null  User manual
Gorizia, 1916
La Sesta Battaglia
dell’Isonzo
RULES OF PLAY
v.1.0P
INDEX
1.0 INTRODUCTION
2
16.0 DISORGANIZATION
12
2.0 COMPONENTS
2
17.0 STEP LOSSES
12
3.0 GAME TERMS
3
18.0 TRENCHES
12
4.0 SEQUENCE OF PLAY
4
19.0 ARTILLERY
13
5.0 SET UP
5
20.0 ISONZO RIVER
14
6.0 REINFORCEMENTS
5
21.0 REPLACEMENTS
14
7.0 LOGISTICS AND INITIATIVE
5
22.0 SPECIAL RULES
15
8.0 COMMAND
5
23.0 TWO HEX DEPLOYMENT
15
9.0 WEATHER CONDITIONS
6
24.0 FOG OF WAR
15
10.0 SUPPLY
6
25.0 VICTORY CONDITIONS
15
11.0 MOVEMENT
7
26.0 SCENARIOS OF “GORIZIA 1916”
16
11.1 TACTICAL MOVEMENT
7
SCENARIO 1: ISONZO BRIDGEHEAD
16
11.2 NON ACTIVATED UNIT MOVEMENT
7
SCENARIO 2: CARSO – KARST
17
11.3 FORCE MARCH
8
SCENARIO 3: THE CAMPAIGN GAME
19
12.0 STACKING
8
27.0 OPTIONAL RULES
20
13.0 COMBAT
8
LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS
20
13.1 ASSAULT DECLARATION
8
HISTORICAL NOTES
21
13.2 OFFENSIVE BOMBARDMENT
9
DESIGN NOTES
22
13.3 DEFENSIVE FIRE
9
BIBLIOGRAPHY
22
13.4 ASSAULT STEP
10
CREDITS
22
13.5 COUNTER-ASSAULT STEP
11
DEDICATION
23
14.0 ACTIVATION COMPLETED
12
EVENTS TABLE
24
15.0 REACTION BY THE NON ACT. PLAYER
12
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Gorizia, 1916
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1.0 INTRODUCTION
Combat Unit:
Gorizia, 1916 is an operational level game simulating the
1916 Summer offensive of the Italian forces against the
Austro-Hungarian bridgehead on the Isonzo River, the
city of Gorizia (Görz), just across the river, and the Carso
Plateau, between Gorizia and the seashore.
The game is played in Game Turns by two sides (or two
teams).
2.0 COMPONENTS
2.1 The map. The game map covers the area over which
the campaign was fought. The map is overlaid with a
hexagonal grid (hexes) that is used to regulate movement
and fire. In many cases approximations of the real terrain
were used to adapt the geographical features to the
hexagonal grid.
Each hex may contain one or more terrain levels in it,
each one represented by a different color (see the Terrain
Effects Chart). When many levels are present, the level of
a hex is always the one passing through the center of the
hex.
The various types of terrain are listed on the Terrain
Effects Chart and discussed in the rules below.
2.1.1 Game scale. Each hex represents about 1000 meters
across. Each game turn represents one day.
2.2 The Counters. There are four types of counters in
Gorizia 1916: Combat Units, Artillery units, Brigade
Headquarters and informational markers.
2.2.1 Combat Units.
These counters represent the military units on the
battlefield; they are mostly battalions, printed on both
sides, front side for full strength, and back side for
reduced strength.
Brigade name/color
Morale Value
Division id
Battalion/Regiment id
Combat Factor
Machine Gun Factor
Movement
Allowance
2.2.2 Artillery Units.
Artillery units represent several batteries, not really
corresponding to a “battalion” in size. The front side of
Artillery units is the “move” side, while the back is the
“fire” side (distinguished by the background color of the
Range). Artillery units display the number of the Corps
which they are attached to on the right of the unit symbol,
or the Division on the left.
Artillery units includes:
Light Artillery
Field Artillery
Heavy Artillery
Bombard / Minewerfer
Artillery unit:
Colors
of the Division
Corps Attachment
Division
Attachment
Bombardment
Factor
Movement
Allowance
Range
Brigade Headquarters:
Brigade identification
and reference color
Combat units include:
Division ID
Infantry, Border Guards, Bersaglieri,
Landwehr, Honved, Dismounted Cavalry
Mountain Infantry
Bersaglieri (Bicycle)
Cavalry
Machine-guns
Engineer
Flamethrowers
Armored Car
Commander
Name
Brigade Badge
Initiative
Value
Command Range
2.2.3 Units and formations. Combat Units in the game
are grouped in formations which generally correspond to
Brigades. Combat Units and HQs have a colored
horizontal bar on their top side, and a name or number, to
identify the Brigade they belong to. Combat units show in
the middle of the counter: the Division number on the left
and Battalion/Regiment on the right. Independent units
have their id on the top.
The badge underneath the Morale Value is the Brigade
Badge for Italian units, and the recruiting area for AustroHungarian units:
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Gorizia, 1916
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Brigade's center of operations, and it represents the
command center for the units belonging to the Brigade. It
doesn’t represent real officers and staff in the field, but
just the area of operations and the capacity of the staff.
The counter is also used during the Command Phase, to
decide which Brigades will be activated during the current
game turn.
Slovenia
Croatia
Bosnia – Herzegovina
Romania
Command Range: The maximum distance in hexes a unit
may be from its Brigade HQ and still be in Command (do
not count the HQ hex, but do count the unit hex).
Poland
Ukraina
Initiative: This represents the willingness of one side to
commit its resources to the battle. It is measured in
Logistics Points expended: the more are spent, the higher
the possibilities to gain the Initiative. The player winning
the Initiative Phase is the Initiative Player.
Hungary
Austria
The form/color of this badge has no effect on play.
Artillery, Engineers, Flamethrowers, Machine-guns
(MG), Bersaglieri, Border Guards, (RGF), Armored Car
and some Cavalry and Infantry units are Independent
units and do not belong to specific Brigades (these units
do not show any colored bar on the top of their counter).
Instead they may be attached to a specific Brigade during
operations as the player sees fit (see 8.3 and 8.4).
Independent units may belong to a specific Division. In
this case they can only be activated with Brigades of their
own Division.
2.2.4 Informational markers. These are used to indicate
specific conditions for units in hexes. Their use is
explained throughout the rulebook.
2.2.5 Charts and Tables. The use of each chart and table
is explained in the rules.
On map:
- Turn Record Track (TRT)
On cards:
- Logistics Points Tracks (LPT)
- Brigade Display
- Terrain Effects Chart (TEC)
- Assault Table
- Bombardment/Defensive Fire Table
At the end of this booklet:
- Events Table
2.2.6 Dice. Two six-sided dice are included in the game.
3.0 GAME TERMS
Activated Brigade: The Brigade chosen to receive both
command and logistical support to undertake offensive
operations during the current Action Phase.
Action: All activities undertaken by units belonging to an
Activated Brigade are collectively called an Action.
Actions are composed of Steps ordered in the Action
Phase Sequence.
Active player: The player (side) who activated a Brigade
in an Action Phase and will conduct Assaults in the same
Phase. The opposing player is the Inactive player.
Logistics Points (LP): LPs represent the logistical effort
of each side. They represent the use of logistical
resources, like ammunition or construction materials, and
the coordination of rearguard operations. They are the
“fuel” for any offensive or defensive activity.
Combat Factor: Represents a unit's capacity in combat. It
is for the most part a function of the number of soldiers in
the unit. It may be altered by losses suffered, inverting the
unit counter to its reduced side or eliminating it altogether.
Machine Gun Factor: Represents a unit's defensive
firepower from Machine Guns, and the ability to emplace
and use them. It is used during the Defensive Fire Step.
Moral Value: Represents the level of training and
experience of the unit. It will affect the unit’s endurance
and ability to sustain the strain of combat.
Bombardment Factor: Represents the quantity and
caliber of the guns in an artillery unit.
Range: The maximum distance in hexes that an artillery
unit can fire.
The most used concepts during play are summarized in
this section:
Brigade and Brigade HQ: Combat Units in the game are
grouped in formations which generally correspond to
Brigades. Every Brigade has an HQ unit with an Initiative
Value, and a Command Range Value. The HQ unit is the
Line of Sight (LoS): The line between two non-adjacent
hexes that allows units in them to observe each other. It is
blocked by intervening terrain or hexside terrain higher
than that in the observing and target hex. It cannot be
longer than SIX (6) hexes.
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Gorizia, 1916
Movement Allowance: The capacity of a unit, expressed
in Movement Points, to move on the battlefield.
tie results, roll the dice once again (see 7.0) and re-apply
the same modifiers.
Railroad: No trains were present in the area in the period
portrayed in the game. Treat railroads as Tracks for game
purposes.
4. Weather Phase: The Weather is historically
determined in Gorizia, 1916 and it is always clear (no
effect).
Zone of Control (ZoC): The six hexes surrounding each
non-Artillery unit represents its Zone of Control. The
Zone of Control of a unit never extends into hexes in
which the unit cannot move. HQs and Flamethrowers
don’t have a ZoC.
5. Supply Phase: Each player simultaneously checks
the supply status of his own units. Units found to be out of
supply increase their Disorganization Level by one (1)
point (see 10.0).
Disorganization: The amount of weariness inflicted upon
units through combat. It can increase due to
bombardment, lack of food and ammunition supply,
combat fatigue, etc. It is measured in Disorganization
Points.
6. Artillery Phase: Artillery units are turned on their
“move” or “fire” side at this stage, the Initiative Player
first. Heavy Artillery units changing from their “move” to
“fire” side are marked with an appropriate “Activated”
marker (it takes two turns to emplace a Heavy Artillery
unit, see 19.2). Players may reduce their own Trenches
(18.6), destroy their own Artillery units (19.5) and Blow
up bridges (20.2).
Surrender threshold: If a unit’s Disorganization Level
equals or exceeds its Morale Value, the unit’s cohesion
breaks down. When close to the enemy it might surrender.
7. Event Phase: The Initiative Player rolls a die.
Consult the Events Table at the end of this booklet and
apply the result.
Victory Points: VPs are gained by each player, based on
geographical objectives The Victory Points are used to
calculate the winner of the game if a Sudden Death
Victory is not achieved.
8. Initiative Player Action Phase: The Initiative player
places the HQ counter of a Brigade he has planned to
activate from the Brigade Display on the map, then
follows the steps below:
Trench Level: The amount of earthworks and defensive
measures deployed in the hex.
4.0 SEQUENCE OF PLAY
1. Reinforcement Phase: Reinforcement units are
placed on the map, following the scenario instructions
(6.0). Logistics Points are added to the Logistics Points
Track (LPT) for each side.
2. Command Phase: Each player secretly decides how
many and which Brigades he will activate during this
turn, placing the corresponding HQ counters on the
appropriate box of the Brigade Display. To place a
Brigade HQ counter on the Brigade Display requires the
expenditure of one (1) Logistics Point. Moreover, to
attach any 5 Artillery units to a Brigade requires one
additional (+1) Logistics Point (see rule 8.3). Artillery
units will be attached to a Brigade HQ within Command
Range at the moment of the Brigade’s activation, when
the Brigade HQ is placed on the map (Phases 8 and 9).
Spent LPs are immediately deducted from the LPT total.
3. Initiative Phase: Each player rolls one die adding the
result to the number of Logistics Points he has spent in
the Command Phase. Each player may optionally (and
secretly) spend additional Logistics Points (before rolling
the die), provided he has any available in his stock, in
order to win the Initiative. Spent LPs are immediately
deducted from the LPT total. The player with the highest
total will be the Initiative player for the Game Turn. If a
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
F.
G.
H.
I.
Tactical Movement and Assault Declaration
Offensive Bombardment
Defensive Fire (by the Non-Initiative Player)
Assault Resolution
Counter-Assault Declaration (by the NonInitiative Player)
Counter-Assault Defensive Fire
Counter-Assault Resolution (by the NonInitiative Player)
Action Completed
Opponent Reaction
At the end of step I, the Initiative Player can perform
another Action Phase, repeating Phase 8 with another
Brigade he has planned to activate, or he can “pass”,
leaving the decision to the Non-Initiative Player to go to
Phase 9 or pass in turn.
9. Non-Initiative Player Action Phase: The NonInitiative Player places the HQ counter of a Brigade he
has planned to activate from the Brigade Display on the
map, then follow the steps below:
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
F.
Tactical Movement and Assault Declaration
Offensive Bombardment
Defensive Fire (by the Initiative Player)
Assault Resolution
Counter-Assault Declaration (by the Initiative
Player)
Counter-Assault Defensive Fire
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Gorizia, 1916
G.
H.
I.
Counter-Assault Resolution (by the Initiative
Player)
Action Completed
Opponent Reaction
At the end of step I, the Non-Initiative Player can play
another Action Phase, repeating Phase 9 with another
Brigade, or he can “pass”, leaving the decision to the
Initiative Player to return to Phase 8 or pass in turn.
The two players go on alternating Phases 8 and 9 until
both of them have no more Brigades to activate, or both
of them pass in sequence, without activating any Brigade.
10. Non Activated Unit Movement Phase:
A. The Initiative Player moves the units he did not
Activate during the previous phases, following the rules
for Non Activated Unit Movement (11.2). Units may
employ Strategic Movement.
B. The Non-Initiative Player moves the units he did not
Activate during the previous phases, following the rules
for Non Activated Unit Movement (11.2). Units may
employ Strategic Movement.
11. Replacement and Rally Phase:
Supplied units not adjacent to enemy units may reduce
their Disorganization Level by one (1) point (but see
21.0).
Damaged and eliminated units can recover one step loss
(see 21.0).
Engineer units with Bridging capabilities can place
“Bridge Building” markers (see 20.3).
All the Brigade HQ counters are removed from the map.
Remove all of the “Activated” and “Interdiction Barrage”
markers.
12. Victory Condition Check Phase:
Conditions for a Sudden Death Victory are checked. If
these have been achieved, the game ends and the player
meeting the Sudden Death Victory conditions is the
winner. If the Italian offensive comes to a halt, the game
ends (see 25.0). Otherwise the game continues with the
following Game Turn: advance the Turn marker on the
Turn Record Track and go back to Phase 1. When the last
Game Turn is finished, check the Victory Conditions to
determine the winner (see 25.0).
5.0 SET UP
Set up the game following the specific instructions of the
selected scenario.
6.0 REINFORCEMENTS
6.1 During the Reinforcement Phase, units scheduled as
reinforcements for the current turn by the scenario
instructions are placed in the indicated hexes, if necessary
in violation of stacking limits. Before the end of the Game
5
Turn they have to be moved so as to respect the stacking
limits. If the hex remains overstacked at end of the Game
Turn, they suffer overstacking penalties as per rule 12.6.
6.2 Reinforcements which cannot be placed on the map
due to enemy units or enemy ZoCs (not negated by the
presence of friendly units) blocking the entry hexes may
be delayed until the conditions for their placement on the
map can be fulfilled. Reinforcements may be voluntarily
delayed and may enter the map at the time the owning
player sees fit without penalties.
7.0 LOGISTICS AND INITIATIVE
Each player has a number of Logistics Points at the
beginning of the scenario and he can receive more of them
during the game, following the scenario instructions and
the Reinforcement Schedule.
The total amount of Logistics Points accumulated by each
player can be written down (hidden from the opposing
player) or tracked on the General Track (player’s choice).
Logistics Points spent in the Command, Initiative or
Action Phase are immediately deducted from the running
total on the LPT, even if they were not used to activate
Brigades during the current turn. New Logistics Points
received during the Reinforcement Phase are added to the
total on the LPT.
7.1 Used Logistics Points cannot be restored.
7.2 Without Logistics Points, a player cannot activate any
Brigade, and his units could move only during Phase 10
(Non Activated Unit Movement Phase).
8.0 COMMAND
8.1 Command Range. Command Range is printed on
each HQ counter, and it cannot extend through enemy
units. If the Command Range passes through an enemy
Zone of Control that is not negated by the presence of
friendly units a die is rolled; on a result of 1 to 3 the
Command Range is blocked, no unit can be in Command
through that hex. A result of 4 to 6 allows the Command
Range to pass through that hex. Terrain features have no
influence on Command Range.
8.2 Brigade Display. Each side has its own Brigade
Display which is used during the Command Phase to
place the HQ counters of the Brigades that can be
Activated during the current turn. The Brigade Display
has five boxes, corresponding to: Brigades receiving no
Artillery support; Brigades which will be activated with 15 Artillery units in support; with 6-10 Artillery units; with
11-15 Artillery units; Brigades not Activated.
8.3 During the Command Phase, each player determines
the Brigades he will activate, and if he will use Artillery
units during the Action Phases. To activate a Brigade, a
player spends one (1) Logistics Point. For every 5 (or less)
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Gorizia, 1916
Artillery units attached to the activated Brigade, 1
additional Logistics Point is required (ex.: 4 LPs are spent
to activate one Brigade (1) and 13 Artillery units (3); 2
LPs for one Brigade (1) and 1 Artillery unit (1)). Each
player may spend no more Logistics Points than those
currently available on the LPT.
A Brigade without its own subordinate units on the map
cannot be Activated.
Play Note: During the Command Phase each player
determines how many Artillery units he will use during
the Brigade’s activation. Specific Artillery units are
assigned to a Brigade at the moment of the Brigade’s
activation.
8.4 Independent units. During an Action Phase a
maximum of two Independent units of the following
types: Infantry, Machine-guns (MG), Bersaglieri,
Engineer, Border Guards (RGF), Cavalry, Flamethrowers,
Armored Car may be freely attached to an activated
Brigade, without the expenditure of any LPs. Specific
Independent units are assigned to a Brigade when the
Brigade is activated in an Action Phase. Independent units
belonging to a specific Division, can be attached only to
brigades belonging to the same Division.
8.5 During an Action Phase, when a Brigade is activated,
that Brigade's HQ unit is placed on the map and the
Command Range is traced from it. A Brigade HQ counter
must be placed in a hex along a valid Line of Supply. The
HQ unit may be placed in enemy ZoCs, but not stacked
with an enemy unit or HQ. Independent units assigned to
a Brigade have to be within the Command Range of their
assigned HQ. If needed, mark activated Independent units
with an “Activated” marker as a reminder (they cannot be
activated twice in the same turn). A Brigade HQ must be
placed on the map so that at least one of his subordinate
units is in command.
8.6 Units of the activated Brigade that are in Command at
the moment of the activation may conduct all the
activities in the Action Phase. Units of the activated
Brigade that are out of Command at the moment of the
activation are marked with an “Out of Command” marker
and can only move during the Non Activated Unit
Movement Phase (11.2).
8.7 Brigades Exchange. Two Brigades on the Brigade
Display can be activated together in one Activation, to let
them exchange position on the front.
First the units of one brigade, if they decide to move, are
moved, according to the movement rules, into any hex(es)
occupied by the units of the other brigade (only). Then
units of the other brigade can be moved; if they move and
have enough MPs to do so, they must end their movement
at least one hex further from any enemy unit.
Exchanging Brigades can move, but cannot attack or
bombard.
9.0 WEATHER CONDITIONS
Weather conditions were Clear throughout the campaign,
so they have no effect on game.
10.0 SUPPLY
To operate at full efficiency, every unit needs supplies of
food, ammunition, and equipment. As a consequence, the
lack of a supply line reduces the efficiency of a unit,
sometimes causing it to surrender.
10.1 Supply status is checked during the Supply Phase, for
units of both armies.
10.2 Lines of Supply. A unit is supplied if it can trace an
unblocked line of no more than 10 hexes to a road or track
hex (do not count the hex the unit is in, but do count the
road/track hex), and from that hex, an unblocked line of
unlimited length along the road/track net to a friendly
Supply Source (see 10.2.2). Roads and Tracks do NOT
cross the Isonzo River on Blown Up bridges.
10.2.1 A Line of Supply is blocked by an enemy unit or
enemy Zone of Control. A friendly unit in a hex negates
the effect of the enemy Zone of Control along the “off
road” part of the Line of Supply. The “on road” part of the
Line of Supply can never be adjacent to an enemy unit,
even if friendly units are present.
10.2.2 Austro-Hungarian Supply Sources are all the roads
exiting the map on the Eastern map edge hexes; Italian
Supply Sources are all the roads exiting the map on the
Western edge map hexes (see also Scenario Rules). Each
side may trace supply to a friendly Supply Source only.
10.3 Out of Supply units. A unit that cannot trace a Line
of Supply during the Supply Phase is Out of Supply. Units
that are Out of Supply add one Disorganization Point in
every Supply Phase in which they are Out of Supply.
When a unit's Disorganization Level becomes equal to its
printed Morale Value, the unit surrenders if it is adjacent
to an enemy unit. Put it in the Surrendered Units Box. If
no enemy unit is adjacent, the unit remains on the map
with a Disorganization Level one less than its surrender
threshold (see 16.4).
10.4 Out of Supply HQ. HQs themselves are not affected
by Lines of supply, though a Brigade HQ counter must be
placed (see 8.5) in a hex along a valid Line of Supply.
10.4.1 Artillery interdicting HQ’s Lines of Supply. An
enemy Artillery unit in “fire” mode may interdict the “on
road” (only) segment of a HQ’s Line of Supply, so that
the Brigade may not activate. The interdicted road must be
within range and under direct observation from the enemy
Artillery unit (that is it must be on a LoS as per 13.2.2 but
traced directly from the Artillery unit). Interdiction is
automatic, costs no LPs and the enemy Artillery unit may
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Gorizia, 1916
have already fired either offensively (13.2) and/or
defensively (13.3).
11.0 MOVEMENT
Units are moved one by one or as a stack during the
Tactical Movement Step in which they are activated,
during the Non Activated Unit Movement Phase, or
during an Opponent Reaction Step. They move using the
hexagonal grid, paying Movement Points for each hex
entered or to cross hexsides containing some special
terrain feature.
7
hex level the level in the hex center (there is a small dot).
If the hexside between two hexes is at a lower level than
both hexes, crossing the hexside will be upslope, both for
movement and combat.
11.0.8 Isonzo River. Only Infantry (every unit with an
infantry symbol as part of its symbol) and Cavalry units
can cross and assault through Isonzo River hexsides
(Engineer units can cross, but not assault through the
Isonzo). The additional movement cost to cross is +3 MP.
For other units, Isonzo River hexsides are impassable for
all purposes (except at Bridges, see TEC and 20.3).
11.0.1 Every unit has a Movement Allowance per Game
Turn, expressed in Movement Points; Movement Points
cannot be accumulated from turn to turn. Movement
Points not expended in a Game Turn are lost.
11.1 Tactical Movement
11.0.2 The cost to enter each hex, or to cross a hexside, is
shown on the Terrain Effects Chart. Some terrain features
are on hexsides only (ex.: Rivers). In these cases, the
terrain cost of the crossed hexside is in addition to the
terrain cost of the hex entered.
11.1.1 ZoC. Units using Tactical Movement can enter and
exit enemy Zones of Control. To exit a ZoC costs one
additional (+1) Movement Point. To move from an enemy
ZoC directly to another enemy ZoC costs two additional
Movement Points.
11.0.3 No minimum move. If a unit does not have
enough Movement Points to enter a hex, it cannot enter it.
11.1.2 Infiltration Movement and Fire.
Movement from an enemy ZoC to another enemy ZoC
projected by the same unit or stack is called Infiltration
Movement. The enemy unit, or stack of enemy units, can
perform Infiltration Fire. If the two ZoC hexes are
projected by different enemy units, there is no Infiltration
Fire.
Infiltration Fire is calculated like Defensive Fire (see
13.3), without any artillery support. Total the Machine
Gun Factors from all of the units projecting ZoCs in both
hexes.
Infiltration Fire can be performed as many times as
friendly stacks or single units move through the same
enemy ZoC hexes. It is resolved in the entered hex,
applying its terrain modifications, and only against
infiltrating units.
11.0.4 Roads/Tracks. A unit that moves along a Road or
Track can use the movement cost of the Road or Track,
ignoring the other terrain present in the hex or hexside.
A unit cannot enter a Road/Track hex in an enemy ZoC
(Exception: see 22.6) or if the hex is occupied by a
friendly unit. Exception: Artillery units in “fire” mode do
not affect Road Movement (see also 12.3).
11.0.5 Entering enemy occupied hexes. No unit can
enter a hex containing enemy non-Artillery units during
any Movement Step or Phase (see also rule 19.4). HQs
have no influence on opposing units, they stay in place to
indicate that the Brigade was already activated.
11.0.6 Every unit can move only once per turn; during the
Action Phase Movement Step if its Brigade is activated
and the unit is in Command, or during the Non Activated
Unit Movement Phase.
When a unit has completed its movement, and the
movement of another unit has begun, the former unit
cannot be moved again.
11.0.7 Level change. Level change effect is applied for
any number of level changes crossed upslope when
moving from a hex to an adjacent hex. This is true both
for Movement and Combat (also Defensive fire) effects.
Roads and Tracks negate the +1 cost for going up.
Design Note: “Gorizia” Terrain Levels are smaller than
in “Strafexpedition”, so the number of level changes does
not matter, just refer to “upslope” or “downslope”, for
both movement and combat. Using common sense, most
of the times it will be clear when a movement or an attack
will be upslope, but if you prefer a rigid rule, assume as
Tactical Movement takes place during the Tactical
Movement Step of the Action Phase.
11.1.3 To declare an Assault against adjacent enemy units,
every unit must pay the cost in Movement Points to enter
the Assaulted hex (see 13.1 Combat Assault Declaration).
Ignore all costs due to enemy ZoCs, including that of the
assaulted hex, but do pay any other hex or hexside cost.
11.2 Non Activated Unit Movement
11.2.1 During the Non Activated Unit Movement Phase,
all of the units not previously activated during the Game
Turn, or units that are Out of Command can move
following the general Movement rules. They cannot
Assault nor enter enemy Zones of Control. Exception:
They can enter enemy ZoC if entering friendly Trench
hexes.
They can exit an enemy ZoC at the cost of 1 additional
(+1) Movement Point.
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8
11.2.2 Strategic Movement. In this Phase (only), if all of
a unit's movement, including the start and end hexes,
takes place at least 4 hexes (3 intervening) from any
enemy unit, then the unit can double its Movement
Allowance declaring the use of Strategic Movement.
11.3 Force March
During any Movement Step or Phase, all non-Artillery
units can increase their Movement Allowance by 50%
through the use of Force March. At the end of a Forced
March, each unit adds one (1) Disorganization Point.
Force March can be used to declare an Assault, and the
Disorganization Point is suffered after the Assault
Declaration, but before the Offensive Bombardment.
Units with a Disorganization Level (DL) one less than its
Surrender threshold cannot Force March.
12.0
13.0 COMBAT
During each Action Phase several types of combat can
happen. During the Initiative Player Action Phase, the
Initiative Player will have an opportunity to assault enemy
units first. Then the Non-Initiative Player will have an
opportunity to Counter-assault (the order is reversed
during the Non-Initiative Player Action Phase).
Before any assault is resolved, the assaulting player can
use Offensive (Barrage) Fire, after which the defending
player may use Defensive Fire.
STACKING
Stacking refers to having more than one unit in the same
hex.
12.1 No more than TWO units of the same player may
stack in a hex.
12.1.1 Exception 1: see 12.5, 22.3, 22.4, and 22.5.
12.1.2 Exception 2: Artillery units in “fire” mode
(emplaced) count for stacking for emplaced artillery units
only, other units are not affected by emplaced artillery
units (i.e. a hex can contain 2 emplaced artillery units
plus two units of any other kind).
12.2 These limits must be checked at the end of any
Movement Step or Phase (Activated or Non Activated),
and at any moment during the Combat Steps (including
retreats). Exception: see 12.3.
It is allowed to move through friendly units in violation of
the stacking limit, but at the end of movement the limit
must be respected. Exception: see 12.4.
12.3 Units that move along roads or tracks, paying the
road/track movement rate, cannot stack at any time during
their movement (Exception: see 12.1.2). Units moving
through friendly units on roads/tracks must pay the
movement cost of the other terrain in the hex.
12.4 Assault and Counter-assault happen within the hex,
so the stacking limit is TWO units for each side. See also
13.4.1.
12.5 Flamethrowers, MG, Armored Car, and Brigade HQ
units and the “functional” markers (Assault,
Disorganization, Trenches, etc.) don’t count for stacking
purposes. They stack for free.
12.6 If no alternative exists to overstacking after a retreat,
all the units found in an overstacked hex at the end of the
retreat, add one (1) Disorganization Point each.
13.1 Assault Declaration
13.1.1 Activated units ending the Tactical
Movement Step adjacent to enemy units can
Assault them, if they have enough MPs to enter
the enemy hex. To declare an Assault, place an “Assault”
marker on the assaulting infantry unit(s) or stack, pointing
towards the hex to be assaulted.
13.1.2 Assault is always voluntary. In a stack of two units
one can assault and the other can be withheld, or may
assault a different hex, if the Movement Points are
available to do it.
13.1.3 Assault declaration cannot be revoked, and the
Assault will have to be resolved during the next Assault
Step, regardless of the results of Offensive Bombardment
and Defensive Fire. Should an Offensive Bombardment
completely eliminate all units in a hex target of an
Assault, assaulting units must advance into the attacked
hex.
13.1.4 Units from more than one hex may declare an
Assault against a single hex, but only up to two units can
Assault at one time. If the first Assault fails, another two
units that declared the Assault can resolve it, and so on.
After the first Assault against an hex, the defender in the
hex can voluntarily retreat (See 13.4.5).
13.1.5 To place an “Assault” marker costs the same
number of Movement Points as if the assaulting unit was
entering the hex to be assaulted, excluding any EZOC
cost. If a unit does not have enough Movement Points left
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to enter the hex to be assaulted, it may not assault. See
rule 11.1.3.
9
level of a hex is always the one passing through the
center of the hex; should a question arise between players
as to this, resolve it by a die roll).
13.2.3 Terrain effects on LoS. The hex terrain and level
are the level and terrain in the hex center. Woods and
Town hexes block LoS only if at the same level as the
higher level between the observer and the target hex. A
LoS passing through a hexside is blocked only if both
adjacent hexes are blocking.
13.2.4 Each Artillery unit can perform
Offensive Fire only once per Game Turn. Mark
Artillery units which performed Offensive Fire
with an “Act” marker, as a reminder.
13.2 Offensive Bombardment
An Offensive Bombardment's goal is to soften the enemy
defenses before assaulting them, or simply to wear down
the enemy units.
13.2.1 During the Offensive Bombardment Step, all the
Artillery units assigned to the activated brigade for that
Action Phase can make an Offensive Bombardment.
Every unit designates its target hex before starting to
resolve the Offensive Bombardment. If the target hex
contains both artillery and non-artillery units, the firing
player must choose to target either the artillery or the
non-artillery units, and the bombardment will affects that
category only. The firing player can divide the firing units
between the two target categories in the same hex.
Each Artillery unit can bombard one target hex only, and
one target kind only per activation.
Artillery units with Division attachment can be assigned
only to Brigades of the same Division. Artillery units with
Corps attachment can be assigned to any Brigade.
Divisional artillery units have stripes on the upper left
corner, with the colors of the Brigades from the same
Division. NOTE: Some Brigades have no Division
attachment, they can activate Corps artillery only.
13.2.2 Each target hex must be under observation (Line
of Sight), and within range of the firing Artillery unit.
A hex is under observation if it is possible to trace an
uninterrupted Line of Sight (LoS) from any hex occupied
by a friendly unit or an empty hex not in an enemy ZoC
within the Command Range of the activated Brigade HQ
counter, to the target hex. The hex from which the LoS is
traced is the observer hex.
A LoS is traced from the center of the observer hex to the
center of the target hex. This LoS cannot be longer than
SIX hexes (do not count the observer’s hex, but do count
the target hex) and is blocked by any intervening terrain
level higher than the target and the observer hexes
(always remember that when many levels are present, the
13.2.5 When all the targets are designated, resolve
Offensive Bombardments one by one.
For each target:
A. Calculate the total amount of Bombardment Factors.
B. Find the matching column on the Bombardment Table.
C. Total the column shifts due to terrain of the target as
applicable. All modifiers are cumulative, and are totaled
before using them as a net total shift. The maximum net
column shift is three (3).
D. Roll one die, cross reference the result on the column
to find the result of the Bombardment.
13.2.6 Bombardment results:
- : No Effect.
* : Roll again, 1-3 = “D1”, 4-6 = “-“
#D#: The number before “D” indicates the number of
steps lost by the target units (in total, not per unit), the
number behind it indicates the Disorganization Points
inflicted on each target unit (see 13.2.1).
A “T” result indicates that the Trench Level (if any) in the
hex is reduced by one. If the Bombardment is by
Mountain Artillery only, the “T” result is ignored (light
artillery had only small effects on strongpoints).
13.2.7 Interdiction Barrage. Activated
Artillery can fire Interdiction Barrage into any
observed hex, even those empty of enemy units.
Total the Bombardment Factors firing at the hex, and
mark the hex with an appropriate numerical marker (see
figure). Every friendly or enemy unit entering or already
in the hex during the Game Turn will receive an Offensive
Bombardment at half strength of the Interdiction Marker.
A unit can be target of Interdiction Barrage only once per
hex and per GT. The marker is removed in the Rally and
Replacement Phase.
13.3 Defensive Fire
During the Defensive Fire Step, defending Infantry and
Artillery units can fire at enemy units marked with an
“Assault” marker (and only at them). A hex containing
assaulting units is referred to as the target hex for
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Defensive Fire. Each firing unit during a Defensive Fire
Step can fire against one hex only.
13.3.1 Each defending Infantry unit adjacent to assaulting
enemy units can fire at them, even if not directly affected
by the assault. The same Infantry unit may fire again
during a different Action Phase of another enemy
Brigade. Infantry units with a Machine Gun Factor equal
to “0” can fire Defensive Fire. If the firing unit is adjacent
to more than one hex occupied by assaulting units, it must
choose the target hex to fire at, and can fire at that one
only.
13.3.2 Defensive Fire is resolved against all of (and only)
the Assaulting units in the hex. Units that did not
participate in the assault but occupy the same hex as the
Assaulting units cannot be fired at.
13.3.3 Defending units in different hexes can fire at the
same target hex, and different units in the same hex can
fire at different hexes.
13.3.10 Once all the targets are designated, resolve
Defensive Fire one by one.
For each target:
A. Calculate the Defensive Fire total.
B. Find the matching column on the Defensive Fire
Table.
C. Shift the column according to the Terrain Effects
Chart and the position of the defender firing, to find the
final column. All modifiers are cumulative.
D. Roll one die, cross reference the result on the final
column to have the result.
13.3.11 Defensive Fire Results:
: No Effect
*
: Roll again, 1-3=”D1”, 4-6=”-“
#D# : The number before “D” indicates the number of
steps lost by the target units (in total, not per unit), the
number behind it indicates the Disorganization Points
inflicted on each target unit (see 13.2.1).
13.3.4 Artillery units can also perform Defensive Fire, if
they fulfill the following requirement: they are within a
SIX hex range from the target hex (marked with an
“Assault” marker). The provisions of rules 13.3.2 and
13.3.3 also apply to Artillery units.
13.3.5 For each hex with assaulting units that is the target
of Defensive Fire, total the Machine Gun Factor of all the
adjacent units that execute Defensive Fire, and add ¼ of
the total Bombardment Factors of the firing Artillery
units.
13.3.6 The maximum value that Artillery units can
contribute to Defensive Fire (after ¼ reduction) without
paying Logistics Points cannot be higher than the total
printed Defensive Fire from other non-Artillery units,
with a minimum of 1 point (Example 1: a unit firing
Defensive Fire with a Machine Gun Factor of 2 can
receive the support of 8 Artillery Bombardment Factors,
so 2 additional points of Defensive Fire. Example 2: an
unit with a Machine Gun Factor of 0 can receive the
support of 4 Bombardment Factors, that is 1 additional
point of Defensive Fire).
13.3.7 By expending one Logistics Point from the stock
of the owning player, there is no limit to the number of
Bombardment Factors that can fire Defensive Fire against
one target hex.
13.3.8 Each Artillery unit can perform
Defensive Fire only once per Game Turn. Mark
Artillery units which performed Defensive Fire
with a “Def. Fired” marker, as a reminder.
13.3.9 Firing Defensive Fire does not prevent Artillery
units from firing during their own Offensive
Bombardment Step, if activated, or vice-versa.
13.4 Assault Step
During the Assault Step, the Active Player tries to seize
enemy occupied hexes through Assault.
13.4.1 The units below an Assault marker must enter the
hex indicated by the arrow of the Assault marker, within
stacking limits. Note that both players have to respect
their own stacking limits only. Therefore the maximum
number of combat units that can be in an assaulted hex is
4 (2 in defense, 2 in assault) or 6 if two emplaced Artillery
units are also in the hex.
The hex declared to be the target of an Assault must be
entered by the Assaulting units even if all defending units
are completely wiped out by Offensive Bombardment.
Leave the Assault marker in the hex left empty by the
Assaulting units until the end of the Assault, as a marker
for the retreats following the Assault (see 13.4.5).
13.4.2 After all assaulting units have entered the assaulted
hexes, all Assaults are resolved. All Assaults are
considered to be simultaneous; therefore assaulted and
assaulting units cannot perform Defensive Fire against
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units that are retreating adjacent to them from another
assault in the same Phase.
13.4.3 Assault resolution:
A. Total the Combat Factors of all the assaulting units,
and divide it by the total of Combat Factors of the
defending units, getting a strength ratio (ex. 11:3 =
3.66:1).
B. Round down the ratio to the nearest strength ratio on
the top row on the Assault Table (ex. 11:3 = 3.66:1 is
rounded down to 3.5:1 ; 3:5 is rounded to 1:1.75).
Execute any possible column shifts due to terrain, the
current Morale Value of the attacking and defending units
and the Trench Level (if any). To get the hexside terrain
modifier in an Assault, all of the hexsides crossed by the
Assaulting units must be of that kind of terrain. Every
shift is one column on the Table. Combat ratios over 5:1
(6:1, 7:1 and so on) and below 1:2 (1:3, 1:4 and so on) are
considered one column each. All modifiers are
cumulative. First all column shifts in favor of the
defending hex are calculated; then these are subtracted
from the columns shift in favor of the attacker. The
maximum net column shift is three (3).
If the resulting final column is below 1:2, the result is
automatically 1D2R to the attacking player.
If the resulting final column is above 5:1, always use the
5:1 column.
C. Roll one die, cross reference the result with the final
column to find the result, and apply it immediately.
13.4.4 Results in the top row of each box of the Assault
Table refer to the attacker; bottom row to the defender.
Assault results:
- : No Effect
#D#R: The number before “D” indicates the total
number of steps lost by that side in the affected hex (in
total, not per unit); the number behind it indicates the
Disorganization Points inflicted on each affected unit.
The letter “R” indicates that the affected units must retreat
from the hex (see 13.4.5).
The first step loss must be taken from the unit whose
Morale was used in the combat (usually the highest
value).
13.4.5 Retreat. When combat results require it, the
owning player must retreat the affected units one hex. The
attacker retreats each of his units into the same hex from
which they started the Assault, the defender retreats his
units into an adjacent hex, from which an Assault was not
launched during the current Activation Phase, following
the priorities below:
A. If empty, one of the hexes opposite to those from
which the Assault was started, or adjacent to one of them.
B. Any other empty hex
C. A friendly occupied hex, without violating the stacking
rules (see 12.0).
11
D. A friendly occupied hex, violating the stacking rules
(see 12.0), causing an increase of Disorganization by 1 (1)
to all the units in the hex, as per rule 12.7.
13.4.5.1 The retreat of multiple defending units may take
place into different hexes. The retreat cannot take place
across impassable hexes or hexsides.
13.4.5.2 If there are no hexes available for a retreat, the
units that have to retreat surrender.
13.4.5.3 Following an Assault result, artillery units in
“fire” mode cannot retreat: they remain in place, and are
captured at the end of the Action Phase in which there are
still enemy units in their hex, after the Counter-assault
Step.
13.4.5.4 If the retreat is through enemy ZoCs other than
those projected by the units in the assaulted hex, these
enemy units can fire at the retreating units. In this case,
fire as in Infiltration Fire (see 11.1.2). This rule applies
both to attacking and defending units.
13.4.5.5 If the retreat is into a friendly occupied hex that is
also in the ZoC of an eligible enemy unit, Infiltration Fire
occurs against the retreating unit(s). The non-retreating
unit is not affected.
13.4.5.6 An Assaulting unit, compelled to retreat after a
Counter-assault, is obliged to retreat into the same hex
from which it started the original Assault.
13.4.6 An assault on a "0" strength combat unit is resolved
on the 5:1 column.
13.5 Counter-assault Step
During the Counter-assault Step, non-active units just
retreated from an Assault and non-active units not
adjacent to any other enemy units besides those in the hex
being counter-assaulted, are eligible to retake a hex just
lost by an enemy Assault by Counter Assault.
13.5.1 All eligible units within 2 hexes of the previously
Assaulted hex may employ their full Movement
Allowance to launch a Counter-assault (they are required
to spend any additional Movement Points to enter the hex
as per rule 13.1.5).
13.5.2 Mark the Counter-assaulting units with Assault
markers.
13.5.3 The procedure is the same as for regular Assaults,
but the players' roles are reversed and Artillery cannot fire
either Offensively or Defensively, and Trenches are not
considered.
13.5.4 At the end of the Counter-assault step, adjust the
Trench Level in the hex as per rule 18.5.
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above the surrender threshold is eliminated and put in the
Eliminated Units Box (not the Surrendered Units Box).
14.0 ACTIVATION COMPLETED
During Step H of an Action Phase (see the Sequence of
Play, 4.0), the Brigade HQ counter that has just
implemented the Action has to be flipped to its back side,
to indicate the end of the Brigade's operations for the
current Game Turn.
15.0 REACTION BY THE NON
ACTIVE PLAYER
16.4.2 At the end of an Assault, the winner (the side that
did not retreat), which would otherwise surrender due to
Disorganization, can never surrender. It will end up with a
Disorganization Level one less than the surrender
threshold.
17.0 STEP LOSSES
During the Opponent Reaction Step, the Non Active
Player can try a reaction with one of the Brigades he
planned to activate in the Command Phase. The player
indicates the Brigade he wishes to react with, placing the
HQ unit on the map, and rolling one die. If the result is
less than or equal to the Initiative Value of the Brigade
(the first number), it can immediately execute its Action
Phase for the current Game Turn, from Step A to H. After
that, the HQ unit is turned over to its “Activated” side (it
has performed its Action for the current turn and cannot
be activated anymore during the current turn), and the
Action goes back to the Initiative Player.
If the die roll is higher than the Initiative Value, the
Brigade is not activated, its counter goes back to the
Brigade Display, and it can be activated later in the Game
Turn through Reaction, or during a standard Activation.
17.1 Each Infantry unit has two steps. When the first step
is lost, flip the unit to its reduced side. When the second
step is lost, the unit is eliminated.
17.2 Every unit eliminated by step losses (not
surrendered) must be kept aside, as available for
replacement (but see 21.4).
17.3 Artillery units have one step which can only be
eliminated through Bombardment (see 19.6) or capture
(19.3, 19.4). Their reverse side is their current movement
status.
16.0 DISORGANIZATION
Disorganization represents the amount of weariness
inflicted upon units through combat. It can increase due to
bombardments, lack of food and ammunition, combat
fatigue, etc. The level of Disorganization of a unit is
expressed by the number of Disorganization Points it has
accumulated.
16.1 The current Morale of a unit is equal to its printed
Morale Value minus the suffered Disorganization Points.
16.2 Disorganization Points may be suffered through
Bombardments, Assaults, or lack of Supply.
16.3 A unit's current Morale affects Assault results (see
modifiers on the Assault Table).
16.4 Surrender. At the moment a unit's Disorganization
Level is equal to or higher than its printed Morale Value,
the unit surrenders if it is adjacent to, or is being assaulted
by, an enemy unit. Put it in the Surrendered Units Box. If
no enemy unit is adjacent or stacked with it, the unit
remains on the map with a Disorganization Level one less
than the surrender threshold.
16.4.1 During any kind of combat, first step losses and
then Disorganization Points are suffered. This means that
a one step unit that receives a result that both eliminates
its last step and increases the Disorganization Level to or
18.0 TRENCHES
18.1 An activated Infantry unit that doesn’t
move or Assault during its Action Phase can
dig trenches to fortify its position. A Trench
Level may be increased by one level per Action
Phase, to a maximum of three. Use an appropriate marker
to indicate the current Trench Level.
18.2 A Brigade activated with at least 1 LP (see 8.3) may
have its Infantry units emplace or upgrade up to 5 Trench
Levels total (one level at a time in up to 5 hexes). Units
emplacing a Level 1 Trench do that in the same turn. It
takes two turns to upgrade from a Level 1 or from a Level
2 Trench (turn the Trench Level marker upside down
while upgrading from Level 1 or 2). A Level 2 or 3
Trench is completed at the end of the next turn Brigade’s
activation or Non Activated Unit Movement Phase.
Exception: see 18.8.1.
18.2.1 An Infantry unit cannot move or Assault during a
turn in which it emplaced or upgraded a Trench. Should
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the upgrading unit move away, or Assault, or be
Assaulted, or successfully bombarded (any result other
than “No Result”) in the subsequent turn, before the
Trench is completed, the Trench Level is returned to its
initial level.
18.3 An eligible unit in the ZoC of an enemy unit may
only emplace or upgrade a Trench Level if the owning
player rolls a 1-3 (4-6 is no result, but the attempt counts
towards the “5 Trench Levels total” limit). Exception:
Engineer units automatically emplace or upgrade a
Trench Level even in enemy ZoCs (see 22.1).
18.4 Trenches give a defensive bonus against
Bombardments and Assaults, and make Defensive Fire
more effective. Trench effects are in addition to other
terrain in the hex/hexsides (see the Assault/Fire Table for
details).
18.5 At the end of a Counter-Assault step, if any unit of
the original Assaulting player is in the assaulted hex, the
Trench Level is decreased by 1. On map Trenches cannot
be decreased below Level 1.
18.6 Trenches are like a terrain feature and may be used
by either side. They can be reduced or eliminated by
Movement, Bombardment or Assault. As an alternative,
during the Artillery Phase, each player can reduce
Trenches occupied by friendly non-Artillery units by one
level. When a friendly unit enters an empty enemy Trench
hex during Movement, place a friendly Trench marker in
the hex, reducing the Level by 1 (not under 1, if it is an
On-map Trench hex). Entering an ENEMY Trench hex
costs +1 MP, then the Trench becomes friendly.
18.7 Moving from enemy ZoC to enemy ZoC in hexes
containing friendly Trenches does NOT trigger
Infiltration Fire and does not cost additional MP.
18.8 On Map Trenches are Level 3 and Level 2: see the
map and the TEC. Mark decreasing of the level (by
Bombardment or Assault) with normal Trench markers.
No on map Trench can be reduced below Level 1.
18.8.1 On Map Trenches can be upgraded to level 2 or 3
in one Game Turn only, without rolling a die, even if in
an enemy ZoC.
13
19.0 ARTILLERY
19.1 Artillery units have two sides, one to indicate that the
unit is moving and the other to indicate that the unit is
emplaced and ready to fire. Flip the Artillery units over
during the Artillery Phase to show the condition they will
have for the whole game turn (moving or in battery).
Note: changing to the “move” side could cause an
Artillery unit to overstack, as per rule 12.1. This is not a
problem, provided the overstacking situation is resolved in
any upcoming Movement step or phase.
Artillery units can move during the Non Activated Units
Movement Phase only, as they are activated to fire only.
The “move” side has a Bombardment Factor of “0” and a
red background Range, while the “fire” side has a
Movement Allowance of “0” and a yellow background
Range.
19.2 Heavy Artillery emplacement. Heavy Artillery
units take one complete turn to be emplaced in battery,
therefore they cannot fire in the same turn in which they
change from “move” to “fire” mode (put one “Act”
marker on them).
19.3 Artillery units have a Combat Factor of “0”, when
defending against Assaults. Artillery units alone in a hex
can be Assaulted (and see 19.4). When they are the only
units remaining in a hex at the end of an Assault, they are
captured, removed from the game, and put in the
Surrendered Units Box.
19.4 Artillery units alone in a hex cannot enter enemy
ZoCs and are automatically captured when an enemy unit
enters the hex during any Movement Phase or Step or at
the conclusion of an Assault/Counter-Assault (see
13.4.5.3).
19.5 “Blowing up” artillery. To avoid possible capture, a
player can decide to “blow up/spike” his own supplied
Artillery units during the Artillery Phase instead of giving
them a move/fire condition. In this case they are put in the
Eliminated Units Box (not the Surrendered Units Box).
Out of Supply artillery cannot be blown up.
19.6 An Artillery unit has only one step, but it is
necessary to score two hits (2 step losses) in the same fire
to eliminate an Artillery unit through Bombardment.
Artillery units must be the target of the Bombardment to
be affected (see 13.2.1).
19.7 Every Disorganization Point against an Artillery unit
also reduces its Bombardment Factor by 1. When its
Disorganization Level reaches the Bombardment Factor,
the unit surrenders according to rule 16.4
19.8 To mark an Artillery unit which fired
during Defensive Fire, mark it with a “Def.
Fired” marker. To mark an Artillery unit which
fired in Offensive Bombardment, mark it with
an “Act” marker. Artillery units which both fired
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offensively and defensively are marked with the
combined “Act & Def. Fired” marker.
not the Combat effects. NOTE: Building a new bridge
does not automatically build a road/track where there was
not a “printed on map” bridge, so the Road/Track part of a
Supply Line cannot cross it.
20.4 Bridge markers never count against stacking limits.
21.0 REPLACEMENTS
During a campaign, units suffering losses were often
rebuilt and reorganized with replacements and recovered
stragglers.
21.1 Only Infantry class units (Infantry, Mountain
Infantry, Bersaglieri, etc.) can be replaced. Lost Artillery,
Engineer, Cavalry, Flamethrowers, Armored Cars, or MG
units cannot be rebuilt.
20.0 ISONZO RIVER
20.1 The Isonzo is the main river on the map. In Summer
it is easy to ford it everywhere, but carts and trucks
cannot cross it without bridges. Artillery and Armored
Car units, and the road/track part of a Supply Line (10.2)
cannot cross the Isonzo River without an intact bridge.
20.2 Blown Up bridges. On a roll of 1-4 during the
Artillery Phase, an existing bridge can be blown up by
adjacent Infantry units or by Engineer units within 2
hexes of the bridge. The hex between the Engineer unit
and the bridge hex must be free of enemy units or ZoC
(unless occupied by friendly units). Every unit can roll
once per turn and once per bridge. Declare which unit will
roll for which bridge before starting to rolling for bridge
blowing.
20.2.1 Blown Up bridges does not exist for any purpose,
and the road/track crossing on it is interrupted.
20.3 Building bridges. Engineer units with Bridging
Capability (“P” in place of the Machine Gun Factor) can
build a bridge over the Isonzo River. A not Disorganized
capable Engineer unit starts the bridging process during
the Replacement and Rally Phase in the bridge hex; place
a Bridge Building marker on it. No enemy unit can be in
the hex opposite the bridge for the whole process. The
Engineer unit cannot move during the bridging process, if
forced out of the hex, the process is interrupted. If the
Engineer unit is Disorganized, the process is interrupted.
During the following Replacement and Rally Phase, the
bridge is complete; flip the Bridge Building marker to the
Bridge face. If the new bridge is replacing a destroyed
one, the bridge is repaired, and the Blown Up Bridge
marker is removed. If a Bridge is built on an Isonzo
hexside without a destroyed bridge, place the Bridge
marker pointing towards the bridged hexside. A Bridge
negates the movement cost to cross the Isonzo River, but
21.2 During the Replacement and Rally Phase, every
Brigade can replace one of its lost steps from the
Eliminated Units Box (not the Surrendered Units Box) or
flip one reduced unit still on the map to its full-strength
side. For each Brigade, flip one reduced battalion to its
full strength side, or place a reduced battalion taken from
the Eliminated Units Box on the map. The placement can
be in, or adjacent to, a Town or Supply Source hex,
nearest to any supplied unit of the Brigade it belongs to.
21.3 Brigades that have been completely eliminated or
which have not yet entered the map cannot receive
replacements.
21.4 Every game turn, each side can also get one
replacement step (one per side in total) of eligible units
not belonging to Brigades (ex.: Independent units). In this
case, eliminated units cannot be replaced.
21.5 Reduced battalions cannot be replenished to full
strength, or placed on the map, if adjacent to enemy units
or in an Out of Supply position. Exception: It can be done
in friendly On Map Trench hexes
21.6 During the Replacement and Rally Phase, the
supplied units of both players that have not Forced March
during the current turn, and that are not adjacent to enemy
units, can reduce their Disorganization Level by one point.
Exception: units in friendly On Map Trenches are
capable of Rallying adjacent to enemy units.
21.7 A unit may not be replenished at full strength in the
same turn that it reduces its Disorganization Level.
Design Note: The replacement rules are intentionally
simple, and try to recreate both the replacement
arrivals and the reorganization of “ad hoc” units
reduced to levels too small to be represented in the
game. Furthermore, it gives the players a good reason
to retreat a mauled brigade from the front line to get
replacements before it will be completely destroyed
(and it’s no longer possible to get them).
Europa Simulazioni © 2016
Gorizia, 1916
22.0
SPECIAL RULES
22.1 Engineer Units. Engineer units are treated like
normal Infantry units, but cannot Assault. Engineer units
with Bridging Capacity (“P” in place of Machine Gun
Factor) can repair and build bridges over the Isonzo River
(20.3). Engineer units allow automatic Trench building in
enemy ZoCs (18.3).
22.2 Cavalry Units. Cavalry units receive a bonus of one
column shift right when Assaulting enemy units in Clear
terrain, and give a bonus of one column shift right to
enemy units firing (Offensive and Defensive) at them.
Cavalry units do not receive any Trench bonus indicated
in the TEC for fire or assault. Dismounted Cavalry units
are shown as Infantry, and are treated like them.
22.3 MG Companies. MG units are treated like normal
Infantry units, but cannot Assault or build Trenches, and
if forced to retreat from an enemy Assault they are
eliminated. One MG company unit can stack for free, in
addition to the normal stacking limit.
22.4 Flamethrowers. Flamethrower units must always be
attached to an Infantry unit. Any D or numerical result
from Defensive Fire against a unit with Flamethrowers
attached eliminates the Flamethrower unit as an additional
result. Units with attached Flamethrowers get one
(maximum) column shift right when Assaulting. One
Flamethrower unit can stack for free, in addition to the
normal stacking limit. Flamethrowers are removed from
play if they are the only unit(s) in the hex after an enemy
Assault.
22.5 Armored Cars. An Armored Car unit moves like an
Artillery unit, and can move along Road/Track only. It
can use Road/Track in enemy ZoC, and ignores normal
stacking limits (one unit stacks for free). It cannot Assault
enemy Trench or Town hexes.
22.6 Austro-Hungarian Night Counterattacks. Once
per Game Turn, the Austro-Hungarian player can try to
activate any one Brigade, even if not Activated during the
Command Phase, during any one Opponent Reaction Step
for a Night Counterattack. Its Activation must undergo
the Initiative die roll, and if successful will cost 1 LP (no
attempt is allowed if no LP is available). Any Brigade can
be activated, but not if already Activated in the current
Game Turn. Artillery units cannot be used during Night
Counterattacks by either player.
23.0 TWO HEX DEPLOYMENT
23.1 Infantry units can deploy on two adjacent hexes. To
extend into an adjacent hex, a unit pays the MP cost to
enter the hex, and it is placed across the two hexes.
23.2 The unit is split in two in each hex, and in every hex
its Combat Factor and Machine Gun Factor is halved
(rounding up) in both hexes.
15
23.3 Units on two hexes cannot stack with any units (even
units allowed free stacking), and cannot Assault.
23.4 Each hex must be Bombarded and/or Assaulted
separately, and the result is applied to the unit as a whole.
If one hex is forced to retreat, or receives a step loss, the
unit is consolidated in the second hex.
23.5 Units on two hexes must consolidate in one of the
two hexes before moving, paying the MP cost of the hex.
24.0 FOG OF WAR
24.1 Stacking order: The top unit must be an Infantry type
unit (if any), or the Trench marker (if any).
24.2 Disorganization markers are kept under the affected
units.
24.3 Each player can check his own stacks only, giving
the opponent the information needed during the combat
steps (i.e. strength, current Morale, etc.).
25.0 VICTORY CONDITIONS
The game ends for one of the following circumstances,
whichever happens first:
 when the Italian Player arrives to an offensive stop
(see 25.3)
 when the Italian Player obtains a Breakthrough (see
25.2)
 the moment the last Game Turn is completed.
At the end of the game, the Victory Conditions are
checked (unless the Italian Player achieves a
Breakthrough).
The number of Victory Points needed to win is given in
the scenario instructions. Only the Italian Player gets VP.
The Victory Points are gained for geographical objectives:
Victory Points hexes:
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1808, 1908 (Monte Santo): 2 VP each
2010 (Monte Sabotino): 2 VP
2105 (Ravnica): 1 VP
2206 (Monte San Gabriele): 5 VP
2201 (Ternova): 5 VP
2211 (Oslavya): 1 VP
2309 (Salcano): 1 VP
2513 (Monte Calvario): 2 VP
2510, 2511, 2610, 2711 (Gorizia): 2 VP each
2602 (Ossegliano): 1 VP
2801 (Schönpass): 5 VP
2808 (Monte San Marco): 2 VP
3009 (Vertojba): 5 VP
3209 (Biglia): 1 VP
3316, 3416 (Monte San Michele): 2 VP each
3305 (Gradiscutta): 2 VP
3302 (Dornberg): 5 VP
3417 (San Martino del Carso): 2 VP
3612 (Lokvica): 1 VP
3714 (Oppacchiasella): 1 VP
Europa Simulazioni © 2016
Gorizia, 1916
16
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3817 (Doberdò): 2 VP
3809 (Kostanjevica): 5 VP
4101 (Comen): 10 VP
4210 (Brestovica): 2 VP
4316 (Cima di Pietrarossa): 2 VP
4513 (San Giovanni): 2 VP
4712 (Duino): 5 VP
4709 (Sistiana): 5 VP
Set Up and Special Rules: Both players player can place
their units on their frontline hexes, as indicated in the set
up instructions. They can setup other units behind their
frontline units, as long as these are all adjacent to each
other. Set up Artillery units emplaced, and capable of
bombarding an enemy front line hex.
Austro-Hungarian player sets up first.
To get these points, the Italian player has to be the last
one to have had a non-Artillery unit enter or move
through the hex. Design Note: The objectives of both the
sides were territorial, their own or enemy losses were
immaterial.
25.2 Italian Breakthrough. If during any Game Turn
Victory Check Phase, the Italian player controls all of the
hexes of Gorizia (2511, 2511, 2610, 2711), Ternova
(2201), Dornberg (3302) and Comen (4101), he wins a
Complete Victory, regardless of Victory Points.
25.2 Italian Offensive Halt. The Italian offensive comes
to a halt when the Italian Player does not conquer a VP
hex for three consecutive Game Turns.
26.0 SCENARIOS OF “GORIZIA 1916:
THE SIXTH BATTLE OF THE
ISONZO”
- Units to be set up are indicated between “( )” after the
attaching Regiment or Brigade (examples: 22th LS
Gebirgs Brigade (4 FJ, 155LS, IV/4, IX/19): this means
the 22th LS Gebirgs Brigade is composed of (4 FJ, 155LS)
btns. , the IV btn. of the 4th Regiment, and the IX btn. of
the 19th Regiment. 4 units in all).
- Independent units: their name is indicated between “( )”
after their unit indication (ex.: Bersaglieri (V))
SCENARIO 1: ISONZO BRIDGEHEAD
Scenario 1 covers the opening actions of the Italian
offensive, to overrun the Isonzo Bridgehead and “set free”
Gorizia.
Scenario Length: 4 Turns, starting on August 6 th, and
ending at the end of August 9th.
Scenario Map area: Northern border: from map eastern
border along hexrow 14xx until hex 1414 (included), then
along the Isonzo River from 1414 to 2109, then along
hexrow 21xx (included); Southern border: hexrow 31xx
(included).
Victory Conditions: The Italian player wins if he clears
the Isonzo Bridgehead (no AH units west of Isonzo
River), and conquers each Gorizia hex. The AustroHungarian player wins if the Italian player does not reach
his objectives.
First Turn Special Rules: During the First Italian
Brigade activation, the Italian player gets three shifts on
the Bombardment and the Assault tables, and one shift
during the second activation.
Design Note: the surprise was complete; the Italians
prepared very well for the offensive against the
entrenched Austro-Hungarian troops, digging trenches
arriving very close to the enemy positions, to make the
jump over them shorter. Also the artillery barrage was
very well planned and prepared, without warning the AH
Command.
Events: No event takes place during Game Turn 1.
Logistic Points: The Italian player starts the scenario with
25 Logistics Points. The Austro-Hungarian player begins
the scenario with 1 Logistic Point.
AUSTRO-HUNGARIAN SET UP:
- 4th Gebirgs Brigade
(I/37, II/37, III/37): from 1910 to 2211. (II/52,
III/69): any town east of Isonzo River.
- 121th LS Infantry Brigade
(2 FJ, 6 LS, 37 LS): from 2312 to 2513.
(IV/39, 75 LS, 83 LS); Eng (7): any town east of
Isonzo River.
- 5th Gebirgs Brigade
(I/23, II/23, III/23): from 2613 to 2812.
(I/22, II/22, III/22): from 2913 to 3116.
- 58th Division Artillery:
4 x Field Artillery unit
Set up behind the AH frontline from 1910 to 3116.
- XVI Corps Artillery:
1 x Mountain Artillery unit
2 x Field Artillery units
1 x Heavy Artillery unit
4 x Minewerfer units
Set up behind the Austro-Hungarian frontline from 1910
to 3116.
AUSTRO-HUNGARIAN REINFORCEMENTS
August 7: 2 Logistics Points.
August 8: 3 Logistics Points.
August 9: (I/102, II/102), at 3107.
5 Logistics Points.
Europa Simulazioni © 2016
Gorizia, 1916
ITALIAN SET UP
ITALIAN REINFORCEMENTS
- 45th Infantry Division: Toscana Brigade (I/77, II/77,
III/77, I/78, II/78, III/78); Trapani Brigade (I/144,
II/144, III/144, I/149, II/149, III/149, III/58, III/115);
Eng (71); MG (3, 28, 85);
1 x Mountain Artillery unit
3 x Field Artillery units
3 x Heavy Artillery units
2 x Bombard units
Set up on or behind the Italian frontline from 1712 to
2011.
- 24th Infantry Division: Lambro Brigade (I/205, II/205,
III/205, I/206, II/206, III/206); Abruzzi Brigade (I/57,
II/57, III/57, I/58, II/58); Eng (18); MG (32);
1 x Mountain Artillery unit
3 x Field Artillery units
1 x Heavy Artillery unit
2 x Bombard units
Set up on or behind the Italian frontline from 2112 to
2313.
- 11th Infantry Division: Cuneo Brigade (I/7, II/7, III/7,
I/8, II/8, III/8); Treviso Brigade (I/116, II/116,
III/116, I/115, II/115); Eng (56); MG (4);
1 x Mountain Artillery unit
4 x Field Artillery units
2 x Bombard units
Set up on or behind the Italian frontline from 2413 to
2614.
- 12th Infantry Division: Casale Brigade (I/11, II/11,
III/11, I/12, II/12, III/12); Pavia Brigade (I/27, II/27,
III/27, I/28, II/28, III/28); Eng (57); MG (12, 226);
1 x Mountain Artillery unit
4 x Field Artillery units
1 x Heavy Artillery unit
2 x Bombard units
Set up on or behind the Italian frontline from 2714 to
2915.
- 43th Infantry Division: Pescara Brigade (I/211, II/211,
III/211, I/212, II/212, III/212); Etna Brigade (I/223,
II/223, III/223, I/224, II/224, III/224); Eng (72);
2 x Field Artillery units
Set up within 2 hexes from 2019.
- 47th Infantry Division: Campobasso Brigade (I/229,
II/229, III/229, I/230, II/230, III/230); Avellino
Brigade (I/231, II/231, III/231, I/232, II/232, III/232);
2 x Field Artillery units
Set up within 2 hexes from 2322.
- Bers. Cicl (V); Cav. (Lodi+): Set up within 2 hexes from
2422. Note: Lodi Rgmt. had an additional squadron.
- VI Corps Artillery:
1 x Mountain Artillery unit
1 x Field Artillery unit
1 x Heavy Artillery unit
Set up behind the Italian frontline from 1712 to 2915
August 7: 10 Logistics Points.
17
August 8: 10 Logistics Points.
August 9: 10 Logistics Points.
SCENARIO 2: CARSO – KARST
Scenario 2 covers the opening actions of the Italian
offensive on The Carso heights.
Scenario Length: 4 Turns, starting on August 6th, and
ending at the end of August 9th.
Scenario Map area: Northern border: hexrow 32xx
(included). Southern border: The South map edge.
Victory Conditions: The Italian player wins if he controls
any two hexes among: Castel Rubbia (3214); San Martino
del Carso (3417); Doberdò (3817); Cima di Pietrarossa
(4316). The Austro-Hungarian player wins if the Italian
player does not reach his objectives.
Set Up and Special Rules: Both players player can place
their units on their frontline hexes, as indicated in the set
up instructions. They can setup other units behind their
frontline units, as long as these are all adjacent to each
other.
Set up Artillery units emplaced, and capable of
bombarding an enemy front line hex.
Note: units of the 86th LW Infantry Brigade are not
deployed when playing Scenario 2 alone.
Austro-Hungarian player sets up first.

First Turn Special Rules: During the First Italian
Brigade activation, the Italian player gets two shifts on
the Bombardment and the Assault tables.
Design Note: the surprise was complete; the Italians
prepared very well for the offensive against the
entrenched Austro-Hungarian troops, digging trenches
arriving very close to the enemy positions, to make the
jump over them shorter. Also the artillery barrage was
very well planned and prepared, without warning the AH
Command.
Events: No event takes place during Game Turn 1.
Logistic Points: The Italian player starts the scenario with
25 Logistics Points. The Austro-Hungarians player begins
the scenario with 2 Logistic Points.
AUSTRO-HUNGARIAN SET UP:
- 39th Honved Infantry Brigade (I/3H, II/3H, III/3H, I/4H,
II/4H, III/4H,): within 2 hexes from 3612.
- 81st Honved Infantry Brigade (I/1H, II/1H, III/1H,
I/17H, II/17H, III/17H,): along the front line between
3216 and 3417.
- 20th Honved Division Artillery:
4 x Field Artillery units
Europa Simulazioni © 2016
Gorizia, 1916
18
1 x Heavy Artillery unit
Set up behind the AH frontline from 3216 to 3417.
- 33rd Infantry Brigade (I/39, II/39, III/39, IV/39, I/61,
II/61, III/61): along the front line between 3518 and
3819.
- 34th Infantry Brigade (I/43, II/43, III/43, IV/43, I/46,
II/46, III/46,): within 2 hexes from 3714.
- 17th Division units:
4 x Field Artillery units
1 x Heavy Artillery unit.
2 x Flamethrowers units
1 x Eng (10)
Set up behind the AH frontline from 3518 to 3819.
- VII Corps Artillery:
1 x Mountain Artillery unit
1 x Field Artillery unit
2 x Heavy Artillery units
6 x Minewerfer units
Set up behind the AH frontline from 3216 to 3819
- 17th Infantry Brigade (I/91, II/91, III/91, I/102, II/102,
III/102,): along the front line between 3919 and 4117.
- 60th Infantry Brigade (I/30, II/30, III/30, I/80, II/80,
III/80,): along the front line between 4216 and 4314.
- 24th LS Gebirgs Brigade (I/11, II/11, III/11, I/27, II/27,
III/27,): along the front line between 4413 and 4613.
1 x Mountain Artillery unit (4-6-0)
Set up behind the AH frontline from 4413 to 4613.
- 9th Division units:
1 x Field Artillery unit
1 x Heavy Artillery unit
Set up behind the AH frontline from 3919 to 4613.
- 59th Infantry Brigade (I/41, II/41, III/41, IV/41, I/24,
II/24, III/24,): within 2 hexes from 4210.
- 86th LW Infantry Brigade (I/20, II/20, III/20, I/22 II/22,
III/22,): within 2 hexes from 4101.
- 43rd Division units:
3 x Field Artillery units
1 x Heavy Artillery unit.
1 x Flamethrowers unit
1 x Eng (3)
Within 59th and 86th Brigades set up areas.
- S Group Artillery:
1 x Mountain Artillery unit
3 x Field Artillery unit
5 x Minewerfer units
Set up behind the AH frontline from 3919 to 4613.
AUSTRO-HUNGARIAN REINFORCEMENTS
August 7: 3 Logistics Points.
August 8: 2 Logistics Points.
August 9: 5 Logistics Points.
ITALIAN SET UP
- 22nd Infantry Division: Brescia Brigade (I/19, II/19,
III/19, I/20, II/20, III/20); Ferrara Brigade (I/47, II/47,
III/47, I/48, II/48, III/48); Catanzaro Brigade (I/141,
II/141, III/141, I/142, II/142, III/142); Eng (11, 60);
MG (42, 44, 83, 86); Armored Cars (3)
1 x Mountain Artillery unit.
4 x Field Artillery units.
2 x Bombard units.
Set up on or behind the Italian frontline from 3015 to
3317.
- 21th Infantry Division: Regina Brigade (I/9, II/9, III/9,
I/10, II/10, III/10); Pisa Brigade (I/29, II/29, III/29,
I/30, II/30, III/30); Eng (10); MG (8, 11, 234);
4 x Field Artillery units
1 x Bombard unit
Set up on or behind the Italian frontline from 3318 to
3419.
- 23th Infantry Division: Granatieri di Sardegna Brigade
(I/1G, II/1G, III/1G, I/2G, II/2G, III/2G); Lombardia
Brigade (I/73, II/73, III/73, I/74, II/74, III/74); Eng
(21); Cav (Foggia).
2 x Field Artillery units
Set up within 2 hexes from 3123.
- XI Corps Artillery:
1 x Mountain Artillery unit
1 x Heavy Artillery unit
Set up behind the Italian frontline from 3015 to 3418.
- Macerata Brigade (I/121, II/121, III/121, I/122, II/122,
III/122, III/55, III/76); RGF (II, XII); MG (16); Bers.
Cicl. (VIII)
Set up on or behind the Italian frontline from 3520 to
3620.
- 31th Infantry Division: Chieti Brigade (I/123, II/123,
III/123, I/124, II/124, III/124); Bers. (I/15, II/15,
III/15); Eng (12); MG (17); Cav (Piemonte)
2 x Field Artillery units
Set up on or behind the Italian frontline from 3720 to
3820.
- XIII Corps units:
4 x Field Artillery units
1 x Bombard unit
MG (20, 236)
Set up behind the Italian frontline from 3520 to 3820.
- 16th Infantry Division: Cremona Brigade (I/21, III/21,
III/5, I/22, II/22, III/22); Lazio Brigade (I/131, II/131,
III/131, I/132, II/132, III/132); 2 Dism. Cav. Brigade
(II/4, III/4, I/5, II/5, III/5); Cav (Genova); Eng (58);
MG (23);
2 x Field Artillery units
1 x Bombard unit
Set up on or behind the Italian frontline from 3920 to
4119.
- 14th Infantry Division: Marche Brigade (I/55, II/55, I/56,
II/56, III/56); Alessandria Brigade (I/135, II/135,
III/135, I/136, II/136, III/136); 1 Dism. Cav. Brigade
Europa Simulazioni © 2016
Gorizia, 1916
(I/13, II/13, III/13, I/20, II/20, III/20, I/29, II/29,
III/29); Cav (Piemonte); Eng (7); MG (37); Bers.
(XLVII, LVI);
1 x Mountain Artillery unit
3 x Field Artillery units
1 x Bombard unit
Set up on or behind the Italian frontline from 4218 to
4615.
- VII Corps units:
1 x Mountain Artillery unit
2 x Field Artillery units
1 x Heavy Artillery unit
Inf. (II/21); MG (15, 40, 235); Bers. Cicl. (III, IV, XI);
Set up behind the Italian frontline from 3920 to
4615.
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Events: No event takes place during Game Turn 1.
Logistic Points: The Italian player starts the scenario with
50 Logistics Points. The Austro-Hungarian player begins
the scenario with 3 Logistics Points.
AUSTRO-HUNGARIAN SET UP:
The Austro-Hungarian player sets up his units as in Scenario 1 and Scenario 2.
He also sets up the following additional units:
SCENARIO 3: THE CAMPAIGN GAME
- 22nd LS Gebirgs Brigade (4 FJ, 155LS, IV/4, IX/19);
Eng. (8): from 0103 to 0706.
- 1st Division Artillery:
1 x Mountain Artillery unit
1 x Field Artillery unit
Set up behind the AH frontline from 0103 to 0706.
- 205th LS Infantry Brigade (I/409, II/409, III/409, 8LS):
from 0707 to 1311.
- 209th NK Infantry Brigade (I/2NK, II/2NK, VI/4NK,
III/5NK, II/8 NK, IV/26NK, VI/30NK, III/31NK):
from 1312 to 1809.
- 62nd Division Artillery:
1 x Mountain Artillery unit
2 x Field Artillery unit
Set up behind the AH frontline from 0706 to 1809.
Scenario Length: 12 Turns, starting on August 6th, and
ending at the end of August 17th.
AUSTRO-HUNGARIAN REINFORCEMENTS
Scenario Map area: The whole map.
August 7: 5 Logistics Points.
Victory Conditions: The Italian player wins if he reaches
at least 30 Victory Points. The Austro-Hungarian player
wins if the Italian player reaches 24 VPs or less. Any
other result is a Draw.
August 8: (I/102, II/102), at Comen (4101).
5 Logistics Points.
ITALIAN REINFORCEMENTS
August 7: 10 Logistics Points.
August 8: 10 Logistics Points.
August 9: 10 Logistics Points.
Set Up and Special Rules: Both players player can place
their units on their frontline hexes, as indicated in the set
up instructions. They can setup other units behind their
frontline units, as long as these are all adjacent to each
other.
Set up Artillery units emplaced, and capable of
bombarding an enemy front line hex.
Austro-Hungarian player sets up first.
The bridges between 0709 and 0710, and between 0809
and 0810 are Blown Up.
First Turn Special Rules: During the First Italian
Brigade activation, the Italian player gets three shifts on
the Bombardment and the Assault tables. Two shifts
during the second Brigade activation, one shift during the
third activation.
Design Note: the surprise was complete; the Italians
prepared very well for the offensive against the
entrenched Austro-Hungarian troops, digging trenches
arriving very close to the enemy positions, to make the
jump over them shorter. Also the artillery barrage was
very well planned and prepared, without warning the AH
Command.
August 9: 10 Logistics Points.
August 10: 8th Gebirgs Brigade (IV/24, III/35,
III/85, 5 FJ) at Dornberg (3302).
10 Logistics Points.
IV/58,
August 11: I/50 at 1601.
10 Logistics Points.
August 12: 2nd Gebirgs Brigade (III/8, III/55, II/70,
12 FJ, 8 FJ); I/48; 1 x Mountain Artillery unit
at 1601.
10 Logistics Points.
August 13: 18th Infantry Brigade (I/11, II/11, III/11,
IV/11, I/47, II/47, III/47); 10th Gebirgs
Brigade (I/62, I/90, II/1 BH) at Prvacina
(3203). 42 LS; 43 LS; IV/20; I/21; 1 x Field
Artillery unit at Dornberg (3302).
10 Logistics Points.
August 14: 10 Logistics Points.
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Gorizia, 1916
20
August 15: 10 Logistics Points.
Brigade (I/159, II/159, III/159, I/160, II/160,
III/160), at any map west edge hex.
20 Logistics Points.
August 16: 10 Logistics Points.
August 17: 10 Logistics Points.
August 13: 20 Logistics Points.
ITALIAN SET UP
The Italian player sets up his units as in Scenario 1 and
Scenario 2.
He also sets up the following additional units:
- 4th Dism. Cav. Division (12 x dismounted squadrons):
Set up on or behind the Italian frontline from 0105 to
1212.
- 3rd Infantry Division: Firenze Brigade (I/127, II/127,
III/127, I/128, II/128, III/128); RGF (1);
Set up on or behind the Italian frontline in hexes
1313, 1412, 1513, 1612.
1 x Mountain Artillery unit
4 x Field Artillery units
Set up behind the Italian frontline from 0105 to 1612
ITALIAN REINFORCEMENTS
August 6: 48th Infantry Division: Genova Brigade (I/97,
II/97, III/97, I/98, II/98, III/98); Taranto
Brigade (I/143, II/143, III/143, I/150, II/150,
III/150); Eng (73); 2 x Field Artillery units, at
2027.
August 7: 46th Infantry Division: Udine Brigade (I/95,
II/95, III/95, I/96, II/96, III/96); Rovigo
Brigade (I/227, II/227, III/227, I/228, II/228,
III/228); Eng (22); 2 x Field Artillery units, at
2927 or 3027.
49th Infantry Division: Pinerolo Brigade (I/13,
II/13, III/13, I/14, II/14, III/14); Napoli
Brigade (I/75, II/75, III/75, I/76, II/76), at
3727 or 4327.
20 Logistics Points.
August 8: 34th Infantry Division: Salerno Brigade (I/89,
II/89, III/89, I/90, II/90, III/90); Ivrea Brigade
(I/161, II/161, III/161, I/162, II/162, III/162);
2 x Field Artillery units, at 3027 or 3727.
20 Logistics Points.
August 9: 20 Logistics Points.
August 10: 20 Logistics Points.
August 11: 20 Logistics Points.
August 12: Benevento Brigade (I/133, II/133, III/133,
I/134, II/134, III/134); Ionio Brigade (I/221,
II/221, III/221, I/222, II/222, III/222); Milano
August 14: 20 Logistics Points.
August 15: 20 Logistics Points.
August 16: 10 Logistics Points.
August 17: 10 Logistics Points.
27.0 OPTIONAL RULES
27.1 MG Companies. Because of historical reasons, and
to leave some operative options to the Italian player, the
MG companies are included in the OoB, but they had
strong defensive characteristics, and can have little utility
in this battle. If both players agree, they can avoid using
them in the game, to reduce the unit density on the map,
without affecting (too much) play balance.
27.2 Fire Table Results. Design Note: In the first version
of Gorizia, more bloody results of the table were
implemented, but some playtesters found depressing to
have a stack of two units wiped out by a lucky barrage.
You can try the original version of the results, where step
losses are higher, but Disorganization losses are lower.
The numerical “losses part” of any result on the Fire table
affects each non-entrenched target unit in a stack in Clear,
Carso, or Swamp hex. The column shift due to the “two
units target” is not used.
LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS
Gebirgs, GbSch: Gebirgsjäger, GebirgsSchützen
(Mountain troops)
FJ: Feldjäger battalion
H: Honved (Hungarian Army)
LW: Landwehr (Territorial Troops)
LS: Landeschützen (Territorial Troops)
NK: Népfelkelösèg (Hungarian Territorial Troops)
RGF: Regia Guardia di Finanza (Border guards)
Inf.: Infantry
MG: Machine Guns
Eng: Engineer
Brs., Bers.: Bersaglieri
Bers. Cicl.: Bersaglieri Ciclisti
Cav.: Cavalleria
Dism. Cav.: Dismounted Cavalry
Mt.: Mountain artillery
Fld.: Field artillery
Hv.: Heavy artillery
Bde: Brigade
Btn: Battalion
Europa Simulazioni © 2016
Gorizia, 1916
HISTORICAL NOTES
The roots of the Sixth Battle of the Isonzo are at the end
of 1915, when the Italian High Command, in the person
of General Luigi Cadorna, finally realized the useless
dispersive tactics used in the first months of the war
against Austria-Hungary.
The concept for a new offensive was to concentrate
artillery firepower, to open gaps in wire and obstacles,
and approach tactics to reduce the open ground to go
through under enemy fire. The target of the new offensive
should be the fortified Austro-Hungarian bridgehead
across the Isonzo River, and the city of Gorizia.
This strong position was the theater of some of the
bloodiest fights in the first months of the war, and it was
pivoted on Mount Sabotino, a rocky hill 609 m high, and
the hills running south-west from it, forming an arc
around the Isonzo right in front of Gorizia.
The offensive would be coordinated by the 3 rd Army,
under the command of Emanuele Filiberto, Duke of Aosta
and cousin of the Italian King, Vittorio Emanuele III.
The Duke of Aosta pushed to extend the offensive to the
southern bastion of the valley where Gorizia lies, the
Mount San Michele, another locality where the Italian
infantry paid a bloody tribute in the early stages of the
war.
The offensive preparations were interrupted by the
Austro-Hungarian Spring Offensive in May, the so named
“Strafexpedition”. Seven divisions, the main part of the
troops dedicated to the Isonzo Offensive, and the whole
general reserve, had to be diverted to the Trentino, to face
the menace pending on the Venetian plains.
Once the Austro-Hungarian offensive was stopped, and
the following Italian counteroffensive gave no results on
the Trentino highlands, General Cadorna moved his
attention back to the Isonzo and Gorizia.
The offensive preparations resumed, and the opportunity
for a strategic surprise arose, as the Austro-Hungarian
Army was still busy with the Russian Brusilov Offensive
in the East, and incredulous that the Italians could mount
an offensive in so brief period of time, after being bled by
the fights in Trentino.
The shift of two Corps of 7 Divisions, and 40 artillery
batteries, from Trentino to the Isonzo front was carefully
planned, so that it could be done in 10 days; a logistic
miracle, keeping it secret from the AH intelligence.
The surprise was achieved, so much so that General
Zeidler, the Commander of 58 th AH Division defending
Gorizia, was on leave when the attack begun, on the 6 th of
August.
At 7.00 the artillery barrage started, with intense use of a
new weapon for the Italian Front, the Bombard. The
forefather of the current mortar, it was used by the French
on the Western Front, with good results, and imported, or
manufactured under license in mass in Italy.
21
The opening barrage was so intense and precise that it was
defined unprecedented by the official AH reports, hitting
regroup centers, telephone cables, HQs and shelters, and
destroying barbed wires and trenches.
The assault on Mount Sabotino reached the top in 40
minutes, while other parts of the front were harder to
breach, but before the night also Mount San Michele was
conquered, as well other parts of the Bridgehead were
breached.
During the night and the early morning, the few AustroHungarian reserves counterattacked, pushing back
somewhat the Italians, but Mount Sabotino and Mount
San Michele remained firmly in Italian hands.
The following day saw the Italians attacking again, using
their reserves, and breaching again the Austro-Hungarian
front in front of Gorizia, while they were repulsed on the
Carso. The Austro-Hungarians had no more reserves to
launch against the Italian tide in front of Gorizia, so
General Boroevic, the Commander of the AH 5th Army,
authorized the retreat of the remnants of the 58 th Division
to the second line, on the heights behind Gorizia, leaving
10.000 dead and prisoners behind them.
On the 8th of August the first Italian troops entered
Gorizia, rising the flag on the railway station.
On the evening of the same day, the remnants of the 58 th
Division, and some battalions scraped up by the AustroHungarian High Command were manning the second line
of trenches on the heights surrounding Gorizia.
More reinforcements were arriving from all over the
Empire…
A key decision taken by General Boroevic was to retreat,
during the night of the 10th of August, also the south end
of his Army, that had its northern flank exposed.
Furthermore, this shortened the front line, releasing some
troops to reinforce the center.
The Austro-Hungarians were ready for the second stage of
the battle…
At this stage, the Italian High Command was convinced
that the Austro-Hungarians were routed, therefore they
ordered a pursuit of the fleeing enemy. After the
occupation of the city of Gorizia, the Italian vanguards
reached the Austro-Hungarian second defensive line, and,
convinced to have in front of them only small rearguards,
attacked with poor coordination and no artillery support.
After these first attacks were repulsed, the Italians had to
wait until the bridges over the Isonzo were repaired, and
most of their artillery was moved forward, leaving in this
way time to the Austro-Hungarians to receive
reinforcements and ammunition, and to fortify their
positions.
The situation was back to the attritional war, and the
opportunity for a breakthrough lost.
Just some positions on the Carso, such as the Nad Logem
(3413), were conquered by the Italians before the
offensive was stopped on the 17th of August.
Europa Simulazioni © 2016
22
Gorizia, 1916
Further efforts against the hills overlooking Gorizia were
repulsed, and, in the following year, names like Monte
Santo and Monte San Gabriele became sadly famous
because of the uselessly high toll of blood they levied.
The Sixth Isonzo Battle gave to Italy its first important
victory, more from the prestige point of view than from
the strategic one. The Italians lost 50.000 troops, against
the loss of 40.000 Austro-Hungarian troops.
The front line was moved one step closer to Trieste, and
the Austro-Hungarians had lost an important railroad
junction, but the Great War was still far from its end.
Andrea Brusati
DESIGN NOTES
exceed the real needs of the game: town and village
symbols are copies of their extension on a 1916 map, bell
towers are indicated as standing or razed, names are from
an Austro-Hungarian 1914 map, and terrain characteristics
are derived from maps of the period.
Enjoy this second episode of WW1 on the Italian Front.
Andrea Brusati
BIBLIOGRAPHY
• Gianni Pieropan – “Storia della Grande Guerra sul
“Gorizia 1916” is the second game on WWI on the Italian
Front, after “Strafexpedition”, and uses its same basic
system and rules. It takes place a couple of months after
the events depicted in the former game, but the situation
is completely different. No more rocky mountains, but
rugged hills crossed by deep trenches, no more deep
penetrations, but fierce fights for single hexes, and a lot of
units.
There are a few big differences in the rules from
Strafexpedition.
The first one is in the losses from Fire; now they are
heavier for stacked targets in open terrain. This makes
Fire/Bombardment more bloody and rewards the
dispersion of troops.
The second one is in the Assault, which now can be done
by every unit declaring an Assault, not one stack
equivalent only.
The third one is a limit to the number of net shifts on the
Assault and Fire/Bombardment Tables.
The fourth one is Interdiction Fire; artillery can fire on
empty hexes, to damage enemy units moving across them.
In this theater of war the counterattack was a widespread
doctrine, and a tactic used very often.
This is also reproduced in the Night Counterattack rule,
and in the Events.
Also Trenches were very important, as very strong
defender shelters, and effective fire platforms against
attackers. Actually, trenches and artillery are the key
elements of this simulation; use them in the proper way,
and you will get the prize.
Very important also is the Isonzo River, and the bridges
across it; their blowing up or their capture/rebuilding is
very important to move supply and artillery across the
river.
There are also some “chrome” units, like MG, Cavalry,
Engineers, Flamethrowers, and Armored Cars; they will
not be the ultimate weapons, but very useful in the
appropriate situations.
Last, but not the least, the map. The map is the result of a
careful research, on maps of the period, with details that
fronte Italiano” – Mursia
• Ufficio Storico dell’Esercito Italiano – “L’Esercito
Italiano nella Grande Guerra (1915-18) - Vol. III”. Ist.
Poligrafico dello Stato.
• Mark Thompson – “The White War” – Faber & Faber
• Edmund Glaise-Horstenau - Osterreich-Ungarns Ietzter
Krieg 1914-18 – “Die Sechste Isonzoschlacht”
• Francesco Zingales – “La Conquista di Gorizia” –
Ministero della Guerra, Stato Maggiore del R. Esercito,
Ufficio Storico
• Ambrogio Bollati - “Gorizia e le Battaglie dell'Autunno
1916” – Corbaccio.
• Tonino Ficalora - “La Presa di Gorizia” – Mursia.
• Enrico Folisi – “Sei Battaglie per una Vittoria. 1916,
Oltre l'Isonzo: Gorizia” – Gaspari.
• Seccia Giorgio – “Gorizia 1916” – Itinera Progetti.
• Fritz Weber – “Dal Monte Nero a Caporetto” – Mursia.
• J.R.Schindler– “Isonzo. Il massacro dimenticato della
Grande Guerra” – LEG.
CREDITS
Design: Andrea Brusati
Development: Nicola Contardi, Luigi Parmigiani
Playtest: Umberto Piccoli, Piergennaro Federico, Luca
Vellutini, Andrea Grizi, Giuseppe Zacchei, Stefano Grizi,
Nicola Contardi, Luigi Parmigiani, Stéphane Sénéchal.
André-Luc Pisie.
Rules proofreading: Klas Malmström
Translation assistance: Don Katz
Box art: Nicola Contardi
Map art: Dan Marcolini
Counter art: Andrea Brusati
Special Thanks: Alessandro Massignani, Peter Dietrich,
Gruppo di Ricerca Storica Isonzo.
Europa Simulazioni © 2016
Gorizia, 1916
23
DEDICATION
This game is dedicated to every man who fought, died, or
was injured in this war.
Andrea
Europa Simulazioni © 2016
Made in Italy
v.1.0P
“do not forget us !”
Europa Simulazioni © 2016
Gorizia, 1916
24
EVENTS TABLE
1
Roll on the Italian Events Table
2
Roll on the Italian Events Table
3
No Event
4
No Event
5
Roll on the Austro-Hungarian Events Table
6
Roll on the Austro-Hungarian Events Table
Italian Events Table
1
2
3
4
5
6
The Italian High Command orders “To put wings on your feet”: randomly pick one Italian
Brigade HQ from the ones in play. This Brigade is activated for free and must make at least one
Assault during this Game Turn. If the Brigade cannot make Assaults on this turn (too far from the
enemy or other reasons), randomly pick another Brigade
Confusion in the Italian High Command: randomly pick one Italian Brigade HQ from the ones
in play. The Austro-Hungarian player can move the battalions of one of the regiments of the
Brigade one hex (in any direction, but not across the Isonzo River). The Event takes place
immediately. If the Brigade cannot move on this turn (for any reason), randomly pick another
Brigade
Italian artillery short firing: for each Italian Offensive Bombardment executed during the current
turn, roll one die. If the result is a 1 or 2, the bombardment is made against one adjacent hex
containing assaulting Italian units (choose randomly)
Italian Logistics Effort: Italy receives 5 additional Logistics Points
No Event
No Event
Austro-Hungarian Events Table
1
2
3
4
5-6
Austro-Hungarian Night Counterattack: During this Game Turn the Austro-Hungarian player
can activate one Brigade for free during any one Opponent Reaction Step. Its Activation is
automatic; no die roll is required. Any Brigade can be activated, no matter if Activated during the
Command Phase, but not if already Activated in the current Game Turn. Artillery cannot be used
during this activation.
Austro-Hungarian orders misunderstood: randomly pick one Austro-Hungarian Brigade HQ
among the ones in play. The Italian player can move the battalions of the Brigade one hex (in any
direction, but not across Isonzo River). The Event takes place immediately. If the Brigade cannot
move on this turn (for any reason), randomly pick another Brigade
Austro-Hungarian artillery short firing: for each Austro-Hungarian Offensive Bombardment
executed during the current turn, roll one die. If the result is a 1 or 2, the bombardment is made
against one adjacent hex containing assaulting Austro-Hungarian units (choose randomly)
Austro-Hungarian Logistics Effort: Austro-Hungarian player receives 5 additional Logistics
Points
No Event
Europa Simulazioni © 2016
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