2015 Slope Electric your family`s energy guide.indd

2015 Slope Electric your family`s energy guide.indd
Energy Guide
YourFamily’s
Family’s
Your
A special publication of Minnkota
Power
Cooperative
andElectric
the associated
systems
A special
publication
of Slope
Cooperative,
Inc.
The energy
efficient home
In an era of rapidly rising energy costs, having an energyefficient home is important. The size of your home and
your family’s lifestyle are key factors in the amount of
energy consumed. Your electric cooperative or municipal
Average Energy Bill for a Single Family Home
$2,200/yr.
Other
11%
Electronics
4%
Lighting
12%
Heating & Cooling
46%
Appliances
13%
Water Heating
14%
2
Source:
www.energystar.gov
works hard to hold down energy prices. You, too, can
play an important role in controlling your energy costs
by evaluating your home and taking simple steps to trim
unnecessary energy consumption.
The best way to start this process is by taking a
whole-house approach to understanding the main factors
that contribute to your energy usage. We will start with
the structural design and orientation of your home and
then go through each of the major rooms to determine
the best ways to utilize energy efficiency and conservation.
This guide is a starting point to get you on the way
toward better energy management. It will provide you
with the information you need to estimate your electric
use. You’ll also find valuable tips to create greater home
comfort and improve performance. By using energy
efficiency and conservation strategies in your home,
you’ll be able to reduce your electric energy usage, and
ultimately your bill.
Enjoy the comfort and convenience of
Off-peak electric heating
and save money, too!
Your family can enjoy the value and convenience of electric heat and save money, too,
by installing an off-peak electric heating system in your new or existing home.
An off-peak system consists of an electric heating source as its primary component. A supplemental heating source will need to operate 400 hours or more during
the winter season.
Off-peak heating loads are generally controlled during the coldest months of
the year, when the demand for electricity is high. Load control hours can also occur
for a variety of reasons, including unscheduled power plant outages, transmission
constraints outside of the Minnkota service area and extraordinarily high wholesale
energy market prices.
The ability to interrupt the flow of electricity to the electric portion of your off-peak
system allows your power supplier to operate generating plants more efficiently and
avoid making costly power pool purchases. By voluntarily enrolling in the program,
the savings are passed on to you through the low off-peak electric rate, which is approximately half of the regular retail rate.
For more information about energy savings and off-peak heating, contact your
local electric cooperative or municipal system listed on the back page.
Total Annual Heating Costs
•
•
•
•
100 Hours
Control
Off-peak heat
200 Hours
Control
300 Hours
Control
Propane
Only
$1,067
$1,083
$1,099
$1,450
ASSUMPTIONS:
Average 1,500 sq. ft. home
• 3,413 Btu/kWh
17,520 kWh/yr. heating needs
• Propane $2.00/gal.
7 kW/hr. average demand
• Furnace efficiency
6¢/kWh off-peak electric rate
– electric 100%, propane 90%
EXAMPLE CALCULATION:
(Off-peak heat, 300 hours of control)
Electric furnace cost:
17,520 kWh – (300 hours x 7 kW/hr.) x 6¢/kWh
=
$925
Backup propane furnace cost:
300 hrs. x 7 kW/hr. x 3,413 ÷ 91,600 Btu/gal. x $2.00/gal. =
$174
.9
Total
= $1,099
3
Your home’s design
A truly energy efficient home begins with the orientation and design
of the structure itself. Most modern energy-saving ideas can be
seamlessly integrated into any type of home design without sacrificing comfort, health or aesthetics.
Home heating and cooling
Because heating and cooling account for nearly half of your
electric usage, here are a few simple suggestions you can try to help
you save on your electric bill:
● Turn down the thermostat. Reduce the temperature from 70
degrees to 65 degrees while you’re home. Turn it down to 60
degrees or 55 degrees while you’re away or asleep, and cut
your heating bill by 10 to 15 percent.
4
● Run the furnace fan in “auto”
mode instead of “fan on” mode.
● Setting your thermostat lower in
the winter and higher in the summer will save you 3 percent per
degree on heating and cooling
costs.
● Open shades to let in the sun’s warmth – close them at
night to keep heat inside.
● Heating, ventilation and air conditioning systems
should be checked to verify they are moving the correct
amount of air. A qualified technician can assist you.
● Heat pump and air conditioning systems should be checked
annually to verify they are properly charged, strictly in accordance with manufacturers’ guidelines.
● Keep inside and outside coils clean and free of debris.
● Gas furnaces should be tuned for maximum combustion
efficiency.
● Return filters should be changed
monthly.
● Have a technician check carefully
for duct leaks. Leaks that are found
should be sealed with fiberglass and
mastic sealant.
● Rather than turning on the central air
conditioner, use a fan to circulate air
and open windows.
Windows
A considerable amount of heat transfers through windows. If you
have single-pane windows, consider doing the following:
● Tighten and weatherstrip
your old windows and then
add storm windows.
● Compare the above cost
with replacing your old
single-glazed windows
with new double-glazed
windows.
● “Low-e” coatings on glass can help reduce heat loss through
windows.
● Close your curtains and shades at night; open them during
the day.
● Lock windows. It tightens the seal to stop heat leaks.
Insulation and air infiltration
Air that transfers in and out of homes through cracks, crevices
and holes can increase energy consumption. Here are some helpful
tips to avoid air infiltration and improve your home’s insulation:
● If you have R-19 or less insulation in your attic, consider
bringing it up to R-49.
● If you have R-11 or less floor insulation, consider bringing it up
to R-25.
● Insulating basement walls can save
you up to 20 percent on your heating costs and make your home more
comfortable.
● Rim joists should be insulated and
sealed.
● Seal around pipe penetration coming
through the walls.
● Ensure that the weatherstripping around doors is tight.
● When your fireplace is not operating, its flue should be closed
tightly, with a sign hanging from the flue handle warning it is
closed.
● Check the ceiling behind the crown molding of built-in bookshelves for holes cut during construction.
● Drop-down stairways should fit tightly into the ceiling and be
carefully weatherstripped.
● Whole-house attic fans should be sealed tightly during the
winter.
● Make sure the outside dryer vent door closes when the dryer
is not in use.
5
Using energy efficiently
Your family is unique. A direct relationship exists between the number of people
living in a home and the amount of energy used.
Each room in your home has a different set of appliances that can account
for about 20 percent of all energy used. Cell phone chargers, iPods, remotecontrolled televisions, DVD players and even washing machines use electricity
when they are turned off. Forty percent of the electricity consumed by these
appliances is used when they are idle.
Saving energy in your home doesn’t require a major investment of money –
even your time. Here are a few ideas that will cost you little or nothing. Some will
save you a lot of money, others perhaps only a few dollars a year. But add them
up and you could reduce your annual energy bill by 25 percent.
6
Family room
● Make sure draperies or furniture
do no block heat registers.
● Use a power strip to turn off
electronic appliances completely.
Eliminating this standby electricity
loss from home appliances could
save up to 25 percent on electrical bills.
● Select energy-efficient entertainment and home office equipment.
● Multifunction devices that combine several capabilities (print,
scan, copy, fax) can provide additional savings.
Kitchen
● Make sure refrigerator and freezer seals fit tightly with the doors
closed.
● Keep outside refrigerator coils clean. Dirty coils make your compressor work longer to remove heat.
● Setting your refrigerator below 37
degrees uses extra energy.
● Setting your freezer below 0
degrees uses extra energy.
● Defrost foods before baking or
cooking to save as much as 50
percent of the total cooking time.
● Replace aging, inefficient appliances. Even if the appliance has
a few useful years left, replacing
it with a top-efficiency model is
generally a good investment.
● Use small appliances where possible; a larger cooking appliance
will use more energy and may not be required. A toaster, electric
skillet, waffle iron, crockpot or popcorn popper uses less energy
than a stove.
● An electric kettle uses less energy than stove top boiling.
● Coffee makers with an automatic shutoff can save you energy
dollars.
● Preheat oven only when necessary
and try not to open the oven while
food is cooking.
● Use the “energy saver” setting on
your dishwasher and air dry whenever
possible.
● Operate the dishwasher only when
there is a full load.
● Hand washing dishes with a lot of hot water can cost more than
using a dishwasher.
● Turn off bathroom fans after use.
● Install low-flow showerheads and faucet aerators.
● Clean your showerhead periodically; scaling
and sediment can collect and reduce water
flow, using more hot water than needed.
Laundry room
● Don’t over-dry your clothes. If 50 minutes works, don’t set it to 70
minutes.
● Make sure to clean the inside lint filter before each drying cycle.
● Periodically check your flexible metal dryer vent hose to ensure it
is still tightly connected and not kinked.
● Use warm or cold water settings on
the clothes washer. Each load of
laundry washed in cold water saves
enough energy to power a television for up to 34 hours.
● Wash and dry full loads of laundry.
Bedroom
● Use electric blankets that have dual settings for each side. Turn
your blanket on just prior to bedtime, then turn off when going to
bed.
● Draw curtains to keep the heat in when you go to bed.
● Make sure all the lights are turned off or use an energy-saving
night light if you do need to leave one on.
Bathroom
● Take short showers instead of baths. A typical bath uses 30 gallons of hot water compared to 18 gallons used for a five-minute
shower.
7
● Take a look at the lighting you use at night for security.
Check with your local cooperative or municipal to see if
they can help you save money by installing a pole-mounted
outdoor light.
● Use motion sensor, photocell or LED lights, which can
provide security lighting while saving energy.
● LED Christmas lights use up to 90 percent less energy than
traditional lights, last for many years and require no bulb
changes.
Lighting
Making improvements to your home’s lighting is one of the fastest and easiest ways to cut your energy bill. Follow these tips
when upgrading your home lighting.
● A 100-watt lamp costs roughly a penny an hour to operate.
● Consider replacing incandescent bulbs with energy-saving
compact fluorescent lamps. They use a fraction of the wattage, last much longer and give off less heat.
● A 13-watt compact fluorescent bulb is equal to a 60-watt bulb,
saving you 47 watts.
● When you finish cooking, turn off the kitchen lighting and the
range exhaust fan.
● Don’t leave unnecessary lighting on during the day.
Water heating
Water heating is the second-largest energy expense in
your home. It typically accounts for 14 percent of your
utility bill each month. By reducing your hot water usage and turning down the thermostat on your hot water
heater, you can save significantly on your electric bill.
● Make sure your water heater is set at the lowest
point. Try to set it at 120 degrees.
● Insulate your electric hot-water storage tank. If your
water heater is located in an unconditioned space,
consider installing a thermal wrap around it. Take
care to install it in accordance with the tank and
wrap manufacturer’s instructions.
● Buy a new, more efficient model.
● Try washing clothes with warm water and rinsing
with cold water.
● Repair leaky faucets immediately so they don’t drip
and waste hot water.
● Drain a quart of water from your water tank every
three months to remove sediment that impedes heat
transfer and lowers the efficiency of your heater.
8
Energy Efficient
Light Bulb Cost Comparison
Watts
Incandescent
Watts
CFL
Annual Cost
Incandescent
Annual Cost
CFL
Annual
Savings
100
75
60
40
23
20
13
9
$ 24.00
$ 18.00
$ 14.40
$ 9.60
$5.52
$4.80
$3.12
$2.16
$ 18.48
$ 13.20
$11.28
$ 7.44
Example:
Annual
wattage (100) x cost per kilowatt-hour (.12) x average rated life (2,000*)
= Electricity
1,000 (watts per kilowatt)
Cost
*Assumes bulb is used five and one-half hours per day on average.
Estimating your family’s hot water usage:
Step 1
Step 2
Step 3
Step 4
# of occupants x 18* =Total household gallons
of water used/day
4 x 18* = 72
Total household gallons x 30 days/month
= Total household gallons used/month
72 x 30 = 2,160 household gallons used/month
Total household gallons used/month x .18 kWh/gallons** = Total kWh
2,160 x .18 kWh/gallons** = 389 kWh
Total kWh x cost per kWh = Estimated cost to heat water
for family for one month
389 kWh x cost per kWh (.12) = $46.68
(estimated cost per month to heat water for this family of four)
**Estimated gallons of hot water used/day by each family member
**Amount of energy (609 Btus) needed to heat one gallon of water from 47 degrees to 120 degrees F.
Fuel Oil
Regular
Furnace
($/Gal.) - 70%
Efficiency
Fuel Oil
Super Efficient
Furnace
($/Gal.) - 80%
Efficiency
Propane
Regular
Furnace
($/Gal.) - 70%
Efficiency
Propane
Super Efficient
Furnace
($/Gal.) - 90%
Efficiency
Natural Gas
Regular
Furnace
($/MCF) - 70%
Efficiency
Natural Gas
Super Efficient
Furnace
($/MCF) - 90%
Efficiency
4.0
1.15
1.31
0.75
0.97
8.20
10.55
4.2
1.21
1.38
0.79
1.01
8.61
11.08
4.4
1.26
1.44
0.83
1.06
9.02
11.60
4.6
1.32
1.51
0.86
1.11
9.43
12.13
4.7
1.35
1.54
0.88
1.14
9.64
12.39
4.8
1.38
1.58
0.90
1.16
9.84
12.66
4.9
1.41
1.61
0.92
1.18
10.05
12.92
5.0
1.44
1.64
0.94
1.21
10.25
13.18
5.1
1.46
1.67
0.96
1.23
10.46
13.45
5.2
1.49
1.71
0.98
1.26
10.67
13.71
5.3
1.52
1.74
1.00
1.28
10.87
13.98
5.4
1.55
1.77
1.01
1.30
11.08
14.24
5.5
1.58
1.80
1.03
1.33
11.28
14.50
5.6
1.61
1.84
1.05
1.35
11.49
14.77
5.7
1.64
1.87
1.07
1.38
11.69
15.03
5.8
1.67
1.90
1.09
1.40
11.90
15.29
5.9
1.69
1.94
1.11
1.43
12.10
15.56
6.0
1.72
1.97
1.13
1.45
12.31
15.82
6.5
1.87
2.13
1.22
1.57
13.33
17.14
6.7
1.92
2.20
1.26
1.62
13.74
17.67
6.9
1.98
2.26
1.30
1.67
14.15
18.20
7.0
2.01
2.30
1.32
1.69
14.36
18.46
7.5
2.15
2.46
1.41
1.81
15.38
19.78
7.7
2.21
2.53
1.45
1.86
15.79
20.30
8.0
2.30
2.63
1.50
1.93
16.41
21.10
8.5
2.44
2.79
1.60
2.05
17.43
22.41
8.6
2.47
2.82
1.62
2.08
17.64
22.68
8.7
2.50
2.85
1.63
2.10
17.84
22.94
8.9
2.56
2.92
1.67
2.15
18.25
23.47
9.0
2.58
2.95
1.69
2.17
18.46
23.73
10.0
2.87
3.28
1.88
2.42
20.51
26.37
10.5
3.01
3.45
1.97
2.54
21.54
27.69
12.0
3.45
3.94
2.25
2.90
24.61
31.64
14.0
4.02
4.59
2.63
3.38
28.71
36.92
Electricity
(Cents/kWh)
The above figures are based on the assumptions and formulas listed below.
Assumptions
When comparing the price of
off-peak electricity for heating
to the price of alternative
heating fuels, it is important
to compare equipment
efficiency, energy rates and
monthly service charges.
The seasonal efficiency
for electric heating systems
ranges from 100-300 percent
or more. The comparable efficiency for gas and oil heating
systems ranges from a low of
approximately 70 percent to a
high of 95 percent. Most older
gas and oil systems have an
efficiency of 70 to 80 percent
and most newer models have
an efficiency in the 90 percent
range.
Cost comparisons
must also take into account
actual energy cost and
facilities charges or
service charges that often
are required by utilities.
An energy specialist
from your local cooperative
or municipal will be happy
to help you sort out all the
factors that should be
considered in your energy
cost comparisons.
How to compare cost
Comparative energy costs for heating
Annual Seasonal Operating Efficiency
Fuel
Source
Btu Heat
Content
Electricity
#2 Fuel Oil
Propane
Natural Gas
3,413 Btu/kWh
140,000 Btu/Gal.
91,600 Btu/Gal.
1,000,000 Btu/MCF
Regular
Furnace
100%
70%
70%
70%
Super Efficient
Furnace
100%
80%
90%
90%
Formulas
Alternate fuel price to electric rate conversion formula:
(Fuel Price) ÷ (Efficiency) x (341,300) ÷ (Btu Heat Content) = Electric Rate
Example of $1.45/Gal. Propane to Electricity with a Super Efficient Furnace:
(1.45) ÷ (0.90) x (341,300) ÷ (91,600) = 6.0¢/kWh
Electricity rate to alternate fuel price conversion formula:
(Electric Rate) x (Efficiency) x (Btu Heat Content) ÷ (341,300) = Fuel Price
Example of 6¢/kWh Electricity Rate to #2 Fuel Oil with a Regular Furnace:
(6.0) x (0.70) x (140,000) ÷ (341,300) = $1.72/Gal.
9
Optimizing energy usage
More than half of all electrical energy consumed in the United States is used by electric motors. Motors used within your home turn at almost
constant speed; however, most often the electric loads being driven may not require the full load power that the motor can supply. This power
shortfall means that energy is being wasted. By controlling the speed of the motor so that it more closely matches the load’s requirements,
you’ll be able to control your motor’s running cost.
Electronically commutated motors (ECMs)
Variable frequency drives (VFDs)
ECMs (electronically commutated motors) are brushless,
direct-current motors that contain built-in speed and torque
controls. This means that the motor has the ability to adjust
its speed to ensure optimal airflow at all times. Without a
mechanical system of brushes, an ECM is quieter and will
have a longer life than a typical motor.
With its adjustable speed design, furnaces with an ECM
motor operate with as little as 80 watts
of electricity. That’s 10 times less than
standard fan motors that run on
high all the time.
Adding a variable frequency drive (VFD) to a
motor-driven system can offer major energy savings to a system where load varies. The operating
speed of a motor connected to a VFD is varied by
changing the frequency of the motor supply voltage.
VFDs save energy because they are able to regulate speed while
still delivering the full torque of power. A VFD varies the amount of frequency and regulates the voltage that is being sent to the motor.
This lowers the operating speed, allowing a longer life span for your
motor. VFDs can reduce energy usage by 35 to 50 percent compared to
conventional constant speed equipment in certain applications. Contact
your utility to learn more about these specific applications.
Energy
Terms
Adjustable speed drive – An electronic device that controls the rotational
speed of a piece of motor-driven equipment. Speed control is obtained by
adjusting the frequency of the voltage
applied to the motor.
Ballast – A device used to control the
voltage in a fluorescent light.
Demand – The amount of electricity a
customer takes at any given moment.
Air retarder – A material or structural
element that inhibits airflow into and out
of a building’s envelope or shell.
Baseload – The minimum amount of
electric power delivered or required
over a given period of time at a steady
rate.
Biomass conversion – The production
of fuel or energy from organic waste,
whether it be plant material, animal
manure, municipal sewage sludge or
solid waste.
Electric thermal storage (ETS) – A
type of heater that uses electricity during periods of low use to heat a ceramic
material in an insulated cabinet to high
temperatures. It then releases the
stored heat when electric use is high.
Air sealing – Sealing penetrations
in the walls, floor and ceiling where
outside air enters the home. It’s often
the most cost-effective way to improve
energy efficiency.
Air-source heat pump – A system that
can supply both space heating and
cooling. In the heating cycle, the heat
pump removes heat from outside air
and pumps it indoors. When cooling,
the heat pump absorbs heat from the
indoors and releases it to the outside.
Ampere – The unit of measurement of
electrical current produced in a circuit
by 1 volt acting through a resistance
of 1 Ohm.
10
Annual Fuel Utilization Efficiency
Rating (AFUE) – The most widely
used measure of a furnace’s heating
efficiency. It measures the amount of
heat actually delivered to your home
compared to the amount of fuel that
you must supply to the furnace. A
furnace that has an 80 percent AFUE
rating converts 80 percent of the fuel
that you supply to heat.
Blower door – A device used by
energy auditors to pressurize a building
to locate places of air leakage and
energy loss.
Energy Efficiency Ratio (EER) – A
standard method for measuring the
efficiency of heat pumps and other
cooling units. The ratio of heating/cooling capacity in Btus, divided by power
input in watts. The higher the EER, the
more efficient the unit.
British thermal unit (Btu) – The
quantity of heat required to raise the
temperature of 1 pound of liquid water
by 1 degree Fahrenheit at the temperature at which water has its greatest
density (approximately 39 degrees
Fahrenheit).
Electronically commutated motor
(ECM) – An electronically commutated
motor (ECM) is a brushless DC motor
that contains all of its speed and torque
controls. This means that the motor can
adjust its speed to ensure optimal airflow and that energy is used efficiently.
Coefficient of Performance (COP)
– Energy-efficiency measurement
of heating, cooling and refrigeration
appliances. COP is the ratio of useful
energy output (heating or cooling) to
the amount of energy put in. A heat
pump with a COP of 10 puts out 10
times more energy than it uses.
Energy efficiency – Refers to
programs that are aimed at reducing
the energy used by specific end-use
devices and systems, usually without
affecting the services provided.
Degree day – Used to estimate energy
requirements for heating and cooling a
building, this is a measure of the deviation of the mean daily temperature from
a given standard.
Energy conservation – An effort to
reduce or better manage energy consumption in a cost-effective manner.
Squirrel cage motors with average efficiency
and power factor for each size.
1Ø = single-phase; 3Ø = three-phase.
Energy costs
of electric motors
hp
Find the horsepower (hp) rating on the nameplate of the
motor. Multiply kilowatts (kW) of corresponding horsepower
on the chart by the total number of hours the motor is used.
This figure – kilowatt-hours (kWh) – multiplied by the applicable rate, will give you the cost of operation.
How much would it cost to operate a 10 hp motor 24 hours
per day for three weeks?
EXAMPLE:
10 h.p. 230V 1Ø, 24 hours/day for 3 weeks.
ANSWER:
(assuming the electric rate is $.12)
8.625 kW x 24 hours x 21 days = 4,347 kWh
4,347 kWh x $.12 = $521.64
Note: No capacity charge included.
Energy Star®-qualified products
– Energy Star labels appear on
appliances and home electronics that
meet strict energy efficiency criteria
established by the U.S. Department of
Energy and U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.
Geothermal energy – The heat or
energy produced by natural processes
inside the earth. A geothermal heating
and cooling system, also known as
a ground-source heat pump, has the
highest efficiency for the combination
of space heating and cooling of any
system on the market.
Heat pump – A system supplying both
space heating and cooling. The heat
pump removes heat from outside air
and pumps it indoors. The heat pump
can also function as an air conditioner,
absorbing heat from indoors and releasing it outside.
Heating Season Performance Factor
(HSPF) – The total heating output of
a heat pump during its normal annual
usage period for heating divided by the
total electric power input in watt-hours
during the same period.
Home energy audit – An assessment
to determine the energy efficiency of
the home and its equipment. An audit
will provide information to effectively
help conserve energy and become
more efficient.
1/6
1/4
1/3
1/2
3/4
1
1 1/2
2
3
5
7 1/2
10
15
20
25
30
40
50
60
75
100
115V 1Ø
kW @ Full Load
.329
.447
.571
.800
1.159
1.380
1.794
2.180
3.167
230V 1Ø
230V 3Ø
kW @ Full Load kW @ Full Load
.329
.447
.571
.800
1.159
1.380
1.794
2.180
3.167
4.701
6.808
8.625
.568
.774
.999
1.335
1.893
2.868
4.478
6.310
8.724
12.269
16.679
20.197
24.858
33.044
38.752
48.078
60.105
82.253
Horsepower – A unit for measuring
the rate of power equivalent to 33,000
foot-pounds or 746 watts.
Off-Peak/On-Peak – Blocks of time
when energy demand and price is low
(off-peak) or high (on-peak).
Solar energy – Energy from the
sun’s radiation converted into heat or
electricity.
Infrared thermography – The science
of using infrared imaging to detect radiant energy or heat loss in a building.
Phantom load – Any appliance that
consumes power even when it is turned
off. Examples of phantom loads include
equipment chargers, televisions and
even clothes washers.
Therm – A unit of heat containing
100,000 Btus.
Kilowatt (kW) – A unit of demand
measurement equal to 1,000 watts. The
average household demand is 10 to 20
kilowatts.
Kilowatt-hour (kWh) – The basic
measure of electrical energy, equal to
1,000 watts used for one hour.
Load – The amount of power drawn
from an electrical system at a specific
time, or the total power drawn from the
system.
Load management – The reduction of
electric load during times when electric
demand is high. Load management
can involve such techniques as voltage
reduction, shutting off air conditioners
and water heaters for short periods of
time by remote control and controlling
time of day usage.
Megawatt (MW) – A unit of electrical
power equal to 1 million watts.
Occupancy sensor – An electronic
device used to switch a light on when
motion is detected and switch off after
no motion is detected in a room. It
consists of a motion detector, electronic
control unit and a relay.
R-Value – A measure of the ability of a
material or a combination of materials
to resist heat flow. The higher the
R-Value, the greater the insulating
capabilities.
Ripple control – The remote control
of switching devices which uses power
lines as signal carriers. A coded audio
frequency “ripple” is superimposed
onto the power lines at one or more
injection points. The signal is detected
by receivers situated at the loads to
be controlled. Generally used for load
management purposes.
Seasonal Energy Efficiency Ratio
(SEER) – A standard method of rating the yearlong efficiency of an air
conditioner or the cooling side of a heat
pump.
Renewable energy resources – Energy generated from natural resources
such as sunlight, wind, rain, tides or
geothermal heat. Renewable energy
can be replenished as it is used.
U-Value – A measure of air-to-air heat
transmission (loss or gain) due to
thermal conductance and the difference
in indoor and outdoor temperatures.
Variable Frequency Drive (VFD) – A
system for controlling the rotational
speed of an alternating current (AC)
electric motor by controlling the frequency of the electrical power supplied
to the motor. A variable frequency drive
is a specific type of adjustable-speed
drive.
Volt/Voltage – A volt is a unit of electric
force that measures the pressure of
electricity. Voltage is the “pressure” that
causes electrons to flow.
Watt – A unit of electrical power equal
to one ampere under a pressure of
one volt. A watt is equal to 1/746
horsepower.
Weatherization – The practice of protecting a building and its interior from
the elements, particularly from sunlight,
precipitation and wind, and of modifying
a building to reduce energy consumption and optimize energy efficiency.
11
Major appliance shopping guide
Appliances
Rating
Special Considerations
Air-Source
Heat Pumps
Check the Energy Guide label that lists the SEER (Seasonal Energy
Efficiency Ratio) and HSPF (Heating Seasonal Performance Factor) for heat
pumps.
It is important for your contractor to properly
size your heating and cooling equipment to
the requirements of your home especially
when installing an air-source heat pump, as
they will switch to an alternative backup fuel
under extremely cold conditions.
SEER measures the energy efficiency during the cooling season.
HSPF measures the efficiency during the heating season.
The ENERGY STAR minimum efficiency levels are:
>8.2 HSPF/>14.5 SEER for split systems
>8.0 HSPF/>14.0 SEER for single package equipment
including gas/electric units
Central Air
Conditioners
Look for the Energy Guide label with a SEER for central air conditioners.
The ENERGY STAR minimum efficiency levels are:
>14.5 SEER/>12.0 EER for split systems
>14.0 SEER/>11.0 EER for single package equipment
including gas/electric units
Room Air
Conditioners
Look for the Energy Guide label with an EER for room air conditioners.
The higher the EER, the more efficient the unit is. ENERGY STAR units are
among the most energy-efficient products.
It is also important to consider the sizing
of the ductwork. Inadequate ductwork will
cause fans to work harder than necessary
and waste energy.
ENERGY STAR-qualified electric air-source
heat pumps have higher SEER and HSPF
levels than today’s standard models, making
them about 9 percent more efficient than
nonqualified models.
Air conditioners that bear the ENERGY
STAR label have higher SEER and energy
efficiency ratio (EER) ratings, making
them about 14 percent more efficient than
standard models.
ENERGY STAR-qualified room air
conditioners are 10 percent more efficient
than nonqualified models.
Two major factors should guide your purchase: correct size and energy
efficiency.
See www.energystar.gov for help in
determining the proper size needed.
Programmable
Thermostats
Thermostats should have at least two programs, four temperature settings
each, a hold feature that allows users to temporarily override settings, and the
ability to maintain room temperature within 2°F of desired temperature.
Look for thermostats that allows you to
easily use two separate programs.
Water Heaters
Check the Energy Guide label that tells how much energy the water heater
uses in one year.
If you typically use a lot of hot water at once,
the FHR will be important to you. Sizing
is important – contact your local utility for
assistance.
Also, look for the FHR (first hour rating) of the water heater, which measures
the maximum hot water the heater will deliver in the first hour of use.
Refrigerators
and Freezers
Check the Energy Guide label to see how much electricity, in kWh, the refrigerator will use in one year. The smaller the number, the less energy it uses.
ENERGY STAR-qualified refrigerators are 20 percent more efficient than
nonqualified models and are more efficient than models that simply meet the
federal minimum standard for energy efficiency.
Dishwashers
Clothes
Washers
Refrigerators with freezers on top are more
efficient than those with freezers on the side.
Also look for heavy door hinges that create a
good door seal.
Look for the Energy Guide label that tells how much electricity, in kWh, the
dishwasher will use in one year.
Look for features that will reduce water use,
such as booster heaters and smart controls.
The smaller the number, the less energy it uses. ENERGY STAR-qualified
dishwashers are 10 percent more efficient than nonqualified models and are
more efficient than models that simply meet the federal minimum standard for
energy efficiency.
Ask how many gallons of water the
dishwasher uses during different cycles.
Dishwashers that use the least amount of
water will cost the least to operate.
Check the Energy Guide label for how much electricity, in kWh, the clothes
washer will use in one year.
Look for design features that help clothes
washers cut water usage such as: water
level controls, “suds-saver” features, spin
cycle adjustments and large capacity.
The smaller the number, the less energy it uses. Clothes washers that
have earned the ENERGY STAR rating are 37 percent more efficient than
nonqualified models and are more efficient than models that simply meet the
federal minimum standard for energy efficiency.
Before replacing your appliances or heating and cooling equipment, be sure to contact your local utility for possible incentives they may have available to help
you in making an energy efficient upgrade. Source: www.energystar.gov.
12
Appliance energy usage
The average monthly kilowatt-hour consumption figures shown on this chart are based on
normal use. Your electrical consumption may be higher or lower, depending on how you and
other people in your home and on your farm use the various appliances and equipment.
Approx.
Average
wattage
Estimated
hrs. used
per month
Estimated
monthly
kWh
Cost per
month at
$.12/kWh
Air conditioner (central)
3,500
100
350
$42.00
Air conditioner (room)
1,000
360
360
43.20
Automatic waterer for livestock
1,452
43
62
7.44
500
248
124
14.88
33
744
25
3.00
5,000
16
80
9.60
500
16
8
0.96
Block heater (8 hrs./day)
Cable box without DVR (when turned off)
Clothes dryer
Clothes washer
(doesn’t include hot water)
1,050
16
17
2.04
Computer (with monitor and printer)
Coffee maker
200
240
48
5.76
Dehumidifier
785
240
188
22.56
44
744
32
3.84
Digital Cable DVR set-top box
(when turned off)
Dishwasher (doesn’t include hot water)
1,300
15
20
2.40
80
120
10
1.20
335
334
112
13.44
Furnace fan – variable speed motor
(24 hrs./day)
75
744
56
6.72
Furnace fan – conventional blower
(24 hrs./day)
400
744
298
35.76
Hot tub/spa heater
1,500
40
60
7.20
Hair dryer
1,200
5
6
0.72
Iron
1,000
10
10
1.20
Microwave oven
Electric blanket
Freezer (frostless 15 cu. ft.)
1,100
10
11
1.32
Nintendo Wii
20
31
1
0.12
Radio
70
100
7
0.84
3,500
15
53
6.36
Refrigerator/freezer (frost-free, 16 cu. ft.)
725
250
181
21.72
Sony PlayStation 3
200
31
6
0.72
Range with oven
Space heater (8 hrs./day)
1,500
248
372
44.64
Television – 32-46” LCD
110
180
20
2.40
Television – 32-46” LED
100
180
18
2.16
Television – 50-60” plasma
300
180
54
6.48
Toaster
1,100
3
3
0.36
Vacuum cleaner
1,220
6
7
0.84
Water heater (varies widely)
4,500
90
405
48.60
Water pump (deep well)
1,000
15
15
1.80
185
31
6
0.72
X-box 360
Replace old, inefficient
appliances with energyefficient models
EnergyGuide labels
If you live in a typical U.S. home,
the appliances are responsible for
about one-fifth of your energy bill.
Electric appliances like refrigerators,
freezers, clothes washers, dryers,
dishwashers, ranges and ovens are
the primary energy-using appliances in
most households. Taking steps to save
energy while using these appliances,
and replacing old, inefficient appliances with modern ones, can save
you money.
In the U.S., all refrigerators, freezers, clothes washers and dishwashers are sold
with yellow EnergyGuide
labels to indicate their energy usage. These labels
provide an estimated annual operating cost for the
appliance and also indicate the cost of
operating the models with the highest
annual operating cost and the lowest
annual operating cost. By comparing
a model’s annual operating cost with
the operating cost of the most efficient
model, you can compare their efficiencies.
ENERGY STAR labels
Another label to help you identify energy-efficient appliances is the
ENERGY STAR® label. Promoted by
the Department of Energy (DOE) and
the U.S. Environmental
Protection Agency
(EPA), the ENERGY
STAR is only awarded
to appliances and lighting products that significantly exceed the
minimum national efficiency standards.
The ENERGY STAR label can help
make purchasing decisions easier.
These products not only save energy,
they can also save money, frequently
with better performance.
13
How to estimate energy usage and cost
The wattage of appliances
and equipment as well as
the amount of operating
time can vary greatly. The
following information will
show you how to determine where the energy
dollars are going in your
home.
Step 1
Since the cost of electricity is determined by the number
of kilowatt-hours (kWh) used during a billing period, the
first step is to determine your average cost per kilowatthour.
$ amount of electric bill
Avg. kWh cost =
kWh used
EXAMPLE:
Step 2
$144
1,200 kWh
= $.12 per kWh
Since the wattage of an appliance or electrical equipment determines the electrical usage per hour, the
second step is to determine the wattage.
The wattage of an appliance is found on the serial plate.
It is possible that electrical equipment will be expressed
in volts and amperes
MICROWAVE OVEN
rather than watts. If so,
AMPS
12.1
VOLTS
120
HERTZ
60
WATTS
1,452
multiply volts times amFORM NO. 00000
MODEL NO. 0000
peres to determine the
CODE
0
SERIAL NO. 000000
wattage.
EXAMPLE:
120 volts x 12.1 amps = 1,452 watts
Step 3
Use the formula shown in the following example to estimate usage and cost.
EXAMPLE:
A light uses 100 watts and is left on 15 hours. How
many kWh are used and what does it cost you?
kWh use =
100 watts x 15 hrs.
= 1.5 kWh
1,000 watts
Your cost = 1.5 kWh x $.12 = $.18
Step 4
To find your daily cost for electricity, divide your bill by
the number of days in the month.
EXAMPLE:
$144
= $4.80 which is your
30 days
daily cost.
To find the daily cost per person in your family, divide
the daily cost by the number in your family.
EXAMPLE:
14
$4.80
= $1.20 per person per day.
4
Meter monitor chart
Daily reading
kWh used daily
Record of daily activities that affect your energy use
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
Weekly Total
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
Weekly Total
15
16
17
18
19
20
Using this meter monitor
chart, take a few minutes
each day (preferably at the
same time) and jot down
your electric meter reading.
Start the first of the month.
By subtracting the
previous day’s reading from
the current reading each
day, you get the number of
kilowatt-hours used during
that 24-hour period. By
adding the daily figures into
a weekly total, you can see
how much and when your
family used power during
that month.
As you know from reading this guide, your energy
use will fluctuate with your
daily activities. Monitoring
your kilowatt-hours is the
first step to understanding
your electric use.
21
Weekly Total
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
Weekly Total
29
30
31
Extra Days Total
Monthly Total
15
Saving energy from the Web
The “Together We Save” campaign is an effort to motivate electric utility customers to take
action to save money and energy at home.
An online interactive tool is available for those looking to conserve energy or make
energy efficiency upgrades. To use this customizable tool, Internet users need to go to
www.TogetherWeSave.com.
When arriving at the site, users will find 11 animated, interactive applications. Each
application focuses on a different energy and money-saving action that, once completed,
outputs an actual savings calculation. The site has many videos and applications that show
energy-saving techniques, ideas, a virtual home tour and more.
For more ideas, contact your
local cooperative or municipal
or visit these websites:
www.aceee.org
www.eere.energy.gov
www.energystar.gov
www.ftc.gov
www.energy.gov
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