CCD Readout Electronics for the Subaru Prime Focus

CCD Readout Electronics for the Subaru Prime Focus
CCD Readout Electronics for the Subaru Prime Focus
Spectrograph.
Stephen C. Hopea, James E. Gunnb, Craig P. Loomisb, Roger E. Fitzgeraldc, Grant O. Peacocka
a
Johns Hopkins University, Department of Physics and Astronomy, 3701 San Martin Drive,
Baltimore, MD 21218, USA
b
Princeton University, Department of Astrophysical Sciences, 4 Ivy Lane, Peyton Hall,
Princeton, NJ 08544, USA
c
Fitzgerald Engineering, 18006 Marshall Mill Road, Hampstead, MD 21074, USA
ABSTRACT
The following paper details the design for the CCD readout electronics for the Subaru Telescope Prime Focus
Spectrograph (PFS). PFS is designed to gather spectra from 2394 objects simultaneously, covering wavelengths that
extend from 380 nm to 1260 nm. The spectrograph is comprised of four identical spectrograph modules, each
collecting roughly 600 spectra. The spectrograph modules provide simultaneous wavelength coverage over the entire
band through the use of three separate optical channels: blue, red, and near infrared (NIR). A camera in each channel
images the multi-object spectra onto a 4k x 4k, 15 um pixel, detector format. The two visible cameras use a pair of
Hamamatsu 2k x 4k CCDs with readout provided by custom electronics, while the NIR camera uses a single Teledyne
HgCdTe 4k x 4k detector and Teledyne’s ASIC Sidecar to read the device.
The CCD readout system is a custom design comprised of three electrical subsystems – the Back End Electronics
(BEE), the Front End Electronics (FEE), and a Pre-amplifier. The BEE is an off-the-shelf PC104 computer, with an
auxiliary Xilinx FPGA module. The computer serves as the main interface to the Subaru messaging hub and controls
other peripheral devices associated with the camera, while the FPGA is used to generate the necessary clocks and
transfer image data from the CCDs. The FEE board sets clock biases, substrate bias, and CDS offsets. It also
monitors bias voltages, offset voltages, power rail voltage, substrate voltage and CCD temperature. The board
translates LVDS clock signals to biased clocks and returns digitized analog data via LVDS. Monitoring and control
messages are sent from the BEE to the FEE using a standard serial interface. The Pre-amplifier board resides behind
the detectors and acts as an interface to the two Hamamatsu CCD’s. The Pre-amplifier passes clocks and biases to the
CCD’s, and analog CCD data is buffered and amplified prior to being returned to the FEE.
In this paper we describe the detailed design of the PFS CCD readout electronics and discuss current status of the
design, preliminary performance, and proposed enhancements.
Page 1 of 14
1. INTRODUCTION
The Subaru Prime Focus Spectrograph is a spectroscopic system consisting of four identical bench-mounted
spectrographs each with three optical channels covering the wavelength ranges 380-640nm, 640-955nm, and
955-1260nm simultaneously.
The spectrographs are fed with a 2394-actuator fiber positioning system at the prime focus of the Subaru telescope
through a fiber cable to the fixed spectrographs; each spectrograph accepts 597 or 600 fibers. The near-IR channels
use Teledyne H4RG 4K x 4K 15 micron-pixel HgCdTe detectors, and the shorter (blue and red) channels side-butted
Hamamatsu fully-depleted 2K x 4K 15-micron pixel devices to make a 4K x 4K focal plane, with geometry
essentially identical to the IR channel. The IR detectors will use the Teledyne SIDECAR ASIC for control and data
acquisition, controlled by the SAM interface card. We have developed a new CCD control system for the blue and red
CCD detectors, and this paper describes this system.
The detectors are typical of modern fully depleted CCDs, much like the LBL devices developed for NASA's SNAP
program[1].The CCDs for the red channel are 200 microns thick and have a coating that yields 90% quantum efficiency
at about 800 nm. The blue CCDs are electronically identical but are thinned to 100 microns and have a blue-enhanced
coating which yields roughly 90 percent QE at 450 nm.
Each chip has 4 serial registers, so the readout for each is 512 x 2048 (actually 512 x 2116) pixels. The serial
registers terminate in a standard follower/reset MOSFET pair, and there is a p-channel JFET follower mounted to the
CCD package for each output. The sensitivity of the output transistor with its summing node and the JFET follower is
about 4uV per electron, and the read noise at our output rate of 75kpx/s is 3 electrons. Full pixel well is about
150,000 electrons; we will digitize with about 1.5 electrons/ADU, so a 16-bit ADC saturates at about 100,000
electrons and we resolve about half a standard deviation in the noise from the output FET.
The control electronics must generate the rather complex clocking signals for the chips, drive the chip with them,
accept the eight channels of analog video from the two-chip mosaic, process it by standard (analog) CDS circuitry,
digitize it, demultiplex the digital data into an image, cache the image locally, add metadata, and transfer it to an
external server.
In addition, temperature monitoring and control data are handled passively by the system and handed to an external
temperature controller.
The desired performance for the control system include a noise contribution of less than 0.7 electrons from the
electronics themselves, the ability to bin arbitrarily in the vertical direction (which is the dispersion direction in the
spectrographs), and to implement all of the various modes necessary to prepare the devices for integrating and
reading.
The visible camera electronics consist of a number of subsystems with architecture similar to Hyper Suprime-Cam[2].
The system in each visible camera consists of:
Two Hamamatsu 2K x 4K S10892-1628 (blue) or S10892-1629 (red) fully depleted p-channel CCDs in a
coplanar 4K x 4K array
A custom preamplifier featuring 8 channels of low-noise amplification provided by JFET-input operational
amplifiers, each with a gain of six. The preamps also provide DC restoration circuitry. This preamp is in the
vacuum.
Custom front-end electronics (FEE), which perform CDS processing on the video outputs, digitizes these
signals and outputs the digital data serially over LVDS, and generates the clock waveforms for the CCD from
input LVDS timing signals and supplied DC rail voltages. The FEE is housed on an interface card part of
which is in the vacuum and part outside.
An off-the shelf PC104-based Linux Intel x86 computer as back-end electronics (BEE) in which most of the
real-time signal processing is performed in a commercial FPGA daughter card. This unit communicates with
a remote server both for control and data transmission via gigabit Ethernet.
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The system is encapsulated in the block diagram below:
Subaru Prime Focus Spectrograph Electronics
Server
LAN
Back End Electronics
RS-232
LVDS
Front End Electronics
Clocks
Video
Pre-Amp
Clocks
Video
Detectors
Dewar
Figure 1, System Block Diagram
The paper discusses each of the elements of the system in turn, preliminary performance and proposed improvements.
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2. CCD ARRAY/PREAMPLIFIER
The Preamplifier board is used to interface control and clock signals to a coplanar pair of 2k x 4k Hamamatsu CCD’s.
Figure 2 details the mechanical assembly comprising of the Preamplifier and a pair of CCD’s. The board is located in
the optical path, immediately behind the CCD array. Connection between the preamp and each CCD is made with a
flexible printed circuit board (FPC). On one end a custom 59 pin socket array mates with the CCD. On the other,
a 65 pin AirBorn Nano connector interfaces with the Preamplifier. The FPC uses two layers of copper tracks and is
designed to readily bend to follow the path from the CCD.
Figure 2, Preamp/Detector Assembly. The preamplifier board in located in the optical path immediately behind the coplanar
CCD array.
Each CCD has four (4) output channels, hence the preamplifier comprises of eight (8) low noise amplifiers.
Each utilizes an Analog Devices AD8610 in an MSOP8 surface mount package. The CCD output is approximately
x (6), which roughly equates to 1½ photons per ADU,
with a full-scale range of 100,000 photons.
To minimize common mode noise, analog signals between the Preamplifier and the front-end electronics (FEE) are
or in series with the
driven as pseudo-balanced output pairs. Each pair comprises
AD8610’s output impedance, resulting in a nominal 50
analog ground pin via matching 50
ance.
In addition to buffering the analog signal, the preamplifier board also serves as a conduit, routing various clock and
bias signals from the Front End Electronics (FEE) to the CCD.
Figure 3. Preamplifier functional block diagram.
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3. FRONT END ELECTRONICS (FEE)
The Front End Electronics (FEE), as detailed by figure 4, is a custom board that integrates the following functionality:
CCD clock conditioning/biasing
Double correlated sampling (CDS)
Analog to digital conversion (ADC)
Power supply monitoring and control
Clock bias voltage monitoring
CCD temperature monitoring
Figure 4. Functional block diagram of the FEE board.
Figure 5 shows a prototype of the FEE used in lab testing.
3.1 CCD Clock Conditioning
The Back End Electronics (BEE) manages clock generation. Clock signals are routed from the BEE to the FEE using
low voltage differential signaling (LVDS). Texas Instruments LVDT390’s convert each LVDS clock signal to CMOS
(TTL) levels, each of which drive a single pole double throw solid-state switch. The normally open (NO) and
normally closed (NC) terminals are biased with voltages supplied by an Analog Devices AD5361, 16 channel, 16 bit
DAC. This results in a clock signal with fully programmable positive and negative swing. A passive, single pole filter
provides slew rate limiting.
Despite the fact that the clock biases for each CCD will likely be the same, the design includes provision for biasing
each CCD separately.
3.2 Correlated Double Sampling (CDS)
Each analog CCD output channel is buffered a P-channel JFET follower integral to the CCD. Prior to clocking charge
into the buffer, the buffer is reset. The value of the buffer at reset is uncertain as some charge remains.
This uncertainty comes from kTC noise, or reset noise. To negate this error the pedestal voltage (i.e. the voltage after
reset) is subtracted from the signal of interest in a process known as correlated double sampling. The FEE utilizes
analog CDS comprising of two switched inputs. The integrator is first reset to a known state by shorting the
integrating capacitor. The pedestal voltage is then subtracted (integrate minus) by integrating through the inverting
Page 5 of 14
channel. The signal of interest is then added (integrate plus) by integrating the non-inverting input. The resultant
output is the difference with noise and offset (i.e. pedestal) removed.
The CDS circuit is subject to other potential noise sources. These include: Dielectric adsorption error in the integrator
capacitor; integrator gain error resulting from clock jitter; amplifier offset error; and integrator output noise integral to
the amplifier. To minimize dielectric adsorption error the integrator uses a 1nF polypropylene capacitor. To minimize
clock jitter gain errors all clock signals are generated by an FPGA integral to the backend electronics (BEE). DAC
programmable offsets allow amplifier offset to be removed. Finally to minimize amplifier noise, the output signal is
filtered at the input of the ADC.
3.3 Analog to Digital Conversion (ADC)
CDS signals are converted from analog to digital by eight (8) Analog Devices AD7686, 16-bit analog to digital
converters – one per analog channel. Converters are grouped into two groups of 4 – one per CCD. Data from each
group is serialized and clocked out 50MHz via LVDS.
3.4 Power Supplies & Backplane Biasing
The FEE utilizes multiple supplies for analog and digital control. On-board, low dropout regulators with high pwer
supply rejection ratio (PSRR) regulate each supply. PSSR is further enhanced by an additional capacitor-inductorcapacitor Pi filter at the input. Each supply can be enabled or disabled under microprocessor control. In addition, the
microprocessor provides supply voltage monitoring.
The CCD back bias voltage (Vbb) is configurable via an Analog Devices AD5361, 16-bit DAC driving an OPA545
amplifier with active low pass filtering. The amplifier features a microprocessor controlled enable pin, providing a
secondary means of disabling Vbb.
3.5 Clock Bias Monitoring
In addition to monitoring each power supply the micro also facilitates clock bias voltage monitoring. Each channel is
set and then read back to ensure the proper voltage was applied.
3.6 CCD Temperature Monitoring
Each CCD includes a 1k-Ohm thermistor for temperature monitor. The FEE utilizes a Texas Instruments ADS1247 to
monitor temperature. The ADS1247 is a fully integrated device featuring two precision, programmable current
sources, and an on-board ADC.
Figure 5. Prototype front-end electronics (FEE) board.
Page 6 of 14
4. BACK END ELECTRONICS (BEE)
The back end electronics (BEE) comprises of two off-the-shelf, PCIe/104 circuit boards manufactured by RTD
Embedded Technologies Inc. (www.rtd.com) – the CMX32MCS1200-2048 embedded PC with the FPGA35S6045HR
field programmable IO board. The primary function of the BEE is to manage image capture. This includes configuring
peripherals, gathering telemetry, formatting images, transferring images, and generating CCD, CDS and DAC clocks.
4.1 CMX32MCS1200-2048 Embedded PC
Figure 6 is an image of the CMX32MCS1200-2048 Embedded PC (CMX32). The CMX32 is a powerful PC/104
single board computer with a PCIe/104 stackable bus structure, which includes the following features:
Intel Celeron M (ULV 722) processor
2GB memory
Eight x1 PCIe links
One x16 PCIe link (configurable as one x8 or one
x4)
4GB onboard industrial SATA flash disk
Two SATA ports
Four Serial Ports (RS-232/422/485)
Six USB 2.0 Ports
Dual Gigabit Ethernet
High Definition Audio
Analog VGA & LVDS Panel
Advanced Digital I/O (aDIO)
Advanced Analog I/O (aAIO)
Stackable PCIe bus
-40 to +85°C standard operating temperature
Figure 3, CMX32MCS1200 Embedded PC
The CMX32 manages all non-timing-critical (asynchronous) events. In regard to CCD readout, this includes: FPGA
and FEE configuration; FITS image formatting; and image upload. Other functionality includes managing other
system peripherals, gathering telemetry and communicating with the Subaru messaging hub. Software for the CMX32
is written using a combination of C and Python running in a Debian Linux Embedded Operating System.
4.2 FPGA35S6045HR
Figure 7 is an image of the FPGA35S6045HR (FPGA) daughter card. The FPGA is a field programmable gate array
module designed to interface with the CMX32 using the PCIe bus. It includes the following features:
PC/104 form factor
PCIe/104 stackable bus structure
Xilinx Spartan-6 FPGA
XC6SLX45T
46,661 Logic Cells
2,489 Kb of internal RAM
48, 5V tolerant Digital I/O
o Selectable pull-up/pull-down per byte
o Pull-up can be 3.3V or 5V
o ESD Protected
o Can be used as LVDS IO or LVTTL IO
40 3.3V tolerant High-Speed I/O
o Can be used as LVDS Input or LVTTL IO
Figure 4, FPGA35S6045HR
Page 7 of 14
The FPGA manages all timing-critical (synchronous) events. This includes generating the CCD, CDS and ADC
clocks, as well as transferring image data to CMX32 accessible RAM. The FPGA interfaces with the CMX32 via a
PCIe bus. Interface with the FEE is via LVDS (low voltage, differential signaling), which is integral to the Xilinx
Spartan 6 architecture.
Functionality of the FPGA is defined using VHDL. Figure 8 describes the program architecture. In this instance, the
FPGA is configured as a ‘waveform processor unit’ or WPU. The WPU is analogous to a CPU in that it executes
instructions fetched from memory. However, in contrast to a CPU, timing is extremely precise. It is designed to
generate clocks with sub-nanosecond precision and a granularity of 80ns. WPU memory comprises of 128KB of block
RAM accessible to both the CMX32 and the FPGA.
WPU binaries are created by software running on the CMX32. Each instruction defines the state of each CCD/CDS
clock lines at that point in time, and specifies the number of cycles to dwell before executing the next instruction. A
single bit is used to trigger an ADC read which comprises of 65 clock pulses streamed at a rate of 50MHz. Clearly,
this affords exceptional flexibility, allowing the definition of routines to read, wipe, erase and so on. A typical binary
will include all the necessary clock transitions to read a single row of pixels, and a loop count that defines the number
of rows to read.
The FPGA also includes the functionality to synchronize operation of up to 8 cameras. In a multiple camera
application, one BEE is defined as a master, the rest as slaves. The WPU engine’s execution is synchronized to a
25MHz clock generated by the master BEE’s FPGA. This clock is routed to the master WPU and up to 7 slave WPU’s
across equal length LVDS lines. Execution starts when the clock begins and is synchronous to the clock, consequently
WPU execution is synchronous across all units.
The FPGA module also includes 128MB of DDR2 RAM. This is made accessible to both the WPU and the CMX32.
This is used as temporary repository for image data streamed by the WPU, where, upon completion, it is subsequently
retrieved by the CMX32. A raw, 4k x 4k image requires approximately 36MB’s of memory, hence this is sufficient.
Figure 8. FPGA architecture. The pictorial describes the programmed architecture of the FPGA, which is used to generate clocks,
transfer and compile images, and synchronize camera operation.
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5. PRELIMINARY PERFORMA
PERFORMANCE
To date, performance testing has been conducted using a pair of ‘fa
‘fake’ CCD’s (figure 9) coupled by flex cables to the
preamplifier board. The ‘fake’ CCD’s include passive circuitry that, through clock mixing, allows the generation of a
pseudo video signal. In addition, they
ey include provision for terminating or grounding the outputs, and/or injecting
custom waveforms via an external arbitrary function generator.
(2x) Fake CCD
Preamplifier
Figure 9. Preamplifier test setup. The image depicts the preamplifier on the right, attached to a pair of fake CCD’s on the left, via a
pair of rigid-flex cable assemblies.
5.1 First ‘Fake’ Light
The first ‘fake’ light image detailed by figure 10 was generated using a pair a fake CCDs. One was configured to
provide four channels of video (4 grey scal
scale stripes),, the other had four channels terminated to ground with 100-Ohm
100
resistors.
Figure 10. First ‘fake’ light. This image was generated using a pair of fake CCD’s. The four gray scale stripes on the left were
created by a pseudo-video signal generated by mixing the clocks. Each stripe represents one channel on the first CCD. The black
area on the right represents the data for the four channels on the second fake CCD, which were grounded via 100-Ohm
100
resistors.
Page 9 of 14
5.2 Readout performance
Each CCD has four output channels, hence a total of eight channels for the 4k x 4k coplanar array, which are read
synchronously. A channel comprises a parallel-in, serial-out, shift register. A single row read comprises of a parallel
load of one row of pixels followed by 536 serial shifts (512 active pixels, plus overscan). To read the entire array, this
process is repeated 4240 times, again including overscans. A parallel load takes 240 s, while each serial shift takes
13.4 s, hence, time required to read a row approximately 7.4ms, which roughly equates to 31.5s for the entire array.
The system architecture affords a slower transfer rate for the purpose of testing and debugging. However, to date all
tests have been performed at the target clock rate without error.
The next revision of the FEE as detailed in section 6.1 will increase ADC data requirements from 16-bits per pixel to
18. Despite the fact that this represents a 12.5% increase in serial data, there will be no impact on readout
performance as the additional time required to transfer data will compensated for by a minor reduction in integration
time.
5.3 Noise floor
To assess noise floor the CCD channel 0 input was tied to ground with a 100-Ohm termination resistor. A DAC offset
was applied to the analog CDS. 512 consecutive samples were captured at full data rate. Analysis was performed to
assess the standard deviation. Figure 11 details the resultant waveform, which had a standard deviation of 0.79,
marginally higher than the targeted deviation of 0.5.
Noise Floor
1020
Amplitude (ADU's)
1010
1000
990
CH0, Differential
980
970
512
448
384
Pixel Number
320
256
192
128
64
0
960
Figure 11, Noise floor. Noise floor was measured with the input to the preamplifier grounded via 100-Ohm resistor. A DAC offset
was applied to the CDS.
Page 10 of 14
5.4 Common mode noise rejection
To assess common mode noise rejection, CDS channel 0 was configured with a fully differential input, while channel
1 was configured with a single-ended input, both with unity gain. Each was driven by an individual pre-amplifier
channel, terminated with a 100-Ohm resistor. An offset was applied to the integrator. An external noise source was
placed in close proximity to the video lines between preamplifier and the BEE. The results are depicted in figure 12.
With the noise source present, the differential channel had a standard deviation of 0.93, approximately 0.15 greater
than the nominal noise floor. In contrast the single-ended channel was almost twenty times greater with deviation of
17.31.
Common Mode Noise Rejection
100
Amplitude (ADU's)
80
60
40
CH0, Differential
CH1, Single Ended
20
0
512
448
384
Pixel Number
320
256
192
128
64
0
-20
Figure 12. Common Mode Noise Rejection. Common mode noise was measured with the input to each channels preamplifer
grounded via a 100-Ohm resistor. A DAC offset was applied to each channel. A noise source was placed in proximity to the analog
wiring between the preamplifier and the FEE. Channel 0 was setup as a differential input, channel 1 as a single ended input.
Page 11 of 14
6. PATH FORWARD
In the current configuration, efforts to minimize noise have resulted in a noise floor with a 0.8 standard deviation. The
target for noise floor is 0.5. Proposed enhancements include:
Increasing ADC resolution to177 bits
Enhancing FEE board layout to reduc
reduce power supply induced noise
In addition, further testing will include cros
crosstalk between adjacent channels, DNL and INL error measurements, and
clock jitter analysis.
6.1 Increased ADC Resolution.
Input referred noise or code
ode transition noise is common source of ADC noise [3]. It is internal to the ADC and is a
function of resistor and kTC noise. This is illustrated in Figure 13. An ideal ADC would have zero transition noise and
code transition would be extremely precise (figure 13a). In reality code output
ut less determinate, with transition noise
often upwards of one LSB (figure 13b).
Figure 13, ADC input referred noise.
oise. Image (a) shows the performance of an ideal ADC, where code transitions are precise and
predictable. Image (b) shows typical performance where code transitions are less deterministic.
The prototype FEE incorporates an AD7686 single
single-ended, 16-bit
bit converter, with 0.5 LSB transition noise. This will be
replaced with an AD7690, 18-bit differential converter. In a single-ended application, one MSB is lost, reducing the
resolution to 17 bits. In addition, one LSB will be dropped by the BEE. This will result in the following 16-bit
16
performance gains:
Transition noise, reduced from 0.5LSB to 0.38LSB (nominal)
Differential non-linearity,
linearity, reduced fro
from 0.5LSB to 0.25LSB (nominal)
Integral non-linearity,
linearity, reduced from 0.6LSB to 0.38LSB (nominal)
6.2 Enhanced FEE Board Layout
The present iteration of the board has two
wo ground planes and multiple power planes, each on different layers. In some
instances power and ground planess overlap. This allows noise to couple from one plane to another. Moreover, ideally
the analog and digital grounds should meet at the ADC. The FEE has 8 ADC’s each digitizing a CCD channel,
channel each of
which should have an individual ground. The next iteration of the FEE will strictly adhere to theese requirements.
The original prototype, as detailed by figure 5, was supposed to reside inside the cryostat requiring a flange with
hermetic feed-through connectors to bridge the cryostat wall. In the new design the board
oard will act as a hermetic feedfeed
through. Signals will be routed from inside to outside the cryostat on inner layers. Annulus rings on the outer layers
will provide a mating surface for O-ring
ring seals. This is similar to a design implemented by Caltech for the Zwicky
Transient Facility Mosaic [3].
Page 12 of 14
A proof-of-concept board was built assess leak rates. Figure 14 shows the proof-of-concept board both on the bench
and installed on the test chamber. Helium leak testing was conducted using an RGA from Scientific Research
Systems. The results showed no detectable leaks.
Figure 14, Proof-of-concept hermetic feed through PCB. The left hand image shows the board with gold plated annulus ring,
common to both outer layers, which act as O-ring mating surfaces. The right hand image shows the board installed on a cryostat.
The new design, shown conceptually in figure 15, has many benefits:
The FEE will be accessible from the outside, facilitating repair or replacement without disassembling the
Page 13 of 14
cryostat.
It will negate the need for a hermetic feed-through connectors and associated cabling, reducing both
complexity and cost.
It will allow quiet analog circuits to reside inside the cryostat, while simultaneously allowing noisy digital
circuits to remain outside.
Figure 15.CAD rendition of the new FEE board. The board is mounted in housing which is designed to mount with an O-ring seal
to the outside of the camera cryostat.
ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
We gratefully acknowledge support from the Funding Program for World-Leading Innovative R&D in Science and
Technology (FIRST), program: ”Subaru Measurements of Images and Redshifts (SuMIRe)”, CSTP, Japan
REFERENCES
[1] Holland, S.E.; Bebek, C.J.; Kolbe, W.F.; Lee, J.S.; Physics of fully depleted CCDs: http://ads.harvard.edu/ (Mar
24, 2014); JINST 9 (2014) C03057.
[2] Hidehiko Nakaya ; Tomohisa Uchida ; Hironao Miyatake ; Hiroaki Aihara ; Yoshiyuki Doi ; Hisanori Furusawa ;
Hiroshi Karoji ; Yukiko Kamata ; Satoshi Kawanomoto ; Yutaka Komiyama ; Satoshi Miyazaki ; Tomoki Morokuma ;
Manobu Tanaka ; Yoko Tanaka; Hyper Suprime-Cam: CCD readout electronics. Proc. SPIE 7014, Ground-based and
Airborne Instrumentation for Astronomy II, 70144X (July 11, 2008); doi:10.1117/12.789197
[3] Kester, Walt; ADC Input Noise: The Good, The Bad, and The Ugly. Is No Noise Good Noise?: Analog Dialogue
Volume 40 (Feb 2006) http://www.analog.com/library/analogdialogue/archives/40-02/adc_noise.html
[4] Smith, Roger; Kaye, Stephen; Fully differential signal path for the ZTF mosaic. 2013 SDW Workshop
(11/13/2013) http://www.oir.caltech.edu:8080/DETECT/publications/2013-sdw-differential-signal-path/SDW2013_
Differential_Signal_Path_Smith_Kaye_2013-11-13.pdf
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