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Audio Production Techniques (206)
Unit 1
Characteristics of Audio Medium
Digital audio is technology that can be used to record, store, generate, manipulate,
and reproduce sound using audio signals that have been encoded in digital form.
Following significant advances in digital audio technology during the 1970s, it gradually
replaced analog audio technology in many areas of sound production, sound recording
(tape systems were replaced with digital recording systems), sound engineering and
telecommunications in the 1990s and 2000s.
A microphone converts sound (a singer's voice or the sound of an instrument playing) to
an analog electrical signal, then an analog-to-digital converter (ADC)—typically
using pulse-code modulation—converts the analog signal into a digital signal. This digital
signal can then be recorded, edited and modified using digital audio tools. When the
sound engineer wishes to listen to the recording on headphones or loudspeakers (or
when a consumer wishes to listen to a digital sound file of a song), a digital-to-analog
converter performs the reverse process, converting a digital signal back into an analog
signal, which analog circuits amplify and send to aloudspeaker.
Digital audio systems may
include compression, storage, processing and transmission components. Conversion to a
digital format allows convenient manipulation, storage, transmission and retrieval of an
audio signal. Unlike analog audio, in which making copies of a recording leads to
degradation of the signal quality, when using digital audio, an infinite number of copies
can be made without any degradation of signal quality.
Development and expansion of radio network in India
FM broadcasting began on 23 July 1977 in Chennai, then Madras, and was expanded
during the 1990s, nearly 50 years after it mushroomed in the US.[1] In the mid-nineties,
when India first experimented with private FM broadcasts, the small tourist
destination ofGoa was the fifth place in this country of one billion where private players
got FM slots. The other four centres were the big metro
cities: Delhi, Kolkata, Mumbai and Chennai. These were followed by stations
in Bangalore, Hyderabad, Jaipur and Lucknow.
Times FM (now Radio Mirchi) began operations in 1993 in Ahmedabad. Until 1993, All
India Radio or AIR, a government undertaking, was the only radio broadcaster in India.
The government then took the initiative to privatize the radio broadcasting sector.[citation
needed]
It sold airtime blocks on its FM channels in Indore, Hyderabad, Mumbai, Delhi,
Kolkata, Vizag and Goa to private operators, who developed their own program content.
The Times Group operated its brand, Times FM, till June 1998. After that, the
government decided not to renew contracts given to private operators. In 2000, the
government announced the auction of 108 FM frequencies across India.
Radio City Bangalore, started on July 3, 2001, is India's first private FM radio station. It
launched with presenters such as Rohit Barker, Darius Sunawala, Jonzie Kurian and
Suresh Venkat.[2]
FM LRS (Local Radio Station) was inaugurated on 1 July 2001 at 14.28 in Kodaikanal in
the frequency 100.5 MHz. The two radio persons Dr.Musiri.T.A.Veerasamy and
B.Rajaram (Savitraa) made 100.5 popular and the LRS was upgraded to a "METRO FM"
channel in just two months. The channel covered a radius of about 200 km due to its
location at 2200 meters above MSL in Kodaikanal. Later, the stalwarts like Supra
(K.Natarajan) in 2002 and Maha Somaskandamoorthy in 2003 joined KODAI FM, as it is
popularly known. The biggest individual FM channel in India in both area coverage and
listenership.
Indian policy currently states that these broadcasters are assessed a One-Time Entry
Fee (OTEF), for the entire license period of 10 years. Under the Indian accounting
system, this amount is amortised over the 10-year period at 10% per annum. Annual
license fee for private players is either 4% of revenue share or 10% of Reserve Price,
whichever is higher.
India's earlier attempts to privatise its FM channels ran into rough weather when private
players bid heavily and most could not meet their commitments to pay the government
the amounts they owed.
Content[edit]
News is not permitted on private FM. Nationally, many of the current FM players,
including the Times of India, Hindustan Times, Mid-Day, and BBC are essentially
newspaper chains or media, and they are making a strong pitch for news on FM. Private
FM stations are allowed to rebroadcast news from All India Radio, as long as they do so
without any changes or additions.[3] The Supreme Court of India on 17 October 2013
issued a public interest litigation to the Centre requesting that the rules should be
changed to allow FM stations to broadcast news reports.[4]
FM stations in Ahmedabad[edit]
•
Radio Mirchi - 98.3 FM (Times Group)
•
My FM - 94.3 FM (DNA Bhaskar Group)
•
Red FM - 93.5 FM (Sun Group)
•
Radio City - 91.1 FM (Music Broadcast Private Limited)
•
Radio One - 95.0 FM (Only Bollywood Retro Station of Ahmedabad)
•
Vividh Bharati - 96.7 FM (AIR)
FM stations in Hyderabad[edit]
•
Radio City - 91.1
•
Big 92.7 FM - 92.7
•
South Asia firms (S FM) - 93.5
•
Radio Mirchi - 98.3
•
All India Radio (AIR / AIR / Twin Cities firms Rainbow)- 101.9
•
All India Radio (AIR / AIR / Miscellaneous Bharti) - 102.8
•
Gyan Vani - 105.6
•
Vividh Bharati
FM stations in New Delhi NCR[edit]
•
City FM 92 (Live Broadcasting Radio)
•
Radia Ditect FM 107.1 (107.1 MHz)
•
AIR FM Rainbow / FM-1 (102.6 MHz)
•
AIR FM Gold /FM-2 (106.4 MHz)
•
AIR Rajdhani/Gyanvani Channel (105.6 MHz)
•
Oye FM (104.8 MHz)
•
Fever 104 (104 MHz)
•
Radio Mirchi FM (98.3 MHz)
•
Hit FM (95 MHz)
•
Radio One FM (94.3 MHz)(Only English Radio station of Delhi)
•
Red FM (93.5 MHz)
•
Big FM (92.7 MHz)
•
Radio City (91.1 MHz)
•
Radio Nasha (107.2 MHz)
•
Radio Jamia 90.4 FM
•
Delhi University Educational Radio (Available only in University area) (DU Radio FM)
(90.4 MHz)
•
Apna Radio IIMC 96.9 FM
•
Vividh Barti (100.1 MHz)
•
Noida FM (107.4 MHz)
Radio SD 90.8 FM NCR VIKASNAGAR UTTAR PRADESH
FM stations in Kolkata[edit]
•
Radio SRFTI (90.4 MHz, Available in and around the film institute area)
•
Radio JU (90.8 MHz, Available within a 5 km radius of the University, from 11:00 AM
to 7:30 PM)
•
Y FM NSHM (91.2 MHz, Available within a 10 km radius of the institute, from 9:00
AM to 7:00 PM)
•
Friends FM (91.9 MHz)
•
Big FM (92.7 MHz)
•
Red FM (93.5 MHz)
•
Radio One (94.3 MHz)
•
Radio Mirchi (98.3 MHz)
•
AIR FM Gold (100.2 MHz)
•
AIR FM Vividh Bharati (101.8 MHz)
•
Fever 104 FM (104 MHz)
•
Oye (104.8 MHz)
•
Gyan Vani (105.6 MHz)
•
Aamar FM (106.2 MHz)
•
AIR FM Rainbow (107 MHz)
•
Power FM (107.8 MHz) - Last air date: April 21, 2016.
FM stations in Mumbai[edit]
•
bansal24hr.fm 95.5
•
Vividh Bharati
•
Jago Mumbai 90.8
•
Radio City 91.1FM
•
Big FM 92.7
•
Red FM 93.5
•
Radio One 94.3 (Only English Radio station of Mumbai)
•
Radio Mirchi 98.3 FM 98.3
•
Radio Dhamaal 106.4
•
AIR FM Gold 100.7
•
RAIN BOW FM 102.2
•
Fever 104 FM 104.0
•
Oye 104.8 104.8
•
AIR FM Rainbow 107.1
•
Mumbai One
•
Gyan Vani
•
Radio MUST
FM stations in Bengaluru[edit]
Main article: List of FM radio stations in Bengaluru
•
Radio City 91.1 FM - Kannada
•
Indigo 91.9 FM FM - English
•
Big 92.7 FM - Kannada
•
Red FM 93.5 FM - Hindi
•
Radio ONE FM 94.3 - Hindi
•
Radio 95 95 FM - Hindi
•
Radio Mirchi 98.3 FM Kannada
•
Amruthavarshini 100.1 FM (devotional)
•
FM Rainbow 101.3 FM (Kannada, Hindi, English)
•
Vividhabharathi 102.9 FM (Kannada, Hindi)
•
Fever FM 104 FM (Hindi)
•
Gnyanavani 106.4 FM (Kannada, English, Hindi)
FM stations in Chennai[edit]
•
AIR FM - RAINBOW
•
AIR FM - GOLD 102.3
•
Chennai Live 104.8 FM
•
Hello FM (106.4),
•
Suryan FM 93.5,
•
Fever FM 91.9,
•
BIG FM 92.7,
•
Radio City FM 91.1,
•
Radio Mirchi FM 98.3,
•
Radio one 94.3,
•
Anna FM
FM stations in Kerala[edit]
•
Real FM 103.6
•
Best FM 95.00,
•
Radio Mango 91.9, in Kochi, Thrissur, Kozhikode & Kannur
•
Red FM 93.5,
•
Club FM 94.3 in Thiruvananthapuram, Kochi & Kannur ; ClubFM 104.8 in Thrissur
•
Radio Mirchi 98.3 Thiruvananthapuram,
•
Big FM Thiruvananthapuram
•
FM Rainbow,
•
Ananthapuri FM,
•
AIR Thiruvananthapuram
•
AIR Kochi FM 102.3
•
AIR Kannur
•
AIR Devikulam
•
AIR Manjeri
•
AIR Gyan Vani-Kochi
•
Radio MacFast Thiruvalla FM 90.4
•
Radio Media Village Changanacherry FM 90.8
•
Global Radio Alappuzha FM 91.2
Market view[edit]
Traditionally, radio accounts for 7% to 8% of advertiser expenditures around the world. In
India, it is less than 2% at present.[citation needed]
List of FM radio Stations in India[edit]
See also: List of FM radio stations in India
The ministry of broadcasting in India has no further plan to spread FM Radio to all parts
of India.
List of FM Stations in Jaipur: 1. 94.3 MYFM (Listnership; 18 lacs plus) 2. 98.3 Radio
Mirchi (Listnership; 12 lacs plus) 3. 93.5 Red FM (Listnership; 11 lacs plus) 4. 91.1 Radio
City (Listnership; 10 lacs plus) 5. 95 Tadka (Listnership; 8 lacs plus)
Current allocation process[edit]
In FM Phase II — the latest round of the long-delayed opening up of private FM in India
— some 338 frequencies were offered of which about 237 were sold.[citation needed] The
government may go for rebidding of unsold frequencies quite soon. In Phase III of FM
licensing, smaller towns and cities will be opened up for FM radio.
Reliance and South Asia FM (Sun group) bid for most of the 91 cities, although they were
allowed only 15% of the total allocated frequencies. Between them, they have had to
surrender over 40 licenses.
All India Radio
All India Radio (AIR), officially known since 1956 as Ākāshvāṇī (literally, "Voice from
the Sky"), is the national public radio broadcaster of India and a division of Prasar
Bharati. Established in 1930,[2] it is the sister service of Prasar Bharati's Doordarshan, the
national public television broadcaster. AIR has covered more than 99% of the Indian
Population as per the latest information given by Minister of Information and Broadcast.
All India Radio is one of the largest radio networks in the world. Its headquarters is at the
Akashvani Bhavan in New Delhi. Akashvani Bhavan houses the Drama Section, the FM
Section and the National Service.Doordarshan Kendra (Delhi) offices are also located on
the sixth floor at Akashvani Bhavan.
Etymology[edit]
Main article: Akashvani (term)
The word ākāśavāni (आकाशवाणी) is taken from Sanskrit. In Sanskrit Akashvani means
"celestial announcement," or a gift or message from heaven. Often in Hindu mythological
stories, folk-tales and fables like Panchatantra & Hitopadesha, whenever Gods wanted to
say something, an Akashvani occurred. Literally, akash means "sky" and vani means
"sound" or "message".[3]
The word "Akashvani" was coined by M. V. Gopalaswamy after setting up the nation’s
first private radio station in his residence, "Vittal Vihar" (about 200 yards from AIR’s
current location in Mysore) in 1936.[4] Akashvaniseemed to be an appropriate name for a
radio broadcaster and was later adopted as All India Radio's on-air name after
independence.
History[edit]
In British India, broadcasting began in July 1923 with programmes by the Radio
Club of Mumbai and other radio clubs. According to an agreement of 23 July 1927, the
private Indian Broadcasting Company LTD (IBC) was authorized to operate two radio
stations; the Mumbai station began on 23 July 1927, and the Calcutta station followed on
26 August 1927. On 1 March 1930, however, the company went into liquidation. The
government took over the broadcasting facilities, beginning the Indian State Broadcasting
Service (ISBS) on 1 April 1930 (on an experimental basis for two years, and permanently
in May 1932). On 8 June 1936; the ISBS was renamed All India Radio.[2]
On 1 October 1939 the External Service began with a broadcast in Pushtu; it was
intended to counter radio propaganda from Germany directed to Afghanistan, Iran and
the Arab nations. When India became independent in 1947, the AIR network had only six
stations (in Delhi, Mumbai, Calcutta, Chennai, Lucknow, and Tiruchirappalli); three radio
stations at Lahore, Peshawar and Karachi fell in the share of Pakistan. the total number
of radio sets at that time was about 275,000 in India. On 3 October 1957 the Vividh
Bharati Service was launched, to compete with Radio Ceylon. Television broadcasting
began in Delhi in 1959 as part of AIR, but was split off from the radio network
as Doordarshan on 1 April 1976.[5] FM broadcasting began on 23 July 1977 in Chennai,
and was expanded during the 1990s.[6]
Domestic services[edit]
AIR tower in Mangalore, Karnataka
Kolkata Centre of All India Radio
AIR has many services in a number of languages, each serving different regions across
India.
Vividh Bharati[edit]
Vividh Bharati is one of the best-known services of AIR. Its name roughly translates as
"Multi-Indian Service", and it is also known as the Commercial Broadcasting Service
(CBS). It is the commercially most accessible of the AIR networks and is popular
in Mumbai and other large cities. Vividh Bharati offers a wide range of programmes
including news, film music and comedy programs. It operates on different mediumwaveband frequencies for each city.
Some programs broadcast on Vividh Bharati are:
•
Hawa-mahal: Radio plays based on novels and plays
•
Santogen ki mehfil: Comedy
Other services include[edit]
•
Primary Channel [1]
•
National Channel[7]
Regional services[edit]
The headquarters of the Regional Deputy Directors General are located at Delhi and
Chandigarh (NR), Lucknow and Bhopal (CR), Guwahati (NER), Kolkata (ER), Mumbai
and Ahmedabad (WR), Chennai and Bangalore (SR).[8] All frequencies are in kHz, unless
otherwise noted.
Northern regional service
City
Frequency
City
Frequency
City
Frequency
Agra
1530
Ajmer
603
Allahabad
1026
Almora
999
Barmer
1458
Bikaner
1395
srinagar
819
srinagar
666
chairhara(budgam) 1485
Delhi C (Vividh
Bharti) (�व�वधभारती)
Delhi D
1368
Diskit
1602
Jaipur A
1476
Delhi
(Yuv-vani)
(युववाणी)
1017
Drass
1485
Jalandhar
A
(National
1215
Channel)
837
Gorakhpur
Jalandhar
B
909
702
Kalpa
Jammu A
990
Jodhpur A
531
Kargil A
684
Kargil B
1584
Khalsi
1485
Kota
1413
Kupwara
1350
Leh
1053
Lucknow A
747
1278
Mathura
1584
Najibabad
954
Naushera
1089
Nyoma
1485
Padam
1589
Pauri
1602
Pithoragarh 1602
Rampur
895
Rohtak
1143
Shimla
774
budgam
1116
budgamA
1224
srinagar C
918
Tiesuru
1602
Udaipur
1125
Uttarkashi
1602
Varanasi A
1242
Lucknow
C
Sawai
Madhopur
(Kinnaur)
1584
101.5
Northeast regional service
City
Agartala
Frequency
1269
City
Guwahati A
Frequency
729
Shillong
864
Imphal
822
Eastern regional service
City
Frequency
City
Frequency
594 &
Bhagalpur
1458, 1206 Chinsurah (Kolkata A, 1 MW)
Cuttack A
972
Darbhanga
1296
Jamshedpur
1544
Kolkata A
657
Kolkata B
1008
Kolkata C (Vividh Bharati)
1323
Patna A
621
Ranchi A
549
Muzaffarpur A
100.1 MHz
Muzaffarpur B
106.4 MHz
Kolkata (FM Rainbow)
107
Kolkata (FM Gold)
100.2
1134
Western regional service
City
Frequency
City
Frequency
Ahmedabad A
846
Aurangabad
1521
Bhopal A
1593
Chhindwara
102.2 MHz
Chhatarpur
675
Gwalior
1386
Indore A
648
Jalgaon
963
Mumbai A
1044
Mumbai C (Vividh Bharati)
1188
Nagpur A
585
1566
Panaji A
1287
Panaji B (Vividh Bharati)
828
Pune A
792
Rajkot A
810
Ratnagiri
1143
Solapur
1602
Sangli
1251
Nagpur B (National Channel,
1 MW)
Mumbai B (Asmita
558
Marathi Programme)
South regional service
City
Frequency
Adilabad
1485
Chennai A
720 kHz
Chennai B
1017 kHz
City
Bangalore A
Chennai C (Vividh
Bharati)
Frequency
612
783 kHz
Coimbatore
999 kHz
Gulbarga
1107
Hyderabad A
738
Hyderabad B
1377
Kozhikode A
684
Madurai
1269 kHz
Nagercoil
101 MHz
Udhagamandalam
1602 kHz
Port Blair
684
Thiruvananthapuram A
1161
Thiruvananthapuram
101.9 MHz
Thrissur A
630
Tiruchirapalli A
936 kHz
Tirunelveli
1197 kHz
Vijayawada A
837
Visakhapatnam
Tirupati A
Gautam
456
Pondicherry
1215
1075
External services[edit]
The external services of All India Radio broadcast in 27 languages to countries outside
India—primarily via high-power shortwave band broadcasts, although medium wave is
also used to reach neighbouring countries. In addition to broadcasts targeted at specific
countries by language, there is a General Overseas Service broadcasting in English with
8¼ hours of programming each day aimed at a general international audience. The
external broadcasts were begun on 1 October 1939 by the British government to counter
the propaganda of the Nazis directed at the Afghan people. The first broadcasts were in
Pushto, beamed to Afghanistan and the North-West Frontier Province. Soon broadcasts
began in other languages including Dari, Persian, Arabic, English, Burmese, Japanese,
Chinese, Malay and French. The external services broadcast in 16 foreign and 11 Indian
languages, with a total program output of 70¼ hours per day on medium- and shortwave.
External service transmitter sites
Location
Number of
transmitters
kW
Aligarh (HPT)
4
250
Bengaluru (SPT)
6
500
Chennai (Madras)
1
100
Gorakhpur
1
50
Guwahati
1
50
Jalandhar (Goraya) 1
Khampur-Delhi
300
7
250
2
500
Kingsway-Delhi
3
50
Kingsway-Delhi
2
100
(HPT)
Khampur-Delhi
(SPT)
KolkataChinsurah/Mogra
DRM !
100 kW
720 kHz
MW
702 kHz
MW
1134 kHz and
1
1000
(SPT)
Mumbai (Malad)
Frequency
594 kHz(Kolkata A)
1
100
1142 KHZMW
External service transmitter sites
Location
Number of
transmitters
kW
Nagpur (SPT)
1
1000
Panaji (HPT)
2
250
Rajkot (SPT)
Tuticorin
1
1
1000
200
Frequency
1566 kHz
1071 kHz AIR
URDU
1053 kHz
DRM !
MW
1080 kHz(2
MegaWatt)Vividha
Bharti
MW
Two high powered FM stations of All India Radio are under installation in Amritsar and
Fazilka in Punjab to supplement the programs put out from transmitters operating from
Jalandhar, New Delhi, Chandigarh and Mumbai and to improve the broadcast services
during disturbed weather conditions in the border regions of Punjab.
Today, the External Services Division of All India Radio broadcasts daily in 57
transmissions with almost 72 hours covering over 108 countries in 27 languages, out of
which 15 are foreign and 12 Indian. The foreign languages are Arabic, Baluchi, Burmese,
Chinese, Dari, French, Indonesian, Persian, Pushtu, Russian, Sinhala, Swahili, Thai,
Tibetan and English (General Overseas Service). The Indian languages are Bengali,
Gujarati, Marathi, Kokani, Kashmiri, Hindi, Kannada, Malayalam, Nepali, Punjabi, Saraiki,
Sindhi, Tamil, Telugu and Urdu.
The longest daily broadcast is the Urdu Service to Pakistan, around the clock
on DTH and on short- and mediumwave for 12¼ hrs. The English-language General
Overseas Service are broadcast 8¼ hours daily. During Hajj, there are special
broadcasts beamed to Saudi Arabia in Urdu. The external services of AIR are also
broadcast to Europe in DRM (Digital Radio Mondiale) on 9950 kHz between 1745-2230
UTC.
The transmissions are broadcast by high-power transmitters located at Aligarh,
Bengaluru, Chennai, Delhi, Gorakhpur, Guwahati, Mumbai and Panaji on shortwave and
from Jalandhar, Kolkata, Nagpur, Rajkot and Tuticorin on mediumwave. Soon All India
Radio Amritsar will start a booster service on FM band too. Some of these transmitters
are 1000 kW (1 MW) or 500 kW. Programs are beamed to different parts of the world
except the Americas and received in very good Reception Quality in the Target areas. In
each language service, the program consists of news, commentary, a press review, talks
on matters of general or cultural interest, feature programmes, documentaries and music
from India and the target region. Most programs originate at New Broadcasting House on
Parliament Street in New Delhi, with a few originating at SPT Bengaluru, Chennai,
Hyderabad, Jalandhar, Kolkata, HPT Malad Mumbai, Thiruvananthapuram and Tuticorin.
The External Services Division of AIR is a link between India and rest of the world,
especially in countries with Indian emigrants and people of Indian origin. It broadcasts the
Indian point of view on matters of national and international importance, and
demonstrates the Indian way of life through its programs. QSL cards (which are soughtafter by international radio hobbyists) are issued to radio hobbyists by AIR in New Delhi
for reception reports of their broadcasts.
Other services[edit]
Digital Radio Mondiale (DRM)[edit]
Details of the transmissions and frequencies are as follows: 0130 - 0230 UTC on
11715 kHz Nepali (Nepal) 0315-0415 UTC on 15185 kHz Hindi, (E.Africa, Mauritius)
0415-0430 UTC on 15185 kHz Gujarati, (E.Africa, Mauritius) 0430-0530 UTC on
15185 kHz Hindi(E.Africa, Mauritius) 1300 - 1500 UTC on 15050 kHz Sinhala (Sri Lanka)
1615-1715 UTC on 15140 kHz Russian (E. Europe) 2245-0045 UTC on 11645 GOS-I
English (NE Asia)
Above transmissions are in addition to following existing DRM txn's: 0900-1200 on 6100
Vividh Bharati, DRM NVIS 1745-1945 UTC on 9950 English W. Europe) 1945-2045 UTC
on 9950 Hindi (W. Europe) 2045-2230 UTC on 9950 English (W. Europe)
News-on-phone service[edit]
All India Radio launched news-on-phone service on 25 February 1998 in New Delhi; it
now has service in Chennai, Mumbai, Hyderabad, Indore, Patna and Bangalore. The
service is accessible through STD, ISD and local calls. There are plans to establish the
service in 11 more cities: Ahmedabad, Bhopal, Guwahati, Gwalior, Jabalpur, Jaipur,
Kolkata, Lucknow, Ranchi, Shimla and Thiruvananthapuram. English and Hindi hourly
news bulletins may be heard live.[9] News in MP3 format may be directly played from the
site, and filenames are time-stamped. AIR news bulletins are available in nine regional
languages (Tamil, Kannada, Gujarati, Bengali, Marathi, North East, Punjabi, Telugu and
Urdu).
Direct-to-home service[edit]
Direct-to-home (DTH) service is offered on 21 channels via Insat.
Documentaries[edit]
There is a long tradition of documentary features on AIR. There is great interest in radio
documentaries, particularly in countries like India, Iran, South Korea and Malaysia. The
doyen of English Features was Melville De Mellow and of Hindi Features was Shiv Sagar
Mishra.This format has been revived because of its flexibility, cost-cutting capacity,
messaging potential and creative potential with producers such as Viren Goyal,"Som Dutt
Sharma", Chitra Narain, R. G. Narula and Danish Iqbal.Som Dutt Sharma's vast
experience as Top Grade Film Division Writer is reflected in the calibre of his work in the
feature production.He has brought the rare combination of Innovation,facts and creativity
together to present an unforgettable aural experience for the senses.His acclaimed
features are-"Anahad Naad,Kathak katha,Sadhna key Sakhsya and Vani mein Ithihas".
Iqbal has brought his experience as a drama producer to the documentary field; his
documentary "Yeh Rishta Kya Kehlata Hai" makes effective use of narrative and ambient
sounds. The documentary is a heartfelt account of an unseen bridge between a Kashmiri,
Shikarah Wala, and his auto rickshaw-driver friend in Delhi. Although they never met,
their unseen bond transcends the barriers of political, religious and regional prejudice.
Because Narula, Chitra and Danish had a long tenure at Delhi and creative collaboration
with media institutes, their influence is seminal in shaping the thinking of their colleagues.
Chitra and Narula were rewarded for their work, and Danish twice received the Public
Service Broadcasting Award for his documentaries.
Central Drama Unit[edit]
AIR's Central Drama Unit is responsible for the national broadcast of plays. Playwrights
and producers such as Chiranjeet, Satyendra Sharat, Nirmala Agarwal and Danish Iqbal
has been associated with the department. Plays produced by the CDU are translated and
produced by regional stations. Since its inception in the 1960s the unit has produced
more than 1,500 plays, and the CDU is a repository of old scripts and productions. The
National Programme of Plays is broadcast by the CDU of AIR the fourth Thursday of
each month at 9.30 pm. On the National Programme of Plays, the same play is produced
in 22 Indian languages and broadcast at the same time by all regional and national
network stations. The CDU also produces Chain Plays, half-hour dramas broadcast in
succession by a chain of stations.
Social Media Cell[edit]
News Service Division's Social Media Cell is responsible for providing AIR news on new
media platforms viz. websites, Twitter, Facebook and SMS. Social Media Cell was
established on 20 May 2013.
History of broadcasting
The first radio transmission consisting of Morse Code (or wireless telegraphy) was made
from a temporary station set up by Guglielmo Marconi in 1895. This followed on from
pioneering work in the field by a number of people including Alessandro Volta, AndréMarie Ampère, Georg Ohm, James Clerk Maxwell and Heinrich Hertz.[2][3][4]
The broadcasting of music and talk via radio started experimentally around 1905-1906,
and commercially around 1920 to 1923. VHF stations started 30 to 35 years later.
In the early days, radio stations broadcast on the long wave, medium wave and short
wave bands, and later on VHF (very high frequency) and UHF (ultra high frequency).
(However, in the United Kingdom, Hungary, France and some other places, from as early
as 1890 there was already a system whereby news, music, live theatre, music hall, fiction
readings, religious broadcasts, etc., were available in private homes [and other places]
via the conventional telephone line, with subscribers being supplied with a number of
special, personalised headsets. In Britain this system was known as Electrophone, and
was available as early as 1895 or 1899 [sources vary] and up until 1926.[4] In Hungary, it
was called Telefon Hírmondó [1893-1920s], and in France, Théâtrophone [1890-1932]).
The Wikipedia Telefon Hírmondó page includes a 1907 program guide which looks
remarkably similar to the types of schedules used by many broadcasting stations some
20 or 30 years later.)
By the 1950s, virtually every country had a broadcasting system, typically one owned and
operated by the government. Alternative modes included commercial radio, as in the
United States; or a dual system with both state sponsored and commercial stations,
introduced in Australia as early as 1924, with Canada following in 1932. Today, most
countries have evolved into a dual system, including the UK.
By 1955, practically every family in North America and Western Europe, as well as
Japan, had a radio. A dramatic change came in the 1960s with the introduction of small
inexpensive portable transistor radio, the greatly expanded ownership and usage.
Access became practically universal across the world.
Over the last 90 years or so, broadcasting has seen many improvements, refinements
and challenges; these include (but are not confined to):
•
international broadcasts, particularly confined to the short wave band;
•
better technology which saw radios becoming cheaper, and in almost every home, as
well as in cars and portable sets;
•
the introduction of FM broadcasting and its effect on AM stations;
•
the challenge of television, which meant that radio broadcasters later concentrated
on music of varying types, news, sport and discussion programs;
•
the invention of the transistor, meaning even greater portability and even cheaper
sets;
•
digital radio;
•
internet radio
Radio broadcasting
Radio broadcasting is a unidirectional wireless transmission over radio waves intended
to reach a wide audience. Stations can be linked in radio networks to broadcast a
common radio format, either in broadcast syndicationor simulcast or both. Audio
broadcasting also can be done via cable radio, local wire television networks, satellite
radio, and internet radio via streaming media on the Internet. The signal types can be
either analog audio ordigital audio.
In 2009, there were 3,494 radio broadcasting stations in the United States.
History[edit]
See also: History of radio § Broadcasting and History of broadcasting
The earliest radio stations were simply radiotelegraphy systems and did not carry audio.
For audio broadcasts to be possible electronic detection and amplification devices had to
be incorporated.
The thermionic valve was invented in 1904 by the English physicist John Ambrose
Fleming. He developed a device he called an "oscillation valve" (because it passes
current in only one direction). The heated filament, or cathode, was capable of thermionic
emission of electrons that would flow to the plate (or anode) when it was at a higher
voltage. Electrons, however, could not pass in the reverse direction because the plate
was not heated and thus not capable of thermionic emission of electrons. Later known as
the Fleming valve, it could be used as a rectifier of alternating current and as a radio
wave detector.[2] This greatly improved the crystal set which rectified the radio signal
using an early solid-state diode based on a crystal and a so-called cat's whisker.
However, what was still required was an amplifier.
The triode (mercury-vapor filled with a control grid) was patented on March 4, 1906 by
the Austrian Robert von Lieben[3][4][5] independent from that, on October 25, 1906[6][7] Lee
De Forest patented his three-element Audion. It wasn't put to practical use until 1912,
when its amplifying ability became recognized by researchers.[8]
By about 1920, valve technology had matured to the point where radio broadcasting was
quickly becoming viable.[9][10] However, an early audio transmission that could be termed
a broadcast may have occurred on Christmas Eve in 1906 by Reginald Fessenden,
although this is disputed.[11] While many early experimenters attempted to create systems
similar to radiotelephone devices by which only two parties were meant to communicate,
there were others who intended to transmit to larger audiences. Charles Herrold started
broadcasting in California in 1909 and was carrying audio by the next year. (Herrold's
station eventually became KCBS).
In The Hague, the Netherlands, PCGG started broadcasting on November 6, 1919,
making it, arguably the first commercial broadcasting station. In 1916, Frank Conrad, an
electrical engineer employed at the Westinghouse Electric Corporation, began
broadcasting from his Wilkinsburg, Pennsylvania garage with the call letters 8XK. Later,
the station was moved to the top of the Westinghouse factory building in East Pittsburgh,
Pennsylvania. Westinghouse relaunched the station as KDKA on November 2, 1920, as
the first commercially licensed radio station in America.[12] The commercial
broadcasting designation came from the type of broadcast license; advertisements did
not air until years later. The first licensed broadcast in the United States came from
KDKA itself: the results of the Harding/Cox Presidential Election. The Montreal station
that became CFCF began broadcast programming on May 20, 1920, and
the Detroit station that became WWJ began program broadcasts beginning on August
20, 1920, although neither held a license at the time.
In 1920 wireless broadcasts for entertainment began in the UK from the Marconi
Research Centre 2MT at Writtle near Chelmsford, England. A famous broadcast from
Marconi's New Street Works factory in Chelmsford was made by the
famous soprano Dame Nellie Melba on 15 June 1920, where she sang two arias and her
famous trill. She was the first artist of international renown to participate in direct radio
broadcasts. The 2MT station began to broadcast regular entertainment in 1922.
The BBC was amalgamated in 1922 and received a Royal Charter in 1926, making it the
first national broadcaster in the world.[13][14]
Radio Argentina began regularly scheduled transmissions from the Teatro
Coliseo in Buenos Aires on August 27, 1920, making its own priority claim. The station
got its license on November 19, 1923. The delay was due to the lack of official Argentine
licensing procedures before that date. This station continued regular broadcasting of
entertainment and cultural fare for several decades.[15]
Radio in education soon followed and colleges across the U.S. began adding radio
broadcasting courses to their curricula. Curry College in Milton, Massachusetts
introduced one of the first broadcasting majors in 1932 when the college teamed up with
WLOE in Boston to have students broadcast programs.[16]
Types[edit]
Transmission diagram of sound broadcasting (AM and FM)
Broadcasting by radio takes several forms. These include AM and FM stations. There are
several subtypes, namely commercial broadcasting, non-commercial
educational (NCE) public broadcasting and non-profitvarieties as well as community
radio, student-run campus radio stations and hospital radio stations can be found
throughout the world.
Many stations broadcast on shortwave bands using AM technology that can be received
over thousands of miles (especially at night). For example, the BBC, VOA, VOR,
and Deutsche Welle have transmitted via shortwave to Africa and Asia. These
broadcasts are very sensitive to atmospheric conditions and solar activity.
Arbitron, the United States-based company that reports on radio audiences, defines a
"radio station" as a government-licensed AM or FM station; an HD Radio (primary or
multicast) station; an internet stream of an existing government-licensed station; one of
the satellite radio channels from XM Satellite Radio or Sirius Satellite Radio; or,
potentially, a station that is not government licensed.[17]
Shortwave[edit]
See shortwave for the differences between shortwave, medium wave and long
wave spectra. Shortwave is used largely for national broadcasters, international
propaganda, or religious broadcasting organizations.
AM[edit]
Main article: AM broadcasting
AM broadcasting stations in 2006
AM stations were the earliest broadcasting stations to be developed. AM refers
to amplitude modulation, a mode of broadcasting radio waves by varying the amplitude of
the carrier signal in response to the amplitude of the signal to be transmitted.
The medium-wave band is used worldwide for AM broadcasting. Europe also uses
the long wave band. In response to the growing popularity of FM stereo radio stations in
the late 1980s and early 1990s, some North American stations began broadcasting in AM
stereo, though this never gained popularity, and very few receivers were ever sold.
One of the advantages of AM is that its signal can be detected (turned into sound) with
simple equipment. If a signal is strong enough, not even a power source is needed;
building an unpowered crystal radio receiverwas a common childhood project in the early
decades of AM broadcasting.
AM broadcasts occur on North American airwaves in the medium wave frequency range
of 530 to 1700 kHz (known as the “standard broadcast band”). The band was expanded
in the 1990s by adding nine channelsfrom 1620 to 1700 kHz. Channels are spaced every
10 kHz in the Americas, and generally every 9 kHz everywhere else.
The signal is subject to interference from electrical storms (lightning) and
other electromagnetic interference (EMI).
AM transmissions cannot be ionospherically propagated during the day due to strong
absorption in the D-layer of the ionosphere. In a crowded channel environment this
means that the power of regional channels which share a frequency must be reduced at
night or directionally beamed in order to avoid interference, which reduces the potential
nighttime audience. Some stations have frequencies unshared with other stations in
North America; these are called clear-channel stations. Many of them can be heard
across much of the country at night. During the night, absorption largely disappears and
permits signals to travel to much more distant locations via ionospheric reflections.
However, fading of the signal can be severe at night.
AM radio transmitters can transmit audio frequencies up to 15 kHz (now limited to 10 kHz
in the US due to FCC rules designed to reduce interference), but most receivers are only
capable of reproducing frequencies up to 5 kHz or less. At the time that AM broadcasting
began in the 1920s, this provided adequate fidelity for existing microphones, 78 rpm
recordings, and loudspeakers. The fidelity of sound equipment subsequently improved
considerably, but the receivers did not. Reducing the bandwidth of the receivers reduces
the cost of manufacturing and makes them less prone to interference. AM stations are
never assigned adjacent channels in the same service area. This prevents the sideband
power generated by two stations from interfering with each other.[18] Bob Carvercreated
an AM stereo tuner employing notch filtering that demonstrated that an AM broadcast
can meet or exceed the 15 kHz baseband bandwidth allotted to FM stations without
objectionable interference. After several years, the tuner was discontinued. Bob Carver
had left the company and the Carver Corporation later cut the number of models
produced before discontinuing production completely.[citation needed]
FM[edit]
Main article: FM broadcasting
FM radio broadcast stations in 2006
FM refers to frequency modulation, and occurs on VHF airwaves in the frequency range
of 88 to 108 MHz everywhere except Japan and Russia. Japan uses the 76 to 90 MHz
band. Russia has two bands, 65.9 to 74 MHz (which was widely used in the former
Soviet Union) and 87.5 to 108 MHz worldwide standard. FM stations are much more
popular since higher sound fidelity and stereo broadcasting became common in this
format.
FM radio was invented by Edwin H. Armstrong in the 1930s for the specific purpose of
overcoming the interference problem of AM radio, to which FM is relatively immune. At
the same time, greater fidelity was made possible by spacing stations further apart.
Instead of 10 kHz apart, as on the AM band in the US, FM channels are 200 kHz
(0.2 MHz) apart. In other countries greater spacing is sometimes mandatory, such as in
New Zealand, which uses 700 kHz spacing (previously 800 kHz). The improved fidelity
made available was far in advance of the audio equipment of the 1940s, but wide
interchannel spacing was chosen to take advantage of the noise-suppressing feature of
wideband FM.
Bandwidth of 200 kHz is not needed to accommodate an audio signal — 20 kHz to
30 kHz is all that is necessary for a narrowband FM signal. The 200 kHz bandwidth
allowed room for ±75 kHz signal deviation from the assigned frequency, plus guard
bands to reduce or eliminate adjacent channel interference. The larger bandwidth allows
for broadcasting a 15 kHz bandwidth audio signal plus a 38 kHz stereo "subcarrier"—a
piggyback signal that rides on the main signal. Additional unused capacity is used by
some broadcasters to transmit utility functions such as background music for public
areas, GPS auxiliary signals, or financial market data.
The AM radio problem of interference at night was addressed in a different way. At the
time FM was set up, the available frequencies were far higher in the spectrum than those
used for AM radio - by a factor of approximately 100. Using these frequencies meant that
even at far higher power, the range of a given FM signal was much shorter; thus its
market was more local than for AM radio. The reception range at night is the same as in
the daytime. All FM broadcast transmissions are line-of-sight, and ionospheric bounce is
not viable. The much larger bandwidths, compared to AM and SSB, are more susceptible
to phase dispersion. Propagation speeds (celerities) are fastest in the ionosphere at the
lowest sideband frequency. The celerity difference between the highest and lowest
sidebands is quite apparent to the listener. Such distortion occurs up to frequencies of
approximately 50 MHz. Higher frequencies do not reflect from the ionosphere, nor from
storm clouds. Moon reflections have been used in some experiments, but require
impractical power levels.
The original FM radio service in the U.S. was the Yankee Network, located in New
England.[19][20][21] Regular FM broadcasting began in 1939, but did not pose a significant
threat to the AM broadcasting industry. It required purchase of a special receiver. The
frequencies used, 42 to 50 MHz, were not those used today. The change to the current
frequencies, 88 to 108 MHz, began after the end of World War II, and was to some extent
imposed by AM broadcasters as an attempt to cripple what was by now realized to be a
potentially serious threat.
FM radio on the new band had to begin from the ground floor. As a commercial venture it
remained a little-used audio enthusiasts' medium until the 1960s. The more prosperous
AM stations, or their owners, acquired FM licenses and often broadcast the same
programming on the FM station as on the AM station ("simulcasting"). The FCC limited
this practice in the 1960s. By the 1980s, since almost all new radios included both AM
and FM tuners, FM became the dominant medium, especially in cities. Because of its
greater range, AM remained more common in rural environments.
Pirate radio[edit]
Main article: Pirate radio
Pirate radio is illegal or non-regulated radio transmission. It is most commonly used to
describe illegal broadcasting for entertainment or political purposes. Sometimes it is used
for illegal two-way radio operation. Its history can be traced back to the unlicensed nature
of the transmission, but historically there has been occasional use of sea vessels—fitting
the most common perception of a pirate—as broadcasting bases. Rules and regulations
vary largely from country to country, but often the term pirate radio generally describes
the unlicensed broadcast of FM radio, AM radio, or short wave signals over a wide range.
In some places radio stations are legal where the signal is transmitted, but illegal where
the signals are received—especially when the signals cross a national boundary. In other
cases, a broadcast may be considered "pirate" due to the type of content, its
transmission format, or the transmitting power (wattage) of the station, even if the
transmission is not technically illegal (such as a web cast or an amateur radio
transmission). Pirate radio stations are sometimes referred to as bootleg radio or
clandestine stations.
Terrestrial digital radio[edit]
Digital radio broadcasting has emerged, first in Europe (the UK in 1995 and Germany in
1999), and later in the United States, France, the Netherlands, South Africa and many
other countries worldwide. The most simple system is named DAB Digital Radio,
forDigital Audio Broadcasting, and uses the public domain EUREKA 147 (Band III)
system. DAB is used mainly in the UK and South Africa. Germany and the Netherlands
use the DAB and DAB+ systems, and France uses the L-Band system of DAB Digital
Radio.
In the United States, digital radio isn't used in the same way as Europe and South Africa.
Instead, the IBOC system is named HD Radio and owned by a consortium of private
companies that is called iBiquity. An international non-profit consortium Digital Radio
Mondiale (DRM), has introduced the public domain DRM system.
Satellite[edit]
This section
requires expansion.(November
2008)
Satellite radio broadcasters are slowly emerging, but the enormous entry costs of spacebased satellite transmitters, and restrictions on available radio spectrum licenses has
restricted growth of this market. In the USA and Canada, just two services, XM Satellite
Radio and Sirius Satellite Radio exist. Both XM and Sirius are owned by Sirius XM Radio,
which was formed by the merger of XM and Sirius on July 29, 2008, whereas
in Canada, XM Radio Canada and Sirius Canada remained separate companies until
2010.Worldspace in Africa and Asia, and MobaHO! in Japan and the ROK were two
unsuccessful satellite radio operators which have gone out of business.
Program formats[edit]
Main article: Radio format
Radio program formats differ by country, regulation and markets. For instance, the
U.S. Federal Communications Commission designates the 88–92 megahertz band in the
U.S. for non-profit or educational programming, with advertising prohibited.
In addition, formats change in popularity as time passes and technology improves. Early
radio equipment only allowed program material to be broadcast in real time, known
as live broadcasting. As technology for sound recording improved, an increasing
proportion of broadcast programming used pre-recorded material. A current trend is
the automation of radio stations. Some stations now operate without direct human
intervention by using entirely pre-recorded material sequenced by computer control
Committees on broadcasting
Chandra committee
Naresh Chandra (born 1934) is an Indian Civil Servant who has served as the Cabinet
Secretary (1990–92), and the Indian Ambassador to the US (1996–2001).[1] He was
awarded India's second highest civil awards, the Padma Vibhushan, for his service in
2007.
Early life[edit]
Born in Allahabad on 1 August 1934. He was educated at Allahabad and obtained M.Sc.
(Math) degree from the Allahabad University. He was a lecturer in the Allahabad
University for a short period.
Civil service[edit]
Naresh Chandra joined the Indian Administrative Service in May, 1956 and till 1964
served in different capacities in various districts of Rajasthan.[3]
Between 1965 and 1973, Naresh Chandra's served under Central Government of India
as 'Deputy Secretary, Agriculture, Community Development and Cooperation', 'Deputy
Secretary, Administrative Reforms Commission', 'Deputy Secretary, Ministry of Home
Affairs' and 'Director, Third Central Pay Commission'.
Between 1973 and 1977, he was appointed as the Secretary, Industry and Mines
Department, Government of Rajasthan and the Chairman, Rajasthan Electricity Board.
He was posted as Joint Secretary, Ministry of Industry, Government of India in 1977, the
assignment he held till 1981. That year he was appointed in the Commonwealth
Secretariat as Adviser on export Industrialization and Policy, Colombo, Sri Lanka, a post
he held up to May, 1984. In July, 1984, he took over as Finance Secretary, Government
of Rajasthan and in July 1985, Shri Naresh Chandra became Chief Secretary,
Government of Rajasthan.
He was also Adviser to the Governor of Jammu & Kashmir in 1986 for a period of 8
months. During 1987 to 1989, he served as Secretary, Ministry of Water Resources,
Government of India. He worked as Defence Secretary from February, 1989 to March
1990 and from March 1990 to December, 1990 as Union Home Secretary, Government
of India. In December, 1990 he became the Cabinet Secretary, Government of India
which post he held till July, 1992. Thereafter, in August 1992, he was appointed as
Senior Adviser to Prime Minister. Naresh Chandra took over as the Governor
of Gujarat on 1 st July, 1995 and continued till 29.02.1996.
Ambassador Chandra's long official association with the United States spans more than
three decades, beginning with his first visit to this country in 1963-64. He has been the
Indian Co-chairman of the US-India Technology Group, and Member of the Indo-US
Economic Sub-Commission, which lent him valuable insight into the broad range of Indo-
US relations. Following the economic liberalisation program in India, he led the first
official delegation to the US in 1992 to promote US investments in India. He has been
deeply involved in several important conferences organised subsequently in the US by
business development groups.[4][5]
His work in his words[edit]
Former Indian Ambassador to the U.S. Naresh Chandra in Delhi India on 23 July 2012.
‘Living in interesting times’ is how I would describe my tenure here. Something or the
other has always been happening. There was a lot of interaction on the Comprehensive
Test Ban Treaty when I first arrived here. 1997 was a ‘feel good’ time – we were
celebrating 50 years of Independence - there were series of functions and events – in
fact we had more functions in the U.S. than in India. The major challenge came in May
1998 - dealing with the nuclear test. I remember going from one studio to another – TV,
radio, and press – in addition to dozens of meetings in the Senate and the Congress.
That was the most difficult and a very challenging period of my tenure here. Then began
the rounds of discussions between Indian delegation, led by Jaswant Singh, and the U.S.
delegation led by Talbot. I was present in every meeting and throughout. We saw the
scene develop from a very tense dialogue into a very friendly and frank exchange of
views. This brought about stability and progress in a positive direction in our relations
with the U.S.
The Prime Minister’s visit in September 1998 was also an important one. It dissipated the
demonising of India that had gone on before his arrival. People saw him and heard him
speak. His statement that "India and the U.S. can be natural allies in the 21st century"
struck a chord in the U.S. administration. President Clinton’s visit to India and then the
return visit of the Indian Prime Minister put a feel on it. I witnessed a very fine chapter in
the Indo-U.S. relations.
A specific instance that I will remember of my tenure, is the establishment of Gandhi
Memorial - Mahatma Gandhi’s statue – in front of our Chancery building in Washington
DC – and the way it was accomplished against heavy odds. We were able to have it up
just in time to have it dedicated by the Prime Minister of India in the presence of the
president of the United States on 16 September 2000. It was a great moment – for South
Asians and Americans. I also received many messages from our friends in Pakistan –
and the Pakistan Ambassador congratulated me and expressed her happiness at the
establishment of the statue.[6]
Awards and recognition[edit]
•
He was conferred Padma Vibhushan award in 2007.
Varghese committee
The Janta Government had appointed a Working Group on the autonomy of the Akashwani
and Doordarshan in August 1977. The chairman of this committee was B.G. Verghese. The
committee submitted its report on February 24, 1978. This committee’s main recommendation
was “formation of Akash Bharti or the “National Broadcasting Trust“, both for the AIR and
Doordarshan. The committee noted that the people want an independent corporation
because, the executive, abetted by a captive parliament, shamelessly misused the
Broadcasting during emergency and this must be prevented for all times. Such was the bold
recommendation of this committee, which wanted substantial “Constitutional Safeguards” for
the recommended body. But these recommendations could not find favour of even Janta
rulers. The minister (LK Advani) commented: “The committee has recommended the creation
of an independent, constitutional entity, parallel to the Judiciary on which the legislature has
no control. No we can not accept it”. The result was that the report was “sent to hell”. This
followed a bill in May 1979 introduced by LK Advani, who was information and Broadcasting
minister in the Government. The bill proposed the “Autonomous Corporation” known as
Prasar Bharti for both AIR and Doordarshan. But the bill was introduced in the compromised
state, rejecting the provisions of the constitutional safeguards. Meanwhile the Lok Sabha
dissolved guaranteeing the death of this bill. After that Congress was back in power, but it did
not considered necessary to reintroduce such bill. Though it appointed PC Joshi Committee
in 1982, whose main term of reference was to prepare a software plan for Doordarshan. But
this group also emphasized on the absence of “Functional Freedom” in Prasar Bharti. This
committee said that the Ministry of Information and Broadcasting should be reorganized and a
separate board on the lines of Railway Board should be created, in which only people with
professional experience should get entry. So, slowly a consensus developed for a Television
Authority of India -as a public trust and under the control of the parliament and officed with
only experienced professionals. In 1989, the National Front government came into power. It
introduced Prasar Bharti Bill in December 1989. The bill was introduced by P Upendra, the
minister, who borrowed some of the articles from the previous bill introduced by Advani and
also added some new ethos as per the changed scenario. The Prasar Bharti Bill, moved by
the VP Singh Government got the confidence of BJP, Leftists and Congress as well and was
passed in Lok Sabha in August 1990. This was included in the election manifesto of the NF
(National Front) Government, so we can imagine how difficult it must have been for the
coalition government to get the support of the Congress, BJP and the lefts. However, all of
them thoroughly indulged in amelioration and 400 amendments were moved :) Out of these
65 were accepted. So, to provide for the establishment of Broadcasting Corporation for India,
to be known as Prasar Bharati, to define its composition, functions and powers and to proved
for matters connected therewith or incidental thereto, the Prasar Bharti Act was passed. Now
from April 1, 1991, it was to be given the president’s assent and the Prasar Bharti Corporation
was to begin functioning from that date. But the Government changed meanwhile and the
Chandrasekhar Government maintained status quo. In 1992, the Information and
Broadcasting ministry of PV Narsihma Rao government noted down that “the time has
changed now” and this mooted the idea of the autonomy of electric media. This had actually
followed the coverage of Gulf war in 1991 by CNN. People wanted to see more channels. In
September 1991, the Narsimharao Government set up a Vardan committee, under K A
Vardan, the additional secretary in I& B Ministry. This committee recommended that a second
channel of Doorsharshan should be leased out in 4 metro and some FM stations should also
be leased out. So, now the Government was in dilemma. On the one side it was to liberalize
the media, on the other side it did not want to lose the clutches over Doordarshan and
Akashwani, which were actually a source of propaganda plus revenue for the Government.
But the credibility of Doordarshan had already fallen and now it was to face the invasion of
the global media. The Government could implement the Prasar Bharti Act, and infuse
professionalism to bring back its credibility, but it was not done. Under the new policies the
Narsimharao government allowed private and foreign broadcasters to engage in limited
operations in India. Foreign channels like CNN, Star TV and domestic channels such as Zee
TV and Sun TV started satellite broadcasts. Meanwhile, some more experiments were done.
The National Programming staff of Doordarshan took over the programming for DD Metro.
The Metro channel was moved from 4 to 18 cities and now DD3, DD4, DD5 and DD6 were
rolled out. In march 1995, an satellite based channel started broadcasting abroad. But still,
the condition of Doordarshan was not improved. Later KP Singh Deo, I & B Minister said that
the invasion of the foreign media would be responded with an indigenous programming
strategy. During this time also, the government never tried to get the act notified. The result
was that “Prasar Bharti was “slaughtered in the market” as this author says, and Indian
viewers were hijacked by the satellite channels , both foreign and domestics. Among the new
experiments it was an “Air Time Committee of India” that was proposed to lay down the
procedure for allotment of slots in DD and AIR in 1993. But it was shelved later. The summary
is that “State control” was anyhow continued and this ensured that DD remains just a
Government propaganda channel. K. P. Singh Deo ,though made repeated statements that
Government was serious about implementing the Prasar Bharati Act, but practically was not
serious about granting autonomy to Akashwani and Doordarshan. So this was a time for
“tarikh par tarikh… tarikh par tarikh” extending the deadlines time and again. Finally Prasar
Bharti came into being in 1997. Prasar Bharti works as an independent body but still needs
some changes. There is an amendment bill pending at present.
PRASAR BHARATI ACT, 1990
The Ministry of Information & Broadcasting, Government of India has
issued a notification indicating that the Prasar Bharati (Broadcasting
Corporation of India) Act, 1990 shall come into force from 15th of
September, 1997. The Prasar Bharati Act provides for establishment of a
Broadcasting Corporation of India, to be known as Prasar Bharati to define
its composition, functions and powers and related matters.
It provides for grant of autonomy to electronic media, namely, AIR and
Doordarshan, presently under the Government control. The Act received the
assent of President of India on September, 12, 1990 after being unanimously
passed by Parliament. This had not come into force as the notification under
sub-section (1) of Section 3 of the Act had not been issued. media should be
under the control of the public as distinct from Government. It should be
operated by a public statutory corporation or corporations, as the case may
be, whose constitution and composition must be such as to ensure its/their
impartiality in political, economic and social matters and on all other public
issues.
A comprehensive review of the Act undertaken in 1991, had brought into
focus certain operational difficulties that were likely to arise particularly in
the area of personnel policy and manpower employment, issue of
Government directions to the Corporation, the procedure for supersession
for Prasar Bharati Board by the President etc. The Cabinet considered the
issue for suitable amendments during the last few years. However, no final
decision was taken. Meanwhile with the advent of satellite channels and
their rapid proliferation, the broadcasting environment had undergone a seachange. Also two significant judgement having direct relevance to Prasar
Bharati Act were also made.
Supreme Court in its judgement dated 9.2.1995 in the Union of India vs.
Cricket Association of Bengal has held that airwaves are public property
and a monopoly over broadcasting whether by government or anybody else
is inconsistent with the free speech right of the citizens and directed the
Government to take immediate steps to establish an independent
autonomous public authority representative of all sections and interest in the
society to control and regulate the use of airwaves. The Calcutta High Court
has in its judgement dated 19.7.75 in Union of India Vs People's Union for
Civil Liberties observed that the Central Government should take
appropriate steps to give shape to the objectives and ideals of the Prasar
Bharati Act as early as possible. Government is at liberty to pass fresh
legislation if it deems fit.
The Hon'ble court has further observed that broadcasting media should be
under the control of the public as distinct from Government. It should be
operated by a public statutory corporation or corporations, as the case may
be, whose constitution and composition must be such as to ensure its/their
impartiality in political, economic and social matters and on all other public
issues.
The Calcutta High Court has in its judgement dated 19.7.75 in Union of
India Vs People's Union for Civil Liberties observed that the Central
Government should take appropriate steps to give shape to the objectives
and ideals of the Prasar Bharati Act as early as possible. Government is at
liberty to pass fresh legislation if it deems fit.
In March 1996, Sub-Committee of Consultative Committee of Ministry of
I&B headed by Shri Ram Vilas Paswan submitted a Working Paper on
National Media Policy. In view of the Supreme Court judgement the
Committee noted that there should be a regulatory body to oversee both
public and private telecasting/broadcasting. The Sub-Committee noted that
the provisions of the Prasar Bharati Act, which was unanimously passed by
Parliament in 1990 should be kept in mind while framing the regulatory
mechanism which should be an independent autonomous authority.
Subsequently Sen Gupta Committee was set up by the Ministry of
Information and Broadcasting vide a notification dated 28th December,
1995 under the Chairmanship of Dr. N.K. Sengupta to review the provisions
of Prasar Bharati (Broadcasting Corporation of India) Act, 1990 and to
make recommendations regarding the restructuring of Prasar Bharati.
Besides Dr. Sengupta, the other Members are Brig. M.R. Narayanan and
Shri Ved Leekha.
In March 1996, Sub-Committee of Consultative Committee of Ministry of
I&B headed by Shri Ram Vilas Paswan submitted a Working Paper on
National Media Policy. In view of the Supreme Court judgement the
Committee noted that there should be a regulatory body to oversee both
public and private telecasting/broadcasting. The Sub-Committee noted that
the provisions of the Prasar Bharati Act, which was unanimously passed by
Parliament in 1990 should be kept in mind while framing the regulatory
mechanism which should be an independent autonomous authority.
Subsequently Sen Gupta Committee was set up by the Ministry of
Information and Broadcasting vide a notification dated 28th December,
1995 under the Chairmanship of Dr. N.K. Sengupta to review the provisions
of Prasar Bharati (Broadcasting Corporation of India) Act, 1990 and to
make recommendations regarding the restructuring of Prasar Bharati.
Besides Dr. Sengupta, the other Members are Brig. M.R. Narayanan and
Shri Ved Leekha.
Prasar Bharati
Prasar Bharati (Hindi: प्रसारभार); is India's largest public broadcasting agency. It is an
autonomous body set up by an Act of Parliament and comprises Doordarshan Television
Network and All India Radio which were earlier media units of the Ministry of Information
and Broadcasting.
The Parliament of India passed an Act to grant this autonomy in 1990, but it was not
enacted until 15 September 1997.[1]
Dr A Surya Prakash[2] is the current chairperson of Prasar Bharati and Jawhar Sircar is
the CEO.
Prasar Bharati Act[edit]
The Prasar Bharati Act provides for establishment of a Broadcasting Corporation, to be
known as Prasar Bharati, to define its composition, functions and powers.[4] The Act
grants autonomy to All India Radio and Doordarshan, which were previously under
government control.[4] The Act received assent of President of India on 12 September
1990[1] after being unanimously passed by Parliament. It was finally implemented in
November 1997. By the Prasar Bharati Act, all the property, assets, debts, liabilities,
payments of money due, all suits and legal proceedings involving Akashvani (All India
Radio) and Doordarshan were transferred to Prasar Bharati.
Prasar Bharati Board[edit]
Prasar Bharati Act stipulates general superintendence, direction and management of
affairs of the Corporation vests in Prasar Bharati Board which may exercise all such
powers and do all such acts and things as may be exercised or done by the
Corporation.[4]
Prasar Bharati Board consists of:
•
Chairman
•
One Executive Member
•
One Member (Finance)
•
One Member (Personnel)
•
Six Part-time Members
•
Director-General (Akashvani), ex officio
•
Director-General (Doordarshan), ex officio
•
One representative of the Union Ministry of Information and Broadcasting (India), to
be nominated by that Ministry and
•
Two representatives of the employees of the Corporation, of whom one shall be
elected by the engineering staff from amongst themselves and one shall be elected
by the other employee from amongst themselves.
The President of India appoints Chairman and the other Members, except the ex
officio members, nominated member and the elected members.
The Board meetings must be held at least once in three months, every year.
Actress Kajol is named as part-time member for 5 years till November 2021.[5]
Functions and Objectives[edit]
The primary duty of the Corporation is to organise and conduct public broadcasting
services to inform, educate and entertain the public and to ensure a balanced
development of broadcasting on radio and television.[4]
The Corporation shall, in the discharge of its functions, be guided by the following
objectives, namely:
•
Upholding the unity and integrity of the country and the values enshrined in the
Constitution.
•
Safeguarding the citizen’s right to be informed freely, truthfully and objectively on all
matters of public interest, national or international, and presenting a fair and
balanced flow of information including contrasting views without advocating any
opinion or ideology of its own.
•
Paying special attention to the fields of education and spread of literacy, agriculture,
rural development, environment, health and family welfare and science and
technology.
•
Providing adequate coverage to the diverse cultures and languages of the various
regions of the country by broadcasting appropriate programmes.
•
Providing adequate coverage to sports and games so as to encourage healthy
competition and the spirit of sportsmanship.
•
Providing appropriate programmes keeping in view the special needs of the youth.
•
Informing and stimulating the national consciousness in regard to the status and
problems of women and paying special attention to the upliftment of women.
•
Promoting social justice and combating exploitation, inequality and such evils
as untouchability and advancing the welfare of the weaker sections of the society.
•
Safeguarding the rights of the working classes and advancing their welfare.
•
Serving the rural and weaker sections of the people and those residing in border
regions, backward or remote areas.
•
Providing suitable programmes keeping in view the special needs of the minorities
and tribal communities.
•
Taking special steps to protect the interests of children, the blind, the aged, the
handicapped and other vulnerable sections of the people.
•
Promoting national integration by broadcasting in a manner that facilitates
communication in the languages in India; and facilitating the distribution of regional
broadcasting services in every State in the languages of that State.
•
Providing comprehensive broadcast coverage through the choice of appropriate
technology and the best utilisation of the broadcast frequencies available and
ensuring high quality reception.
•
Promoting research and development activities in order to ensure that radio
broadcast and television broadcast technology are constantly updated.
Expansion plans[edit]
Digitisation of AIR & DD is going on full phase, as some of DDK's (Doordarshan
Kendra's) & AIR Stations are already getting digitised. All the new establishments are
digital and there are plans to modify the existing ones. New transmitters are being
ordered and plans for purchase of digital transmitters are being implemented in phases.
Controversy over Candidate selection[edit]
In 2010, as many as 24 candidates out of the 30 selected for the posts of journalists in
Doordarshan News were alleged to be selected on the basis of political
considerations.[6] For example, one of the successful candidates was closely related to a
former Congress minister of state for information and broadcasting and another
successful candidate was the daughter of a sitting Congress Union minister. Another one
was a close relative of Union Commerce Minister Anand Sharma.[7][8]
The number of applicants called for interview was increased from 25 to 35 to
accommodate the daughter of a Congress politician, who held the 33rd rank, and would
have otherwise been eliminated at the cut-off stage. Another successful candidate, Anika
Kalra Kalha, was not even called for an audition and reporting skills test, and the remark
in the relevant columns read “Did not qualify for this stage”. Similarly weightage given to
interview was arbitrarily increased 2 days before interviews.
Contribution of radio in the post independence era
History of Indian Radio is the history of radio broadcast that started in India with the setting up
of a private radio service in Chennai, in the year 1924. In that same year, British government
gave license to the Indian Broadcasting Company, to launch Radio stations
in Mumbai and Kolkata. Later as the company became bankrupt, the government took
possession of the transmitters and began its operations as the Indian State Broadcasting
Corporation. In the year 1936, it was renamed All India Radio (AIR) and the Department of
Communications managed it entirely. After independence, All India Radio was converted into a
separate Department. All India Radio has five regional headquarters in New Delhi, for the North
Zone; in Kolkata, for the East Zone; in Guwahati, for the North-East Zone, in Mumbai, for the
West Zone; and in Chennai, for the South Zone.
In the year 1957, All India Radio was renamed Akashvani, which is controlled by the Ministry of
Information and Broadcasting. During the period of independence only a mere 6 radio stations
existed through out the country. But during the late 1990s, the network of All India Radio
extended to almost 146 AM stations. Moreover the Integrated North-East Service focused on
reaching to the population in northeast India. All India Radio offers programmes in English, Hindi
and numerous regional and local languages. In the year 1967, Commercial Radio services started
in India. The initiative was taken by Vividh Bharati and Commercial Service, from the
headquarters in Mumbai. Vividh Bharati accumulated revenues from widespread sponsorships
and advertisements. During the mid-1990s, broadcasting was carried on from 31 AM and FM
stations.
By 1994, there were around 85 FM stations and 73 short wave stations that linked the whole
nation. The broadcasting technology in India is basically indigenous and reaches far and wide to
various listeners like farmers who require various updated information on agriculture. Between
1970 and 1994, the amount of radio receivers increased manifold, almost five times. From the
initial 14 million, the number increased to a staggering 65 million. The broadcast services from
foreign countries are provided by the External Services Division of All India Radio. Almost 70
hours of news, entertainment programmes were broadcasted in 1994 in various languages with
the help of 32 shortwave transmitters.
After Independence, Indian radio was regarded as a vital medium of networking and
communication, mainly because of the lack of any other mediums. All the major national affairs
and social events were transmitted through radio. Indian radio played a significant role in social
integration of the entire nation. All India Radio mainly focused on development of a national
consciousness as well as over all National integration. Programming was organised and created
keeping in mind the solitary purpose of national political integration. This supported in prevailing
over the imperative crisis of political instability, which was created after the Independence. Thus
political enhancement and progressive nation building efforts were aided by the transmission of
planned broadcasts.
All India Radio also provided assistance in enhancing the economic condition of the country.
Indian radio was particularly designed and programmed to provide support to the procedure of
social improvement, which was a vital pre-requisite of economic enhancement. The leading
development beliefs of the time analysed the problems and hindrances in development as the
primary ones in the developing nations. The function of broadcasting paved a way for the surge
of modern concepts. Later, with the modernisation of the country, television was introduced and
broadcasting achieved new status. But by then, radio had become a veteran medium in India.
Diverse programmes including entertainment and melodious songs were also transmitted
nationwide. Akashvani or All India Radio still stands as one of the biggest radio networks around
the globe.
UNIT -2
Radio Program Genres
, Concept of content and form, Generation of program
Ideas and process of production(Pdf)
Radio program formats
(PDF)
Different Formats for Radio Programmes
Like television and print media, radios also broadcast programmes of different categories. If you
think of the shows that you have listened to on radios, film songs, cricket commentaries, talk
shows, discussions, news, etc. are some of the categories that you will remember at once. Isn’t it?
These different types and categories of programmes that are broadcasted on radios are called
formats.
There are lots of factors based on which the radio formats are selected before approaching the
masses. Some of these determinants include:

Number of people

Number of men and women – gender ratio

Number of educated and uneducated people

Language spoken in that area

Power supply

Health conditions of the people and amenities available

Main occupation, and many more factors
Making a specific study based on the above parameters makes it easier for the radio stations to
broadcast programmes that could entertain people and also be useful for them. Whichever radio
format you listen to, there are three ingredients that constitute it.

Spoken word or Human voice: Announcements, Radio Talk, Radio Interviews, Radio
Discussions, Radio documentaries and features, Radio Drama, Commentaries, News,
Radio Magazines that may include chat shows, music, reviews, etc.

Music: Radio is all about music. Starting from signature tunes to radio plays, everything
in a radio programme is its music. Classical music is widely used in radio stations of India.
It includes Hindustani classical, Carnatic classical and Western classical. In addition, vocal
and instrumental musical pieces are also used vastly. Instrumental music genres include
string like sitar and sarod, wind like flutes and shehnai, and percussion like drum.

Sound effects: Sound can be considered as one of the most important radio formats as it is
the only parameter that can take the audiences to whatever place the programmes want to
take them to. In fact, this is the element that helps in evoking interest within the listeners.
Only sound in a radio can enable the audiences to differentiate between the expressions
being used in a programme or advertisement.
With the advancement in technology, it has been found that radio formats have also been
developed technically. The IT based radio formats include the following:

Phone-in Programme: In recent times, the phone-in programmes are of great importance.
With the help of this format, listener and presenter get a chance to talk and interact with
each other. This conversation is heard by every listener who is tuned in to that particular
station.

Radio Bridge: This radio format allows one radio station to connect with the other at any
other location around the world. Any famous figure in Chennai could be connected to the
station you are listening to and the common man or presenter proceeds with the
conversation.

Radio Internet: Radio stations operate using internet modems. This is the type of format
that has gained immense momentum in recent times because of the extensive usage of
computer and internet for various purposes.
Being an advertiser, you must know about the types of radio formats before airing your ad in any
programme. What you want is ultimately profit, which you may not get until you are aware of the
effectiveness of particular types of radio formats.
TYPES OF RADIO SHOWS
Commercial radio is structured in way similar to TV channels. The morning hours
are heavily dedicated to talk and news; the daytime and early evening are full of
prime-time (i.e. musical) content; and the particularly off-beat or edgy shows play late
at night, when ratings aren’t as critical and fewer people are tuning in.
For musicians who are trying to be heard on the airwaves, both the type of station
and the time of day — and in turn, the types of radio shows being broadcast — can
make a world of difference when it comes to audience and exposure.
Non-Commercial Specialty Shows
Commercial stations and non-commercial stations are seldom similar, so it’s hardly
surprising that the non-commercial approach to specialty shows is a little
different. While they are alike in that both commercial and non-commercial specialty
shows make excellent gateways for new and unheard-of acts, non-commercial
specialty shows tend to be more numerous and diverse than their commercial
counterparts.
For example, let’s examine 89.9 KTSW, the college station which broadcasts out of
Texas State University. KTSW lists no less than 10 specialty shows on their
homepage. One show is called Wanderlust, which “spotlights music from a different
city or region in the world each week.” Another, called The Shack Party, “will bring
you the best in all forms of American roots music—from Appalachian music to
Zydeco.” Even the most offbeat commercial specialty show is unlikely to showcase
Applachian and Zydeco music, which goes to show just how invaluable noncommercial specialty shows can be not just to new artists, but also to artists working
with unusual genres.
Commecial Radio Morning Shows
Anyone who has ever driven to work knows that compared to the normal daytime
format, morning radio is its own beast. That’s because radio stations know that the
morning hours are peak time for listeners to tune in. During the morning hours,
millions upon millions of Americans are commuting to work in their cars — and in an
attempt to perk up for the workday stretching ahead, many of them listen to the radio
as they travel.
Of course, there are aspects of morning shows that aren’t always relevant to
musicians — for example, hosts taking calls to get public opinions on the latest
political scandals — but other morning show features are perfect for and indeed
intended for musicians. For instance, during their AM talk or news shows, many
stations will host interviews with artists. Typically, these interviews cover topics like
upcoming or recent shows, album releases, or projects they have in
progress. However, because morning shows are so heavy with traffic, musician
appearances on morning shows are typically reserved for well-established acts, or at
least acts who have already achieved airplay on that station’s rotation.
Commercial Late Night Radio
Like morning radio, late night radio doesn’t follow the same format as the daytime
programming. Why not? The amount of people tuning is much lower than normal,
because late at night, most people are either sleeping, channel-surfing, or out on the
town. The number of people on the road (and consequently listening to the radio) is
comparatively small.
Because fewer people are listening in, and because most advertisers are
consequently less interested in pushing their products, late night radio hosts typically
have more freedom to break from station norms in terms of tone, style, genre, and
how “clean” material is.
Most late night specialty shows are one or two hours in length, and are often
dedicated to a certain genre, which is often outside “the norm” for that
station. Genres like electronica, blues, and jazz are popular choices for late night
programming. Because late night shows are often more flexible than the shows
which air during peak hours, they can be a great place for emerging artists to get
their foot in the door.
Regular Shows
It only makes sense that you can’t have “specialty” shows without “regular” shows by
contrast. To help flesh out an understanding of what makes specialty shows — well,
special — let’s spend some time talking about what commercial and non-commercial
stations play during their regular hours.
At non-commercial stations, daytime programming is usually something of a freefor-all. Of course, the format varies from station to station — but in general, daytime
hours at non-comms are filled by rotating DJs. These DJs can essentially choose
the music they like, although even non-commercial stations will typically stick to at
least a loose format. Usually, this consists of either AAA (Adult Album Alternative),
or Alternative.
Nonetheless, even within an Alternative block, non-commercial DJs will frequently
pepper in cuts from other genres, such as jazz, world music, or blues. In fact,
program diversity is one of the cherished hallmarks of the AAA radio format. Triple-A
tracks occasionally cross over to the more mainstream, commercial world, like the
Adult Top 40 chart.
At commercial stations, daytime programming is the station bread-andbutter. Commercial daytime programming may be introduced or commented on by a
live DJ on on-air personality, but there are also many commercial stations which
simply play automated, predetermined playlists. While browsing commercial radio
stations, you have probably noticed a blend of “actual” DJs and pre-recorded voices
talking about the tracks.
While the daytime playlists at commercial stations may incorporate a mix of genres,
shifting from pop to alt country to R&B ballads, all of the songs have one thing in
common: they were made by established artists, with the intent of becoming radio
hits.
There are a lot of variables to consider. Maybe your music is a little too edgy for
morning shows, which have lots of young listeners riding in the car with their
parents. Maybe you don’t have a lot of extra money to spend on aggressive
promotional efforts toward getting a coveted morning show interview. Maybe you
play within a genre that can’t find a home on commercial radio specialty
shows. There are strengths and weaknesses to both commercial and
noncommercial specialty shows, and one may be a better home for your music than
the other. The key is finding which niche is best-suited for your act.
UNIT -3
Interactive Program Formats
Phone-in
In broadcasting, a phone-in or call-in is a programme format in which viewers or
listeners are invited to air their live comments by telephone, usually in respect of a
specific topic selected for discussion on the day of the broadcast.
On radio (especially talk radio), it is common for an entire programme to be dedicated to
a phone-in session. On television, phone ins are often part of a wider discussion
programme: a current example in the UK is The Wright Stuff.
BBC Radio Nottingham is credited with having aired the first British phone-in on 4
February 1968, in a programme called What Are They Up To Now?
Speech based Talk Radio UK was launched in 1995, with much of its programming
featuring phone-ins. It also introduced the notion of the shock jock to the UK, with
presenters like Caesar the Geezer and Tommy Boyd constructing heated discussions.
Ian Hutchby has researched power relations in phone ins, looking at arguments and
confrontations. Using conversation analysis, he describes how the host retains power
through devices such as "The Second Position" — the concept of going second in a
discussion, giving the host time to formulate a response.
Similarly, the last word is always the broadcast word. The public can choose to end the
conversation, but they are doing so by withdrawing from the interactional arena (Hutchby,
1996: 94-5; Talbot et al.).
In 2007, the BBC suspended all phone-in competitions (but not voting) due to an internal
inquiry into corruption in the production of these games in shows such
as charitytelethons after a nationwide inquiry into the whole process leading to the
cancellation of ITV Play.
In Ireland Liveline is a popular afternoon phone in show broadcast by RTE 1 that is
hosted by Joe Duffy. The phone in program usually focuses on consumer issues, current
affairs and complaints from members of the public regarding various issues. The program
and its presenter are frequently lampooned by numerous Irish comedians, one
beingDavid McSavage, who play on the popular perception that the program is merely an
outlet for the angst of serial complainers and housewives while providing entertainment
for those who revel in listening to despair and tales of misery delivered the callers. A
quality of the show that is frequently satirized is Duffy's seemingly exasperated
expressions of despair upon hearing of the plight of a caller.[1]
Technology[edit]
The caller is connected via a telephone hybrid, which connects the telephone line to
the audio console through impedance matching, or more modernly through digital signal
processing, which can improve the perceived audio quality of the call. Telephone
calls are often organised through a system which also provides broadcast automation,
with anadministrative assistant answering calls and entering caller information on
a personal computer, which also displays on the radio presenter's screen. A profanity
delay is often used to keep profanity and other inappropriate material off the air.
For contests, the conversation can be recorded and edited "on the fly", before playback
on the air just a few minutes later.
How radio programmes can
support agriculture and
market development
4 September 2014
Ben Fiafor, Regional Field Manager, West Africa discusses Farm
Radio International’s work with P4P in Ghana.
In Ghana, P4P collaborates with Farm Radio
International (FRI) to provide small-scale farmers with
the information they need to improve their agricultural
production. Through participatory radio programmes,
FRI provides farmers with voice and education, which
helps them market quality crops to WFP and other
formal markets. In this blog, Ben Fiafor, FRI Regional
Field Manager, West Africa, explains why radio
communication efforts are essential to market
development programmes like P4P.
While many rural farmers have limited access to communications
technologies, radio reaches at least 70 percent of rural households.
Because small-scale farmers are often located in widespread, hardto-reach rural areas, we believe that radio is a key tool to reach them
most cost-effectively.
Farm Radio International (FRI) is a non-profit organization which
champions the use of radio, combined with other information and
communication technologies (ICT), to fight poverty and food
insecurity. We work in partnership with approximately 500 radio
broadcasters in 38 African countries to increase the reach of
agricultural information, enhance farmers’ participation and give
farming families a voice. FRI engages with a variety of national and
international research and development partners, enabling them to
use radio and other ICT in their communication and knowledgesharing efforts.
An incentive for investment
Purchase for Progress (P4P), a pilot project of the World Food
Programme (WFP), works to link small-scale farmers to formal
markets, including, but not limited to WFP. However, meeting the
quantity and quality requirements of formal markets like WFP often
proves challenging for smallholders, who may not have access to the
necessary knowledge and skills to improve production. In Ghana, we
work with P4P to ensure that relevant and timely information about
best agricultural practices is delivered to rural populations in the
Ejura-Sekyeredumase district. This includes 16 farmers’
organizations supported by P4P. The market opportunity presented
by WFP provides a significant incentive for farmers to utilize this
information to improve agronomic practices, while the information
provided through our radio programmes assists them to produce
greater yields and higher quality crops. With further support from P4P
and other partners, these farmers are able to improve their
production of crops such as maize and cowpea, both for home
consumption and sale to formal markets.
In Ghana we collaborate with commercial radio stations Obouba and
Akyeaa FM to improve the knowledge and skills of small-scale
farmers in the sustainable production and post-harvest handling of
high quality staple foods. We have also designed a comprehensive
programme to produce and broadcast participatory Farm Radio
programmes, in collaboration with partners such as the Adventist
Development and Relief Agency (ADRA)and Ghana’s Ministry of
Food and Agriculture. This programme reaches a total audience of
one million farmers, including those directly supported by P4P. We
also provide selected farmers’ organizations with a mobile phone and
technical support to encourage the two-way flow of communication.
This is crucial, as it allows us to foster interactivity between the radio
station and rural, often isolated, farmers. With these phones, farmers’
organizations also receive weather forecasts and market information
on a weekly basis.
Reaching rural farmers
Through our work, we have found that radio is the preferred source of
agricultural information for the large majority of smallholder farmers.
Not only is it affordable and accessible to those without formal
education, it can also be utilized in local languages. Most importantly,
radio, particularly when coupled with other ICT, such as mobile
phones, can give voice to end users through participatory radio
programmes. Thanks to this, radio is an effective tool helping farmers
to make informed decisions and supporting the adoption of
innovative agricultural practices.
Results
As a result of our educational efforts, farmers now understand the
importance and are willing to invest in the accurate application of
fertilizers. They also know how to plant in rows with the right spacing,
and the best ways to manage their farms. We can also see that postharvest handling practices have also improved, with many farmers
testifying that they no longer store grain on the floor, but on raised
platforms.
In Ghana, I have seen the results of our collaboration with P4P firsthand. Thanks to the skills learned through FRI radio programmes,
many farmers within the Ejura-Sekyeredumase area have been able
to increase yields through intensification and good agronomical
practices, enabling them to sell to formal markets. One such farmer,
Iddrisu Ameen from the Nkosuo Farmers’ Association in Ejura, told
me how much her production has improved since she began tuning
in to FRI’s broadcasts. While she previously farmed 10 acres of
maize without substantial yields, after reducing her farm size by half
she got better results. Access to formal markets where farmers can
be paid a fair price for their surplus quality crops is essential when a
farmer like Iddrisu makes the decision to invest in her production.
Production Techniques
UNIT – 4
Script Format for Radio Drama.
A lot of people agonise about formatting a radio script. It probably causes more problems
for the new writer than any other issue.
If you write for television or movies expect to find that readers/producers will insist on
proper formatting. In Hollywood most producers will only read scripts formatted to a pretty
precise set of rules. It helps a lot to know what these rules are.
In television the rules can be just as rigid with some TV series often having there own
particular format. Even series produced by the same television companies might have
varying formats. It helps the new writer to find out what these formats are before
submitting a script.
In theatre the rules are less strict. Producers expect scripts to be formatted in such a way
that the characters, dialogue and action are set out separately and clearly on the page.
Producers generally won’t worry too much if minor variations from a set format occur.
Radio is less strict than either television or movies but producers will expect a format that
they are used to and that is clear and precise. Therefore it would help the new writer to
download scripts of produced radio plays and to follow the format that has succeeded in
the past.
Radio Drama
Radio drama is comprised primarily of single dramas, alongside some series
Radio drama slots almost always sit within a rigid wider schedule of programming and each
slot has a different length/form, so you must decide which slot your script is intended for. You
should send a full single play - or if it is for the 15 Minute Drama series slot on Radio 4, you
should send the first two 15 minutes episodes and an outline of the further 3 episodes.
Radio Sitcoms
Radio sitcoms can be recorded with or without an audience. Radio sitcoms tend to sit within a
rigid wider schedule of programmes and you need to think about which slot your script is
intended for.
Writing a radio script
1. 1. THE RADIO SCRIPT Writing radio packages Image by Media Helping Media
available under Creative Commons
2. 2. Writing a radio script <ul><li>1: The importance of the words
</li></ul><ul><li>The script is what makes sense of the information you have
gathered </li></ul><ul><li>It is the framework for your story </li></ul><ul><li>It
brings together the most important elements, and helps your audience
understand the significance of the points the people you have interviewed have
made. </li></ul>
3. 3. Writing a radio script <ul><li>2: Keep it short and simple </li></ul><ul><li>The
script should be written in simple, short sentences </li></ul><ul><li>Try to use
everyday language and terms your audience will understand </li></ul><ul><li>It
should not contain any complicated concepts that could confuse and distract.
</li></ul>
4. 4. Writing a radio script <ul><li>3: Introduce the audio </li></ul><ul><li>The script
should offer the audience introductions to the audio you are including
</li></ul><ul><li>It should tell the listener what’s coming up without repeating the
words they are about to hear </li></ul><ul><li>Don’t summaries too much; you
should not take away the power of the clips in your piece. </li></ul>
5. 5. Writing a radio script <ul><li>4: Grab the attention of the audience
</li></ul><ul><li>You are crafting a tease into material that is designed to make
people stop and listen </li></ul><ul><li>The language should be in the active
tense </li></ul><ul><li>The most important information must feature in the first
few sentences </li></ul><ul><li>However, the quality should be consistent
throughout; the script must not tail off at the end. </li></ul>
6. 6. Writing a radio script <ul><li>5: Your opinions don’t matter
</li></ul><ul><li>Your script should be factual and without comment or
descriptive words </li></ul><ul><li>Don’t try to attract listeners by including your
own emotions; that’s not your job </li></ul><ul><li>Those who listen to your radio
package will make their own decisions about the power of the information you are
broadcasting. </li></ul>
7. 7. Writing a radio script <ul><li>6: Deliver a complete and fair report
</li></ul><ul><li>Your script should weave together all the elements you have
gathered for your story without suggesting that any one is more important than
the other; that’s for the audience to decide, not you </li></ul><ul><li>You have a
responsibility to set out the information in a way that doesn’t lead or mislead.
</li></ul>
8. 8. Writing a radio script <ul><li>7: Scripting before interviewing
</li></ul><ul><li>Some journalists choose to draft a script before they have
conducted the interview </li></ul><ul><li>That’s fine as long as the journalist
retains an open mind </li></ul><ul><li>You must not orchestrate or stage
manage the interviews to fit into the structure you may have already planned.
</li></ul>
9. 9. Writing a radio script <ul><li>8: Scripting after interviewing
</li></ul><ul><li>Some journalists prefer to listen to the material again back to
the material before they start their script </li></ul><ul><li>This approach can lead
to a fresher sounding piece </li></ul><ul><li>However it can also lead to
confusion if you have too much material and no idea how it is going to be edited
and scripted together. </li></ul>
10. 10. Writing a radio script <ul><li>9: Fact checking </li></ul><ul><li>Fact check
every piece of information that you are including in the script
</li></ul><ul><li>Also fact check what has been said by those you have
interviewed </li></ul><ul><li>Decide whether the fact checking has raised any
issues that need to be covered in the script. </li></ul>
11. 11. Writing a radio script <ul><li>10: Editorial ethics </li></ul><ul><li>Check the
script against the editorial ethics of objectivity, impartiality and fairness
</li></ul><ul><li>Do not give extra weight to one point of view
</li></ul><ul><li>Most of the people you interview will have strong points of view
– you wouldn’t be interviewing them if that were not the case
</li></ul><ul><li>However your script needs to be fair to all. </li></ul>
12. 12. Writing a radio script <ul><li>11: The beginning </li></ul><ul><li>Start the
script by addressing the main point made in your introduction
</li></ul><ul><li>Later in the script you can add context and analysis that may
help the audience understand the issues raised by those you are interviewing
</li></ul><ul><li>But start with a crisp and sharp introduction that highlights the
main points. </li></ul>
13. 13. Writing a radio script <ul><li>12: The ending </li></ul><ul><li>Always end
your script with a fact and not a vague line such as ‘we will have to wait to see’
</li></ul><ul><li>Your audience wants information not overused clichés
</li></ul><ul><li>Consider asking your interviewees what’s likely to happen next
and summarise their expectations in your last paragraph. </li></ul>
14. 14. Writing a radio script <ul><li>13: Does it make sense? </li></ul><ul><li>Read
the script back to yourself </li></ul><ul><li>Have you left any gaps? Do you need
to do any further research? </li></ul><ul><li>Check it with a colleague; a second
pair of eyes works for radio scripts as well as print </li></ul><ul><li>Check your
choice of audio, too, you may have missed a more important clip. </li></ul>
Radio producer
A radio producer oversees the making of a radio show. There are two main types of
producer: audio or creative producer and content producer. Audio producers create
sounds and audio specifically. Content producers oversee and orchestrate a radio show
or feature. The content producer might organize music choices, guests, callers for talk
radio or competitions, timings, and overall show content. They also may produce
recorded content, from shows to radio commercials and commercial bumpers.
The role of a radio producer may also include that of a board operator or technical
operator who may operate the technical controls (sound
volume levels, recording software,switchboard, etc.) for another person, the on-air talent.
The producer often used to be in a separate control room, usually separated from
the radio studio by a window, which allowed visual contact while blocking noise.
Nowadays this has changed in some ways.
Some producers involved in the field of radio are also sometimes known as "production
directors", "creative producers", "imaging specialists", or even "imaging producers". This
type of radio producer primarily creates and produces audio content for a radio station
or radio network. Some examples of their work are promos (promotional, commercial-like
audio clips), jingles and various other audio clips, better known in the radio business as
"imaging".
Many radio stations and station clusters ( regional groups of stations ) have their own
production director who may oversee any of the above listed responsibilities daily. Most
large radio groups have their own in-house creative production team, who produce audio
for more than one station across the group, or even across a country.
Radio Production Processes
Ideas
Grading:
It is time to create your final production and the work that you have created for
your other units will make up part of this live show.
Your brief is to produce a one hour radio programme, that will be broadcast on PGFM,
during the daytime schedule and be in the genre of .......
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The breakfast Show (People getting up and travelling to work or school)
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School's Out (Aimed at primary school students and their families)
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The lunchtime chart hour (Aimed at students 11-16 who will be listening on their lunch
hour)
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Drive-time (Aimed at people travelling home from work or school)
Have a listen to some examples to help you generate some ideas..
http://www.bbc.co.uk/radio/
The show must be appropriate for younger listeners but you can choose the style of
the programme.
You must evidence the production process that you go through and the
remainder of this blog will help you set this out....
1. Comment on your current situation by answering the following
questions...
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How much time have you got to produce the programme?
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How much money do you have to spend?
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Who will be in your broadcat team and what will they be doing?
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What are the restrictions of your brief?
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What resources are available to you, for the live show and for the
production of pre-recorded content?
Budget.......
You have £500 to spend on your show and the pre-production process.
(All prices are to hire per-hour)
Edirol Roland D-90 voice recorder = £15
Mp3 voice recorders = £10
Imac editing suite = £20
Macbook editing suite = £20
Recording Studio = £25 per hour.
2. Mindmap your ideas...
Have a look at the following video and try and utilise
bubbl.us, an excellent mindmapping website, free and
easy.
Analyse each idea and then select which idea you will be producing,
explaining why.
3. Produce a treatment, to give to your client.....
You must present this to the directors of the PGFM and they must give
you approval to broadcast
Include:
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Fellow presenters and production team and justification for each
role.(Skills, personality, reliability etc)
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Content outline + list of pre-recorded material to be included
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Target Audience + breakdown of who will be listening and why? What is
the demographic of the audience? Why will your programme appeal to
specific genders,age groups, intelligences?
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Resources needed
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Budget
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Project Schedule = Date of show, practice shows, pre-recorded content
ie; interviews, phone calls.
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What the competitors are doing successfuly and unsuccessfuly.
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Explanation of why people will be listening
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Contingency plan ie; if you run out of time, member of team drops
out, guest cancels etc.
Posted by Mr C. Jackson at 10:29 No comments:
Planning and Research
You must be professional in the way you research and record information for your content.
You must document the following..........
1. Any primary sources that you have used to help construct the
content ie;
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Questionnaires to provide statistics and results if you are
discussing a particular issue or event
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Interviews with specialists, celebrities etc
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Your own observations
2. Any secondary sources you have used ie;newspapers, magazines,
books, audio, visual, electronic etc
Posted by Mr C. Jackson at 10:29 No comments:
Production
You must create a schedule/diary of events to doucument your preperation for production.
In you diary keep a note of....regular team meetings, job allocation, task definitions and
deadlines, proposed schedule, agendas and minutes
Example template: available on simply click, in AS/A2 --- Unit 3
You must also create a schedule for your one hour show, explaining what is going to be
broadcast when. You may want to use the remplate below, available on simplyclick, in live
radio.
Posted by Mr C. Jackson at 10:20 No comments:
Evaluation
LIVE RADIO
Production : Evaluation : PartcofPD
Purpose
What was your aim? Did you actually achieve your purpose.?Your own personal
opinion.
Now …..you must gather audience feedback by playing your programme to
members of your target audience..... or arranging for some of them to actually
listen live during the broadcast. You should then write under the following
headings :
Audience
What did they say about the show? Did they take your preferred reading? Or did
they have an oppositional reading? Why?
What did they say about the following things….
Representation issues.
Did you give a positive image of the bands? ... what might you have included to
change this image?
Did you play songs by only male artists or was there a mixture?
Were different ethnic groups catered for?
Were the requests only from girls... or boys..or both?
Did you make fun of the ‘older generation’ by commenting badly about ‘older’
music if you played any? Can you see why this could be a problem?
Were you biased in anything you said?
Did your show sound realistic for the genre?
Technical issues
What were the levels like?.... did you keep between 4/5 on the PPM?
Was the balance of voice/music o.k?
Did you cut off anyone’s voice by fading the voices in too slowly?
Did you remember to always follow a commercial break with a jingle and then a
piece of music?
Were there any embarrassing gaps?
Did you ever leave the mike faders up by mistake?
Did you remember to wear your headphones during speech segments? Why is
this important?
Did you reach the news accurately and on time?
Did you vary the way you linked the music tracks together? Sometimes voice…
sometimes jingles/ID’s.
Conventions/Narrative
What do you think was typical of this genre? Make a list.
What would be the same in a programme on a professional station?
Do they have any advantages over you?
Features of good narrative include.... the ‘tease’ at the start of the show.... the
‘enigma’.... ‘the resolution’.... did you use any of them?
Own performance... self evaluation
Did you learn any new skills?
How do you think you did? ..... strengths.... weaknesses.
Were you a good team member? Why?
Did you argue?
Future targets
What would you improve on next time?
Produce a brainstorm of some ideas on:
1. PROMOTING your show next time, to attract more listeners.
Advertising?….Web site?
2. How else might you DISTRIBUTE it, apart from a live broadcast like the one
you have just done on Radio Grangefield/PGFM? CD?.... Web site?...
Radio News Reporting and Production
<<< Previous
PRODUCTION AND PLANNING:Principals of
Planning a Program
Next >>>
Radio News, Reporting and Production MCM515
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LESSON 31
PRODUCTION AND PLANNING
To produce
To produce is to create something especially when skill is needed.
Production
Production is the process of creating something (film, drama, documentary, musical) with skill and
knowledge.
Producer
Producer is the person who is in-charge of the production.
What is a Program?
"A plan of things that will be done or included in the development of something; something that people
watch on TV or listen to on radio is called a program.
Format
Format is the general arrangement, plan or design of a program. The Basic Structure of a Programme is
called format. For instance,
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News
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Talk
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Feature
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Drama
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Magazine programme
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Stage show
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Musicals
Role of a Producer
Producer's role in the process of production is to conceive, plan, and produce a programme.
To conceive means to think of an idea
The idea is actually a concept.
To plan is to make detailed arrangements for the idea you wish to materialize in future.
Where Ideas Come From?
The important areas where ideas can be obtained from are as under:
Society
Social conflicts
Government policies
Art (literature)
Science
Principals of Planning a Program
1. Motive of the program (why this program?)
The first and foremost thing that a producer has to keep forth before producing a program is to face the
most important question, that is; why this program? Which means what is the purpose of this
program that
he wishes to produce. The following are the possible purposes or motives which make a
producer conceive
a program:
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Radio News, Reporting and Production MCM515
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To create awareness amongst the listeners about social problems, traffic laws, hazards of narcotics,
need of education, the law, rights and responsibilities, diseases, etc.
·
To give information about government policies, new inventions, advancements in medicine, new
techniques in agriculture, sports, etc.
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To educate the modern methods of sowing, ploughing, harvesting, civic virtues, Qur'aan &
Sunnah
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To entertain music, comedy, drama, showbiz, fashion etc.
2. Research of Target Audience
It means, who the program is to be produced for i.e. the target audience. The research of the target
audience is very important step in the pre-production process. Unless a
producer does not know exactly the
nature, desires and needs of the target audience, the effective message can not be written.
While conducting research of the target audience following areas are to be focused upon:
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The Age group of the target audience ------------ Kids; Youth; Adults
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The Gender ------------------------------------------- Men; Women; Both
·
Socio-cultural Background ------------------------- Rural, Urban, Middle Class, Elite Class
3. Content of the program
The very next question is; what is to be given in the programme. It signifies the content or the matter of
the
program.
4. Selection of Format
A producer has to select a format which he thinks will be suitable to convey the message of
the program.
The following are some important formats:
Talk, Feature, Drama, Documentary, Magazine Program, Interview etc.
5. Duration of the Program
The duration plays vital in the effectiveness of the program. While making a program a
producer must note
that the final duration of the program must be 30 to
40 seconds less than the actual duration so that after
the end of a program the announcer may have sufficient time to make the announcement of the
upcoming
program.
5- Minute Program = 4 minutes and 20-30 sec
15- Minute Program = 14 minutes and 20-30 sec
30- Minute Programme = 29 minutes and 20-30 sec
6. Time of Broadcast
Another important question is; what time the program should go on air. It depends on
the following points:
The Nature of the Programme
The Availability of the Target Audience
7. Frequency of the Program
Frequency of a program means how often a program should go on air; whether once a week or twice a
week, or on alternate days or daily basis.
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8. Feedback
Planning to know the feed back of the listeners is very important. A
producer has to arrange for a way the
audience may express their views and comments about the program
they have listened to. The following are
different modes and routes audience may reach to the producer.
Letters; Telephone; E-mail; Personal Contacts e
UNIT – 5
Studio Facilities, Equipment and Modern Technology
(PDF)
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Radio Studio Equipment (On Air)
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Radio Studio make use of high quality broadcasting equipment and install top of the range components and brands. o
We design and construct the studio room/s and fit it with the furnisher and equipment that will result in an
attractive radio studio.
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We craft the production room with attention to insolation, aquistics and the latest technology. This indudes the
installation of the room, edit/record desk, mixer console and PC based audition suite. Both PC and MAC systems are d
considered based on the users' desired functionality and level of experience with the operating systems.
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Radio Production Equipment (Editing)
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FM Transmission System
Our line of transmission equipement allow the customer various analogue and digital broadcsting and linking
options. With our assistance you will be able to self provide your signal by means of an ECNS license. This will
enable you to self-distribute your FM and STL brodcasting services.
more info
Outside Broadcast Equipment
In order for your station to have outside broadcsting capabilities we offer equipment that will link you from any
remote location to the studio. These broadcast links are offered in various types: #1. ISDN Audio Codecs; #2. IP
Audio Codecs; #3. RF Outside Broadcast Links.
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Radio Studio can also install complete outside broadcasting studios in your panel, thus building a mobile studio with d
full broadcasting and production capabilities. These vans are normally also used for marketing the radio station by i
means of full or partial wrapping (branding) of the vehicle.
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Basic Radio Production
Thursday, 23 May 2013
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BASIC RADIO PRODUCTION: LECTURE NOTE 2
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RADIO STUDIO
Radio studio is a special room where radio signals are originated. It affords various
production activities including recording, transmission, and other performances of the radio
personals.
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The studio is therefore specially built with certain features to make it a quiet place, and to d
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prevent unwanted sound from without: heavy door with air tight-luck; well-treated walls e
with acoustic treatment; shaped ceiling; double glass window with corridor between them; r
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noiseless air-conditioner and suitable lightings.
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Radio studio is up two parts: studio floor or performance area and studio control room e
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which houses technical equipment.
Radio stations have two types of studios:
On-Air Studio: this type is normally meant for live programmes like news, discussion,
continuity announcement and other programmes that have a call-in segment.
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talks, ,
Production Studio: this type is for the purpose of producing pre-recorded programmes like
drama, documentary, magazines, commercials, etc. it is also used for a rehearsal and voice
testing.
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Some stations may have a broader categorization based on microphone placement and type,
size and activities performed thereof: drama studio; music studio; announcing studio, e
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auditorium studio; and general purpose studio.
Studio Equipment:
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The studio equipment are many but the most common type includes the console n
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boards, microphones, recording devices, and loud speakers,
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The Console Board: radio programmes are channeled to pass through the console p
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board which serves as the converging point of all signals sourced in the studio. It is design to e
perform the following functions:
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Selection: it can select from different audio sources on which one to go on air.
Mixing: It mixes and balances two or more sound signals or inputs
Amplifying: it amplifies to desired level, all the signals coming in its weaker form
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Traducing: it converts sound energy into electrical impulse and moves it to boaster.
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Shaping: it shapes sound to produce echo or thin pitch sound.
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Measuring: measures the intensity of sound to detect over or under modulation.
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Channeling: various sound inputs are attached to produce a needed programme.
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Microphone: has two basic components: the diaphragm, which is a flexible device and very a
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sensitive to air pressure variation of a sound wave; and the generating element attached to m
the diaphragm and it converts the diaphragm’s vibration into electrical energy. The more e
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you talk the more the diaphragm vibrates.
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Types of Microphones
Microphones can be broadly categorized into three:
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ynamic Microphones: This type of Microphone is capable of producing excellent sound fidelity; it o
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is rugged in construction which makes it relatively insensitive to harsh handling.
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 Ribbon/Velocity Microphones: This Microphone is similar to a dynamic i
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According to their internal construction and under this categories we have:
microphone but tend to be more fragile. It produces a very warm, rich and
mellow sound which is often desirable for announcers, singers and musical
instruments.
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Condenser Microphones: This type of Microphone offers excellent audio response characteristics
but it requires a power supply to both charge the capacitor and to amplify the tiny out-put current. n
According to how they are used
avalieres: tiny microphones attached to the shirt or blouse during production.
oom Microphones: these are larger ones and desirable for drama production.
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and-Held microphones: handled close to the mouse and mostly unidirectional. It is used by a
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musicians and outside interviews.
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According to their pick up patterns:
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Omni-Directional Microphones: pick sound from all directions, mostly used in round-table
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discussion.
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i-Directional Microphones: Pick sound from two angles and are desirable for two- person t
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interview.
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nidirectional Microphones: pick sound from one direction and are used for announcement and b
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news casting.
Recording Devices: these are the audio sources used to record and play recorded audio or
sound in the studio:
Tape recorder: records and plays music and other documented audio with tape.
Compact disc (CD) Player: functions like tape recorder but using CD plate.
Reel-to-Real Machine: used for recording and playback music.
Turn Table: an outcast device used for backup on which the record turns.
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oud Speaker: broadcast what is on the air. It houses a magnet, coil and woofer. The magnet s
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creates reaction. The reaction passes through the coil to the woofer which vibrates and produces u
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sound.
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Wednesday, 22 May 2013
BASIC RADIO PRODUCTION: LECTURE NOTE 1
INTRODUCTION: RADIO HISTORY
Radio involves the process by which messages are sent through electrical waves. In other
words, sound would be sent and received through the waves (Sambe, 2008:75). The history
of Radio dates back to the 19th Century when Samuel Morse invented the electric telegraph.
According to Bittner (1989:93), Gugielmo Marconi built on this invention to produce
electromagnetic impulses which would be sent through the air without the use of wires. The
voice was carried over long distances.
Thus in 1866, signals were transmitted from England to America without wires. Sambe
(2008:75) states that, in 1888, Heinrick Hertz, working on the electromagnetic theory
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propounded earlier by a British scientist James Clark Maxwell, produced the first radio i
waves.
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In Nigeria, radio started with the introduction of the Radio Distribution System in the year l
ADVENT OF RADIO IN NIGERIA
1933 in Lagos by the British colonial government under the Department of Post and
Telegraphs (P&T), according to Idebi (2008,P.3). The Radio Distribution System (RDS) was a A
reception base for the British Broadcasting Corporation and a relay station, through wire u
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systems, with loudspeakers at the listening end. In 1935, the Radio Distribution System was i
changed to Radio Diffusion system. The aim was to spread the efforts of Britain and her allies o
during the Second World War through the BBC. The Ibadan station was commissioned in
1939, followed by the Kano station in 1944. Later, a re-appraisal of radio broadcast E
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objectives gave birth to the establishment in 1950 of the Nigerian Broadcasting Service
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(NBS). The NBS began broadcast in Lagos, Ibadan, Kaduna, Kano and Enugu on short wave t
and medium wave transmitters. Through a Bill by the House of Representatives, the Nigerian i
Broadcasting Corporation (NBC) was established in 1956. The NBC took up the n
responsibilities of radio broadcast in Nigeria. The Federal Radio Corporation of Nigeria g
(FRCN) was established in 1978. The Voice of Nigeria (VON) which served as the external
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service was established in 1990. With the creation of more states and each state wanting to o
propagate its people and culture, the pace for radio broadcast began in Nigeria and has f
spread fast across the length and breadth of the nation. Each state owns and operates at last t
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one radio station.
CHARACTERISTICS OF RADIO
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Radio makes pictures: When you listen to a commentary on radio of football match. As
you heard the commentary, you could visualize or ‘see’ in your mind what was being A
described. You could actively ‘see’ pictures in your mind of the footballers even as you t
listened to the sounds of fans singing or the sounds of the referee’s whistle. You use your l
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power of imagination as you follow the running commentary.
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Fast medium: Radio is the fastest medium. It is instant. As things happen in a studio or a
outside, messages can be sent or broadcast. These messages can be picked up by anyone who
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has a radio set or receiver which is tuned into a radio station. If you have a television set and a
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cable or satellite connection you may be using a remote to get your favourite channel.
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Simple medium: Compared to all other media, radio is simple to use. As mentioned in the
previous sections, radio needs very simple technology and equipment.
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Inexpensive medium: Radio is inexpensive: As it is simple, it is also a cheaper medium. The
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cost of production is low and a small radio can be bought for as low a price as say three u
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hundred naira
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Portable medium: Don’t you move your radio set at home from the living room to the s
kitchen or as you go out somewhere? You can’t do that very easily with television. This
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facility of moving an object which is called ‘portability’ gives radio an advantage. These days e
if you have a car and a radio in it, you can listen to it as you drive or travel. Can you think of q
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watching television, when you drive?
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One does not have to be literate to listen to radio: Unless you are literate, you can’t read a
newspaper or read captions or text on television. But for listening to radio, you need not be a
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literate at all. You can listen to programmes or news in any language on the radio.
OBJECTIVES OF RADIO
o inform
o educate inter related
o entertain
LIMITATIONS OF RADIO
One chance medium: When you read a newspaper, you can keep it with you and read it
again. You have the printed word there and unless the paper is destroyed it will remain with
you. Suppose when you read a news item, you do not understand the meaning of certain
words. You can refer to a dictionary or ask someone who knows to find out the meaning.
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Radio has no visual images: Let us consider a news item on radio and the same item on
television. For example, the news about the devastating 9/11 attack that hits World Trade
Centre. Radio news talked about the intensity of the attack, the number of deaths, details
about property destroyed etc. However in the case of television, it showed the actual planes
hitting the twin towers, visuals of properties destroyed, rescue operations and many more us
details which could be seen.
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Messages on radio are easily forgotten: The problem of not having visuals leads to another
limitation of radio. What is seen is often remembered and may remain with us. For example
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if you have seen the fine visuals of the Taj Mahal in Agra, it will remain in your memory. But r
what you hear is normally forgotten fast. Probably you may remember what you have heard o
in a class room if you found it interesting. But can you recall all the headlines of a news d
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bulletin you heard on radio? Normally, you don’t. So this is another limitation of radio.
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Poor performance on the part of announcers: Presenters or participants in a radio
programme can be boring or uninteresting that it can result in listeners switching off their p
radio sets. So listeners’ interest depends up on how information or messages are presented. u
r
p
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Radio broadcasts are of no use to people who have no sense of hearing especially those with s
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hearing disabilities.
s
RADIO FREQUENCIES
l
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Radio frequency (RF) is a rate of oscillation in the range of about 3 kHz to 300 GHz, which
corresponds to the frequency of radio waves, and the alternating currents which carry radio
signals. RF usually refers to electrical rather than mechanical oscillations; however, au
mechanical RF systems do exist.
d
Frequ Wavel Design Abbrev
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Extrem
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ELF
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105 km frequen
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300
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Super
103 – low
SLF
104 km frequen
cy
Ultra
300 –
100 – low
3000
ULF
103 km frequen
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cy
10 –
3 – 30
100
kHz
km
30 –
300
kHz
Very
low
VLF
frequen
cy
Low
1 – 10
frequen LF
km
cy
300
Medium
kHz – 100 m
frequen MF
3
– 1 km
cy
MHz
High
3 – 30 10 –
frequen HF
MHz 100 m
cy
30 –
300
MHz
Very
1 – 10 high
VHF
m
frequen
cy
300
MHz
–3
10 cm Ultra
UHF
– 1 m high
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Super
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SHF
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Extrem
1 mm ely high
EHF
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cy
Tremen
300
0.1
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GHz mm - 1 high
THF
3000
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frequen
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cy
RADIO PRODUCTION TEAM
Radio production team or crew are the group of skilled and unskilled personnel that make
production possible; some of the radio production team include:
Station Manager: Station Managers are responsible for the day-to-day running of Radio stations
- leading the management team to ensure they meet the key objectives of the station in terms of
output, audience, or revenue. In Commercial radio the job title Station Director may also be
used in reference to the manager of a local or national station. In some organisations a
Regional Director may have responsibility for more than one station. Most stations also have
a Programme Controller (link) or Programme Director.
Programme Director: the responsibility of a programme Director in any radio station is to
direct and coordinate daily radio station operations. She/he also develops, schedules and
supervises production, recording, and airing of all programs. Additional information
available includes essential job functions, additional responsibilities, and education and
experience requirements.
Programme Manager: In radio, a program manager/director or director of programming is
the person who develops or selects some or all of the content that will be broadcast. A
program director's selections’ are based upon expertise in the media as well as knowledge of
the target demographic. Typically, a program director decides what radio program will be
broadcast and when.
Studio Manager: In a broadcasting context, a studio manager, or SM, fulfills an operational role
in radio broadcasting to enable and ensure programmes are produced to a high technical
standard. The following are some of the responsibilities of a studio manager:
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Workload dispatch
Compiling studio schedules for senior management meetings
Compiling Road map for projects
Constant update of Studio schedules
Designer’s annual leaves coordination
Prompt timesheet collection
Understanding of how deadlines work
Executive Producer: An executive producer is the head producer who oversees the creation
of a radio broadcast, music album or theater performance. An executive producer usually
works for a production company, but may work independently. Executive producers work
on the business side of production. They ensure that a production meets goals, such as
helping the station to remain competitive, projecting the intended brand image of a company
and introducing new concepts or ideas.
Producer: Radio Producers work in both speech-based and music Radio. Although they play a
key role in creating what is heard by listeners, they are not usually heard on air themselves. They
are responsible for creating and co-ordinating the content of Radio programmes, and may also
have responsibility for the content of related websites or other mobile platforms. As well as
managing the creative process they are often closely involved with the business and technical
aspects of programmes.
Microphone Operator: Set up, operates, and maintains the electronic equipment used to
transmit radio programs. Control audio equipment to regulate volume level and quality of sound
during radio and television broadcasts. Some of the responsibilities of microphone operators
include:
eport equipment problems, ensure that repairs are made, and make emergency repairs to
equipment when necessary and possible.
bserve monitors and converse with station personnel to determine audio levels and to
ascertain that programs are airing.
Monitor strength, clarity, and reliability of incoming and outgoing signals, and adjust
equipment as necessary to maintain quality broadcasts.
ontrol audio equipment to regulate the volume and sound quality during radio broadcasts.
Monitor and log transmitter readings.
Artists/Characters: Performers entertain audiences. They may inform or educate them, move
them to laughter, or to tears. They contribute their various skills and talents to a variety of genres,
including Television, Film, Theatre, Radio and other media. Professional Performers are trained,
paid for their work, and must fulfil their contractual obligations, as opposed to amateur performers
who take part for fun, and without payment. Personality is central to Performers' roles; they need
to be able to relate to their audiences, and involve them in their performances.
Continuity Announcer: a person on radio who makes linking announcements between
programmes to give continuity to a radio broadcast channel. continuity announcers are people who
are employed to introduce programmes on radio network, to promote forthcoming programmes on
the station, to cross-promote programmes on the broadcaster's other stations where applicable
and, sometimes, to provide information relating to the programme just broadcast.
Newscaster: A news
presenter (also
known
as newsreader, newscaster, anchorman or anchorwoman, news anchor or simply anchor) is
a person who presentsnews during a news program on the radio. A newscaster (short for
"news broadcaster") is a presenter of news bulletins. This person may be working in the field
of broadcast journalism as a journalist and electronic news gathering (ENG).
Editor: A person who edits is called an editor. By editing, we mean preparing a news report
for publication, telecast or broadcast. Editing is a process by which a report is read,
corrected, modified, value-added, polished, improved and made better for publication.
Condensation is also part of editing.
Digital audio broadcasting
Digital audio broadcasting (DAB) is a digital radio technology for broadcasting radio
stations, used in several countries across Europe and Asia Pacific.
The DAB standard was initiated as a European research project in the
1980s.[1] The Norwegian Broadcasting Corporation(NRK) launched the very first DAB channel
in the world on 1 June 1995 (NRK Klassisk),[2] and the BBC and SR launched their first DAB
digital radio broadcasts in September 1995. DAB receivers have been available in many
countries since the end of the 1990s.
DAB may offer more radio programmes over a specific spectrum than analogue FM radio.
DAB is more robust with regard tonoise and multipath fading for mobile listening,[3] since DAB
reception quality first degrades rapidly when the signal strength falls below a critical threshold,
whereas FM reception quality degrades slowly with the decreasing signal.
Audio quality varies depending on the bitrate used and audio material. Most stations use a bit
rate of 128 kbit/s or less with the MP2 audio codec, which requires 160 kbit/s to achieve
perceived FM quality. 128 kbit/s gives better dynamic range or signal-to-noise ratio than FM
radio, but a more smeared stereo image, and an upper cut-off frequency of 14 kHz,
corresponding to 15 kHz of FM radio.[4] However, "CD sound quality" with MP2 is possible
"with 256…192 kbps".[5]
An upgraded version of the system was released in February 2007, which is called DAB+.
DAB is not forward compatible with DAB+, which means that DAB-only receivers are not able
to receive DAB+ broadcasts.[6] However, broadcasters can mix DAB and DAB+ programs
inside the same transmission and so make a progressive transition to DAB+. DAB+ is
approximately twice as efficient as DAB due to the adoption of the AAC+ audio codec, and
DAB+ can provide high quality audio with bit rates as low as 64 kbit/s.[7] Reception quality is
also more robust on DAB+ than on DAB due to the addition of Reed-Solomon error correction
coding.
In spectrum management, the bands that are allocated for public DAB services, are
abbreviated with T-DAB, where the "T" stands for terrestrial.
More than 20 countries provide DAB transmissions, and several countries, such as Norway,
Australia, Italy, Malta, Switzerland, The Netherlands and Germany,[8] are transmitting DAB+
stations. See Countries using DAB/DMB.
History[edit]
DAB has been under development since 1981 at the Institut für Rundfunktechnik (IRT). In
1985 the first DAB demonstrations were held at the WARC-ORB in Geneva and in 1988 the
first DAB transmissions were made in Germany. Later DAB was developed as a research
project for the European Union (EUREKA), which started in 1987 on initiative by a consortium
formed in 1986. The MPEG-1 Audio Layer II ("MP2") codec was created as part of
the EU147 project. DAB was the first standard based on orthogonal frequency division
multiplexing (OFDM) modulation technique, which since then has become one of the most
popular transmission schemes for modern wideband digital communication systems.
A choice of audio codec, modulation and error-correction coding schemes and first trial
broadcasts were made in 1990. Public demonstrations were made in 1993 in the United
Kingdom. The protocol specification was finalized in 1993 and adopted by the ITUR standardization body in 1994, the European community in 1995 and by ETSI in 1997. Pilot
broadcasts were launched in several countries in 1995.
The UK was the first country to receive a wide range of radio stations via DAB. Commercial
DAB receivers began to be sold in 1999 and over 50 commercial and BBC services were
available in London by 2001.
By 2006, 500 million people worldwide were in the coverage area of DAB broadcasts,
although by this time sales had only taken off in the United Kingdom and Denmark. In 2006
there were approximately 1,000 DAB stations in operation world wide.[9]
The standard was coordinated by the European DAB forum, formed in 1995 and reconstituted
to the World DAB Forum in 1997, which represents more than 30 countries. In 2006 the World
DAB Forum became the World DMB Forum which now presides over both the DAB and DMB
standard.
In October 2005, the World DMB Forum instructed its Technical Committee to carry out the
work needed to adopt the AAC+ audio codec and stronger error correction coding. This work
led to the launch of the new DAB+ system.
Technology[edit]
Bands and modes[edit]
DAB uses a wide-bandwidth broadcast technology and typically spectra have been allocated
for it in Band III (174–240 MHz) and L band (1,452–1,492 MHz), although the scheme allows
for operation almost anywhere above 30 MHz. The US military has reserved L-Band in the
USA only, blocking its use for other purposes in America, and the United States has reached
an agreement with Canada to restrict L-Band DAB to terrestrial broadcast to avoid
interference.[citation needed]
DAB has a number of country specific transmission modes (I, II, III and IV). For worldwide
operation a receiver must support all 4 modes:
•
Mode I for Band III, Earth
•
Mode II for L-Band, Earth and satellite
•
Mode III for frequencies below 3 GHz, Earth and satellite
•
Mode IV for L-Band, Earth and satellite
Protocol stack[edit]
From an OSI model protocol stack viewpoint, the technologies used on DAB inhabit the
following layers: the audio codec inhabits the presentation layer. Below that is the data link
layer, in charge of statistical time division multiplexing and frame synchronization. Finally,
the physical layer contains the error-correction coding, OFDM modulation, and dealing with
the over-the-air transmission and reception of data. Some aspects of these are described
below.
Audio codec[edit]
The older version of DAB that is being used in Denmark*, Ireland*, Norway*, Switzerland* and
the UK, uses the MPEG-1 Audio Layer 2 audio codec, which is also known as MP2due to
computer files using those characters for their file extension. Denmark, Ireland, Norway, and
Switzerland also use DAB+.
The new DAB+ standard has adopted the HE-AAC version 2 audio codec, commonly known
as 'AAC+' or 'aacPlus'. AAC+ is approximately three-times more efficient than MP2,[10]which
means that broadcasters using DAB+ will be able to provide far higher audio quality or far
more stations than they can on DAB, or, as is most likely, a combination of both higher audio
quality and more stations will be provided.
One of the most important decisions regarding the design of a digital radio system is the
choice of which audio codec to use, because the efficiency of the audio codec determines
how many radio stations can be carried on a multiplex at a given level of audio quality. The
capacity of a DAB multiplex is fixed, so the more efficient the audio codec is, the more
stations can be carried, and vice versa. Similarly, for a fixed bit-rate level, the more efficient
the audio codec is the higher the audio quality will be.
Error-correction coding[edit]
Error-correction coding (ECC) is an important technology for a digital communication system
because it determines how robust the reception will be for a given signal strength – stronger
ECC will provide more robust reception than a weaker form.
The old version of DAB uses punctured convolutional coding for its ECC. The coding scheme
uses unequal error protection (UEP), which means that parts of the audio bit-stream that are
more susceptible to errors causing audible disturbances are provided with more protection
(i.e. a lower code rate) and vice versa. However, the UEP scheme used on DAB results in
there being a grey area in between the user experiencing good reception quality and no
reception at all, as opposed to the situation with most other wireless digital communication
systems that have a sharp "digital cliff", where the signal rapidly becomes unusable if the
signal strength drops below a certain threshold. When DAB listeners receive a signal in this
intermediate strength area they experience a "burbling" sound which interrupts the playback
of the audio.
The new DAB+ standard has incorporated Reed-Solomon ECC as an "inner layer" of coding
that is placed around the byte interleaved audio frame but inside the "outer layer" of
convolutional coding used by the older DAB system, although on DAB+ the convolutional
coding uses equal error protection (EEP) rather than UEP since each bit is equally important
in DAB+. This combination of Reed-Solomon coding as the inner layer of coding, followed by
an outer layer of convolutional coding – so-called "concatenated coding" – became a popular
ECC scheme in the 1990s, and NASA adopted it for its deep-space missions. One slight
difference between the concatenated coding used by the DAB+ system and that used on
most other systems is that it uses a rectangular byte interleaver rather than Forney
interleaving in order to provide a greater interleaver depth, which increases the distance over
which error bursts will be spread out in the bit-stream, which in turn will allow the ReedSolomon error decoder to correct a higher proportion of errors.
The ECC used on DAB+ is far stronger than is used on DAB, which, with all else being equal
(i.e. if the transmission powers remained the same), would translate into people who currently
experience reception difficulties on DAB receiving a much more robust signal with DAB+
transmissions. It also has a far steeper "digital cliff", and listening tests have shown that
people prefer this when the signal strength is low compared to the shallower digital cliff on
DAB.[10]
Modulation[edit]
Immunity to fading and inter-symbol interference (caused by multipath propagation) is
achieved without equalization by means of the OFDM and DQPSK modulation techniques.
For details, see the OFDM system comparison table.
Using values for the most commonly used transmission mode on DAB, Transmission Mode I
(TM I), the OFDM modulation consists of 1,536 subcarriers that are transmitted in parallel.
The useful part of the OFDM symbol period is 1 millisecond, which results in the OFDM
subcarriers each having a bandwidth of 1 kHz due to the inverse relationship between these
two parameters, and the overall OFDM channel bandwidth is 1,537 kHz. The OFDM guard
interval for TM I is 246 microseconds, which means that the overall OFDM symbol duration is
1.246 milliseconds. The guard interval duration also determines the maximum separation
between transmitters that are part of the same single-frequency network (SFN), which is
approximately 74 km for TM I.
Single-frequency networks[edit]
OFDM allows the use of single-frequency networks (SFN), which means that a network of
transmitters can provide coverage to a large area – up to the size of a country – where all
transmitters use the same transmission frequency. Transmitters that are part of an SFN need
to be very accurately synchronised with other transmitters in the network, which requires the
transmitters to use very accurate clocks.
When a receiver receives a signal that has been transmitted from the different transmitters
that are part of an SFN, the signals from the different transmitters will typically have different
delays, but to OFDM they will appear to simply be different multipaths of the same signal.
Reception difficulties can arise, however, when the relative delay of multipaths exceeds the
OFDM guard interval duration, and there are frequent reports of reception difficulties due to
this issue when there is a lift, such as when there's high pressure, due to signals travelling
farther than usual, and thus the signals are likely to arrive with a relative delay that is greater
than the OFDM guard interval.
Low power gap-filler transmitters can be added to an SFN as and when desired in order to
improve reception quality, although the way SFNs have been implemented in the UK up to
now they have tended to consist of higher power transmitters being installed at main
transmitter sites in order to keep costs down.
Bit rates[edit]
An ensemble has a maximum bit rate that can be carried, but this depends on which error
protection level is used. However, all DAB multiplexes can carry a total of 864 "capacity
units". The number of capacity units, or CU, that a certain bit-rate level requires depends on
the amount of error correction added to the transmission, as described above. In theUK, most
services transmit using 'protection level three', which provides an average ECC code rate of
approximately ½, equating to a maximum bit rate per multiplex of 1,184 kbit/s.
Services and ensembles[edit]
Various different services are embedded into one ensemble (which is also typically called
a multiplex). These services can include:
•
Primary services, like main radio stations
•
Secondary services, like additional sports commentaries
•
Data services
•
Electronic Programme Guide (EPG)
•
Collections of HTML pages and digital images (Known as 'Broadcast Web Sites')
•
Slideshows, which may be synchronised with audio broadcasts. For example, a
police appeal could be broadcast with the e-fit of a suspect or CCTV footage.
•
Video
•
Java Platform Applications
•
IP tunnelling
•
Other raw data
DAB+[edit]
The term DAB most commonly refers both to a specific DAB standard using the MP2 audio
codec, but can sometimes refer to a whole family of DAB related standards, such as DAB+,
DMB and DAB-IP.
DAB+[edit]
WorldDAB, the organisation in charge of the DAB standards, announced DAB+, a major
upgrade to the DAB standard in 2006, when the HE-AAC v2 audio codec[11] (also known
as eAAC+) was adopted. The new standard, which is called DAB+, has also adopted
the MPEG Surround audio format and stronger error correction coding in the form of ReedSolomon coding. DAB+ has been standardised as European Telecommunications Standards
Institute (ETSI) TS 102 563.
As DAB is not forward compatible with DAB+, older DAB receivers can not receive DAB+
broadcasts. However, DAB receivers that will be able to receive the new DAB+ standard via
a firmware upgrade went on sale in July 2007. If a receiver is DAB+ compatible, there will be
a sign on the product packaging.
DAB+ broadcasts have launched in several countries like Australia, Czech Republic,
Denmark, Germany, Hong Kong, Italy, Malta, Norway, Poland, Switzerland,[12] and The
Netherlands. Malta was the first country to launch DAB+ in Europe. Several other countries
are also expected to launch DAB+ broadcasts over the next few years, such as Austria,
Hungary and Asian countries, such as Thailand, Vietnam and Indonesia. South Africa began
a DAB+ technical pilot in November 2014 on channel 13F in Band 3. If DAB+ stations launch
in established DAB countries, they can transmit alongside existing DAB stations that use the
older MPEG-1 Audio Layer II audio format, and most existing DAB stations are expected to
continue broadcasting until the vast majority of receivers support DAB+.[13]
Ofcom in the UK has published a consultation with the intention to set up a new multiplex
containing a mix of DAB and DAB+ services, with the intention of moving services to this
format in the long term.[14] In February 2016 3 DAB+ stations launched in the UK as part of a
new national network.[15]
DMB[edit]
Main article: Digital multimedia broadcasting
Digital multimedia broadcasting (DMB) and DAB-IP are suitable for mobile radio and TV both
because they support MPEG 4 AVC and WMV9 respectively as video codecs. However, a
DMB video subchannel can easily be added to any DAB transmission, as it was designed to
be carried on a DAB subchannel. DMB broadcasts in Korea carry conventional MPEG 1
Layer II DAB audio services alongside their DMB video services.
Norway, South Korea and France are countries currently[when?] broadcasting DMB.
Countries using DAB[edit]
Main article: Countries using DAB/DMB
More than 30 countries provide DAB, DAB+ and/or DMB broadcasts, either as a permanent
technology or as test transmissions.
DAB and AM/FM compared[edit]
Traditionally radio programmes were broadcast on different frequencies via AM and FM, and
the radio had to be tuned into each frequency, as needed. This used up a comparatively large
amount of spectrum for a relatively small number of stations, limiting listening choice. DAB is
a digital radio broadcasting system that through the application of multiplexing and
compression combines multiple audio streams onto a relatively narrow band centred on a
single broadcast frequency called a DAB ensemble.
Within an overall target bit rate for the DAB ensemble, individual stations can be allocated
different bit rates. The number of channels within a DAB ensemble can be increased by
lowering average bit rates, but at the expense of the quality of streams. Error correction under
the DAB standard makes the signal more robust but reduces the total bit rate available for
streams.
FM HD Radio versus DAB[edit]
Some countries have implemented Eureka-147 digital audio broadcasting (DAB). DAB
broadcasts a single station that is approximately 1,500 kilohertz wide (~1,000 kilobits per
second). That station is then subdivided into multiple digital streams of between 9 and 12
programs. In contrast FM HD radio shares its digital broadcast with the traditional 200
kilohertz-wide channels, with capability of 300 kbit/s per station (pure digital mode).
The first generation DAB uses the MPEG-1 Audio Layer II (MP2) audio codec which has less
efficient compression than newer codecs. The typical bitrate for DAB programs is only 128
kbit/s and as a result most radio stations on DAB have a lower sound quality than FM,
prompting a number of complaints among the audiophile community.[16] As with DAB+ or TDMB in Europe, FM HD Radio uses a codec based upon the MPEG-4 HE-AAC standard.
HD Radio is a proprietary system from the company Ibiquity. DAB is an open standard
deposited at ETSI.
Use of frequency spectrum and transmitter sites[edit]
DAB gives substantially higher spectral efficiency, measured in programmes per MHz and per
transmitter site, than analogue communication. This has led to an increase in the number of
stations available to listeners, especially outside of the major urban areas.
Numerical example: Analog FM requires 0.2 MHz per programme. The frequency
reuse factor in most countries is approximately 15, meaning that only one out of 15
transmitter sites can use the same channel frequency without problems with co-channel
interference, i.e. cross-talk. Assuming a total availability of 102 FM channels at a bandwidth of
0.2MHz over the Band II spectrum of 87.5 to 108.0 MHz, an average of 102/15 = 6.8 radio
channels are possible on each transmitter site (plus lower-power local transmitters causing
less interference). This results in a system spectral efficiency of 1 / 15 / (0.2 MHz) = 0.30
programmes/transmitter/MHz. DAB with 192 kbit/s codec requires 1.536 MHz * 192 kbit/s /
1,136 kbit/s = 0.26 MHz per audio programme. The frequency reuse factor for local
programmes and multi-frequency broadcasting networks (MFN) is typically 4 or 5, resulting in
1 / 4 / (0.26 MHz) = 0.96 programmes/transmitter/MHz. This is 3.2 times as efficient as analog
FM for local stations. For single frequency network (SFN) transmission, for example of
national programmes, the channel re-use factor is 1, resulting in 1/1/0.25 MHz = 3.85
programmes/transmitter/MHz, which is 12.7 times as efficient as FM for national and regional
networks.
Note the above capacity improvement may not always be achieved at the L-band frequencies,
since these are more sensitive to obstacles than the FM band frequencies, and may
cause shadow fading for hilly terrain and for indoor communication. The number of transmitter
sites or the transmission power required for full coverage of a country may be rather high at
these frequencies, to avoid the system becoming noise limited rather than limited by cochannel interference.
Sound quality[edit]
See also: MP2 quality
The original objectives of converting to digital transmission were to enable higher fidelity,
more stations and more resistance to noise, co-channel interference and multipath than in
analogue FM radio. However, the leading countries in implementing DAB on stereo radio
stations use compression to such a degree that it produces lower sound quality than that
received from non-mobile FM broadcasts. This is because of the bit rate levels being too low
for the MPEG Layer 2 audio codec to provide high fidelity audio quality.[17]
The BBC Research & Development department states that at least 192 kbit/s is necessary for
a high fidelity stereo broadcast :
A value of 256 kbit/s has been judged to provide a high quality stereo broadcast signal.
However, a small reduction, to 224 kbit/s is often adequate, and in some cases it may be
possible to accept a further reduction to 192 kbit/s, especially if redundancy in the stereo
signal is exploited by a process of 'joint stereo' encoding (i.e. some sounds appearing at the
centre of the stereo image need not be sent twice). At 192 kbit/s, it is relatively easy to hear
imperfections in critical audio material.
— BBC R&D White Paper WHP 061 June 2003[18]
When BBC in July 2006 reduced the bit-rate of transmission of Radio 3 from 192 kbit/s to 160
kbit/s, the resulting degradation of audio quality prompted a number of complaints to the
Corporation.[19] BBC later announced that following this testing of new equipment, it would
resume the previous practice of transmitting Radio 3 at 192 kbit/s whenever there were no
other demands on bandwidth.
Despite the above a survey of DAB listeners (including mobile) has shown most find DAB to
have equal or better sound quality than FM.[20]
Notwithstanding the above, BBC Radio 4 has extended the periods it broadcasts programmes
with a lower bit rate (80 kbit/s) and in mono in 2012, such as the Todayprogramme, rather
than 128 kbit/s and in stereo. Programmes which had traditionally been broadcast on BBC
Radio 4 DAB in stereo (from 1999 to 2011), can now only be heard in the evenings in mono,
even though the same programmes still go out in stereo on Radio 4 FM, Digital TV and OnLine. The BBC have issued a statement stating that stereo is still their default for BBC Radio
4 DAB, however after the Olympics, this does not appear to be the case in the evenings,
making FM broadcasts (in good reception areas) superior. As very few car radios are
currently fitted with DAB if the BBC switch FM off as indicated later in the decade, some
listeners may be forced to receive mono broadcasts in the future, a somewhat backward step.
An Audio Quality comparison of PCM, DAB, DAB+, FM and AM is available here
Benefits of DAB[edit]
Current AM and FM terrestrial broadcast technology is well established, compatible, and
cheap to manufacture. Benefits of DAB over analogue systems are explained below.
Improved features for users[edit]
DAB radios automatically tune to all the available stations, offering a list for the user to select
from.
DAB can carry "radiotext" (in DAB terminology, Dynamic Label Segment, or DLS) from the
station giving real-time information such as song titles, music type and news or traffic
updates. Advance programme guides can also be transmitted. A similar feature also exists on
FM in the form of the RDS. (However, not all FM receivers allow radio stations to be stored by
name.)
DAB receivers can display time of day as encoded into transmissions, so is automatically
corrected when travelling between time zones and when changing to or from Daylight Saving.
This is not implemented on all receivers, and some display time only when in "Standby"
mode. (Similar Features on RDS: 4A Groups)
Some radios offer a pause facility on live broadcasts, caching the broadcast stream on local
flash memory, although this function is limited.
More stations[edit]
DAB is not more bandwidth efficient than analogue measured in programmes per MHz of a
specific transmitter (the so-called link spectral efficiency). It is less susceptible to co-channel
interference (cross talk), which makes it possible to reduce the reuse distance, i.e. use the
same radio frequency channel more densely. The system spectral efficiency(the average
number of radio programmes per MHz and transmitter) is a factor three more efficient than
analogue FM for local radio stations, as can be seen in the above numerical example. For
national and regional radio networks, the efficiency is improved by more than an order of
magnitude due to the use of SFNs. In that case, adjacent transmitters use the same
frequency.
In certain areas – particularly rural areas – the introduction of DAB gives radio listeners a
greater choice of radio stations. For instance, in South Norway, radio listeners experienced an
increase in available stations from 6 to 21 when DAB was introduced in November 2006.
Reception quality[edit]
The DAB standard integrates features to reduce the negative consequences
of multipath fading and signal noise, which afflict existing analogue systems.
Also, as DAB transmits digital audio, there is no hiss with a weak signal, which can happen on
FM. However, radios in the fringe of a DAB signal, can experience a "bubbling mud" sound
interrupting the audio and/or the audio cutting out altogether.
Due to sensitivity to doppler shift in combination with multipath propagation, DAB reception
range (but not audio quality) is reduced when travelling speeds of more than 120 to 200 km/h,
depending on carrier frequency.[3]
Less unlicensed ("pirate") station interference[edit]
The specialised nature and cost of DAB broadcasting equipment provide barriers
to unlicensed ("pirate") stations broadcasting on DAB. In cities such as London with large
numbers of undocumented radio stations broadcasting on FM, this means that some stations
can be reliably received via DAB in areas where they are regularly difficult or impossible to
receive on FM due to undocumented radio interference.
Variable bandwidth[edit]
Mono talk radio, news and weather channels and other non-music programs need
significantly less bandwidth than a typical music radio station, which allows DAB to carry
these programmes at lower bit rates, leaving more bandwidth to be used for other programs.
However, this had led to the situation where some stations are being broadcast in mono,
see music radio stations broadcasting in mono for more details.
Transmission costs[edit]
It is common belief that DAB is more expensive to transmit than FM. It is true that DAB uses
higher frequencies than FM and therefore there is a need to compensate with more
transmitters, higher radiated powers, or a combination, to achieve the same coverage.
However, the last couple of years has seen significant improvement in power efficiency for
DAB-transmitters.
This efficiency originates from the ability a DAB network has in broadcasting more channels
per network. One network can broadcast 6–10 channels (with MPEG audio codec) or 10–16
channels (with HE AAC codec). Hence, it is thought that the replacement of FM-radios and
FM-transmitters with new DAB-radios and DAB-transmitters will not cost any more as
opposed to newer FM facilities.[21]
Lower transmission costs are supported by independent network studies from Teracom
(Sweden) and SSR/SRG (Switzerland).[citation needed] Among other things they show that DAB is
as low as one-sixth of the cost of FM transmission.
Disadvantages of DAB[edit]
Reception quality[edit]
The reception quality on DAB can be poor even for people who live well within the coverage
area.[citation needed] The reason for this is that the old version of DAB uses weak error correction
coding, so that when there are a lot of errors with the received data not enough of the errors
can be corrected and a "bubbling mud" sound occurs. In some cases a complete loss of
signal can happen. This situation will be improved upon in the new DAB standard (DAB+,
discussed below) that uses stronger error correction coding and as additional transmitters are
built.
Audio Quality[edit]
Broadcasters have been criticized for ‘squeezing in’ more stations per ensemble than
recommended,[citation needed] by:
•
Minimizing the bit-rate, to the lowest level of sound-quality that listeners are willing to
tolerate, such as 112 kbit/s for stereo and even 48 kbit/s for mono speech radio such as
LBC 1152 and the Voice of Russia.
•
Having few digital channels broadcasting in stereo.
Signal delay[edit]
The nature of a Single-frequency network (SFN) is such that the transmitters in a network
must broadcast the same signal at the same time. To achieve synchronization, the
broadcaster must counter any differences in propagation time incurred by the different
methods and distances involved in carrying the signal from the multiplexer to the different
transmitters. This is done by applying a delay to the incoming signal at the transmitter based
on a timestamp generated at the multiplexer, created taking into account the maximum likely
propagation time, with a generous added margin for safety. Delays in the receiver due to
digital processing (e.g. deinterleaving) add to the overall delay perceived by the listener.[3] The
signal is delayed by 2–4 seconds depending on the decoding circuitry used. This has
disadvantages:
•
DAB radios are out of step with live events, so the experience of listening to live
commentaries on events being watched is impaired;
•
Listeners using a combination of analogue (AM or FM) and DAB radios (e.g. in different
rooms of a house) will hear a confusing mixture when both receivers are within earshot.
Time signals, on the contrary, are not a problem in a well-defined network with a fixed delay.
The DAB multiplexer adds the proper offset to the distributed time information. The time
information is also independent from the (possibly varying) audio decoding delay in receivers
since the time is not embedded inside the audio frames. This means that built in clocks in
receivers will be spot on.
Coverage[edit]
[clarification needed]
As DAB is at a relatively early stage of deployment, DAB coverage is poor in nearly all
countries in comparison to the high population coverage provided by FM.
Exceptions include Norway, which will have 99.5% coverage by the end of 2014, and the
United Kingdom, where 95% population coverage has been achieved for certain stations.[22]
Compatibility[edit]
In 2006 tests began using the much improved HE-AAC codec for DAB+. Virtually none of the
receivers made before 2008 support the new codec, however, thus making them partially
obsolete once DAB+ broadcasts begin and completely obsolete once the old MPEG-1 Layer 2
stations are switched off. New receivers are both DAB and DAB+ compatible; however, the
issue is exacerbated by some manufacturers disabling the DAB+ features on otherwise
compatible radios to save on licensing fees when sold in countries without current DAB+
broadcasts.
Power requirements[edit]
As DAB requires digital signal processing techniques to convert from the received digitally
encoded signal to the analogue audio content, the complexity of the electronic circuitry
required to do this is higher. This translates into needing more power to effect this conversion
than compared to an analogue FM to audio conversion, meaning that portable receiving
equipment will tend to have a shorter battery life, or require higher power (and hence more
bulk). This means that they use more energy than analogue Band II VHF receivers. However,
thanks to increased integration (radio-on-chip), DAB receiver is getting closer to FM one. For
example, NXP semiconductor is producing both FM only and FM+DAB radio-on-chip, with
similar power consumption.
As an indicator of this increased power consumption in the early days of DAB, some radio
manufacturers quoted the length of time their receivers can play on a single charge. For a
commonly used FM/DAB-receiver from manufacturer PURE, this is stated as: DAB 10 hours,
FM 22 hours.[citation needed]. Currently, PURE manufacturer doesn't indicate any more power
consumption difference between FM and DAB modes.
FM radio switch-off[edit]
Norway is the only country that has announced a complete switch-off of national FM radio
stations. Switch off will start on 11 January 2017.[23] The switch-off will not affect local and in
some way regional radio stations.
At the "WorldDMB seminar" held in Riva del Garda, Italy, on 14 April 2013, it was announced
that in Norway there will be 99.5% DAB coverage by 2014, and that the country is planning to
switch-off its national and regional FM radio services in 2017.[24] No subsequent date has been
announced for such a move.
Other Nordic countries like Denmark and Sweden are evaluating a switch-off by 2022.[25]
UK is considering a progressive switch-off in the period 2017–2022.
Web radio
Web radio o radio on line è il termine che designa emittenti radiofoniche che trasmettono in
forma digitale il proprio palinsesto attraverso Internet, sulla rete telematica, risultando
accessibili con qualsiasi strumento in grado di accedere in rete.
In alcuni casi si tratta di radio tradizionali, ricevibili via etere in FM, che ampliano il proprio
raggio di ascolto ripetendo le trasmissioni in linea; in altri casi si tratta di emittenti, amatoriali o
meno, che mettono a disposizione i propri programmi esclusivamente per una fruizione su
Internet.
L'audio delle trasmissioni viene inviato sotto forma di flusso dati audio compresso che viene
definito stream e che deve essere decodificato sul computer ricevente da
un'appositaapplicazione, solitamente un lettore multimediale.
Storia[modifica | modifica wikitesto]
Web radio, in senso più ristretto del termine, sono definite per convenzione tutte le radio che
trasmettono unicamente per il web un programma in streaming (il metodo di trasmissione di
file audiovisivi in tempo reale su Internet). Gli utenti possono direttamente fruire online dei file
senza previo scaricamento su PC. Si simula, pertanto, in tal modo la trasmissione di
programmi radiofonici e televisivi.
Il primo formato audio che ha reso possibile ciò è stato RealAudio, realizzato da Rob Glaser
nell'aprile del 1995, subito seguito dalla piattaforma Microsoft Media Services.
Su internet i siti possono essere aperti e chiusi con estrema facilità e non è perciò possibile
tenere una statistica: il M.I.T., nel 2002, calcolò 27.000 web radio stabilmente funzionanti sul
web, ma ora si stima che si siano moltiplicate.
Dall'epoca dell'introduzione delle Web radio '95 all'epoca attuale il quadro legale è molto
mutato. Da un lato c'è stata la focalizzazione delle tematiche dei diritti d'autore, specialmente
in campo musicale, vedi Napster ma correlativamente anche il copyleft, dall'altro
l'introduzione degli Mp3 e l'enorme sviluppo di Internet.
Solitamente il carattere di massima economicità nella realizzazione di una web radio può
permettere, a chi la pensa e la realizza, di fornire una programmazione altamente
specializzata per un pubblico di estrema nicchia. L'esempio Italiano è Musicazione, radio online interamente dedicata alla musica alternativa ed al Rock Identitario, nata nel 1998su
ispirazione di una web radio scandinava dedicata al Viking Rock, la quale trasmetteva
esclusivamente canzoni in Svedese e che contava già nel 1997 ben oltre 50.000 visite. Per
spiegare un fenomeno del genere occorre accettare il fenomeno che caratterizza la rete
internet: la Glocalizzazione (Glocalization, crasi di globalization e di local).
Trasmissione e diffusione[modifica | modifica wikitesto]
La trasmissione radiofonica via Internet è il modo più semplice per diffondere un proprio
programma: bastano pochi click per ascoltare una radio sul web, ma soprattutto ne bastano
pochissimi per crearne una propria. La radio via Web ha notevoli vantaggi: arriva in ogni
angolo del mondo con una spesa irrisoria, è semplice da realizzare e gestire.Secondo un
recente studio americano dal 2000 ad oggi il numero degli ascoltatori via Internet è cresciuto
di oltre il 240%, ma la crescita è destinata ad aumentare in maniera esponenziale.[senza fonte]
Web radio e il mercato globale[modifica | modifica wikitesto]
Per glocalizzazione si intende l'unione di globale e locale: è un termine figlio della neteconomy usato nell'e-business per descrivere la capacità delle aziende che competono su
internet di restare fortemente radicate nella realtà locale, pur essendo capaci di affrontare con
successo il mercato globale. Una delle caratteristiche delle comunità virtuali delweb è quello
di essere globali, ovvero essere lontane geograficamente ma vicine come luogo di interessi, il
tutto rapportato ad una web radio si traduce in una globalizzazione del luogo
di fruibilità della radio (ovvero un computer connesso al web in una qualunque parte
dell'Italia o del mondo) e una forte localizzazione dell'ascoltatore. Tecnicamente, la musica
viene trasmessa da un server (paragonabile in questo caso ad un ripetitore terrestre), con
possibilità di trasmissioni dal vivo o in differita.
La web radio americana, Live365 (per esempio), ha rappresentato l'estremizzazione di tale
concetto fornendo a chiunque la possibilità di trasmettere, con una propria stazione
individuale. Anche se per paradosso, il titolare della radio ne è anche l'unico utente.
RIAA e la crociata contro la pirateria[modifica | modifica wikitesto]
Molto probabilmente per questo motivo, nel 2001, i discografici americani, rappresentati
dal RIAA (l'equivalente americana dell'italiana S.C.F.), che da tempo perseguivano il file
sharing o meglio, il sistema di scambio-file come ad esempio Napster, imposero a tutte le
web-radio il pagamento di royalties per la musica da loro trasmessa. Il RIAA, nella sua nuova
crociata, poteva contare sull'appoggio dell'Ufficio americano del copyright che emise un
parere formale secondo cui le emittenti web non sono esenti dal pagamento dei diritti d'autore
quando trasmettono musica via Internet.
Altri preziosi alleati per la RIAA, in questa battaglia, furono le net-companies che aspettavano
di poter far decollare i propri business su Internet non appena fosse cessata la distribuzione o
lo scambio di musica on-line, che ancora oggi avviene in modo per lo più illegale o
incontrollato. Ovvio che per le Web Radio americane dell'epoca si trattò di un duro colpo, ma
la storia certamente non si fermò in quel quasi lontano 2001, anzi, quasi come le nostre
emittenti libere degli anni settanta, anche negli Stati Uniti si assistette ad un dimezzamento
delle emittenti. In ogni caso, nel 2003, a Londra, venne stipulato un nuovo accordo che
prevedeva una licenza unica per poter trasmettere musica in streaming. L'accordo, si
pensava, ponesse fine ad anni di incertezze riguardo allo status giuridico delle radio internet e
avrebbe dovuto rendere più trasparenti i rapporti tra queste ultime e i detentori dei diritti di
proprietà intellettuale.
Fino al 2005, le web radio pagavano all'associazione una somma per ogni canzone
trasmessa oppure un forfait in base ai brani trasmessi finora moltiplicato per il numero di
utenti. Le radio prive di pubblicità e che trasmettevano senza scopo di lucro, pagavano tra i
500 e i 2500 dollari all'anno.
Con la riforma del 2007, tutti gli operatori dovranno pagare per ogni canzone in base al
numero di utenti che la scaricano in streaming, da un minimo di 0,0008 dollari nel 2007 ad un
massimo di 0,0019 dollari nel 2010 per ogni download di canzone/utente.
La decisione alza molto i costi del copyright e penalizza in primo luogo le emittenti prive di
pubblicità, che fornivano un servizio migliore e senza interruzioni, paragonandole alle radio
commerciali.
Il nuovo mercato legale[modifica | modifica wikitesto]
I discografici, che vollero l'accordo con RIAA, hanno sottolineato come le attività di web
casting rappresentino un settore economico emergente che contribuisca allo sviluppo del
business sul nuovo medium. "Questa - dichiarava a proposito della licenza unica Jay Berman,
presidente e amministratore delegato dell'associazione internazionale del settoreIFPI - è
un'altra pietra miliare nello sviluppo dei servizi di musica su internet. Nel passato, ottenere
licenze per la trasmissione multiterritoriale su Internet, per esempio in Europa, era difficile e
richiedeva molto tempo. Era inoltre importante, per le società di collecting nazionali,
strutturare un sistema che rimuovesse questi ostacoli".
Tutto questo, naturalmente, entusiasmava i discografici da lungo tempo a caccia di nuovi
modelli di business che potessero rivelarsi vincenti nell'era digitale, un'era che ha fin qui visto
crescere in modo straordinario la condivisione, senza controllo, di musica e altri contenuti tra
milioni di utenti internet e, solo negli ultimi tempi, un mercato legale deldownload e
dello streaming. Da questo si può iniziare a intuire e perché no, anche sospettare, che la
licenza unica sia stata voluta anche per trovare rimedio al download illegale da parte di utenti
sconosciuti nei confronti dei discografici e di conseguenza la web radio è stata presa di mira
come buon mezzo per rimediare a danni causati da terzi, e non certo dagli editori del web la
cui unica colpa è stata quella di avere una passione infinita per il mezzo di comunicazione
“radio” e le nuove tecnologie.
I vantaggi[modifica | modifica wikitesto]
Economicità e copertura[modifica | modifica wikitesto]
Per creare una web radio basta avere a disposizione un buon PC, una normale scheda audio,
qualche centinaio di file MP3, scaricare e installare il poco software necessario gratuitamente
reperibile, dotarsi di un microfono e una cuffietta. Il tutto in pochissimo tempo e praticamente
senza nessuna spesa. Per le radio già affermate, ovviamente, l'on-line rappresenta un buon
canale per la diffusione dei programmi da affiancare all'etere.
Uno dei sistemi di diffusione dello streaming più diffusi ed economici è SHOUTcast.
A prima vista i due mezzi si presentano con delle caratteristiche per certi versi antitetiche. La
differenza fondamentale riguarda in primo luogo il grado di copertura dell'utenza, cioè il
numero di utilizzatori e fruitori, indubbiamente (almeno in questa fase) molto maggiore per la
radio tradizionale. Ma questo, fortunatamente, vale solo su scala geograficamente limitata.
Estendendo il discorso su scala planetaria, la presenza in rete assicura un allargamento della
possibile fascia d'utenza che, teoricamente, si estende a tutto il mondo connesso. Così, un
programma radiofonico in lingua italiana, grazie ad Internet, può facilmente riuscire a
superare i limiti geografici ed essere ascoltato (con i soliti limiti della comprensione della
lingua) da utenti sparsi praticamente in tutto il mondo.
Media e Internet[modifica | modifica wikitesto]
Mentre i media generalisti, come radio e televisione, non possono individualizzare i contenuti,
le nuove tecnologie della comunicazione, come Internet, consentono la costruzione di
palinsesti a misura di utente e soprattutto campagne pubblicitarie selezionate e ben definite
per lanci di prodotti mirati a target ben specifici.
Le Web Radio in Italia[modifica | modifica wikitesto]
Le web radio appaiono in Italia nel 1998. La richiesta di un riconoscimento legale è stata
respinta a lungo. In virtù dell'Accordo di Londra del 2003 (vedi sopra) anche le web radio
italiane possono trasmettere musica coperta da diritto d'autore, con la tecnologia streaming.
Il ministero delle Comunicazioni non riconosce ufficialmente l'esistenza delle web radio,
preferendo attendere una normativa europea che disciplini la materia.[1] Da rilevamenti
effettuati nel 2013 risulta che in Italia vi siano oltre 200 emittenti attive, con un pubblico
variante tra gli 8000 e i 150.000 ascoltatori (ad esclusione delle web radio delle emittenti più
conosciute in FM).[2]
La Società Italiana degli Autori ed Editori (SIAE) regolamenta le web radio che intendano
utilizzare opere da essa tutelate, tramite la stipula di un contratto chiamato in gergo «modulo
AWR». Tale modulo suddivide le web radio in amatoriali, istituzionali e commerciali,
imponendo alle prime e alle seconde di non avere pubblicità di nessun tipo, dove per nessun
tipo si intende né remunerativa, né gratuita, né nel flusso audio, né sul sito che ospita la web
radio. I vincoli imposti dalla SIAE, a prescindere dalla filosofia che muove i broadcaster, sono
considerati pesanti da quasi la totalità di questi ultimi.
La Società Consortile Fonografici, che riunisce le case discografiche, regolamenta le web
radio in modo sostanzialmente simile alla SIAE. È recente la modifica al contratto per le web
radio amatoriali, che annulla il vincolo di massima banda passante.
L'associazionismo tra Web radio[modifica | modifica wikitesto]
In questo quadro confuso dal punto di vista legislativo e nello stesso tempo di rapida
evoluzione tecnica le Web radio hanno trovato un momento unificante in forme
associazionistiche. Oltre alla specifica e già menzionata W.R.A, che conta tra le proprie
iscritte circa 100 emittenti, l'Associazione Aeranti Corallo evidenzia che tra i propri iscritti vi
sono 10 realtà di radiotelevisione via internet. Inoltre l'Associazione RadUni, (associazione
radiofonici universitari italiani), che raggruppa soci fra più di 20 web radio italiane[3]. A livello
internazionale, su spinta soprattutto dei Paesi francofoni si è dato vita alla European
Thematic Channels Association (ETCA).
UNIT – 6
Broadcast Business and Funding Mechanism
1.2 For radio, marketing is different
For many industries, it's obvious who the buyers and sellers are. The exchange model
(explained above) fits well. The buyers and sellers are clearly identified, and they
trade with each other. And for most products and services, the buyers and sellers
seldom communicate, except when they are about to make a transaction.
Radio is different, in several ways. Listeners to a radio station often tune in for hours
each day, so the relationship is a continuing one. That's not so unusual: a lot of
products have continuing buyers. What's more unusual for radio is that, since it's a
communication medium, if all communication about an activity is marketing, does it
follow that all radio programs are marketing? (Are you thinking that surely not even the
author of a book on marketing would make such a wild claim?)
In my view, some types of broadcast are always marketing: station promos and
broadcast call signs, for example. But any program content might be understood as
marketing by listeners, even if it's not intended as marketing by the broadcaster. If, by
listening to the program, the listener forms an impression of the station, I'd regard this
as marketing. For example, if the sound quality seems poorer than usual, and the
listener blames the station, it becomes a marketing problem for the station. But if in
the listener's opinion the problem is the radio itself, that's a marketing problem for that
brand of radio.
At this point you may be objecting: "but the station has no control over that, so it can't
be marketing." My response: you should take a broader view. Such problems affect
audience size, and eventually station revenue. Just because you can't control it, that
doesn't mean it's not marketing.
Another difference between radio marketing and other marketing is that with radio (as
in fact with many government services), there's a problem of working out who are the
buyers, who are the sellers, and where the listeners fit into the diagram.
One way of answering this question is that the seller is the one who provides Stuff and
gets money. So for radio, the seller is the station, and the Stuff is its programs.
Who is the buyer? That depends on what type of radio station it is.
For a commercial station (which gets all its income from advertising) the buyers are the
advertisers. Where, you might wonder, do the listeners come into the diagram?
Answer: they are the Stuff being sold. They are merely a commodity. The only reason
why a commercial station needs an audience is to have something to sell to advertisers:
the attention of their listeners. (The listeners, of course, may have a different view.)
For a government radio station, without advertising, there's only one "buyer" and that's
the government. To survive, the station's management has to keep the government
happy. Whether anybody listens to the program is irrelevant. In fact, it's better if there
are no listeners, because then there will be few complaints.
A community station is funded by the community, whether in small amounts from
individual listeners, or large amounts from organizations, or some mixture of these. If it
can gain most of its income from its own listeners, there will be less of the distorting
pressures that apply to commercial or government-funded stations. This makes it
possible (in theory) for community stations to provide a better service to listeners than
any other type of radio station can.
But who's the buyer, and who's the seller, for a community station? you might ask.
Now this is where it begins to get interesting. The complicating factor is that many
people are involved, in various roles. These roles are often known as stakeholders: all
the types of people who have an interest in an organization, because it affects them in
some way.
1.3 Stakeholders in radio
The stakeholders normally fall into four main groups: suppliers, customers, internal,
and external. For a radio station the stakeholder groups can include these...





Suppliers: providers (of goods, services, equipment, etc.),
stringers, news agencies, government (in its news-making role), NGOs (in
program supply role), suppliers of press releases.
Customers: listeners, subscribers, advertisers, advertising
agencies, government (in its funding role), funding bodies, and
foundations.
Internal: paid staff, volunteers
External: competitors (other local media), government (in its regulatory role),
local organizations, schools and universities
that teach about local media
Others: anybody else who thinks they're a stakeholder - even if
the station thinks they're not.
In other words, almost everybody in the community holds some sort of stake, whether
they deal directly with the station or not. So maybe we should extend that two-party
diagram into a multi-party one. But if you drew that diagram, it would look like a mess,
with lines connecting every stakeholder group to every other. All these groups have
expectations about each other, and make demands on each other.
Though the above diagram makes the marketing process clear, it's oversimplified,
because it takes no account of roles. As the list of stakeholders showed, one
stakeholder group can have multiple roles.
When you consider all the stakeholders involved, you soon realize that a radio station specially a community station - is part of a complex web of social and financial
obligations and the exchanges that go with them. The entire cobweb-like network
becomes what's sometimes called an "imaginary organization:" a far broader crosssection of people than simply the staff and the listeners. All communication between
stakeholders about the station comprises the station's marketing.
Organizations with marketing departments often assume that all their marketing is
done by that department. In reality, most marketing is done by others - particularly by
consumers, because there are so many of them.
Don't think, therefore, that you can control all your marketing: but if the station is well
managed, communication about the station between stakeholders is more likely to be
favourable.
Of course, it's not only radio stations that have stakeholders. All organizations have
them. In the last few years, the success of a business is coming to be measured not only
by the value of its shares, but by broader concepts such as the Triple Bottom Line and
the Balanced Scorecard. The advocates of these concepts say that a business does not
exist solely to make a profit, but has social obligations to all its stakeholders. Recent
research has been finding that businesses which take this very broad view of their
objectives tend to be more successful, in the long term, than those that try only to
make a profit. There's a lesson for radio here.
Audience Research and listeners surveys
With the changing mass communication scenario, Audience Research has occupied
the centre stage. World over, almost all the big media organizations have been doing
in-house audience research in one form or the other. Without ‘Market Research’ (in
marketing) no media organization can afford to put their precious resource at stake
without knowing the potential audience (consumers) and market for their media
content. Besides, they are also subscribing to syndicated research done by the
various media and market research organizations. The secret behind the success of
private TV and Radio channels lies in their capability to feel the pulse of audience
through continuous audience research and to design and modify the programme
content including presentation accordingly.
All India Radio has been a pioneer in this field. Presently, it has a network of 38
Audience Research Units across the country which started with a humble beginning in
1946 as 'Listeners' Research Wing'. During all those years, it worked as eyes and ears
for the organization.
Role and Functions:
•
Providing instant feedback to programme planners/ producers through Quick
feedback studies, Listeners' Letter Analysis, Content Analysis, Focus Group
Discussions and Panel Studies etc.
•
Carrying out periodical large scale Radio Audience Surveys on various AIR
channels to provide listenership data to programmers, sponsors, advertisers, and
marketers.
•
Undertaking sponsored Audience Research studies from other government
departments/autonomous bodies
Conducting on demand special Audience Research studies and Feed-forward
Studies before start of a new station.
•
•
Functioning as data bank, research and reference section for the organization.
•
Helping to develop marketing strategies in terms of providing listenership data
across socio economic categories.
Major Achievements in recent years:
 Radio Audience Surveys: (conducted across the country)
•
Radio Audience Survey on Primary Channels- 2007-08 at 64 stations
•
Radio Audience Survey on Vividh Bharati Channels-2007-08
at 14 stations
•
Radio Audience Survey on FM Channels-2007-08 at 18 stations
•
Radio Audience Survey on FM Rainbow and Gold Channels-2008-09 at
18 stations.
•
Radio Audience Survey on Vividh Bharati Channel-2010-11 at 11
stations.
•
Radio Audience Survey on Primary Channel-2010-11 at 33 stations
•
Radio Audience Survey on Primary Channels-2011-12 at 36 stations
•
Radio Audience Survey on FM Channels-2011-12 at 24 stations
 Feedback/Impact Studies:
•
Study on the Impact of Flagship Programmes.
•
Quick Feedback Studies on demand
 Sponsored Studies:
•
'Koshish
•
Sunehare Kal Ki’ and 'Fantastic Four' sponsored by
Ministry of Environment and Forests, Government of India at 11 places
during 2008-09
Survey
on
AIDS
Control
programme 'Ini
Onu
Vidhi
Seivom' sponsored
radio programme on HIV/AIDS by Tamil Nadu State Aids Control
Society
(TANSACS) at 18 places during 2008-09
•
Survey on Education Broadcast on ‘Keli-Kali, Chukki-Chinna
•
Chiannara Chukka’ radio programmes sponsored by DSERT, State
Government of Karnataka at 80 government school across the state
during 2008-09
Weekly ‘Feedback survey on Kisanvani Programme’ sponsored by
•
Ministry of Agriculture, Government of India at 96 Stations spread over
24 states and three UTs across the country covered about 20,000
villages and two lakh farmers up to 30th September,2008. It might be
the biggest feedback survey ever conducted by any media research
organization.
Radio Audience Survey on FM channels for the fixation of rates of
advertising through DAVP, sponsored by DAVP, M/O Information and
Broadcasting, Government of India at 84 places all over the country
during 2009-10
Exit this survey
Radio Station Questionnaire
1. Radio Survey
Hey, thanks for your time.
I am conducting a survey of radio listening habits in the Berkshire area. I would be
grateful if you could spare 2 minutes of your time to complete this questionnaire. It's
100% anonymous, and there's only 10 questions to answer.
Thank you!
*1. How old are you?
15 - 17
18 - 21
21 - 24
24 - 30
31 - 35
35 - 40
40+
*2. On average how often do you listen to the radio?
Daily
Few time a week
Once a week
Less often
*3. What time are you most likely to listen to the radio?
Morning (Breakfast)
Mid-Morning/Afternoon (Daytime)
Early Evening (Drivetime)
Late Evening
*4. Where are you most likely to listen to radio?
At Home
In the car
At work
At college
*5. How do you usually listen to the radio?
FM Radio
Online
Digital Radio
Mobile (iPhone/Blackberry)
TV
*6. What station(s) do you regularly listen to?
Capital
Heart
Kiss 100
Radio 1
1Xtra
*7. Why do you listen to your preferred station?
Plays the music I like
Good presenters
The shows are relevant to me
Competitions
*8. What types of music do you often listen to?
R&B/Hip-Hop
Dance
Dubstep/DnB
Garage/Funky
Dancehall/Bashment
Reggae/Soul
Metal/Rock
*9. What is your ethnicity?
*10. We would like some information about your area, please provide us with the first portion of
your postcode (EG. RG1).
ZIP/Postal Code:
Email Address:
Done
Prasar Bharati
Prasar Bharati (Hindi: प्रस भारती
); is India's largest public broadcasting agency. It
is an autonomous body set up by an Act of Parliament and
comprises Doordarshan Television Network and All India Radio which were earlier media
units of the Ministry of Information and Broadcasting.
The Parliament of India passed an Act to grant this autonomy in 1990, but it was not enacted
until 15 September 1997.[1]
Dr A Surya Prakash[2] is the current chairperson of Prasar Bharati and Jawhar Sircar is the
CEO
Prasar Bharati Act[edit]
The Prasar Bharati Act provides for establishment of a Broadcasting Corporation, to be
known as Prasar Bharati, to define its composition, functions and powers.[4] The Act grants
autonomy to All India Radio and Doordarshan, which were previously under government
control.[4] The Act received assent of President of India on 12 September 1990[1]after being
unanimously passed by Parliament. It was finally implemented in November 1997. By the
Prasar Bharati Act, all the property, assets, debts, liabilities, payments of money due, all suits
and legal proceedings involving Akashvani (All India Radio) and Doordarshan were
transferred to Prasar Bharati.
Prasar Bharati Board[edit]
Prasar Bharati Act stipulates general superintendence, direction and management of affairs of
the Corporation vests in Prasar Bharati Board which may exercise all such powers and do all
such acts and things as may be exercised or done by the Corporation.[4]
Prasar Bharati Board consists of:
•
Chairman
•
One Executive Member
•
One Member (Finance)
•
One Member (Personnel)
•
Six Part-time Members
•
Director-General (Akashvani), ex officio
•
Director-General (Doordarshan), ex officio
•
One representative of the Union Ministry of Information and Broadcasting (India), to be
nominated by that Ministry and
•
Two representatives of the employees of the Corporation, of whom one shall be elected
by the engineering staff from amongst themselves and one shall be elected by the other
employee from amongst themselves.
The President of India appoints Chairman and the other Members, except the ex
officio members, nominated member and the elected members.
The Board meetings must be held at least once in three months, every year.
Actress Kajol is named as part-time member for 5 years till November 2021.[5]
Functions and Objectives[edit]
The primary duty of the Corporation is to organise and conduct public broadcasting services
to inform, educate and entertain the public and to ensure a balanced development of
broadcasting on radio and television.[4]
The Corporation shall, in the discharge of its functions, be guided by the following objectives,
namely:
•
Upholding the unity and integrity of the country and the values enshrined in the
Constitution.
•
Safeguarding the citizen’s right to be informed freely, truthfully and objectively on all
matters of public interest, national or international, and presenting a fair and balanced
flow of information including contrasting views without advocating any opinion or ideology
of its own.
•
Paying special attention to the fields of education and spread of literacy, agriculture, rural
development, environment, health and family welfare and science and technology.
•
Providing adequate coverage to the diverse cultures and languages of the various
regions of the country by broadcasting appropriate programmes.
•
Providing adequate coverage to sports and games so as to encourage healthy
competition and the spirit of sportsmanship.
•
Providing appropriate programmes keeping in view the special needs of the youth.
•
Informing and stimulating the national consciousness in regard to the status and
problems of women and paying special attention to the upliftment of women.
•
Promoting social justice and combating exploitation, inequality and such evils
as untouchability and advancing the welfare of the weaker sections of the society.
•
Safeguarding the rights of the working classes and advancing their welfare.
•
Serving the rural and weaker sections of the people and those residing in border regions,
backward or remote areas.
•
Providing suitable programmes keeping in view the special needs of the minorities and
tribal communities.
•
Taking special steps to protect the interests of children, the blind, the aged, the
handicapped and other vulnerable sections of the people.
•
Promoting national integration by broadcasting in a manner that facilitates communication
in the languages in India; and facilitating the distribution of regional broadcasting services
in every State in the languages of that State.
•
Providing comprehensive broadcast coverage through the choice of appropriate
technology and the best utilisation of the broadcast frequencies available and ensuring
high quality reception.
•
Promoting research and development activities in order to ensure that radio
broadcast and television broadcast technology are constantly updated.
Expansion plans[edit]
Digitisation of AIR & DD is going on full phase, as some of DDK's (Doordarshan Kendra's) &
AIR Stations are already getting digitised. All the new establishments are digital and there are
plans to modify the existing ones. New transmitters are being ordered and plans for purchase
of digital transmitters are being implemented in phases.
Controversy over Candidate selection[edit]
In 2010, as many as 24 candidates out of the 30 selected for the posts of journalists in
Doordarshan News were alleged to be selected on the basis of political considerations.[6]For
example, one of the successful candidates was closely related to a former Congress minister
of state for information and broadcasting and another successful candidate was the daughter
of a sitting Congress Union minister. Another one was a close relative of Union Commerce
Minister Anand Sharma.[7][8]
The number of applicants called for interview was increased from 25 to 35 to accommodate
the daughter of a Congress politician, who held the 33rd rank, and would have otherwise
been eliminated at the cut-off stage. Another successful candidate, Anika Kalra Kalha, was
not even called for an audition and reporting skills test, and the remark in the relevant
columns read “Did not qualify for this stage”. Similarly weightage given to interview was
arbitrarily increased 2 days before interviews.[7]
FM broadcasting in India
FM broadcasting began on 23 July 1977 in Chennai, then Madras, and was expanded during
the 1990s, nearly 50 years after it mushroomed in the US.[1] In the mid-nineties,
when India first experimented with private FM broadcasts, the small tourist
destination of Goa was the fifth place in this country of one billion where private players got
FM slots. The other four centres were the big metro
cities: Delhi, Kolkata, Mumbai and Chennai. These were followed by stations
in Bangalore, Hyderabad, Jaipur and Lucknow.
Times FM (now Radio Mirchi) began operations in 1993 in Ahmedabad. Until 1993, All India
Radio or AIR, a government undertaking, was the only radio broadcaster in India. The
government then took the initiative to privatize the radio broadcasting sector.[citation needed] It sold
airtime blocks on its FM channels in Indore, Hyderabad, Mumbai, Delhi, Kolkata, Vizag and
Goa to private operators, who developed their own program content. The Times Group
operated its brand, Times FM, till June 1998. After that, the government decided not to renew
contracts given to private operators. In 2000, the government announced the auction of 108
FM frequencies across India.
Radio City Bangalore, started on July 3, 2001, is India's first private FM radio station. It
launched with presenters such as Rohit Barker, Darius Sunawala, Jonzie Kurian and Suresh
Venkat.[2]
FM LRS (Local Radio Station) was inaugurated on 1 July 2001 at 14.28 in Kodaikanal in the
frequency 100.5 MHz. The two radio persons Dr.Musiri.T.A.Veerasamy and B.Rajaram
(Savitraa) made 100.5 popular and the LRS was upgraded to a "METRO FM" channel in just
two months. The channel covered a radius of about 200 km due to its location at 2200 meters
above MSL in Kodaikanal. Later, the stalwarts like Supra (K.Natarajan) in 2002 and Maha
Somaskandamoorthy in 2003 joined KODAI FM, as it is popularly known. The biggest
individual FM channel in India in both area coverage and listenership.
Indian policy currently states that these broadcasters are assessed a One-Time Entry Fee
(OTEF), for the entire license period of 10 years. Under the Indian accounting system, this
amount is amortised over the 10-year period at 10% per annum. Annual license fee for private
players is either 4% of revenue share or 10% of Reserve Price, whichever is higher.
India's earlier attempts to privatise its FM channels ran into rough weather when private
players bid heavily and most could not meet their commitments to pay the government the
amounts they owed.
Content[edit]
News is not permitted on private FM. Nationally, many of the current FM players, including
the Times of India, Hindustan Times, Mid-Day, and BBC are essentially newspaper chains or
media, and they are making a strong pitch for news on FM. Private FM stations are allowed to
rebroadcast news from All India Radio, as long as they do so without any changes or
additions.[3] The Supreme Court of India on 17 October 2013 issued a public interest
litigation to the Centre requesting that the rules should be changed to allow FM stations to
broadcast news reports.[4]
FM stations in Ahmedabad[edit]
•
Radio Mirchi - 98.3 FM (Times Group)
•
My FM - 94.3 FM (DNA Bhaskar Group)
•
Red FM - 93.5 FM (Sun Group)
•
Radio City - 91.1 FM (Music Broadcast Private Limited)
•
Radio One - 95.0 FM (Only Bollywood Retro Station of Ahmedabad)
•
Vividh Bharati - 96.7 FM (AIR)
FM stations in Hyderabad[edit]
•
Radio City - 91.1
•
Big 92.7 FM - 92.7
•
South Asia firms (S FM) - 93.5
•
Radio Mirchi - 98.3
•
All India Radio (AIR / AIR / Twin Cities firms Rainbow)- 101.9
•
All India Radio (AIR / AIR / Miscellaneous Bharti) - 102.8
•
Gyan Vani - 105.6
•
Vividh Bharati
FM stations in New Delhi NCR[edit]
•
City FM 92 (Live Broadcasting Radio)
•
Radia Ditect FM 107.1 (107.1 MHz)
•
AIR FM Rainbow / FM-1 (102.6 MHz)
•
AIR FM Gold /FM-2 (106.4 MHz)
•
AIR Rajdhani/Gyanvani Channel (105.6 MHz)
•
Oye FM (104.8 MHz)
•
Fever 104 (104 MHz)
•
Radio Mirchi FM (98.3 MHz)
•
Hit FM (95 MHz)
•
Radio One FM (94.3 MHz)(Only English Radio station of Delhi)
•
Red FM (93.5 MHz)
•
Big FM (92.7 MHz)
•
Radio City (91.1 MHz)
•
Radio Nasha (107.2 MHz)
•
Radio Jamia 90.4 FM
•
Delhi University Educational Radio (Available only in University area) (DU Radio FM)
(90.4 MHz)
•
Apna Radio IIMC 96.9 FM
•
Vividh Barti (100.1 MHz)
•
Noida FM (107.4 MHz)
Radio SD 90.8 FM NCR VIKASNAGAR UTTAR PRADESH
FM stations in Kolkata[edit]
•
Radio SRFTI (90.4 MHz, Available in and around the film institute area)
•
Radio JU (90.8 MHz, Available within a 5 km radius of the University, from 11:00 AM to
7:30 PM)
•
Y FM NSHM (91.2 MHz, Available within a 10 km radius of the institute, from 9:00 AM to
7:00 PM)
•
Friends FM (91.9 MHz)
•
Big FM (92.7 MHz)
•
Red FM (93.5 MHz)
•
Radio One (94.3 MHz)
•
Radio Mirchi (98.3 MHz)
•
AIR FM Gold (100.2 MHz)
•
AIR FM Vividh Bharati (101.8 MHz)
•
Fever 104 FM (104 MHz)
•
Oye (104.8 MHz)
•
Gyan Vani (105.6 MHz)
•
Aamar FM (106.2 MHz)
•
AIR FM Rainbow (107 MHz)
•
Power FM (107.8 MHz) - Last air date: April 21, 2016.
FM stations in Mumbai[edit]
•
bansal24hr.fm 95.5
•
Vividh Bharati
•
Jago Mumbai 90.8
•
Radio City 91.1FM
•
Big FM 92.7
•
Red FM 93.5
•
Radio One 94.3 (Only English Radio station of Mumbai)
•
Radio Mirchi 98.3 FM 98.3
•
Radio Dhamaal 106.4
•
AIR FM Gold 100.7
•
RAIN BOW FM 102.2
•
Fever 104 FM 104.0
•
Oye 104.8 104.8
•
AIR FM Rainbow 107.1
•
Mumbai One
•
Gyan Vani
•
Radio MUST
FM stations in Bengaluru[edit]
Main article: List of FM radio stations in Bengaluru
•
Radio City 91.1 FM - Kannada
•
Indigo 91.9 FM FM - English
•
Big 92.7 FM - Kannada
•
Red FM 93.5 FM - Hindi
•
Radio ONE FM 94.3 - Hindi
•
Radio 95 95 FM - Hindi
•
Radio Mirchi 98.3 FM Kannada
•
Amruthavarshini 100.1 FM (devotional)
•
FM Rainbow 101.3 FM (Kannada, Hindi, English)
•
Vividhabharathi 102.9 FM (Kannada, Hindi)
•
Fever FM 104 FM (Hindi)
•
Gnyanavani 106.4 FM (Kannada, English, Hindi)
FM stations in Chennai[edit]
•
AIR FM - RAINBOW
•
AIR FM - GOLD 102.3
•
Chennai Live 104.8 FM
•
Hello FM (106.4),
•
Suryan FM 93.5,
•
Fever FM 91.9,
•
BIG FM 92.7,
•
Radio City FM 91.1,
•
Radio Mirchi FM 98.3,
•
Radio one 94.3,
•
Anna FM
FM stations in Kerala[edit]
•
Real FM 103.6
•
Best FM 95.00,
•
Radio Mango 91.9, in Kochi, Thrissur, Kozhikode & Kannur
•
Red FM 93.5,
•
Club FM 94.3 in Thiruvananthapuram, Kochi & Kannur ; ClubFM 104.8 in Thrissur
•
Radio Mirchi 98.3 Thiruvananthapuram,
•
Big FM Thiruvananthapuram
•
FM Rainbow,
•
Ananthapuri FM,
•
AIR Thiruvananthapuram
•
AIR Kochi FM 102.3
•
AIR Kannur
•
AIR Devikulam
•
AIR Manjeri
•
AIR Gyan Vani-Kochi
•
Radio MacFast Thiruvalla FM 90.4
•
Radio Media Village Changanacherry FM 90.8
•
Global Radio Alappuzha FM 91.2
Market view[edit]
Traditionally, radio accounts for 7% to 8% of advertiser expenditures around the world. In
India, it is less than 2% at present.[citation needed]
List of FM radio Stations in India[edit]
See also: List of FM radio stations in India
The ministry of broadcasting in India has no further plan to spread FM Radio to all parts of
India.
List of FM Stations in Jaipur: 1. 94.3 MYFM (Listnership; 18 lacs plus) 2. 98.3 Radio Mirchi
(Listnership; 12 lacs plus) 3. 93.5 Red FM (Listnership; 11 lacs plus) 4. 91.1 Radio City
(Listnership; 10 lacs plus) 5. 95 Tadka (Listnership; 8 lacs plus)
Current allocation process[edit]
In FM Phase II — the latest round of the long-delayed opening up of private FM in India —
some 338 frequencies were offered of which about 237 were sold.[citation needed] The government
may go for rebidding of unsold frequencies quite soon. In Phase III of FM licensing, smaller
towns and cities will be opened up for FM radio.
Reliance and South Asia FM (Sun group) bid for most of the 91 cities, although they were
allowed only 15% of the total allocated frequencies. Between them, they have had to
surrender over 40 licenses.
Vividh Bharati
The Vividh Bharati (Hindi: िविवध भारती
) Service of All India Radio was conceptualized
to combat Radio Ceylon in 1957.[2] Within no time it proved to be a popular channel of every
household. Vividh Bharati radio channel was launched on October 2, 1957. The service
provides entertainment for nearly 15 to 17 hours a day. It presents a mix of film music, skits,
short plays and interactive programmes, Some of the old popular programmes of Vividh
Bharati are 'Sangeet Sarita', 'Bhule Bisre Geet', Hawa Mahal, 'Jaimala', 'Inse Miliye', 'Chhaya
Geet' etc., are still distinctly recognized by the listeners. From time to time new programmes
were introduced like 'Biscope Ke Batein', 'Sargam Ke Sitare', 'Celluloid Ke Sitare',
'Sehatnama', ' Hello Farmaish', ' Sakhi Saheli' & ' Aaj Ke Phankaar'.
All these programmes are produced centrally at Vividh Bharati Service, Borivali, Mumbai and
up-linked to the satellite. 40 Vividh Bharati stations across the country down-link these
programmes through captive earth stations provided at each of these AIR stations. Some
local programme windows are also provided at these stations to give regional flavour to the
listeners. These 40 Vividh Bharati stations are known as Commercial Broadcasting Service
Stations and are located at all major and commercially vibrant cities covering 97% of the
Indian population.
Over the years a number prominent people from Hindi cinema have lent their voice to the
channel, including, Lata Mangeshkar and actors Raaj Kumar and Amitabh Bachchan, who
worked as a radio broadcaster in his early career, many celebrities take part in the popular
show Vishesh Jaimala to encourage Indian Army and BSF soldiers. Today its archives which
started the record of film, Yehudi Ki Beti in 1933, has 22,000 ghazals, geets and Hindi film
songs.[3] The station celebrated its golden anniversary on October 2, 2007
History[edit]
Commercials were introduced initially in the Vividh Bharati Service in 1967 on an
experimental basis. Realising the role of advertising in accelerating the social and material
progress of the country, commercials were extended to Primary channels including FM &
Local Radio Stations MW 1KW in a phased manner. Advertising on Radio is not only cost
effective to the advertisers but also has the potential to reach far flung areas where no other
mass media has succeeded in making any tangible dent.
In 1999 Vividh Bharati Service proved its success connecting Indian Soldiers posted on
remote border areas to their family members through a special programme entitled "Hello
Kargil" (during Kargil War), through which not only the family members of the soldiers, but
even a layman including young and old conveyed their best wishes to the soldiers to keep up
their morale. Eminent actors, play back singers, renowned writers, lyricists, directors and
music directors have found way to express their experience and opinion through the Vividh
Bharati Platform . A special programme entitled "Ujaale Unki Yaadon Ke" takes the listeners
into the world of nostalgia dipping into the memories of the artists of the yester years. With the
advent of new technology the transmission of programmes gradually migrated from earlier
medium wave transmission to high quality digital stereo FM.
This service now enjoys global listenership through Direct to Home Service (DTH) besides
other 11 channels of All India Radio.
AIR had been receiving advertisements through its registered agencies only. With the
changing demand of the environment, direct clients are also entertained by all AIR stations. In
remote and far flung areas, canvassers are appointed for bringing in local business. There are
15 main CBS Stations, located in each state capital responsible for booking for their entire
state. Besides there is a Central Sales Unit called as CSU at Mumbai meant for booking for
more than one state. A single window booking facility is available in CSU to facilitate bulk
booking with a single contract. Further details of CSU are available at their website"
www.csuair.org.in".
Programmes[edit]
Hindi language[edit]
•
Hawa Mahal
•
Sangam 6 to 7
•
Sangeet Sarita 7 to 8
•
Bhule Bisre Geet 8 to 9
•
Binaca Geetmala 9 45 to 10
•
Jaimala and Vishesh Jaimala 11 to 12
•
Inse Miliye 12 20 to 01
•
Chhaya Geet
•
Biscope Ke Batein
•
Sargam Ke Sitare
•
Celluloid Ke Sitare
•
Sehatnama
•
Hello Farmaish
•
Sakhi Saheli
•
Pitara
•
Hello Saheli
•
Jigyasa
•
Youth Express
•
Ek hi film se
•
Gyan Vigyan
•
Aaj ke Fankar (Presented by Yunus khan)
•
Aapki Pasand
Telugu language[edit]
•
Eka Chitra Geetalu - Telugu songs (4-5) from one film
•
Harivillu - Programme on a specific topic using Telugu film songs
•
Hello F.M. - Live Phone-in programme on Telugu film songs
•
Janaranjani - Telugu film songs on popular demand
•
Sanskrita Patam nerchukundam - Telugu programme for learning Sanskrit
Vividh Bharti Service[edit]
•
Medium Wave Service
•
Short Wave Service
•
FM Service
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