design and technology - The Department of Education

design and technology - The Department of Education
DESIGN AND TECHNOLOGY
Hazard Identification and Risk Management
Guidelines
1
TABLE OF CONTENTS
SECTION 1 – GENERAL HAZARD IDENTIFICATION AND RISK
MANAGEMENT…………………………………………………………………………
3
SECTION 2 – HAZARD IDENTIFICATION AND RISK MANAGEMENT FOR
SPECIFIC ISSUES……………………………………………………….
24
A.
HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES……………………………………………………
24
B.
MACHINERY, EQUIPMENT AND GUARDING………………………………
32
ADVISORY STANDARD AND AUSTRALIAN STANDARDS……………….
34
C.
WORKING WITH WOOD……………………………………………………….
35
D.
ELECTRICAL POWER EQUIPMENT (PORTABLE AND FIXED)…………
39
E.
ELECTRIC ARC WELDING, GAS HEATING, WELDING AND CUTTING
43
F.
SOFT SOLDERING……………………………………………………………….
45
G.
METAL - CASTING OPERATIONS…………………………………………….
47
H.
MECHANICS………………………………………………………………………
49
I.
OPERATING COMPRESSED-AIR EQUIPMENT…………………………….
51
J.
SPRAY PAINTING………………………………………………………………..
52
K.
WORKING WITH THERMOPLASTICS……………………………………….
54
L.
FIBRE-REINFORCED PLASTICS AND THERMOSET RESINS……………
56
M.
PHOTOGRAPHY………………………………………………………………….
59
N.
PERSONAL PROTECTIVE EQUIPMENT……………………………………..
61
O.
NOISE EXPOSURE………………………………………………………………..
62
P.
DEVELOPING STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURES (A MODEL)…..
63
SECTION 3 – STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURES………………………….
64
Band Saw
Blow-Forming Table
Dowelling Machine
Bench Drill
Circular Saw
Electric Spot Welding
Machine
Metal Lathe
Milling Machine
Pim 20 Injection Moulding Plastics Strip Heater
Machine
Polishing Buff
Portable Power Drill
Portable Router
Router Lathe
Table Router
Vacuum Forming Machine
2
Bench Grinder
Compressed Air
Linisher Disc And Belt
Sander
Mitre Drop Saw
Plastics Welding Gun
Portable Power Saw
Spindle/Bobbin Sander
Wood Lathe
SECTION 1 – GENERAL HAZARD IDENTIFICATION AND
RISK MANAGEMENT
IDENTIFYING HAZARDS AND MANAGING RISKS IN DESIGN AND
TECHNOLOGY
1
BACKGROUND
Design and Technology activities present one of the highest levels of risk for injury to
Department of Education and Training staff and students. Therefore it is essential that the
hazards associated with each activity are identified and the risk of injury assessed and
minimised.
The requirement to identify, assess and control the risks in Design and Technology is based
primarily on the Occupational Safety and Health Act 1984, (OSH) and Occupational Safety
and Health Regulations 1996. Employers must ensure that employees and visitors are not
exposed to hazards and that the risks associated with identified hazards are assessed and
controlled.
The Department’s Duty of Care for Students, Occupational Safety and Health and Risk
Management policies place a responsibility on Principals to ensure that staff, students and
visitors are not exposed to hazards and that all employees undertake risk management
processes in all planning and work related activities. These policies are available on the
regulatory framework.
This document provides information on hazards that can be found in various Design and
Technology activities and provides instructions and advice on how the risk of injury can be
minimised and controlled.
Acknowledgement.
This document is based on manuals from Queensland Catholic Education and the Queensland
Department of Education and has been developed through a process of consultation with the
Design and Technology Teachers Association (DATTA), the Australian Education Union
(WA) Branch and various Design and Technology teachers.
2
DEFINITIONS
Hazard - a condition or situation that has the capacity to harm people, plant or buildings.
Risk - the likelihood of a hazard resulting in harm such as injury or disease.
Foreseeable risk - a quantified observation that could reasonably be made by a mature and
prudent person in relation to a hazard and its likelihood to occur.
Controls - the measures that are put into place to eliminate or reduce a hazard and the degree
of risk.
3
Hierarchy of control - an order of ranking which determines the priority in which an item or
condition will be placed. See Section 1, Appendix 1, Step 3 – Implement Control Measures,
page 16.
3
RELATED POLICIES AND PROCEDURES
Occupational Safety and Health
Duty of Care for Students
Risk Management
Student Health Care
4
RELEVANT LEGISLATION OR AUTHORITY
Occupational Safety and Health Act 1984
Occupational Safety and Health Regulations 1996
5
RESPONSIBILITIES IN MANAGING HAZARDS
The responsibility of staff to identify hazards and assess and control risk is stated in the
Department’ Risk Management, Duty of Care for Students and Occupational Safety and
Health (OSH) policies.
5.1
Principal’s responsibilities
The OSH policy states that the Principal has overall responsibility for the safety and health of
the school. In order to meet this responsibility in regard to design and technology the
Principal needs to:
• ensure that staff have sufficient knowledge, experience and information to undertake
an activity safely and instruct students and they are not acting beyond their degree of
competency.
• ensure that teachers have identified the hazards and controlled the risks for each
activity. (Where the risk of injury to staff or students cannot be controlled the activity
must not proceed).
• ensure that standard operating procedures are in place for all workshop machinery;
and
• ensure that the occupational safety and health regulations including those for
hazardous substances, (see section 2) equipment, fire precautions, and evacuations are
considered.
5.2
Teacher responsibilities
The Department’s Risk management policy states that all employees are required to
incorporate risk management into their planning and work related activities. The following
provides guidance on how this obligation can be met in relation to design and technology.
•
A hazard identification and risk management processes for Design and Technology
workshops and activities should incorporate the following steps:
4
Step 1
Step 2
Step 3
Step 4
Identify hazards, where possible as a team.
Assess the risks associated with the hazards.
Decide on and implement control measures.
Monitor and review the effectiveness of the measures.
More details on the hazard identification and risk management process are provided in
Appendix 1 at the end of this section.
•
Teachers need to evaluate curriculum relevance and educational outcomes and balance
those against any hazard and inherent danger of engaging in a Design and Technology
activity.
•
In order to minimise the risk of injury in all workshop activities, teachers need to
determine that:
the level of the activity is within the ability, including understanding, skill level
and maturity, of the student;
a formal induction process has been completed for each member of the class at the
commencement of the appropriate learning unit;
students have been instructed and regularly reminded that the teacher’s specific
permission is required before commencing any activity, and to seek assistance
from the teacher when in doubt as to how to proceed safely;
the number of students involved in the activity and the level of difficulty of the
activity enables risks to be controlled and a suitable level of supervision provided;
safety rules and procedures are established, understood and adhered to;
students have been instructed and regularly reminded of the necessity to be
responsible for their own safety and the safety of others around them;
there is adequate lighting and ventilation for the activity to be completed safely;
every person who participates in the activity is wearing appropriate clothing,
footwear and personal protective equipment (PPE) and that equipment conforms to
Australian Standards specifications;
alternative activities for students who are not wearing suitable clothing or have
unsuitable PPE are available;
students have been provided with sufficient information and training in order to be
able to use the PPE correctly;
students adjacent to hazardous activities or excessive noise are wearing protective
equipment;
students operating tools and equipment know how to use them safely; and that
they have understood how to apply operating and safety instructions;
equipment has been regularly checked for electrical and general safety;
material safety data sheet information has been obtained and reviewed for all
hazardous substances including paints, adhesives, glues and solvents used in
school activities;
standard operating procedures have been developed and followed to ensure only
one person operates a piece of machinery at any time;
all risks related to using student-manufactured articles have been identified and
controlled (e.g. potential manufacture defects or design faults with items such as
car ramps, axle stands);
all walkways are free of obstructions.
as far as practicable, housekeeping within the Design and Technology area is of a
standard to ensure injury will not occur.
5
EFFECTIVE DATE
February 2004
REVIEW DATE
February 2005
KEY SEARCH WORDS
OSH, OHS, D&T, safety, health, design, technology, risk management, Standard operating
procedures, SOP, hazard, risk, metal, wood, plastic, welding, machinery, dust, hazardous
substance, workshop, ventilation, spray painting, compressed air, thermoplastics, PPE,
personal protective equipment, noise, soldering, resins, photography.
6
HAZARD IDENTIFICATION AND RISK MANAGEMENT
Background
This section provides guidelines on issues to consider during the hazard identification and risk
management process within Design and Technology. The guidelines will assist Design and
Technology teachers to meet their responsibilities as stated in section 1.5.2.
There are a number of ways to reduce the risk of disease or injury for staff and students
undertaking Design and Technology activities. Some guidelines follow for managing a
healthy, safe and efficient learning environment.
6.2
Class Size
Due to the wide variation of facilities in schools, it is not possible to be prescriptive on the
issue of class size (The Government School Teachers and School Administrators Certified
Agreement 2000 states the range of 16-22 for practical classes - within physical and human
resources). Clearly, to some extent, the physical dimensions of a workshop will determine
class numbers. However, there are many other factors for consideration in setting the limits
for safe numbers of students. These include factors relating to the facilities, the students, the
program, classroom management and staff. They are presented in the table following. The
nature of issues such as these will be specific to each school, and they are most effectively
addressed by means of the Risk Management Process (see 1.5.2).
After undertaking the Risk Management Process for a particular curriculum activity, an
assessment may be made that risks associated with the class size need to be controlled. This
would require consultation with the Principal (or nominated officer) to establish a suitable
solution. Potential controls could include changing or modifying activities and altering the
level of supervision.
See table on next page for examples of determinants for safe class sizes.
6
EXAMPLES OF DETERMINANTS FOR SAFE CLASS SIZES
Facilities factors
• adequate ventilation;
• adequate illumination;
• non-slip, level flooring;
• safe access to equipment;
• room layout;
• the amount of space required by each student
in the group to work safely in the workshop
will be determined in the first instance by the
space allocation determined by the
Department’s Building Brief;
• capacity of electrical outlets;
• the number of activities being engaged in by
the student group simultaneously in the
workshop and the actual size of student
models.
Program factors
• inherent risk level of the activity being
undertaken;
• complexity of the activity being undertaken;
• project size.
6.3
Student factors
• maturity of the individuals within
the student group, and individual
behavioural problems;
• maturity of the student group as a
whole;
• the number of students;
• students’ educational background,
e.g. non English-speaking or
partially deaf;
• demonstrated responsibility;
• prior experience;
• students with special needs;
Staff factors
• availability of a competent aide,
other staff member or leader;
• experience and expertise of the
teacher(s) involved with the
activity.
Student Safety Induction
There are a number of ways to fulfil the required student induction process.
The purposes of inducting students are:
• to educate students about general work practices which will ensure their safety and
that of others;
• to educate students in existing, general school workshop safety rules to ensure a safe
working environment;
• to enable teachers to determine students’ degree of experience before undertaking
practical work in the workshop for the first time;
• to clarify the students’ role in maintaining a safe workshop;
• to issue a ‘Student Safety Induction Worksheet/book’ to students (see Appendix 2 at
the end of this section); and
• to provide information on standard operating procedures.
Some points to remember are:
• do not ‘overdo’ the initial induction content;
• induction should not replace a comprehensive, specific, introduction to each activity;
• induction should not replace ongoing feedback to students regarding their compliance
with workshop rules.
7
A means of permanently recording a student’s participation in this induction activity is
advisable. This can be in the form of a document signed off by the student and teacher to the
effect that the activity has been completed, thus providing evidence of the activity.
Verbal or Written?
A student safety induction can be delivered verbally, or it can be presented to students in
written form. There are a number of advantages in giving such information in written form.
It guarantees that the information is consistent. It may also be an opportunity to present a
questionnaire that causes the student to think through a particular problem. It will form a
record, which shows a student safety induction was provided. It may include the following:
•
•
•
•
•
injury reporting;
workshop dress requirements;
workshop safety rules;
an introduction to the Occupational Safety and Health Act 1984; and
safe operating procedures.
Information retention by students can be tested in a manner which best suits the situation,
such as;
• a verbal or written safety test;
• completion of a workbook by the student to be graded by the teacher.
A sample Safety Induction Worksheet/book is included as Appendix 2 at the end of this
section.
6.4
Standard Operating Procedures For Machinery And Equipment
A standard operating procedure for machinery and equipment is a sequence of logical steps
that the operator follows to produce an action that has a safe outcome.
In a classroom/workshop situation, standard operating procedures might be provided to
students either verbally or on paper, and either to individual students or to a class of students.
Whichever method of administering standard operating procedures is adopted, the teacher
must ensure a safe outcome and must have a hard copy available within the Design and
Technology area.
Written operating procedures offer a number of advantages over verbal instructions. Some of
these advantages are:
• all students receive the same standard information;
• students can be objectively tested on the content of the written instruction before they
operate machinery;
• the instructions can be distributed widely to students (e.g. through the student safety
workbook);
• they can be updated easily when required; and
• students can refer to the standard when necessary.
8
6.4.1 Developing Standard Operating Procedures
When developing standard operating procedures, consideration should be given to the
functions that the operator is expected to perform (i.e. do not overload the operator with
instructions.) Information most useful to the development of standard operating procedures
for an item of plant is obtained from its user’s manual.
Written safe operation procedures are not a substitute for theoretical explanation or practical
demonstrations to students. They should complement these processes in ensuring a safe
environment for the equipment operator.
Generic safe operation procedures for a number of common items of machinery are
included in this guide in Section 3. However, before they are used, it is essential that their
suitability to the school’s existing machinery and equipment is determined.
Example of Standard Operating Procedure
STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURE
BAND SAW
Make and Model:
Location:
Personal Protection
Pre-Operation
Operation
Post-Operation
Additional Precautions
The format of a written standard operating procedure must be logical for the procedure to
obtain its advantages over verbal procedures. Note the different sections of the procedure.
They are arranged in logical order and lead the operator through the procedures to be followed
before, during and after operation of the machine.
Safe operating instructions can be used to assess students’ competency, or to verify that a
student has understood how to apply operating and safety instructions. Issuing written
standard operating procedures (such as through the student safety worksheet/book) allows
students to study them in order to be assessed as being competent in using a particular item of
plant (see below for more detail on assessing student competency).
9
A licensing system may be used. Some schools have adopted a colour coding system for the
assignment of competency ratings to students.
Competency licenses can be issued to students after satisfactory completion of a written or
oral test. Machines can be colour coded against hazard degree criteria, i.e. green/safest,
orange/less safe, red/least safe.
6.5
Assessing Student Competency In The Use Of Machinery
Making sure students are capable of performing a task that incorporates machinery and
equipment will assist in the effective management of risk. This means giving student
operators of plant and equipment in a workshop sufficient instruction in its safe operation and
adequate supervision.
However, in some circumstances, students can’t be closely supervised. The teacher may
therefore need to verify that a student has understood how to apply operating and safety
instructions for a specific task. This may be done through a number of means, such as:
• oral and written tests which are focussed on technological safety and literacy;
• assignments;
• operator certifications;
• practical testing and observation.
Such verification for a student would determine whether the student is ‘competent’ or ‘not yet
competent’ in performing a particular task. A sample checklist for recording the results for
each student is in Appendix 3 at the end of this section. Provision is made for verifying
competency for the same student a number of times during the school year, such as at the start
of each semester, or after a student has not used a piece of equipment for a period of time.
The frequency with which the competency of students is assessed needs to be identified in the
risk management process.
Students who are assessed as being ‘not yet competent’ for a certain task must not be allowed
to undertake the task.
6.6
Student Safety Contracts
A contract is an agreement between two parties. Some schools have introduced safety
contracts between teacher, student and the parents/guardians. Such a contract states a number
of requirements agreed between student and teacher and is to be signed by the student and that
student’s parent or guardian, signifying that they have each read and understood the ‘contract
conditions’.
An example of a student contract follows.
A contract such as this has no legal bearing and is nothing more than a mechanism by which
teachers can exercise their duty of care by ensuring appropriate information is given to
students. By letting parents or guardians see the document, they are being given the
opportunity to acknowledge the fact that safety rules in Design and Technology exist and are
considered to be very important.
10
DESIGN AND TECHNOLOGY SAFETY CONTRACT
WORKSHOP RULES AND REGULATIONS
•
Students must complete their Safety Induction Worksheet/book before being
authorised to take part in practical lessons in the workshop.
•
Students are to use only those tools and machinery that they have been taught to
use by their teacher and, where applicable, only when they have been certified as
being competent in their use.
•
All tools and machinery are to be used correctly at all times.
•
Workshop dress rules must be complied with at all times in the workshop. (These
rules are outlined in the students' Safety Induction Worksheet/book.)
•
Sensible and cautious behaviour is to be observed at all times.
•
Hair is to be kept neat and tidy. Long hair is to be restrained either by a cap,
ribbon, or hair net.
•
Personal protective equipment is to be worn at all times when using machinery.
•
All paints, acids, glues and solvents are to be used with all due caution to ensure
the safety of others.
•
When equipment is being used, students are to maintain a safe distance from the
person using the equipment.
•
Except during teacher demonstration, students are to remain outside the yellow
safety lines unless they are using the machine.
SAFETY CONTRACT
I ....................................................................... (student) have read and understood the
workshop safety rules and I agree to abide by them to the best of my ability. I am
aware that if I continually breach these regulations I could be excluded from the
workshop for the safety of myself and others.
........................................................................ (Signature)
......................... (date)
I ...................................................................... (parent/guardian) have read and
understood the workshop safety rules and agree to the enforcement of them for my
child's safety. I am aware that if my child continually breaches the rules, they could
be excluded from Design and Technology workshops due to the danger they pose to
themselves and others.
........................................................................ (Signature)
11
......................... (date)
6.7
Emergency & Evacuation Procedures
No building can be made entirely safe from the threat of an emergency, such as fire, and
evacuation may be required.
It is a legal requirement that occupants in a building must have access to evacuation
information. Hence, it is important that every teacher and student who uses the Design and
Technology workshops/classrooms is aware of evacuation routes and procedures. Check with
the Principal if the evacuation procedures are not available. Procedures should be either
written directions, or a map of the evacuation route. The requirement is for evacuation
information to be placed close to the exit point from each classroom or workshop.
Fire extinguishers and fire blankets must be provided to DET standard. This is currently
2A 40B(E) fire extinguisher in woodwork machine and general woodwork rooms, metalwork
areas and art rooms (spray booths only).
6.8
Resolving Health And Safety Issues In The Workshop
The Principal and/or safety and health representative must be made aware of issues or
concerns that are related to health and safety of staff or students. Details on occupational
safety and health issue resolution are provided in the Department’s Occupational Safety and
Health (OSH) policy. Some schools have developed more specific procedures.
6.9
Accident/Injury Reporting And Investigation
Injuries to staff, students and visitors that require medical attention must be investigated. This
is to be completed by the Principal (or nominee), Occupational Safety and Health
Representative and relevant people within the workplace. Whenever an injury becomes
compensable (Workers’ Compensation) the Accident Investigation Form must accompany the
First Medical Certificate and claim form that is sent into Employee Support Services Branch
in Central Office.
Accident/Injury Reporting forms are available on the Regulatory Framework in the
appendices of the OSH policy.
12
APPENDIX 1
IMPLEMENTING HAZARD IDENTIFICATION AND RISK MANAGEMENT
•
Hazard identification and risk management is a team process. The aim is to reduce levels
of risk from a high level to a level that is acceptable. Documenting the process has
several advantages:
•
•
•
risk assessment for a particular activity may be used again and again, saving
time in the long term;
it is more likely that foreseeable hazards and potential accidents and incidents
will be identified;
it provides a record for the teacher that all foreseeable hazards were considered
and appropriate control measures, if required, were either:
- reinforced to students (such as emphasising existing school/workshop
rules;) or
- established by using the hierarchy of control.
The following will assist teachers to implement the risk management process.
Step 1 - Identify The Hazards
A hazard causes harm by initiating a sequence of events that leads to injury. Hazards relating
to an activity or situation need to be identified so that the potential for such a sequence of
events occurring can be determined. For example acid used to clean metal is a hazard.
Hazards that need to be identified.
A general rule is to identify all hazards that could be considered capable of causing harm or
damage and are reasonably foreseeable.
In Design and Technology there may be risks associated with the misuse of machines by
students due to a lack of knowledge, understanding, skills or due to inappropriate behaviour.
The general principle that applies is that of ‘reasonable care’. The duty owed to students is to
take reasonable care to avoid harm being suffered. Refer to the Duty of Care for Students
policy for an explanation of what constitutes ‘reasonable care’.
Identification of Hazards.
Hazards in a Design and Technology workshop can be identified in a number of ways. The
most common methods are:
• teachers’ knowledge and experience of potential mishaps and injuries;
• risk management spreadsheets;
• simple checklists;
• Material Safety Data Sheets (MSDS) and product labels;
• reviewing injury statistics;
• operation manuals for machinery; and
• observed near misses.
13
Hazards are best identified and quantified by adopting a team approach that capitalises on the
full range of available experience, skill and knowledge. It is very unlikely that a single person
will have the breadth of knowledge to take into account all necessary factors.
At the conclusion of Step 1, a list of hazards and potential accidents or incidents associated
with a particular activity will have been developed.
Step 2 - Assess The Risks
Assessing or measuring the risk of a particular hazard enables a score to be established for
each hazard. This identifies which hazards should receive the highest control priority. Some
may end up being assessed as far more hazardous than first thought, whereas others may not
require any additional control measures.
To determine the risk of an activity, these are the factors to consider:
1. The Likelihood – or probability of a particular consequence occurring. The likelihood is
scaled in five levels ranging from very likely, where the risk would almost certainly occur;
to highly unlikely, where risks would be more likely in exceptional circumstances only.
When assessing the likelihood of someone being exposed to a hazard, the frequency of
that exposure also should be considered.
2. The Consequences – the possible consequences of each particular hazard of an activity as
identified in Step 1. The most likely, or typical, consequences resulting from exposure to
a particular hazard need to be determined. Consequences range from negligible through
to major where serious injury is likely to happen.
Existing Controls
Controls that currently exist are also taken into consideration when determining the level of
risk. For example an existing control may be a process that has been developed to ensure
people are not exposed to the hazard (i.e. rules requiring the fixing of work) or guards placed
to prevent exposure to possible moving or hot objects.
Risk Matrix
The risk matrix can be used to assess the level of identified risks and prioritise actions to
reduce them. In order to use the matrix:
1. Identify the likelihood of exposure to the hazard and the consequence of someone
being exposed (in the left hand column).
2. Go across the row of the likelihood identified.
3. Determine the consequence if someone is exposed to the hazard (in the top row).
4. Go down the column of the identified consequence.
5. Where the row of likelihood rating and the column of consequence rating intersect the
level of risk is indicated. Below are some suggested actions for each level of risk.
14
Likelihood (L)
Very likely
Almost certain
to occur
Likely
Likely to occur
frequently
Occasionally
Possibly and
likely to occur at
some time
Unlikely
Unlikely to
occur but could
happen
Highly unlikely
May occur but
only in rare and
exceptional
circumstances
Negligible
Dealt with by
school based
first aid
treatment
Consequence (C)
Moderate
Minor Injury
Injury
Medical help
Significant
required.
nonTreatment by
permanent
medical
injury
profession
Major
Injury
Extensive
permanent
disabling
injury
High
High
Extreme
Extreme
Moderate
High
High
Extreme
Low
Moderate
High
Extreme
Low
Low
Moderate
High
Low
Low
Moderate
High
Suggested Actions for Level of Risk.
Extreme Risk : Notify supervisor and Safety and Health Representative. Immediate
action required.
High Risk : Notify supervisor and Safety and Health Representative immediately.
Action identified within 1 week.
Moderate Risk : Notify supervisor and Safety and Health Representative. Take
immediate action to minimize injury with remedial action identified within 2 weeks.
Low Risk : Supervisor attention required. Remedial action identified within 1
month.
Prioritising risks
The risk matrix above will assist in identifying which risks require immediate action and
determine a schedule for controlling the other risks.
15
Step 3 - Implement Control Measures
The Hierarchy of Control - A systematic approach to selecting control measures
In controlling risk, there are a number of options. The options differ from each other
according to how effectively they deal with the hazard.
When a control measure is being chosen, start at the top level of control and work down one
step at a time until the most appropriate control measure, or combination of measures, is
selected. The higher the level of control, the more effective it will be. Elimination is the most
effective because the hazard (and subsequently the risk) is eliminated completely, while
personal protective equipment (PPE) is the least effective because the hazard still exists in its
original state. However PPE may be used in conjunction with other control measures to
maximise protection.
Level 1: Eliminate the hazard
Elimination: remove the hazard or stop using the piece of equipment that
could be considered a hazard, e.g. no longer using a power tool until the
identified risks can be controlled.
Level 2: Minimise the risk
Substitution: replace materials or processes with less hazardous ones, e.g.
replace toxic solvents with detergents; replace sprays with paint alternatives; or
replace glass with plastic.
Modification: modify equipment, environment or work processes, e.g. design
and install additional safety features such as guards; redesign procedures to
eliminate hazardous steps; install exhaust ventilation to extract pollutants.
Isolation: isolate the student or employee from the risk, e.g. relocate hazards
away from people; use acoustic booths for noisy equipment.
Engineering controls: install cut-out switches, guards and/or other controls.
Level 3: Safe work practices, personal protective equipment.
Safe work practices: adjust the time and/or conditions of exposure, e.g. regular
cleaning and rubbish removal; regular maintenance; training; not allowing
people to work alone.
Personal Protective Equipment (PPE)
use equipment and clothing that is
designed to standard and fits the wearer to minimise risk, e.g. respirators,
goggles, gloves, and aprons.
16
Step 4 - Monitor & Review Control Measures
This step involves checking control measures after their implementation to see if they are
effective. An important part of this step is determining whether the control measure has
introduced a new hazard that may have been previously overlooked.
The same process that was used to identify hazards and assess the risks initially can be used to
monitor and review control measures.
17
APPENDIX 2
_
School
Student Safety Induction Workbook
Design and Technology
Name:
_______
Subject:
______
Teacher:
18
Student Safety
Induction Workbook
Instructions
1.
You must complete the worksheets in this workbook before any practical classes can
be attended.
Once completed, this workbook is to be presented to your practical class teacher.
You must at all times comply with provisions of the Occupational Safety and Health
Act 1984.
You must read and understand all sections contained in this workbook.
2.
3.
4.
If you do not understand or are unclear about what is required, then you should ask the
teacher.
Student Objectives
After completing this workbook, you should be able to:
1.
list the minimum dress standard for entering practical classes in the Design and
Technology workshop/s.
2.
list the other items of personal protective equipment that are used in the workshop/s.
3.
state your obligations in relation to the Occupational Safety and Health Act 1984.
4.
state the school workshop safety rules.
5.
state the procedures for using both:
machinery, and
portable power tools.
+
Now, read the following information and complete the worksheets in this
workbook.
19
Workshop Dress and Personal Protective Equipment (PPE)
Listed below are the requirements of this school as to what you must wear when attending
practical Design and Technology classes.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
Shirt Sleeves - either
• Short sleeves, or
• Long sleeves, which are fully rolled up.
Apron or coat - An apron or coat must be worn for all practical classes.
Footwear - Fully enclosed footwear must be worn.
Hair Protection - Long hair must be restrained under a cap or hair net.
Loose Clothing and Jewellery - All loose-fitting clothing, rings, watches, bracelets,
earrings (except for studs), necklaces, leather/cloth wrist bands, etc. must be removed
or secured.
Eye Protection - Face shields or safety glasses must be worn when:
• you use machines and power tools;
• you are undertaking any other task where an eye injury could reasonably occur,
e.g. when chiselling or adjacent to someone else who is chiselling.
Hearing protection - Hearing protection must be worn when you use machines or
power tools.
Other PPE - You will be required to wear other PPE when you undertake specific
activities, e.g. arc welding.
Summary
Minimum dress requirements to enter the Design and Technology workshop for a practical
class:
•
•
•
•
•
SHORT SLEEVES (or rolled up sleeves)
APRON OR COAT
FULLY ENCLOSED FOOTWEAR
CAP OR HAIRNET IF REQUIRED
JEWELLERY AND LOOSE CLOTHING REMOVED
OR SECURED
Note: You will be working in an environment that contains hazards. The teachers have
done their part in controlling those hazards by instituting safety measures. You are
expected to behave in a responsible manner by co-operating with your teacher.
20
Worksheet
Workshop Dress
1.
Describe a situation in the Design and Technology workshop where an incorrect shirt
sleeve may cause an accident.
2.
Describe a situation in the Design and Technology workshop where the wearing of
shorts may be dangerous.
3.
Describe a situation in the Design and Technology workshop where incorrect footwear
could cause an injury.
4.
Describe a situation in the Design and Technology workshop where unsuitable hair
protection could result in an injury.
5.
List all the machinery that has the potential to cause the operator an EYE injury.
6.
Apart from machinery, where else must you wear eye protection?
7.
Describe a situation in the Design and Technology workshop where the wearing of a
ring, watch, etc. may be dangerous.
21
Worksheet
Workshop/s Layout
In the space provided below, draw a proportional freehand sketch of the workshop/s, clearly
indicating the following:
(a)
All exits.
(b)
The location and type of all fire fighting equipment.
(c)
The nearest telephone.
(d)
The Emergency Stop switch location/s.
(e)
The location of the First Aid Kit/s.
(f)
The location of the following items of personal protective equipment (PPE):
• face shields/safety glasses;
• hearing protection.
(g)
Indicate and label on your sketch the storage location of any other PPE in the
workshop/s.
(h)
Wash basins.
22
APPENDIX 3
TEACHER RECORD OF STUDENT COMPETENCY
This form will enable teachers to keep a record of each student’s competency level regarding
the safe and proper use of machinery, equipment and tools.
Student: ……………………………………………………….. Class: ……………….……
Teacher: ……………………………………………………….
[C = Competent; NYC = Not Yet Competent]
Tool/Machine
C
NY
C
Date
&
Teach.
Inits.
C
NY
C
Date
&
Teach.
Inits.
Student Licensing Rating
The student is licensed to operate:
Green
Orange
Red
Items of equipment (Circle relevant colours)
23
C
NY
C
Date
&
Teach.
Inits.
C
NY
C
Date
&
Teach.
Inits.
SECTION 2 – HAZARD IDENTIFICATION AND RISK
MANAGEMENT FOR SPECIFIC ISSUES
A.
HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES
1
BACKGROUND
A hazardous substance is any substance that can injure or cause harm to the health of a
person. This includes liquids, gases, solids, fumes, vapours and dusts. They may be everyday
items such as petrol, paint, cleaning fluids, glues, or any other product that could be hazardous
to health.
In a Design and Technology workshop students and teachers may be exposed to a large
number of hazardous substances.
2
RELEVANT LEGISLATION OR AUTHORITY
The Occupational Safety and Health Act 1984 and Occupational Safety and Health
Regulations 1996 place responsibilities on manufacturers, suppliers and employers to provide
up-to-date, standardised information in relation to hazardous substances which may affect an
end user. The legislation is relevant to all industries in Western Australia, including schools.
Labelling information must comply with Health Department and Department of Minerals and
Energy legislation.
The OSH regulations require a supplier of a hazardous substance, for use at a workplace, to
have Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS) available to a purchaser on request. Responsibility
to obtain an MSDS where one has not been provided automatically lies with the user.
WorkSafe Western Australia has also published a Guidance Note on Chemicals in
Woodworking. This is available on the WorkSafe website on www.safetyline.wa.gov.au.
3
PRINCIPALS RESPONSIBILITIES AS REQUIRED BY OSH
REGULATIONS.
OSH Regulations (1996) places responsibilities of a person who is in charge of a worksite In a
school environment it is the responsibility of the Principal to ensure that:
• a register that includes an MSDS for all hazardous substances, is kept, and is available
to any person who may be exposed to a hazardous substance;
• each person at the school who is likely to be exposed to a hazardous substance
receives adequate information and training on safe use of the substance prior to
commencing work, and records of training are kept;
• every five years or when a new substance is introduced, the risk of injury or harm
occurring to a person as a result of being exposed to a hazardous substance is assessed,
and where necessary, reduced;
• volumes and quantities of hazardous substances on school premises are kept to a
minimum;
• labelling of all hazardous substances is correct, whether the material has been
decanted or is in the original container;
24
•
•
4
no person is exposed to a hazardous substance in excess of the relevant exposure
standard;
staff are aware that adverse reactions can occur to sensitive persons exposed to levels
well below the set exposure limits.
IDENTIFYING HAZARDS AND MANAGING RISKS
These guidelines provide information on identifying and registering hazardous substances,
completing an assessment of the risks associated with using the substances and identifying the
means of reducing those risks.
The legislation specifies what must be done, but it doesn’t specify how it should be done.
This decision is left up to individual workplaces. In schools, this should be determined in
conjunction with relevant staff, the OSH representative and the Principal. It is recommended
that staff implement hazardous substances legislation in their own subject area by prioritising
and standardising their activities. This may be achieved by breaking up tasks into manageable
units. For example, begin by undertaking risk assessments of those hazardous substances and
activities that have the greatest harm potential.
4.1
Material Safety Data Sheets (MSDS)
Suppliers of hazardous substances must provide an MSDS to a person who purchases a
hazardous substance from them or requests a copy of the MSDS. The layout of a typical
MSDS is illustrated on the following page.
An MSDS for a product is an information sheet giving advice on:
• technical information, such as the product’s ‘flashpoint’ and ‘specific gravity’;
• the ingredients of the product;
• its health effects and first aid instructions;
• precautions for use; and
• safe handling, storage and disposal information.
Some of the technical information may not seem useful, but other information in the MSDS
can be used to:
• undertake hazardous substances risk assessments;
• check that emergency equipment and procedures are adequate;
• check that products are being used in the intended manner; and
• decide whether any improvements should be made to control measures or procedures.
It is not possible to illustrate every material safety data sheet used in schools. They are many
and varied.
It is the responsibility of each individual school and department within the school to
determine the number of toxic and hazardous chemicals and to request an MSDS from the
supplier for those items.
25
SAMPLE MATERIAL SAFETY DATA SHEET
MATERIAL SAFETY DATA SHEET
Page x of Total y
Date of Issue:
COMPANY DETAILS
Company:
Address:
Telephone Number:
Emergency Telephone Number:
IDENTIFICATION
Product Name:
Other Names:
Manufacturer's Product Code:
UN Number:
Dangerous Goods Class and Subsidiary Risk:
Hazchem Code:
Poisons Schedule Number:
Use:
Physical Description/Properties
Appearance:
Boiling Point/Melting Point (? C):
Vapour Pressure (pascals or mm of Hg at 25? C):
Specify Gravity:
Flashpoint (? C):
Flammability Limits (%):
Solubility in Water (g/L):
Other Properties
Ingredients
Chemical Entity:
CAS Number:
Proportion:
Page x of Total y
Product Name
HEALTH HAZARD INFORMATION
Health Effects
Acute
Swallowed:
Eye:
Skin:
Inhaled:
Chronic
First Aid
Swallowed:
Eye:
Skin:
Inhaled:
First Aid Facilities:
Advice to Doctor:
PRECAUTIONS FOR USE
Exposure Standards:
Engineering Controls:
Personal Protection:
Flammability:
SAFE HANDLING INFORMATION
Storage and Transport:
Spills and Disposal:
Fire/Explosion Hazard:
26
4.2
Hazardous Substances Register
The register is a collection of all the MSDSs for hazardous substances at a workplace, along
with a listing of the names of all these hazardous substances. The register contains MSDSs
from all subject areas such as Design and Technology, Science and Art and will include
cleaning and gardening chemicals. The school office or the sick room is a suitable place in
which to keep the school’s register.
It is recommended that another register of hazardous substances specific to Design and
Technology be kept close to where the substances are used.
4.3
Labelling Of Hazardous Substances
There are a number of legislative requirements with which labelling of hazardous substances
must comply. Most products that are purchased have correct labelling. However, labelling
requirements also apply when a hazardous substance is transferred or decanted from one
container into a second container at a workplace. If the contents of the second container are
used up immediately, a label is not required. If the contents of the second container are not
used up immediately, the second container is to be fixed with a label stating:
• the substance’s product name; and
• details on health hazard information, and precautions for safe use and handling.
4.4
Managing the Risks
The process for managing the risks associated with hazardous substances is the same as for
any other risks in Design and Technology. This process must be completed at least every five
years or whenever a new substance is introduced, or there is a significant change to the way
any hazardous substance is used. See 4.6 for a hazardous substances risk assessment proforma.
27
SUMMARY OF 4-STEP RISK MANAGEMENT PROCESS
Step 1: Identify Hazardous Substances in the Workshop
This might include:
•
Carrying out an inspection of the workshop.
•
Identifying hazardous substances.
•
Managing new products as they enter the workplace.
•
Recording any hazardous substances in a register.
Step 2: Assess the Risks (remember, this is compulsory!)
This involves:
•
Finding out how the product is potentially harmful to persons in the
workplace.
•
Finding out how the hazardous substance is used, in the workshop.
•
Determining whether the risk is:
- significant (which means it has to be controlled); or
- insignificant (which means existing controls are adequate.)
Step 3:Decide on and Implement Measures to Control the Risks
•
Controlling the risks using the hierarchy of control (see section 1 Appendix 1
Step 3). This includes the three levels of elimination of the hazard,
minimising the risk of the hazard, or safe work practices and personal
protective equipment.
Step 4: Monitor and Review the Effectiveness of the Measures
4.5
Managing New Products As They Enter The Workplace
New hazardous substances brought into the workplace need to be managed. This means
making sure that an MSDS is supplied on the first occasion the hazardous substance is
received and ensuring every hazardous substance is entered in the School Hazardous
Substance Register.
If no MSDS is supplied on first delivery, contact the supplier and ask for it to be faxed or
mailed to the school. By law, suppliers must provide an MSDS when a hazardous substance
is delivered to a workplace for the first time or on request. If it is not provided, make a note
of the date of the request and seek the support of the Department’s Safety Unit on
9264 4653 or 9264 4854.
4.6
Disposal of hazardous substances
The MSDS should be checked to ensure the correct and safe disposal process of any
hazardous substance is followed. It is essential that containers are correctly labelled until they
are disposed of. If further information is required contact the Department’ Safety Unit on
9264 4653 or 9264 4854.
28
Hazardous Substances
Workplace Inspection Record/Register
This pro-forma is intended for use in undertaking a hazardous substances inspection, and/or
in keeping a register of material safety data sheets
Area/Location/s:..................................................................................................................................
School:.................................................................................................................................................
No.
Date of
Entry
Inits. of
person
Substance/Product Name
29
Location
MSDS
Haz
Sub.
Risk
Ass.
4.6
Hazardous Substances Risk Assessment Pro-forma
The Hazardous Substances Risk Assessment Pro-forma is intended for use in undertaking a
risk assessment of a particular hazardous substance, as required by law.
It includes determining whether the risk associated with the use of a particular hazardous
substance is ‘significant’ or ‘insignificant.’
HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCE RISK ASSESSMENT PRO-FORMA
A current material safety data sheet (MSDS) must be referred to.
1.
Substance name:
U.N. no:
Other names:
.
.
Location:
.
Uses:
.
(Circle relevant areas)
2.
Summary of health effects as listed in MSDS
• Skin:
Irritant
Severe
• Inhaled:
• Eyes:
Irritant
Severe
• Swallowed:
Irritant
Irritant
Severe
Severe
Toxic
Toxic
• Chronic (long term):
3.
First Aid as listed in MSDS
• Skin:
Wash with soap Remove affected clothing
Doctor
• Eyes:
Irrigate with water for 15 min
Doctor
• Inhaled:
Remove person to fresh air
Doctor
• Swallowed:
Give water/milk
Do not give anything by mouth
Induce vomiting
Do not induce vomiting
Doctor
Urgent
Urgent
Urgent
Urgent
4.
Routes of entry into the human body
Circle the most likely routes of entry into the human body by this substance when it is used at this
school:
• Skin contact
• Inhalation
• Injection
• Eye contact
• Swallowing
5.
Frequency of exposure to substance
The scale below ranges from Very rarely (about once per year) to Frequently (once or more per day).
Tick the approximate frequency at which Students and Staff are exposed to this substance.
• Students:
Very rarely
Rarely
Infrequently
Occasionally
Frequently
• Staff:
Very rarely
Rarely
Infrequently
Occasionally
Frequently
30
6.
Existing precautions
See the “List of Precautions” below. Circle the precautions that are currently in place when this substance is used
by Students (S) and Others (O).
Then go to step 7.
LIST OF PRECAUTIONS
•
•
•
Dilution (cross) ventilation:
- open windows
S
Forced ventilation:
- fume hood
S
O
O
- extraction
Personal protective equipment (PPE):
- glasses
S O
- coat
S
- substance used outdoors
S
S
S
O
O
O
- blower fan
- cartridge respirator
- goggles
S
O
- gloves
- apron
S
O
- glove type _____________________________
S
S
- disposable respirator S O
O
O
O
- other PPE:
7.
•
Students are able to refer to adequate safety information in a subject lab/prac. manual or other reference;
•
Material safety data sheet (MSDS) is close to point of use, and is easily accessible;
•
Other precautions:
Do the precautions circled reduce the risk of exposure to the substance by students and others to an acceptable
level? (Hint: compare these to the Precautions for Use section in the MSDS, taking into account the answers for
steps 4 and 5 above)
Yes
No
Unsure
Risk is Insignificant - Go to step 10
Risk is Significant - Go to step 8
Obtain specialist advice or information.
8.
Precautions that are required by MSDS
Go back to the “List of Precautions” and circle those precautions that are required by the MSDS, and other
precautions that can be provided by the school, which will reduce the risk of exposure to an acceptable level. Then
go to step 9.
9.
Will all precautions and information on their use be made available before this hazardous substance is used again?
Yes
Go to step 10.
No
Do not use this hazardous substance.
Complete this risk assessment when all precautions ticked in the List
of Precautions below are available. For now, go to step 12.
10.
Storage and Spills, from MSDS
Go to the Safe Handling Information section of the MSDS. Briefly list the requirements for storage and spills:
• Storage:
• Spills:
11.
Are storage and spillage procedures suitable according to requirements given in the MSDS?
Yes
No
Go to step 12.
Review storage &/or spillage procedures.
12
Has the correct disposal process been identified?
Yes
Risk assessment is complete. Go to step 13.
No Review disposal procedures on MSDS.
13.
Signature:
Date:
Position:
31
/
/
B.
MACHINERY, EQUIPMENT AND GUARDING
1
BACKGROUND
The purpose of machine guarding is to prevent contact between people and the hazards of
equipment and machinery such as moving parts and hot surfaces.
The hierarchy of control (see Section 1, Appendix 1) is used to identify control measures for
any kind of risk. Machine guarding, by its nature, is not the most effective control measure,
but often it is the most practicable. (Note: elimination of a hazard is the most effective
because the hazard is eliminated completely, while wearing personal protective equipment is
the least effective because the hazard still exists in its original capacity.)
New items of machinery should be adequately guarded according to the relevant Australian
Standards. However, some imported machinery does not comply. Also, many items are
relatively old and may not ever have been adequately guarded, or have been modified by
people wishing to make the machine ‘easier to use.’
The risk management process can ensure that risk associated with hazards of inadequate
guarding is controlled effectively.
1.1
Potential Hazards
The hazards associated with machinery and guarding include:
Parts which move or transmit power
Parts that do the work
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
belts & pulleys
flywheels & gear wheels
shafts & spindles
slides & cams
chain & sprocket gears
tools & dies
guillotine blades
milling cutters
circular saws
drills & chucks
To identify dangerous machine parts, look for:
•
•
•
•
•
'drawing in' points
shear points
impact and crushing areas
cutting areas
any protrusions which could cause injury
32
•
•
•
•
stabbing points
abrasion areas
flying particles
entanglement areas
2
CONTROLLING HAZARDS
2.1
Teachers need to ensure that the following machine hazards are controlled by fixed
guarding that cannot be easily removed or interfered with:
• contact or entanglement with machinery;
• trapping between machine and material or fixed structure;
• contact with material in motion;
• being struck by ejected parts of machinery;
• being struck by material ejected from a machine; and
• release of potential energy.
A good rule to follow is anything that can be guarded must be guarded.
2.2
Prior to purchasing or obtaining machinery and as a condition of acceptance,
machinery check for compliance with Australian Standards, and that appropriate
information is provided with the item, such as operating and maintenance instructions.
2.3
It is strongly recommended that all Design and Technology staff are consulted before
an item of machinery is purchased for the workshop. Everyone needs to be satisfied
that the design and construction of new machinery does not pose an unacceptable risk
to health and safety. A list containing the Australian Standards to be taken into
account is presented in Appendix 1 on the next page.
33
APPENDIX 1
Advisory Standard And Australian Standards
•
Part four of the Occupational Safety and Health Regulations 1996 deal with the
requirements for plant, from a manufacturer, supplier and employer perspective.
WorkSafe has also produced guidelines on plant in the workplace. The regulations and
the guidance note are available on the WorkSafe website on www.safetyline.wa.gov.au .
•
There are also a number of Australian Standards relating to machine guarding. Some of
the most useful, available from Standards Australia are:
TITLE
AS4024.1
- Safeguarding of machinery
- General principles
DESCRIPTION
Sets out the general underlying principles for machine
guarding and provides means for identifying hazards and
risks arising from the use of machinery during all phases of
machine life. Methods for eliminating or reducing these
hazards and risks, for safeguarding machines, and for safe
working practices are described. Guidelines for assessing
the safety measures needed in particular circumstances are
provided. It does not provide guidance for safeguarding any
particular machine.
AS1473
- Guarding and safe use of
woodworking machinery
Specifies minimum requirements for the guarding and safe
use of powered machines which cut or abrade wood, wood
products and like materials, to be observed by employers,
trainers, employees, designers, makers and suppliers of
woodworking machinery and other persons having an
interest in woodworking machine operations.
AS1788.1
- Abrasive wheels
- Design, construction and
safeguarding
Specifies requirements for the design and construction of
abrasive wheels and the manufacture and installation of
abrasive wheels and ancillary equipment. Particular
requirements are given for the construction of flanges for use
with abrasive wheels. Includes sections covering standard
(normal) maximum operating speeds for all types of wheels.
Extensively illustrated.
AS1788.2
- Abrasive wheels
- Selection, care and use
Specifies requirements for the application and operation of
abrasive wheels. Includes sections on the storage, handling
and mounting of abrasive wheels, as well as conditions for
using special operating speeds.
AS1893
- Code of practice for the
guarding and safe use of
metal and paper cutting
guillotines
Outlines the general requirements, with specific
requirements for the guarding of different types of machine.
Fixed, interlocked, automatic and electronic guards are
included. Illustrations of suitable guards and guarding
details are included.
Australian Standards are protected by copyright. However, extracts from relevant standards
are available from the Department’s Safety Unit (telephone 9264 4653/4854).
34
C.
WORKING WITH WOOD
1
BACKGROUND
Working with wood refers to marking, cutting, waste removal, joining, gluing and finishing
timber and timber-based products for the purpose of manipulating or working this material to
a desired shape or design.
1.1 Potential Hazards
Hazards that may be encountered during tasks that involve working with wood include:
(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)
(e)
(f)
(g)
dusts (inhalation of sanding dusts);
ejected materials from drilling, sawing, hammering etc;
cutting blades;
electric shock from faults in power tools or leads;
chemicals;
vapours from glues; and
slippery floors caused by wood dust.
A general guide to the management of safety at woodworking machines is provided by
WorkSafe Western Australia on their website http://www.safetyline.wa.gov.au under
Safetyline Essentials.
2
HAZARD MANAGEMENT PROCESS
2.1
Timbers and health problems
The following commonly used woods are known to produce, or are suspected of producing,
health problems. Extra care needs to be taken to minimize exposure to dust when machining
or working with these woods.
Jarrah
Sheoak
Radiata and other pine
Oregon
Jelutong
Nyatoh
Tasmanian Oak.
Blackboy Stump
Oleander and Western Red Cedar have been identified as having a high risk to health and as
such are not for use in schools.
2.2
Managing Hazards and Risks
In order to control all the hazards associated with working with wood the teacher needs to
ensure that they have met all their responsibilities stated in Section 1.5.2 and also ensure that:
• students wear appropriate eye and dust protection devices where there is risk of eye
damage or exposure to dusts;
• adequate ventilation is provided to minimise exposure to dusts or fumes during
sanding, painting and gluing, especially during use of materials such as contact
adhesives, paints, solvents and glues (see guidelines below for information regarding
possibly toxic wood dusts);
• tools are maintained to ensure minimal force is required to use them;
• whenever possible all equipment used for cutting, drilling or sanding must be fitted
with dust extractors.
35
3
MANAGING HAZARDS
3.1
Controlling Dust – Especially That From Hardwood
Properly designed and maintained exhaust ventilation and dust collection plant at fixed
woodworking machines will usually keep dust concentration within the exposure standard.
However, exhaust ventilation for narrow belt sanding machines will need careful design to
ensure satisfactory dust control. Exhaust ventilation needs to be provided at fixed machines
except where the machines are used only intermittently; for example where students do a
small amount of machining during their lessons. In these situations, suitable dust respirators
(dust masks) need to be used.
Composite boards like MDF, HDFB and particle boards also need to be considered. The
greatest hazard associated with this product, and similar products, is the fine dust that
becomes a slip hazard during the process of working it. Notwithstanding that, the dust is fine
enough to be a respiratory hazard and it is recommended that a class P1 respirator be worn
when working it.
If there is a concern that the dust/fume extraction system is inadequate to the task, contact the
Safety Unit in Central Office on 9264 4653/4854 for advice.
3.2
Dust Respirators
Dust respirators need to provide adequate protection. It is strongly recommended that they
comply with the requirements laid out in Australian/New Zealand Standard 1715:1994.
These include disposable, class P1 dust respirators (shell or fold flat) or half face, dust
respirators fitted with a class P1 replaceable cartridge.
Disposable dust respirators need to be discarded after one session. Cartridge respirators
require regular checks to ensure that they are clean and in good working condition.
It is recommended that Class P1 masks be worn wherever exhaust ventilation is inadequate to
the task, e.g. hand sanding.
Teachers need to ensure that students receive training in the correct use of dust respirators.
Correct fit is essential.
3.3
General Information On Health Issues From Wood Dust
(Extract from WorkSafe Guidance note Controlling Wood Dust Hazards at Work).
Timber is generally divided into two categories, softwoods like pine and cedar, and
hardwoods like oak, teak and jarrah.
The Western Australian occupational exposure standard (OES) for airborne inhalable wood
dust is 1mg/m3 (one milligram per cubic metre) for hardwoods and 5mg/m3 for softwoods.
The standard for MDF is also 1mg/m3 because it can contain hardwood.
The average inhalable wood dust in the breathing zone of the worker must not exceed the
OES over an eight hour working shift.
36
Where dust from timber that has been coated with a toxic substance (such as lead paint) is
involved, the OES for both the toxic coating and wood dust must be complied with.
Formaldehyde readings should be below 1ppm (one part per million) when averaged over an
eight hour day. Short term exposures should not exceed 2ppm.
What Work Is Hazardous?
Hazardous amounts of wood dust may be generated by jobs like floor sanding, furniture
sanding, wood turning, routing, sawing, sweeping and emptying dust filters.
Dust hazards exist in varying degrees from timber felling in the forest to furniture
manufacturing and cabinet making in factories and workshops.
The main hazards occur where there is poor natural or mechanical ventilation.
How Can Wood Dust Harm You?
Studies in Australia and elsewhere have linked wood dust in workplaces to asthma,
bronchitis, lung, sinus and throat irritations, shortness of breath and skin problems.
The IARC (International Agency for Research into Cancer), after researching nasal cancer
among woodworkers in Europe, has classified wood dust a human carcinogen.
Wood dust from timbers such as beech and oak, which is fine enough to be inhaled, is known
to cause cancer. Other species such as, birch, mahogany, teak and walnut may also be
capable of causing nasal cancer. As this is a rare form of cancer, the risk is small and
generally restricted to the finishing trades where the dust is fine.
Freshly cut trees contain large amounts of microbes, mainly moulds. The number of these
increases if the logs are stored outside and under moist or humid conditions. The microbes
can cause inflammation of the airways during debarking, sawing and transportation.
What About Different Woods?
While there has been considerable research carried out on European and North American
species, relatively little is known about the way dusts from different Australian timbers affect
people's health. Each type of timber has its own chemical components and may affect people
differently.
Even less is known about dusts from imported woods, for example from Africa, South
America and Asia. There is a concern that adverse health effects from some of these wood
dusts may not show up for perhaps many years. Protection for workers today is therefore
vitally important.
What About Chemicals?
Plywoods, fibre boards, particle boards and laminated products contain formaldehyde that can
cause irritation of the respiratory system and eyes. Some suppliers provide Material Safety
Data Sheets (MSDS) or similar information on possible hazards.
37
Small amounts of formaldehyde may be given off during the cutting or machining of particle
board, but this is seldom high enough to cause a problem. Higher levels may accumulate if
products are stored in plastic or in unventilated enclosed spaces.
Many wood products have been coated with varnishes, lacquers, polishes and other chemicals.
These may cause harm to health under some circumstances, and need to be considered when
working with wood.
Dusts from second hand timbers may contain toxic paints, preservatives or lead. Dust from
CCA (copper-chrome-arsenic) treated pine timber is not significantly more toxic than from
other timbers, provided dust levels are kept below occupational exposure standards.
There are also a number of chemicals used for sealing, coating and polishing timber that may
pose a hazard to workers during their application, and the hazards from these substances are
described in their respective MSDS.
Further Information
The WorkSafe Western Australia guidance note Controlling Wood Dust Hazards at Work
provides information on identifying hazards and controlling risks related to wood dust. It is
available on www.safetyline.wa.gov.au in the section on laws.
38
D.
ELECTRICAL POWER EQUIPMENT (PORTABLE AND
FIXED)
1
BACKGROUND
Electrical power equipment refers to machines, appliances or tools that are either fixed or
portable. They may be battery-operated, or run on electricity from a power source and
include:
• Welders
• Sanders
• Routers
• Grinders
• Planers
• Drills/electric screwdrivers
• Thicknessers
• Soldering irons
• Lathes
• Trimmers
• Shaping machines
• Saws
• Extension leads
• Heaters
1.1
Potential Hazards
Hazards that may be encountered in operating electrical power equipment include:
• fumes and dusts;
• electricity (power faults, faulty equipment, worn cables, incorrect use);
• moving and rotating parts (blades and bits, tool disintegration);
• waste ejection (waste materials from cutting blades);
• squash and pinch (crush in equipment, e.g. pan brake);
• noise;
• heat (burns from hot materials or friction); and
• movement (artefact moving or unstable).
Information on managing hazards associated with portable electrical equipment is available
from the Essentials section of the WorkSafe Western Australia website on
www.safetyline.wa.gov.au.
1.2
Relevant Legislation
Requirements for the safe use of electrical equipment are covered in Division 6 of the
Occupational Safety and Health Regulations 1996.
2
MANAGING HAZARDS
2.1
Controlling hazards and risks
In order to control hazards and reduce the risk of injury teachers need to ensure that they have
met all their responsibilities as stated in Section 1.5.2 and also ensure that:
•
•
•
Design and Technology facilities are fitted with a residual current device;
guards and safety devices designed for the portable machine are in place;
electrical machines have current electrical test certification and an emergency stop
fitted at the appropriate position (Australian Standard AS3760 states that electrical
equipment must be tested and inspected every 12 months by a competent person);
39
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
2.2
an approved mushroom type stop button is positioned on both sides of linishall
machines;
the use of extension leads is restricted where possible; electric extension leads are not
laid across walkways or placed in an area where they may be subjected to abrasion or
water contact;
extension leads are visually checked for cuts and defects each time they are used and
are stored in a tidy manner with plug ends secured and out of the way;
extension leads are rated correctly, against the purpose to which they will be put;
fixed machines being used anywhere other than in a workshop are secured for their
operation (e.g. pipe benders may be safer to use outside due to the space required for
safe operation);
machinery, plant and equipment are installed to ensure that sufficient space and safe
foot holds are provided around an individual machine or unit that allows for group
instruction, normal operation and adjustments;
all rotating blades, pulley systems or spindles have adequate guarding during use and
all guards and safety devices designed for the machine are in place;
all equipment conforms with Australian Standards (see fixed machines);
equipment and cords are regularly checked for wearing cords, loose wires etc;
students are alerted to the need to report immediately to the teacher any damage or
problem associated with the equipment;
students are made aware of injuries that can be sustained from moving power tool
parts;
waste materials control and disposal procedures are developed and the procedures
reflect the type and volume of waste being generated;
procedures are developed for the handling of materials or tools that have cutting edges
and/or that cause friction and generate heat;
students’ projects and/or artefacts are securely fixed to a bench, table or floor before
using any machine or power tool on them.
Residual Current Devices (RCDs)
One of the best means of protection from electric shock is the use of some form of core
balance earth leakage device. A residual current device (RCD) is the most common of these
devices. In the event of a specific kind of fault, an RCD will switch off the current so quickly
there should be minimal danger of injury. All Design and Technology facilities should be
fitted with RCDs. If not inform the Principal immediately.
A conventional fuse is not to be mistaken for an RCD. Unlike an RCD, a fuse is designed to
protect equipment, not people.
RCDs are relay switches that work on the principle of current balance. In any electrical tool
that is in good condition, the current in the active and neutral conductors is equal and
opposite. When the current becomes diverted by being earthed, such as through a person,
some of the current flows to earth instead of returning through the neutral. The RCD reacts to
the electrical imbalance. The result is that electricity is cut off within approximately 0.03
seconds.
RCDs are tested regularly as part of the maintenance program in schools through the
Department of Housing and Works.
40
2.3
Location Of Power Outlets
Consideration needs to be given to the positioning of power outlets and the amount and type
of equipment that will be plugged into the outlets. Outlets are often placed in positions that
require extension cords to be trailed across the room or there are too few outlets for the
number of appliances being used. The main hazards here are fire, electrical shock or tripping
over leads.
2.4
Inspections Of Electrical Equipment
RCDs will prevent the majority of electrocutions where electrical current has been earthed
through the human body. However, even with these devices, electrocution can still occur if
contact by a person is made between active and neutral wires. It is highly recommended that
regular visual inspections of the leads of electrical equipment are undertaken, especially
commonly used equipment, to monitor the condition of the cord. It is not a requirement for a
qualified electrical worker to undertake this visual inspection, however it is a requirement
under Australian Standard AS3760 that electrical equipment is tested by a competent and
qualified person every 12 months. The checklist below has been adapted from WorkSafe
Western Australia and covers a range of areas that need to be considered.
41
2.5
Electricity Safety Checklist
This form is intended for use in undertaking periodical visual inspections of the safety and
external integrity of electrical equipment
Electricity Safety Check
Name: ………………………………………. Date: ……………...
Yes
No
There is a purchasing policy in place for electrical equipment.
Circuits are checked to make sure they are not overloaded with
double adaptors and appliances.
All relevant staff and students receive information, training and
supervision so that they may perform their duties in safety.
A system is in place to ensure all accidents and near misses are
reported, investigated and the causes rectified.
There is a maintenance program in place for electrical installations.
Electrical equipment has been tested.
Residual current devices (RCD) are installed at switchboards or into
fixed sockets.
Portable electrical equipment is protected by RCDs.
The RCD device is labelled and has been tested.
Flexible cord connections have either moulded or transparent type
plugs.
Plugs, sockets and extension leads are in good condition.
Flexible cords are protected from water, being damaged or cut.
Switchboards are labelled correctly.
Switchboards are protected from damage.
Light fittings are suitable for the location. *
Light fittings are protected from breakage. *
Power points are suitable for the location and are positioned safely. *
Safety procedures are in place for employees working near overhead
power lines.
If machinery is likely to expose workers to any likelihood of
electrical shock.
* Particularly in hazardous areas such as spray booths and solvent storage areas
42
N/A
E.
ELECTRIC ARC WELDING, GAS HEATING, WELDING
AND CUTTING
1
BACKGROUND
Electric arc welding refers to the gain or transfer of molten metal from an electrode or filler
rod or wire to a parent metal by the use of an electric arc. It does not include plastic welding.
Gas heating, welding and cutting refers to the transfer of heat, through various means, to heat,
distort, rearrange, cut, fuse or join a variety of metals or synthetic materials, and including
heating liquids and cutting metals.
1.1
Potential Hazards
Hazards that may be encountered in operating electric arc welding, gas heating, welding and
cutting equipment include:
• radiation and bright light: ultraviolet light can cause sunburn, skin cancer and eye
damage;
• fumes: during inert gas welding, some ozone oxides of nitrogen, fluoride and silicone,
as well as prolific quantities of carbon dioxide, are given off. These are highly toxic
irritant gases and in both short- and long-term exposure may cause inflammation and
congestion of the respiratory tract. Exposure for more than half an hour at one part per
million (1 p.p.m.) or greater, results in headache and malaise;
• electrical energy (electric shock from arc welding);
• heat (hot metals and naked flames);
• welding slag (being propelled into eyes or onto skin; and
• combustible materials (may result in fire or an explosion).
Toxic fumes produced during the welding of galvanised metal, manganese steel, cadmium
zinc and some other non-ferrous metals may be very dangerous and toxic and very harmful to
students. Additional precautions need to be taken when welding these materials.
2
MANAGING HAZARDS
2.1
Controlling hazards and risks
To control the hazards associated with electric arc welding, gas heating, welding and cutting
teachers need to ensure they have met all their responsibilities as stated in Section 1.5.2 and
also ensure that:
•
•
•
•
welding or cutting is not carried out on or near containers that contain or have
contained flammable materials, gases or liquids because of the risk of explosions;
gas welding and electric welding is carried out in separate areas to prevent the
possibility of ignition of gas cylinders; if this cannot be achieved, the teacher must
ensure that only one form of welding is carried out at any one given time;
the welding area is well ventilated and illuminated; adequate ventilation and extraction
fan operation must be provided if welding is done in a booth;
acetylene, oxygen, liquid petroleum (LP) or other gas cylinders are stored and used in
an upright position; gas cylinders must also be securely restrained to prevent them
from falling over, particularly when they are used as a mobile plant;
43
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
2.2
Procedures for flashback or acetylene leaks.
•
•
•
2.3
gas volume draw does not exceed the Australian Standard Regulations; if excessive
gas withdrawal is required, a manifold delivery system should be installed;
adequate screening for electric arc welding activities is provided; this protects persons
not taking part in the actual welding process against flashes and radiation burns.
(Screening or walls need to be non-reflective and the floor area must be clear of
combustible materials including greases and oils.);
equipment that is lit is not left unattended;
equipment model and brand components are not interchanged except after consultation
with the supplier and/or manufacturer, due to manufacturing irregularities;
all operators wear protective clothing that conforms with Australian Standard 1558
(Protective Clothing for Welders), including welding shields, gauntlet gloves, a leather
jacket, a leather apron and spats;
students do not wear clothing that is at risk of ignition (e.g. some forms of synthetic
cloth) or footwear that does not provide adequate protection;
correct cooling down and disposal of materials are undertaken; hot materials left
unattended after heating operations have the potential for combustion;
only flint, electronic spark or gas station igniters are used for lighting up;
flashback arresters are fitted to the supply and torch end of all gas welding/cutting
units (see 2.3 below);
the risk of flashbacks and explosions is limited through correct closing-down
procedures, correct tip selection, correct gas pressure and ensuring students do not use
dirty welding or cutting tips;
students are aware of the causes of flashback and the symptoms of arc eye;
a fire extinguisher and/or fire blanket is situated in close proximity to the welding
area; extinguishers need to be identified with Standard Specification Identification
Code signs. Sand buckets should also be considered.
In the event of a flashback, close the oxygen blowpipe valve first then close the fuel
gas valve. Arrange inspection of equipment by qualified personnel before relighting.
In the event of an acetylene leak around the spindle, close the valve and tighten the
gland.
If an acetylene cylinder is heated accidentally or becomes hot through severe
flashback, the following action should be taken promptly:
o shut the cylinder valve;
o clear all personnel from the area;
o cool the cylinder with a copious supply of water; and
o notify the fire brigade.
Flashback arresters
Occupational Safety and Health regulations require that four flashback arresters are used –
two on each gas hose with one at each end of the hose. Flashback arresters must be the
correct type and size recommended by the manufacturer.
While flashback arresters are essential they are not a substitute for safe work procedures, safe
transporting and storage, regular checks and maintenance.
Further information is available in the WorkSafe Guidance Note Gas Welding Safety Flashback Arresters on
www.safetyline.wa.gov.au.
44
F.
SOFT SOLDERING
1
BACKGROUND
Soft soldering refers to the process of joining metals through the application of lead-based
materials with the aid of a fluxing agent and a heat source. The soldering process can be
performed in a number of ways including:
• liquid petroleum (LP) gas heating (irons in a confined stove or combination torch and
iron);
• pressure blow torch and iron (kerosene fuel);
• electric soldering irons;
• low-voltage scope soldering; and
• flame heating, such as air-LP or air-acetylene.
1.1
Potential Hazards
Hazards that may be encountered in soft soldering include:
• vapours (vapour inhalation from heated fluxes and acids, and inhalation of fumes
given off during soldering);
• heat (from heated materials and equipment, naked flames and fluxes);
• corrosive liquids, such as flux;
• fire (potential risk of fire from gas heating equipment);
• superheated flux (overheated soldering iron dipped in the flux dip); and
• explosion (ignited fuel gas).
WorkSafe Western Australia has developed a guidance note called Soldering in the
Workplace-Rosin Fluxes. It provides guidance on the hazards arising from soldering and
rosin fluxes. It is available on www.safetyline.wa.gov.au .
2
MANAGING HAZARDS
2.1
Controlling hazards and risks
To control the hazards associated with soft soldering teachers need to ensure they have met all
their responsibilities as stated in Section 1.5.2 and also ensure that:
• adequate cross-ventilation is provided during all soldering activities to prevent
inhalation of fumes or vapours from acids, fluxes or gases;
• electric soldering iron stations are situated away from any damp or wet areas and
where extension leads are not required;
• electrical equipment has a current electrical test certification;
• low-voltage continuous-operation soldering equipment is used;
• students are informed that they must advise the teacher if they detect a gas leak;
• suspected gas leaks are checked by using a soapy water solution applied with a brush;
any identified leaks should be reported;
• replacement (including disconnection and reconnection of cylinders) is carried out by
the relevant authority responsible for replacing empty cylinders;
• gas equipment is audited each year;
• soldering tips are maintained in good working order;
• good working habits are enforced by ensuring that:
o all flux containers do not leak and are equipped with suitable brushes;
45
•
•
•
•
•
•
2.3
o ‘dip pots’ are in good order, clean, and contain sufficient solution; and
o a suitable container for solder is supplied.
a fire extinguisher and/or fire blanket are in the vicinity of the soldering area;
correct containers for acids and solvents and correct storage procedures are used to
minimise spillage from containers;
safety precautions are adopted to prevent possible fire hazards when using gas or
petroleum liquids for heating; combustible materials must not be allowed near the
work area;
correct handling methods are used when heating oils, liquids, etc. to reduce the risk of
splashing; avoid placing hot objects or tools (soldering iron) in the water of cleaning
agents; hot irons must be cooled in the appropriate fluid and place; (dip pots constitute
a significant hazard in this respect);
an appropriate hot iron rest is provided for the activity;
appropriate personal protective equipment, which conforms to Australian Standards, is
worn by all persons participating in the activity.
Gas Oven lighting procedures
Gas ovens must not be lit using a disposable or naked flame from a match or lighted paper.
Only flint guns are to be used.
When lighting a gas oven the following procedures are to be followed:
(a)
stand to one side of the oven;
(b)
see that the flint gun is operative;
(c)
turn on gas slowly and ignite by means of the flint gun;
(d)
adjust the flame; and
(e)
if difficulty is encountered in using the flint gun, turn the gas off immediately.
Be aware that in some instances excess gas build-up could occur during the use of the flint
gun to light gas stoves.
Taps to gas stoves must be turned off fully. A tap should never be turned off and then turned
on again as the hot stove could ignite the gas build-up with explosive force.
The soldering oven’s gas main must be turned off (in most cases at the manifold position)
when the soldering activity is completed to prevent any gas build-up, particularly overnight.
EYEWASH FACILITIES
Suitable eyewash facilities must be available in the workshop prior to the commencement of
the activity. (Ideally, the facility will be connected to the mains water supply rather than
stored in a plastic bottle. Water that is stored for any length of time has the potential to
become contaminated and exacerbate an injury.)
46
G.
METAL - CASTING OPERATIONS
1
BACKGROUND
Metal-casting refers to activities using the group of metals whose melting points fall below
1100 degrees Celsius and which, when molten, can be transferred into a specially prepared
mould (depending on the shape required), and allowed to cool. Once cool, the casting can be
removed from the mould and the surface finished or machined. Forms of metal-casting not
covered in this module are die-casting, drop forged and extrusion.
1.1
Potential Hazards
Hazards that may be encountered in metal-casting operations include:
• toxic fumes, gases, hot air that can be inhaled;
• spillage (molten metals);
• explosion (fluids in moulds);
• heat (radiated heat);
• molten metal, naked flames (burns);
• chemical (mixing chemicals, gaseous chemicals); and
• handling (relocating molten/hot materials).
2
MANAGING HAZARDS
2.1
It is strongly recommended that metal-casting activities are only to be undertaken in
secondary schools and are to be restricted to those metals with molten temperatures
below 1100 degrees Celsius.
2.2
Controlling hazards and risks
To control the hazards and risks associated with metal casting activities teachers need to
ensure they have met their responsibilities as stated in Section 1.5.2 and also ensure that:
• students who are not directly involved in furnace charging, slag removal, casting and
other processes associated with this activity, remain clear of all furnaces, moulds and
the students participating in the activity; (it is recommended that a minimum distance
of 5m is maintained);
• the metal-casting area is designed using the following minimum considerations:
o the furnace and casting areas are well ventilated and lit;
o the casting area has a dry soil or sand floor to minimise the reaction of running
or spilling molten metals;
o the area is clear of all grease, oils and all flammable or combustible materials;
and
o flammable materials of all types are stored well away from areas designed to
carry out foundry-related operations;
• ventilation fans (if installed) above the furnace and in the casting area are turned on
and all doors and windows left open;
• at least one suitable fire extinguisher and fire blanket is readily available (a sand
bucket is also advisable);
• activities that use solid-fuel furnaces are situated outside the confines of any building
due to the excessive volumes of carbon dioxide produced;
47
•
•
•
•
contact of any moisture or fluids with a hot metal mould is prevented as it will explode
when molten metal comes into contact with it;
manufacturer’s instructions on relevant material safety data sheets are followed when
mixing and storing chemicals (minimal moisture contact can cause an explosion);
all metal in a foundry is treated as hot to help prevent burns;
leather or kevlar gloves of the longer ‘gauntlet’ style are worn at all times, as well as a
full apron and/or coat and face shield; the wearing of synthetic clothing materials is to
be avoided in a foundry situation; suitable footwear must also be worn.
48
H.
MECHANICS
1
BACKGROUND
Mechanics refers to the monitoring, maintaining, fastening, locking, testing, adjusting and
repairing of running internal combustion engines. It can also refer to mechanical devices and
systems that allow for transfer of power or give a mechanical advantage such as pulleys and
levers, gear systems and hand-powered winch systems. Activities could include tear-down,
tolerance checking, repairs, replacement of components, and sequential rebuilding and testing of
equipment.
1.1
Potential Hazards
Hazards that may be encountered in mechanics include:
• moving parts (risk of crushing including the collapse of vehicles);
• heat (hot machinery parts);
• solvents and fuels (fire and spillage risks);
• electric shock (electrical mains, engine electrics);
• rotating machine components (rotating fan blades, pulley systems, flying objects);
• noise;
• hazardous substances, e.g. absorption (detergents, solvents, fuel, grease and oils);
• toxic fumes and dusts (carbon dioxide, asbestos particles, fuel and solvents and exhaust
fumes); and
• compressed air.
Further information on working with potential asbestos in automotive parts is available in the
WorkSafe guidance note Asbestos Materials in the Automotive Maintenance and Repair
Industry, available on www.safetyline.wa.gov.au.
2
MANAGING HAZARDS
2.1
Controlling hazards and risks
To control the hazards and risks associated with mechanics teachers need to ensure they have
met their responsibilities as stated in Section 1.5.2 and also ensure that:
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
material safety data sheet information is obtained on fuels and solvents before these
substances are used;
procedures are developed for the correct use and disposal of cleaning agents;
students are instructed in the dangers associated with transfer of fuel or oils in petroldriven machines or engines;
all mechanics activities take place in an appropriate space where:
o safe handling of fuels and liquids can be achieved;
o noise and air pollution can be monitored and controlled;
o appropriate guarding on rotating parts can be achieved; and
o general engineering activities can be carried out effectively;
a dry chemical or foam type fire extinguisher and/or fire blanket is in close proximity to
the fuel and oil usage area;
students wear protective clothing, including gloves and/or goggles, when using some
fuels or solvents; the equipment must conform to Australian standards;
internal combustion engines are switched off before refuelling;
49
•
•
•
•
•
•
where the testing of equipment that generates excessive fume levels (carbon monoxide)
takes place, there is ample and safe means of exhausting those fumes from the work
area;
machine guards are inspected to ensure they meet safety considerations and correct
operational procedures (see Section 3 B Machinery, Equipment and Guarding);
the movement of heavy machine parts (jacking a vehicle, engine lifting) is performed in
a safe manner with appropriate equipment to avoid injury;
working platforms enable engines, motors and machines to be secured during
dismantling or assembly;
all asbestos particles from brake linings are contained and disposed of in a safe manner.
(See reference at 1.1 for the WorkSafe Guidance Note); and
flammable liquids are kept to minimal volumes and stored in a flammable liquids
cabinet when not in use.
50
I.
OPERATING COMPRESSED-AIR EQUIPMENT
1
BACKGROUND
Compressed-air equipment refers to all tools and equipment that use compressed air as a means
of their functioning. A variety of compressors may be used, ranging from small portable types
to large fixed machines. Pneumatic equipment includes compressors, drills, spray paint guns,
sanders and pneumatic-operated equipment with cutting or grinding discs or blades.
1.1
Potential Hazards
Hazards that may be encountered in operating compressed-air equipment include:
• toxic airborne particles, fumes or vapours;
• explosion (e.g. burst service pipe, cylinder or tubing);
• cutting blades, shear action, abrasive action, high-torque rotation;
• airborne material propelled by high-pressure air escaping; and
• air embolism (caused by injecting air into bloodstream through skin.
1.2
Relevant Legislation
The Occupational Safety and Health Regulations 1996 applying to plant state the legislative
requirements to identify the hazards and assess the risks associated with compressed air
equipment.
2
MANAGING HAZARDS
2.1
Controlling hazards and risks
In order to control the hazards and risks associated with the use of compressed air equipment
teachers need to ensure they have met their responsibilities stated in Section 1.5.2 and also
ensure that:
• compressed air is not used for cleaning down or air lines directed at any part of the body;
• pneumatic tools and equipment are only used in a workshop;
• leaking air lines are fixed as soon as detected;
• all air hoses are fitted with self-sealing fittings to prevent personal damage from an open
air hose;
• compressors with cylinders that have a capacity of 26 cubic feet or more are checked by
a qualified person twice a year;
• compressors are fitted with functioning relief valves and a suitable regulator;
• air pressure in compressors and pipelines does not exceed the manufacturer’s
specifications; air pressure must be regulated to the minimum pressure that will allow
the appropriate functioning of the equipment being operated;
• where the noise level of the air-operated device and the frequency of use demand it,
appropriate ear protection is worn during operation;
• adequate ventilation is available during sanding and painting;
• all compressors are marked with safe working procedures and pressure.
2.2
Further Information
The WorkSafe Western Australia code of practice on spray painting and other information on
compressed air receivers is available on the WorkSafe website at www.safetyline.wa.gov.au.
51
J.
SPRAY PAINTING
1
BACKGROUND
Spray painting refers to the process of applying a protective and/or decorative coating to a
variety of material surfaces of projects using a variety of liquid finishes and matched solvents
and using compressed air as a propellant. Spray painting includes the use of aerosol cans;
spraying with a hand-gun and air compressor equipment; using an air brush and air compressor
equipment; and airless spray guns.
1.1
Potential Hazards
Hazards that may be encountered in spray painting include:
• fumes generated from paints, pigments and thinners or solvents;
• chemicals (reaction to paint additives).
The presence of these hazards may lead to injury occurring by way of:
• spillage (paints and thinners);
• fire and explosion;
• absorption (skin reaction to thinners and solvents);
• manual handling;
1.2
Relevant Legislation
Subdivision 4 of the Occupational Safety and Health (OSH) Regulations 1996 covers spray
painting requirements. WorkSafe Western Australia’s code of practice Spray Painting provides
practical advice on prevention strategies and practical means of complying with OSH
legislation. It is available at www.safetyline.wa.gov.au.
2
MANAGING HAZARDS
2.1
Controlling hazards and risks
To control hazards associated with spray painting teachers need to ensure they have met all their
responsibilities as stated in Section 1.5.2, considered the hazards in section 10 Operating
Compressed Air Equipment and also ensure that:
• the storage facility for paints and thinners, etc. has ventilation to the outside of the
building; the storage area or cupboard has a correct safety sign fixed in a clearly visible
position and be kept locked;
• a proper spray painting booth is used which has adequate ventilation, is fitted with the
appropriate exhaust system and is well lit;
• when the booth is in use the door is kept closed to maintain effectiveness of the
ventilation;
• a suitable fire extinguisher is maintained in a good condition, is regularly checked and is
conveniently positioned adjacent to the spray booth;
• excessive use of thinners in the preparation area is avoided to prevent a build-up of
fumes;
• the entire spray painting area is regularly cleaned and free from all residue with
particular attention paid to the condition of filter pads; all waste materials are disposed
of in metal containers;
52
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
students are informed that they are not to dispose of pressure-pack cans; this will be
done by the teacher;
naked flames are not used in the paint storage area to prevent the ignition of solvents and
thinners;
any solvents, thinners or paints spilt in the painting area are cleaned up immediately and
the area ventilated by opening all doors and windows;
students wear correct protective clothing at all times as some thinners, solvents and
detergents can be harmful if they come into contact with the skin;
students are informed that they must not direct compressed air towards the skin due to
the risk of toxic materials or air penetrating;
all relevant material safety data sheets are referred to as spray painting has the potential
to be toxic and explosive;
students who are operating spray painting equipment are wearing appropriate respiratory
protection equipment and have received training in the correct use of the equipment;
respiratory protection equipment is cleaned and kept in good working order.
53
K.
WORKING WITH THERMOPLASTICS
1
BACKGROUND
Thermoplastics refers to a group of plastic materials that will soften readily with the application
of heat and will harden again once the temperature is reduced to normal room temperature. This
process can be repeated indefinitely provided the temperature is kept below the level at which
the material will burn or degrade.
Thermoplastic processes include using equipment such as a buffing machine and a strip heater
and processes include:
• marking
• cutting
• filing
• drilling
• polishing
• welding (solvent and fusion).
Equipment used in higher risk activities may include:
• an oven
• vacuum forming machine
• blow forming table
• hot-air welding gun
• injection moulding.
1.1
Potential Hazards
Some of the hazards that may be encountered in working thermoplastics include:
• heat (hot materials, strip heaters, ovens);
• solvents, airborne plastic particles and fumes;
• moving parts (rotating buffs, cutting blades); and
• explosion (over-pressurised plastic blow forming).
Toxic fumes given off by heated and superheated plastics, such as PVC, are a health hazard and
must not be inhaled. Plastic solvents are injurious if inhaled and steps should be taken to
minimise this possibility. In addition, dust from certain plastics may be harmful if inhaled and
may cause irritation to the skin and eyes.
2
MANAGING HAZARDS
2.1
Controlling hazards and risks
To control the hazards and risks associated with working with thermoplastics teachers need to
ensure they have met their responsibilities as stated in Section 1.5.2 and also ensure that:
•
•
•
•
adequate ventilation of the area is provided;
where appropriate, sanding machines are fitted with dust-extraction equipment;
the working area includes ready access to running water in case of accidental burns;
there is sufficient free space in the vicinity of the oven or heating devices to allow easy
transportation of hot materials from the oven to the forming jig;
54
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
students are informed that caution must be taken when hot equipment (e.g. ovens, strip
heaters and welding guns) is being used for bending plastic;
all solvents are stored in a well-ventilated cupboard away from direct access by all
students;
all guards are correctly adjusted and securely fixed before beginning operations;
appropriate personal protective clothing, including protective eye wear, is worn by
anyone handling heated and superheated plastics and equipment;
suitable lifting or transferring devices or gloves are available for the handling of
materials in and out of ovens, etc;
combustible flammable materials are kept clear of all heating devices;
a fire extinguisher or fire blanket is placed in close proximity to where the work is being
carried out.
55
L.
FIBRE-REINFORCED PLASTICS AND THERMOSET
RESINS
1
BACKGROUND
Fibre-reinforced plastics refers to the process of adding fibre material to thermoset resin to
produce strength and stability. With polyester resins, methyl ethyl ketone peroxide (MEKP) is
commonly used as a catalyst for airing the resin, the most common application being in:
• glass fibre-reinforced plastic articles;
• clear casting polyester resins; and
• polyester filler pastes, which might be used in the automobile body repair industry.
1.1
Relevant Legislation
Part 5 subdivision 3 of the Occupational Safety and Health Regulations 1966 deals specifically
with requirements for controlling styrene vapours and emergency egress where styrene
monomer is present.
1.2
Potential Hazards
Hazards that may be encountered when handling fibre-reinforced plastics and thermoset resins
include:
• fumes, dust particles, gases being inhaled or absorbed through the skin;
• fire (catalyst when ignited can cause burns);
• chemicals (storage, mixing, disposing, handling);
• chemical reaction (components when mixed);
• absorption (fibre particles entering the body through the skin, handling chemicals,
resins); and
• irritation (catalyst, resin or acetone in eyes or skin).
It must be noted that MEKP is a toxic material when inhaled and the peroxide component can
cause serious damage to the eyes. Extreme caution is essential when handling MEKP.
2
MANAGING HAZARDS
2.1
Controlling hazards and risks
Teachers are responsible for managing a safe educational environment and ensuring that in all
activities involving fibre-reinforced plastics and thermoset resins, safety issues and procedures
are addressed. To control the hazards and risks, teachers need to ensure they have met all their
responsibilities as stated in Section 1.5.2 and also ensure that:
•
•
the handling of some materials, such as MEKP, is performed by instructors only;
material contaminated with solvents is removed from the work area and stored in a place
where evaporation of the solvents may take place safely;
The resulting residue material may be disposed of through the normal school rubbish
channels to ensure the absorbent material does not create further hazards. Empty
containers retain vapours and product residue and therefore are potentially explosive
and/or may contain toxic vapour hazards.
56
For large spills of resin, a controlled pre-treatment of the captured contaminated resin
will convert the spill to solid resin which can be disposed of through authorised school
rubbish channels.
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
the working area is well ventilated and that dust extractors are fitted to machines or areas
where dust or hazardous fumes occur;
there are good washing facilities, including eye washing, near to any operation involving
solvents, resins, glass fibres or catalysts;
minimal volumes of flammable liquids are at the point of use;
all chemicals are stored correctly (according to material safety data sheets) to ensure that
no fire or chemical reaction can occur. MEKP has the capacity to generate sufficient
heat to cause fire when in contact with organic materials;
a suitable fire extinguisher and a fire blanket are placed in close proximity to the
working area;
all work benches are covered with disposable sheeting and the work area is well lit;
all students wear appropriate personal protective equipment and clothing including
enclosed eye protection, respiratory equipment and gloves;
Irritation of the eyes, lungs, skin and upper respiratory tract can be caused through
exposure to fibreglass mat dust, acetone and catalysts. Contact with catalysts will cause
a delayed chemical burn.
•
•
•
•
•
2.2
all chemicals are mixed in the proportions set down by the manufacturer’s
specifications, metered with appropriate devices and enclosed eye protection and
disposable gloves worn during mixing process;
students are aware of the signs of dermatitis and advised to use appropriate skin creams
before and after using Acetone, which is a severe de-fatting agent, and can cause skin
irritations or infections;
if a large spillage of acetone occurs, all students are immediately removed from the area
until complete evaporation and ventilation can be effected;
students do not handle accelerators;
contaminated organic materials are disposed of correctly (see Guidelines below).
Further risk management strategies.
To minimise the risk of injury during activities involving fibre-reinforced plastics and thermoset
resins, it is recommended that:
• students wear protective respiratory equipment (e.g. face masks) and enclosed eye
protection whenever cured fibre-reinforced plastic is being filed, sawn or sanded in a
confined area;
• full arm and leg coverage is used to protect skin from burns due to contact with uncured
resin;
• care is taken when using commercial organic peroxides as they are combustible and very
corrosive substances;
• activities involving fibre-reinforced plastics are restricted to senior secondary school
students;
• care is taken in the disposal of cotton waste, newspaper, wood, etc. as organic material
contaminated with MEKP can be ignited from the strong oxidization reaction.
57
2.3
Methyl Ethyl Ketone Peroxide (MEKP)
Because the concentration of MEKP varies with time, potentially leading to the formation of an
unstable, explosive product, aged MEKP needs to be handled with extreme caution and be
disposed of by trained personnel.
Teachers need to establish emergency procedures for safe handling of MEKP including
situations of:
• splashes of peroxide on to the skin - wash with soap and water;
• splashes of peroxide into the mouth - rinse out with water and drink plenty of water; and
• splashes of peroxide into the eyes - thoroughly rinse out with water immediately. Hold
eye open and irrigate from inner eye outwards.
Criteria for using MEKP in schools include:
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
purchase only sufficient quantities for current needs;
dispose of stock on hand at the end of each school year in an approved manner;
minimise the risk of contamination by purchasing stock in small containers;
record the date of receipt on each container;
do not mix the contents of different containers of MEKP;
do not store MEKP in the flammable liquids cupboard; and
do not use syringes for the dispensing of MEKP.
58
M.
PHOTOGRAPHY
1
BACKGROUND
Photography, for this manual, refers to the processes used in the field of chemical photography,
as opposed to digital photography. The predominant risks that occur in this form of
photography are those relating to the processing of light sensitive film and papers and the
modification of the resultant products. Many of these processes occur in the subdued lighting or
the completely dark environment of a photographic darkroom.
1.1
Potential Hazards
In photography, there is potential for the following hazards:
• toxic fumes from the chemicals used in the photographic process;
• chemical in contact with the skin or eyes;
• incorrect storage and disposal of these chemicals which can result in pollution of the
environment; and
• reduced light or wet floors (resulting in slipping, falling and tripping).
2
MANAGING HAZARDS
2.1
Controlling hazards and risks
To control the hazards and risks associated with photography activities teachers need to ensure
they have met their responsibilities as stated in Section 1.5.2 and also ensure that:
• the workspace is free of clutter so that students can move around freely while handling
chemicals;
• students receive adequate supervision;
• the ventilation system of the darkroom and other working areas where photographic
chemicals are in use, is capable of replacing the air within the work space about 10-15
times in an hour;
• students using chemicals that are likely to cause injury, burns or allergic reactions wear
or use protective gloves, apron, dust mask, splash goggles and tongs;
• they have read the manufacturer’s material safety data sheets, and are aware of the
potential hazards and measures to minimize these hazards; and
• they are aware that some chemicals used in the photographic process are not compatible
and take precautions to avoid them being mixed.
2.2
Working with photographic chemicals
Some chemicals used in the photographic process are not compatible. The acids and
bleaches when brought in contact with developers can give off toxic sulphur dioxide gas,
which can have serious health effects.
Teachers need to ensure that:
• when diluting acids, the acid is added into the water and never the reverse; and they are
always mixed in slowly;
• no person eats or drinks in the vicinity of photographic chemicals to minimize the
chance of ingestion of toxic chemicals;
59
•
•
•
•
•
every person washes their hands well after handling photographic chemicals;
chemicals are stored in suitable containers and the containers are placed in an area to
minimise spillage or leakage due to damage;
containers are labelled in accordance with OSH regulations (see Section 2 A-Hazardous Substances);
spilt liquids are mopped up immediately, to minimise slipping;
correct procedures are used for the disposal of chemicals.
Chemicals poured down the drain can react to form dangerous gases. Flushing the drain
with running water will reduce this hazard. Most photographic chemicals must be
disposed of as hazardous wastes. It is often illegal to pour them down the drain or
discard them with ordinary waste water.
60
N.
PERSONAL PROTECTIVE EQUIPMENT
1
BACKGROUND
Personal protective equipment (PPE) is equipment designed to provide a person protection from
hazards. Such equipment includes gloves, eye protectors (goggles, face shields, etc.), overalls,
aprons, spats, boots, and hearing and respiratory protectors.
It is important to remember that Personal Protective Equipment (PPE) should be the last control
measure to be chosen from the hierarchy of control (see Section 1 Appendix 1) This is because
PPE does not actually remove the hazard.
2
REDUCING RISKS USING PPE
2.1
PPE for Design and Technology Teachers
Funding is provided to secondary school teachers in Design and Technology through the school
grant. The current list of equipment is:
• lift up welding helmet
• safety glasses
• clear face shield
• dust coat
• heat resistant gloves
• dust mask (Class P1)
• welding apron
• ear muffs
• anti fog chemical goggle
2.2
Storage and Maintenance of PPE
Good storage, maintenance and cleaning will ensure a longer life for expensive PPE. The
condition of PPE should be checked on a regular basis.
PPE also needs to be cleaned regularly to maintain adequate levels of hygiene. A good way to
make sure this is done is by following a system (such as drawing up a student roster for PPE
cleaning).
2.3
Selection of PPE
The basic requirement in successfully selecting the type of PPE for students is to be aware of
the hazards and risks in the workshop. Several types of PPE may be required to control multiple
risks presented by the same tool or machine. For example using a power saw to cut wood
presents risks to eyes (flying chips, dust), lungs (dust), whole of body (electrical), hands (cut),
and ears (noise). An activity risk assessment will identify the types of hazards and risks present
with each activity. Whatever type of PPE is selected, the items must conform to the relevant
Australian Standard.
Students need to be shown how to use each item of PPE properly. This includes an explanation
regarding why it is to be used, and its proper use, as well as information on how to get a “good
fit” so as to make it as comfortable as possible.
61
O.
NOISE EXPOSURE
It has long been recognised that Design and Technology teachers are often (not always) exposed
to noise above the action level of LAeq 8hr, 85 dB(A). That is to say that they may receive
noise, extrapolated to eight hours, above 85 decibels A – weighted.
Noise at that level, over a period of time, will have an adverse effect on the hearing of most
people.
1
Testing
Any employee who has been assessed as receiving noise above the Action Level is entitled, and
encouraged, to have a ‘Baseline Hearing Test’. The process for arranging a test is detailed in
the Hearing Tests procedures on the Regulatory Framework.
Results of the test are confidential and cannot be revealed to the employer except at the express
consent of the employee. There is no cost to the employee or the school.
Only one test is required during a staff member's employment with the Department. An exit test
is also recommended when leaving employment with the Department.
2
Protection
All but the newest high schools will have had a ‘noise survey’ carried out and a result of the
survey is a ‘noise report’ which will have been supplied to the school. That report will provide
recommendations on suitable hearing protectors.
Further specific advice on hearing protectors may be obtained from the Department’s Safety
Officers. In general, suitable hearing protectors will carry the Australian Standards Triangle, be
purchased from a reputable supplier of safety equipment, and provide the minimum (not
maximum) degree of protection necessary to reduce received noise to below 85dB(A).
Hearing protection must be provided free of charge by the employer and once provided,
becomes the employee’s responsibility to care for it.
3
Noise Management
Exposure to excessive noise should be minimised by scheduling quiet/noisy periods so that
hearing has a chance to recover.
Further advice on this subject is available from the Safety Unit on 9264 4653/4854 or in the
WorkSafe Western Australia Code of Practice Managing Noise at Workplaces available on
www.safetyline.wa.gov.au under laws.
62
P.
DEVELOPING STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURES
(A MODEL)
When developing standard operating procedures, consideration should be given to the functions
that the operator is expected to perform (i.e. do not ‘overload’ the operator with instructions).
Information most useful to the development of standard operating procedures for an item of
plant is obtained from its user’s manual.
Written safe operation procedures are not a substitute for theoretical explanation or practical
demonstrations to students. They should complement these processes in ensuring a safe
environment for the equipment operator.
In this section there are safe operation procedures for a number of common items of
machinery. However, before they are used, it is essential that their suitability for the
school’s existing machinery and equipment is determined.
Further information on the use of standard operating procedures is in Section 1.6.5.
63
SECTION 3 – STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURES
Bench Drill
Table Circular Saw
Electric Spot Welding
Machine
Metal Lathe
Milling Machine
Pim 20 Injection Moulding Plastics Strip Heater
Machine
Polishing Buff
Portable Power Drill
Portable Router
Router Lathe/Overhead
Router
Vacuum Forming Machine
Table Router
Band Saw
Blow-Forming Table
Dowelling Machine
Bench Grinder
Compressed Air
Linisher Disc And Belt
Sander
Mitre Drop Saw
Plastics Welding Gun
Portable Power Saw
Spindle/Bobbin Sander
Wood Lathe
It is recommended that similar safe operating procedures be developed for additional equipment
that is in the school’s workshops/departments.
64
STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURE
Type of machine/equipment:
BAND SAW
Make and Model: ........................................................................................................................................
Serial Number: ............................................................................................................................................
Location:.......................................................................................................................................................
Personal Protection
Face shield or safety glasses.
Consider a Class P1 dust mask and earmuffs dependent upon material being worked.
Pre-Operation
•
Plan sawing procedures to minimise backing out of
the saw kerf.
•
Make sure the width of the saw suits the particular
job.
•
Check the tension of the blade.
•
Check and secure the table tilt adjustment.
•
Carefully adjust the side and back thrusts to the
correct free-running position of the saw blade and
adjust the top guide to a position as close to the
work as possible.
•
Ensure that all guards are securely fixed in place.
•
Check the material to be sawn for defects, loose
knots, nails and embedded grit.
•
Hold rounded timber in a clamping device.
Operation
•
•
Hold material firmly with fingers at a safe distance •
from the blade, not directly in front of the saw teeth.
•
Keep both hands on the operator's side of the blade.
Feed material into the machine at a moderate rate.
Allow the machine to stop before backing the saw
blade out of a long cut or a curved cut.
Post-Operation
•
Ensure work area is left in a safe and clean condition.
Additional Precautions
•
Make adjustments only when the machine is
stopped.
•
Do not attempt to back the work away from the
blade.
•
Do not force a wide blade into a cut of a small
radius.
•
Step away immediately if the blade breaks or comes
off. Shut off the power when it is safe to do so.
•
Avoid twisting or binding the blade when cutting
curves.
•
Do not attempt to withdraw a broken blade before
the drive wheels have stopped rotating.
65
STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURE
Type of machine/equipment:
BENCH DRILL
Make and Model: ........................................................................................................................................
Serial Number: ............................................................................................................................................
Location:.......................................................................................................................................................
Personal Protection
Safety glasses or face shield.
No gloves to be worn.
Hair net (long hair)
No loose fitting clothing (i.e. long sleeve shirt or jumper)
Pre-Operation
•
•
Larger articles or articles to have a large
diameter hole drilled in them must be held in
a machine vice or be clamped down.
Ensure that clamping arrangements are
adequate and do not cause obstructions.
•
Set up the job so that the drill, once it has
penetrated, passes between the vice guides, or
parallel supports into a wood support block or
through a hole in the table.
•
Inspect the twist drill to be used. Check the
sharpness, correct angles and damage. If
unsatisfactory resharpen the drill.
•
Ensure that the chuck key is removed.
•
Adjust the table to the correct height and
position and lock securely.
•
Select the correct speed to suit the diameter of
the drill and the material being drilled. Take
care in changing the position of the V-belt so
that fingers are not caught between the belt
and the pulley.
•
Replace the belt guard and secure.
•
Adjust the depth stop.
•
Ensure that a parallel shank drill is securely
held in chuck.
Operation
• Feed the drill into the work at an even rate.
• Ease back on the feed pressure when the drill begins to break through the material.
• Back the drill out as soon as the hole is drilled.
Post-Operation
•
•
•
Remove the drill with care.
Clean down the machine table with a brush.
Turn off the isolating switch. Ensure that the machine area is left in a safe condition.
Additional Precautions
•
Take care with drilling thin material.
•
Stop the machine before doing any
adjustment, removing work or clearing away
swarf. Remove swarf only with a brush.
•
Step away immediately if work becomes
loose and is seized by the drill. Shut off the
power without endangering yourself. It may
be necessary to use the isolating switch.
•
When drilling deep holes, back the drill out
regularly to clear the waste.
66
STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURE
Type of machine/equipment:
BENCH GRINDER
Make and Model: ........................................................................................................................................
Serial Number: ............................................................................................................................................
Location:.......................................................................................................................................................
Personal Protection
Face shield or safety glasses.
Consider earmuffs and a class P1 dust mask dependent upon material being worked.
Pre-Operation
•
Check the tool rest clearance. The gap should •
not exceed 2 mm.
•
Check for cracks or breaks. Rotate the wheel
by hand and note any out of round.
•
Ensure that the wheel is suitable for the
material to be ground.
If clear safety shields are fitted, make sure
they are clean, secure and properly adjusted.
•
Examine the work piece for any defects.
•
Stand to one side. Start the machine. Allow
it to run for a short while before starting to
grind the work piece.
•
Move the work across the face of the wheel to
even the wear.
•
On the completion of the operation turn off
the machine switch and turn off the isolating
switch.
Operation
•
Hold work with both hands if possible. Small
pieces must be held in a clamping device, but
not cloth or rag.
•
Use the face of the wheel only. Do not use
the side.
Post-Operation
•
Ensure work area is left in a safe condition.
Additional Precautions
•
Never adjust or clean the rest while the wheel is in motion.
•
If the work piece becomes jammed in the machine get your hands clear, stand to one side and stop
the machine. If necessary use the isolating switch.
67
STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURE
Type of machine/equipment: BLOW-FORMING TABLE
Make and Model: ........................................................................................................................................
Serial Number: ............................................................................................................................................
Location:.......................................................................................................................................................
Personal Protection
Safety glasses.
Pre-Operation
•
Check the general condition of the blowing
table. Ensure that air connections are secure
and that clamping arrangements are adequate,
secure and correctly adjusted. Report any
defects to the teacher.
•
Use only a low-pressure air supply. (15-20
psi or 105-140 kPa should be adequate.)
•
Before applying pressure to the plastics
materials, clamp the forming ring, and, if they
are to be used, the restraining bars and plates,
securely to the table.
•
Have the teacher check all adjustments and
preparations before attempting to blow form
an article.
Operation
•
Take particular care when blow-moulding since greater pressures are used in this process than are
used in the free blowing process. Care must be taken to provide adequate clamping pressure. The
moulds must be constructed strongly enough to withstand these pressures.
•
Turn off the air supply before releasing the clamps.
Post-Operation
•
On completion of the work, ensure that the forming table and the work area are left in a safe
condition. Return all parts to their proper storage place.
Additional Precautions
•
•
Handle heated material with suitable gloves.
•
Never apply excessive air pressure to the
article as it may rupture. Never attempt to
blow form material that has not been heated to
forming temperature.
68
Do not use compressed air to cool down an
article or to clean down the work area. Flying
particles are a serious hazard.
STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURE
TABLE CIRCULAR SAW
Personal Protective Equipment
Safety glasses and earmuffs.
Consider a class P1, dust mask where fine dust is being generated.
Pre-Operation
•
•
Select the correct type of blade. Check the
sharpness, set and general condition.
•
Adjust guards to the minimum practicable clearance •
from the timber to be cut.
•
Ensure that the riving knife is correctly adjusted and
securely mounted.
•
Ensure that all guards and safety devices are in
position and secured.
Lock the table securely after adjustments are made.
Check material to be sawn for defects, loose knots
and foreign matter such as nails and embedded grit.
Operation
•
Stand to one side of the line of the saw when
turning on the power.
•
Use a suitable push stick for short or narrow timber
and in removing off-cuts from the table.
•
Feed material only as fast as the saw will cut freely.
•
On completion of the job, turn off the isolating
switch and ensure that the work area is left in a safe
condition.
•
Except when using a backup block, never lower
pieces of stock down over the saw.
•
Never remove saw dust from the saw bench by
hand. Stop the machine and use a brush.
Post-Operation
•
Ensure work area is left in a safe condition.
Additional Precautions
•
Handle saw blades with extreme care to protect the
teeth of the saw and to prevent personal injury.
•
Make adjustments only when the machine is at a
dead stop.
•
Always use a ripping fence or a cross-cutting slide.
Freehand sawing is extremely dangerous.
69
STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURE
Type of machine/equipment:
COMPRESSED AIR
Make and Model: ........................................................................................................................................
Serial Number: ............................................................................................................................................
Location:.......................................................................................................................................................
Personal Protection
•
•
•
Close fitting goggles.
When compressed air may be released into the atmosphere, sleeves should be rolled down and
gloves worn.
Face protection may be necessary.
Pre-Operation
•
Check that hose, connections and fittings are in sound condition and secure.
•
Ensure that the air hose does not constitute a trip hazard in any way. Air hoses should not cross a
passage way.
Operation
•
To prevent whipping, hold the loose end of
the hose before and after turning on the air
supply.
•
Where a regulating valve is fitted to the
compressor outlet, reduce the delivery
pressure to the lowest practical level.
•
If a component has to be cleaned with
compressed air, the body should be fully
covered and heavy gloves should be worn.
•
Do not attempt to release the pressure in the
air receiver - the teacher will be responsible
for that.
•
Never direct a stream of compressed air
towards the body or towards the body of
another person.
Post-Operation
•
When not in use, the air hose should be neatly
coiled and stored.
•
Immediately after the work is finished, turn
off the air supply, coil and replace the hose,
turn off the compressor, and inform the
teacher.
Additional Precautions
•
Do not attempt to use compressed air for any
purpose other than that for which it is
provided.
•
Never attempt to disconnect an air hose unless •
the main valve has been turned off and
pressure within the hose has been released.
•
Never use compressed air for personal cooling
or to blow dust from any part of the body or
from clothing.
•
70
Do not clean down machines and benches
with compressed air.
Never kink a hose to restrict or cut off the
flow of air.
STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURE
Type of machine/equipment:
DOWELLING MACHINE
Make and Model: ........................................................................................................................................
Serial Number: ............................................................................................................................................
Location:.......................................................................................................................................................
Personal Protection
Safety glasses.
Pre-Operation
•
Select the correct size drill to suit work.
•
Set table height.
•
Make all adjustments with the isolating switch •
off.
•
Replace guard over drill when fitted.
Set depth gauge.
•
Set fence for position of material.
Operation
•
Keep both hands on material while drilling.
Post-Operation
•
When finished, turn isolating switch off and remove drill.
•
Leave machine in a safe and clean condition.
Additional Precautions
•
Always stop the drill and keep hands away from drill when cleaning table top.
71
STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURE
Type of machine/equipment: ELECTRIC SPOT WELDING MACHINE
Make and Model: ........................................................................................................................................
Serial Number: ............................................................................................................................................
Location:.......................................................................................................................................................
Personal Protection
•
Face shield or safety glasses.
Pre-Operation
•
Do not plug the cord into the power outlet until all adjustments and preparations have been made.
•
Ensure that the tips are clean, properly secured and adjusted.
•
Have the teacher check the adjustments and the work piece before commencing to use the machine.
Operation
•
Ensure that the power cord is clear of the tips and edges of the metal being welded.
•
Keep fingers and hands clear of the tips and weld spots to avoid burns.
•
Do not depress the switch any longer than necessary.
Post-Operation
•
On completion of the job, switch off the machine, disconnect the power cord and leave the work
area in a safe condition.
Additional Precautions
•
Never depress the switch unless there is a work piece between the tops and unless the work piece is
secured at the correct clamping pressure.
•
Only the operator is to manipulate the switch. If an assistant is required he/she should support the
material and keep clear of the machine.
72
STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURE
Type of machine/equipment: LINISHER DISC AND BELT SANDER
Make and Model: ........................................................................................................................................
Serial Number: ............................................................................................................................................
Location:.......................................................................................................................................................
Personal Protection
Face shield or safety glasses.
Consider a class P1 dust mask and ear muffs.
Pre-Operation
•
Check the disc or belt is still in good condition.
•
Carry out adjustments to fences or guides before starting machine.
•
Make sure area around machine is clear of waste material, tools and people.
Operation
•
Allow machine to reach full speed before use.
•
•
Keep job moving when against disc to avoid
burning or gumming up of sand disc or belt.
Sand on that part of disc surface that is
moving downwards.
•
On completion, turn off machine and isolating
switch.
•
Keep all material flat on table or against
fences.
Post-Operation
•
Ensure that the machine and work area is left in a clean and safe condition.
Additional Precautions
•
Do not attempt to sand small pieces held in hand. Some form of suitable holding device must be
used.
•
Avoid excessive pressure between object and sander.
73
STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURE
Type of machine/equipment:
METAL LATHE
Make and Model: ........................................................................................................................................
Serial Number: ............................................................................................................................................
Location:.......................................................................................................................................................
Personal Protection
•
Face shield or safety glass
Pre-Operation
•
Use tool bits that are correctly ground for the
job. Set the tool at the height of the centres.
Ensure that the tool bit does not protrude
excessively from the holder. Never tap the
tool bit to adjust it.
Check to see that all guards are in place.
•
Be sure that all parts of the carriage and the
tool holder will clear any rotating part during
the full length of the cut.
Set the machine for the required speed and
feed, taking into account the kind of material,
its diameter and the finished required.
•
Have your teacher check the preparations and
adjustments.
•
Plan a job procedure. Aim for the easiest,
quickest and safest way to do the job.
•
Make sure that no other student or obstruction
is within the machine area.
•
•
•
Remove chuck key and wrenches immediately
•
after their use.
Turn the machine through one complete cycle
by hand before starting. Traverse the cutting
tool over the work for the length of the
proposed cut to ensure that the cut can be
made without obstruction.
Operation
•
While operating the lathe, give it your undivided attention.
•
Keep hands away from chips or shavings (swarf). Use a piece of wood, a brush or a pair of pliers.
•
Make adjustments, take measurements and clean the machine only when the machine is at a dead
stop.
•
Finish cuts that are close to the chuck or against the shoulder by hand feed.
(a) Remove the tool holder and the tool post before filing or polishing.
(b) Be sure that the emery cloth is shorter than the circumference of the work piece.
(c) Before filing, ensure that the file is fitted with a sound handle.
Cont’d Over
74
Operation
Cont'd
Chuck Work
Centre Work
•
Place a cradle under the chuck when fixing it •
to, or removing it from, the lathe to protect the
lathe bed.
•
Before removing or fitting a chuck, move the
carriage clear and remove the tool bit.
•
If it is necessary to bump the chuck to free it
from the spinkle taper when taking it off, use
a soft faced mallet.
Adjust the tailstock centre carefully so that it
is not too tight or too loose in the centre hole
in the work piece.
•
Use a lubricant on a dead centre.
•
Use the tailstock securely before starting the
machine.
•
Support long slender shafts with a steady.
•
Adjust steady fingers accurately and keep
them lubricated.
•
Secure the work firmly and accurately in the
chuck.
•
Off-set work should be balanced. If this is not •
possible, do not attempt to turn it at high
speeds.
•
Hold only regular hexagonal or cylindrical
material in a 3-jaw self-centring chuck.
•
Take care when using a travelling steady to
ensure that it does not move against a work
shoulder, the chuck or carrier.
Take extra care when using a carrier (or dog).
Drive it through the tail, not the screw.
Post-Operation
•
Clean the machine with a brush and cloth - never use compressed air.
•
Dispose of rags or waste containing metal shavings into appropriate waste bins.
Additional Precautions
•
Do not leave tools on the saddle or the bed.
•
Disengage the feed shaft and/or the lead screw
when it is not required for an operation.
•
Do not reset a tool while the lathe is in
motion.
•
Never put your finger in a bore, or on any
other surface of the work piece, to feel the
finish while the lathe is in motion.
•
Always remove burrs and, where possible,
sharp corners from the work piece.
•
Never use rage or cotton waste near rotating
machinery.
75
STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURE
Type of machine/equipment:
MILLING MACHINE
Make and Model: ........................................................................................................................................
Serial Number: ............................................................................................................................................
Location:.......................................................................................................................................................
Personal Protection
•
Face shield or safety glasses.
Pre-Operation
•
With assistance from the teacher, prepare a
job procedure.
•
Clean the machine down thoroughly. Do not
use bare hands to remove swarf. Clear the
machine area of obstructions. Remove oil or
grease from floor.
•
•
•
Be sure the direction of rotation of the cutter
is correct.
•
When holding the work piece in a vice, use
parallel strips, where possible; if it is
necessary to hit the work piece to position it,
use a soft head hammer.
•
Check to ensure that the work piece or
clamping device will not contact the arbor
support or the arbor of the column during
operation.
•
Never attempt to move the table or the knee
until the lock for the particular direction of
movement has been released.
Do not attempt to tighten the arbor nut unless
the arbor support is in place. The nut must be
•
tightened firmly. Never use machine power
to tighten or loosen the arbor nut or draw bolt.
Ensure that the overarm clears any vice,
clamping device or parts of the work piece.
•
Use cutter guards when provided.
•
Check to ensure that the cutter guard will not
come in contact with the work piece or the
holding device.
•
Ensure that the overarm, arbor support and
arbor are properly and safely secured.
•
Ensure that the work piece and the vice,
clamp, jig or fixture are securely fixed in
position and adequately supported. Stops
should be used.
•
Holding down bolts must have T or square
heads to suit the table slots and should be
close to the work piece as possible.
Before attempting to start a cut, ensure that
the table is locked in the two directions of nil
feed and not locked in the direction of feed.
•
If a vertical feed is not being used, overarm
braces should be set up and securely fixed in
position.
•
Adjust all stopes, if fitted, before starting the
machine. Calculate and set the speed and feed
rate to suit the cutter diameter and the
material.
•
Have the teacher check all adjustments and
preparations before turning on the power.
Wind the work piece past the tool over the
length of the proposed cut to ensure that there
are no obstructions.
•
Ensure that the table and feed controls are in
neutral before starting the machine.
•
Adjust the coolant flow before starting the
cutter. Do not attempt to adjust the coolant
during cutting operations.
Cont’d Over
76
Operation
Cont’d
•
Disengage handles and hand wheels when
power feeds or table locks are engaged.
•
Keep fingers and hands well clear of the
cutter and the trapping space.
•
Do not attempt to change the speed or feed
rate or measure the work piece while the
cutter is rotating.
•
If power traverse is provided, take particular
care to avoid running the work piece into the
cutter.
•
When cloth is used to clean down the
machine, dispose of it immediately after use.
Post-Operation
•
•
•
Sharp edges or burrs produced by the cutter
should be removed immediately the job is
removed from the machine.
•
When possible, remove the cutter and return it
to its storage position before cleaning down
the table.
•
Turn off the power to the machine before
leaving the machine area.
Ensure that the machine and the machine area
are left in a clean and safe condition.
Never use compressed air to clean down the
machine.
Additional Precautions
•
Handle cutters with extreme care to avoid
injury. Never hit a cutter with a hammer to
position it.
•
Never operate the machine until all guards
and safety devices are in position, properly
adjusted and secure.
•
Keep cutters off the machine table, unless
they are on a board in readiness for mounting.
Do not place cutters near the edge of a bench.
•
Do not hit handles or wrenches with a
hammer. Do not use an extension on a
wrench to gain extra leverage.
•
Never set the machine up for 'climb milling'
unless approval has been given and unless the
machine is designed for it.
•
Do not permit swarf to accumulate on the
table, knee ways or column base.
77
STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURE
Type of machine/equipment:
MITRE DROP SAW
Make and Model: ........................................................................................................................................
Serial Number: ............................................................................................................................................
Location:.......................................................................................................................................................
Personal Protection
Safety glasses and ear muffs.
Pre-Operation
•
Check material for faults or defects.
•
Make sure all guards are in place and moving
freely.
•
Make sure machine and area around machine
is clear of waste materials, tools and people.
•
Select correct setting angle for the saw cut.
•
Make all adjustments with the isolating switch •
off.
Place material against fence and check
position of saw and cut to be made.
Operation
•
Hold material firmly with one hand.
•
Wait until machine has picked up full speed.
•
Hold handle and switch and lower saw on to
material. No cross arm grip is allowed.
•
The saw must always be returned to the safe
zone or starting area and turned off.
Post-Operation
•
Ensure work area is left in a safe and clean condition.
Additional Precautions
78
STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURE
Type of machine/equipment:
PIM 20 INJECTION MOULDING MACHINE
Make and Model: ........................................................................................................................................
Serial Number: ............................................................................................................................................
Location:.......................................................................................................................................................
Personal Protection
Safety glasses.
Consider ear muffs.
Pre-Operation
•
Fill the hopper to the correct level with
granules.
•
•
Turn power on at wall and also on at machine. •
Adjust temperature knob on control panel to
HIGH.
Wait approximately 20 minutes for machine
to reach operating temperature. (Heating light
will turn off.)
Operation
•
•
Release capstan handle and wind table down
until mould is positioned securely, ensuring
injection nozzle is firmly against the receiver
of the die, then clamp the table.
•
Wind transfer piston down quickly until
resistance is felt on capstan.
•
Return transfer piston to original position and
return red key to close off melt flow.
Turn red mushroom knob until the white
indicator mark is in front and raise until the
•
key at its base passes through the key hole and
turn knob at 90° to rest on top.
Post-Operation
•
Turn off machine and clean up area.
Additional Precautions
79
Release table clamp brace and remove mould.
STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURE
Type of machine/equipment:
PLASTICS STRIP HEATER
Make and Model: ........................................................................................................................................
Serial Number: ............................................................................................................................................
Location:.......................................................................................................................................................
Personal Protection
None required.
Pre-Operation
•
Before connecting to the power point, check for signs of damage to the power cord, connection
and the element. Ensure that there is no foreign matter in the element channel.
•
Keep the power cord clear of the element and casing. Position the power cord so that it does not
create a trip hazard.
Operation
•
Do not attempt to move the strip heater while it is switched on.
Post-Operation
•
On completion of the project, switch off the power point and disconnect the cord.
Additional Precautions
•
Keep hands away from the element and the metal casing while the power is switched on.
•
Never attempt to remove anything that may fall inside the casing. Never probe around the element,
especially with metal articles. Do not allow paper or cloth to touch the elements.
80
STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURE
Type of machine/equipment:
PLASTICS WELDING GUN
Make and Model: ........................................................................................................................................
Serial Number: ............................................................................................................................................
Location:.......................................................................................................................................................
Personal Protection
Safety glasses.
Pre-Operation
•
Check the welding gun and the power cord for signs of damage. Report any faults to the teacher.
Operation
•
Keep the power cord and the hands clear of
the heat shield.
•
When switching on the welding gun, hold it
firmly to counter any sudden movement due
to torque.
•
To close down a welding gun fitted with a
cooling setting, switch off the heating element
and then allow the fan to run for sufficient
time to cool down the element and the heat
shield before disconnecting from the power
outlet.
Post-Operation
•
Return the welding gun to its storage place only after it has cooled down.
Additional Precautions
•
When not in use, place the welding gun on the •
rest away from the edge of the bench.
•
Ensure that the nozzle is never directed
towards flammable materials, the power cord
or parts of the body.
81
Never operate the welding gun in damp
conditions or in the vicinity of flammable
vapours.
STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURE
Type of machine/equipment:
POLISHING BUFF
Make and Model: ........................................................................................................................................
Serial Number: ............................................................................................................................................
Location:.......................................................................................................................................................
Personal Protection
Face shield (for preference) or safety glasses.
Consider a class P1 dust mask.
Pre-Operation
•
Ensure that the work area is clear of
obstructions, the floor is clean and in a nonslip condition and that there are no loose
articles on the machine.
•
Ensure that the guards are correctly adjusted
and securely fixed.
•
Ensure that the mop is in sound condition, is
suited to the job to be performed and is
properly and firmly secured to the spindle.
•
Ensure that the work piece is free from burred
and sharp edges or any other condition that
could cause 'snagging'.
•
Check for cracks or any structural condition
that could cause disintegration of the work
piece in the event of 'snagging'.
•
Ask the teacher for special instructions and
permission to buff small pieces.
•
Buff flat surfaces from the centre towards the
lower edge. Buff edges lengthways from the
centre towards the lower ends of acrossways
with the work piece angled downwards
towards the mop.
•
On completion of the work, turn off the
isolating switch.
Operation
•
Apply polishing abrasive sparingly.
•
Keep hands clear of the mop and spindle.
•
Keep the point of contact between the work
piece and the mop below the centre height.
Post-Operation
•
Ensure the machine and work area are left in a clean and safe condition.
Additional Precautions
•
Never point corners upwards into the mop. The work should be held firmly with the hands held
downwards. Always hold the work with both hands.
•
Always work on the face of the mop. Apply the correct amount of pressure.
82
STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURE
Type of machine/equipment:
PORTABLE POWER DRILL
Make and Model: ........................................................................................................................................
Serial Number: ............................................................................................................................................
Location:.......................................................................................................................................................
Personal Protection
Safety glasses and ear muffs.
Pre-Operation
•
Check work piece for faults.
•
Tighten drill in the chuck and remove key.
•
Make sure work piece is securely held in a
convenient position for drilling.
•
Check working area is clear and lead is safely
positioned from point to machine.
•
Check drill and leads for faults.
•
Ensure pressure on drill when close to break
through on work piece.
•
Stop machine before cleaning around work
piece.
•
Do not place machine down until it has
stopped rotating.
Operation
•
Hold machine firmly in both hands.
•
Allow motor to attain full speed before use.
•
Apply even pressure.
•
Back the drill out of hole to remove cuttings.
Post-Operation
•
On completion remove bit, remove cord from power outlet and clean machine.
Additional Precautions
•
Do not use the switch lock unless the machine is held in a drill stand.
•
Always have some scrap wood behind work piece.
83
STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURE
Type of machine/equipment:
PORTABLE POWER SAW
Make and Model: ........................................................................................................................................
Serial Number: ............................................................................................................................................
Location:.......................................................................................................................................................
Personal Protection
Safety glasses and ear muffs.
Pre-Operation
•
Check the material for faults and defects.
•
Make sure work piece is securely held.
•
When not in use, before servicing, and when
changing accessories such as blade, bit, cutter,
or adjusting the setting of the saw, make sure
it is disconnected from power source.
•
Don't over-reach. Keep proper footing and
balance at all times.
•
Keep guards in place and in working order.
Never allow the lower guard to stay open.
Check to see that it closes briskly over saw
blade.
•
Always hold saw with both hands.
•
Avoid kickback. This occurs when saw stalls
rapidly and is driven backward. Release
switch as quickly as possible.
Operation
•
Make sure cord is well away from cutting
area.
•
Do not start cutting until blade is at full speed.
Post-Operation
Additional Precautions
84
STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURE
Type of machine/equipment:
PORTABLE ROUTER
Make and Model: ........................................................................................................................................
Serial Number: ............................................................................................................................................
Location:.......................................................................................................................................................
Personal Protection
Safety glasses and ear muffs.
Consider a class P1 dust mask.
Pre-Operation
•
Check material for faults or defects.
•
Make sure work piece is securely held.
•
Fit cutter to machine and make all adjustments for depth of cut, guides and other attachments
before connecting to power source.
Operation
•
Remove keys or spanners from tool.
•
Hold router with both hands.
•
Keep fingers, hands and power cord clear of
cutter.
•
•
Keep sole plate pressed firmly on the work
piece.
•
Turn motor off as soon as a cut is finished.
•
Do not place machine down until the cutter
has stopped rotating.
Allow motor to attain full speed before use.
Post-Operation
•
On completion remove cord from power outlet, clean and store in safe place.
Additional Precautions
85
STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURE
Type of machine/equipment:
ROUTER LATHE/OVERHEAD ROUTER
Make and Model: ........................................................................................................................................
Serial Number: ............................................................................................................................................
Location:.......................................................................................................................................................
Personal Protection
Face shield or safety glasses and ear muffs.
Consider a class P1 dust mask.
Pre-Operation
•
Check material for faults and defects.
•
Know and understand all safety instruction for
the portable router.
•
Make sure machine and area around machine
is clear of waste materials, tools and people.
•
Make all adjustments, changing of router bits
and setting up of material in lathe before
connecting to power source.
•
Do not force the router bit.
•
Fasten router lathe securely to a workbench or
other stable structure.
Operation
•
Move the router carriage from left to right towards headstock when cutting.
Post-Operation
•
Leave machine in a safe and clean condition.
Additional Precautions
•
Never put hands under lathe area while turned on.
•
Always remove router lead from power source before removing material.
86
STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURE
Type of machine/equipment:
SPINDLE/BOBBIN SANDER
Make and Model: ........................................................................................................................................
Serial Number: ............................................................................................................................................
Location:.......................................................................................................................................................
Personal Protection
Safety glasses or face shield.
Consider a class P1 dust mask.
Pre-Operation
•
Check the condition of the sanding cylinder.
•
Check the adjustments of the table, collar and
spindle nuts before starting the machine.
•
Make sure the area around the machine is
clear of waste material, tools and people.
•
Ensure that the appropriate collar is used to
ensure the smallest possible hole between the
spindle and the table.
•
Allow machine to reach full speed before use.
•
Keep the work piece moving when against the
bobbin to avoid burning the work piece and/or
gumming up the sanding cylinder.
•
On completion, turn off the machine and the
isolating switch.
Operation
•
Hold work piece to counteract the centripetal
force (as well as the up and down forces) of
the spindle, keeping hands well clear of the
spindle
•
Do not attempt to sand small pieces held in
hand. A suitable holding device must be
used.
•
Keep all material flat on table at all times.
The table may be adjusted to suitable angles.
Post-Operation
•
Ensure the machine and work area are left in a clean and safe condition.
Additional Precautions
•
Hold the work piece firmly against the bobbin, but do not press hard so as to burn the work piece
or destroy the abrasive material.
87
STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURE
Type of machine/equipment:
TABLE ROUTER
Make and Model: ........................................................................................................................................
Serial Number: ............................................................................................................................................
Location:.......................................................................................................................................................
Personal Protection
Safety glasses and ear muffs.
Consider a class P1 dust mask dependent on material being worked.
Pre-Operation
•
Make all adjustments to table and router before connecting to power source.
Operation
•
Use a guide attached to table or a ball bearing race on cutter.
•
Always consider the direction of rotation of the cutter/blade with regard to the feed direction.
Post-Operation
•
Wait until blade has stopped spinning before clearing the table.
•
Always remove bit from router when finished.
•
Ensure work area is left in a safe and clean condition.
Additional Precautions
•
Keep hands away from router bit as bit is exposed at all times.
•
Always turn router off at machine as well as at the power points before making any adjustments or
changing pieces of material.
88
STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURE
Type of machine/equipment:
VACUUM FORMING MACHINE
Make and Model: ........................................................................................................................................
Serial Number: ............................................................................................................................................
Location:.......................................................................................................................................................
Personal Protection
Safety glasses.
Pre-Operation
•
Check the general condition of the machine.
Report any defects to the teacher.
•
Ensure that the plastics material is securely
clamped in position.
•
Set up and clamp while the machine is turned
off.
•
•
Before switching on the power supply, ensure
that all controls are in their correct positions.
All guards must be in place.
Set up the mould so that the free movement of
•
the moving platen is not obstructed.
Ensure that no other student is in the machine
area.
Operation
•
Keep hands clear of the clamping area, the
moving platen and the heating element while
the machine is operating.
•
Take care to ensure that the heater bank is
moved away from the plastics material before
degradation begins. Turn off the heater as
soon as possible. Keep hands clear of the
heater casing.
•
Switch off the machine and release the air
pressure before releasing the clamp and
removing the work piece.
Post-Operation
•
On completion of the work, disconnect the power cord from the power outlet and ensure that the
machine and the work area are left in a safe condition.
Additional Precautions
•
Compressed air should not be used to cool the work piece or to clean down the machine. Flying
particles are a serious hazard.
89
STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURE
Type of machine/equipment:
WOOD LATHE
Make and Model: ........................................................................................................................................
Serial Number: ............................................................................................................................................
Location:.......................................................................................................................................................
Personal Protection
Face shield (for preference) or safety glasses.
Consider a class P1 dust mask where fine dust is generated.
Pre-Operation
•
Carefully plan a working procedure.
•
Ensure that the timber is free from splits,
cracks, loose knots or other defects.
•
Make sure that built up stock has been
properly prepared and glued and that the glue
has dried.
•
Be sure that stock is correctly mounted in the
lathes.
•
Adjust the tool rest to the correct height as
close as possible to the work piece and then
clamp securely.
•
Set the spindle speed relative to the diameter
of the material, the type of timber and
required finish.
•
Check the sharpness of turning tools and the
condition of the handles.
•
Make sure all guards are in place.
Operation
•
Grasp the turning tool firmly with both hands.
•
Stop the lathe when testing or measuring.
• Remove the tool rest before sanding or finishing.
Post-Operation
• Ensure work area is left in a safe condition.
Additional Precautions
Spindle Turning
Face Plate Turning
•
Use a suitable lubricant on the dead centre.
•
Cut the material circular with bandsaw or
bowsaw.
•
Check the tailstock adjustments regularly.
•
•
Turn work through one complete revolution
by hand before starting.
Fasten the work piece securely to the face
plate.
•
•
Rough the material down to a cylindrical form
before increasing speed.
Keep an accurate check on the depth of the
work piece to avoid the screws.
•
•
Avoid "whip" or "chatter" in long material.
Make frequent inspections of the screws to
ensure that they do not loosen.
90
STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURE
<Equipment Name>
Make and Model:
Location:
Personal Protection
Pre-Operation
Operation
Post-Operation
Additional Precautions
91
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