Tel.: +1 514-954-8219 ext. 6260 Ref.: SP 55/4

Tel.: +1 514-954-8219 ext. 6260 Ref.: SP 55/4
International
Civil Aviation
Organization
Organisation
de l’aviation civile
internationale
Tel.:
+1 514-954-8219 ext. 6260
Ref.:
SP 55/4-17/1
Organización
de Aviación Civil
Internacional
Международная
организация
гражданской
авиации
20 January 2017
Subject: Proposals for the amendment of Annex 6,
Parts I, II and III regarding carriage requirements
of flight recorders
Action required: Comments to reach Montréal by
20 April 2017
Sir/Madam,
1.
I have the honour to inform you that the Air Navigation Commission, at the third and
fourth meetings of its 203rd Session held on 27 October and 24 November 2016, respectively, considered
proposals developed by the ninth meeting of the Flight Recorder Specific Working Group
(FLIRECSWG/9) to amend the Standards and Recommended Practices (SARPs) in Annex 6 —
Operation of Aircraft, Part I — International Commercial Air Transport — Aeroplanes, Part II —
International General Aviation — Aeroplanes and Part III — International Operations — Helicopters,
concerning flight recorders, and authorized their transmission to Contracting States and appropriate
international organizations for comments.
2.
Background information on the aforementioned amendment proposals is provided in
Attachment A. The proposed amendments, contained in Attachments B, C and D hereto, introduce new
SARPs on airborne image recordings, additional flight data recorder (FDR) parameters and the
simplification of flight recorder SARPs. The rationales have been provided in text boxes immediately
following the proposals.
3.
In examining the proposed amendments, you should not feel obliged to comment on
editorial aspects as such matters will be addressed by the ANC during its final review of the draft
amendments.
4.
May I request that any comments you wish to make on the amendment proposals be
dispatched to reach me not later than 20 April 2017. The Air Navigation Commission has asked me to
specifically indicate that comments received after the due date may not be considered by the Commission
and the Council. In this connection, should you anticipate a delay in the receipt of your reply, please let
me know in advance of the due date.
999 Robert-Bourassa Boulevard
Montréal, Quebec
Canada H3C 5H7
Tel.: +1 514-954-8219
Fax: +1 514-954-6077
Email: [email protected]
www.icao.int
-25.
For your information, the proposed amendments to Annex 6, Parts I, II and III are
envisaged for applicability on 8 November 2018. Any comments you may have thereon would be
appreciated.
6.
The subsequent work of the ANC and the Council would be greatly facilitated by specific
statements on the acceptability or otherwise of the proposals. Please note that for the review of your
comments by the ANC and the Council, replies are normally classified as “agreement with or without
comments”, “disagreement with or without comments” or “no indication of position”. If in your reply the
expressions “no objections” or “no comments” are used, they will be taken to mean “agreement without
comment” and “no indication of position”, respectively. In order to facilitate proper classification of your
response, a form has been included in Attachment E which may be completed and returned together with
your comments, if any, on the proposals in Attachments B, C and D.
Accept, Sir/Madam, the assurances of my highest consideration.
Fang Liu
Secretary General
Enclosures:
A — Background
B — Proposed amendment to Annex 6, Part I
C — Proposed amendment to Annex 6, Part II
D — Proposed amendment to Annex 6, Part III
E — Response form
ATTACHMENT A to State letter SP 55/4-17/1
BACKGROUND
1.
The ninth meeting of the Flight Recorder Specific Working Group (FLIRECSWG/9)
reconsidered airborne image recordings and the addition of flight data parameters after the Air Navigation
Commission (ANC) referred them back to the FLIRECSWG for further consideration. The FLIRECSWG
also considered the simplification of the flight recorder SARPs, which started at the seventh meeting of
the Flight Recorder Panel (FLIRECP/7) and concluded with the proposed amendments as modified by the
ANC discussions. The ANC approved these proposals to be transmitted for comments by Member States.
2.
The proposed amendments, as modified by the discussions of the ANC, are contained in
Attachments B, C and D. The proposed amendments to Annex 6 introduce:
a) airborne image recordings: to provide provisions for the recording of
information displayed to the flight crew, as well as the recording of operation of
switches and selectors by flight crew. The proposal includes a provision for a
bulk erase function for both CVRs and AIRs;
b) flight data recorder parameter lists: to propose sets of parameters for inclusion
in the parameter guidance lists of Annex 6, Parts I and II and a set applicable to
helicopters for Annex 6, Part III; and
c) simplification of flight recorder SARPs: to revise the SARPs in Annex 6, Part I
with the aim of simplifying them, but not to change the intent of the provisions.
The amendments apply to Parts II and III.
3.
The issues related to image recordings and additional flight data recorder (FDR)
parameters were considered in the light of a number of safety recommendations addressed to ICAO. The
image recording proposal was re-discussed after the Council adopted additional and enhanced protections
for accident and incident investigation records in Annex 13 — Aircraft Accident and Incident
Investigation on 22 February 2016. The ANC requested the provisions to be in force for image recordings
be reconsidered. During the simplification of the flight recorder-related SARPs, the FLIRECSWG
reformatted the provisions in order to facilitate their interpretation while retaining the intent of the
provisions.
4.
There is no retrofit implication for airborne image recordings and the additional FDR
parameters. The impact is expected to be minimal. The additional data available to increase the efficiency
and effectiveness of investigations would contribute to safety. The simplified flight recorder provisions,
in turn, would improve the understanding of the flight recorder requirements, resulting in increased
efficiency.
5.
The proposals are followed by supporting rationales, intended to facilitate due
consideration by States and international organizations.
————————
ATTACHMENT B to State letter SP 55/4-17/1
PROPOSED AMENDMENT TO ANNEX 6, PART I
NOTES ON THE PRESENTATION OF THE PROPOSED AMENDMENT
The text of the amendment is arranged to show deleted text with a line through it and new text highlighted
with grey shading, as shown below:
1. Text to be deleted is shown with a line through it.
text to be deleted
2. New text to be inserted is highlighted with grey shading.
new text to be inserted
3. Text to be deleted is shown with a line through it followed by new text to replace existing text
the replacement text which is highlighted with grey shading.
B-2
PROPOSED AMENDMENT TO
INTERNATIONAL STANDARDS
AND RECOMMENDED PRACTICES
OPERATION OF AIRCRAFT
ANNEX 6
TO THE CONVENTION ON INTERNATIONAL CIVIL AVIATION
PART I
INTERNATIONAL COMMERCIAL AIR TRANSPORT — AEROPLANES
INITIAL PROPOSAL 1
(Airborne image recordings)
CHAPTER 6.
AEROPLANE INSTRUMENTS, EQUIPMENT
AND FLIGHT DOCUMENTS
Editorial Note.— Insert new paragraphs and renumber subsequent paragraphs.
...
6.3.4
Airborne image recordings and airborne image recording systems
6.3.4.1 Applicability
6.3.4.1.1 All aeroplanes of a maximum take-off mass of over 27 000 kg for which the application
for type certification is submitted to a Contracting State on or after 1 January 2023 shall be equipped with
a crash-protected flight recorder which shall record images of the information displayed to the flight crew,
as well as the operation of switches and selectors by the flight crew as defined in Appendix 8.
6.3.4.1.2 Recommendation.— All aeroplanes of a maximum take-off mass of over 5 700 kg, up to
and including 27 000 kg, for which the application for type certification is submitted to a Contracting
State on or after 1 January 2023 should be equipped with a crash-protected flight recorder which should
record images of the information displayed to the flight crew, as well as the operation of switches and
selectors by the flight crew, as defined in Appendix 8.
6.3.4.2 Duration
The minimum recording duration shall be 2 hours.
B-3
6.3.4.3 Correlation
Image recordings shall be able to be correlated to the recorded cockpit audio.
...
APPENDIX 8. FLIGHT RECORDERS
(Chapter 6, 6.3, 6.18, refers)
...
1.
GENERAL REQUIREMENTS
...
1.3 The flight recorder systems shall be installed so that:
...
d)
until 31 December 2022, if the flight recorder systems have a bulk erasure device, the installation
shall be designed to prevent operation of the device during flight time or crash impact.; and
e)
on or after 1 January 2023, a flight crew-operated bulk erase function shall be provided on the
flight deck which, when activated, modifies the recording of a CVR and AIR so that it cannot
be retrieved using normal replay or copying techniques. The installation shall be designed to
prevent activation during flight. In addition, the probability of an inadvertent activation of a
bulk erase function during an accident shall also be minimized.
Note.— The bulk erase function is intended to prevent access to CVR and AIR recordings by normal
replay or copying means, but would not prevent accident investigation authorities access to such
recordings by specialized replay or copying techniques.
...
5.
AIRBORNE IMAGE RECORDER (AIR) AND AIRBORNE IMAGE RECORDING SYSTEM
(AIRS)
...
5.3
Applications to be recorded
5.3.1 The operation of switches and selectors and the images displayed to the flight crew from
electronic displays shall be captured by image sensors or other electronic means.
5.3.2 The recording of operation of switches and selectors by the flight crew shall include the
following:
— any switch or selector that will affect the operation and the navigation of the aircraft; and
— selection of normal and alternate systems.
Note.— Most of the crew actions on switches and selectors can be recorded by the FDR of new
generation aircraft.
5.3.3 The recording of images of the information displayed to the flight crew shall include the
following:
— primary flight and navigation displays;
— aircraft system monitoring displays;
— engine indication displays;
B-4
—
—
—
—
traffic, terrain, and weather displays;
crew alerting systems displays;
stand-by instruments; and
installed EFB.
5.3.4 The recording of such images shall not capture the head and shoulders of the flight crew
members whilst seated in their normal operating position.
...
Origin:
Rationale:
FLIRECSWG/9
Eight safety recommendations addressed to ICAO recommended that provisions for
the availability of image recordings be included in Annex 6. The issues leading to
these recommendations vary from a lack of data not available on either the CVR or
FDR to analyse human performance, to the lack of data because no CVR or FDR was
installed in the aircraft, or where it was unclear what was displayed to the flight crew
during the occurrence.
With the conclusions of the work by the Group of Experts on Protection of Accident
and Incident Records (GEPAIR), the FLIRECSWG considered airborne image
recordings again and made proposals for image recordings of the information
displayed to the flight crew, and the operation of switches and selectors. Whereas
Class A AIR or AIRS records images of the cockpit area that include some body parts
of the crew (e.g. arms, hands and the back of their heads), the proposed recordings
would not capture the hands and shoulders, making them less appealing to the media,
thus assisting the protection of such information.
The FLIRECSWG also agreed to strengthen the requirements for a bulk erase
function available to the crew to erase CVR and AIR recordings after flights. It was
reported that some States either do not have provisions for bulk erase functions, or
have regulations that no such function should be available to the crew. In the case of
solid-state recorders, although the bulk erase function would erase the recordings, it
would still be possible for accident investigation authorities to access these recordings
using special techniques.
INITIAL PROPOSAL 2
(Flight data recorder parameter lists)
CHAPTER 6.
AEROPLANE INSTRUMENTS, EQUIPMENT
AND FLIGHT DOCUMENTS
...
6.3 FLIGHT RECORDERS
...
6.3.1 Flight data recorders and aircraft data recording systems
...
B-5
6.3.1.2.xx All aeroplanes of a maximum certificated take-off mass of over 5 700 kg for which the
individual certificate of airworthiness is first issued after 1 January 2023 shall be equipped with an FDR
capable of recording at least the 82 parameters listed in Table A8-1 of Appendix 8.
...
APPENDIX 8. FLIGHT RECORDERS
(Chapter 6, 6.3, 6.18, refers)
...
Table A8-1. Parameter Guidance for Crash Protected Flight Data Recorders
...
Serial
number
Maximum
sampling and
recording
interval
(seconds)
Accuracy limits
(sensor input
compared
to FDR read-out)
Parameter
Measurement range
Recording resolution
35*
Additional engine parameters
(EPR, N1, indicated vibration
level, N2, EGT, fuel flow, fuel
cut-off lever position, N3, engine
fuel metering valve position)
As installed
79*
Cabin pressure altitude
As installed (0 ft to
40 000 ft
recommended)
1
As installed
100 ft
80*
Aeroplane computed weight
As installed
64
As installed
1 % of full range
81*
Flight director command
Full range
1
± 2º
0.5º
82*
Vertical speed
As installed
As installed
(32 ft/min
recommended)
16 ft/min
...
Each engine
each second
As installed
2% of full range
...
0.25
Origin:
Rationale:
FLIRECSWG/9
During the simplification process and as a consequence of safety recommendations
made by investigation authorities, the FLIRECSWG/7 meeting considered the
parameters in Table A8-1 and concluded that this list needs to be revisited. At the
same time, the EUROCAE ED-112A document was also updated to incorporate
additional parameters as a result of similar safety recommendations. FLIRECSWG/8
and FLIRECSWG/9 meetings considered these additional parameters for Table A8-1
and agreed to propose adding them. The rationale, among other reasons, is to align
the lists in Annex 6, Parts I and II to the EUROCAE ED-112A specifications. It was
considered to be reasonably simple to add these parameters and the proposal is for
newly manufactured aircraft obtaining their first certificate of airworthiness after
B-6
1 January 2023, with no retrofitting implication. The financial implication would be
negligible.
In many cases, the proposed parameters are available but have not been included in
the FDR dataframe layout to be recorded. The implication would be a modification to
the dataframe and the approvals associated with such a modification. Having these
parameters available would also be advantageous to flight data monitoring systems.
A Standard is proposed in Chapter 6.3 to include the recording of these parameters
from 1 January 2023, which would provide manufacturers and operators ample time
to include these provisions in new certificate of airworthiness aircraft.
INITIAL PROPOSAL 3
(Simplification of flight recorder SARPs)
CHAPTER 6.
AEROPLANE INSTRUMENTS, EQUIPMENT
AND FLIGHT DOCUMENTS
...
6.3 FLIGHT RECORDERS
Note 1.— Crash- protected flight recorders comprise one or more of the following systems: a flight
data recorder (FDR);, a cockpit voice recorder (CVR);, an airborne image recorder (AIR); and/or a data
link recorder (DLR). Image and data link information may be recorded on either the CVR or the FDR.
Note 2.— Lightweight flight recorders comprise one or more of the following systems: an aircraft
data recording system (ADRS);, a cockpit audio recording system (CARS);, an airborne image recording
system (AIRS); and/or a data link recording system (DLRS). Image and data link information may be
recorded on either the CARS or the ADRS.
Note 3.— Detailed guidance requirements on flight recorders areis contained in Appendix 8.
Note 4.— For aeroplanes for which the application for type certification is submitted to a
Contracting State before 1 January 2016, specifications applicable to crash-protected flight recorders
may be found in EUROCAE ED-112, ED-56A, ED-55, Minimum Operational Performance Specifications
(MOPS), or earlier equivalent documents.
Note 5.— For aeroplanes for which the application for type certification is submitted to a
Contracting State on or after 1 January 2016, specifications applicable to crash-protected flight
recorders may be found in EUROCAE ED-112A, Minimum Operational Performance Specification
(MOPS), or equivalent documents.
Note 6.— Specifications applicable to lightweight flight recorders may be found in EUROCAE
ED-155, Minimum Operational Performance Specification (MOPS), or equivalent documents.
B-7
Origin:
Rationale:
FLIRECSWG/9
a) Notes 1 and 2 below 6.3, states that “flight recorders comprise one or more of the
following systems:” with the systems listed after the semi-colon and it was
deemed that “and/or” was unnecessary.
b) Note 3 refers to “guidance” in Appendix 8, but it contains requirements for flight
recorders instead of guidance.
c) The flight recorders Notes 4 and 5 refer to crash-protected recorders, not
lightweight recorders, which are not subject to the usual crash-protected
specifications.
6.3.1 Flight data recorders and aircraft data recording systems
Note.— Parameters to be recorded are listed in Tables A8-1 and A8-3 of Appendix 8.
6.3.1.1 Types
6.3.1.1.1 Types I and IA FDR shall record the parameters required to determine accurately the
aeroplane flight path, speed, attitude, engine power, configuration and operation.
6.3.1.1.2 Types II and IIA FDRs shall record the parameters required to determine accurately the
aeroplane flight path, speed, attitude, engine power and configuration of lift and drag devices.
6.3.1.21
OperationApplicability
6.3.1.21.1 All turbine-engined aeroplanes of a maximum certificated take-off mass of 5 700 kg or
less for which the application for type certification is submitted to a Contracting State on or after
1 January 2016 shall be equipped with:
a) an Type II FDR which shall record at least the first 16 parameters listed in Table A8-1 of
Appendix 8; or
b) a Class C AIR or AIRS which shall record at least the capable of recording flight path and speed
parameters displayed to the pilot(s), as defined in 2.2.3 of Appendix 8; or
c) an ADRS which shall record at least capable of recording the essential first 7 parameters defined
listed in Table A8-3 of Appendix 8.
Note 1.— “The application for type certification is submitted to a Contracting State” refers to the
date of application of the original “Type Certificate” for the aeroplane type, not the date of certification
of particular aeroplane variants or derivative models.
Note 2.— AIR or AIRS classification is defined in 4.1 of Appendix 8.
6.3.1.21.2 Recommendation.— All turbine-engined aeroplanes of a maximum certificated take-off
mass of 5 700 kg or less for which the individual certificate of airworthiness is first issued on or after
1 January 2016 should be equipped with:
B-8
a) an Type II FDR which should record at least the first 16 parameters listed in Table A8-1 of
Appendix 8; or
b) a Class C AIR or AIRS which should record at least thecapable of recording flight path and
speed parameters displayed to the pilot(s), as defined in 2.2.3 of Appendix 8; or
c) an ADRS which should record at least capable of recording the essential first 7 parameters
defined listed in Table A8-3 of Appendix 8.
6.3.1.21.3 All aeroplanes of a maximum certificated take-off mass of over 27 000 kg for which the
individual certificate of airworthiness is first issued on or after 1 January 1989 shall be equipped with an
Type I FDR which shall record at least the first 32 parameters listed in Table A8-1 of Appendix 8.
6.3.1.21.4 All aeroplanes of a maximum certificated take-off mass of over 5 700 kg, up to and
including 27 000 kg, for which the individual certificate of airworthiness is first issued on or after
1 January 1989, shall be equipped with an Type II FDR which shall record at least the first 16 parameters
listed in Table A8-1 of Appendix 8.
6.3.1.21.5 Recommendation.— All multi-engined turbine-engined aeroplanes of a maximum
certificated take-off mass of 5 700 kg or less for which the individual certificate of airworthiness is first
issued on or after 1 January 1990 should be equipped with an Type IIA FDR which should record at least
the first 16 parameters listed in Table A8-1 of Appendix 8.
6.3.1.21.6 All turbine-engined aeroplanes, for which the individual certificate of airworthiness was
first issued on or after 1 January 1987 but before 1 January 1989, with a maximum certificated take-off
mass of over 5 700 kg, except those in 6.3.1.21.8, shall be equipped with an FDR which shall record at
least the first 5 parameters listed in Table A8-1 of Appendix 8which shall record time, altitude, airspeed,
normal acceleration and heading.
6.3.1.21.7 Recommendation.— All turbine-engined aeroplanes, for which the individual certificate
of airworthiness was first issued on or after 1 January 1987 but before 1 January 1989, with a maximum
certificated take-off mass of over 5 700 kg, except those in 6.3.1.21.8, should be equipped with an FDR
which should record at least the first 9 parameters listed in Table A8-1 of Appendix 8which shall record
time, altitude, airspeed, normal acceleration, heading and such additional parameters as are necessary to
determine pitch attitude, roll attitude, radio transmission keying and power on each engine.
6.3.1.21.8 All turbine-engined aeroplanes, for which the individual certificate of airworthiness was
first issued on or after 1 January 1987 but before 1 January 1989, with a maximum certificated take-off
mass of over 27 000 kg that are of types of which the prototype was certificated by the appropriate
national authority after 30 September 1969 shall be equipped with an Type II FDR which shall record at
least the first 16 parameters listed in Table A8-1 of Appendix 8.
6.3.1.21.9 All turbine-engined aeroplanes, for which the individual certificate of airworthiness was
first issued before 1 January 1987, with a maximum certificated take-off mass of over 5 700 kg shall be
equipped with an FDR which shall record at least the first 5 parameters in Table A8-1 of Appendix 8
time, altitude, airspeed, normal acceleration and heading.
6.3.1.21.109 Recommendation.— All turbine-engined aeroplanes, for which the individual
certificate of airworthiness was first issued before 1 January 1987, with a maximum certificated take-off
B-9
mass of over 27 000 kg that are of types of which the prototype was certificated by the appropriate
national authority after 30 September 1969 should be equipped with an FDR which should record, in
addition to the first 5 parameters listed in Table A8-1 of Appendix 8time, altitude, airspeed, normal
acceleration and heading, such additional parameters as are necessary to meet the objectives of
determining:
a) the attitude of the aeroplane in achieving its flight path; and
b) the basic forces acting upon the aeroplane resulting in the achieved flight path and the origin of
such basic forces.
6.3.1.21.101 All aeroplanes of a maximum certificated take-off mass of over 5 700 kg for which the
individual certificate of airworthiness is first issued after 1 January 2005 shall be equipped with an Type
IAFDR which shall record at least the first 78 parameters listed in Table A8-1 of Appendix 8.
6.3.1.2.12 All aeroplanes which are required to record normal acceleration, lateral acceleration and
longitudinal acceleration for which the application for type certification is submitted to a Contracting
State on or after 1 January 2016 and which are required to be fitted with an FDR shall record those
parameters at a maximum sampling and recording interval of 0.0625 seconds.
6.3.1.2.13 All aeroplanes which are required to record pilot input and/or control surface position of
primary controls (pitch, roll, yaw) for which the application for type certification is submitted to a
Contracting State on or after 1 January 2016 and which are required to be fitted with an FDR shall record
those parameters at a maximum sampling and recording interval of 0.125 seconds.
Note.— For aeroplanes with control systems in which movement of a control surface will back drive
the pilot’s control, “or” applies. For aeroplanes with control systems in which movement of a control
surface will not back drive the pilot’s control, “and” applies. In aeroplanes with independent moveable
surfaces, each surface needs to be recorded separately. In aeroplanes with independent pilot input on
primary controls, each pilot input on primary controls needs to be recorded separately.
6.3.1.32
Discontinuation Recording technology
6.3.1.3.1 FDRs shall not use engraving metal foil, frequency modulation (FM), photographic film or
magnetic tape.The use of engraving metal foil FDRs shall be discontinued.
6.3.1.3.2 The use of analogue FDRs using frequency modulation (FM) shall be discontinued.
6.3.1.3.3 The use of photographic film FDRs shall be discontinued.
6.3.1.3.4 Recommendation.— The use of magnetic tape FDRs should be discontinued .
6.3.1.3.5 The use of magnetic tape FDRs shall be discontinued by 1 January 2016.
6.3.1.43
Duration
All FDRs shall be capable of retaining the information recorded during at least the last 25 hours of their
operation, except for with the exception of those installed on the Type IIA FDR aeroplanes referenced in
B-10
6.3.1.1.5 for which the FDR shall be capable of retaining the information recorded during at least the last
30 minutes of its operation, and in addition sufficient information from the preceding take-off for
calibration purposes.
Origin:
Rationale:
FLIRECSWG/9
It is proposed to:
a) remove the flight data recorders types (6.3.1.1) and instead include the
parameters to be recorded by the FDR, in the relevant SARPs. It was determined
that many of the major aircraft manufacturing States do not refer to FDR types in
their regulations, but to the number of parameters an FDR shall record. The most
practical method would be to reference the parameters as listed in Appendix 8,
Table A8-1;
b) change the heading of 6.3.1.2 “Operation” to “Applicability”. The paragraph
deals with the type of FDRs and ADRSs required for specific aircraft
applications. The operational requirements of FDRs and ADRSs are included in
Appendix 8;
c) remove in 6.3.1 references to types of FDR or ADRS as a consequence of the
proposed deletion of the types of FDRs. Instead the text shall refer to the number
of parameters to be recorded as listed in Appendix 8, Tables A8-1 or A8-3.
Similarly, where the SARPs refer to the recording of parameters for example
time, altitude, airspeed, etc., it is proposed to refer to parameters in either
Table A8-1 or A8-3;
d) remove the references to “capable of recording” throughout the flight recorder
provisions and replace the text with “shall record”. If the recorder is capable of
recording the data it does not mean that the full set of data is recorded;
e) delete 6.3.1.2.9 as the requirement in this Standard has been included in 6.3.1.2.6;
f) delete 6.3.1.2.12 as the intent of this requirement has been included in Appendix
8, Table A8-1, parameters 5, 16 and 17;
g) delete 6.3.1.2.13 and the Note below, as the intent of this requirement has been
included in Appendix 8, Table A8-1, parameter 18, as well as in Note 5 below
Table A8-1;
h) change the heading of 6.3.1.3 “Discontinuation” to “Recording technology” and
state what recording technologies shall not be used; and
i) remove the reference to Type IIA FDR in Standard 6.3.1.4 related to recording
duration of FDR and include the information from Appendix 8, 2.3.1, after which
2.3.1 would be deleted.
6.3.2
Cockpit voice recorders and cockpit audio recording systems
6.3.2.1 OperationApplicability
6.3.2.1.1 All turbine-engined aeroplanes of a maximum certificated take-off mass of over 2 250 kg,
up to and including 5 700 kg, for which the application for type certification is submitted to a Contracting
State on or after 1 January 2016 and required to be operated by more than one pilot shall be equipped with
either a CVR or a CARS.
B-11
6.3.2.1.2 Recommendation.— All turbine-engined aeroplanes of a maximum certificated take-off
mass of 5 700 kg or less for which the individual certificate of airworthiness is first issued on or after
1 January 2016 and required to be operated by more than one pilot should be equipped with either a CVR
or a CARS.
6.3.2.1.3 All aeroplanes of a maximum certificated take-off mass of over 5 700 kg for which the
individual certificate of airworthiness is first issued on or after 1 January 2003 shall be equipped with a
CVR capable of retaining the information recorded during at least the last two hours of its operation.
6.3.2.1.43 All aeroplanes of a maximum certificated take-off mass of over 5 700 kg for which the
individual certificate of airworthiness is first issued on or after 1 January 1987 shall be equipped with a
CVR.
6.3.2.1.54 All turbine-engined aeroplanes, for which the individual certificate of airworthiness was
first issued before 1 January 1987, with a maximum certificated take-off mass of over 27 000 kg that are
of types of which the prototype was certificated by the appropriate national authority after
30 September 1969 shall be equipped with a CVR.
6.3.2.1.65 Recommendation.— All turbine-engined aeroplanes, for which the individual certificate
of airworthiness was first issued before 1 January 1987, with a maximum certificated take-off mass of
over 5 700 kg up to and including 27 000 kg that are of types of which the prototype was certificated by
the appropriate national authority after 30 September 1969 should be equipped with a CVR.
6.3.2.2 DiscontinuationRecording technology
6.3.2.2.1 The use of magnetic tape and wire CVRs shall be discontinued by 1 January 2016.CVRs
shall not use magnetic tape or wire.
6.3.2.2.2 Recommendation.— The use of magnetic tape and wire CVRs should be discontinued .
6.3.2.3 Duration
6.3.2.3.1 All CVRs shall be capable of retaining the information recorded during at least the last 30
minutes of their operation.
6.3.2.3.21 From 1 January 2016, aAll CVRs shall be capable of retaining the information recorded
during at least the last two2 hours of their operation.
6.3.2.3.3 Recommendation.— All aeroplanes, for which the individual certificate of airworthiness
is first issued on or after 1 January 1990, and that are required to be equipped with a CVR, should have a
CVR capable of retaining the information recorded during at least the last two hours of their operation.
6.3.2.3.42 All aeroplanes of a maximum certificated take-off mass of over 27 000 kg for which the
individual certificate of airworthiness is first issued on or after 1 January 2021 shall be equipped with a
CVR capable ofwhich shall retaining the information recorded during at least the last twenty-five
25 hours of its operation.
B-12
6.3.2.4 Cockpit voice recorder alternate power source
6.3.2.4.1 An alternate power source shall automatically engage and provide ten10 minutes, plus or
minus one minute, of operation whenever aeroplane power to the recorder ceases, either by normal
shutdown or by any other loss of power. The alternate power source shall power the CVR and its
associated cockpit area microphone components. The CVR shall be located as close as practicable to the
alternate power source.
Note 1.— “Alternate” means separate from the power source that normally provides power to the
CVR. The use of aeroplane batteries or other power sources is acceptable provided that the requirements
above are met and electrical power to essential and critical loads is not compromised.
Note 2.— When the CVR function is combined with other recording functions within the same unit,
powering the other functions is allowed.
6.3.2.4.2 All aeroplanes of a maximum certificated take-off mass of over 27 000 kg for which the
application for type certification is submitted to a Contracting State on or after 1 January 2018 shall be
provided with an alternate power source, as defined in 6.3.2.4.1, that powers the forward CVR in the case
of combination recorders.
6.3.2.4.3 Recommendation.— All aeroplanes of a maximum certificated take-off mass of over
27 000 kg for which the individual certificate of airworthiness is first issued on or after 1 January 2018
should be provided with an alternate power source, as defined in 6.3.2.4.1, that powers at least one CVR.
Origin:
Rationale:
FLIRECSWG/9
It is proposed to:
a) change the heading of 6.3.2.1 “Operation” to “Applicability”. The paragraph
deals with which type of aircraft requires a CVR or CARS. The operational
requirements of CVRs and CARSs are included in Appendix 8;
b) delete 6.3.2.1.3 because it has become redundant in the light of 6.3.2.1.4 and the
provisions for CVR recording duration;
c) change the heading of 6.3.2.2 “Discontinuation” to “Recording technology” and
state what recording technologies shall not be used;
d) delete 6.3.2.3.1 and 6.3.2.3.3 because they are currently redundant. After
1 January 2016, 6.3.2.3.2 became applicable for CVRs to have a duration of at
least two hours; and
e) add the word “source” to the heading of 6.3.2.4. This provision requires a CVR
alternate power “source”, which could have different means of compliance.
6.3.3
Data link recorders
6.3.3.1 Applicability
6.3.3.1.1 All aeroplanes for which the individual certificate of airworthiness is first issued on or
after 1 January 2016, which utilize any of the data link communications applications listed in 5.1.2 of
Appendix 8 and are required to carry a CVR, shall record on a crash-protected flight recorder the data link
B-13
communications messages.
6.3.3.1.2 All aeroplanes which are modified on or after 1 January 2016 to install and utilize any of
the data link communications applications listed in 6.1.2 of Appendix 8 and are required to carry a CVR,
shall record on a crash-protected flight recorder the data link communications messages.
Note 1.— Data link communications are currently conducted by either ATN-based or
FANS 1/A-equipped aircraft.
Note 2.— A Class B AIR could be a means for recording data link communications applications
messages to and from the aeroplanes where it is not practical or is prohibitively expensive to record those
data link communications applications messages on FDR or CVR.
6.3.3.2 Duration
The minimum recording duration shall be equal to the duration of the CVR.
6.3.3.3 Correlation
Data link recording shall be able to be correlated to the recorded cockpit audio.
Origin:
Rationale:
FLIRECSWG/9
For the applicability of data link recorders in 6.3.3.1, the reference to “crashprotected” flight recorder is needed as these Standards are not applicable to
lightweight recorders. It is proposed that Note 1 be removed as the information is
found in Table A8-2 and with current available technology, other systems
besides ATN-based or FANS 1/A-equipped aircraft are capable of data link
communications.
6.3.4 Flight recorders — general
6.3.4.1 Construction and installation
Flight recorders shall be constructed, located and installed so as to provide maximum practical protection
for the recordings in order that the recorded information may be preserved, recovered and transcribed.
Flight recorders shall meet the prescribed crashworthiness and fire protection specifications.
6.3.4.2 Operation
6.3.4.2.1 Flight recorders shall not be switched off during flight time.
6.3.4.2.2 To preserve flight recorder records, flight recorders shall be deactivated upon completion
of flight time following an accident or incident. The flight recorders shall not be reactivated before their
B-14
disposition as determined in accordance with Annex 13.
Note 1.— The need for removal of the flight recorder records from the aircraft will be determined by
the investigation authority in the State conducting the investigation with due regard to the seriousness of
an occurrence and the circumstances, including the impact on the operation.
Note 2.— The operator’s responsibilities regarding the retention of flight recorder records are
contained in 11.6.
6.3.4.3 Continued serviceability
Operational checks and evaluations of recordings from the flight recorder systems shall be conducted to
ensure the continued serviceability of the recorders.
Note.— Procedures for the inspections of the flight recorder systems are given in Appendix 8.
6.3.4.4 Flight recorder electronic documentation
Recommendation.— The documentation requirement concerning FDR and ADRS parameters
provided by operators to accident investigation authorities should be in electronic format and take
account of industry specifications.
Note.— Industry specification for documentation concerning flight recorder parameters may be found
in the ARINC 647A, Flight Recorder Electronic Documentation, or equivalent document.
6.3.4.5 Combination recorders
6.3.4.5.1 Recommendation.— All aeroplanes of a maximum certificated take-off mass of over
5 700 kg for which the application for type certification is submitted to a Contracting State on or after
1 January 2016, and which are required to be equipped with both a CVR and an FDR, should be
equipped with two combination recorders (FDR/CVR).
6.3.4.5.2 All aeroplanes of a maximum certificated take-off mass of over 15 000 kg for which the
application for type certification is submitted to a Contracting State on or after 1 January 2016, and which
are required to be equipped with both a CVR and an FDR, shall be equipped with two combination
recorders (FDR/CVR). One recorder shall be located as close to the cockpit as practicable and the other
recorder located as far aft as practicable.
6.3.4.5.3 Recommendation.— All aeroplanes of a maximum certificated take-off mass over
5 700 kg, required to be equipped with an FDR and a CVR, may alternatively be equipped with two
combination recorders (FDR/CVR).
Note.— The requirement of 6.3.4.5 may be satisfied by equipping the aeroplanes with two
combination recorders (one forward and one aft) or separate devices.
6.3.4.5.4 Recommendation.— All multi-engined turbine-powered aeroplanes of a maximum
certificated take-off mass of 5 700 kg or less, required to be equipped with an FDR and/or a CVR, may
B-15
alternatively be equipped with one combination recorder (FDR/CVR).
Origin:
Rationale:
FLIRECSWG/9
No change to this section.
APPENDIX 8. FLIGHT RECORDERS
(Chapter 6, 6.3, 6.18, refers)
The material in this Appendix concerns flight recorders intended for installation in aeroplanes engaged in
international air navigation. Crash- protected flight recorders comprise one or more of the following
systems: a flight data recorder (FDR);, a cockpit voice recorder (CVR);, an airborne image recorder
(AIR); and/or a data link recorder (DLR). Lightweight flight recorders comprise one or more of the
following systems: an aircraft data recording system (ADRS);, a cockpit audio recording system
(CARS);, an airborne image recording system (AIRS); and/or a data link recording system (DLRS).
1.
GENERAL REQUIREMENTS
1.1 Non-deployable flight recorder containers shall: be painted a distinctive orange colour.
a) be painted a distinctive orange or yellow colour;
1.2 Non-deployable crash-protected flight recorder containers shall:
ba) carry reflective material to facilitate their location; and
cb) have securely attached an automatically activated underwater locating device operating at a
frequency of 37.5 kHz. At the earliest practicable date, but not later than 1 January 2018, this
device shall operate for a minimum of 90 days.
Note.— Current industry practice is to phase out yellow flight recorder containers at the end of the
service life of the flight recorder.
1.23
Automatic deployable flight recorder containers shall:
a) be painted a distinctive orange colour, however the surface visible from outside the aircraft may
be of another colour;
b) carry reflective material to facilitate their location; and
c) have an integrated automatically activated ELT.
1.34 The flight recorder systems shall be installed so that:
a) the probability of damage to the recordings is minimized;
B-16
b) they receive electrical power from a bus that provides the maximum reliability for operation of
the flight recorder systems without jeopardizing service to essential or emergency loads;
cb) there is an aural or visual means for pre-flight checking that the flight recorder systems are
operating properly; and
dc) if the flight recorder systems have a bulk erasure device, the installation shall be designed to
prevent operation of the device during flight time or crash impact.
1.5 The flight recorder systems shall be installed so that they receive electrical power from a bus
that provides the maximum reliability for operation of the flight recorder systems without jeopardizing
service to essential or emergency loads.
1.46 The flight recorder systems, when tested by methods approved by the appropriate certificating
authority, shall be demonstrated to be suitable for the environmental extremes over which they are
designed to operate.
1.57 Means shall be provided for an accurate time correlation between the flight recorder systems
recordings.
1.68 The manufacturer shall provide the appropriate certificating authority with the following
information in respect of the flight recording recorder systems:
a) manufacturer’s operating instructions, equipment limitations and installation procedures;
b) parameter origin or source and equations which relate counts to units of measurement; and
c) manufacturer’s test reports.
Origin:
Rationale:
FLIRECSWG/9
It is proposed to:
a) delete “and/or” in the paragraph below the Appendix 8 heading, as it was
deemed unnecessary. It states that “flight recorders comprise one or more of
the following systems:” with the systems listed after the semi-colon;
b) amend the text in “1. General requirements” to clarify the differences
between deployable and non-deployable recorders and crash-protected and
lightweight recorders, which do not have the same levels of crash-protection.
These proposed amendments are to address the actions raised in the Job-card
FLIRECSWG.008.01, in particular, addressing the containers of the
recorders. It is proposed to separate 1.1 a) from 1.1 b) and c). 1.1 a) provides
for the painting of non-deployable flight recorder containers an orange
colour, and 1.1 b) and c) crash-protected recorder provisions, which would
not apply to lightweight recorder containers;
c) delete the Note below 1.1 as the FLIRECSWG was not aware of flight
recorder manufacturers who still paint the recorders yellow;
d) move 1.3 b) to 1.5 with specific reference that “flight recorder systems shall
be installed so that they ….”; and
e) change “recording systems” in 1.6 to read “recorder systems”.
B-17
2. FLIGHT DATA RECORDER (FDR) AND AIRCRAFT DATA RECORDING SYSTEMS
(ADRS)
2.1
Start and stop logic
2.1 The flight data recorder FDR or ADRS shall start to record prior to the aeroplane moving under
its own power and record continuously until the termination of the flight when the aeroplane is no longer
capable of moving under its own power.
2.2 Parameters to be recorded
Note.— In previous editions of Annex 6, Part I, types of recorders were defined to capture the first
evolutions of FDRs.
2.2.1 Flight data recorders shall be classified as Type I, Type IA, Type II and Type IIA depending
upon the number of parameters to be recorded and the duration required for retention of the recorded
information.
2.2.21 The parameters that satisfy the requirements for FDRs are listed in Table A8-1the paragraphs
below. The number of parameters to be recorded shall depend on aeroplane complexity. The parameters
without an asterisk (*) are mandatory parameters which shall be recorded regardless of aeroplane
complexity. In addition, the parameters designated by an asterisk (*) shall be recorded if an information
data source for the parameter is used by aeroplane systems or the flight crew to operate the aeroplane.
However, other parameters may be substituted with due regard to the aeroplane type and the
characteristics of the recording equipment.
2.2.2 If further FDR recording capacity is available, recording of the following additional
information shall be considered:
a) operational information from electronic display systems, such as electronic flight instrument
systems (EFIS), electronic centralized aircraft monitor (ECAM) and engine indication and crew
alerting system (EICAS). Use the following order of priority:
1)
parameters selected by the flight crew relating to the desired flight path, e.g. barometric
pressure setting, selected altitude, selected airspeed, decision height, and autoflight system
engagement and mode indications if not recorded from another source;
2)
display system selection/status, e.g. SECTOR, PLAN, ROSE, NAV, WXR, COMPOSITE,
COPY, ETC.;
3)
warnings and alerts; and
4)
the identity of displayed pages for emergency procedures and checklists; and
b) retardation information including brake application for use in the investigation of landing
overruns and rejected take-offs.
B-18
2.2.2.1 The following parameters shall satisfy the requirements for flight path and speed:
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
Pressure altitude
Indicated airspeed or calibrated airspeed
Air-ground status and each landing gear air-ground sensor when practicable
Total or outside air temperature
Heading (primary flight crew reference)
Normal acceleration
Lateral acceleration
Longitudinal acceleration (body axis)
Time or relative time count
Navigation data*: drift angle, wind speed, wind direction, latitude/longitude
Groundspeed*
Radio altitude*
2.2.2.2 The following parameters shall satisfy the requirements for attitude:
—
—
—
—
Pitch attitude
Roll attitude
Yaw or sideslip angle*
Angle of attack*
2.2.2.3 The following parameters shall satisfy the requirements for engine power:
—
—
—
—
—
—
Engine thrust/power: propulsive thrust/power on each engine, cockpit thrust/power lever position
Thrust reverse status*
Engine thrust command*
Engine thrust target*
Engine bleed valve position*
Additional engine parameters*: EPR, N1, indicated vibration level, N2, EGT, TLA, fuel flow, fuel
cut-off lever position, N3
2.2.2.4 The following parameters shall satisfy the requirements for configuration:
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
Pitch trim surface position
Flaps*: trailing edge flap position, cockpit control selection
Slats*: leading edge flap (slat) position, cockpit control selection
Landing gear*: landing gear, gear selector position
Yaw trim surface position*
Roll trim surface position*
Cockpit trim control input position pitch*
Cockpit trim control input position roll*
Cockpit trim control input position yaw*
Ground spoiler and speed brake*: Ground spoiler position, ground spoiler selection, speed brake
position, speed brake selection
De-icing and/or anti-icing systems selection*
Hydraulic pressure (each system)*
Fuel quantity in CG trim tank *
AC electrical bus status*
DC electrical bus status*
B-19
— APU bleed valve position*
— Computed centre of gravity*
2.2.2.5 The following parameters shall satisfy the requirements for operation:
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
Warnings
Primary flight control surface and primary flight control pilot input: pitch axis, roll axis, yaw axis
Marker beacon passage
Each navigation receiver frequency selection
Manual radio transmission keying and CVR/FDR synchronization reference
Autopilot/autothrottle/AFCS mode and engagement status*
Selected barometric setting*: pilot, first officer
Selected altitude (all pilot selectable modes of operation)*
Selected speed (all pilot selectable modes of operation)*
Selected Mach (all pilot selectable modes of operation)*
Selected vertical speed (all pilot selectable modes of operation)*
Selected heading (all pilot selectable modes of operation)*
Selected flight path (all pilot selectable modes of operation)*: course/DSTRK, path angle
Selected decision height*
EFIS display format*: pilot, first officer
Multi-function/engine/alerts display format*
GPWS/TAWS/GCAS status*: selection of terrain display mode including pop-up display status,
terrain alerts, both cautions and warnings, and advisories, on/off switch position
Low pressure warning*: hydraulic pressure, pneumatic pressure
Computer failure*
Loss of cabin pressure*
TCAS/ACAS (traffic alert and collision avoidance system/airborne collision avoidance system)*
Ice detection*
Engine warning each engine vibration*
Engine warning each engine over temperature*
Engine warning each engine oil pressure low*
Engine warning each engine over speed*
Wind shear warning*
Operational stall protection, stick shaker and pusher activation*
All cockpit flight control input forces*: control wheel, control column, rudder pedal cockpit input
forces
Vertical deviation*: ILS glide path, MLS elevation, GNSS approach path
Horizontal deviation*: ILS localizer, MLS azimuth, GNSS approach path
DME 1 and 2 distances*
Primary navigation system reference*: GNSS, INS, VOR/DME, MLS, Loran C, ILS
Brakes*: left and right brake pressure, left and right brake pedal position
Date*
Event marker*
Head up display in use*
Para visual display on*
Note .— It is not intended that aeroplanes issued with an individual certificate of airworthiness
before 1 January 2016 be modified to meet the range, sampling, accuracy or resolution guidance detailed
in this Appendix.
B-20
2.2.2.6 Type IA FDR. This FDR shall be capable of recording, as appropriate to the aeroplane, at
least the 78 parameters in Table A8-1.
2.2.2.7 Type I FDR. This FDR shall be capable of recording, as appropriate to the aeroplane, at least
the first 32 parameters in Table A8-1.
2.2.2.8 Types II and IIA FDRs. These FDRs shall be capable of recording, as appropriate to the
aeroplane, at least the first 16 parameters in Table A8-1.
2.2.2.39 The parameters that satisfy the requirements for flight path and speed as displayed to the
pilot(s) are listed below. The parameters without an (*) are mandatory parameters which shall be
recorded. In addition, the parameters designated by an (*) shall be recorded if an information source for
the parameter is displayed to the pilot and is practicable to record:
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
Pressure altitude
Indicated airspeed or calibrated airspeed
Heading (primary flight crew reference)
Pitch attitude
Roll attitude
Engine thrust/power
Landing-gear status*
Total or outside air temperature*
Time*
Navigation data*: drift angle, wind speed, wind direction, latitude/longitude
Radio altitude*
2.2.4 The parameters that satisfy the requirements for ADRS are listed in Table A8-3.
2.3 Additional information
2.3.1 A Type IIA FDR, in addition to a 30-minute recording duration, shall retain sufficient
information from the preceding take-off for calibration purposes.
2.3.21 The measurement range, recording interval and accuracy of parameters on installed
equipment shall be verified by methods approved by the appropriate certificating authority.
2.3.32 Documentation concerning parameter allocation, conversion equations, periodic calibration
and other serviceability/maintenance information shall be maintained by the operator. The documentation
needs to be sufficient to ensure that accident investigation authorities have the necessary information to
read out the data in engineering units.
Origin:
Rationale:
FLIRECSWG/9
It is proposed to:
a) include the requirements for ADRS from Appendix 8, Section 6 with the
FDR requirements. The heading shall thus be expanded to include ADRS;
b) include a heading before 2.1 to read “2.1 Start and stop logic” and include
B-21
a reference to ADRS in the subsequent paragraph;
c) delete 2.2.1 as it refers to types of FDRs, and to include a Note to indicate
that previous Annex 6, Part I editions defined types of FDRs
d) move the unnumbered provision below Table A8-1 which refers to the
recording of additional information if further recording capacity is available,
below 2.2.2 as the new 2.2.2;
e) move 2.2.2.9 up as the new 2.2.3;
f) insert new 2.2.4 which refers to the parameters in Table A8-3 which would
satisfy the requirements for ADRS;
g) delete 2.2.2.1 to 2.2.2.8 due to the proposed deletion of the types of FDRs
and the reference to Tables A8-1 and A8-3; and
h) capture the information in 2.3.1 into 6.3.1.4 as proposed on page A-9 above.
3. COCKPIT VOICE RECORDER (CVR) AND COCKPIT AUDIO RECORDING SYSTEM
(CARS)
3.1
Signals to be recorded Start and stop logic
The CVR orand CARS shall start to record prior to the aeroplane moving under its own power and record
continuously until the termination of the flight when the aeroplane is no longer capable of moving under
its own power. In addition, depending on the availability of electrical power, the CVR orand CARS shall
start to record as early as possible during the cockpit checks prior to engine start at the beginning of the
flight until the cockpit checks immediately following engine shutdown at the end of the flight.
3.2 Signals to be recorded
3.12.1 The CVR shall record simultaneously on four separate channels, or more, at least the
following:
a) voice communication transmitted from or received in the aeroplane by radio;
b) aural environment on the flight deck;
c) voice communication of flight crew members on the flight deck using the aeroplane’s interphone
system, if installed;
d) voice or audio signals identifying navigation or approach aids introduced in the headset or
speaker; and
e) voice communication of flight crew members using the passenger address system, if installed.
3.2.2
The preferred CVR audio allocation should be as follows:
a) captain’spilot-in-command audio panel;
b) firstco-pilot officer’s audio panel;
B-22
c) additional flight crew positions and time reference; and
d) cockpit area microphone.
3.12.23 The CARS shall record simultaneously on two separate channels, or more, at least the
following:
a) voice communication transmitted from or received in the aeroplane by radio;
b) aural environment on the flight deck; and
c) voice communication of flight crew members on the flight deck using the aeroplane’s interphone
system, if installed.
3.2.4
The preferred CARS audio allocation should be as follows:
a) voice communication; and
b) aural environment on the flight deck.
3.1.3 The CVR shall be capable of recording on at least four channels simultaneously. On a tapebased CVR, to ensure accurate time correlation between channels, the CVR is to record in an in-line
format. If a bi-directional configuration is used, the in-line format and channel allocation shall be retained
in both directions.
3.1.4 The preferred channel allocation shall be as follows:
Channel 1 — co-pilot headphones and live boom microphone
Channel 2 — pilot headphones and live boom microphone
Channel 3 — area microphone
Channel 4 — time reference plus the third and fourth crew members’ headphone and live
microphone, if applicable.
Note 1.— Channel 1 is located closest to the base of the recording head.
Note 2.— The preferred channel allocation presumes use of current conventional magnetic tape
transport mechanisms, and is specified because the outer edges of the tape have a higher risk of damage
than the middle. It is not intended to preclude use of alternative recording media where such constraints
may not apply.
Origin:
Rationale:
FLIRECSWG/9
It is proposed to:
a)
move the heading 3.1 related to signals to be recorded to above 3.1.1 and replace the
heading for 3.1 with “Start and stop logic”;
B-23
b) amend the text “CVR and CARS” to read “CVR or CARS”. It would be either a
CVR or a CARS fitted in the aircraft and not both;
c) insert the word “simultaneously” in 3.1.1 and 3.1.2 to clarify that the CVR and
CARS shall record simultaneously on four or two channels, respectively. This needs
to be specified in the new solid-state recording technology due to possible time
correlation issues, which was easier solved with the magnetic tape technology;
d) insert a new 3.2.2 related to CVRs and a 3.2.4 related to CARS which address audio
allocations of CVRs and CARS, since the channel allocation addressed in 3.1.4 is a
magnetic tape based issue. For consistency in Annex 6, reference to “pilot-incommand” and “co-pilot” should rather be used in the proposed 3.2.2 instead of
“captain” and “first officer”; and
e) delete 3.1.3 and Notes 1 and 2 below 3.1.4 addressing magnetic tape CVRs.
4.
AUTOMATIC DEPLOYABLE FLIGHT RECORDER (ADFR)
4.1
Operation
The following requirements shall apply to an ADFR:
— deployment shall take place when the aeroplane structure has been significantly deformed;
— deployment shall take place when an aeroplane sinks in water;
— ADFR shall not be capable of manual deployment;
— the ADFR shall be able to float on water;
— the ADFR deployment shall not compromise the safe continuation of the flight;
— the ADFR deployment shall not significantly reduce the chance of survival of the recorder and of
successful transmission by its ELT;
— the ADFR deployment shall not release more than one piece;
— an alert shall be made to the flight crew when the ADFR is no longer captive to the aircraft;
— the flight crew shall have no means to disable ADFR deployment when the aircraft is airborne;
— the ADFR shall contain an integrated ELT, which shall activate automatically during the
deployment sequence. Such ELT may be of a type that is activated in-flight and provides
information from which a position can be determined; and
— the integrated ELT of an ADFR shall satisfy the same requirements as an ELT required to be
installed on an aeroplane. The integrated ELT shall at least have the same performance as the
fixed ELT to maximize detection of the transmitted signal.
Note 1.— Refer to the Manual on Location of Aircraft in Distress and Flight Recorder Data Recovery
(Doc 10054) for more information on ADFR.
B-24
Note 2.— If an integrated ELT of a type that is activated in flight is used within an ADFR, it could be
a means to comply with the requirements of Chapter 6, 6.18.
5.
AIRBORNE IMAGE RECORDER (AIR) AND AIRBORNE IMAGE RECORDING SYSTEM
(AIRS)
5.1
Start and stop logic
Editorial Note.— Move paragraph 5.2 to 5.1.
The AIR or AIRS must shall start to record prior to the aeroplane moving under its own power and record
continuously until the termination of the flight when the aeroplane is no longer capable of moving under
its own power. In addition, depending on the availability of electrical power, the AIR or AIRS must shall
start to record as early as possible during the cockpit checks prior to engine start at the beginning of the
flight until the cockpit checks immediately following engine shutdown at the end of the flight.
5.12
Classes
5.12.1 A Class A AIR or AIRS captures the general cockpit area in order to provide data
supplemental to conventional flight recorders.
Note 1.— To respect crew privacy, the cockpit area view may be designed as far as practical to
exclude the head and shoulders of crew members whilst seated in their normal operating position.
Note 2.— There are no provisions for Class A AIR or AIRS in this document.
5.12.2
A Class B AIR or AIRS captures data link message displays.
5.12.3
A Class C AIR or AIRS captures instruments and control panels.
Note.— A Class C AIR or AIRS may be considered as a means for recording flight data where it is
not practical or is prohibitively expensive to record on an FDR or an ADRS, or where an FDR is not
required.
5.2
Operation
The AIR or AIRS must start to record prior to the aeroplane moving under its own power and record
continuously until the termination of the flight when the aeroplane is no longer capable of moving under
its own power. In addition, depending on the availability of electrical power, the AIR or AIRS must start
to record as early as possible during the cockpit checks prior to engine start at the beginning of the flight
until the cockpit checks immediately following engine shutdown at the end of the flight.
Origin:
Rationale:
FLIRECSWG/9
The paragraph 5.2 “Operation” is proposed to be moved up to 5.1 and renamed
B-25
“Start and stop logic” to be consistent with the requirements of the other flight
recorders in Appendix 8. The text “must start” in this provision is inconsistent
with a Standard and should be replaced with “shall start”.
6.
DATA LINK RECORDER (DLR)
6.1
Applications to be recorded
6.1.1 Where the aircraft flight path is authorized or controlled through the use of data link
messages, all data link messages, both uplinks (to the aircraft) and downlinks (from the aircraft), shall be
recorded on the aircraft. As far as practicable, the time the messages were displayed to the flight crew and
the time of the responses shall be recorded.
Note.— Sufficient information to derive the content of the data link communications message and the
time the messages were displayed to the flight crew is needed to determine an accurate sequence of events
on board the aircraft.
6.1.2 Messages applying to the applications listed in Table A8-2 below shall be recorded.
Applications without the asterisk (*) are mandatory applications which shall be recorded regardless of the
system complexity. Applications with an (*) shall be recorded only as far as is practicable given the
architecture of the system.
—
—
—
—
—
—
Data link initiation capability
Controller–pilot data link communications
Data link – flight information services
Automatic dependent surveillance – contract
Automatic dependent surveillance – broadcast*
Aeronautical operational control*.
Note.— Descriptions of the applications are contained in Table A8-2.
7.
AIRCRAFT DATA RECORDING SYSTEMS (ADRS)
7.1 Parameters to be recorded
ADRS shall be capable of recording, as appropriate to the aeroplane, at least the essential (E) parameters
in Table A8-3.
7.2 Additional information
7.2.1 The measurement range, recording interval and accuracy of parameters on installed equipment
is usually verified by methods approved by the appropriate certificating authority.
7.2.2 Documentation concerning parameter allocation, conversion equations, periodic calibration
and other serviceability/maintenance information shall be maintained by the operator. The documentation
B-26
needs to be sufficient to ensure that accident investigation authorities have the necessary information to
read out the data in engineering units.
Origin:
Rationale:
FLIRECSWG/9
It is proposed to:
a) delete the list in 6.1.2 and insert a reference to Table A8-2 as these applications to be
recorded are listed in 6.1.2, but also appears in Table A8-2; and
b) delete Section 7 (ADRS) as the information has been moved up to Section 2.
Editorial Note.— Renumber the subsequent paragraphs.
8.
INSPECTIONS OF FLIGHT RECORDER SYSTEMS
8.1 Prior to the first flight of the day, the built-in test features for the flight recorders and flight data
acquisition unit (FDAU), when installed, shall be monitored by manual and/or automatic checks.
8.2 FDR systems or ADRS, CVR systems or CARS, and AIR systems or AIRS shall have recording
system inspection intervals of one year; subject to the approval from the appropriate regulatory authority,
this period may be extended to two years provided these systems have demonstrated a high integrity of
serviceability and self-monitoring. DLR systems or DLRS shall have recording system inspection
intervals of two years; subject to the approval from the appropriate regulatory authority, this period may
be extended to four years provided these systems have demonstrated high integrity of serviceability and
self-monitoring.
8.3 Recording system inspections shall be carried out as follows:
a) an analysis of the recorded data from the flight recorders shall ensure that the recorder operates
correctly for the nominal duration of the recording;
b) the analysis of the FDR or ADRS recording shall evaluate the quality of the recorded data to
determine if the bit error rate (including those errors introduced by recorder, the acquisition unit,
the source of the data on the aeroplane and by the tools used to extract the data from the recorder)
is within acceptable limits and to determine the nature and distribution of the errors;
c) a complete flight recording from the FDR or ADRS recording from a complete flight shall be
examined in engineering units to evaluate the validity of all recorded parameters. Particular
attention shall be given to parameters from sensors dedicated to the FDR or ADRS. Parameters
taken from the aircraft’s electrical bus system need not be checked if their serviceability can be
detected by other aircraft systems;
d) the readout facility shall have the necessary software to accurately convert the recorded values to
engineering units and to determine the status of discrete signals;
e) an examination of the recorded signal on the CVR or CARS shall be carried out by replay of the
CVR or CARS recording. While installed in the aircraft, the CVR or CARS shall record test
signals from each aircraft source and from relevant external sources to ensure that all required
B-27
signals meet intelligibility standards;
f) where practicable, during the annual examination, a sample of in-flight recordings of the CVR or
CARS shall be examined for evidence that the intelligibility of the signal is acceptable; and
g) an examination of the recorded images on the AIR or AIRS shall be carried out by replay of the
AIR or AIRS recording. While installed in the aircraft, the AIR or AIRS shall record test images
from each aircraft source and from relevant external sources to ensure that all required images
meet recording quality standards.
8.4 A flight recorder system shall be considered unserviceable if there is a significant period of poor
quality data, unintelligible signals, or if one or more of the mandatory parameters is not recorded
correctly.
8.5 A report of the recording system inspection shall be made available on request to regulatory
authorities for monitoring purposes.
8.6 Calibration of the FDR system:
a) for those parameters which have sensors dedicated only to the FDR and are not checked by other
means, recalibration shall be carried out at least every five years or in accordance with the
recommendations of the sensor manufacturer to determine any discrepancies in the engineering
conversion routines for the mandatory parameters and to ensure that parameters are being
recorded within the calibration tolerances; and
b) when the parameters of altitude and airspeed are provided by sensors that are dedicated to the
FDR system, there shall be a recalibration performed as recommended by the sensor
manufacturer, or at least every two years.
Origin:
Rationale:
FLIRECSWG/9
It is proposed to:
a) delete the word “system” in 8.2 and 8.3 where it refers to recording
“system“ inspections, as the intent is to inspect the recordings; and
b) include reference to FDR or ADRS “recording” in 8.3 b), and in 8.3 c)
replace “a complete flight recording” to the recording of a “complete flight”
instead. It is proposed to remove “annual” in 8.3 f) so as not to conflict with
the provision in 8.2.
B-28
Table A8-1.
Parameter Guidance Characteristics for Crash Protected Flight Data Recorders
Applicability
Serial
number
Measurement range
Maximum
sampling and
recording
interval
(seconds)
Accuracy limits
(sensor input
compared
to FDR read-out)
24 hours
4
±0.125% /per hour
1 second
–300 m (–1 000 ft)
to
maximum
certificated
altitude of aircraft
+1 500 m (+5 000 ft)
1
±30 m to ±200 m
(±100 ft to ±700 ft)
1.5 m (5 ft)
95 km/h (50 kt) to
max
VSo (Note 1)
VSo to 1.2 VD (Note
2)
1
±5%
360°
1
±2°
Application for type
certification is submitted to a
Contracting State before
1 January 2016
–3 g to +6 g
0.125
±1% of maximum
range excluding
datum error of ±5%
0.004 g
Application for type
certification is submitted to a
Contracting State on or after
1 January 2016
–3 g to +6 g
0.0625
±1% of maximum
range excluding
datum error of ±5%
0.004 g
Parameter
1
Time (UTC when available,
otherwise relative time count or
GPS GNSS time sync)
2
Pressure-altitude
3
Indicated airspeed or calibrated
airspeed
4
Heading (primary flight crew
reference)
5
Normal acceleration (Note 83)
Recording resolution
1 kt (0.5 kt
recommended)
±3%
0.5°
6
Pitch attitude
±75° or usable range
whichever is greater
0.25
±2°
0.5°
7
Roll attitude
±180°
0.25
±2°
0.5°
8
Radio transmission keying
On-off (one
discrete)
1
9
Power on each engine
(Note 43)
Full range
1 (per
engine)
±2%
0.2% of full range or the
resolution required to
operate the aircraft
10*
Trailing edge flap and cockpit
control selection
Full range or each
discrete position
2
±5% or as pilot’s
indicator
0.5% of full range or the
resolution required to
operate the aircraft
11*
Leading edge flap and cockpit
control selection
Full range or each
discrete position
2
±5% or as pilot’s
indicator
0.5% of full range or the
resolution required to
operate the aircraft
12*
Thrust reverser position
Stowed, in transit,
and reverse
1 (per
engine)
13*
Ground spoiler/speed brake
selection (selection and position)
Full range or each
discrete position
1
±2% unless higher
accuracy uniquely
required
0.2% of full range
14
Outside air temperature
Sensor range
2
±2°C
0.3°C
B-29
Applicability
Serial
number
Parameter
15*
Autopilot/auto
throttle/AFCS
mode and engagement status
16
Longitudinal acceleration
(Note 38)
Measurement range
Maximum
sampling and
recording
interval
(seconds)
Accuracy limits
(sensor input
compared
to FDR read-out)
Recording resolution
A suitable
combination
of discretes
1
Application for type
certification submitted to a
Contracting State before
1 January 2016
±1 g
0.25
±0.015 g
excluding a datum
error of ±0.05 g
0.004 g
Application for type
certification submitted to a
Contracting State on or after
1 January 2016
±1 g
0.0625
±0.015 g
excluding a datum
error of ±0.05 g
0.004 g
Note.— The preceding 16 parameters satisfy the requirements for a Type II FDR.
17
18
Lateral acceleration (Note 38)
Pilot input and/or control
surface position-primary
controls (pitch, roll, yaw)
(Note 54 and 8) (Note 6)
Application for type
certification submitted to a
Contracting State before
1 January 2016
±1 g
0.25
±0.015 g
excluding a datum
error of ±0.05 g
0.004 g
Application for type
certification submitted to a
Contracting State on or after
1 January 2016
±1 g
0.0625
±0.015 g
excluding a datum
error of ±0.05 g
0.004 g
Application for type
certification submitted to a
Contracting State before
1 January 2016
Full range
0.25
±2° unless higher
accuracy uniquely
required
0.2% of full range or as
installed
Application for type
certification submitted to a
Contracting State on or after
1 January 2016
Full range
0.125
±2° unless higher
accuracy uniquely
required
0.2% of full range or as
installed
Full range
1
±3% unless higher
accuracy uniquely
required
0.3% of full range or as
installed
–6 m to 750 m
(–20 ft to 2 500 ft)
1
±0.6 m (±2 ft) or ±3%
whichever is greater
below 150 m
(500 ft) and ±5%
above 150 m
(500 ft)
0.3 m (1 ft) below 150 m
(500 ft) 0.3 m (1 ft) +
0.5% of full range above
150 m (500 ft)
19
Pitch trim position
20*
Radio altitude
21*
Vertical beam deviation
(ILS/GPSGNSS/GLS glide path,
MLS elevation, IRNAV/IAN
vertical deviation)
Signal range
1
±3%
0.3% of full range
22*
Horizontal beam deviation
(ILS/GPSGNSS/GLS localizer,
MLS azimuth, IRNAV/IAN
lateral deviation)
Signal range
1
±3%
0.3% of full range
23
Marker beacon passage
Discrete
1
24
Master warning
Discrete
1
25
Each NAV receiver frequency
selection (Note 75)
Full range
4
As installed
B-30
Applicability
Serial
number
Parameter
Maximum
sampling and
recording
interval
(seconds)
Accuracy limits
(sensor input
compared
to FDR read-out)
0 – 370 km
(0 – 200 NM)
4
As installed
1 852 m (1 NM)
As installed
0.3 % of full range
Measurement range
Recording resolution
26*
DME 1 and 2 distance (includes
Distance to runway threshold
(GLS) and Distance to missed
approach point (IRNAV/IAN))
(Notes 75 and 86)
27
Air/ground status
Discrete
1
28*
GPWS/TAWS/GCAS status
(selection of terrain display mode
including pop-up display status)
and (terrain alerts, both cautions
and warnings, and advisories)
and (on/off switch position)
Discrete
1
29*
Angle of attack
Full range
0.5
30*
Hydraulics, each system
(low pressure)
Discrete
2
31*
Navigation data
(latitude/longitude, ground
speed and drift angle) (Note 97)
As installed
1
As installed
32*
Landing gear and gear
selector position
Discrete
4
As installed
As installed
1
Data should be
obtained from the
most accurate system
(Maximum metered
brake range,
discretes or full
range)
1
±5%
2% of full range
2% of full range
0.5% of full range
Note.— The preceding 32 parameters satisfy the requirements for a Type I FDR.
33*
Groundspeed
1 kt
34
Brakes (left and right brake
pressure, left and right brake
pedal position)
35*
Additional engine parameters
(EPR, N1, indicated vibration
level, N2, EGT, fuel flow, fuel
cut-off lever position, N3)
As installed
Each engine
each second
As installed
36*
TCAS/ACAS (traffic alert and
collision avoidance system)
Discretes
1
As installed
37*
Windshear warning
Discrete
1
As installed
38*
Selected barometric setting
(pilot, co-pilot)
As installed
64
As installed
0.1 mb (0.01 in-Hg)
39*
Selected altitude (all pilot
selectable modes of operation)
As installed
1
As installed
Sufficient to determine
crew selection
40*
Selected speed (all pilot
selectable modes of operation)
As installed
1
As installed
Sufficient to determine
crew selection
41*
Selected Mach (all pilot
selectable modes of operation)
As installed
1
As installed
Sufficient to determine
crew selection
42*
Selected vertical speed (all pilot
selectable modes of operation)
As installed
1
As installed
Sufficient to determine
crew selection
43*
Selected heading (all pilot
selectable modes of operation)
As installed
1
As installed
Sufficient to determine
crew selection
B-31
Applicability
Serial
number
Parameter
Measurement range
Maximum
sampling and
recording
interval
(seconds)
Accuracy limits
(sensor input
compared
to FDR read-out)
1
As installed
As installed
Sufficient to determine
crew selection
Recording resolution
44*
Selected flight path (all pilot
selectable modes of operation)
(course/DSTRK, path angle, final
approach path (IRNAV/IAN))
45*
Selected Decision Height
As installed
64
As installed
46*
EFIS display format (pilot,
co-pilot)
Discrete(s)
4
As installed
47*
Multi-function/engine/alerts
display format
Discrete(s)
4
As installed
48*
AC electrical bus status
Discrete(s)
4
As installed
49*
DC electrical bus status
Discrete(s)
4
As installed
50*
Engine bleed valve position
Discrete(s)
4
As installed
51*
APU bleed valve position
Discrete(s)
4
As installed
52*
Computer failure
Discrete(s)
4
As installed
53*
Engine thrust command
As installed
2
As installed
54*
Engine thrust target
As installed
4
As installed
2% of full range
55*
Computed centre of gravity
As installed
64
As installed
1% of full range
56*
Fuel quantity in CG trim tank
As installed
64
As installed
1% of full range
57*
Head up display in use
As installed
4
As installed
58*
Para visual display on/off
As installed
1
As installed
59*
Operational stall protection, stick
shaker and pusher activation
As installed
1
As installed
60*
Primary navigation system
reference (GNSS, INS,
VOR/DME, MLS, Loran C,
localizer glideslope)
As installed
4
As installed
61*
Ice detection
As installed
4
As installed
62*
Engine warning each engine
vibration
As installed
1
As installed
63*
Engine warning each engine over
temperature
As installed
1
As installed
64*
Engine warning each engine oil
pressure low
As installed
1
As installed
65*
Engine warning each engine over
speed
As installed
1
As installed
66*
Yaw Trim Surface Position
Full range
2
±3% unless higher
accuracy uniquely
required
0.3% of full range
67*
Roll Trim Surface Position
Full range
2
±3% unless higher
accuracy uniquely
required
0.3% of full range
68*
Yaw or sideslip angle
Full range
1
±5%
0.5°
B-32
Applicability
Serial
number
Parameter
Measurement range
Maximum
sampling and
recording
interval
(seconds)
69*
De-icing and/or anti-icing
systems selection
Discrete(s)
4
70*
Hydraulic pressure (each system)
Full range
2
71*
Loss of cabin pressure
Discrete
1
72*
Cockpit trim control input
position, Pitch
Full range
73*
Cockpit trim control input
position, Roll
74*
Cockpit trim control input
position, Yaw
75*
All cockpit flight control input
forces (control wheel,
control column,
rudder pedal)
76*
Accuracy limits
(sensor input
compared
to FDR read-out)
Recording resolution
±5%
100 psi
1
±5%
0.2% of full range or as
installed
Full range
1
±5%
0.2% of full range or as
installed
Full range
1
±5%
0.2% of full range or as
installed
Full range
(±311 N (±70 lbf),
±378 N (±85 lbf),
±734 N (±165 lbf))
1
±5%
0.2% of full range or as
installed
Event marker
Discrete
1
77*
Date
365 days
64
78*
ANP or EPE or EPU
As installed
4
As installed
Note.— The preceding 78 parameters satisfy the requirements for a Type IA FDR.
Notes.—
1. VSo stalling speed or minimum steady flight speed in the landing configuration is in Section
“Abbreviations and Symbols”.
2. VD design diving speed.
3. Refer to 6.3.1.2.11 for increased recording requirements.
43. Record sufficient inputs to determine power.
54. For aeroplanes with control systems in which movement of a control surface will back drive the pilot’s
control, ‘‘or’’ applies. For aeroplanes with control systems in which movement of a control surface
will not back drive the pilot’s control, ‘‘and’’ applies. In aeroplanes with split surfaces, a suitable
combination of inputs is acceptable in lieu of recording each surface separately. In aeroplanes with
independent pilot input on primary controls, each pilot input on primary controls needs to be recorded
separately.
6. Refer to 6.3.1.2.12 for increased recording requirements.
75. If signal available in digital form.
86. Recording of latitude and longitude from INS or other navigation system is a preferred alternative.
97. If signals readily available.
B-33
8. It is not intended that aeroplanes issued with an individual certificate of airworthiness before
1 January 2016 be modified to meet the measurement range, maximum sampling and recording
interval, accuracy limits or recording resolution description detailed in this Appendix.
If further recording capacity is available, recording of the following additional information should be
considered:
a) operational information from electronic display systems, such as electronic flight instrument
systems (EFIS), electronic centralized aircraft monitor (ECAM) and engine indication and crew
alerting system (EICAS). Use the following order of priority:
1) parameters selected by the flight crew relating to the desired flight path, e.g. barometric
pressure setting, selected altitude, selected airspeed, decision height, and autoflight system
engagement and mode indications if not recorded from another source;
2) display system selection/status, e.g. SECTOR, PLAN, ROSE, NAV, WXR, COMPOSITE,
COPY, ETC.;
3) warnings and alerts;
4) the identity of displayed pages for emergency procedures and checklists; and
b) retardation information including brake application for use in the investigation of landing
overruns and rejected take-offs.
Table A8-2.
Item No.
Application type
Description of Applications for Data Link Recorders
Application description
Recording
content
1
Data link initiation
This includes any applications used to log on to or initiate
data link service. In FANS-1/A and ATN, these are ATS
facilities notification (AFN) and context management
(CM) respectively.
C
2
Controller/pilot
communication
This includes any application used to exchange requests,
clearances, instructions and reports between the flight
crew and controllers on the ground. In FANS-1/A and
ATN, this includes the CPDLC application. It also
includes applications used for the exchange of oceanic
(OCL) and departure clearances (DCL) as well as data link
delivery of taxi clearances.
C
3
Addressed surveillance
This includes any surveillance application in which the
ground sets up contracts for delivery of surveillance data.
In FANS-1/A and ATN, this includes the automatic
dependent surveillance — contract (ADS-C) application.
Where parametric data are reported within the message
they shall be recorded unless data from the same source
C
B-34
Item No.
Application type
Recording
content
Application description
are recorded on the FDR.
4
Flight information
This includes any service used for delivery of flight
information to specific aircraft. This includes, for
example, data link aviation weather report service
(D-METAR), data link-automatic terminal service
(D-ATIS), digital Notice to Airmen (D-NOTAM) and
other textual data link services.
C
5
Aircraft broadcast
surveillance
This includes elementary and enhanced surveillance
systems, as well as automatic dependent surveillance —
broadcast (ADS-B) output data. Where parametric data
sent by the aeroplane are reported within the message they
shall be recorded unless data from the same source are
recorded on the FDR.
M*
6
Aeronautical operational
control data
This includes any application transmitting or receiving
data used for aeronautical operational control purposes
(per the ICAO definition of operational control).
M*
Key:
C: Complete contents recorded.
M: Information that enables correlation to any associated records stored separately from the aeroplane.
*: Applications to be recorded only as far as is practicable given the architecture of the system.
Table A8-3.
No.
Parameter name
1
Heading (Magnetic or
True)
Parameter Guidance characteristics for Aircraft Data Recording Systems
Parameter
category
Minimum
recording range
Maximum
recording
interval in
seconds
R*
±180 degrees
1
±2 degrees
0.5 degree
* If not available,
record rates
±180º
1
±2º
0.5º
Heading is
preferred, if not
available, yaw rate
shall be recorded
±300º/s
0.25
±1% + drift
of 360°/h
2º/s
±90 degrees
0.25
±2 degrees
0.5 degree
±90º
0.25
±2º
0.5º
±300º/s
0.25
±1% + drift
of 360°/h
2º/s
e) Heading (Magnetic
or True)
f) Yaw rate
2
Pitch
Attitude
a) Pitch attitude
b) Pitch rate
E*
Minimum
recording
accuracy
Minimum
recording
resolution
Remarks
* If not available,
record rates
Pitch attitude is
preferred, if not
available, pitch rate
shall be recorded
B-35
No.
3
Parameter name
Roll attitude
Parameter
category
Minimum
recording range
Maximum
recording
interval in
seconds
E*
±180 degrees
0.25
±2 degrees
0.5 degree
* If not available,
record rates
±180º
0.25
±2º
0.5º
Roll attitude is
preferred, if not
available, roll rate
shall be recorded
±300º/s
0.25
±1% + drift
of 360°/h
2º/s
a) Roll attitude
b) Roll rate
Minimum
recording
accuracy
Minimum
recording
resolution
Remarks
4
Yaw rate
E*
±300 degrees/s
0.25
±1% + drift
of 360°/hr
2 degree/s
* Essential if no
heading available
5
Pitch rate
E*
±300 degrees/s
0.25
±1% + drift
of 360°/hr
2 degree/s
* Essential if no
pitch attitude
available
6
Roll rate
E*
±300 degrees/s
0.25
±1% + drift
of 360°/hr
2 degree/s
* Essential if no roll
attitude available
74
Positioning system:
latitude/longitude
a) Time
E
24 hours
1
±0.5 s
0.1 s
UTC time preferred
where available.
b) latitude/longitude
Latitude:±90º degrees
Longitude:±180º
degrees
2
(1 if available)
As installed
(0.00015º degree
recommended)
0.00005º
degree
c) altitude
–300 m (–1 000 ft) to
maximum certificated
altitude of aeroplane
+1 500 m (5 000 ft)
2
(1 if available)
As installed
(±15 m (±50 ft)
recommended)
1.5 m (5 ft)
0–1 000 kt
2 (1 if
available)
As installed
(±5 kt recommended)
1 kt
0–360º
2 (1 if
available)
As installed
(± 2º recommended)
0.5º
Available range
2
(1 if available)
As installed
As installed
Shall be recorded if
readily available
* If available
d) ground speed
e) track
f) estimated error
8
Positioning system
estimated error
E*
Available range
2
(1 if available)
As installed
As installed
9
Positioning system :
altitude
E
–300 m (–1 000 ft) to
maximum certificated
altitude of aeroplane
+1 500 m (5 000 ft)
2
(1 if available)
As installed
(±15 m (±50 ft)
recommended)
1.5 m (5 ft)
10
Positioning system :
time*
E
24 hours
1
±0.5 second
0.1 second
11
Positioning system :
ground speed
E
0–1 000 kt
2 (1 if
available)
As installed
(±5 kt recommended)
1 kt
12
Positioning system :
channel
E
0–360 degrees
2 (1 if
available)
As installed
(± 2 degrees
recommended)
0.5 degrees
135
Normal acceleration
E
–3 g to + 6 g (*)
0.25 (0.125 if
As installed (± 0.09 g
0.004 g
* UTC time
preferred where
available.
B-36
No.
Parameter name
Parameter
category
Minimum
recording range
Maximum
recording
interval in
seconds
Minimum
recording
accuracy
available)
excluding a datum error
of ±0.45 g
recommended)
Minimum
recording
resolution
146
Longitudinal
acceleration
E
±1 g (*)
0.25 (0.125 if
available)
As installed (±0.015 g
excluding a datum error
of ±0.05 g
recommended)
0.004 g
157
Lateral acceleration
E
±1 g (*)
0.25 (0.125 if
available)
As installed (±0.015 g
excluding a datum error
of ±0.05 g
recommended)
0.004 g
168
External static pressure
(or pressure altitude)
R
34.4 mb (3.44 in-Hg) to
310.2 mb (31.02 in-Hg)
or available sensor
range
1
As installed (±1 mb
(0.1 in-Hg) or
±30 m (±100 ft) to
±210 m (±700 ft)
recommended)
0.1 mb
(0.01 in-Hg)
or 1.5 m (5 ft)
179
Outside air
temperature (or total
air temperature)
R
–50° to +90°C or
available sensor range
2
As installed
(±2°C recommended)
1°C
1810
Indicated air speed
R
As the installed pilot
display measuring
system or available
sensor range
1
As installed
(±3 % recommended)
1 kt (0.5 kt
recommended)
1911
Engine RPM
R
Full range including
overspeed condition
Each engine
each second
As installed
0.2% of full
range
2012
Engine oil pressure
R
Full range
Each engine
each second
As installed
(5% of full range
recommended)
2% of full
range
2113
Engine oil temperature
R
Full range
Each engine
each second
As installed
(5% of full range
recommended)
2% of full
range
2214
Fuel flow or pressure
R
Full range
Each engine
each second
As installed
2% of full
range
2315
Manifold pressure
R
Full range
Each engine
each second
As installed
0.2% of full
range
2416
Engine
thrust/power/torque
parameters required to
determine propulsive
thrust/power*
R
Full range
Each engine
each second
As installed
0.1% of full
range
2517
Engine gas generator
speed (Ng)
R
0-150%
Each engine
each second
As installed
0.2% of
full range
Remarks
* Sufficient
parameters e.g.
EPR/N1 or
torque/Np as
appropriate to the
particular engine
shall be recorded to
determine power in
both normal and
reverse thrust. A
margin for possible
overspeed should be
provided.
B-37
Parameter
category
Minimum
recording range
Maximum
recording
interval in
seconds
Minimum
recording
accuracy
Minimum
recording
resolution
No.
Parameter name
2618
Free power turbine
speed (Nf)
R
0-150%
Each engine
each second
As installed
0.2% of
full range
2719
Coolant temperature
R
Full range
1
As installed
(±5°C recommended)
1º degree
Celsius
2820
Main voltage
R
Full range
Each engine
each second
As installed
1 Volt
2921
Cylinder head
temperature
R
Full range
Each cylinder
each second
As installed
2% of
full range
3022
Flaps position
R
Full range or each
discrete position
2
As installed
0.5º degree
3123
Primary flight control
surface position
R
Full range
0.25
As installed
0.2 % of
full range
3224
Fuel quantity
R
Full range
4
As installed
1% of
full range
3325
Exhaust gas
temperature
R
Full range
Each engine
each second
As installed
2% of
full range
3426
Emergency voltage
R
Full range
Each engine
each second
As installed
1 Volt
3527
Trim surface position
R
Full range or each
discrete position
1
As installed
0.3% of full
range
3628
Landing gear position
R
Each discrete position*
Each gear
every two
seconds
As installed
3729
Novel/unique aircraft
features
R
As required
As required
As required
Key:
E:
R:
Remarks
* Where available,
record up-andlocked and downand-locked position
As required
Essential parameters
Recommended parameters
Origin:
Rationale:
FLIRECSWG/9
It is proposed to:
a)
b)
c)
d)
replace the word “guidance” in the headings of Tables A8-1 and A8-3 with
“characteristics” which is more descriptive of the parameters listed.
Furthermore, the parameter list in Table A8-1 is for all types of flight recorders
and not only for crash-protected FDRs, thus the reference to “crash-protected”
should be deleted;
add a column in Table A8-1 for the applicability of parameters with imbedded
applicability dates;
delete the three Notes in Table A8-1 that refer to types of FDRs;
delete Notes 3 and 6 below Table A8-1 as 6.3.1.2.11 and 6.3.1.2.12 would also
be deleted due to the incorporation of these requirements into Table A8-1. Insert
in Note 5 the text from 2.2.2.5 to address independent pilot inputs on primary
B-38
e)
f)
controls;
remove the parameter category column in Table A8-3 as this categorization
became redundant when reference is made to the number of parameters to be
recorded; and
combine the characteristics of several parameters in Table A8-3, for example
heading, pitch, roll and positioning system. This is to simplify the reference to
these parameters and also to align with EUROCAE ED-155 specifications.
Editorial Note.— Insert new Attachment xx.
ATTACHMENT X. GUIDE TO CURRENT FLIGHT RECORDER PROVISIONS
(Supplementary to Chapter 6, 6.3)
INTRODUCTION
Since 1973, and the inclusion in Annex 6 of SARPs for the carriage of flight recorders, the FLIRECP
introduced new and revised requirements concerning flight recorders. These amendments include an
update of the provisions pertaining to flight recorders, recording of digital communications, FDR
requirements for new aircraft, revised parameter listings; two-hour duration CVRs. Through the years, the
applicability date and the carriage of recorder to be installed as defined by the SARPs were complex.
The tables below summarize the current flight recorders carriage requirements.
Table AX-1. FDR/AIR/ADRS/AIRS installation SARPs
Date
1987

MCTOM
1989

1990

2005

Some parameters are
sampled at an increased
frequency
All aeroplanes
new type
certificate
All aeroplanes
new certificate
of airworthiness
All turbine
aeroplanes
new certificate
of airworthiness
Over
27 000 kg
6.3.1.1.3
32 parameters
6.3.1.1.9
5 parameters
6.3.1.1.10
Recommendation
Prototype
certificated after
1969
Record
5 parameters
+ attitude & forces
6.3.1.1.10
78 parameters
6.3.1.1.8
16 parameters
Prototype certificated after
1969
Some parameters are
sampled at an increased
frequency
All aeroplanes
new type
certificate
Over
5 700 kg
All aeroplanes
new certificate
2016

6.3.1.1.4
16 parameters
6.3.1.1.10
78 parameters
B-39
of airworthiness
5700 kg
and below
All turbine
aeroplanes
new certificate
of airworthiness
All turbine
aeroplanes
new type
certificate
6.3.1.1.9
5 parameters
6.3.1.1.6
5 parameters
6.3.1.1.7Recommendation
Record 9 parameters
6.3.1.1.1
16 parameters FDR
or Class C AIR or AIRS
or ADRS
All turbine
aeroplanes
new certificate
of airworthiness
Multi-turbine
aeroplanes
new certificate
of airworthiness
6.3.1.1.2 Recommendation
16 parameters FDR
or Class C AIR or AIRS
or ADRS
6.3.1.1.5
Recommendation
16 parameters FDR
Table AX-2.
CVR/CARS installation SARPs
Date
1987

MCTOM
2003

6.3.2.1.4
CVR
30-minute
2016

6.3.2.3.1
CVR
2-hour
6.3.2.1.4
CVR
2-hour
6.3.2.1.3
CVR
30-minute
6.3.2.1.3
CVR
2-hour
All aeroplanes
All aeroplanes
new certificate of airworthiness
All Turbine aeroplanes
new certificate of airworthiness
Over 27 000 kg
6.3.2.1.4
Proto after 1969
CVR
30-minute
All aeroplanes
new certificate of airworthiness
All turbine aeroplanes
new certificate of airworthiness
Over 5 700 kg
Over 2 250 kg
2021

6.3.2.3.2
CVR
25-hour
6.3.2.1.4
CVR
25-hour
6.3.2.1.5 Recommendation
Proto after 1969
CVR
30-minute
All turbine aeroplanes
more than 1 pilot
new type certificate
All turbine aeroplanes
more than 1 pilot
new certificate of airworthiness
6.3.2.1.1
CVR or CARS
6.3.2.1.2 Recommendation
CVR or CARS
Origin:
Rationale:
FLIRECSWG/9
It is proposed to include summary tables for current flight recorder provisions to
serve as a guide as to which SARPs is applicable to a specific aircraft.
————————
ATTACHMENT C to State letter SP 55/4-17/1
PROPOSED AMENDMENT TO ANNEX 6, PART II
NOTES ON THE PRESENTATION OF THE PROPOSED AMENDMENT
The text of the amendment is arranged to show deleted text with a line through it and new text highlighted
with grey shading, as shown below:
1. Text to be deleted is shown with a line through it.
text to be deleted
2. New text to be inserted is highlighted with grey shading.
new text to be inserted
3. Text to be deleted is shown with a line through it followed by new text to replace existing text
the replacement text which is highlighted with grey shading.
C-2
PROPOSED AMENDMENT TO
INTERNATIONAL STANDARDS
AND RECOMMENDED PRACTICES
OPERATION OF AIRCRAFT
ANNEX 6
TO THE CONVENTION ON INTERNATIONAL CIVIL AVIATION
PART II
INTERNATIONAL GENERAL AVIATION — AEROPLANES
INITIAL PROPOSAL 1
(Airborne image recordings)
SECTION 2. GENERAL AVIATION OPERATIONS
APPENDIX 2.3. FLIGHT RECORDERS
(Section 2, Chapter 2.4, 2.4.16 refers)
...
1. General requirements
...
1.2 The flight recorder systems shall be installed so that:
...
d)
until 31 December 2022, if the flight recorder systems have a bulk erasure device, the installation shall
be designed to prevent operation of the device during flight time or crash impact.; and
e)
on or after 1 January 2023, a flight crew-operated bulk erase function shall be provided on the
flight deck which, when activated, modifies the recording of a CVR and AIR so that it cannot
be retrieved using normal replay or copying techniques. The installation shall be designed to
prevent activation during flight. In addition, the probability of an inadvertent activation of a
bulk erase function during an accident shall also be minimized.
Note.— The bulk erase function is intended to prevent access to CVR and AIR recordings by normal
replay or copying means, but would not prevent accident investigation authorities access to such
recordings by specialized replay or copying techniques.
...
Origin:
FLIRECSWG/9
Rationale:
Same provisions for bulk erase function as proposed for Annex 6, Part I, page
B-4 refers.
C-3
INITIAL PROPOSAL 2
(Flight data recorder parameter lists)
SECTION 3.
LARGE AND TURBOJET AEROPLANES
...
3.6.3 Flight recorders
...
3.6.3.1.1.4 All aeroplanes of a maximum certificated take-off mass of over 5 700 kg for which the
individual certificate of airworthiness is first issued after 1 January 2023 shall be equipped with an FDR
capable of recording at least the 82 parameters listed in Table A2.3-1 of Appendix 2.3.
...
SECTION 2.
GENERAL AVIATION OPERATIONS
…
APPENDIX 2.3. FLIGHT RECORDERS
(Section 2, Chapter 2.4, 2.4.16 refers)
…
Table A2.3-1. Parameter guidance for flight data recorders
…
Serial
number
Maximum
sampling and
recording
interval
(seconds)
Accuracy limits
(sensor input
compared
to FDR read-out)
Parameter
Measurement range
Recording resolution
35*
Additional engine parameters
(EPR, N1, indicated vibration
level, N2, EGT, fuel flow, fuel
cut-off lever position, N3, engine
fuel metering valve position)
As installed
79*
Cabin pressure altitude
As installed (0 ft to
40 000 ft
recommended)
1
As installed
100 ft
80*
Aeroplane computed weight
As installed
64
As installed
1 % of full range
81*
Flight director command (left
flight director pitch command,
left flight director roll command,
right flight director pitch
command, right flight director
roll command)
Full range
1
± 2º
0.5º
...
Each engine
each second
As installed
2% of full range
...
C-4
Serial
number
82*
Parameter
Measurement range
Vertical speed
As installed
Maximum
sampling and
recording
interval
(seconds)
0.25
Accuracy limits
(sensor input
compared
to FDR read-out)
As installed (32
ft/min recommended)
Recording resolution
16 ft/min
…
Origin:
FLIRECSWG/9
Rationale:
Same as for Annex 6, Part I, page B-5 refers
INITIAL PROPOSAL 3
(Simplification of flight recorder SARPs)
...
2.4.16 Flight recorders
Note 1.— Crash- protected flight recorders comprise one or more of the following systems: a flight
data recorder (FDR);, a cockpit voice recorder (CVR);, an airborne image recorder (AIR); and/or a data
link recorder (DLR). Image and data link information may be recorded on either the CVR or the FDR.
Note 2.— Lightweight flight recorders comprise one or more of the following systems: an aircraft
data recording system (ADRS);, a cockpit audio recording system (CARS);, an airborne image recording
system (AIRS); and/or a data link recording system (DLRS). Image and data link information may be
recorded on either the CARS or the ADRS.
Note 3.— Detailed guidance requirements on flight recorders is are contained in Appendix 2.3.
Note 4.— For aeroplanes for which the application for type certification is submitted to a
Contracting State before 1 January 2016, specifications applicable to crash-protected flight recorders
may be found in EUROCAE ED-112, ED-56A, ED-55, Minimum Operational Performance Specifications
(MOPS), or earlier equivalent documents.
Note 5.— For aeroplanes for which the application for type certification is submitted to a
Contracting State on or after 1 January 2016, specifications applicable to crash-protected flight
recorders may be found in EUROCAE ED-112A, Minimum Operational Performance Specification
(MOPS), or equivalent documents.
Note 6.— Specifications applicable to lightweight flight recorders may be found in EUROCAE
ED-155, Minimum Operational Performance Specification (MOPS), or equivalent documents.
Origin:
Rationale:
FLIRECSWG/9
Same as for Annex 6, Part I, page B-7 refers
C-5
2.4.16.1 Flight data recorders and aircraft data recording systems
Note.— Parameters to be recorded are listed in Tables A2.3-1 and A2.3-3 of Appendix 2.3.
2.4.16.1.1 Types
2.4.16.1.1.1 Types I and IA FDRs shall record the parameters required to determine accurately
the aeroplane flight path, speed, attitude, engine power, configuration and operation.
2.4.16.1.1.2 Type II FDRs shall record the parameters required to determine accurately the
aeroplane flight path, speed, attitude, engine power and configuration of lift and drag devices.
2.4.16.1.21 Operation Applicability
2.4.16.1.21.1 Recommendation.— All turbine-engined aeroplanes with a seating configuration of
more than five passenger seats and a maximum certificated take-off mass of 5 700 kg or less for which
the individual certificate of airworthiness is first issued on or after 1 January 2016 should be equipped
with:
a) an Type II FDR which shall record at least the first 16 parameters in Table A2.3-1 of
Appendix 2.3; or
b) a Class C AIR or AIRS capable of recording which shall record at least the flight path and speed
parameters displayed to the pilot(s), as defined in 2.2.2 of Appendix 2.3; or
c) an ADRS which shall record at least capable of recording the essential first 7 parameters defined
listed in Table A2.3-3 of Appendix 2.3.
Note.— AIR or AIRS classification is defined in 4.1 of Appendix 2.3.
2.4.16.1.2.2 All aeroplanes for which the application for type certification is submitted to a
Contracting State on or after 1 January 2016, and which are required to be fitted with an FDR, shall
record the following parameters at a maximum recording interval of 0.125 seconds:
— Pilot input and/or control surface position – primary controls (pitch, roll, yaw).
Note 1.— For aeroplanes with control systems in which movement of a control surface will back
drive the pilot’s control, “or” applies. For aeroplanes with control systems in which movement of a
control surface will not back drive the pilot’s control, “and” applies. In aeroplanes with independent
moveable surfaces, each surface needs to be recorded separately. In aeroplanes with independent pilot
input on primary controls, each pilot input on primary controls needs to be recorded separately.
Note 2.— “The application for type certification that is submitted to a Contracting State” refers to
the date of application of the original “Type Certificate” for the aeroplane type, not the date of
certification of particular aeroplane variants or derivative models.
C-6
2.4.16.1.32
Discontinuation Recording technology
2.4.16.1.3.1 FDRs shall not use engraving metal foil, frequency modulation (FM), photographic
film or magnetic tape. The use of engraving metal foil FDRs shall be discontinued.
2 .4.16.1.3.2 The use of analogue FDRs using frequency modulation (FM) shall be discontinued.
2.4.16.1.3.3 The use of photographic film FDRs shall be discontinued.
2.4.16.1.3.4 Recommendation.— The use of magnetic tape FDRs should be discontinued.
2.4.16.1.3.5 The use of magnetic tape FDRs shall be discontinued by 1 January 2016.
2.4.16.1.43 Duration
All FDRs shall be capable of retaining the information recorded during at least the last 25 hours of their
operation.
Origin:
Rationale:
FLIRECSWG/9
Same as for Annex 6, Part I, page B-10 refers, except for 6.3.1.2.12 which relates to
higher sampling rates of normal, lateral and longitudinal acceleration parameters and
the provision for 30-minute duration FDRs in specific cases.
2.4.16.2 Cockpit voice recorders and cockpit audio recording systems
2.4.16.2.1 Operation Applicability
Recommendation.— All turbine-engined aeroplanes with a seating configuration of more than five
passenger seats and a maximum certificated take-off mass of 5 700 kg or less for which the individual
certificate of airworthiness is first issued on or after 1 January 2016 and required to be operated by more
than one pilot should be equipped with either a CVR or a CARS.
2.4.16.2.2
Discontinuation Recording technology
2.4.16.2.2.1 CVRs shall not use magnetic tape or wire The use of magnetic tape and wire CVRs shall
be discontinued by 1 January 2016.
2.4.16.2.2.2 Recommendation.— The use of magnetic tape and wire CVRs should be discontinued.
2.4.16.2.3 Duration
2.4.16.2.3.1 All CVRs shall be capable of retaining the information recorded during at least the last
30 minutes of their operation.
C-7
2.4.16.2.3.2 From 1 January 2016, aAll CVRs shall be capable of retaining the information
recorded during at least the last two2 hours of their operation.
2.4.16.2.3.3 Recommendation.— All aeroplanes for which the individual certificate of
airworthiness is first issued on or after 1 January 1990, and that are required to be equipped with a
CVR, should have a CVR capable of retaining the information recorded during at least the last two
hours of their operation.
Origin:
Rationale:
FLIRECSWG/9
Same as for Annex 6, Part I, page B-12 refers, except for:
a) the proposed deletion of 6.3.2.1.3 which does not exist in Part II;
b) twenty-five hour recording duration CVRs which is addressed in Section 3, 3.6.3.2.2 of
Part II; and
c) cockpit voice recorder alternate power source which is not addressed in Part II.
2.4.16.3 Data link recorders
2.4.16.3.1 Applicability
2.4.16.3.1.1 All aeroplanes for which the individual certificate of airworthiness is first issued on
or after 1 January 2016, which utilize any of the data link communications applications listed in 5.1.2
of Appendix 2.3 and are required to carry a cockpit voice recorder (CVR), shall record on a crashprotected flight recorder all data link communications messages.
2.4.16.3.1.2 All aeroplanes which are modified on or after 1 January 2016 to install and utilize
any of the data link communications applications listed in 5.1.2 of Appendix 2.3 and are required to
carry a CVR shall record on a crash-protected flight recorder the data link communications messages.
Note 1.— Data link communications are currently conducted by either ATN-based or FANS 1/Aequipped aircraft.
Note 2.— A Class B AIR could be a means for recording data link communications applications
messages to and from the aeroplanes where it is not practical or is prohibitively expensive to record
those data link communications applications messages on FDR or CVR.
2.4.16.3.2 Duration
The minimum recording duration shall be equal to the duration of the CVR.
2.4.16.3.3 Correlation
Data link recording shall be able to be correlated to the recorded cockpit audio.
C-8
Origin:
FLIRECSWG/9
Rationale:
Same as for Annex 6, Part I, page B-13 refers.
2.4.16.4 Flight recorders — general
2.4.16.4.1
Construction and installation
Flight recorders shall be constructed, located and installed so as to provide maximum practical
protection for the recordings in order that the recorded information may be preserved, recovered and
transcribed. Flight recorders shall meet the prescribed crashworthiness and fire protection specifications.
2.4.16.4.2 Operation
2.4.16.4.2.1
Flight recorders shall not be switched off during flight time.
2.4.16.4.2.2 To preserve flight recorder records, flight recorders shall be deactivated upon
completion of flight time following an accident or incident. The flight recorders shall not be reactivated
before their disposition as determined in accordance with Annex 13.
Note 1.— The need for removal of the flight recorder records from the aircraft will be determined by
the investigation authority in the State conducting the investigation with due regard to the seriousness of
an occurrence and the circumstances, including the impact on the operation.
Note 2.— The pilot-in-command’s responsibilities regarding the retention of flight recorder
records are contained in 2.4.16.4.3.
2.4.16.4.3
Flight recorder records
The pilot-in-command, and/or the owner/operator, shall ensure, to the extent possible, in the event the
aeroplane becomes involved in an accident or incident, the preservation of all related flight recorder
records, and if necessary the associated flight recorders, and their retention in safe custody pending their
disposition as determined in accordance with Annex 13.
2.4.16.4.4 Continued serviceability
Operational checks and evaluations of recordings from the flight recorder systems shall be conducted to
ensure the continued serviceability of the recorders.
N o t e .— Procedures for the inspections of the flight recorder systems are given in Appendix 2.3.
2.4.16.4.5
Flight recorder electronic documentation
Recommendation.— The documentation requirement concerning FDR and ADRS parameters
C-9
provided by operators to accident investigation authorities should be in electronic format and take
account of industry specifications.
Note.— Industry specifications for documentation concerning flight recorder parameters may be
found in ARINC 647A, Flight Recorder Electronic Documentation, or equivalent document.
Origin:
FLIRECSWG/9
Rationale:
Same as for Annex 6, Part I, page B-15 refers, except for the provisions for
combination recorders which are addressed in Section 3, 3.6.3.3 of Part II.
APPENDIX 2.3 FLIGHT RECORDERS
(Section 2, Chapter 2.4, 2.4.16, refers)
The material in this Appendix concerns flight recorders intended for installation in aeroplanes engaged in
international air navigation. Crash-protected flight recorders comprise one or more of the following
systems: a flight data recorder (FDR);, a cockpit voice recorder (CVR);, an airborne image recorder
(AIR);, and/or a data link recorder (DLR). Lightweight flight recorders comprise one or more of the
following systems: an aircraft data recording system (ADRS);, a cockpit audio recording system
(CARS);, an airborne image recording system (AIRS);, and/or a data link recording system (DLRS).
1. GENERAL REQUIREMENTS
1.1 Non-deployable flight recorder containers shall be painted a distinctive orange colour.:
a) be painted a distinctive orange or yellow colour
1.2 Non-deployable crash-protected flight recorder containers shall:;
ab) carry reflective material to facilitate their location; and
bc) have securely attached an automatically activated underwater locating device operating at a
frequency of 37.5 kilohertz (kHz). At the earliest practical date, but not later than
1 January 2018, this device shall operate for a minimum of 90 days.
Note.— Current industry practice is to phase out yellow flight recorder containers at the end of
the service life of the flight recorders.
1.3 Automatic deployable flight recorder containers shall:
a) be painted a distinctive orange colour, however the surface visible from outside the aircraft may
be of another colour;
b) carry reflective material to facilitate their location; and
c) have an integrated automatically activated ELT.
1.42 The flight recorder systems shall be installed so that:
C-10
a)
the probability of damage to the recordings is minimized;
b) they receive electrical power from a bus that provides the maximum reliability for operation of the flight
recorder systems without jeopardizing service to essential or emergency loads;
cb) there is an aural or visual means for pre-flight checking that the flight recorder systems are operating
properly; and
dc) if the flight recorder systems have a bulk erasure device, the installation shall be designed to prevent
operation of the device during flight time or crash impact.
1.5 The flight recorder systems shall be installed so that they receive electrical power from a bus
that provides the maximum reliability for operation of the flight recorder systems without jeopardizing
service to essential or emergency loads.
1.63
The flight recorder systems, when tested by methods approved by the appropriate
certificating authority, shall be demonstrated to be suitable for the environmental extremes over which
they are designed to operate.
1.74
Means shall be provided for an accurate time correlation between the recorder systems
recordings.
1.85
The manufacturer shall provide the appropriate certificating authority with the following
information in respect of the flight recorder systems:
a ) manufacturer’s operating instructions, equipment limitations and installation procedures; and
b ) parameter origin or source and equations which relate counts to units of measurement; and
bc) manufacturer’s test reports.
Origin:
Rationale:
FLIRECSWG/9
Same as for Annex 6, Part I, page B-16 refers, except for:
a) the provisions for automatic deployable flight recorder containers which are
not addressed in Part II; and
b) the information from the flight recorder manufacturer relating to parameter
origin or source and equations which needs to be inserted as 1.5 b) to align
these provisions with those in Part I.
2. FLIGHT DATA RECORDER (FDR) AND AIRCRAFT DATA RECORDING SYSTEM
(ADRS)
2.1 Start and stop logic
2.1 The flight data recorder FDR or ADRS shall start to record prior to the aeroplane moving under
its own power and record continuously until the termination of the flight when the aeroplane is no longer
C-11
capable of moving under its own power.
2.2 Parameters to be recorded
Note.— In previous editions of Annex 6, Part II, types of recorders were defined to capture the first
evolutions of FDRs.
2.2.1 Flight data recorders shall be classified as Type I, Type IA and Type II depending upon the
number of parameters to be recorded.
2.2.12 The parameters that satisfy the requirements for FDRs are listed in theTable A2.3-1
paragraphs below. The number of parameters to be recorded shall depend on aeroplane complexity. The
parameters without an asterisk (*) are mandatory parameters which shall be recorded regardless of
aeroplane complexity. In addition, the parameters designated by an asterisk (*) shall be recorded if an
information data source for the parameter is used by aeroplane systems or the flight crew to operate the
aeroplane. However, other parameters may be substituted with due regard to the aeroplane type and the
characteristics of the recording equipment.
Editorial Note.— Move un-numbered paragraph from below Table A2.3-1
and insert as 2.2.2
2.2.2 If further FDR recording capacity is available, recording of the following additional
information should be considered:
a) operational information from electronic display systems, such as electronic flight instrument
systems (EFIS), electronic centralized aircraft monitor (ECAM) and engine indication and crew
alerting system (EICAS). Use the following order of priority:
1)
parameters selected by the flight crew relating to the desired flight path, e.g. barometric
pressure setting, selected altitude, selected airspeed, decision height, and autoflight system
engagement and mode indications if not recorded from another source;
2)
display system selection/status, e.g. SECTOR, PLAN, ROSE, NAV, WXR, COMPOSITE,
COPY, ETC.;
3)
warnings and alerts; and
4)
the identity of displayed pages for emergency procedures and checklists; and
b) retardation information including brake application for use in the investigation of landing overruns and
rejected take-offs.
2.2.2.1 The following parameters shall satisfy the requirements for flight path and speed:
—
—
—
—
—
Pressure altitude
Indicated airspeed or calibrated airspeed
Air-ground status and each landing gear air-ground sensor when practicable
Total or outside air temperature
Heading (primary flight crew reference)
C-12
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
Normal acceleration
Lateral acceleration
Longitudinal acceleration (body axis)
Time or relative time count
Navigation data*: drift angle, wind speed, wind direction, latitude/longitude
Groundspeed*
Radio altitude*
2.2.2.2 The following parameters shall satisfy the requirements for attitude:
—
—
—
—
Pitch attitude
Roll attitude
Yaw or sideslip angle*
Angle of attack*
2.2.2.3 The following parameters shall satisfy the requirements for engine power:
—
—
—
—
—
—
Engine thrust/power: propulsive thrust/power on each engine, cockpit thrust/power lever position
Thrust reverse status*
Engine thrust command*
Engine thrust target*
Engine bleed valve position*
Additional engine parameters*: EPR, N1, indicated vibration level, N2, EGT, TLA, fuel flow, fuel
cut-off lever position, N3
2.2.2.4 The following parameters shall satisfy the requirements for configuration:
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
Pitch trim surface position
Flaps*: trailing edge flap position, cockpit control selection
Slats*: leading edge flap (slat) position, cockpit control selection
Landing gear*: landing gear, gear selector position
Yaw trim surface position*
Roll trim surface position*
Cockpit trim control input position pitch*
Cockpit trim control input position roll*
Cockpit trim control input position yaw*
Ground spoiler and speed brake*: Ground spoiler position, ground spoiler selection, speed brake
position, speed brake selection
De-icing and/or anti-icing systems selection*
Hydraulic pressure (each system)*
Fuel quantity in CG trim tank*
AC electrical bus status*
DC electrical bus status*
APU bleed valve position*
Computed centre of gravity*
2.2.2.5 The following parameters shall satisfy the requirements for operation:
— Warnings
— Primary flight control surface and primary flight control pilot input: pitch axis, roll axis, yaw axis
C-13
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
Marker beacon passage
Each navigation receiver frequency selection
Manual radio transmission keying and CVR/FDR synchronization reference
Autopilot/autothrottle/AFCS mode and engagement status*
Selected barometric setting*: pilot, first officer
Selected altitude (all pilot selectable modes of operation)*
Selected speed (all pilot selectable modes of operation)*
Selected Mach (all pilot selectable modes of operation)*
Selected vertical speed (all pilot selectable modes of operation)*
Selected heading (all pilot selectable modes of operation)*
Selected flight path (all pilot selectable modes of operation)*: course/DSTRK, path angle
Selected decision height*
EFIS display format*: pilot, first officer
Multi-function/engine/alerts display format*
GPWS/TAWS/GCAS status*: selection of terrain display mode including pop-up display status,
terrain alerts, both cautions and warnings, and advisories, on/off switch position
Low pressure warning*: hydraulic pressure, pneumatic pressure
Computer failure*
Loss of cabin pressure*
TCAS/ACAS (traffic alert and collision avoidance system/airborne collision avoidance system)*
Ice detection*
Engine warning each engine vibration*
Engine warning each engine over temperature*
Engine warning each engine oil pressure low*
Engine warning each engine over speed*
Wind shear warning*
Operational stall protection, stick shaker and pusher activation*
All cockpit flight control input forces*: control wheel, control column, rudder pedal cockpit input
forces
Vertical deviation*: ILS glide path, MLS elevation, GNSS approach path
Horizontal deviation*: ILS localizer, MLS azimuth, GNSS approach path
DME 1 and 2 distances*
Primary navigation system reference*: GNSS, INS, VOR/DME, MLS, Loran C, ILS
Brakes*: left and right brake pressure, left and right brake pedal position
Date*
Event marker*
Head-up display in use*
Para visual display on*
Note.— It is not intended that aeroplanes issued with an individual certificate of airworthiness before
1 January 2016 be modified to meet the range, sampling, accuracy or resolution guidance detailed in this
Appendix.
2.2.2.6 Type IA FDR. This FDR shall be capable of recording, as appropriate to the aeroplane,
at least the 78 parameters in Table A2.3-1.
2.2.2.7 Type I FDR. This FDR shall be capable of recording, as appropriate to the aeroplane,
at least the first 32 parameters in Table A2.3-1.
2.2.2.8
Type II FDR. This FDR shall be capable of recording, as appropriate to the
C-14
aeroplane, at least the first 15 parameters in Table A2.3-1.
2.2.2.9.3 The parameters that satisfy the recommendations for flight path and speed as displayed to
the pilot(s) are listed below. The parameters without an (*) are mandatory parameters which shall be
recorded. In addition, the parameters designated by an (*) are to be recorded if an information source for
the parameter is displayed to the pilot and is practicable to record:
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
Pressure altitude
Indicated airspeed or calibrated airspeed
Heading (primary flight crew reference)
Pitch attitude
Roll attitude
Engine thrust/power
Landing gear status*
Total or outside air temperature*
Time*
Navigation data*: Drift angle, wind speed, wind direction, latitude/longitude
Radio altitude*
2.2.34 The parameters that satisfy the requirements for ADRS are listed in Table A2.3-3.
2.3
Additional information
2.3.1 A Type IIA FDR, in addition to a 30-minute recording duration, shall retain sufficient
information from the preceding take-off for calibration purposes.
2.3.12 The measurement range, recording interval and accuracy of parameters on installed
equipment shall be verified by methods approved by the appropriate certificating authority.
2.3.23 Documentation concerning parameter allocation, conversion equations, periodic calibration
and other serviceability/maintenance information shall be maintained by the operator/owner. The
documentation shall be sufficient to ensure that accident investigation authorities have the necessary
information to read out the data in engineering units.
Origin:
Rationale:
FLIRECSWG/9
Same as for Annex 6, Part I, page B-20 refers.
3. COCKPIT VOICE RECORDER (CVR) AND COCKPIT AUDIO RECORDING SYSTEM
(CARS)
3.1
Signals to be recorded Start and stop logic
The CVR orand CARS shall start to record prior to the aeroplane moving under its own power and
record continuously until the termination of the flight when the aeroplane is no longer capable of moving
under its own power. In addition, depending on the availability of electrical power, the CVR orand CARS
C-15
shall start to record as early as possible during the cockpit checks prior to engine start at the beginning of
the flight until the cockpit checks immediately following engine shutdown at the end of the flight.
3.2 Signals to be recorded
3.21.1 The CVR shall record simultaneously on four separate channels, or more, at least the
following:
a)
voice communication transmitted from or received in the aeroplane by radio;
b) aural environment on the flight deck;
c) voice communication of flight crew members on the flight deck using the aeroplane’s interphone
system, if installed;
d) voice or audio signals identifying navigation or approach aids introduced in the headset or
speaker; and
e) digital communications with ATS, unless recorded by the FDR.
3.2.2 The preferred CVR audio allocation should be as follows:
a) pilot-in-command audio panel;
b) co-pilot audio panel;
c) additional flight crew positions and time reference; and
d) cockpit area microphone.
3.21.23 The CARS shall record simultaneously on two separate channels, or more, at least the
following:
a) voice communication transmitted from or received in the aeroplane by radio;
b) aural environment on the flight deck; and
c) voice communication of flight crew members on the flight deck using the aeroplane’s interphone
system, if installed.
3.2.4
The preferred CARS audio allocation should be as follows:
a) voice communication; and
b) aural environment on the flight deck.
3.1.3 The recorder shall be capable of recording on at least four channels simultaneously except
for the recorder in 3.6.3.2.1.3. On a tape-based CVR, to ensure accurate time correlation between
channels, the recorder shall record in an in-line format. If a bi-directional configuration is used, the
C-16
in-line format and channel allocation shall be retained in both directions.
3.1.4
The preferred channel allocation shall be as follows:
Channel 1 — co-pilot headphones and live boom microphone
Channel 2 — pilot headphones and live boom microphone
Channel 3 — area microphone
Channel 4 — time reference plus the third and fourth crew members’ headphone and live
microphone, if applicable.
Note 1.— Channel 1 is located closest to the base of the recording head.
Note 2.— The preferred channel allocation presumes use of current conventional magnetic tape
transport mechanisms and is specified because the outer edges of the tape have a higher risk of damage
than the middle. It is not intended to preclude use of alternative recording media where such constraints
may not apply.
Origin:
Rationale:
FLIRECSWG/9
Same as for Annex 6, Part I, page B-22 refers, except for the reference to CVR and
CARS in 3.1 which should be CVR “or” CARS. Only a CVR or a CARS would be
fitted, not both.
4. AIRBORNE IMAGE RECORDER (AIR) AND
AIRBORNE IMAGE RECORDING SYSTEM (AIRS)
4.1
Start and stop logic
Editorial Note.— Move paragraph 4.1.4 to 4.1.
The AIR or AIRS shall start to record prior to the aeroplane moving under its own power and record
continuously until the termination of the flight when the aeroplane is no longer capable of moving under
its own power. In addition, depending on the availability of electrical power, the AIR or AIRS must shall
start to record as early as possible during the cockpit checks prior to engine start at the beginning of the
flight until the cockpit checks immediately following engine shutdown at the end of the flight.
4.21 Classes
4.21.1 A Class A AIR or AIRS captures the general cockpit area in order to provide data
supplemental to conventional flight recorders.
Note 1.— To respect crew privacy, the cockpit area view may be designed as far as practical to
exclude the head and shoulders of crew members whilst seated in their normal operating position.
C-17
Note 2.— There are no provisions for Class A AIR or AIRS in this document.
4.21.2
A Class B AIR or AIRS captures data link message displays.
4.21.3
A Class C AIR or AIRS captures instruments and control panels.
Note.— A Class C AIR or AIRS may be considered as a means for recording flight data where it is
not practical or is prohibitively expensive to record on an FDR or an ADRS, or where an FDR is not
required.
4.1.4 The AIR or AIRS must start to record prior to the aeroplane moving under its own power and
record continuously until the termination of the flight when the aeroplane is no longer capable of moving
under its own power. In addition, depending on the availability of electrical power, the AIR or AIRS
must start to record as early as possible during the cockpit checks prior to engine start at the beginning of
the flight until the cockpit checks immediately following engine shutdown at the end of the flight.
Origin:
Rationale:
FLIRECSWG/9
Same as for Annex 6, Part I, page B-24 refers.
5.
DATA LINK RECORDER (DLR)
5.1
Applications to be recorded
5.1.1 Where the aircraft flight path is authorized or controlled through the use of data link
messages, all data link messages, both uplinks (to the aircraft) and downlinks (from the aircraft), shall be
recorded on the aircraft. As far as practicable, the time the messages were displayed to the flight crew and
the time of the responses shall be recorded.
Note.— Sufficient information to derive the content of the data link communications message and the
time the messages were displayed to the flight crew is needed to determine an accurate sequence of events
on board the aircraft.
5.1.2 Messages applying to the applications listed below in Table A2.3-2 shall be recorded.
Applications without the asterisk (*) are mandatory applications which shall be recorded regardless of
the system complexity. Applications with an (*) shall be recorded only as far as is practicable given the
architecture of the system.
—
—
—
—
—
—
Data link initiation capability
Controller-pilot data link communications
Data link flight information services
Automatic dependent surveillance — contract
Automatic dependent surveillance — broadcast*
Aeronautical operational control*
Note.— Descriptions of the applications are contained in Table A2.3-2.
C-18
6.
AIRCRAFT DATA RECORDING SYSTEMS (ADRS)
6.1 Parameters to be recorded
ADRS shall be capable of recording, as appropriate to the aeroplane, at least the essential (E) parameters
in Table A2.3-3.
6.2
Additional information
6.2.1 The measurement range, recording interval and accuracy of parameters on installed equipment
is usually verified by methods approved by the appropriate certificating authority.
6.2.2 Documentation concerning parameter allocation, conversion equations, periodic calibration
and other serviceability/maintenance information shall be maintained by the operator/owner. The
documentation shall be sufficient to ensure that accident investigation authorities have the necessary
information to read out the data in engineering units.
Editorial Note.— Renumber subsequent paragraphs.
Origin:
Rationale:
FLIRECSWG/9
Same as for Annex 6, Part I, page B-26 refers.
7.
INSPECTIONS OF FLIGHT RECORDER SYSTEMS
7.1 Prior to the first flight of the day, the built-in test features for the flight recorders and flight
data acquisition unit (FDAU), when installed, shall be monitored by manual and/or automatic checks.
7.2 FDR systems or ADRS, CVR systems or CARS, and AIR systems or AIRS shall have
recording system inspection intervals of one year; subject to the approval from the appropriate regulatory
authority, this period may be extended to two years provided these systems have demonstrated a high
integrity of serviceability and self-monitoring. DLR systems or DLRS shall have recording system
inspection intervals of two years; subject to the approval from the appropriate regulatory authority, this
period may be extended to four years provided these systems have demonstrated high integrity of
serviceability and self-monitoring.
7.3 Recording system inspections shall be carried out as follows:
a) an analysis of the recorded data from the flight recorders shall ensure that the recorder
operates correctly for the nominal duration of the recording;
b) the analysis of the FDR or ADRS recording shall evaluate the quality of the recorded data to
determine if the bit error rate (including those errors introduced by recorder, the acquisition
unit, the source of the data on the aeroplane and by the tools used to extract the data from the
recorder) is within acceptable limits and to determine the nature and distribution of the errors;
c) a complete flight recording from the FDR or ADRS recording from a complete flight shall be
C-19
examined in engineering units to evaluate the validity of all recorded parameters. Particular
attention shall be given to parameters from sensors dedicated to the FDR or ADRS. Parameters
taken from the aircraft’s electrical bus system need not be checked if their serviceability can be
detected by other aircraft systems;
d) the readout facility shall have the necessary software to accurately convert the recorded values
to engineering units and to determine the status of discrete signals;
e) an examination of the recorded signal on the CVR or CARS shall be carried out by replay of
the CVR or CARS recording. While installed in the aircraft, the CVR or CARS shall record test
signals from each aircraft source and from relevant external sources to ensure that all required
signals meet intelligibility standards;
f) where practicable, during the examination, a sample of in-flight recordings of the CVR or CARS
shall be examined for evidence that the intelligibility of the signal is acceptable; and
g) an examination of the recorded images on the AIR or AIRS shall be carried out by replay of the
AIR or AIRS recording. While installed in the aircraft, the AIR or AIRS shall record test
images from each aircraft source and from relevant external sources to ensure that all required
images meet recording quality standards.
7.4 A flight recorder system shall be considered unserviceable if there is a significant period of
poor quality data, unintelligible signals, or if one or more of the mandatory parameters is not recorded
correctly.
7.5 A report of the recording system inspection shall be made available on request to
regulatory authorities for monitoring purposes.
7.6 Calibration of the FDR system:
a) for those parameters which have sensors dedicated only to the FDR and are not checked by
other means, recalibration shall be carried out at least every five years or in accordance with the
recommendations of the sensor manufacturer to determine any discrepancies in the engineering
conversion routines for the mandatory parameters, and to ensure that parameters are being
recorded within the calibration tolerances; and
b) when the parameters of altitude and airspeed are provided by sensors that are dedicated to the
FDR system, there shall be a recalibration performed as recommended by the sensor
manufacturer, or at least every two years.
Origin:
Rationale:
FLIRECSWG/9
Same as for Annex 6, Part I, page B-27 refers.
C-20
Table A2.3-1
Serial
number
Parameter guidance characteristics for flight data recorders
Applicability
Parameter
Measurement range
Maximum
sampling and
recording interval
(seconds)
Accuracy limits
(sensor input
compared
to FDR readout)
Recording
resolution
1
Time (UTC when available,
otherwise relative time
count or GPSGNSS time
sync)
24 hours
4
±0.125% /per
hour
1 second
2
Pressure altitude
–300 m (–1 000 ft) to maximum certificated
altitude of aircraft +1 500 m (+5 000 ft)
1
±30 m to ±200 m
(±100 ft to ±700
ft)
1.5 m (5 ft)
3
Indicated airspeed or
calibrated airspeed
95 km/h (50 kt) to max Vs
o
(Note 1)
to
1.2
V
(Note
2)
D
V
1
±5%
±3%
1 kt (0.5 kt
recommende
d)
1
±2°
0.5°
so
4
Heading (primary flight
crew reference)
360°
5
Normal acceleration (Note
3)
–3 g to +6 g
0.125
±1% of
maximum range
excluding datum
error of ±5%
0.004 g
6
Pitch attitude
±75° or usable range whichever is greater
0.25
±2°
0.5°
7
Roll attitude
±180°
0.25
±2°
0.5°
8
Radio transmission keying
On-off (one discrete)
9
Power on each engine (Note
43)
Full range
1 (per engine)
±2%
0.2% of full
range or the
resolution
required to
operate the
aircraft
10*
Trailing edge flap and
cockpit control selection
Full range or each discrete position
2
±5% or as pilot’s
indicator
0.5% of full
range or the
resolution
required to
operate the
aircraft
11*
Leading edge flap and
cockpit control selection
Full range or each discrete position
2
±5% or as pilot’s
indicator
0.5% of full
range or the
resolution
required to
operate the
aircraft
12*
Thrust reverser position
Stowed, in transit, and
reverse
13*
Ground spoiler/speed brake
selection (selection and
position)
Full range or each discrete position
1
±2% unless
higher accuracy
uniquely required
0.2% of full
range
14
Outside air temperature
Sensor range
2
±2°C
0.3°C
15*
Autopilot/auto
A suitable combination of discretes
1
1
1 (per engine)
C-21
Serial
number
Applicability
Parameter
Measurement range
Maximum
sampling and
recording interval
(seconds)
Accuracy limits
(sensor input
compared
to FDR readout)
Recording
resolution
throttle/AFCS mode and
engagement status
Note.— The preceding 15 parameters satisfy the requirements for a Type II FDR.
16
Longitudinal acceleration
(Note 3)
±1 g
0.25
±0.015 g
excluding a
datum error of
±0.05 g
0.004 g
17
Lateral acceleration (Note
3)
±1 g
0.25
±0.015 g
excluding a
datum error of
±0.05 g
0.004 g
18
Pilot input and/or control
surface position-primary
controls (pitch, roll, yaw)
(Notes 34 and 58)
Full range
0.25
±2° unless higher
accuracy
uniquely required
0.2% of full
range or as
installed
Application for type Full range
certification
submitted
to
a
Contracting State on
or after 1 January
2016
0.125
±2° unless higher
accuracy
uniquely required
0.2% of
full range
or
as installed
Application for type
certification
submitted to a
Contracting State
before 1 January
2016
19
Pitch trim position
Full range
1
±3% unless
higher accuracy
uniquely required
0.3% of full
range or
as installed
20*
Radio altitude
–6 m to 750 m
(–20 ft to 2 500 ft)
1
±0.6 m (±2 ft)
or ±3%
whichever is
greater below
150 m
(500 ft) and ±5%
above 150 m
(500 ft)
0.3 m (1 ft)
below 150 m
(500 ft)
0.3 m (1 ft) +
0.5% of full
range above
150 m
(500 ft)
21*
Vertical beam deviation
(ILS/GPSGNSS/GLS
glide path MLS elevation,
IRNAV/IAN vertical
deviation)
Signal range
1
±3%
0.3% of full
range
22*
Horizontal beam
deviation
(ILS/GPSGNSS/GLS
localizer, MLS azimuth,
IRNAV/IAN lateral
deviation)
Signal range
1
±3%
0.3% of full
range
23
Marker beacon passage
Discrete
1
24
Master warning
Discrete
1
25
Each NAV receiver
Full range
4
As installed
C-22
Serial
number
Applicability
Parameter
Measurement range
Maximum
sampling and
recording interval
(seconds)
Accuracy limits
(sensor input
compared
to FDR readout)
As installed
1 852 m (1
NM)
As installed
0.3% of full
range
Recording
resolution
frequency selection (Note
65)
26*
DME 1 and 2 distance
(includes distance to
runway threshold (FLS) and
distance to missed approach
point (IRNAV/IAN) (Notes
65 and 76)
0–370 km (0–200 NM)
4
27
Air/ground status
Discrete
1
28*
GPWS/TAWS/GCAS
status (selection of terrain
display mode including
pop-up display status) and
(terrain alerts, both
cautions and warnings,
and advisories) and
(on/off switch position)
Discrete
1
29*
Angle of attack
Full range
30*
Hydraulics, each system
(low pressure)
Discrete
2
31*
Navigation data
(latitude/longitude,
ground speed and drift
angle) (Note 87)
As installed
1
As installed
32*
Landing gear and gear
selector position
Discrete
4
As installed
Groundspeed
As installed
1
Data should be
obtained from the
most accurate
system
1 kt
34
Brakes (left and right
brake pressure, left and
right brake pedal position)
(Maximum metered brake range, discretes or
full range)
1
±5%
2% of full
range
35*
Additional engine
parameters (EPR, N1,
indicated vibration level,
N2, EGT, fuel flow, fuel
cut-off lever position, N3)
As installed
Each engine each
second
As installed
2% of full
range
36*
TCAS/ACAS (traffic alert
and collision avoidance
system)
Discrete(s)
1
As installed
37*
Wind shear warning
Discrete
1
As installed
0.5
0.5% of full
range
Note.— The preceding 32
parameters satisfy the
requirements for a Type I
FDR.
33*
C-23
Serial
number
Applicability
Parameter
Measurement range
Maximum
sampling and
recording interval
(seconds)
Accuracy limits
(sensor input
compared
to FDR readout)
Recording
resolution
38*
Selected barometric
setting (pilot, co-pilot)
As installed
64
As installed
0.1 mb (0.01
in-Hg)
39*
Selected altitude (all pilot
selectable modes of
operation)
As installed
1
As installed
Sufficient to
determine
crew
selection
40*
Selected speed (all pilot
selectable modes of
operation)
As installed
1
As installed
Sufficient to
determine
crew
selection
41*
Selected Mach (all pilot
selectable modes of
operation)
As installed
1
As installed
Sufficient to
determine
crew
selection
42*
Selected vertical speed
(all pilot selectable modes
of operation)
As installed
1
As installed
Sufficient to
determine
crew
selection
43*
Selected heading (all pilot
selectable modes of
operation)
As installed
1
As installed
Sufficient to
determine
crew
selection
44*
Selected flight path (all
pilot selectable modes of
operation)
(course/DSTRK, path
angle, final approach path
(IRNAV/IAN))
1
As installed
As installed
45*
Selected decision height
As installed
64
As installed
Sufficient to
determine
crew
selection
46*
EFIS display format (pilot,
co-pilot)
Discrete(s)
4
As installed
47*
Multi-function/engine/alerts
display format
Discrete(s)
4
As installed
48*
AC electrical bus status
Discrete(s)
4
As installed
49*
DC electrical bus status
Discrete(s)
4
As installed
50*
Engine bleed valve position
Discrete(s)
4
As installed
51*
APU bleed valve position
Discrete(s)
4
As installed
52*
Computer failure
Discrete(s)
4
As installed
53*
Engine thrust command
As installed
2
As installed
2% of full
range
54*
Engine thrust target
As installed
4
As installed
2% of full
range
C-24
Applicability
Maximum
sampling and
recording interval
(seconds)
Accuracy limits
(sensor input
compared
to FDR readout)
Serial
number
Parameter
55*
Computed centre of gravity
As installed
64
As installed
1% of full
range
56*
Fuel quantity in CG trim
tank
As installed
64
As installed
1% of full
range
57*
Head-up display in use
As installed
4
As installed
58*
Para-visual display on/off
As installed
1
As installed
59*
Operational stall protection,
stick shaker and pusher
activation
As installed
1
As installed
60*
Primary navigation system
reference (GNSS, INS,
VOR/DME, MLS, Loran C,
localizer glide slope)
As installed
4
As installed
61*
Ice detection
As installed
4
As installed
62*
Engine warning each
engine vibration
As installed
1
As installed
63*
Engine warning each
engine over temperature
As installed
1
As installed
64*
Engine warning each
engine oil pressure low
As installed
1
As installed
65*
Engine warning each
engine over speed
As installed
1
As installed
66*
Yaw trim surface position
Full range
2
±3% unless
higher accuracy
uniquely required
0.3% of full
range
67*
Roll trim surface position
Full range
2
±3% unless
higher accuracy
uniquely required
0.3% of full
range
68*
Yaw or sideslip angle
Full range
1
±5%
0.5°
69*
De-icing and/or anti-icing
systems selection
Discrete(s)
4
70*
Hydraulic pressure (each
system)
Full range
2
±5%
100 psi
71*
Loss of cabin pressure
Discrete
1
72*
Cockpit trim control input
position, pPitch
Full range
1
±5%
0.2% of full
range or as
installed
73*
Cockpit trim control input
position, rRoll
Full range
1
±5%
0.2% of full
range or as
installed
74*
Cockpit trim control input
position, yYaw
Full range
1
±5%
0.2% of full
range or as
installed
Measurement range
Recording
resolution
C-25
Serial
number
Applicability
Maximum
sampling and
recording interval
(seconds)
Accuracy limits
(sensor input
compared
to FDR readout)
±5%
Parameter
Measurement range
75*
All cockpit flight control
input forces (control wheel,
control column, rudder
pedal)
Full range (±311 N (±70 lbf), ±378 N (±85
lbf), ±734 N
(±165 lbf))
1
76*
Event marker
Discrete
1
77*
Date
365 days
64
78*
Actual navigation
performance or estimated
position error or estimated
position uncertainty
As installed
4
As installed
Note.— The preceding 78 parameters satisfy the requirements for a Type IA FDR.
Notes.—
1. VSo stalling speed or minimum steady flight speed in the landing configuration is in Section
“Abbreviations and Symbols”.
2. VD design diving speed.
3. Refer to Chapter 2.4, 2.4.16.1.2.2, for increased recording requirements.
43. Record sufficient inputs to determine power.
54. For aeroplanes with control systems in which movement of a control surface will back drive the
pilot’s control, “or” applies. For aeroplanes with control systems in which movement of a control
surface will not back drive the pilot’s control, “and” applies. In aeroplanes with split surfaces, a
suitable combination of inputs is acceptable in lieu of recording each surface separately. In aeroplanes
with independent pilot input on primary controls, each pilot input on primary controls needs to be
recorded separately.
65. If signal available in digital form.
76. Recording of latitude and longitude from INS or other navigation system is a preferred alternative.
87. If signals readily available.
8. It is not intended that aeroplanes issued with an individual certificate of airworthiness before
1 January 2016 be modified to meet the measurement range, maximum sampling and recording
intervals, accuracy limits or recording resolution guidance description detailed in this Appendix.
Editorial Note.— Delete paragraph below and move to 2.2.2 above.
If further recording capacity is available, recording of the following additional information should be
considered:
a) operational information from electronic display systems, such as electronic flight instrument
systems (EFIS), electronic centralized aircraft monitor (ECAM) and engine indication and crew
alerting system (EICAS). Use the following order of priority:
1) parameters selected by the flight crew relating to the desired flight path, e.g. barometric
pressure setting, selected altitude, selected airspeed, decision height, and autoflight system
Recording
resolution
0.2% of full
range or as
installed
C-26
engagement and mode indications if not recorded from another source;
2) display system selection/status, e.g. SECTOR, PLAN, ROSE, NAV, WXR, COMPOSITE,
COPY;
3) warnings and alerts;
4) the identity of displayed pages for emergency procedures and checklists;
b) retardation information including brake application for use in the investigation of landing
overruns and rejected take-offs.
Table A2.3-2.
Item No.
Application type
Description of applications for data link recorders
Application description
Recording
content
1
Data link initiation
This includes any applications used to log on to or initiate data link
service. In FANS-1/A and ATN, these are ATS facilities notification
(AFN) and context management (CM), respectively.
C
2
Controller-pilot
communication
This includes any application used to exchange requests, clearances,
instructions and reports between the flight crew and controllers on the
ground. In FANS-1/A and ATN, this includes the CPDLC application. It
also includes applications used for the exchange of oceanic (OCL) and
departure clearances (DCL) as well as data link delivery of taxi
clearances.
C
3
Addressed
surveillance
This includes any surveillance application in which the ground sets up
contracts for delivery of surveillance data. In FANS-1/A and ATN,
this includes the automatic dependent surveillance — contract
(ADS-C) application. Where parametric data are reported within the
message they shall be recorded unless data from the same source are
recorded on the FDR.
C
4
Flight information
This includes any service used for delivery of flight information to
specific aircraft. This includes, for example, data link aviation weather
report service (D-METAR), data link-automatic terminal service
(D-ATIS), digital Notice to Airmen (D-NOTAM) and other textual
data link services.
C
5
Aircraft broadcast
surveillance
This includes elementary and enhanced surveillance systems, as well
as automatic dependent surveillance — broadcast (ADS-B) output
data. Where parametric data sent by the aeroplane are reported within
the message they shall be recorded unless data from the same source
are recorded on the FDR.
M*
6
Aeronautical
operational control
data
This includes any application transmitting or receiving data used for
aeronautical operational control purposes (per the ICAO definition of
operational control).
M*
Key:
C:
M:
Complete contents recorded.
Information that enables correlation to any associated records stored separately from the aeroplane.
C-27
*:
Applications that are to be recorded only as far as is practicable given the architecture of the system.
Table A2.3-3.
No.
Parameter name
1
Heading
1
a) Heading (Magnetic or
True)
Parameter
category
Minimum
recording range
Maximum
recording
interval in
seconds
R*
±180°
1
±2°
0.5°
±300°/s
0.25
±1% + drift
of 360°/hr
2°/s
±90°
0.25
±2°
0.5°
±300°/s
0.25
±1% + drift
of 360°/h
2°/s
±180°
0.25
±2°
0.5°
±300°/s
0.25
±1% + drift
of 360°/h
2°/s
b) Yaw rate
2
Pitch
2
a) Pitch attitude
E*
b) Pitch rate
3
Roll
3
a) Roll attitude
Parameter guidance for aircraft data recording systems
E*
b) Roll rate
Minimum
recording
accuracy
Minimum
recording
resolution
Remarks
* I Heading is
preferred, if not
available, record
yaw rate shall be
recorded
* I Pitch attitude
is preferred, if
not available,
record pitch
rates shall be
recorded
* IRoll attitude
is preferred, if
not available,
record roll rates
shall be
recorded
4
Yaw rate
E*
±300°/s
0.25
±1% + drift
of 360°/h
2°/s
* Essential if no
heading
available
5
Pitch rate
E*
±300°/s
0.25
±1% + drift
of 360°/h
2°/s
* Essential if no
pitch attitude
available
6
Roll rate
E*
±300°/s
0.25
±1% + drift
of 360°/h
2°/s
* Essential if no
roll attitude
available
4
Positioning system:
24 hours
1
±0.5 s
0.1 s
UTC time
preferred where
available.
a) Time
C-28
No.
Parameter name
Parameter
category
b) Latitude/longitude
c) Altitude
d) Ground speed
e) Track
f) Estimated error
Minimum
recording range
Maximum
recording
interval in
seconds
Latitude: ±90°
Longitude: ±180°
Minimum
recording
accuracy
Minimum
recording
resolution
2
(1 if available)
As installed
(0.00015°
recommended)
0.00005°
–300 m (–1 000 ft)
to maximum
certificated altitude
of aircraft + 1 500 m
(5 000 ft)
2
(1 if available)
As installed
(±15 m (±50 ft)
recommended)
1.5 m (5 ft)
0–1 000 kt
2
(1 if available)
As installed
(±5 kt
recommended)
1 kt
0–360°
2
(1 if available)
As installed
(±2°
recommended)
0.5°
Available range
2
(1 if available)
As installed
As installed
7
Positioning system:
latitude/longitude
E
Latitude: ±90°
Longitude: ±180°
2
(1 if available)
As installed
(0.00015°
recommended)
0.00005°
8
Positioning system
estimated error
E*
Available range
2
(1 if available)
As installed
As installed
9
Positioning system:
altitude
E
–300 m (–1 000 ft)
to maximum
certificated altitude
of aircraft + 1 500 m
(5 000 ft)
2
(1 if available)
As installed
(±15 m (±50 ft)
recommended)
1.5 m (5 ft)
10
Positioning system:
time*
E
24 hours
1
±0.5 s
0.1 s
11
Positioning system:
ground speed
E
0–1 000 kt
2
(1 if available)
As installed
(±5 kt
recommended)
1 kt
12
Positioning system:
channel
E
0–360°
2
(1 if available)
As installed
(±2°
recommended)
0.5°
13
5
Normal acceleration
E
–3 g to +6 g (*)
0.25
(0.125 if
available)
As installed
(±0.09 g
excluding a
datum error of
±0.45 g
recommended)
0.004 g
14
6
Longitudinal
acceleration
E
±1 g (*)
0.25
(0.125 if
available)
As installed
(±0.015 g
excluding a
datum error of
0.004 g
Remarks
Shall be
recorded if
readily available
* If available
* UTC time
preferred where
available.
C-29
No.
Parameter name
Parameter
category
Minimum
recording range
Maximum
recording
interval in
seconds
Minimum
recording
accuracy
Minimum
recording
resolution
Remarks
±0.05 g
recommended)
15
7
Lateral acceleration
E
±1 g (*)
0.25
(0.125 if
available)
As installed
(±0.015 g
excluding a
datum error of
±0.05 g
recommended)
0.004 g
16
8
External static pressure
(or pressure altitude)
R
34.4 mb
(3.44 in-Hg) to
310.2 mb
(31.02 in-Hg) or
available sensor
range
1
As installed
(±1 mb
(0.1 in-Hg) or
±30 m (±100 ft)
to ±210 m
(±700 ft)
recommended)
0.1 mb
(0.01 in-Hg) or
1.5 m (5 ft)
17
9
Outside air temperature
(or total air temperature)
R
–50° to +90°C or
available sensor
range
2
As installed
(±2°C
recommended)
1°C
18
10
Indicated air speed
R
As the installed pilot
display measuring
system or available
sensor range
1
As installed
(±3%
recommended)
1 kt (0.5 kt
recommended)
11
9
Engine RPM
R
Full range including
overspeed condition
Each engine
each second
As installed
0.2% of full
range
12
0
Engine oil pressure
R
Full range
Each engine
each second
As installed
(5% of full
range
recommended)
2% of full range
21
3
Engine oil temperature
R
Full range
Each engine
each second
As installed
(5% of full
range
recommended)
2% of full range
22
14
Fuel flow or pressure
R
Full range
Each engine
each second
As installed
2% of full range
23
15
Manifold pressure
R
Full range
Each engine
each second
As installed
0.2% of full
range
24
16
Engine
thrust/power/torque
parameters required to
determine propulsive
thrust/power*
R
Full range
Each engine
each second
As installed
0.1% of full
range
* Sufficient
parameters e.g.
EPR/N1 or
torque/Np as
appropriate to
the particular
engine shall be
recorded to
determine power
in both normal
and reverse
C-30
No.
Parameter
category
Parameter name
Minimum
recording range
Maximum
recording
interval in
seconds
Minimum
recording
accuracy
Minimum
recording
resolution
Remarks
thrust. A margin
for possible
overspeed
should be
provided.
25
17
Engine gas generator
speed (Ng)
R
0–150%
Each engine
each second
As installed
0.2% of full
range
26
18
Free power turbine
speed (Nf)
R
0–150%
Each engine
each second
As installed
0.2% of full
range
27
19
Coolant temperature
R
Full range
1
As installed
(±5°C
recommended)
1°C
28
20
Main voltage
R
Full range
Each engine
each second
As installed
1 Volt
21
9
Cylinder head
temperature
R
Full range
Each cylinder
each second
As installed
2% of full range
30
22
Flaps position
R
Full range or each
discrete position
2
As installed
0.5°
23
1
Primary flight control
surface position
R
Full range
0.25
As installed
0.2% of full
range
32
4
Fuel quantity
R
Full range
4
As installed
1% of full range
33
25
Exhaust gas temperature
R
Full range
Each engine
each second
As installed
2% of full range
34
26
Emergency voltage
R
Full range
Each engine
each second
As installed
1 Volt
35
27
Trim surface position
R
Full range or each
discrete position
1
As installed
0.3% of full
range
36
28
Landing gear position
R
Each discrete
position*
Each gear every
two seconds
As installed
37
29
Novel/unique aircraft
features
R
As required
As required
As required
* Where
available, record
up-and-locked
and down-andlocked position
As required
Key:
E: Essential parameters
R: Recommended parameters
Origin:
FLIRECSWG/9
Rationale:
Same as for Annex 6, Part I, page B-37 refers, except that Note 6 below Table A2.3-1
should not be deleted.
C-31
SECTION 3
LARGE AND TURBOJET AEROPLANES
...
CHAPTER 3.6 AEROPLANE INSTRUMENTS, EQUIPMENT
AND FLIGHT DOCUMENTS
...
3.6.3 Flight recorders
3.6.3.1 Flight data recorders
3.6.3.1.1 Operation Applicability
3.6.3.1.1.1 All aeroplanes of a maximum certificated take-off mass of over 5 700 kg for which the
individual certificate of airworthiness is first issued on or after 1 January 2005 shall be equipped with an
Type IA FDR which shall record at least 78 parameters listed in Table A2.3-1 of Appendix 2.3;
3.6.3.1.1.2 All aeroplanes of a maximum certificated take-off mass of over 27 000 kg for which the
individual certificate of airworthiness is first issued on or after 1 January 1989 shall be equipped with an
Type I FDR which shall record at least the first 32 parameters listed in Table A2.3-1 of Appendix 2.3.
3.6.3.1.1.3 Recommendation.— All aeroplanes of a maximum certificated take-off mass of over
5 700 kg, up to and including 27 000 kg, for which the individual certificate of airworthiness is first
issued on or after 1 January 1989, should be equipped with an Type II FDR which should record at least
the first 16 parameters of listed in Table A2.3-1 of Appendix 2.3.
Origin:
Rationale:
FLIRECSWG/9
Same as for Annex 6, Part I, page B-10 refers.
3.6.3.2 Cockpit voice recorders
3.6.3.2.1 Operation Applicability
3.6.3.2.1.1
All turbine-engined aeroplanes of a maximum certificated take-off mass of over
5 700 kg for which the application for type certification is submitted to a Contracting State on or after
1 January 2016 and required to be operated by more than one pilot shall be equipped with a CVR.
3.6.3.2.1.2 All aeroplanes of a maximum certificated take-off mass of over 27 000 kg for which the
individual certificate of airworthiness is first issued on or after 1 January 1987 shall be equipped with a
CVR.
3.6.3.2.1.3 Recommendation.— All aeroplanes of a maximum certificated take-off mass of over
C-32
5 700 kg, up to and including 27 000 kg, for which the individual certificate of airworthiness is first
issued on or after 1 January 1987, should be equipped with a CVR.
3.6.3.2.2 Duration
3.6.3.2.2.1 All aeroplanes of a maximum certificated take-off mass of over 27 000 kg for which the
individual certificate of airworthiness is first issued on or after 1 January 2021 shall be equipped with a
CVR capable of retaining the information recorded during at least the last twenty-five25 hours of its
operation.
3.6.3.3 Combination recorders
Recommendation.— All aeroplanes of a maximum certificated take-off mass over 5 700 kg, required to
be equipped with an FDR and a CVR, may alternatively be equipped with two combination recorders
(FDR/CVR).
Origin:
Rationale:
FLIRECSWG/9
Same as for Annex 6, Part I, page B-12 refers.
Editorial Note.— Insert the following two new Attachments.
ATTACHMENT 2.X GUIDE TO CURRENT FLIGHT RECORDER PROVISIONS
(Supplementary to Chapter 2, 2.4.16)
INTRODUCTION
Since 1973, and the inclusion in Annex 6 of SARPs for the carriage of flight recorders, the FLIRECP
introduced new and revised requirements concerning flight recorders. These amendments include an
update of the provisions pertaining to flight recorders, recording of digital communications, FDR
requirements for new aircraft, revised parameter listings, and two-hour duration CVRs. Through the
years, the applicability date and the carriage of recorder to be installed as defined by the SARPs were
complex.
The tables below summarize the current flight recorders carriage requirements.
Table A2.x-1. FDR/AIR/ADRS/AIRS installation SARPs
Date
MCTOM
5700 kg
and below
All turbine-engined
aeroplanes with more than
5 passengers - new certificate
of airworthiness
2016

2.4.16.1.21.1
Recommendation for 16 parameters FDR
or Class C AIR or AIRS
or ADRS
C-33
Table A2.x-2. CVR/CARS installation SARPS
Date
MCTOM
5700 kg
and below
All turbine-engined
aeroplanes with more than
5 passengers required to be
operated by more than 1 pilot
- new certificate of airworthiness
2016

2.4.16.2.1
Recommendation CVR or CARS
ATTACHMENT 3.X. GUIDE TO CURRENT FLIGHT RECORDER PROVISIONS
(Supplementary to Chapter 3, 3.6.3)
INTRODUCTION
Since 1973, and the inclusion in Annex 6 of SARPs for the carriage of flight recorders, the FLIRECP
introduced new and revised requirements concerning flight recorders. These amendments include an
update of the provisions pertaining to flight recorders, recording of digital communications, FDR
requirements for new aircraft, revised parameter listings, and two-hour duration CVRs. Through the
years, the applicability date and the carriage of recorder to be installed as defined by the SARPs were
complex.
The tables below summarize the current flight recorders carriage requirements.
Table 3.x-1. FDR installation SARPS
Date
1989

All aeroplanes
new certificate of airworthiness
3.6.3.1.1.2
32 parameters
3.6.3.1.1.3
Recommendation
16 parameters
MCTOM
Over
27 000 kg
Over
5 700 kg
All aeroplanes
new certificate of airworthiness
2005

3.6.3.1.1.1
78 parameters
C-34
Table 3.x-2.
CVR/CARS installation SARPS
Date
1987

MCTOM
Over
27 000 kg
All aeroplanes
new certificate of airworthiness
All aeroplanes
new certificate of airworthiness
Over
5 700 kg
2016

3.6.3.2.1.2
CVR
3.6.3.2.1.3
Recommendation CVR
All turbine-engined aeroplanes operated by
more than one pilot
new type certificate
3.6.3.2.1.1
CVR
Origin:
Rationale:
FLIRECSWG/9
It is proposed to include summary tables for current flight recorder provisions to
serve as a guide as to which SARPs is applicable to a specific aircraft.
————————
ATTACHMENT D to State letter SP 55/4-17/1
PROPOSED AMENDMENT TO ANNEX 6, PART III
NOTES ON THE PRESENTATION OF THE PROPOSED AMENDMENT
The text of the amendment is arranged to show deleted text with a line through it and new text highlighted
with grey shading, as shown below:
1. Text to be deleted is shown with a line through it.
text to be deleted
2. New text to be inserted is highlighted with grey shading.
new text to be inserted
3. Text to be deleted is shown with a line through it followed by new text to replace existing text
the replacement text which is highlighted with grey shading.
D-2
PROPOSED AMENDMENT TO
INTERNATIONAL STANDARDS
AND RECOMMENDED PRACTICES
OPERATION OF AIRCRAFT
ANNEX 6
TO THE CONVENTION ON INTERNATIONAL CIVIL AVIATION
PART III
INTERNATIONAL OPERATIONS — HELICOPTERS
INITIAL PROPOSAL 1
(Airborne image recordings)
...
APPENDIX 4. FLIGHT RECORDERS
(Section II, Chapter 4, 4.3 and Section III, Chapter 4, 4.7, refer)
...
1.
GENERAL REQUIREMENTS
...
1.2 The flight recorder systems shall be installed so that:
...
d) until 31 December 2022, if the flight recorder systems have a bulk erasure device, the installation shall be
designed to prevent operation of the device during flight time or crash impact.; and
e) on or after 1 January 2023, a flight crew-operated bulk erase function shall be provided on the
flight deck which, when activated, modifies the recording of a CVR and AIR so that it cannot be
retrieved using normal replay or copying techniques. The installation shall be designed to prevent
activation during flight. In addition, the probability of an inadvertent activation of a bulk erase
function during an accident shall also be minimized.
Note.— The bulk erase function is intended to prevent access to CVR and AIR recordings by normal
replay or copying means, but would not prevent accident investigation authorities access to such
recordings by specialized replay or copying techniques.
...
Origin:
Rationale:
FLIRECSWG/9
Same provisions for bulk erase function as proposed for Annex 6, Part I, page B-4
refers.
D-3
INITIAL PROPOSAL 2
(Flight data recorder parameter lists)
SECTION II
INTERNATIONAL COMMERCIAL AIR TRANSPORT
...
4.3 FLIGHT RECORDERS
...
4.3.1 Flight data recorders and aircraft data recording systems
...
4.3.1.2 Operation
...
4.3.1.2.x All helicopters of a maximum certificated take-off mass of over 3 175 kg for which the
individual certificate of airworthiness is first issued on or after 1 January 2023 shall be equipped with an
FDR capable of recording at least the first 53 parameters listed in Table A4-1 of Appendix 4.
...
APPENDIX 4. FLIGHT RECORDERS
(Section II, Chapter 4, 4.3 and Section III, Chapter 4, 4.7, refers)
...
Table A4-1.
Parameter Guidance for Flight Data Recorders
Accuracy limits
(sensor input
compared to FDR
readout)
Parameter
Measurement range
Maximum sampling
and recording interval
(seconds)
49*
GPWS/TAWS/GCAS
status (selection of
terrain display mode
including pop-up
display status) and
(terrain alerts, both
cautions and
warnings, and
advisories) and
(on/off switch
position) and
(operational status)
Discrete(s)
1
As installed
50*
TCAS/ACAS (traffic
alert and collision
avoidance system)
and (operational
status)
Discrete(s)
1
As installed
Serial
number
...
Recording
resolution
D-4
Serial
number
Maximum sampling
and recording interval
(seconds)
Accuracy limits
(sensor input
compared to FDR
readout)
Recording
resolution
Parameter
Measurement range
51*
Primary flight
controls – pilot input
forces
Full range
0.125 (0.0625
recommended)
± 3% unless higher
accuracy is uniquely
required
0.5% of operating
range
52*
Computed centre of
gravity
As installed
64
As installed
1% of full range
53*
Helicopter computed
weight
As installed
64
As installed
1% of full range
Origin:
Rationale:
FLIRECSWG/9
Same as for Annex 6, Part I page B-5 with the exception that the parameters
proposed are related to helicopters.
INITIAL PROPOSAL 3
(Simplified flight recorder provisions)
SECTION II
INTERNATIONAL COMMERCIAL AIR TRANSPORT – HELICOPTERS
4.3 FLIGHT RECORDERS
Note 1.— Crash-protected flight recorders comprise one or more of the following systems: a flight
data recorder (FDR),; a cockpit voice recorder (CVR),; an airborne image recorder (AIR),; and/or a
data link recorder (DLR). Image and data link information may be recorded on either the CVR or the
FDR.
Note 2.— Combination recorders (FDR/CVR) may be used to meet the flight recorder equipage
requirements in this Annex.
Note 3.— Detailed guidance requirements on flight recorders areis contained in Appendix 4.
Note 4.— Lightweight flight recorders comprise one or more of the following systems: an aircraft
data recording system (ADRS),; a cockpit audio recording system (CARS),; an airborne image recording
system (AIRS),; a data link recording system (DLRS). Image and data link information may be recorded
on either the CARS or the ADRS.
Note 5.— For helicopters for which the application for type certification is submitted to a
Contracting State before 1 January 2016, specifications applicable to crash-protected flight recorders
may be found in EUROCAE ED-112, ED-56A, ED-55, Minimum Operational Performance Specifications
(MOPS), or earlier equivalent documents.
Note 6.— For helicopters for which the application for type certification is submitted to a
D-5
Contracting State on or after 1 January 2016, specifications applicable to crash-protected flight
recorders may be found in EUROCAE ED-112A, Minimum Operational Performance Specification
(MOPS), or equivalent documents.
Note 7.— Specifications applicable to lightweight flight recorders may be found in EUROCAE
ED-155, Minimum Operational Performance Specification (MOPS), or equivalent documents.
Origin:
Rationale:
FLIRECSWG/9
Same as for Annex 6, Part I, page B-7 refers, except:
a) that Note 2 in Annex 6, Part I, is similar to Note 4 in Part III. Notes 4 and 5 in
Annex 6, Part I, are similar to Notes 5 and 6 in Part III; and
b) it is proposed to add Note 7 to align with Annex 6, Parts I and II.
4.3.1 Flight data recorders and aircraft data recording systems
Note 1.— Parameters to be recorded are listed in Table A4-1 of Appendix 4.
Note 2.— ADRS performance requirements are as contained in the EUROCAE ED-155, Minimum
Operational Performance Specification (MOPS) for Lightweight Flight Recorder Systems, or equivalent
documents.
4.3.1.1 Types
4.3.1.1.1 A Type IV FDR shall record the parameters required to determine accurately the
helicopter flight path, speed, attitude, engine power and operation.
4.3.1.1.2 A Type IVA FDR shall record the parameters required to determine accurately the
helicopter flight path, speed, attitude, engine power, operation and configuration.
4.3.1.1.3 A Type V FDR shall record the parameters required to determine accurately the
helicopter flight path, speed, attitude and engine power.
4.3.1.21
Operation Applicability
4.3.1.21.1 All helicopters of a maximum certificated take-off mass of over 3 175 kg for which the
individual certificate of airworthiness is first issued on or after 1 January 2016 shall be equipped with an
Type IVA FDR which shall record at least the first 48 parameters listed in Table A4-1 of Appendix 4.
4.3.1.21.2 All helicopters of a maximum certificated take-off mass of over 7 000 kg, or having
a passenger seating configuration of more than nineteen, for which the individual certificate of
airworthiness is first issued on or after 1 January 1989 shall be equipped with an Type IV FDR which
shall record at least the first 30 parameters listed in Table A4-1 of Appendix 4.
D-6
4.3.1.21.3 Recommendation.— All helicopters of a maximum certificated take-off mass of over
3 175 kg, up to and including 7 000 kg, for which the individual certificate of airworthiness is first
issued on or after 1 January 1989, should be equipped with an Type V FDR which should record at least
the first 15 parameters listed in Table A4-1 of Appendix 4.
4.3.1.21.4 All turbine-engined helicopters of a maximum certificated take-off mass of over
2 250 kg, up to and including 3 175 kg for which the application for type certification was submitted to a
Contracting State on or after 1 January 2018 shall be equipped with:
a) an Type IV A FDR which shall record at least the first 48 parameters listed in Table A4-1 of
Appendix 4; or
b) a Class C AIR or AIRS which shall record at least the capable of recording flight path and speed
parameters displayed to the pilot(s), as defined in Appendix 4, Table A4-3 ; or
c) an ADRS capable of which shall recording the essential first 7 parameters definedlisted in
Table A4-3 of Appendix 4.
Note.— The “application for type certification was submitted to a Contracting State” refers to the
date of application of the original “Type Certificate” for the helicopter type, not the date of certification
of particular helicopter variants or derivative models.
4.3.1.21.5 Recommendation.— All helicopters of a maximum certificated take-off mass of
3 175 kg or less for which the individual certificate of airworthiness is first issued on or after
1 January 2018 should be equipped with:
a) an Type IV A FDR which should record at least the first 48 parameters listed in Table A4-1 of
Appendix 4; or
b) a Class C AIR or AIRS which should record at least the capable of recording flight path and
speed parameters displayed to the pilot(s), as defined in Appendix 4, Table A4-3; or
c) an ADRS capable of which should recording the essential first 7 parameters definedlisted in
Table A4-3 of Appendix 4.
Note.— AIR or AIRS classification is defined in 4.1 of Appendix 4.
4.3.1.32Discontinuation Recording technology
4.3.1.3.1 FDR shall not use engraving metal foil, frequency modulation (FM), photographic film or
magnetic tape. The use of engraving metal foil FDRs shall be discontinued.
4.3.1.3.2 Recommendation.— The use of analogue FDRs using frequency modulation (FM) should
be discontinued.
4.3.1.3.3 The use of photographic film FDRs shall be discontinued.
4.3.1.3.4 The use of analogue FDRs using frequency modulation (FM) shall be discontinued.
D-7
4.3.1.3.5
Recommendation.— The use of magnetic tape FDRs should be discontinued.
4.3.1.3.6 The use of magnetic tape FDRs shall be discontinued by 1 January 2016.
4.3.1.43
Duration
Types IV, IVA and V All FDRs shall be capable of retaining the information recorded during at least
the last ten10 hours of their operation.
Origin:
Rationale:
FLIRECSWG/9
Same as for Annex 6, Part I, page B-10 refers, except that:
a) Note 2 relating to AIR or AIRS classification be added in this section to align
Annex 6, Part III with Parts I and II;
b) no provisions similar to Annex 6, Part I, 6.3.1.2.12 and 6.3.1.2.13 exist in
Annex 6, Part III; and
c) there is no reference to 30-minute duration FDRs in Annex 6, Part III.
4.3.2 Cockpit voice recorders and cockpit audio recording systems
4.3.2.1 Operation Applicability
4.3.2.1.1 All helicopters of a maximum certificated take-off mass of over 7 000 kg for which the
individual certificate of airworthiness is first issued on or after 1 January 1987 shall be equipped with a
CVR. For helicopters not equipped with an FDR, at least main rotor speed shall be recorded on the CVR.
4.3.2.1.2 Recommendation.— All helicopters of a maximum certificated take-off mass of over
3 175 kg for which the individual certificate of airworthiness is first issued on or after 1 January 1987
should be equipped with a CVR. For helicopters not equipped with an FDR, at least main rotor speed
should be recorded on the CVR.
4.3.2.1.3 All helicopters of a maximum certificated take-off mass of over 7 000 kg for which the
individual certificate of airworthiness was first issued before 1 January 1987 shall be equipped with a
CVR. For helicopters not equipped with an FDR, at least main rotor speed shall be recorded on the CVR.
4.3.2.2 Discontinuation Recording technology
4.3.2.2.1CVR shall not use magnetic tape or wire. The use of magnetic tape and wire CVRs shall be
discontinued by 1 January 2016.
4.3.2.2.2 Recommendation.— The use of magnetic tape and wire CVRs should be discontinued by
1 January 2011.
D-8
4.3.2.3 Duration
4.3.2.3.1 A CVR shall be capable of retaining the information recorded during at least the last
30 minutes of its operation.
4.3.2.3.2 From 1 January 2016, aAll helicopters required to be equipped with a CVR, shall be
equipped with a CVR which capable ofshall retaining the information recorded during at least the last
two2 hours of its operation.
4.3.2.3.3 Recommendation.— All helicopters for which the individual certificate of airworthiness
is first issued on or after 1 January 1990, and that are required to be equipped with a CVR, should have
a CVR capable of retaining the information recorded during at least the last two hours of its operation.
Origin:
Rationale:
FLIRECSWG/9
Same as for Annex 6, Part I, page B-12 refers, except:
a) that the proposed deletion is 4.3.2.1.3 in Part III which became redundant, and the
reference to certificate of airworthiness and 1 January 1987 in 4.3.2.1.1 be
deleted; and
b) the addition of “at least” in 4.3.2.3 to align with similar provisions in Annex 6.
4.3.3 Data link recorders
4.3.3.1 Applicability
4.3.3.1.1 All helicopters for which the individual certificate of airworthiness is first issued on or
after 1 January 2016, which utilize any of the data link communications applications listed in 5.1.2 of
Appendix 4 and are required to carry a CVR, shall record on a crash-protected flight recorder the data link
communications messages.
4.3.3.1.2 All helicopters which are modified on or after 1 January 2016 to install and utilize
any of the data link communications applications listed in 5.1.2 of Appendix 4 and are required to carry
a CVR shall record on a crash-protected flight recorder the data link communications messages.
Note 1.— Data link communications are currently conducted by either ATN-based or FANS 1/Aequipped helicopter.
Note 2.— A Class B AIR could be a means for recording data link communications applications
messages to and from the helicopters where it is not practical or is prohibitively expensive to record
those data link communications applications messages on FDR or CVR.
4.3.3.2 Duration
The minimum recording duration shall be equal to the duration of the CVR.
D-9
4.3.3.3 Correlation
Data link recording shall be able to be correlated to the recorded cockpit audio.
Origin:
Rationale:
FLIRECSWG/9
Same as for Annex 6, Part I, page B-13 refers.
4.3.4 Flight recorders — general
4.3.4.1 Construction and installation
Flight recorders shall be constructed, located and installed so as to provide maximum practical
protection for the recordings in order that the recorded information may be preserved, recovered and
transcribed. Flight recorders shall meet the prescribed crashworthiness and fire protection specifications.
4.3.4.2 Operation
4.3.4.2.1
Flight recorders shall not be switched off during flight time.
4.3.4.2.2 To preserve flight recorder records, flight recorders shall be deactivated upon completion
of flight time following an accident or incident. The flight recorders shall not be reactivated before their
disposition as determined in accordance with Annex 13.
Note 1.— The need for removal of the flight recorder records from the aircraft will be determined by
the investigation authority in the State conducting the investigation with due regard to the seriousness of
an occurrence and the circumstances, including the impact on the operation.
Note 2.— The operator’s responsibilities regarding the retention of flight recorder records are
contained in Section II,9.6.
4.3.4.3 Continued serviceability
Operational checks and evaluations of recordings from the flight recorder systems shall be conducted to
ensure the continued serviceability of the recorders.
Note.— Procedures for the inspections of the flight recorder systems are given in Appendix 4.
4.3.4.4 Flight recorders electronic documentation
Recommendation.— The documentation requirement concerning FDR parameters provided by
D-10
operators to accident investigation authorities should be in electronic format and take account of
industry specifications.
Note.— Industry specification for documentation concerning flight recorder parameters may be
found in the ARINC 647A, Flight Recorder Electronic Documentation, or equivalent document.
Origin:
Rationale:
FLIRECSWG/9
No proposed amendments for this section.
SECTION III
INTERNATIONAL GENERAL AVIATION
4.7 FLIGHT RECORDERS
Note 1.— Crash-protected flight recorders comprise one or more of the following systems: a flight
data recorder (FDR),; a cockpit voice recorder (CVR),; an airborne image recorder (AIR); and/or a data
link recorder (DLR). Image and data link information may be recorded on either the CVR or the FDR.
Note 2.— Combination recorders (FDR/CVR) may be used to meet the flight recorder equipage
requirements in this Annex.
Note 3.— Detailed guidance requirements on flight recorders is are contained in Appendix 4.
Note 4.— Lightweight flight recorders comprise one or more of the following systems: an aircraft
data recording system (ADRS),; a cockpit audio recording system (CARS),; an airborne image recording
system (AIRS),; a data link recording system (DLRS). Image and data link information may be recorded
on either the CARS or the ADRS.
Note 45.— For helicopters for which the application for type certification is submitted to a
Contracting State before 1 January 2016, specifications applicable to crash-protected flight recorders
may be found in EUROCAE ED-112, ED-56A, ED-55, Minimum Operational Performance
Specifications (MOPS), or earlier equivalent documents.
Note 56.— For helicopters for which the application for type certification is submitted to a
Contracting State on or after 1 January 2016, specifications applicable to crash-protected flight
recorders may be found in EUROCAE ED-112A, Minimum Operational Performance Specification
(MOPS), or equivalent documents.
Note 7.— Specifications applicable to lightweight flight recorders may be found in EUROCAE
ED -155, Minimum Operational Performance Specification (MOPS), or equivalent documents.
Origin:
Rationale:
FLIRECSWG/9
Same as for Annex 6, Part I, page B-7 refers, except:
D-11
a) that Note 2 in Annex 6, Part I is similar to Note 4 in Part III. Notes 4 and 5 in
Annex 6, Part I, are similar to Notes 5 and 6 in Part III;
b) It is proposed to add Note 7 to align with Annex 6, Parts I and II.
4.7.1 Flight data recorders and aircraft data recording systems
Note.— Parameters to be recorded are listed in Table A4-1 of Appendix 4.
4.7.1.1 Types
4.7.1.1.1 A Type IV FDR shall record the parameters required to determine accurately the
helicopter flight path, speed, attitude, engine power and operation.
4.7.1.1.2 A Type IVA FDR shall record the parameters required to determine accurately the
helicopter flight path, speed, attitude, engine power, operation and configuration.
4.7.1.1.3 A Type V FDR shall record the parameters required to determine accurately the
helicopter flight path, speed, attitude and engine power.
4.7.1.21
Operation Applicability
4.7.1.21.1 All helicopters of a maximum certificated take-off mass of over 3 175 kg for which the
individual certificate of airworthiness is first issued on or after 1 January 2016 shall be equipped with an
Type IVA FDR which shall record at least the first 48 parameters listed in Table A4-1 of Appendix 4.
4.7.1.21.2 All helicopters of a maximum certificated take-off mass of over 7 000 kg, or having
a passenger seating configuration of more than nineteen, for which the individual certificate of
airworthiness is first issued on or after 1 January 1989 shall be equipped with an Type IV FDR which
shall record at least the first 30 parameters listed in Table A4-1 of Appendix 4.
4.7.1.21.3 Recommendation.— All helicopters of a maximum certificated take-off mass of over
3 175 kg, up to and including 7 000 kg, for which the individual certificate of airworthiness is first
issued on or after 1 January 1989, should be equipped with an Type V FDR which should record at least
the first 15 parameters listed in Table A4-1 of Appendix 4.
4.7.1.32
Discontinuation Recording technology
4.7.1.3.1 FDRs shall not use engraving metal foil, frequency modulation (FM), photographic film or
magnetic tape. The use of engraving metal foil FDRs shall be discontinued.
4.3.1.3.2 Recommendation.— The use of analogue FDRs using frequency modulation (FM) should
be discontinued.
4.3.1.3.3 The use of photographic film FDRs shall be discontinued.
D-12
4.3.1.3.4 The use of analogue FDRs using frequency modulation (FM) shall be discontinued by
1 January 2012.
4.3.1.3.5 Recommendation.— The use of magnetic tape FDRs should be discontinued by
1 January 2011.
4.3.1.3.6 The use of magnetic tape FDRs shall be discontinued by 1 January 2016.
4.7.1.43
Duration
Types IV, IVA and V All FDRs shall be capable of retaining the information recorded during at least
the last ten10 hours of their operation.
Origin:
Rationale:
FLIRECSWG/9
Same as for Annex 6, Part I, page B-10 refers, except that:
a) no Note 2 relating to AIR or AIRS classification in this section exists in Annex 6, Part III
b) no provisions similar to Annex 6, Part I, 6.3.1.2.12 and 6.3.1.2.13 exist in Annex 6,
Part III.
c) there is no reference to 30-minute duration FDRs in Annex 6, Part III.
4.7.2 Cockpit voice recorders and cockpit audio recording systems
4.7.2.1 Operation Applicability
4.7.2.1.1 All helicopters of a maximum certificated take-off mass of over 7 000 kg for which the
individual certificate of airworthiness is first issued on or after 1 January 1987 shall be equipped with a
CVR. For helicopters not equipped with an FDR, at least main rotor speed shall be recorded on the CVR.
4.7.2.1.2 Recommendation.— All helicopters of a maximum certificated take-off mass of over
3 175 kg for which the individual certificate of airworthiness is first issued on or after 1 January 1987
should be equipped with a CVR. For helicopters not equipped with an FDR, at least main rotor speed
should be recorded on the CVR.
4.7.2.1.3 All helicopters of a maximum certificated take-off mass of over 7 000 kg for which the
individual certificate of airworthiness was first issued before 1 January 1987 shall be equipped with a
CVR. For helicopters not equipped with an FDR, at least main rotor speed shall be recorded on the CVR.
4.7.2.2 Discontinuation Recording technology
4.7.2.2.1 CVRs shall not use magnetic tape or wire. The use of magnetic tape and wire CVRs shall
be discontinued by 1 January 2016.
4.7.2.2.2 Recommendation.— The use of magnetic tape and wire CVRs should be discontinued by
1 January 2011.
D-13
4.7.2.3 Duration
4.7.2.3.1 A CVR shall be capable of retaining the information recorded during at least the last
30 minutes of its operation.
4.7.2.3.2 From 1 January 2016, a All helicopters required to be equipped with a CVR shall be
equipped with a CVR which capable ofshall retaining the information recorded during at least the last
two2 hours of its operation.
4.7.2.3.3 Recommendation.— All helicopters for which the individual certificate of airworthiness
is first issued on or after 1 January 1990, and that are required to be equipped with a CVR, should have
a CVR capable of retaining the information recorded during at least the last two hours of its operation.
Origin:
Rationale:
FLIRECSWG/9
Same as for Annex 6, Part I, page B-12 refers, except:
a)
that the proposed deletion is 4.7.2.1.3 in Part III which became redundant, and the
reference to certificate of airworthiness and 1 January 1987 in 4.7.2.1.1 be deleted;
b) the addition of “at least” in 4.7.2.3 to align with similar provisions in Annex 6.
4.7.3 Data link recorders
4.7.3.1 Applicability
4.7.3.1.1 All helicopters for which the individual certificate of airworthiness is first issued on or
after 1 January 2016, which utilize any of the data link communications applications listed in 5.1.2 of
Appendix 4 and are required to carry a CVR, shall record on a crash-protected flight recorder the data link
communications messages.
4.7.3.1.1.1 All helicopters which are modified on or after 1 January 2016 to install and utilize
any of the data link communications applications listed in 5.1.2 of Appendix 4 and are required to carry
a CVR, shall record on a crash-protected flight recorder the data link communications messages.
Note 1.— Data link communications are currently conducted by either ATN-based or FANS 1/Aequipped helicopter.
Note 2.— A Class B AIR could be a means for recording data link communications applications
messages to and from the helicopters where it is not practical or is prohibitively expensive to record
those data link communications applications messages on FDR or CVR.
4.7.3.2 Duration
The minimum recording duration shall be equal to the duration of the CVR.
D-14
4.7.3.3 Correlation
Data link recording shall be able to be correlated to the recorded cockpit audio.
Origin:
Rationale:
FLIRECSWG/9
Same as for Annex 6, Part I, page B-13 refers.
4.7.4 Flight recorders — general
4.7.4.1 Construction and installation
Flight recorders shall be constructed, located and installed so as to provide maximum practical
protection for the recordings in order that the recorded information may be preserved, recovered and
transcribed. Flight recorders shall meet the prescribed crashworthiness and fire protection specifications.
4.7.4.2 Operation
4.7.4.2.1
Flight recorders shall not be switched off during flight time.
4.7.4.2.2 To preserve flight recorder records, flight recorders shall be deactivated upon completion
of flight time following an accident or incident. The flight recorders shall not be reactivated before their
disposition as determined in accordance with Annex 13.
Note 1.— The need for removal of the flight recorder records from the aircraft will be determined by
the investigation authority in the State conducting the investigation with due regard to the seriousness of
an occurrence and the circumstances, including the impact on the operation.
Note 2.— The operator/owner’s responsibilities regarding the retention of flight recorder records
are contained in Section II,
4.7.4.3 Continued serviceability
Operational checks and evaluations of recordings from the flight recorder systems shall be conducted to
ensure the continued serviceability of the recorders.
Note.— Procedures for the inspections of the flight recorder systems are given in Appendix 4.
4.7.4.4 Flight recorders electronic documentation
Recommendation.— The documentation requirement concerning FDR parameters provided by
operator/owners to accident investigation authorities should be in electronic format and take account of
industry specifications.
D-15
Note.— Industry specification for documentation concerning flight recorder parameters may be
found in the ARINC 647A, Flight Recorder Electronic Documentation, or equivalent document.
Origin:
Rationale:
FLIRECSWG/9
No proposed amendments for this section.
APPENDIX 4. FLIGHT RECORDERS
(Section II, Chapter 4, 4.3 and Section III, Chapter 4, 4.7, refer)
The material in this Appendix concerns flight recorders intended for installation in helicopters engaged in
international air navigation. Crash-protected flight recorders comprise one or more of the followingsystems: a flight data recorder (FDR),; a cockpit voice recorder (CVR),; an airborne image recorder
(AIR),; and/or a data link recorder (DLR). Lightweight flight recorders comprise one or more of the
following systems: an aircraft data recording system (ADRS); a cockpit audio recording system (CARS);
an airborne image recording system (AIRS); a data link recording system (DLRS).
1. GENERAL REQUIREMENTS
1.1 Non-deployable flight recorder containers shall be painted a distinctive orange colour.:
a) be painted a distinctive orange or yellow colour;
1.2 Non-deployable crash-protected flight recorder containers shall:
ab) carry reflective material to facilitate their location; and
bc) have securely attached an automatically activated underwater locating device operating at a
frequency of 37.5 kHz. At the earliest practical date, but not later than 1 January 2018, this
device shall operate for a minimum of ninety90 days.
Note.— Current industry practice is to phase out yellow flight recorder containers at the end of
the service life of the flight recorder.
1.3 Automatic deployable flight recorder containers shall:
a) be painted a distinctive orange colour, however the surface visible from outside the helicopter
may be of another colour;
b) carry reflective material to facilitate their location; and
c) have an integrated automatically activated ELT.
1.42 The flight recorder systems shall be installed so that:
D-16
a) the probability of damage to the recordings is minimized;
b) they receive electrical power from a bus that provides the maximum reliability for operation of
the flight recorder systems without jeopardizing service to essential or emergency loads;
cb) there is an aural or visual means for pre-flight checking that the flight recorder systems are
operating properly; and
dc) if the flight recorder systems have a bulk erasure device, the installation shall be designed to
prevent operation of the device during flight time or crash impact.
1.5 The flight recorder systems shall be installed so that they receive electrical power from a bus
that provides the maximum reliability for operation of the flight recorder systems without jeopardizing
service to essential or emergency loads.
1.63 The flight recorder systems, when tested by methods approved by the appropriate
certificating authority, shall be demonstrated to be suitable for the environmental extremes over which
they are designed to operate.
1.74 Means shall be provided for an accurate time correlation between the flight recorder systems
functions.
1.85 The manufacturer usually provides the appropriate certificating authority with the following
information in respect of the flight recorder systems:
a ) manufacturer’s operating instructions, equipment limitations and installation procedures; and
b ) parameter origin or source and equations which relate counts to units of measurement; and
bc) manufacturer’s test reports.
Origin:
Rationale:
FLIRECSWG/9
Same as for Annex 6, Part I, page B-16 refers, except for:
a)
inserting reference to lightweight recorders in the description of flight recorders below the
heading of Appendix 4;
b) the provisions for automatic deployable flight recorder containers which are not addressed
in Part III; and
c) the information from the flight recorder manufacturer relating to parameter origin or
source and equations which needs to be inserted as 1.5 b) to align these provisions with
those in Part I.
2. FLIGHT DATA RECORDER (FDR) AND AIRCRAFT DATA RECORDING SYSTEM
(ADRS)
2.1
Start and stop logic
2.1 The FDR or ADRS flight data recorder shall start to record prior to the helicopter moving under
D-17
its own power and record continuously until the termination of the flight when the helicopter is no longer
capable of moving under its own power.
2.2 Parameters to be recorded
Note.— In previous editions of Annex 6, Part III, types of recorders were defined to capture the first
evolutions of FDRs.
2.2.1 Flight data recorders for helicopters shall be classified as Type IV, IVA and V depending
upon the number of parameters to be recorded.
2.2.21 The parameters that satisfy the requirements for Types IV, IVA and V FDRs, are listed in
the paragraphs below Table A4-1. The number of parameters to be recorded shall depend on helicopter
complexity. The parameters without an asterisk (*) are mandatory parameters which shall be recorded
regardless of helicopter complexity. In addition, the parameters designated by an asterisk (*) shall be
recorded if an information data source for the parameter is used by helicopter systems or the flight
crew to operate the helicopter. However, other parameters may be substituted with due regard to the
helicopter type and the characteristics of the recording equipment.
2.2.23 The following parameters shall satisfy the requirements for flight path and speed:
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
Pressure altitude
Indicated airspeed
Outside air temperature
Heading
Normal acceleration
Lateral acceleration
Longitudinal acceleration (body axis)
Time or relative time count
Navigation data*: drift angle, wind speed, wind direction, latitude/longitude
Radio altitude*.
2.2.4
The following parameters shall satisfy the requirements for attitude:
— Pitch attitude
— Roll attitude
— Yaw rate.
2.2.5
The following parameters shall satisfy the requirements for engine power:
— Power on each engine: free power turbine speed (Nf), engine torque, engine gas generator speed
(Ng), cockpit power control position
— Rotor: main rotor speed, rotor brake
— Main gearbox oil pressure*
— Gearbox oil temperature*: main gearbox oil temperature, intermediate gearbox oil temperature,
tail rotor gearbox oil temperature
— Engine exhaust gas temperature (T4)*
— Turbine inlet temperature (TIT)*.
D-18
2.2.6
The following parameters shall satisfy the requirements for operation:
— Hydraulics low pressure
— Warnings
— Primary flight controls — pilot input and/or control output position: collective pitch, longitudinal
cyclic pitch, lateral cyclic pitch, tail rotor pedal, controllable stabilator, hydraulic selection
— Marker beacon passage
— Each navigation receiver frequency selection
— AFCS mode and engagement status*
— Stability augmentation system engagement*
— Indicated sling load force*
— Vertical deviation*: ILS glide path, MLS elevation, GNSS approach path
— Horizontal deviation*: ILS localizer, MLS azimuth, GNSS approach path
— DME 1 and 2 distances*
— Altitude rate*
— Ice detector liquid water content*
— Helicopter health and usage monitor system (HUMS)*: engine data, chip detectors, channel
timing, exceedance discretes, broadband average engine vibration.
2.2.7
The following parameters shall satisfy the requirements for configuration:
— Landing gear or gear selector position*
— Fuel contents*
— Ice detector liquid water content*.
2.2.8 Type IVA FDR. This FDR will be capable of recording, as appropriate to the helicopter, at
least the 48 parameters in Table A4-1.
2.2.9 Type IV FDR. This FDR shall be capable of recording, as appropriate to the helicopter,
at least the first 30 parameters in Table A4-1.
2.2.10 Type V FDR. This FDR shall be capable of recording, as appropriate to the
helicopter, at least the first 15 parameters in Table A4-1.
2.2.311 If further FDR recording capacity is available, recording of the following additional
information shall be considered:
a) additional operational information from electronic displays, such as electronic flight instrument
systems (EFIS), electronic centralized aircraft monitor (ECAM) and engine indication and crew
alerting system (EICAS); and
b) additional engine parameters (EPR, N1, fuel flow, etc.).
2.2.4 The parameters that satisfy the requirements for ADRS are listed in Table A4-3.
2.3
Additional information
2.3.1 The measurement range, recording interval and accuracy of parameters on installed equipment
is usually verified by methods approved by the appropriate certificating authority.
D-19
2.3.2 Documentation concerning parameter allocation, conversion equations, periodic calibration
and other serviceability/maintenance information shall be maintained by the operator/owner. The
documentation shall be sufficient to ensure that accident investigation authorities have the necessary
information to read out the data in engineering units.
Origin:
Rationale:
FLIRECSWG/9
Same as for Annex 6, Part I, page B-20 refers, except:
a) for proposal to include the requirements for ADRS to align text with Annex 6,
Parts I and II. The heading shall thus be expanded to include ADRS;
b) the addition of a provision for “if further recording capacity is available” is
unnecessary in Part III as this is addressed in 2.2.11 which needs to be
renumbered to 2.2.3;
c) to retain defining parameters in Part III for “flight path and speed” 2.2.3 should
remain and be renumbered to 2.2.2. This is different from Parts I and II where
2.2.2.9 is moved up; and
d) Part III does not have a 2.3.1 referring to 30-minute duration FDRs to move.
3. COCKPIT VOICE RECORDER (CVR) AND COCKPIT AUDIO RECORDING SYSTEM
(CARS)
3.1
Signals to be recorded Start and stop logic
3.1.1 The CVR or CARS shall start to record prior to the helicopter moving under its own power
and record continuously until the termination of the flight when the helicopter is no longer capable of
moving under its own power. In addition, depending on the availability of electrical power, the CVR or
CARS shall start to record as early as possible during the cockpit checks prior to engine start at the
beginning of the flight until the cockpit checks immediately following engine shutdown at the end of the
flight.
3.2
Signals to be recorded
3.1.2.1 The CVR shall record simultaneously on four separate channels, or more, at least the
following:
a) voice communication transmitted from or received in the aircraft by radio;
b) aural environment on the flight deck;
c) voice communication of flight crew members on the flight deck using the interphone system, if
installed;
d) voice or audio signals identifying navigation or approach aids introduced in the headset or
speaker; and
D-20
e) voice communication of flight crew members using the passenger address system, if installed.
3.2.2 The preferred CVR audio allocation should be as follows:
a)
pilot-in-command audio panel;
b) co-pilot audio panel;
c)
additional flight crew positions and time reference; and
d) cockpit area microphone.
3.2.3 The CARS shall record simultaneously on two separate channels, or more, at least the
following:
a) voice communication transmitted from or received in the helicopter by radio;
b) aural environment on the flight deck; and
c) voice communication of flight crew members on the flight deck using the helicopter’s interphone
system, if installed.
3.2.4 The preferred CARS audio allocation should be as follows:
a) voice communication; and
b) aural environment on the flight deck.
3.1.3 The CVR shall be capable of recording on at least four channels simultaneously. On tapebased CVR, to ensure accurate time correlation between channels, the CVR shall record in an in-line
format. If a bi-directional configuration is used, the in-line format and channel allocation shall be retained
in both directions.
3.1.4 The preferred channel allocation shall be as follows:
Channel 1 — co-pilot headphones and live boom microphone
Channel 2 — pilot headphones and live boom microphone
Channel 3 — area microphone
Channel 4 — time reference, main rotor speed or the flight deck vibration environment, the third
and fourth crew member’s headphone and live microphone, if applicable.
Note 1.— Channel 1 is located closest to the base of the recording head.
Note 2.— The preferred channel allocation presumes use of current conventional magnetic tape
transport mechanisms and is specified because the outer edges of the tape have a higher risk of damage
than the middle. It is not intended to preclude use of alternative recording media where such constraints
may not apply.
D-21
Origin:
Rationale:
FLIRECSWG/9
Same as for Annex 6, Part I, page B-22 refers, except:
a) a reference to CARS be added in 3.1 to align with Annex 6, Parts I and II; and
b) for proposing to insert a provision for CARS to record on two separate channels in order
to align Part III with these requirements in Parts I and II.
4. AIRBORNE IMAGE RECORDER (AIR)
AND AIRBORNE IMAGE RECORDING SYSTEM (AIRS)
4.1
Start and stop logic
Editorial Note.— Move paragraph 4.2 to 4.1.
The AIR or AIRS shall start to record prior to the helicopter moving under its own power and record
continuously until the termination of the flight when the helicopter is no longer capable of moving under
its own power. In addition, depending on the availability of electrical power, the AIR or AIRS shall start
to record as early as possible during the cockpit checks prior to engine start at the beginning of the flight
until the cockpit checks immediately following engine shutdown at the end of the flight.
4.21 Classes
4.21.1 A Class A AIR or AIRS captures the general cockpit area in order to provide data
supplemental to conventional flight recorders.
Note 1.— To respect crew privacy, the cockpit area view may be designed as far as practical to
exclude the head and shoulders of crew members whilst seated in their normal operating position.
Note 2.— There are no provisions for Class A AIRs or AIRS in this document.
4.21.2
A Class B AIR or AIRS captures data link message displays.
4.21.3
A Class C AIR or AIRS captures instruments and control panels.
Note.— A Class C AIR or AIRS may be considered as a means for recording flight data where it is
not practical or prohibitively expensive to record on an FDR, or where an FDR is not required.
4.2 Operation
The AIR or AIRS shall start to record prior to the helicopter moving under its own power and record
continuously until the termination of the flight when the helicopter is no longer capable of moving under
its own power. In addition, depending on the availability of electrical power, the AIR or AIRS shall start
to record as early as possible during the cockpit checks prior to engine start at the beginning of the flight
until the cockpit checks immediately following engine shutdown at the end of the flight.
D-22
Origin:
Rationale:
FLIRECSWG/9
Same as for Annex 6, Part I, page B-24 refers without the issue of the “must start” as
this was corrected in the latest amendment to Annex 6, Part III.
5.
DATA LINK RECORDER (DLR)
5.1 Applications to be recorded
5.1.1 Where the helicopter flight path is authorized or controlled through the use of data link
messages, all data link messages, both uplinks (to the helicopter) and downlinks (from the helicopter),
shall be recorded on the helicopter. As far as practicable, the time the messages were displayed to the
flight crew and the time of the responses shall to be recorded.
Note.— Sufficient information to derive the content of the data link communications message and the
time the messages were displayed to the flight crew is needed to determine an accurate sequence of events
on board the aircraft.
5.1.2 Messages applying to the applications listed below in Table A4-2 shall be recorded.
Applications without the asterisk (*) are mandatory applications which shall be recorded regardless of
the system complexity. Applications with an (*) are to be recorded only as far as is practicable given the
architecture of the system.
—
—
—
—
—
—
Data link initiation capability
Controller–pilot data link communications
Data link flight information services
Automatic dependent surveillance — contract
Automatic dependent surveillance — broadcast*
Aeronautical operational control*.
Note.— Descriptions of the applications are contained in Table A4-2
Origin:
Rationale:
FLIRECSWG/9
Same as for Annex 6, Part I, page B-26 refers, except for the deletion of the ADRS
part, which is not in Annex 6, Part III.
6.
INSPECTIONS OF FLIGHT RECORDER
SYSTEMS
6.1 Prior to the first flight of the day, the built-in test features for the flight recorders and flight
data acquisition unit (FDAU), when installed, shall be monitored by manual and/or automatic checks.
6.2 FDR systems or ADRS, CVR systems or CARS, and AIR systems or AIRS shall have
D-23
recording system inspection intervals of one year; subject to the approval from the appropriate regulatory
authority, this period may be extended to two years provided these systems have demonstrated a high
integrity of serviceability and self-monitoring. DLR systems or DLRS shall have recording system
inspection intervals of two years; subject to the approval from the appropriate regulatory authority, this
period may be extended to four years provided these systems have demonstrated high integrity of
serviceability and self-monitoring.
6.3 Recording system inspections shall be carried out as follows:
a) an analysis of the recorded data from the flight recorders shall ensure that the recorder
operates correctly for the nominal duration of the recording;
b) the analysis of the FDR or ADRS recording shall evaluate the quality of the recorded data to
determine if the bit error rate (including those errors introduced by recorder, the acquisition
unit, the source of the data on the helicopter and by the tools used to extract the data from the
recorder) is within acceptable limits and to determine the nature and distribution of the errors;
c) a complete flight recording from the FDR or ADRS recording from a complete flight shall be
examined in engineering units to evaluate the validity of all recorded parameters. Particular
attention shall be given to parameters from sensors dedicated to the FDR or ADRS. Parameters
taken from the aircraft’s electrical bus system need not be checked if their serviceability can be
detected by other aircraft systems;
d) the readout facility shall have the necessary software to accurately convert the recorded values
to engineering units and to determine the status of discrete signals;
e) an examination of the recorded signal on the CVR or CARS shall be carried out by replay of
the CVR or CARS recording. While installed in the aircraft, the CVR or CARS shall record test
signals from each aircraft source and from relevant external sources to ensure that all required
signals meet intelligibility standards;
f) where practicable, during the examination, a sample of in-flight recordings of the CVR or CARS
shall be examined for evidence that the intelligibility of the signal is acceptable; and
g) an examination of the recorded images on the AIR or AIRS shall be carried out by replay of the
AIR or AIRS recording. While installed in the aircraft, the AIR or AIRS shall record test
images from each aircraft source and from relevant external sources to ensure that all required
images meet recording quality standards.
6.4 A flight recorder system shall be considered unserviceable if there is a significant period of poor
quality data, unintelligible signals, or if one or more of the mandatory parameters is not recorded
correctly.
6.5 A report of the recording system inspection shall be made available on request to regulatory
authorities for monitoring purposes.
6.6 Calibration of the FDR system:
a) for those parameters which have sensors dedicated only to the FDR and are not checked by other
means, recalibration shall be carried out at least every five years or in accordance with the
D-24
recommendations of the sensor manufacturer to determine any discrepancies in the engineering
conversion routines for the mandatory parameters and to ensure that parameters are being
recorded within the calibration tolerances; and
b) when the parameters of altitude and airspeed are provided by sensors that are dedicated to the
FDR system, there shall be a recalibration performed as recommended by the sensor
manufacturer, or at least every two years.
Origin:
Rationale:
FLIRECSWG/9
Same as for Annex 6, Part I, page B-27 refers.
Table A4-1.
Serial
number
Parameter
Parameter Guidance Characteristics for Flight Data Recorders
Measurement range
Maximum sampling and
recording interval
(seconds)
Accuracy limits (sensor
input compared to FDR
readout)
Recording resolution
24 hours
4
±0.125% /per hour
1s
l
Time (UTC when
available, otherwise
relative time count or
GPSGNSS time sync)
2
Pressure altitude
–300 m (–1 000 ft) to
maximum certificated
altitude of aircraft +1 500
m (+5 000 ft)
1
±30 m to ±200 m
(±100 ft to ±700 ft)
1.5 m (5 ft)
3
Indicated airspeed
As the installed pilot
display measuring system
1
±3%
1 kt
4
Heading
360
1
±2
0.5
5
Normal acceleration
–3 g to +6 g
0.125
±0.09 g excluding a
datum error of ±0.045 g
0.004 g
6
Pitch attitude
±75° or 100% of useable
range whichever is
greater
0.5
±2
0.5
7
Roll attitude
±180
0.5
±2
0.5
8
Radio transmission
keying
On-off (one discrete)
1
—
—
9
Power on each engine
Full range
1 (per engine)
±2%
0.1% of full range
10
Main rotor:
Main rotor speed
50–130%
0.51
±2%
0.3% of full range
—
Rotor brake
Discrete
—
D-25
Serial
number
Maximum sampling and
recording interval
(seconds)
Accuracy limits (sensor
input compared to FDR
readout)
Parameter
Measurement range
Recording resolution
11
Pilot input and/or
control surface position
— primary controls
(collective pitch,
longitudinal cyclic pitch,
lateral cyclic pitch, tail
rotor pedal)
Full range
0.5
(0.25 recommended)
±2% unless higher
accuracy uniquely
required
0.5% of operating range
12
Hydraulics, each system
(low pressure and
selection)
Discrete
1
—
—
13
Outside air temperature
Sensor range
2
±2C
0.3C
14*
Autopilot/
autothrottle/AFCS mode
and engagement status
A suitable combination
of discretes
1
—
—
15*
Stability augmentation
system engagement
Discrete
1
—
—
Note.— The preceding 15 parameters satisfy the requirements for a Type V FDR.
16*
Main gearbox oil
pressure
As installed
1
As installed
6.895 kN/m2 (1 psi)
17*
Main gearbox oil
temperature
As installed
2
As installed
1C
18
Yaw rate
±400/second
0.25
±1.5% maximum range
excluding datum error of
±5%
±2/s
19*
Sling load force
0 to 200% of certified
load
0.5
±3% of maximum range
0.5% for maximum
certified load
20
Longitudinal
acceleration
±1 g
0.25
±0.015 g excluding a
datum error of ±0.05 g
0.004 g
21
Lateral acceleration
±1 g
0.25
±0.015 g excluding a
datum error of ±0.05 g
0.004 g
22*
Radio altitude
–6 m to 750 m
(–20 ft to 2 500 ft)
1
±0.6 m (±2 ft) or ±3%
whichever is greater
below 150 m (500 ft) and
±5% above 150 m
(500 ft)
0.3 m (1 ft) below 150 m
(500 ft), 0.3 m (1 ft) +
0.5% of full range above
150 m (500 ft)
23*
Vertical beam deviation
Signal range
1
±3%
0.3% of full range
24*
Horizontal
beam deviation
Signal range
1
±3%
0.3% of full range
25
Marker beacon passage
Discrete
1
—
—
26
Warnings
Discrete(s)
1
—
—
27
Each navigation
receiver frequency
selection
DME 1 and 2 distances
4
As installed
—
4
As installed
1 852 m (1 NM)
28*
Sufficient to determine
selected frequency
0–370 km
(0–200 NM)
D-26
Serial
number
Parameter
29*
Navigation data
(latitude/longitude,
ground speed, drift
angle, wind speed,
wind direction)
30*
Landing gear and
gear selector position
Maximum sampling and
recording interval
(seconds)
Accuracy limits (sensor
input compared to FDR
readout)
Recording resolution
As installed
2
As installed
As installed
Discrete
4
—
—
Measurement range
Note.— The preceding 30 parameters satisfy the requirements for a Type IV FDR.
31*
Engine exhaust gas
temperature (T4)
As installed
1
As installed
32*
Turbine inlet
temperature (TIT/ITT)
As installed
1
As installed
33*
Fuel contents
As installed
4
As installed
34*
Altitude rate
As installed
1
As installed
35*
Ice detection
As installed
4
As installed
36*
Helicopter health and
usage monitor system
As installed
—
As installed
—
37
Engine control modes
Discrete
1
—
—
38*
Selected barometric
setting (pilot and
co-pilot)
As installed
64
(4 recommended)
As installed
0.1 mb
(0.01 in Hg)
39*
Selected altitude (all
pilot selectable modes of
operation)
As installed
1
As installed
Sufficient to determine
crew selection
40*
Selected speed (all pilot
selectable modes of
operation)
As installed
1
As installed
Sufficient to determine
crew selection
41*
Selected Mach (all
pilot selectable modes
of operation)
As installed
1
As installed
Sufficient to determine
crew selection
42*
Selected vertical
speed (all pilot
selectable modes of
operation)
Selected heading (all
pilot selectable modes of
operation)
As installed
1
As installed
Sufficient to determine
crew selection
As installed
1
As installed
Sufficient to determine
crew selection
44*
Selected flight path (all
pilot selectable modes of
operation)
As installed
1
As installed
Sufficient to determine
crew selection
45*
Selected decision height
As installed
4
As installed
Sufficient to determine
crew selection
46*
EFIS display format
(pilot and co-pilot)
Discrete(s)
4
—
—
47*
Multi-function/
engine/alerts
display format
Discrete(s)
4
—
—
43*
D-27
Serial
number
48*
Parameter
Measurement range
Event marker
Maximum sampling and
recording interval
(seconds)
Discrete
Accuracy limits (sensor
input compared to FDR
readout)
Recording resolution
—
—
1
Note.— The preceding 48 parameters satisfy the requirements for a Type IVA FDR.
Table A4-2.
Item No.
Description of Applications for Data Link Recorders
Application type
Application description
Recording
content
1
Data link initiation
This includes any applications used to log on to or initiate
data link service. In FANS-1/A and ATN, these are ATS
facilities notification (AFN) and context management
(CM) respectively.
C
2
Controller/pilot
communication
This includes any application used to exchange requests,
clearances, instructions and reports between the flight
crew and controllers on the ground. In FANS-1/A and
ATN, this includes the CPDLC application. It also
includes applications used for the exchange of oceanic
(OCL) and departure clearances (DCL) as well as data link
delivery of taxi clearances.
C
3
Addressed surveillance
This includes any surveillance application in which the
ground sets up contracts for delivery of surveillance data.
In FANS-1/A and ATN, this includes the automatic
dependent surveillance — contract (ADS-C) application.
Where parametric data are reported within the message
they shall be recorded unless data from the same source
are recorded on the FDR.
C
4
Flight information
This includes any service used for delivery of flight
information to specific aircraft. This includes, for
example, data link aviation weather report service (DMETAR), data link-automatic terminal service (D-ATIS),
digital Notice to Airmen (D-NOTAM) and other textual
data link services.
C
5
Aircraft broadcast
surveillance
This includes elementary and enhanced surveillance
systems, as well as automatic dependent surveillance —
broadcast (ADS-B) output data. Where parametric data
sent by the helicopter are reported within the message they
shall be recorded unless data from the same source are
recorded on the FDR.
M*
6
Aeronautical operational
control data
This includes any application transmitting or receiving
data used for aeronautical operational control purposes
(per the ICAO definition of operational control).
M*
D-28
Key:
C: Complete contents recorded.
M: Information that enables correlation to any associated records stored separately from the helicopter.
*: Applications to be recorded only as far as is practicable given the architecture of the system.
Table A4-3.
Parameter Guidance Characteristics for Aircraft Data Recording Systems
Parameter
category
Minimum
recording range
Maximum
recording
interval in
seconds
R
±180°
1
±2°
0.5°
b) Yaw rate
E
±300°/s
0.25
±1% + drift of
360°/h
2°/s
Pitch
E
E
±90°
0.25
±2°
0.5°
b) Pitch rate
E
±300°/s
0.25
±1% + drift of
360°/h
2°/s
3
Roll
E
3
a) Roll attitude
E
±180°
0.25
±2°
0.5°
b) Roll rate
E
±300°/s
0.25
±1% + drift of
360°/h
2°/s
4
Yaw rate
E*
±300°/s
0.25
±1% + drift
of 360°/h
2°/s
* Essential if no
heading available
5
Pitch rate
E*
±300°/s
0.25
±1% + drift
of 360°/h
2°/s
* Essential if no
pitch attitude
available
6
Roll rate
E*
±300°/s
0.25
±1% + drift
of 360°/h
2°/s
* Essential if no roll
attitude available
4
Positioning system:
24 hours
1
±0.5°
0.1°
UTC time preferred
where available
Latitude:±90°
Longitude:±180°
2
(1 if available)
As installed
(0.00015°
0.00005°
No.
1
Parameter name
Minimum
recording
resolution
Remarks
Heading
1
2
Minimum
recording
accuracy
a) Heading
(Magnetic
or True)
2
a)
a)
Pitch
attitude
time
b) latitude/longitude
* I Heading is
preferred, if not
available, record
rotational yaw rates
shall be recorded.
* I Pitch attitude is
preferred, if not
available, record
rotational pitch
rates shall be
recorded
* I Roll attitude is
preferred, if not
available, record
rotational roll rates
shall be recorded
D-29
No.
Parameter name
Parameter
category
Minimum
recording range
Maximum
recording
interval in
seconds
Minimum
recording
accuracy
Minimum
recording
resolution
Remarks
recommended)
c) altitude
d) ground speed
e) track
f) estimated error
–300 m (–1 000 ft) to
maximum certificated
altitude of aircraft
+1 500 m (5 000 ft)
2
(1 if available)
As installed
(±15 m (±50 ft)
recommended)
1.5 m (5 ft)
0–1 000 kt
2
(1 if available)
As installed
(±5 kt
recommended)
1 kt
0–360°
2
(1 if available)
As installed
(± 2°
recommended)
0.5°
Available range
2
(1 if available)
As installed
As installed
7
Positioning system:
latitude/longitude
E
Latitude: ±90°
Longitude: ±180°
2
(1 if available)
As installed
(0.00015°
recommended)
0.00005°
8
Positioning system
estimated error
E*
Available range
2
(1 if available)
As installed
As installed
9
Positioning system:
altitude
E
–300 m (–1 000 ft) to
maximum certificated
altitude of aircraft +
1 500 m (5 000 ft)
10
Positioning system:
time*
E
24 hours
1
±0.5 s
0.1 s
11
Positioning system:
ground speed
E
0–1 000 kt
2
(1 if available)
As installed
(±5 kt
recommended)
1 kt
12
Positioning system:
channel
E
0–360°
513
Normal acceleration
E
–3 g to + 6 g (*)
0.25 (0.125 if
available)
As installed (±
0.09 g excluding a
datum error of
±0.45 g
recommended)
0.004 g
614
Longitudinal
acceleration
E
±1 g (*)
0.25 (0.125 if
available)
As installed
(±0.015 g excluding
a datum error of
±0.05 g
recommended)
0.004 g
715
Lateral acceleration
E
±1 g (*)
0.25 (0.125 if
available)
As installed
(±0.015 g excluding
a datum error of
±0.05 g
recommended)
0.004 g
816
External static pressure
(or pressure altitude)
R
34.4 mb (3.44 in-Hg) to
310.2 mb (31.02 in-Hg)
or available sensor
1
2
As installed (±15 m
(1 if available)
(±50 ft)
recommended)
2
As installed
(1 if available) (±2° recommended)
Shall be recorded if
readily available
* If available
1.5 m (5 ft)
0.5°
As installed (±1 mb
0.1 mb
(0.1 in-Hg) or
(0.01 in-Hg) or
±30 m (±100 ft) to
1.5 m (5 ft)
* UTC time
preferred where
available.
D-30
No.
Parameter name
Parameter
category
Minimum
recording range
Maximum
recording
interval in
seconds
range
Minimum
recording
accuracy
Minimum
recording
resolution
Remarks
±210 m (±700 ft)
recommended)
917
Outside air
temperature (or total
air temperature)
R
–50° to +90°C or
available sensor range
2
As installed
(±2°C
recommended)
1°C
1018
Indicated air speed
R
As the installed pilot
display measuring
system or available
sensor range
1
As installed
(±3 %
recommended)
1 kt (0.5 kt
recommended)
1119
Main rotor speed (Nr)
R
50% to 130% or
available sensor range
0.5
As installed
0.3% of full
range
1220
Engine RPM (*)
R
Full range including
overspeed condition
Each engine
each second
As installed
0.2% of full
range
1321
Engine oil pressure
R
Full range
Each engine
each second
As installed
(5% of full range
recommended)
2% of full
range
1422
Engine oil temperature
R
Full range
Each engine
each second
As installed
(5% of full range
recommended)
2% of full
range
1523
Fuel flow or pressure
R
Full range
Each engine
each second
As installed
2% of full
range
1624
Manifold pressure (*)
R
Full range
Each engine
each second
As installed
0.2% of full
range
*For piston-engined
helicopters
1725
Engine
thrust/power/torque
parameters required to
determine propulsive
thrust/power*
R
Full range
Each engine
each second
As installed
0.1% of full
range
*Sufficient
parameters e.g.
EPR/N1 or
torque/Np as
appropriate to the
particular engine
shall be recorded to
determine power. A
margin for possible
overspeed should
be provided. Only
for turbine-engined
helicopters
1826
Engine gas generator
speed (Ng) (*)
R
0-150%
Each engine
each second
As installed
0.2% of
full range
*Only for turbineengined helicopters
1927
Free power turbine
speed (Nf) (*)
R
0-150%
Each engine
each second
As installed
0.2% of
full range
*Only for turbineengined helicopters
2028
Collective pitch
R
Full range
0.5
As installed
0.1% of full
range
2129
Coolant temperature
(*)
R
Full range
1
As installed
(±5°C
recommended)
1°Cdegree
Celsius
2230
Main voltage
R
Full range
Each engine
each second
As installed
1 Volt
2331
Cylinder head
temperature (*)
R
Full range
Each cylinder
each second
As installed
2% of
full range
*For piston-engined
helicopters
*Only for pistonengined helicopters
*Only for pistonengined helicopters
D-31
No.
Parameter name
Parameter
category
Minimum
recording range
Maximum
recording
interval in
seconds
Minimum
recording
accuracy
Minimum
recording
resolution
2432
Fuel quantity
R
Full range
4
As installed
1% of full
range
2533
Exhaust gas
temperature
R
Full range
Each engine
each second
As installed
0.2 % of full
range
2634
Emergency voltage
R
Full range
Each engine
each second
As installed
1 Volt
2735
Trim surface position
R
Full range or each
discrete position
1
As installed
0.3% of full
range
2836
Landing gear position
R
Each discrete position*
Each gear
every two
seconds
As installed
2937
Novel/unique aircraft
features
R
As required
As required
As required
Key:
E:
R:
Remarks
* Where available,
record up-andlocked and downand-locked position
As required
Essential parameters
Recommended parameters
Origin:
Rationale:
FLIRECSWG/9 Same as for Annex 6, Part I, page B-37 refers, except:
a) the heading for Table A4-1 does not refer to “crash protected” flight recorders, there is no
need to delete these words as in Annex 6, Part I;
b) there is no need for additional column for imbedded applicability dates. Part III does not
have such parameters; and
c) There are no notes below Table A4-1 as there are below Table A8-1 in Annex 6, Part I.
The rationales for dealing with notes below Table A8-1 are not applicable.
Editorial Note.— Insert the following
Attachment.
ATTACHMENT X. GUIDE TO CURRENT FLIGHT RECORDER PROVISIONS
(Supplementary to Section II, Chapter 4, 4.3 and Section III, Chapter 4, 4.7)
INTRODUCTION
Since 1973, and the inclusion in Annex 6 of SARPs for the carriage of flight recorders, the FLIRECP
introduced new and revised requirements concerning flight recorders. These amendments include an
update of the provisions pertaining to flight recorders, recording of digital communications, FDR
requirements for new aircraft, revised parameter listings, and two-hour duration CVRs. Through the
years, the applicability date and the carriage of recorder to be installed as defined by the SARPs are quite
complex.
D-32
The tables below summarize the flight recorders carriage requirements for helicopters.
Table AX-1. FDR/AIR/ADRS/AIRS installation SARPS Section II
MCTOM
Date
Seating configuration of
more than 19 passenger or
over 7 000 kg
Over 3 175 kg
All helicopters
new certificate of
airworthiness
All helicopters
new certificate of
airworthiness
1989

4.3.1.1.2
30 parameters
2016

4.3.1.1.3
Recommendation 15 parameters
2018

4.3.1.1.1
48 parameters
4.3.1.1.4
48 parameters FDR
or Class C AIR or AIRS
or essential 7 parameters ADRS
4.3.1.1.5 Recommendation
48 parameters FDR
or Class C AIR or AIRS
or essential 7 parameters ADRS
All turbine
helicopters
new type certificate
All helicopters
new certificate of
airworthiness
Over 2 250 kg
Table AX-2. FDR/AIR/ADRS/AIRS installation SARPS Section III
MCTOM
Date
Seating configuration of
more than 19 passengers
or over 7 000 kg
Over 3 175 kg
All helicopters
new certificate of
airworthiness
All helicopters
new certificate of
airworthiness
1989

4.7.1.1.2
30 parameters
2016

4.7.1.1.3
Recommendation
15 parameters
4.7.1.1.1
48 parameters
Table AX-3. CVR/CARS installation SARPS Section II and Section III
MCTOM
Over 7 000 kg
Over 3 175 kg
Date
1987

4.3.2.1.1 or 4.7.2.1.1
2 hour CVR
4.3.2.1.2 or 4.7.2.1.2
Recommendation - 2 hour CVR
All helicopters
All helicopters
new certificate of
airworthiness
Origin:
Rationale:
FLIRECSWG/9
It is proposed to include summary tables for current flight recorder provisions to
serve as a guide to which SARPs is applicable to a specific helicopter.
————————
ATTACHMENT E to State letter SP 55/4-17/1
RESPONSE FORM TO BE COMPLETED AND RETURNED TO ICAO TOGETHER
WITH ANY COMMENTS YOU MAY HAVE ON THE PROPOSED AMENDMENTS
To:
The Secretary General
International Civil Aviation Organization
999 Robert-Bourassa Boulevard
Montréal, Quebec
Canada, H3C 5H7
(State)
Please make a checkmark () against one option for each amendment. If you choose options “agreement
with comments” or “disagreement with comments”, please provide your comments on separate sheets.
Agreement
without
comments
Agreement
with
comments*
Disagreement Disagreement
without
with
comments
comments
No position
Amendment to Annex 6 — Operation of Aircraft, Part I
(Attachment B refers)
Amendment to Annex 6 — Operation of Aircraft, Part II
(Attachment C refers)
Amendment to Annex 6 — Operation of Aircraft, Part III
(Attachment D refers)
*“Agreement with comments” indicates that your State or organization agrees with the intent and overall
thrust of the amendment proposal; the comments themselves may include, as necessary, your reservations
concerning certain parts of the proposal and/or offer an alternative proposal in this regard.
Signature:
Date:
— END —
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