Audio Files Workspace
Operation Manual
Cristina Bachmann, Heiko Bischoff, Christina Kaboth, Insa Mingers, Sabine Pfeifer,
Kevin Quarshie, Benjamin Schütte
This PDF provides improved access for vision-impaired users. Please note that due to the
complexity and number of images in this document, it is not possible to include text
descriptions of images.
The information in this document is subject to change without notice and does not represent
a commitment on the part of Steinberg Media Technologies GmbH. The software described
by this document is subject to a License Agreement and may not be copied to other media
except as specifically allowed in the License Agreement. No part of this publication may be
copied, reproduced, or otherwise transmitted or recorded, for any purpose, without prior
written permission by Steinberg Media Technologies GmbH. Registered licensees of the
product described herein may print one copy of this document for their personal use.
All product and company names are ™ or ® trademarks of their respective holders. For more
information, please visit www.steinberg.net/trademarks.
© Steinberg Media Technologies GmbH, 2014.
All rights reserved.
Table of Contents
7
7
8
8
9
Introduction
The Help System
About the Program Versions
Typographical Conventions
How You Can Reach Us
10
10
10
10
11
14
15
Setting Up Your System
Connecting Audio
About Audio Cards and Background
Playback
About Latency
Defining VST Audio Connections
CD/DVD Recorders
Remote Devices
26
26
27
28
31
38
38
39
40
42
42
43
WaveLab Concepts
General Editing Rules
Startup Screen
Basic Window Handling
Selecting Audio
Sliders
Renaming Items in Tables
File Browser
Tab Groups
Peak Files
Companion Files
EBU Loudness Standard R-128
45
45
46
47
48
54
54
56
58
65
66
68
69
Program Overview
Command Bars
Status Bar
Context Menus
Time Ruler and Level Ruler
Value Editing
Drag Operations
Undoing and Redoing
Zooming
Managing Tabs
Presets
Saving a Picture of the Active Window
Log Window
71
71
72
73
75
77
80
82
82
83
83
86
86
87
File Operations
List of All Open Files Throughout the
Application Dialog
Recently Used Files
Favorite Files
Save and Save As
Templates
File Renaming
Deleting Files
Special Menu
Temporary Files
Work Folders vs. Document Folders
Uploading to SoundCloud
Copying Audio Information to the Clipboard
Setting the Focus on the Current File
88
89
89
90
90
90
91
92
93
93
94
94
About Workspaces
Audio Files Workspace
Audio Montage Workspace
Batch Processors Workspace
Podcast Workspace
Control Window
Creating an Empty Workspace
New Workspace Dialog
Opening Files in a Workspace
Organizing Workspace Windows
Saving a Workspace Layout
About Tool Windows
98
98
112
112
113
113
114
115
116
117
Playback
Transport Bar
Playing Back Only One Channel
Starting Playback From the Ruler
Using the Play Tool
Playback Scrubbing
Timecode Window
Jog/Shuttle Function
Scroll During Playback
About Playback in the Audio Montage
Workspace
118 Speaker Configuration
3
120
120
129
153
154
160
162
Audio File Editing
Wave Window
File Handling in the Audio Files Workspace
Changing the Audio Properties
Meta-Data
Silence Generator Dialog
Waveform Restoration with the Pen Tool
164
164
171
181
183
Audio Analysis
Error Detection and Correction
Global Analysis
Audio File Comparator
3D Frequency Analysis
186
186
186
187
188
190
191
192
194
195
195
195
196
199
201
202
204
205
Offline Processing
Applying Processing
Gain Dialog
Normalize Level Dialog
Loudness Normalizer
Pan Normalizer Dialog
Envelope Dialog
Fades in Audio Files
Crossfades
Inverting the Audio Phase
Reversing Audio
DC Offset
Time Stretching
Pitch Shift
Pitch Quantize Dialog
Pitch Bend
Resample
Effect Morphing
208
209
211
212
214
214
216
217
228
235
263
269
274
274
283
295
296
296
311
320
324
327
328
331
331
332
334
335
347
348
4
Audio Montage
Montage Window
Signal Flow in the Audio Montage
Creating a New Audio Montage
Creating an Audio Montage from an Audio
File
Import Options for Audio Montages
Missing Files in Audio Montage Dialog
Assembling the Audio Montage
Rearranging Clips
Clip Editing
Audio Montages Within Audio Montages
Managing Source Files of Clips
Track Activity Indicator
Envelopes for Clips
Fades and Crossfades in the Audio
Montage
Clip Time Stretching
Clip Pitch Shifting
Effects for Tracks, Clips, and the Master
Output
About the CD Window
About Cloning Audio Montages
Snapshots
Mixing Down - The Render Function
Loudness Meta Normalizer
Navigator Window
Notes Window
About Groups
Backing Up Audio Montages
Multichannel Operations in the Audio
Montage
XML Export and Import of Audio Montages
AES-31 Files Export and Import
352
352
353
354
361
Recording
Setting Up the Recording Dialog
Dropping Markers During Recording
Recording Dialog
Recording in the Audio Montage
Workspace
362
363
380
389
390
392
397
398
Master Section
Master Section Window
Rendering
Record From an ASIO Input
Smart Bypass
Saving a Master Section Preset
About Monitoring Background Tasks
About Dropouts
399
401
405
410
412
412
414
414
414
416
417
417
417
Markers
Markers Window
About Creating Markers
Deleting Markers
Moving Markers
Moving Multiple Markers
Navigating to Markers
Hiding Markers of a Certain Type
Converting Marker Types
Renaming Markers
About Selecting Markers
Selecting the Audio Between Markers
Binding Markers to Clips in the Audio
Montage
418 Exporting the Markers List as Text
419 How Marker Information is Stored
456
456
458
459
462
477
481
485
Writing Operations
Write Audio CD or DDP Dialog
Erase Optical Media Dialog
About Writing Audio Files
About Writing Audio Montages
Write DVD-Audio Function
Data CD/DVD Projects
About Audio CD Formats
489
489
491
493
494
500
501
Spectrum Editing
Spectrum Display
Surgical Processing
Master Section Processing
Spectrum Editor Window
Defining a Region for Spectrum Editing
Processing Frequency Ranges via the
Master Section
420
420
420
421
422
422
422
423
423
427
431
433
433
436
438
438
502 Auto Split
502 Auto Split in Audio Files
506 Auto Split in Audio Montages
Metering
Metering Window
Real Time vs. Non-Real Time
Metering Monitor Modes
About Meter Settings
Multichannel Metering
Resetting the Meters
Using Presets in the Meter Windows
Level Meter
Loudness Meter
Phasescope
Spectroscope
Spectrometer
Bit Meter
Oscilloscope
Wavescope
509
509
510
518
Loops
Basic Looping
About Refining Loops
About Looping Seemingly Unloopable
Audio
522 About Sample Attributes
524 Generating Signals
524 Signal Generator
528 DTMF Generator
531
531
535
536
536
537
537
Importing Audio CD Tracks
Import Audio CD Dialog
Importing Audio CD Tracks
Searching Track Names on the Internet
Submitting Track Names to the Internet
About Ultra-Safe Mode
Converting Audio CD Tracks to an Audio
Montage
538 Converting Audio CD Tracks to a Basic
Audio CD
440
441
444
444
446
447
448
Basic Audio CD
Basic Audio CD Window
About CD Markers
Preparing a Basic Audio CD
Opening CD Tracks for Editing
About Playing Back Files in the Track List
Saving Basic Audio CD Tracks as Separate
Files
448 Saving Basic Audio CD Tracks as One File
449
449
450
450
451
454
455
455
539 Batch Processing
541 Overview of the Batch Processors
Workspace
547 About Off-Line Processors
549 Working with the Batch Processors
Workspace
559 Watch Folders
575 XML Files in Batch Processing
DVD-Audio
Structure of a DVD-Audio Project
DVD-Audio Formats
DVD-Audio Format Considerations
DVD-Audio Window
Preparing a DVD-Audio
Opening Audio Montages for Editing
Checking the DVD-Audio Conformity
583 Batch Conversion
583 Batch Conversion Dialog
584 Batch Converting Files
5
585
585
585
587
589
590
595
595
596
597
Batch Renaming
Batch Renaming Dialogs
Batch Renaming Files
Batch Renaming Markers
Batch Renaming Clips
Renaming Operation Categories and Types
List of Renaming Operations
Preview Section
Range Parameters
Previewing and Performing All Renaming
Operations
598 About Regular Expressions
602
603
607
607
608
608
609
610
Podcasts
Podcast Workspace
Global Podcast Options
Creating a Podcast
Setting Up a FTP for Podcast Publishing
Publishing a Podcast
FTP Site Dialog
Checking the Podcast
611
611
612
612
Master Projects
Setting Up a Master Project
Saving a Master Project
Writing Files of a Master Project to Data
CD/DVD
613 Master Project Window
615 Customizing
615 Window Layout
620 Customizing the Wave Window and the
Montage Window
628 About Customizing Shortcuts
635 Plug-ins Organization
643 Variables and Text Snippets
645 About Scripting
666
666
675
680
682
683
684
Configuring the Software
About Global Preferences
Audio File Editing Preferences Dialog
Audio Montage Preferences Dialog
Settings Management
Multi-User Settings
About External Tools
688
688
692
748
755
755
758
760
Plug-in Reference
Built-in Plug-ins
Steinberg VST 3 Plug-ins
Sonnox Restoration Toolkit
Legacy Plug-ins
Dithering Plug-ins
ASIO Plug-ins
Batch Processing Plug-ins
769 Index
6
Introduction
The Help System
The detailed help system of WaveLab makes it easy to look up interface features
and get information from within the program.
Three main types of help are available:
•
The help provides detailed information on the features and functionality of
WaveLab. You can set bookmarks, and use the search function and index to
quickly find information.
•
“What’s This” tooltips give detailed information on the functionality of a
specific user interface element.
•
The status bar at the bottom of each workspace window gives detailed
information on menu items when moving the mouse over an item.
•
In the Audio Montage workspace, the status bar shows what kind of editing
can be performed when using the mouse and modifier keys.
Accessing the Help System
There are several ways of accessing the help system.
•
To open the WaveLab help, select Help > Contents.
•
To open the manual in PDF format, browse to the installation folder. The
documents are located in the Documentation folder.
•
To show tooltips, move the mouse over an interface icon.
•
To open the help for the active dialog, click the question mark icon on the title
bar (Windows) or in the dialog (Mac OS) to show the Help button, and then
click the Help button, or press [F1] (Windows) or [Command]-[?] (Mac OS).
•
To use the menu help, move the mouse over a menu item. The help text is
displayed on the status bar at the bottom of the workspace window.
•
To see information on what kind of editing can be performed when using the
mouse and modifier keys in the audio montage window, move the mouse over
the montage window. The help text is displayed on the status bar at the
bottom of the workspace window.
7
Introduction
About the Program Versions
•
To activate/deactivate the help texts on the status bar, select Options
(WaveLab menu on Mac) > Global preferences > Display tab, and in the
Workspaces section, select Display status bar.
To open the “What’s This” help, you have the following possibilities:
•
In any workspace, press [Shift]-[F1], and move the mouse over an interface
item, or select Help > What is this?.
•
In a dialog, select the question mark icon on any title bar (Windows) or in the
dialog (Mac OS), and move the mouse over an interface item or a menu
option.
•
Some “What’s this” tooltips have a different background color to indicate that
a dedicated help topic is available in the WaveLab help. Click the link in the
tooltip to open the corresponding information in the help.
About the Program Versions
The documentation covers two different operating systems, Windows and Mac OS
X. Some features and settings are specific to one of the operation systems.
This is clearly stated in the applicable cases. If nothing else is said, all descriptions
and procedures in the documentation are valid for all WaveLab versions for both
Windows and Mac OS X.
The screenshots are taken from the English Windows version of WaveLab.
Typographical Conventions
Many of the default key commands in WaveLab use modifier keys, some of which
are different depending on the operating system. For example, the default key
command for Undo is [Ctrl]-[Z] on Windows and [Command]-[Z] on Mac OS X.
When key commands with modifier keys are described in this manual, they are
shown with the Windows modifier key first, in the following way:
•
[Win modifier key]/[Mac modifier key]-[key]
For example, [Ctrl]/[Command]-[Z] means “press [Ctrl] on Windows or [Command]
on Mac OS X, then press [Z]”.
Similarly, [Alt]/[Option]-[X] means “press [Alt] on Windows or [Option] on Mac OS
X, then press [X]”.
NOTE
This manual often refers to right-clicking, for example, to open context menus. If you
are using a Mac with a single-button mouse, hold down [Ctrl] and click.
8
Introduction
How You Can Reach Us
How You Can Reach Us
On the Help menu in WaveLab, you find items linking to additional information.
The menu contains links to various Steinberg web pages. Selecting a menu item
automatically launches your browser and opens the page. On these pages, you can
find support and compatibility information, answers to frequently asked questions,
information about updates and other Steinberg products, etc. This requires that you
have a web browser installed on your computer, and a working internet connection.
9
Setting Up Your System
Before you start working, you need to make some settings.
IMPORTANT
Make sure that all equipment is turned off before making any connections.
Connecting Audio
Your system setup depends on many different factors, for example, the kind of
project that you want to create, the external equipment that you want to use, or the
computer hardware available to you.
About Audio Cards and Background Playback
When you activate playback or recording in WaveLab, other applications cannot
access the audio card. Likewise, if another application uses the audio card,
WaveLab is unable to play back. The Windows MME driver is an exception from
this.
You can run WaveLab together with other applications and always give the active
application access to the audio card.
To do so, select Options > VST Audio Connections, and on the Options tab,
activate Release driver when WaveLab is in background.
About Latency
Latency is the delay between when audio is sent from the program and when you
actually hear it. While a very low latency can be crucial in a real-time DAW
application such as Steinberg Nuendo or Cubase, this is not strictly the case with
WaveLab.
When working with WaveLab, the important issues are optimum and stable
playback and editing precision. You should not try to reach the lowest possible
latency figures.
10
Setting Up Your System
Defining VST Audio Connections
The latency in an audio system depends on the audio hardware, its drivers, and
settings. In case of dropouts, crackles, or glitches during playback, raise the Buffer
Number setting on the VST Audio Connections dialog, or increase the buffer size
in the ASIO control panel, specific to the audio card.
Defining VST Audio Connections
To be able to play back and record audio in WaveLab, you must specify how the
internal input and output channels in WaveLab are connected to your sound card
and which device you intend to use for audio playback and recording.
You can define the buffer settings for your device as well as set up connections to
external gear, such as external effects units. You should select at least two channels
for stereo playback and recording.
If you have no third-party audio card, you can select the Windows MME driver or
Built-in Audio (Mac) options. You can also use MME with most third party audio
cards, with the advantage that you can record and play at different sample rates.
However, Windows MME drivers do not allow audio monitoring in the Recording
dialog or multichannel operation, and other drivers generally offer better sound
quality and performance.
Selecting an ASIO Driver
Audio Stream Input/Output (ASIO) is a computer device driver protocol for digital
audio specified by Steinberg. It provides a low-latency and high fidelity interface
between a software application and the soundcard of a computer.
PROCEDURE
1.
In any workspace, except the Podcast workspace, select Options > VST
Audio Connections.
2.
From the Audio Device menu, select your ASIO driver.
The ASIO plug-ins tab and the Control panel button are activated.
3.
Optional: Click the Control panel button and make your settings.
4.
On the ASIO plug-ins tab, select the audio ports that are used for recording
and monitor input of the ASIO plug-ins.
5.
Click OK.
11
Setting Up Your System
Defining VST Audio Connections
Selecting a Windows MME Driver
PROCEDURE
1.
In any workspace, except the Podcast workspace, select Options > VST
Audio Connections.
2.
From the Audio Device menu, select the Windows MME driver.
3.
On the Playback tab, select the audio ports that are used for playback.
4.
On the Recording tab, select the audio ports that used for recording and
monitor input.
5.
Click OK.
VST Audio Connections Dialog
This dialog allows you to specify how the internal input and output channels in
WaveLab are connected to your sound card and which device you want to use for
audio playback and recording.
In any workspace, except the Podcast workspace, select Options > VST Audio
Connections.
Global Settings
Audio device
Here, select the audio device that you want to use for playback and recording
audio. If you do not have a third-party audio card, you can select the Windows
MME driver or Built-in Audio (Mac) options.
Control panel
When you select an ASIO driver, the Control panel button is activated. Click
the button to open the settings application of your sound card, which is
usually installed with the sound card. Depending on your sound card and
driver, this provides settings for buffer size, digital formats, additional I/O
connections, etc.
Refresh
This button causes audio devices to be evaluated again to reflect device
changes.
12
Setting Up Your System
Defining VST Audio Connections
Playback Tab
This tab allows you to select and name audio ports that are used for playback. If you
are monitoring on a surround system, specify your surround speaker outputs here.
Furthermore, you can rename the channels and set up the Speaker configuration
to be able to switch between different speakers.
Recording Tab
This tab allows you to select and name your audio ports that are used for recording
and input monitoring. The inputs that you define here are then available in the
Recording dialog. Furthermore, you can rename the channels and select the
Speaker configuration.
External Gear Tab
13
Setting Up Your System
CD/DVD Recorders
This tab allows you to select inputs from and outputs to external audio processing
equipment. The name of this tab corresponds to the installed driver, for example,
ASIO plug-ins.
Options Tab
This tab allows you to specify the number of buffers and the control driver
functionality.
Buffer Number
Increasing this value improves the elasticity of audio streaming to avoid
dropouts.
MME Specific - Buffer size
Increasing this value improves the elasticity of audio streaming to avoid
dropouts. This is only available when an MME driver is selected.
Initialize streaming engine at first use
Initializes the audio streaming engine when playback or recording are used for
the first time. If this option is deactivated, the audio streaming engine is
initialized at program startup.
Reset driver when changing sample rate
Resets the driver when sample rate is changed. When playback or recording
must be set to a new sample rate, certain audio device drivers must be fully
reset to work properly. This operation takes some time.
Perform short fade-in/out when starting/stopping playback
Performs a short fade-in when starting playback and a short fade-out when
stopping playback. This avoids clicks that are caused by waveforms that are
not starting on a zero-crossing point.
Release driver when WaveLab is in background
Closes the audio device when WaveLab is no longer the front application.
This allows other audio applications to use the same audio device.
CD/DVD Recorders
For general instructions on installing internal or connecting external recorders via
USB or Firewire, please refer to the instruction manual for your computer or your
recorder.
Make sure to have the latest firmware version installed on your recorder unit. For CD
recorders, the existing firmware must support disc-at-once mode. In addition,
running a unit with older firmware can prevent you from writing sub-index markers
into the tracks, for example.
14
Setting Up Your System
Remote Devices
Remote Devices
You can use remote devices to remote-control WaveLab.
Several commands can be controlled with knobs and sliders of your remote control
device. For all commands that can be assigned to a keyboard shortcut, a MIDI
trigger can also be assigned.
Remote Devices Dialog
This dialog allows you to select a device to remote-control WaveLab, and see and
edit the control map of MIDI control devices.
In any workspace, except the Podcast workspace, select Options > Remote
devices.
Device Editing Tab
This tab lets you select a MIDI control device, see the control map, assign WaveLab
commands to MIDI controls, and import/export control assignments.
15
Setting Up Your System
Remote Devices
Device menu
Select the MIDI device to edit. Select MIDI shortcuts for menus to define
the MIDI input port that is used for MIDI shortcuts. The shortcuts can then be
assigned in the Customize commands dialog.
Select MIDI Control Device #1 - #10 to select a slot for a connected MIDI
control device. You can then assign a device by selecting a MIDI input port
and output port.
Active
Activates the selected device and scans the MIDI ports.
In-Port/Out-Port
Select the MIDI input/output ports of the device that you want to use.
Edit map
Activates the edit mode of the MIDI control map for the selected device. To
leave the edit mode, click again.
Save
Saves the modifications that have been made to the MIDI control map.
Undo
Undoes the modifications that have been made to the MIDI control map.
Reset
If the map has a factory preset, clicking Reset resets all changes that have
been made to the map. If the map has no factory preset, the map is cleared.
Import
Opens the file browser where you can select a map definition file (XML file).
This kind of file can be supplied by a MIDI device manufacturer or another
WaveLab user, for example.
Export
Lets you export a map definition file (XML file). This file can be sent to another
WaveLab user, for example.
Name
Lets you enter a map name.
Only display assignments
If this option is activated, the control map only displays the parameters that
are associated with a remote control.
Expand/Collapse
Expands/collapses the folder tree of the control map.
WaveLab action list
This folder tree lists the parameters that you can remote-control. The top
folder represent contexts. The related parameters can only be controlled if the
context is active. For example, if an audio file is active.
16
Setting Up Your System
Remote Devices
A remote control can be used in several contexts if these are exclusive. For
example, parameters that can be used for an active audio file or an active
audio montage.
The Global folder contain the parameters that can always be controlled.
Control editor - Save
If a control has been created or modified, click this button to save it.
Control editor - Undo
If a control has been modified, click this button to undo the changes.
Control editor - Clear
Erases the selected control’s definition.
Control name
Lets you enter a name for the control. Each control must have a name.
Type
In the Type section, you can edit the type of the selected control.
When more than one type of control can be assigned to a parameter, you can
select a type from the first pop-up menu. You can choose between relative
and absolute editing for certain parameters. For example, a master section
slider can be associated to a remote motorized fader (absolute editing), or to
an infinite knob (relative editing).
Several protocols are supported to interpret the MIDI messages. You can
select the protocol that you want to use from the second menu. The MIDI
learn function can automatically change this protocol, according to the
received MIDI messages.
Remote controls send messages but can also receive messages from
WaveLab, to light up a button or move a motorized fader, for example. You can
select the mode to use from the third menu.
Message
Activates the MIDI learn function. When activated, you can use the control
(knob, fader, etc.) on your MIDI controller. When MIDI messages are received,
they are analyzed after the MIDI activity stops for several milliseconds. The
result is displayed in the Message field. This is then used by WaveLab as the
control identifier.
Clear
Erases the MIDI event that identifies the control.
Conditions
A modifier is a WaveLab parameter that can be activated by a MIDI control
(for example, a foot switch) or a computer key ([Ctrl]/[Command], [Shift], etc.).
By associating a remote control with one or two modifiers, you can use a
single remote control to edit different parameters.
17
Setting Up Your System
Remote Devices
Options Tab
This tab lets you use the MIDI Learn function to assign a control of a MIDI remote
control device to a function.
Emulate mouse wheel
If this option is activated, the AI knob acts as a mouse wheel in the WaveLab
user interface, except for plug-ins.
Edit focused numeric field
If this option is activated, the AI knob can be used to edit the focused numeric
field that you find in many WaveLab windows and dialogs.
Selecting a MIDI Remote Control Device
PREREQUISITE
The MIDI remote control device is connected to your PC/Mac.
PROCEDURE
1.
In any workspace, except the Podcast workspace, select Options > Remote
devices.
2.
On the Device editing tab, select one of the MIDI control device slots or the
MIDI shortcuts for menus option from the pop-up menu at the top.
3.
Select Active to activate the selected device.
4.
From the In-Port and Out-Port menus, select a MIDI input port and output
port.
Assigning a MIDI Controller to a Parameter
If you are using a Steinberg remote control device, for example, the CC121, the
controls are already assigned to parameters. You can customize these default
settings.
PREREQUISITE
You have set up your MIDI remote control device.
PROCEDURE
1.
In any workspace, except the Podcast workspace, select Options > Remote
devices.
2.
From the pop-up menu at the top of the dialog, select your MIDI control
device.
3.
On the Device editing tab, click the Edit map button.
4.
In the tree structure, click the parameter that you want to remote-control.
5.
In the Control editor section, enter a name in the Control name field.
18
Setting Up Your System
Remote Devices
6.
Select the type of control.
Depending on the type of control on the MIDI remote control device, you must select
a control with relative values (knob), trigger values (button), or absolute values (fader).
7.
Click in the Message field, and on your MIDI remote control device, move the
control that you want to assign.
The name of the controller is displayed in the Message field.
8.
Click the Save button to the right of the This control is modified message.
9.
Click the Save button to the right of the Edit map button.
RESULT
The MIDI controller is now assigned to the function.
Assigning Custom Parameters to Plug-ins
You can assign custom parameters to many VST 3 plug-ins.
PREREQUISITE
In the Remote devices dialog, assign the controls of your MIDI controller to the
plug-in custom parameters. If you are using the Steinberg CC121 controller, the
parameters are assigned by default.
PROCEDURE
1.
From the Master Section or the Effects window, open the plug-in that you
want to control with the MIDI remote control device.
2.
[Ctrl]/[Command]-click the circle icon at the top of the plug-in window to
enter the Edit mode.
3.
Click OK.
The circle icon turns into a tool icon to indicate that you are in MIDI learn mode.
19
Setting Up Your System
Remote Devices
4.
Move the mouse over a plug-in parameter, and move the MIDI control that you
want to assign.
Repeat this for all the parameters and controls that you want to assign.
5.
When finished, click the tool icon to exit Edit mode, and click OK.
RESULT
The assignment is saved. You can now control the assigned parameters with your
MIDI remote control device. A plug-in can be controlled via the custom parameter
if the Remote control mode is activated and only one plug-in can be activated at
a time.
When a plug-in is activated for remote control, it also has precedence over other
application settings that are controlled by the same parameter.
To remove all remote control assignments on the plug-in, hold [Ctrl]/[Command]
and [Shift], and click the Remote control mode button.
Importing and Exporting Remote Control Definition Files
Map definition files are XML files, containing control assignments for your remote
devices. You can exchange them with other users or save a backup copy.
Select Options > Remote devices, and open the Device editing tab.
•
To import a map definition file, click the Import button, browse to the location
of the map definition file, and select the file.
•
To export a map definition file, click the Export button, and browse to the
location where you want to save the file.
Editing Changes in the Remote Control Devices Settings
Changes that have been made to the map, for example, changing the name of a
control, can be saved, reset, undone, and removed.
•
To save any changes that you have made, click Save.
•
To restore the factory preset of a MIDI remote control device, click Reset. If
the control device does not have factory presets, the map is cleared.
•
To undo your last action, click Undo.
•
To remove the control definition of the selected control or to unassign the
selected control, click Clear.
20
Setting Up Your System
Remote Devices
Using Modifiers for Remote Controlling Parameters
You can use the same controller for controlling different parameters, using one or
two modifiers. A modifier can be a MIDI control (for example, a foot switch) or a
modifier key on your computer keyboard (for example, [Shift] and/or
[Ctrl]/[Command]).
To determine one or two modifiers, open the Remote devices dialog, and when
editing a parameter, select the modifiers from the Conditions section.
You can use the [Shift] and [Alt]/[Option] modifiers to alter the edit steps of infinite
knob controls as follows:
•
Press [Shift] to edit values in small steps.
•
Press [Alt]/[Option] to edit values in bigger steps.
CC121 Advanced Integration Controller
You can use Steinberg's CC121 Advanced Integration Controller to control
WaveLab.
This section describes the WaveLab factory preset for the CC121. For detailed
information on how to use the controller, refer to the manual that came with the
CC121. Note that the CC121 was originally designed for Cubase. The following
mapping combines the WaveLab functionality with the CC121 controls. The
controls that are not listed in the following paragraph are not assigned to a
parameter.
Channel Section
You can use all controls of the CC121 channel section, except the fader, to control
the elements of the selected track in a WaveLab audio montage. You can use the
fader for the Master Section.
Fader
Controls the Master Section fader.
PAN knob
Controls the gain of the selected track.
Mute
Mutes/unmutes the selected track.
Solo
Activates/deactivates solo for the selected track.
CHANNEL SELECT
Selects the previous/next track in the audio montage.
21
Setting Up Your System
Remote Devices
To move the cursor to the previous/next clip edge in the audio montage, hold
[Alt]/[Option]. To move the cursor to the previous/next region edge, hold
[Shift]. To move the cursor to the previous/next marker in the Audio Files
workspace, hold [Ctrl]/[Command].
EQ Section
With the EQ section you can easily control the Steinberg Studio EQ plug-in.
If the EQ TYPE button is activated on the CC121, you can adjust the parameters
of the focused Studio-EQ. All necessary EQ parameters, such as Q/F/G of each
band, EQ TYPE selection, and ALL BYPASS on/off can be set. You can switch to
WaveLab navigation mode by turning off the EQ TYPE button. In WaveLab
navigation mode, you get access to alternative functions, such as scrolling,
zooming, and switching between workspaces.
EQ Type activated:
Bandwidth knobs (Q)
Adjusts the Q (bandwidth) of each EQ band.
Frequency knobs (F)
Adjusts the center frequency of each EQ band.
Gain knobs (G)
Adjusts the gain of each EQ band.
ON
Activates/deactivates the EQ bands.
ALL BYPASS
Activates/deactivates bypass for all plug-ins in the Master Section.
EQ Type deactivated:
LOW ON
Opens the Audio Files workspace.
LOW-MID ON
Opens the Audio Montage workspace.
HIGH-MID ON
Opens the Batch Processors workspace.
HIGH ON
Opens the Control Window.
EQ-1 knob for the EQ Gain (G)
Scrolls left/right on the timeline.
EQ-2 knob for the EQ Gain (G)
Adjusts the horizontal zoom on the timeline.
22
Setting Up Your System
Remote Devices
EQ-3 knob for the EQ Gain (G)
Adjusts the vertical zoom on the timeline.
EQ-4 knob for the EQ Gain (G)
Scrolls tracks on the Audio Montage workspace or scrolls vertically on the
Audio Files workspace.
EQ-1 knob for the EQ Frequency (F)
Scrolls left/right on the overview timeline of the Audio Files workspace.
EQ-2 knob for the EQ Frequency (F)
Horizontally zooms in/out on the overview timeline of the Audio Files
workspace.
EQ-3 knob for the EQ Frequency (F)
Vertically zooms in/out on the overview timeline of the Audio Files workspace.
EQ-4 knob for the EQ Frequency (F)
Vertically scrolls on the overview timeline of the Audio Files workspace.
Transport Section
In this section you can control the transport functions of WaveLab.
Previous button
Moves the cursor position to the beginning of the project.
Rewind button
Rewind
Forward button
Forward
Next button
Moves the cursor position to the end of the project.
Cycle button
Activates/deactivates Cycle mode.
Stop button
Stops playback. Press again to move the cursor to the previous start position.
Press a third time to move the cursor to the beginning of the project.
Play button
Starts playback.
Record button
Press once to open the Recording window. Press again to start the
recording. Press a third time to stop recording. The recorded file opens in the
Audio Files workspace.
23
Setting Up Your System
Remote Devices
Function Section
In this section, you can adjust certain functions, such as fades and envelope level,
by using the VALUE knob.
VALUE knob/button
Rotate this knob to adjust the assigned function. Press the knob to reset the
parameter to its default value.
FUNCTION button 1
Adjusts the fade-in settings of the focused clip.
FUNCTION button 2
Adjusts the fade-out settings of the focused clip.
FUNCTION button 3
Adjusts the envelope level of the focused clip.
FUNCTION button 4
The element clicked last on the Edit > Nudge menu in the Audio Montage
workspace is assigned to this button.
AI Knob Section
WaveLab can be controlled with the AI knob of Steinberg’s CC121, CI2+, and
CMC-AI controllers. With the AI knob, you can control the parameter that the
mouse points to.
NOTE
The AI knob only works on parameters that are automatable.
In this section you can control parameters via the AI knob.
AI KNOB
Controls the VST 3plug-in parameters, emulates the mouse wheel, for
example, for scrolling, and lets you edit a focused numeric field. To control a
parameter with the AI knob, move the mouse cursor over the parameter that
you want to control, and move the AI knob. You can activate/deactivate the
emulation of the mouse wheel and the editing of the focused numeric field in
the Options tab.
LOCK
When the mouse cursor points to a parameter, press LOCK to control this
parameter regardless of the position of the mouse cursor.
JOG
Activates Jog mode. While Jog mode is activated, press LOCK to enter
shuttle mode.
24
Setting Up Your System
Remote Devices
CUBASE READY Indicator
The CUBASE READY indicator has no function in WaveLab.
Foot Switch Section
The foot switch has the same function as [Shift]. Press and hold the foot switch
while turning the AI knob to fine tune parameters.
25
WaveLab Concepts
This chapter describes general concepts that you will use when working with
WaveLab. Getting accustomed with these procedures allows you to work more
effectively with the program.
General Editing Rules
The common editing operations can be used in any Steinberg product.
•
To select and move interface items, and to select ranges, click and drag with
the mouse.
•
Use the keys of your computer keyboard to enter numeric values and text, to
navigate lists and other selectable interface items, and to control the transport
functions.
•
Common operations like cut, copy, paste, or the selection of multiple items
can be performed using standard keyboard shortcuts.
NOTE
The behavior of your product is also governed by your preference settings.
RELATED LINKS
Global Preferences Dialog on page 666
26
WaveLab Concepts
Startup Screen
Startup Screen
When WaveLab starts, a startup screen opens where you can select which window
layout you want to use.
Restore last window layout
Restores the window layout that you last used in WaveLab, including all files
that were open.
Restore last window layout without files
Restores the same window layout that you last used in WaveLab without
opening any files.
Restore default window layout
Restores the default window layout without opening any files.
Restore factory window layout
Restores the factory window layout without opening any files.
Keep answer and do not show this message again
If this option is activated, the option that you select is used from now on and
the startup screen does not open anymore. To display the General window
layout dialog, even if this option has been activated, press [Ctrl]/[Command]
when starting WaveLab.
RELATED LINKS
Window Layout on page 615
27
WaveLab Concepts
Basic Window Handling
Basic Window Handling
WaveLab follows the basic guidelines for the Windows/Mac OS interface, which
means that Windows/Mac OS standard procedures apply.
Closing Windows
•
To close a tabbed window, click the “X” button of the corresponding tab or
press [Ctrl]/[Command]-[W].
•
To close a tabbed window without saving your changes, hold
[Ctrl]/[Command]-[Shift], and click the “X” button. This avoids having to
confirm a warning message whenever you want to close an unsaved window.
•
To close all tabbed windows at once, right-click a tab, and select Close all.
•
To close all tabbed windows but the selected tabbed window, right-click a
tab, and select Close all but this one.
•
To individually select the tabbed windows that you want to close, right-click a
tab, and select Select files to close. This opens the Files to close dialog,
where you can select the files that you want to close.
RELATED LINKS
Files to Close Dialog on page 66
Managing Tabs on page 65
Switching Between Files
You can have multiple files open and switch between them.
•
To bring a file to the front, click the corresponding tab.
•
To cycle between all open files in a workspace, hold [Ctrl]/[Command], and
press [Tab] continuously.
•
To cycle back and forth between the last two active files, press
[Ctrl]/[Command]-[Tab]. Between each step you have to release all keys.
•
To cycle backwards, press [Ctrl]/[Command]-[Shift]-[Tab].
Window Switcher
The window switchers let you easily switch between workspaces, create new
workspaces, or open existing projects. There are two types of window switchers:
The central switcher bar and the floating window switcher.
The floating window switcher behaves like the central switcher bar, but takes less
room and floats above other windows.
28
WaveLab Concepts
Basic Window Handling
•
To activate/deactivate the central switcher bar, in the Audio Files workspace
or the Audio Montage workspace, select Workspace > Command bars >
Central switcher bar.
•
To activate/deactivate the floating window switcher, in any workspace, select
Options (WaveLab menu on Mac) > Global preferences, and on the
Display tab, activate Use Floating Window Switcher.
Using the Window Switcher
You can use the floating window switcher and the central switcher bar to navigate
through your workspaces.
•
To switch between workspaces, click a workspace button. If several
workspaces of the same type are open, [Alt]/[Option]-click the workspace
button to cycle between the workspaces. If the workspace is not yet open, a
pop-up menu opens from which you can open a new workspace.
•
To copy a file from one workspace to another, drag it to the button of the
workspace that you want to open, wait until the workspace becomes active,
and release the file where you want.
•
To create a new file in any workspace, press [Ctrl]/[Command], and click a
workspace button.
•
To open the Open window to select a file, press [Shift], and click a workspace
button.
•
To display a menu listing the files that have recently been used in a particular
workspace, right-click any workspace icon.
•
To create a new file or open a file, right-click any workspace icon, and select
New or Open. While left-clicking activates a workspace, right-clicking does
not activate a workspace.
29
WaveLab Concepts
Basic Window Handling
Customizing the Central Switcher Bar
You can customize the central switcher bar using the settings menu.
To open the settings menu, right-click an empty part of the central switcher bar.
Hide
Hides the central switcher bar.
Fold
Minimizes the central switcher bar to a thin line. To unfold the bar, click the
thin line.
Left side/Top/Right side/Bottom
Determines the location of the central switcher bar.
Large/Medium/Small size
Determines the size of the central switcher bar.
Workspace buttons
Determines which workspace buttons are visible on the central switcher bar.
Extra buttons
Determines whether to show or hide the extra buttons that some workspaces
offer.
Customizing the Floating Window Switcher
You can set up the floating window switcher to your liking.
PROCEDURE
1.
In any workspace, select Options (WaveLab menu on Mac) > Global
preferences.
2.
On the Display tab, make sure that Use Floating Window Switcher is
activated.
30
WaveLab Concepts
Selecting Audio
3.
Customize the floating window switcher by activating/deactivating the
corresponding options.
4.
Click OK.
Selecting Audio
Almost all types of editing and processing that you perform in WaveLab operate on
the audio selection. There are numerous ways to make an audio selection.
To select the whole audio file, double-click it. If the audio file contains markers,
triple-click it.
Selecting a Range by Dragging
The standard way to select a range in a wave window or a montage window is to
click and drag.
If you drag all the way to the left or right side of the window, it scrolls automatically,
allowing you to select larger sections than what can be shown in the window. The
speed of the scrolling depends on how far from the window edge you are.
Audio Range Selection in an Audio File
You can edit, process, or play back selection of an audio file.
In the Audio Files workspace, select Edit > Select time range.
Edit
Opens the Audio Range dialog, where you can define selection ranges very
accurately.
All
Selects the entire waveform.
Toggle
Toggles the current audio selection on/off.
Extend to start of file
Extends the selection to the start of the audio file. If there is no selection, a
selection is created from the edit cursor position.
Extend to end of file
Extends the selection to the end of the audio file. If there is no selection, a
selection is created from the edit cursor position.
31
WaveLab Concepts
Selecting Audio
Extend to previous marker
Extends the left edge of the selection to the nearest marker to the left or the
start of the audio file. If there is no selection, a selection is extended until the
edit cursor position.
Extend to next marker
Extends the right edge of the selection to the nearest marker to the right or
the end of the audio file. If there is no selection, a selection is extended until
the next marker position.
Extend to cursor
Extends the selection to the edit cursor position.
From start of file until cursor
Selects the range between the start of the audio file and the edit cursor
position.
From cursor to end of file
Selects the range between the edit cursor position and the end of the audio
file.
From cursor to previous marker
Selects the range between the edit cursor position and the nearest marker to
the left or the start of the audio file.
From cursor to next marker
Selects the range between the edit cursor position and the next marker or the
end of the audio file.
Playback position => Selection start
Creates a selection range from the playback position to the end of the audio
file. If no playback is taking place, the position of the edit cursor is used.
Playback position => Selection end
Creates a selection range from the playback position to start of the audio file.
If no playback is taking place, the position of the edit cursor is used.
Double length
Doubles the length of the current selection range.
Halve length
Halves the length of the current selection range.
Extend to all channels
Extends the current selection range to all channels.
Left channel only
Reduces the current selection range to the left channel only.
Right channel only
Reduces the current selection range to the right channel only.
32
WaveLab Concepts
Selecting Audio
CD track
Selects the range between the two CD track markers that encompass the edit
cursor.
Loop region
Selects the range between the two loop markers that encompass the edit
cursor.
Exclusion region
Selects the range between the two exclusion markers that encompass the
edit cursor.
Generic region
Selects the range between the two generic markers that encompass the edit
cursor.
Audio Range Selection in an Audio Montage
You can edit, process, or play back selections of an audio montage.
In the Audio Montage workspace, select Edit > Select audio range.
Edit
Opens the Audio Range dialog, where you can define selection ranges very
accurately.
Double length
Doubles the length of the current selection range.
Halve length
Halves the length of the current selection range.
Toggle
Toggles the current selection range on/off.
Playback position => Selection start
Creates a selection range from the playback position to the end of the audio
montage. If no playback is taking place, the position of the edit cursor is used.
Playback position => Selection end
Creates a selection range from the playback position to start of the audio
montage. If no playback is taking place, the position of the edit cursor is used.
Audio Range Dialog
This dialog allows you to accurately specify an audio range for editing, processing,
or playing back.
In the Audio Files workspace, select Edit > Select time range > Edit.
33
WaveLab Concepts
Selecting Audio
In the Audio Montage workspace, select Edit > Select audio range > Edit.
From/To Sections
Zero/End
The selection begins at the start/end of the file.
Cursor
The selection begins at the edit cursor.
Start/End of selection
The selection begins at the start/end of the selection range.
Marker (with name)
The selection begins at the marker that is selected from the pop-up menu
below.
Offset (±)
Allows you to specify an offset for the selected position.
Custom
Allows you to specify a start/end time for the selection.
Options Section
Specify length
The length you want to give to the selection.
Set as selection length
Clicking this button freezes the current selection length. This is useful if you
simply want to move the selection.
Round down length
If this option is activated, the selection length is rounded down to the length
specified in the value field.
34
WaveLab Concepts
Selecting Audio
Snap to zero-crossing
If this option is activated, the start and the end of a selected range always
snap to a zero-crossing point of the waveform.
Channels
Select whether the selection spans the left channel, the right channel, or both.
Play Options
With the play options, you can preview the specified audio range.
Play to
Plays the range before the specified position.
Play from
Plays the range after the specified position.
Play once
Plays the selection once.
Play looped
Loops the selection.
Play duration
Sets the playback length. Note that this overrides the From/To parameters.
Memorizing Selection Length and Cursor Position
You can copy the length of a selection range and the position of the edit cursor
position to an internal memory. This is useful if you want to use these values in
several places in WaveLab.
•
To save the length of the active selection range, in the Audio Files workspace
or the Audio Montage workspace, select Edit > Memorize selection length.
•
To save the position of the edit cursor, in the Audio Files workspace or the
Audio Montage workspace, select Edit > Memorize cursor position.
•
To apply the memorized information, right-click any time edit field and select
Set memorized position or Set memorized duration.
35
WaveLab Concepts
Selecting Audio
Selecting in Stereo Files
If you are working on stereo material in the Audio Files workspace, you can apply an
operation to one channel only or to the entire stereo material.
Which channel is selected when you click and drag in the wave window depends
on where you position the mouse cursor, as indicated by the pointer shape. The
pointer shape indicates which channel will be affected.
The following pointer shapes are available:
Pointer Shape
Description
Clicking in the upper half of the left channel selects the left channel.
Clicking in the middle area between the left and the right channel
selects both channels.
Clicking in the lower half of the right channel selects the right channel.
Switching the Selection Between Channels
You can switch the selection that you have made for a channel to all channels or
switch the selection to the other channel.
PROCEDURE
1.
In the Audio Files workspace’s wave window, make a selection range.
2.
Select Edit > Select time range, and select Extend to all channels, Left
channel only, or Right channel only, or press [Tab] to cycle between the
different channel selections.
Selecting in the Overview of the Audio Files Workspace
The selection ranges that you make in the overview of the Audio Files workspace
also apply to the main view.
PROCEDURE
•
In the Audio Files workspace’s wave window, hold down [Ctrl]/[Command],
and click and drag in the overview.
36
WaveLab Concepts
Selecting Audio
Moving a Selection Range
If a selection range is the right length, but at the wrong position, you can move it.
PROCEDURE
1.
In the wave window, hold down [Ctrl]/[Command]-[Shift].
2.
Click in the middle of the selection and drag to the left/right.
Extending and Reducing the Selection
You can resize a selection range in the wave window or the montage window
without having to make a new one.
There are several ways to extend/reduce the selection:
•
Make a selection range, [Shift]-click outside the selection range, and drag to
the left/right, or click and drag the edges of the selection range to the
left/right.
•
To extend the selection to the previous/next boundary (marker or start/end of
file), press [Shift] and double-click the non-selected area between the
boundaries.
Extending and Reducing the Selection Using the Cursor Keys
•
To move the start/end of a selection in the wave window to the left/right, hold
down [Shift] and press the left/right cursor keys. To move it in bigger steps,
press the [Page Up]/[Page Down] keys.
•
To extend a selection to the previous/next boundary in the wave window
(marker or start/end of the audio file), hold down [Ctrl]/[Command]+[Shift]
and press the left/right cursor keys.
Deleting Selections
There are several options for deleting a selected time range.
Audio Files Workspace
The following options can be found on the Edit menu:
Trim
Removes the data outside the selection.
Remove
Removes the selection. The audio to the right of the selection is moved to the
left to fill the gap.
37
WaveLab Concepts
Sliders
Smooth remove
Removes the selection and inserts crossfades at the edges. You can edit the
default crossfade length and type in the Audio file editing preferences
dialog, on the Editing tab.
Audio Montage Workspace
The following options can be found on the Edit menu:
Delete
If there is a selection range, the clip parts inside the selection range are
deleted and the right section of the clips are moved to the left to fill the gap.
If there is no selection, the selected clips are deleted.
Erase selected time range
Deletes the clip parts inside the selection range, without filling the gap.
Sliders
At various places in WaveLab, slider controls are available to change parameters.
There are a number of ways to change the value of a slider.
•
Position the mouse over the slider and use the mouse wheel (no click is
required). Hold [Ctrl]/[Command] while using the mouse wheel to scroll
faster. This modifier also applies to the zoom wheels. To move the button of a
slider, click and drag it.
•
To move the slider handle directly to a position, click the slider at any position.
•
To move the slider handle in smaller steps, right-click or below the handle.
Keep the mouse button pressed to automatically step to the next value.
•
To reset the slider to the default value, if available, [Ctrl]/[Command]-click the
slider, or click using the third mouse button, or double-click the handle.
Renaming Items in Tables
You can rename items in tables in the Markers window, the CD window, and the
Clips window.
•
To rename an item, double-click it or select it, and press [Return], and enter
the new name.
•
To rename the previous/next item, press [Arrow Up] or [Arrow Down] instead
of [Return]. This way you move the focus on the previous/next item, while
staying in the edit mode.
38
WaveLab Concepts
File Browser
File Browser
The File Browser window in the Audio Files workspace and the Audio Montage
workspace allows you to browse files directly from within WaveLab. It can be very
useful in speeding up the process of auditioning sound files.
The File Browser window provides you with all the standard browsing functions as
well as additional controls to audition audio files and any marker defined regions.
You can use it to open or insert files or regions of files by dragging them onto an
open workspace.
You can also choose to only view certain types of files.
File Browser Window
In this window, you can browse files and open them in WaveLab.
In the Audio Files workspace or the Audio Montage workspace, select Workspace
> Specific tool windows > File Browser.
You can add your favorite folders to the left pane by dragging them from the middle
pane.
The following options are available in the File Browser windows:
Look in
Lets you select a file location to browse and lists the recently used locations.
Back/Forward/Parent Directory
Let you navigate through the list and file hierarchy.
List View
Shows only the file name in the file list.
Detail View
Shows the file name, size, type, and modification date in the file list.
File name
Shows the file name of the selected file.
File format list
Lets you select which file format to display.
39
WaveLab Concepts
Tab Groups
The following options are only available in the File Browser window in the Audio
Montage workspace:
Select Audio Files
Shows only audio files.
Select Audio Montages
Shows only audio montages.
Select Clip Files
Shows only clip files.
Auto-Play mode
Starts playback automatically for the selected file.
Play selected audio file
Plays the selected audio file.
Tab Groups
A tab group is a region within a workspace, in which you can open audio files, audio
montages, meters (Control Window only), batches, or Podcasts. With tab groups,
you can view the content of different files and meters at the same time, without
having to navigate through different windows.
3 empty tab groups in the Audio Montage workspace
40
WaveLab Concepts
Tab Groups
Each tab group has its own content and title bar. In the Audio Files workspace, each
tab contains an audio file. In the Audio Montage workspace, each tab contains an
audio montage.
3 tab groups with audio montages in the Audio Montage workspace
In the Control Window, a tab group can contain meters and the Master Project
window.
2 tab groups in the Control Window
Using Tab Groups
Tabs are used differently depending on the type of window.
•
To add a tab group, select Workspace > Add Tab Group at right or
Workspace > Add Tab Group below.
•
To remove an empty tab group, activate the tab group, and select Workspace
> Remove active Tab Group.
•
To use one of the tab group layout presets, select Workspace > Tab Group
presets, and select a layout.
•
To reorder tabs, drag the tab to a new position on the tab bar.
•
To move a tab to another workspace, drag the tab to another workspace.
•
To paste the content of a tab into an audio file, drag the tab onto the
waveform. The tab is inserted at the cursor position.
•
To create an empty file inside a tab group, double-click an empty part of the
tab bar. The created file uses the active file as template.
41
WaveLab Concepts
Peak Files
Peak Files
A peak file (extension .gpk) is automatically created by WaveLab each time an audio
file is modified or opened in WaveLab for the first time. The peak file contains
information about the waveform and determines how it is drawn in the wave window
or the montage window.
Peak files speed up the time it takes to draw the corresponding waveform.
By default, the peak file is stored in the same location as the audio file.
The peak file behavior can be set in the Audio file editing preferences dialog on
the File tab.
•
To store peak files in another location, activate Create peak files in an
independent folder, select Edit and specify another file location.
•
To create peak files when writing audio files, activate Create peak files when
writing audio files.
•
To delete peak files when closing audio files, activate Delete peak files when
closing audio files.
RELATED LINKS
Audio File Editing Preferences Dialog on page 675
Rebuilding Peak Displays
Normally, peak files are automatically updated when the peak file’s date is older than
the audio file’s date. However, it can happen that the date of the audio file is wrong
and therefore not automatically updated. In this case you can force a rebuild of the
peak file.
PROCEDURE
•
In the Audio Files workspace, select View > Rebuild peak display.
Companion Files
Companion files (extension .vs) store Master Section presets and view settings for
audio files. If this feature is activated when you save a file, the stored settings are
recreated the next time that you load the file.
Companion files are only available in the Audio Files workspace.
The following view settings are included in companion files:
•
Window size and position
•
Zoom level
•
Scroll position
42
WaveLab Concepts
EBU Loudness Standard R-128
•
Display mode (Waveform/Spectrum/Loudness)
•
Snapshots
•
Master Section presets associated with the file
Deleting a companion file does not alter the audio contents.
Master Section presets are specific to WaveLab and can therefore not be
integrated inside the various audio file headers.
Storing Companion Files in Another Location
By default, companion files are stored in the same location as the audio file.
However, you can select another file location.
PROCEDURE
1.
In the Audio Files workspace, select Options > Folders.
2.
Select Companion files, and specify another file location.
EBU Loudness Standard R-128
The EBU loudness recommendation R-128 establishes well-defined methods to
measure loudness, dynamics, and peak values, and also defines reference values to
achieve for these measurements. Though the reference values are intended for the
broadcast world, the measurement methods are helpful in any application dealing
with audio and loudness control.
WaveLab supports these audio measurements in many places, for metering, audio
analysis, and processing. The following text gives some basic information about the
EBU R-128 standard. For more information, refer to the internet.
Loudness Measurement
This method takes into account the frequency sensitivity of the human ear to
loudness levels. There are 3 types of measurements:
1)
Integrated loudness, also called programme loudness: this reports how loud
an audio piece is, on average. This measurement uses a gating method to
ignore long periods of silence.
2)
Short-term loudness: this measures the loudness every 1 second on an audio
block of 3 seconds. This gives information about the loudest audio passages.
3)
Momentary loudness: every 100 ms, a range of 400 ms of audio is measured.
This gives instantaneous feedback about the loudness.
43
WaveLab Concepts
EBU Loudness Standard R-128
Loudness Range
This measures the dynamics of the audio signal. It reports the ratio between the
loudest and the quietest (but non-silent) sections. The audio is divided into small
blocks. There is one audio block every second and each block lasts 3 seconds
(analyzed blocks overlap).
The top 10 % of the quiet blocks and the top 5 % of the loud blocks are excluded
from the final analysis. The calculated loudness range is the ratio between the
loudest and quietest remaining audio blocks. This measurement helps to decide if
and how much compression or expansion can or should be applied to the audio.
True Peaks
When a digital signal is converted to an analog signal, the EBU R-128 recommends
measuring an estimation of the real peaks, rather than relying on digital peaks, to
avoid clipping and distortion. This is accomplished by over-sampling the signal 4
times and retaining the peak values.
Naming and Units
The EBU R-128 proposes naming and units conventions:
•
A relative measurement, such as a value relative to a reference level: “LU” as
“Loudness Unit” (1 LU is 1 dB).
•
An absolute measurement, LUFS as “Loudness Unit Full Scale”. 1 LUFS can
be understood as 1 dB in the AES-17 scaling.
When WaveLab relates to the EBU R-128 loudness, these units are used rather
than dB.
44
Program Overview
Command Bars
Commonly used tools, shortcuts, and commands are represented by command
buttons. Related buttons are grouped into various Command bars.
Command bars in the Audio Files workspace
You can dock Command bars to any window edge or open them in a separate
window, and rearrange them freely. Each workspace has an appropriate set of
command bars that can be displayed. All the commands that are represented by the
command buttons are also available on the menus.
RELATED LINKS
Locking the Window Layout on page 617
Hiding and Showing Command Bars
You can hide command bars that are irrelevant for your project.
•
To view a list of available command bars, in the Audio Files workspace or the
Audio Montage workspace, right-click an empty part of the top edge of the
workspace, or select Workspace > Command bars.
•
To show/hide a command bar, select Workspace > Command bars, and
activate/deactivate the command bars that you want to show/hide. You can
also right-click a command bar, and select Close.
Docking Command Bars
Command bars can either be used as separate floating windows or docked at the
top, bottom, left, or right side of the workspace window.
•
To make a command bar floatable, right-click the bar, and select Floatable.
Then click the dots on the left side or the top of the command bar to drag the
bar to another location.
45
Program Overview
Status Bar
Status Bar
The status bar at the bottom of the screen of the Audio Files workspace and the
Audio Montage workspace shows information about the active window using the
units specified in the rulers.
The information displayed on the status bar is updated depending on the cursor
position and on the audio selection that you have made.
Time/Level (dB)
Displays the time of the audio file at the mouse cursor position. In the Audio
Files workspace, it also displays the level.
Audio information at edit cursor
Displays the time at the position of the edit cursor. This information changes
when you reposition the cursor.
•
To define the cursor position, click the indicator to open the Cursor
position dialog.
•
To focus the cursor position, right-click the indicator.
Audio selection indicator (Audio Files workspace)/Audio range indicator
(Audio Montage workspace)
In the Audio Files workspace, this displays the length of the current selection,
or the total length of the audio file if no selection has been made.
In the Audio Montage workspace, this displays the length of the audio
selection, if a clip is focused, or the size of the audio montage.
When you have zoomed in, you can right-click the indicator to display the
selected audio range, the focused clip, or the whole file. Left-click the
indicator to open the Audio Range dialog, where you can define or refine a
selection.
Zoom indicator
Displays the current zoom factor.
•
To open a pop-up menu, where you can make additional zoom settings,
click the indicator.
•
To open the Zoom factor dialog, where you can edit the zoom factor,
right-click the indicator.
Sampler key indicator (Audio Files workspace only)
Indicates the key of the current audio file (if defined). Click the indicator to
open the Sample Attributes window.
46
Program Overview
Context Menus
Audio properties indicator
In the Audio Files workspace, this displays the bit resolution and the sample
rate. It also indicates whether the audio file is mono or stereo. Click the
indicator to open the Audio properties dialog.
In the Audio Montage workspace, this displays the number of audio channels
and the sample rate of the audio montage. Click the indicator to open the
Audio Montage properties dialog.
Play through Master Section
If this button is activated, the audio is played through the Master Section. If
the button is deactivated, the Master Section is ignored.
Store Master Section preset
Opens the Save Master Section Preset dialog, where you can save the
active Master Section configuration inside the companion file or audio
montage.
Load Master Section preset stored with the audio file/audio montage
Applies the Master Section with the configuration previously saved to the
audio file/audio montage.
Include Master Section preset when rendering as super clip (Audio Montage
workspace only)
If this option is activated, the Master Section preset stored with the audio
montage is used when rendering super clips of audio montages.
Document button (drag and drop)
Allows you to drag the current file into another file, for example, an audio file
to the Audio Montage workspace. This is equivalent to dragging the file tab.
Background information
The status bar shows the progress of some background operations, such as
rendering an effect. The operation can be paused or canceled using the
provided buttons.
Context Menus
Throughout WaveLab, various context menus are available. These menus group the
commands and/or options that are specific to the current working window.
The context menus appear when you right-click certain areas and are useful for
speeding up your workflow.
For example, right-click a file tab to open a context menu with some relevant file
options. Right-click the ruler of the waveform window brings up the Time Ruler
context menu that allows you to access a number of options for changing the time
ruler display format.
47
Program Overview
Time Ruler and Level Ruler
You can find most context menu commands in the main menus, but some
commands are only available in context menus. When you search for a function,
right-click the current working window to check if it has a context menu.
Context menu in the wave window
Time Ruler and Level Ruler
In the Audio Files workspace, you can display a time and a level ruler in the wave
window. In the Audio Montage workspace, you can display a time ruler in the
montage window.
You can also determine which time and level units the rulers show.
Time ruler
Level ruler
(Audio Files workspace only)
48
Program Overview
Time Ruler and Level Ruler
Time Ruler and Level Ruler Options
You can specify the time and level (amplitude) formats for each ruler in each wave
window and the time formats for each ruler in the montage window separately by
right-clicking the ruler, and selecting a format from the pop-up menu.
Time Ruler Menu
Timecode
Displays a list of frames per second for various SMPTE timecodes and for CD
resolution.
Clock
Displays time units.
Samples
Positions are shown as number of samples. The number of samples per
second depends on the sample rate of the audio file. For example, at 44.1 kHz,
there are 44100 samples per second.
Bars and beats
If this is selected, the ruler is linear relative to the meter position.
File size (Audio Files workspace only)
Shows positions in MegaBytes. Decimals represent KiloBytes.
Show grid (Audio Montage workspace only)
Displays vertical lines in the montage window, aligned with time ruler marks.
Time format
Opens the Time format dialog, where you can edit the appearance of the
time ruler formats.
Save current settings as default
If this option is activated, the time ruler uses the current time format in all new
wave windows or montage windows.
Set ruler’s origin to start of file
If this option is activated, the ruler’s zero position is set to the beginning of the
first sample.
Set ruler’s origin at cursor
If this option is activated, the ruler’s zero position is set to the current cursor
position.
Set ruler’s origin to BWF reference (Audio Files workspace only)
If this option is activated, the first sample matches the BWF time reference,
provided that the time reference is available.
Show playback range
If this option is activated, the time ruler displays the audio range that is played
with the “Play Range” command.
49
Program Overview
Time Ruler and Level Ruler
Show playback anchor
If this option is activated, a marker is displayed below the time ruler to indicate
the audio anchor that corresponds to the “Play From”” and “Play To”
commands.
Show pre-/post-roll
If this option is activated, the pre-roll and post-roll times are displayed.
Level Ruler Menu (Audio Files workspace only)
dB
Sets the level format to decibels.
+-100 %
Sets the level format to percentage.
Normalized +1/-1
Sets the level format to a ruler gradation corresponding to 32-bit float audio.
16-bit range
Sets the level format to a ruler gradation corresponding to 16-bit audio.
24-bit range
Sets the level format to a ruler gradation corresponding to 24-bit audio.
Save current settings as default
If this option is activated, the level ruler uses the current level format in all new
wave windows.
Time Format Dialog
In this dialog, you can customize the time format. The time format of the ruler is also
used in various time fields, for example, the status bar and certain dialogs.
In the Audio Files workspace, depending on whether you want to set the time format
for the overview display or the main view display, select View > Overview display
> Time ruler > Time format or View > Main view display > Time ruler > Time
format.
In the Audio Montage workspace, select View > Time ruler > Time format.
50
Program Overview
Time Ruler and Level Ruler
Timecode Tab
On this tab, you can configure the appearance of the Timecode option.
Frames per second
List of standard frame rates. From the drop-down menu, select Other to enter
a custom frame rate. You can also choose which frames/units are displayed.
Show absolute frames
Shows the time format as a number of frames, without other time elements.
Show quarter frames
Adds the quarter frame number to the time format.
Show hundredth frames
Adds the number of a hundredths of a frame to the time format.
Show units
Adds time units to the time format of the ruler.
Clock Tab
On this tab, you can configure the appearance of the Clock option.
Show Units
Adds time units to the time format of the ruler.
Compact
Shows the time without unit indicators.
51
Program Overview
Time Ruler and Level Ruler
Meter Tab
On this tab, you can configure the appearance of the Bars and beats option.
Time signature
Lets you edit the time signature used to display the time represented as a
musical notation.
Tempo
Lets you edit the tempo used to display the time represented as a musical
notation.
Ticks per quarter note
Lets you edit the number of ticks per quarter note that are used to display
times that are compatible with your sequencer.
Offset Tab
On this tab, you can configure the Time ruler offset.
Zero (default)
Deactivates the time offset in the ruler.
Set zero-point at cursor position
Sets the current cursor position to be the starting point of the ruler.
Set zero-point at BWF time reference (Audio Files workspace only)
If the audio file contains BWF meta-data, the corresponding time reference
value is used as offset.
Set time of first sample
Specifies the time that corresponds to the ruler’s zero origin.
52
Program Overview
Time Ruler and Level Ruler
Setting the Cursor Position
Many operations, such as playback and selection, depend on the current cursor
position. For example, playback often starts at the cursor position. The current
cursor position is indicated by a vertical flashing line.
There are various ways to move the cursor:
•
Click somewhere in the wave window, the montage window, or the time ruler.
If you have made a selection, click the time ruler to prevent deselecting.
•
Click and drag in the time ruler.
•
Use the transport controls.
•
Select View > Move cursor to, and select an option.
•
Use the cursor keys.
•
Double-click a marker.
Setting the Ruler Start Position
By default, the audio file starts at the ruler position 0. However, you can set the 0
position at another position.
PROCEDURE
1.
In the wave window or the montage window, right-click the time ruler, and
select Time Format.
2.
Select the Offset tab.
3.
Select one of the Time ruler offset options, and click OK.
Working With a Meter-Based Display
If your working material is tempo-based, you can select the meter format (bars,
beats, and ticks) for the ruler legend. This makes it easier to find musically related
cutting points.
PROCEDURE
1.
In the wave window or the montage window, right-click the time ruler, and
select Bars and beats.
2.
Right-click the time ruler, and select Time format.
3.
On the Meter tab, set the Time signature and Tempo to values that match
your audio file.
53
Program Overview
Value Editing
4.
Set the Ticks per quarter note setting to a number that you feel comfortable
with.
For example, this can be the same value that is used by your MIDI sequencer.
5.
Click OK.
Value Editing
At various places in the program, numerical values can be edited by using a
combination of text fields and spin controls.
These values are sometimes composed of several parts, for example, 12 mn 30 sec
120 ms. Each value can be edited by using any of the following methods:
•
To change a value, click in a value field and type a new value, or click the small
arrows in the value field.
•
To change the value by one unit at a time, press the [Left Arrow] and [Right
Arrow] keys.
•
To change the value by several units, press the page up and page down keys.
•
To change the value using the mouse wheel, position the mouse cursor over
a value, and spin the mouse wheel, or use the AI knob of your MIDI controller.
•
To change the value with the mouse, click a value and drag the mouse up or
down.
•
To jump to the maximum and minimum values, press the [Home] and [End]
keys.
•
To move from one part of the value to another, press the [Left Arrow] and
[Right Arrow] keys.
Drag Operations
WaveLab makes much use of drag-and-drop techniques to perform various
operations, some of which cannot be performed otherwise. These are referred to as
drag operations in this documentation.
•
To drag an object, click and hold with the mouse when positioned on the
object and drag it. Drop the object by releasing the button.
Many types of objects can be dragged between different source and destination
locations including files, text, clips, items in a list, and markers.
NOTE
It is also possible to drag and drop files from WaveLab to Steinberg’s Nuendo.
Drag objects within and between workspaces to perform the following operations:
54
Program Overview
Drag Operations
•
To dock a tool window, drag its title bar to any side of the workspace, beside
or above another tool window.
•
To move a command bar, drag the bar grip at the left-hand end of a command
bar and reposition it.
•
To reorder a tab within its own tabbed group, drag horizontally. To move a tab
to another workspace, drag vertically.
•
To drag any object to another workspace, use the Central Switcher bar. Drag
the object over the corresponding workspace icon in the Central Switcher
bar, wait until the new workspace becomes active, and drag the tab in the
target workspace.
•
To open a file, drag a compatible file from the File Browser window of
WaveLab, from the file browser of the operation system, or from another
application to the tab bar.
•
To create a copy of a file, drag its tab vertically to another position of the tab
bar, then press [Ctrl]/[Option], and release the mouse button.
Dragging in the Audio Files Workspace and Audio Montage Workspace
•
To insert an audio file in another audio file, drag the title bar tab or document
button of the file onto the waveform area of another file. You can also drag an
audio file directly from the File Browser window, the file browser of your
system, or from another application into the Audio Files workspace.
•
To move a marker, drag it along the time ruler.
•
To create a copy of this marker, press [Shift], and drag it to another position
on the time ruler.
•
To delete a marker, drag it above the time ruler.
•
To copy an audio selection, drag a selected region of audio onto the waveform
area of the same file or another file.
•
To change the extent of a selection range, position the edit cursor at the
start/end of the selection range, and drag to the left or right.
•
To move the edit cursor without losing the current selection, and to snap it to
an anchor, press [Shift], and move the mouse near the audio file/montage
cursor. The mouse cursor shape changes and you can drag the cursor left and
right.
•
To move the edit cursor without changing or losing the current selection,
press [Shift], click the edit cursor, and drag it to another position.
•
To scroll the waveform horizontally, click the bar above the time ruler and drag
left or right. You can also click anywhere on the waveform using the 3rd
mouse button, and drag left or right.
•
To create a generic marker from a selected text, drop text that you have
selected in an external application onto the time ruler. The text becomes the
marker’s name.
55
Program Overview
Undoing and Redoing
•
To create a stereo copy of a mono file, or a mixed copy of a stereo file, drag a
tab to another position of the tab bar, press [Ctrl]-[Alt] (Windows) or
[Options]-[Ctrl] (Mac), and release the mouse button.
Dragging in the Podcast Workspace
•
To reorder episodes in the episodes list, drag them to another position.
Dragging in the Master Section
•
To change the order of processing, drag effects between different effects
slots.
Dragging in the Batch Processors Workspace
•
To change the order in which plug-ins are processed, drag plug-ins within the
audio plug-in chain window.
•
To add a file to batch process, drag a file tab to the batch conversion tool or
batch processor.
Undoing and Redoing
You can undo and redo as many steps as you like. The only limitation is the available
hard disk space.
By default, when undoing or redoing any operation in the Audio Files workspace or
the Audio Montage workspace, the zoom factor, cursor position, scroll position, clip
selection status, and time range are restored to the state before the operation
occured.
To exclude the scroll and zoom settings when undoing/redoing, deactivate Edit >
Undo/Redo including zoom settings. This is useful if you make an operation,
zoom in on the changed area, and then undo the step to see the change, for
example. When you do this you do not want snapshots to be restored and change
your scroll and zoom settings. This option is independent for the Audio Files
workspace and the Audio Montage workspace.
•
To undo a step, in the Audio Files workspace or Audio Montage workspace,
select Edit > Undo.
•
To redo a step, in the Audio Files workspace or Audio Montage workspace,
select Edit > Redo.
56
Program Overview
Undoing and Redoing
Clearing the Undo/Redo History
If you have a large number of undo/redo steps that you no longer need, you can
clear the whole change history. This frees up memory, hard disk space, and any
involved audio file.
This function must be activated for each file separately. Only the undo/redo history
for the active file is cleared.
•
In the Audio Files workspace, select Edit > Clear change history, and click
OK.
•
In the Audio Montage workspace, select Edit > History > Clear, and click
OK.
NOTE
When you save an audio file, the undo history is cleared automatically. This is not
the case for audio montages.
About Undo/Redo and History in the Audio Montage
Workspace
The undo/redo function in the Audio Montage workspace is identical with the
undo/redo function in the Audio Files workspace. However, the Audio Montage
workspace provides additional undo/redo functions and a History window that
allows you to view a history of all recent editing activities in the audio montage and
to revert to a previous state.
Each audio montage has its own history.
•
To open the History window, select Workspace > Specific tool windows >
History.
•
To revert the current audio montage to a previous state, double-click the
operation to which you want to return.
•
To group similar operations in the undo history, select Options > Audio
Montage Preferences, and on the All Audio Montages tab, activate Group
similar operations. This groups all operations of the same type to one single
operation, as soon as an operation of another type is performed.
•
To clear the history after each saving, select Options > Audio montage
preferences, and on the All Audio Montages tab, activate Clear after each
saving.
•
To undo all operations, select Edit > History > Undo all operations.
•
To undo all operations since the last saving command, select Edit > History
> Undo all operations since the last saving command.
•
To redo all operations, select Edit > History > Redo all operations.
•
To clear the history, select Edit > History > Clear.
57
Program Overview
Zooming
History Window
In this window, you can see all the operations that have been performed in the Audio
Montage workspace at a specific time and revert to a previous state.
In the Audio Montage workspace, select Workspace > Specific tool windows >
History.
Status
Shows which operations are done and undone.
Operation
Shows the type of the performed operation.
Time
Shows the time at which the operation was performed.
Description
Describes the performed operation in detail.
Zooming
There are several zooming functions in the Audio Files workspace and Audio
Montage workspace.
Horizontal Zooming
•
When you zoom out as far as possible, the entire file fits in the window.
•
When you zoom in as far as possible, each sample occupies several pixels on
the screen. This allows for single sample-accurate editing of waveforms.
•
When you zoom out as far as possible, the height of the wave fits in the
window.
•
As you progressively zoom in, the display only shows a part of the total height.
The vertical scrollbars lets you adjust exactly which section is shown. Check
the ruler to see which part of the waveform is currently shown in the display.
•
To optimize the vertical zoom of the waveform, press [Ctrl]/[Command], click
and hold the time ruler, and move the mouse up or down.
Vertical Zooming
58
Program Overview
Zooming
High Zoom Level
•
When the zooming level is very high, each sample is shown with a step and a
bullet. The steps show the real digitized state, while the bullets make it easier
to see the samples, especially for zeroed samples.
•
The curve also represents an estimation of the analog reconstructed signal to
give hints on true peaks.
Zooming in the Overview and Main View Sections (Audio Files Workspace Only)
•
You can have different zoom levels in the overview and main view section. In
the overview, a range indicator on the time ruler indicates which section of the
file is currently displayed in the main view. The range indicator is only shown
if the option Sync with other view is deactivated.
•
To adjust the zoom level, drag the edges of the range indicator.
•
To scroll in the main view, drag the range indicator. The range indicator is
located at the top of the overview display.
•
To adjust the zoom level using the scrollbar, drag the edges of the scrollbar.
59
Program Overview
Zooming
Zooming Using the Zoom Controls
Both the main view and the overview have horizontal and vertical zoom controls.
•
To zoom horizontally, click the Horizontal zoom control, and drag left or right,
or use the mouse wheel.
•
To zoom vertically, click the Vertical zoom control, and drag up or down, or
use the mouse wheel.
•
To fully zoom-out, double-click the zoom controls.
Zooming Using the Magnifying Glass Tool
The Magnifying Glass tool is used to zoom in a specific section of the waveform so
that is occupies the entire wave window. This is only available in the Audio Files
workspace.
Using the Magnifying Glass Tool in the Main View
The selection that you make in the main view of the wave window is magnified and
fills up the entire main view.
PROCEDURE
1.
2.
In the Audio Files workspace, activate the Magnifying Glass tool by doing one
of the following:
•
Click the Magnifying Glass icon.
•
Hold down [Ctrl]/[Command].
In the main view of the wave window, click and drag left or right, and release
the mouse button.
The selected part of the wave now occupies the entire main window.
60
Program Overview
Zooming
Using the Magnifying Glass Tool in the Overview
The selection that you make in the overview of the wave window is displayed in the
main view.
PROCEDURE
•
In the overview of the wave window, click and drag left or right, and release
the mouse button.
RESULT
The selected range of the waveform is shown in the main view.
Zooming Using the Mouse
With the mouse, you can change the zoom factor by clicking and dragging or by
scrolling the mousewheel.
•
To zoom horizontally, in the wave window or the montage window, position
the mouse cursor over the time ruler, click, and drag up or down.
•
To zoom horizontally while maintaining the cursor position, position the mouse
cursor over the time ruler, press [Shift], and drag up or down.
•
To zoom horizontally using the mousewheel, press [Ctrl]/[Command], point at
a waveform, and move the mousewheel.
•
To zoom vertically using the mousewheel, press [Shift], point at a waveform,
and move the mousewheel.
Audio Files Workspace Only
•
To zoom vertically, in the wave window, position the mouse cursor over the
level ruler, click, and drag left or right.
•
To reset the vertical zoom to 0 dB, double-click the level ruler.
•
To set the vertical zoom to the best value that is the current minimum and
maximum displayed samples, make sure that the level ruler is set to 0 dB, and
double-click the level ruler.
Zooming Using the Keyboard
A quick way to zoom the active wave or montage window is to use the arrow keys
on the computer keyboard.
•
To zoom horizontally in the active wave window or montage window, press
[Arrow Up] or [Arrow Down].
•
To zoom vertically in the active wave/montage window, hold [Shift], and press
[Arrow Up] or [Arrow Down].
61
Program Overview
Zooming
•
To zoom vertically to fit the available height, press
[Ctrl]/[Command]-[Shift]-[Arrow Up].
•
To zoom out fully, press [Ctrl]/[Command]-[Arrow Down]. To zoom in fully,
press [Ctrl]/[Command]-[Arrow Up].
NOTE
You can increase or decrease the zoom steps with the Interval for the zoom key
command option in the Global Preferences dialog.
RELATED LINKS
Global Preferences Dialog on page 666
Zoom Menu
The zoom menu allows you to quickly access various zoom settings.
In the Audio Files workspace or the Audio Montage workspace, select View >
Zoom.
View all
Zooms out as far as possible.
Zoom in on 1 minute/30 seconds/10 seconds/.../500 ms
Adjusts the zoom to display the selected time range.
Zoom in 1:1
Zooms in so that one pixel on the screen represents one sample.
Microscope
Zooms in as far as possible.
Zoom selection
Zooms the window so that the current selection occupies the entire
wave/montage window.
Zoom in on selected clips (Audio Montage workspace only)
Zooms in to display all selected clips in the wave/montage window.
Zoom in audio
Zooms in in small steps.
Zoom out audio
Zooms out in small steps.
62
Program Overview
Zooming
Edit
Opens the Zoom factor dialog, where you can edit the zoom factor.
•
Samples per screen point allows you to specify how many audio
samples are summarized in each screen point.
•
Screen points per sample allows you to specify how many screen
points are used to represent a single audio sample.
Reset vertical zoom to 1:1
Adjusts zoom to display audio levels up to 0 dB.
Optimize vertical zoom
Changes the vertical zoom factor so that the peaks are clearly visible. This
adjustment is done according to the section of the wave that is currently
visible in the wave/montage window.
Optimize vertical zoom (Audio Files workspace only)
Zooms in to display all audio peaks in the wave window.
Zoom to -12 db/-24 db/.../-96 db
Adjusts the zoom to only display samples below the selected dB value.
Zoom in vertically
Zooms in to show waveforms with a lower level.
Zoom out vertically
Zooms out to show waveforms with a higher level.
63
Program Overview
Zooming
About Zooming in the Audio Montage Workspace
Zooming options in the Audio Montage workspace are almost similar to those in the
Audio Files workspace. However, there are additional zooming options for tracks
and the Zoom window for displaying a close-up view of the beginning of the
focused track.
Zoom Buttons in the Audio Montage Workspace
The zoom buttons in the Audio Montage workspace allow you to apply zoom
presets.
•
To only display the focused track, or also the tracks below and/or above the
focused track, click the corresponding buttons.
•
To set the zoom setting to fit the focused clips in 25 %, 50 %, or 100 % of the
available space, click the corresponding buttons.
•
To select a certain area, click [Ctrl]/[Command], and drag the rectangle over
the tracks and clips that you want to zoom in.
Displaying More or Less Tracks
The number of tracks that are displayed in the Audio Montage workspace can be
changed with the magnification controls in the lower right corner of the montage
window.
•
To display more tracks, click the smaller magnifying glass icon.
•
To display less tracks, click the larger magnifying glass icon.
•
To make a single track fit the whole montage window, click the numbered
button to the left of a track, and select Zoom from the pop-up menu. You can
also right-click the lower area of a track, and select Whole clip from the
pop-up menu.
64
Program Overview
Managing Tabs
Managing Tabs
A tab is a container for a file in WaveLab. You can open several tabs, but only one
can be active at a time. The Tabs menu allows you to sort and close tabs and
navigate between the tabs.
Close/Close all but active/Close all
Closes the active tab, all tabs except the active tab, or all tabs.
Select files to close
Opens a dialog in which you can specify the files to be closed.
Sort
Lets you sort the tabs by name, date, or modification date. If several tab
groups exist, only the active tab group is sorted.
Activate next/previous
Selects the next/previous tab.
Pick list
Opens a list of all open tabs. To open a tab, double-click it.
Move to new workspace
Opens the active tab in a new workspace of the same type.
The following options are only available in the Audio Files workspace:
Cascade
Cascades the open tabs.
Tile
Tiles the open tabs.
Fold
Displays only the title bar of the tabs.
Restore
Restores the tab to its original size.
Minimize/Maximize
Minimizes/maximizes the tab.
65
Program Overview
Presets
Files to Close Dialog
In this dialog, you can specify which files you want to close.
In any workspace, except the Control Window workspace, select Tabs > Select
files to close.
Files list
Displays all open files. You can set a checkmark for the files that you want to
close. By default, only the active file will remain open and all other files will be
closed.
Select all
Select all files in the list.
Select none
Deselects all files in the list.
Close files
Closes the files.
Presets
You can create presets to save commonly used settings. WaveLab provides a
selection of presets that can be used by most dialogs.
You can save customized presets. The next time that you load the program, the
presets are available.
Presets are saved as single files and can be organized in subfolders. The root folder
of the preset is different for each type of preset and cannot be changed.
Saving a Preset
Saved presets can be used to apply commonly used settings to dialogs or plug-ins.
PROCEDURE
1.
Open the dialog that you want to use, and modify the parameters.
2.
Select the Preset menu, and select Save as.
66
Program Overview
Presets
3.
Optional: Click the folder icon, and select a name for a subfolder in which you
want to save the preset.
4.
Type in a name, and click Save.
Loading Presets
To apply a saved preset to a dialog or plug-in, you must load the preset.
PROCEDURE
•
Inside a dialog, click the Presets menu, and select the preset that you want
to apply to the dialog.
Modifying a Preset
You can modify a preset and save the changes.
PROCEDURE
1.
Open the dialog that you want to use, and load the preset that you want to
modify.
2.
Modify the parameters of the dialog.
3.
Click the Preset menu, and select Save.
Deleting a Preset
PROCEDURE
1.
Open the dialog that you want to use and select the preset that you want to
delete.
2.
Click the Presets menu, and select Organize presets.
3.
In the Explorer window, select the preset file that you want to delete, and
press [Delete].
67
Program Overview
Saving a Picture of the Active Window
Storing and Restoring Temporary Presets
Some dialogs allow you to save and load up to 5 temporary presets. This is useful
if you want to quickly test and compare different settings.
Storing Presets
PROCEDURE
1.
Open the dialog that you want to use, and make your settings.
2.
Click the Presets menu, and from the Store temporarily submenu, select a
slot.
Restoring Presets
PROCEDURE
1.
Open the dialog in which you have saved a preset.
2.
Click the Presets menu, and from the Restore submenu, select a preset.
Saving a Picture of the Active Window
You can save a picture of the active window in the BMP, JPG/JPEG, or PNG file
format, or copy it to the clipboard.
NOTE
Plug-in windows are not included in the picture.
PROCEDURE
1.
Click in the window for which you want to save a picture.
For example, click in the wave window or the montage window.
2.
In the Audio Files workspace or the Audio Montage workspace, select View
> Save picture of active window.
The Save picture of active window dialog opens.
68
Program Overview
Log Window
3.
4.
In the Save picture of active window dialog, you have the following options:
•
To copy the picture to the clipboard, activate Copy to clipboard.
•
To save the picture in a specified file format, activate Save as file. Optionally,
you can activate Open picture after saving.
Click OK.
•
If you have activated Copy to clipboard, the picture is copied to the clipboard.
•
If you have activated Save as file, the Save as dialog opens where you can
specify the file location, file format, and file name. Click Save to confirm your
settings.
If you have set the montage window as the active window, the resulting picture could
look like this.
Log Window
This window allows you to view log messages that have been issued by WaveLab.
For example, when using the scripting language of WaveLab, the logWindow( )
function outputs messages to this window. Toggle buttons allow you to filter the
types of messages that are displayed.
In the Audio Files workspace, the Audio Montage workspace, or the Control
Window select Workspace > Shared tool windows > Log.
Clear
Removes all messages from the window.
69
Program Overview
Log Window
Show errors
If this option is activated, error messages are displayed.
Show warnings
If this option is activated, warning messages are displayed.
Show notes
If this option is activated, notes are displayed.
70
File Operations
List of All Open Files Throughout the Application Dialog
In this dialog, all open files in WaveLab are listed.
In any workspace, select Global > List of all open files.
The dialog displays all the files that are opened in workspaces. These can be
opened, closed, renamed, and saved, and audio files can be auditioned. The list can
also be filtered by file type.
The dialog is automatically updated if a file is closed, opened, saved, or edited. You
can navigate in the list using the arrow keys, or pressing [A]-[Z] on your keyboard.
Filter pop-up
The pop-up in the top right corner allows you to filter the list by file type.
Visible/Hidden files
This opens let you show visible files and/or hidden files. Hidden files are
shown with gray text.
Bring to front
Brings the file that is selected in the list to the front.
and close this window
If this option is activated, this window closes, after you have clicked Bring to
front.
Close
Closes the selected file.
Play/Stop
Plays back the selected audio file. If you click the button again, the playback
stops.
Save
If a file has unsaved changes, you can click this button to save the file in its
current location.
Rename
Opens the Rename dialog where you can rename the selected file, and
optionally change its path.
71
File Operations
Recently Used Files
Close this window
Closes the dialog.
Recently Used Files
All files that you have recently used in WaveLab are saved in a list. This helps you
to gain fast access to recent projects.
Opening Recently Used Files
You can open recently used files via the File menu, or open the Recently used files
dialog, which displays more files and offers additional options.
PROCEDURE
1.
In any workspace, except the Control Window, select File > Open recent.
2.
Choose from which workspace you want to open the file, by selecting the
corresponding tab.
3.
Optional: Use the search field to enter the name of the file that you are looking
for.
4.
Select the file that you want to open, and select Open selection.
NOTE
If you cannot find the file that you are looking for in the list, select Open other,
and select the file from the Windows Explorer/Mac OS Finder.
Recently Used Files Dialog
This dialog allows you to view and manage all the files that you have recently used
in WaveLab. You can search for files, open multiple files at once, and remove
individual files or files that cannot be located from the list.
In any workspace, except the Control Window, select File > Open recent.
Only show recently created files
Only shows the files that have not been opened since they were created by
WaveLab. For example, a file that is rendered has this status until it is opened.
Search field
Lets you search for text in the Name column.
Remove non-existing files
Removes files from the list that cannot be located on the media.
72
File Operations
Favorite Files
Remove selected files
Removes all selected files from the list.
Filtering Recently Used Files by Name
The search field in the Recently used files dialog allows you to filter the files list by
name.
To specify if the Name or the Path column is used, click the column header.
•
In the Recently used files window, enter the text that you want to search for
in the search field.
•
To switch the focus from the search field to the list of recently used files, press
the arrow down key.
•
To switch the focus from the list of recently used files to the search field, press
[Ctrl]/[Command]-[F].
Setting the Number of Recently Used Files
PROCEDURE
1.
In any workspace, select Options (WaveLab menu on Mac) > Global
preferences > Display.
2.
In the Miscellaneous options section, set the maximum number of items that
you want to list in the following areas:
3.
•
Recent file menus
•
Recent file manager
•
Recent folders menu
Click OK.
Favorite Files
You can add files that you are using regularly to the favorite files list.
•
To add a file to the favorite files list, select File > Favorite files > Add active
file.
73
File Operations
Favorite Files
•
To open a file from the favorite files list, select File > Favorite files, and select
the file from the menu.
•
To remove files from the favorite files list, select File > Favorite files > Edit
list, select the files that you want to remove, and click Remove selected files.
•
To remove files that have been deleted from the favorite files list, select File
> Favorite files > Edit list, and click Remove non-existing files.
•
To save a list of all open files, select File > Export > List of all open files,
specify a name and a location for the file list, and click Save.
•
To open a saved list of all open files, select File > Import > List of files to
open, select the file list, and click Open.
Favorite Files Dialog
This dialog allows you to display and edit the favorite files list.
In any workspace, select File > Favorite files > Edit list.
List of favorite files
Shows the favorite files.
Only show recently created files
Only shows the files that have not been opened since they were created by
WaveLab. For example, a file that is rendered has this status until it is opened.
Search field
Lets you filter the favorite files list.
Audio File/Audio Montage/Batch Processor/Podcast
Lets you display the favorite files of a specific workspace.
Remove non-existing files
Removes files from the list that are no longer present on the media.
Remove selected files
Removes all selected files from the list.
Open selected
Opens the selected files in WaveLab.
74
File Operations
Save and Save As
Open other
Opens the file selector where you can select files and add them to the favorite
files list.
Filtering Favorite Files
The search field in the Favorite files dialog allows you to filter the favorite files list
by names.
•
In the Favorite files dialog, enter the text that you want to search for in the
search field.
•
To switch the focus from the search field to the favorite files list, press the
arrow down key.
•
To switch the focus from the favorite files list to the search field, press
[Ctrl]/[Command]-[F].
Save and Save As
•
When you save a file for the first time, it does not matter whether you select
Save or Save as.
•
Once a file has been saved, select File > Save, or press
[Ctrl]/[Command]-[S] to update the file and make the changes permanent.
•
If you want to specify a new name, location, and/or file format, select File >
Save as.
•
In the Audio Files workspace, all save operations except Save Copy clear the
undo history, which means that after saving you cannot undo or redo.
About Tab Colors
Tab colors give information on whether a file is saved or not.
The following colors can be shown:
Orange
The file is saved.
Green (Audio Files workspace only)
The file uses a decoded file format and is saved.
Purple
A new file that is not empty but has not been saved yet. For example, when
creating a new file and pasting content into it.
Red
The file has been modified and changes have not been saved yet.
75
File Operations
Save and Save As
Unsaved Changes Indicator
When you have made changes to a file, an asterisk is displayed next to the file name
until you save the file and the tab changes its color.
Save Multiple Files at Once
You can save some or all open files at once.
PROCEDURE
1.
In any workspace, except the Control Window, select File > Save all.
2.
Select the files that you want to save.
3.
Click Save.
Reverting to Saved File
You can revert the file you are working on back to its last saved state. This undoes
all the changes made to the file since it was last saved.
PROCEDURE
1.
In any workspace, except the Control Window, select File > Revert to saved.
2.
In the warning dialog, click Yes to revert to the last saved state.
RESULT
The last saved version of the file is loaded from disk.
Automatic Backups
Backups are created automatically if a file with the same name already exists.
For example, if you select Save As and specify a file name already used in that
folder, you will be asked if you want to back up the existing file first. If you click Yes,
the backup name will be the original name, with “.bak” added at the end.
76
File Operations
Templates
About Saving Audio Montages
The saving operations for audio montages are the same as for audio files. However,
there are things to note when saving audio montages.
•
Audio montage files only contain references to audio files. If you want to
rename audio files referenced by audio montages, use the Rename dialog. All
clip references are updated automatically.
•
If the audio montage contains clips that refer to untitled audio files, save these
audio files before saving the audio montage.
Templates
You can create a template from an active audio montage, audio file, Podcast, or
batch processor document and use it as a basis for newly created files.
Creating a Template
Templates are useful when creating new audio files, audio montages, Podcasts, or
batch processes.
PREREQUISITE
Set up the audio file, audio montage, Podcast, or batch processor file properties.
PROCEDURE
1.
Select File > Export > Template.
2.
In the Save Template dialog, do one of the following.
3.
4.
•
To create a new template, select New, enter a name, and click OK.
•
To update an existing template, select Update.
When saving or updating an audio file template or an audio montage template,
you can make additional settings.
•
When saving an audio file template, the Audio File Template Parameters
dialog opens. Here, select whether WaveLab should propose a specific audio
file configuration with optional meta-data when saving an audio file.
•
When saving an audio montage template, the Audio Montage Template
Parameters dialog opens. Here, select whether to include track plug-ins, clips,
and/or markers. Also select whether WaveLab should propose a specific audio
file configuration with optional meta-data when rendering an audio montage.
Click OK.
77
File Operations
Templates
Audio File Template Parameters Dialog
This dialog displays the audio properties of the audio file template that you are
creating. You can also specify whether to always propose a specific audio file
configuration with optional meta-data when creating an audio file template or not.
In the Audio Files workspace, select File > Export > Template.
When saving, always propose a specific audio file configuration (with optional
meta-data)
If this option is activated, whenever you open the Render or Save as dialogs,
the audio file configuration specified below is proposed by default.
Audio Montage Template Parameters Dialog
In this dialog, you can set various options when creating an audio montage
template.
In the Audio Montage workspace, select File > Export > Template.
Include track and master plug-ins
If this option is activated, track plug-ins and master plug-ins are saved in the
template.
Include clips
If this option is activated, clips are saved in the template.
Include markers
If this option is activated, markers are saved in the template.
When saving, always propose a specific audio file configuration (with optional
meta-data)
If this option is activated, whenever you open the Render dialog, the audio file
configuration specified below is proposed by default.
78
File Operations
Templates
Setting a Template as Default
You can set a template as default template.
PREREQUISITE
Create a template with the settings that you want to use as default settings for a file.
PROCEDURE
1.
In any workspace, except the Control Window, select File > New from.
2.
From the templates list, select the template that you want to use as the default
template.
3.
Click Set as default.
4.
Click OK.
RESULT
When you select New, a file based on the selected template is created. To remove
the default template setting, click the Do not set as default button.
Creating a File From a Template
You can create a file from a template to use its settings.
PROCEDURE
1.
In any workspace, except the Control Window, select File > New from.
2.
From the list of the available templates, select the template that you want to
take as the basis of the new file.
3.
Click Open.
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File Operations
File Renaming
Create From Template Dialog
This dialog shows all templates. Here, you can open and delete them, and set a
default template.
In the any workspace, except the Control Window, select File > New from. If no
template exists, the dialog will not open.
List of the available templates
Lists all saved templates.
Use template name as default document name
If this option is activated, the new file uses the name of the template. If this
option is deactivated, the name of the new file is “untitled”.
Set as default
Saves the selected template as default template.
Open
Creates a new file from the selected template.
None
Creates a new file without any reference to a template.
Explore
Opens the folder where the template files are located. Here, you can delete
templates.
File Renaming
The Rename function allows you to rename a file and update all references
automatically. For example, if you rename an audio file named India to Sitar, all
currently open files that reference the file India are updated to reference the file
as Sitar.
Audio files, peak, and marker files are also renamed accordingly.
The following files use audio file references:
•
Audio montages
80
File Operations
File Renaming
•
Basic Audio CDs
•
DVD-Audio projects
Renaming a File
PROCEDURE
1.
Select the file that you want to rename.
2.
In any workspace, except the Control Window, select File > Rename.
3.
Enter the new name and/or a new file location.
4.
Select a file suffix from the drop-down list.
5.
Click OK.
Rename File Dialog
In this dialog, you can choose a new file name, file extension, and folder location for
the active file.
In any workspace, except the Control Window, select File > Rename.
Name
Type in the new name.
File extension drop-down list
Select a case for the file extension.
Change folder
If this option is activated, you can change the folder location of the file.
NOTE
This is only possible within the same drive partition.
Keep as default
If this option is activated, the same path is selected next time you open the
dialog. This is useful if you need to move several files successively.
81
File Operations
Deleting Files
Deleting Files
You can delete the currently active file from within WaveLab.
PREREQUISITE
The file that you want to delete is not copied to the clipboard, is not pasted into
another file that is open, and is not open in another application.
PROCEDURE
1.
Select the file that you want to delete.
2.
In any workspace, except the Control Window, select File > Delete.
3.
Click OK.
RESULT
The file including its peak and marker files, is deleted.
Special Menu
From this menu you can select various file related options, for example, you can add
the active file to a Master Project, Batch Processor, Data CD/DVD, or Podcast.
In any workspace, except the Control Window, select File > Special.
Depending on the workspace, not all options are available.
Information
Displays information about the active file.
Add to Master Project
Adds the active file to a Master Project.
Add to Batch Processor
Adds the active file to a Batch Processor.
Add to Data CD/DVD
Adds the active file and all the related files to a Data CD/DVD.
Add to Podcast
Adds the active file to a Podcast.
Reveal in Windows Explorer/Mac OS Finder
Opens the Windows Explorer/Mac OS Finder to show the location of the
active file.
Copy to clipboard
Opens a menu, from which you can select which information about the active
file you want to copy to the clipboard.
82
File Operations
Temporary Files
Create a file link on the desktop (Windows only)
Creates a file link on the desktop. The link opens the file with the default
application associated with the file type.
Temporary Files
Temporary files are used for certain operations, such as the undo/redo functions.
You can specify where WaveLab saves its temporary files.
You can specify up to three different folders for storing temporary files. If you have
access to more than one drive, saving your temporary files on separate physical
drives (not partitions) can speed up performance considerably.
For example, if your source files are located on the C: drive, you could specify
D:\temp and E:\temp as temporary folders. This improves the performance and
reduces disc fragmentation.
RELATED LINKS
Specifying Folders on page 83
Work Folders vs. Document Folders
WaveLab distinguishes between two types of folders: work folders and document
folders.
In work folders, temporary files are stored. Document folders contain
WaveLab-specific files, such as wave files, audio montages, etc.
Specifying Folders
You can specify which folder should open when you perform any open or save
operation (document folder). You can also specify up to three folders for temporary
files (work folder).
PROCEDURE
1.
Open the workspace for which you want to specify document folders.
2.
Select Options > Folders.
3.
Click the type of folder for which you want to specify a location.
4.
Specify a location in the Folder field.
5.
Optional: Depending on the selected type of folder, you can make additional
settings.
6.
Click OK.
83
File Operations
Work Folders vs. Document Folders
Folders Dialog
In this dialog, you can specify default document folders and work folders for each
workspace.
In any workspace, select Options > Folders.
In the list to the left, you specify the folder type that you want to make settings for.
The following options are available:
Folder for temporary files #1, #2, and #3
You can specify three folders for storing temporary files. If your system
comprises multiple hard disks, specifying one folder for temporary files on
each of these hard disks can speed up file operations.
Companion files
Specify a folder for storing the companion files, that is Master Section presets
and view settings for audio files.
Cache folder
Activating Use cache folder for decoded files allows you to specify a cache
folder. The cache folder contains wave files that are created when you are
working with files in compressed file formats, such as MP3 files. To prevent
the cache folder to grow indefinitely, WaveLab checks the date of each file in
this folder and deletes files that were created before a certain number of days.
When Use cache folder for decoded files is deactivated, the compressed
files are decoded each time they are opened.
Audio File - Open Folder/Save Folder
The default open and save folders for audio files.
Audio Montage - Open folder/Save folder
The default open and save folders for audio montage files.
Basic Audio CD - Open Folder/Save Folder
The default open and save folders for Basic Audio CD files.
Batch Processor - Open Folder/Save Folder
The default open and save folders for Batch Processor files.
84
File Operations
Work Folders vs. Document Folders
DVD-Audio Project - Open Folder/Save Folder
The default open and save folders for DVD-Audio Project files.
Master Project - Open Folder/Save Folder
The default open and save folders for Master Project files.
Podcast - Open Folder/Save Folder
The default open and save folders for Podcast files.
Script (Audio File/Audio Montage) - Open Folder/Save Folder
The default open and save folders for script files.
Depending on the selected item, different settings are available on the right side of
the dialog:
Current Folder
In this field, the folder that is currently used as default is displayed. You can
click the folder button to the right to navigate to a folder, or to create a new
folder.
Keep last used
Uses the last folder for saving or opening files of the selected type.
Change when save-folder/open-folder changes
Updates the default open folder when you change the default save folder, and
vice versa. Activate this option for both the save folder and the open folder for
a specific file type to use the same folder for saving and for opening this type
of file.
On opening the application, revert to this folder
Activate this option to restore a specific folder each time you open WaveLab.
This way changes to save/open folders are only temporary and reset when
you restart WaveLab.
85
File Operations
Uploading to SoundCloud
Uploading to SoundCloud
SoundCloud is an online platform for uploading and sharing your audio recordings.
The Upload to SoundCloud option in WaveLab allows you to upload an audio file
directly to your SoundCloud account.
If you do not have a SoundCloud account, visit www.soundcloud.com to register.
PROCEDURE
1.
In the Audio Files workspace, select File > Export > Upload to
SoundCloud.
2.
Once you have logged in to your SoundCloud account, the file upload starts.
AFTER COMPLETING THIS TASK
After uploading the audio file, you can edit the privacy settings and add meta-data.
Copying Audio Information to the Clipboard
You can copy information about the name and location of the selected audio file,
including any selection information and cursor position. This information can be
pasted into an external text application.
This is useful if you need accurate file path/selection information when writing a
script, for example.
PROCEDURE
1.
In the Audio Files workspace or the Audio Montage workspace, select Edit >
Copy audio information.
2.
In the Copy audio information dialog, activate the textual information that you
want to copy to the clipboard.
3.
Click OK.
86
File Operations
Setting the Focus on the Current File
Setting the Focus on the Current File
If you are editing inside a floating window or a tool window and want to switch back
the focus to a wave/montage window, you can use the Set focus on current file
option.
PROCEDURE
•
In any workspace, press [Win]/[Ctrl]-[ESC], to set the focus on the
wave/montage window.
87
About Workspaces
A workspace provides an editing and playback environment for a particular audio
file type. Each type of workspace has functions for its specific file types.
In WaveLab, each file type has its own workspace designed for a specific purpose:
•
Audio Files workspace for viewing and editing audio files.
•
Audio Montage workspace for assembling and editing audio montages.
•
Batch Processors workspace for processing a list of audio files with offline
effects, VST plug-ins, and Master Section presets.
•
Podcast workspace for preparing and uploading Podcasts.
•
Control Window workspace for hosting and organizing tool windows,
especially in a multi-monitor setup.
A workspace is highly customizable to match your workflow. A workspace can
appear as a simple window with a single menu or as a sophisticated arrangement
of command bars, tool windows, tab groups, and active meters.
When a file is opened from a given workspace, it is added to the active tab group
of this workspace. If a file is opened from the Control Window, a new workspace is
created for it.
You can have several instances of the same workspace open simultaneously. For
example, you can have two Audio Files workspaces open with different layouts.
You can drag files between workspaces if their formats are compatible. For
example, you can drag an audio file from the Audio Files workspace to the Audio
Montage workspace by using its tab bar or its document button.
Elements of a Workspace
The center of the workspace is about the data that you want to edit, and all the
menus, command bars, tool windows, controls, and tools to help you with that.
Each workspace contains the following elements:
•
A menu bar. Each workspace has a different menu bar, but certain menus are
common for all workspaces and each menu can be customized in various
ways. The workspace menu has a submenu to show/hide the available
Command bars and tool windows.
•
One or more Command bars with buttons for instant access to functions.
Command bars can be customized extensively.
88
About Workspaces
Audio Files Workspace
•
Tab groups to host the files to edit. This is the central part of the workspace.
You can move a tab to another workspace, create a new empty tab, display
the file path, and access other functions by right-clicking.
•
A set of Specific tool windows. Which tools are available depends on the
workspace. They can be activated/deactivated individually.
•
A set of Shared tool windows. The shared tools vary according to the
workspace, and can be turned on or off individually. A shared tool window is
a global window that is located in one workspace at a time.
Audio Files Workspace
This workspace provides tools and functions for sample-accurate audio editing,
high-quality analysis, and processing. It is the environment commonly known as an
audio editor.
Features include various metering tools, a signal generator, a compare function, and
a tool for correcting errors.
The wave window gives you a graphical representation of the audio file and allows
you to view, play back, and edit the file.
Audio Montage Workspace
In this workspace, you assemble audio clips into a montage. You can arrange, edit,
and play back clips on an unlimited number of both stereo or mono tracks.
Features include track and clip-based effects, volume and pan automation, and
wide-ranging fade and crossfade functions. You can use the Audio Montage
workspace for creating music CDs, mastering, multimedia work, radio spot
production, etc. You can create multitrack compositions and author professional
audio CDs or DVD-Audio. Depending on the channel configuration of the montage,
you can route each track to different surround channels (up to 6) or non-surround
channels (up to 8).
You can place any number of clips, on an audio track. A clip contains a reference to
a source audio file on your hard disk, as well as start and end positions in the file.
The montage window gives you a graphical representation of clips on tracks. In it
you can view, play back, and edit the tracks and clips.
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About Workspaces
Batch Processors Workspace
Batch Processors Workspace
This workspace allows you to batch process any number of audio files or audio
montage files using the plug-ins and presets of the Master Section, offline effects,
and other plug-ins that are unique to batch processing.
You can save the processed file in a different file format, rename files, and run an
external application when the batch is finished.
RELATED LINKS
Batch Processing on page 539
Podcast Workspace
In this workspace, you assemble, define, and publish your Podcast to the internet.
RELATED LINKS
Podcasts on page 602
Control Window
In this workspace, you can organize certain tool windows, for example, a selection
of meters in a separate window.
This is useful if you have multiple monitors. You can place the Control Window on
your secondary display and use it to manage the tool windows you use most.
Furthermore, the Control Window can contain the following windows:
•
Meters
•
Master Section
•
Master Project
•
Log window
•
Background task monitor
•
Import Audio CD
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About Workspaces
Creating an Empty Workspace
•
Data CD/DVD
Control Window Options
In the Control Window, select Options.
Show tab if only one window is open
If this option is activated, the tab is displayed, even if only one window is open.
Stay on top
If this option is activated, the Control Window stays on top of other windows.
Creating an Empty Workspace
When creating an empty workspace, no file is opened.
There are two ways of creating an empty workspace:
•
In any workspace, select Workspace > New Workspace, and select the type
of workspace that you want to create.
•
On the Central switcher bar, click a workspace icon, and select Open
empty workspace. The New Workspace dialog opens, where you can select
what layout to use for the new workspace.
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About Workspaces
New Workspace Dialog
New Workspace Dialog
In this dialog, you can select what layout you want to use when creating a new
workspace.
In any workspace, select Workspace > New workspace and select which
workspace you want to open.
As last closed workspace
This is the layout of the workspace of the same type that was closed last.
The default layout
This is the layout that you previously saved as default.
Factory preset: Empty layout
The workspace will be created without any docked tool windows. This preset
is used by default if your screen is small.
Factory preset: Moderate
The workspace will be created with only the most important tool windows.
This preset is used by default if your screen size is moderate.
Factory preset: Power-user
The workspace will be created with almost all possible docked tool windows.
This preset is used by default if your screen size is large.
Factory preset: Ultimate
The workspace will be created with all possible docked tool windows. This
preset is used by default if your screen configuration is made up of two large
screens.
92
About Workspaces
Opening Files in a Workspace
Don’t show this dialog again
If this option is activated, WaveLab will select the layout automatically in the
following order:
1)
2)
3)
As the default layout if one has been saved from the Workspace menu.
As the last similar workspace that was closed during the present
session.
A factory preset according to the screen configuration.
Opening Files in a Workspace
You can open files in the workspace that you are working in and in any other
workspace, without having to switch workspaces first.
•
To open a file in a workspace, select File > Open. From the file browser,
select the workspace file that you want to open, and click Open.
•
On the Central switcher bar, click a workspace icon, and select Open. From
the file browser, select the file that you want to open, and click Open.
Organizing Workspace Windows
For working with several workspace windows, WaveLab offers functions to
organize the windows.
•
To lock a workspace layout, activate Workspace > Lock layout. This
prevents you from moving or closing tool windows.
•
To automatically move the shared tool windows to the newly activated
workspace, every time you switch between workspaces, activate Workspace
> Auto move shared tool windows.
•
To activate full screen view, select Workspace > Full screen view.
•
To specify the workspace position on the screen, select Workspace >
Position on screen, and select an option.
•
To bring all workspace windows to front, select Workspace > Bring all to
front.
•
To cascade all workspace windows, select Workspace > Cascade all.
•
To switch between the previously selected workspace window and the active
workspace window, select Workspace > Switch to previous workspace, or
press [F5].
•
To close the active workspace, select Workspace > Close.
93
About Workspaces
Saving a Workspace Layout
Saving a Workspace Layout
You can save a workspace layout and use it in other projects or other instances of
WaveLab.
PREREQUISITE
Set up your workspace layout.
PROCEDURE
1.
Optional: If you want to use the current workspace layout as default, select
Workspace > Layout > Save current layout as default.
NOTE
The default layout is the layout that is used when a new workspace window is
created.
2.
In any workspace, select Workspace > Layout > Save as.
3.
In the Workspace layout dialog, enter a Name for the layout.
4.
Optional: Decide whether you want to use the following options:
5.
•
To save the size and position of the workspace and its command bars and tool
windows, activate Save placement of this workspace and its peripheral
windows.
•
To save the position and size of the tab groups within the workspace, activate
Save layout of tab groups.
Click Save.
About Tool Windows
Throughout WaveLab there are various tool windows available that allow you to
view, analyze, and edit the active file.
Generally, the content of a tool window is synchronized with the active file, with the
exception of the audio meters which displays the audio file being played back. Tool
windows can be docked and undocked, and saved in your custom layouts. There
are two types of tool windows available:
•
Specific tool windows
•
Shared tool windows
The tool windows can be accessed via the Workspace menu.
Specific Tool Windows
Specific tool windows are windows that are specific to the current workspace. The
following specific tool windows are available:
94
About Workspaces
About Tool Windows
Audio Files workspace
Audio Montage
workspace
Batch Processors workspace
Podcast workspace
Control Window workspace
Shared Tool Windows
The difference between specific and shared tool windows is that there can only be
a single instance of a shared window in WaveLab. For example, a single Master
Section, or a single level meter.
When you open a shared tool window in another workspace it undocks and moves
from its original workspace, if this option is activated. An empty tab container with
a title bar remains in its previous workspace. You can set the moving behavior by
activating/deactivating Workspace > Auto move shared tool windows.
A shared tool window, if docked, can only appear in a single workspace at a time.
To retrieve a shared tool window from another workspace, click the tool window.
For example, if you have the Level Meter displayed in the Audio Montage workspace
and you want to display it in the Audio Files workspace, click the icon in the Level
Meter window of the Audio Files workspace.
If there are several workspaces of the same type, each workspace has its own
independent tool window set.
The following shared tool windows are available:
95
About Workspaces
About Tool Windows
Audio Files workspace and Audio Montage workspace
Batch Processors workspace
Opening and Closing Tool Windows
You can close all tool windows you do not need for your project.
•
To open or close a specific tool window, select Workspace > Specific tool
windows, and select a tool window, or use the Specific Tool Windows
command bar.
•
To open or close a shared tool window, select Workspace > Shared tool
windows, and select a tool window, or use the Shared Tool Windows
command bar.
•
To close a tool window, move the mouse on the left side or the top of the
window, and on the toolbar that appears, click Close.
Tool Windows Command Bar
On the Specific Tool Windows and Shared Tool Windows command bars you
can quickly switch tool windows on and off, without having to navigate through a
menu.
•
To open or close the Shared Tool Windows command bar, select
Workspace > Command bars > Shared Tool Windows.
Shared Tool Windows command bar in the Audio Montage workspace
96
About Workspaces
About Tool Windows
•
To open or close the Specific Tool Windows command bar, select
Workspace > Command bars > Specific Tool Windows.
Specific Tool Windows command bar in the Audio Montage workspace
Docking and Undocking Tool Windows
Tool windows can be used as docked windows or as floating windows. They can
be freely dragged around and docked at various locations. Command bars can also
be freely moved around and docked along the edges of most windows.
To dock/undock a tool window, use one of the following methods:
•
Double-click the title bar, located on the left or the top of the tool window.
•
Click the double window icon at the top left corner of the window.
•
Drag the tool window title bar of a specific tool window. To dock the tool
window, drag it by its title bar to another position.
To prevent an undocked tool window from docking, use one of the following
methods:
•
Hold down [Ctrl]/[Command] before dragging the tool window.
•
Activate the Floating versus docking priority icon on the left or the top of
the tool window.
Differences Between Windows and Mac OS
Floating windows behave slightly different on Windows and Mac OS.
•
On Windows systems, a floating window is hidden when its dependent
workspace is minimized or covered by another window. If WaveLab is not the
active application, all its independent floating windows are hidden.
•
On Mac OS X systems, a tool window is always on top of all other windows
and a floating window remains visible even if its dependent workspace is not
active or is minimized. If WaveLab is not the active application, all its floating
windows are hidden.
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Playback
WaveLab offers numerous playback functions.
There are 4 playback modes available:
•
Traditional playback, with playback starting from the cursor position and
stopping anywhere when stopping playback.
•
Play range, where playback starts from a given point and stops at another
point of interest.
•
Play from anchor, where playback starts from a specific point of interest.
•
Play until anchor, where playback starts anywhere but stops at a given point
of interest.
RELATED LINKS
Playback Shortcuts on page 109
Transport Bar
With this command bar you can control playback of an audio file or audio montage,
navigate between various positions in an audio file or audio montage, and open the
Recording dialog.
In the Audio Files workspace or the Audio Montage workspace, select Workspace
> Command bars > Transport bar.
Transport bar in the Audio Files workspace
Transport bar in the Audio Montage workspace
Presets
Lets you save and apply transport bar presets.
Jog and Shuttle
Activates the Jog and Shuttle mode.
Speed settings
Opens a menu where you can specify the playback speed.
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Playback
Transport Bar
Skip range
If this option is activated, playback skips the selected range and any region
surrounded by exclusion markers.
On stop, move cursor back
If this option is activated, the edit cursor jumps back to the start position when
playback stops. If you want to activate this option for the options Play from
anchor, Play until anchor, and Play range, right-click this button, and
activate On alternate playback stop, move cursor back to start.
Perform pre-roll
Activates pre-roll for the commands Play from anchor, Play until anchor,
and Play range.
Right-click the button to select the pre-roll length and to specify to which
commands you want to apply pre-roll to. To edit the pre-roll times, select Edit
pre/post-roll.
Perform post-roll
Activates post-roll for the commands Play from anchor, Play until anchor,
and Play range.
Right-click the button to select the post-roll length and to specify to which
commands you want to apply post-roll to. To edit the post-roll times, select
Edit pre/post-roll.
Auto selection
If this option is activated, the anchor and/or range are automatically selected
according to the editing actions. Right-click to open a menu with related
options and auto selection modes.
Ranges
Lets you select one of the following ranges:
•
Selected time range
•
Marked region where edit cursor is located
•
Range of focused clip (audio montage only)
•
Crossfade range (audio montage only)
•
Fade-in range (audio montage only)
•
Fade-out range (audio montage only)
Play range
Plays the selected range. Post-roll and Pre-roll settings are taken into
account.
Anchors
Lets select which anchor to use as reference for the commands Play from
anchor and Play until anchor. When there are multiple possibilities, for
example, multiple markers, the last selected item is taken into account as a
reference anchor or the closest marker near the edit cursor position if no
marker is selected.
You can select one of the following anchors:
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Playback
Transport Bar
•
Start of file
•
Start of selected time range
•
End of selected time range
•
Any marker
•
Region start marker
•
Region end marker
•
Clip start (audio montage only)
•
Clip end (audio montage only)
•
Selected envelope point in focused clip (audio montage only)
When an anchor is detected, for example, a region marker pair, this is
indicated by a green anchor marker.
Play from anchor
Plays from anchor. Pre-roll and post-roll settings are taken into account.
Play until anchor
Plays until anchor. Pre-roll and post-roll settings are taken into account.
Move cursor to previous/next anchor
Moves the edit cursor position to the previous/next anchor. To set the type of
anchor, right-click the next anchor button and select an option from the menu.
If you click during playback, playback continues from the anchor position.
Move playback position backwards/forwards
Moves the edit cursor position to the left/right. If you click during playback,
playback jumps to the new edit cursor position.
To move the edit cursor to the start/end of the file, press [Ctrl]/[Command],
and click the Move playback position backwards/forwards button.
Loop
Activates the loop mode. Right-click the loop button to select whether to
loopforever or only a few times.
Stop
Stops the audio being played. If playback is already stopped, the edit cursor
is moved to the previous start position.
Play
Starts playing the active audio file or audio montage from the edit cursor
position.It can also be used to play back other sources, for example, the
focused Basic Audio CD track or the focused clip in the Clips window.
100
Playback
Transport Bar
If the audio being played back is not the active audio file, the Play button has
a different color. This happens if you switch to another workspace during
playback, for example.
The playback button when playing back in the active window (left) and when
playing in another window or workspace (right).
Record
Opens the Recording dialog.
Time display
Displays the edit cursor or playback position. Click to select another time unit.
Fold bar
Minimizes the transport bar. To unfold the transport bar again, click the thin
line where the transport bar was located.
Settings
Opens layout menu of the transport bar and lets you edit shortcuts for the
transport bar. You can also right-click the transport bar to open this menu.
Transport Bar in the Podcast Workspace and Batch Processors Workspace
In the Podcast workspace and Batch Processors workspace, a simplified transport
bar allows you to play back the selected Podcast episode and selected batch
process source files and destination files.
Play Button
Clicking the Play button on the transport bar starts playing back the active audio file
or audio montage from the edit cursor position.It can also be used to play back other
sources, for example, the focused Basic Audio CD track or the focused clip in the
Clips window.
You can also use the Space bar or the Enter key on your keyboard to start playback.
Pressing the Space bar during playback stops playback, while pressing Enter
during playback makes playback restart from the last start position.
When loop is activated, the audio selection is looped, if available. Otherwise, the
region defined by loop markers is looped, if available. If there are no selection
ranges or loop markers, the entire file is looped.
The standard Play command is not influenced by the Play range, Play from anchor,
and Play to anchor options.
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Playback
Transport Bar
Stop Button
The result of clicking the Stop button or on the transport bar or [0] on your numeric
keypad depends on the current situation.
•
If you trigger Stop in stop mode, the edit cursor moves either to the previous
Playback start marker, or to the selection start (whatever is closer), until the
start of the file is reached.
•
If there is no selection or if the edit cursor is positioned to the left of the
selection, it is moved to the beginning of the file instead.
Playing Back Audio Ranges
You can play back audio ranges using the Ranges options on the transport bar.
PROCEDURE
1.
On the transport bar, select the type of range that you want to play back.
2.
Optional: Activate pre-roll and/or post-roll.
3.
Position the edit cursor inside the range that you want to play back or make a
selection range.
This selected range and, if activated, the pre-roll and post-roll times are displayed on
the time ruler.
4.
To play back the selected range, click the Play range button on the transport
bar or press [F6].
RESULT
The selected range is played back. Pre-roll and post-roll settings are taken into
account. When the Loop mode is active, pre-roll is used before the first loop only,
and post-roll is only used after the last loop.
Playing Back From an Anchor or Until an Anchor
You can play back audio from an anchor or until a specified anchor using the
Anchor options on the transport bar.
PROCEDURE
1.
On the transport bar, select an anchor type
If nothing is selected and you use the Play from anchor button, the edit cursor is the
default anchor.
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Playback
Transport Bar
2.
Depending on the selected anchor type, position the edit cursor in the wave
window or montage window inside the range that you want to play back.
For example, if you have selected Region start marker, click somewhere in the area
of the region marker pair from which you want to play back from/to. The green anchor
marker jumps to the selected anchor.
3.
Optional: Activate pre-roll and/or post-roll.
4.
To play back from the anchor marker, click the Play from anchor button on
the transport bar or press [F7]. To play back until the anchor marker, click the
Play until anchor button on the transport bar or press [F8].
RESULT
Play back starts from the anchor/until the anchor. Pre-roll and post-roll settings are
taken into account.
About the “Play From Anchor” and “Play Until Anchor”
Functions
You can play back audio from an anchor or until an anchor using the Play from
anchor or Play until anchor functions on the transport bar. These playback
functions behave differently depending on the pre-roll and post-roll settings.
Play from anchor
•
If post-roll is selected, playback starts at the anchor position and stops after
the post-roll time. If no post-roll is selected, playback continues until the end
of the audio file or audio montage.
•
If pre-roll is selected, playback starts from the selected anchor, minus the
pre-roll time.
•
If pre-roll and post-roll are selected, playback starts from the selected anchor,
minus the pre-roll time and stops after the anchor point plus the post roll time.
•
If the loop mode is activated, the pre-roll and post-roll settings are taken into
account. This way you can play a loop around the edit cursor position, without
having to make further range settings.
Play until anchor
•
Playback starts from the cursor, and stops at the selected anchor. If the cursor
is beyond the selected anchor, playback starts at the selected anchor. If
pre-roll is activated, it is taken into account.
•
If pre-roll is selected, playback starts from the selected anchor minus the
pre-roll time, until the selected anchor.
•
If there is no selected anchor, Play until anchor is disabled.
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Playback
Transport Bar
•
The loop settings have no effect.
Using the Auto Selection Mode
You can use the auto selection mode in combination with the playback shortcuts to
play back audio ranges or anchors, without needing to interact with the transport
bar. This makes it easy to monitor your editing actions.
PROCEDURE
1.
On the transport bar, activate Auto selection mode.
2.
In the wave window or the montage window, do one of the following:
•
Make a selection range.
•
Click inside the area of a marker pair.
•
Click a fade-in, fade-out, or crossfade.
•
Click anywhere in the wave/montage window.
•
Drag a marker.
Depending on your action, the most appropriate range, or anchor is selected. For
example, if you click inside a marker pair, this region is selected as playback range.
The time ruler shows the selected range or anchor.
NOTE
In Auto selection mode, you can still change some range and anchor options
in the transport bar to play a different range/anchor. However, the
range/anchor will be reselected when you starting editing again with the
mouse.
3.
Use the playback shortcuts to start playback.
•
To play back the selected audio range, press [F6].
•
To play back from an anchor, press [F7].
•
To play back until an anchor, press [F8].
You can also use the Play range, Play from anchor, and Play to anchor buttons on
the transport bar.
RESULT
The selection range is played back, or play back starts from the anchor/until the
anchor. Pre-roll and post-roll settings are taken into account.
NOTE
A selection range has priority over any other range. To allow other ranges to be
auto-selected, deselect the selection range.
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Playback
Transport Bar
Using Auto Replay While Editing
You can have playback automatically re-triggered while editing audio with the
mouse. This is useful if you want to monitor the adjustment of a selection boundary,
for example.
PROCEDURE
1.
On the transport bar, right-click the Auto selection mode icon, and activate
Auto replay while editing.
2.
In the wave window or the montage window, make a selection range and hold
the mouse button pressed.
3.
Start playback by using one of the following shortcuts:
4.
•
To play back the selected audio range, press [F6].
•
To play back from an anchor, press [F7].
•
To play back until an anchor, press [F8].
Drag the cursor to the right or left.
The selection range is adjusted and played back until you release the mouse button.
When playback ends, the new selection range is played back.
Automated Selection Mode Settings
You can select whether the automated selection mode should select only ranges,
only anchors, or both. To use the selected settings, activate Auto selection of
anchor and range, based on editing actions.
To open the automated selection mode settings menu, right-click the Auto
selection of anchor and range, based on editing actions icon on the transport
bar, and make your selection.
Auto replay while editing
If this option is activated, playback is automatically restarted when you hold
down the mouse button while editing ranges or anchors, and used the
shortcuts to trigger playback. This is useful to find a loop, for example.
This option works even when the automated selection mode is deactivated.
Solo track when editing
If this option is activated, when holding down the mouse button when editing
ranges or anchors in the montage window, the track is soloed when playing
back via the shortcuts for Play range, Play from anchor, or Play until
anchor. This option is only available in the Audio Montage workspace.
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Playback
Transport Bar
This option works even when the automated selection mode is deactivated,
because it is independent from this mode.
Auto select range and anchor
If this option is activated, ranges and anchors are automatically selected.
Auto select range
If this option is activated, ranges are automatically selected.
Auto select anchor
If this option is activated, anchors are automatically selected.
Skipping Sections During Playback
You can automatically skip a selected audio range during playback. This way, you
can audition what the material would sound like with certain sections cut out.
PROCEDURE
1.
On the transport bar, activate Skip range.
2.
Activate Use Pre-Roll and Use Post-Roll.
3.
If you want to use the Play range function, activate one of the Ranges modes.
4.
Depending on the Ranges mode, do one of the following:
•
If you have activated Selected audio range, make an audio selection in the
wave window.
•
If you have activated Marked region where edit cursor is located, click the
section between a marker pair.
The audio range that will be skipped is displayed on the time ruler along with the
pre-roll and post-roll times.
5.
Select Play range, or press [F6].
RESULT
The selected range is skipped during playback.
You can also use the factory preset for skipping selections during playback.
Activate Skip range, make an audio selection, and press [Shift]-[F6].
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Playback
Transport Bar
NOTE
This mode also works with the standard Play button, if there is a time selection or if
exclusion start and end markers are set. In this case, the pre-roll and post-roll times
are ignored.
About Loops
Loop points are updated continuously during playback. If you change the loop start
or end during playback, the loop changes. This way you can audition selection
points for rhythmic material.
If you loop a section in an audio montage, playback loops within the boundaries of
the current selection range. This selection range may be on any track, even if empty.
The vertical position of the selection range is of no relevance for loop playback, only
the left and right selection boundaries matter.
Pre-Roll and Post-Roll
You can start playback slightly before a specific position (pre-roll) and stop
playback slightly after another position (post-roll). This gives you a brief context if
you are auditioning a clip, for example.
The position can be an anchor or the start or end of a range. The pre-roll and
post-roll times are displayed in the time ruler.
To activate pre-roll and/or post-roll, activate the Use Post-Roll and Use Pre-Roll
buttons on the transport bar.
When right-clicking the pre-roll or post-roll icon on the transport bar, you can select
a pre-roll/post-roll time. Here, you can also select which play option you want to
apply the pre-roll/post-roll to, and you can open the Edit Times dialog.
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Playback
Transport Bar
Pre-Roll and Post-Roll Times Dialog
This dialog allows you to define a short, an average, and a long pre-roll and post-roll
time. These settings are global to WaveLab.
In the wave window or the montage window, on the transport bar, right-click the
pre-roll or post-roll icon, and select Edit pre/post-roll.
Playback Speed Dialog
This dialog allows you to specify the playback speed of the active audio file and all
clips of the active audio montage.
On the Transport bar, click the Speed settings icon, and select Edit speed.
Presets
You can enter a name to save the settings as a preset and select them from
the Playback Speed pop-up menu later.
Speed factor
Sets the playback speed as a percentage of the normal speed (100 %).
Time stretching
Compared to the speed coefficient, this is the inverse, a deceleration
coefficient. This value is equivalent to the percentage found in the Time
Stretching dialog.
Keep constant pitch (pure time stretching)
Indicates the time stretching.
108
Playback
Transport Bar
Quality
The Best and High quality modes provide the highest quality, but are also the
most CPU intensive. In most cases, the Standard quality is sufficient.
Acceleration by skipping low level regions
If this option is activated, regions of the audio that are below the threshold
level (level under which audio is skipped) are skipped during playback.
Level detection sensitivity
Determines the resolution of the level detection analysis, and thus its
sensitivity.
Level under which audio is skipped
Determines the threshold level for a region to be considered low level.
Bypass effects and Master Section
If this option is activated, all active effects in the audio montage and all global
effects in the Master Section are bypassed. This saves processing power and
usually the plug-ins are not needed trying to locate audio material.
Bypass audio meters
If this option is activated, all meters are bypassed to save processing power.
NOTE
Changing the playback speed does not change the original audio, but only its
playback speed in WaveLab.
Playback Shortcuts
In addition to the buttons on the transport bar, there are shortcuts to control the
playback.
Space bar
Start/stop playback. This shortcut can be used even when the wave window
or montage window is not the active window.
0 on numeric keypad
Stop. If the program is stopped and you trigger Stop again, the edit cursor
moves either to the previous Playback start marker, or to the selection start
(whatever is closer), until the start of the file is reached. This is the same as
clicking the Stop button on the transport bar. This shortcut can be used even
when the wave window or montage window is not the active window.
Enter
Starts playback. If pressed during playback, playback restarts from the
previous start position. This is the same as clicking the Play button on the
transport bar.
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Playback
Transport Bar
[F6]
Starts playback of the selected range, depending on the selected option in
the Ranges section of the transport bar.
[F7]
Starts playback from the selected anchor, depending on the selected option
in the Anchors section of the transport bar.
[F8]
Starts playback until the selected anchor, depending on the selected option
in the Anchors section of the transport bar.
Save Transport Bar Presets Dialog
In this dialog, you can save a transport bar setup as preset.
On the transport bar, click the preset icon, and select Save as.
Path name
Opens the root folder of the preset in the Windows Explorer/Mac OS Finder.
Here, you can create subfolders for your presets.
Presets list
Lists all existing presets.
Name
Lets you specify a name for your preset.
Create shortcut for selecting the preset
If this option is activated and you click Save, the Shortcut Definitions dialog
opens, where you can define a shortcut for this preset.
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Playback
Transport Bar
If a preset already has an assigned shortcut, this option is grayed out. To
change the existing shortcut, double-click the preset name in the presets list.
When preset is selected with shortcut
This lets you assign a customized playback command to a shortcut. For
example, you can set a shortcut to play a range with a short pre-roll/post-roll,
and another shortcut to play a range without a pre-roll/post-roll.
On stop, restore previous settings
If this option is activated, the settings are restored as they were before
playback start. This is useful to trigger a special play task, and automatically
switch back to the standard settings, as soon as playback is finished.
Transport Bar Settings
In the transport bar settings menu, you can customize the transport bar. This is
useful to optimize the transport bar according to the available screen space.
To open the settings menu, right-click the transport bar, or click the Settings button
on the transport bar.
Hide
Hides the transport bar. To make it visible again, select Workspace >
Command bars > Transport bar.
Fold
Minimizes the transport bar. To unfold the transport bar again, click the thin
line where the transport bar was located.
Top/Bottom
Aligns the transport bar at the top/bottom of the wave window or the montage
window.
Large transport buttons/Small transport buttons
Determines the size of the transport bar buttons.
Align buttons left/Align buttons right/Center button
Moves the transport bar buttons to the corresponding position.
Show time display
Shows/hides the time display.
Show alternate play buttons
Shows/hides the alternate play buttons in the Ranges and Anchors section
of the transport bar.
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Playback
Playing Back Only One Channel
Show all Range and Anchor buttons
Shows/hides the full range of Ranges and Anchors buttons. If this option is
deactivated, only one range and one anchor button is visible. The other
buttons can be accessed via shortcuts or when you right-click this button.
Show Preset button
Shows/hides the Presets button.
Show Skip button
Shows/hides the Skip mode button.
Show Speed button
Shows/hides the Speed settings button.
Show Jog and Shuttle button
Shows/hides the Jog and Shuttle button.
Edit shortcuts
Opens the Customize commands dialog, where you can edit the shortcuts
for the transport bar commands.
Playing Back Only One Channel
You can choose to play only the left or the right channel of an audio file in the Audio
Files workspace.
PROCEDURE
•
In the Audio Files workspace, select Options, and activate/deactivate Play
left channel and/or Play right channel.
Starting Playback From the Ruler
You can use the ruler to quickly jump to a position and start playback from there.
•
Double-clicking the ruler starts playback from that position. Playback
continues until you click Stop or until the end of the audio file or audio
montage.
•
To set the playback position to a certain position, click the ruler during
playback. This also applies for clicking the time rulers of another audio file or
audio montage, which allows you to quickly switch playback between audio
files or audio montages.
•
To start playback from a marker position, press [Ctrl]/[Command] and
double-click a marker.
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Playback
Using the Play Tool
Using the Play Tool
This tool allows you to play back from any position on one or both stereo channels.
PROCEDURE
1.
In the Audio Files workspace, select the Play tool from the Edit tools
command bar, or press and hold [Alt]/[Option].
2.
In the wave window, click at the position where you want playback to start.
The cursor shape indicates whether the left (L), the right channel (R), or both channels
are played back.
RESULT
Playback continues for as long as you keep the mouse button pressed, or until the
audio file ends. After playback has stopped, the cursor is moved to the playback
start position.
Playback Scrubbing
Playback scrubbing helps you find a certain position in an audio file, by restarting
playback repeatedly when you click and drag on the time ruler during playback or
use the Play tool.
Scrubbing Using the Play Tool
PROCEDURE
1.
In the Audio Files workspace, select the Play tool from the Edit tools
command bar, or press and hold [Alt]/[Option].
2.
Click in the wave window, or click and drag the time ruler.
If you click in the wave window, playback starts at the position where you clicked. If
you click and drag in the time ruler, the audio is played back from the edit cursor
position and a small section is looped once.
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Playback
Timecode Window
Scrubbing Using the Time Ruler
PROCEDURE
1.
Optional: In the Audio Files workspace, activate Options > Stop after
playback scrubbing, to stop playback after scrubbing.
The edit cursor then jumps back to the start position.
2.
Start playback.
3.
Click the time ruler and hold the mouse button pressed, and drag left or right.
4.
When you are done scrubbing, release the mouse button.
Playback Scrubbing Preferences
You can define the behavior of the Play tool in the Audio file editing preferences.
In the Audio Files workspace, select Options > Audio file editing preferences >
Editing tab.
•
If Restrict to Play Tool is activated, scrubbing is not available when you click
and drag on the time ruler during playback.
•
The Sensitivity setting determines the length of the audio loop that is played
once when click and drang on the time ruler with the Play tool activated.
Timecode Window
This window can display the recorded time, the time offset in relation to various
positions, and dynamic colors according to the context. During playback, the song
position is displayed. If there is no playback, the edit cursor position is displayed.
In the Audio Files workspace, Audio Montage workspace, or Control Window,
select Workspace > Shared tool windows > Timecode.
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Playback
Jog/Shuttle Function
View Menu
Edit colors
Opens the Timecode colors dialog, where you can edit the colors of the
Timecode window.
Positive times
If this option is activated, positive values are displayed. If Negative times is
also activated, the closest offset, negative or positive, is displayed.
Negative times
If this option is activated, negative values are displayed. If Positive times is
also activated, the closest offset, negative or positive, is displayed.
Time ruler
Displays the position in relation to the origin of the time ruler. The time format
is displayed according to the ruler.
Offset display
Lets you select from which position you want to display the offset. The
following positions are available: edit cursor, selection start/end, marker, CD
track start/end, clip start/end.
Recorded time
If this option is activated, when you start recording, the Timecode window
displays the recorded time.
Recorded time (from last marker)
If this option is activated, when you start recording, the Timecode window
displays the recorded time since the last dropped marker.
Jog/Shuttle Function
This function allows you to play back audio forwards or backwards, at any speed.
This is useful for finding exact spots in the audio file and audio montage.
NOTE
The Jog and Shuttle functions are CPU intensive. If you experience stuttering
playback, try reducing the window size.
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Playback
Scroll During Playback
Using the Jog Function
This can be viewed as dragging the audio past a playback point, much like dragging
a reel-to-reel tape past the playback head.
PROCEDURE
1.
Zoom in the wave window or the montage window, so that you get a good
visual feedback.
2.
On the transport bar, activate Jog/Shuttle.
A vertical line appears in the middle of the wave/montage window. This is the
playback point.
3.
Click in the area above the time ruler and drag to the left or right, to play back
the audio.
Dragging to the left of the line plays the audio forwards, dragging to the right plays
the audio backwards.
Using the Shuttle Function
This can be viewed as playing back with a continuous control for tape speed and
direction.
PROCEDURE
1.
Zoom in the wave window or the montage window, so that you get a good
visual feedback.
2.
On the transport bar, activate Jog/Shuttle.
A vertical line appears in the middle of the wave/montage window. This is the
playback point.
3.
Click in the wave/montage window and drag to the left or right of the vertical
line.
Clicking to the left of the line plays the audio backwards, clicking to the right plays the
audio forwards.
The playback speed is determined by the distance from the line to the pointer. The
further away from the line you move the pointer, the faster the playback.
4.
Release the mouse button to stop playback.
5.
Deactivate the Jog/Shuttle button on the transport bar by using any stop
command.
Scroll During Playback
You can determine how the view should be scrolled in Play mode.
In the Audio Files workspace or the Audio Montage workspace, select View >
Scroll during playback.
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Playback
About Playback in the Audio Montage Workspace
The following options are available:
Immobile view
Disables scrolling.
View follows cursor
The view automatically changes to keep the playback cursor visible.
Scroll view (partial)
The view only scrolls when necessary to keep the playback cursor visible.
Scroll view (always)
Scrolls the view to keep the playback cursor centered.
NOTE
If you get dropouts during playback, do not use the scroll options.
About Playback in the Audio Montage Workspace
Playback in the Audio Montage workspace works the same way as in the Audio
Files workspace. However, there are some things to note.
Mute and Solo Tracks
You can mute or solo tracks in an audio montage by using the corresponding
buttons in the track control area.
•
When a track is muted, the mute button is yellow.
•
When atrack is soloed, the solo button is red.
•
Solo can only be activated for one track at a time. However, you can unmute
other tracks when Solo is active if you want to listen to a combination of
tracks.
Muting Individual Clips
You can mute individual clips of a track.
PROCEDURE
1.
In the Audio Montage workspace, open the Clips window.
2.
Select the clips that you want to mute, and select Functions >
Mute/Unmute selected clips, or check the box in the Mute column.
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Playback
Speaker Configuration
Playing Back Individual Clips
You can play back an individual clip on a track. Overlapping clips or clips on other
tracks are muted.
PROCEDURE
1.
In the Audio Montage workspace, right-click the lower part of the clip that you
want to play back.
2.
On the menu, select one of the following play options:
•
To play back the clip, select Play focused clip.
•
To play back the clip with pre-roll, select Play focused clip with pre-roll.
Playing Back a Selection Range of a Track
You can select a section of a clip and play it back, while overlapping clips or clips
on other tracks are muted.
PROCEDURE
1.
In the Audio Montage workspace, make a selection range, either in a clip or in
an empty section of a track.
2.
Right-click the selection range, and select Play clip inside selection range.
Speaker Configuration
You can configure up to 8 speaker setups to switch to another audio speaker
configuration with no latency. This allows you to compare the sound on different
speaker setups.
After setting up the speaker configurations in the VST Audio Connections dialog,
the configurations can be selected from the bottom of the Master Section.
The switching between different setups is done at the lowest level, right before
sending the audio to the hardware, and without any plug-in processing.
A gain can be set individually for each configuration.
•
The speaker gain is not taken into account by the meters. This means that the
signal could clip even if the meters do not indicate clipping.
•
The speaker gain has no effect on file rendering or CD writing.
•
Since a gain affects samples, any dither settings are reset when changing the
gain. This has an effect when monitoring quiet music passages.
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Playback
Speaker Configuration
The speaker configuration #1 is active on startup and should be the default
configuration, without a gain change.
The gain settings are saved with the active configuration. To save the gain settings
of the speaker configurations as a preset, open the VST Audio Connections
dialog, and save the speaker configurations as a preset.
RELATED LINKS
Speaker Configurations Pane on page 378
VST Audio Connections Dialog on page 12
Speaker Configuration LED Colors
Dark green
No gain is applied and dithering is preserved.
Red
Positive gain is applied, dithering is canceled, and there is a risk of clipping.
Orange
Negative gain is applied without the risk of clipping, but dithering is canceled.
Setting Up the Speaker Configuration
PROCEDURE
1.
In any workspace, except the Podcast workspace, select Options > VST
Audio Connections.
2.
In the VST Audio Connections dialog, select an Audio Device.
3.
Select the Playback tab, and select the speaker configuration that you want
to edit.
4.
Select and name the audio ports used for playback.
5.
Select the Recording tab, and select the speaker configuration that you want
to edit.
6.
Select and name the audio ports used for recording and input monitoring.
NOTE
The input selection is not affected by the speaker configuration.
7.
When you are done setting up the speaker configurations, click OK.
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Audio File Editing
Audio file editing refers to opening, editing, and saving audio files.
Wave Window
The wave window displays audio files graphically. Here, you view, play back, and
edit individual audio files.
The wave window consists of two displays. You can use one display as an overview
to navigate through the project and the other as the main view for editing.
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Audio File Editing
Wave Window
You can select different display modes for the two displays. For example, one
display can show the waveform and the other the loudness.
You can synchronize the waveform displays so that they display the same part of
the audio file, by clicking the Sync with other view button.
Display Modes
In the wave window, the upper and the lower displays can independently be set to
one of three display modes.
•
The Waveform tab displays the waveform of the audio file.
•
The Spectrum tab displays the audio as a spectrogram.
•
The Loudness tab displays the loudness graphs of the audio file.
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Audio File Editing
Wave Window
Waveform Tab
The Waveform tab displays the waveform of the audio file. The horizontal axis
shows the time and the vertical axis the amplitude of the waveform.
Spectrum Tab
This allows you to view the level intensity of each area in the frequency spectrum.
The Spectrum tab in conjunction with the Spectrum Editor is a unique editing and
restoration tool.
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Audio File Editing
Wave Window
Spectrogram Options
In this dialog, you can define how the frequency spectrum is displayed.
In the Audio Files workspace, select the Spectrum tab, and click the Edit settings
button.
Colors
Displays the frequency spectrum in colors.
Black & White
Displays the frequency spectrum in black and white. Frequencies with a high
intensity are displayed in white, and frequencies with a low intensity in black.
White & Black
Displays the frequency spectrum in black and white. Frequencies with a high
intensity are displayed in black, and frequencies with a low intensity in white.
Logarithmic frequency scale
If this option is activated, the frequency spectrum is displayed on a logarithmic
scale instead of a linear scale, thus spacing the octaves equally. This models
the perception of pitch of the human ear more closely. However, for audio
restoration purposes the linear scale is more useful, because you typically
want to edit higher frequencies which can be located more easily on a linear
scale.
Display frequencies higher than
Any frequency below this level is not displayed in the spectrogram. Increasing
this value allows you to focus the display on the more audible part of the
spectrum.
Audio gain for analysis
Allows you to apply gain to the analyzed signal without changing the level of
the original audio. This helps you find low-level artifacts.
Resolution
Sets the number of samples that are analyzed to create the spectrogram. If
you specify a higher value, more frequencies are analyzed but they are located
less accurately in the time domain.
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Audio File Editing
Wave Window
Loudness Tab
The curves on the Loudness tab represent the loudness over time in an audio file.
Because isolated peaks do not alter the perceived loudness of audio material very
much, this display represents the loudness of an audio file more accurately than the
waveform display.
This display mode also gives you an overview of the compression or dynamic range
of a song. For example, the more peaks and valley expressions in the curve, the more
dynamics in the audio material. An even curve with few peaks indicates that the
material is compressed with a limited dynamic range.
RELATED LINKS
EBU Loudness Standard R-128 on page 43
Loudness Envelope Curves
The loudness envelope curves represent the average loudness of the signal in
different areas of the frequency spectrum. These curves are shown in the Loudness
display of the wave window.
The following loudness curves are available:
1)
Momentary loudness (100 ms resolution)
2)
Short-term loudness (1 sec resolution)
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Audio File Editing
Wave Window
3)
Integrated loudness (loudness of the whole file)
4)
Loudness range
5)
True peak hints
The curves can be shown individually or in any combination. Which curves are
displayed and what frequency area they represent is specified in the Loudness
Display dialog.
NOTE
The resolution is 100 ms, which means the momentary loudness information is
collected every 100 ms and the short-term loudness every second to match the
EBU standard. This is the same for true peaks. A clipping indicator is displayed
when a 400 ms audio region contains one or more over peaks.
Loudness Display Settings Dialog
In this dialog, you can specify how the loudness envelope waveform is displayed.
In the Audio Files workspace, select the Loudness tab, and click the Edit Settings
button.
Momentary Loudness/Short-term Loudness
Color
Lets you edit the color of the associated element.
Curve thickness
Lets you customize the curve thickness. When Auto Thickness is selected,
the curve thickness increases when zooming in.
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Audio File Editing
Wave Window
Show range
If this option is activated, the dynamic range is visualized. This displays the
difference between the recent minimum and maximum loudness values. The
wider the band, the wider the dynamics.
Range transparency
Lets you specify the transparency of the range section.
Range inertia
Determines the inertia of the loudness range, that is, how fast the range edges
meet each other after a new minimum or maximum loudness is reported.
Integrated Loudness/Loudness Range/True Peaks
Color
Lets you edit the color of the associated element.
Curve thickness
Lets you customize the curve thickness. When Auto Thickness is selected,
the curve thickness increases when zooming in.
Only show hot points (True Peaks section only)
If this option is activated, the curve is hidden and only the peak overloads are
displayed as red bullets.
Axes
Upper/Reference/Lower
Lets you activate several axes, and edit their color and position in the loudness
tab to get a visual reference.
Additional Color Settings
Background/Selected background
Lets you edit the color of the associated element.
Additional Options
Curve smoothing
If this option is activated, the transitions between the loudness measurements
are smoothly drawn. This is less accurate when abrupt changes occur.
Apply to all open files
If this option is activated, the settings are applied to all open audio files, when
clicking OK to close this dialog.
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Audio File Editing
Wave Window
Magnetic Bounds in Audio Files
Certain positions, such as markers or selection edges, can be defined as magnetic.
Dragged elements can snap to these positions. This makes it easier to position
items accurately.
For example, when you move a marker and it gets close to one of the magnetic
bounds, the marker snaps to this position. A label is displayed, indicating the snap
position.
Magnetic Bounds Menu
On this menu, you can specify which positions should be magnetic. When Snap to
magnetic items is activated, items that you move snap to these positions.
In the Audio Files workspace, select Options > Magnetic bounds.
You can let items snap to the following positions:
Start/End of file
Moved elements snap to the start/end of the file when they are moved near
these positions.
Time ruler marks
Moved elements snap to the time ruler grid when they are moved near these
positions.
Markers
Moved elements snap to marker positions when they are moved near these
positions.
Selection edges
Moved elements snap to the selection edges when they are moved near these
positions.
Cursor
Sets the edit cursor magnetic when moved near this position.
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Audio File Editing
Wave Window
Zero Crossing
A zero crossing is a point where the waveform crosses the zero level axis.
If you cut out a portion of a wave and paste it in somewhere else, there often is
discontinuity where the two waves are joined. This discontinuity results in a transient
in the wave, which is perceived as a click or bump in the sound.
To avoid this, you must make the splice at a zero crossing, especially if you do not
use crossfades.
If you activate Options > Snap selection to zero crossings, the selections that
you make are always adjusted so that they start and end at the nearest zero
crossing.
WaveLab can automatically search for zero crossings and extend the selection
outwards so that it begins and ends at a zero crossing. This helps avoid clicks,
pops, and bumps.
When you perform editing operations, such as cutting, pasting, or dragging, make
sure that the material is inserted at a zero crossing.
Setting Up the Zero Crossing Detection
You can let selection edges automatically snap to the nearest zero crossing point
when making a selection. In the Audio file editing preferences dialog, you can
specify whether to allow snap at high zoom factors, and specify the scan range for
the zero crossing detection.
PROCEDURE
1.
In the Audio Files workspace, select Options > Snap selection to zero
crossing.
2.
Select Options > Audio file editing preferences.
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Audio File Editing
File Handling in the Audio Files Workspace
3.
On the Editing tab, fill out the Snap selection to zero crossing options.
4.
Click OK.
Moving the Cursor Position to the Closest Zero Crossing
You can automatically move the cursor position to the closest zero crossing.
PROCEDURE
1.
In the Audio Files workspace, position the cursor in the waveform.
2.
Select View > Move cursor to > Snap position.
File Handling in the Audio Files Workspace
About Mono/Stereo Handling
WaveLab is very flexible in its handling of stereo. All editing operations can be
performed on either one channel or on both.
Supported File Formats
WaveLab can open and save audio files in a number of file formats.
The following table gives you some basic information about the formats:
Format
Description
Wave (.wav)
The following bit resolutions are supported: 8 bit, 16 bit, 20 bit,
24 bit, and 32 bit (float).
Wave 64 (.w64)
This file format is very similar to the Wave format but with one
important difference; it allows you to record and/or edit files of
virtually any length. Standard Wave files are limited to 2 GB
(stereo files) in WaveLab.
Wave 64 does not support meta-data. If you need large
files and meta-data, use Wave with the RF64 option.
NOTE:
WavPack (.wv/.wvc)
This file format allows digital audio to be losslessly
compressed, including 32 bit float audio files.
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Audio File Editing
File Handling in the Audio Files Workspace
Format
Description
RF64
In the Audio file editing preferences, on the File tab, you can
activate the RF64 file format support. If this is activated, the
standard Wave file format switches automatically to the RF64
file format as soon as the file size exceeds 2 GB, without any
performance loss or interruption. This is useful when recording
very long sessions. A RF64 file has the extension “.wav”, but it
can only be opened with an application that supports the RF64
standard if the file exceeds 2 GB.
AIFF (.aif, .aiff, .snd)
Audio Interchange File Format, a standard defined by Apple
Computers Inc. The following bit resolutions are supported:
8 bit, 16 bit, 20 bit, and 24 bit.
MPEG-1 Layer 3
(.mp3)
The most common audio compression format. The major
advantage of MPEG compression is that the file size is
significantly reduced, while there is little degradation of sound
quality. WaveLab can both open and save files in this format.
When you open an MPEG compressed file in WaveLab,
the file is converted to a temporary wave file. On saving, the
temporary wave file is converted back to MP3.
NOTE:
MPEG-1 Layer 2
(.mp2, .mpa, .mpg,
.mus)
MP2 (sometimes referred to as “Musicam files”) is a common
file format in the broadcast industry. With regard to file sizes,
the same applies for MP3 files.
Original Sound
Quality (.osq)
This is the proprietary lossless compressed audio format of
WaveLab. By saving files in this format, you can save
considerable disk space without compromising audio quality.
Sound Designer II
(.sd2)
This audio file format is used by Digidesign applications (such
as Pro Tools). The following bit resolutions are supported: 8 bit,
16 bit, and 24 bit.
U-LAW (.ulaw, .vox)
This is an audio encoding and compression technique
supported by Windows and Web phones, using 8 bit resolution.
The U.S. telephone system uses U-law encoding for
digitization.
A-LAW (.alaw, .vox)
This is an audio encoding and compression technique for
telephony, using 8-bit resolution. The EU telephone system
uses A-law encoding for digitization.
Sun/Java (.snd, .au)
This is an audio file format used on Sun and NeXT computers.
The following bit resolutions are supported: 8 bit, 16 bit, and
24 bit.
ADPCM –
Microsoft/Dialogic
(.vox)
This is a format commonly used for games and telephony
applications. It offers a lower bit rate than linear PCM and thus
requires less storage space/bandwidth.
Ogg Vorbis (.ogg)
Ogg Vorbis is a compressed file format that is open,
patent-free, and creates very small audio files maintaining
comparatively high audio quality.
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Audio File Editing
File Handling in the Audio Files Workspace
Format
Description
Text/Excel (.txt)
This is a text representation of a waveform. By saving an audio
file as a text file and then opening it in a spreadsheet
application such as Excel, you can view it in textual, decimal
form, and edit the sample values. When you open a text file
representing a waveform in WaveLab, it is decoded and
opened as an audio file. Note that these files are not
compressed in any way, so they become get very large. Note
that when using 32-bit float files, the .txt format is not 100 %
lossless. This is because it is not possible to express a binary
floating point value in textual decimal form without some
precision loss.
Windows Media
Audio (.wma, .asf)
Microsoft’s own compressed format. WaveLab lets you
import/export audio in this format (Windows only). To
import/export audio in WMA surround format, Windows Media
Player 9 or later must be installed on your system.
Ensoniq Paris (.paf)
Used by the Ensoniq Paris™ system. The following bit
resolutions are supported: 16 bit and 24 bit.
Raw PCM files (.raw,
.bin, .pcm, .$$$)
In this format, no information about bit resolution or sample rate
is included. If you open a file in this format, WaveLab asks you
to specify the bit resolution and sample rate. If this is not done
correctly, the file will not play back as intended.
FLAC (.fla)
Free Lossless Audio Codec (FLAC) is a codec which allows
digital audio to be losslessly compressed.
AAC (.aac)
Advanced Audio Coding (AAC) is a codec that allows lossy
compression and encoding scheme for digital audio.
NOTE
The “$$$” file type is a temporary file format of WaveLab. In case you experience a
computer crash, you may restore some of your work by opening any stray “$$$”
files on your hard disk.
About 20-bit, 24-bit, and 32-bit Float Files
You do not need a 20-bit or 24-bit audio card to take advantage of the fact that
WaveLab can handle 20-bit and 24-bit audio files. Any processing or editing
performed on the files is always done at full resolution (32-bit float), even if your card
does not support the full resolution.
For playback, WaveLab automatically adapts to the card that you have installed.
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Audio File Editing
File Handling in the Audio Files Workspace
Creating a New Audio File
You can create an empty audio file, to assemble material from other audio files, for
example.
PROCEDURE
1.
In the Audio Files workspace, select File > New.
2.
In the dialog, specify the audio properties, and click OK.
Saving an Audio File
PROCEDURE
1.
In the Audio Files workspace, do one of the following:
•
To save an audio file that has never been saved before, select File > Save as.
•
To save an audio file that has been saved before, click the Save button, or
select File > Save.
2.
In the Save Audio File dialog, specify a file name and location.
3.
Set up the available options:
4.
•
Keep this format for next time
•
Save copy
•
Open standard file selector before this dialog
Click Save.
Saving in Another Format
You can change the file format, sampling frequency, bit resolution, and stereo/mono
status when saving.
PROCEDURE
1.
In the Audio Files workspace, select File > Save as.
2.
Specify the file name and location.
3.
Click in the Output Format field.
4.
In the Audio File Format dialog, set the file format and specify the properties.
5.
Click OK.
6.
Click Save.
RESULT
A new file is created. The original file is not affected by the operation.
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Audio File Editing
File Handling in the Audio Files Workspace
Audio File Format Dialog
In this dialog, you can change various file settings when saving.
In the Audio Files workspace, select File > Save as, and click the Output Format
field. This dialog can also be opened from various other locations in WaveLab.
Type
Select an audio file type. This affects the options available on the Audio
format menu.
File extension
Select a file extension compatible with the current file type.
Audio format
Select an audio format compatible with the current file type.
Channels
Specify the number of audio channels for the files to be created. For
multichannel audio montages, you can create multiple files.
Sample rate
Select a sample rate for the audio file. If you change this setting, a sample rate
conversion takes place.
IMPORTANT
Use this only for simple conversions. For professional results, use the
Resample plug-in and add limiting and dithering.
Bit resolution
Select a bit resolution for the audio file. This option is only available for certain
file types.
IMPORTANT
Reducing the bit resolution is only advised for simple conversions. For
professional results, it is recommended to add dithering in the Master
Section.
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Meta-data
Lets you make meta-data settings that are saved with the file. This option is
only available for certain file types.
The following options are available:
•
When Do not save anything is selected, no meta-data are saved with
the file.
•
When Inherit from source file is selected, the meta-data of the source
file are used. If this option is selected and the source meta-data is
empty, the default meta-data will be used, if available. For example, this
can be used to create Wave files with a Unique Material Identifier (BWF
standard).
•
When selecting Specific to this configuration, you can edit the
meta-data, or replace it with a meta-data preset. To edit the meta-data,
open the meta-data pop-up menu again, and select Edit.
Single file format/Multiple file format
Switches the view between the Audio File Format dialog and the Multi
Audio File Format dialog.
About Changing the Format
When changing the sample rate, bit resolution, and number of channels of an audio
file, several operations are performed.
Property
Action
Sample rate
If a new sample rate is specified, a sample rate conversion is
performed.
Bit resolution
If a different bit resolution is specified, the file is either truncated
down to 8 bits, or padded up to 24 bits. If you are converting to a
lower bit resolution, you should consider adding dithering.
Mono/Stereo
If the file is converted from mono to stereo, the same material is used
in both channels. If the conversion is from stereo to mono, a mix of
the two channels is created.
•
If you only want to change the bit resolution, you can do this directly in the Edit
> Audio properties dialog instead, and then save the audio file.
•
For high quality mastering purposes, it is not recommended to change the
sample rate and number of channels using the Audio properties dialog, but
instead use plug-ins and functions of the Master Section.
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•
For the available compressed file formats (MP3, MP2, WMA, and Ogg
Vorbis), you can specify various options, such as bit rate and compression
method, and also enter text tags for the file.
Saving as OSQ File
OSQ (Original Sound Quality) is a lossless audio compression format, which can
significantly reduce the audio file size without affecting the audio quality.
PROCEDURE
1.
In the Audio Files workspace, select File > Save as.
2.
Specify the file name and location.
3.
Click in the Output Format field.
4.
In the Audio File Format dialog, set the type to Original Sound Quality
(OSQ) and specify the properties.
5.
Click OK.
6.
Click Save.
Saving a Selection as an Audio File
You can save a selection in the currently open audio file as a new audio file.
PROCEDURE
1.
In the wave window, make a selection range.
2.
Select File > Export > Selected time range.
3.
Specify a file name, location, and output format.
4.
Click Save.
Saving Left/Right Channel as Audio File
You can save each channel individually into a separate file. Use this option when
you have been editing dual mono files, for example.
PROCEDURE
1.
In the Audio Files workspace, select File > Export > Left channel or Right
channel.
2.
Specify a file name, location, and output format.
3.
Click Save.
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Encoding Audio Files
Audio can be stored in different formats. The process of converting audio to another
format is called encoding. When saving audio files, you can specify various
encoding options for some file formats.
MP3 Encoding Dialog
You can edit the encoding options when you save an MP3 audio file.
You can open the MP3 encoding dialog from most places where you can select an
output file format. For example, in the Audio Files workspace, select File > Save as,
click the Output Format field, select MPEG-1 Layer 3 (MP3) as type, click the
Encoding field, and select Edit.
Encoder
Lets you select the encoder (Fraunhofer or Lame).
Constant/Variable Bit Rate
The bit rate is related to the quantity of data used to encode the audio signal.
The higher the value, the better the quality, but the larger the output file. If you
choose Variable Bit rate, the rate changes, according to the complexity of the
audio material.
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Highest quality (slowest)/Fastest
Select the quality that you want to achieve. The higher the quality, the more
resources and time are required to analyze and compress the audio signal.
NOTE
When selecting Highest quality (slowest), this can enforce a certain sample
rate for the audio file. If this is the case and the sample rate is different from
the input sample rate, a message is displayed.
When using the Lame encoder, additional settings can be made on the
Advanced tab.
Allow intensity stereo coding
Decreases the bit rate by reorganizing the intensity information between the
channels.
Specify as Original Recording
Marks the encoded file as the original recording.
Write private bit
This is a custom flag.
Write copyright flag
Marks the encoded file as copyright protected.
Write check-sum
Allows other applications to check the integrity of the file.
Create long frames
Saves space by writing fewer headers in the file (not compatible with all
decoders).
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AAC Encoding Dialog
You can edit the encoding options when you save an AAC audio file.
You can open the AAC encoding dialog from most places where you can select an
output file format. For example, in the Audio Files workspace, select File > Save as,
click the Output Format field, select AAC (Advanced Audio Coding) as type, click
the Encoding field, and select Edit.
Container
Lets you select the container for the AAC file. A container is a file format that
can contain compressed audio data and meta-data.The following containers
are available:
•
MPEG-4 (recommended format for iTunes)
•
3GPP (3rd Generation Partnership Project)
•
ADIF (Audio Data Interchange Format)
•
ADTS (Audio Data Transport Stream)
•
ADTS (with CRC)
•
LATM LOAS (Low Overhead Audio Stream)
Audio compression method
Lets you select the audio compression method. The following methods are
available:
•
LC (Low Complexity, iTunes standard)
•
LC (Low Complexity, with Error Resilience)
•
HE (High Efficiency)
•
HE v2 (High Efficiency, Parametric Stereo)
•
HD 16 bit (Lossless)
•
HD 24 bit (Lossless)
LC (Low Complexity) does not mean lower quality, but less compression
attempts. It is used for best audio quality.
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HE (High Efficiency) is an extension of Low Complexity AAC (AAC LC) and
is optimized for low-bit-rate applications, for example, streaming audio.
HE v2 enhances the compression efficiency of stereo signals. The HE formats
provide extremely compressed audio files with a high quality sound.
HD is an extension to the MPEG-4 standard and allows lossless audio
compression that is scalable to lossy compression. This means that the
decoding can be lossless or lossy, depending on the decoder settings.
However, the file size is larger than with the other compression methods.
Constant/Variable bit rate
The bit rate is related to the quantity of data that is used to encode the audio
signal. The higher the value, the better the quality, but the larger the output
file. If you choose Variable bit rate, the rate changes over time according to
the complexity of the audio material.
Quality
Select the quality that you want to achieve. The higher the quality, the more
resources and time are required to analyze and compress the audio signal.
NOTE
Highest quality can require a particular sample rate for the audio file.
MPEG-1 Layer 2 Encoding Dialog
You can edit the encoding options when you save an MPEG-1 Layer 2 (MP2) audio
file.
You can open the MPEG-1 Layer 2 encoding dialog from most places where you
can select an output file format. For example, in the Audio Files workspace, select
File > Save as, click the Output Format field, select MPEG-1 Layer 2 as type,
click the Encoding field, and select Edit.
Bit rate
Lets you select the bit rate. The bit rate is related to the quantity of data used
to encode the audio signal. The higher the value, the better the quality, but the
larger the output file.
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Stereo encoding - Standard
In this mode, the encoder does not use the correlation between channels.
However, the encoder can take space from a channel that is easy to encode
and use it for a complicated channel.
Stereo encoding - Joint
In this mode, the encoder uses existing correlations between the two
channels to increase the ratio quality/space.
Stereo encoding - Dual
In this mode, both channels are independently encoded. This mode is
recommended for signals with independent channels.
Specify as Original Recording
Marks the encoded file as the original recording.
Write private bit
This is a custom flag.
Write copyright flag
Marks the encoded file as copyright protected.
Write check-sum
Allows other applications to check the integrity of the file.
Encode peaks (ancillary data)
This must be activated for compatibility with certain system, for example,
DIGAS.
FLAC Encoding Dialog
You can edit the encoding options when you save a FLAC audio file.
You can open the FLAC Encoding dialog from most places where you can select
an output file format. For example, in the Audio Files workspace, select File > Save
as, click the Output Format field, select FLAC as type, click the Encoding field,
and select Edit.
Compression level
Lets you specify the compression level. The more compression, the slower the
encoding.
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Ogg Vorbis Dialog
You can edit the encoding options when you save an Ogg Vorbis audio file.
You can open the Ogg Vorbis dialog from most places where you can select an
output file format. For example, in the Audio Files workspace, select File > Save as,
click the Output Format field, select Ogg Vorbis as type, click the Encoding field,
and select Edit.
Average bit rate
If this option is activated, the average bit rate in the file remains constant
during encoding. Because the file size is proportional to time, the localization
of a given point is easier, but it can result in a lower quality compared to the
Variable bit rate option.
Variable bit rate
If this option is activated, the bit rate in the file will vary during encoding,
depending on the complexity of the material. This can give a better quality/size
ratio in the resulting file.
In the Quality field, select the quality. Lower quality settings result in smaller
files.
Windows Media Audio Encoding Dialog
You can edit the encoding options when you save a Windows Media Audio (WMA)
audio file. This dialog is only available in on Windows systems.
You can open the Windows Media Audio dialog from most places where you can
select an output file format. For example, in the Audio Files workspace, select File
> Save as, click the Output Format field, select Windows Media Audio (WMA) as
type, click the Encoding field, and select Edit.
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Encoder
Lets you select the encoder.
Output sample rate
Lets you specify the output sample rate of the encoded file. The higher the
sample rate, the higher the quality, but the larger the output file.
Output bit resolution
Lets you specify the output bit resolution of the encoded file. This parameter
is not available for all encoders.
Channels and bit rate
The available items here depend on the selected encoding method and the
output sample rate.
VBR (Variable bit rate)
If this option is activated, the bit rate in the file will vary during the encoding,
depending on the complexity of the material. This can produce a better
quality/size ratio in the output file.
In the Quality field, select the quality. Lower quality settings result in smaller
files.
Two-pass encoding (better, but twice as long)
If this option is activated, the encoding quality increases, but the process
takes twice as long.
Constrained bit rate
This option is available when the VBR and Two-pass encoding options are
activated. This is used to maintain the bit rate within limits to avoid peaks. This
is recommended for certain media, such as CD or DVD.
Creating an Audio Montage from an Audio File
You can export audio files to an audio montage, including all markers that you have
set in the audio file.
PROCEDURE
1.
Optional: If you only want to use a certain time range of the audio file, create
a selection range in the wave window.
2.
In the Audio Files workspace, select File > Export > Create audio montage
from active file.
3.
Select whether to export the whole file or the selected time range.
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4.
5.
Optional: Decide if you want to perform any of the following marker
operations:
•
Import markers
•
Split at generic region markers
•
Split at CD Track markers
Click OK.
Inserting Audio Files into Another Audio File
You can assemble an audio file from several audio files.
PROCEDURE
1.
In the Audio Files workspace, open the audio file in which you want to insert
another audio file.
2.
If you want to insert an audio file at the edit cursor position, select View >
Move cursor to > Snap position.
The edit cursor snaps to the nearest zero crossing. This avoids glitches.
3.
Select File > Import and choose one of the following options:
•
Insert audio file at start
•
Insert audio file at end
•
Insert audio file at cursor position
When you select Insert audio file at cursor position, the audio file is cut at the insert
position. The part after the cut is moved to the right.
4.
Select the audio file that you want to insert, and click Open.
Turning Selections Into New Files
You can turn selections into new files via dragging, or by using the Edit menu.
Turning Selections Into New Files By Dragging
PROCEDURE
1.
In the Audio Files workspace, make a selection in the wave window.
2.
Drag the selection to the WaveLab tab bar, and release the mouse button.
RESULT
The selection appears in a new stereo window.
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Turning Selections Into New Files Using the Menu
PROCEDURE
1.
In the Audio Files workspace, make a selection in the wave window.
2.
Select Edit > Copy selection to new window > As is.
RESULT
The selection appears in a new stereo window.
Special File Format Dialog
When opening files via the Unknown audio file option, you can specify how to
interpret the format of the audio file that you want to open.
In the Audio Files workspace, select File > Import > Unknown audio file.
Sample format
Specifies the binary representation of the samples in the file.
Byte order
Specifies the order in which bytes should be interpreted. This only applies for
16 bit or more.
Channels
Specifies the number of audio channels in the audio file.
Data to ignore (number of bytes)
Specifies how many bytes WaveLab should ignore at the start and end of the
audio file.
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Sample rate
Specifies the sample rate of the audio file.
File extension
Specifies the default file name extension for the audio file. When the file
selector opens after closing this dialog, only the file with this extension is
displayed.
Dual-Mono Files
Dual-mono files are two mono files that are the left and right channels of a stereo
recording. You can open several dual-mono files at the same time and have them
grouped automatically, provided the files have channel tags in their file name.
You can open dual-mono files like stereo files in the Audio Files workspace, the
Audio Montage workspace, and the Batch Processors workspace.
In the Audio file editing preferences, on the File tab, you can set the channel ID
for the left and right channel, and the channel ID to add to dual-mono files when
saving the files. Up to 7 name descriptors can be defined, each one can be of the
type Suffix or Advanced.
In the Advanced mode, the channel ID can be located anywhere in a file name. For
this purpose, a name pattern must be defined. This name pattern must have a
{capture} section.
Name matching is not case sensitive and the file extension is ignored.
By default, WaveLab recognizes the file name endings “.L/.R”, “-L/-R”, or “_L/_R”
as the left and right channels.
Allowing Opening of Dual Mono Files
NOTE
To avoid accidentally opening two separate mono files as a dual-mono file, you
should only activate Allow opening of dual-mono files for the time that you are
opening dual-mono files on purpose.
PROCEDURE
1.
In the Audio Files workspace, select Options > Audio file editing
preferences.
2.
Open the File tab, and activate Allow opening of dual-mono files.
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3.
If you want to open several dual-mono files at the same time, define the
naming scheme of the dual-mono files in the Dual-mono file identification
section.
4.
Click OK.
RELATED LINKS
Audio File Editing Preferences Dialog on page 675
Opening Dual-Mono Files in the Audio Files Workspace
PREREQUISITE
Activate Allow opening of dual-mono files, and place the dual-mono files in the
same folder.
PROCEDURE
1.
In the Audio Files workspace, select File > Open.
2.
Browse to the file location.
3.
Select the dual-mono files that you want to open, and click Open.
Opening Dual Mono Files in the Audio Montage Workspace
PREREQUISITE
Activate Allow opening of dual-mono files, and place the dual-mono files in the
same folder.
PROCEDURE
1.
In the Audio Montage workspace, select File > Import > Insert audio files.
2.
Browse to the file location.
3.
Select the dual-mono files that you want to open, and click Open.
4.
In the Insert Audio Files dialog, make your settings.
5.
Click OK.
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Opening Dual-Mono Files in the Batch Processors Workspace
PROCEDURE
1.
In the Audio file editing preferences dialog, activate Allow opening of
dual-mono files, and place the dual-mono files in the same folder.
2.
In the Batch Processors workspace, drag the dual-mono files from the File
Browser window to the Files to process list, or right-click the list, and select
Insert audio files.
Dual-mono files are displayed in purple in the list.
Converting From Stereo to Mono and From Mono to Stereo
You can convert audio files from mono to stereo and from stereo to mono.
Converting a mono file into a stereo file produces an audio file that contains the
same material in both channels, for example for further processing into real stereo.
Converting a Selection From Stereo to Mono Using the Menu
PROCEDURE
1.
In the Audio Files workspace, make a stereo selection in the wave window.
2.
Select one of the following options:
•
To mix the left and right stereo channels when converting to mono, select Edit
> Copy selection to new window > Convert to Mono (Mix).
•
To mix the left channel with the inverse of the right channel when converting to
mono, select Edit > Copy selection to new window > Convert to Mono
(Subtract right channel from left channel). The resulting mono wave
contains the difference between the channels. For example, this allows you to
verify that a wave file really is a true stereo file rather than a mono file converted
to stereo format.
RESULT
The selection appears in a new stereo window.
Converting From Stereo to Mono While Saving
PROCEDURE
1.
In the Audio Files workspace, select File > Save as.
2.
Click in the Output Format field.
The Audio File Format dialog opens.
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3.
From the Channels menu, select one of the mono settings.
For example, when selecting Mono (Mix -3 dB), the resulting audio file is attenuated
by 3 dB. Because mixing two channels into mono can introduce clipping. These two
settings can be used to remedy this.
4.
Click OK.
5.
Click Save.
Converting a Selection From Mono to Stereo
PROCEDURE
1.
In the Audio Files workspace, make a mono selection in the wave window.
2.
Select Edit > Copy selection to new window > Convert to Stereo.
RESULT
The selection appears in a new stereo window.
Swapping Channels in a Stereo File
You can move the audio in the left channel to the right channel, and vice versa.
•
To swap the channels of the whole audio file in the Audio Files workspace,
select Edit > Swap stereo channels.
•
To swap only a selected range of the audio file, make a selection range in the
wave window, and select Edit > Swap stereo channels.
Special Paste Operations
On the Paste special menu, you find additional paste options.
In the Audio Files workspace, select Edit > Paste special.
Overwrite
Overwrites data in the destination file, rather than moving data to make room
for the inserted audio. How much is overwritten depends on the selection in
the destination file:
•
If there is no selection in the destination file, a section with the same
length as the pasted selection is overwritten.
•
If there is a selection in the destination file, the pasted selection
replaces that selection.
Append
Adds the pasted audio after the end of the file.
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Prepend
Adds the pasted audio before the beginning of the file.
Multiple copies
Opens a dialog in which you can enter the number of copies that you want to
create.
Mix
Blends two files into each other, starting at the selection or, if there is no
selection, at the cursor position.
•
When you select the Mix option, a dialog opens, allowing you to specify
the gain for the audio on the clipboard and at the destination.
•
All the data on the clipboard is always mixed in, regardless of the length
of the selection.
Moving Audio
You can rearrange the order of audio in a file by dragging, and cutting and pasting.
Moving Audio by Dragging
PREREQUISITE
Decide whether you want to use Snap selection to zero-crossing.
PROCEDURE
1.
In the wave window, make a selection.
2.
Drag the selection to a position outside the selection in the same file, or to
another wave window.
3.
Hold [Shift]/[Command] and release the mouse button.
Moving Audio Using Cut and Paste
PREREQUISITE
Decide whether you want to use Snap selection to zero-crossing.
PROCEDURE
1.
In the wave window, make a selection.
2.
Use one of the following copy methods:
•
Select Edit > Cut.
•
Press [Ctrl]/[Command]-[X].
•
Drag the selection onto the Cut icon.
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3.
4.
Select how you want to insert the selection:
•
If you want to insert the audio, click once at the position in the same file or in
another file.
•
If you want to replace a section of audio, select it.
Select Edit > Paste or press [Ctrl]/[Command]-[V].
RESULT
The selection is removed from its original position and inserted where you drop it.
NOTE
To completely undo a move between two files you must first undo the paste in the
destination window and then undo the cut in the source window.
Moving Audio by Nudging
The Nudge left/right tools can be used to move the audio in small steps within a file.
PROCEDURE
1.
In the wave window, make a selection.
2.
Depending on whether you want to nudge the selection to the left or to the
right, select one of the following tools:
3.
•
Select Edit > Tools > Nudge left, or click the Nudge left icon on the toolbar.
•
Select Edit > Tools > Nudge right, or click the Nudge right icon on the
toolbar.
Click the selection.
Pressing [Shift] switches nudge left to nudge right and vice versa.
4.
To exit the nudge tool mode, click anywhere outside of the selection.
RESULT
The audio is moved one pixel. Exactly how much this is depends on how far you are
zoomed in. For example, if the status bar displays x1:256, the selection is moved
256 samples. The moved section overwrites the audio at that position.
Copying Audio
You can copy sections of audio within the same file or between audio files.
Stereo/Mono Handling
Stereo/mono is handled as follows when you drag between files:
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Dragged section
Drop wave
Action
Stereo
Stereo
The dragged audio is always inserted into
both channels.
Stereo
Mono
Only the left channel is inserted.
Mono
Stereo
What happens depends on the vertical drop
position. This is indicated by the cursor shape.
The selection can be inserted into only one of
the channels, or the same material can be
inserted into both channels.
Stereo/mono is handled as follows when you copy and paste files:
Copied section
Paste wave
Action
Stereo
Stereo
If the wave cursor extends across both
channels of the destination file, the material is
inserted into both channels.
Stereo
Stereo
If the wave cursor is only in one channel, the
audio is only pasted in that channel. Material
from the left channel is pasted in the left
channel and vice versa.
Stereo
Mono
Only the left channel is pasted.
Mono
Stereo
What happens depends on whether the wave
cursor is in one channel or both. The audio is
either pasted in one of the channels, or the
same material is inserted into both channels.
Sample Rate Conflicts
If you copy or move audio from one window to another, and the sample rates of the
two files are not the same, the copied/moved sound plays back at the wrong pitch
(speed). The program warns you if this is about to happen.
While mixing sample rates can be used as an effect, it is most often not intended.
There are two ways to get around this:
•
Convert the sample rate of the source file to the same rate as the destination
file before editing.
•
Convert the sample rate of the destination file to the same rate as the source
file before adding the audio.
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Copying Audio Using Copy and Paste
PREREQUISITE
Decide whether you want to use Snap selection to zero-crossing.
PROCEDURE
1.
In the Audio Files workspace, make a selection.
2.
Use one of the following copy methods:
3.
4.
•
Select Edit > Copy.
•
Press [Ctrl]/[Command]-[C].
•
Drag the selection onto the Copy icon.
Select how you want to insert the selection:
•
If you want to insert the audio, click once at the position in the same file or in
another file.
•
If you want to replace a section of audio, select it.
Select Edit > Paste, or press [Ctrl]/[Command]-[V].
Copying Audio by Dragging
PREREQUISITE
Decide whether you want to use Snap selection to zero-crossing.
PROCEDURE
1.
In the Audio Files workspace, make a selection.
2.
Click the middle of the selection, and drag it to a position outside the selection
in the same file, or to another wave window.
3.
Release the mouse button.
RESULT
The selection is inserted at the indicated point. The audio that previously began at
that point is moved to the right.
Information About the Active Audio File
You can open a dialog that shows the name, file location, size, date, and file format
of the active audio file.
PROCEDURE
•
In the Audio Files workspace, select File > Special > Information.
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Changing the Audio Properties
You can change the declared sample rate and sample accuracy of audio files.
Changing these values does not process the audio file in any way (in contrast to
using Save as). However, the following rules apply:
•
If you change the sample rate, the file plays back at a new pitch.
•
If you change the bit resolution, the file is converted to the new resolution the
next time you save it.
NOTE
There is no undo for this. If you save with a lower bit resolution, the file is converted
permanently.
PROCEDURE
1.
In the Audio Files workspace, open an audio file.
2.
Select Edit > Audio properties.
3.
Specify a new Sample rate and/or Accuracy.
4.
Click OK.
Audio Properties Dialog
This dialog reports the audio properties of the active audio file. It allows you to
change the number of audio samples per second (sample rate) and the accuracy of
samples in the audio stream (bit rate).
In the Audio Files workspace, select Edit > Audio properties.
Channels
The number of audio channels (mono/stereo).
Sample rate
The number of audio samples per second.
Accuracy
The accuracy of samples in the audio stream.
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Meta-Data
Meta-Data
Meta-data consists of attributes that describe the audio contents, for example, the
title of the track, the author, and the date the track was recorded. Depending on the
file format of the selected audio file, this data varies.
When opening an audio file, audio montage, or batch process, the meta-data found
in the file is loaded. You can also create different meta-data presets for audio files,
audio montages, and batch processes. When creating a new file from a template,
this file can inherit the meta-data of the preset, if available.
A preview of the meta-data is displayed in the Meta-data window. To view the
complete meta-data of the file and edit the meta-data, select Edit > Meta-data, or
click the Edit button in the Meta-data window.
Not all file formats can store meta-data. Depending on the output file format, all
meta-data or only part of the meta-data will be stored in the audio file. The following
file formats can contain meta-data:
•
.wav
•
.mp3
•
.ogg
•
.wma
•
.flac
•
.aac
For MP3, the following meta-data types are available:
•
ID3 v1 and ID3 v2, including picture support, and ReplayGain standard
AAC is used for MPEG4 (iTunes compatible) and 3GPP containers.
NOTE
•
AAC is not ID3v2 is compatible. However, in WaveLab it uses the same
editor.
•
The meta-data codes that are followed by an “(i)” indicate the iTunes
compatible fields. Lyrics and pictures are also iTunes compatible.
For WAV, the following meta-data types are available:
•
RIFF
•
BWF version 2 (EBU R-128 loudness support)
•
BWF support for USID and UMID standards (Unique Source Identifier and
Unique Material Identifier)
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Meta-Data
•
iXML (with EBU R-128 loudness support)
•
aXML (BWF standard to attach XML data)
•
CART (AES standard, dedicated to broadcast needs)
•
MD5 (Extra tab)
•
ID3 v2, including picture support
When saving or recording an audio file in the Audio File Format dialog, you can
specify whether not to use any meta-data, inherit the meta-data from the source file,
or edit the meta-data of the file.
Meta-data can be entered manually or generated automatically.
The following options can be generated automatically:
•
Unique Source Identifier (BWF, Basics tab)
•
UMID (BWF, Unique Material Identifier (UMID) tab)
•
Loudness and true peak values* (BWF, Loudness tab)
•
Insert BWF data (iXML)
•
Time markers (CART)
•
MD5 checksum* (Extra)
•
ReplayGain information* (ID3, ID3 v2 tab)
•
USID (BWF, Basics tab)
(*) These options cause a file analysis while the file is written, which means that the
file writing process can take longer.
WaveLab includes several meta-data presets. They are used as examples and can
be customized for your needs. You can load meta-data presets from the Meta-data
presets pop-up menu in the Audio File Format dialog, or from the Meta-data
dialog.
RELATED LINKS
Audio File Format Dialog on page 133
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Meta-Data
Meta-Data Dialog
This dialog allows you to define the meta-data to be embedded in your audio file.
In the Audio Files workspace, the Audio Montage workspace, or the Batch
Processors workspace, select Edit > Meta-data. Depending on the workspace,
the meta-data is handled differently.
Meta-data dialog for a WAV file
Meta-data dialog for a WMA file
When opening the Meta-data dialog in the Audio Files workspace, you can edit the
meta-data that is stored in the audio file. This meta-data is saved to disk later.
When opening the Meta-data dialog in the Audio Montage workspace or the Batch
Processors workspace, you can edit the meta-data for the WAV, MP3, and AAC
audio files when rendering the audio montage or processing through the batch
processor. If you render to WAV, MP3, or AAC formats, the meta-data will be be
associated to these files.
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Meta-Data
NOTE
The meta-data codes that are followed by an “(i)” indicate the iTunes compatible
fields. Lyrics and pictures are also iTunes compatible.
Meta-Data Presets
In the Meta-data dialog, you can save meta-data presets and apply these presets
to other files. Meta-data presets can be applied to WAV, MP3, and AAC files.
The Use as default for new .wav files option allows you to define a set of
meta-data as default.
When you create a new file, and do not add any meta-data, this default meta-data
is applied to the file when saving it. For example, you can save or record WAV files
with BWF meta-data and automatically add a Unique Material Identifier.
To edit the default meta-data preset, select Load default, and edit the preset.
About CART and Markers
WaveLab reads the CART markers, if any, and merges them with the existing
markers of the file.
The CART standard can contain up to 8 markers. WaveLab stores them if their
names obey the CART standard.
When Generate time markers is activated in the CART tab of the Meta-data
dialog, the markers are generated if at least one CART text field has content.
Otherwise the CART data is meant to be unused.
When rendering a file, the render option Copy markers must be activated in the
Render dialog.
About Meta-Data and Variables
Variables make handling meta-data more efficient. You can use the various variable
options to quickly add meta-data to a file, without having to type the same
information multiple times.
You can also quickly add available information such as dates or file names.
The idea behind this is to set up the meta-data and variables once, and then be able
to output various file versions from the project.
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Meta-Data
Example of Using Meta-Data and Variables
Let’s say we have an audio montage that contains CD tracks and want to render all
CD tracks to individual audio files, including meta-data information. We have
already added some CD-Text to each track. The CD-Text of each CD track is
automatically available in the CD Meta-data dialog and can be used as variables.
Now we want to add information that is not available as CD-Text, for example, the
year of the CD track and a comment, to have these information available in the
rendered audio files.
1)
In the CD window, select Functions > Edit Meta-data, and fill out the
@CdTrackYear@ and @CdTrackInfo1@ fields. Use the scroll-bar on the right
of the dialog to select the other tracks, and add these information for all tracks.
Close the dialog.
2)
Edit the meta-data from the Meta-data dialog in the Audio Montage
workspace. In this Meta-data dialog, set up the ID3 v2 fields, using the
variables. Click the arrow icon to open the variables and text snippets pop-up
menu for a field. You can also fill out other meta-data chunks, such as BWF,
RIFF, or CART, or add an album picture. Or you could apply a previously set
up meta-data preset to add meta-data.
3)
Once the information are complete, we can open the Render dialog. In the
What to render section, activate Regions, and select Tracks from the
Regions pop-up menu.
4)
Open the File Format dialog, and in the Meta-data pop-up menu, select
Inherit from source file.
5)
Once you have set up the dialog, click OK. Then click OK again to close the
Audio file format dialog. Then in the Render dialog, click OK to render the
files.
Result: When we now open the rendered audio files and look at the meta-data, we
can see that the variables were automatically replaced with the meta-data that has
been set up for each track.
An alternative way of step 2 is to select Specific to this configuration in the Audio
file format dialog, and select a preset.
RELATED LINKS
Variables and Text Snippets on page 643
Meta-Data in the Batch Processors Workspace
You can batch process meta-data. For this you can set up the Meta-data dialog in
the Batch Processors workspace, and apply the meta-data to the files of the batch
process.
In the Batch Processors workspace, on the Format tab, the following options are
available:
•
Select Ignore if you do not want the batch meta-data to change the
meta-data of the files in the batch.
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Meta-Data
•
Select Merge if you want to merge the meta-data of the batch with the
meta-data of the source files (WAV files only).
•
Select Replace if you want to replace the meta-data of the source files with
the meta-data of the batch.
Examples for Merging Meta-Data
A simple example would be if you have 1000 files with a mistake in a copyright field
of their meta-data. With this batch option, you can preserve the meta-data of the
files, and edit only the copyright field.
However, the merge option can also be used for complex batch meta-data. You can
process an audio file and specify which meta-data to use from the source audio file
and which from the batch meta-data. For this, use the Merge codes options in the
Meta-data dialog of the Batch Processors workspace.
If you enter #Source# in a value field, the value of the source audio file’s meta-data
is used when batch processing. If you enter #Remove# in a value field, the
corresponding value of the source audio file’s meta-data is removed when batch
processing. In order to set up the merging process, you must set up these codes in
the value field that you want to merge.
An example on how to merge meta-data while using the #Source# and #Remove#
options:
•
The batch process contains an audio file that already has meta-data.
•
The batch meta-data is set up.
When starting the batch process, the meta-data are merged in the following way:
•
If value field “A” in the audio file meta-data contains the text “Jazz”, while value
field “A” is empty in the batch meta-data, the resulting output file has the text
“Jazz” in value field “A”.
•
If value field “B” in the batch meta-data contains the text “Modern”, while value
field “B” in the audio file meta-data is empty, the resulting output file has the
text “Modern” in value field “B”.
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Silence Generator Dialog
•
If value field “C” contains text both in the source audio file and in the batch
meta-data, some more editing in the Meta-data dialog of the Batch
Processors workspace is necessary to specify which meta-data should be
used.
Examples on how to use the #Source# and #Remove# codes:
•
No code is used, the source audio file has the text “Piano”, and the batch
meta-data has the text “Trumpet”. Result: “Piano” is retained, because the
source audio file meta-data has precedence over the batch meta-data.
•
The source audio file has the text “Piano”, and the batch meta-data has the
text “Electric #Source#”. Result: The resulting output file has the text “Electric
Piano”.
•
The source audio file has the text “Piano”, and the batch meta-data has the
text “#Remove#”. Result: “Piano” is removed from the value field.
•
The source audio file has the text “Piano”, and the batch meta-data has the
text “#Remove#Trumpet”. Result: “Piano” is removed, and “Trumpet” is
added.
Silence Generator Dialog
This dialog allows you to insert silence or background noise in an audio file.
In the Audio Files workspace, select Edit > Silence (advanced).
Type of silence - True silence
Select this to insert digital silence.
Type of silence - Background noise (file will be looped if needed)
Allows you to select an audio file containing ambient noise.
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Audio File Editing
Silence Generator Dialog
Type of silence - Gain to apply to this file
Lowers or raises the gain of the background noise.
Silence Duration - As selection
Uses the duration of the active audio selection as the duration of the silent
section. Specify the duration of the silent section in the value field below.
Edges - Fade-in/out
Performs a crossfade at the start and end of the silent section for smoother
transitions. Specify the fade time in the value field below.
Destination - Replace selection
Replaces the current audio selection with the silent section.
Destination - Insert at cursor
Inserts the silent section at the cursor position.
Destination - From end of file until cursor
Extends the audio file with silence up to the cursor position. Activating this
option also defines the silence duration and ignores the Silence Duration
setting.
True Silence vs. Background Noise
Recordings can sound unnatural when you insert true silence. This is particularly
true for voice recordings and field recordings, where a natural background noise is
often present. To produce more natural results, you can insert a file with background
noise.
The file that you specify must have the same properties (stereo/mono, sample rate,
etc.) as the file in which you want to insert the silence. The file can be any length –
if the silence region is longer than the file, the file is looped.
Replacing a Selection with Silence
You can replace a section of an audio file with true silence or background noise.
PROCEDURE
1.
In the Audio Files workspace, make a selection.
2.
Select Edit > Silence (advanced).
3.
In the Silence Generator dialog, select the type of silence:
•
True silence
•
Background noise. For this option you must select a file containing the
background noise.
4.
Set the silence duration to As selection, and the destination to Replace
selection.
5.
Click Apply.
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Waveform Restoration with the Pen Tool
Inserting Silence
You can insert a specified length of true silence or a background noise at any
position of the audio file.
PROCEDURE
1.
In the Audio Files workspace, set the cursor where you want the inserted
silence to begin.
2.
Select Edit > Silence (advanced).
3.
In the Silence Generator, select the type of silence:
•
True silence
•
Background noise. For this option you need to select a file containing the
background noise.
4.
Deactivate As selection, and specify the length.
5.
Set the destination to Insert at cursor.
6.
Click Apply.
Fast Muting a Selection
The Fast mute function replaces the selection with true silence without needing to
write any audio sample to the media.
PROCEDURE
•
In the Audio Files workspace, make a selection, and select Edit > Fast mute.
Waveform Restoration with the Pen Tool
The Pen tool allows you to redraw the waveform directly in the wave window. This
can be used to quickly repair waveform errors.
The Pen tool can be used if the zoom resolution is set to 1:8 (one pixel on the screen
equals 8 samples) or higher.
•
To redraw the waveform, select the Pen tool, click in the waveform, and draw
the new waveform.
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Audio File Editing
Waveform Restoration with the Pen Tool
•
To redraw the waveform of both channels at once, press [Shift] during the
drawing process.
163
Audio Analysis
WaveLab provides you with a comprehensive set of tools for analyzing your audio
and for detecting any errors.
For example, you can use the suite of audio meters, or the 3D Frequency Analysis.
There are also several tools that help you examine any sample of your audio for
errors or anomalies.
You can compare two audio files with the Audio File Comparator tool and view
audio in a Spectrum or Loudness view.
Error Detection and Correction
You can search for unwanted clicks and digital artifacts in an audio file. You can use
several detection and restoration methods to detect, mark and name, jump to, play
back, and remove individual audio errors.
You can also restore damaged portions of an audio file by using waveform
replacement. The Error Correction window in the Audio Files workspace gives you
access to the error detection and correction tools.
NOTE
Since errors can have multiple origins and effects, various algorithms are needed to
cover these cases. Experience with the settings to find the best parameters to
detect the errors in your files.
Selecting an Error Detection and Correction Method
Before searching for errors in your audio file, set up the error detection and
correction methods. Try out different settings.
PROCEDURE
1.
In the Audio Files workspace, open the Error Correction window.
2.
In the Error Correction window, open the Detection tab.
3.
Select an error detection method from the Method used to detect errors
menu, and set the parameters.
Depending on the method that you have selected, different detection parameters are
available.
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4.
Open the Correction tab.
5.
Select an error correction method from the Default method to correct errors
menu.
AFTER COMPLETING THIS TASK
When you have selected error detection and correction methods, you can continue
to detect and correct errors in the active audio file.
Strategies to Detect and Correct Errors
There are several strategies for detecting and correcting errors. Depending on the
error, some detection and correction methods are more successful than others.
Set up the error detection and correction methods before following these
strategies.
•
To correct an error, select a range in the audio part that contains the error,
then in the Error Correction window, select Correct or Mark for subsequent
correction.
•
To automatically locate the next error, in the Error Correction window, select
Detect next error, then select Correct or Mark for subsequent correction.
•
To detect all errors in the selected range, select Detect all errors. Then you
can browse the detected errors and correct them individually, or select
Correct all marked errors.
Correcting Individual Errors
You can detect and correct individual errors using different detection methods and
parameter settings for each error. This is useful when errors are difficult to correct.
PROCEDURE
1.
In the Audio Files workspace, open the audio file in which you want to correct
errors.
2.
Open the Error Correction window.
3.
In the Error Correction window, open the Detection tab.
4.
Select an error detection method from the Method used to detect errors
menu, and set the parameters.
Depending on the method that you have selected, different detection parameters are
available.
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5.
Click Detect next error.
WaveLab analyzes the audio file from the beginning and stops at the first found error.
RESULT
In the browse and correct section you now have several options for how to proceed.
For example, you can correct the error, detect the next error, or mark the error for
later restoration. Some of the options are only available after selecting another
option.
RELATED LINKS
Error Correction Window on page 167
Automatically Detecting and Correcting Errors
Use WaveLab to automatically remove all click noise errors that it detects.
PROCEDURE
1.
In the Audio Files workspace, open the Error Correction window.
2.
In the Error Correction window, click Detect all errors.
WaveLab searches the complete file and inserts a pair of markers for each found
error.
3.
In the Correction tab, select a correction method from the Default method
to correct errors menu.
A description of what the selected method does is displayed below the Default
method to correct errors menu.
4.
Click Correct all marked errors.
RESULT
WaveLab automatically corrects all detected errors.
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Error Correction Window
This window provides access to the error detection and correction tools.
In the Audio Files workspace, select Workspace > Specific tool windows > Error
Correction.
Detection Tab
On this tab, you can specify how to detect errors.
Method used to detect errors
Lets you select the error detection method. Depending on which method you
have selected, different detection parameters are available.
Threshold
Specifies the threshold value for the error detection. Lower values detect
softer clicks.
Detection
Specifies the lower limit of the analyzed frequency range.
Detection Width
Specifies whether to detect short or long error lengths.
Correction Tab
On this tab, you can specify the method that is used to correct errors.
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Default method to correct errors
Lets you select the error correction method. The following methods are
available:
•
Linear interpolation draws a straight line between the first and the last
selected samples.
•
Optimal for small clicks – 1 ms is optimal for clicks smaller than 1 ms.
•
Optimal for common clicks – 3 ms is optimal for clicks smaller than
3 ms.
•
Waveform replacement – 4 s replaces the corrupt samples with the
best match found in the material up to 4 seconds to the left/right.
•
Waveform replacement – 500 ms replaces the corrupt samples with
the best match found in the material up to 500 milliseconds to the
left/right.
•
Waveform replacement – left 6 s replaces the corrupt samples with
the best match found in the material up to 6 seconds to the left.
•
Waveform replacement – right 6 s replaces the corrupt samples with
the best match found in the material up to 6 seconds to the right.
Search Area Tab
On this tab, you can specify the range of audio that you want to search for errors.
Range to scan - Define as whole file
Searches the whole audio file for errors.
Range to scan - Define as selected audio range
Searches the selected audio range for errors. Once defined, you can change
the audio selection without altering this search area.
Range to scan - Whole audio file
Displays the active scan area.
Position to search from - Set at cursor
Starts the search at the edit cursor position.
Position to search from - Set at beginning of search area
Starts the search at the beginning of the defined search area.
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Audio Analysis
Error Detection and Correction
Options Tab
This tab provides a range of preferences for playing back, viewing, and marking any
found errors.
Set markers around corrected errors
Creates correction markers around the audio section each time an error is
corrected. This area can be larger than the marked error area when
crossfades are performed by the corrector.
Remove markers after correction
Removes the error marker each time an error is corrected.
Zoom level
Specifies the zoom level when displaying an error.
Adjust selection by this number of samples
Defines by how many samples the selection edges are moved, when you use
the Adjust selection buttons to adjust the error area.
Auto-play
Automatically plays back the error area after it has been detected or
corrected.
Pre-roll time
Specifies a pre-roll time to play some audio before the start of the error
section.
Post-roll time
Specifies a post-roll time to play some audio after the end of the error section.
Override global shortcuts
Gives priority to the error correction shortcuts if these shortcuts are also used
elsewhere in WaveLab. Use this when you are working mainly with this tool.
However, this option should be deactivated when you are done with the error
correction.
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Audio Analysis
Error Detection and Correction
Browse and Correct Section
In this section, you can step through your defined search region detecting each
error in turn. You can choose to correct any errors or mark them for later correction.
There are controls to jump between error markers and to make fine adjustments to
the selection. You can also automatically detect and correct all marked errors in the
search region.
Detect next error
Searches for the next error, starting at a specified position or from the end of
the last found error.
Back to previous error
Returns to the last detected error.
Correct
Restores the audio selection with the default correction method. You can use
the pop-up menu to correct the audio with any of the other methods.
Mark for subsequent correction
Sets a pair of error markers to the audio selection, without performing any
correction.
Unmark
Deletes the error markers surrounding the audio selection.
Play
Starts playback of the current audio selection while taking into account the
pre-roll and post-roll settings.
Adjust selection
The green arrows move the left edge of the selection to the left/right. The
orange arrows move the right edge of the selection to the left/right. This lets
you finely adjust an audio selection that was suggested by the detection
function.
Macro - Detect all errors
Searches the specified range from the beginning to the end and creates pairs
of error markers for each detected error without performing any correction.
Macro - Correct all marked errors
Restores the audio located within each pair of error markers in the specified
range.
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Audio Analysis
Global Analysis
Previous/Next correction mark
Jumps to the previous/next correction marker pair.
Previous/Next error mark
Jumps to the previous/next error marker pair.
Auto move on correction
Automatically jumps to the previous/next marked error when you click
Correct.
Global Analysis
In WaveLab you can perform advanced analysis on your audio to identify areas with
specified properties. This helps you find problem areas such as glitches or clipped
samples. You can also check general information, such as the pitch of a sound.
When you analyze a section of an audio file, WaveLab scans the section or the
audio file and extracts information which is displays in the dialog. WaveLab also
marks sections of the file that meet specific characteristics, for example, sections
that are very loud or almost silent. You can then browse between these points, set
markers, or zoom in on markers. On most of the tabs, you find settings that
determine exactly how the analysis is performed. Each tab focuses on a particular
analysis area.
You perform the global analysis in the Global Analysis dialog. This dialog consists
of the following tabs that provide different analysis types:
•
The Peaks tab lets you find individual samples with very high values.
•
The Loudness tab lets you find sections with high intensity.
•
The Pitch tab lets you find the exact pitch of a sound or section.
•
The Extra tab provides information about DC offsets and the significant bit
resolution.
•
The Errors tab lets you find glitches and sections where the audio has been
clipped.
Most of the analysis types provide a number of positions in the file that indicate
peaks, glitches, etc. These points are called “hot points”.
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Audio Analysis
Global Analysis
Opening the Global Analysis Dialog
The Global Analysis dialog provides various analysis options.
PROCEDURE
1.
In the Audio Files workspace, select a range in the audio file that you want to
process.
If you want to analyze the entire file, press [Ctrl]/[Command]-A. If Process whole file
if there is no selection is activated in the Audio file editing preferences dialog, the
whole file is processed automatically provided that no selection has been made.
2.
Select Analysis > Global analysis.
RELATED LINKS
Audio File Editing Preferences Dialog on page 675
Choosing the Analysis Type
Several types of analysis can be performed. Each of them takes some time, so make
sure that only the types that you need are included in the analysis.
Select the analysis types by activating them in the corresponding tabs.
•
To include the Peaks analysis, activate Find Peaks.
•
To include the Loudness analysis, activate Analyze Loudness.
•
To include the Pitch analysis, activate Find Average Pitch.
•
To include the Extra analysis, activate Find DC Offset.
•
To include the Errors analysis, activate Find Possible Glitches and Find
Clipped Samples.
Global Analysis - Peaks Tab
This tab is used to find digital peak and true peak values in the audio, that is, single
samples with very high values.
In the Audio Files workspace, select Analysis > Global Analysis, and select the
Peaks tab.
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Global Analysis
Find Peaks
Enables peak analysis.
Digital/True
Displays the highest peak in the analyzed section. When you click this value,
the number of peaks that are found in the selection is shown in the Number
of hot points section in the lower left corner of the dialog. You can use the
hot points to move the cursor between the peaks.
At cursor
Displays the level at the current audio file cursor position at the time of the
analysis.
Maximum number of peaks to report
Restricts the number of reported peaks. For example, setting this to 1 reports
only the highest peak.
Minimum time between 2 peaks
Controls the distance between points, so they do not appear too close to
each other. For example, setting this to 1 s ensures that there is always at
least one second between reported points.
Results of the Analysis
The Find Peaks fields show the highest peak in the analyzed section and the level
of the sample at the wave cursor position at the time of the analysis.
Global Analysis - Loudness Tab
This tab is for finding sections that are perceived by the human ear as louder or
weaker in volume. To find sections that the ear perceives as significant in volume,
you must look at a longer section of audio.
In the Audio Files workspace, select Analysis > Global Analysis, and select the
Loudness tab.
The following options are available for both the Raw Loudness tab and the EBU
R-128 tab:
Maximum number of loudness points to report
Restricts the number of reported hot points. The highest points are reported.
For example, setting this to 1 reports only the loudest section or one of the
sections with the same highest value.
Minimum time between 2 points
Controls the distance between points, so they do not appear too close to
each other. For example, setting this to 1 s ensures that there is always at
least one second between reported points.
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Audio Analysis
Global Analysis
Raw Loudness
Analyze Loudness
Enables RMS loudness analysis.
Average
Displays the overall loudness of the analyzed selection.
Maximum
Displays the level of the loudest section in the analyzed selection. Clicking this
value displays the number of loud sections found within the selection, in the
Number of hot points section in the lower left corner of the dialog.
Minimum
Displays the level of the quietest section in the analyzed selection. Clicking
this value displays the number of weak sections that are found within the
selection in the Number of hot points section in the lower left corner of the
dialog. This provides adequate information about the signal-to-noise ratio
(SNR) of the audio material.
Around cursor
Displays the loudness at the audio file cursor position at the time of the
analysis.
Resolution
The length of audio to be measured and averaged. If this value is lowered,
short passages of loud/weak audio are detected. When it is raised, the sound
must be loud/weak for a longer period to result in a hot point.
Threshold (for the average)
Ensures that the average value is calculated correctly for recordings with
pauses. The value that you set here determines a threshold below which any
found audio is considered to be silence, and is therefore excluded from
average value calculations.
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Audio Analysis
Global Analysis
EBU R-128
Integrated loudness
Displays the integrated loudness of the analyzed selection, also known as
Programme Loudness, according to the EBU R-128 specification. This
indicates how loud the audio is on average.
Loudness range
Displays the loudness range according to the EBU R-128 specification. It is
based on a statistical distribution of loudness within a programme, thereby
excluding the extremes.
Short-term loudness: Maximum
Displays the level of the loudest 3 seconds section in the analyzed selection.
When you click this value, the number of loud sections that are found within
the selection is shown in the Number of hot points section in the lower left
corner of the dialog.
Short-term loudness: Minimum
Displays the level of the quietest 3 seconds section in the analyzed selection.
When you click this value, the number of quiet sections that are found within
the selection is shown in the Number of hot points section in the lower left
corner of the dialog. This provides adequate information about the
signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of the audio material.
Momentary loudness: Maximum
Displays the level of the loudest very short section (400 milliseconds) in the
analyzed selection. When you click this value, the number of loud sections
that are found within the selection is shown in the Number of hot points
section in the lower left corner of the dialog.
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Audio Analysis
Global Analysis
Momentary loudness: Minimum
Displays the level of the quietest very short section (400 milliseconds) in the
analyzed selection. When you click this value, the number of quiet sections
that are found within the selection is shown in the Number of hot points
section in the lower left corner of the dialog.
RELATED LINKS
EBU Loudness Standard R-128 on page 43
Global Analysis - Pitch Tab
This tab is for finding the average pitch of an audio section.
In the Audio Files workspace, select Analysis > Global Analysis, and select the
Pitch tab.
You can use this tab to gather information for pitch shifting, for example, to get one
sound in tune with another. The display shows the pitch for each channel, both in
Hertz (Hz) and as semitones and cents (hundredths of a semitone). Since the
display shows an overall value for the entire analyzed section, the hot point controls
in the lower section of the dialog are not used on this tab.
Usage guidelines for the Pitch tab:
•
The result is an average value for the whole selection.
•
The method only works on monophonic material, not on chords or harmonies.
•
The algorithm assumes that the analyzed section has a reasonably stable
pitch.
•
The material must be relatively well isolated from other sounds.
•
It is preferable to analyze the sustain portion of a sound rather than the attack.
The pitch is usually not stable during the attack.
•
Some synthetic sounds may have a weak fundamental (first harmonic) which
can irritate the algorithm.
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Audio Analysis
Global Analysis
Global Analysis - Extra Tab
This tab shows the average DC Offset of the analyzed section and the Apparent
Bit Resolution.
In the Audio Files workspace, select Analysis > Global Analysis, and select the
Extra tab.
The Apparent Bit Resolution attempts to detect the actual resolution in the audio.
This is useful, for example, if you want to check, whether a 24-bit file really uses 24
bits or if it was actually recorded with 16-bit resolution and then expanded to 24
bits.
NOTE
For more accurate results on the bit resolution, use the Bit Meter.
RELATED LINKS
Bit Meter on page 436
Errors Detection
You can detect errors, such as glitches and sections where the audio has clipped.
For a more advanced error detection, use the Error Correction window.
Glitches
•
These are disruptions in the audio. Glitches may occur after problematic
digital transfers, after careless editing, etc. They manifest themselves as
“clicks” or “pops” in the audio.
Clipping
•
A digital system has a finite number of levels that it can represent properly.
When recorded sound levels are too high or when the system cannot handle
levels that have been raised by digital processing, hard clipping occurs that
you can hear as strong distortion.
A sine waveform before clipping and after.
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Audio Analysis
Global Analysis
Result of the Analysis
This reports the number of glitches and clipping instances that have been found.
Global Analysis - Errors Tab
This tab helps you find glitches and sections where the audio has clipped.
In the Audio Files workspace, select Analysis > Global Analysis, and select the
Errors tab.
Maximum number of error points to report
Allows you to restrict reported numbers of hot points.
Minimum time between 2 points
Controls the distance between points, so they do not appear too close to
each other. For example, setting this to 1 s ensures that there is always at
least one second between reported points.
Find possible glitches
Enables glitch analysis.
Find possible glitches - Threshold
Sets the value at which a change in level is considered to be a glitch. The
higher the value, the less sensitive the detection.
Find possible glitches - Sensitivity
Length value that represents the length of time in which the waveform must
exceed the threshold to be reported as a glitch. The higher the value, the less
sensitive the detection.
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Audio Analysis
Global Analysis
Find possible glitches - Output format
Displays the number of clipping occurrences that are found by the analysis.
Clicking this value displays the number of clips in the Number of hot points
section in the lower left corner of the dialog.
NOTE
Make sure that the points that are found by the algorithm are real glitches.
Zoom in and play back to check whether the found points really indicate a
problem.
Find clipped samples
Enables clipping analysis.
Find clipped samples - Threshold
Checks for a number of consecutive samples at full value, to determine
whether clipping has occurred. The Threshold setting determines the exact
number of these consecutive samples that must occur for the program to
report clipping.
Find clipped samples - Output format
Displays the number of clipping occurrences that are found by the analysis.
Clicking this value displays the number of clips in the Number of hot points
section in the lower left corner of the dialog.
Performing a Global Analysis
PREREQUISITE
In the Audio Files workspace, select Analysis > Global Analysis, and select the
tab that you want to include in the analysis.
PROCEDURE
1.
In the Global Analysis dialog, set up the parameters.
Most of the tabs have settings that determine how the analysis should be performed.
2.
If the Peak or Loudness tab is selected, move the cursor to the position that
you want to analyze.
The Peak and Loudness tabs report values specifically for the position of the cursor.
3.
Click Analyze.
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Audio Analysis
Global Analysis
Results of the Global Analysis
Depending on the analysis type, one or several values are returned for the analyzed
audio.
For the Pitch and Extra analyses, only one value is returned. The other analysis types
provide a number of positions in the file that indicate peaks, glitches, etc. These
points are called “hot points”.
Checking the Results of the Global Analysis
The results of the global analysis are marked with hot points. You can browse
through these points to see the results of the analysis.
PREREQUISITE
In the Audio Files workspace, select Analysis > Global Analysis, and perform the
analysis.
PROCEDURE
1.
In the Global Analysis dialog, click the tab that represents the values that you
want to check.
2.
Check the display for maximum/minimum values in the entire analyzed section.
3.
Decide which of these values you want to browse.
4.
Click the button that currently displays this value.
5.
Check the Number of hot points value at the bottom of the dialog.
The value shows the number of positions that were found by the analysis.
6.
Use the scrollbar below the Number of hot points value to browse between
the found positions.
The edit cursor shows the position in the wave window.
7.
To browse another property, click the corresponding tab, and then the value
button.
NOTE
The result of the analysis is saved until you close the dialog or click Analyze
again.
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Audio Analysis
Audio File Comparator
Creating Markers at Hot Points
Creating markers at hot points simplifies browsing the results of the global analysis.
PREREQUISITE
In the Audio Files workspace, select Analysis > Global Analysis, and perform the
analysis.
PROCEDURE
1.
In the Global Analysis dialog, select the analysis type for which you want to
create markers at hot points.
You can add markers for only one channel at a time.
2.
Click the Create markers at hot points button.
Temporary markers are added at all hot points.
RESULT
The markers are named using the following principle: “Hot point number (Channel)”.
For example, a marker at the third hot point in the left channel would be labeled “3
(L)”.
Focusing Hot Points
After a global analysis, you can focus the display on a certain hot point.
PREREQUISITE
In the Audio Files workspace, select Analysis > Global Analysis, and perform the
analysis.
PROCEDURE
1.
Use the Number of hot points scroll bar to move the position indicator to the
position in which you are.
2.
Click the Focus button.
The wave window zooms in on the selected point. The Global Analysis dialog is
reduced to the bottom part.
3.
To return to the unzoomed view and return to the full view of the Global
Analysis dialog, click the Focus button again.
Audio File Comparator
You can compare audio files to find differences.
Use the Audio File Comparator to:
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Audio Analysis
Audio File Comparator
•
See and hear the effect of using an equalizer.
•
Check the noise added by a processor.
•
Check the effects of data compression.
•
Compare two versions of an apparent similar recording to see if they are really
the same.
You can create a delta audio file that contains only the differences between the two
compared audio files. To see and hear small differences easily, you can amplify
them.
Markers can be automatically added at positions in the audio file where differences
are found.
Audio File Comparator Dialog
In this dialog, you can compare two audio files.
In the Audio Files workspace, select Analysis > File Comparator.
Files to Compare
If more than two audio files are open in the Audio Files workspace, select the
two files that you want to compare.
Generate Delta File
A delta file contains only the differences between the two compared files.
Difference amplification
Amplifies the differences in the delta file to facilitate seeing and hearing them.
Create markers at points of difference
Creates markers at points where differences are found.
Maximum number of markers
Sets the maximum number of markers to be inserted.
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Audio Analysis
3D Frequency Analysis
Minimum time between two markers
Determines the density of the generated difference markers.
Comparing Audio Files
The File Comparator lets you see the differences between two files.
PREREQUISITE
In the Audio Files workspace, open the audio files that you want to compare.
PROCEDURE
1.
Select Analysis > File Comparator.
2.
If more than two audio files are open, select the two files that you want to
compare.
3.
Optional: Activate Generate Delta File.
This creates a new audio file that contains only the differences between the compared
audio files.
4.
Optional: Make marker settings.
This creates markers at points of differences, to facilitate finding the differences.
5.
Click OK.
3D Frequency Analysis
Using the 3D Frequency Analysis, you can view an audio file in the frequency
domain.
Use the 3D Frequency Analysis to:
•
See how the frequency spectrum is distributed in a mix.
•
Identify which frequencies to reduce or boost as a basis for equalizing.
•
See which parts of the frequency spectrum are occupied by a certain
background noise that you want to filter out.
A wave display (time domain) informs you about the start and end of a sound in a
file, but lacks information about the timbral contents of the file that a frequency
graph (frequency domain) provides. The graph that is used in WaveLab is often
referred to as an FFT (Fast Fourier Transform) plot. If you select a stereo recording,
a mix of the two channels is analyzed.
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Audio Analysis
3D Frequency Analysis
The wheel control allows you to view the frequency spectrum from different angles.
For example, you can open several 3D Frequency Analysis windows, each with a
different perspective. This allows you to get a better view of an otherwise crowded
graph.
Creating a Graph for 3D Frequency Analysis
The length of the selected audio affects the accuracy of the analysis. For short
selections, the result is more detailed. Consider making a separate analysis of the
attack in which the most drastic variations occur.
PROCEDURE
1.
In the Audio Files workspace, select the section of the file that you want to
analyze.
If you make no selection, the whole audio file is analyzed.
2.
Select Analysis > 3D Frequency Analysis.
The audio is analyzed.
3.
To edit the analysis parameters, click the 3d analysis options button.
4.
Adjust the parameters, and click OK.
The audio is re-analyzed.
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Audio Analysis
3D Frequency Analysis
3D Analysis Options
In the options dialog of the 3D Frequency Analysis dialog, you can define which
frequency range is analyzed and modify the appearance of the graph for the 3D
frequency analysis.
In the Audio Files workspace, select Analysis > 3D Frequency Analysis, and click
the 3D analysis options button.
Top/Bottom frequency
Specifies the highest/lowest frequency of the range.
Logarithmic ruler (octaves)
Divides the frequency ruler in equally spaced octaves.
Amplitude
Select whether you want the peaks to be proportional to their amplitude
(Linear) or to their power (Logarithmic with decibel scale).
Colors
Defines the color scheme of the graph.
Background
Defines the background color.
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Offline Processing
Offline processes are useful for a variety of editing purposes and creative effects.
For example, when the computer is too slow for real-time processing or when the
editing requires more than one pass.
After the processing the audio file is permanently altered.
Applying Processing
Processing can be applied to a selection or to a whole file. For certain operations
processing the entire file is necessary.
NOTE
If Process whole file if there is no selection is activated in the Options > Audio
file editing preferences > Editing tab, the whole file is automatically processed if
no selection exists.
PROCEDURE
1.
In the wave window, make a selection.
2.
Select the type of processing that you want to apply from the Process menu.
3.
If a dialog appears, make the settings.
4.
Click Apply to render the effect to file.
Gain Dialog
In this dialog, you can apply a gain to change the level of an audio file.
In the Audio Files workspace, select Process > Gain.
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Offline Processing
Normalize Level Dialog
Click Find current peak level to obtain a report on the peak level of the audio
selection, or the whole file if there is no selection. This is useful if you want to
calculate how much you can increase the overall gain of a file without clipping
(exceeding 0 dB), for example.
This processor also lets you add clipping. Clipping is when the gain is raised to a
point where distortion is added. While this is normally not wanted, mild clipping can
add some punch, for example, to accentuate the attack of a drum sound.
Normalize Level Dialog
In this dialog, you can change the peak level of an audio file.
In the Audio Files workspace, select Process > Level Normalizer.
This dialog is also available as a multipass plug-in in the Batch Processors
workspace.
Peak level
Enter the peak level (in dB) that you want the audio selection to have.
Stereo Link
Applies the gain to both channels.
Reference menu
Select whether WaveLab should use sample values (digital peaks) or analog
reconstructed values (true peaks).
Mix to Mono
Mixes the left and the right channel. The resulting mono file will have the
specified peak level. This ensures a mix without clipping.
Find current peak value
Creates a report on the peak level of the current audio selection, or the whole
audio file if there is no selection.
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Offline Processing
Loudness Normalizer
Loudness Normalizer
You can use the Loudness Normalizer to achieve a specific loudness.
Increasing the loudness to a certain value can provoke clipping. To remedy this, a
peak limiter (Peak Master plug-in) can be part of the process. The Loudness
Normalizer raises the loudness and limit peaks in the signal at the same time if
needed, to achieve the wanted loudness.
This process happens in several stages. First an analysis and then the final
rendering.
Loudness Normalizer Dialog
In this dialog, you can specify the loudness of a file.
In the Audio Files workspace, select Process > Loudness Normalizer.
This dialog is also available as a multipass plug-in in the Batch Processors
workspace.
Loudness (EBU R-128)
Loudness to achieve
If the loudness cannot be achieved with a simple positive gain change, a
limiter must come into action to prevent clipping.
Here, specify the loudness that you want to achieve. The EBU R-128
recommendation for broadcast is -23 dB.
Specifying high values might require a gain outside the normal capabilities of
the limiter, which can cause distortion.
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Offline Processing
Loudness Normalizer
It is recommended to use Statistics after specifying a loudness. This way you
know how much the gain needs to be raised and if peak limiting needs to be
applied. If heavy limiting is necessary this might degrade the audio quality. In
such cases a warning is shown after applying the process, allowing you to
undo it.
Catch loudness from audio selection
Sets the Loudness to achieve value to the average loudness found in the
audio file.
Reference menu
Select a reference: the loudness of the entire file (EBU R-128
recommendation), the average loudest 3 second audio section (Top of
loudness range), or the loudest 3 seconds audio section (Maximum
short-term loudness).
Peaks menu
Select whether WaveLab should limit the sample values (digital peaks) or the
analog reconstructed samples (true peaks).
Peak Limiter
Max peak level
Here, specify the maximum peak level of the resulting audio. The lower this
value, the lower the loudness.
Softness
This parameter affects the way that the Peak Master operates. A high setting
maximizes the perceived loudness effect, but can result in a slight harshness
of the sound.
Adjust this parameter to optimize the balance between sound quality and the
effect that you want to achieve.
Pre-Processing Options
Remove DC offset
DC offset in the file affects the loudness computation. Therefore it is
recommended that you keep this option activated.
Attempts/Analysis
Tolerance (+/-)
If the Loudness to achieve requires peak limiting, this also reduces the
loudness to some degree. This cannot be computed in advance and cannot
be automatically applied to the gain change. Instead, several simulation
passes are performed to find the best possible gain. This option lets you
define the precision of the result that you want to achieve.
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Offline Processing
Pan Normalizer Dialog
Maximum number of passes
WaveLab performs as many analysis passes as needed to match the
precision that you want to achieve. Use this option to specify the maximum
number of passes to be performed.
Authorized peak compression
As too much compression degrades the audio quality, you can specify a limit
for the applied compression. The value can be set between -1 and -20 dB.
Consider to lower the Loudness to achieve, as this renders better results.
Warn if unmatched
If this option is activated, you are warned if the normalizing process does not
meet the specified loudness/precision. This option is not available during
batch processing.
Statistics
Opens a window which shows you information about the file to be processed.
It shows any DC offset, the current loudness, the current peak level, and the
required gain to achieve the specified loudness. Furthermore you are informed
if limiting is required.
RELATED LINKS
EBU Loudness Standard R-128 on page 43
Pan Normalizer Dialog
This dialog allows you to ensure that both channels of a stereo file have the same
level or loudness, and helps you to get the best possible stereo balance.
In the Audio Files workspace, select Process > Pan Normalizer.
This dialog is also available as a multipass plug-in in the Batch Processors
workspace.
This process first analyzes the audio and then renders any required level changes.
You must have a stereo selection in a stereo file to apply this process.
Peak level
Raises the channel with the lowest peak level to match the peak level of the
other channel.
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Offline Processing
Envelope Dialog
Loudness (EBU R-128)
Analyzes the loudness of both channels and adjusts their gain so that both
channels get the same loudness. No clipping can be introduced using the Pan
Normalizer.
Remove DC offset
Removes DC offsets which affect the loudness computation. We recommend
to keep this option activated.
Analyze channel difference
Shows the current Loudness ratio between the left/right channels. The result
changes depending on the selected Peak/Loudness mode.
Envelope Dialog
In this dialog, you can create a volume envelope which can be applied to a selected
range or a whole audio file. This is useful if you want to even-out loud and quiet parts
or create a sophisticated fade-in/fade-out, for example.
In the Audio Files workspace, select Process > Envelope.
The dialog shows a waveform with an envelope curve (initially a straight line). A
vertical ruler displays the level in dB, and the horizontal ruler displays the timeline.
The following options are available:
•
Undo/Redo the last operation
•
Deselect the envelope points
•
Delete the selected envelope points
•
Reset the selected envelope points
•
Reset the whole envelope
•
Flip the envelope around the horizontal axis
•
Reverse the envelope time sequence
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Offline Processing
Fades in Audio Files
•
Toggle the envelope smoothing
Basic Envelope Operations
By adding points to the envelope curve you can create an envelope curve that
changes the volume of the material over time. When you point the mouse in the
display or move a point, the current position and level change is shown in the field
above the display.
•
To add a point, double click the envelope curve.
•
To select a point, click it.
•
To select several points, click and drag the selection rectangle.
•
To move a point, click and drag it. If more than one point is selected, all points
are moved.
•
To move the whole curve up or down, click the envelope curve, and drag up
or down.
•
To move the curve segment between selected points, select the points, click
the envelope curve between the points, and drag up or down.
•
To move two points horizontally, press [Shift], click the curve segment
between two points, and drag left or right.
•
To move the segment between 2 points vertically, press [Ctrl]/[Command],
click the segment, and drag up or down.
Fades in Audio Files
A fade-in is a gradual increase in level and a fade-out is a gradual decrease in level.
You can create fades by selecting an individual fading type for each
fade-in/fade-out, or by using the Easy Fade function.
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Offline Processing
Fades in Audio Files
Creating a Fade-In and Fade-Out
PROCEDURE
1.
In the Audio Files workspace, make a selection.
2.
Depending whether you want to create a fade-in or a fade-out, select one of
the following:
3.
•
To create a fade-in, select Process > Fade-in.
•
To create a fade-out, select Process > Fade-out.
Select the type of fade that you want to create.
A graph in the waveform indicates the resulting shape.
Applying Easy Fades
The Easy Fade function allows you to quickly apply a default fade-in or fade-out to
an audio file.
The shape of the fade is governed by the default fade/crossfade setting in the
Options > Audio file editing preferences > Editing tab, in the Default
fade/crossfade section.
PROCEDURE
1.
2.
In the Audio Files workspace, make one of the following selections:
•
From the start of the audio file to where you want the fade-in to end.
•
From the position where you want the fade-out to start to the end of the audio
file.
Select Process > Easy Fade.
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Offline Processing
Crossfades
Crossfades
A crossfade is a gradual fade between two sounds, where one is faded in and the
other faded out. You can automatically create a crossfade when pasting an audio
section into another.
Creating Crossfades
The material that you want to crossfade can either be in two different sections of the
same audio file, or in two different audio files.
PROCEDURE
1.
In the Audio Files workspace, select the section that you want to fade-in.
2.
Select Edit > Copy, or press [Ctrl]/[Command]-C.
3.
Select the section that you want to fade-out.
The length of this selection determines the length of the actual crossfade (check the
length on the status bar). The section can be within the selected audio file or in
another wave window. However, the selection must not be longer than the selection
that you just copied.
4.
Select Edit > Paste and crossfade, and select one of the crossfade types.
5.
Play back the file and adjust the crossfade if necessary.
RESULT
The crossfade is created. Any material that originally appeared after the selection in
the file into which you paste, is moved so that it now appears after the pasted
material.
Any excess material in the copied selection appears after the fade at full level.
NOTE
If both files already have full level sections in the crossfade area (for example, if you
have normalized both files), clipping and distortion might occur. If this happens,
reduce the amplitude of both files by 3 to 6 dB and try again.
Paste and Crossfade Options
These options allow you to select a crossfade type for pasting.
In the Audio Files workspace, select Edit > Paste and crossfade.
Linear (equal gain)
Level changes linearly.
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Offline Processing
Inverting the Audio Phase
Sinus (equal power)
Level changes according to a sine curve, the power of the mix remains
constant.
Square-root (equal power)
Level changes according to the square-root curve, the power of the mix
remains constant.
Inverting the Audio Phase
Inverting the phase turns the signal upside down. The most common use for this
function is to fix a stereo recording where one of the channels has been recorded
out of phase with the other.
PROCEDURE
1.
Optional: If you only want to invert the phase for a certain time range of the
audio file, create a selection range in the wave window.
2.
In the Audio Files workspace, select Process > Invert phase.
An inverted phase is indicated by an icon in the wave window.
Reversing Audio
You can reverse an audio file or a part of an audio file as if playing a tape backwards.
PROCEDURE
1.
Optional: If you only want to reverse a certain time range of the audio file,
create a selection range in the wave window.
2.
In the Audio Files workspace, select Process > Reverse.
DC Offset
A DC offset is when there is too large a DC (direct current) component in the signal.
This most often appears due to mismatches between various types of recording
equipment.
A DC offset is problematic for the following reasons:
•
It affects where the zero crossing positions.
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Offline Processing
Time Stretching
•
Certain processing options do not give optimal results when performed on
files with a DC offset.
Removing DC Offset
PROCEDURE
1.
In the Audio Files workspace, open the audio file that you want to check for
DC offset and fix.
2.
Select Process > Remove DC offset.
A dialog appears, stating the amount of DC offset in the audio file. You can also
create a selection range in the wave window and then select this option, to only show
the DC offset in the selection range.
NOTE
This function should be applied to whole files, since the problem is normally
present throughout the entire recording.
3.
Click OK to remove the DC offset.
Time Stretching
Time stretching is an operation that allows you to change the length of a recording
without affecting its pitch.
With time stretching you can make audio material longer or shorter. This function is
most often used to make a section of audio fit in with some other material. You
select the material to be stretched and use the options in the Time stretching
dialog to find a stretch factor. This is done by specifying a length or a tempo,
according to what the situation requires.
Time Stretching Dialog
In this dialog, you can change the duration of an audio selection, usually without
changing its pitch. You can stretch a selection to a specified duration (in minutes,
seconds, and milliseconds), tempo (in bpm), or stretch factor (as percentage).
In the Audio Files workspace, select Process > Time stretching.
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Offline Processing
Time Stretching
This dialog is also available as a monopass plug-in in the Batch Processors
workspace.
Source (Audio Selection)
Duration - Edit tempo
If this option is activated, you can change the tempo of the audio source. The
number of bars and beats and the stretch factor is updated automatically.
Duration - Edit bars
If this option is activated, you can set the number of bars and beats and the
signature for the audio source. The source tempo and according the stretch
factor is automatically updated.
Result
Target duration
If this option is activated, the audio source changes its duration.
Target tempo
If this option is activated, the audio changes its tempo. For this to work, you
must specify the original tempo or the number of bars and beats.
Target stretch factor
Lets you see how much the audio duration changes. This parameter is
automatically updated when you edit the other parameters, but you can also
activate this option to edit it manually.
Reset
Resets the stretch factor to 100 % (no stretch).
Method
Preserve pitch
If this option is activated, the pitch of the audio material is not affected when
you apply time stretch. If this option is deactivated, the pitch changes
proportionally with the time stretch ratio.
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Offline Processing
Time Stretching
Method pop-up menu
Auto/Preview: Automatically selects the best time/frequency trade-off for
real-time/preview performance. This is the fastest setting, but might not
provide optimal results in all cases.
Time localization ++ (instruments, voices): Selects full time localization.
This is a good setting for single instruments and solo voices.
Time localization +: Time/frequency localization with the emphasis on time
localization. If the previous mode produces echo artifacts, try this option.
Average Time/Frequency localization: Sets the time/frequency localization
halfway between the time and frequency domains. It is the best setting for all
general purpose signals.
Frequency localization +: Time/Frequency localization with the emphasis on
frequency localization. Good setting for classical music.
Frequency localization ++ (complex mixes): Highest possible frequency
localization. This setting might not work well on material with many sharp
attack transients, but it can produce good results with less
transient/percussive material.
Transcribe mode (for large changes): This uses a content aware algorithm
to time stretch and pitch shift music by up to 4x the original length without
losing information critical to transcription, such as attack transients.
Quality pop-up menu
The High quality and Best (very slow) modes provide high quality time
stretching, but the processing takes longer. For most uses, the Standard
quality mode is sufficient.
Use modulation envelope
Modulates the stretch factor over time.
Time Stretching Limitations
Time stretch is a complicated Digital Signal Processing (DSP) operation, that
always affects the sound quality to some extent.
•
For speech, stretch factors within a ±30 % limit provide good results.
•
For composite music, try to limit the range to ±10 %.
•
For sensitive material, like solo piano, try to limit the range to ±3 %.
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Offline Processing
Pitch Shift
About the DIRAC Time Stretching Processor
The DIRAC engine is a high quality time stretcher. It produces the best quality
results possible, but takes longer to process.
Pitch Shift
Pitch shift allows you to detect and to change the pitch of a sound, with or without
affecting its length. This is useful for fixing an off-key vocal note in a live recording,
or tuning the pitch of a kick drum sample to fit a particular song, for example.
Pitch Shift Dialog
In this dialog, you can change the pitch of a sound.
In the Audio Files workspace, select Process > Pitch shifting.
This dialog is also available as a monopass plug-in in the Batch Processors
workspace.
Amount of Shift - Semitones
Specifies the amount of pitch change in semitones.
Amount of Shift - Cents
Specifies the amount of pitch change in cents.
Find current pitch of audio selection
Analyzes the pitch of the selected audio and displays it below.
According to the current pitch, compute the required shift to match the key
hereafter
Click to adjust Amount of Pitch parameters automatically, based on the
currently detected pitch and the pitch specified in the value field below this
button.
Pitch field
Specifies the resulting pitch.
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Offline Processing
Pitch Shift
Length preservation
Specifies how the length of the selection is affected by the operation:
•
A setting of 100 means that the length of the audio remains unchanged.
•
A setting of 0 means that the program behaves like a tape recorder,
when the speed of its tape is changed. For example, if you raise the
pitch by one octave, the audio is half as long.
•
Intermediate values give results in between these two extremes.
For large transposition values, the lower this setting, the better the quality of
the effect.
Method pop-up menu
Auto/Preview: This automatically selects the best time/frequency trade-off
for real-time/preview performance. This is the fastest setting, but might not
provide optimal results in all cases.
Time localization ++ (instruments, voices): Selects full time localization.
This is a good setting for single instruments and solo voices.
Time localization +: Time/frequency localization with the emphasis on time
localization. If the previous mode produces echo artifacts, try this option.
Average Time/Frequency localization: This sets the time/frequency
localization halfway between the time and frequency domains. It is the best
setting for all general purpose signals.
Frequency localization +: Time/Frequency localization with the emphasis on
frequency localization. Good setting for classical music.
Frequency localization ++ (complex mixes): Highest possible frequency
localization. This setting might not work well on material with many sharp
attack transients, but it can produce good results with less
transient/percussive material.
Transcribe mode (for large changes): This uses a content aware algorithm
to time stretch and pitch shift music by up to 4x the original length without
losing information critical to transcription, such as attack transients.
Quality pop-up menu
The High quality and Best (very slow) modes provide high quality time
stretching, but the processing takes longer. For most uses, the Standard
quality mode is sufficient.
Correct formants
If this option is activated, changing the pitch of vocal material gives a more
realistic result. When processing non-vocal material you should leave this
option deactivated, since it uses a slightly slower processing algorithm.
NOTE
This Algorithm might cause a noticeable increase in signal level.
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Offline Processing
Pitch Quantize Dialog
Modulate formants correction
If this option is activated, the formant correction is modulated over time.
NOTE
When the envelope is not used and the formant correction is activated, a
100 % correction is performed.
Pitch Quantize Dialog
This dialog allows you to automatically detect and correct the pitch of an audio file.
The input signal is quantized to discrete notes.
In the Audio Files workspace, select Process > Pitch quantizing.
This dialog is also available as a monopass plug-in in the Batch Processors
workspace.
Pitch quantize works best on recordings that have monophonic signals, such as
voice or single instruments.
Reference frequency
Defines the reference tuning (in Hz) for the pitch shift.
Liaison time
Defines the time it takes for the correction to reach the full correction amount.
Typically, sung notes are slightly unstable at the beginning, because the
attack phase of a sound has a higher amount of noise, and because singers
gradually adjust their tuning after the onset of the note.
The slur time makes the pitch shift sound more natural because it mimics this
effect.
Preserve Formants
If this option is activated, the formants are corrected according to the pitch
shift amount.
Quality pop-up menu
The High quality and Best (very slow) modes provide high quality time
stretching, but the processing takes longer. For most uses, the Standard
quality mode is sufficient.
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Offline Processing
Pitch Bend
Pitch Bend
Pitch bend allows you to change the pitch of a sound over time. Changing the pitch
using pitch bend affects its duration unless Preserve duration is activated.
This function can be used for creating the classic tape stop effect, or for blending
the tempo/pitch of one track into another, for example.
You can draw the curve that you want the pitch to follow. The pitch offset is
displayed on the vertical ruler of the envelope and the range of the envelope effects
can be adjusted. Positive pitch values produce sounds with a higher pitch and a
shorter length, negative values produce sounds with a lower pitch and a longer
length.
If Preserve duration is activated, you can choose the algorithm that is used to
perform the pitch bend operation. Depending on the type of audio material you are
processing, choose the appropriate mode. You can also adjust the quality used
when processing the pitch bend. The quality setting and the selected mode affect
the processing time for this effect.
Pitch Bend Dialog
In this dialog, you can gradually change the pitch of a sound using an envelope
curve.
In the Audio Files workspace, select Process > Pitch bend.
The following options are available at the top of the dialog:
•
Undo/redo the last operation
•
Deselect the envelope points
•
Delete the selected envelope points
•
Reset the selected envelope points
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Offline Processing
Pitch Bend
•
Reset the whole envelope
•
Flip the envelope around the horizontal axis
•
Reverse the envelope time sequence
•
Toggle the envelope smoothing
The following options are available at the bottom of the dialog:
Preserve duration
If this option is activated, a time stretching process is applied to compensate
for the change of duration caused by the pitch modifications.
Method menu
Auto/Preview: This automatically selects the best time/frequency trade-off
for real-time/preview performance. This is the fastest setting, but might not
provide optimal results in all cases.
Time localization ++ (instruments, voices): Selects full time localization.
This is a good setting for single instruments and solo voices.
Time localization +: Time/frequency localization with the emphasis on time
localization. If the previous mode produces echo artifacts, try this option.
Average Time/Frequency localization: This sets the time/frequency
localization halfway between the time and frequency domains. It is the best
setting for all general purpose signals.
Frequency localization +: Time/Frequency localization with the emphasis on
frequency localization. Good setting for classical music.
Frequency localization ++ (complex mixes): Highest possible frequency
localization. This setting might not work well on material with many sharp
attack transients, but it can produce good results with less
transient/percussive material.
Transcribe mode (for large changes): This uses a content aware algorithm
to time stretch and pitch shift music by up to 4x the original length without
losing information critical to transcription, such as attack transients.
Varies with envelope
If this option is activated, time stretching is continuously applied, but varies,
depending on the pitch changes. If this option is deactivated, time stretching
is applied equally to all audio parts.
In both cases, the global audio duration is preserved. The option is activated
by default because this gives a more natural result. Note however, that this
affects the quality of the audio.
Quality menu
The High quality and Best (very slow) modes provide high quality time
stretching, but the processing takes longer. For most uses, the Standard
quality mode is sufficient.
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Offline Processing
Resample
Range (semitones)
Specifies the maximum range in semitones for the pitch change. When you
change this value, this is indicated in the vertical ruler.
Resample
You can change the sample rate of a recording. This is useful if the file that you want
to use in a certain audio system was recorded at a sample rate that this system does
not support.
Note the following:
•
Sample rate conversion from a low frequency upwards does not improve the
sound quality. The high frequencies that were lost cannot be restored by a
conversion.
•
When you resample to a lower frequency, high frequency material is lost.
Therefore, converting down and then up again leads to a degradation in
sound quality.
NOTE
Using the Crystal Resampler in the quality mode High to change the sample rate
results in the same quality as when using Process > Resample in the Audio Files
workspace. However, that is only the case if the sample rate in the Sample rate
dialog exists in the values of the Crystal Resampler Sample rate menu. If you
choose a custom sample rate, another algorithm is used, which results in a lower
quality of what the Crystal Sampler can achieve.
Converting a Sample Rate
NOTE
Sample rate conversion is always applied to the entire file.
PROCEDURE
1.
In the Audio Files workspace, select Process > Resample.
2.
In the Sample Rate dialog, select a sample rate from the pop-up menu.
3.
Click OK.
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Offline Processing
Effect Morphing
Effect Morphing
Effect morphing allows you to smoothly morph from one effect to another, or from
an unprocessed audio segment to a processed audio segment.
Effect morphing always involves two audio ranges. For example, two versions of the
same audio range, of which one is processed and the other unprocessed.
Effect Morphing Dialog
In this dialog, you can gradually mix two audio ranges that have different
effects/processing applied to them.
In the Audio Files workspace, select Edit > Effect morphing.
The dialog consists of a waveform display that shows the current selection and an
envelope curve (by default a straight line) in the middle. By adding points to the
envelope, you can create a curve that is used for the morphing process.
The following options are available at the top of the dialog:
•
Undo/Redo the last operation
•
Deselect the envelope points
•
Delete the selected envelope points
•
Reset the selected envelope points
•
Reset the whole envelope
•
Flip the envelope around the horizontal axis
•
Reverse the envelope time sequence
•
Toggle the envelope smoothing
The following options are available in the lower right corner of the dialog:
Mix current selection with - Unprocessed selection
Mixes the audio selection with the unprocessed version of the same audio.
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Offline Processing
Effect Morphing
Mix current selection with - Clipboard
Mixes the audio selection with the clipboard.
RELATED LINKS
Basic Envelope Operations on page 192
Setting Up the Effect Morphing
Effect Morphing always involves two audio ranges.
PROCEDURE
1.
In the Audio Files workspace, open the two audio files that you want to apply
effect morphing to.
2.
In the wave window, make a selection range over the time that you want the
effect morphing to take place.
3.
Process this range by using any Master Section effects or offline processing.
You cannot use processing/effects that alter the length of the selection, for example,
time stretching.
4.
Select Edit > Effect morphing.
5.
Make sure that Unprocessed selection is activated.
The current processed selection is mixed with an unprocessed version of the same
selection.
6.
Adjust your envelope points over time between 0 % and 100 %.
This determines the level and direction of the morph. For example, starting at 100 %
and ending at 0 % fades out the effect.
7.
Click Apply to apply the effect morphing.
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Offline Processing
Effect Morphing
Morphing Effects of Differently Processed Audio Segments
Effect Morphing can take place between two differently processed audio segments.
PREREQUISITE
In the Audio Files workspace, make a range selection, and process the selection.
PROCEDURE
1.
Select the result, and press [Ctrl]/[Command]-[C].
2.
Undo the processing.
3.
Process the selection again, this time with a different effect.
4.
Select Edit > Effect morphing.
5.
Activate Clipboard.
6.
Select Apply.
RESULT
The curve enables you to morph between two different processing methods.
NOTE
The clipboard could also be a copy from another wave file, but the clipboard size
and the selection size must match.
207
Audio Montage
The audio montage is a multichannel and multitrack non-destructive editing
environment which allows you to arrange, edit, play back, and record audio clips on
multiple tracks and channels.
Non-destructive means that when you delete or change a part of an audio file, the
audio is not deleted or permanently changed. Instead, a set of pointers keeps track
of all the edits, so these can be readily reversed. WaveLab provides comprehensive
facilities for non-destructive editing.
Features include both track- and clip-based effects, volume and pan automation, as
well as wide-ranging fade and crossfade functions. Multichannel support makes it
possible to create surround mixes that can be written to DVD-Audio compatible
discs.
The audio montage is a great tool for Audio CD or DVD-Audio creation, mastering,
multimedia work, radio spot production, etc.
Basic Terminology
Audio montages can contain an unlimited number of stereo or mono audio tracks.
You can use them to structure the work graphically or logically, but do not see them
as virtual tape tracks. Depending on the channel configuration of the audio
montage, you can route each track to a stereo output or route each track to different
surround channels (up to 6) or non-surround audio channels (up to 8).
On an audio track, you can place any number of clips. These are containers for the
audio, and include a number of settings and functions such as volume and pan
curves, fades, etc.
A clip contains a reference to a source audio file on your hard disk, as well as start
and end positions in the file (allowing clips to play back smaller sections of their
source audio files). Any number of clips can reference the same source file.
In addition to audio tracks, you can create DVD-Audio picture tracks in the audio
montage.
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Audio Montage
Montage Window
Montage Window
The montage window in the Audio Montage workspace is where you assemble your
audio montage. This is where you view, play back, and edit audio montages.
The montage window gives you a graphical representation of the tracks and clips.
Track Control Area
The track control area offers several options regarding the track.
Fold/Unfold
Folds/unfolds the track.
Mute
Mutes the track.
Solo
Solos the track.
FX
Opens the Effects menu in which you can select effects for the track. A blue
icon indicates that a track has track effects.
Track menu
Opens the track menu that contains track-related options.
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Audio Montage
Montage Window
Audio Track Dispatching
Opens the Audio Track Dispatching dialog in which you can route a track to
an output channel.
Track name
Opens the Track name dialog where you can enter a name for the track.
Track Menu
This menu contains all track-related options. In the Audio Montage workspace,
open the Track menu, or click the number button of a track.
Add stereo track
Adds a stereo track below the active track.
Add mono track
Adds a mono track below the active track.
Add picture track
Adds a picture track below the active track.
Move track up
Moves the track one position up in the track list.
Move track down
Moves the track one position down in the track list.
Virtual-split into two mono tracks
Converts the stereo track into two mono tracks without altering the audio
material.
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Audio Montage
Signal Flow in the Audio Montage
Duplicate track
Creates a copy of the active track. The duplicated track is created below the
active track.
Remove track
Deletes the active track.
Mute
Mutes the active track.
Solo
Solos the active track.
Route to Master Section
Routes the audio signal of the active track to the Master Section input.
Route to Master Section and upper track
Routes the audio signal of the active track to the Master Section input and to
the modulation input of the Ducker plug-in.
Route to upper track only
Routes the audio signal of the active track to the modulation input of the
Ducker plug-in.
Record at cursor
Opens the Recording dialog to start recording at the cursor position.
Lock
If this option is activated, you cannot edit the track.
Half-height
Reduces the track height to half the current size.
Quarter-height
Reduces the track height to a quarter of the current size.
Zoom
Shows the active track in the full available height.
Color
Opens a submenu where you can select a color for the active track.
Signal Flow in the Audio Montage
The audio signal flow goes through the various sections of WaveLab in a certain
way.
•
Read audio clip samples
•
Clip envelope (unless post-effects mode is active)
•
Clip effects
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Audio Montage
Creating a New Audio Montage
•
Clip envelope (if post-effects mode is active)
•
Clip pan
•
Clip individual gain (Clips window)
•
Clips are mixed into the track slot (for example, overlapping clips)
•
Track effects
•
Track leveling/surround pan
•
Each track is mixed into a bus that has as many channels as defined by the
Audio montage properties (between 1 to 8, usually 2).
•
These audio channels are processed through the plug-ins of the master
output.
•
These channels are then sent to the Master Section input.
Master Section:
•
Channels/sample rate might change at each plug-in slot
•
Master Section meters
•
Master Section Dithering slot
•
Independent meters
•
Playback or file format rendering
Creating a New Audio Montage
You can add tracks and clips to your new audio montage.
PROCEDURE
1.
In the Audio Montage workspace, select File > New.
2.
In the Audio montage properties dialog, select a Mode, Channels, and a
Sample rate.
3.
Click OK.
Audio Montage Properties Dialog
This dialog allows you to define the mode (stereo, mono, or multichannel), the
number of audio channels, and the sample rate of the project.
This dialog open when you create a new audio montage.
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Audio Montage
Creating a New Audio Montage
To change the settings for the currently opened audio montage, select Edit >
Audio montage properties.
Mode
Lets you select the following modes for audio montage projects.
•
CD creation, optimized for a stereo mixdown
•
Multichannel configuration (1-6 output channels), compatible with the
DVD-Audio format
•
Free multichannel configuration (8 output channels)
Channels
Lets you define the number of audio channels and their configuration at the
output of the audio montage. This is only available when Multichannel,
DVD-Audio compatible mode is selected.
Enable additional DVD-Audio configurations
Enables additional DVD-Audio channel configurations in the channels pop-up
menu. This is only available when Multichannel, DVD-Audio compatible
mode is selected.
Sample rate
Lets you select the sample rate of the audio montage.
Alternative Ways of Creating a New Audio Montage
There are several ways to create a new audio montage.
•
Import cue-sheet/CD images as audio montage
•
Import audio CD tracks to an audio montage
•
Convert a Basic Audio CD into an audio montage
•
Create an audio montage from a wave file with the Auto Split function
•
Import an AES-31 project file to an audio montage
•
Import an XML text file to an audio montage
•
Convert wave files to an audio montage
•
When you render, you can open the resulting file into a montage.
•
File > New from
213
Audio Montage
Creating an Audio Montage from an Audio File
•
File > Import > Audio Montage copy
•
File > Import > Audio DDP image
•
File > Clone
•
File > Export > Clone completly
•
Press [Ctrl]/[Option], and drag a montage tab on the tab bar
•
Double-click an empty section of the tab bar
•
From a script
Creating an Audio Montage from an Audio File
You can export audio files to an audio montage, including all markers that you have
set in the audio file.
PROCEDURE
1.
Optional: If you only want to use a certain time range of the audio file, create
a selection range in the wave window.
2.
In the Audio Files workspace, select File > Export > Create audio montage
from active file.
3.
Select whether to export the whole file or the selected time range.
4.
Optional: Decide if you want to perform any of the following marker
operations:
5.
•
Import markers
•
Split at generic region markers
•
Split at CD Track markers
Click OK.
Import Options for Audio Montages
You can import different files into your audio montage, for example, audio files, audio
montages, and DDP images.
In the Audio Montage workspace, select File > Import. The following import
options are available:
Insert audio files
Opens the file browser where you can select one or more audio files to insert
at the edit cursor position on the focused track.
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Audio Montage
Import Options for Audio Montages
Insert clips
Opens the file browser where you can select one or more previously saved
clips to insert at the edit cursor position on the focused track. If you import
several clips at the same time, they will be lined up in alphabetical order,
according to their file names, and separated according to the set pre-gap.
Insert audio montages
Opens the file browser where you can select an audio montage to insert at
the edit cursor position on the focused track.
Insert surround audio files
Opens the file browser where you can select a surround audio file to insert at
the edit cursor position on the focused track. The audio montage must be set
to Multichannel, DVD-Audio compatible mode with 6 channels.
Each file is placed on a different track, and routed to the corresponding
surround output. Mono surround channels are placed on mono tracks and
stereo surround channels on stereo tracks.
Audio CD
Opens the Import Audio CD dialog where you can browse for audio CD
tracks to extract.
Audio DDP image
Converts a DDP image to an audio montage.
Audio CD cue file
Converts a CD cue file with its audio data to an audio montage.
Basic Audio CD
Converts a Basic Audio CD to an audio montage.
Audio montage copy
Creates a copy of an existing audio montage and opens it.
AES-31 file
Converts an AES-31 file to an audio montage.
Audio montage as XML file
Opens an audio montage that has been previously saved as an XML file.
List of files to open
Opens all files that are listed in a text file.
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Audio Montage
Missing Files in Audio Montage Dialog
Missing Files in Audio Montage Dialog
This dialog opens when you open an audio montage, and some audio files that the
audio montage refers to could not be found. You can then search for the files or
select a replacement.
Missing files list
Lists the files that could not be found. Each file can be replaced by an existing
file. To search replacements for multiple files, select the files and specify a
new path in the Where to search field.
A file with a green checkmark is associated with a valid replacement. A file
with a red checkmark is not yet associated with a valid replacement, but there
are possible replacement candidates available at the bottom of this dialog.
Find files with the same name
Instructs WaveLab to find all files with the same name in the folder specified
in the Where to search field.
Replace selected files with
Replaces the missing files with a single specific file.
Reset
Removes all possible replacements for the selected missing files.
Where to search
Lets you specify a location for searching files. Click Find files with the same
name to start the search.
Replacement list
Lists the files that can be used as a replacement. You can also drag a file into
the list from the Windows Explorer/Mac OS Finder.
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Audio Montage
Assembling the Audio Montage
Assembling the Audio Montage
You assemble your audio montage by adding tracks and clips.
In the audio montage, only one track can be focused at a time. This focused track
has a different color for the header. Certain WaveLab functions are always applied
to the focused track.
About Tracks
Tracks form the structure that is used to organize clips. The tracks can be
mono/stereo audio tracks or picture tracks.
•
Audio tracks allow you to add clips to an audio montage.
•
Picture tracks allow you to add pictures to an audio montage. These are
shown when you play back the final DVD-Audio.
Adding Tracks
You can add stereo tracks, mono tracks, and picture tracks.
•
In the Audio Montage workspace, click the number button of a track to open
the Track menu, and then select the type of track that you want to add to your
audio montage.
NOTE
By default, the new track is added below the focused track. If you want to place it
above the focused track, press [Ctrl]/[Command] when adding the new track.
Adding Pictures to a Picture Track
PROCEDURE
1.
In the Audio Montage workspace, add a picture track to your audio montage.
2.
On the picture track, set the edit cursor at the position where you want to
insert the picture.
3.
Right-click an empty area of the picture track, and select Insert files.
4.
Select a picture, and click Open.
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Audio Montage
Assembling the Audio Montage
Moving Tracks in the Track View
You can change the order of the tracks in the montage window.
PROCEDURE
1.
In the Audio Montage workspace, click a track’s number button.
2.
Select Move track up/Move track down.
Removing Tracks
Removing a track with clips also removes the clips. However, the audio files to
which the clips refer are not affected.
PROCEDURE
1.
In the Audio Montage workspace, click the number button of the track that you
want to remove.
2.
Select Remove track.
Folding and Unfolding Tracks
To save screen space in the Audio Montage workspace, you can fold tracks that do
not need to be visible.
•
To fold a track, click the arrow button at the top left corner of the track control
area.
•
To unfold a folded track, click the button again, or double-click anywhere in
the folded track.
Locking and Unlocking Tracks
You can lock tracks to prevent them from being accidentally moved, edited, or
deleted.
•
To lock a track, click the number button of the track, and activate Lock. The
waveform is marked with stripes to indicate that the track is locked.
•
To unlock a track, click the locked track, and confirm the dialog, or click the
number button of the track, and deactivate Lock.
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Audio Montage
Assembling the Audio Montage
Splitting Audio Tracks
You can split a stereo audio track into two mono tracks. This is a virtual split which
does not affect or create audio files.
PROCEDURE
1.
In the Audio Montage workspace, click the number button of the track that you
want to split.
2.
Select Virtual-split into two mono tracks.
RESULT
The track is split. If the track has no clips, this is the same as deleting the track and
inserting two new mono tracks. However, if there are clips on the track, the two
stereo sides are now separate clips, allowing you to move, edit, or process them
independently.
About Clips
A clip contains a reference to a source audio file on your hard disk as well as start
and end positions in the file, volume and pan curves, fades, etc. This allows clips to
play back smaller sections of their source audio files.
Any number of clips can reference the same source file. Since a clip only references
to the original source file, it contains no audio data. Any number of clips can
reference the same source file.
You can also use envelopes and effects on clips.
You can see the clips of the active audio montage in the Clips window.
3 clips on a track
Adding Audio Clips to the Audio Montage
You create clips by copying audio selections into the audio montage. There are
several ways to do this.
NOTE
You cannot add a mono clip to a stereo track or vice versa.
219
Audio Montage
Assembling the Audio Montage
Dragging from the Wave Window
PROCEDURE
1.
In the wave window of the Audio Files workspace, select the audio section
that you want the clip to refer to.
2.
Drag the selection on a track of the audio montage.
If you want to add the whole audio file, drag the tab on a track.
3.
Select an insert option from the pop-up menu that appears when you release
the mouse button.
RESULT
A clip is created, named after the original file.
Inserting From Open Wave Windows Using the Insert Menu
PREREQUISITE
In the Audio Files workspace, open the audio files that you want to insert as clips.
PROCEDURE
1.
In the Audio Montage workspace, right-click an empty part of a track.
2.
From the pop-up menu, select the audio file that you want to insert as clip.
Using Copy and Paste
PROCEDURE
1.
In the wave window of the Audio Files workspace, select the audio section to
which you want the clip to refer to.
2.
Select Edit > Copy, or press [Ctrl]/[Command]-[C].
3.
In the Audio Montage workspace, select the track where you want to insert
the clip.
The clip insert position is indicated by the edit cursor.
4.
Select Edit > Paste, or press [Ctrl]/[Command]-[V].
5.
Select an insert option from the pop-up menu.
220
Audio Montage
Assembling the Audio Montage
Dragging Audio Files From the File Browser Tool Window
NOTE
The following can also be done from the Windows Explorer/Mac OS Finder.
PROCEDURE
1.
In the Audio Montage workspace, open the File Browser window.
2.
Select the audio files to which you want the clip to refer, and drag them on a
track, or double-click the file to insert it.
3.
•
If you have selected a single audio file, the Insert pop-up menu opens.
•
If you have selected several audio files, the Insert Audio Files dialog opens.
Depending on whether you have selected one or several audio files, do one
of the following:
•
If you have selected a single audio file, select an insert option from the pop-up
menu.
•
If you have selected several audio files, specify how the files should be ordered
and placed, and click OK.
Dragging Regions From the File Browser Tool Window
If you have defined marker regions in an audio file, you can drag these regions
directly from the File Browser onto a track.
PROCEDURE
1.
In the Audio Montage workspace, open the File Browser window.
2.
Select the audio file to which you want the clip to refer.
On the right side of the File Browser window, a list shows the available audio regions
of the selected file.
3.
Drag any region to the track.
4.
Select an insert option from the pop-up menu.
Importing Audio Files
PROCEDURE
1.
In the Audio Montage workspace, select the track on which you want to put
the clip.
The clip insert position is indicated by the edit cursor.
2.
Right-click an empty area on the track, and select Insert audio files from the
pop-up menu.
3.
Select the audio files that you want to import as clips, and click Open.
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4.
Depending on whether you have selected one or several audio files, you have
the following options:
•
If you have selected a single audio file, select an insert option from the pop-up
menu.
•
If you have selected several audio files, specify how the files should be ordered
and placed, and click OK.
Copying Clips From Another Audio Montage
If you have opened more than one audio montage, you can copy clips from one
audio montage to another, either by using drag and drop or by using copy and
paste.
Dragging Clips From the Clips Tool Window
You can add clips that are already used in the same audio montage.
PROCEDURE
1.
In the Audio Montage workspace, open the Clips window.
2.
Select one or several clips, and drag them to a track.
If you have selected a single audio file, select an insert option from the pop-up menu.
Clip Inserting Options
When inserting a clip in another clip, you can choose between different clip
inserting options. For example, you can create default fades. You can also insert
multiple clips at the same time.
You can insert clips by pasting, importing from disk, using drag and drop, etc. When
inserting multiple clips at the same time, the Insert audio files dialog opens, in
which you can decide where to insert the files.
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Single Clip Inserting
When adding a single clip to an audio montage, a pop-up menu appears at the
insert position. By selecting one of the menu items, you specify how the clip should
be inserted, whether existing clips should be affected or not, etc.
Add/Mix
Inserts the clip without affecting any clips that already exist on the destination
track. However, if an inserted audio clip partially overlaps another audio clip,
a crossfade is created in the overlapping zone provided that an auto
crossfade option is active.
Add/Mix & bind right clips (track)
When the clip is inserted, all clips to the right of the clip (on the same track)
are moved to the right.
Add/Mix & bind right clips (global)
When the clip is inserted, all clips to the right of the clip (on all tracks) are
moved to the right.
Split/Insert
Only available if the insertion point is within an existing clip (audio tracks only).
When the clip is inserted, the existing clip is split and the right section is
moved to the right. Other clips are not affected.
Split/Insert & bind right clips (track)
Applies the Split/Insert function and moves all other clips on the same track
to the right (audio tracks only).
Split/Insert & bind right clips (global)
Applies the Split/Insert function and moves all other clips on all tracks to the
right (audio tracks only).
Replace selected range
Only available if there is a selection range on the destination track. The clip
with the selection range is split at the selection range edges, the inserted clip
replaces the range, and the section to the right of the range is moved to the
left or right (depending on the length of the inserted clip and the length of the
selection range), to prevent gaps behind the inserted clip.
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Replace selected range (trim source accordingly)
Only available if there is a selection range on the destination track and if that
selection range is shorter than the range of the clip that is to be inserted. The
inserted clip overwrites only the selected range, for example, the range to be
inserted is trimmed according to the current selection.
Replace selected range & bind right clips (track)
Applies the Replace selected range function and moves all other clips on the
same track to the right.
Replace selected range & bind right clips (global)
Applies the Replace selected range function and moves all other clips on all
tracks to the right.
Overwrite from cursor
If the inserted clip overlaps any other clips, the overlapped regions are
removed from the existing clips.
Make next choice persistent
If this option is activated, you can select a default option from the menu. This
default option is used when inserting audio. However, there are two
exceptions:
•
If the option is not compatible with the context, it is not processed and
the default option is deactivated. For example, when using Replace
selected range while there is no range selected.
•
You can fully deactivate this option by deactivating Options > Use
default insert action.
Cancel
No clip is added.
Multiple Clips Inserting
When you add multiple audio clips to an audio montage by importing from disk or
using drag and drop, the Insert Audio Files dialog appears.
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Arrow up/down
Moves the selected file up/down in the list.
Add file
Opens the file browser where you can select files to be added to the list.
Remove file
Removes the selected file from the list.
Line up on the current track
If this option is activated, the clips are added to the audio montage, lined up
contiguously on a single track and spaced according to the pre-gap. The
pre-gap can be defined in the Audio montage preferences.
Shift existing clips to the right
If this option is activated, any already existing clips in the audio montage are
moved to the right by an amount equaling the length of the first new added file.
Place each file on a different track
If this option is activated, the clips are added to the audio montage on
separate tracks, according to the following settings.
Start inserting below focused track
If this option is activated, the new tracks for the added files are inserted below
the focused track.
Always create new tracks (otherwise only create when required)
If this option is activated, and you add more files to an audio montage, they
end up on separate tracks.
RELATED LINKS
Dual-Mono Files on page 145
Mismatched Sample Rates When Inserting Audio Files
When inserting audio files with a different sample rate than the sample rates of the
audio montage, WaveLab can create and use resampled versions of the files.
The resampled file versions are created in the implicit folder that is defined in the
Audio montage preferences. The name of the file is the name of the original file
name with the new sample rate as suffix. If the resampled file already exists, it is not
recreated. However, you can also activate the option Recreate resampled files in
the Mismatched sample rates dialog.
The created file is a 32-bit float file without any dithering process.
If you modify the original audio file, you must use the Replace audio file option in
the Focused clip window to select the modified audio file. This will recreate the
resampled file.
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Mismatched Sample Rates Dialog
This dialog opens when you insert an audio file with a different sample rate than the
sample rate of the audio montage. This dialog lets you create a resampled copy of
the audio file.
Resampling quality
This option allows you to select the resampling quality.
Recreate resampled files
If this option is activated and a resampled file exists, it is recreated. Otherwise,
the existing version is used. Activate this option if the original audio file has
been modified and you want to recreate its resampled version.
Empty Clips
If the audio file of a clip is missing, the clip is displayed as an empty clip. This way
the length and position of the clip is visible, even if the corresponding audio file is
unavailable.
Empty clips can also be used for the following:
•
To create audio montage templates with empty clips as place holders.
•
As an alternative to muting a clip. The difference is that for empty clips no
audio is copied when cloning the audio montage.
•
To define regions. Since a clip has a start and end point in the audio montage,
it defines a range which can be used as a reference for any purpose.
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Creating Empty Clips
You can create an empty clip out of a selection range.
PROCEDURE
1.
In the Audio Montage workspace, make a selection range.
2.
Right-click an empty area of the track, and select Create empty clip from
selection range.
Removing the Source of a Clip
By removing a source file of a clip you create an empty clip.
PROCEDURE
1.
In the Audio Montage workspace, select the clip for which you want to remove
the source audio file.
2.
In the Focused clip window, open the Edit panel.
3.
Right-click the Replace audio file option, and select Remove source.
Saving and Loading Clips
You can save clips to disk as separate files. This is useful if you have, for example,
created a perfect fade, envelope, or clip effect configuration, but want to continue
experimenting with the clip in the audio montage.
By saving the clip, you can always revert to the perfect version by reloading it.
However, saved clips are still a reference to the original source file and contain no
audio data.
Saving Clips
PROCEDURE
1.
In the Audio Montage workspace, right-click the bottom area of a clip.
2.
From the pop-up menu, select Save.
3.
Specify a name and location, and click Save.
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Loading Clips
PREREQUISITE
Select a stereo track for stereo clips and a mono track for mono clips.
PROCEDURE
1.
In the Audio Montage workspace, on an empty part of a track, right-click
where you want to insert the clips.
2.
From the pop-up menu, select Insert clip files.
3.
Select a “.clip” file, and click Open.
RESULT
The clips are inserted on the focused track. If you selected more than one clip, the
first clip is positioned at the audio montage cursor, and any following clips are
spaced according to the default pre-gap time that is set in the Audio Montage
Preferences. When you import several clips, they are sorted alphabetically
according to their the file names.
Rearranging Clips
You can freely arrange clips in the montage window.
About Selected and Focused Clips
There is a distinction between selected and focused clips. Some editing functions
can only be processed on an individual clip or focused clip, while others can be
processed on multiple clips or selected clips.
•
A selected clip is a clip that you have selected using any of the selecting clips
procedures. Several clips can be selected at the same time. This allows you
to edit multiple clips at the same time using functions such as copy, delete,
move, etc. Selected clips have a different background color. Right-clicking in
the top part of a clip opens the Clip selection menu. More options for the
selected clips are available in the Clips window.
•
A focused clip is the clip that you selected, clicked, or edited last. Only one
clip can be focused at a time. By default, the focused clip is distinguished by
a highlighted name label. There are certain functions that can only be
processed on a focused clip. Right-clicking in the lower part of a clip opens
the Focused Clip menu. More options for the focused clip are available in the
Focused Clip window.
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About Mouse Zones
Basic rearranging of clips in the audio montage is achieved by clicking and dragging
with the mouse. However, the results of dragging with the mouse depend on where
in the clip you click. The different areas in a clip are called mouse zones.
By default, the mouse zones have the following basic functionalities:
Top clip area
• Copy a clip by dragging
• Open the source file by double-clicking
• Split at cursor position by
double-clicking the edit cursor or
pressing [S].
Upper clip area
• Make a selection range
• Open the Clip selection menu by
right-clicking
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Lower and bottom clip area
• Move a clip by dragging
• Open the Focused clip menu by
right-clicking
Clip edges
• Resize a clip by dragging the edges,
while keeping the audio source static
• Resize the left or right side of a clip
while letting the audio follow by holding
[Ctrl]/[Command] and dragging the left
or right edges
Clip name
• Open the effects menu by right-clicking
the clip name
• Rename the clip by double-clicking
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When you move the mouse cursor over a mouse zone, the info line at the bottom
left indicates the corresponding actions.
Info Line
The info line at the bottom of the Audio Montage workspace shows what happens
when you click the mouse button with or without modifier keys, depending on the
cursor position.
•
To activate/deactivate the info line, select Options > Audio montage
preferences, and on the All Audio Montages tab, activate/deactivate
Display indications of possible actions.
The following symbols are used in the info line:
Indicates that you can right-click to display a menu. The name of the menu is
displayed to the right of the symbol.
Indicates what happens when you click.
Indicates what happens when you double-click.
Indicates that you can [Ctrl]/[Command]-click for an additional function.
Indicates that you can [Alt]/[Option]-click for an additional function.
Indicates that you can [Shift]-click for an additional function.
Indicates what happens when you click and drag up or down.
Indicates what happens when you click and drag left or right.
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Indicates what happens when you click and drag an item in any direction
within the audio montage.
Indicates what happens when you click and drag an item out of the audio
montage.
This indicates that you are moving or resizing clips, or changing envelope
values, for example.
Indicates that you can use combined modifier keys.
Magnetic Bounds in Audio Montages
Certain positions, such as markers or the start and end of a clip, can be defined as
magnetic.
When you move or resize, for example, a clip, and its edges or its cue point get close
to one of the magnetic bounds, the clip snaps to this position. A label is displayed,
indicating to what the clip snaps. This makes it easier to position items accurately.
Activating Snapping to Magnetic Items
To make use of the magnetic bounds function, Snap to magnetic items must be
activated.
PROCEDURE
•
In the Audio Montage workspace, select Options > Snap to magnetic
items, or click the Snap to magnetic items icon.
Magnetic Bounds Menu
In this menu, you can specify which positions should be magnetic. When Snap to
magnetic items is activated, items that you move snap to these positions.
In the Audio Montage workspace, select Options > Magnetic bounds.
You can let items snap to the following positions:
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Start of montage
Makes the start of the audio montage magnetic.
Clip start
Makes the start of the clips magnetic.
Clip end
Makes the end of the clips magnetic.
Clip cue point
Makes the cue point in the clips magnetic.
Clip end cue point
Makes the position that is located after the clip end magnetic. If this option is
deactivated, all end cue points are invisible in the audio montage.
Time ruler marks
Makes the main time units that are displayed in the ruler magnetic.
Markers
Makes the markers magnetic.
Markers in audio sources
Makes the markers in the original audio files of the clip magnetic if they are
visible.
Time selection edges
Makes the edges of the selected time range magnetic.
Cursor
Makes the edit cursor magnetic.
Selecting Clips
You can edit multiple selected clips at once.
•
To select a clip, click in the bottom clip area. Selected clips are displayed in
a different color.
•
To select multiple clips, [Ctrl]/[Command]-click in the bottom clip areas.
•
To select a range of clips, [Shift]-click them.
•
To select several adjacent clips, double-click the upper area of a clip, and
after the second click, drag to select the adjacent clips.
•
To select several clips on several tracks with a selection rectangle, hold down
[Ctrl]/[Command]-[Shift], and drag the rectangle.
•
To choose between several clip selection options, in the Clips window, open
the Select menu, or right-click the top clip area, and select from the menu.
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Selection Ranges in the Audio Montage Workspace
A selection range is a selected area on a track. The selection range can be entirely
or partially within a clip or in an empty section of the track.
There are several uses for selection ranges:
•
Edit clips by cutting or erasing the selection, or trimming the clip to contain
only the selection.
•
Create a new clip by dragging the selection range to another track.
•
Open a montage window with the selection range from the source audio file
by dragging the selection range to the Audio Files workspace.
•
Play back only the selection range, either the whole audio montage or only the
clip with the intersecting clip part .
•
Loop the playback within the selection by activating the loop and selecting the
Loop mode on the transport bar.
Creating and Editing Selection Ranges in the Audio Montage Workspace
You can resize, create, move, and remove selection ranges.
•
To create a selection range in an empty area on a track, click and drag with
the mouse. The start and end position and the length of the range are
displayed in the info line.
•
To create a selection range within a clip, click and drag with the mouse in the
upper clip area. The start and end position and the length of the range are
displayed in the info line.
•
To create a selection range of the area between two markers, double-click
between the markers.
•
To create a selection range from a region marker pair, press [Shift], and
double-click the start or end marker. In the Markers window, you can also
double-click the Length field of a region marker.
•
To create a selection range from a CD track, in the CD window, double-click
the number to the left of the corresponding track.
•
To create a selection range from a clip, in the Clips window,
[Alt]/[Option]-click the number to the left of the corresponding clip. To zoom
in on the selected clip, double-click the number to the left of the clip.
•
To resize a selection range, [Shift]-click and drag left or right, or click and drag
the edges of the selection range.
•
To move a selection range while keeping its length, press [Ctrl]/[Command]
and [Shift], and drag the selection range to the left or right.
•
To remove a selection range, click elsewhere in the audio montage, or press
[ESC].
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Clip Context Menus
Many editing functions for clips can be accessed via the clip context menus.
Depending on where you right-click the clip, different context menus are available.
1)
Fade-in section: Opens the Fade-in menu where you can edit the fade-in.
2)
Bottom part of a clip: Opens the Focused clip menu where you can edit the
focused clip.
3)
Upper part of a clip: Opens the Clip selection menu where you can select
certain areas of a clip, lock a clip, etc.
4)
Sustain section: Opens the Envelope menu where you can edit the envelope.
5)
Clip name: Opens the Effects menu where you can add effects to the clip.
6)
Fade-out section: Opens the Fade-out menu where you can edit the
fade-out.
Clip Editing
All currently used clips are displayed in the Clips window in the Audio Montage
workspace. In this window, you can edit and rearrange clips and drag them in the
audio montage.
The currently focused clip is highlighted in bold in the clips list.
RELATED LINKS
Clips Window on page 236
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Clips Window
This window contains a list of the clips that are placed in the currently active audio
montage together with additional information about the clips.
In the Audio Montage workspace, select Workspace > Specific tool windows >
Clips.
Clip List
In the columns of the clip list, you can edit the following settings for each clip:
•
Name
•
Track number
•
Pre-gap
•
Start and end time
•
Length
•
Gain
•
Comment
You can also mute and lock clips, search for clip names, and play back a clip with
or without pre-gap. The playback buttons work in the following way:
Playback from start with a pre-roll.
-[Alt]/[Option]
Playback from start with a long pre-roll.
Playback from start.
The blue Fx icon indicates that a clip has one or more plug-ins. Double-clicking the
Fx icon activates the Effects window.
•
To zoom in on the clip, click the name of the clip.
•
To select the time range corresponding to the clip, [Alt]/[Option]-click the
number to the left of the clip name.
•
To perform both of the previous functions, double-click the number to the left
of the clip name.
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Select Menu
Select all clips
Selects all clips in the audio montage.
Select clips on focused track
Selects all clips that are included in the focused track.
Select clips inside selected time range
Selects all clips that are fully encompassed in the selected time range on all
tracks.
Select clips located before the cursor on the focused track
Selects all clips that have their end point left of the cursor on the focused
track.
Select clips located before the cursor on all tracks
Selects all clips that have their end point left of the cursor on all tracks.
Select clips located after the cursor on the focused track
Selects all clips that start to the right of the cursor on the focused track.
Select clips located after the cursor on all tracks
Selects all clips that start to the right of the cursor on all tracks.
Inverse selection
Deselects all selected clips and selects all other clips.
Deselect all clips
Deselects all selected clips.
Functions Menu
Create super clip from selected clips
Replaces the selected clips with a super clip that refers to a sub-montage.
Export clip list as text
Opens a plain text version of the clip list in the default text editor.
Batch clip renaming
Opens the Batch renaming dialog in which you can batch-rename any
number of clips.
Use audio file name for selected audio clips
Gives each clip the name of the audio file to which it refers.
Update BWF time stamps (selected clips)
Updates the time stamp of each audio file that is referenced by a selected clip
to reflect the clip position in the audio montage.
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The file header of a WAV audio file may contain a time stamp in the Broadcast
Wave Format. This time stamp makes it possible to insert audio at precise
positions in different applications. The audio files are marked as modified and
must be saved.
Move selected clips to their related BWF time stamp
Moves the selected clips to the positions that are contained in their source
audio files, provided the audio files contain a time stamp.
Align clips
Opens the Align clips dialog which lets you align all selected clips on the
focused track relatively to one another.
Resize selected clips to match the focused clip
Uses the length of the focused clip as reference to change the length of all
selected clips.
Mute/Unmute selected clips
Mutes/unmutes all selected clips.
Lock/Unlock selected clips
Locks the clip to prevent that it is edited by accident.
Lock/Unlock moving and resizing
Locks the position and size of a clip. Other editing options are still possible.
Show/Hide source’s ruler and markers
Changes the visibility of the ruler and the marker display of the source audio
files for all selected clips.
Options Menu
Only show clips externally selected
If this option is activated, only clips that are selected in the montage window
are displayed. This is useful to display only the clips that belong to a given
group (Groups window) or to a given audio file (File Browser window).
Show audio/picture clips
Shows the activated clip type.
Show global pre-gaps
Displays the length of the gap between the start of a clip and the end of the
previous clip on any track in the Pre-gap column. If the clips overlap, the time
is displayed in red.
Show pre-gaps by track
Displays the length of the gap between the start of a clip and the end of the
previous clip on the same track. If the clips overlap, the time is displayed in
red.
Zoom the clip when selected
If this option is activated when you select a clip in the list, the clip is displayed
to fill the space in the track area in the most efficient way.
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Make clip entirely visible when selected
If this option is activated when you select a clip in the list, the track area is
scrolled and/or zoomed to display the whole clip.
Filtering Clip Names
The search field allows you to filter the clips list for names.
You can search for text in the Name and Comment columns. The Comment
column is only searched if it is the sorted column. Otherwise, the name column is
searched. The Select All function only selects the filtered items.
•
In the Clips window toolbar, click in the search field, and enter some letters
of the clip that you are searching.
•
To switch the focus from the search field to the clips list, press the arrow
down key.
•
To switch the focus from the clips list to the search field, press
[Ctrl]/[Command]-[F].
Focused Clip Window
This window allows you to edit the focused clips using various tools. For example,
you can edit the cue points, envelope curves, fade-in/fade-out, and colors of clips.
In the Audio Montage, select Workspace > Specific tool windows > Focused
Clip.
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Edit
Edit plug-ins
Opens the plug-ins used by the focused clip.
Edit audio/Edit sub-montage
Opens the source file of the clip in the related workspace.
Zoom
Adjusts the view to display mainly the focused clip.
Play focused clip
Plays the focused clip from start to end.
Play focused clip with pre-roll
Plays the focused clip with a pre-roll. The amount of pre-roll is defined in the
transport bar.
Play selection range inside clip
Plays the selection in the focused clip.
Split at cursor position
Splits the focused clip into two new clips, at the edit cursor or playback cursor
position.
Create clip from selection
Creates a clip from the selection range.
Cut to clipboard
Cuts the focused clip to the clipboard.
Copy to clipboard
Copies the focused clip to the clipboard.
Erase part of clip inside selection range
Removes the intersection between the clip and the selected time range.
Erase selection and patch up
Removes the selection in a focused clip. If a second clip is created, it is
crossfaded with the original clip.
Trim to selection
Resizes the selected part of the clip at both boundaries.
Delete clip
Deletes the focused clip.
Auto Split
Opens the Auto Split dialog where you can select how to split clips.
Repeat clip
Opens the Repeat Clip dialog where you can select how clips should be
repeated.
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Clone and substitute
Creates a copy of the source audio file and makes the clip reference this new
file. As a result, you can modify the new source file without affecting other
clips of the original audio file. The cloned audio file is stored in the implicit
folder, that is specified in the Audio Montage Preferences.
Replace audio file
Allows the clip to refer to another audio file while all clip settings are retained.
The audio file must be at least as long as the end position of the clip. You
cannot substitute a stereo file with a mono file or vice versa. Clicking the arrow
icon opens a list of recently used folders.
Time stretch to cursor
Opens the Time Stretching dialog that allows you to time stretch the clip so
that it ends at the audio montage edit cursor position. When this function is
used, a clone of the original audio file is created, containing the audio range
used in the clip. The process is applied to the clone, and the clip references
to this file instead. Neither the original audio file nor other clips that refer to
the same audio file are affected. The cloned audio file is stored in the implicit
folder, that is specified in the Audio montage preferences.
Pitch shifting
Opens the Pitch Shift dialog, where you can change the pitch of the clip.
When this function is used, a clone of the original audio file is created, that
contains the audio range used in the clip. The Process is applied to the clone,
and the clip references to this file instead. Neither the original audio file nor
other clips that refer to the same audio file are affected. The cloned audio file
is stored in the implicit folder, that is specified in the Audio montage
preferences.
Save
Opens the Save Clip as dialog where you can select a file location. Clips get
the “.clip” extension and can be reused in any audio montage.
Shortcuts
Opens the Customize commands where you can define shortcuts for all the
commands that are found in the Focused clip window.
Options
Lock editing
Locks the clip to prevent accidental editing.
Lock moving and resizing
Locks the position and size of a clip. Other editing options are still possible.
Mute
Mutes the clip.
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Invert phase
Inverts the phase of the clip. An inverted phase is indicated by an icon in the
wave window.
Source’s ruler and markers
Displays the markers in the source audio file of the clip in the clip, together
with the ruler.
Cue Points
Cue point - Set at cursor
Sets the cue point at a fixed position from the start of the clip.
Cue point - Set at default pre-gap position
Sets the cue point before the start of the clip, at a distance governed by the
default pre-gap position.
Cue point - Follows fade-in end point
Sets the cue point to be the fade-in end point.
Cue point - Follows fade-out start point
Sets the cue point to be the fade-out start point.
End cue point - Custom offset
Sets the end cue point at a custom position from the end of the clip. This
option allows you to edit the gap individually for each clip.
If this option is deactivated, the default gap defined in the Audio Montage
Preferences is used.
Envelope
The following options are available for all envelope types:
Envelope type menu
Sets the type of envelope. Depending on the selected type, different options
are available.
The following options are available, when selecting Volume/Fades or Pan:
Reset all
Resets the envelope to its neutral form.
Delete selected points
Deletes the selected envelope points.
Deselect
Resets the selection status of all envelope points.
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Copy shape
Copies the envelope shape into a dedicated clipboard while excluding any
fade part.
Paste shape
Replaces the envelope shape while excluding any fade part.
Presets menu
Lets you save and restore envelope presets.
Smoothing
Rounds the resulting envelope curve angles. This produces smoother, more
natural envelope curves.
Lock
Hides the envelope curve points. This way, they cannot be edited with the
mouse. However, you can drag the whole curve up or down.
The following options are only available, when selecting Volume/Fades:
Convert to stereo envelope
Creates independent envelopes for the left and right channels.
Reset level to 0 dB
Replaces the segments between the fade-in and fade-out points to a single
neutral segment.
Reset selected points to 0 dB
Resets the selected points to their default level.
Raise selection with envelope
Adds volume envelope points and draws a curve to raise the audio level with
20 ms fall and rise times. You can drag the created segment up and down to
adjust the level.
Mute selection with envelope
Adds volume envelope points and draws a curve to mute the selection
between the clip and the selected time range by lowering the volume to zero
with default 10 ms fall and rise times.
Duck according to other track
Opens the Ducking options dialog. This allows you to create ducking effects
between clips on two adjacent tracks while having the volume of one track
lowered whenever there are clips on the other track.
Level/fade envelope after effects
Places the level/fade envelope after the clip effect section. This is useful when
using dynamic processors that alter the level of the clip.
The following options are only available when selecting Pan:
Pan menu
Lets you select a pan mode.
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Fade-in/Fade-out
Zoom
Adjusts the view to display mainly the fade-in/fade-out part of the focused
clip.
Copy
Copies the fade-in/fade-out shape to the clipboard.
Paste
Replaces the fade-in/fade-out shape and duration with the clipboard
contents.
Paste shape only
Replaces the fade-in/fade-out shape with the clipboard contents. The original
length is preserved.
Paste to selected clips
Replaces the fade-in/fade-out shape and duration of the selected clips with
the clipboard contents.
Linear
Changes level linearly.
Sinus (*)
Changes level according to a sine curve. When used in a crossfade, the
loudness (RMS) remains constant during the transition.
Square-root (*)
Changes level according to the square-root curve. When used in a crossfade,
the loudness (RMS) remains constant during the transition.
Sinusoid
Changes level according to the sine curve.
Logarithmic
Changes level logarithmically.
Exponential
Changes level exponentially.
Exponential+
Changes level strongly exponentialy.
Crossfade compensation menu
Lets you select the crossfade compensation.
Set time
Sets the clip fade-in/fade-out time to the specified value.
Presets menu
Lets you save and restore fade presets.
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Apply default
Replaces the current fade-in/fade-out with the default setting saved from the
Presets menu.
Smoothing
Rounds the resulting envelope curve angles. This produces smoother, more
natural envelope curves.
Automatic changes
If this option is activated, the fade-in/fade-out is not changed automatically,
for example, by automatic crossfading of overlapping clips. This is useful if you
have set a fade that you do not want to be altered, even though you may want
to overlap the clip with another clip.
This option is individual for each clip, as opposed to Mode > No automatic
crossfading which is global.
Colors
On this panel, you apply the custom colors that you have set in the Audio Montage
Colors dialog (Options > Colors).
Align Clips Dialog
This dialog allows you to align clips at specific intervals, with an optional space
between them. You must select at least two clips to use this function.
In the Audio Montage workspace, in the Clips window, select Functions > Align
clips.
NOTE
This tool ignores audio montage groups. This means that a clip can be moved
independently from the group to which it belongs.
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Place clips one after the other, using end cue points as reference
Positions the selected clips successively on the focused track. Each clip is
aligned to the end cue point of the preceding clip.
Place clips one after the other, with the gap below
Positions the selected clips successively on the focused track. In the time
field, specify the time between the end of a clip and the start of the next clip.
Place clips one after the other, crossfading them over the time specified
below
Crossfades all clips successively. In the time field, specify the crossfade time.
Place every
Lets each clip start at the specified interval from the start of the preceding clip.
In this case, the clips can overlap each other. In the time field, specify the
interval between the start of a clip and the start of the next one.
Treat overlapping clips on a track as one unit
All overlapping or adjacent clips on a track are treated as one unit. This means
that all clips are shifted with the same offset.
Treat overlapping clips as one unit, regardless of their tracks
All overlapping or adjacent clips on a track are treated as one unit, even if they
are on different tracks. This means that all clips are shifted with the same
offset.
Only selected clips
If this option is activated, only selected clips are moved. For example, if a
group of overlapping clips has any clip which is not selected, the whole group
is not moved.
Only clips of focused track
If this option is activated, only clips of the focused track are moved. For
example, if a group of overlapping clips has any clip which is not part of the
focused track, the whole group is not moved.
Re-ordering Clips in the Audio Montage By Dragging
In the Clips window, you can re-order clips by dragging them to another position in
the list.
PROCEDURE
1.
In the Audio Montage workspace, open the Clips window.
2.
In the clip list, drag a clip to another position in the list.
The option Move overlapping clips together is taken into account.
You can move more than one clip at the same time, by selecting multiple clips and
dragging them. If more than one clip is selected, all clips between the leftmost
selected clip and the rightmost selected clips are moved.
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Exporting the Clip List as Text
You can export the clip list as text to various formats. For example, the list contains
the names, source files, tracks, and length of the clips in the active audio montage.
PROCEDURE
1.
In the Audio Montage workspace, open the Clips window.
2.
In the Clips window, select Functions > Export clip list as text.
3.
Choose the information that you want to export and the output format.
4.
Click OK.
RESULT
The clip list opens in the selected output format. When selecting Print, the Print
Preview window opens. The text file is stored in the specified folder for temporary
files.
RELATED LINKS
Temporary Files on page 83
Export Clip List as Text Dialog
This dialog allows you to export the clip list in various file formats, or as printout. You
can decide which information about the clips to include in the exported file.
In the Audio Montage workspace, in the Clips window, select Functions > Export
clip list as text.
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About Moving and Crossfading Clips
You can let clips overlap other clips, move clips to another location, and create
crossfades between clips.The Options menu in the Audio Montage workspace
provides several options for defining the behavior when inserting, moving, and
crossfading clips.
Moving Clips
NOTE
You cannot move mono clips to stereo tracks and vice versa.
PROCEDURE
1.
Select the clips that you want to move.
2.
Click the clip area, and move the clips in any direction.
While dragging, the info line displays the current start position of the clip you are
dragging.
Moving Clips with Auto-Grouping
You can specify the behavior of clips when moving them horizontally. There are four
different options that affect the result when moving clips. The options can be
selected in the Audio Montage workspace on the Options menu.
RELATED LINKS
Options for Moving and Crossfading Clips on page 249
Optimized Crossfades When Snapping to Other Clips
If you line up clips so that one clip ends exactly where the next one starts, for
example, by using Magnetic bounds, the waveforms at the intersection point
probably do not match. To remedy a possible abrupt jump in level, that may result
in pops and clicks, you can optimize the crossfade when snapping to other clips.
On the Options menu, activate Snap to waveform when crossfading. When this
option is activated and you move a clip so that its start snaps to the end of another
clip, the following happens:
•
WaveLab scans the waveforms of the clips within a short range to find the
position where the waveforms of the two clips match best. This is the same
automatic phase matching as in the Zoom window. You can specify how far
you want the program to scan into the clips, by selecting a Search range on
the menu of the Zoom window.
•
The position of the clip that you moved is adjusted slightly to achieve the best
possible match between the waveforms. This creates a short crossfade.
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NOTE
This function only applies when moving from right to left, for example, when you let
the start of the moved clip snap to the end of the clip on the left.
About Overlapping Clips
You can move clips so that they overlap each other.
Note the following:
•
The tracks in the audio montage are polyphonic, which means that each track
can play back several overlapping clips at the same time. Overlapping clips
are transparent, allowing you to see the underlying clips and their waveforms.
•
To select an overlapped clip, click the bottom clip area of the crossfade area.
•
There are crossfading options that automatically adjust the volume envelope
curves when you overlap clips.
Options for Moving and Crossfading Clips
The Options menu provides you with options that help you when moving and
crossfading clips. You can choose how you want clips to be handled when they are
moved, decide whether automatic fades are created or not, and select the behavior
of clips when they are moved.
In the Audio Montage workspace, select Options.
Auto-shift clips on the right (on same track)
Moves all clips that are located on the right of the edited clip to the right. This
option is taken into account when moving or resizing clips, and when inserting
or pasting more than one clip at the same time.
Auto-shift clips on the right (on all tracks)
Moves all clips that are located on the right of the edited clip to the right. This
option is taken into account when moving or resizing clips, and when inserting
or pasting more than one clip at the same time.
Move overlapping clips together (on same track)
If this option is activated and you move a clip horizontally, all overlapping clips
or clips with adjacent clip edges on the same track are also moved.
Move overlapping clips together (on all tracks)
If this option is activated and you move a clip horizontally, all vertically
overlapping clips in the audio montage are moved.
Create default fades in new clips
If this option is activated, all new clips get the default fade-in and fade-out
shape and length. For clips that are created by splitting a clip, only the default
fade time is used.
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Lock fade times when adjusting clip edges
If this option is activated, the defined fade-in and fade-out lengths are locked
to the clip start or end, even if you adjust the clip edges. This means that if you
resize a clip by dragging its edge, the corresponding fade junction point
moves accordingly, while maintaining the fade length.
No automatic crossfading
If this option is activated, no automatic crossfading is performed when clips
overlap.
Automatic crossfading -- free overlaps
If this option is activated, automatic crossfades are created when a clip
overlaps the edge of another clip on the same track. The length of the overlap
determines the length of the crossfade.
Automatic crossfading -- fade-in constrains overlaps
If this option is activated, the fade-in length of a clip constrains the maximum
possible overlap, and thus the crossfade time. If the clip on the right side (the
clip with the fade-in in the overlap) is moved to the left, past the set overlap
time, the other clip is progressively resized. Moving the other clip to the right
(into the clip that contains the fade-in in the overlap) produces the same
result.
Automatic crossfading -- fade-out constrains overlaps
If this option is activated, the fade-out length of a clip constrains the maximum
possible overlap, and thus the crossfade time. If the clip on the left side (the
clip with the fade-out in the overlap) is moved to the right, past the set overlap
time, the other clip is progressively resized. Moving the other clip to the left
(into the clip that contains the fade-out in the overlap) produces the same
result.
Snap to waveform when crossfading
If this option is activated and you create a crossfade by dragging a clip
towards another one located at its left side, the position of the moved clip is
automatically adjusted to obtain a good correspondence between the clip
waveforms. This correlation process provides a crossfade that is aligned in
phase and thus sounds correct.
Auto-create crossfade and snap to waveform when snapping to left clip
If this option is activated and you move a clip to let its start snap to the end of
another clip to its left, the clip is slightly moved to the left to create a short
crossfade that is based on an optimal correlation between the two waveforms.
This correlation process provides a crossfade that is aligned in phase and
thus sounds correct.
Auto-create a crossfade when snapping to left clip
If this option is activated and you move a clip to let its start snap to the end of
another clip to its left, the clip is slightly moved to the left to create a
crossfade.
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The length of the crossfade is the fade-in length of the clip on the right. If the
fade-in length is zero, the fade-out length of the left clip is used as a basis
instead. If that length is also zero, the Create crossfade and snap to
waveform when snapping to left clip function is performed if activated.
Allow automatic crossfading with clips on focused track
If this option is activated, crossfades are automatically created when you
move a clip on any track so that it overlaps another clip that is located on the
focused track.
Allow multiple automatic crossfades
If this option is activated, crossfades are automatically created for all moved
clips that overlap other clips on their track. If deactivated, a crossfade is only
created for the clip that you drag, even if several clips are moved
simultaneously due to being selected.
Snap to magnetic items
If this option is activated, moved elements such as clip edges, time selection
edges, cursor, and markers snap to the magnetic items that are activated in
the Magnetic bounds submenu.
Magnetic bounds
From this submenu, select which items should be magnetic. The following
items can be selected:
•
Start of montage
•
Clip start
•
Clip end
•
Clip cue point
•
Time ruler marks
•
Markers
•
Markers in audio sources
•
Time selection edges
•
Cursor
Global envelope lock
If this option is activated, all envelopes are locked and cannot be edited with
the mouse. The envelopes and their points are still displayed but cannot be
selected or edited.
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Duplicating Clips
NOTE
You cannot copy mono clips to stereo tracks and vice versa.
PROCEDURE
1.
In the Audio Montage workspace, select one or more clips.
2.
Click the upper clip area and drag the clips in any direction.
While you are dragging the clips, a dotted line indicates where the first of the copied
clips will be placed. The position is also indicated on the info line.
If you dragged a single clip, a pop-up menu opens. Select the option that you want
to apply to the duplicate of the clip. If you dragged more than one clip, the duplicates
are inserted, taking the auto-grouping settings into account.
Duplicating with Auto-Grouping
If you duplicate more than one clip, two of the auto-grouping settings on the
Options menu affect the result.
•
If Auto-shift clips on the right (on same track) is activated when you
duplicate clips, all clips on the destination track to the right of the new copy
are moved to the right.
•
If Auto-shift clips on the right (on all tracks) is activated when you duplicate
clips, all clips to the right of the new copy in the whole audio montage are
moved to the right.
Repeating Clips
You can make a number of copies of a clip and lay them out at various intervals on
the current track of your audio montage.
NOTE
The repeating clip function does not create overlapping clips.
PROCEDURE
1.
If you do not know how many copies you need, but know roughly where you
want to position the last clip in the row, click this position to place the edit
cursor.
2.
Right-click the lower area of a clip, and select Repeat clip.
3.
In the Repeat clip dialog, select one of the following options:
•
Select Count, and specify the number of copies.
•
Select Repeat until cursor.
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4.
Select one of the Placement options.
5.
Click OK.
RESULT
The copies are created. If you chose the Repeat until cursor option, the last clip
starts on the left of the audio montage cursor.
Repeat Clip Dialog
This dialog allows you to specify the number of clones to produce and control their
placement, alignment, and spacing.
In the Audio Montage workspace, in the Focused Clip window, on the Edit panel,
select Repeat clip.
Number of clones - Count
Creates the specified number of clips.
Number of clones - Repeat until cursor
Creates as many clips as possible until the last clip crosses the edit cursor.
Placement - Place clips one after the other
Places the clips one after the other on the track.
Placement - Use end cue points as reference
Places the selected clips one after the other on the focused track. Each clip
is aligned with the end cue point of the preceding clip.
Placement - Gap between clips
Sets the gap duration between clips.
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Placement - Place every
Places the copied clips in the time interval that you set in the field below. This
is the interval between two succeeding clip starts.
Placement - Align with clips of focused track
Aligns the copied clips with the starting position of the clips on the focused
track, including any offset value that you can set in the Offset field.
Placement - Insert copies at markers
Aligns the copied clips with certain markers. Specify these markers on the
menus below.
Dragging Selection to Create New Clips
If you have made a selection range in a clip, you can copy this range to create a new
clip.
PROCEDURE
1.
In the Audio Montage workspace, create a selection range.
If the selection range covers more than one clip, only the section that is part of the
focused clip is copied.
2.
Click the upper clip area and drag the selection to the new position.
When you are dragging, the position of the pointer is displayed on the info line.
Magnetic bounds apply.
3.
Select one of the insert options.
NOTE
Envelopes and effects are not included when you copy selection ranges.
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Clip Resizing
In this context, resizing usually means moving the start and end points of a clip so
that more or less of the original audio file is revealed.You can resize a clip while
keeping the audio source static relative to the time line of the audio montage, or
relative to the resized edge of the clip.
Resize Clips With a Static Audio Source
To resize clips, click the left or right edge of the clip and move the start or end point
to the left or to the right.
The start and end positions and the length of the clip are displayed on the info line
while you are dragging. You cannot drag the edge of a clip past the start or end
point of the audio file to which it refers.
When you drag the right edge of a clip, the auto-grouping settings are taken into
account. This means that if Auto-shift clips on the right (on same track) is
activated, all the following clips on the track are moved when you resize the clip. If
Auto-shift clips on the right (on all tracks) is activated, this applies to clips on all
tracks in the audio montage.
If you press [Alt]/[Option], all selected clips are resized by the same value.
Resize Clips With a Tied Audio Source
When you resize a clip using this method, the audio source is tied to the edge that
you are moving. This means that the audio is scrolled at the other edge of the clip.
You [Ctrl]/[Command]-click the left or right edge of the clip and move the start or
end point to the left or to the right.
The start and end positions and the length of the clip are displayed on the info line
while you are dragging. Magnetic bounds and the auto-grouping options apply.
If you press [Alt]/[Option]-[Ctrl]/[Command] when resizing, all selected clips are
resized by the same value.
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Resizing Clips by Trimming
You can use trimming to remove unnecessary material at the beginning and end of
a clip.
PROCEDURE
1.
In the Audio Montage workspace, select a range within a clip while
encompassing the audio material that you want to keep in the clip.
2.
Right-click the selection range, and select Trim to selection.
RESULT
The clip is resized so that is contains only the selected audio.
Sliding the Audio in a Clip
You can adjust the position in the audio file to which the clip refers by sliding the
audio within the clip, without resizing the clip.
PROCEDURE
1.
In the Audio Montage workspace, position the mouse cursor over the lower
area of the clip.
2.
Press [Ctrl]/[Command]-[Alt]/[Option], and drag left or right to slide the audio
source.
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Moving a Clip With the Audio Source Fixed
When you have resized the clip to only display a section of the audio source, you
can move the clip while the audio source remains fixed in position.
PROCEDURE
1.
In the Audio Montage workspace, position the mouse cursor over the lower
area of the clip.
2.
Press [Shift]-[Alt]/[Option], and drag left or right to move the clip.
This reveals other sections of the underlying audio source.
Splitting a Clip
You can split a clip in two.
PREREQUISITE
Decide whether you want to automatically create crossfades between the left and
right clip by activating/deactivating Options > Create default fades in new clips.
PROCEDURE
1.
In the Audio Montage workspace, click the position where you want to split
the clip.
2.
Position the mouse cursor on the edit cursor position in the top clip area.
The cursor takes on the shape of a pair of scissors.
3.
Double-click.
RESULT
The clip is split in two. The two clips have the same name and settings. Envelopes
and fades are converted so that the two clips play back as if they were still one clip.
To split clips on all track, select Edit > All tracks > Split at cursor position.
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Erase Selections of a Clip
You can erase a selection range within a clip.
Erase Part of Clip Inside Selection Range
If you right-click the lower area of a selection, and select Erase part of clip inside
selection range, the selected range is removed. This results in a gap between two
clips.
If Snap to waveform when crossfading or Auto-create a crossfade when
snapping to left clip are activated on the Options menu, the position of the right
clip is adjusted for the best possible phase match between the clips.
The auto-grouping settings are taken into account.
Erase Selection and Patch Up
If you right-click the lower area of a selection, and select Erase selection and
patch up, the selected range is removed, and the right section of the clip is moved
to the left to fill the gap.
If any of the automatic crossfading modes or the option Create default fades in
new clips are activated on the Options menu, a default crossfade is created
between the resulting two clips, to create a clean transition.
Erasing a Selected Time Range of a Clip
PROCEDURE
1.
In the Audio Montage workspace, select a range.
2.
Right-click the selection in the lower part of the clip, and choose one of the
following options:
•
Erase part of clip inside selection range
•
Erase selection and patch up
Deleting Clips
There are two principal ways to delete a clip:
•
Right-click a clip, and select Delete.
•
Select a clip, and press [Delete]. Make sure that there is no selection range
before deleting. Otherwise the range is deleted instead of the clip. To ensure
that there is no selection range, press [ESC].
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Locking Clips
You can lock clips to prevent them from being accidentally moved, edited, or
deleted.
PROCEDURE
1.
In the montage window, select a clip.
2.
Do one of the following:
•
In the Focused clip window, select the Options panel, and activate Lock
editing or Lock moving and resizing.
•
In the montage window, right-click the upper half of a clip, and activate
Lock/Unlock selected clips or Lock/Unlock moving and resizing.
•
In the Clips window, select Functions, and activate Lock/Unlock selected
clips or Lock/Unlock moving and resizing.
RESULT
A lock symbol indicates that a clip is locked.
Unlocking Clips
Use one of the following ways to unlock a locked clip:
•
Click the locked clip, and confirm the dialog.
•
Open the Focused clip window, and on the Options panel, deactivate Lock
editing or Lock moving and resizing.
About Clips and Cue Points
A cue point is a defined position marker that belongs to a clip. It may be positioned
within or outside the clip. Cue points are displayed as dotted vertical lines.
When you move a clip, its cue point is magnetic to any edges, markers, or positions
that are activated on the Magnetic bounds menu. There are several uses for this:
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•
To set the cue point at a relevant position in the audio, and use it to align the
clip with other clips, etc.
•
To set the cue point before the start of a clip to position clips in a row with
pre-defined spaces.
•
To set the cue point at the fade-in or fade-out point of a clip, making it easy
to maintain defined fade lengths when crossfading. Making the cue points
magnetic makes it easy to select them.
NOTE
Each clip can only have one cue point. If you select another cue point insert option,
the cue point is moved to a new position.
Using Cue Points
You can add one cue point for each clip.
PROCEDURE
1.
In the Audio Montage workspace, click the clip position where you want to set
a cue point.
2.
Open the Focused clip window, and on the Cue points panel, select one of
the following options:
3.
•
Set at cursor
•
Set at default pregap position
Decide if you want to activate the following options:
•
Follows fade-in end point
•
Follows fade-out start point
•
End cue point
About Nudging
The audio montage window has a special function for making fine adjustments,
which is called nudging. The Nudge function is not restricted to the position of clips
and can be applied to a number of objects and properties.
Each time that you use the nudge function, the selected element is nudged by a
certain amount. By holding down user-specified modifier keys, you can nudge the
element by smaller or larger amounts.
Generally, the magnetic bounds are not used when nudging. That is, the nudged
elements do not snap to other positions but can be moved freely.
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Nudging
PROCEDURE
1.
In the Audio Montage, select the objects that you want to nudge.
For example, if you want to adjust the position of a clip or any property of a clip, such
as left/right edge, fade-in/fade-out length, etc., select the clip.
2.
Select Edit > Nudge, and activate the element that you want to nudge.
3.
Select Edit > Nudge, and select one of the Nudge - or Nudge + options,
use the nudge icons on the transport bar, or the keyboard shortcuts.
By holding down the user specified modifier keys, you can nudge the element by
smaller or larger amounts.
Setting the Default Nudge Impulse
You can define the nudge value that is used to adjust the elements. The large, small,
and micro impulses are relative to the default value.
PROCEDURE
1.
In the Audio Montage workspace, select Options > Audio montage
preferences.
2.
On the All Audio Montage tab, in the Basic amplitudes for nudging
section, specify a default time for the nudge impulse in the Time field.
3.
In the Gain field, specify the default impulse gain for the nudging volume.
4.
Click OK.
Elements That Can Be Nudged
The nudge menu lists the elements and properties that can be nudged.
In the Audio Montage workspace, select Edit > Nudge.
Nudge - x10
Nudges the target to the left or down, with 10 times the amplitude that is
defined in the Audio montage preferences.
Nudge + x10
Nudges the target to the right or up, with 10 times the amplitude that is
defined in the Audio montage preferences.
Nudge Nudges the target to the left or down, with the amplitude that is defined in the
Audio montage preferences.
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Nudge +
Nudges the target to the right or up, with the amplitude that is defined in the
Audio montage preferences.
Nudge - /10
Nudges the target to the left or down, with 10 times less the amplitude that is
defined in the Audio montage preferences.
Nudge+ /10
Nudges the target to the right or up, with 10 times less the amplitude that is
defined in the Audio montage preferences.
Nudge - /100
Nudges the target to the left or down, with 100 times less the amplitude that
is defined in the Audio montage preferences.
Nudge +/100
Nudges the target to the right or up, with 100 times less the amplitude that is
defined in the Audio montage preferences.
Auto-select item
Attempts to automatically select what should be nudged, depending on your
last action. For example, if your last action was to select or move a clip, the
Clip position option is automatically selected in the Nudge submenu. In most
cases, this allows you to use the nudge feature without having to manually
select nudge elements on the submenu.
Clip position
Moves all selected clips.
Clip’s left/right edge
Resizes the focused clip. This function is similar to resizing with a static audio
source.
Clip’s fade-in/fade-out
Moves the fade-in/fade-out junction points of the focused clip. If the envelope
is a stereo envelope, both sides are adjusted.
Clip’s crossfade
Narrows or widens the crossfade zone by moving the junction points of both
clips in the crossfade. This nudging only functions if you select the second
clip (the one to the right) in a crossfade pair.
Edit cursor
Moves the edit cursor.
Left edge of selected time range
Moves the left edge of a selection range.
Right edge of selected time range
Moves the right edge of a selection range.
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Selected marker
Moves the selected audio montage marker. To select a marker, click it in the
area above the ruler.
Volume of focused clip
Adjusts the volume of the focused clip step by step according to the Gain
setting in the Audio Montage Preferences.
Volume of all selected clips
Adjusts the volume of all selected clips step by step according to the Gain
setting in the Audio Montage Preferences.
Pan of focused clip
Adjusts the pan of the focused clip. Nudge + pans to the left and Nudge –
to the right.
Pan of selected clips
Adjusts the pan of all selected clips. Nudge + pans to the left and Nudge –
to the right.
Surround Pan of focused clip
Adjusts the Pan of the focused clip. Nudge + pans to the left and Nudge –
to the right.
Surround Pan of all selected clips
Adjusts the Pan of all selected clips. Nudge + pans to the left and Nudge –
to the right.
Audio Montages Within Audio Montages
You can insert external audio montages to an open audio montage or gather several
clips of an audio montage to an internal sub-montage. This makes it easy to build
large audio montages while hiding edit complexities inside other audio montages.
This also increases the performance of your system by providing options to freeze
edits and audio effects in cached audio files.
An example: You have an album that is composed of 15 songs. Each song requires
complex edits. In this case you can create 15 super clips, of which each one
represents a song. The main audio montage will be composed of these super clips,
while each song can have its own audio montage.
Moreover, because super clips can represent external audio montages with
different sample rates, you could provide your songs in high-resolution audio (96k
sample rate), and build an audio montage album in 44.1k for a CD and another
album at 96k for a DVD-Audio, for example.
RELATED LINKS
Super Clips on page 264
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Super Clips
A super clip is the representation of another audio montage. It refers to an audio file
that is the rendering of either an internal sub-montage or an external sub-montage.
A super clip is handled as any other clip that you can split or copy, or to which you
add fades and effects, etc.
You can reopen the super clip to edit the containing tracks and clips, and then
render the changes to update the super clip.
A super clip can either be a mono or a stereo audio montage.
External Sub-Montages
A super clip can refer to an external sub-montage which is an audio montage in
another file. An external sub-montage is independent from the audio montage in
which you insert it.
External sub-montages can be shared between projects and used in audio
montages with a different sample rate. They can be nested to any depth.
External sub-montage files can contain other external audio montages to any depth.
Super clips that refer to external sub-montages are indicated by a yellow icon.
A super clip that refers to an external sub-montage is also called X-Clip.
NOTE
An external sub-montage is a normal audio montage. The term “external” is to point
out its inclusion in another audio montage.
Internal Sub-Montages
A super clip can refer to an internal sub-montage, which is an audio montage that
is stored in the same file as the audio montage of the super clip. Such a super clip
can be regarded as a folder that contains another audio montage.
Internal sub-montages are handled within a single audio montage file. For example,
when you have finished editing certain clips of your audio montage, you can render
them as a super clip.
An internal sub-montage cannot contain another internal sub-montage. However, it
can contain super clips that represent external audio montages.
Super clips that are internal sub-montages are indicated by a blue icon.
A super clip that refers to an internal sub-montage is also called I-Clip.
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Audio Montage
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Creating a Super Clip
You can render clips of an audio montage to a super clip and thereby create an
internal sub-montage or export the clips to an external audio montage.
PROCEDURE
1.
In the Audio Montage workspace, open the audio montage in which you want
to create a super clip.
2.
Select the clips that you want to render to a super clip in the montage window
or in the Clips window.
3.
Select one of the following options:
•
Right-click in the upper half of one of the selected clips, and select Create
super clip from selected clips.
•
In the Clips window, select Functions > Create super clip from selected
clips.
4.
In the Super Clip Creation dialog, decide whether to create an I-Clip (internal
sub-montage) or an X-Clip (external sub-montage).
5.
Optional: Enter a name for the super clip.
6.
Click OK.
RESULT
The clips are rendered as a super clip inside the audio montage.
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Super Clip Creation Dialog When Creating Super Clips from Selected
Clips
In this dialog, you specify how to create super clips for internal and external
sub-montages.
In the Audio Montage workspace, right-click the upper half of one or several
selected clips, and select Create super clip from selected clips.
Name
Lets you specify the name for the super clip. For X-Clips, the name is also
used as the name of the audio montage.
Create I-Clip (internal sub-montage)
Creates a new audio montage inside the open audio montage and inserts a
super clip to reference it.
Place I-Clip
When creating a sub-montage from clips that reside on different tracks, you
can specify on which track the super clip is inserted.
Export as external audio montage and create X-Clip (external sub-montage)
Creates a independent audio montage and a super clip that refers to this
audio montage.
Destination
Lets you select the destination folder of the external sub-montage.
Include track effects
If this option is activated, the track effects are included in the sub-montage. If
you want to keep the super clip on the track, deactivate this option.
Super Clip Creation Dialog When Inserting External Audio Montages
In this dialog, you can select whether to create X-Clips or I-Clips when inserting an
external audio montage in another audio montage.
In the Audio Montage workspace, right-click the upper half of one or several
selected clips, and select Create super clip from selected clips.
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If the sample rates of the external audio montage and the currently opened audio
montage are the same, the following dialog opens:
If the sample rates of the external audio montage and the currently opened audio
montage differ, the following dialog opens:
Create X-Clip (external sub-montage)
The super clip refers to the audio montage file.
Make a deep copy and create I-Clip (internal sub-montage)
The audio montage is copied into the other audio montage. The super clip
refers to this independent copy.
Resampling quality
If the sample rate of the external audio montage and the currently opened
audio montage differ, you can use the Crystal Resampler plug-in to perform
a sample rate conversion.
Inserting External Sub-Montages into Audio Montages
You can insert an external sub-montage as a super clip into another audio montage.
PROCEDURE
1.
In the Audio Montage workspace, open the audio montage in which you want
to insert another audio montage.
2.
Do one of the following:
•
Right-click an empty area of the montage window, select Insert audio
montages > Browse, select the audio montages that you want to insert, and
click Open.
•
Drag the audio montage that you want to insert from the Windows
Explorer/Mac OS Finder or from inside WaveLab onto the montage window.
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3.
In the Super Clip Creation dialog, select whether to create an X-Clip or an
I-Clip, and click OK.
4.
From the pop-up menu, select how to add and mix the external sub-montage.
RESULT
The external sub-montage is rendered, and the resulting super clip is inserted at the
edit cursor position.
Editing Super Clips
You can reopen super clips’ sources, edit the clips that they contain, and apply the
changes to update the super clips of the external or internal audio montages.
The changes in the internal or externale audio montage are applied to the parent
audio montage when the sub-montages are rendered.
Editing External Sub-Montage of a Super Clip
PROCEDURE
1.
In the montage window, right-click the bottom area of a super clip of an
external sub-montage and select Edit sub-montage, or double-click at the
top area of the super clip.
The external sub-montage opens in another tab.
2.
Edit the external sub-montage, and save the changes.
3.
Decide on how you want to update the audio montage.
4.
•
To apply the changes to all audio montages that refer to the updated audio
montage, select File > Export > Render for montages using it as a
sub-montage.
•
To apply the changes to a single audio montage, go back to the audio montage
that contains the external sub-montage that you have updated. Select the
updated audio montage, and in the Files window, select Menu > Update
rendering of selected audio montage.
Save the audio montage.
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Managing Source Files of Clips
Editing Internal Sub-Montage of a Super Clip
PROCEDURE
1.
In the montage window, right-click the bottom area of a super clip of an
internal sub-montage and select Edit sub-montage, or double-click at the
top area of the super clip.
The internal sub-montage opens in another tab.
2.
Edit the clips of the internal sub-montage, and save the changes.
RESULT
The changes are automatically rendered to update the super clip.
Freezing External Sub-Montages
Freezing external sub-montages renders the external sub-montage to an audio file
while converting the super clips into regular clips.
IMPORTANT
Once a sub-montage has been frozen, it is no longer possible to edit it as an audio
montage.
PROCEDURE
1.
In the Audio Montage workspace, select the external sub-montage that you
want to freeze.
2.
In the Files window, select Menu > Freeze external sub-montage.
3.
Specify a name and a location, and click Save.
Managing Source Files of Clips
The Files window helps you to manage files that are used in the current audio
montage.
It displays all files that are used by clips in the current audio montage along with
their location, size, and last modification date. In addition, the following file
operations are available:
•
Replace files in the audio montage
•
Rename files (all internal clip references are updated)
•
Open files that are used in the audio montage in the Audio Files workspace
•
Export file names as text
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Files Window
This window helps you to manage files that are used in the current audio montage,
including internal and external montages.
In the Audio Montage workspace, select Workspace > Specific tool windows >
Files.
Files List
The files list shows the names, dates, sizes, and paths of the files that are used in
the current audio montage. The location and type of the files determine how paths
are displayed:
•
If the path is relative to the file audio montage location, the path is displayed
in green.
•
If the path is on the same partition as the audio montage, for example in a
subfolder, the path is displayed in blue.
•
If the path is on another partition, the path is displayed in red.
•
Internal sub-montages have no path.
Menu
Update rendering of selected audio montage
Renders the focused audio montage to a new audio file. This is necessary, to
forward the changes that you have made in the selected sub-montage to the
open audio montage.
Update outdated renderings
Renders all audio montages that have been modified since their rendered
audio file was created.
Exchange file
Replaces the selected file with another one.
Freeze external sub-montage
Renders the external sub-montage to an audio file while converting the super
clips into regular clips.
Rename file
Lets you change the file name. The internal references of the audio montage
are updated accordingly.
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Export file names as text
Creates a text file that lists all files that are used in the active audio montage.
Select clips of selected file
Selects all clips that make reference to the selected file.
Edit audio
Opens the selected files in the Audio Files workspace. If the selected files are
sub-montages, the related audio montage opens in the Audio Montage
workspace.
Reveal in Windows Explorer
Opens the Windows Explorer/Mac OS Finder to locate the selected file.
Exchanging the Source File of a Clip
You can replace a source file of a clip with another file and have all clips that refer
to the old source file refer to the new source file.
PROCEDURE
1.
In the Audio Montage workspace, open the Files window.
2.
In the Files window, select the file that you want to exchange.
3.
Select Menu > Exchange file, or click the Exchange file icon.
4.
Select the replacing file, and click Open.
Changing Name and File Location of Audio Files
You can change the name and location of an audio file in your audio montage
project. All clips that reference this file are automatically updated.
PROCEDURE
1.
In the Audio Montage workspace, open the Files window.
2.
In the Files window, select the file that you want to rename.
3.
Select Menu > Rename file, or click the Rename file icon.
4.
In the Rename File dialog, enter a new name.
5.
To enter a new file location, activate Change folder, and enter a new file
location.
6.
Optional: If you want the related clips to change their name according to the
new file name, activate Rename related clips as file name.
7.
Click OK.
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Exporting File Names as Text
You can export the file names list as text to various formats. The list contains the
names and paths of the audio files in the active audio montage.
PREREQUISITE
Set up your audio montage.
PROCEDURE
1.
In the Audio Montage workspace, open the Files window.
2.
In the Files window, select Menu > Export file names as text.
3.
Choose the information that you want to export and the output format.
4.
Click OK.
RESULT
The file names list opens in the selected output format. When selecting Print, the
Print Preview window opens. The text file is stored in the specified folder for
temporary files.
Editing the Source File of a Clip
Editing the audio montage may require that you process or edit the actual audio files
that are referenced by the clips.
Use one of the following methods to edit the source file of a clip:
•
Right-click the bottom area of the clip that you want to edit, and select Edit,
or double-click the top area of the clip. The source file of the clip opens in the
Audio Files workspace. Edit the clip, save it, and return to the audio montage.
•
Drag the clip onto the Audio Files workspace.
Note the following:
•
Any editing that you perform this way affects all clips that use the audio file,
including clips in other audio montages.
•
You can undo/redo all changes in audio files. These changes are reflected
immediately in all open audio montages.
•
If you use File > Save as to save the source audio file with a different name,
all open audio montages that refer to the file now refer to the new file.
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About Cloning and Substituting the Source File of a Clip
Cloning an audio source file avoids the risk that other clips are affected when the
source file of a clip is edited.
Use the Clone and substitute function to create a copy of the audio source file,
and make the clip reference to the new file. As a result, you can edit the source file
without affecting other clips or the original audio file.
The cloned audio file has the original file name with the suffix “_#X”, where X is a
number. The cloned audio file is stored in the implicit folder that is specified in
Audio Montage preferences.
The implicit folder is used when WaveLab needs to create new files that can be
referenced by an audio montage. Files that are stored in the implicit folder are not
temporary, that is, they are not deleted when you close WaveLab. This is necessary
since the audio montage contains references to the files.
Cloning and Substituting the Source File of a Clip
PROCEDURE
•
In the Audio Montage workspace, right-click the bottom area of a clip, and
select Clone and substitute.
RESULT
A clone of the source file replaces the selected clip. All clips that are referring to the
original file are referenced to the new file.
Replacing the Audio File of a Clip
You can replace the audio file of a clip to compare different takes.
NOTE
You cannot substitute a stereo file with a mono file and vice versa.
PROCEDURE
1.
In the Audio Montage workspace, right-click the bottom area of a clip, and
select Replace audio file.
2.
Select the file to which you want to reference, and click Open.
Make sure that the selected audio file is long enough. It must at least cover the range
between the start and end points of the clip.
RESULT
The selected audio file replaces the clip. All clip settings are retained, and any other
clip references to the replaced file are still available.
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Audio Montage
Track Activity Indicator
Track Activity Indicator
The track activity indicator shows the volume level for audio tracks. It is located on
the right side of the track control area in the Audio Montage workspace.
Instead of exact level readings the track activity indicator provides an overview of
which tracks are currently playing back audio at what approximate level.
Envelopes for Clips
For clips in the audio montage, you can create envelopes for volume and fades and
for panning.
You can create an independent volume envelope curve to automate volume, to
create fades and crossfades, and to mute clip sections.
You can also draw pan envelopes to automate pan settings for clips. For mono clips,
pan governs the left/right position in the stereo field. For stereo clips, pan sets the
left/right balance.
Edit the envelope settings in the Focused clip window, or by right-clicking an
envelope curve. The settings menu is different, depending on whether you click the
fade-in part, the fade-out part, or the sustain part.
How the Envelope is Displayed
By default, all clips display a volume envelope curve. You can view the envelope as
three separate envelopes: the fade-in part, the sustain part, and the fade-out part.
The points on the left and right side of the curve are the fade-in and fade-out
junction points that separate the fade parts from the sustain part.
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Audio Montage
Envelopes for Clips
The envelope curve indicates if points, fade-ins, or fade-outs have been defined. In
addition to the curve, changes in the volume envelope are by default also reflected
in the waveform.This can be activated/deactivated by selecting View > Map
waveform to volume.
Selecting the Envelope
You can switch between volume/fade envelopes and pan envelopes.
PROCEDURE
1.
In the Audio Montage workspace, select a clip, and open the Focused clip
window.
2.
On the Envelope panel, select which envelope to edit from the menu at the
top.
Hiding the Envelope Curves
All clips display envelopes by default. You can hide these envelopes. However,
hidden envelopes are still active.
PROCEDURE
•
In the Audio Montage workspace, select a clip, open the Focused clip
window, and on the Envelope panel, select Hide all.
Clip Envelope Editing
Curve points allow you to create volume curves, pan curves, and fade curves for a
clip. You can edit the envelope curve by adding and moving curve points.
Editing Curve Points
Many of the editing operations that are commonly used in the context of your
computer operating system can be applied when editing curve points. On top of
these, a number of specific procedures apply.
•
To add a curve point, double-click the envelope curve.
•
To delete a curve point, double-click the curve point. The curve point between
the sustain and fade parts of the envelope cannot be deleted.
•
To delete several curve points, select the curve points that you want to delete,
right-click one of the points, and select Delete selected points.
•
To select a range of points, [Alt]/[Option]-click and drag to create a selection
rectangle.
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Envelopes for Clips
•
To move all selected points, click one of the selected points and drag.
•
To raise or lower the value of two consecutive curve points,
[Ctrl]/[Command]-click the segment between the points and drag up or
down.
•
To change the time position of two consecutive curve points, [Shift]-click the
segment between the points and drag left or right.
•
To raise or lower the entire envelope curve, make sure that no curve point is
selected, click the envelope curve, and drag up or down. Do not drag a
segment that is delimited by selected points.
•
To adjust the envelopes in all selected clips, hold down [Alt]/[Option], and
drag any envelope curve up or down. This is a quick way to adjust the level or
pan of several clips at the same time and also to adjust both sides of a stereo
envelope simultaneously.
•
To move a fade-in/fade-out point vertically, [Ctrl]/[Command]-click and drag
the fade point.
•
To change the level or the fade in/out time of multiple envelopes at the same
time, select the clips that you want to edit, then press [Alt]/[Option], and edit
the envelope with the mouse.
Resetting Curve Points
You can reset curve points to the default level.
•
To reset a single point to 0 dB, right-click the point, and select Reset
selected points to 0 dB.
•
To reset the whole envelope curve to default, right-click the envelope curve,
and select Reset level to 0 dB.
Copying Envelopes
You can use existing envelope curves in other clips.
PROCEDURE
1.
In the Audio Montage workspace, right-click on an envelope curve, and select
Copy shape.
2.
Right-click the envelope curve of the destination clip, and select Paste
shape.
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Envelopes for Clips
Raising the Level of a Selection
You can raise the audio level with certain fall and rise times (by default 20 ms) and
then adjust the level.
PROCEDURE
1.
In the Audio Montage workspace, in a clip, select the range for the section
that you want to raise in level.
2.
Right-click the envelope curve, and select Raise selection with envelope.
The level of the selection range is raised.
3.
Click the envelope of the selection range and drag up or down to adjust the
level.
Muting a Selected Range of a Clip
You can mute a selected range by lowering the volume to -144 dB.
These muted sections are not affected when you drag the envelope curve up or
down.
PROCEDURE
1.
In the Audio Montage workspace, in a clip, make a selection range for the
section that you want to mute.
2.
Right-click the envelope curve, and select Mute selection with envelope.
RESULT
The section is muted. A fade-in and fade-out of 20 ms is applied to the muted
section.
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Envelope Smoothing
To produce smoother, more natural envelope curves, you can activate the
Smoothing function. It can be used while drawing the envelope curve or it can be
applied to an existing curve.
•
To activate this function, open the Focused clip window, and on the
Envelope panel, activate Smoothing.
Creating Envelope Presets
You can create envelope presets that you can later recall and apply to other clips.
There are separate presets for the sustain parts (envelope presets) and the fade
parts.
PROCEDURE
1.
In the Audio Montage workspace, activate the clip with the envelope curve
that you want to save as a preset.
2.
Open the Focused clip window, and on the Envelope panel, click the
Presets menu.
3.
Select Save as.
4.
Enter a name for the preset, and click Save.
Applying Envelope Presets
PROCEDURE
1.
In the Audio Montage workspace, activate the clip to which you want to apply
the envelope preset.
2.
Open the Focused clip window, and on the Envelope panel, click the
Presets menu.
3.
Select a preset from the list.
RESULT
The envelope curve is applied.
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NOTE
Volume envelope presets can only be applied to volume envelopes. Non-volume
envelope presets (such as pan and effect presets) can be applied to any other
non-volume envelope, but not to volume envelopes.
Locking the Envelope Curve
When an envelope curve is locked, the volume envelope curve points are hidden
and cannot be edited with the mouse. However, you can drag the whole curve up
or down.
PROCEDURE
1.
In the Audio Montage workspace, activate the clip that you want to lock.
2.
Open the Focused clip window, and the Envelope panel, activate Lock.
Locking All Envelope Curves
If you lock all envelope curves globally, they cannot be edited with the mouse.
PROCEDURE
•
In the Audio Montage, select Options, and activate Global envelope lock.
RESULT
The envelopes and their points are still displayed, but cannot be selected or edited.
Changing the Overall Volume Envelope of a Clip
The default envelope curve contains no volume envelope points. In this condition,
you can still use the curve to change the overall volume for a clip.
PROCEDURE
1.
In the Audio Montage workspace, place the mouse cursor on the envelope
curve.
The mouse cursor takes on the shape of a circle with two arrows that point up and
down.
2.
Click and drag the curve up or down to change the clip envelope volume.
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Mono/Stereo Volume Envelopes
It is possible to display two volume envelope curves for stereo clips, allowing you to
control the volume separately for the left and right channels.
•
To convert a mono envelope to a stereo envelope, right-click the volume
envelope of a clip, and select Convert to stereo.
•
To convert a stereo envelope to a mono envelope, right-click the volume
envelope of a clip, and select Convert to mono.
NOTE
Only volume envelopes can be converted to stereo.
About Pan Modes
The power of the sum of the channels drops by about 3 dB if a signal is panned hard
left or right, compared to the same signal being panned center. This can be
compensated with pan modes.
Experiment with the modes to see which fits best. The pan modes can be set for
tracks, clips, and the master output.
•
To set the pan modes for clips, use the pan modes menu in the Focused clip
window on the Envelope panel, or use the pan modes menu and knob in the
Effects window.
•
To set the pan modes for tracks and the master output, use the pan modes
menu and knob in the Effects window.
The following pan modes are available:
Pan Mode
Description
Channel damp
(0 dB/mute)
This mode does not compensate for power loss at all. If a signal is
panned hard left or right, the power of the sum of the channels
drops by 3 dB.
Constant power
(+3 dB/mute)
This is the default mode. Regardless of the pan position, the
power of the sum of the channels remains constant.
Channel boost
(+4.5 dB/mute)
If this mode is selected and a signal is panned hard left or right,
the power of the sum of the channels is higher than with a
signal-panned center.
Channel boost
(+6 dB/mute)
If this mode is selected and a signal is panned hard left or right,
the power of the sum of the channels is higher than with a
signal-panned center. This is the same as the previous option, but
with even greater power boost.
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About Modulating Audio With Other Audio
You can use the audio signal of one track to modulate the compression factor of
another track. The signal of the upper audio track (clip) is usually called the carrier
signal, because it contains the audio to be transmitted.
The Ducker plug-in is used for this purpose as it lowers the volume of one signal
whenever another signal is present.
RELATED LINKS
Ducking Clips on page 281
Ducking Clips
Ducking happens when the signal level on one track or channel is automatically
lowered through the presence of another signal on another track or channel. You
can create ducking effects between clips on two adjacent tracks.
If you activate the Duck according to other track option, the presence of another
clip on an adjacent track causes ducking.
A typical application for ducking would be a music track with a commentary
voice-over on another track. Whenever the commentary voice is heard, the volume
of the music track is lowered by a certain level through automatically created volume
envelope curves.
NOTE
•
The method of ducking clips is independent from clip modulation, though they
share some concepts. Ducking clips is more flexible but needs more manual
adjustments.
•
The clips that cause ducking must be located completely inside the time
range of the clip to which ducking is applied.
•
If the clips that cause ducking contain silent passages, ducking does not
function properly. These clips must be edited so that each phrase is a
separate clip without any silence. The reason for this is that, in this case, the
clip activates the ducking.
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•
When Duck according to other track is performed it is applied to one clip
at a time. For example, if the music consists of several clips that have been
spliced together, only one of the clips is ducked by the voice-over. To solve
this issue, you can to repeat the function for each clip or use the Render
function in the Master Section to create a specific (single) file from the
separate clips and re-import this as a new clip in the audio montage.
Creating a Ducking Effect
In the following example, the track to which ducking is applied contains music and
an adjacent track that causes ducking contains a voice-over.
PROCEDURE
1.
In the Audio Montage workspace, place the clips that contain the music and
the voice-over on separate adjacent tracks.
The voice-over clips must be located inside the time range of the music clip.
2.
Select the clip containing the music, and open the Focused clip window.
3.
In the Envelope panel, from the envelope type menu, select Volume/Fades.
4.
In the Envelope panel, select Duck according to other track.
5.
In the Ducking options dialog, make your settings.
Depending on whether the voice-over track is above or below the music track, you
must select Previous track or Next track.
6.
Click OK.
RESULT
The level of the music is automatically lowered by the voice-over clips.
Ducking Options Dialog
In this dialog, you can create ducking effects.
In the Audio Montage workspace, in the Focused Clip window, on the Envelope
panel, select Duck according to other track.
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Fades and Crossfades in the Audio Montage
Fall region - Balance clip fade-in
Ignores any duration or gap settings in the Fall region section. Instead, the
ducking envelope lowers the volume from the fade-in end position of the
voice-over clip.
Fall region - Duration
The time it takes for the level to fall when ducking starts.
Fall region - Gap before clip
The time between the end of the Fall region and the start of the voice clip.
Rise region - Balance clip fade-out
Ignores any duration or gap settings in the Rise region section. Instead, the
ducking envelope raises the volume from the fade-out start position of the
voice-over clip.
Rise region - Duration
The time it takes for the level to rise to the original level after ducking ends.
Rise region - Gap before clip
The time between the end of the voice clip and the start of the Rise region.
Modulator clips - Previous/Next track
Defines whether the modulator track should be before (Previous track) or
after (Next track) the track that is to be ducked.
Modulator clips - Only selected clips
If this option is activated, only the selected clips on the modulator track cause
ducking.
Damp factor
Sets the amount of ducking, that is, the degree of attenuation that is applied
to the affected clip.
Fades and Crossfades in the Audio Montage
A fade-in is a gradual increase in level and a fade-out is a gradual decrease in level.
A crossfade is a gradual fade between two sounds, where one is faded in and the
other faded out.
Creating Fades
By default, all clips display a fade-in and a fade-out junction point. These can be
dragged horizontally to create a fade-in or fade-out for a clip.
You can add envelope points to a fade just as with volume envelopes.
•
To create a fade-in, click the fade-in point at the beginning of a clip, and drag
it to the right.
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•
To create a fade-out, click the fade-out point at the end of a clip, and drag it
to the left.
•
To move a fade-in/fade-out point vertically, press [Ctrl]/[Command] while
dragging.
The resulting linear fade-in/fade-out curve is displayed in the clip, and the fade is
also reflected in the waveform. If you position the mouse over the fade-in point, a
label appears, showing the fade-in time in seconds and milliseconds and the volume
in dB.
Editing Fades Menu
In this menu, you can select various preset fade curves and other fade-related
options.
In the Audio Montage workspace, right-click the fade-in or fade-out point to open
the Fade-in/Fade-out menu. This menu is a subset of the Focused clip window.
Fade-in region/Fade-out region
Adjusts the view to mainly display the fade-in/fade-out part of the focused
clip.
Copy shape
Copies the fade-in/fade-out shape to the clipboard.
Paste shape
Replaces the fade-in/fade-out shape with the shape that was copied to the
clipboard. The original length is preserved.
Paste to selected clips
Replaces the fade-in/fade-out shape of all selected clips with the shape that
was copied to the clipboard. The original length is preserved.
Linear
Changes level linearly.
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Sinus (*)
Changes level according to the first quarter period of the sine curve. When
used in a crossfade, the loudness (RMS) remains constant during the
transition.
Square-root (*)
Changes level according to the square-root curve. When used in a crossfade,
the loudness (RMS) remains constant during the transition.
Sinusoid
Changes level according to a half period part of the sine curve.
Logarithmic
Changes level logarithmically.
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Exponential
Changes level exponentially.
Exponential+
Changes level strongly exponential.
Set fade-in time/Set fade-out time
Sets the fade-in time/fade-out time to the value that you have specified in the
Focused clip window on the Fade-in/Fade-out panel.
Apply default
Replaces the current fade-in/fade-out with the default setting that is specified
in the Focused clip window on the Fade-in/Fade-out panel.
Saving a Fade-In/Fade-Out as Default
The default fade-in/fade-out curve shape is linear. You can change this setting and
define a default shape and/or length separately for fade-ins and fade-outs.
PROCEDURE
1.
In the Audio Montage workspace, drag the fade-in/fade-out point to the
position that you want to set as default.
2.
Open the Focused clip window, and on the Fade-in or Fade-out panel, open
the Presets menu.
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3.
4.
Depending on whether you want to save the current fade as default for
fade-ins and/or crossfades, select one of the following options:
•
Save as default for automatic fade-ins/fade-outs
•
Save as default for automatic crossfades
Click OK.
RESULT
When you right-click a fade-in/fade-out point and select Apply default, the saved
fade is applied. In addition, when you create a new clip and Create default fades
in new clips is activated, the default fade is used.
NOTE
The default fades are saved for each audio montage. If you want to use the same
default fade for several audio montages, you should update the audio montage
template file.
Applying a Default Fade-In/Fade-out
PROCEDURE
1.
In the Audio Montage workspace, right-click the fade-in/fade-out area for
which you want to apply the default fade-in/fade-out.
2.
Select Apply default.
You can also click the Apply default button in the Focused clip window.
RESULT
The fade-in/fade-out time is set to the defined default value.
Applying Default Fades to New Clips
PROCEDURE
•
In the Audio Montage workspace, select Options > Create default fades in
new clips.
RESULT
All new clips that are imported or recorded in the audio montage get the default
fade-in and fade-out shape and length if Create default fades in new clips is
active. In this case, the default crossfade shapes are used. This also applies to clips
that are created through splitting clips.
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Locking the Fade Times When Adjusting Clip Edges
PROCEDURE
•
In the Audio Montage workspace, select Options > Lock fade times when
adjusting clip edges.
RESULT
The defined fade-in/fade-out length is locked to the clip start or end, even if you
adjust the clip edges.
Copying Fades
You can copy a fade-in or fade-out and paste it onto another clip.
PROCEDURE
1.
In the Audio Montage, right-click a fade-in/fade-out point, and select Copy
shape.
2.
Right-click the fade-in/fade-out point for which you want to apply the fade,
and select Paste shape.
RESULT
The fade is applied to the clip.
Setting the Fade/Level Envelope After the Effects
When using dynamic processors that alter the level of the clip, it is useful to place
the level/fade envelope after the clip effect section.
PROCEDURE
1.
In the Audio Montage, open the Focused clip window.
2.
On the Envelope panel, activate Level/fade envelope after effects.
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Deactivating Automatic Fade Changes for Individual Clips
You can deactivate automatic fade changes for individual clips. This can be used if
you have set a fade that you do not want to be altered in any way, even though you
may want to overlap the clip with another clip.
PROCEDURE
1.
In the Audio Montage workspace, select the clip for which you want to disable
automatic fade changes.
2.
Open the Focused clip window, and on the Fade-in or Fade-out panel,
deactivate Automatic changes.
Creating Automatic Crossfades in Audio Montages
Crossfades in audio montages can be created automatically when clip edges
overlap. You can specify the type of crossfade that is performed.
PREREQUISITE
Deactivate Options > No automatic crossfading.
PROCEDURE
1.
2.
In the Audio Montage, select Options, and select one of the following
automatic crossfade types:
•
Automatic crossfading - free overlaps
•
Automatic crossfading - fade-in constrains overlaps
•
Automatic crossfading - fade-out constrains overlaps
Move a clip so that it overlaps the edge of another clip.
RESULT
The crossfade is automatically created in the overlap. By default, there are two equal
length linear fade curves, one fading out and the other fading in. This also happens
if you paste a clip so that it overlaps another clip.
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About the Crossfade Compensation Attributes
When creating a crossfade, the fade-in/fade-out shape changes to optimize the
volume evolution during the crossfade.
In the Audio Montage workspace, in the Focused clip window, on the Fade-in or
Fade-out panel, open the crossfade compensation menu.
Pure shape
The fade shape is not changed and is used as defined. This is the default
setting when any fade-in/fade-out preset is selected.
Amplitude compensation
If this option is selected for a fade-in/fade-out curve in a crossfade, the
summed fade-in/fade-out gains remain constant along the crossfade region.
This option is recommended for short crossfades.
Medium compensation
Provides an intermediary between amplitude compensation and power
compensation. This is recommended if the other two compensation attributes
do not provide the expected result.
Power compensation
If this option is selected, the energy (power) of the crossfade is constant all
along the crossfade region. Crossfading between completely different types
of audio material can sometimes cause harmonics to “cancel out each other”
at the crossfade splice point, causing the volume to drop. Constant power
crossfades compensate for this problem. Using either the Sinus (*) or
Square-root (*) fade presets for a fade-in/fade-out provide a constant power
crossfade without selecting this option.
NOTE
Selecting a compensation attribute for a single fade (not in a crossfade) changes
the shape of the curve. However, the actual compensation is only applied when the
fade becomes part of a crossfade.
Crossfade Editing
You can create crossfades with independent shapes and lengths for the fade-in and
fade-out curves.
The default automatic crossfade is linear. It uses the same shape and fade lengths
for fade-in and fade-out. In most cases, an unaltered linear or sine crossfade
produces the intended result. The following rules apply:
•
A crossfade includes fade-in and fade-out.
•
You can edit the fade-in and fade-out curves in crossfades in the same way
as fades.
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•
To resize the crossfade time symmetrically, press [Shift], click the crossfade
area, and drag left and right.
•
To move the crossfade region while keeping its length, press
[Ctrl]/[Command], click the crossfade area, and drag left and right.
•
When you move a clip so that it overlaps another clip to create a crossfade,
and neither clip has a defined fade in the overlap, a default crossfade is
created, if one of the auto crossfade options is activated.
•
When moving a clip with a defined fade curve so that it overlaps the adjacent
edge of another clip (without a defined fade), the unmoved clip automatically
gets the same fade shape as the moved clip (but as a corresponding opposite
fade), with amplitude compensation. This only applies if the fade-out length of
the unmoved clip is set to zero.
•
If both clips have different defined fade curves at their adjacent edges when
creating a crossfade, this creates an asymmetrical crossfade, based on the
defined fade curves.
Apart from the different combinations described above, there are other factors that
govern the result when creating crossfades. In the following example a pre-defined
fade-out and an undefined fade-in are used. The fade-in is created when the
crossfade is performed. What happens depends on what type of defined fade-out
curve is used:
•
If the fade-out is a preset (except Sinus (*) or Square-root (*)) that uses Pure
shape, the corresponding fade-in gets the same preset with amplitude
compensation.
•
If the fade-out is a preset that uses a compensation attribute, the fade-in gets
the same preset, but with Pure shape activated, for the compensation to take
effect.
•
If the fade-out uses either the Sinus (*) or Square-root (*) presets with the
Pure shape setting, the fade-in gets the same preset also with the Pure
shape setting, and the compensation attribute is grayed out on the menu. In
fact, power compensation is used. This is because the Sinus (*) and
Square-root (*) curves provide constant power crossfades by themselves.
The Options menu provides additional options that affect crossfades.
RELATED LINKS
Options for Moving and Crossfading Clips on page 249
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Crossfading with Fade Constrained Overlaps
PREREQUISITE
To use fade-in/fade-out constrained overlaps, there must be a defined (not set to
zero) fade-in/fade-out in the overlap. Otherwise, Automatic crossfading - free
overlaps is activated for that crossfade.
The following description applies to fade-in constrained overlaps and fade-out
constrained overlaps. For the latter, however, the defined fade-out length constrains
the overlap, and accordingly, the left edge of the right clip is adjusted.
PROCEDURE
1.
In the Audio Montage workspace, activate Options > Automatic
crossfading - fade-in constrains overlaps.
2.
On a track that contains several clips, create a fade-in curve in a clip.
3.
Drag the clip to the left so that it overlaps another clip, past the right clip edge.
A crossfade is created in the overlap.
4.
Continue dragging the clip, so that the fade-in point of the dragged clip
overlaps the right edge of the left clip.
5.
Drag the clip to the right again.
The resized clip is gradually uncovered. The original clip length is memorized, so you
can later restore the resized clips.
6.
Separate the two clips again without creating an overlap so that they return to
the original left/right position relative to each other.
7.
Drag the left clip to the right so that it overlaps the other clip, and continue
dragging to the right.
The right edge of the left clip is progressively resized as you drag the clip further to
the right.
RESULT
Fade constrained overlaps can also be used with the options Allow multiple
automatic crossfades and Allow automatic crossfading with clips on focused
track.
About Adjusting Crossfades Between Clips
The Zoom window shows a magnified view of the beginning of the selected clip and
allows you to accurately adjust the crossfade point for two adjacent clips.
The main purpose of this is to help you splice two consecutive clips together. In this
case, the zoom view displays the end of the left clip and the start of the right clip.
This type of splicing is achieved by applying short crossfades.
There are two main types of crossfades:
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•
Artistic crossfades: for example, if you want to crossfade two songs to make
a nice transition. Usually, these types of crossfades are quite long and can
easily be created from the audio montage window.
•
Patch crossfades: for example, if you want to replace a section of audio as
transparently as possible, without audible discontinuity in the resulting audio.
In these cases, you must shorten the crossfades as much as possible. These
types of crossfades are best created in the Zoom window.
NOTE
The zoom view is centered around the starting point of the right clip. If you move the
right clip on the track, the left clip appears to be moving in the zoom view.
Adjusting Crossfades Between Clips
Accurately adjusting the crossfades between clips is important to avoid clicks at the
junction points. WaveLab analyzes the waveforms to automatically find the best
crossfade offsets.
PROCEDURE
1.
In the Audio Montage workspace, on a track, align the two clips that you want
next to each other.
2.
Select the clip that is located on the right.
3.
Open the Zoom window.
This shows a close-up of the two clips.
4.
Set the zoom factor using the icons above the zoom view, or select a zoom
factor from the Menu.
If you activate Menu > Automatic level zooming, the waveforms are automatically
zoomed vertically to fill out the Zoom view.
5.
If necessary, move or resize the clip located on the right in the zoom view.
6.
Set the search range using the icons above the zoom view, or select a search
range from the Menu.
7.
Decide whether you want to move the clip on the left or the clip on the right.
•
To move the clip on the left, click the Move to left (match waveform) icon, or
select Menu > Move to left (match waveform).
•
To move the clip on the right, click the Move to right (match waveform) icon,
or select Menu > Move to right (match waveform). This is useful if the two
clips are already overlapping.
RESULT
WaveLab scans the audio to the left of the splice point and moves the clip on the
right to the position which provides the best possible phase match, to avoid
harmonic cancelation. When the clip on the right is moved over the clip on the left,
a short crossfade is automatically created.
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Zoom Window
In the Zoom window, you can find the best crossfade point for two adjacent clips.
In the Audio Montage workspace, select Workspace > Specific tool windows >
Zoom.
On the Menu, you have the following options:
Move to left (match waveform)
Scans the audio to the left of the splice point and finds the best possible
phase match to avoid harmonic cancelation. The clip on the right is moved
over the clip on the left. This automatically creates a short crossfade, ensuring
the smoothest possible splice.
Move to right (match waveform)
Scans the audio to the right of the splice point and finds the best possible
phase match, to avoid harmonic cancelation. The clip on the right is then
moved further to the right. This automatically creates a short crossfade,
ensuring the smoothest possible splice. This function is useful if the two clips
already overlap.
Search range
Determines how deep WaveLab scans the clips when searching for the best
possible phase match. Higher values result in greater accuracy but also
longer processing times. If the sounds contain a lot of bass, avoid the shortest
search range setting.
Zoom
Sets the zoom factor. For example, 1:4 means that 1 pixel on the screen
corresponds to 4 audio samples.
Automatic level zooming
Automatically zooms the waveform vertically to fill the view.
Show envelope
Displays the envelope curves of the clips in the view. Which curves are exactly
displayed depends on the settings of each clip.
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Clip Time Stretching
Clip Time Stretching
You can adjust the length of a clip by using time stretching.
The best results when stretching or compressing a clip are achieved when using
small or moderate amounts of time stretch. You should avoid time stretching of
already time stretched material.
When you perform time stretching on a clip, a copy of the original audio file is
created, that contains the audio range that is used in the clip. The time stretch is
applied to the copy, and the clip now references to the copy.
•
The copied audio file has the same name as the original, but with the suffix
“_#X” where X is a number.
•
The copied audio file is stored in the implicit folder that is specified in the
Audio montage preferences.
NOTE
Since the new copied audio file contains exactly the audio range that the clip uses,
it is not possible to lengthen the clip by resizing after Time stretch to cursor has
been applied.
Time-Stretching Clips
PROCEDURE
1.
In the Audio Montage workspace, move the edit cursor to the position where
you want the clip to end.
2.
Right-click the clip that you want to time-stretch, and select Time stretch to
cursor position.
The Time Stretching dialog opens. Only the Method section is available for editing,
since the other settings are determined by the edit cursor position.
3.
In the Time Stretching dialog, edit your settings, and click OK.
RESULT
The clip is stretched or shortened so that it ends at the edit cursor position.
RELATED LINKS
Time Stretching Dialog on page 196
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Clip Pitch Shifting
Clip Pitch Shifting
You can adjust the pitch of a clip by using pitch shifting.
When you perform pitch shifting on a clip, a copy of the original audio file is created,
that contains the audio range that is used in the clip. The pitch shift is applied to the
copy, and the clip references to the copy.
•
The copied audio file has the same name as the original, but with the suffix
“_#X” where X is a number.
•
The copied audio file is stored in the implicit folder that is specified in the
Audio montage preferences.
Pitch-Shifting Clips
PROCEDURE
1.
In the Audio Montage, right-click the lower part of a clip for which you want to
apply pitch shifting, and select Pitch shifting.
The Pitch shift dialog opens.
2.
In the Pitch shifting dialog, edit your settings, and click OK.
RELATED LINKS
Pitch Shift Dialog on page 199
Effects for Tracks, Clips, and the Master Output
You can add VST effect plug-ins to individual clips, tracks, or the master output of
an audio montage. Clip effects affect individual clips only, track effects affect all
clips on a track, and the master output affects the whole audio montage.
Only VST 2 and VST 3 plug-ins can be used in the audio montage. Each clip, audio
track, and the master output can be independently processed by up to 10 VST
effect plug-ins.
Effects are configured as follows:
•
As inserts, when all sound is processed by the effects
•
As send effects (split mode), where the balance between the unprocessed
sound and the effect send level can be adjusted or controlled by effect
envelope curves (clip effects and certain VST 2 plug-ins only)
An icon in front of a clip name indicates that effects are applied to a clip.
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Effects for Tracks, Clips, and the Master Output
Hovering over a clip name shows the effects that are used for the clip.
NOTE
•
Only clip effects for clips that are active at the current playback position
consume CPU power. Track and master output effects are always active.
•
The first time that you play an audio montage after is has been opened or
copied, the program has to load all effects into memory. If you have many
effects, this can result in a short silence before the playback starts.
•
Effects that are used for tracks must support stereo audio, even if the audio
track is mono.
About the Master Output Effects
You can add master output effects to an audio montage. While the Master Section
is shared among all audio montages, the master output effects are local to each
montage. This allows you to have a fully embedded project, without needing to use
the Master Section.
The master output effects are located at the output of the audio montage.
NOTE
If you want to use a dithering plug-in, place it in the master output.
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Effects Window
This window lets you add effect plug-ins to tracks, clips, and the master output,
import the plug-ins from the Master Section, and make pan and gain settings.
In the Audio Montage workspace, select Workspace > Specific tool windows >
Effects.
Menu
Clip effects
Displays the plug-ins of the focused clip.
Track effects
Displays the plug-ins of the focused track.
Master effects
Displays the plug-ins of the master output.
Add slot
Adds a slot into which an audio plug-in can be inserted.
Remove
Removes the selected plug-in.
Remove from selected clips
Removes the plug-in if a selected clip uses the same plug-in.
Close all
Closes all plug-in windows that relate to this audio montage.
Copy
Copies the selected plug-in and its settings to the clipboard.
Paste
Replaces the selected plug-in with the plug-in that was copied to the
clipboard. If no slot has been added, a new slot is created.
Paste to selected clips
Replaces the selected plug-in with the plug-in that was copied to the
clipboard on all selected clips. If no slots have been added, new slots are
created.
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Effects for Tracks, Clips, and the Master Output
Load plug-in chain
Replaces the current plug-ins with a plug-in chain that has previously been
saved on disk.
Save plug-in chain
Saves the current plug-in chain as a preset.
Import Master Section plug-ins
Imports the plug-ins that are currently loaded in the Master Section. Existing
plug-ins are overwritten.
Plug-in map
Opens the Plug-in Map dialog, that displays all plug-ins that are used in the
audio montage and the clips and tracks that are using them.
Bypass all plug-ins
If this option is activated, all plug-ins of the active clip or track are bypassed
during playback.
Plug-in window handling
Opens the Plug-in Window Handling dialog in which you can set up the
appearance of plug-in windows.
Customize commands
Opens the Customize commands dialog in which you can set up shortcuts
for the Effects window.
Effects List
The effects list displays the effect plug-ins of the selected track, clip, or master
output. In the list, you can select new effects for the existing effect plug-ins, change
the effect order, and edit the Send level and Tail of effects.
The following options are available:
Plug-in window icon
Opens the plug-in window.
Effect name
Shows the effect name. Clicking an effect name opens the Plug-ins menu
where you can select a new effect.
Preset
Shows the last preset that was loaded for the plug-in.
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Send level
If this option is activated, you can enter a send level for the effect. This mode
is only available for certain VST 2 plug-ins.
Latency
Shows the latency (delay) in the audio path. Certain plug-ins must analyze the
sound before passing it on. However, real-time changes, such as turning an
effect knob, are delayed according to the maximum latency that is found
among all clips. Plug-ins with latency cannot be used for adjusting the send
level.
Tail (clip effects only)
Effects, such as reverb and delay, produce audio tails. This means, for
example, that the effect sound continues after the clip sound ends. For
example, if you add echo to a clip without specifying a tail value, the echo
effect is muted as soon as the clip ends. Set the tail length so that the effect
is allowed to decay naturally. If you add another plug-in to the clip that also
produces a tail, there is no need to set a separate tail value for this plug-in,
unless you want the decay to sum up. The overall tail length for the clip is the
sum of the tail of each plug-in. The maximum tail setting is 30 seconds.
Gain/Pan Section
In this section, you can edit gain and pan settings for each clip and track.
Global Gain Section
In this section, you can set the global gain for the active audio montage. This gain
can be applied before (pre) or after (post) the master output, depending on the
setting of the pre/post button on the left of this section. Pre is the default setting.
The Loudness Meta Normalizer can change the global gain to set the audio
montage output loudness, for example, to match the EBU R-128 recommendation.
RELATED LINKS
About Pan Modes on page 280
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Effects for Tracks, Clips, and the Master Output
Adding Effects to a Track, Clip, or Master Output
You can add effect plug-ins to every track and clip of the audio montage, and to the
master output of the audio montage.
Adding Effects Via the Effects Window
PROCEDURE
1.
In the Audio Montage workspace, open the Effects window.
2.
Select the clip section, track section, or master output section.
3.
Click the Add slot button.
4.
In the Effect name column, select the added slot.
5.
Select a plug-in.
RESULT
The selected effect opens in a window.
NOTE
You can add effects during playback. However, if you add an effect with a latency
larger than zero it is better to stop and restart playback to avoid timing
discrepancies. In addition, a small number of VST plug-ins may change latency
depending on parameter settings. If that is the case, make sure to stop and restart
playback after the latency is changed.
Additional Ways of Adding Effects
•
To add an effect to a track, click the FX button in the track control area, select
Add effect, and select an effect from the menu.
•
To add an effect to a clip, in the montage window, right-click the clip name,
select Add effect, and select an effect from the menu.
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Adding the Master Section Effects to the Track, Clip, or Master Output
You can add the Master Section effects to the clip, track or master output of an
audio montage.
PREREQUISITE
Set up the Master Section plug-ins.
PROCEDURE
1.
In the Audio Montage workspace, open the Effects window.
2.
Select the track, clip, or master output to which you want to add the Master
Section effects.
3.
Select Menu > Import Master Section plug-ins.
RESULT
The Master Section effects are added to the focused track, clip, or master output.
NOTE
To copy a single Master Section effect, you can drag it from a Master Section slot
to the effects list of the Effects window.
Removing Effects from Tracks, Clips, or the Master Output
PROCEDURE
1.
In the Audio Montage workspace, open the Effects window.
2.
Select the clip section, track section, or master output section.
3.
Click the effect that you want to remove, and select None.
RESULT
The effect is removed from the slot. You can either select a new effect for the slot
or leave the slot unused.
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Rearranging the Order of Effects
The effect order in the effects list determines to a certain degree how the effects
affect each other. You can rearrange the effects to change the processing order.
PROCEDURE
1.
In the Audio Montage workspace, open the Effects window.
2.
In the effects list, drag the effect that you want to rearrange to another
position.
Applying Effects to Another Track, Clip, or Master Output
You can save the plug-in chain of a track, clip, or master output as a preset and
apply it to other tracks, clips, or the master output of another audio montage.
PROCEDURE
1.
In the Audio Montage workspace, open the Effects window, and set up your
plug-in chain.
2.
Select Menu > Save plug-in chain.
3.
Enter a name and the file location for the effect chain, and click Save.
4.
Select the track, clip, or master output for which you want to apply the effect
chain.
Plug-in chains are applied to the focused clip.
5.
Select Menu > Load plug-in chain.
6.
Select a plug-in chain, and click Open.
Copying Effect Settings to Other Tracks, Clips, or the Master
Output
You can copy the effect and its settings of a track, clip, or master output to other
tracks, clips, or the master output of the same or another audio montage.
PROCEDURE
1.
In the Audio Montage workspace, open the Effects window.
2.
Select the effect from which you want to copy the settings.
3.
Select Menu > Copy.
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Effects for Tracks, Clips, and the Master Output
4.
Decide if you want to paste the effect settings to a new slot or replace an
existing effect.
•
To paste the effect settings to a new slot, add a new slot, and select Menu >
Paste.
•
To replace an existing effect, select the effect, and select Menu > Paste.
•
To copy to multiple clips, select the clips, and select Menu > Paste to
selected clips.
Undoing Effect Changes
You can undo/redo changes to the effect settings. However, WaveLab only
registers the changes when the Effects window loses focus.
PROCEDURE
1.
In the plug-in window, click another window to lose focus of the plug-in in
which you want to undo the settings.
2.
Go back to the plug-in in which you want to undo the settings.
3.
Press [Ctrl]/[Command]-[Z] to undo the settings.
Using Effect Envelopes
You can automate the effect send level for split mode clip effects by using effect
envelope curves.
PREREQUISITE
Set up a split mode effect plug-in for a clip.
PROCEDURE
1.
In the Audio Montage workspace, in the Focused clip window, open the
Envelope panel.
2.
In the envelope type menu, select the effect that you want to use for the
envelope curve.
3.
Create the envelope curve.
Setting the Pan and Gain for Effects
You can set the pan and gain of the effects for each clip and track individually.
PROCEDURE
1.
In the Audio Montage workspace, select the Effects window.
2.
Select a clip or track.
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Effects for Tracks, Clips, and the Master Output
3.
Adjust the pan and gain using the controls on the left of the Effects window.
Setting the Global Gain for Effects
You can set a global gain for the master output effects of your audio montage and
apply it before (pre) or after (post) the master output effects.
PROCEDURE
1.
In the Audio Montage workspace, select the Effects window.
2.
Select the master output.
3.
Adjust the global gain using the fader on the left of the Effects window.
4.
Click the pre/post button on the left of the global gain fader.
If you use a dithering plug-in, set the gain to be pre-master.
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Audio Montage
Effects for Tracks, Clips, and the Master Output
Setting the Send Level for Tracks, Clips, or the Master Output
Effects for tracks, clips, and the master output can be configured either as insert or
send effects. To set the send level for a track or clip, you must activate the Send
level option.
NOTE
Only effect plug-ins that are capable of using send effects can be activated for
setting the send level. For all other effect plug-ins, this function is deactivated.
PROCEDURE
1.
In the Audio Montage workspace, open the Effects window.
2.
In the Send level column, activate the checkbox for the track/clip for which
you want to set the send level.
3.
Specify the send level in dB.
About Resetting Plug-ins
You can reset the plug-ins before playing back or rendering the audio montage.
The following options are available in the Audio Montage workspace, when you
select Options > Audio montage preferences, and open the Active Audio
Montage tab.
•
If Reset plug-ins when starting playback is activated and you start
playback, the plug-ins release any samples in the plug-in memory. Activate
this if you get a small click or noise when the playback position reaches the
start of a clip with effects (typically reverb or delay effects). Only use this
option if you need it, since having it activated could result in a slightly delayed
response when you start playback, especially in an audio montage with many
plug-ins.
•
If Reset plug-ins before rendering is activated, all plug-ins are reloaded
before the files are rendered. Certain plug-ins are only properly initialized
when they are created. If you have activated Reset plug-ins when starting
playback and still get clicks on playback, you can activate Reset plug-ins
before rendering. This requires twice the amount of plug-in memory.
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Audio Montage
Effects for Tracks, Clips, and the Master Output
Plug-in Window
In this window, you can display the effect plug-ins that are used for a track, clip, or
the master output. You can display all effects in one plug-in window or have
separate windows for each effect, for all track effects, all clip effects, or all master
output effects.
Plug-in chain window
Single plug-in window
When you add a new effect plug-in to a track, clip, or master output, the plug-in
window opens automatically. In the plug-in window, the effects are displayed in a
plug-in chain by default. To change the processing order of the effects, you can
drag each effect to a new position in the chain.
You can adjust the handling of the effects in the plug-in window in the Plug-in
window handling dialog.
Opening the Plug-in Window
You can open the plug-in window from different locations in the Audio Montage
workspace.
•
To open the plug-in window from the Effects window, in the effects list, click
the plug-in window icon to the left of a plug-in.
•
To open the plug-in window for a clip from the montage window, right-click
the bottom part of a clip, and select Edit plug-ins. You can also right-click the
clip name and select a plug-in.
•
To open the plug-in window for a track, click the FX button in the track control
area.
•
To open the plug-in window for a focused clip, in the Focused clip window,
on the Edit panel, select Edit plug-ins.
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Audio Montage
Effects for Tracks, Clips, and the Master Output
Adding Effects From Within the Plug-in Window
Effects that are added to a clip, track, or the master output in the Effects window
are automatically displayed in the plug-in window. However, you can also add
effects to a track or a clip directly from within the plug-in chain window.
PROCEDURE
1.
In the Plug-in window handling dialog, activate Use plug-in chain
windows.
2.
In the Audio Montage workspace, open the plug-in window for the clip, track,
or master output to which you want to add an effect.
3.
In the plug-in chain window, click the Add plug-in button.
4.
Select an effect from the menu.
The effect is added at the end of the plug-in chain. The added effect is also displayed
in the Effects window.
5.
Optional: If you want to move the added effect in the plug-in chain, drag it to
another position.
Changing Effects From Within the Plug-in Window
When displaying effect plug-ins in the plug-in window, you can change plug-ins to
change the processing.
PROCEDURE
1.
In the Audio Montage workspace, open the plug-in window for the clip, track,
or master output for which you want to change an effect.
2.
Click the plug-in menu icon, and select an effect from the menu.
The changed effect is also displayed in the Effects window.
3.
Optional: If you want to move the changed effect in a plug-in chain window,
drag it to another position.
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Audio Montage
Effects for Tracks, Clips, and the Master Output
Switching Between Clip, Track, and Master Output Effects in the Plug-in
Windows
In the plug-in window, you can quickly switch between the effect chain of clips,
tracks, and the master output, and between plug-in windows, when you have
opened several plug-in windows.
•
To skip through the clips, tracks, and the master output of the active audio
montage, use the left and right arrow icons.
•
When using one plug-in window for both clips and tracks of an audio
montage, you can switch between the plug-ins of the focused clip or the track
which displays the focused clip by clicking the Show Clip Plug-ins or Show
Track Plug-ins icons.
•
To lock a plug-in window, activate Lock Window. If this option is activated,
and you select another track or clip, another plug-in window opens. If this
option is deactivated, and you select another track or clip, the effects are
displayed in the same plug-in window.
NOTE
This button is only visible if Use plug-in chain windows and Unlimited
number of open windows is activated.
Closing All Plug-in Windows
PROCEDURE
1.
In the Audio Montage workspace, open the Effects window.
2.
Select Menu > Close all.
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Audio Montage
Effects for Tracks, Clips, and the Master Output
Plug-in Window Handling Dialog
In this dialog, you can set up the appearance and behavior of the plug-in window.
In the Audio Montage, open the Effects window, and select Menu > Plug-in
window handling.
Use one window per plug-in
Opens each plug-in in an individual window. Several plug-in windows can be
open at the same time.
Close other windows when opening a new one
Closes all open plug-in windows of the same audio montage each time that
you open a plug-in window. This means that only one plug-in is displayed at
a time for a each audio montage.
Use plug-in chain windows
Shows all open plug-ins in the plug-in window as tabs, which allows you to
quickly switch between the plug-ins.
Unlimited number of open windows
Allows for any number of plug-in chain windows to be open at the same time.
There can be one for each track and one for each plug-in.
Lock window on opening
Automatically locks a plug-in each time a plug-in chain window is opened.
If a plug-in window is locked, and you select another track or clip, another
plug-in window opens. If this option is deactivated, and you select another
track or clip, the effects are displayed in the same plug-in window.
Use one window for clips and one for tracks
Uses one plug-in window for all clips, one for all tracks, and one for the master
output. This means that the plug-in window for clips is reused when activating
a new clip, and the plug-in window for tracks is reused when activating a new
track.
Use one window per montage
Uses one plug-in window for the clips, tracks, and the master output of an
audio montage. This means that the plug-in window for clips is reused when
you select any element that uses plug-ins (clips, tracks, master output).
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Audio Montage
About the CD Window
Auto switch between tracks and clips
If this option is activated and you click the track control area of a track, the
plug-in window switches to display the track plug-ins, even if the window was
displaying clip plug-ins or the master output plug-ins. If you click a clip header,
the plug-in window switches to display the clip plug-ins, even if the window
was displaying track plug-ins or the master output plug-ins.
About the CD Window
The CD window combines the functions for creating an audio CD or DVD-Audio
within WaveLab.
It displays a list of CD tracks along with information about each track. You can edit
each track and the playback properties of the CD, check the conformity to the Red
Book standards, add and edit CD-Text, add UPC/EAN and ISRC codes, generate
a CD report, and write the CD.
You can also choose whether to replace the gap between track markers with
silence or with sound by using the Audio in pauses function. When you select a
clip in the montage window, the corresponding track is highlighted in the CD
window.
A CD track in the audio montage is defined by CD markers.
You can reorder CD tracks in the CD track list with drag and drop. However, only
ranges of CD tracks that are located between a CD track start marker and a CD
end marker can be moved. For example, we have the following markers:
•
Start marker A
•
Splice marker B
•
Splice marker C
•
End marker D
•
Start marker E
•
Start marker F
Then the range between A and D (which is a group of 3 CD tracks) is moved as well
as the range between E and F. The ranges A-B, or B-C, or C-D cannot be moved
individually.
About CD Markers
A track in the audio montage is defined by CD track start and end markers or CD
track splice markers.
•
CD track splice markers indicate the end of one track and the start of the next.
•
If you delete the CD markers defining a track, the track is deleted from the CD
window.
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Audio Montage
About the CD Window
•
If you edit a marker position of a CD track, the change is reflected in the track
in the CD window.
•
The name of a CD track is the name of the CD track start marker. Editing the
marker name also changes the CD Track name, and vice versa.
CD Window
In this window, you can create an audio CD or DVD-Audio.
In the Audio Montage workspace, select Workspace > Specific tool windows >
CD.
Track List
You can edit tracks directly from the track list in the CD window.
Playback triggers
The following playback buttons are available:
Playback from start with a pre-roll.
-[Alt]/[Option]
Playback from start with a long pre-roll.
Playback from start.
You can also hold [Ctrl]/[Command] and double-click a CD track start marker
triangle to start playback from the marker position.
Name
Shows the track name. To change the name, double-click in the
corresponding cell, and enter a new value.
Pause
Shows the pause between two tracks.
Start
Shows the start position of the track.
End
Shows the end position of the track.
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Audio Montage
About the CD Window
Length
Shows the time value from the CD track start position to the corresponding
end or splice marker.
Pre-gap
Shows the pre-gap of a track.
Post-gap
Shows the post-gap of a track.
Lock
The key symbol indicates a track copy protection flag. Note that not all CD-R
units can handle this flag.
Emphasis
The rainbow-colored symbol indicates the emphasis flag. This setting is used
to indicate if the track was recorded with emphasis or not.
Activating/deactivating this option does not apply/remove emphasis from the
audio. It is just an indicator for how the file was created.
ISRC
Lets you enter an ISRC code. To change the code, double-click the
corresponding cell, and enter a new value.
CD-Text
Lets you specify the CD-Text. To change the CD-Text, double-click the
corresponding cell, and enter a new value.
Comment
Allows you to enter a comment. To enter a comment, double-click a cell.
Functions Menu
Write Audio CD or DDP
Opens a dialog from which you start writing a CD.
Check CD conformity
Verifies that the settings for the audio montage are in accordance with the
Red Book standard.
CD Wizard
Opens a dialog that helps you generate and adjust CD markers.
Edit CD-Text
Opens the CD-Text editor that allows you to enter descriptive text for the
tracks that are written on CD.
Edit CD meta-data
Opens the CD Meta-data editor that allows you to associate meta-data with
each CD track. When rendering CD tracks via the Render dialog, the audio
files inherit this meta-data.
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Audio Montage
About the CD Window
Generate Audio CD report
Opens a dialog that lets you create a text report that describes the contents
of the audio CD.
Play previous/next CD-track
This is used to audition the track before/after the selected track. This depends
on the pre-roll settings.
Play all CD-track starts
This is used to check the transitions between all tracks. In the Edit playback
times dialog of the CD window, you can set the playback length of CD track
starts.
Options Menu
Mode “Audio in pauses”
Usually, when you create a CD, only the sections between track markers are
written, and the pauses between tracks are replaced by silence. However, if
Mode “Audio in pauses” is activated, the exact image of the audio montage
is written, including any audio between tracks. This makes it possible to hear
audio either between CD tracks or before the first track, for example, to create
a hidden track.
Show times relative to track #1
If this option is activated, the start of track #1 is the time code reference,
excluding any pause before that track.
Show times relative to CD’s absolute zero
If this option is activated, the beginning of the CD, including any pause before
track #1, is the time code reference.
Time code with CD frames
If this option is activated, the time code is displayed in hours, minutes,
seconds, and CD frames.
Time code with milliseconds
If this option is activated, the time code is displayed in hours, minutes,
seconds, and milliseconds.
Pre-Roll mode
If this option is activated, all tracks start with a pre-roll time when they are
played back using the commands of the CD window.
Edit playback times
Opens a dialog to adjust time values that are related to CD track playback.
Toolbar
The following indicators are only available on the toolbar of the CD window:
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Audio Montage
About the CD Window
Cursor Position Indicator
Indicates the position of the playback/edit cursor, relative to the CD track start
in which it is located.
UPC/EAN Code
Opens a dialog in which you can specify an UPC/EAN code.
Edit Playback Times Dialog
In this dialog, you can edit time values that are related to the playback of the CD
track when using the playback commands of the CD window.
In the Audio Montage workspace, in the CD window, select Options > Edit
playback times.
CD Track Pre-Roll
Specifies the time that passes before the start of a CD track to help you
evaluate the transition between one CD track and another.
Add One Second of Silence Before Playback
If this option is activated, WaveLab waits one second before starting playback
of the next CD track start. This improves the listening experience.
Test Time
Specifies the playback length of CD track starts before jumping to the next
one. This applies when Play all CD-track starts is selected in the CD
window.
Meta-Data for CD Tracks
You can associate meta-data with each CD track or for the entire CD. When
rendering CD tracks via the Render dialog, the audio files can inherit this meta-data.
Since standard CD Text is not unicode, it does not always provide the optimum text
data. To solve this issue, WaveLab provides variables.
For CD tracks, there are two type of variables:
•
Auto variables
•
Custom variables
Auto variables are automatically added by WaveLab. For example, ISRC, track
names, and CD-Text. Custom variables can be manually edited to add additional
meta-data for the track.
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Audio Montage
About the CD Window
To see and edit the CD track meta-data, in the CD window, select Functions > Edit
CD meta-data.
NOTE
In this dialog, you prepare the meta-data. How they are stored, for example, as ID3
or RIFF, is specified in the Meta-data dialog. See the meta-data chapter for more
information about using the meta-data that you have specified in the CD Meta-data
dialog.
RELATED LINKS
Meta-Data on page 154
Creating Audio CD Tracks From Clips
The CD Wizard tool lets you generate CD track and splice markers from clip regions
and crossfade points. You can use the Check CD conformity option to check
whether the audio montage is ready for writing to audio CD.
PROCEDURE
1.
In the Audio Montage workspace, make sure that the audio montage contains
the material that you want on the audio CD.
CD tracks must have a length of at least 4 seconds.
2.
In the CD window, select Functions > CD Wizard, or click the CD Wizard
icon.
3.
Edit the settings in the CD Wizard dialog, and click Apply.
4.
Audition the tracks in the CD window, and make corrections if necessary.
5.
In the CD window, select Functions > Check CD conformity.
•
If a warning message appears, make corrections and check the CD conformity
again.
•
If no warning message appears, the audio montage is ready to write to audio
CD.
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Audio Montage
About the CD Window
CD Wizard Dialog
In this dialog, you can generate and adjust CD markers for audio montages.
In the Audio Montage workspace, in the CD window, select Functions > CD
Wizard, or click the CD Wizard icon.
Generate CD Track Markers
If this option is activated, the CD Wizard automatically generates CD track
markers according to the sub-options.
Create markers at clip boundaries
If this option is activated, CD track start and end markers are added at the
beginning and end of all non-overlapping clips.
Use splice markers (keep pauses within tracks)
If this option is activated, single splice markers are generated instead of
start/end markers. Instead of a standard pause, pause spaces are generated.
The pauses are kept within tracks. This can be useful for electronic
distribution and for compatibility with portable players.
Create markers at crossfade points
If this option is activated, CD track splice markers are created at all crossfade
intersection points. Activate this option if you have clips that overlap each
other and that should become different tracks on the CD.
Keep locked CD track markers
Normally, any previously created CD track markers in the montage are
removed by the CD Wizard. If Keep locked CD track markers is activated,
any locked CD track markers are kept.
CD marker naming
Allows you to set up a naming scheme.
Start marker
On this menu, select a naming scheme for the CD track start markers. The
following options are available:
•
As clips: The name of the closest clip.
•
Specific name: The name specified below.
•
Specific name + number X: The name and a number.
•
Specific name + number XX: The name and a number that is padded
on the left with 0.
•
Specific name + number (auto): As Specific name + number XX,
but only if the number of tracks is greater than 10.
•
Number X + specific name: A number and a name.
•
Number XX + specific name: A number that is padded on the left with
0 and a name.
•
Number (auto) + specific name: As Number XX + specific name,
but only if the number of tracks is greater than 10.
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Audio Montage
About the CD Window
•
Custom: Opens the Marker Naming dialog where you can rename
multiple markers according to specified settings.
End marker
On this menu, select the name of the CD track end marker. The following
options are available:
•
No name
•
As start marker
•
As start maker + “(end)”
•
Custom
Adjust pauses before tracks
If this option is activated, pauses before tracks are automatically adjusted
according to the sub-options.
Set time
If this option is activated, you can specify the length of the pauses between
tracks.
Round existing pauses to closest second
If this option is activated, the existing pauses between tracks are rounded to
seconds.
Don’t change first pause
If this option is activated, the pause between the start of the montage and the
first track are not changed. If you change the length of the pauses to anything
other than 2 seconds and want to be conform to the Red Book standard, you
must activate this option.
Adjust gaps between markers and sound (as CD frames)
If this option is activated, small adjustments to the spacing before and after
the CD track markers are made according to the sub-options. This is useful
to ensure that a low-quality CD player does not miss the start of tracks or cuts
them off before their actual end. In most cases, the default settings are
sufficient.
Silence after first track start marker
Lets you add a few frames of silence before the first track of the CD. Usually,
the pause needs to be longer for the first track than for the other tracks to
ensure that a low quality CD player does not miss the start of the first track.
Silence after track start marker
Lets you add a few frames of silence before each track on the CD to ensure
that a low quality CD player does not miss the start of tracks.
Silence before each track end marker
Lets you add a few frames of silence after each track of the CD to ensure that
a low quality CD player does not cut off tracks before their actual end.
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Audio Montage
About the CD Window
Silence before last track end marker
Lets you add a few frames of silence after the last track of the CD to ensure
that a low quality CD player does not cut off the end of the track or that the
listener is not disturbed by any clicks or motor noise that the player makes at
the end of a CD.
Ensure required minimum size for CD tracks
If this option is activated, markers are adjusted to ensure that each CD track
has the minimum length that the standard requires.
Quantize CD markers to nearest CD frame
If this option is activated, markers are quantized to the nearest CD frame.
Generate ISRC codes
If this option is activated, ISRC codes for the CD tracks are created. Each
code is based on the code that is specified in this option, but with an ending
number that is set according to the order of the tracks.
UPC/EAN code (13 digits)
Lets you specify an optional UPC/EAN code for the CD.
Audio in Pauses
When you normally write an audio montage on an audio CD, only the sections
between the CD markers are written, and the pauses between tracks are replaced
by silence. However, when Audio in pauses is activated, the exact image of the
audio montage is written on the CD, including any audio between tracks.
Using Audio in Pauses
The following describes two use cases for the Audio in pauses function.
Adjusting CD Track Markers to Hide Audio Sections
If you have a live recording with a section of applause between two songs, you can
move the track markers so that the applause section is between the tracks and
activate Audio in pauses. Thus the applause cannot be heard if you play any of the
two tracks on their own, but you can hear it when playing through the CD tracks.
PROCEDURE
1.
In the Audio Montage workspace, place the CD track end marker of the first
track at the position where the music ends, but before the applause section.
2.
If necessary, place the CD track start marker of the following track at the
position where the music starts.
3.
Select Options > Mode “Audio in pauses”, or click the corresponding icon
on the toolbar.
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Audio Montage
About Cloning Audio Montages
Placing a Clip Before Track 1
You can create a hidden CD track before track 1, for example.
PROCEDURE
1.
In the Audio Montage workspace, place a clip without CD track markers prior
to the first track start marker in the audio montage.
NOTE
It is recommended that you do not place the hidden track at the very start of
the montage but leave a little room between the montage start and the start
of the hidden track.
2.
Select Options > Mode “Audio in pauses”, or click the corresponding icon
on the toolbar.
If you now select Functions > Check CD conformity, the audio CD track list is valid,
given that the rest of the montage is ok.
3.
Proceed with writing the CD.
To hear the hidden track after writing the disc, rewind from the start of track 1.
About Cloning Audio Montages
When you clone an audio montage, you create a copy.There are two different types
of cloning: Clone and Clone completely.
Clone copies the audio montage and lets the new clips reference to the original
audio files. This is useful if you want to create several versions of the audio montage,
for example, to experiment with variations. However, any processing or editing that
you apply to the actual audio files are reflected in both audio montages.
Clone completely copies the audio montage and the actual audio files, thus
creating a new self-contained audio montage. There are several uses for complete
cloning:
•
Edit and process the audio files without affecting other audio montages.
•
Create different versions of the audio montage that focus on a certain aspect
of the audio montage by removing any unused audio sections.
•
Split audio files and give them specific names.
•
Reduce the size of an audio montage project by only using the needed audio
material.
NOTE
Clone completely does not render effects to files.
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Audio Montage
About Cloning Audio Montages
Cloning Audio Montages
This creates a copy of the audio montage in which the new clips reference to the
original audio files.
PROCEDURE
•
In the Audio Montage workspace, select File > Clone, or press
[Ctrl]/[Command], drag a tab, and drop it on the tab bar.
RESULT
A copy of the audio montage opens in another tab.
Cloning Audio Montages Completely
This creates a copy of the audio montage in which the actual audio files are cloned,
thus creating a new self-contained audio montage.
PROCEDURE
1.
In the Audio Montage workspace, select File > Export > Clone completely.
2.
Specify a file name and destination path.
3.
In the How to recreate audio files section, select the type of cloning.
4.
Optional: Decide if you want to reset the clips names from the file names
and/or if you want to copy audio file markers by activating the corresponding
options.
5.
Click OK.
RESULT
A copy of the audio montage opens in another tab.
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Audio Montage
About Cloning Audio Montages
Complete Audio Montage Cloning Dialog
In this dialog, you can specify how the selected audio montage is cloned.
In the Audio Montage workspace, select File > Export > Clone completely.
Clone file name
The name of the file to write.
Destination path
The path where you want to create the audio montage clone and all its audio
files.
Recreate exact audio files
If this option is activated, the cloned audio files are exact copies of the original
files. Unused ranges are not removed.
The files are recreated and saved in an uncompressed format. For example,
an MP3 file that is included in an audio montage will be recreated as a PCM
file. In other words, the content is recreated, not the file format.
Optimally combine all audio files into as few audio files as possible
If this option is activated, all used ranges in the original audio files are copied
and combined into a single audio file to which the clips in the clone refer. The
file gets the same name as the audio montage clone file.
NOTE
If the audio montage contains both mono and stereo clips, there will be two
combined audio files, one for mono material (with the suffix “M”) and one for
stereo material (with the suffix “S”).
Keep same number of files but remove unused ranges
If this option is activated, the same number of audio files is created, but any
unused ranges in the files are removed. This reduces the file size.
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About Cloning Audio Montages
Split files to remove unused ranges
If this option is activated, unused ranges in the files are removed, and the file
is split into several new files when a range is removed.
Create exactly one file per clip
If this option is activated, every clip in the audio montage clone refers to a
unique file, containing only the audio that is used in the clip. The files are
named after the clips. A number is added if several clips have the same name.
Create one file per clip, avoid duplicates
If this option is activated, every clip in the audio montage clone refers to a
unique file, containing only the audio that is used in the clip. The files are
named after the clips. However, if two clips use the same audio range, a
common file is created for these clips.
Clips margins
Allows you to add a specified number of seconds before and after the
beginning and end of the clip range in the created audio files. If you want to
be able to lengthen the clips in the cloned audio montage at a later stage,
specify a clip margins value greater than zero.
Reset clip names from file names
If this option is activated, the clips in the cloned audio montage get the name
of the corresponding audio file.
Copy audio file markers
If this option is activated, the markers in the original audio files are included in
the recreated files.
Importing Audio Montage Copies
You can open a copy of an existing audio montage in various ways.
PROCEDURE
1.
In the Audio Montage workspace, select File > Import > Audio montage
copy.
2.
Select the audio montage that you want to open as a copy, and click Open.
3.
In the Import audio montage copy dialog, select which parts of the audio
montage you want to include in the copy.
4.
Click OK.
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Snapshots
Import Audio Montage Copy Dialog
In this dialog, you can specify which parts of the audio montage to include in the
copy of this audio montage.
In the Audio Montage workspace, select File > Import > Audio montage copy,
select an audio montage, and click Open.
Do not import clips
If this option is activated, the clips of the opened audio montage are not
imported. For example, this can be used to open an audio montage with all the
CD markers in place and to insert alternate audio clips to compare them with
the original audio montage.
Import markers
If this option is activated, the markers of the opened audio montage are
imported.
Import track and master plug-ins
If this option is activated, the track and master plug-ins of the opened audio
montage are imported.
Reuse existing audio files
If this option is activated, the audio files of the opened audio montage are
used for the copy of this audio montage.
Duplicate audio files
If this option is activated, you can specify a name and destination folder for the
duplicates of the audio files to create a fully independent audio montage.
Snapshots
You can save a number of snapshots of your audio montage, to capture the current
zoom factor, cursor position, scroll position, clip selection status, and time range.
You can recall a particular view or snapshot at any time. Snapshots can be named
and updated.
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Snapshots
To recall a snapshot, double-click its title in the list. This restores all of its view
settings. You can also choose to recall only specific view properties by activating
the corresponding checkbox for a snapshot.
Capturing the Current View
Capturing the current view saves the current zoom factor, cursor position, scroll
position, clip selection status, and time range.
PROCEDURE
1.
In the Audio Montage workspace, set up the view of the audio montage
window.
2.
In the Snapshots window, click the Take snapshot icon.
3.
Optional: To rename a snapshot, click its name and enter a new name.
RESULT
A new snapshot is added to the snapshots list.
Updating Snapshots
You can update a previously captured snapshot with the current view.
PROCEDURE
1.
In the Audio Montage workspace, in the Snapshots window, click the
snapshot that you want to update.
2.
Click the Update snapshot icon.
RESULT
The new snapshot replaces the selected snapshot.
Deleting Snapshots
PROCEDURE
1.
In the Audio Montage workspace, in the Snapshots window, click the
snapshot that you want to delete.
2.
Click the Delete snapshot icon.
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Snapshots Window
In this window, you can take, recall, and edit snapshots.
In the Audio Montage workspace, select Workspace > Specific tool windows >
Snapshots.
Snapshot List
In the snapshot list, you can activate which view properties you want to restore
when applying a snapshot. You can activate the following view properties:
Restore zoom and scroll position
Restores the scroll position and zoom.
Restore cursor position
Restores the edit cursor position.
Restore time range selection
Restores the selected time range.
Restore clip selection status
Restores the selection status of each clip as well as the focused clip.
Menu
Take snapshot
Saves the view settings into a new snapshot.
Update snapshot
Takes a snapshot and replaces the selected snapshot.
Delete snapshot
Deletes the selected snapshot.
Apply
Applies all checked view settings that are stored in the selected snapshot.
Double-click a snapshot for the same result.
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Mixing Down - The Render Function
Mixing Down - The Render Function
The render function in the Master Section allows you to mix down the whole audio
montage or sections of it to a single audio file or to several files in case of a
multichannel audio montage. It also allows you to render to an audio CD, to a CD
image and cue sheet, or to a new audio montage.
A mixdown is necessary to produce an audio file from the audio montage. The
render function can be used for the following purposes:
•
Write a CD from a CPU-intensive audio montage, because it allows you to
first render all track and clip effect processing to recreate a new audio
montage and then write the CD in a second pass.
•
Render audio files or audio montages to multiple file formats at the same time.
This feature is also compatible with region renderings.
•
Render surround channels as multiple files while retaining the stereo/mono
status of the individual surround channels.
•
Create a CD image and cue-sheet.
•
Render audio montages to a single file or various parts to multiple audio files
in one operation. For example, you can render regions, groups, clips, or CD
tracks.
RELATED LINKS
Rendering on page 380
Rendering to Audio File
You can render to a single audio file format or to multiple audio file formats at the
same time.
PREREQUISITE
Set up your audio montage. If you want to render to multiple file formats, create file
format presets.
PROCEDURE
1.
In the Audio Montage workspace, select File > Export > Render.
2.
In the Render dialog, make your settings.
3.
Activate Create named file.
4.
Click the File format field and select Edit.
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5.
6.
In the Audio File Format dialog, do one of the following:
•
If you want to render to one audio format, make your settings in the Audio File
Format dialog.
•
If you want to render to multiple file formats, click the Multiple file format
button, click , and select the file format presets that you want to render to.
Click OK.
RESULT
The audio montage is rendered.
If you render a surround mix to Multi Stereo/Mono files, the mono/stereo status of
the rendered files reflect the mono/stereo status of the surround channels. If the
audio montage uses a 6 channel (5.1) surround mode, two stereo files (Lf/Rf and
Ls/Rs) and two mono files (C/Lfe) are rendered. The names of the rendered files
reflect the name of the surround channel to which they belong.
If you render an 8 channel configuration using the Multi Stereo/Mono option, the
channels are grouped as logical pairs (1-2, 3-4, etc.). Thus, for tracks that are
routed to only one channel in a pair, a mono file is created.
Under Windows, you can also render single multichannel surround files in the WMA
5.1 and 7.1 formats. Use the Windows Media Audio 9 Professional encoder.
RELATED LINKS
Multi Audio File Format Dialog on page 382
Creating Multiple Audio File Format Presets on page 381
Loudness Meta Normalizer
This tool is a key mastering component to ensure that all songs get the same
loudness and to prevent clipping. It allows you to adjust the loudness of each clip
in the audio montage so that they all have the same loudness. It is also possible to
adjust the loudness of the audio montage mix down as well as the loudness at the
Master Section output.
This tool operates on gains. It does not affect the underlying audio files or use any
audio compressor.
If it is not possible to match the loudness in a given clip without clipping, the level
of the other clips is reduced so that all clips still achieve the same loudness. This
does not happen if the Ignore peaks option is selected.
To avoid clipping at the Master Section stage, you can limit the mixdown output of
the audio montage before it goes into the Master Section and/or the Master Section
output.
The loudness is computed according to the EBU R-128 specification. The
reference loudness can either be the loudness of the loudest clip, of a given clip, or
a specific custom value.
There are three possible loudness references:
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•
Loudness of an entire file (EBU R-128 recommendation).
•
Top of a loudness range, that is, the average loudest 3 second audio section
of the file. This ensures that a single unusually loud sound is not taken into
account for the reference.
•
Maximum short-term loudness, that is, the maximum loudness that is found in
a 3 second audio section of the file, for example, the loudness of a short music
passage.
NOTE
•
The audio path in the audio montage uses 32-bit floating point processing.
You can therefore overload it, for example, use levels above 0 dB in clips,
without causing clipping in the signal path. The only section of the audio path
that can introduce clipping is the output of the Master Section or the output
of the audio montage. Both of these issues can also be solved by the
Loudness Meta Normalizer.
•
Since loudness requires several seconds of audio to be correctly computed,
this tool is not adapted for very short clips (under 3 seconds).
Loudness Meta Normalizer Dialog
In this dialog, you can adjust the loudness of each clip in the audio montage so that
they get the same loudness. You can also adjust the whole output, while taking the
EBU R-128 audio measurement recommendation and a true peak analysis into
account.
In the Audio Montage workspace, select Tools > Loudness Meta Normalizer.
Clips, Master Section Output, and Audio Montage Output
•
When Clips is activated, the gain settings of all clips in the audio montage are
adjusted individually so that all clips play back at equal loudness.
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•
When Audio montage output is activated, the general gain setting of the
audio montage is modified so that the audio montage mixdown matches a
given loudness and optionally does not clip.
•
When Master section output is activated, the Master Section gain is
adjusted so that the audio montage mixdown that is processed through all
Master Section plug-ins matches a given loudness and optionally does not
clip. The audio montage itself is not modified by this operation.
The following options are available for the gain settings of clips, the audio montage
output, and the Master Section output.
Match loudness menu
Select whether the audio montage output should match a given loudness or
not. The following options are available:
•
Do not change loudness
•
Match loudest clip
•
Match focused clip
•
Match specific loudness
Loudness
Determines the specific loudness to match. For example, -23 LUFS if you
want to follow the EBU R-128 recommendation for broadcast.
Reference menu
Select the loudness, that WaveLab should reference:
•
Loudness of the entire clip (EBU R-128 recommendation)
•
Average loudest 3 second audio section (Top of loudness range)
•
Loudest 3 seconds audio section (Maximum short-term loudness)
Peaks menu
Select whether WaveLab should limit the sample values (digital peaks), the
analog reconstructed samples (true peaks), or ignore the peaks.
This setting is less important for clips, as the whole audio montage mixdown
can be further reduced.
Maximum peak
Determines the maximum peak value that is not to be exceeded.
Additional Options
Exclude audio montage effects
If this option is activated, audio montage effects are not taken into account
when you use the Loudness Meta Normalizer for processing.
Only selected clips
If this option is activated, only selected clips are processed with the Loudness
Meta Normalizer.
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Navigator Window
Navigator Window
This window displays a representative view of the entire active audio montage and
allows you to quickly navigate around it. It is useful if you have a large audio montage
with many tracks and clips.
In the Audio Montage workspace, select Workspace > Specific tool windows >
Navigator.
Each clip is represented by a colored block. The visible window content is shown
by a black rectangle.
Navigating in the Navigator Window
Navigating in the Navigator window allows you to quickly find positions in large
audio montages.
Dragging this rectangle in any direction scrolls the main audio montage window,
thus allowing you to easily navigate to a location in your audio montage.
•
To adjust the visible range of the active window, you can resize the selection
rectangle vertically and horizontally by dragging its edges. You can also resize
by [Shift]-clicking the selection rectangle.
•
To zoom in on a clip, left-click its block, or double-click if the clip is inside the
black rectangle.
•
To completely zoom out, right-click anywhere.
Notes Window
This window allows you to keep notes about the current audio montage session.
In the Audio Montage workspace, select Workspace > Specific tool windows >
Notes.
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About Groups
You can type into the window and use the standard HTML text editor controls to
format your text, add images, and lists. The notes are saved with the audio montage
file.
About Groups
Groups are a selection of clips that you can quickly re-select via the Groups
window in the Audio Montage workspace, or by clicking any clip of a group.
NOTE
Groups can be seen as a clip selection facility. For advanced grouping features, see
the chapter about super clips.
A clip cannot be part of more than one group. If you add a clip to a group, it is
automatically removed from any other group. You can select a specific color for a
group to make it easy to discern it in the track view.
You can render all groups as individual files in the Render dialog of the Master
Section.
•
To create nested groups, drag a group into another group.
•
To temporarily deactivate a group, deactivate the checkbox to the left of a
group in the list. When a group is deactivated, you can move individual clips
in the group as if they were not grouped.
•
To rename a group, double-click its name.
•
To select all clips of a group in your audio montage for editing, click a group.
RELATED LINKS
Super Clips on page 264
Groups Window
This window displays a list of groups within the current audio montage.
In the Audio Montage workspace, select Workspace > Specific tool windows >
Groups.
Group selected clips
Adds all selected clips to a group.
Remove selected group
Removes the group that is selected in the list. The clips in the group are not
affected.
A mouse click selects a group
If this option is activated, selecting a clip in the track view automatically
selects all clips in the same group.
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About Groups
If this option is deactivated, selecting a whole group requires that you click the
group name in the groups view list. This is useful if you want to be able to
modify the relative positions of clips in the group without having to remove
them from the group.
Color
Lets you select a color for the group.
Grouping Clips
PROCEDURE
1.
In the Audio Montage workspace, select the clips that you want to group.
2.
In the Groups window, select Group selected clips.
3.
Enter a name for the group, and click OK.
RESULT
The new group appears in the group list. The group name is prepended to the
names of the clips that are included in the group. This applies to the clip names on
each track.
Adding Clips to an Existing Group
PROCEDURE
1.
In the montage window, select the clips that you want to group.
2.
In the Groups window, select Group selected clips.
3.
Select the group to which you want to add the clips, and click OK.
Removing Groups
PROCEDURE
1.
In the Audio Montage workspace, in the Groups window, select a group.
2.
Select Functions > Remove selected group.
RESULT
The group is removed, and the clips are not affected.
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Backing Up Audio Montages
Coloring Groups
Coloring groups in different colors makes it easier to navigate through the groups.
PROCEDURE
1.
In the Audio Montage workspace, in the Groups window, select a group.
2.
From the Color menu, select a color.
Any individual color selections for the clips override the group color.
Backing Up Audio Montages
The Audio Montage workspace backup mechanism allows you to maintain previous
versions of saved audio montages and automatically save the audio montage.
Whenever you save the audio montage, the previously saved version is copied to
the subfolder Backup.mon which is in the same folder as the audio montage file.
This backup folder is automatically created by WaveLab. The backup files are
named “Montage_#X”, where “Montage” is the name of the audio montage and “X”
is a number.
You can specify how many previous versions you want to keep (maximum 1000).
Once the specified number of backups is created, the oldest file is overwritten each
time the audio montage is backed up.
NOTE
The numbers in the backup file names are not related to the age of the backup files.
Instead, you must check the dates of the files to know which backup is the most
recent.
Unsaved and untitled audio montages are also backed up. The backup files for
“Untitled” audio montages are saved in the temporary folder, and use a number as
name, so that the files are called “Y_#X”, where “Y” is a number identifying the
audio montage, and “X” is the number of the backup file. Once the audio montage
is saved, these temporary backup files can be discarded.
Setting Up the Audio Montage Backup
You can specify the number of audio montage backups and define how often the
backup should be updated.
PROCEDURE
1.
In the Audio Montage workspace, select Options > Audio montage
preferences.
2.
Select the All Audio Montages tab.
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3.
Specify the maximum number of backups.
To turn off the backup function, set this setting to 0.
4.
Optional: Activate Auto save, and specify how often the backup should be
updated.
5.
Click OK.
Opening an Audio Montage Backup
You can open the backup of an audio montage to restore a former version of the
audio montage.
PROCEDURE
•
In the Audio Montage workspace, select File > Open previous version.
RESULT
If the audio montage has no unsaved changes, the most recent backup file is
opened in a new window. If you select the function from an open backup file, the
previous backup version is opened.
If the audio montage has unsaved changes, the saved audio montage file is opened
in a new window. The opened audio montage is not a backup file. This is not the
same as selecting File > Revert to saved.
Revert to saved closes the current (unsaved) audio montage and opens the last
saved version. This replaces the current audio montage, while Open previous
version opens the saved version in a new window without closing the current,
unsaved version.
Multichannel Operations in the Audio Montage
WaveLab supports the use of up to 8 ASIO inputs and outputs. If you use a
multichannel audio interface with an ASIO driver, you can route audio montage
tracks to up to 8 separate channel outputs and to up to 6 surround outputs.
You can also record up to 8 channels simultaneously. This automatically creates
new tracks in the montage, one for each recorded channel or channel pair.
To be able to use WaveLab for multichannel/surround projects, you need the
following:
•
An audio card/interface with multiple inputs and outputs (at least 8).
•
Set up an ASIO driver in the VST Audio Connections dialog, and specify
how the internal input/output channels are connected to your audio card.
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Multichannel Operations in the Audio Montage
Multichannel Configuration
You can configure the number of channels to use for each audio montage. All
multichannel configurations except the free configuration mode have surround
formats and are internally assigned to surround channels in WaveLab. This means
that the channels go through the Master Section and then to the audio card.
The are two operational modes that you can use for multichannel operation:
•
In the Multichannel, DVD-Audio compatible mode, in surround mode, tracks
can be routed to one or several surround output channels (Left/Right Front,
Center, etc.). You can route up to 6 surround channels.
•
In the Multichannel, free configuration mode, channels refer to the names
of the 8 WaveLab output channels instead of the surround channels. Track
channels can be routed to one (mono tracks) or two (stereo tracks) of the 8
available output channels.
Which configuration you should select depends on a number of factors:
•
The number of outputs that are available on your audio card. If you only have
4 outputs on your card, you can only use surround formats with 4 or less
channels.
•
Whether or not you intend to mix the audio montage to a surround format. If
not, select normal stereo operation or 8 channel mode which is
non-surround-oriented.
•
The intended use of the final surround mix. For example, if you want your mix
to be compatible with the 5.1 surround set-up, select 6 channel mode.
Assigning Track Channels to Output Channels
When you select a multichannel configuration, you must create and assign track
channels to surround output channels manually. However, when you import a
multichannel interleaved audio file in the 5.1 format, tracks that are routed to the
corresponding surround channels are automatically created.
PROCEDURE
1.
In the Audio Montage workspace, in the track control area, click the Audio
Track Dispatching button for an audio track.
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2.
In the Audio Track Dispatching dialog, route each channel of a track to an
output channel by activating the corresponding channels.
Which channels are available depends on the selected channel configuration.
3.
Click OK.
RESULT
If you have selected a surround format, you can route a track channel to several or
all surround output channels. If you select more than one output channels for a
stereo track channel, the Surround Panner automatically appears in the track
control area for the corresponding track.
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Audio Track Dispatching Dialog
In this dialog, you set up to which channels the top and bottom audio channels of
the audio montage are sent. The available channels depend on the selected channel
configuration, for example, stereo or multichannel.
In the Audio Montage workspace, in the track control area, click the Audio Track
Dispatching button for an audio track.
Top audio channel is sent to
Lets you select to which audio montage audio outputs the left channel of the
track is sent and mixed.
Bottom audio channel is sent to
Lets you select to which audio montage audio outputs the right channel of the
track is sent and mixed.
Low pass filtering of the LFE channel
If an LFE output is selected, a low pass filter (12 dB/octave) can be applied to
the track signal so that only the low frequency content can pass. The cutoff
frequency for the filter can be adjusted.
Surround Panning
You can use surround panning to position a track freely in the surround image.
The Surround Panner lets you adjust the pan of your audio between surround
sound channels. Each track can have its own Surround Panner window, and
several of these windows can be open at the same time.
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Using Surround Panning
You can route any audio montage channel of a track directly to a surround channel
or to a combination of surround channels using the Audio Track Dispatching
dialog. However, if you also want to position a track freely in the surround image,
you can use the Surround Panner.
In this example, it is assumed that you have set up an audio montage in 5.1 surround
format and that you want to use the Surround Panner for a stereo track.
PROCEDURE
1.
In the Audio Montage workspace, in the track control area, click the Audio
Track Dispatching button for the track that you want to use for surround
panning.
2.
In the Audio Track Dispatching dialog, activate the surround channels.
You can activate different surround channel combinations for the top (left) and bottom
(right) audio channels.
3.
Click OK.
A Surround Panner display appears in the track control area.
4.
Click and drag in the Surround Panner display to make coarse adjustments.
For a more precise control of the imaging, right-click the Surround Panner display to
open a larger version of the Surround Panner.
5.
In the Surround Panner dialog, click the blue square and move the mouse.
This pans the audio of the left/top channel. The other channel is automatically
mirrored horizontally. Right-click the display to choose from a number of positioning
presets.
6.
To view and edit the other channel, click the gray square.
The gray square turns to red, and red speaker lines indicate the speaker levels.
7.
When you have finished your settings, click Close.
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Surround Panner Dialog
This dialog allows you to adjust the pan of your audio between surround sound
channels.
In the Audio Montage workspace, set up a multichannel, DVD-Audio compatible
audio montage, and select 2 or more output channels per track channel. For each
track that is set to Surround in the Audio Track Dispatching dialog, a small
Surround Panner window is displayed in the track view.
Right-click on the small Surround Panner window to open the Surround Panner
dialog.
In the graphic display, the positions of the left/right audio channels of the clip are
shown as small squares. The proportional signal levels of the individual speakers are
indicated by colored lines from the speakers to the center of the display.
The graphic display shows the surround imaging of either the left/top (blue) track
audio channel, or the right/bottom (red) track audio channel. The color of the
speaker lines shows which channel is selected for viewing and editing.
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If you are viewing the left/top channel, you see a blue square indicating the position
of the audio. The other, gray square represents the other channel. Click the gray
square to view and edit this channel. The gray square turns to red and red speaker
lines indicate the speaker levels.
Center
Determines how much the track signal should be mixed into the audio
montage output corresponding to the center speaker. This is only available if
the Center channel is activated in the Audio Track Dispatching dialog.
Divergence
Determines the attenuation curve that is used when positioning sound
sources. If this is set to 0 %, positioning a sound source on a speaker sets all
other speakers to zero level, except for the center speaker which depends on
the center level. With higher values, the other speakers receive a percentage
of the sound source. This makes the sound less localized.
Front/Rear ratio
Determines how much the front and rear levels are affected by the vertical
positioning in the Surround Panner dialog. The higher the ratio, the less
difference exists between sounds that are panned front and rear. If set to
100 %, the rear and front levels are always the same.
Constant power
Determines whether the loudness (RMS) or the level of the summed signals
should be preserved. If set to 100 %, the total loudness is the same regardless
of panning settings. If set to 0 %, the total level is preserved.
LFE Gain
Sets the amount of signal that are sent to the LFE channel. This is only
available if the LFE channel is activated in the Audio Track Dispatching
dialog.
Copy
Copies the settings of the selected Surround Panner to the clipboard.
Paste
Applies the copied settings to the Surround Panner.
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Presets menu
Right-click the graphical view of the Surround Panner to select from different
surround panning presets.
About Surround Pan Envelopes
You can automate surround panning for individual clips using envelopes. This is
slightly different from using regular volume and pan envelopes.
•
Internally, there is a single surround pan envelope where each envelope point
contains a complete surround state (left-right position, front-rear position, and
LFE amount).
•
When you look at the envelope for a clip, you can choose to view either the
left-right, front-rear, or the LFE curve.
•
When setting envelope points for either one of the envelope types, that point
is automatically added to the other envelope types at the same position in the
clip. This happens because there is actually only one surround pan envelope.
However, you can only edit a part of it at the same time.
Setting Up Surround Panning Envelopes
You can use the Surround Panner to program each envelope point. This makes it
easy to set up automated surround panning for a clip.
If you want the signal to start at the front center position, then move to the left rear
speaker, and finally move to the right rear speaker, do the following:
PROCEDURE
1.
In the Audio Montage workspace, set up a track for surround panning by
activating the surround channels in the Audio Track Dispatching dialog.
2.
Select the clip, and open the Focused Clip window.
3.
On the Envelope panel, select one of the Surround Pan envelopes.
For example, Surround Pan (Left <-> Right).
4.
In the montage window, double-click the envelope to add a new envelope
point in the middle of the clip.
This will be the position where the signal reaches the left rear speaker. Only the
position in the clip is important when you create envelope points at this stage, not the
vertical position of the point.
5.
In the track control area, right-click the Surround Panner display.
6.
In the montage window, select the envelope point at the start of the clip.
7.
Use the Surround Panner dialog to position the sound. In our example, the
panning should start in the front center position. Drag the position square to
the top middle of the display. You can also right-click the display and select
the Front Center preset.
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Multichannel Operations in the Audio Montage
8.
In the montage window, select the next envelope point in the clip, and in the
dialog, drag the position square to the lower left corner of the display. You can
also right-click the display and select the Rear left preset.
9.
In the montage window, select the last envelope point, and in the dialog, drag
the position square to the lower right corner of the display. You can also
right-click the display and select the Rear right preset.
The left-right surround envelope curve now looks like this:
10.
In the Focused Clip window, on the Envelope panel, select Surround Pan
(Front <-> Rear).
The Front-Rear surround envelope curve looks like this:
11.
Play back the clip.
You should hear the sound move from center front to left rear to right rear.
12.
To create more complex surround panning, add more envelope points and
program these in the same way.
Editing Envelope Curves Directly
You can edit the envelope curves without affecting other panning settings, by
adjusting their points in the clip. This can be useful if you only want to change the
LFE amount without affecting panning, or if you only want to change the left-right
panning without affecting front-rear panning and vice versa.
NOTE
If you move an envelope point in time, all surround pan envelopes are affected in the
same way.
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Audio Montage
Multichannel Operations in the Audio Montage
About the Multichannel, DVD-Audio Compatible Mode
When the Multichannel, DVD-Audio compatible mode is activated for an audio
montage, you can choose between various multichannel configurations. The
surround channels can be handled as mono or stereo channels.
In the Audio Montage properties dialog, select Multichannel, DVD-Audio
compatible. In the Channels menu, the following multichannel configurations are
available:
Surround channel
Description
Left/Right front (Lf, Rf)
This is used in all surround configurations. These correspond
to standard left/right stereo speaker positions in front of the
listener. You should route a stereo track to these channels.
Center (C)
This is placed in between the Lf/Rf surround speakers. You
should route a mono track to this channel.
Low Frequency
Effects (LFE)
The LFE channel is connected to a subwoofer and provides
low frequency content (normally below 120 Hz). It normally
used to provide special low frequency effects like deep
rumbles, explosions, etc. For each channel that is routed to the
LFE channel, there is a low-pass filter that allows you to extend
or lower the low frequency range that is reproduced by the
LFE channel. There are no strict rules for where to place the
LFE subwoofer, but it is usually placed in an asymmetrical
position beside the center speaker. You should route a mono
track to this channel.
Surround (S)
This is sometimes referred to as the back surround channel
and is normally placed in between the left/right surround
channels. You should route a mono track to this channel.
Left/Right Surround
(Ls, Rs)
These are placed behind the listening position, mirroring the
left/right front speakers. You should route a stereo track to
these channels.
About the Free Configuration Mode
When the free configuration channel mode is selected, you can route track
channels to one of the 8 output channels. Free configuration mode is non-surround
oriented and enables you to use the audio montage as an 8 channel
recording/playback environment.
To activate this mode, select Edit > Audio montage properties, and from the
Mode menu, select Multichannel, free configuration.
Channels are grouped as stereo pairs (1-2, 3-4, etc.), which is reflected in the
Master Section and when rendering to multiple files.
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Audio Montage
Multichannel Operations in the Audio Montage
About the Enable Additional DVD-Audio Configurations Option
The DVD-Audio specification allows for mixed sample resolutions within the same
channel configuration, which therefore needs to be divided into two separate
groups. For example, the Lf/Rf channel group could, according to the standard,
have a higher sample rate resolution than the other surround channels in the same
configuration.
The slash in the surround channel menu indicates which channels belong to which
group.
However, the use of mixed resolutions is not supported in WaveLab and disabled
by default.
To allow all possible modes, in the Audio Montage properties dialog, select
Multichannel, DVD-Audio compatible mode, and activate Enable additional
DVD-Audio configurations.
Multichannel Recording
You can record up to 8 channels simultaneously in the audio montage.
Multichannel Recording Preparations
PREREQUISITE
Set up how the inputs on your audio card are connected to the internal channels of
WaveLab.
PROCEDURE
1.
In the transport bar of the Audio Montage workspace, click the Record
button, or press [*] on the numeric key pad.
2.
From the File to create section, select whether to create a named file or a
temporary file.
3.
Specify a file name and the location where you want to store the file.
4.
Click the audio format text to open the Audio File Format dialog.
5.
Select the audio file format.
6.
On the Channels menu, select Multi Stereo/Mono or Multi Mono.
Multi Stereo/Mono produces single stereo or mono files, depending on the
activated channels in the Recording channels dialog. The channels are logically
grouped as pairs (1-2, 3-4, etc.). This governs the mono/stereo status of the
recorded files and the tracks they will end up on. For example, if you have activated
the channels 1, 2, and 3, one stereo file (containing channels 1 and 2) and one mono
file (channel 3) will be created.
7.
Click OK.
8.
On the menu below the file format, select Add to focused track of montage.
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Multichannel Operations in the Audio Montage
9.
Select Set input, activate the channels from which you want to record, and
click OK.
For each of the activated recording channels, a meter is displayed in the Recording
dialog.
10.
Optional: Make further settings.
Recording a Multichannel Project
PREREQUISITE
Prepare a multichannel recording.
PROCEDURE
1.
In the Audio Montage workspace, set the edit cursor where you want to start
recording.
2.
In the Recording dialog, click Record.
3.
When you have finished recording, click Stop.
When you record on multiple channels, new tracks are automatically created in the
audio montage, one for each mono or stereo clip that is recorded. Each track is routed
to the same output by default, but can be routed to any output that is used in the
current configuration in the Audio track dispatching dialog.
RESULT
If you have activated more than 2 input channels in the Recording channels dialog
and select any channel option except the Multi Mono or Multi Stereo/ Mono
options, the activated recording inputs are mixed and produce a single file (or two
if you selected Dual Mono).
Multichannel Configurations in the Master Section
The Master Section automatically rearranges itself when starting play back of a
multichannel audio montage. You can rearrange the Master Section without starting
playback by clicking the Rearrange icon at the top of the Master Section.
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Audio Montage
XML Export and Import of Audio Montages
The output channels for the selected channel configuration are displayed in the
Master Section, with one level fader and clip indicator for each output channel.
Stereo Mixdown of a Multichannel Configuration
The Stereo button in the Master Section allows you to monitor a stereo mixdown of
the Master Section outputs.
You can use this for the following:
•
Preview a stereo mixdown of a surround mix.
•
Preview stereo mixdown settings for DVD-Audio projects.
Master Effects and Multichannel Audio Montages
Handling effects for a multichannel audio montage is similar to handling effects
when working in stereo mode. However, not all plug-ins support multichannel
operations. In this case, a warning is displayed when you try to insert them.
XML Export and Import of Audio Montages
You can export and import audio montages as XML.
This option can be used for the following:
•
Change many file names that are used by the audio montage.
•
Generate audio montages from scratch or from a template.
•
Compare two audio montages with a text file comparing tool.
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Audio Montage
AES-31 Files Export and Import
Exporting and Importing XML Files
•
To export an audio montage to XML, in the Audio Montage workspace, select
File > Export > Export as XML file.
•
To import an audio montage that was previously saved as an XML file, in the
Audio Montage workspace, select File > Import > Audio Montage as XML
file.
AES-31 Files Export and Import
The AES-31 standard is an open file interchange format for overcoming format
incompatibility issues between different audio hardware and software. It can be
used for transferring projects via disk or network from one workstation to another,
retaining time positions of events, fades, etc.
AES-31 uses Broadcast Wave as the default audio file format. AES-31 files can be
transferred to and used with any digital audio workstation that supports AES-31,
regardless of the used hardware and software, as long as the workstation can read
Broadcast Wave files.
The exported files are XML files but with the extension .adl (audio decision list).
Exporting AES-31 Files
When exporting audio montages to an AES-31 file, the file contains all audio track
data, including audio file references.
PROCEDURE
1.
In the Audio Montage workspace, select File > Export > Export as AES-31
file.
2.
Specify a name and file location, and click Save.
3.
In the AES-31 Export options dialog, edit the settings, and click OK.
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Audio Montage
AES-31 Files Export and Import
AES-31 Export Options Dialog
In this dialog, you can set up the behavior of the AES-31 export.
In the Audio Montage workspace, select File > Export > Export as AES-31 file,
specify a name and file location, and click Save.
Render linear fades as audio files
If this option is activated, linear fades, which are dynamically computed by
WaveLab, are rendered to small audio files while preserving the exact audio
effect.
Render curved fades as audio files
If this option is activated, complex fades, which are dynamically computed by
WaveLab, are rendered to small audio files while preserving the exact audio
effect.
Render crossfades as audio files
If this option is activated, crossfades, which are dynamically computed by
WaveLab, are rendered to small audio files while preserving the exact audio
effect.
Skip muted clips
If this option is activated, muted clips are not included in the AES-31 file.
After exporting, import file
If this option is activated, the exported file is immediately imported. This lets
you check the export result.
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Audio Montage
AES-31 Files Export and Import
Importing AES-31 Files
PROCEDURE
1.
In the Audio Montage workspace, select File > Import > AES-31 file.
2.
In the file browser, select the AES-31 file that you want to import, and click
Open.
3.
In the AES-31 Import options dialog, edit the settings, and click OK.
RESULT
The imported AES-31 file opens as a new, untitled audio montage that contains all
the audio tracks that are stored in the AES-31 file.
AES-31 Import Options Dialog
In this dialog, you can set up the behavior of the AES-31 import.
In the Audio Montage workspace, select File > Import, and open an AES-31 file.
Use linear fade files if available (otherwise, create dynamic fades)
If this option is activated, the available audio files for linear fades are used. If
no files are available, dynamic fades are created.
Use curved fade files if available (otherwise, create dynamic fades)
If this option is activated, the available audio files for complex fades are used.
If no files are available, dynamic fades are created.
About Importing AES-31 Files Created in Nuendo
By importing an AES-31 file, you can, for example, import a project that was created
in Steinberg’s Nuendo into WaveLab.
In this case, it is possible to add specific codes to the marker names in Nuendo to
facilitate their conversion into WaveLab-specific markers. For example, if an
AES-31 file that was exported in Nuendo is imported into WaveLab, the markers
that it contains are interpreted as WaveLab markers upon import.
For the CD track markers, you can use the following codes:
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Audio Montage
AES-31 Files Export and Import
Marker Type
Marker Code
Example Marker Name
CD track start
[t-start]
“So it begins [t-start]”
CD track end
[t-end]
“The end [t-end] of the
road”
CD track splice
[t-splice]
Intermission [t-splice]
CD track index
[t-index]
[t-index] Hello
•
You must use Nuendo 2.0 or later if you want to create specially named
markers that are interpreted as WaveLab markers.
•
In Nuendo, a marker track must be created for the specially named markers.
•
When importing AES-31 projects that contain specially named markers, the
marker codes are not displayed in WaveLab.
351
Recording
You can record audio in the Audio Files workspace and in the Audio Montage
workspace.
Setting Up the Recording Dialog
Before you start recording, set up the Recording dialog.
PROCEDURE
1.
In the Audio Files workspace or the Audio Montage workspace, click the
Record button, or press [*] on the numeric key pad.
2.
In the File to create section, open the pop-up menu, and select whether you
want to record a named file or a temporary file.
3.
In the File to create section, select a file name and the location where you
want to store your file.
4.
Select the audio format by doing one of the following:
5.
•
Click the down arrow button to select a preset audio format.
•
Click the audio format text to open the Audio File Format dialog, select the
format, and click OK.
Select whether you want to record to an audio file or an audio montage track,
by selecting one of the following options:
•
Create new audio file window
•
Add to active audio file
•
Add to focused track of montage
6.
Select an Input mode, depending on whether you want to record the audio
card input or the playback output.
7.
Select Set input, activate the channels that you want to record to, and click
OK.
For each of the activated recording channels, a meter is displayed in the Recording
dialog.
8.
Select whether you want the Level or the Spectrum display.
9.
Optional: Make further settings in the Options section, and on the Options
and the Values tabs.
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Recording
Dropping Markers During Recording
10.
Click Record, to start recording.
If you have selected one of the Auto-start options, the recording goes into Pause
mode, until the specified Auto-start criteria are met.
The background of the Recording dialog turns red to indicate that you are recording.
11.
Optional: You can pause the recording by clicking the Pause button.
12.
Optional: You can drop markers in the file during recording by clicking the
drop marker buttons.
13.
When you have finished recording, click Stop.
14.
Optional: If you want to record another take, click Record again.
Dropping Markers During Recording
When you are recording, you can click the marker buttons to add a marker to the
recorded file.
PROCEDURE
1.
Open the Recording dialog.
2.
Optional: If you want to name the markers that you drop rather than using
generic markers, do the following:
3.
•
Activate Recording > Options tab > Confirm name of markers to drop.
•
On the Method tab, type the name in the Next marker name field.
Make your settings and start recording.
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Recording
Recording Dialog
4.
Select the type of marker that you want to drop.
•
To drop a numbered generic marker, click the yellow marker button, or press
[Ctrl]/[Command]-M.
•
To drop numbered generic region start and end markers, click the white
buttons, or press [Ctrl]/[Command]-L/[Ctrl]/[Command]-R.
When you chose to confirm marker names to drop, a dialog appears each time you
drop a marker. In this dialog, you can enter a name and specify an offset, which allows
you to place a marker at a specific time before you triggered the command.
RESULT
The markers are dropped each time that you click the marker button.
NOTE
If you insert two or more region start markers in a row with no region end markers
in between, only the last of these start markers is kept. The same applies for region
end markers.
Recording Dialog
In this dialog, you can make recording settings and start recording an audio file.
In the Audio Files workspace or the Audio Montage workspace, click the Record
button or select Transport > Record.
Main Buttons
Record
Starts recording. Depending on the recording options, the Pause mode is
activated.
Split now
Opens the audio already recorded in a new window while recording
continues. By clicking this button, you can decide when the splitting occurs.
The button is activated if you are recording a named file, you are not pausing,
and Split mode is not activated.
Pause
Pauses recording.
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Recording
Recording Dialog
Stop
Stops recording.
Discard
Stops recording and deletes anything recorded so far.
Method Tab
On this tab, you can define options for starting, stopping, and pausing the recording
automatically. You can select an input device and choose to start a recording at a
specific time or stop if after a specific duration.
File to create
Specify whether you want to record a temporary file to be saved later, or
record to a file with a specific name and location.
Auto number from
If this option is activated, increasing numbers are added to the file names of
the successively saved files.
Name
The name of the file to be written, without the path. When typing, all files in
the selected folder that start with the same letters are displayed. To display all
files in the selected folder, click the list icon.
Where
Specifies the folder where you want to save the recording.
Audio File Format
Opens the Audio File Format dialog, where you can specify the file format.
Location of the Recording
Specifies where the audio is recorded:
•
In a new audio file window.
•
In an existing audio file is inserted at the edit cursor position (if none
exists, a new one is created).
•
In an existing audio montage is inserted at the edit cursor position (if
none exists, a new one is created).
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Recording
Recording Dialog
Input
Specify if you want to record the audio device input or the audio output from
the Master Section.
Set input
If you are using an ASIO driver, this button opens the Recording channels
dialog, where you can activate channels for recording. Up to 8 input channels
can be used simultaneously. When additional inputs are selected, the number
of meters in the dialog is automatically updated.
Auto-start if sound detected
If this option is activated, recording starts when the audio input level exceeds
the threshold level specified on the Values tab.
Auto-start at given time
If this option is activated, recording starts at a specified time according to the
computer clock. Specify the time on the Values tab.
Auto-stop after given duration
If this option is activated, recording stops automatically after the duration
specified on the Values tab.
Auto-stop if silence
If this option is activated, recording automatically stops when the audio input
level drops below a specified threshold level and stays there for a certain
amount of time. Specify the level and the duration on the Values tab.
Auto-pause if silence
If this option is activated, recording automatically pauses when the audio input
level drops below a specified threshold level and stays there for a certain
amount of time. Specify the level and the duration on the Values tab.
Auto-create markers at pause point
If this option is activated, a generic marker is created each time you click
Pause during recording.
Auto-create markers at silence points
If this option is activated, a generic marker is created each time the audio input
level drops below a specified threshold level and stays there for a certain
amount of time. You specify the level and the duration on the Values tab.
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Recording
Recording Dialog
Split mode
If this option is activated, the recording is split into several audio files. The files
can be split either by size (after a certain amount of MB), or by duration (after
a certain amount of time). Split mode is useful if you make long continuous
audio recordings, such as live recordings.
•
This option is only available when Named File is selected.
•
Split files are contiguous, that is, there are not gaps between the files.
•
Selecting Split mode automatically activates the Auto number option
for audio file names.
NOTE
It is recommended to save each Split mode recording in an empty folder. This
prevents the Auto number option from creating files with names that already
exist in this location.
Options Tab
On this tab, you can make additional settings for the recording process.
Activate monitoring when opening record window
If this option is activated, the meters are activated when the Recording dialog
opens. If this option is deactivated, the meters and the audio thru are
displayed when pressing Record or activating Monitor.
Deactivate monitoring when ending recording
If this option is activated, the meters and the audio thru are deactivated when
recording ends. This releases the audio device input.
Stop playback when monitoring or recording
If this option is activated, playback stops before monitoring or recording
starts.
Show Discard button
Determines whether the Discard button is visible or hidden.
Confirm when discarding recording
If this option is activated, you are asked to confirm before discarding a
recording.
Confirm when stopping recording
If this option is activated, you are asked to confirm before stopping a
recording.
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Recording
Recording Dialog
Confirm name of markers to drop
If this option is activated, you are asked to enter a name for the last dropped
marker.
Open audio file in WaveLab after recording
If this option is activated, the audio files are opened in WaveLab after
recording.
Add markers when inserting recording in audio file
If this option is activated and a recording is inserted into an audio file, markers
are added encompassing the new samples.
After recording, move edit cursor at the end
When recording into an audio file or montage, it is often convenient to move
the cursor to the end of the recording.
Values Tab
On this tab, you can define values for the various recording options.
Auto-start on sound - Threshold (RMS)
Specify the average sound level that is sufficient to trigger recording.
Auto-start on sound - Record previous samples
Allows you to include a short section of audio before the start point, to capture
attacks, for example. It is only relevant when the option Auto-start if sound
detected is activated.
Silence Detection - Threshold (RMS)/Silence duration required
The threshold value used for the options Auto-stop if silence and
Auto-create markers at silence points. It is used in conjunction with the
Silence duration required setting, so that recording is stopped or a marker
is added if the input level stays below the threshold value for the specified
duration.
Recording programming - Start
Determines the time at which recording starts when the option Auto-start at
specific time is activated.
Recording programming - On tomorrow
If this option is activated, you can specify a time on the next day.
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Recording
Recording Dialog
Recording programming - Duration
Determines the length of the recording when the option Auto-stop after
specific duration is activated.
Split argument - File size
If this option is activated, a new file is created when the recorded file reaches
the size specified in the corresponding value field.
Split argument - File duration
If this option is activated, a new file is created when the recorded file reaches
the length specified in the corresponding value field.
Pause memory
This is a safety buffer when you are using the Pause button. When you resume
recording, this buffer is used to restore the last short section of audio before
you deactivated the pause button. This way, you can resume recording even
if you deactivated the Pause button a bit too late.
Meter Display
Level/Spectrum
Specifies which meter to display.
Settings
Opens the LeveL/Pan Meter Settings dialog, where you can customize the
meter settings.
Reset
Resets the peak values.
Monitor
If this option is activated, the audio input is also sent to the output ports (not
available if Windows MME drivers is used).
Mix with playback
If this option is activated and the same audio ports are selected for monitoring
and for playback (in the VST Audio Connections dialog), the signals are
mixed. If this is not activated, the monitoring signal has priority.
This allows you to toggle between the auditioning of the recorded signal and
the playback signal, and to have full control over the monitor outputs.
Next marker name
Edit the name of the next marker to insert.
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Recording
Recording Dialog
Solo
Reduces/increases the size of the window and hides/shows all other
WaveLab windows.
Meter Display
In the lower part of the Recording dialog, you find a meter display. This is useful for
checking the input level and the frequency spectrum of the input signal.
The meters in the Recording dialog are miniature versions of the Level, Spectrum
in the meter windows. Activate the meters, by activating the Monitor checkbox.This
is done automatically, if the option Activate monitoring when opening record
window is activated on the Options tab in the Recording dialog.
To reset the meters, click the Reset button.
Level Meter
In the Level meter, horizontal bars show the peak level (outer bars) and average
loudness (VU, inner bars) of each channel. Values are also shown numerically.
When clicking the Settings button, the Level/Pan Meter Settings dialog opens.
Spectrum Meter
The Spectrum Meter shows a bar diagram, providing a continuous graphical
representation of the frequency spectrum. From the Settings pop-up menu you can
choose whether to restrict to high audio levels, or to include medium or low audio
levels.
Disk Capacity Indicator
This indicator at the bottom of the Recording dialog indicates the approximate
amount of available disk space on the hard disk specified in the File to create
section, or the hard disk that you have selected for temporary files.
NOTE
When there is less than 30 seconds of available hard disk space left, the disk
capacity indication is displayed in red.
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Recording
Recording in the Audio Montage Workspace
Recording in the Audio Montage Workspace
You can record audio directly as clip in the audio montage.
By Using the Track Menu
PROCEDURE
1.
In the Audio Montage workspace, click at the position where you want the
recorded clip to start.
2.
Select Track > Record at cursor.
By Using the Track Menu During Playback
PROCEDURE
1.
In the Audio Montage workspace, start playback.
2.
Select Track > Record at cursor.
3.
In the Recording dialog, make your settings.
4.
Click Record.
NOTE
If you first go into Pause mode and then activate recording, you get a pre-roll
time according to the pause buffer, allowing you to capture the audio just
before you start recording.
About Playing Back During Recording
When you record in a multitrack environment, it is often necessary to have the
existing track play back during recording, performing an overdub.
For this to be possible in the audio montage, Stop playback when monitoring or
recording must be deactivated on the Options tab of the Recording dialog.
361
Master Section
The Master Section is the final block in the signal path before the audio is sent to
the audio hardware, to an audio file, or to the audio meters. This is where you adjust
master levels, add effects, and apply dithering.
The settings and effects in the Master Section are taken into account in the
following cases:
•
When playing back an audio file in the wave window.
•
When playing back an audio montage. Note that the Master Section effects
are global for all clips and tracks in an audio montage, as opposed to the
individual clip or track effects.
•
When using the Render function.
•
When using the Audio input plug-in.
•
When writing a CD from the audio montage.
By default, the Master Section is active. You can turn it off for each file individually
by deactivating the Play through Master Section button at the bottom of the
wave/montage window.
To turn the Master Section off globally, deactivate the Playback goes through
Master Section button at the bottom right of the Master Section.
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Master Section
Master Section Window
Master Section Window
In this window you can apply effect plug-ins, adjust the master level, apply dithering,
and render the audio file or audio montage.
To open the Master Section window, in any workspace, select Global > Master
Section.
The Master Section consists of the Effects pane, the Master Level pane, the
Dithering pane, the Post-Processing pane, and the Speaker Configurations
pane.
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Master Section
Master Section Window
Signal Path
The three panes in the Master Section window correspond to the three processing
blocks of the Master Section: Effects, Master Level, and Dithering.
The signal passes through these blocks from top to bottom, as shown in the
following figure:
In the Master Section, the signal goes through all plug-ins, even when some
plug-ins are soloed. However, the sound is not affected by this because the muted
plug-ins are bypassed from the playback process stream.
When removing the bypass, the process signal is immediately available without
latency. This allows you to quickly switch between different solo/mute settings.
The Master Section meters can monitor the signal right after any slot if the
Monitoring point icon is activated for the corresponding slot.
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Master Section
Master Section Window
Effects Pane
This pane in the Master Section allows you to add up to 10 effect plug-ins in series,
and manage them.
In the Audio Files workspace or the Audio Montage workspace, select Workspace
> Shared tool windows > Master Section.
Rearrange
Rearranges the Master Section according to the sample rate and channel
configuration of the active audio file. The internal bus of the Master Section
and any active plug-ins are configured accordingly.
This operation is performed automatically before playback or rendering. It is
sometimes helpful to manually rearrange the Master Section, because some
plug-ins do not accept a mono or stereo signal as input, or a given sample
rate. In that case, clicking the button informs you about any problems, before
playback or rendering.
This operation has no effect if playback is already in progress or if there is no
active audio file.
Show one more slot
Makes one more slot visible.
Hide bottom slot
Hides the bottom slot.
Fold/unfold section
Expands or collapses the Effects pane.
Bypass during playback
Bypasses the plug-in during playback and optionally for a rendering
operation. The signal is still processed by the plug-in, but is not injected in the
audible stream.
Solo (bypass)
Bypasses all plug-ins except this one during playback.
Monitoring point
Lets the Master Level meter monitor the signal right after this plug-in.
Effect plug-in slot
Slot where you can insert an effect plug-in.
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Master Section Window
Presets menu
Lets you store and recall preset settings. The Presets menu offers additional
options to save and load default banks and effects.
Plug-in visibility
Activates/Deactivates the plug-in window.
Lock slot
Locks the slot. A locked slot is not bypassed if the Solo function is active. The
plug-in in the slot remains as is when a Master Section preset is loaded, or
when Reset all is used.
Switch effect on/off
Excludes the plug-in from playback and rendering, and rearranges the bus
without this effect.
Supported Effect Plug-in Formats
WaveLab supports different plug-in standards. WaveLab-specific plug-ins, VST 2
plug-ins and VST 3 plug-ins, and plug-ins that adhere to the Microsoft DirectX
standard.
WaveLab-specific Plug-ins
Some specific plug-ins are included in WaveLab, for example, the Audio Input and
External Gear plug-ins. These are only available if you are using an ASIO driver.
VST Plug-ins
Steinberg’s VST plug-in format is supported by a lot of programs and plug-in
manufacturers. You find a number of VST plug-ins included with WaveLab. Other
plug-ins can be purchased separately from Steinberg or other manufacturers, or in
some cases downloaded from the internet.
Plug-ins that Adhere to the Microsoft DirectX Standard
These are known as DirectX or DX plug-ins and are also widely available.
Setting Up Effects
The number of effects available depends on which plug-ins you have installed.
•
To select an effect plug-in for a slot, click the slot, and select an effect from
the pop-up menu. When you have selected an effect, it is automatically
activated, and its control panel opens.
•
To turn off an effect, click its Switch effect on/off button. To activate the
effect, click again.
•
To remove an effect plug-in, click the slot, and select None.
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•
To hide the control panel of an effect, click its Plug-in visibility button.
•
To solo an effect, click the Solo button to the left of the effect slot. This allows
you to check the sound of that effect only. You can also bypass effects in their
control panels.
•
To change the order of the slots, and thus the order in which the signal passes
through the effects, click a slot, and drag it to a new position.
Master Section Plug-in Window
In the plug-in windows of the Master Section, you can make settings for a Master
Section effect plug-in, such as bypass, solo, render in place, monitoring, or presets.
In the Master Section’s Effects pane, click an effect’s Plug-in visibility button to
open the corresponding plug-in window for the effect.
Plug-in chain
If Use plug-in chain window is activated in the settings menu of the Master
Section, the effects of the active audio document are displayed in a plug-in
chain at the top of the plug-in window.
You can right-click a plug-in tab or an empty tab to select a new plug-in for
the slot.
Bypass during playback
If this option is activated, this plug-in is bypassed during playback, and
optionally for a rendering operation. To deactivate an effect when rendering,
use the Switch effect on/off buttons in the Master Section’s Effects pane.
Solo (bypass)
If this option is activated, all plug-ins except this one are bypassed during
playback.
Render in place
Processes the audio in place without any intermediary step. Bypassed
plug-ins are excluded and rendered audio is crossfaded at boundaries.
Monitoring point
If this option is activated, the Master Level meters monitor right after this
plug-in.
Switch effect on/off
If you deactivate the plug-in, it is excluded from both playback and rendering.
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Master Section Window
Presets
Opens a menu to save/load presets for this plug-in.
Effect Plug-in Presets
With WaveLab comes a number of factory presets for the included effect plug-ins
that you can select and use as is, or use as a starting point for your own settings.
Third-party plug-ins can provide their own factory presets. To access the presets
for an effect, click the Preset button in its control panel window. The available
functions depend on the type of plug-in.
Presets for VST 3 Plug-ins
Applying and saving presets for WaveLab specific plug-ins works exactly as with
any other preset, apart from the fact that there are no preset tabs or menu items as
in dialogs. Instead, clicking the Preset button opens a separate Preset dialog.
The options in this dialog are the same as for dialogs with Preset tabs.
The file format is compatible with Cubase.
Presets for VST 2 Plug-ins
VST 2 plug-ins have their own preset handling. When you click the Preset button
for this type of effect, a pop-up menu with the following options opens:
Load/Save Bank
Loads and saves complete sets of presets. The file format is compatible with
Cubase.
Load/Save Default Bank
Load the default set of presets or saves the current set of presets as the
default bank.
Load/Save Effect
Loads or saves a preset. This is also compatible with Cubase.
Edit name of current program
Allows you to define a name for the preset.
Preset List
Allows you to select one of the currently loaded presets.
Presets for DirectX Plug-ins
For DirectX plug-ins, the same functionality is provided as for WaveLab plug-ins. In
addition, you can import native presets created for the plug-in.
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Master Section Window
Master Level Pane
This pane in the Master Section allows you to control the master level of the active
audio file.
Faders
The faders in the Master Level pane govern the final output level. Use the faders to
optimize the level of the signal that is sent to the audio hardware.
NOTE
It is important to avoid clipping, especially when mastering. Clipping is indicated by
the clip indicators of the Master Section.
Meters
The Master Section meters show the signal level of the signal before dithering or
any other plug-in that you have applied post-master fader.
Use these to get an overview of the signal levels. The numeric fields above the
faders show the peak levels for each channel. The peak indicators turn red
whenever the signal clips. If this happens, you should lower the faders, reset the clip
indicators by clicking the Reset peaks button, or clicking the values, and play back
the section again until no clipping occurs.
NOTE
For critical level metering, we recommend using the Level Meter. It is more precise,
and it is applied after the whole Master Section (after dithering) and thus shows the
actual signal level that is sent to the audio hardware.
Mono Button
The Mono button sums two channels to mono. The output level is automatically
reduced by -6 dB, to avoid clipping. The Mono button is useful for checking mono
compatibility of stereo mixes, etc.
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If the Mono button is activated, the red indicator for the Master Level pane is lit, even
if the master level is not adjusted. This helps you avoid accidentally leaving the
Mono button activated.
Unlink Button
Determines whether the faders should be individually adjustable or ganged.
If Unlink is deactivated, moving one fader also moves the other by the same
amount. Activating Unlink allows you to correct improper stereo balancing by
adjusting the channels’ levels individually.
•
If you offset the faders with Unlink activated and then deactivate Unlink
again, you can adjust the overall level without changing the level offset
between the channels.
•
Fader offsets are not preserved at the end of the range of movement or once
the mouse button is released.
True peaks button
If this button is activated, the analog reconstructed peaks (true peaks) are displayed
in the Master Level meter. If this button is deactivated, the sample values (digital
peaks) are displayed.
Dithering Pane
This pane in the Master Section allows you to add dithering to the signal before it
is sent to the audio hardware or saved as a file on a disk.
Fold/unfold section
Expands or collapses the Dithering pane.
Bypass during playback
Bypasses the plug-in during playback, and optionally during rendering.
Monitoring point
Lets the Master Level meter monitor the signal right after this plug-in.
Effect plug-in slot
Slot where you can insert an effect plug-in.
Presets menu
Lets you store and recall preset settings.
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Plug-in visibility
Activates/Deactivates the plug-in window.
Lock slot
Locks the slot. A locked slot is not bypassed if the Solo function is active. The
plug-in in the slot remains as is when a Master Section preset is loaded, or
when Reset all is used.
Switch effect on/off
Excludes the plug-in from playback and rendering.
Noise type
Lets you set one of the available noise types that are added to the signal. This
is only available if Internal dither is activated.
Noise shaping
Lets you select the type of filtering for improving the apparent signal-to-noise
ratio of the output. This is only available if Internal dither is activated.
Number of bits
Lets you select the number of bits that the signal should be quantized to. This
is only available if Internal dither is activated.
About Dithering
Dithering is the technique of adding small quantities of noise to a signal to reduce
the audibility of low level distortion in a digital recording. A small amount of random
noise is added to the analog signal before the sampling stage, reducing the effect
of quantization errors.
In the case of WaveLab, dithering is applied when reducing the number of bits in a
recording, for example, when moving from 24 to 16 bits, and when applying
processing. You can choose between WaveLab’s internal dithering algorithm,
Apogee’s UV22HR algorithm, or any external dithering plug-in.
Dithering largely depends on the type of material. When making the dithering
settings we recommend that you experiment and let your ears be the final judge.
During low level passages, only a few bits are used to represent the signal, which
leads to audible quantization errors and distortion. This is perceived as graininess
during low level passages in a recording.
When truncating bits, as a result of moving from, for example, 24- to 16-bit
resolution, such quantization noise is added to an otherwise immaculate recording.
By adding a special kind of noise at an extremely low level, the quantization errors
are minimized. The added noise can be perceived as a very low-level quiescent hiss
added to the recording. However, this is hardly noticeable and preferred to the
distortion that occurs otherwise. The Noise Shaping options allow to filter this
noise to a frequency area less sensitive to the human ear.
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NOTE
Dithering should always be applied after the output bus fader stage, and after any
kind of audio process.
Selecting Dithering Algorithms
WaveLab comes with two dithering plug-ins: Internal dithering and the UV22HR
dithering. However, you can also add other dithering plug-ins.
•
To select and activate a dithering algorithm in the Master Section, click the
dithering plug-in slot in the Dithering pane, and select one of the options from
the pop-up menu.
•
To deactivate the dithering algorithm, open the dithering pop-up menu, and
select None.
Adding Other Plug-ins to the Dithering Pane
If you want to use another dithering plug-in than the internal or UV22HR dithering,
you can add it to the Dithering pane.
NOTE
The meters in the Master Section monitor the signal before the Dithering pane. To
avoid clipping, check the Level/Pan Meter and adjust the output level setting of the
plug-in, if available.
PROCEDURE
1.
In any workspace, select Options > Plug-in settings.
2.
Open the Organize tab.
3.
Locate the plug-in that you want to add to the Dithering pane in the list, and
activate the checkbox in the Dither column for the plug-in.
4.
Click OK.
RESULT
The plug-in appears on the pop-up menu in the Dithering pane, and can be
inserted after the Master Level faders. The plug-in is still available for selection as a
regular pre-master effect if the corresponding entry in the Dither column in the
Plug-in settings dialog is activated.
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When to Apply Dithering
The basic rule is that you should dither when moving to a lower bit resolution. One
instance of this is when converting an audio file to a lower resolution. For example,
preparing a 24-bit file for mastering to CD, that uses 16-bit format.
However, even if you are playing back or rendering a 16-bit or 24-bit file to the same
resolution, you need to dither if you are using any processing in WaveLab. The
reason for this is that WaveLab works with an internal resolution of 32 bit (floating
point) for supreme audio quality. This means that as soon as you perform any kind
of processing, the audio data is treated at this high resolution instead of the original
16 bits or 24 bits, thus making dithering necessary.
Examples of real-time processing include level adjustments, any effects, mixing of
two or more clips in a Montage, etc. The only time when a 16-bit file is played back
at 16-bit resolution is if you play it without any fades or effects, and with the Master
Faders set to 0.00 (no level adjustment – Master level indicator turned off).
NOTE
To make sure whether you need to dither or not, use the Bit Meter to check the
actual resolution of your audio signals.
Dither Quality Testing
In the Master Section, you can compare the quality of different dither plug-ins, by
making the quantization noise and the dither signal more audible.
Now, when you activate a dither plug-in, and play back an audio section, you can
hear what the effect of the dither plug-in sounds like. You can try different dither
plug-ins, to find out which one has the best dither effect on the audio.
To activate this option, in the Master Section, click the settings button, and activate
Monitor 16-bit dithering.
For a significant dithering test, listen to a long decaying sound, such as a piano
dying note. This option has no effect on the rendering process.
IMPORTANT
Make sure to deactivate Monitor 16-bit dithering once you are done testing the
dithering quality.
NOTE
Only dither to 16 bit, otherwise the result does not have any meaning.
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Master Section Window
Post-Processing Pane
This pane in the Master Section contains the Encoder Checker that allows you to
compare audio encoders. You can also add your own post-processing plug-ins to
the post-processing slot.
NOTE
The plug-in in the Post-Processing pane is only part of the playback processing. It
is not applied when rendering files or CDs.
Fold/unfold section
Expands or collapses the Post-Processing pane.
Bypass during playback
Bypasses the plug-in during playback.
Monitoring point
Lets the Master Level meter monitor the signal directly after this plug-in.
Effect slot
In this slot, you can load your own post-processing effects or the included
Encoder Checker.
In the Plug-in settings dialog, you can select which plug-ins to make
available in the effect plug-in slot.
Presets menu
Lets you store and recall presets.
Plug-in visibility
Shows/Hides the plug-in panel.
Lock slot
Locks the slot. A locked slot is not bypassed if the Solo function is active. The
plug-in in the slot remains unaffected if a Master Section preset is loaded, or
if Reset all is used.
Switch effect on/off
Excludes the plug-in from playback.
RELATED LINKS
Plug-in Settings Dialog on page 639
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Master Section Window
Encoder Checker
The Encoder Checker plug-in allows you to compare the quality differences
between different audio encoders. It is applied in the Post-Processing pane of the
Master Section.
With the Encoder Checker you can find the best settings for your encoders and test
the effect of other plug-ins on the compression. The Encoder Checker is only used
for playback and is bypassed during audio file rendering.
NOTE
The more encoders are selected in the Encoder Checker dialog, the more CPU
power is used. Also, the more audio compression is applied to the audio file, the
higher the latency. The latency is determined by the encoder with the highest
latency.
IMPORTANT
The Encoder Checker does not support multichannel audio montages.
Checking the Quality of Encoded Audio Files
PROCEDURE
1.
Open the audio file that you want to check in different encoding qualities.
2.
In the Master Section, open the Post-Processing menu in the
Post-Processing pane and select Steinberg > Encoder Checker.
3.
Click in the first field and select a factory preset or select Edit to specify a
custom audio file format.
4.
Optional: Specify more audio file formats.
5.
Play back the audio file.
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6.
Click the Original sound button and the number icons to switch between the
original audio and the encoders.
If the Encoder Checker window is active, you can also press the [1], [2], and [3] keys
on your keyboard to switch between the encoders and click [.] to select the original
sound.
NOTE
If you select or edit an encoder, the plug-in synchronizes the new encoder
settings with the other active encoders and the original sound. This can result
in short audio artifacts.
RESULT
You can compare the quality of the encoders.
AFTER COMPLETING THIS TASK
Once you have found the best encoder for your needs, you can click Render to
render the audio file to the selected audio file format. You can also click the Batch
processor button to open the Batch Processors workspace with an audio file
format preset that corresponds to the selected encoder.
Blindly Checking the Quality of Encoded Audio Files
To make sure that you only rely on your ears when checking the encoder quality, you
can use the Blind modes to compare the encoders without knowing which encoder
is currently playing.
PROCEDURE
1.
Open the audio file that you want to check in different encoding qualities.
2.
In the Master Section, open the Post-Processing menu in the
Post-Processing pane and select Steinberg > Encoder Checker.
3.
Click in the first field and select a factory preset or select Edit to specify a
custom audio file format.
4.
Optional: Specify more audio file formats.
5.
Do one of the following:
•
To compare only the encoders, activate Blind (encoders). For this function, at
least 2 encoders must be selected.
•
To compare the encoders and the original sound, activate Blind (encoders +
original sound).
6.
Play back the audio file.
7.
Use the up/down or left/right arrow keys to switch between the encoders.
The LED lights up each time that you switch to another encoder.
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8.
Use the + and - keys to rate the encoder that you are listening to.
9.
Deactivate Blind mode.
RESULT
The encoder that you have heard last is highlighted and you can see the ratings of
the encoders.
AFTER COMPLETING THIS TASK
Once you have found the best encoder for your needs, you can click Render to
render the audio file to the selected audio file format.
Encoder Checker Dialog
In this dialog, you can compare the quality of different audio encoders.
In the Master Section, open the Presets menu in the Post-Processing pane and
select Steinberg > Encoder Checker.
Display
Displays the spectrum (FFT) of the original sound (green) and of the selected
encoder (red). This gives you a rough estimation of the effects that the
encoder has on the audio spectrum.
Switch indicator LED
In the Blind modes, this LED lights up each time a new encoder is selected
via the arrow keys.
Blind (encoders)
If this option is activated, the original sound is selected. When you use an
arrow key, a random encoder is played back. You can use the arrow keys to
cycle between the selected encoders without being able to see which
encoder is selected.
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You can use the + and - keys to rate the encoder that you are listening to. The
rating results are displayed when you deactivate Blind mode.
Blind (encoders + original sound)
If this option is activated, a random encoder or the original sound is selected.
You can use the arrow keys to cycle between the selected encoders and the
original sound without being able to see which one is selected.
You can use the + and - keys to rate the encoder that you are listening to. The
rating results are displayed when you deactivate Blind mode.
Freeze display
If this option is activated, the FFT display freezes.
Original sound
Lets you hear the original audio file during playback.
Encoders
Lets you select different audio encoders and switch between them during
playback.
Rating
Shows the number of plus and minus marks that have been set during the
Blind modes.
Compression
The realtime estimation of the audio compression ratio with a 16-bit file size
as reference.
Latencies
The first latency value indicates how long you have to wait until you hear the
encoder when you select another encoder. The second latency value
indicates the delay when switching between encoders.
Batch processor
Opens the Batch Processors workspace with an audio file format preset that
corresponds to the audio file format that is being monitored.
Render
Opens the Render dialog with an audio file format preset that corresponds to
the audio file format that is being monitored.
Speaker Configurations Pane
This pane of the Master Section allows you to select the speaker configurations.
The speaker configurations are set up in the Audio file editing preferences dialog.
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Speaker configurations
Lets you select the speaker configurations.
Audio file editing preferences button
Opens the Audio file editing preferences dialog, where you can set up the
speakers for the speaker buttons.
Speaker gain
Lets you edit the gain of the speaker configuration. Positive gains are
indicated by a red LED, and negative gains are indicated by an orange LED.
When the gain is zero, the LED is dark green (off).
RELATED LINKS
Speaker Configuration on page 118
Master Section Tools
The tools and options at the bottom pane of the Master Section window allow you
to make various settings before rendering the file, make bypass settings, and decide
whether the playback goes through the Master Section or not.
Bypass all effects
Bypasses any kind of processing in the effect panel during playback, and
optionally when rendering.
Smart bypass
Opens the Smart bypass dialog, where you can make special bypass
settings.
Reset all
Removes all the active effects from the effects slots and sets the master
output to 0 dB.
Setting menu
Opens the Master Section settings menu.
Render
Clicking opens the Render dialog. Right-clicking opens a menu where you
can select whether you want to open the Render dialog, render using the last
settings, or use in-place rendering.
Playback goes through Master Section
If this option is deactivated, the Master Section is ignored during playback of
any file, freeing up resources. However, rendering to file is still possible. If
playback is activated when you change this option, it stops and restarts.
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Rendering
By rendering the effects in the Master Section, they become a permanent part of a
file, rather than using them in real-time to test a set of effects on a file. So instead
of performing all processing in real-time during playback, you can save the audio
output to a file on disk.
This is done with the Render function of the Master Section.
You can render to a single file format or to multiple audio file formats.
Writing the output of the Master Section to a file on disk allows you to apply
Master Section processing to an audio file, or mix down an audio montage to an
audio file. In case of a multichannel audio montage, several files can be created, one
for each channel in the selected configuration.
There are several uses for rendering:
•
Mix down a complete audio montage to an audio file.
•
Process a file and save a file to a new audio file, including Master Section
effects, dithering, and other settings. You can choose the format of the new
audio file, which allows you to create an MP3 file and add effects at the same
time, for example.
•
Process one or more regions of an audio file in place or to new files.
Multiple File Format Rendering
You can render to multiple audio file formats simultaneously. To do so, you must first
create file format presets for these formats.
You can also create multiple audio file format presets. These are a list of single file
format presets.
Rendering Files
PREREQUISITE
Set up your audio file or audio montage. If you want to render to multiple file formats,
you must first create audio file format presets.
PROCEDURE
1.
In the Master Section, make your settings.
2.
On the bottom of the Master Section, click the Render button.
3.
In the Render dialog, make your rendering settings.
4.
Activate Create named file.
5.
Click the File format field and select Edit.
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6.
In the Audio File Format dialog, do one of the following:
•
To render to one audio format, make your settings in the Audio File Format
dialog.
•
To render to multiple file formats, click the Multiple file format button, click
and select the file format presets that you want to render to.
7.
Click OK.
8.
When you have set up the rendering process, click OK.
,
RESULT
The file is rendered. You can see the progress in the Background tasks window.
NOTE
Several rendering operations can be performed at the same time when using
different files.
RELATED LINKS
Multi Audio File Format Dialog on page 382
Creating Multiple Audio File Format Presets on page 381
Creating Single Audio File Format Presets
PROCEDURE
1.
In the Audio File Format dialog, specify the audio file format.
2.
Open the Presets menu and select Save as.
3.
Enter a name for the preset and click Save.
Creating Multiple Audio File Format Presets
PREREQUISITE
Create a preset for each audio file format that you want to add to the multi format
preset.
PROCEDURE
1.
In the Audio File Format dialog, click Multiple file format.
2.
Click
3.
Add as many audio file format presets as you need.
and select the preset that you want to use.
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4.
Optional: To make changes to an existing preset, click it and select Edit.
5.
Open the Presets menu and select Save as to save the multiple format as
preset.
Multi Audio File Format Dialog
In this dialog, you can select audio file format preset. These allow you to render an
audio file or an audio montage to multiple file formats.
The Multi Audio File Format dialog is available from the Render dialog in the Audio
Files workspace and in the Audio Montage workspace, and from the Format tab in
the Batch Processors workspace.
Opens a menu from which you can select a preset file format to add it to the
preset list.
Removes the selected preset from the preset list.
Preset list
Shows the selected audio file format presets, an optional subfolder in which
the files are rendered to, and an optional suffix for the rendered files. The
Subfolder column allows you to sort the output files to different subfolders.
The Suffix column helps to avoid name conflicts.
Multicore rendering
If this option is activated, all audio files are generated at the same time, each
with a different CPU core, if possible. This increases the rendering speed.
NOTE
It is recommended to deactivate the Multicore rendering option if a batch
processor is running that already uses multiple CPU cores.
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Rendering
Single file format/Multiple file format
Switches the view between the Audio File Format dialog and the Multi
Audio File Format dialog.
In-Place Rendering
In the Audio Files workspace, you can process a section of an audio file or the whole
audio file directly from within a plug-in window, without any intermediary step. This
is a quick way to process several audio sections in an audio file, or test the effect of
different plug-ins on an audio file.
When using this function, the following render settings are always active:
•
Fade-in/out at boundaries
•
Exclude bypassed plug-ins
NOTE
Once an audio section has been processed, there is no automatic bypass of
plug-ins or the Master Section.
An example for using in-place rendering:
Let’s say that you are restoring a file and have 3 favorite plug-ins, for example, 3
DeClicker plug-ins. Now you want to use the one that gives the best results.
1)
Load all 3 plug-ins in the Master Section.
2)
Select a region, solo plug-in #1, and play the region.
3)
Solo plug-in #2, and play the region.
4)
Solo plug-in #3, and play the region.
5)
Solo the plug-in that you think sounded the best, and click the Render in
place button, or press [Alt]/[Option]-[A].
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Rendering an Audio Selection In-Place
You can render the plug-ins of a section of an audio file or the whole audio file.
PREREQUISITE
In the Audio Files workspace, open the audio file that you want to render, and set
up the Master Section.
PROCEDURE
1.
If you only want to process a section of the audio file, in the wave window,
select the audio section that you want to process.
2.
Open the plug-in window.
3.
Optional: If you only want to use some plug-ins of the Master Section, solo
the plug-ins that you want to use.
4.
Do one of the following:
•
In the plug-in window, click the Render-in place button.
•
In the Master Section, right-click the Render button, and select In-place
rendering.
RESULT
The audio section or the audio file is processed.
Render Dialog
This dialog allows you to select what parts of an audio file to render, into which
format, and what to do with the result.
To open the Render dialog, click the Render button in the Master Section, or select
File > Export > Render.
The following options are available for both rendering in the Audio Files workspace
and in the Audio Montage workspace:
Audio range - One region
Processes and renders a time range specified using region markers. In the
drop-down menu below this option, select the region you want to render. For
example, a CD track.
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Multiple sources - Regions
Processes and renders each marked audio range to an independent file, or
renders in place, according to the related settings. By defining multiple
isolated regions in an audio file, you can process them in place in one
operation.
Specify the type of marked regions to process in the drop-down menu.
Create named files
If this option is activated, you can set name of the rendered file. Otherwise,
the file is named “untitled”.
Name
Enter a name for the rendered file. Clicking the arrow icon opens a menu that
offers you several automatic naming options.
Auto naming
When rendering multiple sources, you can activate this option to add a
numeric prefix to all rendered files.
Where
Select a folder where the file is rendered to.
File format
Opens the Audio File Format dialog, where you can select the file format.
Batch Processor
Opens the Batch Processor with the same plug-in setup as the one currently
used in the Master Section. This allows you to process more files in a batch,
or add off-line processors to the audio processing chain.
Fade-in/out at boundaries
If this option is activated, a fade is performed at the audio range bounds when
a new file is created, or a crossfade with the audio neighborhood is created if
the audio range is processed in place.
Crossfades allow a smooth transition between the processed and the
non-processed parts. The crossfade time and shape are set in the Audio file
editing preferences. If the fade time is longer than half the length of the
processed file, it is not performed.
Copy markers
If this option is activated, markers included in the range to process are copied
to the rendered file.
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Rendering
Bypass Master Section on resulting audio file
If this option is activated, playback of the resulting audio file bypasses the
entire Master Section after rendering. This setting can be toggled by clicking
on the button at the bottom right of the wave window or montage window.
NOTE
It is recommended to have this option activated, because you do not want to
monitor this new file through the effects again when the effects have been
applied to a file.
No tail
If this option is activated, the audio tail produced by effects such as reverbs
is not included in the rendered file.
Some plug-ins do not provide a tail duration to WaveLab. In this case, this
option has no effect. For such plug-ins, you could add the Silence plug-in to
add extra samples at the end of the file. An audio tail appears in this space.
Upload to SoundCloud
If this option is activated, the rendered file is uploaded to SoundCloud, after
the rendering process is finished.
Bypass Master Section
If this option is activated, the plug-ins and gain of the Master Section are
bypassed when rendering.
Exclude bypassed plug-ins
If this option is activated, the plug-ins that are bypassed during playback are
not used for rendering.
This applies to the bypass states managed by WaveLab, not any bypass state
that is under the control of the plug-ins.
Open resulting audio file
If this option is activated, each rendered file is opened in a new window.
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Master Section
Rendering
Render Dialog in the Audio Files Workspace
The following options in the Render dialog are exclusive to the Audio Files
workspace:
Automatic pre-selection
If this option is activated, the source to render is automatically selected
according to the selected time range of the Audio Montage. This can lead to
the selection of one of the following options:
•
Whole file
•
Selection
•
One region
Time range - Whole file
Processes and renders the whole audio range.
Time range - Selection
Processes and renders the selected audio range.
Time range - Skip exclusion regions
If this option is activated, audio ranges marked as muted are skipped and not
included in the result.
Process in place
If this option is activated, the rendered audio range replaces the source audio
range. Otherwise, a new file is created.
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Master Section
Rendering
Render Dialog in the Audio Montage Workspace
The following options in the Render dialog are exclusive to the Audio Montage
workspace:
Automatic pre-selection
If this option is activated, the source to render will automatically be selected
according to the selected time range of the audio montage. This can lead to
the selection of one of the following options:
•
Whole montage
•
Time selection
•
Selected CD track
•
One region
For Selected CD track to work, the time selection must match the CD track
range. To select the CD track range, in the CD window, double-click the track
number of the track that you want to select.
Time range - Whole montage
Processes and renders the whole audio range.
Time range - Time selection
Processes and renders the selected audio range.
Time range - As selected clips
Processes and renders the audio range that starts from the first selected clip
and ends with the last selected clip. Only the selected clips are included in
the process.
Time range - Selected CD track
Processes and renders the selected CD track in the CD window.
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Master Section
Record From an ASIO Input
Multiple sources - Groups
Processes and renders each audio montage group to an independent file. The
group names are used for the output file names.
Multiple sources - Selected clips
Processes and renders each clip to an independent file. The clip names are
used as output file names.
Create Basic Audio CD
If this option is activated, a file of the whole audio montage, including clip
effects and master effects, is created. Then a Basic Audio CD window opens.
Create CD image and cue-sheet
If this option is activated, the audio montage is exported as a CD image with
an accompanying cue-sheet (a text file identifying the CD tracks in the image
file). The cue-sheet and the image file it describes can then be imported into
any CD recording application that supports this function (including WaveLab)
and written onto a CD.
The CD image is a Wave file.
Open as new audio montage
If this option is activated, the rendered audio file is imported in a new audio
montage.
Record From an ASIO Input
You can record an audio file directly to disk from an ASIO input, while the audio is
collected from the audio input. The ASIO input audio is rendered through the
Master Section and any of its plug-ins and saved as a file, as when rendering
normally.
This is another way to record. When you record normally, no plug-ins are used, but
more options are possible.
Rendering ASIO Input to File
PREREQUISITE
In the VST Audio Connections, set up the input and output channels of the ASIO
plug-in.
PROCEDURE
1.
In the Master Section, at the top of the Effects panel, add the Audio input
plug-in to a slot.
2.
In the lower part of the Master Section, click Render.
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Master Section
Smart Bypass
3.
In the Render ASIO input to file dialog, make your settings.
4.
Click OK.
RESULT
The audio file is recorded to disk from the ASIO input, until you click the Stop button
on the transport bar.
Smart Bypass
Smart bypass allows you to compare the original (unprocessed) signal to the
processed signal with a level correction applied to it. This function is particularly
useful when you are making final level adjustments to a recording, for example,
during mastering.
Smart bypass compares the signal at the input of the Master Section to the signal
at the output of the Master Section, and adjusts the level accordingly.
The main reason for Smart bypass is that processing audio often changes the level
or loudness of the signal. When comparing the processed signal with the original
signal, your ears are sensitive to this loudness change, which may in turn affect your
judgment. If you need to compare the sound of the effect independently from the
loudness change, a level correction is required.
Smart Bypass Dialog
In the Master Section, click the Smart bypass button to open the Smart bypass
dialog, which allows you to choose whether to bypass all the active effects in the
Effects slots, including faders. This allows you to compensate for any level
difference introduced by the Master Section.
NOTE
This is for playback only, not for file rendering.
The following options are available:
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Master Section
Smart Bypass
Play - Original audio
Monitors the unprocessed signal at the Master Section input.
Play - Processed audio + level correction
Monitors the signal at the Master Section output plus the applied level
correction. To be able to listen to the corrected level, click the Update gains
button first.
Play - Processed audio
Monitors the unprocessed signal at the Master Section output without level
correction.
Level Correction - Match loudness (RMS)
If this option is activated, the output is adjusted so that the loudness of the
processed signal corresponds to that of the original signal.
Level Correction - Match peaks
If this option is activated, the output is adjusted so that the peak levels of the
processed signal correspond to those of the original signal layout.
Level Correction - Custom correction
Allows you to set a custom level compensation (no analysis).
Level Correction - Analysis time
Determines how many samples are used to calculate the reference loudness.
Level Correction - Update gains
Updates the volume analysis.
Using Smart Bypass
PROCEDURE
1.
Click the Smart bypass button.
2.
Select one of the following Play options:
•
Original audio
•
Processed audio + level correction
•
Processed audio
You can also use key commands to select a Play option. Press [A] for Original audio,
[B] for Processed audio + level correction, and [C] for Processed audio.
3.
4.
Select one of the following Level correction modes:
•
Match loudness (RMS)
•
Match peaks
•
Custom correction
Depending on your selection, you have the following options:
•
If you have selected Custom correction, specify a value, start the play back,
and proceed with step 7.
•
If you have selected Match loudness (RMS) or Match peaks, specify the time
range you want to analyze in the Analysis time field, and proceed with step 5.
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Saving a Master Section Preset
5.
Play back the audio and wait for the analysis to complete.
For example, wait as long as the time specified in the Analysis time field.
6.
Click the Update gains button.
Depending on the selected correction method, the level correction that is applied is
shown below the corresponding button.
You can also press [U] to update the gains.
7.
Switch between the three Play mode options to compare between the
processed audio with level correction, the processed audio without level
correction, and the original audio (unprocessed).
AFTER COMPLETING THIS TASK
Optional: If you change the analysis time or start playback from another position you
have to wait for the set time, and then click the Update gains button again to
update the analysis.
Saving a Master Section Preset
You can turn all settings currently made in the Master Section into a preset. This
includes which processors are used, what settings are made for each one of them,
and dithering options.
PROCEDURE
1.
Set up the Master section as you want it.
2.
Click the presets button at the bottom of the Master Section, and select Save
as.
3.
Optional: In the Save Master Section Preset dialog, click the path name,
enter a name, and click OK to create a new subfolder in the Master Section
preset folder.
4.
Enter a name for the preset in the Name field.
5.
Decide, whether you want to include one or several of the following options
in the preset:
•
To include the plug-ins from the Effects pane, activate Save Effects plug-ins.
•
To include the settings made in the Master Level pane, activate Save Master
Level settings.
•
To include the plug-in from the Dithering pane, activate Save Dithering
plug-in.
•
To exclude locked plug-ins, activate Exclude locked plug-ins.
6.
Optional: Activate Create shortcut for selecting the preset, to assign a
shortcut to open the preset, after you clicked Save.
7.
Click Save.
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Master Section
Saving a Master Section Preset
Save Master Section Preset Dialog
In this dialog, you can save a Master Section setup as preset and define which parts
of the current Master Section you want to include in the preset.
In the Master Section, click the Presets button at the bottom, and select Save as.
Path name
Opens the root folder of the preset in the Windows Explorer/Mac OS Finder.
Here, you can create subfolders in which presets can be stored.
Presets list
Lists all existing presets.
Name
Lets you specify the name of the preset to save.
Create shortcut for selecting the preset
If this option is activated and you click Save, the Shortcut Definitions dialog
opens, where you can define a shortcut to apply this preset.
If a preset already has an assigned shortcut, this option is grayed out. To
change the existing shortcut, double-click the preset name in the presets list.
Save Effects plug-ins
If this option is activated, the effect plug-ins are saved with the preset.
Save Master Level settings
If this option is activated, the Master Level settings are saved with the preset.
Save Dithering plug-in
If this option is activated, the dithering plug-in is saved with the preset.
Exclude locked plug-ins
If this option is activated, locked plug-ins are not saved as part of the Master
Section preset.
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Master Section
Saving a Master Section Preset
Loading a Master Section Preset
You can load a previously saved Master Section presets, a temporarily stored
Master Section preset, or import WaveLab 4/5/6 presets.
Open the Presets menu on the bottom of the Master Section window.
•
To load a preset that has been previously saved in the Presets\Master Section
folder, select a preset from the Presets menu.
•
To load a preset from any location, select Open from any location, select a
preset, and click Open.
•
To load a temporarily saved preset, open the Restore submenu, and select a
preset.
•
To import a WaveLab 4/5/6 preset, select Import WaveLab 4/5/6 presets,
select a preset, and click Open.
Storing a Master Section Preset in an Audio File or Audio
Montage
You can store the current settings of the Master Section along with an audio file or
inside an audio montage.
•
To store a current setting in the Master Section along with an audio file, in the
Audio Files workspace, select Edit > Store Master Section preset along
with audio file. The preset is stored in companion files.
•
To store a current setting in the Master Section as part of an audio montage,
in the Audio Montage workspace, select Edit > Store Master Section
preset inside montage.
Loading a Master Section Preset to an Audio File or Audio
Montage
You can apply the Master Section settings that have been stored along with an
audio file or inside an audio montage to the project.
If the option Open option box when selecting a preset is activated in the Presets
menu of the Master Section, the Load Master Section Preset dialog opens when
applying a Master Section preset. In this dialog, you can specify which parts of a
saved Master Section preset to load when opening it.
•
To load a Master Section preset stored along with the currently opened audio
file, in the Audio Files workspace, select Edit > Load Master Section preset
stored with the audio file.
•
To load a Master Section preset stored inside the currently opened audio
montage, in the Audio Montage workspace, select Edit > Load Master
Section preset stored with the montage.
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Master Section
Saving a Master Section Preset
Load Master Section Preset Dialog
In this dialog, you can specify which parts of a saved Master Section preset to load
when opening it.
This dialog only opens if it is activated in the Master Section’s Presets menu. Open
the Presets menu at the bottom of the Master Section window, and activate Open
option box when selecting preset.
Now, when restoring a temporarily saved preset or opening a saved preset a dialog
with the following options opens:
Name
Displays the name of the preset.
Load/Replace effect plug-ins
If this option is activated, the active effect plug-ins are removed, and any new
plug-ins are inserted from the top slot.
Insert effect plug-ins from focused slot (keep existing plug-ins)
If this option is activated, the present effect plug-ins are kept, and any new
plug-ins are inserted from the top slot.
Load/Reset Master Level settings
If this option is activated, the present Master Level settings are reset, and any
new settings are loaded.
Load/Replace Dithering plug-in
If this option is activated, the present Dithering plug-in is removed, and the
new plug-in is loaded.
Including a Master Section Preset When Rendering
You can include the Master Section preset that is stored with the audio montage in
the rendering process of super clips’ audio montages.
This means that when this option is activated for an audio montage, anytime this
audio montage is rendered so that its image is used in a parent montage, its
associated Master Section preset is used by the rendering process.
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Master Section
Saving a Master Section Preset
•
To include the Master Section preset when rendering a super clip, in the
Audio Montage workspace, select Edit > Include Master Section preset
when rendering as super clip, or activate the Include Master Section
preset when rendering as super clip icon on the lower right of the montage
window.
Master Section Preset Menu
This menus offers several options for saving, managing, and restoring Master
Section presets.
To open the Preset menu of the Master Section, click the preset icon on the bottom
of the Master Section window.
Save
Saves the changes you have made to an existing preset.
Save as
Opens a dialog where you can select a name for the preset and choose a
location.
Organize presets
Opens the Preset folder of the Master Section, where you can rename or
delete presets.
Define shortcut for the current preset
Opens the Shortcut Definitions dialog, where you can define key sequences
and keywords.
Open from any location
Selects any Master Section preset located anywhere, not just in the default
root folder. For example, this is useful if you want to load a preset provided by
another source that is not located in your default root folder.
You can also navigate to any other location where you have stored presets.
Import WaveLab 4/5/6 presets
Lets you select WaveLab 4/5/6 presets.
Presets are relative to Master Project
If this option is activated, presets are searched in the preset folder of the
Master Project. This is useful if you want to organize Master Section presets
per project, rather than having a common central place for them.
Open option box when selecting preset
If this option is activated, a dialog opens that allows you to choose how to load
the preset you select.
Store temporarily
Lets you select one of the slots to temporarily store a preset.
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Master Section
About Monitoring Background Tasks
Restore
Lets you restore a previously stored preset.
List of saved presets
Lists the presets that are stored in the Preset folder of the Master Section.
About Monitoring Background Tasks
When rendering you can monitor the process, and pause or cancel tasks.
You can adjust the priority with which they are processed, pause, or cancel them.
This is useful if you have a number of lengthy processes underway and want to free
up some processing power to focus on editing. You can either lower the priority of
a task so it does not use as much of the computer processor capacity, or pause the
task temporarily.
You can set the Background tasks window to open automatically, by activating
Options (WaveLab menu on Mac) > Global preferences > Options tab > Make
the Background Task Monitor visible when a task starts.
A status bar below the wave window and the montage window shows the progress
of the current rendering process, and lets you cancel and pause the rendering,
without opening the Background tasks window.
Background Tasks Window
This window allows you to view all background rendering processes that are in
progress.
In the Audio Files workspace, Audio Montage workspace, or Control Window,
select Workspace > Shared tool windows > Background tasks.
The list of background tasks shows the following information about the rendered file
during the rendering process:
•
Name
•
Status
•
Elapsed Time
•
Remaining Time
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Master Section
About Dropouts
•
Progress in %
•
Progress bar
With the Pause and Cancel buttons, you can pause and cancel the rendering
process.
From the Tasks menu, you can select the following options:
Suspend
Pauses the selected task.
Suspend all
Pauses all tasks.
Resume
Resumes the selected paused task.
Resume all
Resumes all paused tasks.
Cancel
Cancels the selected task.
Lowest priority
Runs the task at a the lowest speed to leave processing power to other tasks,
and only when the mouse or keyboard are not in use.
Low priority
Runs the task at a low speed to leave processing power to other tasks.
High priority
Runs the tasks as fast as possible while giving you the possibility to continue
working in WaveLab.
About Dropouts
A dropout most likely occurs when your computer does not have the processing
power to handle all effect processors you have inserted.
To avoid dropouts, try the following:
•
Use fewer effects.
•
Consider rendering the processing rather than running it in real time. Then
master from the processed file without any effects. Dropouts never occur
when rendering to a file.
•
Do not process any files in the background.
•
If neither of the above helps, check the audio card preference settings. You
might need to adjust the audio buffer settings. If a dropout occurs during a
real-time mastering process we recommend that you re-master. Stop
playback, click the dropout indicator to reset it, and try again.
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Markers
Markers allow you to save and name certain positions in a file. Markers are useful
for editing and playback, for example, to indicate cue points or absolute time
locations, to highlight problem sections, and to visually separate tracks.
For example, markers can be used to:
•
Set the wave cursor to a specific position.
•
Select all audio between two positions.
•
Define CD tracks.
•
Loop sections in an audio file.
There is no limit to the amount of markers that you can have in a file.
The following marker types come in pairs: CD, Loop, Mute, Region, Error and
Correction. When you delete a marker of a marker pair, the other marker is also
deleted.
Since you cannot have a CD track that starts but never ends, a loop end point
without a start, etc., special rules exist for creating, deleting, and moving these types
of markers. CD track markers must always be balanced. For example, if you delete
a track start, the corresponding end marker is also deleted.
Loop, mute, correction, error, and region markers only have a functionality when
balanced.
NOTE
The functions in the Markers window of the Audio Files workspace and the Audio
Montage workspace are the same. However, the Markers window of the Audio
Montage workspace offers additional options regarding clips.
Marker Types
The following marker types are available:
Generic markers
Allow you to locate positions and select all the audio between two points, for
example. They can be created during recording.
Temporary markers
Can be used for any purpose. They are deleted when the corresponding file
is closed.
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Markers
CD track start and end markers
Denote where a CD track begins and ends. They also serve for DVD-A discs.
CD/DVD markers are used in pairs.
CD track splice markers
Are used when a CD track starts exactly where another ends. They also serve
for DVD-A discs.
CD track index markers
Are used to create index points in CD tracks. They also serve for DVD-A
discs.
Playback start markers
Define a playback start point.
Region start and end markers
Define start and end points for generic regions. They can be created during
recording and are used in pairs.
Exclusion start and end markers
Let you temporarily silence a section. Sections between exclusion regions are
skipped if you select Transport > Skip range. The Render dialog also allows
you to exclude regions from being rendered. Exclusion markers are used in
pairs.
Loop start and end markers
Are used to define loop points and are required to access loop editing
functions on the Process menu of the Audio Files workspace. They are
connected to the Loop mode when playing back audio. These markers are
useful for editing and creating loops before transferring a sound to a sampler.
Loop markers are used in pairs.
Error start and end markers
Are used to highlight errors such as clicks. They are saved in audio files if
Save Error and Correction markers is activated in the Audio file editing
preferences dialog, on the File tab. The error start and end markers can be
placed manually, but their main use is with the Error Correction tool.
Correction start and end markers
Are used to highlight corrections performed on regions previously marked as
errors. They are saved in audio files if Save Error and Correction markers is
activated in the Audio file editing preferences dialog, on the File tab. The
correction markers can be placed manually, but their main use is with the Error
Correction tool.
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Markers
Markers Window
Markers Window
In this window, you can create, edit, and use markers while working on an audio
waveform or audio montage.
If the window is not already visible, do the following: In the Audio Files workspace
or the Audio Montage workspace, select Workspace > Specific tool windows >
Markers.
Markers window in the Audio Files workspace
Markers List
The Markers window contains a list of all markers of the active file along with their
details and controls. You can create and edit markers directly from the markers list.
Numbers
Clicking the number of a marker scrolls the waveform to reveal the
corresponding marker.
Playback triggers
The following playback buttons are available:
Playback from start with a pre-roll.
-[Alt]/[Option]
Playback from start with a long pre-roll.
Playback from start.
Marker type
Shows the marker type. To change the marker type, click the marker icon and
select another marker type from the pop-up list.
Name
Shows the marker name. To change the name, double-click in the
corresponding cell and enter a new value.
Time
Shows the marker position on the time ruler. To change the time position,
double-click in the corresponding cell and enter a new value.
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Markers
Markers Window
Length
Shows the time value from the marker start position until the corresponding
end or splice marker.
•
To zoom on the region between a start and end marker, in the Length
column, click the corresponding cell.
•
To select the region between a start and end marker, in the Length
column, double-click the corresponding cell.
Lock
Allows you to lock markers. Locking markers prevents them from being
accidentally dragged to a new position in the wave window or the montage
window. To lock a marker, activate the checkbox for the markers that you want
to lock.
Clip reference (Audio Montage workspace only)
A marker can be attached to the left or right edge of a clip, and to its
waveform. When such reference moves, the marker moves along. The clip
reference column shows the name of the clip.
Offset (Audio Montage workspace only)
Shows the distance between the marker and the reference point.
Comment
Allows you to enter a comment. To enter a comment, double-click in a cell.
Insert Menu
On this menu, you can select the marker type that you want to insert at the edit or
playback cursor position.
Functions Menu
The options on this menu differ depending on the workspace. The following options
are available in the Audio Files workspace and the Audio Montage workspace:
Select all
Selects all markers in the markers list.
Select in time range
Selects the markers located in the selection range.
Deselect all
Deselects all markers.
Delete selected markers
Deletes all markers that are selected.
Delete selected markers
Opens the Delete Markers dialog, where you can select the markers to
delete according to various criteria.
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Markers
Markers Window
Convert marker types
Opens a dialog where you can convert markers to another type.
Move markers
Opens the Move multiple markers dialog, where you can select which
markers you want to move by a specified amount.
Batch renaming
Opens the Batch renaming dialog where you can rename several markers in
one go.
Generate markers
Opens the Generate Markers dialog where you can specify a sequence of
markers to create.
Export markers list as text
Opens a dialog where you can export the markers list in various file formats,
or as print out. You can decide which information about the markers to include
in the exported file.
Lock selected marker
Locks the selected marker. If this option is activated, the marker cannot be
moved or deleted.
Customize commands
Opens a dialog where you can customize marker-related menus and
shortcuts.
The following options of the Functions menu are only available in the Audio
Montage workspace:
Import markers from focused clip's audio file to audio montage
Automatically adds all markers of the clip’s source audio file to the audio
montage. To visualize these markers before importing them, it is
recommended to activate Source’s ruler and markers in one of the following
ways:
•
In the Focused clip window, select Options, and activate Source’s
ruler and marker.
•
In the Clips window, select Functions, and activate Show/Hide
source’s ruler and marker. You can also right-click the upper part of
a clip, and activate this option in the pop-up menu.
Bind selected marker to start of focused clip
Makes the marker’s position relative to the start of the focused clip. When the
start of this clip moves, the marker moves, too.
Bind selected marker to end of focused clip
Makes the marker’s position relative to the end of the focused clip. When the
end of this clip moves, the marker moves, too.
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Markers
Markers Window
Bind selected marker to audio samples of focused clip
Locks the selected marker relatively to audio samples referenced by the
focused clip. The marker moves when the audio samples move relatively to the
start of the montage.
Detach selected marker from its associated clip
Makes the marker’s position relative to the start of the audio montage.
Automatically attach new marker to the most suitable clip
Links all newly created markers to a clip when a reasonable pattern is
detected. For example, an end marker at the end of a clip or slightly beyond,
or any marker inside a clip. The marker type and its position relatively to the
closest clip determine the type of bond.
Full clip attachment
Attaches markers to a clip so that they are copied or deleted when the clip is
copied or deleted.
Filter Menu
Use the Filter menu to toggle which types of markers are displayed in the markers
list and on the timeline.
Filtering Markers
The search field allows you to filter the markers list by names.
You can search for text in the Name and Comment columns. The search only
happens in the sorted columns. The function Select All only selects the filtered
items.
•
In the Markers window’s toolbar, click in the search field, and enter the text
that you want to search for. You can use wildcard characters. “*” substitutes
for zero or more characters, and “?” substitutes for any character.
•
To switch the focus from the search field to the markers list, press the arrow
down key.
•
To switch the focus from the markers list to the search field, press
[Ctrl]/[Command]-[F].
•
To view all markers again, erase the search.
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Markers
About Creating Markers
About Creating Markers
Markers can be created during playback or in stop mode. You can generate a
sequence of markers or mark a selection range, for example.
You can create specific markers if you already know what you want to mark, or
create generic markers. Creating markers is done in the same way in the Audio Files
workspace and the Audio Montage workspace.
Creating Markers
You can create markers in the wave window and montage window in stop mode or
during playback.
PROCEDURE
1.
2.
Do one of the following:
•
Start playback.
•
In the wave/montage window, set the cursor to the position where you want to
insert the marker.
Do one of the following:
•
In the Markers window, click a marker button, or select a marker from the
Insert menu.
•
In the Markers window, select Insert > Create/Name marker, enter a name
and select a marker type, and click Create or Create and close.
•
Right-click the upper part of the time ruler, and select a marker from the context
menu.
•
Press [Insert]/[M]. This creates a generic marker.
•
To create CD start/end markers in the Audio Montage workspace, open the CD
window, and use the CD Wizard. This only works in stop mode.
Create Marker Dialog
This dialog allows you to create and name a marker in stop mode and during
playback.
In the Markers window, select Insert > Create/Name marker.
Name
Lets you enter the name of the marker.
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Markers
About Creating Markers
When clicking the icon to the right of the name field, a default name is
generated. To edit the default names, in the Markers window, select
Functions > Default names.
Type
Lets you select the type of marker.
Toggle start/end markers
If this option is activated, and you create a region start or end marker, the
related end or start marker is created when you click the Create or Create
and close button again.
Create and close
Creates the defined markers and closes the dialog.
Create
Creates the defined markers while leaving the window open allowing you to
create more markers.
RELATED LINKS
Default Marker Names Dialog on page 416
Creating Markers at Selection Start and End
You can mark a selection for looping or review, for example.
PROCEDURE
1.
In the wave window or the montage window, create a selection range.
2.
Do one of the following:
•
In the Markers window, click a marker pair button, or open the Insert menu and
select one of the marker pairs.
•
In the Markers window, select Insert > Create/Name region from selection,
enter a name for the start and end marker, select a region type, and click
Create or Create and close.
•
In the wave window, make a selection range, right-click it, and select one of the
marker pairs.
•
In the wave window or the montage window, create a selection range,
right-click the time ruler, and select one of the marker pairs.
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Markers
About Creating Markers
Create Region Dialog
This dialog allows you to create and name a start and end marker from a selection
during stop mode and during playback.
In the Markers window, select Insert > Create/Name region from selection.
Region name
Lets you enter the name of the start and end marker. If nothing is entered, a
generic name is created.
When clicking the icon to the right of the name field, a default name is
generated. To edit the default names, in the Markers window, select
Functions > Default names.
Set a different name for the closing marker
If this option is activated, you can enter a different name for the closing marker.
If this option is deactivated, the name of the start marker is also used for the
end marker.
Region type
Lets you select the type of region marker.
Create and close
Creates the defined markers and closes the dialog.
Create
Creates the defined markers and leaves the window open allowing you to
create more markers.
RELATED LINKS
Default Marker Names Dialog on page 416
Duplicating Markers
This is a quick way to create a marker from an existing marker.
PROCEDURE
•
In the wave window or the montage window, hold down [Shift], click a marker,
and drag.
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Markers
About Creating Markers
Generating a Sequence of Markers
You can generate several markers at once in a specified time range. This allows you
to create markers at every beat, or create markers as guidelines for inserting silence
when you want to distribute demo sounds, for example.
PROCEDURE
1.
Decide where you want to insert the generated markers. Do one of the
following:
•
To generate markers in a certain time range, create a selection range in the
wave window or the montage window.
•
To generate markers from the cursor position to the end of the audio or
generate a fixed number of markers from the cursor position, set the cursor
position where you want the first marker to be created.
2.
In the Markers window, select Functions > Generate Markers.
3.
Select the type of marker and specify the gap between markers, and if you
have selected a marker pair, the region length.
4.
Optional: Activate Naming and select a naming scheme.
5.
Select a numbering scheme.
6.
Click OK, to generate the markers.
Generate Markers Dialog
This dialog allows you to generate markers at regular intervals in a specified time
range. You can fill a selected time range, the region between the cursor position and
the end of the audio, or specify a fixed number of markers to be generated.
In the Markers window, select Functions > Generate Markers.
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Markers
About Creating Markers
Marker type
Specifies the type of marker to be generated.
Gap between markers
Sets the time between two markers or two regions.
Region length
Sets the length for the region to be generated.
Naming
Allows you to set up a naming scheme.
Depending on whether you have selected a single marker or a start/end
marker, you can specify the naming scheme for a single marker, or one naming
scheme for the start marker and one for the end marker.
If you select Custom, the Marker Naming dialog opens, where you can
specify a custom naming scheme.
Naming fields
Allows you to specify a base name for the markers, an optional separator
between name and marker number, and the start value of the marker index.
The base name is also used as a basis for the Custom naming scheme.
Fill selected time range
Generates markers in the selected time range.
Start after gap
If this option is activated, the first generated marker is inserted after the gap
time specified at the top of the dialog.
Fill from cursor till end
Generates markers between the edit cursor position and the end of the audio.
Fixed number, starting from cursor
Generates a specified number of markers or regions, starting at the edit
cursor position.
Allow to insert past last clip
Determines whether markers can be generated beyond the end of the last
clip, when Fixed number, starting from cursor is activated.
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Markers
Deleting Markers
Deleting Markers
Markers can be deleted in the wave window or the montage window, in the Markers
window, and in the Delete Markers dialog.
Deleting Markers in the Wave/Montage Window
Individual markers can easily be deleted in the wave window.
•
In the wave/montage window, right-click a marker, and select Delete.
•
Drag and drop a marker icon above the time ruler.
Deleting Markers in the Markers Window
This is useful if your project has many markers or if the marker that you want to
delete is not visible in the wave/montage window.
PROCEDURE
1.
In the Markers window, select one or several markers.
You can also select Functions > Select all.
2.
Click the Delete selected markers button, or select Functions > Delete
selected markers.
Deleting Markers by Type
This is useful to delete markers of a certain type in the whole wave/montage window
or in a selection range.
PROCEDURE
1.
Optional: If you only want to delete markers in a certain time range, create a
selection range in the wave/montage window.
2.
In the Markers window, select Functions > Delete Markers.
3.
Select the marker types that you want to delete.
4.
Optional: Define conditions that have to be met for markers to be deleted.
5.
Set the Range.
If you have selected an audio range and want to use it, activate In selected audio
range.
6.
Click OK.
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Markers
Deleting Markers
Delete Markers Dialog
In this dialog, you can define which markers to delete by selecting marker types and
conditions.
In the Markers window, select Functions > Delete Markers.
Marker types
Allows you to select the marker types to delete.
Conditions
Allows you to select a condition that has to be met for markers to be deleted.
For example, Marker name must contain this text.
Select all
Selects/deselects all markers.
Range – All
Deletes all markers.
Range – In selected time range
Deletes all markers in the selected time range.
Range – Skip locked markers
Skips locked markers.
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Markers
Moving Markers
Moving Markers
You can adjust marker positions in the wave window and the montage window.
PROCEDURE
•
In the wave/montage window, drag a marker to a new position on the time
ruler.
If Magnetic bounds is activated, the marker snaps to the cursor position, or the
beginning/end of a selection or waveform.
Moving Multiple Markers
You can move multiple markers simultaneously, keeping the relative distances
between the markers.
PROCEDURE
1.
Optional: If you only want to move markers in a certain time range, create a
selection range in the wave window or the montage window.
2.
In the Markers window, select Functions > Move Markers.
3.
Specify the amount of time by which you want to move the markers.
4.
Select the marker types that you want to move.
5.
Optional: Define conditions with or without regular expressions.
6.
Optional: If you have selected an audio range and want to use it, activate In
selected audio range.
7.
Click OK.
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Markers
Moving Multiple Markers
Move Multiple Markers Dialog
In this dialog you can select which markers you want to move by a certain amount
of time.
In the Markers window, select Functions > Move Markers.
Move markers by this amount
Defines the distance that markers are moved.
Move these marker types
Allows you to select the marker types that are moved.
Conditions
Allows you to select a condition that has to be met for markers to be moved.
For example, Marker name must contain this text.
Range - All
Moves all markers.
Range - In selected time range
Moves all markers in the selected time range.
Range - Skip locked markers
Skips locked markers.
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Markers
Navigating to Markers
Navigating to Markers
You can jump to the previous or next marker using the corresponding marker
buttons.
•
To jump to the previous/next marker, on the View command bar, click the
Previous marker/Next marker button.
•
To set the wave cursor to a marker position, in the wave window or the
montage window, double-click a marker triangle.
Hiding Markers of a Certain Type
For a better overview, you can hide marker types.
PROCEDURE
1.
In the Markers window, select Filter.
2.
Deactivate the marker type that you want to hide.
You can make the markers visible again by activating the corresponding marker type.
Converting Marker Types
You can convert markers of a specific type to another type.
Converting the Type of a Single Marker
PROCEDURE
1.
In the Markers window, click the marker icon that you want to convert.
2.
Select a new marker type from the list.
Converting All Markers of a Specific Type
You can convert loop markers to CD track markers, for example.
PROCEDURE
1.
Optional: If you only want to convert markers in a certain time range, create a
selection range in the wave window or the montage window.
2.
In the Markers window, select Functions > Convert marker types.
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Markers
Converting Marker Types
3.
Use the From and To pop-up menus to specify the source and target marker
type.
4.
Optional: Specify a condition.
5.
Select whether you want to convert all markers or only markers in the selected
range.
6.
Click OK.
Convert Marker Type Dialog
In this dialog, you can convert marker types.
In the Markers window, select Functions > Convert marker types.
From
Specifies the source marker type.
To
Specifies the target marker type.
Conditions pop-up menu
Allows you to specify conditions for the conversion. Select an option and
enter a text in the text field below.
The following conditions are available:
•
Marker name must be empty
•
Marker name must contain this text
•
Marker name must NOT contain this text
•
Marker name must contain this text (with wildcards)
•
Marker name must NOT contain this text (with wildcards)
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Markers
Renaming Markers
•
Marker name must contain this regular expression
•
Marker name must NOT contain this regular expression
Markers to convert - All
Converts all markers.
Markers to convert - In selected time range
Converts only markers of the selected time range.
Markers to convert - Skip locked markers
Excludes locked markers from the conversion.
Renaming Markers
You can change the automatically generated names of markers.
•
To rename a marker in the wave window or the montage window, right-click
a marker, select Rename, and enter a new name.
•
To rename markers in the Markers window, double-click a marker name in the
Name column, and enter a new name.
•
To batch rename multiple markers according to specified settings, in the
Markers window, select Functions > Batch renaming.
•
To edit the default names, in the Markers window, select Functions >
Default names.
RELATED LINKS
Batch Renaming on page 585
Default Marker Names Dialog
In this dialog, you can specify the default marker names.
In the Markers window, select Functions > Default names.
Marker type
Lets you select the type of marker to which you want to assign a default name.
Default name for this type of marker
Lets you specify the default name for the selected marker type.
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Markers
About Selecting Markers
About Selecting Markers
There are several ways to select markers.
•
In the wave window or the montage window, click a marker.
•
In the Markers window, click in a cell. The corresponding marker is selected.
•
Use [Ctrl]/[Command] and [Shift] to select multiple markers.
The marker icon changes its background, to indicate the selected marker.
Selecting the Audio Between Markers
You can quickly select the audio between two adjacent markers or between any two
markers. This allows you to select a section that has been marked.
•
To select the audio between two adjacent markers, double-click between two
adjacent markers.
•
To select several regions between two adjacent markers, double-click
between two adjacent markers, and after the second click, drag to select the
adjacent regions.
•
To select the audio between a region marker pair, hold down [Shift], and
double-click a region marker.
•
To extend the selection until the end of a marker region, in the wave/montage
window, hold down [Shift], and double-click in the marker region that you
want to select.
•
To activate the Markers window and display further information about a
certain marker, hold down [Alt]/[Option], and double-click a marker.
Binding Markers to Clips in the Audio Montage
In the Audio Montage workspace, you can bind markers to clips. By doing this, the
marker remains in the same position relative to the clip start/end, even if the clip is
moved in the audio montage or resized.
You can find the options regarding clips and markers in the Functions menu of the
Markers window, and when right-clicking a marker.
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Markers
Exporting the Markers List as Text
When a marker is bound to a clip element, its name is preceded by a blue character.
RELATED LINKS
Markers Window on page 401
Exporting the Markers List as Text
You can export the markers list as text. The markers list contains the marker’s
names, positions, region lengths, types, and comments.
PROCEDURE
1.
In the Audio Files workspace or the Audio Montage workspace, open the
Markers window.
2.
In the Markers window, select Functions > Export markers list as text.
3.
Choose the information that you want to export, and the output format.
4.
Click OK.
RESULT
The markers list opens in the selected output format. When selecting Print, the
Print Preview window opens. The text file is stored in the specified folder for
temporary files.
RELATED LINKS
Specifying Folders on page 83
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Markers
How Marker Information is Stored
Export Markers List as Text Dialog
This dialog allows you to export the markers list in various file formats, or as print
out. You can decide which information about the markers to include in the exported
file.
In the Audio Files workspace or the Audio Montage workspace, in the Markers
window, select Functions > Export markers list as text.
How Marker Information is Stored
WaveLab uses MRK files to have a file format independent way to store information.
However, to make marker information exchangeable between applications to a
certain extent, WaveLab also stores optionally some information in the Wave
headers.
This makes saving files quicker if only a marker settings has been changed.
However, this only applies when Write markers in WAV file header is deactivated
in the Audio File editing preferences on the File tab. By default, both MRK files
are created and information are stored in the Wave headers.
•
When you import a file for the first time, any loop points are imported and
displayed as loop markers.
•
When you save the file in the Wave format, the loop points are saved both as
part of the actual file and in the MRK file.
•
When you open a file that includes markers that were added in WaveLab, and
markers that were added in another application, all markers are displayed
when reopening the file in WaveLab.
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Metering
WaveLab contains a variety of audio meters that you can use when monitoring and
analyzing audio. Meters can be used to monitor audio during playback, rendering,
and recording. Furthermore, you can use them to analyze audio sections when
playback is stopped.
Metering Window
Audio Meters can be used in the Audio Files workspace, in the Audio Montage
workspace, and in the Control Window.
They can be used as following:
•
A docked window in a workspace
•
A tabbed window in the Control Window
•
An independent floating window. In this mode, it can be useful to select
Window > Hide frame, to save screen space. In this case, the whole menu
is accessed by right-clicking.
There can only be one instance of each audio meter.
The axis of most audio meters can be rotated, to view the graphics horizontally or
vertically. For some meters, you can also style and customize parameters via a
settings dialog.
Real Time vs. Non-Real Time
Metering can be used to measure audio in real time (playback, record), or offline
audio in non-real time (audio range or around cursor stats).
Real time in the context of metering means that audio is played back. Non-real time
means that the audio is in stop mode.
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Metering
Metering Monitor Modes
Metering Monitor Modes
You can choose which audio source to monitor and select a mode for displaying
information in the meters.
You can access the following monitoring functions from the Meters menu or via the
Meter commands bar.
Monitor Playback
This is the standard metering mode, in which the meters reflect the audio
being played back. Metering occurs after the Master Section, which means
that effects, dithering, and Master faders are taken into account. You can
monitor playback in audio files, audio montages, audio CD track lists, etc.
Monitor Audio Input
In this mode, the meters reflect the audio input. Typically, this is the mode to
use when recording. The Master Section settings are not taken into account.
Freeze meters
This mode freezes the values for all open meters. The meters remain frozen
until you select another monitor mode.
Monitor File Rendering
In this mode, you can monitor what is being written to disk during file
rendering or when recording. Like Analyze audio selection, average and
min/max peak values are calculated. After rendering, the meters freeze until
you refresh or change monitor mode.
Monitor Edit cursor position (Audio Files workspace only)
In this mode, the meters are static, showing the levels and other values for the
audio at the position of the edit cursor, in stop mode. This allows you to
analyze a certain position in an audio file in real time. The Master Section
settings are not taken into account.
Analyze audio selection (Audio Files workspace only)
In this mode the meters display the average values calculated for a selected
range. The Master Section settings are not taken into account.
When you change the selection, you have to update the meter displays by
selecting Meters > Update selection analysis, or by clicking the Update
selection analysis button on the Meters command bar.
Update selection analysis (Audio Files workspace only)
Analyzes the audio selection again and updates the meters.
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Metering
About Meter Settings
About Meter Settings
You can set up most meters according to your needs in the corresponding settings
dialogs. For example, you can adjust the behavior, scale, and color of the meters.
•
To open the settings dialog for a meter, select Functions > Settings.
•
To check the results after changing the settings without closing the settings
dialog, click Apply.
•
To close the settings dialog and discard any changes that you have made,
even if you have clicked the Apply button before, click Cancel.
Multichannel Metering
WaveLab features 8 audio channels that can be routed to inputs and outputs on a
multi i/o audio card. The audio montage supports various surround channel
configurations using up to 8 channels.
WaveLab can display multiple meters. When working with multiple channels in an
audio montage, each channel has its own meter. This applies to all meters (up to 8
real time FFTs, 8 level meters, 4 pan meters, 4 phase scopes, etc.). If a surround
configuration is selected, each meter indicates the corresponding surround channel
(Lf, Rf, LFE, etc.).
When working with more than two channels, it is recommended to use floating
meter windows, because they can be resized more easily.
Resetting the Meters
You can reset the display of some meters, for example, the values of the Level Meter.
PROCEDURE
•
In the meter window, click the Reset icon, or select Functions > Reset.
RESULT
All meters and numerical indicators are reset.
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Metering
Using Presets in the Meter Windows
Using Presets in the Meter Windows
You can save the settings that you have made for a meter window as a preset. By
assigning presets to preset buttons, you can quickly switch between different level
scales and display modes, for example.
•
To save your settings as a preset, select Functions > Settings, click the
Presets button, and select Save as.
•
To assign a preset to one of the preset buttons, select Functions > Settings,
click the Presets button, and from the Assign to preset submenu, select a
preset button.
•
To apply a preset, select it from the Functions menu, or click the
corresponding preset button.
Preset buttons 1-5
Level Meter
The Level Meter displays the peak and average loudness/decibel level of your audio
file, and the balance between the left and right channels in a stereo file.
In the Audio Files workspace or the Audio Montage workspace, select Meters >
Level Meter.
Level Meters
The upper part of the window shows the peak level and average loudness in the
following way:
•
The Peak Level meters display the peak levels of each channel, graphically
and numerically.
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Metering
Level Meter
•
The VU meters measure the average loudness (RMS) of each channel. These
meters have a built-in inertia, evening out loudness variations over a
user-defined time span. If you are monitoring playback or the audio input, you
can see two vertical lines following each VU meter bar. These lines indicate
the average of the most recent minimum RMS values (left line) and the
average of the most recent maximum RMS values (right line). To the left, the
difference between the minimum and maximum average values is displayed.
This gives you an overview of the dynamic range of the audio material.
•
If you are monitoring real-time audio (playback or input), the maximum peak
and loudness values are displayed to the right of the meter bars. The numbers
in brackets to the right of the maximum peak values indicate the number of
times that clipping occurs (0 dB signal peaks). Values between 1 and 2 clips
are acceptable, but if you get a larger number, you should lower the master
level to avoid digital distortion.
•
Recording levels should be set so that they only rarely clip. If the master level
is set too high, the sound quality and frequency response are compromised
at high recording levels, with unwanted clipping effects. If the level is set too
low, noise levels can be high relative to the main sound being recorded.
Pan Meters
The lower part of the window shows the difference in level between the left and right
channel of a stereo audio file.
•
The upper pan meters show the peak level difference between the channels.
The level bars can go to the left or right, indicating which channel is loudest.
•
The lower pan meters show the average difference in loudness between the
channels. This gives you a visual indication of whether a stereo recording is
properly centered, for example.
•
If you are monitoring real-time audio (playback or input), the maximum balance
difference values (peak and loudness) for each channel are displayed
numerically to the left and right of the meter bars.
Level/Pan Meter Settings Dialog
In this dialog, you can adjust the behavior, scale, and color of the meters.
In the Level Meter window, select Functions > Settings, or click the tool icon.
Peak Meter Section
Peaks pop-up menu
On this pop-up menu, select whether WaveLab should use sample values
(digital peaks) or analog reconstructed values (true peaks).
Ballistics - Release rate
Determines how fast the peak level meter falls after a peak.
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Metering
Level Meter
Ballistics - Peak hold time
Determines how long a peak value is displayed. The peak can be displayed as
a line or a number. If the meter's height is too narrow, only the line is displayed.
Top/Middle/Low zone
The color buttons allow you to select colors for the low, middle, and top zones
of the level meter. You can define the range for the top and middle zones by
changing the corresponding values.
Cursor mode - Unit
If this option is activated, you can specify which unit is used to display the
peak value.
Show value of single sample
If this option is activated, the value of the single sample is displayed at the
cursor position. If this option is deactivated, several samples are scanned
around the cursor to determine the peak value. Generally, this is best
activated when you have zoomed in on the waveform to see the details.
VU Meter (Loudness) Section
VU Meter (Loudness)
Activates/deactivates the VU meter.
Modes pop-up menu
On this pop-up menu, you can choose between the standard mode and three
K-System modes. The settings for K-System modes are shown in the Zones
section.
Ballistics - Resolution
Sets the time that is used for determining the loudness. The smaller this value,
the more the VU meter behaves like the Peak meter.
Ballistics - Range inertia
Sets the time that is used for determining the recent minimum and maximum
value lines, and therefore determines how quickly these respond to changes
in loudness.
Top/Middle/Low zone
The color buttons allow you to select colors for the low, middle, and top zones
of the VU level meter. You can define the range for the top and middle zones
by changing the corresponding values.
Cursor mode - Samples to scan
Determines how many samples are scanned when calculating the VU meter
value in Monitor edit cursor position mode.
Panning Meter Section
Panning Meter
Shows/hides the panning meter in the Level Meter window.
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Metering
Level Meter
Range
Determines the dB range of the panning meter.
Peak and Loudness Left/Right, Global colors
Lets you specify the colors for the different elements.
Global Colors Section
In this section, you select colors for the meter background, marks (scale units), and
grid lines.
Global Range (Peak and VU Meter) Section
In this section, you specify the minimum and maximum values of the displayed level
range. Typically, you want to create a preset showing the full level range, and other
presets for a detailed view of a smaller range.
K-System VU Meter Modes
K-System integrates standardized metering, monitor calibration, and level practices.
In WaveLab, you can choose between three metering modes which all set the 0 dB
VU point below the standard Level meter. To fully utilize the K-System, you have to
calibrate your monitor level so that 0 VU equals 83 dB.
You should use a pink noise reference signal and a SPL level meter. Use C
weighting (slow response), and adjust your playback level so that your noise meter
indicates 83 dB SPL per channel or 86 dB SPL when played on the two channels
simultaneously.
The K-System has three meter operating modes (selectable from the VU-Meter
pop-up in the Level/Pan Meter Settings dialog). These are intended for different
uses:
•
K-System 20: This places 0 VU 20 dB lower than standard VU mode, and is
intended for music with a very wide dynamic range, e.g. classical music.
•
K-System 14: This places 0 VU 14 dB lower than standard VU mode, and is
intended for music with a slightly more compressed dynamic range. Use this
for pop, R&B, and rock music.
•
K-System 12: This places 0 VU 12 dB lower than standard VU mode, and is
primarily intended for broadcast applications.
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Metering
Loudness Meter
Loudness Meter
Loudness Meter is an audio meter for monitoring loudness, according to the EBU
R-128 standard.
In the Audio Files workspace, select Meters > Loudness Meter.
1) Momentary loudness bar
Displays the loudness of a 400 milliseconds slice that is evaluated every 100
milliseconds.
2) Short-term loudness bar
Displays the loudness of a 3 seconds slice that is evaluated every second.
3) Integrated loudness bar
Displays the average loudness. This bar is evolving over time, because it
makes an average of the loudness by measuring 400 millisecond slices every
100 milliseconds.
4) Target loudness
The purple vertical line corresponds to the target loudness defined in the
Loudness Meter Settings dialog. The purple shadow around it corresponds
to the acceptable deviation.
5) EBU R-128 Loudness Range (LRA)
This loudness range displays the difference between the estimates of the
10th and the 95th percentiles of the loudness distribution. The lower
percentile of 10 % can, for example, prevent the fade-out of a music track from
dominating the loudness range. The upper percentile of 95 % ensures that an
unusually loud sound, such as a gunshot in a movie, is not responsible for a
large loudness range.
The loudness ranges of number 5, 6, and 7 help to decide if dynamic
compression is necessary, by giving instant feedback about the dynamics (too
low, good, too much).
6) Dynamics range of the short-term loudness
This loudness range monitors the recent minimum/maximum loudness
measurements to provide a hint about the short-term dynamics.
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Metering
Loudness Meter
7) Dynamics range of the momentary loudness
This loudness range monitors the recent minimum/maximum loudness
measurements to provide a hint about the momentary dynamics.
8) Loudness curve
This curve shows where the loudness is distributed in a song. The audio
signal is divided into small blocks, and the loudness of each block is
computed. The curve informs about how often audio events with a given
loudness appear in the file in comparison to all other events. If the curve has
a peak, the given loudness often appears in the song.
The curve is always normalized. The peak shows which loudness is the most
represented in a song. The curve is directly related to the LRA as the LRA
starts at the left part of the curve and ends at the right part, with a 10 %/95 %
tolerance.
9) Gate LED
The Gate LED lights up when audio is discarded from measurement. The EBU
standard discards audio below a certain level, relative to the average
loudness.
10) Numerical values of the bars
This section shows the numerical values of the bars. The values in brackets
are the loudness ranges.
11) True Peak LED
The True Peak LED is based on a true peak analysis and lights up when
clipping is detected.
RELATED LINKS
EBU Loudness Standard R-128 on page 43
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Metering
Loudness Meter
Loudness Meter Settings Dialog
In this dialog, you can set up the appearance of the Loudness Meter window.
In the Loudness Meter window, select Functions > Settings, or click the tool icon.
Short-term Loudness/Momentary Loudness
Top zone/Middle zone/Low zone
Here, you can specify the colors for the top, middle, and low zones of the
meter.
From
Allows you to specify what should be considered as middle and top zones.
Show maximum values
If this option is activated, the maximum short-term and momentary values are
displayed instead of the loudness range values.
Loudness range
If this option is activated, a moving rectangle is displayed, which symbolizes
the short-term loudness range/momentary loudness.
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Metering
Loudness Meter
Ballistics
Determines the inertia of the loudness range for the short-term
loudness/momentary loudness, that is, how fast the range edges meet each
other after a new minimum or maximum loudness is reported.
Integrated Loudness
Target loudness
Here, specify the ideal loudness to match. -23 LUFS is the EBU R-128
standard.
Acceptable deviation
Here, specify the loudness range that you consider as acceptable deviation
from the target loudness.
Outside the acceptable deviation
Lets you specify the color of the range that is outside the acceptable
deviation.
Loudness Range
Range color
Lets you specify the range colors if the range size is above the associated
value (too much), exactly as the associated value (good), or below the
associated value (not enough).
Below/From
A loudness range that you consider to be not enough (Below) and too much
(From).
Transition
Lets you specify how fast the color changes from Good to Too Much, and
from Good to Not Enough. 0 % means that the color changes abruptly when
a threshold is reached. 100 % means that the color changes gradually.
Additional Settings
Background/Marks/Grid/Curve
Lets you set the colors for the meter background, marks, grid lines, and the
loudness distribution curve of the Loudness Meter.
Peak hold time
Determines how long the peak LED remains lit after a new true peak.
Show loudness histogram
If this option is activated, a loudness histogram is displayed in the Loudness
Meter.
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Metering
Phasescope
Scale
In this section, you can specify the low and high end of the displayed level range.
Typically, you may want to create a preset showing the full level range, and other
presets for a detailed view of a smaller range.
The EBU +9 scale and the EBU +18 scale are EBU recommendations. Both of
these scales are centered around 0 LU, which represetns -23 LUFS, the
recommended EBU loudness.
Phasescope
The Phasescope indicates the phase and amplitude relationship between two
stereo channels.
In the Audio Files workspace or the Audio Montage workspace, select Meters >
Phasescope.
Reading the Phasescope
The Phasescope works as follows:
•
A vertical line indicates a perfect mono signal (the left and right channels are
the same).
•
A horizontal line indicates that the left channel is the same as the right, but
with an inverse phase.
•
A fairly round shape indicates a well balanced stereo signal. If the shape leans
to one side, there is more energy in the corresponding channel.
•
A perfect circle indicates a sine wave on one channel, and the same sine wave
shifted by 45° on the other.
•
Generally, the more you can see a thread, the more bass is in the signal, and
the more spray-like the display, the more high frequencies are in the signal.
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Metering
Phasescope
Phase Correlation Meter
The Phase Correlation meter at the bottom of the display works as follows:
•
The green line shows the current phase correlation, and the two red lines
show the recent minimum and maximum values.
•
With a mono signal, the meter shows +1, indicating that both channels are
perfectly in phase.
•
Similarly, –1 means that the two channels are the same, but one is inverted.
•
Generally, for a good mix, the meter should show a value between 0 and +1.
The Phase Correlation meter is also available in Analyze audio selection mode,
showing an average value for the selected range.
Phasescope Settings Dialog
In this dialog, you can adjust the behavior, scale, and color of the meters.
In the Phasescope window, select Functions > Settings.
Background
Click this to change the background color.
Coil display
Allows you to adjust the color for the grid and phase coil display.
Auto-size
When Auto-size is activated, the display is optimized to fit within the window.
Correlation display
This is where you select colors for the elements in the Phase Correlation
meter display, and adjust the Peak hold time for the maximum and the
minimum indicator.
Number of samples to display
This setting affects the length of the phase coil and the density of the display.
For audio with high sample rates, you might want to raise this value.
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Metering
Spectroscope
Spectroscope
The Spectroscope shows a graphical representation of the frequency spectrum,
analyzed into 60 separate frequency bands, represented as vertical bars.
In the Audio Files workspace or the Audio Montage workspace, select Meters >
Spectroscope.
Peak levels are shown as a horizontal lines above the corresponding bands,
indicating recent peak/maximum values. The Spectroscope offers a quick spectrum
overview. For a more detailed analysis of the audio spectrum, use the Spectrometer.
On the Functions menu, you can specify whether only high audio levels are
displayed, or whether medium and low levels are also shown.
Spectrometer
The Spectrometer uses FFT (Fast Fourier Transform) techniques to display a
frequency graph, providing a precise and detailed real-time frequency analysis.
In the Audio Files workspace or the Audio Montage workspace, select Meters >
Spectrometer.
The current frequency spectrum is shown as a linear graph. Spectrum peaks are
shown as short horizontal lines.
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Metering
Spectrometer
Zooming
In the Spectrometer window, you can zoom in on a frequency area.
•
To zoom in on a frequency area, click and drag a rectangle in the spectrum.
The display is zoomed in so that the selected frequency range fills the window.
•
To return to full-scale display, select Functions > Zoom out fully, or
double-click in the spectrum.
Snapshots of the Spectrometer
You can take snapshots of the current spectrum, to check the effects of adding EQ,
for example.
The snapshots are displayed on the spectrum graph. Up to five snapshots can be
displayed. The sixth snapshot replaces the earliest snapshot.
•
To take a snapshot, select Functions > Add snapshot.
•
To erase the last snapshot, select Functions > Erase last snapshot.
Exporting FFT Data as ASCII Text
FFT (Fast Fourier Transform) analysis is a method to convert a waveform from the
time domain to the frequency domain. You can export the displayed FFT data as a
text file.
PROCEDURE
1.
In the Audio Files workspace, on the Meters menu, activate Monitor edit
cursor position or Analyze audio selection.
2.
In the Spectrometer window, select Functions > Export FFT data as
ASCII.
3.
Specify a file name and location.
4.
Click Save.
RESULT
The resulting text file can be imported into Microsoft Excel, or other applications that
allow graph plotting from text files.
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Metering
Spectrometer
Spectrometer Settings Dialog
In this dialog, you can adjust the behavior and display of the meters, and assign up
to five sets of Spectrometer settings to the preset buttons.
In the Spectrometer window, select Functions > Settings.
Process Tab
Analysis block size
The higher this value, the higher the accuracy in the frequency domain (the
spectrum is divided into more bands). At the same time, the time localization
is reduced. This means that the higher the value, the less easy to know where
a given frequency starts and ends in time.
However, raising the block size value also requires more CPU power and
introduces a higher latency. Therefore, high values should only be used for
off-line monitoring.
Analysis overlapping
To get more accurate results, the program can analyze overlapping blocks.
This setting determines the amount of overlap between these blocks – the
higher the value, the more accurate the results. Raising this value is very CPU
intensive. A setting of 50 % requires twice the amount of CPU power, a
setting of 75 % requires four times the CPU power, etc.
Smoothing window
Allows you to choose which method to use for pre-processing the samples in
order to optimize the spectrum display.
Display Tab
Frequency ruler range
Determines the frequency range to be shown, at full-scale display. The lowest
frequency to be shown depends on the Analysis block size setting and the
highest actual frequency depends on the sample rate.
Logarithmic scale
When this is activated, each octave occupies the same horizontal space in the
display. If you need more resolution in the high frequency range, you may want
to turn this off.
Level ruler range
Determines the range of the vertical level ruler, in dB or as a percentage value.
Normalize display to 0 dB
If this option is activated, the level display is offset, so that the highest point
on the curve is displayed as 0 dB. This is only possible in non-real time mode.
Optimize scale
Optimizes the level scale so that only the relevant level range is shown. This
is only possible in non-real time mode.
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Metering
Bit Meter
Display type
Allows you to switch the display between curve and bar graph.
Peak Hold time
Determines for how long the peak level graph remains displayed when the
levels drop.
Colors
This is where you select colors for the curves, grid, background, etc.
Bit Meter
The Bit meter shows how many bits are used.
In the Audio Files workspace or the Audio Montage workspace, select Meters >
Bit-meter.
While you may expect the maximum number of bits to be the same as the resolution
of the audio file, this is not necessarily the case.
As soon as you perform any kind of real-time processing on an audio file, the audio
data is treated at a much higher resolution (32-bit floating point), to allow for pristine
audio quality. The only time when a 16-bit file is played back at 16-bit resolution is,
for example, if you play it without any fades or effects, and with the master faders
set to 0.00.
How to Read the Bit Meter
•
The inner meters show how many bits are used.
•
The outer meters show how many bits were recently in use.
•
The Over segment indicates clipping.
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Metering
Bit Meter
•
If the Below segment is lit, there are more than 24 bits. The bit meter shows
the 24 higher bits, and the Below segment indicates the existence of extra,
lower bits.
•
If the Inter segment is lit, this indicates that the audio data cannot be correctly
expressed on a regular 24-bit scale. For example, this is the case when
floating point values in between bits are present, which is typically the case if
you apply effects, etc.
When to Use the Bit Meter
The Bit meter is useful in the following situations:
•
To check whether dithering is necessary or not. As a rule if you are playing
back or mixing down to 16 bits, and the Bit meter shows that more than 16 bits
are used, you should apply dithering.
•
To see the actual resolution of an audio file. For example, even though a file is
in 24-bit format, only 16 bits may be used. Or, a 32-bit file may only use
24 bits, in which case, the Below segment would not be lit.
•
To see whether a plug-in that is set to zero still affects your signal, or whether
a plug-in uses 16-bit internal processing.
Bit Meter Settings Dialog
In this dialog, you can adjust the behavior and display of the Bit meter.
In the Bit meter window, select Functions > Settings.
Colors
You can adjust the colors of the meter segments, grids, background, etc. by
clicking the corresponding color buttons.
Bit hold time
Determines for how long peak values are held by the outer meters.
Bit display
Determines how the bits are displayed. In Intuitive mode, the absolute value
of the signal is shown. The bar graph goes higher with higher signal levels,
similar to a common level meter.
In True mode, the meter shows the direct mapping of the bits. However,
because the actual values may be negative, there is no intuitive relationship
with the level. This mode is useful if you want to quickly check the full range,
because all bits are displayed, regardless of the audio signal level.
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Metering
Oscilloscope
Oscilloscope
The Oscilloscope offers a highly magnified view of the waveform around the
playback cursor position.
In the Audio Files workspace or the Audio Montage workspace, select Meters >
Oscilloscope.
If you are analyzing stereo audio, the Oscilloscope normally shows the separate
levels of the two channels. However, if you activate Show sum and subtraction on
the Options pop-up menu, the upper half of the Oscilloscope shows the mix of the
two channels and the lower half shows the subtraction.
Oscilloscope Settings Dialog
In this dialog, you can adjust the display colors, and activate/deactivate Auto-zoom.
When Auto-zoom is activated, the display is optimized so that the highest level
reaches the top of the display at all times and even small signals are visible.
In the Oscilloscope window, select Functions > Settings.
Wavescope
The Wavescope meter displays a real-time waveform drawing of the audio signal
being monitored. It can be useful when recording or rendering a file if Monitor File
rendering mode is active.
In the Audio Files workspace or the Audio Montage workspace, select Meters >
Wavescope.
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Metering
Wavescope
Wavescope Settings Dialog
In this dialog, you can make various color settings for the background, grid, and
waveform display, and set the waveform rendering speed and vertical zoom.
In the Wavescrope window, select Functions > Settings.
Colors
Lets you select colors for the waveform graphics.
Waveform rendering speed
Determines how much the waveform display is compressed.
Level zoom
Determines the level zoom. Set a high value if the waveform has a low
amplitude.
Clear waveform when reaching right of pane
If this option is activated, the waveform display is cleared each time the cursor
reaches the right end of the display. If this option is deactivated, the new
waveform overwrites the previous waveform.
439
Basic Audio CD
In WaveLab, you can write Basic Audio CDs that are compatible with the Red Book
standard.
In the Basic Audio CD window, you create your audio CD by adding audio files to
a list of tracks. Each track contains a reference to the external audio file. This means
that you can save your Basic Audio CD layout as its own session and continue
editing individual tracks, for example.
A Basic Audio CD project contains the information about the CD track start position
and the length of the referenced audio file. If the CD markers of an audio file are
deleted, the audio file is removed from the Basic Audio CD project.
Once you have set up your CD layout, you can check the CD for conformity to the
Red Book standard, write the CD, or export it to the Audio Montage workspace for
further editing. You can also consolidate the audio files in the CD into a single audio
file containing track markers.
A Basic Audio CD can also be used as a generic playlist. It allows you to assemble
lists of files or sections of files with adjustable pauses in between.
IMPORTANT
Writing Basic Audio CDs offers only basic functionality. For professional CD
creation you should use the Audio Montage workspace.
RELATED LINKS
About the CD Window on page 311
440
Basic Audio CD
Basic Audio CD Window
Basic Audio CD Window
In this window, all tracks of the Basic Audio CD are listed. Here you can assemble
and write Basic Audio CDs that are compatible with the Red Book standard.
In the Audio Files workspace, select Workspace > Specific tool windows > Basic
Audio CD.
Track List
The track list shows information about the CD tracks. Apart from the entries in the
Name column, you cannot edit the information shown in this window. The following
informations are available for each track:
•
Name
•
Start position
•
Length
•
ISRC code
•
Comment (not stored on the CD)
To show the markers and pauses of a track, click the arrow icon in front of the track.
The total time of the CD is displayed at the bottom of the window.
The following playback buttons are available:
Playback from start with a pre-roll.
-[Alt]/[Option]
Playback from start with a long pre-roll.
Playback from start.
The following options are available on the menus of the Basic Audio CD window:
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Basic Audio CD
Basic Audio CD Window
File Menu
New
Closes the current Basic Audio CD and opens an empty one.
Open
Lets you open a Basic Audio CD.
Add Tracks
Opens a file browser where you can select the audio files that you want to add
to the Basic Audio CD.
Save
Saves the current Basic Audio CD.
Save as
Saves the current Basic Audio CD with a specific name.
Create an independent clone
Creates a single audio file that contains all the audio material used by the
Basic Audio CD, as well as a new Basic Audio CD file. The new Basic Audio
CD is independent from the audio files and markers that are referenced by the
active Basic Audio CD.
Save each CD track as an audio file
Opens a dialog where you can specify a location to save each track as
separate audio file.
Open recent
Opens the list of recently used files.
Edit Menu
Delete
Deletes the selected track from the Basic Audio CD.
Edit audio
Displays the audio of the selected track in the wave window.
Write Audio CD or DDP
Opens a dialog from which you can write a CD.
Check CD conformity
Verifies that the structure of the Basic Audio CD is correct according to the
Red Book standard.
Display all CD tracks as one audio file
Creates an audio file that recreates the structure of the Basic Audio CD and
opens it in the wave window, without writing any audio sample to disk.
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Basic Audio CD
Basic Audio CD Window
Convert to audio montage
Creates an audio montage with the same structure of CD tracks as the Basic
Audio CD.
Options
Options
Opens the Basic Audio CD Options dialog.
Basic Audio CD Options Dialog
In this dialog, you can specify an UPC/EAN code for the CD, add silence before
and after tracks, specify pauses, and decide whether to play back the audio through
the Master Section.
In the Basic Audio CD window, select Options > Options.
UPC/EAN Code
Here you can specify an optional UPC/EAN code for the CD.
Adjust gaps between markers and sound (as CD frames)
If this option is activated, WaveLab performs small adjustments to the spacing
before and after the CD Track Markers. This is useful to ensure that a
low-quality CD player does not miss the start of tracks or cut them off before
their actual end, for example. You can specify the silence length for the
following options:
•
Silence after first track start marker
•
Silence after track start marker
•
Silence before each track end marker
•
Silence before last track end marker
Default pause
Lets you add a few frames of silence before the first track of the CD. Usually,
the pause needs to be longer for the first track than for the other tracks, to
ensure that a low-quality CD player does not miss the start of the first track,
for example.
Reset pause of all tracks
If this option is activated, the pauses of all tracks are reset to the default value
when you close the dialog.
Play through Master Section
If this option is activated, playback of the Basic Audio CD passes the Master
Section.
NOTE
You cannot use this option when writing a Basic Audio CD.
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Basic Audio CD
About CD Markers
Save as default settings
If this option is activated, the settings made in this dialog are used for newly
created Basic Audio CDs.
About CD Markers
A track in the Basic Audio CD window is defined by CD track start and end markers
or CD track splice markers.
•
CD track splice markers indicate the end of one track and the start of the next.
If you insert a start marker after another start marker, the second marker is
automatically converted into a splice marker.
•
If you delete the CD markers defining a track, the track is deleted from the
Basic Audio CD list.
•
If you edit the marker position of a CD track, the change is reflected in the
track in the Basic Audio CD.
•
When you create a CD track start marker, a CD track end marker is
automatically created at the start of the next track or at the end of the audio
file, whichever comes first.
•
If you try to move CD track markers beyond the end of the corresponding file,
to a position inside another track, etc., the marker is automatically moved to
the closest valid position.
•
The name of a CD track is the name of the CD track start marker. Editing the
marker name also changes the CD Track name, and vice versa.
Preparing a Basic Audio CD
You can add any type of file to a Basic Audio CD. However, when writing the files
to CD, the files must meet certain specifications.
•
44100 Hz (44.1 kHz)
•
Mono, dual-mono, or stereo.
•
8, 16, 20, or 24-bit resolution. During the writing process, files are converted
to 16-bit stereo.
A track can only be used once in a Basic Audio CD.
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Basic Audio CD
Preparing a Basic Audio CD
Creating a Basic Audio CD
PROCEDURE
1.
In the Basic Audio CD window, select File > New.
2.
Add tracks to the Basic Audio CD project using the following methods:
•
In the Basic Audio CD window, select File > Add Tracks, select the audio
files that you want to add, and click Open.
•
Drag audio files from the file browser of your computer to the Basic Audio CD
window.
•
Drag a selection of an audio file from the wave window to the Basic Audio CD
window.
If a file contains CD start and sub-index markers, these are used to define the track
in the list.
If a file does not contain markers, a dialog asks you if you want to use the file start and
end as boundaries for the track.
3.
Select File > Save, specify a name and location, and click Save.
RESULT
The audio files are added to the Basic Audio CD project.
Saving a Basic Audio CD
PREREQUISITE
Set up your Basic Audio CD.
PROCEDURE
1.
In the Basic Audio CD window, do one of the following:
•
To save a Basic Audio CD that has never been saved before, select File >
Save as.
•
To save a Basic Audio CD that has been saved before, click the Save button,
or select File > Save.
2.
In the Save Basic Audio CD dialog, specify a file name and location.
3.
Decide whether to activate one of the following options:
4.
•
Open standard file selector before this dialog
•
Save copy
Click Save.
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Basic Audio CD
Opening CD Tracks for Editing
Opening a Basic Audio CD Project
There can only be one Basic Audio CD project open at a time per workspace.
PROCEDURE
1.
In the Basic Audio CD window, select File > Open.
2.
Select a Basic Audio CD file and click Open.
RESULT
All audio files referenced by the Basic Audio CD are opened in WaveLab. However,
they do not appear in the wave windows.
Deleting CD Tracks from a Basic Audio CD
You can delete a CD track from a Basic Audio CD project by deleting its CD track
markers or by deleting it from the Basic Audio CD list.
•
In the wave window, right-click the CD track start or end marker of the CD
track that you want to delete, and select Delete.
•
In the Basic Audio CD window, select a track, and select Edit > Delete or
click the Delete button.
Adjusting Pauses in CD Tracks
You can change the length of the pause that is played before the beginning of a
track in the Basic Audio CD.
PROCEDURE
1.
In the Basic Audio CD window, click the arrow icon next to a track to unfold it.
2.
Double-click the Length column of the Pause row, enter a value, and press
[Return].
Opening CD Tracks for Editing
You can open the tracks of a Basic Audio CD in a wave window to edit the audio
or open the tracks as a clip in an audio montage.
•
To open an entire CD track, double-click it in the Length column. A wave
window opens and the entire CD track is selected.
•
To open an entire CD track and position the cursor at track start or end, click
the arrow icon to unfold the CD track, and double-click the Length column of
the Track Start or Track End rows.
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Basic Audio CD
About Playing Back Files in the Track List
•
To insert a CD track into an open audio file, drag a CD track on an open audio
file in the wave window.
•
To open a CD track as a clip in an audio montage, drag the CD track into an
audio montage and select one of the insert options.
About Playing Back Files in the Track List
You can play back files directly from the Basic Audio CD window by using the play
buttons of each CD track.
•
What you hear during playback is identical to the audio that is played back
from the actual CD. All pauses and other adjustments are taken into account.
•
If you have audio files in the list that do not have the correct sample rate
(44.1 kHz), they can still be played back. However, when you activate
playback, all files play back at the same rate. The inherent rate of the selected
file (the one that plays first) is used for all files.
Playing Back Files in the Track List
There are several ways to play back files in the track list of a Basic Audio CD.
•
In the Start column, click the time information of the track that you want to play
back.
•
Select a track, and click Play on the transport bar. Press Stop to stop
playback.
•
To play back from the marker position, in the Start column, click the right play
icon of a track. To play back from the marker position with a pre-roll, click the
left play icon.
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Basic Audio CD
Saving Basic Audio CD Tracks as Separate Files
Playing Back Files in the Track List Through the Master Section
Playing back files through the Master Section takes all the settings and effects in
the Master Section into account.
PROCEDURE
1.
In the Basic Audio CD window, select Options > Options, or click the
options icon.
2.
Activate Play through Master Section, and click OK.
Saving Basic Audio CD Tracks as Separate Files
You can save tracks of a Basic Audio CD as separate audio files on your hard disk.
This is useful for archiving, for example.
PROCEDURE
1.
Set up a Basic Audio CD as you want it.
2.
In the Basic Audio CD window, select File > Save each CD track as an
audio file.
3.
Specify a location, and the output format.
4.
Click OK.
RESULT
The tracks in the list are saved as separate audio files in the specified folder.
Saving Basic Audio CD Tracks as One File
You can save tracks of a Basic Audio CD as one audio file on your hard disk.
PREREQUISITE
Set up a Basic Audio CD as you want it. A track must be at least 4 seconds long.
PROCEDURE
1.
In the Basic Audio CD window, select File > Create an independent clone.
2.
Specify a location, and the output format.
3.
Click OK.
RESULT
The tracks in the list are saved as one audio file in the specified folder.
448
DVD-Audio
In WaveLab, you can author a DVD-Audio from a collection of audio montages and
then write it to DVD-Audio.
You can add your audio montages to the DVD-Audio window, check the
DVD-Audio layout for conformity, and write a DVD-Audio disk.
Compared to a Basic Audio CD, the DVD-Audio has the following advantages:
•
More disk space
•
Higher audio quality with up to 192 kHz and 24 bit
•
Surround support
•
Picture slide show support
The contents of a DVD-Audio project are stored in a folder named AUDIO_TS
(Audio Title Set), which includes all audio, still picture, text, and visual menu data.
The AUDIO_TS contents are created when you render a DVD-Audio project, these
data files are readable by the DVD-Audio player, but cannot be opened or edited in
WaveLab.
You can use DVD+R, DVD-R, DVD+RW, DVD-RW, DVD-RAM for writing
DVD-Audio compatible discs.
NOTE
Throughout WaveLab, where “CD” is mentioned (for example, in messages or
marker names), this usually also applies for DVD-Audio.
Structure of a DVD-Audio Project
You structure your DVD-Audio projects in groups.
•
An album can contain up to 9 groups. In WaveLab, a group corresponds to
an audio montage. A group is similar to a CD and can be represented by an
audio montage.
•
Each group can contain up to 99 tracks. Tracks are defined by CD track start
and end markers in the audio montage.
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DVD-Audio
DVD-Audio Formats
DVD-Audio Formats
A DVD-Audio project can contain audio in a variety of resolutions.
The sample rates can be 48 kHz, 96 kHz, 192 kHz, 44.1 kHz, 88.2 kHz, or 176 kHz
and the bit-depths can be 16 or 24.
You can use other bit resolutions for audio files in a montage, but they are stored
on the DVD-Audio disc as either 16-bit or 24-bit audio samples, regardless of the
original resolution. The bit resolution of the DVD is specified in the Audio montage
preferences dialog.
DVD-Audio Format Considerations
There are two main considerations when planning a DVD-Audio project: the total
size of the album and the maximum allowable data rate for a group.
A single album cannot contain more data than 4.7 GB (using a standard single layer
DVD).
Maximum Allowable Data Rate for a Group
The data rate is the data bandwidth necessary to reproduce a given number of
channels at a certain bit resolution and sample frequency. The DVD-Audio
specification allows for a maximum data rate of 9.6 Mbps when using an
uncompressed PCM audio format.
To keep a DVD-Audio project within the allowable data rate limit, use the following
table as a guide:
Number of
Channels
Maximum Bit Resolution/Sample Rate
6
Up to 16 bit/96 kHz or 24 bit/48 kHz
4
Up to 24 bit/96 kHz
2
Up to 24 bit/192 kHz
450
DVD-Audio
DVD-Audio Window
DVD-Audio Window
In this window, you can author DVD-Audio and write it to DVD.
In the Audio Montage workspace, select Workspace > Specific tool windows >
DVD-Audio.
DVD-Audio List
The columns in the DVD-Audio window show information about the audio
montages in the project. Apart from the entries in the Group Name column, you
cannot edit any of the information shown in this window.
Group name
If you double-click the name, you can enter a new name for the group. By
default the name of the audio montage is used as the group name. The group
name is shown in the DVD menu display.
File
The name of the audio montage. If you double-click the audio montage name,
the corresponding audio montage opens.
Titles
The number of titles in the audio montage.
Time
The total time of all titles.
Bits
The bit depth of the samples in the audio montage (as they will be stored on
the final DVD).
Rate
The sample rate of the audio montage.
Channel
The number of audio channels used in the audio montage.
Size
The total size of the audio montage.
451
DVD-Audio
DVD-Audio Window
Menu Options
The following options are available from the menus of the DVD-Audio window:
New
Closes the currently opened DVD-Audio and opens an new one.
Open
Lets you select a DVD-Audio file. This closes the currently opened
DVD-Audio.
Add audio montages
Opens the file browser where you can select the audio montages that you
want to add to the DVD-Audio.
Delete
Deletes the selected audio montage from the DVD-Audio.
Edit audio montage
Opens the montage window of the selected audio montage.
Write DVD-Audio
Opens a dialog from which you can write a DVD.
Check DVD-Audio conformity
Verifies that the structure of the DVD-Audio is correct according to the
standard.
Options
Opens the DVD-Audio options dialog.
Save/Save as
Lets you save the DVD-Audio.
DVD-Audio Options Dialog
In this dialog, you can make various settings for the DVD-Audio.
In the DVD-Audio window, select Options > Options.
Disc identification - Volume ID/Number of volumes
Allows you to specify disc information. For example, if you have a project that
has 3 DVD discs, you can specify 3 volumes, and specify the ID for the
volumes 1, 2, and 3.
Disc identification - Album name
Lets you type in the name of the album. This name is also used as the DVD
volume name.
Disc identification - Provider information
Lets you type in information about the DVD-Audio provider.
452
DVD-Audio
DVD-Audio Window
Default still picture
If this option is activated, you can define a default still picture that is displayed
when the DVD-Audio is played back.
Still picture effects - Mode
Lets you define effect transitions between pictures. Choose a mode and a
duration of the transition for start and end of playback. Not all DVD players
support this feature.
Options - Generate menus
If this option is activated, a basic menu displaying the album/group/tracks
structure is automatically generated. This menu appears when playing back
the DVD-Audio in a DVD player.
Options - Include still picture tracks
If this option is activated, pictures placed on audio montage picture tracks are
included on the DVD, and are displayed by a compatible DVD player.
Options - Auto play
If this option is activated, DVD playback starts automatically when the DVD is
inserted into a compatible DVD player.
TV System
Specifies whether the DVD-Audio disc should conform to the NTSC or
PAL/SECAM video standard.
About TV Systems
If you want to use still pictures you need to specify whether the DVD-Audio disc
should conform to the NTSC or PAL/SECAM video standard.
This is important because the NTSC (used in North America and Asia) and
PAL/SECAM (used in Western Europe, Australia/France, and Eastern Europe) use
different resolutions.
453
DVD-Audio
Preparing a DVD-Audio
Preparing a DVD-Audio
Creating a DVD-Audio
PROCEDURE
1.
In the DVD-Audio window, select File > New.
2.
Add tracks to the DVD-Audio project using the following methods:
3.
•
In the DVD-Audio window, select File > Add Audio Montages, select the
audio montages that you want to add, and click Open.
•
Drag audio montages from the file browser of your computer to the DVD-Audio
window.
•
Drag an audio montage by its Document button to the DVD-Audio window.
Select File > Save, specify a name and location, and click Save.
RESULT
The audio montages are added to the DVD-Audio project.
Opening a DVD-Audio Project
There can only be one DVD-Audio project open at a time per workspace.
PROCEDURE
1.
In the DVD-Audio window, select File > Open.
2.
Select a Basic Audio CD file and click Open.
RESULT
All audio montages referenced by the DVD-Audio file are opened in WaveLab.
However, they do not appear in the montage window.
Setting an Audio Montage to DVD-Audio Mode
To be able to write an audio montage to DVD-Audio, the mode of the audio montage
must be DVD-Audio compatible.
PROCEDURE
1.
In the Audio Montage workspace, select Edit > Audio Montage properties.
2.
From the Mode pop-up menu, select Multichannel, DVD-Audio compatible.
3.
Click OK.
4.
Click File > Save to save the changes.
454
DVD-Audio
Opening Audio Montages for Editing
Deleting Audio Montages from a DVD-Audio
When deleting audio montages from a DVD-Audio, the audio montage references
are removed from the DVD-Audio, but the audio montage files are not affected.
PROCEDURE
•
In the DVD-Audio window, select an audio montage, and select Edit >
Delete or press the Delete button.
Opening Audio Montages for Editing
There are several ways to open an audio montage of a DVD-Audio project for
editing in the montage window.
•
Double-click the audio montage in DVD-Audio window. A montage window
opens.
•
Select an audio montage from the list, and click the Edit Audio Montage
button.
•
Drag an audio montage from the DVD-Audio window to an open audio
montage, or the montage window area.
Checking the DVD-Audio Conformity
Before rendering the DVD-Audio project, you can use the Check DVD-Audio
conformity function. This checks all audio montages in the project and displays a
warning if the project does not comply with the DVD-Audio standard. However, this
is done automatically before writing to disk.
PROCEDURE
•
In the DVD-Audio window, select Edit > Check DVD-Audio conformity, or
click the Check DVD-Audio conformity icon.
RESULT
All audio montages added to the DVD-Audio project open, and a message appears
stating the result of the conformity check.
455
Writing Operations
This chapter describes the CD/DVD writing processes in WaveLab. This chapter
assumes that the preparations have been completed, and that you are ready to run
the actual writing process.
Refer to the chapters Basic Audio CD, DVD-Audio, and CD window for a
description of the preparations before following the instructions in this chapter.
RELATED LINKS
Basic Audio CD on page 440
DVD-Audio on page 449
About the CD Window on page 311
Write Audio CD or DDP Dialog
In this dialog, you can write your Audio CD project and audio montage to audio CD
or DDP image.
•
When you want to write audio files to an audio CD or a DDP image, in the
Audio Files workspace, open the Basic Audio CD window, and select Edit
> Write Audio CD or DDP.
•
When you want to write audio montages to an audio CD or a DDP image, in
the Audio Montage workspace, open the CD window, and select Functions
> Write Audio CD or DDP.
The following options are the same for writing both audio files and audio montages
to audio CD/DDP image:
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Writing Operations
Write Audio CD or DDP Dialog
Device
Here, select the disc writer that you want to use, or select DDP Image to write
a set of DDP files on the hard drive.
NOTE
On the Mac, insert a media in the drive after opening WaveLab. Otherwise,
the drive is under the control of the operating system and is not available for
WaveLab.
Refresh
Scans the system for connected optical devices. This is done automatically,
when this dialog opens. Click the refresh icon after you insert a new blank
media to update the Speed menu.
NOTE
On the Mac, insert a media in the drive after opening WaveLab. Otherwise,
the drive is under the control of the operating system and is not available for
WaveLab.
Eject optical medium
Ejects the optical medium present in the selected drive.
Information about selected device
Opens the Device information dialog, that shows information about the
selected device.
Erase optical media
Erases the optical disc present in the selected drive, provided it is a rewritable
media.
If DDP Image is selected, clicking the button erases the existing DDP files.
Bypass Master Section
If this option is activated, the audio signal is not processed through the Master
Section before being written to the media. For writing a Basic Audio CD, this
option is always activated.
Destination folder (DDP Image must be selected)
Lets you specify the destination path. If you type a non-existing path, it is
automatically created.
Write table of contents and customer information (DDP Image must be
selected)
If this option is activated, a file called IDENT.TXT is written in the DDP folder.
It contains a table of contents of the tracks and some customer information.
This file is not officially part of the DDP specification, but it can be used by the
recipient of the DDP image to identify the files.
Speed
Lets you select the writing speed. The highest speed depends both on the
capabilities of your writing device and of the media present in the device.
457
Writing Operations
Erase Optical Media Dialog
Copies
Lets you enter the number of copies that you want to write.
Test only, do not write
If this option is activated, clicking OK initiates a simulation of writing the CD.
If this test is passed, the real write operation will succeed. If the test fails, try
again at a lower writing speed.
Render to temporary file before writing (only available for writing audio
montages)
If this option is activated, a disk image is created before writing, which
eliminates the risk of buffer underruns. This is useful if your project uses many
audio plug-ins while writing. It is activated automatically when writing multiple
copies. While this option makes the writing operation longer, it may allow you
to select an higher writing speed.
CD-Extra compatible (new session possible)
If this option is activated, the resulting audio CD is compatible with the
CD-Extra format.
Eject after completion
If this option is activated, the disc is ejected after the write process.
Erase Optical Media Dialog
In this dialog, you can quickly or fully erase the disc before writing.
In the Write Audio CD or DDP dialog, click the eraser icon.
Quick erase
Erases the table of contents of the disc.
Full erase
Erases all parts of the disc.
Force erasing even if a disk appears to be blank
If this option is activated, the disc is erased, even if it is declared as blank. Use
this option to make sure that discs that were partially or minimally erased are
fully erased.
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Writing Operations
About Writing Audio Files
About Writing Audio Files
You can write the audio files of a Basic Audio CD project to an audio CD or a DDP
image.
Writing Audio Files to an Audio CD
PREREQUISITE
Set up a Basic Audio CD project.
NOTE
On the Mac, insert a media in the drive after opening WaveLab. Otherwise, the drive
is under the control of the operating system and is not available for WaveLab.
PROCEDURE
1.
Optional: Check the Basic Audio CD project to make sure that all starts, ends,
and transitions are as intended.
2.
Optional: In the Basic Audio CD window, select Edit > Check CD
conformity, to check that all settings conform to the Red Book standard.
3.
Insert an empty CD into your drive.
4.
In the Basic Audio CD window, select Edit > Write Audio CD or DDP.
5.
From the Device pop-up menu, select the writing device that you want to use.
6.
Select the writing speed from the Speed pop-up menu.
7.
Optional: Activate one or several of the following options:
8.
•
Activate Test only, do not write, if you want to test if the writing operation
would be successful.
•
Activate CD-Extra compatible (new session possible), if you want the
resulting audio CD to be compatible with the CD-Extra format.
•
Activate Eject after completion, if you want the disc to be automatically
ejected after the writing operation.
Click OK to start the writing operation.
RELATED LINKS
Write Audio CD or DDP Dialog on page 456
459
Writing Operations
About Writing Audio Files
Writing Audio Files to DDP Image
There might be situations when you want to freeze an entire Basic Audio CD,
without actually writing a CD. This is done by saving as a DDP image.
PREREQUISITE
Set up a Basic Audio CD project.
PROCEDURE
1.
Optional: Check the Basic Audio CD project to make sure that all starts, ends,
and transitions are as intended.
2.
Optional: In the Basic Audio CD window, select Edit > Check CD
conformity, to check that all settings conform to the Red Book standard.
3.
In the Basic Audio CD window, select Edit > Write Audio CD or DDP.
4.
From the Device pop-up menu, select DDP Image.
5.
Specify the destination folder.
6.
Optional: Activate Write table of contents and customer information, to
create a text file, containing information about the DDP file.
7.
Click OK, to start the writing operation.
RESULT
The following files and folders are created:
•
A Basic Audio CD file with the specified name. This is the file you need to
open the next time you want to access this CD image.
•
A single wave file, containing all the tracks and markers.
•
A marker file that contains the markers.
•
A peak file for the wave file.
RELATED LINKS
Write Audio CD or DDP Dialog on page 456
460
Writing Operations
About Writing Audio Files
Write Audio CD From DDP Image
In this dialog, you can write a CD from a DDP image that you have previously
created with WaveLab or another application.
In the Audio Files workspace or the Audio Montage workspace, select File >
Export > Write Audio CD from DDP image.
Device
Here, select the disc writer that you want to use.
NOTE
On the Mac, insert a media in the drive after opening WaveLab. Otherwise,
the drive is under the control of the operating system and is not available for
WaveLab.
Refresh
Scans the system for connected optical devices. This is done automatically,
when this dialog opens. Click the update icon after you insert a new blank
media to update the Speed menu.
NOTE
On the Mac, insert a media in the drive after opening WaveLab. Otherwise,
the drive is under the control of the operating system and is not available for
WaveLab.
Eject optical medium
Ejects the optical medium present in the selected drive.
Information about selected device
Opens the Device information dialog, that shows information about the
selected device.
Erase optical disc
Erases the optical disc present in the selected drive, provided it is a rewritable
media. If DDP Image is selected, clicking the button erases the existing DDP
files.
461
Writing Operations
About Writing Audio Montages
Speed
Here, select the writing speed. The highest speed depends both on the
capabilities of your writing device and of the media present in the device.
Test only, do not write
If this option is activated, clicking OK initiates a simulation of writing the CD.
If this test is passed, the real write operation will succeed. If the test fails, try
again at a lower writing speed.
Eject after completion
If this option is activated, the disc is ejected after the write process.
DDP Image folder
Lets you specify the source path of the DDP image.
About Writing Audio Montages
You can write audio montages to an audio CD or a DDP image.
Writing an Audio Montage to an Audio CD
PREREQUISITE
Set up your audio montage, and make your CD writing settings in the Global
preferences.
NOTE
On the Mac, insert a media in the drive after opening WaveLab. Otherwise, the drive
is under the control of the operating system and is not available for WaveLab.
PROCEDURE
1.
Optional: Check the audio montage to make sure that all starts, ends, and
transitions are as intended.
2.
Optional: In the CD window, select Functions > Check CD conformity, to
check that all settings conform to the Red Book standard.
3.
Insert an empty CD into your drive.
4.
In the CD window, select Functions > Write Audio CD or DDP.
5.
From the Device pop-up menu, select the writing device that you want to use.
6.
If you want to bypass the Master Section, activate Bypass Master Section.
7.
Select the writing speed from the Speed pop-up menu.
8.
Select the number of copies that you want to write.
When you want to write more than one copy, it is recommended to activate Render
to temporary file before writing.
462
Writing Operations
About Writing Audio Montages
9.
10.
Optional: Activate one or several of the following options:
•
Activate Test only, do not write, if you want to test if the writing operation
would be successful.
•
Activate Render to temporary file before writing, if your audio montage uses
many plug-ins. This way, the audio data is sent to the CD writer fast enough.
•
Activate CD-Extra compatible (new session possible), if you want the
resulting audio CD to be compatible with the CD-Extra format.
•
Activate Eject after completion, if you want the disc to be automatically
ejected after the writing operation.
Click OK.
RESULT
The writing operation starts.
RELATED LINKS
Write Audio CD or DDP Dialog on page 456
Writing an Audio Montage to a DDP Image
PREREQUISITE
Set up your audio montage, and make your CD writing settings in the Global
preferences.
PROCEDURE
1.
Optional: Check the audio montage to make sure that all starts, ends, and
transitions are as intended.
2.
Optional: In the CD window, select Functions > Check CD conformity, to
check that all settings conform to the Red Book standard.
3.
In the CD window, select Functions > Write Audio CD or DDP.
4.
From the Device pop-up menu, select DDP Image.
5.
If you want to bypass the Master Section, activate Bypass Master Section.
6.
Specify the destination folder.
7.
Optional: Activate Write table of contents and customer information, to
create a text file, containing information about the DDP file.
8.
Click OK, to start the writing operation.
RELATED LINKS
Write Audio CD or DDP Dialog on page 456
463
Writing Operations
About Writing Audio Montages
Writing Audio Montages With Any Sample Rate
You can write audio montages to CD/DDP even if they are not at 44.1 kHz. To be
able to do this, you must set up the Crystal Resampler plug-in in the Master Section.
This procedure is not automated so that you can customize the resampling quality,
limiting, and dithering.
PREREQUISITE
Set up your audio montage.
PROCEDURE
1.
In the Master Section, add the Crystal Resampler plug-in to an Effects slot.
2.
In the Crystal Resampler, set the Sample rate to 44.1 kHz.
3.
Optional: Add a Peak Limiter and a Dithering plug-in at the end of the
Master Section.
4.
Write the audio montage as you would write any other audio montage.
RELATED LINKS
Writing an Audio Montage to an Audio CD on page 462
Writing an Audio Montage to a DDP Image on page 463
Checking the Transition Between Tracks
You can set up a pre-roll time before tracks start and then play back all tracks. This
way you can check the transition between tracks.
PREREQUISITE
Set up your audio montage.
PROCEDURE
1.
In the Audio Montage workspace, in the CD window, select Options > Edit
playback times.
2.
Make your settings, and click OK.
3.
In the CD window, select Functions > Play all CD-track starts.
RESULT
Each track start and end point is played back according to the values set in the Edit
playback times dialog.
464
Writing Operations
About Writing Audio Montages
About CD-Text
CD-Text is an extension of the Red Book Compact Disc standard and allows you
to store text information such as title, songwriter, composer, and disc ID on an audio
CD.
The text data is then displayed by CD players that support the CD-Text format. The
CD-Text can also be included in the audio CD report.
CD-Text Editor Dialog
In this dialog, you can specify information such as track title, performer, and
songwriter, that is written onto the CD as CD-Text.
You can add information about the disc itself and each individual track. This
information is entered in the text fields that scroll horizontally. There is one pane of
fields for the disc itself and a pane for each track.
In the Audio Montage workspace, in the CD window, select the track for which you
want to edit the CD-Text, and select Functions > Edit CD-Text.
Copies the name of the CD track start marker to this field.
Copies the name of each CD track start marker to the title field of each CD
track.
Copies the text to all tracks located after the current one.
Scrollbar
Use the scrollbar to navigate across all CD-Texts. The first position
corresponds to the whole CD, other positions to individual tracks.
465
Writing Operations
About Writing Audio Montages
Language selection
Here, select how characters should be encoded on the CD.
NOTE
If a character is not CD-Text compatible, it is displayed as a ? character.
Restrict to ASCII
To ensure the maximum compatibility with CD players, it is recommended to
restrict the characters to ASCII when using the Western European option. If
this option is activated, and you type a non-compatible character, a ?
character is displayed.
Enable CD-Text writing
If this option is activated, the CD-Text is written onto the CD.
Audio CD Reports
An audio CD report is a detailed report about the active audio CD. This report
includes a full track listing with ISRC codes, track times, and CD-Text.
The audio CD report can be output in HTML, Adobe PDF, XML, simple text format,
CSV format, or printed out. You can choose the details of what is displayed and
include your custom logo. You can send the audio CD report to your client, an
album artwork designer, or to the CD replication house when presenting them with
a master CD, for example.
There are two types of variables:
•
Factory variables provide automatically generated information about a project
such as number of tracks, track times, track names, etc. – based on the actual
contents of the project.
•
User defined variables contain personal data such as company name and
copyright information, etc.
Along with the variables, the audio CD report can also include any CD-Text that you
have specified, for examples, composers, performers, etc.
Generating an Audio CD Report
An audio CD report should be generated when an audio montage is fully prepared
and ready for CD writing.
PROCEDURE
1.
In the Audio Montage workspace, open the audio montage that you want to
create a report for.
The audio montage must be in stereo mode.
2.
Open the CD window.
3.
In the CD window, select Functions > Generate Audio CD report.
466
Writing Operations
About Writing Audio Montages
4.
On the Rich Text tab, in the Output format section, specify one of the
following output formats:
•
HTML, Adobe PDF, Print, XML, or CSV
5.
Make your settings.
6.
Optional: On the Raw Text tab, select a cue-sheet template or enter
cue-sheet information.
7.
Optional: If you want to save the audio CD report to a specific location,
activate Generate specific file, and specify a file name and location.
8.
Click Apply.
Audio CD Report Dialog
In this dialog, you can generate an audio CD report and specify which information
to include in this report.
In the Audio Montage workspace, in the CD window, select Functions > Generate
Audio CD report.
Global Options
The following option is available on the Rich Text tab and the Raw Text tab.
Generate specific file
Lets you specify a name and location for the report. The file is created, when
you click Apply.
467
Writing Operations
About Writing Audio Montages
Rich Text Tab
Font and Font Size
Determines the font and font size to use in the report.
Header image
Lets you select an image to be inserted at the top of the report.
Center image
Centers the image horizontally. If deactivated, the image is placed on the left.
Header
Adds general information at the start of the report.
Custom text
Lets you enter text to be inserted at the top of the report. To insert custom
variables, right-click the text field.
Extra lines
Lets you select which of the following information you want to add to the
header:
•
Date
•
Name of the audio montage
•
UPC/EAN Code
•
Number of tracks
•
Disc duration
468
Writing Operations
About Writing Audio Montages
Skip lines with empty values
If this option is activated, when a line contains an empty variable, the line is
not added to the report.
Details
Adds a description of the pause, track start, and possible sub-indexes to the
report.
CD-Text
If this option is activated, the CD-Text is included in the report.
Pause
If this option is activated, the pause information is included in the report.
Pre-emphasis status
Adds a column to the report to display the track pre-emphasis status.
Copy status
Adds a column to the report to display the copy status of the track.
ISRC
Adds a column to the report to display the ISRC code.
Sub-indexes
If this option is activated, track sub-indexes are described in the report.
Sub-indexes are relative to track
Sets the sub-index values to be relative to the start of the corresponding track.
If deactivated, they are relative to the start of the CD.
Start time (in audio montage)
Adds a column to the report to display the event times from the start of the
audio montage.
Start time (on CD)
Adds a column to the report to display the event times from the start of the
CD.
Output format
Lets you select the output format for the report.
•
HTML generates an html file with a UTF-8 character format.
•
Adobe PDF generates a PDF file.
•
Print generates a preview of the report, allowing you to print the report.
If no printer is connected, the preview is empty.
•
XML generates an XML file that includes the CD information.
•
CSV generates a CSV file that can be imported in a spreadsheet. The
CSV file can only store the main properties of the CD report. You can
set the type CSV delimiter in the Global Preferences dialog.
469
Writing Operations
About Writing Audio Montages
Value format
Opens the Value formats dialog, where you can edit the format of the
auto-generated values. These variables are part of any presets saved for this
dialog.
Generate specific file
Lets you specify a name and location for the report. The file is created, when
you click Apply.
Raw Text Tab
Template
Lets you select a template for the report layout. When selecting Custom, you
can also create your own cue-sheet template.
Cue-sheet field
Lets you write a cue-sheet.
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Writing Operations
About Writing Audio Montages
Copy to clipboard
Copies the text to the clipboard.
Cue-Sheet Templates
A cue-sheet is an alternate form of the CD report, based on raw UTF-8 text, and can
be customized in several ways. Creating a cue-sheet requires an understanding of
computers, and some knowledge about programming, since it makes use of the
commands and variables concept.
Cue-sheets are organized in the following way. There are a number of codes,
commands, and variables, which you place in a text file - the template. When you
ask the program to generate a cue-sheet, it creates the text file based on the codes
it finds in the template.
If the program encounters a variable, it replaces this with some information about
the CD. For example, there is a variable called "NUM_TRACKS". When the program
finds this, it replaces it with the actual number of tracks in the CD.
Commands, on the other hand, are instructions for the program to do something.
For example, the command "TIMECODE SEPARATOR =" followed by a few
special characters, instructs the program what characters should be inserted
between time code values, so that you can get time code values printed out in the
format 00:00:00.00, "00 00 00 00", or anything else you prefer.
The following codes can be entered for specific purposes:
Code
Description
$
A variable. The text that follows right after the “$” is the command name, for
example, “$TITLE”. A variable can occur anywhere on a line, and there can be
any number of variables on a line.
#
A command. The text that follows after the “#” is the command name, for
example, “#FOR EACH TRACK”. There can only be one command per line
and there should not be anything else on that line.
;
If a line starts with a semi-colon (;), the line is interpreted as a comment.
Nothing on such a line is used in the cue-sheet. This is useful for making
notes, for example.
All other text characters can be entered on their own lines or among the variables,
and are used as they are. For example, if you type “Title: $TITLE” and the title you
have entered is “My Greatest Hits!”, the text “Title: My Greatest Hits” appears in
the cue-sheet.
To find out about the available commands and how they are used, you can open the
included templates and study them. The following variables are available:
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Writing Operations
About Writing Audio Montages
Track Number
Variable
Description
T0
As decimal number “1” or “22”
T1
Blank Justified Two Digit Number “1” or “22”
T2
Zero Justified Two Digit Number “01” or “22”
Track Index
Variable
Description
I0
As decimal number “1” or “22”
I1
Blank Justified Two Digit Number “1” or “22”
I2
Zero Justified Two Digit Number “01” or “22”
Copy Protection Status
Variable
Description
C1
“x” or “ ”
C2
“Y” or “N”
Emphasis Status
Variable
Description
E1
“x” or “ ”
E2
“Y” or “N”
Absolute Time of Index
Variable
Description
TIME_IA_0
As decimal number
TIME_IA_1
Blank justified 7 digit decimal number
472
Writing Operations
About Writing Audio Montages
Variable
Description
TIME_IA_2
Time as “hh:mm:ss:ff”
TIME_IA_3
Time as “hh:mm:ss:ff” blank justified, leading zero not displayed
TIME_IA_4
Time as “hh:mm:ss:ff” compressed, if there are no hours, none are
displayed
TIME_IA_5
Time as “mm:ss:ff” no hours displayed
TIME_IA_6
Time as “mm:ss:ff” blank justified, leading zero not shown, no
hours displayed
TIME_IA_7
Time as “mm:ss:ff” no minutes displayed if not required, no hours
displayed
TIME_IA_8
Time format as “1h 2mn 3s 4f”
TIME_IA_9
Time format as “1h 2mn 3s”
Index Time Relative to Start of CD
Variable
Description
TIME_IR_0
As decimal number
TIME_IR_1
Blank justified 7 digit decimal number
TIME_IR_2
Time as “hh:mm:ss:ff”
TIME_IR_3
Time as “hh:mm:ss:ff” blank justified, leading zero not displayed
TIME_IR_4
Time as “hh:mm:ss:ff” compressed, if there are no hours, none are
displayed
TIME_IR_5
Time as “mm:ss:ff” no hours displayed
TIME_IR_6
Time as “mm:ss:ff” blank justified, leading zero not shown, no
hours displayed
TIME_IR_7
Time as “mm:ss:ff” no minutes displayed if not required, no hours
displayed
TIME_IR_8
Time format as “1h 2mn 3s 4f”
TIME_IR_9
Time format as “1h 2mn 3s”
473
Writing Operations
About Writing Audio Montages
Index Time Relative to Start of Track
Variable
Description
TIME_IT_0
As decimal number
TIME_IT_1
Blank justified 7 digit decimal number
TIME_IT_2
Time as “hh:mm:ss:ff”
TIME_IT_3
Time as “hh:mm:ss:ff” blank justified, leading zero not displayed
TIME_IT_4
Time as “hh:mm:ss:ff” compressed, if there are no hours, none are
displayed
TIME_IT_5
Time as “mm:ss:ff” no hours displayed
TIME_IT_6
Time as “mm:ss:ff” blank justified, leading zero not shown, no
hours displayed
TIME_IT_7
Time as “mm:ss:ff” no minutes displayed if not required, no hours
displayed
TIME_IT_8
Time format as “1h 2mn 3s 4f”
TIME_IT_9
Time format as “1h 2mn 3s”
Pause Length
Variable
Description
TIME_PA_0
As decimal number
TIME_PA_1
Blank justified 7 digit decimal number
TIME_PA_2
Time as “hh:mm:ss:ff”
TIME_PA_3
Time as “hh:mm:ss:ff” blank justified, leading zero not displayed
TIME_PA_4
Time as “hh:mm:ss:ff” compressed, if there are no hours, none are
displayed
TIME_PA_5
Time as “mm:ss:ff” no hours displayed
TIME_PA_6
Time as “mm:ss:ff” blank justified, leading zero not shown, no
hours displayed
TIME_PA_7
Time as “mm:ss:ff” no minutes displayed if not required, no hours
displayed
TIME_PA_8
Time format as “1h 2mn 3s 4f”
474
Writing Operations
About Writing Audio Montages
Variable
TIME_PA_9
Description
Time format as “1h 2mn 3s”
Track Length
Variable
Description
TIME_TR_0
As decimal number
TIME_TR_1
Blank justified 7 digit decimal number
TIME_TR_2
Time as “hh:mm:ss:ff”
TIME_TR_3
Time as “hh:mm:ss:ff” blank justified, leading zero not displayed
TIME_TR_4
Time as “hh:mm:ss:ff” compressed, if there are no hours, none are
displayed
TIME_TR_5
Time as “mm:ss:ff” no hours displayed
TIME_TR_6
Time as “mm:ss:ff” blank justified, leading zero not shown, no
hours displayed
TIME_TR_7
Time as “mm:ss:ff” no minutes displayed if not required, no hours
displayed
TIME_TR_8
Time format as “1h 2mn 3s 4f”
TIME_TR_9
Time format as “1h 2mn 3s”
CD Length
Variable
Description
TIME_CD_0
As decimal number
TIME_CD_1
Blank justified 7 digit decimal number
TIME_CD_2
Time as “hh:mm:ss:ff”
TIME_CD_3
Time as “hh:mm:ss:ff” blank justified, leading zero not displayed
TIME_CD_4
Time as “hh:mm:ss:ff” compressed, if there are no hours, none are
displayed
TIME_CD_5
Time as “mm:ss:ff” no hours displayed
TIME_CD_6
Time as “mm:ss:ff” blank justified, leading zero not shown, no
hours displayed
475
Writing Operations
About Writing Audio Montages
Variable
Description
TIME_CD_7
Time as “mm:ss:ff” no minutes displayed if not required, no hours
displayed
TIME_CD_8
Time format as “1h 2mn 3s 4f”
TIME_CD_9
Time format as “1h 2mn 3s”
Various
Variable
Description
NUM_TRACKS
Total number of tracks as decimal number
UPC
UPC/EAN code
ISRC
ISRC code
FILE
File name (no path)
PFILE
File name (with path)
TRACK_NAME
Track name
TRACK_COMME
NT
Track comment
Creating a Cue-Sheet Template
You can create a cue-sheet template and load it each time you want to create an
audio CD report.
PROCEDURE
1.
In the Audio Montage workspace, open an audio montage that contains CD
tracks.
The audio montage must be in stereo mode.
2.
Open the CD window.
3.
In the CD window, select Functions > Generate Audio CD report.
4.
Open the Raw Text tab.
5.
In the Template section, select Custom to start with an empty cue-sheet, or
select one of the available cue-sheets to modify them.
6.
Enter the cue-sheet information.
7.
Activate Generate specific file, and specify a file name and location.
8.
Click Apply to save the cue-sheet template.
476
Writing Operations
Write DVD-Audio Function
Write DVD-Audio Function
Before writing an audio montage to DVD-Audio, the contents of the DVD-Audio
project must be rendered to an AUDIO_TS folder. This folder is automatically added
to a Data CD/DVD project, from where you can start the actual writing operation.
DVD-Audio Creation Dialog
This dialog allows you to make settings for the DVD-Audio creation.
In the Audio Montage workspace, in the DVD-Audio window, set up the DVD-Audio
project and click the Write DVD-Audio icon.
Test only
If this option is activated, all data is checked and rendered in memory, to know
if the DVD-Audio project is complete and ready for rendering. When the test
is finished, a report opens.
Render each audio montage with its own plug-in set
If this option is activated, each audio montage is rendered with its own Master
Section effects.
Use current Master Section settings for all audio montages
If this option is activated, all audio montages are rendered using the selected
Master Section settings.
Ignore
If this option is activated, the audio montages are rendered without any Master
Section effects.
Output folder
Lets you select the destination folder for the rendered files.
477
Writing Operations
Write DVD-Audio Function
Rendering the DVD-Audio
To be able to write the DVD-Audio project to disk or ISO image, you must render
the DVD-Audio project first.
PREREQUISITE
Set up the DVD-Audio project.
If you want to use the Master Section plug-ins when rendering the project, set up
the Master Section to your liking.
PROCEDURE
1.
In the DVD-Audio window, select Edit > Write DVD-Audio, or click the Write
DVD-Audio icon.
2.
In the Master Section plug-ins section, activate one of the following options:
•
Render each audio montage with its own plug-in set
•
Use current Master Section settings for all audio montages
•
Ignore
3.
Specify an output folder.
4.
Click OK.
RESULT
The Write Data CD/DVD dialog opens, allowing you to write your DVD-Audio
project.
Write Data CD/DVD Dialog When Writing DVD-Audio
In this dialog, you can write your DVD-Audio project to CD/DVD or ISO file.
In the Audio Montage workspace, in the DVD-Audio window, set up and render the
DVD-Audio project. After the rendering operation is finished, the Write Data
CD/DVD dialog opens.
478
Writing Operations
Write DVD-Audio Function
Device
Lets you select the disc writer that you want to use, or select ISO Image to
write a file on the hard drive. Writing an ISO image creates a copy of a future
optical media.
NOTE
On the Mac, insert a media in the drive after opening WaveLab. Otherwise,
the drive is under the control of the operating system and is not available for
WaveLab.
Refresh
Scans the system for connected optical devices. This is done automatically,
when this dialog opens. Click the update icon after you insert a new blank
media, to update the speed menu.
NOTE
On the Mac, insert a media in the drive after opening WaveLab. Otherwise,
the drive is under the control of the operating system and is not available for
WaveLab.
Eject optical medium
Ejects the optical medium present in the selected drive.
Information about selected device
Opens the Device information dialog, that shows information about the
selected device.
Erase optical disc
Erases the optical disc present in the selected drive, provided it is a rewritable
media. If ISO Image is selected, clicking the button erases the existing ISO
file.
ISO file name
When ISO Image is selected on the Device menu, specify the file name and
file location of the ISO file in the text field.
Speed
Here, select the writing speed. The highest speed depends both on the
capabilities of your writing device and of the media present in the device.
Test only, do not write
If this option is activated, clicking OK initiates a simulation of writing the CD.
If this test is passed, the real write operation will succeed. If the test fails, try
again at a lower writing speed.
Verify after write
If this option is activated, the data on the medium is automatically verified after
the writing process.
479
Writing Operations
Write DVD-Audio Function
Eject before verifying
If this option is activated, the disc is ejected and retracted before the
verification process, to force the drive out of the write state. This is only
possible if the disc can be retracted automatically.
Eject after completion
If this option is activated, the disc is ejected after the write process.
Writing a DVD-Audio Project to a Data CD/DVD
After rendering the DVD-Audio project, you can write it to a Data-CD/DVD.
PREREQUISITE
Set up and render a DVD-Audio project.
IMPORTANT
On the Mac, insert a media in the drive after opening WaveLab. Otherwise, the drive
is under the control of the operating system and not available for WaveLab.
PROCEDURE
1.
Optional: Check the DVD-Audio project to make sure that all starts, ends, and
transitions are as intended.
2.
Optional: In the DVD-Audio window, select Edit > Check DVD-Audio
conformity, to check that all settings are compatible with the Red Book
standard.
3.
Insert an empty DVD into your drive.
4.
From the Device pop-up menu, select the disc writing device you want to use.
5.
Select the writing speed from the Speed pop-up menu.
6.
Optional: Activate one or several of the following options:
7.
•
Activate Test only, do not write, if you want to test if the writing operation
would be successful.
•
Activate Verify after write, if you want the file to be verified after the writing
operation.
•
Activate Eject before verifying and/or Eject after completion if you want the
disc to be automatically ejected at the corresponding situations.
Click OK to start the writing operation.
480
Writing Operations
Data CD/DVD Projects
Writing a DVD-Audio Project to an ISO Image
When you want to save an entire DVD-Audio project without actually writing a DVD,
you can save the project as an ISO image.
PREREQUISITE
Set up and render a DVD-Audio project.
PROCEDURE
1.
Check the DVD-Audio project to make sure that all starts, ends, and
transitions are as intended.
2.
Optional: In the DVD-Audio window, select Edit > Check DVD-Audio
conformity, to check that all settings conform to the Red Book standard.
3.
In the Write Data CD/DVD dialog, from the Device pop-up menu, select ISO
image.
4.
Specify an ISO file name and location.
5.
Click OK.
The writing of the ISO file starts.
6.
When the operation is finished, click OK.
Data CD/DVD Projects
A data CD/DVD project can be used to compile and write a data-only CD, DVD,
Blu-ray, or to write to ISO image. You can enter a name for your disc and change
the disc file structure before writing your data to a CD, DVD, Blu-ray, or ISO image.
Creating a Data CD/DVD Project
A data CD/DVD project can be used to compile and write a data-only CD, DVD,
Blu-ray, or to write to ISO image.
PROCEDURE
1.
In any workspace, select Global > Data CD/DVD.
2.
Add files to the project, using one of the following methods:
3.
•
Drag the files from the WaveLab file browser or from the Explorer/Finder into
the Data CD/DVD window.
•
Drag a tab from any workspace into the Data CD/DVD window.
•
In any workspace, select File > Special > Add to Data CD/DVD, to add the
open file to the Data CD/DVD project.
Optional: Click the New Folder icon, specify a folder name, and arrange the
files by dragging.
481
Writing Operations
Data CD/DVD Projects
Writing a Data CD/DVD Project
PREREQUISITE
Open the Data CD/DVD dialog, and add the files that you want to write to a data
CD/DVD.
PROCEDURE
1.
Click the Write Data CD/DVD icon.
2.
Select a writing device.
3.
•
When you select ISO Image, specify a file name and file location.
•
When you select a CD/DVD writer, specify the writing speed and make further
settings.
Click OK.
Data CD/DVD Dialog
In this dialog, you can create a data CD/DVD project, and write it to CD, DVD,
Blu-ray, or ISO image.
In any workspace, select Global > Data CD/DVD.
Media
Select the media type you want to write. If the media size that you want to use
is not listed, select the media type that offers a size closest to your
requirements.
Volume name
Specify the volume name of the CD/DVD.
Open Explorer/Finder
Opens the Explorer/Finder to show the location of the selected file.
Remove selected files and folders
Removes the selected files and folders from the CD/DVD project.
482
Writing Operations
Data CD/DVD Projects
New folder
Creates a folder. You can also create sub-folders.
Write Data CD/DVD dialog
Opens the Write Data CD/DVD dialog from which you can write the media.
Data CD/DVD list
Shows the contents of the CD/DVD project, and the size and creation date of
the files.
Available space on media
Indicates how much space is used on the media. The total size of the data
CD/DVD project is shown below the data CD/DVD list.
Reset
Removes all files from the data CD/DVD project.
Write Data CD/DVD Dialog
In this dialog, you can write a data CD/DVD project to CD/DVD or ISO file.
In the Data CD/DVD dialog, click the Write Data CD/DVD icon.
Device
Here, select the disc writer you want to use, or select ISO Image to write a
file on the hard drive. Writing an ISO image creates a copy of a future optical
media.
NOTE
On the Mac, open WaveLab without a media in the drive. Otherwise, the drive
is under the control of the operating system and is not available for WaveLab.
Refresh
Scans the system for connected optical devices. This is done automatically,
when this dialog opens. Click the update icon after you insert a new blank
media, to update the speed menu.
483
Writing Operations
Data CD/DVD Projects
Eject optical medium
Ejects the optical medium present in the selected drive.
Information about selected drive
Opens the Device information dialog, that shows information about the
selected device.
Erase optical disc
Erases the optical disc present in the selected drive, provided it is a rewritable
media. If ISO Image is selected, clicking the button erases the existing ISO
file.
ISO file name
When ISO Image is selected in the Device menu, specify the file name and
file location of the ISO file in the text field.
Speed
Here, select the writing speed. The highest speed depends both on the
capabilities of your writing device and of the media present in the device.
Test only, do not write
If this option is activated, clicking OK initiates a simulation of writing the CD.
If this test is passed, the real write operation will succeed. If the test fails, try
again at a lower writing speed.
Create CD-Extra session
If this option is activated, the data is written in a new session, after the audio
tracks. This creates a CD Extra, also known as Enhanced CD and CD Plus.
For this to work, the CD in the drive must have audio tracks on it, written with
the CD Extra option. Otherwise the operation fails.
Verify after write
If this option is activated, the data on the medium is automatically verified after
the writing process.
Eject before verifying
If this option is activated, the disc is ejected and retracted before the
verification process, to force the drive out of the write state. This is only
possible if the disc can be retracted automatically.
Eject after completion
If this option is activated, the disc is ejected after the write process.
484
Writing Operations
About Audio CD Formats
About Audio CD Formats
This chapter provides you with background information on the CD format, to help
you better understand how to create your own CDs.
This documentation can only give basic information on this subject. For more
information, try a text-book on the subject, or search the internet.
Basic CD Formats
There are a number of different formats for the contents of a CD disc. For example,
audio CDs, CD-ROMS, and CD-I. These are all slightly different.
The audio CD specification is called Red Book. It is this standard to which
WaveLab conforms.
NOTE
Red Book CD is not a real file format. All the audio on the CD is stored in one big
file. This is different from hard disks, for example, where each file is stored
separately. Keep in mind that all the audio is in fact one long stream of digital data.
CD-Extra Support
CD-Extra is a format that allows for the writing of both audio and data on a single
CD, just like Mixed Mode CDs. When writing an audio CD, you can prepare it for
CD-Extra support (also known as Enhanced CD or CD Plus).
The difference is that when Mixed Mode CDs are written with the audio placed on
the last tracks of the CD, for CDs in the CD-Extra format the audio is contained in
the first tracks of the CD, and the data follows subsequently.
All features of the Red Book audio CD are possible with CD-Extra, unlike with Mixed
Mode CDs. After an audio CD has been written with CD-Extra support, the data can
be added to the CD in a separate session, by creating and writing a Data CD
Project.
NOTE
Some computer CD drives may not recognize CDs in the CD-Extra format.
485
Writing Operations
About Audio CD Formats
Types of Events on an Audio CD
There are three types of events that can be used to specify various sections of audio
on the CD.
Event
Description
Track start
There can be up to 99 tracks on one CD. Each is identified by its
start point only.
Track sub-index
On advanced CD players, a track can be divided into sub-indexes
(sometimes called only indexes). These are used to identify
important positions within a track. There can be 98 sub-indexes in
each track. However, since it is difficult and time-consuming to
search for and locate to a sub-index, many CD players ignore this
information.
Pause
A pause appears before each track. Pauses can be of variable
lengths. Some CD players indicate the pauses between tracks on
their displays.
About Frames, Positions, Small Frames, and Bits
The data on an audio CD is divided into frames.
A frame consists of 588 stereo samples. 75 frames make up one second of audio.
This is because 75 x 588 = 44100, and since the sampling frequency of the CD
format is 44100 Hz (samples per second), this equals one second of audio. When
you specify positions on the CD, in WaveLab, you do it in the format mm:ss:ff
(minutes:seconds:frames). The frame values go from 0 to 74, since there are 75
frames to a second.
Technically, there is no way to specify something smaller than a frame on a CD. One
effect of this is that if the sample length of a track on the CD does not equal a
perfect number of frames, some blank audio must be added at the end. Another
effect of this is that when you play the CD, you can never locate to anything closer
than a frame. If you need some data in the middle of a frame, you still have to read
the whole frame. Again, this is unlike a hard disk, where you can retrieve any byte
on the disk, without reading the surrounding data.
But frames are not the smallest block of data on a CD. There is also something
called “small frames”. A small frame is a container of 588 bits. 98 small frames
together make up one regular frame. In each small frame there is only room for six
stereo samples, which means that a lot of space is left for data other than the actual
audio. There is information for encoding, laser synchronization, error correction, and
the PQ data to indentify the track boundaries. This PQ data is of major importance
to anyone who wants to create their own CD, and handled effortless in WaveLab.
486
Writing Operations
About Audio CD Formats
PQ Codes Handling
The PQ codes convey information about track start, sub-indexes, and pauses.
However, when creating a CD there are a number of rules you must take into
account. For example, there should be some silent frames before each track,
sub-indexes should be slightly early, there should be pauses at the beginning and
end of the entire CD, etc.
When creating CDs from an audio montage, these rules and settings are handled
by the CD Wizard. If you do not change these settings, you will get default values
that ensure your CD will work properly. However, you can still adjust the PQ codes
to your liking. We recommend to leave the settings as they are.
WaveLab only exposes intuitive CD markers and automatically generates the
corresponding PQ codes to be written to CD.
ISRC Codes
International Standard Recording Code (ISRC) is an identification that is only used
on CDs intended for commercial distribution. WaveLaballows you to specify an
ISRC code for each audio track. These codes are provided by your publisher or
clients.
The ISRC code is structured as follows:
•
Country Code (2 ASCII characters)
•
Owner Code (3 ASCII characters or digits)
•
Recording Year (2 digits or ASCII characters)
•
Serial Number (5 digits or ASCII characters)
The groups of characters are often presented with hyphens to make them easier to
read, but hyphens are not part of the code.
UPC/EAN Codes
UPC/EAN code - the Universal Product Code/European Article Number, is a
catalog number for an item (such as a CD) intended for commercial distribution. On
a CD, the code is also called the Media Catalog Number and there is one such code
per disc. These codes are provided by your publisher or clients.
UPC is a 12-digit barcode widely used in the USA and Canada. EAN-13 is a
13-digit barcoding standard (12 + a checksum digit) defined by the GS1 standards
organization. EAN is now renamed as International Article Number, but the
abbreviation has been retained.
487
Writing Operations
About Audio CD Formats
Pre-Emphasis
CD pre-emphasis refers to process designed to increase, within a band of
frequencies, the magnitude of some (usually higher) frequencies compared to the
magnitude of other (usually lower) frequencies in order to improve the overall
signal-to-noise ratio by lowering the frequencies during reproduction.
Pre-emphasis is commonly used in telecommunications, digital audio recording,
record cutting and in FM broadcasting transmissions. The presence of
pre-emphasis on a track is sometimes indicated by a tick in the
column on the
Import Audio CD dialog.
Disc-At-Once - Writing CD-Rs for Duplication Into Real CDs
WaveLab only writes audio CDs in Disc-at-Once mode.
•
If you want to create a CD-R to use as a master for a real CD production, you
must write the CD-R in Disc-At-Once mode. In this mode, the entire disc is
written in one pass. There are other ways of writing a CD, namely
Track-At-Once and Multi-Session. If you use these writing formats, the link
blocks created to link the various recording passes together will be
recognized as uncorrectable errors when you try to master from the CD-R.
These links can also result in clicks when playing back the CD.
•
Disc-At-Once mode provides more flexibility when specifying pause lengths
between tracks.
•
Disc-At-Once is the only mode that supports sub-indexes.
Writing On The Fly vs. CD Images
WaveLab writes a CD on the fly, that is, it does not create a CD image before
writing. This method makes writing CDs/DVDs faster and requires less disc space.
However, you can also create an image prior to writing a CD/DVD.
488
Spectrum Editing
Spectrum editing allows you to edit and process individual frequency ranges
instead of the full frequency spectrum.
There are two main operational modes:
•
Surgical processing (offline processing) is intended for audio restoration
purposes applied to short time ranges.
•
Master Section processing allows you to process a specific frequency range
via the Master Section.
Both modes operate on a spectrum region, which is set using the Spectrum
selection tool. The region selection defines a time and a specific frequency range.
This allows you to edit and process audio both in the time domain and in a specific
frequency domain.
Spectrum editing can perform many different types of processing. Although it is
developed for audio restoration, it can also be used for artistic or special effects.
Spectrum editing comprises the following steps:
•
Switching the wave window to spectrum display mode.
•
Defining the region that you want to edit.
•
Editing the region in the Spectrum Editor by applying filter operations, by
copying regions, or by sending it to the Master Section to apply effects.
Spectrum editing can only be performed when the Spectrum mode is selected.
Spectrum Display
The spectrum display in the wave window shows the frequency spectrum in relation
to time.
To see the spectrum view of the audio file in the Audio Files workspace, click the
Spectrum tab below the waveform display.
489
Spectrum Editing
Spectrum Display
To see the spectrum view of the audio file and activate the spectrum editing mode,
click the Spectrum selection tool.
Each vertical line represents the frequency spectrum at a particular time position.
•
Low frequencies are shown at the bottom of the display, and high frequencies
at the top.
•
In the Spectrogram options dialog, you can define how to represent the
spectrum. The spectrum can be represented in color, or in black and white. In
color mode, frequencies with loud volume intensities are shown in red, and
soft frequencies in dark purple.
•
The vertical ruler on the left shows the frequency range in Hz.
•
The status bar shows the time/frequency position of the mouse cursor.
•
If you point the mouse cursor at a defined region, a tooltip appears showing
the frequency range and the time range for the current region.
NOTE
The spectrum display is useful for audio restoration purposes using the editing and
processing procedures in the Spectrum Editor. These are usually applied to very
short time segments in an audio file. For standard editing procedures, use the wave
display.
RELATED LINKS
Spectrogram Options on page 123
490
Spectrum Editing
Surgical Processing
Surgical Processing
Surgical processing can be used to process short regions up to 30 seconds offline.
This type of processing is mainly used to reduce, remove, or replace unwanted
sound artifacts in the audio material with great precision.
For example, this can be useful to replace a part of a live recording that contains an
unwanted noise such as a mobile phone ring tone, with a copy of a similar region of
the spectrum that contains a clean signal.
NOTE
In general, the spectral copy/paste combination gives the best results, if that the
source and destination regions are properly chosen.
As with all Spectrum editor operations, you first have to define a time/frequency
region. Once a region has been set, you can select one of the following Surgical
processing modes:
•
Filtering operations allow you to filter the selected region in various ways.
•
Copy operations allow you to copy the spectrum region and apply it to
another region.
Filtering Individual Frequencies
Filtering individual frequencies is useful for audio restoration purposes.
PREREQUISITE
Select the Spectrum selection tool and define the region to process. The selected
region must not exceed 30 seconds.
PROCEDURE
1.
In the Spectrum Editor window, click the Surgery button.
2.
In the Processing of the selection section, select a processing type.
3.
In the Filter settings section, make the filter settings that you want to use.
4.
Set up the Crossfade time of processed audio parameter.
5.
Click Apply.
491
Spectrum Editing
Surgical Processing
Spectrum Editing by Copying Regions
You can edit the spectrum of an audio file by copying a defined region to another
region. The crossfade times and the filter settings have an effect here, because the
audio is copied and crossfaded both in the time domain and in the frequency
domain.
PREREQUISITE
Select the Spectrum selection tool to switch the wave window to spectrum
editing. In the Spectrum Editor window, click the Surgery button.
Spectrum editing by copying regions is useful for removing unwanted sounds in the
audio material. You first define a source region and a target region. Then you copy
the audio from the source region to the target region.
PROCEDURE
1.
In the Audio Files workspace, use the Spectrum selection tool to select the
region that you want to use as source region.
2.
In the Spectrum Editor window, click Define selection as SOURCE.
3.
Click the source region to select it, then press [Shift] to preserve the
frequency range or [Ctrl]/[Command]-[Shift] to preserve the time range, and
click and drag the selection to the region that you want to edit.
4.
With the region you want to edit selected, click Define selection as
TARGET.
5.
In the Copy audio from one region to another section, open the pop-up
menu and select one of the options.
•
Selecting Copy exactly copies the defined source region exactly.
•
Selecting Copy ambience copies an average of the frequencies of the source
region, blurring the original dynamics and pitches, and making the copied
region appear less identifiable.
6.
In the Filter settings section, set a high Steepness value, or activate the
Infinite option.
7.
Click Copy SOURCE to TARGET.
8.
Play back the audio file to hear the result.
Rules and Tips for Spectrum Editing by Copy Operations
Copy operations in the Spectrum Editor are mainly intended for audio restoration
purposes. You define a source region and a destination region, then you copy audio
from the source region to the destination region.
•
The source and the target region must have the same length and the same
frequency range.
•
The regions have to be part of the same audio file.
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Spectrum Editing
Master Section Processing
•
Setting the source region just before or after the sound to remove can
produce very accurate results, as this region probably contains a similar
frequency spectrum as the target region containing the artifact.
•
When copying between different frequency regions, pitch shifting occurs.
Using the Move upwards/downwards 1 oct options may produce better
results.
•
In the low to low-mid frequency range, the masking or removal of unwanted
artifacts is difficult to achieve without audible interruptions. Finding a limited
frequency area is important to not interrupt the flow of the audio when
removing artifacts.
Master Section Processing
Master Section Processing allows you to process a specific frequency range via the
Master Section.
The selected or non-selected regions of the spectrum can be processed differently.
You can also use a number of filters (Bandpass/Low-pass/High-pass) to further
refine the range of frequencies to be affected by any Master Section effects.
The signal is split so that one part (selected spectrum or non-selected spectrum) is
sent to the plug-ins, while the other part can be mixed with this processed signal,
after the Master Section output.
The arrows show the three possible routing options for the spectrum region
selection. The non-selected spectrum has the same options, although it cannot use
the same routing destination as the region selection.
The following operations can be performed:
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Spectrum Editing
Spectrum Editor Window
•
Processed separately by the Master Section plug-ins. The non-selected
spectrum can either be bypassed or sent to the Master Section.
•
Bypassed. This removes the selected spectrum region from the audio file. The
non-selected spectrum can either be routed to the Master Section input or
the Master Section output.
•
Sent to Master Section output. The non-selected spectrum can be bypassed
or sent to the Master Section input. In the latter case, it is mixed with the
selected spectrum region at the Master Section output.
Applying Master Section Processing
PROCEDURE
1.
In the Audio Files workspace, select the Spectrum selection tool and define
a region.
2.
In the Spectrum Editor window, activate Master Section.
3.
In the Filter settings, select a filter and specify a Steepness.
4.
Specify a crossfade time for the processed audio.
5.
Select how to process the selected region.
6.
Click Render to apply the settings.
Spectrum Editor Window
The Spectrum Editor is an audio restoration and processing tool set that provides
high quality linear-phase filters to process a frequency range selection.
In the Audio Files workspace, click the Spectrum selection icon to open the
Spectrum Editor window.
The Spectrum Editor window provides two modes:
•
The Surgery mode is intended for audio restoration purposes applied to short
time ranges.
•
The Master Section mode allows you to process an individual frequency
range via the Master Section.
Filter and Crossfade Settings
The filter and crossfade settings are available in Surgery mode and in Master
Section mode. The following options are available:
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Spectrum Editing
Spectrum Editor Window
Bandpass filter
Attenuates all frequencies outside the region equally.
Low-pass filter
Attenuates high frequencies in the region more strongly.
High-pass filter
Attenuates low frequencies in the region more strongly.
Steepness
Determines how quickly frequencies are attenuated. Steepness is expressed
in dB per octave, with higher numbers indicating a steeper filter. The
Steepness parameter creates a crossfade in the frequency domain between
the processed and the unprocessed section. If the steepness value is low, the
selected region contains much of the unprocessed signal near the frequency
edges.
Infinite
Sets the filter steepness to an infinite number of dB per octave.
Crossfade time of processed audio
Sets the duration of the crossfade between the processed and the
unprocessed signal.
Settings
Opens the Spectrum editing options dialog, where you can activate the
following options:
•
Show pop-up window about regions
•
Maintain independent settings for each file
Pin button
If this option is activated, the Spectrum Editor window remains displayed
when the Spectrum selection tool is not selected. Otherwise the window is
hidden as soon as the Time selection tool is selected, and none of the
opened audio files is associated with the Spectrum Editor.
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Spectrum Editing
Spectrum Editor Window
Spectrum Editor Window - Surgery Mode
The Surgery mode of the Spectrum Editor allows you to process short regions up
to 30 seconds offline.
In the Audio Files workspace, select Workspace > Specific tool windows >
Spectrum Editor, and activate Surgery.
Selection Options
Edit
Opens the Audio Range dialog that allows you to accurately define a
selection.
Deselect channel with cursor
When you edit a stereo file, this option deselects the channel where the
cursor is located.
Change channel
When you have defined a region in only one channel in a stereo file, this option
moves the selection to the other channel.
Zoom
Zooms in on the selected region.
Select a single channel
Generally, when you edit a stereo file and make a selection on one channel,
the selection is automatically applied to the other channel. Activating this
option allows you to unlink the channels, and edit a single channel.
Select till top/bottom
Extends the selection to the top/bottom of the frequency axis.
Select till start/end of file
Extends the selection to the beginning/end of the audio file.
Select all file length
Extends the selection to the entire file.
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Spectrum Editing
Spectrum Editor Window
Move backwards
Moves the selection to the left so that it ends at its previous start position on
the time axis.
Move forwards
Moves the selection to the right so that it starts at its previous end position on
the time axis.
Move upwards
Moves the selection up on the frequency axis so that its lower edge is placed
at the previous upper edge.
Move downwards
Moves the selection down on the frequency axis so that its upper edge is
placed at the previous lower edge.
Move upwards/downwards 1 oct
Moves the selection up/down by one octave on the frequency axis.
Define selection as source
Defines the current selection as source region for copy operations.
Define source at cursor
Copies the selection rectangle to the current cursor position, and defines it
as source region for copy operations. This ensures that the selection to copy
and the selected region that you want to edit have the same size.
Define selection as target
Defines the current selection as the target region for copy operations.
Define target at cursor
Copies the selection rectangle to the current cursor position, and defines it
as target region for copy operations. This ensures that the selection to copy
and the selected region that you want to edit have the same size.
Clear all
Clears all selections.
Copy Operations
Copy exactly
Copies the defined source region exactly.
Copy ambience
Copies an average of the frequencies of the source region, blurring the
original dynamics and pitches, and making the copied region appear less
identifiable. Depending on the audio material, this may avoid a repetition
effect.
Copy from cursor to replace selection
Copies a region of the size of the current selection starting at the cursor, and
replaces the selection by it.
497
Spectrum Editing
Spectrum Editor Window
Copy from cursor to replace target
Copies a region of the size of the defined target region starting at the cursor,
and replaces the target region by it.
Copy source to target
Copies the defined source region to the defined target region.
Copy source to cursor
Copies the defined source region to the current cursor position.
Processing Options
Crossfade times and filter settings are taken account for these options.
Gain
Determines the level of the filter processing. Negative gain settings attenuate
the level, positive gain settings boost the level.
Damp
Attenuates or boosts the level of the selected region according to the set
gain.
Blur peaks
Attenuates or boosts the level of the frequencies with the highest level in the
selection according to the set gain. If the gain is set to a negative value, these
frequencies are blurred. This is useful for removing acoustic feedback, for
example.
Dispersion
Blurs the dynamics and pitches of the selected region without changing the
frequency content.
Fade-Out
Gradually filters out the frequencies in the region along the time axis, creating
a fade-out.
Fade-In
Gradually lets pass frequencies in the region along the time axis, creating a
fade-in.
Fade out then in
Lets the frequencies fade out and fade in again.
Fade in then out
Lets the frequencies fade in and fade out again.
Apply
Applies the selected processing mode.
498
Spectrum Editing
Spectrum Editor Window
Spectrum Editor Window - Master Section Mode
The Master Section mode of the Spectrum Editor allows you to process the
selected spectral region through the Master Section.
In the Audio Files workspace, select Workspace > Specific tool windows >
Spectrum Editor, and activate Master Section.
Master Section Mode Options
In Master Section mode, you can decide whether you want to send the selected
region or the non-selected region to the Master Section for processing. The
following options are available for both the selected region and the non-selected
region:
Bypass
Mutes the selected/non-selected region.
Send to Master Section input
Sends the selected/non-selected region to the Master Section, allowing you
to apply plug-ins to it.
Send to Master Section output (pre-master)
Sends the selected/non-selected region directly to the Master Section output
without plug-in processing. Only the post-master plug-in is applied.
Render
Processes the selected/non-selected region according to the settings in the
Spectrum Editor.
499
Spectrum Editing
Defining a Region for Spectrum Editing
Spectrum Editing Options Dialog
In this dialog, you can make settings for the spectrum editing.
In the Audio Files workspace, select Workspace > Specific tool windows >
Spectrum Editor, and select Settings.
Show pop-up window about regions
If this option is activated, a pop-up window displays details when you position
the mouse cursor over a region or adjust a region.
Maintain independent settings for each file
If this option is activated, the settings are saved when you switch to another
audio file and restored when you switch back to the original file.
Defining a Region for Spectrum Editing
All Spectrum editing functions are applied to a selected region, or from a selection
region if Master Section processing is used. A region set in the Spectrum editor
contains a time range and a frequency range.
PREREQUISITE
Zoom in on the time range where you want to perform spectrum editing.
PROCEDURE
1.
In the Audio Files workspace, on the toolbar, click the Spectrum selection
tool.
2.
Click in the spectrum display and drag a rectangle around the region that you
want to edit.
When defining a region in a stereo file, a corresponding region is automatically
created in the other channel.
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Spectrum Editing
Processing Frequency Ranges via the Master Section
3.
Optional: Click and drag the defined region to move it.
Pressing [Shift] restricts to horizontal movement, to ensure that the frequency range
is retained. Pressing [Ctrl]/[Command]-[Shift] restricts to vertical movement, to
ensure that the selected time range is retained.
4.
Optional: Move the cursor over a region edge, and click and drag to resize the
defined region.
AFTER COMPLETING THIS TASK
Process the selected region by means of the Spectrum Editor window.
Processing Frequency Ranges via the Master Section
The Spectrum Editor allows for frequency-selective processing via the Master
Section.
PREREQUISITE
Select the Spectrum selection tool, and define the region to process. The selected
region must be longer than one second.
You can route the frequency spectrum of the selected region to the Master Section
where it is processed separately from the non-selected frequency spectrum, or vice
versa. At the Master Section output, the processed region is mixed with the
non-processed signal.
PROCEDURE
1.
In the Spectrum Editor window, click the Master Section button.
2.
In the Filter settings section, select a filter type from the pop-up menu.
3.
Set the Steepness value and the Crossfade time of processed audio value.
The Crossfade time of processed audio value is needed for rendering.
4.
In the Routing of selected spectral region and Routing of non-selected
spectral region sections, make settings to define where to route the selected
frequency range and the non-selected frequency range.
5.
Open the Master Section and set up the plug-ins that you want to apply to
the selected/non-selected frequency range.
Do not use any plug-ins that change the number of samples.
6.
Click Render to apply the Master Section settings to the selected region.
501
Auto Split
The auto split function allows you to automatically split audio files or clips in an audio
montage according to specific rules.
Auto split can create new audio files or audio montage clips referencing the original
files. The new audio files or clips can be automatically named and/or numbered.
Auto Split in Audio Files
You can use the auto split function in many situations, for example, to cut a recorded
audio file into single takes, to cut a drum loop into its individual drum hit samples, to
output individual tracks from an album master file, or to silence the regions between
audio information in an instrumental take.
You can use auto split to split audio files at:
•
Markers
•
Regions containing silences
•
Beats using beat detection
•
Specific intervals
•
Specific regions derived from a text file
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Auto Split
Auto Split in Audio Files
Auto Split Dialog in the Audio Files Workspace
In this dialog, you can set up auto split rules for audio files.
In the Audio Files workspace, select Tools > Auto Split.
The Auto Split dialog contains a series of pages, with different parameters and
options depending on the selected auto split method.
On the first page, you specify which files to process with auto split. You have the
following options:
•
The audio file in the active window.
•
All audio files are in a specified folder.
•
The audio files derived from a file list.
On the second page, you select the type of splitting that you want to perform. The
following types are available:
Split according to markers
Splits the files at specific marker positions. If you select this option, you can
specify the marker type that will be used for the splitting on the next page.
Split at specific intervals
Splits the files at specific time intervals. If you select this option, you can
specify the time interval, that is, the duration of each region, on the next page.
Split between silences
Splits the files so that each non-silent section becomes a separate region. If
you select this option, you can specify the minimum region duration, the
minimum duration of a silent section, and the signal level that should be
considered as silence on the next page.
503
Auto Split
Auto Split in Audio Files
Split at beats
Detects beats in the audio material and splits the files at each beat. If you
select this option, you can specify the sensitivity of the beat detection, the
minimum beat level to create a split point, and the minimum region duration
on the next page.
Cut head and tail
Removes sections from the start and/or end of the files, silent sections or
specified sections.
Learn regions from a text file
Splits an audio file according to a description of regions stored in a text file.
Convert stereo files to two mono files
Splits stereo files into two mono files.
The third page of the dialog varies according to the selected split method. The
following pages of the dialog are common to all types of auto split, except that
certain options are grayed out in the dialogs if they are not applicable.
On the fourth page, you specify what to do with the regions created by auto split.
You can save the regions as separate files or create clips and add these to a new
or existing audio montage. You can also select to create markers at the split points
instead of splitting the files.
On the fifth page, you can insert silence at the start and/or end of the files, or
automatically assign root key note numbers to the files.
On the last page, you specify how to name the files, clips, or markers created by
auto split. Options include name as source file name plus a key name or number, or
name as specified in a text file. To open a saved naming scheme file, click Open,
select the text file that you want to open, and click Open.
The Finish button is available from all pages. If you are sure about your settings, you
can click Finish without having to go to all pages. For example, when you are using
a preset and you know that you do not want to make changes on the last pages, you
can click Finish earlier.
504
Auto Split
Auto Split in Audio Files
Learn Regions From Text File
You can split an audio file according to a description of regions stored in a text file.
Each region must be described by a name, a start position, and an end position (or
region length). The text file must be placed in the same folder as the audio file, with
the same name, and with the extension that you specify in the WaveLabdialog (for
example, “txt” or “xml”).
You can use four tags to specify the regions.
•
Region name
•
Start
•
End
•
Length
These tags can be customized in the Auto Split dialog. The text file must specify
either the “End” or the “Length” parameter.
Each parameter must be located on a separate text line.
The time values must be in samples or in timecode format.
•
Hours:minutes:seconds:samples
You can use three text formats.
•
“Tag”=“Value”: The tag comes first, then “=”, then the value.
•
“Tag” Tabulation “Value”: The tag comes first, then a tabulation, then the
value.
•
XML style: The tag comes first, surrounded by < and >, then the value, then
the tag surrounded by </ and >.
Text files must be in UTF-8 format.
Example for Using Auto Split for Audio Files
You can split a long recording into samples. This is useful if you are working with a
sampler, for example, HALion.
PROCEDURE
1.
In the Audio Files workspace, select Tools > Auto Split.
2.
Select Audio File in active window, and click Next.
3.
Select Split at silences, and click Next.
4.
Set up the page according to the audio file, and click Next.
Adjust the first setting according to the length of the shortest recorded note, the
second setting according to the shortest period of silence between two notes, and
the third setting according to the level of the silence between the notes.
5.
Select Save as separate files, specify the format and location for the new
files, and click Next.
505
Auto Split
Auto Split in Audio Montages
6.
On the Options page, activate Assign Key, select Detect pitch, and click
Next.
This way, the correct key is assigned to each sample. If you activate Quantize to
nearest semitone, WaveLabsets the key according to the closest semitone. If not,
the Detune setting in the sample may also be adjusted, according to any pitch
deviations.
7.
Select the naming option As audio file name + key, and click Finish.
RESULT
The file is split according to your settings, and creates new files in the specified
location.
Auto Split in Audio Montages
You can use the auto split function to split the focused clip. You can use the auto
split function in many situations, for example, to cut single clip of a recording into
single takes, to cut a drum loop into its individual drum hit samples, to output
individual tracks from an album master file, or to silence the regions between audio
information in an instrumental take.
During the analysis, only the audio files of the audio montage are taken into account.
Envelopes and effects are ignored.
You can use auto split to split the focused clip at:
•
Markers
•
Specific intervals
•
Between silences
•
Beats
506
Auto Split
Auto Split in Audio Montages
Auto Split Dialog in the Audio Montage Workspace
In this dialog, you can set up auto split rules for audio montages.
In the Audio Montage workspace, in the Focused clip window, on the Edit pane,
select Auto Split.
The Auto Split dialog contains a series of pages, with different parameters and
options depending on the selected auto split method.
On the first page, you select the target for the auto split.
On the second page, you select the type of splitting. The following types are
available:
Split according to markers
Splits the files at specific marker positions. If you select this option, you can
specify the marker type that will be used for the splitting on the next page.
Split at specific intervals
Splits the files at specific time intervals. If you select this option, you can
specify the time interval, that is, the duration of each region, on the next page.
Split at silences
Splits the files so that each non-silent section becomes a separate region. If
you select this option, you can specify the minimum region duration, the
minimum duration of a silent section, and the signal level that should be
considered as silence on the next page.
Split at beats
Detects beats in the audio material and splits the files at each beat. If you
select this option, you can specify the sensitivity of the beat detection, the
minimum beat level to create a split point, and the minimum region duration
on the next page.
507
Auto Split
Auto Split in Audio Montages
Cut head and tail
Removes sections from the start and/or end of the files, silent sections or
specified sections.
The third page of the dialog varies according to the selected split method. The
following pages of the dialog are common to all types of auto split, except that
certain options are grayed out if they are not applicable.
On the fourth page, you specify what to do with the regions created by auto split.
For example, you can choose to split the regions or cut out silent parts. You can also
select to not split the files but to create markers at the split points instead.
On the last page, you specify how to name the clips created by auto split. Options
include name as marker names, name as clip name, or name as specified in a text
file. To save this text file, select Save, enter a name and location, and select Save.
To open a saved naming scheme file, click Open, select the text file that you want
to open, and click Open.
The Finish button is available from all pages. If you are sure about your settings, you
can click Finish without having to go to all pages. For example, when you are using
a preset and you know that you do not want to make changes on the last pages, you
can click Finish earlier.
508
Loops
This chapter describes various operations that are related to looping. Looping is
used to simulate the infinite or at least very long sustain of many instrumental
sounds. WaveLab has tools for creating smooth loops, even for the most complex
types of sounds.
Basic Looping
Looping a sound allows you to repeat a section of the sample indefinitely in order
to create a sustain of unlimited length. Instrumental sounds in samplers rely on
looping. An example of this would be an organ sound.
Without looping, you can only play audio as long as the original recording. With
looping, audio can be of any length. In WaveLab, loops are defined by loop markers.
Loop markers are added, moved, and edited such as any other type of marker.
To ensure that you find a good loop point note the following:
•
There are only two types of loops: very long and very short loops. Loops of
intermediate lengths usually do not provide good results.
•
A long loop sounds the most natural and should be used whenever possible.
However, if the sound does not have a stable section in the middle (an even
sustain part), it might be hard to find a good long loop. For example, a piano
note which decays continuously is hard to loop since the start point of the
loop is louder than the end point. A flute is much simpler, because the sound
in the sustain section is very stable.
•
Very short loops that cover only a few cycles or periods can almost always be
found but may sound static and unnatural.
•
A loop should start shortly after the attack portion, that is, when the sound has
stabilized to a sustaining note.
•
If you set up a long loop, it should end as late as possible but before the sound
starts decaying to silence.
•
Short loops are difficult to position within the sound. Try to position them near
the end.
NOTE
More information about looping in general, and the exact capabilities of your
sampler in particular can be found in the manual of the sampler.
509
Loops
About Refining Loops
Creating a Basic Loop
PROCEDURE
1.
In the Audio Files workspace, select the audio section that you want to loop.
2.
Right-click the top of the ruler, and select Create loop from selection.
3.
On the Transport bar, activate Loop.
4.
Play back the loop and adjust the position of the markers to change the loop.
AFTER COMPLETING THIS TASK
Dragging markers to various positions does not necessarily lead to good loops.
Most often, you hear a click or an abrupt change in timbre at the turning point.
We suggest you only use this method for setting up the basic length of the loop and
then use the Loop Tweaker and Loop Tone Uniformizer for optimizing.
About Refining Loops
The Loop Tweaker tool allows you to refine a region of audio for seamless looping.
Use the Loop Tweaker to tweak an existing loop selection so that it loops perfectly
or use it to create a loop from material which does not naturally repeat.
You can automatically detect loop points by scanning the area between two loop
markers. You can specify parameters that determine how accurate the program
should be when suggesting loop points.
If the automatic search for loop points is not successful, you can process the
waveform to allow for smoother loops by crossfading areas of the waveform close
to the loop start and end points.
To use the Loop Tweaker, you must first define a loop using a pair of loop markers.
Loop Points Adjustment Tab
Use the Loop Points Adjustments tab in the Loop Tweaker dialog to manually
refine a loop selection by dragging on the waveform left/right or by using the
automatic search buttons to find the nearest good loop point. The aim is to align the
waveforms so that they meet at a zero-crossing point where the waveforms match
as closely as possible. When you adjust your loop start and end points within the
dialog, the start and end loop markers in the main waveform window adjust
accordingly. Note that this movement may or may not be visible depending on how
much you move the markers and on the zoom factor that you have selected.
It may be helpful to loop the transport during playback so that you can hear the
difference when you adjust the loop markers within the dialog. Note that if you are
not using a crossfade or post-crossfade, you do not need to click Apply when
tweaking loop points. You can also leave this dialog window open and manually
adjust the position of the markers in the main waveform windows.
510
Loops
About Refining Loops
Crossfade Tab
This tab allows you to apply a crossfade of the end of a loop with a copy of the
beginning of the loop. This can be useful to smooth the transition between the end
of a loop and its beginning, especially when you use material that does not naturally
loop. Use the envelope drag points or value sliders to adjust the crossfade
envelope. Click Apply to process the crossfade.
Post-Crossfade Tab
This tab allows you to cross fade the loop back into the audio behind the end of the
loop by mixing a copy of the loop back into the audio. Use the envelope drag points
or value sliders to adjust the crossfade envelope. Click Apply to process the post
crossfade.
Refining Loops
You can refine loops using the Loop Tweaker tool.
PREREQUISITE
Set up a basic loop.
PROCEDURE
1.
In the Audio Files workspace, select the loop that you want to refine by
clicking between its loop start and loop end marker.
2.
Select Process > Loop Tweaker.
3.
Refine your loop using the settings in the Loop Tweaker tool.
4.
Click Apply.
Moving Loop Points Manually
If your loop still has glitches or bumps at the turning points, you can use the Loop
Tweaker tool to move the points in small steps to remove the glitch.
This is similar to moving the loop points in the wave display, but with a visual
feedback to facilitate finding good loop points.
There are two ways of moving the loop points manually on the Loop points
adjustment tab in the Loop Tweaker dialog:
•
Drag the waveform to the left and right.
•
Use the green arrows below the waveform to nudge the audio to the left and
right. Each click moves the loop point by a single sample.
The following applies when moving the loop points manually:
511
Loops
About Refining Loops
•
To move the end point to a later or earlier position, move the left part of the
display.
•
To move the start point to a later or earlier position, move the right part of the
display.
•
To move the start and end points simultaneously, activate Link start and end
points. This way, when adjusting a loop point, the length of the loop stays the
same, but the entire loop is moved.
•
You can also adjust the loop markers in the wave window.
Automatically Detect Good Loop Points
The Loop Tweaker tool can automatically search for good loop points.
PROCEDURE
1.
In the Audio Files workspace, select the loop that you want to refine by
clicking between its loop start and loop end marker.
2.
Select Process > Loop Tweaker.
3.
On the Loop points adjustment tab, make sure that Link start and end
points is deactivated.
4.
In the Automatic search section, specify the Aimed correspondence and
the Search accuracy.
5.
Click the yellow arrow buttons to start the automatic search for a good loop
point.
WaveLab scans from the current point forwards or backwards, until it finds a point
that matches. You can stop at any time by clicking the right mouse button. The
program then jumps back to the best found match.
6.
Check the loop by playing it back.
7.
Optional: If you think there might be a better loop point, continue with the
search.
Temporarily Storing Loop Points
Temporarily saving and restoring loop points allows you to quickly compare different
loop settings.
PREREQUISITE
Set up a basic loop and open the Loop Tweaker tool.
NOTE
•
There are five slots for temporarily saving loop point settings per wave window
and montage window, not one per set of loop points. This means that if you
have several sets of loops in your file, you must be careful to not recall the
wrong set.
512
Loops
About Refining Loops
•
Only loop positions are temporarily saved.
PROCEDURE
1.
On the Loop points adjustment tab, in the Temporary memories section,
select M.
2.
Select one of the five memory slots.
About Crossfades in Loops
Crossfading is useful to smooth the transition between the end of a loop and its
beginning, especially when using material that does not naturally loop.
Sometimes it is impossible to find a loop that does not cause any glitches. This is
especially true for stereo material, where you might be able to find a perfect
candidate for only one channel.
In this case crossfading smears the material around the end loop point so that it
loops perfectly. This is achieved by mixing material from before the loop start with
material that is located before the loop end.
Note that this technique alters the waveform and therefore changes the sound.
However, normally you can find settings that minimize this problem.
Creating a Crossfade
PROCEDURE
1.
In the Audio Files workspace, create a good a loop as you can.
2.
Select Process > Loop Tweaker.
3.
Decide if you want to create a crossfade or a post-crossfade:
•
If you want to create a crossfade, click the Crossfade tab.
•
If you want to create a post-crossfade, click the Post-Crossfade tab.
4.
Make sure that Crossfade audio at end of loop with audio before loop
(Crossfade tab) or Crossfade audio after loop with audio of loop start
(Post-Crossfade tab) is activated.
5.
Decide on a length for the crossfade either by dragging the length handle or
by adjusting the Length value below the graph.
6.
Decide on a crossfade shape by dragging the shape handle or by adjusting
the Shape (from equal gain to equal power) value.
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Loops
About Refining Loops
7.
Click Apply.
The sound is processed. Each time that you click Apply, the previous loop process is
automatically undone. This allows you to try out many settings quickly.
NOTE
Do not move the loop points after you have performed a crossfade. The
waveform has been processed specifically for the current loop settings.
AFTER COMPLETING THIS TASK
•
You can check the crossfade visually by opening the Loop points
adjustment tab and activating Display processed audio. When this is
activated, the display shows a preview of the crossfaded waveform. When the
option is deactivated, the display shows the waveform original. Switching
back and forth allows you to compare the two.
About Post-Crossfades
Post-crossfading means crossfading the loop back into the audio after the end of
the loop so that there is not glitch when playback continues after the loop. This is
done by mixing a copy of the loop back into the audio.
The post-crossfade can be set up on the Post-Crossfade tab of the Loop Tweaker
dialog.
The post-crossfade analyzes the part of the waveform that occurs just after the loop
start and processes a certain area that begins at the end of the loop. The length
parameter adjusts the size of this area. Everything else is identical with regular
crossfading.
Loop Tweaker Dialog
This dialog allows you to adjust the loop start and end points, and crossfade the
loop boundaries.
In the Audio Files workspace, select Process > Loop Tweaker.
The Loop Tweaker dialog consists of the following tabs:
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Loops
About Refining Loops
Loop Points Adjustment Tab
The top of this dialog shows the beginning and the end of the waveform between
the loop markers. The bottom of this dialog offers the following options:
Loop End - Green Arrows
Move the loop end points to the left/right.
Loop End - Yellow Arrows
Invokes an automatic search for the nearest good loop point to the left/right
of the loop end point and moves the end point to that position.
Loop Start - Green Arrows
Moves the loop start points to the left/right.
Loop Start - Yellow Arrows
Invokes an automatic search for the nearest good loop point to the left/right
of the loop start point, and moves the start point to that position.
Stereo merge
If this option is activated for a stereo file, the two waveforms are overlayed,
otherwise they are shown in two separate sections.
Overlap
If this option is activated, the waveforms of both halves are continued in the
other half. This shows how the waveform looks like right before and after the
loop.
Display processed audio
If this option is activated, the display shows a preview of the waveform after
crossfading. If deactivated, you see what the waveform looks like without
crossfading. This option only makes sense after you have set up a crossfade
and clicked Apply.
515
Loops
About Refining Loops
Automatic vertical zooming
If this option is activated, the vertical magnification is adjusted so that the
waveform always fills the entire display vertically.
Zoom
Sets the zoom factor.
Current correspondence
Indicates how well the waveforms near the loop points match one another.
The left value estimates the similarity across several wave cycles, while the
right value estimates the similarity of the few samples near the loop points.
The higher the values, the better the match.
Aimed correspondence (0-1000)
Sets up the automatic search for good loop points. This defines how well the
found section must resemble the section to which it is compared, in order to
be considered a match. The higher the value, the more precise the
resemblance must be. A value of 1000 most likely fails, since it requires a
100 % perfect match.
Search accuracy
Determines how many samples should be taken into account by the auto-find
analysis. Higher values result in greater accuracy, but also in longer
processing times.
Link start and end points
If this option is activated, both the start and end points move simultaneously
when you adjust the loop points manually. That is, the loop length is exactly
the same, but the entire loop moves.
Temporary memories
Allows you to save up to five different sets of loop points which you can later
recall. This allows you to try out several different loop settings. To store a set,
click this button, then on one of the buttons 1-5.
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Loops
About Refining Loops
Crossfade Tab
Crossfade audio at end of loop with audio before loop
To enable crossfading, activate this checkbox. The crossfade is applied when
you click Apply.
Length
Determines the section length of the audio file to be used in the crossfade.
Generally, you want the crossfade to be as short as possible, with an
acceptable result:
•
Using a long crossfade smoothens the loop. However, more of the
waveform is processed, which changes its character.
•
A shorter crossfade affects the sound less, but the loop is not as
smooth.
Shape (from equal gain to equal power)
Determines the shape of the crossfade. Generally, use low values for simple
sounds and high values for complex sounds.
517
Loops
About Looping Seemingly Unloopable Audio
Post-Crossfade Tab
Crossfade audio after loop with audio of loop
To enable crossfading, activate this checkbox. The crossfade is applied when
you click Apply.
Length
Determines the section length of the audio file to be used in the crossfade.
Generally, you want the post-crossfade to be as short as possible, with an
acceptable result:
•
Using a long post-crossfade smoothens the loop. However, more of the
waveform is processed, which changes its character.
•
A shorter post-crossfade affects the sound less, but the loop is not as
smooth.
Shape (from equal gain to equal power)
Determines the shape of the post-crossfade. Generally, use low values for
simple sounds and high values for complex sounds.
About Looping Seemingly Unloopable Audio
Sounds that constantly decay in level or continuously change in timbre are difficult
to loop. The Loop Tone Uniformizer allows you to create loops from sounds that
seem unloopable.
The Loop Tone Uniformizer applies processing to the sound that evens out
changes in level and timbral characteristics in order for a sound to loop properly.
For example, this is useful for creating looped samples for a softsynth or hardware
sampler.
518
Loops
About Looping Seemingly Unloopable Audio
The Loop Tone Uniformizer includes a crossfade facility so that the original sound
fades into the processed sections as playback approaches the loop start.
To use the Loop Tone Uniformizer, you must have a loop defined using a pair of
loop markers. The original length of the loop is not changed.
Looping Seemingly Unloopable Audio
PROCEDURE
1.
In the Audio Files workspace, set up a basic loop.
2.
Select Process > Loop Tone Uniformizer.
3.
Make sure that either Slice mixing or Chorus smoothing is activated and
make the settings.
4.
Optional: Open the Pre-Crossfade tab, and set up a crossfade.
5.
Click Apply.
The sound is processed. Each time that you click Apply, the previous loop process is
automatically undone. This allows you to try out many settings quickly.
NOTE
Do not move the loop points after you have performed a crossfade. The
waveform has been processed specifically for the current loop settings.
AFTER COMPLETING THIS TASK
After using the Loop Tone Uniformizer, the transition from the end of the loop to
the end of the file is in many cases not very natural. This can be fixed by creating a
post-crossfade using the Loop tweaker.
Loop Tone Uniformizer Dialog
This dialog allows you to create sounds that loop from audio that seems unloopable.
These are normally sounds that constantly decay in level or continuously change in
timbre.
In the Audio Files workspace, select Process > Loop Tone Uniformizer.
The Loop Tone Uniformizer dialog consists of the following tabs:
519
Loops
About Looping Seemingly Unloopable Audio
Uniformizers Tab
This tab allows you to specify the methods that are used to even out the sound that
you want to loop.
For slice mixing, you must experiment to see how many slices are needed.
Generally, the more slices you use, the more natural the sound will be.
Slice Mixing
Cuts the loop in slices, which are then mixed together to uniformize the sound.
For slice mixing, you need to determine the number of slices. Only
experimentation can tell how many slices are needed, but generally, the more
slices you have, the more natural the sound (to a certain extent). However, the
program puts a restriction on the number of slices, so that each one is never
shorter than 20 ms.
For example, if you specify eight slices, the loop is cut up into eight sections
of equal length. These sections are then overlapped and mixed together as
one sound which is repeated eight times. This new piece of audio replaces all
audio inside the loop in a smart way so that no harmonic cancelation due to
phase offsets occurs.
Slice Mixing - Number of slices
The more slices you have, the more the sound changes.
Chorus smoothing
This processor uses a method known as phase vocoding to filter the
harmonics. This method is recommended for looping ensemble and choir
sounds and can drastically change the timbre.
Chorus smoothing - Timbre
Governs the amount by which the timbral characteristics of the sample should
be evened out. The higher the value, the more pronounced the effect.
Chorus smoothing - Chorusing
Determines the depth of the chorus effect.
520
Loops
About Looping Seemingly Unloopable Audio
Chorus smoothing - Enhance Warmth
Creates a smoother, warmer sounding effect.
Chorus smoothing - Stereo Expansion
Increases the width of the sample in the stereo sound image.
Pre-Crossfade Tab
This tab allows you to crossfade the end of the loop with the start of the newly
processed section so that transition into the newly looped section is smoother
during playback. Use the envelope drag points or value sliders to adjust the cross
fade.
You need to use this feature since the Loop Tone Uniformizer itself changes the
timbre only inside the loop. This means that the transition into the loop is not as
smooth as expected unless you apply crossfading.
Crossfade audio before loop with audio of end of loop
Enables crossfading, which is applied when you click Apply.
Length
Determines the section length of the audio file to be used in the crossfade.
Generally, you want the post-crossfade to be as short as possible, with an
acceptable result:
•
A long crossfade produces a smoother loop. However, more of the
waveform is processed, which changes its character.
•
A shorter crossfade affects the sound less, but the loop is not as
smooth.
Shape (from equal gain to equal power)
Determines the shape of the crossfade. Generally, use low values for simple
sounds and high values for complex sounds.
521
Loops
About Sample Attributes
About Sample Attributes
Sample attributes allow you to define settings for an audio sample before loading it
into a hardware or software sampler.
Sample attributes do not process the sample, they just provide the file properties
that the receiving sampler can use. This includes information about the pitch of the
sample, which can be detected automatically, the key range that the sample should
span, and the velocity range to occupy. For WAV and AIFF files, this information is
stored in the header of the file. By default, there are no sample attributes in an audio
file.
NOTE
Depending on your sampler and the protocol that you use for communicating, the
sample attributes may not be supported.
Editing Sample Attributes
PROCEDURE
1.
In the Audio Files workspace, open the Sample Attributes window.
2.
In the Sample Attributes window, select Create.
3.
Optional: If you want to automatically detect the pitch of an audio selection,
select an audio range, and select Detect from audio selection.
4.
Specify the sample attributes.
5.
Save the audio file to store the sample attributes settings in the audio file.
The sample attribute is only saved in WAV and AIFF files.
Sample Attributes Window
In this window, you can create sample attributes for an audio sample.
In the Audio Files workspace, select Workspace > Specified tool windows >
Sample Attributes.
Create/Remove
Creates/Removes sample attributes for the active audio file.
522
Loops
About Sample Attributes
Tune - Key
Specifies which key plays back the sound at its basic pitch.
Tune - Detune
Specifies whether the sample should be played back at a slightly different
pitch. The range is ±50 % of a semitone, which translates into a quarter tone
in each direction.
Detect from audio selection
Detects the pitch from an audio selection. Make sure that the audio selection
contains a clearly defined pitch.
Key range - High/Low
Specifies the key range for the sample if the sample is part of a multi-sample
key map.
Velocity range - High/Low
Specifies the velocity range for the sample if the sample is part of a
multi-sample key map with velocity-switchable samples.
523
Generating Signals
In WaveLab, you can generate synthesized sounds and DTMF or MF tones.
Signal Generator
The Signal Generator allows you to generate complex synthesized sounds in mono
or stereo.
You can layer different waveform generators together and if outputting a stereo file,
adjust different settings for both the left and right channels. There are a multitude of
settings to adjust the character (Source tab), frequency (Frequency tab), and
amplitude (Level tab) of the generated signals.
Use the Signal Generator for:
•
Testing the specifications of audio equipment.
•
Measurements of various kinds, including calibrating tape recorders.
•
Testing signal processing methods.
•
Educational purposes.
The Signal Generator is based on a waveform generator that can generate a large
number of basic waveforms, such as sine, saw, pulse, and various types of noise.
The Signal Generator has a multitude of settings for character (Source tab),
frequency (Frequency tab), and amplitude (Level tab).
You can combine up to 64 signal generators into layers and make separate settings
for the left and right channel.
NOTE
The Signal Generator is not intended for synthesizing musical sounds.
524
Generating Signals
Signal Generator
Signal Generator Dialog
This dialog allows you to generate complex synthesized sounds in mono or stereo.
In the Audio Files workspace, select Tools > Signal Generator.
Audio properties
Opens the Audio Properties dialog in which you can select sample rate, bit
resolution, etc.
Global gain
Adjusts the global level of all combined layers.
Number of layers
Determines the number of layers, for example, the number of independent
signals to be combined.
All channels, Left channel, Right channel
Determines whether the settings on the tab are applied to the left or right
channel of the selected layer, or to both channels.
Copy
Copies all settings of the current layer.
Paste
Pastes the settings to the selected layer.
NOTE
Clicking Paste replaces the source, frequency, and level settings on all tabs,
not just on the selected one.
Generate
Applies the settings.
525
Generating Signals
Signal Generator
Source Tab
Waveform
Use this pop-up menu to select a waveform for the selected layer.
Width
If you select one of the pulse waveforms, you can set this parameter to the
width of the pulse, specified as a percentage or a number of samples.
Angle (0-359°)
Sets the phase of the signal for the selected layer.
Adjust signal length to end on a cycle boundary
If this option is activated, the generated waveform ends with a complete cycle,
regardless of the phase setting.
Frequency Tab
Envelope section
In this section, you can set up the frequency envelope of the selected layer.
The envelope consists of four frequency values and three duration values in
between the frequency values.
If you want to set a static frequency (no envelope curve), make sure that all
time values are set to 0, and set the frequency with the Median Freq. 2
parameter.
Vibrato section
In this section, you can add vibrato to the frequency of the selected layer. You
can select a waveform for the vibrato, set the frequency, and adjust the
intensity.
Change frequency at cycle boundaries
If this option is activated, the vibrato is not continuously applied from
sample-to-sample, but recomputed after each cycle.
526
Generating Signals
Signal Generator
Linear frequency variations
If this option is activated, the frequency varies linearly.
Level Tab
Envelope
In this section, you can set up the amplitude envelope of the selected layer.
The envelope consists of three level values and three duration values in
between the level values. In addition, the Silence Before and Silence After
parameters make it possible to include a period of silence before or after the
signal of the selected layer.
NOTE
The Overall gain parameter determines the overall level of the layer.
Tremolo
In this section, you can add tremolo (continuous level variation) to the selected
layer. You can select a waveform for the tremolo, set the frequency, and adjust
the intensity.
Change level at cycle boundaries
If this option is activated, the tremolo is not continuously applied from
sample-to-sample, but recomputed after each cycle.
DC Offset
Allows you to add a DC offset to the signal of the selected layer.
Overall gain
Allows you to set an overall level for the selected layer.
Generating an Audio Signal
PROCEDURE
1.
In the Audio Files workspace, select Tools > Signal Generator.
2.
Click the audio properties to open the Audio properties dialog, and set up
the channels, sample rate, and accuracy.
527
Generating Signals
DTMF Generator
3.
Choose how many layers of signal generators you want to use by setting the
Number of layers parameter.
You can change this value at a later stage.
4.
Set the Global gain.
5.
For each layer, edit the settings on the Source, Frequency, and Level tabs.
6.
If you have selected stereo channels, you can make changes for both or just
one of the channels by selecting All channels, Left channel, or Right
channel.
7.
Once all settings are made, select Generate.
The file is generated and opens in a new window.
DTMF Generator
With the DTMF Generator you can generate DTMF (Dual Tone Multi Frequency) or
MF tones as used by analog telephone systems.
These tones are created by combining two sine waves with variable frequencies.
Push button telephones generate these two sine waves at different frequencies
depending on the number that you press. These dial pulses are then decoded by
the telephone exchange to identify which letters or numbers you pressed.
528
Generating Signals
DTMF Generator
DTMF Generator Dialog
This dialog allows you to generate DTMF or MF tones.
In the Audio Files workspace, select Tools > DTMF Generator.
Dial string
Lets you enter the numbers that you want to convert to DTMF tones. The
characters that you can use for DTMF are 0123456789ABCD*#,) and for MF
0123456789ABC*#,.
DTMF
DTMF is the most commonly used standard. DTMF strings are limited to 16
characters.
MF
MF uses a different frequency than DTMF. MF strings are limited to 15
characters.
Leading silence
Determines the length of the silent region before the first tone.
Tone
Sets the length of each tone.
Inter-tone
Adjusts the time interval between the tones.
Pause
Determines the length of any pauses in the dial string. A pause is entered by
typing a comma character (,) in the dial string.
529
Generating Signals
DTMF Generator
Trailing silence
Determines the length of the silent region after the last tone.
Overall
Controls the level of the tone’s mix.
High frequencies gain
The DTMF signal consists of a mix between two tones. One high frequency
tone and one low frequency tone. You can either choose to let the two tones
have the same amplitude by leaving this at zero, or you can raise the high
frequency tone by up to 12 dB. On some telephone lines, the high frequency
tones are set 2 dB higher than the low ones.
Fade in/out tones
If this option is activated, the generated tones will fade in and out.
Time
Lets you set the time of the fades if the corresponding option is activated.
Audio Properties
Opens the Audio Properties dialog in which you can select sample rate, bit
resolution, etc.
Generating DTMF Files
PROCEDURE
1.
In the Audio Files workspace, select Tools > DTMF Generator.
2.
Enter a dial string in the text field at the top of the dialog.
The characters that you can use are shown above the text field.
3.
Select the standard to use.
4.
Make the settings for Durations and Amplitude.
5.
Click the audio properties to select a bit resolution and a sample rate.
The Audio Properties dialog opens where you can edit settings for the audio file.
6.
Click Generate.
The file is generated and opens up in a new window.
530
Importing Audio CD Tracks
You can read audio tracks from regular CDs and save them as a digital copy in any
audio format on your hard disk.
Although WaveLab supports a large number of CD drives, there are some
restrictions you need to be aware of:
•
There are a number of different protocols for retrieving audio from a
CD-ROM/CD-R drive. WaveLabsupports as many of these methods as
possible, but there are no guarantees that it works with any particular drive.
This applies for CD-Text and ISRC.
•
Observe and respect any copyright notices on the CDs from which you are
importing tracks.
When importing tracks, they are named “Track XX” by default, where XX is a
number starting at 01. The numbering scheme can be changed.
NOTE
•
Importing audio CD tracks is technically more complicated than reading files
from a CD-ROM or hard disk, because audio sectors can be hard to detect.
Some CDs which do not conform completely to the CD standard may cause
problems, especially when being copy protected.
•
If you import a CD track with Emphasis, and later want to use this on a CD of
your own, remember to activate Emphasis for that track in the audio montage
or Basic Audio CD window.
Import Audio CD Dialog
In this dialog, you can import one or more tracks from an audio CD.
In any workspace, select File > Import > Audio CD.
Menus
Functions - CD Info
Displays the CD length and the UPC/EAN code, if available.
531
Importing Audio CD Tracks
Import Audio CD Dialog
Functions - Extract ISRC codes
Reads the ISRC codes and displays them in the track list. Depending on your
CD drive, this can take a while.
Functions - Examine CD-Text
Opens the CD-Text dialog where you can view the CD-Text. Not all CD drives
support CD-Text.
Functions - Extract CD-Text
Extracts the CD-Text and displays a summary in the track list.
Rename tracks - Name
Renames the tracks according to the selected renaming scheme.
Rename tracks - Search track names on the internet (FreeDb)
Searches track names from an internet database. If the album is found, the CD
track list is updated.
Convert - Convert to audio montage (all)
Extracts all audio CD tracks and uses them to create an audio montage.
Convert - Convert to audio montage (selected tracks)
Extracts the selected audio CD tracks and uses them to create an audio
montage.
Convert - Convert to Basic Audio CD (all)
Extracts all audio CD tracks and uses them to create a Basic Audio CD.
Convert - Convert to Basic Audio CD (selected tracks)
Extracts the selected audio CD tracks and uses them to create a Basic Audio
CD.
532
Importing Audio CD Tracks
Import Audio CD Dialog
Actions Tab
Source
Select the CD drive from which you want to import audio CD tracks.
Speed
Here, you select the writing speed. The highest speed depends on the
capabilities of your writing device and of the media present in the device.
Refresh
If you insert a CD while the Import Audio CD dialog is open, you need to click
this button to show the contents of that CD in the list.
Eject optical medium
Ejects the medium of the selected drive.
Track list
Shows the tracks on the CD.
Range - Start/Length
Use the Range Start and Length fields to define a start point and length if you
want to import only a section of a track.
Output - Where
Here, you define an output location.
Output - File Format
Here, you define an output file format.
Select All
Selects all CD tracks in the track list.
533
Importing Audio CD Tracks
Import Audio CD Dialog
Play
Plays back the selected CD track.
Options Tab
Trim silence
If this option is activated, silence between imported tracks is removed. Only
digital silence is removed, that is, samples with a zero level.
Automatically refresh on CD change
If this option is activated, WaveLab checks for the presence of a new CD in
the drive several times a second. If a new CD is found, the track list display is
refreshed.
Automatically extract ISRC codes
If this option is activated, ISRC codes are automatically extracted when a CD
is inserted.
Automatically extract CD-Text
If this option is activated, CD-Text is automatically extracted when a CD is
inserted.
Automatically search track names on the internet
If this option is activated, track names are automatically searched on the
internet when a CD is inserted.
Grab pause before first track, if any
If this option is activated, when a section of audio is located before the first
track, it is extracted together with the first track. This usually corresponds to
a hidden bonus track.
Use a Japanese CD-Text decoder
If this option is activated, CD-Text is interpreted as Japanese the next time it
is extracted.
534
Importing Audio CD Tracks
Importing Audio CD Tracks
Create Peak File
If this option is activated, a peak file is created together with the rendered files.
Show times with CD frame units
If this option is activated, times are shown in CD frame units. There are 75 CD
frames per second.
Playback through Master Section
If this option is activated, the audio track signal goes through the Master
Section when playing back.
Convert titles and CD-Text to meta-data
If this option is activated when importing tracks into an audio format
supporting meta-data (for example, MP3 and WMA), the titles of the tracks
and the CD-Text are automatically added to the file header.
Ultra-Safe Mode (slow)
If this option is activated, each CD track is read several times until the same
result is found (checksums are used). Specify the number of times that a track
should be read with the same result before it is saved to disk.
Real audio before and after tracks
You can ensure that entire tracks are imported properly by defining how much
audio should be read before and after a CD track.
Importing Audio CD Tracks
PROCEDURE
1.
Insert a CD into the CD-ROM/CD-R device.
2.
Select File > Import > Audio CD.
3.
In the Source section, select the drive from which you want to read, as well
as the read speed.
4.
Optional: Rename the files and adjust the numbering scheme.
The tracks must have unique names if you want to import them all.
5.
Optional: On the Options tab, in the Read audio before and after tracks
section, define how much audio should be read before and after a CD track.
6.
In the track list, select the tracks that you want to import.
7.
Optional: If you have only selected one file, in the Range section, you can
define a Start and Length, to import just a part of the track.
8.
In the Output section, click the folder icon, and select an output location.
You can also drag one or more CD tracks onto an audio montage track.
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Importing Audio CD Tracks
Searching Track Names on the Internet
9.
In the Output section, click the file format field, and select a file format for the
imported audio files.
10.
Click Save.
RESULT
The tracks are retrieved.
Searching Track Names on the Internet
You can search for information about your CDs, using the FreeDb database of CD
information.
PREREQUISITE
You must be connected to the internet to use the FreeDb function.
PROCEDURE
1.
Insert a CD into the CD-ROM/CD-R device.
2.
Select File > Import > Audio CD.
3.
Select Rename tracks > Search track names on the internet (FreeDb), or
click the corresponding icon.
Submitting Track Names to the Internet
You can submit information about the audio CD that you want to import to the
FreeDb database of CD information.
PREREQUISITE
You must be connected to the internet to use the FreeDb function.
PROCEDURE
1.
Insert a CD into the CD-ROM/CD-R device.
2.
Select File > Import > Audio CD.
3.
In the Import Audio CD dialog, rename each track.
4.
Select Rename tracks > Submit track names to the internet (FreeDb), or
click the corresponding icon.
536
Importing Audio CD Tracks
About Ultra-Safe Mode
5.
In the Submit CD Information dialog, fill out the text fields and enter an
E-Mail address.
NOTE
An E-Mail address is required to report submission errors. It will not be stored.
The FreeDb database does not offer the possibility to enter different artists or genres
for individual tracks. If the artists differ from track to track, you can write the track title
in the following way:
Title/Artist
6.
Click OK.
About Ultra-Safe Mode
Sometimes, a small bit of a CD track is not properly retrieved. This depends on the
quality of your CD drive. This can result in unpleasant clicks and pops. To solve this
issue, you can activate the Ultra-Safe Mode in the Import Audio CD dialog
options.
When this option is activated, you can specify how many times each CD track is
read with the same result, before it is saved to disk.
Converting Audio CD Tracks to an Audio Montage
PROCEDURE
1.
Insert a CD into the CD-ROM/CD-R device.
2.
Select File > Import > Audio CD.
3.
Optional: On the Options tab, select which information you want to extract
from the Audio CD when converting.
4.
Decide whether to convert only selected tracks or all tracks.
•
To convert only selected tracks, select Convert > Convert to Audio Montage
(selected tracks).
•
To convert all tracks, select Convert > Convert to Audio Montage (all).
RESULT
When the conversion is finished, the imported files open in the Audio Montage
workspace.
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Importing Audio CD Tracks
Converting Audio CD Tracks to a Basic Audio CD
Converting Audio CD Tracks to a Basic Audio CD
PROCEDURE
1.
Insert a CD into the CD-ROM/CD-R device.
2.
Select File > Import > Audio CD.
3.
Optional: On the Options tab, make your settings.
4.
Decide whether to convert only selected tracks or all tracks.
•
To convert only selected tracks, select Convert > Convert to Basic Audio CD
(selected tracks).
•
To convert all tracks, select Convert > Convert to Basic Audio CD (all).
RESULT
When the conversion is finished, the imported files are added to the Basic Audio
CD window in the Audio Files workspace.
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Batch Processing
Batch processing in WaveLab allows you to process any number of audio files or
audio montage files with Master Section plug-ins and presets, offline effects, and
other plug-ins that are unique to batch processing.
Each file is processed and then saved to a folder of your choice. You can change
the file format, rename the file according to a set of rules, and run an external
application when the batch is finished. You can process as many files as you want
taking advantage of multi-processing on multi-core processors, if available.
When you save batch processor files you can run batches repeatedly, if required.
For example, you may have a folder of 24-bit audio files which you want to normalize,
add a fade-out to, and dither down to 16 bit 44.1 kHz. You could save this as a batch
processor file, and re-run the batch each time that you update the original files. This
procedure can be simplified using batch templates.
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Batch Processing
Advantages of the WaveLab Batch Processor
While processing multipass plug-ins, other plug-ins of the plug-in chain are only
gone through when necessary and file writing is reduced to a single writing process.
This results in an improved performance of the batch processing. The following
graphic shows the advanced uses of the multipass plug-ins of the batch processor.
Batch Processing Meta-data
You can batch process meta-data. For this you can set up the Meta-data dialog in
the Batch Processors workspace, and apply this meta-data to the files of the batch
process.
RELATED LINKS
Meta-Data in the Batch Processors Workspace on page 158
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Batch Processing
Overview of the Batch Processors Workspace
Overview of the Batch Processors Workspace
This workspace allows you to process any number of audio files or audio montages
with Master Section plug-ins and presets, offline effects, and other plug-ins.
Edit Menu
Add specific audio files
Opens the file dialog to select audio files.
Add specific audio montages
Opens the file dialog to select audio montages.
Add files from folder
Opens a dialog in which you can select files of a specific type from a folder.
Remove all files
Removes all files from the list that are not currently being processed.
Remove selected files
Removes all selected files from the list that are not currently being processed.
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Remove all but selected
Removes all files that are currently not selected and not being processed.
Remove successfully processed files
Removes files with the status “Success” from the list.
Remove files with errors
Removes files with the status “Error” from the list.
Reset the status of all files
Sets the files with the status “Done” or “Error” to “To do”.
Reset the status of all files with an error
Sets the files with the status “Error” to “To do”.
Process Menu
Start
Runs the batch process.
Pause
Interrupts the process to reduce the CPU load. You can continue the process
by clicking Pause again.
Cancel
Cancels the running process.
Run all batches in workspace
Runs sequentially all batches in workspace. That is, a batch process starts
when the previous one ends. An error does not prevent a new batch process
from starting. If you stop the active process, the global process stops.
Tools Menu
List of external tools
Lists the external tools.
Configure external tools
Opens a dialog in which you can configure external tools.
Plug-ins
Here, you can select plug-ins and Master Section presets for the batch process. A
plug-in or preset can be dragged into the audio plug-in chain of the active batch
processor document. You can also double-click a plug-in to add it at the end of the
chain. From the following categories, you can select plug-ins or Master Section
presets:
Master Section presets
This is the list of Master Section presets.
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Overview of the Batch Processors Workspace
Master Section Plug-ins
This is the list of all plug-ins available in the Master Section.
Monopass Plug-ins
This is the list of monopass plug-ins. Monopass means that the audio signal
needs to pass through the plug-in only once to be processed. These plug-ins
are not available in the Master Section.
Multipass Plug-ins
This is the list of multipass plug-ins. Multipass means that the audio needs to
be analyzed at least once before it is modified. These plug-ins are not
available in the Master Section. Some are unique to the Batch Processor.
Metapass Plug-ins
This is the list of metapass plug-ins. Metapass means that the audio is
analyzed once, and is processed after all other files have been analyzed, to
take all analyses into account. These plug-ins are not available in the Master
Section and are unique to the Batch Processor.
Audio Plug-in Chain
Here, you can add plug-ins that the audio signal traverses, from top to bottom.
You set up the list by dragging plug-ins from the plug-ins section.
•
To remove a plug-in from the list, drag it back onto the plug-ins section, or
select it and press [Delete], or right-click a plug-in and select Remove.
•
To edit a plug-in, double click it, or right-click a plug-in and select Edit.
Red, green, and blue arrows on the right of the Audio plug-in chain visualize the
audio signal path when plug-ins have been added to the list.
You can prevent a plug-in from processing by deactivating it.
Files to Process
Here, you specify which files to process. You can add files to the list via drag and
drop, or use the Edit menu. You can right-click a file, to access a context menu with
the following options:
Reset status
Sets the status of the selected files to “unprocessed”.
Remove
Removes the selected files from the list.
Open in WaveLab
Opens the selected file in WaveLab.
Reveal in Windows Explorer/Finder
Opens the folder of the selected file in the Windows Explorer/Mac OS Finder.
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Open with default application
Opens the selected file with the default application, for example, a media
player.
Insert audio files
Opens a file browser and allows you to select the files that you want to insert
in the file list.
Insert all open audio files
Inserts all audio files currently open in WaveLab.
The following options are available below the files list:
Preview duration
Determines the length of the preview duration.
Accept dual-mono files
If this option is activated, you can add dual-mono files to your batch process.
Clicking the tool icon opens the Audio file editing preferences dialog,
where you can set up the dual-mono file identification.
The following options are available above the files list:
Folder
Lets you select the folder that you want to add to the batch process.
Each time you start the batch process, the selected folder is scanned and the
audio files that are found in the folder are processed.
To disable this option, clear the path name.
NOTE
If you want to use XML files in the folder mode, you must activate XML
descriptors in the File types to grab menu.
Scan subfolders
If this option is activated, the subfolders of the selected folder are also
scanned. The audio files inside these subfolders are added to the batch
process.
Refresh
Refreshes the selected folder and, if Scan subfolders is activated, its
subfolders. All audio files inside the folders are added to the batch process.
File types to process
Lets you specify which file types should be added to the batch process. You
can also select that all file types should be added to the batch process.
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Overview of the Batch Processors Workspace
Output Tab
Type of destination folder
Define a type of destination folder. The following types are available:
•
Temporary, and can be undone
•
Writes the processed audio in a temporary file. For this, the source file
must already be open in the Audio Files workspace.
As source path
•
The file is rendered in its own folder.
Subfolder of source path
•
The file is rendered in a customizable subfolder of its own folder.
Output subfolder
•
The file is rendered inside the Output subfolder of the Watch Folder.
This subfolder is created automatically by WaveLab.
Explicit path
•
The file is rendered in a destination folder that you must specify.
Explicit path + Source folder
•
As previous option, but the folder name of the source file is added to the
path.
Explicit path + Source folder (2 levels)
•
As previous option, but the folder name of the source file, and its parent,
are added to the path.
Explicit path + Source folder (3 levels)
•
As previous option, with one more added element of the source path.
No output
Processing takes place while no file is written to the disk.
When using Watch Folders, this option only makes sense if you use the
Audio Analyser plug-in to produce a text file from the source audio file,
without rendering a new audio file. The text file is always written in the
Output subfolder of the Watch Folder.
NOTE
For Watch Folders, the destination folder can also be determined by an XML
file that contains this information.
Path
Specify the folder into which the files are rendered.
Renaming
If this option is activated, the source file names are processed through a
renaming preset, to produce new names for the rendered files.
Renaming field
Opens the Renaming dialog, where you can set up a renaming scheme.
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Overview of the Batch Processors Workspace
Format Tab
File format
Opens the Audio File Format dialog.
Batch meta-data
Lets you select one of the following options for handling the batch meta-data:
•
Ignore the batch meta-data and preserve the meta-data in the audio file.
•
Merge the batch meta-data with the meta-data found in the audio file.
•
Replace the meta-data of the audio file with the batch meta-data.
These options only have effect if Inherit from source file is activated in the
Audio File Format dialog.
For audio montages, render CD images and cue-sheets
If this option is activated, audio montages are rendered as CD images
together with cue-sheets.
XML Tab
On this tab, you can make settings to generate XML files containing information
about the audio files.
Process
Lets you select whether the output XML file should be generated from scratch
(Generate XML/HTML file) or can use the input XML files as reference
(Transform input XML file). If you do not want to use an XML process, select
the No XML process option.
Presets
Lets you save and restore setting presets.
XSLT file
The path of the XSLT file that is used to generate the XML file.
Optional parameters
The list of the parameters to send to the XSLT process. You can type new
parameters directly into the text field or click the pen icon to open the
Parameters for XSLT processing dialog and enter the new parameters
there.
External Tool Tab
On this tab, you can select an external tool to run after the batch process is finished.
For example, you could email, upload, or archive the resulting files. To be able to
select tools, you need to specify them in the Configure external tools dialog.
This option has no effect when using Watch Folders.
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About Off-Line Processors
Options Tab
Auto start when dropping files
If this option is activated, the processing starts automatically when dragging
a file into the list.
Auto remove converted files
If this option is activated, a file is removed from the list once it is successfully
processed.
Stop on error
If this option is activated, the global process stops if an error is encountered.
If it is deactivated, the file associated with the error is marked in red, and the
next file is processed.
This option has no effect when using Watch Folders.
Include file list when saving
If this option is activated, the list of files (with their status) is saved with the
batch processor document.
Create peak files
If this option is activated, peak files are created for each rendered file.
When a file is to be overwritten
Specify the behavior when a file is to be overwritten. The following options are
available:
•
Overwrite without question
•
Stop and ask
•
Report as error
•
Skip and mark as done
This option has no effect when using Watch Folders.
Multitasking Tab
On this tab, you select how many cores are to be used simultaneously. The contents
of this tab depend on your computer hardware.
Comment Tab
On this tab, you can enter a comment for the active batch process document.
About Off-Line Processors
There are several different types of plug-ins that can be applied to a batch process.
The following types of batch processing plug-ins are available:
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Batch Processing
About Off-Line Processors
•
Monopass plug-ins only require one pass when processing. A monopass
plug-in effect processes the signal and then outputs it to any subsequent
plug-in.
•
Multipass plug-ins require two or more passes (one or more analysis passes
followed by a process pass) before processing the audio. Some are unique
to the Batch Processors workspace while others are also found as offline
processors in the Audio Files workspace.
•
Metapass plug-ins are unique to the Batch Processors workspace and
require at least one analysis pass on all audio files before audio is processed.
After analyzing the audio, a metapass plug-in takes into account all other
plug-ins in the effects chain before processing the audio.
Master Section Presets
These presets are updated each time that you save a new preset in the Master
Section. The presets also contain the Master Section gain settings.
Master Section Plug-ins
These plug-ins are all the plug-ins available from the Master Section, sorted in the
same manner.
About Metapass Plug-ins
A metapass plug-in analyzes all files in the batch, collects the results, and
processes the files by varying amounts. The result of the analysis of one file can
affect how other files are processed.
A typical example of a metapass plug-in is the Loudness Meta Normalizer, which
can process a number of files so that they all get the loudness of the loudest file in
the batch.
Metapass plug-ins can be freely combined with other types of processors. For
example, you can use both the Loudness Meta Normalizer and a regular Normalizer
in the same batch. You may also combine metapass plug-ins with multipass
plug-ins.
A metapass plug-in requires two processing passes. During the first pass all the
files in the batch are analyzed and during the second pass they are all processed.
This is different from other multipass plug-ins, where each file is
analyzed/processed twice or more times if required.
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Working with the Batch Processors Workspace
Avoid Clipping When Increasing the Signal Level
Processors often increase the signal level. If you are not careful, your file may be
distorted when it exits the batch. To prevent this, you can use the Level Normalizer
plug-in’s Only if clipping option.
It is no problem for the signal to be amplified above 0 dB (full level) within the audio
stream, since WaveLab uses 32-bit internal processing. There is a lot of extra
headroom and the signal will not be clipped. However, when a signal that exceeds
0 dB is converted to a 16-bit file at the output of the Batch Processor, clipping
occurs.
To remedy this, you can insert the Normalizer effect at the end of the signal chain.
The Normalizer raises or lowers the levels as required so that the signal peaks
exactly at the specified value just before it is converted to a file. This is useful to do
even when Only if Clipping is not activated.
If you only want the Normalizer to be applied to avoid clipping, activate Only if
Clipping. When this is activated, the signal output may be low, but the audio does
not clip due to amplification within any of the processors.
This allows you to use the Normalizer as a completely distortion-free limiter.
If you reduce the bit depth, add the dithering plug-in after the Normalizer plug-in.
Working with the Batch Processors Workspace
Opening the Batch Processors Workspace
PROCEDURE
1.
Click the Batch Processors icon, and select Open empty workspace, or
select Workspace > New Workspace > Batch Processor.
2.
Activate the layout that you want to use.
3.
Click OK.
Creating a Batch Process Document
There are several ways to create a batch process document. The following steps
describe the way of creating a batch process document in the Batch Processors
workspace.
PROCEDURE
1.
In the Batch Processors workspace, click the Create empty document
button, or select File > New.
If you have specified a template to be the default template, clicking New opens a new
template with the settings of the default template.
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2.
If you have created a batch process template before, the Create from
Template dialog opens. Choose one of the following options:
•
To create a new document from a template, select a template from the list, and
click Open.
•
To create an empty document, click None.
Saving a Batch Process Document
PREREQUISITE
Set up your batch process.
PROCEDURE
1.
In the Batch Processors workspace, do one of the following:
•
To save a batch process document that has never been saved before, select
File > Save as.
•
To save a batch process document that has been saved before, click the Save
button, or select File > Save.
2.
In the Save Batch Processor dialog, specify a file name and location.
3.
Decide whether to activate one of the following options:
4.
•
Include file list
•
Open standard file selector before this dialog
•
Save copy
Click Save.
Save Batch Processor Dialog
In this dialog, you can specify the name and location of the batch processor file that
you want to save.
In the Batch Processors workspace, click the Save as button, or select File > Save
as.
Name
The name of the file to write.
Where
The location where you want to save the file.
Include file list
If this option is activated, the file list is also saved, including the status of each
file.
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Working with the Batch Processors Workspace
Open standard file selector before this dialog
If this option is activated, the standard file selector opens before this dialog.
Use this option if you rarely change the options in this dialog and prefer the
standard file selector.
Save copy
If this option is activated, a copy of the open batch processor file is saved and
the batch process continues to refer to the source file.
Adding Files to a Batch Process
You can add audio files and audio montages to a batch process.
Adding Audio Files
PREREQUISITE
In the Batch Processors workspace, create a new document or open an existing
document.
PROCEDURE
1.
Select Edit > Add specific audio files.
2.
Browse to the location of the audio file that you want to add, and select it.
3.
Click Open.
RESULT
The audio file is added to the batch process.
NOTE
You can also add audio files by right-clicking the Files to process window, and
selecting Insert all open audio files, or selecting one of the open audio files from
the list.
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Batch Processing
Working with the Batch Processors Workspace
Adding Audio Montages
PREREQUISITE
In the Batch Processors workspace, create a new document or open an existing
document.
PROCEDURE
1.
Select Edit > Add specific audio montages.
2.
Browse to the location of the audio montage that you want to add, and select
it.
3.
Click Open.
RESULT
The audio montage is added to the batch process.
NOTE
You can also add audio montages by right-clicking the Files to process window,
and selecting one of the open audio montages from the list.
Adding Files from a Folder
You can add all audio files or audio montages that are included in a folder to a batch
process.
PREREQUISITE
In the Batch Processors workspace, create a new document or open an existing
document.
PROCEDURE
1.
Select Edit > Add files from folder.
2.
Specify the folder location.
3.
Optional: Activate Search also in subfolders if you want to include files
located in subfolders.
4.
Specify the file type.
5.
Click OK.
RESULT
All audio files are added to the Files to process list.
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Adding a Folder as Source
You can specify a source folder in which you put the files that you want to batch
process. Each time that you start the batch process, the selected folder is scanned
and the audio files that are found in the folder are added to the file list and
processed.
PREREQUISITE
In the Batch Processors workspace, create a new document or open an existing
document.
PROCEDURE
1.
In the Folder field, specify the source folder.
2.
If you want to include the files that are located in the subfolders, activate Scan
subfolders.
3.
From the File types to process menu, select which audio file types you want
to include.
4.
To start the batch process, select Process > Start.
RELATED LINKS
Overview of the Batch Processors Workspace on page 541
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Batch Processing
Working with the Batch Processors Workspace
Custom Plug-in Chain vs. Associated Master Section Preset
You can batch process files using a common custom plug-in chain or batch
process each file with its own associated Master Section preset. You can also
choose to use no plug-in at all for the batch process and only use the other features
of the Batch Processors workspace, for example, the file format conversion or
meta-data processing.
Adding Plug-ins to the Batch Process
You can create a custom plug-in chain and include it in the batch process.
PREREQUISITE
In the Batch Processors workspace, create a new document or open an existing
document.
PROCEDURE
1.
Open the batch processing menu, and select Custom plug-in chain.
2.
Do one of the following:
•
In the plug-in section, select the plug-in or the Master Section preset that you
want to use, and drag it to the Custom plug-in chain.
•
Double-click a plug-in or a Master Section preset to add it at the end of the
plug-in chain.
Audio Signal Path
The audio signal path of a batch process is indicated by red, green, and blue arrows
in the Audio plug-in chain list.
•
A red arrow indicates that the signal is processed, then sent to the next
plug-in.
•
A green arrow indicates that the signal is analyzed at this stage of the audio
chain, but is not yet modified and therefore not sent to the next plug-in. When
the audio stream comes to an end, it is restarted. Next time the signal reaches
this plug-in, it is modified, and sent to the next plug-in. Certain plug-ins need
several analyses before passing to the next plug-in.
•
A blue arrow indicates that the signal has been fully processed at this stage
and is written to disk.
•
A vertical separator line indicates that a meta-pass happens. This means that
the files are read and processed again one after the other.
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NOTE
Some multipass plug-ins request more than one analysis pass, or send the signal
further in the chain without ordering the audio stream to restart. This behavior
depends on the plug-in settings and on the audio material and cannot be
influenced.
Removing Files and Plug-ins from the Batch Process
PROCEDURE
•
In the Custom plug-in chain or Files to process list, right-click the item that
you want to remove, and select Remove, or select the item and press
[Delete].
Changing the Order of the Plug-ins in the Batch Process
PREREQUISITE
In the Batch Processors workspace, create a new document, or open an existing
document.
PROCEDURE
•
Select a plug-in or Master Section preset from the Audio plug-in chain list,
and drag it to another position.
Previewing the Effect of the Batch Process
You can preview the effect of the batch processor on any file of a batch. The
preview includes all effects and the file format.
PREREQUISITE
Set up your batch process.
PROCEDURE
1.
In the lower right corner of the Batch Processors workspace, set up the
Preview duration.
The preview duration can be between 2 seconds and 59 seconds.
2.
Right-click the file that you want to preview, and select Preview processing.
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About Processing Open Files
If you are processing a file that is already open there are certain things to consider.
•
If the new file will have the same name and is saved in the same location, the
file will not be saved since it is already open.
•
If the new file will have the same name and is saved in the same location, and
the number of channels changes in the file (mono becomes stereo or vice
versa), a new document is created, which is opened in an untitled window.
Selecting an Output Format for the Batch Process
You can render to a single audio format or to multiple audio formats.
PREREQUISITE
In the Batch Processors workspace, create a new document or open an existing
document.
PROCEDURE
1.
In the Batch Processors workspace, select the Format tab.
2.
Click the File Format field.
The Audio File Format dialog opens.
3.
Make the settings, and click OK.
Setting Up a File Location for the Batch Process
PREREQUISITE
In the Batch Processors workspace, create a new document or open an existing
document.
PROCEDURE
1.
In the Batch Processors workspace, select the Output tab.
2.
Set the type of destination folder and the folder in which the audio files are
rendered.
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Specifying an Overwriting Strategy
PREREQUISITE
In the Batch Processors workspace, create a new document or open an existing
document.
PROCEDURE
1.
Select the Options tab.
2.
From the When a file is to be overwritten menu, select one of the following
overwriting strategies:
•
Overwrite without question
•
Stop and ask
•
Report as error
•
Skip and mark as done
Naming Rendered Audio Files
With the renaming function of the Batch Processors workspace, you can generate
new names for the rendered files according to custom rules.
PREREQUISITE
Open a batch processor document in the Batch Processors workspace.
PROCEDURE
1.
In the Batch Processors workspace, select the Output tab.
2.
Activate Renaming, and click the renaming field.
3.
Make your settings, and click OK.
Running and Stopping the Batch Process
Once all settings are made, you can start the batch process. You can pause and
cancel the processing procedure at any time.
•
To start the batch process, select Process > Start, or click the Start button.
•
To pause the batch process, select Process > Pause, or click the Pause
button. You can continue the batch processing by clicking the Pause button
again.
•
To cancel the batch process, select Process > Cancel, or click the Cancel
button.
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Batch Processing Status Icons
The icons next to the file number indicate the status of the files in the Files to
process list.
Icon
Description
Green circle
Indicates that the file is ready to be processed.
Cogwheel icon
Indicates that the file is currently being processed. The Batch
Processing workspace cannot be closed if any files have this
status.
Yellow dot
Indicates that the process is done partially. For example, the files
have been analyzed (analysis pass), but not yet processed
(modifying pass).
Green dot
Indicates that the file has been successfully processed. In order to
process the file again, you need to reset its status.
Red dot
Indicates that an error occurred.
Resetting the Status of Batch Processor Files
To apply the batch process again on already processed files, you need to reset the
status of these files.
•
To reset the status of one or several files in the File to process list, select one
or several files, right-click them, and select Reset status.
•
To reset the status of all files in the Files to process list, select Edit > Reset
the status of all files.
•
To reset the status of files with an error in the Files to process list, select Edit
> Reset the status of all files with an error.
About Multitasking During the Batch Process
You can select how many CPU cores of your computer should be used
simultaneously. The available number of cores depends on your computer
hardware.
Each task uses one core, therefore the multitasking setting represents the maximum
number of tasks that can be run in parallel. It is not always recommended to use the
highest settings for the following reasons:
•
If you want to continue working with your computer during batch processing,
you need to spare power.
•
The disk is slower.
•
Graphics performance and user interface responsiveness are reduced.
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Watch Folders
•
If your processor uses hyper-threading, half of the cores are virtual and do not
bring as much power as real cores.
If many large files are written, using multitasking is not always recommended,
because the files can become more fragmented on your disk. The resulting files
might be slower to read, unless you are using SSD drives.
NOTE
The number of cores to be used can be changed at any time. Tasks that are already
running are continued or paused, depending on the new setting.
Selecting Processor Cores for the Batch Process
PROCEDURE
•
On the Multitasking tab, select the number of processor cores that you want
to use.
Watch Folders
Watch Folders can be used to automate batch processing tasks. By copying files
into a Watch Folder a predefined batch processor is automatically applied to these
files.
In the batch processor, you can use all audio processing functions that WaveLab
offers. For example, processing with VST plug-in chains, R-128 loudness
normalizing, audio analysis reports, MP3 conversions, etc.
NOTE
To fully take advantage of the Watch Folder feature, you must be acquainted with
the Batch Processors workspace in WaveLab.
Any kind of Windows Explorer/Mac OS Finder folder can be defined as Watch
Folder. You can drag or copy files into the folder, or save audio files directly into a
Watch Folder from any application. Watch Folders can process both audio files and
audio montages.
You can set up multiple Watch Folders, each corresponding to a different audio
process.
WaveLab processes any files that are copied into Watch Folders, even if it is not
the active application.
The procedure to set up a Watch Folder is to set up a batch processor, create a
Watch Folder, associate the Watch Folder with the batch processor, and then
activate the Watch Folder. When you now drag files into this folder, they are
processed automatically.
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The files that you drag into the Watch Folder can be located in folders with
subfolders. The processed files in the output folder will have the same folder
structure as the source files.
You can also drag XML files into the Watch Folder that specify the audio files that
you want to process.
RELATED LINKS
Batch Processing on page 539
XML Files in Batch Processing on page 575
Setting Up a Batch Processor for Watch Folders
You can associate any existing batch processor configuration with your Watch
Folders or set up a new batch processor configuration for your Watch Folders.
A Watch Folder can be associated with multiple batch processor tasks. For
example, copying a file into a Watch Folder could automatically produce an 96 kbps
MP3 file, a 192 kbps MP3 file, an OGG file, and a normalized WAVE file.
•
To edit the batch processor, double-click a batch processor in the Watch
Folder window.
•
To edit the output folder of a batch processor, double-click the Output folder
column of a batch processor in the Watch Folder window.
IMPORTANT
Plug-ins that show a validation dialog on startup cannot be used.
RELATED LINKS
Working with the Batch Processors Workspace on page 549
About Multitasking During the Batch Process on page 558
Watch Folder Window
In this window, you can set up and edit the Watch Folder configuration.
If the window is not already visible, do the following: In the Batch Processors
workspace, select Workspace > Specific tool windows > Watch Folders.
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NOTE
The configurations that you make in the Watch Folder window are automatically
saved as you edit.
Watch Folder List
The Watch Folder list shows the selected Watch Folder and its associated batch
processors.
•
To edit a Watch Folder, double-click the folder in the list.
•
To exclude batch processors from being triggered, uncheck the
corresponding checkbox in the Watch Folders window.
Functions Menu
Add Watch Folder task
Opens the Watch Folder Task dialog, where you can assign a new Watch
Folder to a batch processor.
Remove
Removes the selected task.
Settings
Opens the Watch Folder Settings dialog, where you can make additional
settings for the Watch Folder.
Verify configuration
Verifies that the Watch Folder configuration is valid and ready to be activated.
This check is automatically performed when you activate the Watch Folder.
Start
Activates the Watch Folder. If you drag files into an active Watch Folder, the
associated batch processors are applied.
Pause
Pauses the Watch Folders.
Stop
Stops the Watch Folders. All tasks that are currently running are canceled.
Multi computer processing
Allows you to activate the Watch Folders as master instance or slave
instance.
Presets Menu
Save as
Allows you to save the active Watch Folder configuration as a preset.
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Presets list
Lets you select a Watch Folder configuration preset.
Defining a Watch Folder
PREREQUISITE
Set up a batch processor.
PROCEDURE
1.
2.
In the Batch Processors workspace, do one of the following:
•
In the Watch Folders window, select Functions > Add Watch Folder task.
•
In the Watch Folders window, click the + icon.
•
Drag a folder that you want to make a Watch Folder or a batch processor file
into the Watch Folders window. This opens the Watch Folder task dialog and
sets the corresponding folder or batch processor file as default.
In the Watch Folder task dialog, do the following:
•
Specify the path of the folder that you want to use as a Watch Folder.
•
Specify the file types that you want to process.
•
Specify the path of the batch processor that you want to trigger in the selected
Watch Folder.
If a batch processor is already open in the Batch Processors workspace, it will be
proposed by default in the Batch processor file field.
3.
Click OK.
The Watch Folder setup is added to the Watch Folders list.
4.
In the Watch Folders window, select Functions > Settings and make
additional settings for the Watch Folders.
5.
To validate the Watch Folder setup, select Functions > Verify configuration.
6.
Optional: Assign another batch processor to the Watch Folder.
AFTER COMPLETING THIS TASK
When you are done creating a Watch Folder configuration, you must activate it.
RELATED LINKS
XML Files in Batch Processing on page 575
Watch Folder Settings Dialog on page 569
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Watch Folder Task Dialog
In this dialog, you can specify the Watch Folder location, its associated batch
processor file, and the file types that should be processed.
In the Watch Folder window, select Functions > Add Watch Folder task or click
the + icon.
Watch Folder location
Allows you to specify the Watch Folder location.
File types to process
Allows you to select the file types that are associated with the Watch Folder.
Only files with the corresponding file format are added to the batch process.
Batch processor file
Allows you to specify the batch processor file that you want associate with the
Watch Folder.
to see a list of all open batch processors and a list of all
You can click
recently used batch processors.
Activating the Watch Folder Configuration
Once you have set up a Watch Folder configuration, you can activate it.
PREREQUISITE
Set up a batch processor and create one or more Watch Folders.
PROCEDURE
1.
In the Watch Folders window, select Functions > Start.
2.
In the Watch Folder activation dialog, make your settings, and click Activate.
RESULT
The Watch Folder configuration is active. Once you drag a file into a Watch Folder,
the associated batch processors are triggered.
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IMPORTANT
To apply the changes that you have made for an active Watch Folder configuration,
you must stop and restart the Watch Folders.
AFTER COMPLETING THIS TASK
Via the system tray icon you can access information about the activated Watch
Folder, and pause or stop the processing.
Processing Watch Folders in the Background
WaveLab’s Watch Folder feature can be used as a background task. For this, an
additional instance of WaveLab is opened in the background. The two instances
can run simultaneously.
The GUI mode is mainly used for setting up the Watch Folder and test the
functionality. Once everything has been set up, you can activate the Watch Folder
configuration using the WaveLab background instance.
The background instance can be used once you have set up the Watch Folder.
When you drag files into your Watch Folder, the WaveLab background instance
processes the files. You can have the background instance launched automatically
with the operating system.
You can use the Multi computer processing option to run a WaveLab background
instance on a different computer to increase the processing speed.
NOTE
Once a background instance is opened, it is independent from the instance that you
work with.
RELATED LINKS
Watch Folder Activation Dialog on page 566
Global Preferences Dialog on page 666
Multi Computer Processing on page 565
Automatically Starting a Background Instance on Startup
You can start a WaveLab background instance automatically with the operating
system.
•
To activate or deactivate the automatic startup function, open the Watch
Folder activation dialog, and select Activate Watch Folders at computer
startup.
You can also deactivate the automatic startup function outside WaveLab.
•
On Windows, remove the WatchFolders.lnk file from the following location:
C:\Users\[UserName]\AppData\Roaming\Microsoft\Windows
\Start Menu\Programs\Startup
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•
On Mac, remove the WaveLab entry from the login items list:
System preferences/Users & groups/Login items
RELATED LINKS
Activating the Watch Folder Configuration on page 563
Multi Computer Processing
You can use several computers that are located in the same network to process the
same Watch Folders. For example, if there are 10 computers and 800 files to
process, each computer processes 80 files. This increases the processing speed.
If the Watch Folder is located on a shared network path, the processing tasks are
distributed between the computers. One instance of WaveLab is the “master”
version that distributes the files between the other computers that are in “slave”
mode. This allows for much faster processing of the files.
The Watch Folder configuration of the master instance is used and shared with the
slave instances.
The multi computer processing option uses the background instance mode for each
computer in the setup.
IMPORTANT
•
All computers in the network must be either Windows or Mac.
•
All computers in the network must be set to the same language.
•
Each computer must be set up with the plug-ins that are used by the batch
processors.
•
The paths specified in the Watch Folder configuration must be specified in a
universal form.
On Windows, this must be in the following form: \\ServerName\volume
On Mac, this must be in the following form: /ServerName/volume
•
If a task depends on certain settings (for example, the XML settings), these
settings must be set on each computer. You can use the Synchronization
settings option in the WaveLab global preferences to synchronize the
computers.
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Watch Folders
Activating a Multi Computer Processing Watch Folder
PREREQUISITE
Set up a batch processor and create one or more Watch Folders.
PROCEDURE
1.
In the Watch Folder window, do one of the following:
•
To activate a master instance, select Functions > Multi computer
processing > Start as master.
•
To activate a slave instance, select Functions > Multi computer processing
> Start as slave.
NOTE
When you are setting up a new multi computer processing, you must first start
the master instance.
2.
Specify the network setting path.
3.
Decide whether to activate the Watch Folders at computer startup.
4.
Click Activate.
RESULT
The Watch Folder starts in master or slave mode.
Watch Folder Activation Dialog
In this dialog, you can set up the Watch Folder mode for the Watch Folders that you
are activating.
Depending on whether you are activating a standard Watch Folder or use the multi
computer processing mode, the Watch Folder activation dialog has different
options.
Standard Watch Folder Activation Dialog
In this dialog, you can specify whether the Watch Folder runs in GUI mode or as a
background application.
In the Batch Processors workspace, in the Watch Folders window, set up a Watch
Folder task, and select Functions > Start.
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Start in this WaveLab session
If this option is activated, the currently active WaveLab instance is used for
processing files in the Watch Folders. When files are copied into a Watch
Folder, the corresponding batch processor file is activated. This allows you to
see the progress of the processing from within WaveLab.
This mode is useful for setting up the Watch Folder configuration.
Start as background application
If this option is activated, a new WaveLab instance is launched in the
background. This instance is used for processing the Watch Folders.
Priority
When using a WaveLab background instance for processing files in the
Watch Folders, this can slow down other programs when files are processed.
You can set the priority with which the background instance uses the
resources of the computer.
The following priorities are available:
•
normal: Causes the WaveLab background instance to run with the
same priority as all other programs.
•
low: Causes a WaveLab background instance to run with a lower
priority. Processing is slower, leaving more power to other applications.
•
lowest: Causes a WaveLab background instance to run with the lowest
priority. Processing is slower, leaving more power to other applications
than the low option.
Activate Watch Folder at computer startup
If this option is activated, a background instance of WaveLab automatically
launches when the computer starts. This instance is used for processing files
in the Watch Folders.
Watch Folder Activation Dialog for a Master or Slave Instance
In these dialogs, you can set up the multi computer processing. This allows you to
distribute the processing of the batch processor files over several computers in the
network.
Network setting path
When using multi computer processing, the Watch Folder configuration must
be shared among all computers and the network path must be accessible for
all computers in the network.
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Activate Watch Folder at computer startup
If this option is activated, a background instance of WaveLab automatically
launches when the computer starts. This instance is used for processing files
in the Watch Folders.
Using the Watch Folder
Once you have set up the Watch Folder configuration, you can start to process files.
PREREQUISITE
Set up one or several batch processor files, associate them with one or more Watch
Folders, and activate the Watch Folder configuration.
PROCEDURE
•
Drag, copy, or save audio files into your Watch Folders.
You can also drag entire folders into the Watch Folder.
NOTE
If you drag an empty folder into the Watch Folder, it is automatically deleted.
NOTE
If you have set up the Scheduled folder option, place the files into the
Scheduled subfolder inside the Watch Folder. Otherwise, they are
processed immediately.
RESULT
The files are processed according to your settings.
Saving a Watch Folder Configuration as Preset
You can save the Watch Folder settings and list as a preset. However, the preset
does not include the batch processor files, which are independent files.
PROCEDURE
1.
Set up a Watch Folder configuration.
2.
In the Batch Processors workspace, in the Watch Folders window, select
Presets > Save as.
3.
In the Save preset as dialog, do one of the following:
•
To save the preset in the default folder, enter a name and click Save.
•
To save the preset in a custom subfolder of the default folder, click the folder
icon, enter a name for the subfolder, and click OK. Then select the subfolder,
enter a name for the preset and click Save.
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Watch Folder Settings Dialog
In this dialog, you can make settings for the Watch Folders.
In the Batch Processors workspace, in the Watch Folders window, select
Functions > Settings.
Main Tab
Once an input file has been processed
Once an input file is successfully processed, it has to be removed from its
folder. The following options are available:
•
Move it to the Sources subfolder
If this option is activated, processed files are moved to a folder called
Sources, inside the Watch Folder. The original folder structure is
preserved.
NOTE
When using an XML file to describe the files to process, an audio file can be
located anywhere outside the Watch Folder. In that case, the Move it to
Source subfolder option has no effect.
•
Delete it
If this option is activated, processed files are deleted from the Watch
Folder.
If an input file cannot be processed
If an input file cannot be successfully processed, it has to be removed from its
folder. The following options are available:
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•
Move it to the Errors subfolder
•
If this option is activated and a file cannot be successfully processed, it
is moved to a folder called Errors, inside the Watch Folder. The
original folder structure is preserved.
Delete it
If this option is activated and a file cannot be successfully processed, it
is deleted from the Watch Folder.
Scheduled folder
You can specify a time range for the processing of Watch Folders. This allows
you to automatically process files over night or during lunch break, for
example.
To do so, create a folder named Scheduled inside the Watch Folder,
activate the Scheduled Folder option, and specify the time range.
Files that reside copied outside the Scheduled subfolder are processed
immediately.
Notification after processing
If this option is activated, a system tray notification pops up when the files
have been processed successfully. Clicking this notification opens the folder
where the last file was rendered.
Add readme file to each Watch Folder
If this option is activated, a file called “readme.html” is added to the root folder
of each Watch Folder. The readme file contains information about the settings
of the Watch Folder.
Advanced Tab
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Timing
•
Poll period
•
This is the period during which WaveLab scans Watch Folders. The
shorter the time, the sooner the files that are copied into the Watch
Folder are processed.
Delay before processing starts
•
A file must be fully written to the Watch Folder before processing can
start. Therefore, WaveLab monitors how the file size increases and the
time stamp of the file. Once these indicators are stable, WaveLab waits
for the specified time before starting the batch processors.
If the files are written by another application, for example, a Cubase
mixdown, a value of 2 seconds is recommended. If the audio files are
copied or moved from the Windows Explorer/Mac OS Finder, you can
use a smaller value.
Wait for companion file
If an audio file is copied into the Watch Folder along with a marker file
(.mrk), the processing should only start when both files are present in
the Watch Folder. The delay value specifies how long WaveLab waits
for a marker file.
If you never process audio files with marker files, you can set this value
to 0.
WaveLab also waits for both mono audio files of a dual-mono file if this
is activated in the batch processor. The Wait for companion file option
is independent from the dual-mono file capability, which relies on file
naming analysis that you can set up in the audio file preferences.
Log file
You can create a log file that is continuously updated with messages about
the batch processing inside the Watch Folders. The log file helps you locate
errors in the Watch Folder configuration.
•
File path
•
Here, you can specify the name and the location of the log file.
If you use Watch Folders in a distributing network environment, one
independent log file is created on each computer.
Clear log file when activating Watch Folders
•
If this option is activated, the log file is cleared each time Watch Folders
are activated. This option is always activated, if the log file has a markup
format.
Only report errors
If this option is activated, only error messages are written to the log.
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•
Format
Lets you select whether the log file is a raw text file or a markup file (XML
or HTML).
For markup files, an end tag is added only when the Watch Folders are
deactivated. In case of a distributing computing environment, this tag is
added by the master computer.
RELATED LINKS
XML Files in Batch Processing on page 575
Dual-Mono Files on page 145
System Tray Icon
If Watch Folders are active, a system tray icon is displayed that gives information
about the progress and errors, and offers several options regarding the active
Watch Folder.
To open the context menu, click the system tray icon.
System tray icon on Windows.
Explore Watch Folder
Lets you open the active Watch Folders in the Windows Explorer/Mac OS
Finder.
Info
Opens a pop-up message about the number of successfully processed files
and the number of error messages.
Open log file
Opens the log file for the Watch Folders.
Start WaveLab
If the system tray icon corresponds to a background instance of WaveLab,
this option opens a new WaveLab instance.
If there is already a visible instance of WaveLab, it is put to the front.
Start
Activates the Watch Folders. If this option is not available, the Watch Folders
are already activated.
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Pause
If this option is activated, WaveLab stops watching folders. If files are being
processed, their processing is paused. It will continue as soon as Pause is
deactivated.
Stop
If this option is activated, WaveLab stops watching folders and cancels any
batch processing that is currently taking place.
Quit
Quits WaveLab and cancels any batch processing that is currently active.
This option is only available if WaveLab is running in the background.
System Tray Status Icons
The system tray icon changes according to the status of the Watch Folder.
Indicates that the Watch Folder is active.
Indicates that the Watch Folder is currently processing.
Indicates that the Watch Folder is paused.
Indicates that the Watch Folder is stopped.
Indicates that an error occurred during processing. However, processing is
not stopped.
Folder Structure
There are different types of subfolders that WaveLab automatically creates inside a
Watch Folder.
Output, Sources, Errors, Scheduled, and $TEMP$ are reserved for WaveLab.
You cannot create a subfolder with one of these names.
Output
When you create a new batch process, this is the folder where processed
files are written by default. You can change the output folder in the Output
tab of each batch processor.
Sources
This is the folder where processed files are moved when they are successfully
processed. For this, the corresponding option must be activated in the Watch
Folder settings.
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Errors
This is the folder where files that could not be processed are moved. For this,
the corresponding option must be activated in the Watch Folder settings.
Scheduled
If you want to process some files only at a specific time, this is the folder
where you must place the files. These files are only processed at the time that
is specified in the Watch Folder settings.
$TEMP$
This is a temporary folder that is created and deleted by WaveLab during
processing.
Controlling the WaveLab Background Application via
Command Line Parameters
You can control the WaveLab background instance via command line parameters.
The following options are available:
--serviceLaunch
This command launches a WaveLab background instance. It must be
followed by one of the following options:
•
alone: Causes a WaveLab background instance to be launched for use
in a single computer system.
•
master: Causes a WaveLab background instance to be launched in
Master mode for a multi computer system.
•
slave: Causes a WaveLab background instance to be launched in
Slave mode for a multi computer system.
For these commands, a background WaveLab instance is launched in stop
mode by default. This command can be followed by the commands
--serviceCommand start and --servicePriority, for example.
--serviceLaunch alone --serviceCommand start
--servicePriority low
--serviceAuto
This command causes a WaveLab background instance to be launched in the
mode that was active when you last selected Activate Watch Folders at
computer startup from the Watch Folder activation dialog.
For such an instance, the Watch Folders are automatically activated.
--serviceCommand
This command starts, pauses, or stops the WaveLab background instance. It
must be followed by one of the following options:
•
start: Starts the WaveLab background instance.
•
pause: Pauses the WaveLab background instance.
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•
stop: Stops the WaveLab background instance.
--servicePriority
This command defines the priority with which the WaveLab background
instance is using the processing power of the computer. It must be followed
by one of the following options:
•
normal
•
low
•
lowest
--serviceSettingPath
This command specifies the network path used to synchronize the
configuration between the computers when you are running WaveLab in
master and slave mode. For example:
--serviceSettingPath "\\server\volume\test"
An example to start a master instance:
--serviceLaunch master --serviceCommand start
--serviceSettingPath "\\server\volume\test"
An example to start a slave instance:
--serviceLaunch slave --serviceCommand start
--serviceSettingPath "\\server\volume\test"
--serviceStatus
This command instructs WaveLab to write the status of the Watch Folder to
a file. This command must be followed by a file name and WaveLab must run
as a background instance.
The status file gives information about whether WaveLab is running, paused,
or stopped, the number of error messages, and success messages.
This command is useful to check the status of the Watch Folder system.
--serviceStatus "d:\tests\status.txt"
XML Files in Batch Processing
WaveLab can read information from XML files, such as audio file location and
meta-data. WaveLab can also write information to XML or HTML files, such as
custom data, meta-data, and audio analysis.
This is useful for handling and tagging huge amounts of audio files. Also, the batch
input to WaveLab and the batch output from WaveLab can be controlled externally
with XML files.
The input XML files must not be formatted in a restricted way. You can instruct
WaveLab to understand the structure of your XML files.
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XML Input
You can add an XML file to a batch processor to pass information to WaveLab.
There are three types of elements that WaveLab can identify.
•
Input file path and file name
To instruct WaveLab where to find the audio file that you want to process.
This information is mandatory.
•
Output file path
To instruct WaveLab where to render the audio file. This information is
optional.
If this information is available, it has priority over the output path settings that
you make for the batch process on the Output tab.
•
Meta-data
To transmit meta-data that WaveLab can add to the audio files that you want
to process. This information is optional.
Instructing WaveLab How to Understand your XML Files
You must instruct WaveLab how to understand you XML files, in order to make use
of the XML input function.
PROCEDURE
1.
In the Batch Processors workspace, select Options > XML Audio
Description.
2.
In the XML audio file description dialog, specify the input location.
3.
Optional: Specify more elements.
If you have selected User variable (to import meta-data), specify a user variable.
4.
Specify a tag and, if necessary, an attribute name and value.
NOTE
You can only specify one attribute per tag. If your XML file has other attributes,
these are ignored by WaveLab.
5.
If necessary, specify the enclosing element tag and its attribute name and
value.
6.
Optional: To save the settings as preset, click the presets field, select Save
as, enter a name, and click OK.
7.
Click OK.
RESULT
WaveLab can understand the structure of your XML file. You can now add the XML
file to your batch process.
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XML Audio File Description Dialog
In this dialog, you can instruct WaveLab how to understand the structure of the XML
file that you want to read.
In the Batch Processors workspace, select Options > XML Audio Description.
Element
Lets you select the element that you want WaveLab to identify in the XML file.
You can specify the file location of the input file and the file location of the
output file. The following input and output elements are available:
•
Input Folder/Output Folder
•
The input folder is the folder where the audio file is located. The output
folder is the folder where you want to save the file. These paths can be
relative to the path of the XML file.
If no input/output folder is found, the file path of the XML file is used
instead.
Input File Name/Output File Name
•
The file name of the input/output file. For example, Piano.wav.
Input File Path/Output File Path
The complete input/output path including the file name. For example,
C:\AudioFiles\Piano.wav.
For the input, you must specify either the Input File Path or the Input Folder
+ Input File Name. If the audio file is located in the same folder as the XML
file, it is sufficient to specify only the File Name.
If you do not make any output settings, the settings of the batch processor are
used.
User variable
Lets you specify custom variables that you want WaveLab to identify in the
XML file. This option is available if you have selected User variable on the
Element menu.
The custom variables are shared throughout WaveLab. To edit the variables,
select Options > Variables and Text Snippets.
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Identification - Tag
Lets you specify the XML tag that describes the element to identify.
Identification - Attribute name and value
If this option is activated, you can specify an XML attribute and its value for
the tag to identify an element. In the text field, you must write the name and
value in the following style:
attr=”value”
Enclosing element
If this option is activated, the element must be further identified by a parent
tag.
Enclosing element - Tag
Lets you specify the XML tag of the enclosing element.
Enclosing element - Attribute name and value
If this option is activated, you can specify an XML attribute and its value for
the tag of the enclosing element to identify an element. In the text field, you
must write the name and value in the following style:
attr=”value”
Preview
Shows a preview of the structure that WaveLab expects in the XML file.
RELATED LINKS
Variables and Text Snippets on page 643
XML Output
After a batch process, WaveLab can automatically produce an XML or HTML file
that describes the processed audio files. This file can contain the type of
processing, the embedded meta-data, and the audio analysis result, for example.
An XSLT file must be specified to instruct WaveLab how to generate the
XML/HTML file. The XSLT file must use the UTF-8 character set.
XML tab of the Batch Processors workspace
You can generate the XML/HTML file from scratch or generate an XML file that is
based on an existing XML file. The structure of the existing input XML file must be
specified in the XML Audio File Description dialog. The input XML file can contain
the location of the audio files that you want to process and information that you want
to find in the XML/HTML output file, for example.
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Once the XML/HTML files are generated, you can import them to a database or a
podcast, for example.
RELATED LINKS
Instructing WaveLab How to Understand your XML Files on page 576
XML Tab on page 546
About XSLT Files
WaveLab needs an XSLT file to create an XML output file or transform an XML or
HTML document to another XML document.
XSLT is a language for transforming XML documents into other XML documents, or
generating XML documents from scratch. The WaveLab XSLT processor is
compatible with the XSLT 2.0 standard. However, not all features are supported, for
example, xsl:output.
The XSLT file in WaveLab determines whether the generated output file will be in
XML or in HTML format. WaveLab provides XSLT example files to generate XML or
HTML files that describe the processed audio files.
•
To use the XSLT example files, open the XML tab, open the Presets menu,
and select Factory presets > HTML example or Factory presets > XML
example.
In order for the example to work properly, the processed audio file must
contain information for the ID3v2 meta-data fields Title and Genre.
Parameters for XSLT Processing
You can specify which parameters will be included in an XML or HTML output file
that you can generate with the batch process. For example, you can include
meta-data and the results of an audio analysis in such an output file.
To transmit parameters to the XSLT script, define them in the Parameters for XSLT
processing dialog.
NOTE
ID3v2 meta-data can have custom fields (“TXXX”) that WaveLab cannot list
automatically on the menu. However, you can enter them manually.
Including Audio Analyser Results in the XML or HTML Output File
You can include the audio analysis results of the Audio Analyser batch processor
monopass plug-in in the XML or HTML output file.
•
In the Audio Analyser dialog, you must activate the Send analysis results
to XML processor option.
Then, in the Parameters for XSLT processing dialog, you must select the
parameters of the audio analysis that you want to include in the output XML.
579
Batch Processing
XML Files in Batch Processing
Parameters for XSLT Processing Dialog
In this dialog, you can edit the parameters that you want to find in the XML or HTML
file that you can generate with the batch process.
In the Batch Processors workspace, in the XML tab, click the pen icon.
Creates a new parameter.
Removes the selected parameter.
Parameter list
In the left column, you can specify a parameter name that is known by your
XSLT file. In the right column, you can specify the value for the parameter.
The parameter values can be custom variable codes, custom variable values,
auto variable codes, auto variable values, and text snippets. To see a list of all
available parameters, click the arrow icon.
RELATED LINKS
Variables and Text Snippets on page 643
Generating an XML or HTML File From Scratch
PREREQUISITE
•
Set up your batch process.
•
Set up an XSLT file.
PROCEDURE
1.
In the Batch Processors workspace, open the XML tab.
2.
On the output menu, select Generate XML/HTML file.
3.
In the XSLT file field, specify the path to your XSLT file.
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Batch Processing
XML Files in Batch Processing
4.
Optional: In the Optional parameters field, click the pen icon and specify
additional parameters.
5.
Select Process > Start to start the batch process.
RESULT
The audio files are processed and an XML/HTML file is generated with the
information that are specified by the XSLT script.
The XML/HTML file is saved in the same location and with the same name
(extension .xml or .html) as the rendered audio file. If No output is activated, the
XML/HTML file is saved in the Output subfolder of the Watch Folder.
Generating an XML File Based on an Existing Input XML File
PREREQUISITE
•
Set up your batch process.
•
Set up an XSLT file.
•
Instruct WaveLab how to understand the input XML file.
IMPORTANT
The input XML file must be valid to the structure that is specified in the XML audio
description dialog.
PROCEDURE
1.
In the Batch Processors workspace, click the XML tab.
2.
On the output menu, select Transform input XML file.
3.
In the XSLT file field, specify the path to your XSLT file.
4.
Optional: In the Optional parameters field, click the pen icon and specify
additional parameters.
5.
Add the input XML file to the batch process.
The audio files that are specified in the input XML file are displayed in the batch
processor list.
IMPORTANT
Do not manually add audio files to the batch process. The location of the audio
files that you want to process is taken from the input XML file.
6.
Select Process > Start to start the batch process.
RESULT
The audio files are processed and an output XML file is generated with the
information that are specified by the XSLT script.
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Batch Processing
XML Files in Batch Processing
The XML file is saved in the same location and with the same name (extension
.xml) as the rendered audio file. If No output is activated, the XML file is saved in
the same location as the source file.
RELATED LINKS
Instructing WaveLab How to Understand your XML Files on page 576
XML Audio File Description Dialog on page 577
582
Batch Conversion
You can convert multiple files simultaneously to another format. If no processing is
needed, this can be done using the Batch Conversion dialog.
Batch Conversion Dialog
This dialog allows you to convert the file format of a group of audio files.
In the Audio Files workspace, select Tools > Batch conversion of audio files.
Plus icon
Opens a dialog, where you can select files to add to the list.
Minus icon
Removes the selected item from the list.
List of files to convert
Shows the files to convert.
Output - Folder
Specify the folder in which the converted files are stored.
583
Batch Conversion
Batch Converting Files
Output - File Format
Opens the Audio File Format dialog, where you can set the file format.
Options - Auto start when dropping files
If this option is activated, the conversion starts automatically when you drag a
file into the list.
Options - Auto remove converted files
If this option is activated, a file is removed from the list, once it is successfully
converted. Otherwise, it remains in the list with a green mark indicating its
status.
Options - Stop on error
If this option is activated, the global process stops if an error is encountered.
If this option is deactivated, the file associated with the error is marked in red,
and the next file is processed.
Multitasking - Usage of processor cores
Selects how many core to use simultaneously. The contents of this menu
depend on your computer hardware.
Batch Converting Files
PROCEDURE
1.
In the Audio Files workspace, select Tools > Batch conversion of Audio
Files.
2.
Click the plus icon to add files, or simply drag the files into the Files to
convert list.
3.
On the Output tab, select a file location and a file format.
4.
Optional: Make further settings on the Options and Multitasking tabs.
5.
Click Start to begin converting the files.
584
Batch Renaming
With the batch renaming functions, you can batch rename multiple files, markers,
and clips. You can convert, remove, format, import, and insert text. This allows you
to batch rename file names according to user specified rules.
You can use simple options to match text, or you can build your own regular
expressions. Batch renaming can be useful with large projects, for example, so you
can apply easily identifiable names to all referenced files, clips, and markers
belonging to the project.
You can use batch renaming for the following operations:
•
Rename files
•
Rename clips in an audio montage
•
Rename markers in audio files and audio montages
Batch Renaming Dialogs
The Batch renaming dialogs for files, clips, and markers share most features, with
some differences.
The Batch renaming dialog has 3 pages.
1)
The first page defines which files, clips, or markers are renamed. It is different
for all renaming operations.
2)
The second page defines how the renaming is run. It is identical for all
renaming operations.
3)
The third page shows you a preview of the resulting names.
Batch Renaming Files
You can batch rename multiple files according to specified seettings.
PROCEDURE
1.
Select File > Batch file renaming.
2.
Select the files that you want to rename and click Next.
585
Batch Renaming
Batch Renaming Files
3.
Define the batch rename operation and click Next.
4.
Verify that the renaming is performed as intended, then click Finish.
Batch File Renaming Dialog
In this dialog, you can batch rename individual files. Any currently open files that
reference these files are updated automatically.
Select File > Batch file renaming.
On the first page of this dialog, you can define which files to rename, by using the
following options:
Rename files in this folder
Specify the folder that contains the files to rename.
Scan subfolders
If this option is activated, files are also searched in subfolders.
Only rename files with this extension
If this option is activated, only files with the extension specified in the text field
below are renamed.
Only rename files with specific names
If this option is activated, only files with a name that corresponds to a certain
specification are renamed. You can type in a text string in the text field below,
and select one of the following options from the menu:
•
File name must contain this text
•
File name must NOT contain this text
•
File name must contain this text (with wild cards)
•
File name must NOT contain this text (with wild cards)
•
File name must contain this regular expression
586
Batch Renaming
Batch Renaming Markers
•
File name must NOT contain this regular expression
Skip read-only files
If this option is activated, files that are read-only are not renamed.
Set new extension
If this option is activated, the extension of files is changed with the extension
specified below.
Batch Renaming Markers
You can batch rename multiple markers according to specified settings.
PROCEDURE
1.
Optional: If you only want to rename markers in a certain time range, create a
selection range in the wave window or the montage window.
2.
In the Audio Files workspace or the Audio Montage workspace, open the
Markers window, and select Functions > Batch renaming.
3.
On the Target page, make your settings, and click Next.
If you have made an audio selection and want to use it, activate All markers in audio
selection.
4.
Define the batch rename operation, and click Next.
5.
Verify in the preview list that the renaming is performed as intended, and click
Finish.
587
Batch Renaming
Batch Renaming Markers
Batch Marker Renaming Dialog
In this dialog, you can batch rename markers of any type.
In the Markers window, select Functions > Batch renaming.
All markers
If this option is activated, all markers in the selected file are renamed.
All markers in audio selection
If this option is activated, all markers in the selected audio range are renamed.
Types to rename
Only the markers of the type selected here are renamed.
Only markers with specific names
If this option is activated, only markers with a name that corresponds to a
certain specification are renamed. You can type in a text string in the text field
below, and select one of the following options from the menu:
•
Marker name must contain this text
•
Marker name must NOT contain this text
•
File name must contain this text (with wild cards)
•
File name must NOT contain this text (with wild cards)
•
Marker name must contain this regular expression
•
Marker name must NOT contain this regular expression
Skip locked markers
If this option is activated, markers that are locked are not renamed.
588
Batch Renaming
Batch Renaming Clips
Batch Renaming Clips
You can batch rename multiple clips according to specified seettings.
PROCEDURE
1.
In the Audio Montage workspace, from the Clips window, select Functions
> Batch clip renaming.
2.
Select the clips that you want to rename and click Next.
3.
Define the batch rename operation and click Next.
4.
Check in the preview list if the renaming is as intended, then click Finish.
Batch Clip Renaming Dialog
In this dialog, you can batch rename clips in the Audio Montage workspace.
In the Clip window, select Functions > Batch clip renaming.
On the first page of this dialog, you can define which clips to rename, by using the
following options:
All clips
If this option is activated, all clips are renamed.
All clips in focused track
If this option is activated, all clips on the focused track are renamed.
All selected clips
If this option is activated, all selected clips are renamed.
Only clips with specific names
If this option is activated, only clips with a name that corresponds to a certain
specification are renamed. You can type in a text string in the text field below,
and select one of the following options from the menu:
589
Batch Renaming
Renaming Operation Categories and Types
•
Clip name must contain this text
•
Clip name must NOT contain this text
•
File name must contain this text (with wild cards)
•
File name must NOT contain this text (with wild cards)
•
Clip name must contain this regular expression
•
Clip name must NOT contain this regular expression
Skip locked clips
If this option is activated, clips that are locked are not renamed.
Renaming Operation Categories and Types
On the first page of the Batch renaming dialog which clips after selecting, files, or
markers to batch rename you set up the renaming operation that you want to
perform.
The Category pop-up menu lists the renaming operations categories. The Type
pop-up menu lists the various types of renaming operations. When you select a
type, the related controls are displayed. The types depend on the selected category.
The following categories and types are available:
Remove
All
Removes all characters from the selected range.
Spaces
Removes all spaces from the selected range.
Spaces at start/end
Removes all spaces at start and end of the selected range.
Duplicate
Replaces two consecutive similar characters by one. Specify the character to
remove in the Character field.
Specific characters
Removes all instances of one or more characters. Specify the characters to
remove in the Character field.
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Batch Renaming
Renaming Operation Categories and Types
Surrounded text
Removes all instances of one or more characters. In the Left character field,
specify the characters from which on the text is removed. In the Right
character field, specify the characters until which the text is removed.
Then specify in the Occurrence menu, which character to remove if several
are found.
Convert
To lower case
Sets all characters in the selected range to lower case.
To upper case
Sets all characters in the selected range to upper case.
Capitalize
Sets the first character to upper case, and the rest to lower case. On the
menu, you can specify whether only the first word or all words should be
capitalized.
Initials to upper case
Sets only isolated letters to upper case. For example, u.s.a to U.S.A.
Specific character to text
Replaces each instance of a given character with a custom string. In the
Character to replace field, enter the character you want to replace. In the
Replacement field, enter the replacement string.
Pad number with zeros
Pads a number present in the selected range with zeros at the left side. On
the menu below, specify how many digits the number should consist of.
Invert character order
Inverts the order of the characters in the selected range.
Replace with new text
Replaces the selected range by a specific text string. In the text field below,
enter this string.
Insert
Nothing
Inserts nothing.
Counter
Inserts a number at the selected position, and updates its value for the next
insertion. Set up the counter with the additional options.
Specific text
Inserts a string at the selected position. In the text field below, enter the text
to be inserted.
591
Batch Renaming
Renaming Operation Categories and Types
Part of original name
Inserts a part of the original name (before the first operation was performed)
at the selected position. In the text field below, enter the regular expressions.
Clicking on the bulb icon opens a menu with shortcuts for several regular
expressions.
Pair of characters around text
Inserts specific characters before and after the selected range. In the Left
character field, specify the characters to insert before the selected range. In
the Right character field, specify the characters to insert after the selected
range.
Spaces around text
Inserts a space before and after the selected range.
Space after specific characters
Inserts a space after certain characters. In the field below, enter the
characters that should be followed by a space.
Space before each capitalized word
Inserts a space before each word starting with an upper case letter. For
example, MyNicePiano to My Nice Piano.
If Lower case for each word but first one is activated, only the first word is
capitalized (My nice piano).
Today’s Date/Time
Inserts the current date and time.
Universal unique identifier
Inserts a unique identifier. This is useful for recordings, for example.
Random word
Inserts a random pronounceable word.
Find and Replace from Table
This category allows you to define a table of words and to associate each word with
a replacement. This feature is useful to reformat a text according to a new style. For
example, it can be used to map a series of numbers to a series of tags, to change a
numerical sequence like “000 - 127” to “C-2 - G8” (MIDI notes).
Find anywhere in text
Replaces each word of the table which is present in the selected range.
Find exact text
Replaces a word of the table if it equals the selected range.
In the table below these types, you can define a list of strings to find, and define a
replacement for each one. Double-click the cells to edit the list. If a file cell is empty,
it is ignored.
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Batch Renaming
Renaming Operation Categories and Types
If Case sensitive search is activated, the search takes the letter cases into
account. If Keep letter case is activated, the case of the replacement text is
adapted to the case of the found text.
Import and Insert External Data
This category allows you to insert information taken from a file or current context.
This is mostly audio-oriented as some features analyze the audio file headers. The
available options differ depending on the selected Batch Renaming dialog.
Sample rate
Inserts the sample rate of the file. In the fields below, enter a prefix and suffix,
and select how to format the imported data.
Number of channels
Inserts the number of channels of the file. In the fields below, enter a prefix and
suffix, and select how to format the imported data.
Sample bit resolution
Inserts the bit resolution of the file. In the fields below, enter a prefix and suffix,
and select how to format the imported data.
Bit rate
Inserts the bit rate of the file if the file is encoded. In the fields below, enter a
prefix and suffix, and select how to format the imported data.
Variable/Constant Bit Rate
Inserts the tag VBR or CBR if the file is encoded. In the fields below, enter a
prefix and suffix.
File length
Inserts the length of the file. In the fields below, enter a prefix and suffix.
File extension
Inserts the extension of the file. In the fields below, enter a prefix and suffix.
Date/Time
Inserts the date/time of the item at the selected position. In the Format field
below, enter a date.
Folder name
Inserts the name of the folder containing the item. In the fields below, enter a
prefix and suffix.
Folder name (2 positions up)
Inserts the name of the folder located two positions higher in the hierarchy. In
the fields below, enter a prefix and suffix.
Folder name (3 positions up)
Inserts the name of the folder located three positions higher in the hierarchy.
In the fields below, enter a prefix and suffix.
593
Batch Renaming
Renaming Operation Categories and Types
Sample: MIDI note
Inserts the sample note of the item if available. In the fields below, enter a
prefix and suffix, and select how to format the imported data.
Sample: detune
Inserts the sample detune if available. In the fields below, enter a prefix and
suffix.
Sample: key range
Inserts the sample note of the item if available. In the fields below, enter a
prefix, suffix, and separator, and select how to format the imported data.
Sample: velocity range
Inserts the velocity range of the item, if available. In the fields below, enter a
prefix, suffix, and separator, and select how to format the imported data.
Meta-data: Title
Inserts the title if this information is present in the meta-data of the item. In the
fields below, enter a prefix and suffix.
Meta-data: Artist
Inserts the artist if this information is present in the meta-data of the item. In
the fields below, enter a prefix and suffix.
Meta-data: Genre
Inserts the genre if this information is present in the meta-data of the item. In
the fields below, enter a prefix and suffix.
Meta-data: Album
Inserts the album if this information is present in the meta-data of the item. In
the fields below, enter a prefix and suffix.
Meta-data: BWF description
Inserts the corresponding meta-data. You can insert the title, artist, genre,
album, and BWF description.
Timeline position
Inserts the position of the item in the timeline. In the fields below, enter a prefix
and suffix.
Line [x] from text file
Inserts the specified line from a text file to the specified renaming operation.
In the field below, specify the location of the text file (UTF-8) from which the
strings should be collected.
594
Batch Renaming
List of Renaming Operations
List of Renaming Operations
In this section on the Operation page of the Batch renaming dialog, you can
create, delete, and arrange renaming operations.
Plus icon
Adds a new operation at the end of the list.
X icon
Deletes the selected operation.
Arrow Up/Down icons
Moves the selected operation one position up/down.
List of the operations to be performed on the original name
Lists all operations performed on the original name. The operations are run
one after the other.
Preview Section
In this section on the Operation page of the Batch renaming dialog, you can
preview the renaming result of the selected operation.
When you enter a name in the Original field, the change is automatically reflected
in the Output format field. This preview is continuously updated.
If the preview cannot display missing data, an “X” is shown instead.
595
Batch Renaming
Range Parameters
Range Parameters
In the range sections on the Operation page of the Batch renaming dialog, you
can specify where in the name the operation is run.
Range to Process
All
If this option is activated, the whole name is processed by the operation.
Regular expression
Select this option if you want only a part of the name to be processed by the
operation. In this case, you need to define a regular expression. Clicking on
the bulb icon opens a menu with shortcuts for several regular expressions.
The sub-string found by this regular expression is the range to process.
From/To
If this option is activated, you can set the start and end position of the range
independently in the From and To sections.
From
Start
If this option is activated, the position is the beginning of the source name.
Character position
If this option is activated, the position is a fixed offset from the beginning of
the of the source name.
Start of regular expression
Select this option if you want the position to be the one of the sub-strings
found by the regular expression applied on the source name.
After regular expression
Select this option if you want the position to be the one right after the
sub-string found by the regular expression applied on the source name.
End of previous operation
If this option is activated, the position corresponds to the end of the change
performed by the previous operation.
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Batch Renaming
Previewing and Performing All Renaming Operations
End
The end of the source name.
To
End
If this option is activated, the position is the end of the source name.
Position from end
If this option is activated, the position is a fixed offset before the end of the
source name.
Number of characters
If this option is activated, the end position is given by the start position plus a
number of characters.
Before start of regular expression
Select this option if you want the position to be just before the sub-string
found by the regular expression applied on the source name.
End of regular expression
Select this option if you want the position to be the end of the sub-string
found by the regular expression applied on the source name.
Previewing and Performing All Renaming Operations
On the last page of the Batch Renaming dialog, you can see how all the selected
file, clip, or marker names are changed before you start the batch renaming. If the
name contains a random item, this item name will likely be different in the preview.
PREREQUISITE
In the Batch renaming dialog, after setting up what files, clips, or markers to
rename and in which way, click Next, to open the third page of the dialog.
PROCEDURE
1.
In the list, check if the changes are as you intended.
2.
Click Finish.
597
Batch Renaming
About Regular Expressions
About Regular Expressions
A regular expression is a formula composed of characters that have special
meanings (called operators). Other characters are plain letters and numbers that
are searched for. The search engine browses the target text one character at a time
and stops as soon as it finds a sequence of characters that matches the regular
expression.
At various places in WaveLab, you can use regular expressions to build complex text
matching capabilities into your conversion and renaming processes. A regular
expression is a set of text symbols that describe a method to find a specific text
string within a large body of text, and then apply a specific operation to this text
string. Regular expressions are available for the advanced user to perform powerful
string search/replace operations, for example, in batch renaming or batch
processing.
Throughout WaveLab, wherever you see the bulb icon, there is a field where you
can create your own regular expressions. A menu containing shortcuts to build up
the basic syntax of an expression is also available.
It is beyond the scope of the WaveLab documentation to describe this subject
thoroughly, please see other resources for further details on regular expressions.
Common Regular Expressions
There are various versions of regular expressions. WaveLab uses a version that
represents a good compromise between power and ease-of-use.
The term “expression” refers to a single character, a character class, or a
sub-expression enclosed with () or {}. Searches for regular expressions are not case
sensitive.
The following items are available on the Regular Expression pop-up menu.
Regular Expressions Menu
Menu Item
Operator
Description
Any character
.
Symbolizes any character.
Character in
range
[]
A bracketed text is treated as a single character, for
example: [AEW13] means A or E or W or 1 or 3. A
hyphen within the brackets specifies a range of
characters. For example, [F-I] means F or G or H or I,
and [A-Z0-9] matches all letters and all digits.
Character not in
range
[^]
A circumflex located at the first position in a bracket
is a complement operator. It describes a situation
where all characters match except those included in
the bracket. For example, [^E] means any character
except E.
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Batch Renaming
About Regular Expressions
Menu Item
Operator
Description
0 or 1 match (1 if
possible)
?
Matches 0 or 1 time the preceding expression. 1
repeat if possible is grabbed, then the rest of the
regular expression continues to be evaluated.
0 or 1 match (0 if
possible)
??
Matches 0 or 1 time the preceding expression. 0
repeat if possible (the NEXT step in the regular
expression is also evaluated and has priority).
0 or more
matches (as many
as possible)
*
Matches 0 or more times the preceding expression.
As many repeats as possible are grabbed, then the
rest of the regular expression continues to be
evaluated.
0 or more
matches (as few
as possible)
*?
Matches 0 or more times the preceding expression.
As few repeats as possible are grabbed (the NEXT
step in the regular expression is also evaluated and
has priority).
1 or more
matches (as many
as possible)
+
Matches 1 or more times the preceding expression.
As many repeats as possible are grabbed, then the
rest of the regular expression continues to be
evaluated.
1 or more
matches (as few
as possible)
+?
Matches 1 or more times the preceding expression.
As few repeats as possible are grabbed (the next
step in the regular expression is also evaluated and
has priority).
Or
|
OR operator. Use this to separate two expressions
and to match expression #1 or expression #2. For
example, Piano|Drum matches all texts that contain
Piano or Drum.
Not
!
Negation operator: the expression following ! must
not match the text. For example, a!b matches any “a”
not followed by “b”.
Generic group
()
Grouping operator. Useful to form a sub-expression.
Capture
{}
Capture operator. By default, the found text
corresponds to the entire regular expression. But it
is possible to limit a part of the regular expression
with { }, and if a part is matched, this will be the
retained part. For instance the regular expression
“ab{cd}ef” that is applied on “abcdef” will return
“cd”.
Beginning of text
^
Use the circumflex sign to specify that the text must
be located at the start of the browsed text. Any
match not located at the start of the browsed text is
ignored.
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Batch Renaming
About Regular Expressions
Menu Item
End of text
Operator
$
Description
Use this sign to specify that the text must be located
at the end of the text. Any match not located at the
end of the text is ignored.
Special Characters Submenu
On this submenu, all special characters for regular expressions are available.
Shortcuts Submenu
Menu Item
Operator
Description
Any digit (0-9)
/d
Symbolizes any digit, as [0-9].
Any non-digit (not
0-9)
/D
Symbolizes any non-digit, as [^0-9].
Any letter (a-z or
A-Z)
/l
Symbolizes any letter, as [a-z].
Any non-letter
(not a-z, not A-Z)
/L
Symbolizes any non-letter, as [^a-z]. - Any
alphabetic /w Special code to symbolize any
alphabetic character, as [0-9a-z].
Any alphabetic
(a-z, or A-Z, or
0-9)
/w
Symbolizes any alphabetic character, as [0-9a-z].
Any
non-alphabetic
(not a-z, not A-Z,
not 0-9)
/W
Symbolizes any non-alphabetic character, as
[^0-9a-z].
Number
/u
Symbolizes a number (without a sign).
Number (with
possible +before)
/i
Symbolizes a number which can be preceded by a +
or - sign.
Quoted string
/q
Symbolizes quoted text.
Simple word
/z
Symbolizes a simple word (a sequence of letters
surrounded by non-letters, for example, spaces).
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Batch Renaming
About Regular Expressions
Presets Submenu
Menu Item
Description
1st/2nd/3rd word
Searches for the first, second, or third word (separated by a
space).
Last word
Searches for the last word (separated by a space).
1st/2nd/3rd
expression in
parentheses
Searches for the first, second, or third string enclosed in
parentheses.
Last expression in
parentheses
Searches for the last string enclosed in parentheses.
1st/2nd/3rd
expression in brackets
Searches for the first, second, or third string enclosed in
brackets.
Last expression in
brackets
Searches for the last string enclosed in brackets.
601
Podcasts
Podcasting is a method of distributing multimedia files over the internet, for
example, for playback on mobile devices and personal computers.
A Podcast can be downloaded automatically, using software that is capable of
reading RSS feeds. RSS (Really Simple Syndication) is a standard for distributing
news and other information via the internet. An RSS news feed sends short
messages on a certain topic from a specific web site. In order to read the messages,
the user employs a program that has the ability to monitor multiple feeds and
automatically download new messages on a regular basis. This can be special feed
readers or an internet browser, for example.
A Podcast is an RSS feed including data content, such as audio or video files. This
can be a show of which new episodes are released regularly. The file formats .mp4a,
.mp3, and .ogg are commonly used for podcasts.
602
Podcasts
Podcast Workspace
Podcast Workspace
The Podcast workspace is divided into two panes. The upper pane shows the
information for the feed or an episode, depending on the item that is selected in the
list below. This is where you can add files, internet links, or textual information to the
Podcast feed and its episodes. The lower pane shows an item list of the basic feed
and all episodes that are included in the Podcast.
Episodes Menu
In the Episodes menu, you can create, delete, and move individual Podcast
episodes.
New
Adds a new untitled episode without any information present.
Duplicate selected
Adds a new episode, copying all the information from the existing episode to
the new one.
Delete selected
Deletes the selected episode. Alternatively, you can exclude an Episode from
the Podcast by deactivating the Enabled box.
Cut/Copy/Paste
Cuts, copies, and pastes the selected episode.
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Podcasts
Podcast Workspace
Move up/Move down
Moves the selected episode one position up or down in the item list.
Alternatively, use drag and drop.
Publish Menu
In the Publish menu, you can define where your Podcast is going to be uploaded
via FTP.
Update all items on FTP
Uploads/updates the XML Podcast file on the FTP server. It also uploads all
media files of the item, but only if they are not yet available on the FTP server.
This is the most common function to upload and update your Podcast.
Update selected item on FTP
Uploads/updates the XML Podcast file on the FTP server. It also uploads the
media file of the selected item in the list, but only if it is not yet available on the
FTP server.
Upload/Replace all items on FTP
This is the same as above, but it always uploads/replaces all of the media files
belonging to the item. This is useful if you have changed the audio data, for
example.
Upload/Replace selected items on FTP
This is the same as above, but it always uploads/replaces the media file of the
selected item in the list. This is useful if you have changed the audio data, for
example.
View published Podcast
Opens your Podcast (via the URL specified in your FTP site settings) using
your default browser.
View XML source code
Opens an XML editor to display the source code of the Podcast.
FTP site
Edit the FTP settings that are related to this Podcast.
Options Menu
On the Options menu, you can set additional options that are valid for all Podcast
windows.
Options
Edit the automatic picture resizing, set a time offset with Greenwich Mean
Time, and specify the path of the HTML editor.
Folders
Edit the default folders where to open and save files.
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Podcasts
Podcast Workspace
Main Tab
On the Main tab, you can assign parameters to your Podcast. The available
parameters change, depending on whether you select a feed or an episode. Field
labels in bold letters mark fields that are mandatory to fill.
Title
Sets the title of the feed, for example, the topic of your Podcast.
Description
Gives space for a further description of the feed content.
Internet link (URL)
The main link of the feed that the user sees. Use this to direct people to a
certain web site that is related to your feed. Clicking the world icon opens the
specified URL in your default internet browser.
Picture (only available for feeds)
According to the RSS standard, this picture may not be larger than 144 x 400
pixels, so the picture is automatically resized. Clicking the sunglasses icon
opens the specified picture in your default image viewer of your system.
Publication date and time
Sets the publication date and time of the feed or episode. Clicking the Now
button transfers current date and time of your system.
As most recent episode (only available for feeds)
If As most recent episode is activated, the date and time of the most recent
episode are automatically matched.
Import HTML file (only available for episodes)
Lets you browse for an HTML document that replaces the description.
Audio file (only available for episodes)
This sets the path to the audio file that you want to add to the episode. The
audio file can be any file type that is supported by the media reader of your
browser. An .mp3 file provides best compatibility. Click the icon to list the
audio files that are already open in WaveLab. Select one for your episode.
Alternatively, you can drag the list icon of an audio file into the audio file pane.
Click the play icon to open the specified file in the default media player or
viewer of your system, for previewing or checking purposes.
Extra Tab
In the Extra tab, you can assign parameters to your Podcast. The available
parameters change, depending on whether you select a feed or an episode.
The following parameters are available when a feed is selected:
•
Webmaster (email address)
•
Editor (email address)
•
Copyright
605
Podcasts
Podcast Workspace
•
Category
•
Related domain (URL)
•
Language
•
Frequency of updates
•
Skip hours (0 to 23, separate each one with a comma)
•
Time to live (number of minutes)
The following parameters are available when an episode is selected:
•
Author (email address)
•
Comments (URL)
•
Category
•
Related domain (URL)
•
Title
•
Original domain (URL)
iTunes Tab
In the iTunes tab, you can activate the iTunes extension, that allows you to specify
additional feed and episode information. The available parameters change,
depending on whether you select a feed or an episode.
The following parameters are available when a feed is selected:
•
Subtitle
•
Summary
•
Categories
•
Keywords (separate them with a comma)
•
Author
•
Owner name
•
Picture
•
New URL of Feed
•
Hide in iTunes
•
Explicit material
The following parameters are available when an episode is selected:
•
Subtitle
•
Summary
•
Keywords (separate them with a comma)
•
Author
•
Duration
606
Podcasts
Global Podcast Options
•
Hide in iTunes
•
Explicit material
Global Podcast Options
You can set some additional options that are valid for all Podcast windows.
In the Podcast workspace, select Options > Options.
Automatic picture resizing (not for iTunes)
Defines what to do if specified pictures exceed the maximum size allowed by
the RSS standard. If pictures need resizing, the original images on your hard
disk is not modified.
Time offset with GMT (Greenwich Mean Time)
The displayed dates and times are local. If your system is properly set,
WaveLab automatically adjusts the time offset in relation to GMT. However, if
you want to have time and date relative to a different time zone, adjust the
value with this option.
HTML Editor
Sets the path to the external HTML editor that is launched when clicking the
Pen button in the Import HTML file section.
Creating a Podcast
There are several ways to create a new Podcast feed or episode.
•
To create a new podcast, in the Podcast workspace, select File > New.
•
To create a new podcast from the selected audio file, in the Audio Files
workspace, select File > Export > Create Podcast from active file.
•
To add an audio file to an existing podcast, in the Audio Files workspace,
select File > Special > Add to Podcast.
•
To add a new untitled episode to a podcast, in the Podcast workspace, select
Episodes > New.
•
To duplicate an episode, in the Podcast workspace, select Episodes >
Duplicate. This adds a new episode, and copies all information from the
existing episode to the new one.
607
Podcasts
Setting Up a FTP for Podcast Publishing
Setting Up a FTP for Podcast Publishing
To be able to upload a Podcast to your FTP server, you must enter the FTP server
details first.
PROCEDURE
1.
In the Podcast workspace, select Publish > FTP site.
2.
Enter the following details:
•
3.
The log-in details for your FTP server.
•
The relative path and file name of the Podcast (extension .xml).
•
Your web site address including the path to the feed.
Click OK.
Publishing a Podcast
You can upload a Podcast from within WaveLab directly to your FTP server.
PREREQUISITE
Set up your FTP settings within WaveLab.
PROCEDURE
1.
2.
In the Podcast workspace, select the Publish menu, and select one of the
following options:
•
Update all items on FTP
•
Update selected item on FTP
•
Upload/Replace all items on FTP
•
Upload/Replace selected items on FTP
Check if the FTP settings are correct, and click OK.
RESULT
The Podcast is uploaded to your FTP site.
608
Podcasts
FTP Site Dialog
FTP Site Dialog
In the FTP site dialog, you can manage all required information for the Podcast
upload process.
In the Podcast workspace, select Publish > FTP site.
Host
The host name or IP address of the FTP server.
User name
The login name to your FTP server.
Password
The password to the login.
Use Passive Mode
Keep this activated and only change this if you experience problems with the
FTP connection.
Feed file name (with path)
The Podcast file name that is displayed on your FTP server (extension .xml),
including the relative path. File name and path are part of the final public
internet address of the Podcast, so you may want to avoid long names.
Associated web site (URL)
Your own web site address including the path to the feed.
FTP Site Dialog Example
•
Your FTP host address is “ftp.MyPage.com”, your public web site address is
“www.MyPage.com”.
609
Podcasts
Checking the Podcast
•
The feed file name setting is “podcasts/fantastic-cast.xml”, the associated
web site setting is “www.MyPage.com/podcasts”.
•
The media files of the Podcast will be uploaded to the FTP server at
“ftp.MyPage.com/podcasts”.
•
The Podcast file itself and the internet address to be distributed will be found
at “www.MyPage.com/podcasts/fantastic-cast.xml”.
Each Podcast saves its own complete FTP site information. It is also possible to
save and recall FTP site presets using the Preset functions at the bottom of the
dialog.
Checking the Podcast
After creating and publishing a Podcast, you can check if the upload was
successful.
•
To visualize the contents of the feed XML file in your default XML editor, in the
Podcast workspace, select Publish > View XML source code.
•
To open your default internet browser and receive the Podcast that you have
just published from the internet, in the Podcast workspace, select Publish >
View published Podcast.
610
Master Projects
If you work on a large project that consists of several audio montage files, audio
files, and editing notes that all belong to an album project, it is useful to open all
these items from a central place. In the master project, you can organize the files in
folders and subfolders.
You can drag files into the master project and from the master project to external
locations. Each file is listed with its path and has a comment field. Only one master
project can be open at a time.
The master project also stores a general window layout.
Setting Up a Master Project
To set up a master project, can add all kinds of files to a master project, for example,
audio montages, audio files, text files, and pictures.
PROCEDURE
1.
Select Workspace > Specific tool windows > Master Project.
2.
Add files to the master project by dragging them into the Master Project
window.
You can drag files from various locations, for example, from the File Browser window
or the Windows Explorer/Mac OS Finder.
3.
4.
Optional: Edit further settings in the master project.
•
In the Comments column, add comments to the files.
•
Click the New folder icon to add folders in which you can organize the master
project.
•
Select the Notes tab and add notes to the master project.
Click the Save icon.
611
Master Projects
Saving a Master Project
Saving a Master Project
PREREQUISITE
Set up your master project.
PROCEDURE
1.
In the Master Project window, do one of the following:
•
To save a master project that has never been saved before, select File > Save
as.
•
To save a master project that has been saved before, click the Save button, or
select File > Save.
2.
In the Save Master Project dialog, specify a file name and location.
3.
Optional: Activate the following settings:
4.
•
Open standard file selector before this dialog
•
Save copy
Click Save.
Writing Files of a Master Project to Data CD/DVD
You can archive the contents of a master project to a data CD or DVD.
PREREQUISITE
You have set up and saved a master project.
PROCEDURE
1.
In the Master Project window, select File > Add to Data CD/DVD.
2.
Set up the data CD/DVD and click the Write Data CD/DVD icon.
3.
Select a writing device.
4.
•
If you select ISO Image, specify a file name and file location.
•
If you select a CD/DVD writer, specify the writing speed and edit further
settings.
Click OK.
612
Master Projects
Master Project Window
Master Project Window
This window allows you to organize the files of a master project in folders and
subfolders and add comments to the files.
In any workspace, select Workspace > Specific tool windows > Master Project.
File List
The file list displays the name and path of the files in the master project. In the
Comment column you can add comments to the files. Double-clicking a file in the
list opens the file.
File Menu
New
Creates a new master project. The current master project is closed.
Open
Opens a dialog where you can select a master project.
Open recent
Opens the Recently used files dialog from where you can open recently
used master project files.
Save
Saves the current master project.
Save as
Allows you to save the current master project with a different name and in a
different location.
Add to Data CD/DVD
Opens the Data CD/DVD dialog and adds the documents of the master
project to the data CD/DVD.
Favorite Master Projects
Opens a submenu that lets you add the master project to the list of favorite
master projects. To edit this list, select Edit list.
613
Master Projects
Master Project Window
Functions Menu
Find
Opens a search field at the bottom of the Master Project window in which
you can enter text to search files in the master project. You can search for file
names and path names.
New folder
Creates a new folder in the master project where you can add file references
and subfolders.
Delete
Deletes the selected item.
Save general layout
Saves the general layout as the layout for the master project. This layout
contains all open files. This means that you can recover an exact session.
Restore general layout
Restores the general master project layout.
Customize commands
Opens the Customize commands dialog, where you can define shortcuts for
the Master Project window.
Help
Opens the WaveLab help.
614
Customizing
Customizing means making settings so that the program behaves and looks the way
that you want it to.
Window Layout
Window layouts are used for creating various work displays for different situations.
You can create a window layout that always appears when you launch WaveLab.
Optionally, the snapshots and the files that you had opened automatically reopen.
There are 2 types of layouts:
•
Workspace layouts that concern a given type of workspace
•
General window layouts that concern the placement of all main windows
Workspace Layout
You can save a workspace layout to later recall the favorite layout for a given editing
task. Since workspaces can be complex, it is useful to have layouts with a reduced
number of visible tool windows to perform a given task.
General Window Layout
A general window layout serves two different purposes, each one being selectable
when saving a general window preset.
1)
It can recall the placements of all main windows, without recalling how they
are layouted inside. This is useful when you work with multi screen setups or
large screens, for example, to display two workspaces next to each other. The
position and sizes of the windows are saved. When restoring such a layout,
only the already open windows are adjusted. For example, if the layout
contains a Batch Processors workspace, and none is open when applying the
preset, no batch workspace will open.
2)
It can save the exact window snapshot. In this case, the inner layouts (tool
windows, command bars, tab groups, etc.) are saved and restored. When
restoring such a layout, all the open windows are first closed, and an exact
snapshot is restored. Whether the data files are reopend or not, is an option.
Windows such as the Import Audio CD dialog are part of general window layouts.
615
Customizing
Window Layout
Working with Window Layouts
Once you have your tool windows, command bars, and tab groups set up the way
that you want to work, you can save them as a preset. You can either save the
window layout of the currently active workspace, or for all workspaces.
NOTE
If you hold down [Ctrl]/[Command] when launching the program, the startup dialog
that allows you to choose the startup layout is displayed.
Workspace Layout
You can define options when saving the layout of a workspace. You can save the
placement of the workspace frame and all its tool windows and/or the layout of
tabbed data windows. It allows you to choose whether to retain or discard these
elements of your current layout arrangement when saving a new layout.
•
To save the layout of the currently active workspace as preset, select
Workspace > Layout > Save as, enter a name, and click Save.
•
To save the layout of the currently active workspace as default, select
Workspace > Layout > Save current layout as default.
•
To restore the default layout, select Workspace > Layout > Restore default
layout. The default layout is used when a new workspace is created.
•
To activate a previously saved preset, select Workspace > Layout, and
select a preset from the menu.
•
To save the position and size of the workspace and its command bars and tool
windows in the preset, activate Save placement of this workspace and its
peripheral windows before saving.
•
To save the position and size of the tab groups within the workspace in the
preset, activate Save layout of tab groups before saving.
General Window Layout
•
To save the current layout as preset for all workspaces, select Global >
General window layout > Save as, enter a name, and click Save.
•
To save the current layout as default layout for all workspaces, select Global
> General window layout > Save current layout as default.
•
To apply the default window layout, select Global > General window layout
> Close all and restore default layout. The default layout saves all window
placements as well as their inner layouts, but not the documents links. This
option can be selected from the startup dialog, too.
•
To activate a previously saved preset, select Global > General window
layout, and select a preset from the menu.
616
Customizing
Window Layout
NOTE
Plug-in windows are not part of a general layout.
Locking the Window Layout
Once you have set up a window layout, you can lock it, to prevent tool windows from
being closed or moved by accident. This also makes the layout more compact by
hiding certains caption bars used to move tool windows. The only edit possibility for
locked windows is to move the separators and to move floating windows.
PROCEDURE
1.
Set up the window layout to your liking.
2.
In any workspace, activate Workspace > Lock layout.
RESULT
The window layout is globally locked for all workspaces.
Workspace Layout Dialog
This dialog allows you to save the window layout of the active workspace as a
preset.
In any workspace, select Workspace > Layout > Save as.
Path name
Opens the root folder of the preset in the Windows Explorer/Mac OS Finder.
Here, you can create subfolders in which presets can be stored.
Presets list
Lists all existing presets.
Name
Lets you specify the name of the preset to save.
617
Customizing
Window Layout
Create shortcut for selecting the preset
If this option is activated and you click Save, the Shortcut Definitions dialog
opens, which allows you to define a shortcut to apply to this preset.
If a preset already has an assigned shortcut, this option is grayed out. To
change the existing shortcut, double-click the preset name in the presets list.
Save placement of this workspace and its peripheral windows
Saves the position and size of the workspace and its command bars and tool
windows.
Save layout of tab groups
Saves the position and size of the tab groups within the workspace.
General Window Layout Dialog
This dialog allows you to save the current layout as preset for all main windows.
In any workspace, select Global > General window layout > Save as.
Path name
Opens the root folder of the preset in the Windows Explorer/Mac OS Finder.
Here, you can create subfolders in which presets can be stored.
Presets list
Lists all existing presets.
Name
Lets you specify the name of the preset to save.
Create shortcut for selecting the preset
If this option is activated and you click Save, the Shortcut Definitions dialog
opens, which allows you to define a shortcut to apply to this preset.
If a preset already has an assigned shortcut, this option is grayed out. To
change the existing shortcut, double-click the preset name in the presets list.
618
Customizing
Window Layout
Restore options
Lets you select the way a general window layout is restored.
Restore position and size of the currently active windows
If this option is activated, when the preset is restored later, only the position
and size of the currently opened main windows are adjusted, according to the
layout they had when the preset was saved.
When restoring a general layout, currently opened main windows that were
not part of this layout, are not affected and no new window are created.
Restore the currently active layout
If this option is activated, when the preset is restored later, all windows are
first closed and the same window layout as when the preset was saved, is
restored. No files are reopened, though.
This option is useful to create reference working layouts to which you can add
files.
This is the same as selecting Restore last window layout without files on
the launch screen of WaveLab.
Restore documents
This option is as the previous option, with some additions. If this option is
activated, the files that are opened when the preset is saved, are restored
when the preset is recalled. This is like saving/restoring an exact working
session.
This is the same as selecting Restore last window layout on the launch
screen of WaveLab.
Starting WaveLab With a General Layout Preset
You can start WaveLab with a given general window layout by specifying a preset
name in the command line.
The format of the command line is “--layout presetName”.
If the preset is stored inside a folder in the layout preset, you must specify the
relative path. If the preset name contains spaces, put the name in quotes. For
example, --layout “My Folder/presetName”.
An example of setting up the command line:
1)
Set up a general window layout, and save it as “Layout 1”.
2)
Start WaveLab with the command line --layout “Layout 1“.
619
Customizing
Customizing the Wave Window and the Montage Window
Customizing the Wave Window and the Montage
Window
You can style the wave/montage window to your liking, by adjusting colors of
waveforms, background, cursor lines, etc., and changing the look of the ruler and
other window details. This helps you find your way through the audio file or audio
montage.
Customizing can be done in the following ways:
•
By changing the default style.
•
By assigning different styles, according to specific conditions. For example, a
certain file type or a certain file name.
Default colors are provided, but you can also define custom colors. You can copy
and paste colors to transfer colors between various parts of the wave/montage.
Assigning Custom Colors to the Wave Window or the Montage
Window
PROCEDURE
1.
Depending on whether you want to customize the colors of the wave window
or the montage window, do the following:
•
In the Audio Files workspace, select Options > Audio file editing
preferences, and select the Style tab.
•
In the Audio Montage workspace, select Options > Colors.
2.
Select the part from the Parts list.
3.
Specify a color using the color picker or the RGB fields.
4.
Click OK.
620
Customizing
Customizing the Wave Window and the Montage Window
Assigning Custom Colors According to Conditions
You can have different color schemes automatically applied to different clips,
according to their names or properties of their audio files.
IMPORTANT
If you redefine colors, be careful not to choose colors that cause some elements to
disappear. For example, when having black marker lines on a black background.
PROCEDURE
1.
2.
Depending on whether you want to customize the colors of the wave window
or the montage window, do one of the following:
•
In the Audio Files workspace, select Options > Audio file editing
preferences, and select the Style tab.
•
In the Audio Montage workspace, select Options > Color.
Depending on the workspace you are in, do one of the following:
•
In the Audio file editing preferences dialog, on the Style tab, select one of
the Conditional options from the menu at the top of the dialog.
•
In the Audio montage colors dialog, in the Parts list, select one of the
Custom entries.
3.
Specify a color using the color picker or the RGB fields.
4.
In the This style is used if these conditions apply section, specify the
conditions.
5.
Click OK.
Copying Color Settings
You can copy the color settings of one part, or all parts of a custom color schema.
•
To copy a color setting, select the part from which you want to copy the color,
and select Copy color. Then select the part to which you want to copy the
color, and select Paste.
•
To copy all color settings of a custom color setting, drag the name of a custom
color setting onto another custom color name, and click OK.
621
Customizing
Customizing the Wave Window and the Montage Window
Audio Montage Colors Dialog
In this dialog, you can specify custom colors to clips and parts of a clip in the
montage window.
In the Audio Montage workspace, select Options > Colors.
Parts list
Shows parts that can be colorized. Click a part to edit the color.
Undo all
Undoes all changes that have been made since this dialog was opened.
Undo
Undoes the last change.
Hide
Hides the selected part.
Change both channels
It is possible to make separate color settings for the left and the right side of
stereo clips. If this option is activated, settings for the left side of a clip are
automatically mirrored on the right side, and vice versa.
Color picker
Lets you select the color for the selected part. Click the surrounding circle to
select the hue. Click in the triangle to adjust the saturation and lightness.
Red/Green/Blue
Lets you specify the red, green, and blue components of the RGB color
spectrum.
Copy color
Copies the current color to the clipboard.
Paste
Pastes the color from the clipboard.
622
Customizing
Customizing the Wave Window and the Montage Window
This style is used if these conditions apply
Lets you define conditions under which a certain color style is applied.
File extension is any of
If this option is activated, the color style is applied to clips referencing a file
with the specified extension. Separate extensions with a “;” character.
Name contains any of these keywords
If this option is activated, the color style is applied to clips with certain
keywords in their name. Separate keywords with a “;” character.
Sample rate is in the range
If this option is activated, the color style is applied to clips referencing a file
having a sample rate within the specified range.
Bit resolution is in the range
If this option is activated, the color style is applied to clips referencing a file
having a bit resolution within the specified range.
Number of channels is
If this option is activated, the color style is applied to clips having the specified
number of channels.
Color Elements in the Audio Montage Workspace
You can assign custom colors to various elements of the Audio Montage
workspace.
In the Audio Montage workspace, select Options > Colors.
Clip Colors
The following clip types are available:
Crossfade region
Allows you to set the background color for overlapping clip sections.
Default
The default colors, used for clips for which you have not selected any specific
color.
Locked
The colors used for all fully locked clips.
Muted
The colors used for all muted clips.
Custom
These options correspond to the items on the color submenus. These can be
renamed, and you can also set up conditions for when these should be
automatically applied.
623
Customizing
Customizing the Wave Window and the Montage Window
The following color elements are available:
Background top/bottom (normal/selected/selected range)
The background colors of the clip for selected and unselected clips, and the
selection range). The resulting display backgrounds are gradient fades from
the top colors to the bottom colors.
Waveform (normal/selected/selected range)
The waveform color for selected and unselected clips, and the selection
range.
Waveform outline (normal/selected/selected range)
The color of the waveform outline for selected and unselected clips, and the
selection range).
Edge
The left and right edge of the clip.
Edge (selected)
The left and right edge if the clip is selected.
Edge (selected range)
The left and right edge if within a selection range.
Axis (level zero)
The color of the horizontal dotted line in the middle of a clip, indicating zero
level.
Axis (half level)
The color of the horizontal dotted lines halfway up and down from the middle
of a clip, indicating 50 % level.
Channel separator (stereo clip)
The line dividing the two sides in a stereo clip.
Clip name
The name label of the clip.
Focused clip name
The name label of the focused clip.
Focused clip name background
The name label background of the focused clip.
Miscellaneous
Background top/bottom
The background colors of the track view for area without a clip.
Background (selected range) top/bottom
The background colors in selected ranges.
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Customizing
Customizing the Wave Window and the Montage Window
Cursor (edit)/Cursor (edit, no focus)/Cursor (playback)
The color of the corresponding cursor.
Marker line
The color of the marker lines in the audio montage.
Cue point line/End cue point line
The color of the vertical dotted cue point lines and end cue point lines.
Marker line (source)
The color of marker lines from the source montage window. The marker lines
are displayed, when the option Show/Hide source’s ruler and markers is
activated on the Functions menu of the Clips window.
Time ruler (source)
The color of the source ruler. The source ruler is displayed, when the option
Show/Hide source’s ruler and markers is activated on the Functions menu
of the Clips window.
Time grid lines
The color of the time grid if activated in the menu of the time ruler.
Audio Files Colors Dialog
This tab in the Audio file editing preferences dialog allows you to specify custom
colors to parts of the wave window.
In the Audio Files workspace, select Options > Audio file editing preferences,
and select the Style tab.
Styles list
Lets you select the default style and conditional styles.
Parts list
Shows parts that can be colorized. Click a part to edit the color.
Hide (for certain parts only)
Hides the selected part.
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Customizing
Customizing the Wave Window and the Montage Window
Dotted line (for certain parts only)
Changes the line to a dotted line.
Transparency (for certain parts only)
Lets you edit the degree of transparency of the selected element.
Element size (for certain parts only)
Lets you edit the size of the selected element.
Change both channels
Allows you to make separate color settings for the left and the right side of
stereo file. If this option is activated, settings for the left side of a file are
automatically mirrored on the right side, and vice versa.
Change both main view and overview
Allows you to make separate color settings for the main view and the
overview. If this option is activated, settings for the main view are automatically
mirrored on the overview, and vice versa.
Color picker
Lets you select the color for the selected part. Click the surrounding circle to
select the hue. Click in the triangle to adjust the saturation and lightness.
Red/Green/Blue
Lets you specify the red, green, and blue components of the RGB color
spectrum.
Copy color
Copies the current color to the clipboard.
Paste
Pastes the color from the clipboard.
This style is used if these conditions apply
Lets you define conditions under which a certain color style is applied.
File extension is any of
If this option is activated, the color style is applied to files with the specified
extension. Separate extensions with a “;” character.
Name contains any of these keywords
If this option is activated, the color style is applied to files with certain
keywords in their name. Separate keywords with a “;” character.
Sample rate in the range
If this option is activated, the color style is applied to files having a sample rate
within the specified range.
Bit resolution is in the range
If this option is activated, the color style is applied to files having a bit
resolution within the specified range.
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Customizing
Customizing the Wave Window and the Montage Window
Number of channels is
If this option is activated, the color style is applied to files having the specified
number of channels.
Color Elements in the Audio Files Workspace
You can assign custom colors to various elements of the Audio Files workspace.
Depending on the selected element, additional settings can be made for
transparency, appearance, or whether a line should be dotted, for example.
In the Audio Files workspace, select Options > Audio file editing preferences,
and select the Style tab.
Left/Right Channel
Waveform
The waveform color.
Waveform (selected)
The waveform color of the selected part of the waveform.
Waveform outline
The outline color of the waveform.
Waveform outline (selected)
The outline color of the selected part of the waveform.
Background top
The color of the background top.
Background top (selected)
The color of the selected part of the background top.
Background bottom
The color of the background bottom.
Background bottom (selected)
The color of the selected part of the background bottom.
Waveform main axis
The color of the waveform main axis and its style.
Waveform 50 % axis
The color of the waveform 50 % axis and its style.
Waveform Elements
Channel separator
The color of the channel separator line.
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Customizing
About Customizing Shortcuts
Cursor (edit)
The color of the edit cursor, its width, and transparency.
Cursor (edit, no focus)
The color of the edit cursor for a file that does not have the focus.
Cursor (play)
The color of the cursor during playback.
Marker line
The color of the marker lines and an optional transparency.
End of file indicator
The color of the end of the file indicator.
Time ruler style
The color of the time ruler and its style.
Time ruler font
The color of the font on the time ruler and the font size.
Level ruler style
The color of the level ruler, its style, and transparency.
Level ruler font
The color of the font on the level ruler and the font size.
About Customizing Shortcuts
In WaveLab, you can control many functions via shortcuts to speed up your
workflow. You can edit existing shortcuts, and create new shortcuts.
Most shortcuts are restricted to a specific context, so you can reuse the same
shortcut combination in different workspaces. The exception is the Master Section
where all shortcuts are global to the application. Shortcuts that cannot be edited
are grayed out. The shortcuts that you created are displayed in blue in the editor.
You can create new shortcuts in the following ways:
•
By specifying a key sequence of between one to three keys that must be
pressed in a certain order to invoke the operation.
•
By specifying a MIDI command. You need a MIDI controller device connected
to your PC/Mac for this to work.
•
By specifying keywords.
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Customizing
About Customizing Shortcuts
Keywords
Keywords are custom words that are assigned to a function in the Customize
commands dialog or to a preset in the Shortcut Definitions dialog. When entering
the keyword in the Keyword field command bar, the corresponding function is
triggered.
EXAMPLE
For example, you want to have a quick way to normalize audio to -1 dB.
1)
In the Audio Files workspace, select Process > Normalize level.
2)
Set the Peak level to -1 dB.
3)
Click the Presets field, and select Save as.
4)
Enter a name for the preset, and activate Create shortcut for applying the
preset.
5)
Click Save.
6)
In the Shortcut Definitions dialog, enter “norm_1” as a Keyword, and click
OK.
7)
Now, to trigger the preset, enter “norm_1” in the Keyword field, and press
[Return].
Editing Shortcuts
You can see the list of all shortcuts in the Customize commands dialog, and edit
and assign shortcuts in the Shortcut Definitions dialog.
NOTE
The Customize commands dialog provides a different command set for each
menu or dialog.
•
To open the Shortcut Definitions dialog, where you can edit the shortcuts,
double-click the shortcut text or its placeholder, or select a command and
click Edit shortcut.
•
You can enter a keyword which you can later use to activate a command by
typing it into the Keyword field command bar.
•
You can assign a command to be triggered by an external MIDI controller. For
example, this could be useful for issuing transport commands from your midi
keyboard. You can specify a sequence of up to three midi events. The MIDI
shortcut is displayed in the MIDI Trigger column.
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Customizing
About Customizing Shortcuts
•
You can define one key shortcut, and/or one MIDI shortcut, and/or one
keyword per command. Each shortcut can be a sequence of up to four
keystrokes or three MIDI events. A keyword can be of any length.
•
To reset some or all types of shortcuts to their factory defaults use the Reset
button.
Defining Key Sequences
You can define key sequences for a keyboard and for a MIDI controller.
PREREQUISITE
If you want to define a key sequence for a MIDI controller, make sure that your MIDI
controller is connected to your PC/Mac, and selected in the Remote devices
dialog.
On Mac, commands for the main menus must be of a single key command.
When using multiple key stroke commands, make sure that the key commands do
not interfere with each other. For example, when you have one shortcut [Shift]+L, M
and define another to be [Shift]+L, the second shortcut has no effect.
PROCEDURE
1.
In any workspace, select Options > Customize commands, or select
Customize commands when available in tool windows or other places in
WaveLab.
2.
In the customize commands list, select the command for which you want to
define a key sequence, and click Edit shortcut, or double-click the Key
sequence column of the corresponding command.
3.
In the Shortcut Definitions dialog, click in the 1st key stroke field, and press
the buttons that you want to use as the key sequence.
4.
Optional: Define up to 4 key sequences for the command.
5.
Click OK.
RESULT
When you now press the keys/buttons specified in the dialog, the corresponding
operation is performed. The key strokes must be executed one after the other.
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Customizing
About Customizing Shortcuts
Selecting a MIDI Controller for Defining MIDI Commands
Before you can use MIDI commands, you have to select a MIDI controller.
PROCEDURE
1.
In any workspace, except the Podcast workspace, select Options > Remote
devices.
2.
On the Device editing tab, select the MIDI shortcuts for menus option from
the pop-up menu at the top.
3.
Select Active, to activate the selected device.
4.
From the In-Port menu, select a MIDI input port.
Customizing Menus and Command Bars
You can individually decide whether to hide or show a certain option in the menu
and/or command bar icons. This way you can customize menus and command bars
by removing unwanted commands.
PROCEDURE
1.
In any workspace, select Options > Customize commands, or select
Customize commands when available in tool windows or other places in
WaveLab.
2.
Do the following:
3.
•
To show a certain command in menus, activate the checkbox in the Menu
column for corresponding command.
•
To show a certain command in the command bar, activate the checkbox in the
Bar column for the corresponding command.
Click OK.
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Customizing
About Customizing Shortcuts
Generating a List of All Shortcuts
You can generate an HTML file or print out a list that contains all shortcuts for the
active command set.
PREREQUISITE
When you want to print out the list, make sure a printer is connected to your system.
PROCEDURE
1.
In any workspace, select Options > Customize commands, or select
Customize commands when available in tool windows or other places in
WaveLab.
2.
Click Summary, and select one of the following options:
•
To open the Print preview dialog, from which you can print out the list of all
shortcuts, select Print preview. For Print preview to be available, a printer
must be connected.
•
To open the list of all shortcuts in the HTML file format in the standard browser,
select HTML report.
Customize Commands Dialog
This dialog allows you to customize your own shortcuts for WaveLab. It shows a list
of already assigned shortcuts for WaveLab commands and menu options.
In any workspace, select Options > Customize commands, or select Customize
commands when available in tool windows or other places in WaveLab.
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Customizing
About Customizing Shortcuts
Search by
Allows you to select the part of the commands list in which the search is
performed.
Search field
Allows you to search for a command.
Use wildcards
If this option is activated, the wildcard characters “*” and “?” can be used.
“*” substitutes zero or more characters, and “?” substitutes any character.
For example, if Search by keyboard shortcut is selected, type “*” to display
all the commands already associated with a shortcut.
Expand/Collapse
Expands/collapses the folder tree.
Commands list
Shows all commands and their shortcuts for the active command set.
Reset
Resets the commands to the factory setting.
Summary
Opens a menu from which you can generate a list of all commands and their
shortcuts either in HTML or as a print out.
Edit shortcut
Opens the Shortcut Definitions dialog where you can edit the shortcuts of
the selected command.
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Customizing
About Customizing Shortcuts
Shortcut Definitions Dialog
This dialog allows you to define your own customized shortcuts for a particular
function. These custom shortcuts can speed up your workflow in WaveLab.
In the Customize commands dialog, select a command, and click Edit shortcut.
Key Sequence
1st key stroke
Lets you select the first key of an optional sequence of up to 4 keys. Set the
focus in the key stroke field, then press the key combination. If nothing is
displayed, a key is not allowed in this context.
2nd/3rd/4th key stroke (optional)
Lets you select additional keys that have to be triggered to execute the
command. The command is only executed if this key event happens after the
first one.
Clear
Erases all key event fields.
Keyword
Lets you type in a keyword that invokes the command.
MIDI event sequence
This section is only available if a MIDI input port has been specified in the main
preferences in WaveLab.
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Customizing
Plug-ins Organization
1st event
Lets you select the first MIDI event of an optional sequence of up to 4 MIDI
events. Set the focus in the event field, then trigger the MIDI event from your
MIDI controller.
2nd/3rd event (optional)
Lets you select additional MIDI events that have to be triggered to execute the
command. The command is only executed if this MIDI event happens after the
first one.
Clear
Erases all MIDI event fields.
Plug-ins Organization
WaveLab comes with various plug-ins, and additional plug-ins can be added. To
remain an overview about the plug-ins that are relevant to your project, you can
organize your plug-ins in groups.
In the Organize tab of the Plug-in settings, you can organize how your plug-ins
appear on menus in the program. In the plug-ins list, you find subfolders,
representing groups of plug-ins.
How you organize your effects is up to you, but initially, they are categorized by
vendor, category, favorite plug-ins, and recently used plug-ins.
In case 32 bit and 64 bit versions of WaveLab are used on the same system, their
settings are shared. An exception to this rule are the following options in the Plug-in
settings dialog:
•
Additional VST plug-in folders
•
Ignore plug-ins located in the following subfolders
This is because 32-bit plug-ins cannot be used in WaveLab 64 bit and reciprocally.
Deactivating Plug-ins
You can deactivate plug-ins. This is useful if you have plug-ins installed that you do
not want to use in WaveLab.
Many of the DirectX plug-ins, for example, do not apply to audio and are of no
relevance to WaveLab. By disabling these, you make it easier to find the plug-ins
that you want to use in WaveLab.
PROCEDURE
1.
In any workspace, except the Podcast workspace, select Options > Plug-in
settings.
2.
Select the Organize tab.
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Customizing
Plug-ins Organization
3.
In the plug-ins list, navigate to the plug-in that you want to deactivate, or use
the search field.
4.
Deactivating the checkbox in for the corresponding plug-in.
•
When selecting multiple plug-ins, you can deactivate all of them with a single
click.
•
To deactivate the plug-in from the plug-in selection menus, deactivate the
checkbox in the Effect column.
•
To deactivate the plug-in in the Dithering panel of the Master Section,
deactivate the checkbox in the Dither column.
•
To deactivate the plug-in in the Post-Processing panel of the Master Section,
deactivate the checkbox in the Post column.
Adding Plug-ins to the Favorites Menu
You can add plug-ins that you are using regularly to the Favorites menu of the
plug-in selection menu.
PROCEDURE
1.
In any workspace, except the Podcast workspace, select Options > Plug-in
settings.
2.
Select the Organize tab.
3.
In the plug-ins list, navigate to the plug-in that you want to add to the favorites,
or use the search field.
4.
Specify whether to add or remove a plug-in from the favorites, by
activating/deactivating the checkbox in for the corresponding plug-in in the
Favorites column.
NOTE
If the Favorites menu is empty, it does not appear in plug-in selection menus.
Customizing Plug-in Groups
In any workspace, except the Podcast workspace, select Options > Plug-in
settings, and open the Organize tab. Here, you can customize the appearance and
sorting of plug-ins.
•
To update the tree with the following changes, click the Show changes
button.
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Customizing
Plug-ins Organization
•
To create a custom category for a plug-in, click the Custom category column
for the corresponding plug-in, and enter a new category name.
[Alt]/[Option]-click to delete the category. Use the character “|” to create
subcategories, for example, “Folder-1|Folder-2”. If you select multiple
plug-ins, the category name is set to all selected plug-ins.
•
To rename a custom category, click the existing category name in the Custom
category column, and select Rename category from the pop-up menu. In the
Rename category dialog, enter the name of the category that you want to
rename in the Find field, and the name that you want to replace it with in the
Replace with field. Then click Replace all.
•
The category labels used to create the hierarchy are supplied by the plug-in
manufacturers. To change the category name, in the Category renaming
table, click in the Original column, and select the category that you want to
rename. Then click in the Modified column, and enter a new name.
•
To change the sorting of plug-in groups, in the Customize section, in the
sorting menu, select whether to sort by category or by vendor. If a plug-in
does not publish a vendor name or category, the name of the enclosing
plug-in folder on disc is used as vendor name or category, if it is not the VST
plug-in root folder.
•
To group all plug-ins that start with the same prefix in one submenu, activate
Create submenus based on prefixes, and specify the number of plug-ins
that must start with the same prefix. Only if this number is reached, a submenu
is created.
•
To group plug-ins in a single submenu if their number is below a specified
value, activate Compress hierarchy, and specify the threshold. A tree is
flattened to a single submenu if the number is below the threshold. This
prevents having small submenus.
•
To activate the Recently used category, activate Submenu with recently
used plug-ins, and specify the maximum number of recently used plug-ins
that should be displayed in this category.
•
You can make the Recently used category global to all places or individual
for each context, for example, for the Master Section, audio montage track,
audio montage clip, or batch processors. To make the Recently used
category individual for each context, activate Independent for each context.
Adding Additional VST Plug-ins
You can specify folders where additional VST plug-ins can be found. This is useful
if you are using third-party VST plug-ins that you do not want to store in the
standard VST folder.
PROCEDURE
1.
In any workspace, except the Podcast workspace, select Options > Plug-in
settings.
2.
Select the General tab.
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Customizing
Plug-ins Organization
3.
In the Additional VST plug-in folder (WaveLab specific) section, click the
folder icon, and navigate to the folder that contains the VST plug-ins that you
want to add.
4.
Click OK.
Excluding Plug-ins
You can specify a list of plug-ins that WaveLab does not open.
PROCEDURE
1.
In any workspace, except the Podcast workspace, select Options > Plug-in
settings.
2.
Select the General tab.
3.
In the Do not load the following plug-ins section, type in the name of the
plug-in that you do not want to open:
4.
•
Enter the exact file name, without path and without file extension.
•
Enter one name per line.
•
If you put “*” in front of the name, any plug-in that contains the name is ignored.
Click OK.
Replacing Missing Plug-ins
When opening an audio montage and some plug-ins for tracks or clips are missing,
you can select plug-ins to replace the missing plug-ins.
PROCEDURE
1.
In the Missing plug-ins dialog, click the Replacement column, and select a
replacement for the plug-in displayed in the Original column.
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Customizing
Plug-ins Organization
2.
If you want the settings to be persistent for the future, activate Save the
replacements as default.
3.
Click OK.
Plug-in Settings Dialog
In this dialog, you can access a number of options for managing your VST plug-ins.
You can specify where WaveLab should search for your VST plug-ins and which
ones it should ignore. It also allows you to choose how your VST plug-in knobs
respond to mouse interactions and how frequently graphics are updated.
If you use your own file structure to organize and store VST plug-ins, this dialog
allows you to have full control over which ones are loaded or not. This is useful if you
want to disable a particular plug-in that you suspect of not functioning properly, or
if you want to ignore certain plug-ins you never want to use with WaveLab.
In any workspace, except the Podcast workspace, select Options > Plug-in
settings.
General Tab
Search standard VST plug-in shared folders
If this option is activated, WaveLab searches VST plug-ins in the default VST
plug-in folders.
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Customizing
Plug-ins Organization
Information about the searched folders
Clicking on the info icon opens a window in which you can see in which
folders WaveLab searched for plug-ins when it was launched. When you
cannot find a plug-in in WaveLab, this helps you to determine whether you
have specified the correct folder, for example.
Additional VST plug-in folders (WaveLab specific)
Lets you specify additional folders where VST plug-ins can be found.
Ignore plug-ins located in the following subfolders (separate folder names
with a semicolon)
Lets you specify folder names, that WaveLab skips when searching VST
plug-ins.
Do not load the following plug-ins
Lets you specify plug-ins that WaveLab does not open. Enter the file names,
without path and without file extension. Write each plug-in on a new line.
If you put the character * in front of the name, any plug-in that contains the
name is ignored.
Force plug-in detection at next launch
Analyzes the plug-ins when launching WaveLab the next time. To reduce the
start time of WaveLab, the plug-ins are not analyzed every time WaveLab is
started. However, WaveLab keeps a list of plug-ins and updates this
automatically when a date or size change is detected.
Keep plug-ins in memory until WaveLab ends
If this option is activated, the plug-ins are kept in memory even when no longer
used. This results in a faster reopening of plug-ins. However, if you use many
plug-ins, too much memory could be used after a certain time, which slows
down the application.
Faster graphics refreshing (consumes more computer power)
Refreshes the graphics of VST plug-ins more quickly.
VST plug-in knobs
Lets you set the mode for using knobs in plug-ins. You can set the mode to
Circular, Circular with relative movement, and Linear.
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Customizing
Plug-ins Organization
Organize Tab
Plug-ins list
Displays the hierarchy of the plug-ins in WaveLab. Here, you can specify
whether a plug-in should be available from the plug-in selection menus and/or
the Dithering panel and Post-Processing panel of the Master Section. You
can add plug-ins to the Favorites list, create shortcuts for plug-ins, specify
custom categories, and decide whether to use the generic user interface or
the plug-in specific user interface.
Expand/Collapse
Expands/collapses the folder tree.
Search field
The search field allows you to filter the plug-ins list for names.
•
Click in the search field, and enter the text that you want to search for.
•
To switch the focus from the search field to the plug-ins list, press the
arrow down key.
•
To switch the focus from the plug-ins list to the search field, press
[Ctrl]/[Command]-[F].
Only show new plug-ins
If this option is activated, only the recently detected plug-ins are displayed.
Clear “new” status
Resets the “new” status of the recently detected plug-ins.
Display changes
Regenerates the plug-in tree according to the current settings.
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Plug-ins Organization
Sorting
Determines how the plug-ins should be primarily hierarchized. The other
parameters act on that hierarchy.
Compress hierarchy
Merges all items into a single submenu if a submenu and all its submenus
contain less than a certain number of plug-ins (Threshold).
Compress hierarchy - Threshold
Represents the minimum number of items that are needed to compress the
hierarchy.
Create submenus based on prefixes
Creates a submenu that is labeled as the prefix, when several items in a
submenu start with the same prefix.
Create submenus based on prefixes - Threshold
Represents the minimum number of items that must start with the same prefix
that are needed to create submenus that are labeled as the prefix.
Merge single submenus
Merges submenus that contain another submenu with only a single item in it.
Category renaming
The category labels used to create the hierarchy are supplied by the plug-in
manufacturers. In this section you can change the category name. This can
also be useful to merge two categories into one, by renaming these two
categories with the same name.
Submenu with recently used plug-ins
Toggles if the Recently used submenu is shown or hidden.
Submenu with recently used plug-ins - Maximum size
Determines the maximum number of plug-ins in the Recently used submenu.
Submenu with recently used plug-ins - Independent for each context
Determines whether the Recently used submenu is global to all places where
plug-ins can be selected, or if it is local to each context.
Ignored plug-ins
Opens the Ignored Plug-ins dialog, where you can see the plug-ins that
were not loaded. This dialog lets you instruct WaveLab to rescan these
plug-ins at the next launch. This is fast than a full rescan.
Number of plug-ins
Shows the number of plug-ins that are available in WaveLab.
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Customizing
Variables and Text Snippets
Variables and Text Snippets
You can define and use custom variables and text snippets, or use auto variables in
various places in WaveLab, for example, in the Meta-data dialog.
Custom variables can be used to replace codes with a specified text in meta-data
saved within audio files. For example, you can define the variable %proj% to be
replaced by the name of the current project. A custom variable can also contain
references to other variables. For example, %comment% can be defined as
“%proj% started on @Date1@”.
Variable codes are replaced with the variable values at the time of file writing. For
example, when the meta-data is saved inside an audio file.
Auto variables are automatically set by WaveLab. For example, the current date, the
sample rate, or the bit resolution.
Text snippets can be used to define words that you are using regularly when filling
in text fields. These can be inserted into a text field over the Text Snippets menu.
Certain auto-variables depend on contexts. For example:
•
CD Text variables are only used when rendering an audio montage.
•
Auto-variables that relate to CD tracks are only used when rendering CD
tracks from an audio montage. To render CD tracks, activate one of the
following options in the Render dialog: Selected CD track, One region (CD
Track markers), or Regions (track markers).
If a variable is used in a wrong context, it is replaced with a blank.
NOTE
Variable codes are case sensitive. It is recommended to select the codes from the
menus.
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Customizing
Variables and Text Snippets
Defining Variables and Text Snippets
You can create new variables and text snippets, and define values for them.
PROCEDURE
1.
In any workspace, except the Podcast workspace, select Options >
Variables and Text Snippets.
2.
Do one of the following:
•
On the Custom Variables tab, click the plus icon to add a new variable, or
double-click an existing variable that you want to modify.
•
On the Text Snippets tab, click the plus icon to add a new definition, or
double-click an existing definition that you want to modify.
3.
For custom variables, enter the name, code, and value for the variable. For text
snippets, enter the text.
4.
If you are done defining variables and text snippets, click OK.
Applying Variables and Text Snippets
You can apply custom variables, auto variables, and text snippets at various places
in WaveLab.
PREREQUISITE
Define custom variables and text snippets.
PROCEDURE
1.
In a value field, click the arrow icon. When several fields are selected,
right-click to access the pop-up menu.
2.
From the menu, select a custom variable, auto variable, or text snippet.
The variable or text snippet is added to the value field.
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Customizing
About Scripting
Variables and Text Snippets Dialog
This dialog allows you to define custom variables, see the auto variables, and define
text snippets that are local to the project that you are working on.
In any workspace, except the Podcast workspace, select Options > Variables and
Text Snippets.
Plus icon
Adds a new variable/text snippet.
Minus icon
Removes the selected variable/text snippet.
About Scripting
WaveLab contains a powerful scripting language to help advanced users create
their own scripts to automate tasks. Using basic scripts can be useful for
automating repetitive editing tasks such as trimming and cropping a file at specific
times, for example.
You can write scripts that perform other basic editing commands, apply offline
processing, place markers, and display information about the active file. You can
script commands to edit the active audio file or the active audio montage. If you have
some experience of programming with modern scripting languages you should have
no problem writing utility scripts for WaveLab.
The WaveLab Scripting language is based on ECMAScript, with the addition of
WaveLab specific commands. If you have had any experience with Javascript,
Jscript, or Actionscript the code syntax will be familiar to you as they are all based
on ECMAScript, too. If not, there is a large amount of teaching and reference
material available online. A Javascript reference such as www.w3schools.com or a
book like JavaScript: The Definitive Guide are good places to start.
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To begin exploring the WaveLab specific functions available see WaveLab
Scripting Language chapter. For a broader look at the complete subset of
commands available see ECMAScript Reference.
On Windows, there is an additional scripting interface, to control WaveLab from
external applications using VBScript or JScript. The documentation of this interface
can be found in the folder: WaveLab 8.5\Tools\Windows Scripting\
This topic is about scripts executed from within WaveLab.
Writing and Executing a Script
PROCEDURE
1.
In the Audio Files workspace or the Audio Montage workspace, open the
Script window.
2.
Type your script directly in the Script window or copy and paste it from an
external text editor.
A script can also be written in another text editor, and loaded via the File menu or by
copying it into the Script window.
3.
To run the script, click the Execute script icon.
RESULT
The script runs if there are no syntax errors. Any errors appear in a dialog box to help
you debug them.
NOTE
There are several free utility text editors that are context sensitive. This means that
they can color and highlight parts of your code to make it more readable. If you use
one of these for writing and editing your scripts, choose Javascript as the editing
language and/or save the file with a .js (Javascript) extension.
Script Window
This window allows you to write and execute scripts in WaveLab.
The inbuilt text editor helps you when writing scripts by highlighting the different
parts of the script with colors, making it more readable.
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In the Audio Files workspace or the Audio Montage workspace, select Workspace
> Specific tool windows > Script.
New
Creates a new script. The current script is closed as only one instance can be
opened at a time.
Open
Opens a dialog where you can select a script.
Save
Saves the current script.
Save as
Allows you to save the current script with a different name and in a different
location.
Execute script
Executes the script.
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Using the Log Window When Scripting
It is a good idea to begin scripting by writing some simple scripts that output some
text to the Log window.
The goal of the following example is to output a simple text message in the Log
window.
PROCEDURE
1.
In the Audio Files workspace or the Audio Montage workspace, open the Log
window.
2.
Copy and paste the following script into the Script window.
//output the number of samples in the active wave as text in the log window.
logWindow.printInfo("This file has " + activeWave.size() + " samples");
NOTE
Any lines of a script that begin with two forward slashes // are comments, and
are ignored when the script is executed.
3.
Execute the script.
RESULT
In the Log window, the number of samples used in the active file is displayed.
WaveLab Scripting Language
The scripting language of WaveLab varies slightly between workspaces. This
chapter briefly introduces you to the commands that are available in each
workspace and to those that are global.
Global Commands
These are scripting commands that are available in all scripting contexts.
logWindow
Object representing the Log window, where you can output messages to. If
the Log window is not open, all functions are ignored.
printInfo(messageString)
Outputs an informal message to the Log window. The message argument
must be typed as a string. For example, between inverted commas:
logWindow.printInfo("start");
printWarning(messageString)
Outputs a warning message to the Log window.
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printError(messageString)
Outputs an error message to the Log window.
clear()
Clears the Log window. For example:
logWindow.clear();
Audio Files Workspace
activeWave
Object representing the active audio file. Many functions make use of presets
as an argument. For example, the normalize() function accepts a preset as
an argument:
activeWave.normalize("myPreset");
The advantage is that you do not need to specify many parameters in your
scripts, instead you can use the corresponding dialog to define the settings
of a particular function, and then save them as a preset file. Since each type
of preset is unique, you do not need to specify a full path name to the preset.
Only specifying the preset name is enough, there is no need for its file
extension. Since presets can also be stored in a subfolder, you can use a
relative path name if necessary.
For example, if you want to normalize a file using a preset you have defined in
the Level Normalizer dialog and saved in a subfolder as a preset, it looks like
this:
activeWave.normalize("mySubFolder/myPreset");
All audio processing functions operate on the selected audio range. If there is
no selection the whole file range will be processed, if this option is activated
in the Audio file editing preferences. If the cursor or selection is in one
channel only, only that channel is processed. In other words, it operates
exactly the same as if you were applying a process from within a dialog.
If the preset is a factory preset, you must specify this using the prefix
%factory%/. For example:
activeWave.normalize("%factory%/EBU R-128
Recommendation")
All positions and sizes are measured in sample units. If you want to specify a
time range in another unit you need to convert it from samples:
var twoSeconds = 2 * activeWave.sampleRate();
size()
Returns the number of samples in the audio file.
sampleRate()
Returns the sample rate of the audio file.
numChannels()
Returns the number of channels of the audio file.
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cursorPosition()
Returns the current cursor position in samples.
setCursorPosition(pos)
Sets the current cursor position at a certain sample location.
selectionStart()
Returns the index of the first selected sample, or -1 if there is no selection.
selectionSize()
Returns the number of selected samples.
select(presetName)
Loads the audio range preset and applies its setting to the active audio file.
select(start, size)
Selects a number of samples, starting from a given position.
setCursorChannel(channel)
Sets the cursor position to a new channel. Use leftCh, rightCh or allCh as
arguments.
addMarker(type, name, comment)
Adds a marker at the cursor position. Possible values for type are:
•
generic
•
temporary
•
cdTrackStart
•
cdTrackEnd
•
cdTrackFrontier
•
cdTrackIndex
•
loopStart
•
loopEnd
•
muteStart
•
muteEnd
•
playbackStarter
•
regionStart
•
regionEnd
•
errorStart
•
errorEnd
•
correctionStart
•
correctionEnd
For example:
activeWave.addMarker(generic, "SomeName",
"SomeComment");
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findNextMarkerPosition(posStartSearch, type)
Searches for the next marker of type, from a given position. Returns the marker
position if any is found, or -1.
normalize(presetName)
Loads the normalizer preset and applies its setting to an audio range.
normalizeLoudness(presetName)
Loads the loudness normalizer preset and applies its setting to an audio
range.
normalizePan(presetName)
Loads the pan normalizer preset and applies its setting to an audio range.
silence(presetName)
Loads the silence preset and applies its setting to an audio range.
timeStretch(presetName)
Loads the time stretch preset and applies its setting to an audio range.
pitchCorrection(presetName)
Loads the pitch correction preset and applies its setting to an audio range.
pitchQuantize(presetName)
Loads the pitch quantize preset and applies its setting to an audio range.
changeLevel(dbValue)
Changes the level of the selected audio range.
fadeIn(shape) and fadeOut(shape)
Applies a fade on the selected audio range. Shape can be one of the
following:
•
linear
•
sinus
•
squareRoot
•
sinusoid
•
log
•
exp
•
expp
For example:
activeWave.fadeIn(squareRoot);
levelEnvelope(presetName)
Loads the envelope shape and applies its setting to an audio range.
morph(presetName)
Loads an effect morphing preset and applies it according to its settings.
invertPhase()
Inverts the phase of the samples in the audio range.
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reverse()
Reverses the order of the samples in the audio range.
cut()
Cuts the selected audio range.
copy()
Copies the selected audio range.
paste()
Pastes audio from the clipboard to the current cursor position.
trim()
Trims the selected audio range.
remove()
Deletes the selected audio range.
removeSmooth()
Deletes the selected audio range and cross fades the resulting regions
together.
mute()
Mutes the selected audio range.
swapChannels()
Swaps stereo channels.
undo()
Undoes the last command.
removeDcOffset()
Removes the DC offset in the audio range.
readSamples(channelIndex, from, numSamples)
Reads a number of samples from a given cursor position, on a given channel:
•
Use 0 for the left channel
•
Use 1 for the right channel
This returns the result in an array. For example:
buf = activeWave.readSamples(0, 20, 100); // read 100
samples on left channel, from sample index 20
for (i = 0; i < 100; i++)
{
logWindow.printInfo(buf[i]);
}
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Audio Montage Workspace
size()
Returns the number of samples in the audio montage.
sampleRate()
Returns the sample rate of the audio montage.
numChannels()
Returns the number of output channels of the audio montage.
numTracks()
Returns the number of tracks of the audio montage.
cursorPosition()
Returns the current cursor position (in samples).
setCursorPosition(pos)
Sets the current cursor position at a certain sample location.
selectionStart()
Returns the index of the first selected sample, or -1 if there is no selection.
selectionSize()
Returns the number of selected samples.
select(presetName)
Loads the audio range preset and applies its setting to the active audio
montage.
select(start, size)
Selects a number of samples, starting from a given position.
setFocusedTrack(index)
Sets the focused track.
addMarker(type, name, comment)
Add a marker at the cursor position. Possible values for type are:
•
generic
•
temporary
•
cdTrackStart
•
cdTrackEnd
•
cdTrackFrontier
•
cdTrackIndex
•
loopStart
•
loopEnd
•
muteStart
•
muteEnd
•
playbackStarter
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•
regionStart
•
regionEnd
•
errorStart
•
errorEnd
•
correctionStart
•
correctionEnd
For example:
activeWave.addMarker(generic, "SomeName",
"SomeComment");
findNextMarkerPosition(posStartSearch, type)
Searches for the next marker of type, from a given position. Returns the marker
position if any is found, or -1.
insertMonoTrack(where)
Adds a mono audio track at index 'where'.
insertStereoTrack(where)
Adds a stereo audio track at index 'where'.
insertClip(iTrack, timePosition, fileName, autoShift)
Creates a clip from 'fileName', inserts it in track 'iTrack', on the timeline at
position 'timePosition', and shifts other clips to make room according to the
following autoShift parameters:
•
autoShiftNo
•
autoShiftTrack
•
autoShiftGlobal
This function returns the ID of first created clip, or 0.
clipWithName(name)
Returns the ID of first clip with name 'name', or 0.
clipWithFile(name)
Returns the ID of first clip that refers to 'fileName', or 0.
firstClip()
Returns the first audio montage clip ID, or 0 if the audio montage is empty.
nextClip(clipId)
Returns the ID of the clip stored after 'clipId', or 0. Clips are not sorted in any
special order. Using both firstClip and nextClip allow to access all audio
montage clips.
clipName(clipId)
Returns the name of the clip identified by 'clipId'.
clipPosition(clipId)
Returns the timeline position of the clip identified by 'clipId'.
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clipSize(clipId)
Returns the size of the clip identified by 'clipId'.
setClipName(clipId, name)
Rename the clip identified by 'clipId'.
setTrackName(index, name)
Rename the track identified by 'index'.
moveClip(clipId, newPos)
Move on the timeline the clip identified by 'clipId'.
resizeClip(clipId, qlonglong newSize)
Resize the clip identified by 'clipId'. The size will be limited by the audio file
referenced by the clip.
setClipDefaultFadeIn(clipId)
Sets the default fade-in shape and time for the clip identified by 'clipId'.
setClipDefaultFadeOut(clipId)
Sets the default fade-out shape and time for the clip identified by 'clipId'.
undo()
Undoes the last command.
ECMAScript Reference
The scripting language of WaveLab is based on the ECMAScript scripting
language, as defined in standard ECMA-262. Microsoft's JScript, Netscape's
JavaScript, and Adobe's Actionscript are also based on the ECMAScript standard.
If you are not familiar with the ECMAScript language, there is a large amount of
teaching and reference material available online.
This reference page contains a list of all ECMAScript objects, functions and
properties supported by the WaveLab scripting system. These are available in any
scripting context but are not WaveLab specific.
Some basic scripting examples are included below so you can see the scripting
syntax in context. These scripts will work if you copy, paste, and execute them in a
script window.
Supported ECMAScript Subset
Global Object
Values
•
NaN
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•
Infinity
•
undefined
•
Math
•
eval(x)
•
parseInt(string, radix)
•
parseFloat(string)
•
isNaN(number)
•
isFinite(number)
•
decodeURI(encodedURI)
•
decodeURIComponent(encodedURIComponent)
•
encodeURI(uri)
•
encodeURIComponent(uriComponent)
•
Object
•
Function
•
Array
•
String
•
Boolean
•
Number
•
Date
•
RegExp
•
Error
Functions
Objects
For example
//Test if a value is not a number
var isNumber = isNaN("this is a string");
//Print the result in the log window
logWindow.printInfo(isNumber); //Traces "true" because it is a String
//Convert a string to a number
var numStr = "2.345";
var num = parseFloat(numStr);
//Print the result in the log window
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logWindow.printInfo(num);
//Encode a string into an internet valid ASCII String
var str = "a sentence with spaces";
var encodedStr = encodeURI(str);
logWindow.printInfo(encodedStr);
Function Object
Prototypes
•
toString()
•
toLocaleString()
•
valueOf()
•
hasOwnProperty(V)
•
isPrototypeOf(V)
•
propertyIsEnumerable(V)
•
toString()
•
apply(thisArg, argArray)
•
call(thisArg [, arg1 [, arg2, ...]])
Functions
For example
//Create a new custom marker Object
function customMarker(name, comment, timeSecs)
{
this.name=name;
this.comment=comment;
this.timeSecs=timeSecs;
}
//Create a new instance of the custom marker
var myMarker=new customMarker("A custom marker", "My custom marker
comments",5);
//Use prototype function to add a new property to it
customMarker.prototype.samples = null;
myMarker.samples = activeWave.sampleRate() * myMarker.timeSecs;
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//Trace the results in the log window
logWindow.printInfo(myMarker.name);
logWindow.printInfo(myMarker.samples);
Array Objects
Functions
•
toString()
•
toLocaleString()
•
concat([item1 [, item2 [, ...]]])
•
join(separator)
•
pop()
•
push([item1 [, item2 [, ...]]])
•
reverse()
•
shift()
•
slice(start, end)
•
sort(comparefn)
•
splice(start, deleteCount[, item1 [, item2 [, ...]]])
•
unshift([item1 [, item2 [, ...]]])
For example
//Create an empty array
var a = new Array();
//Add some items to it
a.push("first array item");
a.push("next array item", "last array item");
//Print them out in the Log window
logWindow.printInfo(a.toString());
//Call the Array's reverse function
a.reverse();
//View the results in the Log window
logWindow.printInfo(a.toString());
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String Objects
Functions
•
toString()
•
valueOf()
•
charAt(pos)
•
charCodeAt(pos)
•
concat([string1 [, string2 [, ...]]])
•
indexOf(searchString ,position)
•
lastIndexOf(searchString, position)
•
localeCompare(that)
•
match(regexp)
•
replace(searchValue, replaceValue)
•
search(regexp)
•
slice(start, end)
•
split(separator, limit)
•
substring(start, end)
•
toLowerCase()
•
toLocaleLowerCase()
•
toUpperCase()
•
toLocaleUpperCase()
For example
//Create a string variable
var str = new String("WaveLab is a powerful editing tool");
//Make it all upper case
var capsStr = str.toUpperCase();
//View the results in the Log window
logWindow.printInfo(capsStr);
Boolean Objects
Functions
•
toString()
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•
valueOf()
For example
//Test if an equation is true or false
var isTrue = (1 + 1 == 3);
//Convert the Boolean to a String and trace in the Log window
logWindow.printInfo(isTrue.toString());
Number Objects
Functions
•
toString(radix)
•
toLocaleString()
•
toFixed(fractionDigits)
•
toExponential(fractionDigits)
•
toPrecision(precision)
For example
//Convert a number into exponential notation
var num = new Number(13.3714);
//Show the result in the Log window
logWindow.printInfo(num.toExponential());
Math Objects
Values
•
E
•
LN10
•
LN2
•
LOG2E
•
LOG10E
•
PI
•
SQRT1_2
•
SQRT2
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Functions
•
abs(x)
•
acos(x)
•
asin(x)
•
atan(x)
•
atan2(y, x)
•
ceil(x)
•
cos(x)
•
exp(x)
•
floor(x)
•
log(x)
•
max([value1 [, value2 [, ...]]])
•
min([value1 [, value2 [, ...]]])
•
pow(x, y)
•
random()
•
round(x)
•
sin(x)
•
sqrt(x)
•
tan(x)
For example
//Get a random number from 0 to 1
var r = Math.random();
//Print it out in the log window
logWindow.printInfo(r);
//Trace out Pi in the log window
logWindow.printInfo(Math.PI);
Date Objects
Functions
•
toString()
•
toDateString()
•
toTimeString()
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•
toLocaleString()
•
toLocaleDateString()
•
toLocaleTimeString()
•
valueOf()
•
getTime()
•
getFullYear()
•
getUTCFullYear()
•
getMonth()
•
getUTCMonth()
•
getDate()
•
getUTCDate()
•
getDay()
•
getUTCDay()
•
getHours()
•
getUTCHours()
•
getMinutes()
•
getUTCMinutes()
•
getSeconds()
•
getUTCSeconds()
•
getMilliseconds()
•
getUTCMilliseconds()
•
getTimeZoneOffset()
•
setTime(time)
•
setMilliseconds(ms)
•
setUTCMilliseconds(ms)
•
setSeconds(sec [, ms])
•
setUTCSeconds(sec [, ms])
•
setMinutes(min [, sec [, ms]])
•
setUTCMinutes(min [, sec [, ms]])
•
setHours(hour [, min [, sec [, ms]]])
•
setUTCHours(hour [, min [, sec [, ms]]])
•
setDate(date)
•
setUTCDate(date)
•
setMonth(month [, date])
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•
setUTCMonth(month [, date])
•
setFullYear(year [, month [, date]])
•
setUTCFullYear(year [, month [, date]])
•
toUTCString()
For example
//Create a new date object
var d = new Date();
//Print it out in the log window
logWindow.printInfo(d);
//Get just the hours
logWindow.printInfo(d.getHours());
RegExp Objects
Functions
•
exec(string)
•
test(string)
•
toString()
For example
//Create a new regular expression defining a 5 digit number
var reg = new RegExp(/^\d{5}$/);
//Test a string with it to see if it contains a 5 digit number
var isFiveDigit = reg.test("12345");
//Trace the result to the log window
logWindow.printInfo(isFiveDigit);
Errors Objects
Values
•
name
•
message
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Functions
•
toString()
Types of native errors available
•
EvalError
•
RangeError
•
ReferenceError
•
SyntaxError
•
TypeError
•
URIError
Basic Scripting Example
Below is a basic scripting example which uses some WaveLabscripting functions
to perform some simple operations on an audio file in the Audio Files workspace.
The script first displays information about the audio file, fades in the start and fades
out the end of the file, and then adds ten markers at 1 second intervals. Examine it
line by line and read the comments for each operation to see how it works.
/* To run this script:
- open an Audio File that is at least 10 seconds long
- open the Log window via the Global menu
- copy and paste this script into the Script window
- choose Functions > Execute Script */
//clear the log window
logWindow.clear();
//show some information about the active wave file in the log window
logWindow.printInfo("This wave file has " + activeWave.size() + " samples");
logWindow.printInfo("Its sample rate is " + activeWave.sampleRate());
logWindow.printInfo("It has " +activeWave.numChannels() + " channels");
//Work out how long the file is in seconds and round to a whole number
var lengthSecs = activeWave.size() / activeWave.sampleRate();
logWindow.printInfo("This wave file is " + lengthSecs + " seconds long");
//Select the first 10 seconds of the file
activeWave.select(0, 10 * activeWave.sampleRate());
//Trim the file to 10 seconds
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activeWave.trim();
//select the first two seconds of the file and fade it in
activeWave.select(0, 2 * activeWave.sampleRate()); //sample rate multiplied
by two = 2 seconds
activeWave.fadeIn(linear);
//select the last two seconds of the file and fade it out
activeWave.select(activeWave.size() - (2 * activeWave.sampleRate()),
activeWave.size());
activeWave.fadeOut(linear);
//loop through 10 times and add a marker each second
for (i = 1; i <= 10; i++)
{
//work out next cursor time
var nextCursorPosition = i * activeWave.sampleRate();
//set cursor position forwards by a second
activeWave.setCursorPosition(nextCursorPosition);
//add a generic marker at the next cursor position and give it a name and comment
activeWave.addMarker(generic, "Marker "+i, "A comment for marker "+i);
//write some information about the new marker
var cursorTimeSecs = nextCursorPosition/activeWave.sampleRate();
logWindow.printInfo("created a new marker at " + cursorTimeSecs + "
seconds");
}
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Configuring the Software
You can configure WaveLab according to your needs.
About Global Preferences
Global preferences are preferences that apply throughout WaveLab. Before
starting to work with WaveLab, edit these preferences to set up WaveLab
according to your needs.
Global Preferences Dialog
This dialog allows you to view and change options that are common throughout
WaveLab.
In any workspace, select Options (WaveLab menu on Mac) > Global
preferences.
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About Global Preferences
General Tab
This tab allows you to change the location of settings files and the user interface
language. You must restart the application for changes to take effect.
Language
Allows you to select the user interface language.
Setting location - Common for all users
Shares the preferences settings with all users on this computer.
Setting location - Independent for each user
Lets each user on this computer make their own preferences settings.
Setting location - In the application folder (portable installation)
Saves settings in the application directory. Use this option to install the
application on a portable device.
Setting location - Specific folder
Allows you to save the settings in a specified folder.
Setting location - Open active setting folder
Opens the folder that is currently used to save settings. This way you know
where the settings are stored and you can back up the settings.
Synchronization settings - Master folder
Lets you specify where the reference settings are saved.
Synchronization settings - Synchronize at every launch
If this option is activated, the settings are synchronized whenever WaveLab is
launched.
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About Global Preferences
Synchronization settings - Synchronize at next launch
If this option is activated, the settings are synchronized the next time that
WaveLab is launched.
Synchronization settings - Preferences handling
Determines how to synchronize the preferences, that is, all settings except the
presets. You can either ignore or mirror the preferences.
Synchronization settings - Preset handling
Determines how to synchronize the presets that are saved in the master
folder. The following options are available:
•
Ignore presets: the presets are not synchronized.
•
Mirror presets: the presets will be restored from the master folder,
regardless of their time stamp. Any additional local presets are deleted.
•
Import new presets: the presets in the master folder that are
unavailable on the computer are imported.
•
Update old presets: as above, but existing presets are overwritten if a
newer version is found in the master folder.
Ignore the following preset folders (separate them with a semicolon)
Lets you specify which preset folders you want to ignore when synchronizing
the settings. For example, to ignore the VST Audio Connection settings, add
"VST Audio Connections" to the field.
Synchronization settings - Update master
If you click this button, the settings that were used when launching WaveLab
are used to update the master folder.
IMPORTANT
This procedure should only be run by the system administrator if multiple
WaveLab stations are used.
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About Global Preferences
Display Tab
This tab allows you change many aspects of the user interface that apply across the
whole application. These options provide useful information and usability functions
but can be deactivated to streamline the interface.
Style
Overall style
Changes the overall look of the application.
Button size in main command bars
Increases the button size in the command bars, but not in the tool windows.
Window transparency
Sets the degree of transparency for windows that have this option activated.
Use textured background for non-blocking windows
If this option is activated, you can easily determine whether a dialog is modal
or not.
Show icons in menus
If this option is activated, icons are displayed in textual menus.
Miscellaneous options
Maximum number of items in Recent File menus
Sets the maximum number of files that are listed in menus.
Maximum number of items in Recent File Manager
Sets the maximum number of files that are listed in the Recent File Manager.
Maximum number of items in the Recent Folders menu
Sets the maximum number of files that are listed in the Recent Folder menus.
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Configuring the Software
About Global Preferences
Show tips when mouse stays over buttons
If this option is activated, tooltips are displayed when you move the mouse
cursor over markers or command bar buttons.
When available, tips have a link to “What is this” information
If this option is activated, tooltips contain “What is this” information if
available.
Hide top level windows when the application is not active (Windows only)
If this option is activated, all floating windows are automatically hidden when
another application becomes active. When deactivated, floating windows
remain on top of other application windows.
Workspaces
Tab Groups - Show tab if there is a single window
If this option is activated, the tabs are always visible, even if there is only one
active file.
Tab Groups - Show tabs in classical mode (MDI)
If this option is activated, the tabs are always visible in classical mode (MDI).
(Audio Files workspace only)
Tab Groups - When closing the active tab
Determines the behavior of the program when closing the active tab.
Docked Tool Windows - Auto-fold title bars of tabbed windows/Auto-fold title
bars of isolated windows
If these options are activated, the title bar of docked tool windows is partially
hidden to provide slightly more space to the contents area. A thin bar remains
visible.
To unfold a title bar, simply move the mouse cursor over the thin bar.
Display active file path in title bar
Displays the file path of the active file in the title bar of the workspace.
Display status bar
If this option is activated, a status bar is displayed at the bottom of each
workspace. The status bar is used to show hints, for example, when moving
the mouse in a menu.
Use Floating Window Switcher
Activates the Floating Window Switcher.
Auto-hide if active workspace has a switcher
If this option is activated, the Floating Window Switcher is only visible in the
following cases:
•
WaveLab is not active and there is no blocking dialog. The apparent
switcher allows you to re-activate WaveLab easily or to drag a file onto
it to open it in WaveLab.
•
The active workspace does not have a Switcher bar.
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Configuring the Software
About Global Preferences
Keep visible when switching to other applications
Keeps the Floating Window Switcher visible when WaveLab is not the active
application.
Include Audio Montage
Enables the button that activates the Audio Montage workspace in the
Floating Window Switcher.
Include Batch Processor
Enables the button that activates the Batch Processors workspace in the
Floating Window Switcher.
Include Podcast
Enables the button that activates the Podcast workspace in the Floating
Window Switcher.
Include Control Window
Enables the button that activates the Control Window workspace in the
Floating Window Switcher.
Semi-transparent
Displays the Floating Window Switcher semi-transparent, according to the
settings in the Window transparency field in the Style section.
Formats tab
This tab allows you to adjust settings for some of the audio formats and units that
WaveLab uses.
Use AES17 standard for RMS values
Determines how RMS values are reported.
•
If this option is activated, the displayed level for a full scale sine audio
file is 0 dB. This follows the AES17 standard.
•
If this option is deactivated, the displayed level for a full scale sine audio
file is -3 dB.
Pitch of A3 (used in frequency-to-note conversions)
Sets the reference pitch in WaveLab. The frequency-to-note conversions take
this pitch into account.
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Configuring the Software
About Global Preferences
MIDI note display
The options in this section allow you to choose whether to display the different
key values in WaveLab with the pitch or the MIDI note number of the key. In
musical notation, keys are denoted according to their pitch. For example, C3
means the note C in the third octave.
Each key corresponds to a MIDI note number from 0 to 127. For example, key
C3 corresponds to the MIDI note number 48. MIDI note numbers make it
possible for samplers to automatically map samples to the correct keys.
MIDI note display - Numeric style
Determines the format for MIDI notes that are displayed as numbers.
MIDI note display - Middle C (note #60)
Determines the key convention for the MIDI note range (0-127).
MIDI note display - Display
Determines how MIDI notes are displayed throughout the application.
CSV delimiter
In several places of WaveLab, it is possible to export information in the CSV
text format. This option lets you set the character that you want to use as a
text delimiter to achieve the best match with the 3rd-party-software that
imports these files.
CD Writing tab
This tab allows you to set a number of parameters for CD writing.
Use burnproof
Fixes possible buffer underrun errors automatically, provided the CD writer
supports this technology.
Allow disc overflow
Allows WaveLab to attempt writing more data (max. 2 minutes) than the
official capacity of the disc.
Maximum Audio CD size
Allows you to specify the maximum length for a CD. A warning message will
appear if the project exceeds this length.
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Configuring the Software
About Global Preferences
The standard maximum length is 74 minutes.
DDP Creation - Format 1.0/Format 2.0
Determines which format to create when producing DDP files for an audio
project.
Write checksum file (CRC-32)
If this option is activated, a file called “CHECKSUM.CHK” is added to the
DDP files that are created on the hard drive. The checksum contains the
CRC32 checksums of the created DDP files.
Write checksum file (MD5)
If this option is activated, a file called “CHECKSUM.MD5” is added to the
DDP files that are created on the hard drive. The checksum file contains the
MD5 checksums of the created DDP files.
Write log file
If this option is activated, a text file called “gear.log” is added to the DDP files
that are created on the hard drive. The log file contains the trace of all
operations.
Warn if files already exist
If this option is activated, a warning message is displayed if files are about to
be overwritten in the specified destination folder.
Options Tab
This tab allows you to control application-wide start-up options. You can also reset
the default message boxes.
Show logo screen on start-up
Determines whether the WaveLab logo is displayed during initialization.
Make the Background Task Monitor visible when a task starts
If this option is activated, the Background tasks window opens when a
background task starts.
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Configuring the Software
About Global Preferences
Play a sound when a long task completes
Allows you to select a sound that is played when a task finishes.
Minimum duration
Specifies how long a task must be for a sound to be triggered at its end.
When the task duration is shorter, no sound is triggered.
Path and name of the audio file
Lets you select which audio file is played. On Windows systems, the file
format must be WAV, and on Mac OS, the file format can be WAV or AIFF.
Only play the sound for blocking tasks
If this option is activated, the sound only plays if the task prevents you from
working elsewhere in WaveLab. For example, background tasks do not
produce a sound upon their completion.
Alternative external file browser
Allows you to specify an alternative external file browser that opens when you
use the Reveal folder in Windows Explorer/Mac OS Finder or Reveal files
in Windows Explorer/Mac OS Finder options in WaveLab.
If the application needs a special command line formatting, you can specify it
in the Command line field. Use the %1 symbol as a place holder for the file
or folder that you want to browse to.
Interval for the zoom key command
Allows you to specify how much the waveform zoom factor changes each time
that the zoom shortcuts are triggered. Higher values allow you to zoom in and
out more quickly but with bigger steps.
Reset default answers
Resets all message box options to their default settings. For example, the “Do
not show again” options are cleared.
Global Shortcuts Tab
This tab allows you edit key sequences for shortcuts that are available across all
workspaces.
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Configuring the Software
Audio File Editing Preferences Dialog
Search by
Allows you to select the part of the commands list in which the search is
performed.
Search field
Allows you to search for a command.
Use wildcards
If this option is activated, you can use the wildcard characters “*” and “?” for
searching.
“*” substitutes zero or more characters, and “?” substitutes any character.
For example, if Search by keyboard shortcut is selected, type “*” to display
all the commands that are already associated with a shortcut.
Expand/Collapse
Expands/collapses the folder tree.
Commands list
Shows all commands and their shortcuts.
Reset
Resets the commands to their default setting.
Summary
Opens a menu from which you can generate a list of all commands and their
shortcuts either in HTML or as a print out.
Edit shortcut
Opens the Shortcut Definitions dialog where you can edit the selected
shortcut.
RELATED LINKS
About Customizing Shortcuts on page 628
Multi-User Settings on page 683
Audio File Editing Preferences Dialog
This dialog allows you to define settings for editing in the Audio Files workspace.
However, these settings also effect other parts of WaveLab. You can choose
defaults for editing and playback, adjust the visual appearance of the waveform
displays, and determine how WaveLab works with audio and peak files.
In the Audio Files workspace, select Options > Audio file editing preferences.
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Configuring the Software
Audio File Editing Preferences Dialog
Editing Tab
Save view settings in companion file
If this option is activated, zoom settings, ruler settings, and optionally the
Master Section preset that is associated with the audio file are saved in a
companion file. When the audio file is reopened, these settings are reused.
Deleting a companion file does not alter the audio contents.
Save in an independent folder
If this option is activated, the companion file is not saved in the same folder as
the related audio file but in a specific folder that you can choose.
Edit
Opens the Folders dialog, where you can specify where to save the
companion files.
Open new audio file windows with overview
If this option is activated and you open an audio file, the overview is also
displayed.
Overview: passive range indicator also covering the waveform
If this option is activated, the range indicator that is displayed in the time ruler
of the overview also covers the waveform area. Unlike the time ruler indicator,
it is passive and cannot be modified.
Analog waveform emulation at sample level zooming
If this option is activated and a waveform is zoomed at the sample level in the
timeline, an analog emulation of the waveform is displayed.
Auto zoom for overviews
If this option is activated on opening a file, the zoom of the overview is set to
display the whole file.
Display file extension on tabs
If this option is activated, tabs display file names with their extension. For
example, “piano.mp3” instead of “piano”.
Number of seconds to display on opening
Lets you specify how much time to display when opening an audio file for the
first time. WaveLab converts this time to the appropriate zoom factor.
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Configuring the Software
Audio File Editing Preferences Dialog
Whole audio file
If this option is activated, the horizontal zoom is set to display the whole file.
Select all channels with the mouse
If this option is activated when you select a range with the mouse in a stereo
file, both channels are selected. To select the channels individually, press
[Shift] while selecting. To switch from one channel selection to the other,
press [Tab].
Process whole file if there is no selection
If this option is activated and a process is to be applied to an audio file, the
whole file is processed if there is not audio selection. In the same situation, if
the option is deactivated, a warning appears.
Playback scrubbing - Restrict to Play Tool
If this option is activated, this function only works if the Play Tool is used.
Playback scrubbing - Sensitivity
Lets you set the micro audio loop duration that is performed when you move
the mouse cursor over the time ruler.
Snap selection to zero-crossing - Do not snap at high zoom factors
If this option is activated, snapping does not occur if the waveform is
displayed at a high zoom factor.
Snap selection to zero-crossing - Scan range
Lets you define how far WaveLab can search a zero-crossing point in the left
and right direction.
Default fade/crossfade
Lets you specify the default duration and shape of the fades or crossfades
that WaveLab creates automatically in certain processes.
File Tab
Warn when opening a file with a malformed header
If this option is activated, a message appears when you open a file with a
corrupt header. This might be a damaged file, or a file that is not properly
formatted by another application.
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Configuring the Software
Audio File Editing Preferences Dialog
If this option is deactivated, WaveLab tries to open the file, but you are not
informed about possible issues.
Support RF64 file format
If this option is activated, WaveLab creates WAV files that can be larger than
2 GB. This file type is not supported by all applications.
Default sample rate for files without header
Lets you specify the sample rate of audio files that do not have a header
describing this property.
Create optimized audio file headers
If this option is activated, WaveLab increases the WAV file headers to a value
that slightly improves disk access. Although this is a standard procedure,
some applications cannot open these files correctly.
Save audio files in the background
If this option is activated, WaveLab saves audio files in the background so that
you can continue working.
Write markers in WAV file header
If this option is activated, markers are written in WAV file headers. Thus, the
markers are always available even if you open the files in another application.
Write markers in separate file
If this option is activated, markers are written in a separate file (.MRK
extension) that is saved in the same folder as the audio file. This allows to
support markers in file formats that do not support markers, or that do not
support markers in a way that is as advanced as WaveLab.
Save Error and Correction markers
If this option is activated, Error and Correction markers are saved with the
other markers.
Create peak files in an independent folder
If this option is activated, peak files are not saved in the same folder as the
related audio file. You can specify the folder location by clicking Edit, and
specifying a folder.
Create peak files when writing audio files
If this option is activated, WaveLab writes peak files while rendering audio
files.
Delete peak files when closing audio files
If this option is activated, peak files are deleted after use. This saves disk
space but means that audio files take longer to open.
Allow opening of dual-mono files
Allows to recognize multiple selected mono files as stereo files according to
their name, and edit them as one stereo file.
Dual-mono file identification - Name creation/Name interpretation
You can define a name creation pattern and up to 7 name interpretation
patterns for different naming schemes.
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Configuring the Software
Audio File Editing Preferences Dialog
•
Name interpretation patterns (up to 7) are used by WaveLab to identify
the original channel of mono files through an analysis of their name.
•
Name creation pattern (only 1) is used by WaveLab to add the specified
suffix to audio files when creating dual-mono files. The default suffix is
“-L” and “-R”.
Dual-mono file identification - Left channel ID/Right channel ID
These IDs are the character sequences that are used to identify the left and
right channel files in their name. For example, “_l” for the left channel and “_r”
for the right channel.
Dual-mono file identification - Suffix
In this mode, the channel ID string must be located at the end of the file name.
Dual-mono file identification - Advanced
In this mode, the channel ID string can be located anywhere in the file name
and not only as a suffix. For this purpose, a name pattern must be defined. This
name pattern must have a {capture} section.
The default suffixes for recognizing dual-mono files are as follows:
•
-L/-R
•
_L/_R
•
.L/.R
This mode is only available for input patterns.
Style Tab
This tab allows you to specify custom colors to parts of the wave window.
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Configuring the Software
Audio Montage Preferences Dialog
Audio Montage Preferences Dialog
In the Audio montage preferences, you can set up general parameters for all audio
montages or the active audio montage only.
In the Audio Montage workspace, select Options > Audio montage preferences.
Active Audio Montage Tab
The settings made on this tab apply only to the active audio montage.
Default gap
Sets the default gap for clips. This setting is used for separating clips, for
example, when you insert several clips at the same time.
DVD-Audio resolution
Defines the DVD-Audio resolution for writing the audio montage to
DVD-Audio. You can select 16 bit (more room available) or 24 bit (best
quality).
Implicit relative folder to store audio files
Sets the path, which is relative to the audio montage folder, to the folder
where audio files are implicitly created. For example, if you enter “Data” in the
text field, a folder named “Data” is created in the audio montage folder. Files
in this folder are not deleted when you close the audio montage.
If no folder is defined, the audio montage folder is used.
Reset plug-ins when starting playback
If this option is activated, all active effect plug-ins are instructed to release all
samples in their memory when you start playback.
Use this option if you experience clicks or noises when the playback position
reaches the start of a clip that contains effects (typically reverb or delay).
Otherwise you should leave this option deactivated since it could lead to a
delayed response upon playback start.
It is recommended to deactivate this option, unless you experience shortage
of memory that is caused by too many plug-ins.
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Configuring the Software
Audio Montage Preferences Dialog
Reset plug-ins before rendering
If this option is activated before rendering, all active plug-ins are reloaded.
Use this option if you experience clicks or noises in rendered audio files.
Auto save Master Section preset
Automatically saves the current Master Section preset along with the audio
montage when closing the audio montage. This is recommended when you
work on one audio montage at a time.
All Audio Montages Tab
The settings made on this tab apply to all audio montages.
Maximum number of backups
Specifies how many previous versions are kept.
Auto save
Automatically saves the audio montage in intervals which you can specify in
the time field below.
History - Clear after each saving
Clears the memory that is used by the operation history each time the audio
montage is manually saved. Any operations that is performed before saving
can no longer be undone.
History - Group similar operations
Groups similar successive operations into one undo operation.
For example, if you move a clip in several steps until you find the right position,
you can undo each step as usual. However, as soon as you perform another
operation, all the previous steps are considered as one entry in the undo
history. This saves memory and facilitates work, since you do not have to undo
every step to revert to the clip’s original position.
Closing of unmodified montages
Defines the actions that are performed, when closing an unmodified audio
montage. An audio montage is only tagged as modified if the audio-related
data has been modified. The following options can be selected:
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Configuring the Software
Settings Management
•
Save and update time stamp: The audio montage is saved to
remember its current state (for example, selection and zoom), and the
time stamp of its file is updated.
•
Save and retain time stamp: The audio montage is saved to remember
its current state, and the time stamp of its original file is retained.
•
Do not save: The audio montage is not saved and therefore not
preserved for the next launch of WaveLab.
Display indications of possible actions
Displays hints in the status bar of the audio montage about what you can do
at the current mouse position in the montage window.
Display envelope tooltip while editing
Displays a tooltip when you click and drag an envelope element. The tooltip
indicates the value of the performed editing.
Synchronize super clip size and sub-montage size
If this option is activated, the length of super clips is adjusted if the length of
the corresponding audio file is changed.
Basic amplitudes for nudging - Time/Gain
Defines the amount with which elements are adjusted when you modify them
with the nudge commands. This is used for nudging the position of objects or
edges and for nudging volume gains.
CD cue-sheets - Write audio file names without path
If this option is activated, audio files are referenced without a path when
generating CD cue-sheets.
Settings Management
You can make some reference settings available to other WaveLab installations.
These settings can then be used by other WaveLab stations to keep the settings in
sync on different computers.
PROCEDURE
1.
In any workspace, select Options (WaveLab menu on Mac) > Global
preferences, and select the General tab.
2.
In the Setting location section, specify where to store the settings.
3.
Click OK.
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Configuring the Software
Multi-User Settings
Multi-User Settings
If you use multiple WaveLab stations in your studio, in your school, as
administration, etc., you can set up one WaveLab station to be the master station.
The shared preferences and presets of this station can then be used by other slave
stations.
These settings can be stored on the local network, for example.
If the administrator updates these settings, the different WaveLab stations can
synchronize with the master settings. You can also use this feature for single
computers to back up a reference setting and revert to this if necessary.
The settings in the General tab of the Global preferences dialog are not
synchronized. These are stored for each user in the startup.ini (Windows) or
startup.plist (Mac).
IMPORTANT
Settings cannot be synchronized between PC and Mac.
RELATED LINKS
Global Preferences Dialog on page 666
Setting Up a Multi-User Setup
You can use the settings that you have made on a master WaveLab station for other
slave WaveLab stations.
PROCEDURE
1.
Set up a WaveLab station with all settings and presets that you want to use
on other WaveLab stations.
2.
Assign read-only access to the settings folder of the master WaveLab station.
3.
Open WaveLab on another station for which you want to use the master
settings.
4.
In any workspace, select Options (WaveLab menu on Mac) > Global
preferences, and select the General tab.
5.
In the Synchronization settings section, set up the Master folder, specify
when the settings should be synchronized, and specify whether to include the
preferences and/or presets.
6.
Click OK, and close WaveLab.
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Configuring the Software
About External Tools
7.
Copy the startup.ini (Windows) or startup.plist (Mac) of the slave WaveLab
station to the settings folder of the other WaveLab stations, except the master
WaveLab station.
This avoids having to make the above procedure on each slave station.
RESULT
All slave WaveLab stations use the settings of the master WaveLab station.
About External Tools
You can configure external tools to work with WaveLab. You can pass command
line arguments to the external tools so that they can process the current file/folder
on which you are currently working on, or the settings folder of WaveLab.
This function is useful if you want to edit an audio file in another application, or if you
want to compress all your audio files into a backup ZIP file, for example.
Once you have defined an external tool, you can run it by selecting it from the Tools
menu in the Audio Files workspace, Audio Montage workspace, or Batch
Processors workspace.
NOTE
An external tool only works within the workspace in which it is defined. Thus, each
type of workspace can have its own external toolkit.
RELATED LINKS
Configuring External Tools on page 684
Configure External Tools Dialog on page 685
Configuring External Tools
To be able to select external tools from the Tools menu, you must configure them.
PROCEDURE
1.
In the Audio Files workspace, the Audio Montage workspace, or the Batch
Processors workspace, select Tools > Configure external tools.
2.
Click the plus icon to create a new tool definition.
3.
Specify a title, the path to the external tool that you want to run, arguments,
an initial folder, and a comment.
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Configuring the Software
About External Tools
4.
Optional: Add more tool definitions by clicking the plus icon again.
5.
When you are finished, click OK.
RESULT
The external tool is configured and can be selected from the Tools menu.
Once an external tool has been configured you can assign a shortcut from the
Customize commands dialog on the Options menu.
RELATED LINKS
Configure External Tools Dialog on page 685
About Customizing Shortcuts on page 628
Running an External Tool After a Batch Process
You can specify external tools to be run after completing the batch process. For
example, you can run a tool to zip the output files or an FTP tool to upload the files
to the internet.
PREREQUISITE
Configure the external tool that you want to run after the batch process.
PROCEDURE
1.
In the Batch Processors workspace, select the External Tool tab.
2.
From the On success, run external tool menu, select the external tool that
you want to run after the batch process.
RELATED LINKS
Configuring External Tools on page 684
Configure External Tools Dialog on page 685
Configure External Tools Dialog
In this dialog you can configure external tools to work with WaveLab. For example,
you can run a tool to zip the output files or an FTP tool to upload the files to the
internet.
In the Audio Files workspace, the Audio Montage workspace, or the Batch
Processors workspace, select Tools > Configure external tools.
List of external tools
The list of all external tools that are currently defined, in the order as they
appear in the Tools menu.
Create item
Creates a new tool definition.
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Configuring the Software
About External Tools
Delete item
Deletes the selected tool definition from the list.
Move selected item one position up/down
Moves the selected tool definition one position up/down.
Title
The title for the tool definition.
Application
The full path and file name of the application to run.
Arguments text field
The list of arguments to pass to the application. Normally, there is at least one
argument, for example, the active file name in WaveLab. The required
arguments depend on the application to run. Refer to the related
documentation.
The arguments must be separated from one another by a space character. If
an argument contains space characters, it must be enclosed in quotes.
Predefined arguments can be selected via the menu button next to this text
field.
Arguments button
This button opens a menu with a list of predefined arguments. These are
placeholders that are replaced by actual values at runtime.
For example, if you select from the menu Active file name with its path, the
following text is inserted: $(FilePathAndName). At runtime, this symbol could
be replaced by C:/Music/Piano.wav, presuming that this is the active file in
WaveLab.
Initial folder
Specify the reference path that might be needed by the application. This path
depends on the application. This setting is optional.
Comment
Allows you to add comments.
Before execution - Warn if active file has unsaved changes (Audio Files
workspace and Audio Montage workspace only)
If this option is activated, WaveLab warns you if the active file has unsaved
changes before running the external tool.
Before execution - Close active file (Audio Files workspace and Audio
Montage workspace only)
If this option is activated, WaveLab closes the active file before running the
external tool. This is useful if the tool is meant to modify the active file.
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Configuring the Software
About External Tools
Before execution - Stop playback (Audio Files workspace and Audio Montage
workspace only)
If this option is activated, WaveLab stops playing back the file before running
the external tool. This is useful if the tool is meant to play back the file.
RELATED LINKS
About External Tools on page 684
Configuring External Tools on page 684
687
Plug-in Reference
Steinberg created Virtual Studio Technology (VST) to allow effect plug-ins to be
integrated with audio editors, such as WaveLab. VST uses Digital Signal
Processing (DSP) to closely simulate the effects of familiar recording studio
hardware in software.
A vast number of plug-ins are available, from freeware to high-end commercial
products.
The order of processing is significant. You can change the order in which effects
are processed by moving the effect icons by dragging them between slots.
WaveLab provides slots for up to ten plug-ins.
Most plug-ins provide a custom GUI, often displaying controls similar to the physical
switches and knobs of audio hardware. Other plug-ins rely on the host application
for their UI.
Built-in Plug-ins
These plug-ins use a plug-in format of WaveLab, and cannot be used with other
applications.
•
WaveLab specific plug-ins can only be used in the Master Section and in
batch processes. However, some WaveLab effects are also included as VST
plug-ins, available as track or clip effects in audio montages.
•
You can specify which plug-ins should be available in the Effects pane and
Dithering pane of the Master Section by using the Plug-in settings dialog.
•
Only certain built-in plug-ins can be used as master effects when a
multichannel configuration is used in the audio montage. Note that all
channels in the Master Section are affected equally.
688
Plug-in Reference
Built-in Plug-ins
Crystal Resampler
This plug-in is a professional sample rate converter providing exceptional
transparency and preservation of the frequency content. It is only available in the
Master Section.
NOTE
This plug-in is very CPU consuming, especially in high quality modes.
Sample rate (6-384 kHz)
Defines the output sample rate while the input sample rate is determined by
the sample rate of the active audio file or audio montage.
Quality
Defines the quality of the algorithm that is used (Preview (fast), Standard,
High, Ultra (slow)). In Preview mode the CPU load is much lower than in
Ultra mode but the sound quality of the resulting audio is also lower.
Ducker
This plug-in lets you control (modulate) the volume of clips placed on a track with
the signal of one or more clips placed on the next adjacent track below it. The
Ducker plug-in can only be used as a clip effect in the audio montage.
It uses the Route to... options that can be found on the Track menu. You can use
mono or stereo tracks for both the modulating and the upper track.
Threshold
Sets the loudness threshold that triggers the Ducker. Clips on the modulator
track with levels above the threshold will cause the level of a clip on the upper
track to be lowered.
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Plug-in Reference
Built-in Plug-ins
Damping
Sets the amount of level reduction that is applied to the clip on the upper
track.
Fall time
Sets the time it takes for the level to change from 0 dB to the set damping
level.
Hold time
When the modulating signal falls below the set threshold, this setting
determines how long the level will stay reduced before it starts rising to normal
level again.
Rise time
Sets the time after which the reduced level rises to the normal level when the
modulating signal falls below the set threshold (after the Hold time).
Mix mode
If this is activated, the Ducker outputs a mix of the two tracks. This is only
useful if the Route to upper track only option has been activated for the
modulating track. Then this feature can be used for processing several clips
through the same plug-in chain if more plug-ins have been assigned after the
Ducker on the upper track.
Note that the mixed output is controlled by the upper track. If this is not playing
a clip, both of the tracks will be silent.
Leveler
This plug-in is useful for correcting an imbalance or adjusting levels between stereo
channels, or for mixing down to mono.
Volume Left/Volume Right (-48 dB to 12 dB)
Governs how much of the signal is included in the left and/or right channel of
the output bus.
Stereo Link (OFF or LINKED)
When set to LINKED, Volume Right delivers the gain that is set for Volume
Left.
Mix to Mono (OFF or ON)
When set to ON, a mono mix of the stereo channels is delivered to the output
bus.
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Leveler Multi
This plug-in takes multichannel input and applies a fader equally to all channels.
Volume (-48 dB to 12 dB)
Governs how much gain is applied to the signal before it is routed to the
output bus.
Peak Master
This is a basic plug-in that minimizes peaks in your audio file, allowing a louder mix
without clipping. It is useful in taming dynamic instruments.
It is primarily used as a brickwall limiter. For example, you can limit audio peaks
without altering the rest of the audio signal. In this case, set Input Gain to 0 dB and
Out Ceiling to 0 dB, to achieve a clip-free audio signal. When used in this way,
Peak Master is an excellent plug-in to succeed a resampler plug-in, and to proceed
a dithering plug-in.
Input Gain
Values range from -12 dB to 24 dB.
Out Ceiling
This is the maximum level of the output signal. Values range from -18 dB to
0 dB.
Softness
This governs the speed at which the signal becomes unaffected after limiting
has been triggered on some samples. Values range from -5 to +5.
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Silence
This plug-in provides a simple way of inserting a precise period of silence at the
start or at the end of an audio file. Use this plug-in to add silence at the end of a file,
so that the tail of a reverb plug-in does not cut immediately at the end of the file.
Start
Use the slider to insert from 0 to 60,000 ms of silence at the start of the file.
End
Use the slider to insert from 0 to 60,000 ms of silence at the end of the file.
Stereo Expander
This plug-in is a stereo width enhancer that makes a stereo signal sound wider. It
gives better results from real stereo material, as opposed to mono channels panned
to different positions in the stereo image.
Width (0 to 100 %)
Higher values result in a greater stereo width. Usually, you set Width to values
between 0 % and 20 %. Higher values can be used for special effects.
Steinberg VST 3 Plug-ins
In WaveLab there is no limitation to the use of VST plug-ins. They can be used
wherever plug-ins can be inserted.
•
You can specify which VST plug-ins should be available in the Effects pane
and Dithering pane of the Master Section by using the Plug-in settings
dialog.
•
VST plug-ins have their own preset handling. You can save or load effect
programs (presets).
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AutoPan
This plug-in is a simple auto-pan effect. It can use different waveforms to modulate
the left-right stereo position (pan), using manual modulation speed settings.
Rate
Sets the auto-pan speed.
Width
Sets the depth of the auto-pan effect, that is, how far out to the left/right
speaker the sound should move.
Waveform Shape selector
Allows you to select the modulation waveform. Sine produces a smooth
sweep. Triangle creates a ramp, that is, a sweep from one speaker to the
other and then a quick jump back.
Brickwall Limiter
Brickwall Limiter ensures that the output level never exceeds a set limit.
Due to its fast attack time, Brickwall Limiter can reduce even short audio level peaks
without creating audible artifacts. However, this plug-in creates a latency of 1ms.
Brickwall Limiter features separate meters for input, output, and the amount of
limiting. Position this plug-in at the end of the signal chain, before dithering.
Threshold (-20 to 0 dB)
Only signal levels above the set threshold are processed.
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Release (ms)
Sets the time after which the gain returns to the original level when the signal
drops below the threshold. If the Auto button is activated, Brickwall Limiter
automatically finds the best release setting, depending on the audio material.
Link
If this button is activated, Brickwall Limiter uses the channel with the highest
level to analyze the input signal. If the button is deactivated, each channel is
analyzed separately.
Detect Intersample Clipping
If this option is activated, Brickwall Limiter detects and limits signal levels
between two samples to prevent distortion when converting digital signals
into analog signals.
NOTE
Brickwall Limiter is designed for the reduction of occasional peaks in the signal. If
the Gain Reduction meter indicates constant limiting, try raising the threshold or
lowering the overall level of the input signal.
Channel Extractor
This plug-in allows you to only keep the left or the right channel of a stereo stream.
Channel
Lets you select whether to keep the left or the right channel of the stereo
stream.
Chorus
This plug-in is a single-stage chorus effect. It works by doubling the audio that is
sent into it with a slightly detuned version.
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Rate
If tempo sync is deactivated, this sets the sweep rate.
Width
Determines the depth of the chorus effect. Higher settings produce a more
pronounced effect.
Spatial
Sets the stereo width of the effect. Turn clockwise for a wider stereo effect.
Mix
Sets the level balance between the dry signal and the wet signal. If the effect
is used as a send effect, set this to the maximum value as you can control the
dry/effect balance with the send.
Waveform Shape selector
Allows you to select the modulation waveform, altering the character of the
chorus sweep. A sine and triangle waveform are available.
Delay
Affects the frequency range of the modulation sweep by adjusting the initial
delay time.
Filter Lo/Hi
Allow you to roll off low and high frequencies of the effect signal.
Compressor
This plug-in reduces the dynamic range of the audio, making softer sounds louder
or louder sounds softer, or both.
Compressor features a separate display that graphically illustrates the compressor
curve shaped according to the Threshold and Ratio parameter settings.
Compressor also features a Gain Reduction meter that shows the amount of gain
reduction in dB, Soft knee/Hard knee compression modes, and a
program-dependent auto feature for the Release parameter.
Threshold (-60 to 0 dB)
Determines the level where Compressor kicks in. Signal levels above the set
threshold are affected, but signal levels below are not processed.
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Ratio (1:1 to 8:1)
Sets the amount of gain reduction applied to signals over the set threshold. A
ratio of 3:1 means that for every 3 dB the input level increases, the output level
increases by only 1 dB.
Soft Knee
If this button is deactivated, signals above the threshold are compressed
instantly according to the set ratio (hard knee). If Soft Knee is activated, the
onset of compression is more gradual, producing a less drastic result.
Make-up (0 to 24 dB or Auto mode)
Compensates for output gain loss, caused by compression. If the Auto button
is activated, the knob becomes dark and the output is automatically adjusted
for gain loss.
Attack (0.1 to 100 ms)
Determines how fast Compressor responds to signals above the set
threshold. If the attack time is long, more of the early part of the signal (attack)
passes through unprocessed.
Hold (0 to 5000 ms)
Sets the time the applied compression affects the signal after exceeding the
threshold. Short hold times are useful for DJ-style ducking, while longer hold
times are required for music ducking, for example, when working on a
documentary film.
Release (10 to 1000 ms or Auto mode)
Sets the time after which the gain returns to the original level when the signal
drops below the threshold. If the Auto button is activated, Compressor
automatically finds the best release setting that varies depending on the audio
material.
Analysis (0 to 100) (Pure Peak to Pure RMS)
Determines whether the input signal is analyzed according to peak or RMS
values, or a mixture of both. A value of 0 is pure peak and 100 pure RMS. RMS
mode operates using the average power of the audio signal as a basis,
whereas Peak mode operates more on peak levels. As a general guideline,
RMS mode works better on material with few transients such as vocals, and
Peak mode works better for percussive material with a lot of transient peaks.
Live
If this button is activated, the look-ahead feature of Compressor is
disengaged. Look ahead produces more accurate processing, but adds a
certain amount of latency as a trade-off. If Live mode is activated, there is no
latency, which might be better for live processing.
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CurveEQ
Voxengo CurveEQ is a spline equalizer for professional music and audio production
applications. CurveEQ shows the filter response you are designing by means of a
spline, that is, a smooth curvy line. This way you can see how the EQ alters the
sound.
CurveEQ implements spectrum matching technology that allows you to transfer the
spectral shape of one recording to another. In other words, you can copy the
frequency balance of existing time-proven mixes so that other mixes can be
improved. CurveEQ’s filters can be switched between linear-phase and
minimum-phase modes. CurveEQ also features a customizable spectrum analyzer.
Furthermore, you can display, save, and load static spectrum plots for comparison
and matching purposes.
Main Layout
Title Bar
Plug-in instance name
This text box allows you to name the current plug-in instance.
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Bypass
Use this button to compare the sound of the unprocessed signal to that of the
processed signal. The Bypass button does not reduce the plug-in’s CPU load
when switched on.
General Control Bar
Presets selector
Allows you to store and restore custom settings.
Undo
Allows you to undo changes.
History
Opens a change log that lists up to 32 changes in the order you have made
them.
Parameter changes are logged with the group name in parentheses, for
example, Gain (Ls) change.
Redo
Allows you to redo changes that were undone.
A/B
By pressing the A/B button, you can switch between two plug-in states (A
and B).
A>B (B>A)
Copies the current plug-in state to the other state (A or B). This is useful to
copy programs between Session Bank slots.
Reset
This is the master reset button. It resets the plug-in to its default state. The
default state can be chosen in the Preset Manager window.
Routing selector
The Routing button opens the Channel Routing Window, where you can
change several routing options. The pop-up menu provides access to
common routing options.
Save CSV
Allows you to save the selected EQ curve in a comma-separated text file. The
EQ curve is stored as series of frequency/gain pairs, one per line, in the
following form:
20.00,3.00
400.00,2.51
1000.00,1.45 # comment
5000.00,3.40
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20000.00,1.05
Each pair defines the position of a single control point on the CurveEQ’s
control surface. Write decimal points as a period, not as a comma. Comments
can be added at any position, starting with a hash character.
Load CSV
Allows you to load a previously saved CSV file or any externally generated EQ
curve specification, such as room correction or RIAA phono correction.
Frequencies defined in the file should lie between 20 and 20000 Hz.
Settings
Allows you to change general settings.
EQ Top Control Bar
Equalizer dB gain range
Lets you change the maximum boost/decrease of frequencies per band.
MIN-Phase
Enables minimum-phase filtering instead of linear-phase filtering.
Minimum-phase filtering sounds better at steeper EQ slopes because it lacks
pre-ringing artifacts present in linear-phase filters. Furthermore, it does not
add a considerable processing latency.
Static & Match
Opens the Static Spectrums Editor where you can display static spectrums
and perform spectrum matching. Spectrum matching allows you to match the
spectrum shape of a sound recording to that of another sound recording.
Mode selector
Allows you to select a mode for spectrum matching.
Edit
Opens the Spectrum Mode Editor.
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Main EQ Control Surface
The heart of CurveEQ is the equalizer control surface with a built-in real-time
spectrum analyzer.
•
To add a control point, double-click the curve.
•
To delete a control point, double-click it.
The picture above shows the equalizer control surface with control points that can
be dragged to adjust the filter’s gain and frequency.
The readouts show the mouse cursor position within the display, the musical note
and detune in cents that correspond to the frequency position, and the mouse
cursor position within the spectrum power range.
If two or three curves are displayed, a white curve shows the summary frequency
response of all currently enabled filters.
While dragging a control point with the mouse, you can adjust the filter’s bandwidth
by additionally holding the right mouse button or pressing . Alternatively, you can
use the mouse wheel to adjust the filter’s bandwidth.
•
To enable the gain adjustment only, press while dragging a point.
•
To enable frequency adjustment only, p