats. Adjusts the speed of the flanger from 0.1 Hz to 30 Hz or
1/64T to 4 bars, respectively.
o
Width. Adjusts the relative width of the flanger from 0 to 100%.
o
Depth. Adjusts the relative depth of the flanger from 0 to 100%.
•
Phaser
o
Phase Speed. Adjusts the speed of the phaser from 10 Hz to 8 kHz.
o
Feedback. Adjusts the feedback for the phaser from 0% to 99%.
o
Speed/Beats. Adjusts the speed of the phaser from 0.1 Hz to 30 Hz or
1/64T to 4 bars, respectively.
o
Mod Width. Adjusts the modulation width of the phaser from 0 to 100%.
o
Depth. Adjusts the relative depth of the phaser from 0 to 100%.
EQ
•
Lead/Bass. Selects between two variations of seven-band graphic EQ.
•
Lead. Adjusts frequency bands at 100, 200, 400, 800, 1.6k, 3.2k, and 6.4 kHz.
•
Bass. Adjusts frequency bands at 50, 120, 400, 500, 800, 4.5k, and 10 kHz.
Distortion
•
Type. Selects the type of distortion.
•
Drive. Adjusts the drive of the distortion from 0% to 100%.
Pan
•
Speed/Beats. Adjusts the speed of panning from 0.10 Hz to 30 Hz or 1/64T to 4
bars, respectively.
•
Depth. Adjusts the relative depth of the pan from 0 to 100%.
Gate
•
Pattern. Create a pattern by clicking on the 16 segments to open the gate for each
segment. The length of the pattern is adjusted with the Beats parameter, which is
then divided into these 16 equal segments.
o
•
Beats. Adjusts the length of the gate pattern in beats, variable from 1/64T to 4
bars.
•
Depth. Adjusts the relative depth of the gate from 0 to 100%.
Delay
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Stereo. Enable this to create a stereo pattern.
•
Send. Enable Send mode, where signal is fed into the delay as a send, rather than
inline as an insert.
•
Beats. Adjusts the delay pattern in beats, variable from 1/64T to 4 bars.
•
Feedback. Adjusts the feedback of the delay from 0% to 100%.
•
Low Cut Filter. Adjusts the frequency of the low-cut filter from 20 Hz to 1 kHz.
•
High Cut Filter. Adjusts the frequency of the high-cut filter from 1 kHz to 20 kHz.
•
Mix. Adjusts the mix of the delayed signal with the source signal from 0% to 100%.
Reverb
14.4
•
Predelay. Adjusts the predelay of the reverb from 0 ms to 450 ms.
•
Size. Adjusts the size of the reverb from 0% to 100%.
•
Damp. Adjusts the dampening of the reverb from 0% to 100%.
•
Mix. Adjusts the mix of the reverb signal with the source signal from 0% to 100%.
Mojito
Mojito is a simple, monophonic, subtractive synthesizer with effects that is capable of
generating a wide range of sounds. It models a classic analog synthesizer and features a lowaliasing oscillator and a 24 dB filter emulation. Mojito can generate killer bass sounds, lead
sounds, and special effects.
14.4.1 Interface
Mojito is organized into Oscillator (OSC), Amplifier (AMP), Filter (FLT), and FX sections, with
easy-to-use, yet powerful controls.
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14.4.2 Oscillator
Mojito’s Oscillator section is on the upper left. Here you can set up the harmonic content of
the sound source. The basic controls are the three large knobs on top: Pitch, Wave, and Width.
•
Pitch. Adjusts the frequency from one octave below to one octave above the played
note. Note that this will affect the cutoff frequency only via keytracking. Pitch will be
modified by the pitch-bend wheel (± 2 semitones).
•
Wave. Selects between a sawtooth wave and a pulse wave. These two waveforms
have a rich and regular harmonic content, making them classic sources for subtractive
synthesis. Sawtooth waves contain the fundamental and all harmonics whereas pulse
waves have only the fundamental and odd harmonics. Mixed settings will effectively
adjust the level of the even harmonics.
•
Width. Adjusts the pulse width of the pulse wave from almost zero to square. This will
adjust the balance between the fundamental and the higher and lower harmonics.
Below the three main OSC controls is a smaller row of knobs that adjust how much the
oscillator settings will be modulated. The speed of the modulation is adjusted using the LFO
Speed controls, located to the right of these knobs. The LFO can be synced to tempo or it can
oscillate with a freely adjustable period. Use the modulators to create chorus-like or string-like
sounds, vibrato, and other familiar modulated sounds.
There is also a Sub Oscillator knob, which can be adjusted from 0 to 100% to add more low
frequency content to the sound.
14.4.3 Amplifier
Below the Oscillator section is the Amplifier section. This consists of a Gain control, which
responds to MIDI Volume messages, and a Velocity-to-Volume control, which modulates the
volume of a note in response to key velocity.
The most important part of this section is the ADSR envelope. (“ADSR” stands for “Attack,
Decay, Sustain, Release.”) With these four sliders, you can adjust the amplitude characteristics
over time. These characteristics play a huge role in defining the overall sound. The ADSR
envelope can control the volume of a played note and can also control the filter cutoff.
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•
A. Adjust the attack time, which is the time required for the sound’s amplitude to go
from zero (silence) to full amplitude. The range is from 2 to 500 ms.
•
D. Adjusts the decay time, which is the time required to drop from full amplitude to
the sustain level. The range is from 2 ms to 1s.
•
S. Adjusts the sustain level, which is the level that is held from the end of the decay
until the key is released. The range is from -96 dB (silence) to 0 dB (full amplitude).
•
R. Adjusts the release time, which is the time required to fall back to silence after the
key is released. The range is from 2 ms to 2s.
To the left of the AMP section is the Portamento control. Using the Portamento mode selector,
you can choose between three modes:
•
No Portamento. A note that is played while another note is playing will silence the
previous note and trigger the new one.
•
Legato. An overlapped note will not trigger a new envelope but the pitch will slowly
change to the pitch of the new note.
•
Retrigger. An overlapped note will retrigger the current envelope, starting at its
volume at the moment it is retriggered. This also slowly changes the note’s pitch.
•
Note. Velocity will not be applied or updated for overlapped notes.
The Time knob adjusts the glide speed (that is, the duration of the pitch change) when using
portamento. The range is from 5 ms to 1s.
14.4.4 Filter
The section on top of the right side of Mojito only affects the resonant 24 dB low-pass filter.
•
Reso. Controls the resonance of the filter, which is an amplification, or emphasis, of
the signal at the cutoff-frequency.
o
Note: If the amount of resonance of a filter is raised high enough, the filter
begins oscillating at the cutoff frequency, thus generating its own waveform.
Be careful: this can be loud!
•
Drive. Controls the amount of filter drive from 0 to 100%.
•
Cutoff Knob. Controls the corner, or cutoff, frequency, which is the point above which
frequencies will be attenuated. The range is from 20 Hz to 16 kHz.
The other controls affect the modulation of the cutoff frequency.
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•
Key. Controls how much the played note scales the cutoff-frequency.
•
Velo. Controls how much the velocity of the played note shifts the cutoff frequency
up or down.
•
Envelope. Controls how much the ADSR envelope shifts the cutoff frequency up or
down.
•
LFO. Controls the amount of shifting that the filter LFO applies to the cutoff frequency.
The LFO can either be synced to tempo or it can oscillate with an adjustable period.
14.4.5 FX
On the bottom right is a small effects section where you can apply a modulation effect to
enliven or broaden the sound. Mod Depth controls the amount of this effect. Using Mod Color,
you can adjust the timbre from a flanger-like to a chorus-like effect. The modulation utilizes an
LFO that has the same speed as the filter LFO.
Finally, there is an Overdrive, the amount of which is controlled by the Drive control.
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15
Video Playback and Sync
Studio One Professional has a built-in video player that enables you to score to picture by
syncing Song and video playback. The following chapter describes how to use this video
player in detail.
15.1
Video Player Interface
Open the Video Player by clicking on the Video Player icon in the toolbar or by selecting it
from the View menu. When first opened, you will see a black screen with the text “Movie Not
Loaded” displayed. The bottom toolbar contains controls for the video player as follows:
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•
Remove Video. Click to remove the currently loaded video.
•
Extract Audio. Click to extract the audio from the video and place it on an audio track
in the arrangement.
•
Video Offset. Set a value.
•
Video Options. Choose to display the video as Half Size, Default (original) Size, or
Double Size.
•
Stop/Play. Click to stop or start video playback independent of the Song.
•
Online. This is engaged by default and enforces sync between the Song timeline and
the video playback. Click to disengage if you prefer that the Song and video playback
positions not be synced.
•
Mute. This is engaged by default and mutes the audio output from the video. Click to
disengage if you want to hear the audio output from the video.
•
Size. Click-and-drag the lower right corner of the video player to freely size the
window.
In the upper right corner of the video player, are buttons to maximize the video player
window and to close the video player.
15.2
Supported Video Formats
QuickTime is the only supported video technology for the Studio One video player. QuickTime
plays any video format for which a codec is installed in the system. If the video player displays
No Codec after importing a video, then the codec could not be found.
If you are a Mac OS X user, we highly recommend downloading Perian, which is an open
source QuickTime component that adds native support for many popular video formats, such
as DivX and XVid.
If you are a Windows user, any video codec installed in the system will be used. If you
encounter a video format for which you do not have an installed codec, you may want to visit
http://www.apple.com/quicktime/ resources/components.html to search for the codec.
Visit http://www.apple.com/quicktime/player/specs.html to view the standard QuickTime
supported video formats.
15.3
Import Video
The simplest way to import a video file is to drag-and-drop it from the File Browser into the
arrangement. Supported video files will appear in the browser with a Film Strip icon. You can
also use the Import Video menu in the Video Player to import any supported video file.
Drag a video file from the File Browser to the arrangement to import the video file to the Video
Player. When doing this, note that the position to which you drag the video will be used to set
the offset for video playback. For instance, if you drag-and-drop a video to 10 seconds in on
the timeline, the offset will be set at 10 seconds, and video playback will not begin until that
position is reached.
Hold [Ctrl]/[Cmd] while dragging to only extract the audio from the video and place it in the
position to which you drag. Hold [Alt] while dragging to simultaneously import the video file
to the Video Player and extract the audio from the video and place it on an audio track.
15.4
Sync to Video
Once the video has been imported, as long as the Online button in the Video Player is
engaged, Song and video playback will be in sync. When you locate the timeline cursor while
stopped or during playback, the video will adjust to the correct frame.
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When video playback starts, a small amount of data needs to be preloaded. Should there be a
resulting timing offset between the video and Song playback, Studio One will sync the video
during playback. This may cause the picture to jump a little after start, which is normal. For a
smooth start of video playback we recommend that you stop, locate, and then start.
In common practice, it will be good for you to know the frame rate of the video you are
working with and to set that frame rate in the Song/Song Setup/General menu. You may
choose from 24 fps, 25 fps, 29.97 fps, 29.97 dfps, 30 fps, and 30 dfps. Ideally, you should have a
reference timecode burned into the video itself so that you can compare the Song frame
position with the video timecode position and ensure accurate frame sync.
15.4.1 Using Follow Edit Position with Video
It is common to use markers to denote hitpoints in the video; that is, time positions where the
sound should sync closely with the video. Refer to section 9.7 of this manual for information
on how to use markers. When adjusting the position of a marker, it is possible to have the
playback position, and thus the current video frame, follow the marker position. To do this,
enable Follow Edit Position in the toolbar, next to Follow Song. This will help you accurately
place markers to use as hitpoints while viewing the exact frame to which the marker
corresponds. Similarly, Follow Edit Position will help when trying to sync Event or Note
position with video.
15.5
Platform Differences
In Windows XP, Vista, or 7 (32-bit or 64-bit), only the 32-bit version of Studio One can play back
video. As of this writing, QuickTime is not yet available for 64-bit applications in Windows but
it is expected in the near future.
In Mac OS X, QuickTime works as expected. Note that when running Studio One as a 64-bit
application in OS X, extraction of audio tracks is not possible at this time.
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16.
Extensions
Studio One’s functionality can be extended beyond the core functions provided directly by
the application. This allows the integration of external Web services and much more. At this
time, only one extension is available—the SoundCloud Client—and it is installed by default.
You can view installed Extensions from the Studio One/Studio One Extensions menu.
16.1
SoundCloud Client (Studio One Professional)
This extension allows the integration of the SoundCloud Web-based service. As mentioned on
the SoundCloud website, "Your sounds are free to go anywhere on the Web with SoundCloud.
Share privately to your family, publish to social networks, or embed your sounds on your site."
Studio One makes it possible to both upload audio to, and download from, SoundCloud.
With this extension running, you can access the SoundCloud Client directly from the Studio
One/SoundCloud Client menu. In this menu, you are able to upload audio straight to
SoundCloud, setting various SoundCloud-specific options at the same time.
You will also see a SoundCloud heading listed under the Servers folder in the File Browser.
You can drag and drop audio from the locations listed
here just as you would from any other file location, and
audio will be placed in the arrangement and
downloaded accordingly. You can even preview the
audio in the Browser.
For instance, you might have a music partner creating
beats for you, and he shares that audio directly with you
through SoundCloud. You would browse to that
person's SoundCloud folder, listed under the
SoundCloud heading in Servers, and drag the desired
audio into the arrangement. A special Event is placed in
the arrangement, and the Transfers menu will open to
indicate the download’s progress. When the download
is complete, the waveform will appear for the Event,
and you can proceed as you normally would with any
audio material.
You can also drag material to the SoundCloud node in the File Browser to export to
SoundCloud.
The SoundCloud Client is the first of its kind in any DAW, offering a fantastic way to get audio
to and from the Web. More extensions are on the way, so be sure to look for these in future
updates.
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269
Index
A
Advanced Options, 40
Audio Loops, 80
Audio Track
Input/Ouput Selection, 46
Monitoring, 48
Record-Enabling, 47
Tempo Mode, 47
Automatic Delay Compensation, 22
Automation, 161
Envelopes, 164
Hardware Controllers, 177
Modes, 167
Part, 168
Track, 161
B
Bend Panel, 91
Bouncing, 125
Browser, 109
Audio Effects, 119
Importing Files, 110
Pool, 115
Virtual Instruments, 118
Burn an Audio CD, 189
C
Control Link, 171
Focus Mapping, 175
Global Mapping, 175
Cue Mix, 63
FaderPort, 35
Folder Tracks, 127
FX Chain, 146
G
Groove Extraction, 93
Groups, 148
Hardware Inserts, 143
DDP Export, 190
Delay Compensation, 150
Digital Release, 190
Disc Image, 189
Duplicating Events, 122
Duplicating Tracks, 122
E
270
F
H
D
Editing, 67
Audio Editor, 97
Bend Markers, 89
Comping, 86
Detect Transients, 89
Edit Groups, 82
Event Volume Envelopes, 70
Events, 67
Music Editor, 98
Nudge, 76
Slip, 75
Snapping, 68
Strip Silence, 77
Tab to Transient, 89
Timestretching, 83
Tools, 69
Transient Detection and Editing, 88
Transpose, 76
Event Effects, 96
Export
Export a MIDI File, 114
Export Music Loops and Audio Loops, 114
Export Stems, 155
I
Info View, 14
Inserts, 140
Installation, 9
activation, 9
Instrument Track
Configuring an Instrument Track, 50
Creating an Instrument Track, 49
Monitoring, 54
Record Enabling, 53
K
Key Commands, 14
Mapping, 15
K-System Metering, 150
M
Marker Track, 151
Mastering, 180
Automatic Update of Mastering Files, 192
Splitting Tracks, 185
Track Markers, 186
Track Sequencing, 184
Meta-Information, 155
Mixing
Banks, 136
Bus, 132
Console, 130
FX Channel, 133
Mix Engine, 22
Mute/Solo, 131
Music Loops, 81
P
Pages
Project, 20
Quick Switch, 21
Song, 19
Start, 17
Peak Meter, 149
Performance Monitor, 26
Pitch Correction, 104
Presets
Use and Create Presets, 46
Project, 180
Q
Quantize, 92
Quantize Panel, 73
R
Recording
Activating Recording, 55
Audio Tracks, 45
Auto Punch, 56
271
Loop Recording, 58
Metronome, 57
Note Erase, 61
Pre-Roll, 55
Record Mode, 60
Takes, 59
Unpack Takes, 60
ReWire, 52
S
Setup, 24
Audio Device, 25
Audio IO, 27
Control Surfaces, 32
MIDI Devices, 29
System Requirements, 24
Sidechain, 144
Song
Creating a New Song, 38
Sound Sets, 36, 120
SoundCloud, 191, 268
T
Tempo Track, 123
Time Signature, 124
Track Layers, 61
Track List, 129
Track Transform, 94
Trash Bin, 134
V
Video
Import Video, 266
QuickTime, 266
Sync to Video, 266
Video Playback and Sync, 265
Virtual Instrument
Add a Virtual Instrument, 51
Multiple Virtual Instrument Outputs, 52
Z
Zoom, 107
© 2011 PreSonus Audio Electronics, Inc. All Rights Reserved. The following are trademarks or registered
trademarks of PreSonus Audio Electronics, Inc., all rights reserved: AudioBox, Capture, FireStudio, MixVerb,
TriComp, PreSonus, SampleOne, StudioLive, Studio One, and XMAX. Mac, Mac OS, and Macintosh are
registered trademarks of Apple, Inc., in the U.S. and other countries. Windows is a registered trademark of
Microsoft, Inc., in the U.S. and other countries. Other product names mentioned herein may be trademarks of their
respective companies. All specifications subject to change without notice…except the jambalaya recipe, which is
a classic.
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