Table of Contents - Leadworship Store

Table of Contents - Leadworship Store
Table of Contents
Preface
xxi
The Value in History .............................................................................................................................................xxi
The Road Is Narrow ............................................................................................................................................xxii
Terminology .........................................................................................................................................................xxiii
Chapter 1 - Qualifications for Being a Sound Operator
1
List of Qualifications ................................................................................................................................................2
Listens to Music ..............................................................................................................................................................2
Loves Music ....................................................................................................................................................................3
Is a Proven Advocate of the Church, Pastor, Council, Organizational Structure, and Leadership .................................3
Agrees with Church Theology ........................................................................................................................................3
Is a Church Member, Committed to the Church Mission and Vision .............................................................................3
Understands the Style and Spirit of Worship Music Desired by Church Leadership .....................................................4
Is Servant-Hearted ..........................................................................................................................................................4
Has a Positive Outlook ...................................................................................................................................................4
Does Not Have an Ego Problem .....................................................................................................................................5
Has a Consistent Spiritual Life .......................................................................................................................................5
Is Ministry-Minded .........................................................................................................................................................6
Is a Lifelong Learner.......................................................................................................................................................7
Is a Hard Worker .............................................................................................................................................................7
Has a Long Attention Span .............................................................................................................................................7
Has a Stable Family Life ................................................................................................................................................7
Pursues Excellence .........................................................................................................................................................8
Is Technically Gifted .......................................................................................................................................................8
Has Good People Skills ..................................................................................................................................................8
Has a Mature Perspective ...............................................................................................................................................9
Likes to Help Others Succeed .......................................................................................................................................10
Does Not Participate in Gossip .....................................................................................................................................10
Is Determined to Become an Excellent Sound Operator ..............................................................................................10
Summary.................................................................................................................................................................10
Chapter 2 - Responsibilities of a Sound Operator
11
Pray for the Worship Team ................................................................................................................................... 11
Commit to Spiritual Development and Growth ..................................................................................................12
Get to Know the Team Leaders ............................................................................................................................12
F+ind Out What the Music Director Expects ..................................................................................................... 13
Attend Rehearsals ..................................................................................................................................................13
Attend Small Group Meetings ..............................................................................................................................13
Listen to Service Recordings .................................................................................................................................14
Listen to Current Worship Music......................................................................................................................... 14
Be Punctual .............................................................................................................................................................15
Learn the Songs ......................................................................................................................................................15
Set Up Gear ............................................................................................................................................................16
Strike Gear .............................................................................................................................................................16
Develop Storage Systems .......................................................................................................................................17
Labeling Systems ..........................................................................................................................................................17
Snakes ...........................................................................................................................................................................19
Storage Bins and Reels .................................................................................................................................................19
Mic Cases and Racks ....................................................................................................................................................20
Storage Hooks and Racks .............................................................................................................................................20
Learn What a Good Mix Is ...................................................................................................................................20
Attend Seminars and Classes ........................................................................................................................................20
vi
Chapter 3 - The Spiritual Importance of Worship and Music
21
What Is Worship? ..................................................................................................................................................21
The Authority of Excellence ..................................................................................................................................22
The Musicians to Battle before the Soldiers ........................................................................................................23
We Are Instructed throughout the Bible to Worship.......................................................................................... 24
Take Your Duty Seriously ...................................................................................................................................... 26
Communicating the Heart and Word of God ...................................................................................................... 26
Prayer and the Sound Ministry ............................................................................................................................26
Time, Just in Time.........................................................................................................................................................27
Chapter 4 - Relational Considerations
29
The Worship Service from the Minister’s Viewpoint ......................................................................................... 29
Introduce the Congregation to God ..............................................................................................................................30
Prepare the Congregation to Hear the Sermon ............................................................................................................30
Create a Unified Spiritual Tone among the Congregation ............................................................................................30
Getting Along with Everyone ................................................................................................................................31
Bending Over Backward ...............................................................................................................................................31
Grace versus Judgment .................................................................................................................................................31
Keep Everything in Perspective ....................................................................................................................................32
An Atmosphere of Peace ........................................................................................................................................32
The Sound Operator/Pastor Relationship ...........................................................................................................33
Be a Friend to the Pastor ...............................................................................................................................................33
Ask Your Pastor’s Opinion ...........................................................................................................................................33
Be Understanding .........................................................................................................................................................33
Be Open to Criticism .............................................................................................................................................34
Don’t Offend Quickly ...................................................................................................................................................34
Pastors Are People Too .......................................................................................................................................... 35
You Gotta Know When to Hold ‘Em, Know When to Fold ‘Em .......................................................................35
Communicate, Communicate, Communicate......................................................................................................35
Ask Questions ...............................................................................................................................................................36
Keep Track of the Leaders’ Opinions ...........................................................................................................................36
Conflicting Opinions and Who Wins .................................................................................................................... 37
Don’t Avoid the Elephant in the Room ................................................................................................................38
Tone of Communication ........................................................................................................................................38
Reasons to Stand Up and Speak Your Mind........................................................................................................ 39
Countering Blasphemy .................................................................................................................................................39
Defending the Pastor .....................................................................................................................................................40
When the Pastor Doesn’t Understand the Facts ............................................................................................................40
Don’t Sweat the Small Stuff ..................................................................................................................................40
The Best Ways to Get Your Point Across ............................................................................................................. 40
Prayer ............................................................................................................................................................................40
Follow Protocol.............................................................................................................................................................41
List Your Concerns or Joys ...........................................................................................................................................41
The Worst Ways to Get Your Point Across .......................................................................................................... 41
Gossip ...........................................................................................................................................................................42
Stirring the Pot ..............................................................................................................................................................42
Setting Up Camp ...........................................................................................................................................................42
Well...I’ll Just Do It Anyway ........................................................................................................................................43
The E-Mail Bomb and Why You Should Avoid It ........................................................................................................43
Negative, Harsh, and Judgmental Attitude ...................................................................................................................44
Chapter 5 - To Get Paid or Not to Get Paid
45
The Volunteer Sound Operator ............................................................................................................................45
It Doesn’t Matter if You’re Paid or Not ........................................................................................................................45
Do Your Best .................................................................................................................................................................45
Table of Contents • vii
Enjoy Being Part of Ministry ........................................................................................................................................46
Be Sensitive to Others...................................................................................................................................................46
Be Punctual ...................................................................................................................................................................47
The Quest for Excellence Shouldn’t Change with Pay .................................................................................................47
The Paid-Staff Sound Operator............................................................................................................................48
The Part-Time Gig ........................................................................................................................................................48
Accountability ...............................................................................................................................................................48
Serving Multiple Ministries ..........................................................................................................................................49
Training Ministry Leaders ............................................................................................................................................50
Building a Team .....................................................................................................................................................52
Developing a Volunteer Crew .......................................................................................................................................52
Prayer and Share Time ..................................................................................................................................................53
Special Functions ..........................................................................................................................................................53
Motivating and Assisting ..............................................................................................................................................54
Job Descriptions ............................................................................................................................................................57
Scheduling ....................................................................................................................................................................58
Chapter 6 - Volume Issues
61
Pastoral Considerations.........................................................................................................................................61
Sound Operator Considerations ...........................................................................................................................63
Congregational Considerations ............................................................................................................................63
Why Volume Issues Are So Common ................................................................................................................... 64
The Pastor versus the Music Director ..................................................................................................................65
Agreement Is the Solution ..................................................................................................................................... 65
EQ versus Volume .................................................................................................................................................. 66
Painful Frequencies versus Comforting Frequencies ...................................................................................................67
Sound Reinforcement versus Music Presentation...............................................................................................67
The Decibel Meter ..................................................................................................................................................67
Who Is in Control?.................................................................................................................................................68
Can the Congregation Hear Themselves? ...........................................................................................................69
Earning the Trust of the Team ..............................................................................................................................69
Chapter 7 - Multi-Generational Considerations
71
Understanding Hearing Differences .....................................................................................................................71
Types of Hearing Loss ...........................................................................................................................................72
Presbycusis....................................................................................................................................................................72
Tinnitus .........................................................................................................................................................................73
Conductive Hearing Loss..............................................................................................................................................73
Aural Hypersensitivity...........................................................................................................................................73
Hyperacusis ...................................................................................................................................................................73
Recruitment ...................................................................................................................................................................74
Education Is the Answer ...............................................................................................................................................74
Senior Citizens (Born before 1946).......................................................................................................................75
Boomers (Born between 1946 and 1964)..............................................................................................................75
Generation X (Born between 1965 and 1980)......................................................................................................76
Youth Groups ......................................................................................................................................................... 77
Children ..................................................................................................................................................................78
Chapter 8 - Sound Theory
79
Characteristics of Sound .......................................................................................................................................79
Speed .......................................................................................................................................................................81
Cycles ......................................................................................................................................................................82
Frequency ...............................................................................................................................................................82
Pitch.........................................................................................................................................................................83
viii
Wavelength .............................................................................................................................................................83
Amplitude ...............................................................................................................................................................84
Loudness .................................................................................................................................................................84
Phase........................................................................................................................................................................87
Harmonics, Overtones, and Partials ....................................................................................................................89
Shape .......................................................................................................................................................................92
Envelope ..................................................................................................................................................................93
Attack ...........................................................................................................................................................................93
Decay ...........................................................................................................................................................................94
Sustain ..........................................................................................................................................................................94
Release .........................................................................................................................................................................94
Chapter 9 - Interconnect Basics
95
Speaker Cables ....................................................................................................................................................... 95
Line-Level Cables ..................................................................................................................................................95
Microphone Cables ...............................................................................................................................................96
Some Cable Theory ................................................................................................................................................96
Balance of Amplitude ............................................................................................................................................97
Timing Considerations .......................................................................................................................................... 97
Do Cables Really Sound Different? ......................................................................................................................97
Digital-Interconnect Cables ..................................................................................................................................98
Impedance...............................................................................................................................................................99
Terminology ................................................................................................................................................................100
Compatibility between Hi Z and Lo Z ........................................................................................................................100
Balanced versus Unbalanced ..............................................................................................................................102
Terminology ................................................................................................................................................................102
Unbalanced Guitar Cables ..........................................................................................................................................103
Balanced Wiring .........................................................................................................................................................103
Connectors ............................................................................................................................................................105
RCA Connectors .........................................................................................................................................................105
Quarter-Inch Phone Connectors ..................................................................................................................................106
XLR Connectors .........................................................................................................................................................107
The Dual Banana Connector .......................................................................................................................................107
Speakon Connectors ...................................................................................................................................................108
Plugging In............................................................................................................................................................109
Electrical Power ..........................................................................................................................................................109
Powering Up ...............................................................................................................................................................109
Powering Down ..........................................................................................................................................................109
Ground Hum ........................................................................................................................................................ 109
Grounding ............................................................................................................................................................. 110
Ground Loops .............................................................................................................................................................110
Solutions to Grounding Problems ...............................................................................................................................110
Connect All Equipment to the Same Outlet ................................................................................................................111
Hire a Pro ....................................................................................................................................................................111
Auxiliary Power Supply..............................................................................................................................................111
Lifting the Ground ......................................................................................................................................................111
Disconnect Shield at the Destination .........................................................................................................................112
Circuit Tester ...............................................................................................................................................................112
Danger, Danger..................................................................................................................................................... 112
Chapter 10 - The Front-of-House Mixer
115
Signal Path ........................................................................................................................................................... 115
Input Levels .......................................................................................................................................................... 116
Comparison of Three Different Versions of the Same Mix ........................................................................................117
Input Stage............................................................................................................................................................ 117
Table of Contents • ix
Output Impedance ............................................................................................................................................... 117
The Preamp .......................................................................................................................................................... 118
Attenuator............................................................................................................................................................. 119
Direct Box .............................................................................................................................................................120
Passive versus Active DIs ...........................................................................................................................................121
Meters....................................................................................................................................................................121
Volume Unit (VU).......................................................................................................................................................121
Peak Program Meters (PPM) ......................................................................................................................................122
Adjusting Levels for Transients ..........................................................................................................................122
Phase .....................................................................................................................................................................123
Input Level Comparison ..................................................................................................................................... 125
Phantom Power ....................................................................................................................................................126
Mic Level...............................................................................................................................................................126
Line Level .............................................................................................................................................................126
+4 dBm versus –10 dBV .............................................................................................................................................127
Channel Insert ...................................................................................................................................................... 128
Effects Bus ............................................................................................................................................................128
The Difference between a Live Mixer and a Recording Mixer........................................................................129
Mutes ..........................................................................................................................................................................129
Live ...................................................................................................................................................................129
Recording ..........................................................................................................................................................129
Outputs ........................................................................................................................................................................130
Live ...................................................................................................................................................................130
Recording ..........................................................................................................................................................130
Inputs ..........................................................................................................................................................................130
Live ..................................................................................................................................................................130
Recording ..........................................................................................................................................................130
Solo Functions ............................................................................................................................................................131
Live ..................................................................................................................................................................131
Recording ..........................................................................................................................................................131
Portability....................................................................................................................................................................131
Live ..................................................................................................................................................................131
Recording ..........................................................................................................................................................131
Managing the Signal Path ...................................................................................................................................131
Input Faders ................................................................................................................................................................131
Pre and Post ................................................................................................................................................................131
Using the Aux Bus ......................................................................................................................................................132
Group Assignment ......................................................................................................................................................133
Summing .....................................................................................................................................................................134
Three Practical Applications for Splitting a Signal Using a Y....................................................................................134
Pan ..............................................................................................................................................................................135
Gain Structure .............................................................................................................................................................135
Unity Gain...................................................................................................................................................................135
Potential Problems ............................................................................................................................................136
Solo .............................................................................................................................................................................136
PFL (Pre Fader Listen)................................................................................................................................................136
AFL (After Fader Listen) ............................................................................................................................................137
Solo in Place/Mixdown Solo ......................................................................................................................................137
Mutes ..........................................................................................................................................................................137
The Equalizer ..............................................................................................................................................................137
Frequency Selection (Hertz) .............................................................................................................................138
Definition of Frequency Ranges .......................................................................................................................140
Bandwidth .........................................................................................................................................................141
Sweepable EQ ...................................................................................................................................................142
Parametric EQ ...................................................................................................................................................143
Graphic EQ .......................................................................................................................................................143
x
Notch Filter .......................................................................................................................................................144
Peaking Filters ..................................................................................................................................................144
High-Pass Filter ................................................................................................................................................144
Low-Pass Filter .................................................................................................................................................145
Band-Pass Filter ................................................................................................................................................145
Shelving EQ ......................................................................................................................................................145
Combined Equalizers ........................................................................................................................................146
The Equalizer’s Sound ......................................................................................................................................146
Stereo Master ..............................................................................................................................................................146
Talkback/Communications .........................................................................................................................................146
Test Tones ...................................................................................................................................................................147
Console Layout .....................................................................................................................................................148
Matrix..........................................................................................................................................................................149
Direct Outs ..................................................................................................................................................................149
The Analog Mixer versus the Digital Mixer ......................................................................................................150
FOH Mixer Position .............................................................................................................................................150
Mono Mix ...................................................................................................................................................................150
Stereo Mix...................................................................................................................................................................150
Chapter 11 - Signal Processors
153
Dynamics Processors ...........................................................................................................................................153
Compressor .................................................................................................................................................................153
To Compress or Not to Compress—That Is the Question ..........................................................................................155
Compression Parameters.............................................................................................................................................155
Threshold ..........................................................................................................................................................155
Attack Time ......................................................................................................................................................156
Release Time .....................................................................................................................................................157
Ratio ..................................................................................................................................................................157
Output Level .....................................................................................................................................................158
The Difference between a Compressor and a Limiter ................................................................................................158
Hard Knee versus Soft Knee Compression/Limiting .................................................................................................158
Peak/RMS Detection...................................................................................................................................................158
Side Chain ...................................................................................................................................................................159
Meters on the Compressor/Limiter .............................................................................................................................160
Input Level Meter .............................................................................................................................................160
Output Level Meter...........................................................................................................................................161
Gain Reduction Meter.......................................................................................................................................161
The Limiter .................................................................................................................................................................161
Setup Suggestions for the Compressor/Limiter ..........................................................................................................162
Effects Processors.................................................................................................................................................163
Wet versus Dry ............................................................................................................................................................163
Patching Effects Devices ............................................................................................................................................163
Simple Delay Effects ..................................................................................................................................................163
Slapback Delay .................................................................................................................................................164
Doubling/Tripling .............................................................................................................................................165
Modulation ........................................................................................................................................................166
Phase Shifter .....................................................................................................................................................167
Flanger ..............................................................................................................................................................167
Chorus ...............................................................................................................................................................167
Phase Reversal and Regeneration .....................................................................................................................167
Stereo Effects ....................................................................................................................................................168
Reverberation Effects ..........................................................................................................................................169
Hall Reverb .................................................................................................................................................................170
Chamber Reverb .........................................................................................................................................................170
Plate Reverb ................................................................................................................................................................170
Room Reverb ..............................................................................................................................................................170
Table of Contents • xi
Reverse Reverb ...........................................................................................................................................................171
Gated Reverb ..............................................................................................................................................................171
Other Variations of Reverberation ..............................................................................................................................171
Reverberation Effects Parameters ...............................................................................................................................172
Predelay ............................................................................................................................................................172
Diffusion ...........................................................................................................................................................172
Decay Time .......................................................................................................................................................172
Density ..............................................................................................................................................................172
Chapter 12 - Microphone Principles and Design
173
Directional Characteristic ...................................................................................................................................174
Polar Response Graph .................................................................................................................................................175
On-Axis .......................................................................................................................................................................175
Off-Axis ......................................................................................................................................................................175
Sensitivity Scale ..........................................................................................................................................................176
Omnidirectional ..........................................................................................................................................................176
Bidirectional................................................................................................................................................................177
Unidirectional .............................................................................................................................................................177
Cardioid ............................................................................................................................................................178
Supercardioid ....................................................................................................................................................178
Hypercardioid ...................................................................................................................................................178
Ultracardioid .....................................................................................................................................................178
Subcardioid .......................................................................................................................................................178
Practical Applications .......................................................................................................................................... 179
Operating Principle .............................................................................................................................................180
Transducer Types ........................................................................................................................................................180
Magnetic Induction Transducers.......................................................................................................................180
Variable Capacitance Transducers ....................................................................................................................180
Operating Principle of the Moving-Coil Mic .............................................................................................................181
Operating Principle of the Ribbon Mic.......................................................................................................................181
Operating Principle of the Condenser Mic .................................................................................................................182
Phantom Power .................................................................................................................................................184
Electret Condenser Microphones ................................................................................................................................185
Comparison between Moving-Coil, Ribbon, and Condenser Microphones ................................................... 185
Moving-Coil Mics.......................................................................................................................................................185
Condenser Microphones .............................................................................................................................................186
Ribbon Mics ................................................................................................................................................................187
The Shaping of the Pickup Pattern ...................................................................................................................188
Physical Housing Design ............................................................................................................................................188
The Proximity Effect...................................................................................................................................................190
Compensating for the Proximity Effect ............................................................................................................191
Using the Proximity Effect to Our Advantage ..................................................................................................191
Response Characteristic ......................................................................................................................................191
Frequency Response Curve ........................................................................................................................................191
Transient Response .....................................................................................................................................................192
Output Characteristic ..................................................................................................................................................192
Equivalent Noise Rating/Self-Noise ...........................................................................................................................192
Sensitivity ...................................................................................................................................................................193
Maximum SPL Rating ................................................................................................................................................193
Impedance ...................................................................................................................................................................194
Stereo Mic Techniques .........................................................................................................................................194
Chapter 13 - Wireless Systems
199
Components of the System ..................................................................................................................................199
Input Device ................................................................................................................................................................199
Transmitter ..................................................................................................................................................................199
xii
Receiver ......................................................................................................................................................................200
AM and FM Systems ...........................................................................................................................................200
Amplitude Modulation ................................................................................................................................................201
Frequency Modulation ................................................................................................................................................201
VHF and UHF Systems ........................................................................................................................................ 201
Capture Effect ......................................................................................................................................................202
Diversity ................................................................................................................................................................202
Range.....................................................................................................................................................................203
Antenna Distribution Systems ............................................................................................................................204
Batteries ................................................................................................................................................................204
Diversity Indicator ...............................................................................................................................................205
Squelch ..................................................................................................................................................................206
Microphones for Wireless Systems ..................................................................................................................... 206
Lavaliere .....................................................................................................................................................................206
Headset........................................................................................................................................................................209
Lectern ........................................................................................................................................................................209
Handheld .....................................................................................................................................................................209
Control Which Mic Is Turned On ...............................................................................................................................209
Two Mics ....................................................................................................................................................................210
Wireless Frequency Selection..............................................................................................................................210
Mute Switch versus Power Switch...................................................................................................................... 211
Caring for the Antenna ........................................................................................................................................ 211
Adjusting Levels ...................................................................................................................................................212
Connecting to the Sound System ........................................................................................................................212
The Backup Plan .........................................................................................................................................................213
Using the Wireless System .........................................................................................................................................213
Chapter 14 - Loudspeakers
215
Commercially Built Cabinets ..............................................................................................................................215
Manufacturers ......................................................................................................................................................217
Pro Audio Suppliers ............................................................................................................................................. 218
Crossover Configurations .................................................................................................................................... 218
Passive Crossover .......................................................................................................................................................219
Active Crossover.........................................................................................................................................................219
Analog versus Digital Crossovers...............................................................................................................................220
Full-Range Cabinets ..................................................................................................................................................220
Two-Way Cabinets ......................................................................................................................................................220
Three-Way Cabinets....................................................................................................................................................221
Four-Way Systems ......................................................................................................................................................222
Powered Cabinets Pros and Cons .......................................................................................................................222
Speaker Components ...........................................................................................................................................223
Drivers ........................................................................................................................................................................223
Direct Radiating Cone Speakers .................................................................................................................................223
Horn Compression Drivers .........................................................................................................................................224
The Importance of Enclosures ............................................................................................................................224
Sealed Enclosures .......................................................................................................................................................225
Infinite Baffle ..............................................................................................................................................................225
Acoustic Suspension ...................................................................................................................................................225
Bass Reflex .................................................................................................................................................................225
The Passive Radiator ..................................................................................................................................................226
Transmission Line .......................................................................................................................................................226
Component Alignment .........................................................................................................................................226
Speaker Impedance ............................................................................................................................................. 228
Calculating Speaker Impedance Loads .......................................................................................................................229
Table of Contents • xiii
Chapter 15 - The Racks
231
Drive Rack ............................................................................................................................................................231
Dynamics...............................................................................................................................................................232
Compressor/Limiters ..................................................................................................................................................232
Equalizers....................................................................................................................................................................233
Real-Time Analyzers (RTA) .......................................................................................................................................233
Crossovers ...................................................................................................................................................................235
Delays ........................................................................................................................................................................236
The Amp Rack ...................................................................................................................................................... 237
Peak Power .................................................................................................................................................................237
RMS Power .................................................................................................................................................................237
Continuous Power .......................................................................................................................................................237
THD (Total Harmonic Distortion) ..............................................................................................................................238
IMD (Intermodulation Distortion) ..............................................................................................................................238
Speaker Sensitivity .....................................................................................................................................................238
Power, SPL, and Sensitivity........................................................................................................................................239
Correct Power Ratings for Each Cabinet ....................................................................................................................239
Bridging a Stereo Amplifier ........................................................................................................................................239
Effects Rack ..........................................................................................................................................................241
Mic Preamplifiers .................................................................................................................................................241
Dynamics...............................................................................................................................................................242
Compressor/Limiter ....................................................................................................................................................243
Expander/Gates ...........................................................................................................................................................244
Effects ....................................................................................................................................................................246
Equalizers .............................................................................................................................................................247
Music Playback Devices ......................................................................................................................................247
Recording Devices ...............................................................................................................................................248
Patch Bays.............................................................................................................................................................248
Intermittent Connections.............................................................................................................................................249
Loss of Signal Integrity...............................................................................................................................................249
Confusion for Inexperienced Operators ......................................................................................................................249
Are They More Trouble Than They’re Worth? ...........................................................................................................250
Selecting the Appropriate Connection Format............................................................................................................250
Quarter-Inch ......................................................................................................................................................250
Tiny Telephone .................................................................................................................................................250
RCA ..................................................................................................................................................................250
Types of Patch Bay Connections ................................................................................................................................250
Normalled ........................................................................................................................................................250
Half Normalled—Bottom .................................................................................................................................251
Half-Normalled—Top .......................................................................................................................................251
Full-Normalled .................................................................................................................................................251
Parallel ..............................................................................................................................................................251
De-Normalled, Non-Normalled, or Isolated .....................................................................................................251
What Goes into a Patch Bay .......................................................................................................................................252
Mixer Outputs ...................................................................................................................................................252
Mixer Inputs......................................................................................................................................................252
Processor Inputs and Outputs ...........................................................................................................................253
Playback Device Outputs ..................................................................................................................................253
Tie Lines ...........................................................................................................................................................253
Recording Device Inputs and Outputs ..............................................................................................................253
Planning and Laying Out an Efficient Bay .......................................................................................................254
Keeping it Neat ...........................................................................................................................................................255
Locking Various Components .....................................................................................................................................255
Lockout Devices ...............................................................................................................................................255
The Box with No Knobs ...................................................................................................................................256
xiv
Chapter 16 - Basic Equipment Needs
257
Generic Recommendations .................................................................................................................................257
Professional Help ........................................................................................................................................................257
Microphones ...............................................................................................................................................................258
Cables..........................................................................................................................................................................258
Direct Boxes ...............................................................................................................................................................258
Playback Devices ........................................................................................................................................................259
Cases ...........................................................................................................................................................................259
Small Church: Fewer Than 75 People ...............................................................................................................259
Music versus Voice Reproduction ..............................................................................................................................259
Sound System Recommendation #1 ...........................................................................................................................259
Mixer/Amp/Processor .......................................................................................................................................260
Speakers ............................................................................................................................................................260
Sound System Recommendation #2 ...........................................................................................................................260
Powered Mixers and Speakers ..........................................................................................................................261
Mackie ..............................................................................................................................................................261
Yamaha ............................................................................................................................................................261
JBL ....................................................................................................................................................................262
Monitors ............................................................................................................................................................262
Medium Church: Between 76 and 300 People ..................................................................................................262
Mixer ...........................................................................................................................................................................262
Speakers ......................................................................................................................................................................264
Monitors ......................................................................................................................................................................264
Large Church: Between 301 and 1,000 People ..................................................................................................265
Professional Help ........................................................................................................................................................265
Mixer ...........................................................................................................................................................................266
Speakers ......................................................................................................................................................................267
Monitors ......................................................................................................................................................................267
Portable Systems .........................................................................................................................................................267
Mega Church: More Than 1,000 People ............................................................................................................ 268
Professional Help ........................................................................................................................................................268
Mixer ...........................................................................................................................................................................269
Analog...............................................................................................................................................................269
Digital ...............................................................................................................................................................270
Speakers ......................................................................................................................................................................270
Monitors ......................................................................................................................................................................270
Gymnasiums ...............................................................................................................................................................270
Youth Group ................................................................................................................................................................271
Permanent System ............................................................................................................................................271
Portable System ................................................................................................................................................271
Evaluate Your Existing System ........................................................................................................................... 272
Planning for Growth ............................................................................................................................................ 272
Growing the Plan .................................................................................................................................................273
Analysis Tools .......................................................................................................................................................273
RTAs ...........................................................................................................................................................................273
TEF Analysis...............................................................................................................................................................274
Chapter 17 - Monitor Systems
275
Feedback ...............................................................................................................................................................275
Directional Characteristic ...........................................................................................................................................276
Mic Polar Response ....................................................................................................................................................276
Monitor Connections ...........................................................................................................................................277
Ringing Out the System .......................................................................................................................................277
The Procedure .............................................................................................................................................................278
The Feedback Eliminator ............................................................................................................................................278
Singers Can Help ........................................................................................................................................................279
Table of Contents • xv
Sing Close to the Mic .......................................................................................................................................279
Hand Over the Mic ...........................................................................................................................................279
Hold the Body ...................................................................................................................................................279
Don’t Point ........................................................................................................................................................280
Leaning Down to the Monitor ..........................................................................................................................280
More Mics Cause More Feedback Problems ..............................................................................................................280
Floor Wedges ........................................................................................................................................................ 280
Look behind the Group ...............................................................................................................................................280
The Angle of Ascent ...................................................................................................................................................281
Get Back, Jo Jo ...........................................................................................................................................................281
The Escalation of Desires ...........................................................................................................................................281
To Wedge or Not to Wedge .........................................................................................................................................282
Dealing with Floor Monitor Leakage .........................................................................................................................282
Side Fills .....................................................................................................................................................................282
Small-Format Monitors...............................................................................................................................................283
In-Ear Monitors ...................................................................................................................................................284
Headphones .................................................................................................................................................................284
Ear Buds ......................................................................................................................................................................285
ButtKicker ...................................................................................................................................................................285
Recommended In-Ear Systems ...................................................................................................................................286
Aux-Based Systems ..........................................................................................................................................286
Channel-Based System .....................................................................................................................................286
Interface with FOH ..............................................................................................................................................287
Direct Outputs .............................................................................................................................................................288
System Hub Splits .......................................................................................................................................................289
Splitter Snake ..............................................................................................................................................................289
Active versus Passive Split .........................................................................................................................................289
Aux Bus ......................................................................................................................................................................290
Monitor Mixer.............................................................................................................................................................291
Getting Wireless ................................................................................................................................................... 291
Characteristics of a Good Monitor Mix .............................................................................................................291
Listen Up! .............................................................................................................................................................292
Chapter 18 - System Design and Layout
293
Mixer Placement ..................................................................................................................................................293
Mono ...........................................................................................................................................................................293
Stereo ..........................................................................................................................................................................294
LCR .............................................................................................................................................................................294
Walk the Room ...........................................................................................................................................................294
Speaker Placement ...............................................................................................................................................295
Front Line Boundary ...................................................................................................................................................295
Critical Distance .........................................................................................................................................................295
Coverage Pattern .........................................................................................................................................................296
Connecting Multiple Speakers ............................................................................................................................297
Time-Aligning Components .......................................................................................................................................297
Center Cluster ......................................................................................................................................................298
Arrays....................................................................................................................................................................298
Point Source Arrays ....................................................................................................................................................299
Split-Point Source Arrays ...........................................................................................................................................299
Zone Coverage......................................................................................................................................................300
Time Align ..................................................................................................................................................................301
Keep It Neat and Simple......................................................................................................................................301
Bundles .......................................................................................................................................................................301
Digital Snakes .............................................................................................................................................................302
Fine-Tuning the System .......................................................................................................................................302
Ear or Gear ..................................................................................................................................................................302
xvi
Voicing the System .....................................................................................................................................................303
Analysis Methods and Devices ...................................................................................................................................303
The Sound Level Meter ....................................................................................................................................303
The Rack-Mounted Real-Time Analyzer ..........................................................................................................304
The Software Real-Time Analyzer ...................................................................................................................306
The Inadequacy of the RTA ........................................................................................................................................308
Documentation .....................................................................................................................................................308
Three-Ring Binders.....................................................................................................................................................309
Computer Documentation Files ..................................................................................................................................309
Build a Documentation System with a Plan ...............................................................................................................309
Document All Connections and Settings ....................................................................................................................310
Keeping Track of Gear ................................................................................................................................................310
Chapter 19 - Acoustic Considerations
311
Dealing with Acoustics ........................................................................................................................................ 311
The Room ...................................................................................................................................................................312
Diffusion and Absorption ............................................................................................................................................312
Mode/Standing Wave/Resonance ....................................................................................................................... 313
Calculating the Frequency of Standing Waves in a Room..........................................................................................314
Axial Standing Waves ................................................................................................................................................315
Tangential Standing Waves .........................................................................................................................................315
Oblique Standing Waves .............................................................................................................................................315
Calculating Problematic Modes ..................................................................................................................................315
Consider All Opposing Surfaces .................................................................................................................................315
Red Flags ....................................................................................................................................................................316
Flutter Echo ................................................................................................................................................................316
Your Location in the Room Matters ...........................................................................................................................317
Everything Else in the Room Matters .........................................................................................................................318
The Rectangle .......................................................................................................................................................318
The Goal .....................................................................................................................................................................318
Solutions to Acoustical Problems ........................................................................................................................318
Dimensional Proportions ............................................................................................................................................318
Adjusting Angles.........................................................................................................................................................319
Concave Angles ................................................................................................................................................319
Convex Angles ..................................................................................................................................................320
Treating Surfaces ........................................................................................................................................................320
Absorption Coefficient (Absorbers) .................................................................................................................320
Diffusers............................................................................................................................................................321
The Ceiling .......................................................................................................................................................321
Corners ..............................................................................................................................................................322
The Bass Trap ...................................................................................................................................................322
Power Alley ...........................................................................................................................................................323
Using Your Knowledge of Acoustics ................................................................................................................... 324
New Construction................................................................................................................................................. 324
Chapter 20 - Miking the Group
325
Electric Guitar......................................................................................................................................................325
Guitar Fundamentals ...................................................................................................................................................326
Tone and Timbre .........................................................................................................................................................326
Pickup Placement ........................................................................................................................................................326
Tone Controls ..............................................................................................................................................................327
Frequency Content ......................................................................................................................................................328
Running Direct into the Mixer ....................................................................................................................................328
Miking the Speaker .....................................................................................................................................................328
Mic Techniques ................................................................................................................................................330
Electric Guitar Levels .................................................................................................................................................330
Table of Contents • xvii
Pickups ........................................................................................................................................................................330
Pickup Position .................................................................................................................................................331
Pickup Types .....................................................................................................................................................331
Single-Coil ........................................................................................................................................................332
Double-Coil Humbucking ................................................................................................................................332
Active Pickups ..................................................................................................................................................332
Equalizing the Guitar ..................................................................................................................................................332
Delay ...........................................................................................................................................................................333
Electronic Doubling ....................................................................................................................................................334
Chorus/Flanger/Phase Shifter .....................................................................................................................................334
Reverberation ..............................................................................................................................................................335
Bass Guitar ...........................................................................................................................................................335
Direct Box/Direct In (DI) ...........................................................................................................................................336
Pickup Output Level ..................................................................................................................................................336
Plucking Styles ...........................................................................................................................................................337
Levels for Bass............................................................................................................................................................338
Compressing the Electric Bass ...................................................................................................................................338
Equalization of the Bass Guitar ..................................................................................................................................340
Panning the Bass .........................................................................................................................................................341
Drums and Percussion .........................................................................................................................................342
Drum Conditioning .....................................................................................................................................................342
Tuning .........................................................................................................................................................................342
Drumsticks ..................................................................................................................................................................342
Muffling Drums ..........................................................................................................................................................343
Hardware .....................................................................................................................................................................343
Room Acoustics ..........................................................................................................................................................344
Theories of Drum Miking ...........................................................................................................................................344
Essential Microphones ......................................................................................................................................344
Mic Choices ......................................................................................................................................................344
Positioning the Microphones ............................................................................................................................345
Phase Interaction between Mics .......................................................................................................................345
Drum Levels ...............................................................................................................................................................345
Isolating the Acoustic Drum Kit .................................................................................................................................346
Miking a Drum Set with One Microphone .................................................................................................................346
Miking a Kit with Two Mics .......................................................................................................................................347
Miking a Kit with Three Mics ....................................................................................................................................348
Miking a Kit with Four Mics ......................................................................................................................................349
Close-Mike Technique ................................................................................................................................................349
Equalizing Drums .......................................................................................................................................................350
Kick Drum ..................................................................................................................................................................351
Snare Drum .................................................................................................................................................................353
Miking Toms ...............................................................................................................................................................354
Overhead Microphones ...............................................................................................................................................354
The Hi-Hat Mic ...........................................................................................................................................................355
Gating the Drum Tracks ..............................................................................................................................................355
Aiming the Mics .........................................................................................................................................................356
Click Track ..................................................................................................................................................................356
Effects on Drums ........................................................................................................................................................357
Compressing Drums ...................................................................................................................................................357
Panning the Drums......................................................................................................................................................357
Miking Piano ........................................................................................................................................................358
Mic Choice and Technique .........................................................................................................................................359
Stereo or Mono ...........................................................................................................................................................361
Instrument Maintenance .............................................................................................................................................361
Additional Mic Techniques .........................................................................................................................................361
Piano Levels ................................................................................................................................................................362
Equalizing the Piano ...................................................................................................................................................364
xviii
Compressing the Piano ...............................................................................................................................................364
Reverberation ..............................................................................................................................................................365
Miking Vocals .......................................................................................................................................................365
Mic Choice ..................................................................................................................................................................365
Moving-Coil (Dynamic) Mics ..........................................................................................................................366
Ribbon Mics......................................................................................................................................................366
Condenser Mics ................................................................................................................................................366
Mic Technique ............................................................................................................................................................367
Proximity Effect ..........................................................................................................................................................367
The Timid ....................................................................................................................................................................368
The Bold .....................................................................................................................................................................368
The Outrageous Ham ..................................................................................................................................................368
The Seasoned Singer ...................................................................................................................................................369
Holding the Mic ..........................................................................................................................................................369
Wind Screen ................................................................................................................................................................369
Hygiene ......................................................................................................................................................................370
The Proximity Effect...................................................................................................................................................370
Bass Roll-Off ..............................................................................................................................................................371
Dynamic Range...........................................................................................................................................................371
Compressor/Limiter/Gate/Expander ...........................................................................................................................371
Backing Vocals...................................................................................................................................................... 372
Choir......................................................................................................................................................................372
Mic Choice and Technique .........................................................................................................................................372
Ratio of Mics to Singers .............................................................................................................................................373
Positioning Choir Mics ..............................................................................................................................................374
Cardioid Polar Pattern .................................................................................................................................................374
Pitch, Tone, Enunciation, and Blend ...........................................................................................................................375
Monitors ................................................................................................................................................................375
Controlling the Band ...................................................................................................................................................376
Monitor Content ..........................................................................................................................................................376
Monitor Position .........................................................................................................................................................376
Synthesized Sounds ..............................................................................................................................................377
Panning the Synth .......................................................................................................................................................377
Equalization and Effects .............................................................................................................................................377
Acoustic Guitar ....................................................................................................................................................377
Strings .........................................................................................................................................................................378
Picks ............................................................................................................................................................................378
Alternate Tunings ........................................................................................................................................................378
The Impact of Different Wood Configurations on Tone .............................................................................................379
Electric Acoustic Guitars ............................................................................................................................................379
Mic Techniques ...........................................................................................................................................................380
Dynamic Processing and the Acoustic Guitar.............................................................................................................381
Chapter 21 - Sound Check
383
Setup Routine ....................................................................................................................................................... 383
Power On/Power Off...................................................................................................................................................383
Labeling and Storage ..................................................................................................................................................384
Walls and Boxes ..........................................................................................................................................................384
Build a System and Stick to It ....................................................................................................................................385
Training the Crew .......................................................................................................................................................385
Zero the Board ............................................................................................................................................................386
Documentation of the Mix ..........................................................................................................................................386
Mark the Board ...........................................................................................................................................................386
…and Then There’s Digital .................................................................................................................................387
Decide on the Mixer Layout and Subgroupings .........................................................................................................387
Verify Functionality of All Equipment ............................................................................................................... 388
Table of Contents • xix
Feedback .....................................................................................................................................................................389
Performer Sound Check ......................................................................................................................................389
Ensure Functionality ...................................................................................................................................................389
Refine Settings ............................................................................................................................................................389
Perfection ....................................................................................................................................................................390
Fine-Tune the Monitor Mix .................................................................................................................................390
The Difference between What They Want and What They Need ...............................................................................390
Invite the Musicians to the Board ...............................................................................................................................390
Start without Monitors ................................................................................................................................................390
Communication with the Performers.................................................................................................................391
Built-In Talkback Mic .................................................................................................................................................391
External Talkback Mic ................................................................................................................................................391
Basic Troubleshooting.......................................................................................................................................... 392
Chapter 22 - Creating an Excellent Mix
395
Structuring the Arrangement .............................................................................................................................395
How to Structure an Effective Band Arrangement .....................................................................................................396
Arrangement Format 1 ......................................................................................................................................396
Arrangement Format 2 ......................................................................................................................................396
Ideally… .....................................................................................................................................................................397
Creating Size in a Small Room ...........................................................................................................................398
Controlling the Mix in a Large Room ................................................................................................................398
The Sermon...........................................................................................................................................................399
Intelligibility ...............................................................................................................................................................399
Headset Microphone ...................................................................................................................................................399
Lavaliere Microphone .................................................................................................................................................399
Lectern Microphone ....................................................................................................................................................400
Handheld Microphone ................................................................................................................................................400
Volume ........................................................................................................................................................................401
Compression ...............................................................................................................................................................401
Riding the Level..........................................................................................................................................................401
Body Packs On or Off .................................................................................................................................................402
Watch the Wireless Mic Status ...................................................................................................................................403
Building the Mix...................................................................................................................................................404
The Decibel Meter and the Mix ..................................................................................................................................404
The Difference between Rehearsal and the Event ......................................................................................................404
First Things First .........................................................................................................................................................405
Subtractive versus Additive Mixing ...........................................................................................................................406
Mixing Techniques for Rhythm Section and Voice ........................................................................................... 407
Equalization: The Cumulative Effect.................................................................................................................407
Combining EQ......................................................................................................................................................407
Allocating EQ across the Audible Spectrum ..............................................................................................................408
Learning from the Recording Engineer’s Bag of Tricks .............................................................................................408
Fitting the Puzzle Together: Consciously Combining EQ ..........................................................................................410
Sweeping a Peak to Find a Problem ...........................................................................................................................410
Basic Procedures for Building the Mix .............................................................................................................. 411
Electronic Drums ................................................................................................................................................. 411
Stock versus Custom Patches .....................................................................................................................................411
Phones and the FOH ...................................................................................................................................................412
Equalization and Effects .............................................................................................................................................413
Kick and Snare Drums ................................................................................................................................................413
Pan the Cymbals for a Natural Sound .........................................................................................................................413
Acoustic Drums ....................................................................................................................................................414
Kick Drum ..................................................................................................................................................................414
Sweet Spot ..................................................................................................................................................................414
Mids ............................................................................................................................................................................415
xx
Highs ...........................................................................................................................................................................415
Complement Bass Guitar ............................................................................................................................................415
Snare Drum .................................................................................................................................................................415
Toms............................................................................................................................................................................415
Drum Set Overheads (Live) ........................................................................................................................................416
Bass Guitar ...........................................................................................................................................................416
Mixing Guitars .....................................................................................................................................................417
Acoustic Guitar ...........................................................................................................................................................417
Running Direct ...........................................................................................................................................................417
Dynamic Control.........................................................................................................................................................418
EQ ...............................................................................................................................................................................418
Effects .........................................................................................................................................................................418
Electric Guitar......................................................................................................................................................418
Creating a Huge Sound ...............................................................................................................................................419
Mixing Keyboards................................................................................................................................................420
Piano ...........................................................................................................................................................................420
Synth and Pad Effects .................................................................................................................................................420
Mixing the Lead Vocal .........................................................................................................................................421
Compression ...............................................................................................................................................................421
Expander .....................................................................................................................................................................422
Vocal EQ .....................................................................................................................................................................422
Simple Delay...............................................................................................................................................................422
Add Backing Vocals ....................................................................................................................................................423
Compressing the Group ..............................................................................................................................................423
Panning .................................................................................................................................................................424
Reverberation .......................................................................................................................................................424
Combining Wet and Dry .............................................................................................................................................425
Delay ...........................................................................................................................................................................425
Mixing the Event: Focus, Focus, Focus! ............................................................................................................425
Blending the Drums and Bass .....................................................................................................................................426
Blending Electric Guitars............................................................................................................................................426
Blending Acoustic Guitars ..........................................................................................................................................427
Blending the Mix ........................................................................................................................................................427
Index
429
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