Mass Storage, Display, and Hard Copy

Mass Storage, Display, and Hard Copy
32
Mass Storage, Display, and Hard Copy
Guy Cox
INTRODUCTION
Confocal microscopes commonly generate their images not as real
or virtual patterns of light, but as pixel values in the memory of
a computer (Cox, 1993). This gives the image a measure of permanence — unlike a visual image, once acquired it will not fade
— but it will be lost if the computer is turned off, or if that area
of memory is overwritten. To store that image with all its information intact we must write it in digital form — a copy on paper
or film, however good, cannot contain all the information of the
original. However, a copy on disk or tape is not directly accessible to human senses. For publication or presentation of the image,
or even just to access it, we must have a display or a hard copy, a
picture which can be viewed by the human eye.
This chapter reviews the range of possible solutions to these
two problems. Because this is a rapidly moving area, new alternatives will doubtless become available almost as soon as this is
printed. A measure of the rate at which this happens is that many
of the technologies reviewed in the previous edition are now obsolete, leaving users with the task of copying images to new media
if they are to retain access to their data. As well as assessing
currently available technologies, therefore, I will try to provide
enough background information to enable users to assess the latest
high technology advances in a rational way. It is always worth considering the scale of the adoption of a technique as well as its technical efficiency because most of us will still want to be able to use
our data in 10 or even 20 years’ time, and only mass-market solutions are likely to survive on that timescale.
MASS STORAGE
The major problem in storing confocal images is their sheer size.
The smallest image we are likely to acquire would be 512 ¥ 512
pixels, at one plane only and containing only one detector channel.
Assuming that we store only 1 byte per pixel (that is, each point
in the image can have one of 256 possible gray levels) this will
require one quarter of a megabyte (MB) to store. We will require
a little more space to store basic information about how the picture
was acquired, either in a header at the start of the file, or at the
end, or even in a separate file. Most confocal microscopes will
capture larger images than this, and most will capture more than
one channel. A three-channel, 2048 ¥ 2048 pixel image (routine
on any current system) will require 12 MB to store one plane. A
three-dimensional (3D) image data set could easily contain 100
or more planes, thus requiring 1200 MB (1.2 gigabytes, GB) or
more to store. At the time of this writing, current personal computers typically have 80 to 200 GB hard disks, a 200-fold increase
on the norm when the last edition of this chapter was written, but
still not enough to be regarded as a permanent store. To provide
archival storage, we must have some form of removable storage
media.
Data Compression
Before considering the contending bulk storage devices, is there
any way we can reduce the size of the problem? Can we compress
the image data to make it smaller? Lossless data compression
systems, which preserve the integrity of our original image
data, generally work on some variation or combination of three
well-known algorithms. Run-length encoding (RLE) looks for
sequences of identical values and replaces them with one copy of
the value and a multiplier. It works very well with binary
(black/white) images or simple graphics using a few bold colors,
and is used, for example, for all the splash screens in Microsoft
Windows.
Lempel–Ziv–Welch (LZW) and Huffman encoding look for
repeated sequences, assign each a token, then replace each occurrence by its token. Neither of these works well with real images
(though they do an excellent job with computer-generated graphics). Thus, if you save a confocal image as a GIF (graphics interchange format) file, or as a compressed TIFF (tagged image file
format) file, both of which use LZW compression, you will be
lucky to get even a 10% to 20% decrease in size, and sometimes
your file size will actually get larger. You will not do much better
with the popular archiving systems PKzip, gzip, or WinZip, which
(to avoid patent problems) use LZ77, an earlier Lempel–Ziv algorithm, and Huffman encoding (Deutsch, 1996), though these
systems do at least recognize if compression is not working and
insert the uncompressed data instead, so your file should not get
larger.
There are a couple of exceptions to this generalization. First,
some confocal microscopes store 12 bits of data at each pixel (4096
gray levels), but they store this as 16-bit numerical values. Clearly
these images have redundant space — a quarter of the file contains
no information — and they will therefore at least compress to 75%
of the original size. The file will nevertheless become even smaller,
often with little or no real loss, if it is converted to 8-bit data.
Second, even though it may not immediately be obvious, a threechannel image of moderate size, saved as a 24-bit RGB file, must
always have redundant information. Twenty-four bits of data can
specify 16.7 million colors, but a 512 ¥ 512 image with only a
quarter of a million pixels can contain at most a quarter of a million
colors. Efficient algorithms will automatically find this redundancy
and yield effective compression (how this is done is explained in
the description of the PNG format, below).
Guy Cox • University of Sydney, New South Wales 2006, Australia
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Handbook of Biological Confocal Microscopy, Third Edition, edited by James B. Pawley, Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, New York, 2006.
Mass Storage, Display, and Hard Copy • Chapter 32
PNG, which stands for portable network graphic, but is pronounced “ping,” is a lossless compression system (Roelofs, 2003).
It will usually offer the highest lossless compression currently
attainable for confocal images. The formal compression system is
identical to that of the “zip” systems; the deflate algorithm
(Deutsch, 1996) a combination of Huffman and Lempel–Ziv algorithms that in essence looks for repeated patterns. The secret of
PNG’s improved performance lies in its prefiltering of the image
to establish the best way to represent the data. In a real-world
image of any kind, the difference between adjacent pixels will
rarely be extreme so often the data can be reduced substantially by
storing only the difference. The different filters vary essentially in
the pixels used for comparison (no filtering, pixel before, or before
and after, or before and above, etc). Any implementation contains
all filters and so will decode any image, but the better implementations will offer improved compression by careful choice of which
filter to apply. (The standard allows different filters to be used on
each line of the image if required.) So if lossless compression is
important it may be worth experimenting with different vendors’
implementations of PNG (see below). It tends to be much slower
than LZW to compress, partly because it is a two-pass process but
mainly because, to get the best results, the program should test
which algorithm will give best results. Decompression is fast (see
Table 32.1).
The demands of computer multi-media have led to the development of compression techniques specifically aimed at real-world
images, both still and moving. Unlike the compression techniques mentioned above, which are completely reversible, these
approaches discard information from the image. The picture
created after compression and decompression will not be the same
as the original. However, very large file compressions can often be
achieved with losses which are barely detectable to the eye, though
they may affect numerical properties of the image.
TABLE 32.1. Time to Compress and Read Back an Image
Using Different Techniques
Compression
Uncompressed TIFF
LZW TIFF
PNG
Wavelet (lossless)
Wavelet (high-quality)a
Wavelet (high-quality)b
Wavelet (low-quality)a
Wavelet (low-quality)b
Lossless JPEG
DCT JPEG (high-quality)
DCT JPEG (low-quality)
a
Save Time (s)
Read Time (s)
File Size (KB)
5
7
40
9
16
8
15
6
8
4
4
3
5
5
12
10
10
6
6
7
4
4
9220
6014
2861
1934
841
821
9
10
3877
840
164
Specifying required quality.
Specifying required file size.
The image used was that seen in Figure 32.1, but scaled up (using bicubic interpolation) 6-fold to 3072 ¥ 3072 pixels in order to make the times measurable. All conversions were done using Paint Shop Pro version 8 (Jasc Software); the results
should only be taken as relative and will vary greatly with processor speed. Scaling
the image means that it contains substantial redundancy and therefore the compression levels achieved are unrealistic; the file sizes are given mainly to illustrate the
trade-off between processing time and disk access. PNG was by far the slowest in
compressing the image, but was rapid to read back. The processing requirements of
DCT JPEG compression were more than compensated for by the reduction in disk
access, so that it was very fast, but lossless JPEG was slower and its compression
did not match lossless wavelet or PNG. Wavelet compression (JPEG 2000) showed
the curious result that selecting a “compression quality” gave much longer save
times than selecting the “desired output file size.” At equivalent final sizes, the resulting images seemed similar. This is probably a quirk of the implementation of what
is, at the time of this writing, a very new standard. Wavelet images were the slowest
to read back, particularly at high image qualities.
b
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The most common still image format is the Joint Photographic
Experts’ Group (JPEG) compression protocol (Redfern, 1989;
Anson, 1993; Pennebaker and Mitchell, 1993), which is supported
by many paint and image manipulation programs. This breaks the
image into blocks of 8 ¥ 8 pixels, each of which is then processed
through a discrete cosine transform (DCT). This is similar to a
Fourier transform, but much faster to implement, and gives an 8 ¥
8 array in frequency space. The frequency components with the
lowest information content are then eliminated, after which highfrequency information (fine detail) will be selectively discarded to
give the desired degree of compression. The remaining components are stored (using Huffman encoding) in the compressed
image. The amount to be discarded in frequency space can be specified, which gives the user control over the trade-off between
image quality and degree of compression. Typically, monochrome
images can be compressed down to one fifth or less of their original size with no visible loss of quality (Avinash, 1993). Compression and decompression are similar operations, and require
similar amounts of computer time. Ten years ago, when the standard was first published (Pennebaker and Mitchell, 1993), the time
required was quite noticeable but with a modern processor the
reduced amount of disk access will more than compensate for the
processing time (Table 32.1).
Color images can be compressed further than monochrome
because luminance (brightness) and chrominance (color) are
treated separately. The eye can tolerate a greater loss of information in the chrominance signal, so this is normally handled at half
the resolution. (The standard allows many different options here
but specific implementations usually do not make these evident to
the user.) This has certain consequences in confocal microscopy
because a three-channel confocal image is not a real-color, realworld image but three images which are largely independent of
each other. A three-channel confocal image compressed as a color
image will look quite adequate but should not be used reliably for
numerical analysis; for example, the lower resolution of the color
information would make many pixels show colocalization when in
fact there is none.
The JPEG standard itself specifies a compression technique,
not a file format. As such it is used in many different situations
(including one of the compression options in the TIFF standard
and in programs such as Microsoft PowerPoint). However, it is
most familiar to the end user in the form of files conforming to the
JFIF (JPEG file interchange format) standard, which typically use
the suffix .jpg. JPEG compression is designed for photographic
images so that it only manipulates gray-scale or true color (RGB)
images. Adding a false-color palette to a gray-scale image will
make it less suitable for JPEG compression because the JPEG
algorithm would convert it to a full color image, tripling its size,
before compression. Lossless JPEG compression also exists; there
have been two distinct lossless compression modes specified in the
JPEG standard over the years, but these do not use DCT to compress the image and typically do not perform very well, so they
have not become popular. The current version, JPEG-LS, uses a
predictive algorithm formerly called LoCo, and is designed to be
both fast and easy to implement.
Other specific image compression techniques show considerable potential but have yet to achieve the popularity of JPEG
(DCT). Fractal compression, a proprietary technique developed by
Iterative Systems Inc. (Anson, 1993; Barnsley and Hurd, 1993),
creates mathematical expressions which, when iterated, recreate
the original image. It can give spectacular levels of compression.
Unlike JPEG compression, creating the compressed image is a
very time-consuming process but decompression is very quick.
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This has made it most useful for such items as CD-ROM
encyclopedias but its initial promise has not led to widespread
adoption.
Wavelet compression is currently the hot topic in image compression and will undoubtedly be in common use throughout the
lifetime of the current edition of this book, though at the time of
this writing it is only just appearing in the latest releases of mainstream implementations. It is, in a sense, mathematically comparable to JPEG in that it separates the frequency components in an
image, but it works in real space rather than reciprocal space. The
basic idea of separating an image into components of different resolution and discarding the lowest information content and highest
frequencies first is similar, but it is achieved by passing a series of
filters over the image at a range of different scales. The filters —
wavelet filters — are the key to this, and are designed to be
reversible. The claim is that wavelets can offer useful compression
without loss, and much greater compression with losses that are
not obvious to the eye. Other advantages include the ability to
rapidly generate a low-resolution image (using the coarsest
wavelets) and fill in the detail afterwards.
Wavelet compression can treat an image as a whole or break
it down into blocks which are compressed individually. The JPEG
has introduced wavelet compression into a new version of the
JPEG standard (JPEG 2000), and it is in this format that most
mainstream applications will offer wavelet compression. In the
interests of speed and portability (wavelet compression is intrinsically slower than DCT), the JPEG 2000 implementation uses only
two wavelet filters, one for lossless compression and one for lossy
compression. Even so, the time required is quite noticeable even
on a fast computer (Table 32.1). While a wider range could offer
better performance by finding the best wavelet for each image, the
practical difficulties involved were deemed to make it not worthwhile. Also, in the JPEG implementation the image is broken into
blocks before compression. A major criticism of the DCT JPEG
standard was that the 8 ¥ 8 blocks could often become visible at
high levels of compression and JPEG 2000 therefore offers variable sized blocks within a single image, so that one compression
level can be applied to featureless regions (such as sky, or the background in a confocal image) and another to regions containing fine
detail.
In practice, however, wavelet compression does not seem to
offer superior performance over DCT for confocal images, as
Figure 32.1 shows. Figure 32.1(A) shows a cultured He-La cell
labeled with fluoroscein isothiocyanate (FITC) tagged to an antibody against b-tubulin. It is an average projection from 16 confocal optical sections — a 512 ¥ 512 pixel 8-bit image. Using an
average projection rather than a maximum brightness projection
improves the signal-to-noise ratio, but it also reduces the total
intensity (because so much of the image is dark) and this therefore
reduces the number of gray values present (there are only 120
values in this image). Both factors make the image a better candidate for compression. To preserve the visual quality the contrast
has been scaled and the gamma changed (see below); these operations simply change the values assigned to each of the 120 tones,
they do not change the number of tones and should not affect how
it will compress. Figure 32.1(B) is one of the original slice images
with no modifications to gray values. It shows more noise than the
projection, but contains 248 gray levels, showing that the gain and
black level controls had been used optimally to make use of the
full dynamic range without overflow or underflow.
The raw image size in each case is 256 KB, and tif and bmp
files are 257 KB. An LZW-compressed tif file of Figure 32.1(A)
offered a reasonably useful reduction to 170 KB, while a PNG file
created with the well-known program Paint Shop Pro (JASC Software) did rather better at 143 KB. The PNG optimizing program
Pngcrush (freeware; see Roelofs, 2003) made an insignificant
improvement to 142 KB. This is 55% of the original file size and
shows that with a restricted gray range and dark noise-free background reasonable compression can be achieved without loss.
Lossless wavelet compression (JPEG 2000) was less effective,
giving a file size of 168 KB, scarcely better than LZW-compressed
tiff but taking very much longer to compress and decompress.
Lossless JPEG was comparable, at 169 KB.
As predicted, the original single-slice image [Fig. 32.1(B)] did
not compress nearly so well; the LZW version, at 256 KB, was
hardly changed from the original size. PNG did better, at 195 KB
(204 KB before optimization). But at 76% of the original size it
hardly seems worth the effort. It does, though, reinforce the point
that PNG is the only format worth considering for lossless compression of confocal images.
DCT (JPEG) compression of the projection [Fig. 32.1(A)] to
two different levels is seen in Figure 32.1(C,D). Figure 32.1(C)
shows the image compressed to 26.4 KB, around 10% of its original size. While some loss of quality is evident, the image remains
perfectly usable and the compression is very substantial. In Figure
32.1(D), compression has been increased to the point where the
image is visibly degraded but still recognizable and even informative, though the file size is only 7.7KB, a mere 3% of the original! Figure 32.1(E,F) shows the same levels of compression but
using wavelet compression with JPEG 2000. Both are substantially
worse than equivalent DCT images. A specialist wavelet compression program (not using JPEG 2000) was also tried, and gave
worse results at equivalent compression levels. It seems probable
that the relative failure of wavelets to compete with DCT lies in
the rather limited range of resolution levels which contain substantial information in these confocal images. The interest lies primarily in the microtubules, all of which are the same size. In
reciprocal space, regions with no information will automatically
compress to nothing, whereas the wavelet function may perhaps
be chosen to treat all frequencies more or less equally because this
may be the best strategy for conventional photographic images.
There may therefore be scope for a wavelet implementation dedicated particularly to confocal images.
Figure 32.2 shows the histograms of the images in Figure 32.1.
In Figure 32.2(A) the missing gray values are obvious, whereas
the single optical section [Fig. 32.2(B)] shows a continuous spectrum. At 10% compression the DCT image [Fig. 32.2(C)] shows a
similar spectrum, but smoothed and with the gaps in the gray levels
now filled. The wavelet version [Fig. 32.2(E)] also preserves the
same shape, but is rather more smoothed at the same compression.
At 3% of the original size the DCT histogram [Fig. 32.2(D)] is
very much changed, while the wavelet one [Fig. 32.2(F)] shows
little change from the 10% compression. In each case, the mean
value remains unchanged. These figures show that photometric
parameters are surprisingly well conserved even at levels of compression that would seldom be used in practice. While wavelet
compression affects the histogram more than DCT at 10% compression, it is more accurate than DCT at 3% compression so that
even though the image looks worse, its photometric parameters
remain closer to the original.
In practice these compression levels would only be used for
such purposes as Internet transmission of images. Compression to
between 25% and 50% of the original size would give images of
more general usefulness, with little visible change from the original. Even essential photometric parameters are preserved. In spite
of the current interest in wavelet compression, DCT still seems a
Mass Storage, Display, and Hard Copy • Chapter 32
A
B
C
D
E
F
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FIGURE 32.1. Effects of image compression on a confocal fluorescence image of a cultured He-La cell immunostained with FITC against b-tubulin. (A) Average
projection of the original dataset of 16 optical sections, with contrast scaled and gamma subsequently corrected; original uncompressed image. (B) One optical
section from the stack, with no subsequent processing. (C) JPEG compressed (DCT) to ~10% of the original size. (D) JPEG compressed (DCT) to ~3% of the
original size. (E) Wavelet compressed (JPEG 2000) to ~10% of the original size. (F) Wavelet compressed (JPEG 2000) to ~3% of the original size. Insets in (A,
C–F) are part of the image at 2¥ magnification to show the losses in compression more clearly.
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FIGURE 32.2. (A–F) Histograms of pixel intensities in Figure 32.1(A–F),
respectively.
better choice for confocal images in cell biology. Not only is it
more effective, it is much faster then wavelet compression (Table
32.1). Lossless compression only gives useful results on images
with large amounts of uniform background and low noise but in
these cases it can be effective. The most likely use would be for
storing the output of 3D reconstructions, as in Figure 32.1(A).
Although generating a complex 3D movie sequence can take as
long as acquiring the original confocal data, and the output files
can be just as large, we typically do not have the same concerns
about preserving data integrity. It is therefore sensible to use JPEG
compression for storing the output.
Some confocal datasets contain only very sparse information.
Figure 32.3(A) provides an example, a frame (pre-calcium wave)
from a time series of calcium transients induced by testosterone.
There were 193 images in the series and without compression this
dataset occupies close to 50 MB. However, as only 12% of the
pixels lie above the background noise level, the dataset even in its
original form compresses without loss to below 100 kB per frame
— 40% of the original — with LZW or PNG. If we remove background by setting pixels with a gray value of 14 or below to zero
[Fig. 32.3(B)], we have a virtually unchanged image which is now
highly compressible without further loss. PNG compression gave
a file size of only 49.3 KB, less than 20% of the original. Our original 50 MB dataset will now only be 10 MB. Lossy JPEG compression makes no sense with such a dataset — using a typical
setting for reasonable image quality the resultant file size was actually larger (59.3 KB) than the lossless one. What is more, the compression process brought background back into the dark areas. So
the message is either use a lossy compression on the original data
or compress it by background subtraction and then save it without
further loss — do not do both.
Other image manipulations will also affect the compressibility
of images. Smoothing, to remove noise, will reduce the high-frequency content and therefore make images more compressible.
Deconvolution, on the other hand, aims to restore high-frequency
content. This will make images less compressible, or will mean
that more is lost in lossy compression. Figure 32.4 illustrates this
FIGURE 32.3. Calcium imaging (non-ratiometric) of transients induced by testosterone in cultured cells. Pre-stimulation, time point 42 from 193 images taken
at 1-second intervals. (A) original image (B) background removed by setting all pixels below a value of 15 to zero, a process that permits no-loss compression
to reduce file size of (B) by a factor of two compared to (A). A false-color palette has been added to show how the background has been set to black but none
of the “data” pixels have changed. Taken using a 63x/NA 1.2 water-immersion lens. Image width as shown (only part of the original image) is 154µm. Image
courtesy Dr. Alison Death.
Mass Storage, Display, and Hard Copy • Chapter 32
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FIGURE 32.4. Three different angle projections (0°, 45°, and 90°) from a 3D dataset of
the dinoflagellate alga Dinophysis. (A)
Maximum intensity projection from the original dataset. (B) Maximum intensity projection after smoothing (3D median filter) and
one-dimensional deconvolution.
point. This is a 3D dataset of the dinoflagellate alga Dinophysis,
which was collected at 3 pixels per resel and therefore is slightly
oversampled. This provides the opportunity to smooth the data
down to the Nyquist limit and thereby reduce noise without
adversely affecting resolution. Figure 32.4(A) shows maximum
intensity projections, at three angles, from the original dataset. This
type of projection leaves noise unchanged so the view shows an
accurate impression of the noise content of the original set. Compressed with LZ77 the original 4.5 MB dataset reduces to 1.9 MB,
a useful saving, reflecting the large proportion of background in
the set. When the entire dataset is smoothed with a median filter,
acting in three dimensions (Cox and Sheppard, 1999), it becomes
more compressible, now reducing to 1.38 MB. If we deconvolve
this dataset we can restore some of the resolution lost in the z(depth) direction by the transfer function of the microscope (Cox
and Sheppard, 1993, 1999). As expected, it is now rather less compressible, at 1.47 MB, but this is still a useful saving on the original. The smoothed, deconvolved dataset is shown in the same
projections in Figure 32.4(B).
In any image compression strategy, it is important to bear in
mind that confocal images can become virtually meaningless if the
information about the acquisition is lost. Some confocal systems
(e.g., Bio-Rad) store this data in a header within the same, single
file as a series of optical sections. Even if the slice images are
exported by the Bio-Rad software, the acquisition data is not
exported and the images cannot be re-imported for subsequent processing. Other systems (e.g., Leica, Zeiss) store a database of information about the images — exported images generated within the
acquisition software will still retain some of this information but
typically 3D reconstructions can only be done from the original
images. In either case it is important to ensure that the all-important image acquisition data are preserved, and if possible that the
images can be restored to their original file name and type.
A final point: the most common waste of disk space consists
of storing completely featureless areas! If your sample is rectangular, select a rectangular window to image it rather than collecting a strip of nothing on each optical section. And do not collect
three channels if you have only two labels! Modern systems make
it all too easy to accept the default method, or configuration; it will
save a lot of time in the long run if you spend a minute or two
changing settings to collect only what you want.
Removable Storage Media
Storage media can be divided into those which are sequential
(records are written and read from one end only) and those which
are random access (it is possible to move directly to any record,
whenever it was written).
Sequential Devices
Sequential devices are tapes of various formats and sizes storing
up to 200 GB on a single cassette. Tape is still the largestcapacity bulk storage medium available, but is no longer competitive in cost with optical storage. As an image storage system, it
also suffers from the time taken to locate and recover any one file.
A single file cannot be erased and replaced by another; one must
erase either the whole tape or a large group of files, depending
upon the recording system. Also, although it is rewritable it will
not stand an infinite number of uses. The tape surface has a much
harder life than the surface of a disk — it comes into direct contact
with the recording heads and capstans, and is coiled and uncoiled
each time. Even reading files repeatedly wears the tape, and its
long-term archival potential is dubious. Once tape drives were regularly used for data storage and transfer but now their use is almost
exclusively for backup purposes — making a copy of a complete
file system or subsystem which will typically be read only once,
in the event of a hard disk failure.
Modern tape systems are very specifically designed for this
task; their purchase cost is high but cost per megabyte stored can
be low compared to other rewritable media. This gives them some
attraction for long-term archival storage of images that will not
need to be accessed regularly, and for very large collections of
images. Dumping a 40 or 100 GB hard disk full of images on to a
single tape will be much quicker and simpler than writing to
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Chapter 32 • G. Cox
dozens of compact disks (CDs) or digital video disks (DVDs).
However, most tape systems now rely on specific software to
handle them and both this software and suitable hardware will need
to be available for the tape to be read in the future — past experience suggests that this will limit effective use to 5 years or so,
and this is probably the realistic limit for tape life also.
Transfer rates up to 24 MB s-1 are available on expensive highend systems, although systems designed for small computer use
will offer no better than 3 MB s-1. At 24 MB s-1 writing one CD
worth of data will take only 30 s, but it will take a quarter of an
hour to copy a 20 GB hard disk. At 3 MB s-1 that same disk will
take almost 2 h to copy.
Manufacturers typically quote compressed capacities for their
tape drives, based on a notional 2-fold compression ratio that they
expect to achieve with their archiving software. This is unrealistic
when dealing with image files, and when evaluating competing
systems, it is important to compare actual, uncompressed, storage
capacities; this is much closer to the figure achievable with microscope images.
Random-Access Devices
Random-access devices comprise a range of disk media, either
magnetic or optical, and solid-state devices.
Magnetic Disks
The oldest and simplest of removable media, rewritable, randomaccess systems is the humble floppy diskette. These are now virtually obsolete, limited by their small capacity — 1.4 MB in the
only (marginally) surviving 3.5≤ version. As many will have found
out, finding a drive to read the once ubiquitous 5.25≤ disks is
already difficult. In any case, they are too small to be relevant for
confocal images.
Various types of super-floppy have had a vogue in the past, but
the only current survivor seems to be the Iomega Zip disk, which
originally held 100 MB but now comes in capacities up to 750 MB.
These are robust and durable but seem unlikely to be current for
very much longer, driven out by far cheaper optical technology.
They are also too limited in space to meet most modern needs for
confocal image storage. Cost per gigabyte is around US$20–100.
Other removable platter magnetic devices have been current,
and suffer from the same limitation that in the course of time there
may no longer be hardware available to read them. One of the most
successful at the time of writing is the Orb drive, available in
capacities from 2 to 5 GB. Like many other portable devices they
connect to the host computer by the USB (universal serial bus)
port, or the parallel printer port. Parallel port connection is relatively slow and USB is by far the preferable option. Cost per gigabyte is of the order of US$10 to US$20, so it is a reasonably
affordable option.
There remains the option of just using conventional hard disks.
Mounting kits are available to fit a conventional disk in a pull-out
mount; disks are also available in cases for connecting to USB,
Fire Wire, or SCSI (small computer systems interface) ports, and
there are microsized ones which fit the PC card (PCMCIA) slot in
notebook computers. The recent fall in price and increase in capacity of hard disks has made this a surprisingly affordable option
(below US$1.00 per gigabyte for IDE disks, more for SCSI). Data
transfer is as fast as the disk — certainly faster than most other
options — and rewriting capacity is effectively unlimited. The
long-term potential is less certain because the durability of the
system depends not only on the longevity of the magnetic medium,
but also on the lifespan of the motor and heads.
Optical Disks
In the previous edition, devices such as WORM (write once, read
many) and MO (magneto-optical) disks were discussed. These, like
so many technologies, are not only dead but virtually forgotten
except by those laboratories which have a huge stock of the disks!
However, optical technology is certainly the current preferred
option because there is good reason to have faith in the archival
durability of the media. Furthermore, mass-market devices now
have sufficient capacity to meet many users’ demands so that one
can have some confidence in the longevity of the technology.
Compact Disks
Compact disks (CDs) have already been with us for over 20 years,
and writable CDs for 10. The cost, high when the previous edition
was written, is now very low both in first cost and media (around
US$0.70 per gigabyte). Speed, though it has increased about
12-fold since then, is still the major problem. The rate of data transfer for an audio CD is a rather pedestrian 150 KB s-1, and this is
referred to as single speed. Read and write speeds up to 52¥ this
base value are now available. A complete 700 MB CD can thus be
written in 5 min or so, and modern software will adjust the writing
speed on the fly so that the need to maintain a constant data stream
is less of an issue. This means that CDs can now even be written
across a network, though this will inevitably carry a speed penalty.
It may still be preferable to carry the additional overhead of first
copying files to the writing computer.
Rewritable CDs are also widely available at a cost only a little
higher than conventional single-use CDs. Erasing data for re-use
is, however, a relatively slow process. They may be useful when
images are to be stored for a short time only, but for long-term
archival use it would seem wiser to use single-use disks. Many
manufacturers have conducted accelerated-aging tests on their
single-use CDs and their security as archival storage seems to
be the best of all mass-market computer media. It seems inevitable
that rewritable disks could not offer equal security, and the risk of
accidental deletion is always present with any rewritable medium.
In fact, the time spent trying to decide which files can be overwritten is usually worth much more than the disk space saved.
Various formatting options now allow multiple use, either by
writing multiple sessions (which does carry an overhead of about
15 MB per session) or by using the packet CD format, which
allows a CD to be treated almost exactly like a conventional
mounted drive. Multi-session CDs can be read on most systems
but the packet CD format cannot. Because it reduces compatibility with other systems and has little point when the content of a
CD is relatively small compared to a modern hard disk, packet CD
has not become widely popular.
One of the limitations of the CD format is its handling of file
names. The standard laid down by the International Standards
Organization (ISO) requires file names to fit an 8 + 3 character
format similar (but not identical) to that of MS-DOS. ISOcompatible CDs are readable on Apple, PC, and Unix computers,
which is very convenient for data exchange. Unfortunately, most
confocal microscopes give files and directories (folders) much
longer names. Extensions to the standard allow for longer files
names in both Macintosh and Windows computers, but these are
unfortunately not cross-platform compatible. Because most confocal microscopes use Windows it is important to use the Joliet
extension which caters for these file names, otherwise the disk will
contain a useless collection of truncated names, particularly with
microscopes such as current Leica models, which save each plane
and channel as a separate file, and rely on a database program to
Mass Storage, Display, and Hard Copy • Chapter 32
identify these images. On an ISO disk, it will be impossible to
identify which plane and channel are which, and the data becomes
completely useless.
Because CDs are likely to be a major archival medium, in the
medium term at least, the question obviously arises as to how permanent they are. Pressed CDs have a polycarbonate blank into
which the pits are pressed to carry the information. This surface is
then coated with an evaporated metal layer, and then a coat of
varnish and the printed label (Fig. 32.5, upper). The CD is read
through the thickness of the blank. If the clear side of the blank
gets scratched, it will hinder reading but it can often be repolished.
The label side is more vulnerable because only a layer of varnish
and the printed label lie between the data and the outside world.
Recordable CDs have a dye layer between the polycarbonate blank
and the metal film and it is this which is modified by the writing
laser beam (Fig. 32.5, lower).
In terms of pressed CDs, excluding physical damage, the key
issues are the aluminum reflective coating (which can get oxidized,
particularly if there are any flaws in the varnish) and the polycarbonate blank. So far, no plastic seems to last forever and I doubt
if polycarbonate will stay clear and flexible indefinitely. However,
as polycarbonate is vulnerable to almost all organic solvents,
excluding light and solvent fumes will doubtless help.
Archival quality recordable CDs usually use something better
than aluminum. Several manufacturers offer silver, silver + gold,
or pure gold. Obviously pure gold should be highly stable, but it
is less reflective, which increases the risk of read errors. Whatever
metal is used, archival life still depends on the dye layer in front
of it remaining stable. The claims made by the manufacturer for
their different dyes (typically cyanine, phthalocyanine, or azo) are
difficult to evaluate. The cyanine dyes used in the earliest recordable CDs were rather vulnerable to bright ambient light. Some
manufacturers have chosen to concentrate on extending the durability of these dyes, whereas others have turned to alternative dyes
such as azo or phthalocyanine. All archival tests depend on accel-
Protective varnish
Label
Aluminum layer
587
erated aging (typically at higher temperature) and, while this is
valid up to a point, it is unwise to trust it too implicitly (Nugent,
1989; Stinson et al., 1995).
The speed at which drives will write CDs has increased enormously over the years, with 52¥ now routine. This has placed pressure on manufacturers to increase the response time of the dye
layer but it would seem logical that a dye which can be bleached
at 50 times the original speed is unlikely to be as archivally stable
as the older disks. Often the layer is made much thinner to enable
the high-speed writing. Of course, dye technology is also evolving but, if an archival-quality disk will not support the latest
writing speeds, there may be a good reason.
Because one is likely to write or put a label on the back, the
varnish is important. Most makers object to labels even though
labeling kits are widely sold. The varnish is typically water based
because the polycarbonate of the disks is very vulnerable to solvents. This leaves one in a cleft stick as to how to label it because
water-based inks may loosen the varnish but solvent ones may
attack the disk! Different manufacturers vary in their recommendations and the safest approach is to follow the recommendation
for each particular brand. Quality disks will have an extra writable
protective layer over the base varnish giving you a bit of extra
security, and this is well worth having.
Kodak recommends that CDs not be stacked adjacent to each
other or to any other surface. They should therefore be stored in
“jewel cases” or in a custom storage box which separates the disks,
and not kept in envelopes or stacked on a spindle.
Blank CDs are now so cheap that the cost of storage is below
US$1 per gigabyte, depending on the brand and quality of the
media. Common sense suggests that, however reasonable it may
be to choose cheap disks when just sending data through the post
or taking it from laboratory to laboratory, saving a few cents by
choosing unknown brands is a false economy if the intention is
archival storage. Writers are very cheap and quite fast (48 speed
corresponds to 7 MB/s, comparable with modern tape systems).
Best of all, every computer can read the disk without extra hardware. The huge range of commercial CD-ROMs ensures that
readers will remain available for many years, so that archival material will be accessible as well as secure.
Digital Video Disk (DVD)
Polycarbonate blank
Reading side
Protective varnish
Dye layer
Metal layer
Polycarbonate blank
Reading side
FIGURE 32.5. Structure of a pressed (above) and recordable (below) CDs (not
to scale).
DVD (digital video disks) represent the next stage of optical disk
technology. Using similar technology, but shorter wavelength
lasers so that resolution is better, 4.7 GB can be stored on one side
of a disk with the same size as a CD. Because the optics that read
the disk are confocal, a DVD can carry two separate layers of information, thus storing over 9 GB, but recordable two-layer disks are
only just coming on to the market at the time of this writing.
DVD-R write-once DVD disks — are now reasonable in price,
at around US$1.00 per disk from the cheapest sources, and the
writers are now reasonable at US$200 to US$300 (a mere 1% of
their price 4 years ago!). Two standards (DVD+R and DVD-R)
exist for these disks. This has hindered their general acceptance,
but newer players will handle both (Nathans, 2003). At 4.7 GB, it
is clear that DVD is now both cheaper and more convenient than
CD-R for storage of confocal images, though the question of the
long-term stability and longevity of the format is still not so well
known as that of the CD format. Nevertheless, DVD players are
now common domestic appliances, so it seems likely that the standard will be durable.
Rewritable DVD disks also suffer from incompatible standards
and because they are of lower reflectivity are sometimes difficult
to read in DVD players. The older standards (DVD-ROM and
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Chapter 32 • G. Cox
DVD-RAM) were also lower capacity than 4.7 GB. As with CDRW, they are probably not the best alternative for archival storage,
but could have their place for data transfer. Current drives mostly
handle RW and R disks in both + and - options. As with CDs,
rewritable disks are always slower to write.
It is only in the past couple of years that the DVD market has
really showed signs of maturity. Because most computer drives
will read and write the CD format as well, it would seem to be the
logical choice when purchasing a new system, and DVD writers
are now routine on new confocal microscopes.
Solid State Devices
A development which was not foreseen in the last edition of this
chapter has been the proliferation of ultra-compact solid state
memory devices which retain data even without a source of power.
While small in capacity compared to a hard disk, these range up
to more than the capacity of a CD in a tiny fraction of the space.
Much of this development has been driven by the explosive growth
of the digital camera market.
Compact flash cards (Compact Flash Association, 2003) are
used by many such cameras, making the computer accessories to
read them an essential. Typically these use either the PC-card
(PCMCIA) slots in notebook computers or else the USB or Fire
Wire ports found on both desktop and notebook systems. A key
feature is that both are designed to appear as hard disks to the computer without the need to install any drivers. As the card is the size
of a postage stamp, and about 3 mm thick, it represents a highly
portable data store, and many people use them for convenient
portable storage or transfer between computers without reference
to digital cameras. Flash drives currently can hold up to 2 GB. Data
transfer rates of the compact flash (confocal) chips are currently 5
to 7 MB/s, but the latest revision of the interface is designed to
cope with rates of up to 16 MB/s to allow for advances in chip
technology in the future. Practical test speeds achieved in computers (Digital Photography Review, 2003) are around 3 to 4 MB/s
with writing being slower than reading; performance in digital
cameras will always be much slower. The cost is still around
US$100 a gigabyte so it will not compete with CDs for archival
storage, but as a fast, rewritable method of transporting relatively
large files — whether images, documents, or digital presentations
— compact flash has an important place.
Memory Stick (Sony) and Smart Media (Samsung) are similar,
more proprietary flash memory devices which fulfill similar
functions, but so far offer a smaller range of useful options
than the more open standard Compact Flash. They tend to be more
popular in the portable music player market, showing again how
several once-different technologies are converging. The Sony
Micro Vault is a dedicated USB-only version that comes in capacities from 32 MB to 256 MB, and requires no further accessories;
it even has a cover for the plug when removed from the computer.
Similar “keychain” memory devices are available from other
manufacturers.
These flash memory devices have established a quite different
market niche from other removable storage devices, but as photography becomes increasingly a digital process, this convergence
seems likely to continue.
has an infinite gradation of tones within it, whereas the confocal
image typically has just 256, if it is monochrome or false color.
Merged two- or three-channel images may have up to 2563 colors,
but often have considerably fewer. Confocal images have a finite
number of pixels, whereas photographic images have limited resolution, but a smooth transition from point to point. In more
general terms, a confocal image is quantized in both spatial (x, y,
z) and intensity dimensions (see Chapter 4, this volume).
What the microscopist actually sees is not the image itself, but
a display on a monitor. Both the monitor and the way it is driven
will have a major effect on the appearance of the image. This in
turn is interpreted by the human eye when we see it directly, or by
a camera if we record the image photographically. As a preliminary, we should therefore look at how monitors display confocal
images.
Monitors
Monochrome cathode ray tube (CRT) monitors simply have a layer
of phosphor coated on the inside of the glass, so that an illuminated spot will be produced wherever the electron beam hits. The
resolution of the monitor, therefore, depends solely on how small
the electron beam hitting the screen can be. Color monitors, on the
other hand, have red, green, and blue phosphors arranged either in
dots (shadow-mask tube) or stripes (Trinitron tube). The image on
a color monitor will always be made up of a mosaic of the three
primary colors; the finer this mosaic, the better the image will be.
This is specified by the dot pitch of the tube in millimeters — 0.28
mm would be a typical value for a good quality modern PC
monitor, though pitches as small as 0.18 mm are available, and
cheaper or older monitors will have pitches up to 0.4 mm. These
are absolute values, so a larger monitor will have more dots in the
total width of the image.
The number of pixels that may be displayed on the monitor is
a function of the speed at which the electron beam can respond to
a changing signal, and is not related to the actual dot pitch of the
CRT. Thus, a confocal image displayed on a color monitor will
have each pixel subdivided into a pattern of red, green, and blue
dots. If the pixel spacing of the data comes close to the dot pitch
on the screen, aliasing (below) may occur, creating undesirable
effects. Many color monitors can be set up to display more pixels
than there are dot triplets available, so the full resolution of the
image cannot actually be shown. Thus, a large monitor is essential on a confocal microscope if we are to be able to see the detail
in a high-resolution image.
A CRT-based monitor is intrinsically capable of displaying an
almost infinite number of colors.1 However, the video board inside
the computer imposes its own restrictions. Display boards suitable
for a confocal microscope will permit 256 gradations in each
primary color, so that a 24-bit (three 8-bit channels) confocal
image can be displayed without compromising the intensity range.
(12-bit or 16-bit images will, however, need to be reduced to 8-bit
for display.)
The other factor determining the appearance of the image is
the frequency with which the display is scanned. The more rapidly
the screen is refreshed, the less the image will flicker, and a suitable monitor should redraw the entire image at least 70 times per
second. Low cost boards will often compromise one or other of
these attributes at their highest resolution and are therefore inher-
DISPLAY
Before looking in detail at how the image is displayed and printed,
we should consider the nature of the confocal image (see Chapter
4, this volume). The image in a conventional optical microscope
1
Limited only by Poisson noise as it affects the charge deposited by the electron beam during the pixel dwell time and the number of phosphor grains in
each dot, etc.).
Mass Storage, Display, and Hard Copy • Chapter 32
ently unsuitable for confocal use, but because high-end display
boards are now very cheap compared to confocal microscopes, this
is not likely to be a problem so long as it is understood that just
any computer will not do.
Displaying large numbers of pixels on low-priced monitors can
reduce the refresh rate to 60 per second, which is about the lowest
tolerable value. Interlaced scanning is a strategy used to reduce
flicker when it is not possible to scan the entire image at a sufficient rate. First, the odd lines of the image are drawn, then the next
scan draws the even lines. This technique is primarily used for
broadcast video signals to enable the signal to fit into the available
bandwidth, but it has in the past also been used to obtain higher
resolution on low-cost computer monitors.
International television standards use 625 scan lines per frame,
with each interlace drawn 50 times a second (and thus a full-frame
rate of 25/s). The system used in the Americas and Japan uses only
525 lines, but a faster refresh rate of 60 interlaces per second. (Not
all scan lines are available for display; standard video can display
only 512 pixels vertically, US video only 483.) Video displays once
played a significant part in confocal microscopy (they were standard, e.g., on the widely popular Bio-Rad MRC 500 and 600) but
they are not used now. Apart from the low resolution and refresh
rate, the problem of displaying multi-channel images adequately
led to their demise. In broadcast television, the color signal is
encoded as a chrominance signal at much lower resolution than the
monochrome luminance signal, and this does not give adequate
quality for a multi-channel confocal image. The alternative is to
generate a three-channel video signal that will give a much higher
quality display (on the same monitor so long as the appropriate
inputs are provided). However, this signal cannot now be recorded
on a standard video cassette recorder (VCR) or printed on a lowcost video printer. The utility of video in microscopy is primarily
in recording fast-moving items and it may still have a part to play
with direct-vision confocal systems (Nipkow disk or slit scanners),
but it is no longer relevant to point-scan systems.
In a confocal image, pixel intensity values are linearly related
to the numbers of photons captured from the specimen. However,
this linearity may not be preserved when the image is displayed.
In the simplest case, if the value of the pixel is converted directly
to the voltage at the control grid of the CRT, the actual brightness
of the pixel on the screen will be proportional to the three-halves
power of the pixel value. This may not be all bad because
the human eye responds logarithmically, not linearly, to light
(Mortimer and Sowerby, 1941). However, confocal images often
look excessively contrasty on an uncorrected display, and fine
detail in the mid-tones will be lost.
This relationship may be modified by more sophisticated
display electronics, and high-quality display cards typically come
with software to allow the user to set up the display optimally.
These are all too often ignored by researchers who “don’t have
time” (and then waste much more time struggling with pictures
which fail to show details which “were there when they took the
picture”). Failing such an option, image manipulation programs
such as Photoshop, Paint Shop Pro, and Corel PhotoPaint place the
display gamma under user control; but there again the user must
make the effort to use that control (for more discussion, see
Chapter 4, this volume).
589
tion does not arise. Typically different resolutions are not available
on LCD monitors; in the rare cases that they are, the pixels are remapped in software (see below and Fig. 32.6). Therefore, LCD
monitors will often give a crisper display than CRTs, though on
the other hand the pixels may be more visible simply because their
edges are more clearly defined. Some older displays (typically
used on lower cost notebook computers) used passive supertwisted
nematic (STN) displays instead of active thin-film transistor (TFT)
technology. These are both cheaper and far less demanding of
power. However, they may not offer full 24-bit color, and the
image may be less bright and have a smaller viewing angle. Large
freestanding monitors are always TFT.
Large LCD monitors have many advantages in the confocal
laboratory. Because the display is not continually redrawn as in a
A
B
Liquid Crystal Displays
Flat screen (liquid crystal) monitors are inherently different from
CRTs. They use liquid crystal devices between crossed polarizers
to display the image, and as each pixel is addressed independently,
the question of display resolution not matching the pixel resolu-
FIGURE 32.6. Halftoning (A) versus dithering (B). Highly enlarged view of
part of an image of an integrated circuit chip; above printed by halftoning using
a 4 ¥ 4 matrix of laser dots, below printed by dithering using a 3 ¥ 3 matrix.
590
Chapter 32 • G. Cox
CRT, flicker is not an issue. Consequently, neither is refresh rate
(it can become an issue with video images). The screen is flat and
compact, and as confocal systems often include two monitors and
three lasers in a small room, minimizing heat is worthwhile.
However, LCDs are costly, and the cheaper models often sacrifice
color quality, viewing angle, or both. These are sacrifices which
are not worth making. Good saturation, wide control over contrast
and gamma, and a wide viewing angle are all essential. If you can
afford it, buy a pair of top-quality LCD monitors (and don’t just
take price as a criterion of excellence, check them out carefully
yourself). If cost is a major issue, buy high-quality CRT monitors
rather than low-quality LCDs.
Data Projectors
Data projectors are now a very common display format for confocal images, and naturally they often represent the occasion when
high-quality display is most important. However, they typically
have lower resolution and often a poorer gray-scale rendition than
computer monitors. In terms of resolution, 800 ¥ 600 pixels
(SVGA) is common on projectors intended for the home market
and 1024 ¥ 768 (XGA) on ones intended for academic and teaching use, though higher resolutions are available at correspondingly
higher prices.
Two different technologies are used in these projectors. A very
good description is given by Powell (2004). LCD projectors use
liquid crystal screens, as in flat panel monitors, except these do not
have a color mosaic. Instead, three panels are used, one for each
of the primary colors. Digital light processor (DLP) projectors use
a micromirror array, where the pixels are tiny mirrors and these
are tilted to send more or less light to the image. Very expensive
projectors use three DLP chips, one for each primary color, but
these are rare. The projectors one is likely to encounter in a lecture
room or conference have one DLP chip, with a rapidly spinning
filter wheel in front of it. The colors are therefore generated
sequentially and merged by persistence of vision.
The two types have their own strong and weak points, and typically DLP projectors are favored for home theatre use and LCD
for data projection. As a comparison, for this review the signal
from a notebook computer was sent simultaneously to two moderately high-end projectors, projecting on to adjacent screens. One
was a DLP projector, the other an LCD, and price and luminous
output were comparable. Contrast, brightness, and other display
parameters were set to midpoint values on both projectors.
The native resolution of both projectors was 1024 ¥ 768, and
the computer was set to the same value. Both projectors were able
to handle higher resolutions and scale them down, but the quality
suffered very markedly when this was done. The first lesson, therefore, is to set your screen display to the resolution of the projector, if possible. Even at the native projector resolution there may
still be some pixel re-mapping taking place because projectors
correct for keystone distortion caused by a non-horizontal projection angle. This means that either the top or bottom of the image
cannot use all the displayable pixels.
The LCD projector gave a much sharper image, which was
obviously preferable for fine text. However, its color rendition,
particularly on real-world photographic images, was inferior,
having a slight color cast and excessive saturation. The DLP projector gave images with a very accurate color rendition, free of any
cast and natural in appearance. The two projectors differed
markedly in gamma. The DLP projector had a gamma of 1 (measured with the gamma test function of an imaging package), while
the LCD projector was around 1.6 (slightly higher in blue and red
than in the green). This means that the LCD projector was very
comparable to both the screen of the laptop and to a CRT monitor,
both of which checked out with similar values, but the DLP is more
accurate for confocal images in which pixel value is typically
linear with number of photons.
To test the displayable gray scales, a test image with intensity
scaling from 0 (black) on one side to 255 (white) on the other was
used. All 256 values were present, and on both CRT and notebook
monitors the change seemed totally smooth. On the LCD projector it also seemed smooth, though with some minor streaks, which
may have been aliasing rather than posterizing (see Digital
Printers, below). However, there were noticeable bands with the
DLP projector. This implies it was incapable of reproducing a full
8 bits in each color, and in fact posterizing was noticeable in large
pale areas of scanned pictures. Also relevant in this context is the
contrast range of the projector: the difference between its whitest
white and darkest black. This is an important figure of merit for a
digital projector and is always quoted by manufacturers. The
number of tones which can be reproduced has little relevance if
they are squeezed into such a small range that the eye cannot distinguish them. In the past this has been a major concern when
projecting confocal images, with detail disappearing in both highlights and shadows. This is an area in which digital projectors (of
either technology) have made huge strides in recent years. DLP is
normally regarded as leading in contrast ratio but in this test both
projectors seemed comparable, with good rich blacks.
Both projectors seemed evenly balanced in response time, with
rapid mouse movements appearing equally (and acceptably) jerky
in both (at 60 Hz refresh rate). At very close quarters some misalignment of the different color images was visible with the LCD
projector. This was invisible at normal viewing distance and may
be inevitable in a projector with three different LCD arrays (especially one which is regularly transported). This would not be
expected in a DLP projector because there is only one display
element, but in fact some color fringing could still be seen at the
edges of the screen, though not in the center.
The verdict on this test was that the LCD projector was way
ahead for text, diagrams, and other computer-generated graphics,
but the DLP had the edge for micrographs and other real-world
images. This is in line with the commonly accepted merits of the
two technologies. The question of different gamma is likely to be
significant when projecting confocal images, and in the rare case
where one knows in advance which type of projector will be used,
the images in a presentation could be adjusted to suit. But the most
useful point to remember when giving a presentation at a conference is still to set your screen resolution to the native resolution
of the projector.
HARD COPY
When it comes to recording images, the confocal microscopist has
to make a choice between two fundamentally different technologies. One option, photography, was in the past familiar ground to
most microscopists. The other option, computer printers of one
sort or another, are more likely to be relevant in the 21st century.
Photographic Systems
In the 10 years since the previous edition of this book, photography
has almost completely disappeared from the cell biology laboratory. So far as confocal images are concerned, this is all to the good
because there is a fundamental mismatch between film and the
Mass Storage, Display, and Hard Copy • Chapter 32
digital image. A photograph can reproduce far more tones than the
256 that an 8-bit image possesses, but the interposition of lenses
and film means that pixel positions are not reproduced sharply and
with complete accuracy. Blurring below the level of microscope
resolution will not be noticeable in a conventional micrograph, but
if pixels are not rendered clearly in a confocal image it will look
soft — especially if there is any text superimposed on the image.
At one time, screen-shooting devices were standard equipment
with confocal microscopes but now they are no more than historical curiosities.
Digital Printers
Printers typically work by putting dots on a page of paper. As
printer technology has evolved, the size and resolution of these
dots has become smaller and more precise, but in general the dots
are still either present or absent, which limits the ability of a printer
to represent images with a range of tones. However, these pixels
are placed with extreme accuracy, so providing the data is handled
properly (below), it is possible for each pixel in a confocal image
to be printed sharply and in its correct place. There are two ways
in which we can break up a gray-scale image into a pattern of black
dots for printing: halftoning or dithering.
Halftoning is the way images are reproduced in printed books
and newspapers. The image is broken into a series of black dots
of varying size, darker grays being represented by larger dots.
Halftoning is unarguably the method of choice if the resolution of
the output medium is sufficient. However, it will be clear that to
produce halftone dots of varying sizes, each dot must be a multiple of the basic dot pattern of the printer. If the halftone dots are
to be small, the printer’s basic dots must be very small. The
halftone screen in a printed book is typically 133 or 150 dots per
inch (Cox, 1987). A 1200 dpi printer can give is 8 ¥ 8 dots — 65
gray shades — within that resolution. To get 256 gray shades at
150 dpi, we need a 2400 dpi printer.
Dithering uses a probabilistic method to decide whether a
printer dot should be present or not. If the pixel is dark, there is a
high probability that a black dot will be printed; if it is light that
probability is low. The effect is of a grainy image without any reg-
591
ularly repeating pattern. When using a low-resolution output
device, dithering is the only option; halftoning would result in an
impossibly coarse screen. Figure 32.6 shows a magnified view of
a confocal image of an integrated circuit, (IC) device, printed by
halftoning and dithering. In the dithered image each pixel of the
original micrograph is represented nine times, by a 3 ¥ 3 matrix
of laser dots, the probabilistic dithering calculation being applied
independently each time. Thus, on average, a 50% gray would
have either four or five dots black, the others being white, but
which of the nine dots were black would vary each time.
The eye can perceive about 64 shades of gray reflected from
a solid surface. If fewer shades than this are used to reproduce an
image, areas that should show a smooth transition in tone will
reproduce as a series of bands. Because the human visual system
is extremely sensitive to edges, this can be extremely distracting.
This effect is termed posterizing. In printing it occurs when the
printer is unable to reproduce at least 64 shades of gray. Figure
32.7 shows an example of this. In Figure 32.7(A), using 16 gray
tones (roughly what an old 300 dpi laser printer can give) the
smoothly-graded gray appears as a series of discrete bands. To
some extent, the problem can be reduced by combining dithering
with halftoning — values which bridge the boundaries between the
levels the printer can produce are randomized to decide which
value they should have [Fig. 32.7(B)]. Ultimately, though, good
reproduction of a confocal image will require at least 64 gray levels
to be reproduced on paper [Fig. 32.7(C)].
Proper reproduction of a confocal image by a printer will generally require the image to be reproduced either pixel for pixel, or
with an integer multiple (or fraction) of printer pixels or half-tone
dots to each dot of the confocal image. If this is not the case, aliasing (Chapter 4, this volume) will generate artifactual patterning in
the image. This is shown in Figure 32.8; scaling the original 465pixel wide image [Fig. 32.8(A)] to fit the common 512-pixel size
has given the diagonal lines and the circle a very jagged appearance [Fig. 32.8(B)]. This introduces a considerable constraint on
printing confocal images; photography can reproduce them with
equal accuracy at any size, but printing works best with integer
multiples or fractions of the image pixels. The only ways out of
this are either to use such a high-resolution print device that it
FIGURE 32.7. Posterizing. The smooth ramp of shade in the original shows banding when reproduced with only 16 gray levels (A). This can be partly disguised by dithering, still only using 16 levels (B), but using 80 gray levels is enough to give a smooth-looking result (C).
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Chapter 32 • G. Cox
FIGURE 32.8. Aliasing. The circle and the diagonal lines appear as smooth
as the horizontal and vertical ones in the original image (A), but when it is
scaled up slightly they become jagged (B). In the original image the curved
and slanting lines are actually made up of black and various shades of gray,
shown much enlarged in (C).
exceeds the Nyquist criterion at the output resolution or else to
remap the image with sophisticated software (several algorithms
are in general use, and bilinear or bicubic resampling are probably the commonest) to the output resolution. The first option is
becoming more common as printer resolution improves but cannot
yet be guaranteed. Figure 32.9 shows the effect of different remapping algorithms. The image (shown in the inset) is a tiny part of
Figure 32.1(A), enlarged by the odd amount of 467%. Direct pixel
scaling [Fig. 32.9(A)] gives, as expected, very poor results, and
bilinear resampling [Fig. 32.9(B)] is very little better. Bicubic
resampling [Fig. 32.9(C)] is hugely better and obviously the only
useful choice in this case.
Aliasing can also appear if the printer’s gray levels do not
match the intensity levels of the image. When a black diagonal, or
curved, line is reproduced in a pixelated image it will appear as a
mixture of gray and black pixels [Fig. 32.8(C)]. Pixels which lie
wholly within the line are black; those which were partially intersected by the line are gray. So long as they are reproduced at their
original intensity the line will retain the illusion of smoothness, but
as soon as they are made lighter or darker the line will appear
jagged.
Color images present all the above problems, as well as some
of their own. Most laser-scanning confocal microscopes (CLSM)
do not produce color images in the sense that a conventional
optical microscope does. Color images produced on a CLSM are
either pseudo-color images in which a false-color palette is applied
to a gray-scale image, or multi-channel images in which two or
three different signals are each assigned to a different primary
color. An image with a fluorescein signal in the green channel and
a rhodamine image in the red channel might look very similar to
a real color photomicrograph of the same slide, but the way the
image is made up is very different.
A further problem arises because multi-channel images, and
some false-color palettes, tend to use fully saturated colors. These
almost never occur in nature. On a monitor, which emits light,
these can look very effective, not least because confocal microscopes commonly operate in dimly lit rooms. They can also make
good slides. However, when printed on paper, where the image is
created by light reflected from the paper through the ink, the image
will look very dark. This problem is exacerbated by the different
color models used to form the image.
A computer image is usually stored, and always displayed,
using an RGB (red/green/blue) or additive color model. Adjacent
points on the monitor screen emit light of the three primary colors,
FIGURE 32.9. Scaling techniques. A small part of the image shown in Figure
32.1(A) enlarged by the odd amount of 467%, which cannot be achieved by
simple scaling of pixel size. (A) Pixel enlargement, as well as looking blocky,
severe aliasing is obvious. (Inset) The original image. (B) Bilinear resampling:
aliasing is much reduced but the image is still blocky. Little use is made of the
extra pixels now available. (C) Bicubic resampling gives a hugely better result;
it cannot produce more resolution than the original data contains, but it does
the optimum job of mapping it to the output resolution.
Mass Storage, Display, and Hard Copy • Chapter 32
and the different colors are created by adding these together. A
printed page uses the CMY (cyan/magenta/yellow) or subtractive
model. A red point is created by putting on the paper both magenta
(which subtracts green from the reflected light) and yellow (which
subtracts blue) so that only red will be reflected. [Commercial
printing, and many computer printers, also add a black ink to compensate for the fact that the three color inks may not add up to a
perfect black. This is then a CMYK (cyan/magenta/yellow/black)
color model.]
Thus, reproducing each of the primary colors that look so brilliant when formed by a single phosphor on a monitor requires the
light to pass through two separate color dyes before being reflected
by the paper. To put back brilliance into such an image, it is necessary to unsaturate the colors — to add some “white” into them.
Many computer image-manipulation programs provide this facility. Often, some experimentation is required before a good screen
image can be turned into a good print and it can be very useful to
have a program that permits one to print an array of small test
images, each made using slightly different settings.
593
with an inkjet of printing at lower quality and hugely lower cost
for proofing and layout purposes.
Dye Sublimation Printers
These printers have changed little since they the previous edition
of this book. They are still an excellent output medium for routine
production of photographic quality output, and although still not
cheap, the price has not increased in line with inflation so they are
not much more expensive per page than the inkjet for photo-quality
output, though the purchase price is much greater. They use a fullpage sheet of ink for each color they print, but in this case the ink
sublimes when heated and is absorbed by a specially coated sheet
of paper. The vaporized ink will tend to diffuse laterally to a
limited extent, making pixelation less obvious. More or less ink
can be transferred, depending upon the amount of heat applied, so
that true gray scales can be produced. The output from the best dye
sublimation printers can be comparable to photography, but the
cost is also similar — up to US$5.00 for an A4 size color print.
The cost per page is fixed, unlike a laser or inkjet printer, where
the cost per page depends upon the degree of coverage.
Laser Printers
Laser printers are the workhorse of the modern office. Their crisp
black type and graphics are unrivaled for most computer output.
For reproduction of confocal (or other) images their abilities are
more limited, though they can produce quite reasonable proof
prints. Laser printers use a low power laser to write dots directly
onto the charged drum of a photocopier.
The limitation of a laser printer is that it is difficult to get the
pattern of dots fine enough to reproduce a full range of tones by
halftoning (above). However, laser printers with 1200 dpi resolution are now common, and many also have the capability of modulating the size of the spot to some extent. Output from such a
printer is adequate for many purposes, and the cost is far lower
than either photography or higher-class printing. Their weakest
point is that large expanses of black are still not rendered as uniformly as in a photograph.
Color laser printers have only recently started to make a significant impact on the marketplace. This is partly because of a huge
decrease in price, and partly because of improvements in resolution (600 dpi is common) and in the tricks used by the built-in
firmware, which at last make near-photographic quality routinely
attainable. The quality does not yet match that offered by inkjet
and dye sublimation printers, but on a cost-versus-quality basis it
hugely exceeds it, so that a color laser printer is ideal for such purposes as printing preprints of journal articles in quantity.
Ink Jet Printers
These have long ago taken over from dot matrix as the everyday
printer for home and single-user office use. They operate by squirting small jets of ink on the paper (for best results, a slightly
absorbent paper). They typically offer three- or four-color printing
at much finer resolution than any other printers. Some use seven
inks (high and low intensities of the three subtractive primaries)
to give more realistic results. Though the tendency of the ink to
spread limits their ultimate performance, it also helps improve the
perceived realism of the image by making individual pixels less
visible. Printing to photographic quality requires special paper and
also uses large amounts of the expensive ink, so it is not cheap,
but the results bear comparison with those from expensive dye sublimation printers. Because (unlike other printer technologies) there
is no inherent limitation on the size of the paper, A3 and larger
printers are readily available for such tasks as printing conference
posters. Unlike dye sublimation printers there is always the option
CONCLUSION
The big change since the previous edition of this book 10 years
ago is that now mass-market media are effectively equal to the
demands of the confocal user. It is a truism that for several years
now developments in the personal computer market have been
driven not by business or scientific usage, but by the domestic
market. The requirements of games, music, digital photography,
and video have been the driving factors for processor speed, interfaces, display quality, print output, and data storage. We no longer
need specialist image manipulation hardware, custom video cards,
non-standard monitors, dedicated data buses, or expensive storage
devices. Computers are fast enough for the necessary image
manipulation, everyday video cards handle 24-bit images at high
resolutions and fast refresh rates, as well as providing hard-wired
image manipulation functions. Monitors offer megapixel displays
at high bit depths and refresh rates. Fire Wire and USB-2 will carry
data faster than any point-scanning confocal can scan, and domestic video disks are big enough to handle huge data sets. Just about
every home has a printer giving photographic quality output —
and these are printing higher resolution images than most microscope users generate.
The major computer magazines generally run annual surveys
of color printers and it is always worth seeking out the latest of
these before making a purchase. A final word of warning: If you
are evaluating a hard copy system, of whatever sort, insist on
testing it on real confocal images from your own work. Every manufacturer has a gallery of images which reproduce superbly on his
own hardware, and if you try to judge a system on the basis of
such pictures you will be disappointed once you start using it
yourself.
SUMMARY
Bulk Storage
Image compression has made huge strides but still, as always,
needs to be used with care. The new wavelet compression system
seems to offer little to the confocal user but the PNG format has
at last given us a lossless technique that works. Recordable CDs
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Chapter 32 • G. Cox
are currently the most common and most reliable choice for mass
storage, though recordable DVDs seem likely to take over during
the lifetime of this edition. For archival purposes, there seems little
merit in selecting the rewritable version of either of these media.
Tiny solid-state FLASH memory devices have become a very
effective way to carry presentations from place to place.
Display
Monitors are no longer a problem; 24-bit displays of adequate size
and refresh rate, as well as the display boards to drive them, are
now the norm rather than expensive exceptions. Flat-screen LCD
displays are still expensive, but worth the cost for their extra sharpness and for the complete elimination of flicker.
Hard Copy
Inkjet printers have now essentially replaced dye sublimation
printers for optimal photographic output. They have much lower
purchase cost but the cost per glossy print is still high. Color laser
printers are now more than adequate for proofing and preprints.
Finally, if you are evaluating a hard copy system, insist on testing
it on real confocal images from your own work.
ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
I am very grateful to Mike Speak and Dennis Dwarte, who have
been generous with their time and effort in helping me prepare
this chapter. I also owe a debt of gratitude to Todd Brelje, who
wrote the original outline but who was unable to proceed with the
chapter due to other commitments. In spite of this, he gave much
assistance in producing the original edition, for which Martin
Wessendorf, Nick White, Andrew Dixon, and Jim Pawley also provided a tremendous amount of information and help. The revision
for the 3rd edition was carried out while I was at the Instituto
Gulbenkian de Ciência, Oeiras, Portugal, and I thank them for their
hospitality; Nuno Moreno and José Feíjo provided much help and
assistance, and critical reading of the manuscript.
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