WaveLab - Operation Manual

WaveLab - Operation Manual
Operation Manual
Cristina Bachmann, Heiko Bischoff, Christina Kaboth, Insa Mingers, Sabine Pfeifer,
Benjamin Schütte
This PDF provides improved access for vision-impaired users. Please note that due to the
complexity and number of images in this document, it is not possible to include text descriptions
of images.
The information in this document is subject to change without notice and does not represent a
commitment on the part of Steinberg Media Technologies GmbH. The software described by
this document is subject to a License Agreement and may not be copied to other media except
as specifically allowed in the License Agreement. No part of this publication may be copied,
reproduced, or otherwise transmitted or recorded, for any purpose, without prior written
permission by Steinberg Media Technologies GmbH. Registered licensees of the product
described herein may print one copy of this document for their personal use.
All product and company names are ™ or ® trademarks of their respective holders. For more
information, please visit www.steinberg.net/trademarks.
© Steinberg Media Technologies GmbH, 2013.
All rights reserved.
Release Date: June 18, 2013
Table of Contents
8
8
9
10
10
Introduction
The Help System
About the Program Versions
Typographical Conventions
How You Can Reach Us
11
11
11
12
12
16
16
Setting Up Your System
Connecting Audio
About Audio Cards and Background
Playback
About Latency
Defining VST Audio Connections
CD/DVD Recorders
Remote Devices
29
29
30
31
34
42
43
43
45
46
47
48
WaveLab Concepts
General Editing Rules
Startup Screen
Basic Window Handling
Selecting Audio
Sliders
Renaming Items in Tables
File Browser
Tab Groups
Peak Files
Companion Files
EBU Loudness Standard R-128
50
50
51
53
54
61
61
64
66
73
75
77
78
Program Overview
Command Bars
Status Bar
Context Menus
Time Ruler and Level Ruler
Value Editing
Drag Operations
Undoing and Redoing
Zooming
Managing Tabs
Presets
Saving a Picture of the Active Window
Log Window
80
80
99
File Operations
List of All Open Files Throughout the
Application Dialog
Recently Used Files
Favorite Files
Save and Save As
Templates
File Renaming
Deleting Files
Special Menu
Temporary Files
Work Folders vs. Document Folders
Uploading to SoundCloud
Copying Audio Information to the
Clipboard
Setting the Focus on the Current File
100
101
101
102
102
102
103
104
104
105
106
106
107
About Workspaces
Elements of a Workspace
Audio Files Workspace
Audio Montage Workspace
Batch Processors Workspace
Podcast Workspace
Control Window
Creating an Empty Workspace
New Workspace Dialog
Opening Files in a Workspace
Organizing Workspace Windows
Saving a Workspace Layout
About Tool Windows
81
83
85
88
92
93
94
95
95
98
98
3
112
112
129
129
130
130
132
133
134
135
Playback
Transport Bar
Playing Back Only One Channel
Starting Playback From the Ruler
Using the Play Tool
Playback Scrubbing
Timecode Window
Jog/Shuttle Function
Scroll During Playback
About Playback in the Audio Montage
Workspace
136 Speaker Configuration
236
236
237
240
241
243
243
245
246
259
267
299
139 Audio File Editing
139 Wave Window
150 File Handling in the Audio Files
Workspace
174 Changing the Audio Properties
176 Meta-Data
183 Silence Generator Dialog
186 Waveform Restoration with the Pen Tool
187
187
195
206
208
Audio Analysis
Error Detection and Correction
Global Analysis
Audio File Comparator
3D Frequency Analysis
211
211
212
212
213
216
217
219
220
221
222
222
223
225
228
229
232
233
Offline Processing
Applying Processing
Gain Dialog
Normalize Level Dialog
Loudness Normalizer
Pan Normalizer Dialog
Envelope Dialog
Fades in Audio Files
Crossfades
Inverting the Audio Phase
Reversing Audio
DC Offset
Time Stretching
Pitch Shift
Pitch Quantize Dialog
Pitch Bend
Resample
Effect Morphing
305
311
311
323
335
336
337
353
363
368
370
372
375
376
376
379
380
394
394
398
398
399
400
408
4
Audio Montage
Basic Terminology
Montage Window
Signal Flow in the Audio Montage
Creating a New Audio Montage
Creating an Audio Montage from an
Audio File
Import Options for Audio Montages
Missing Files in Audio Montage Dialog
Assembling the Audio Montage
Rearranging Clips
Clip Editing
Audio Montages Within Audio
Montages
Managing Source Files of Clips
Track Activity Indicator
Envelopes for Clips
Fades and Crossfades in the Audio
Montage
Clip Time Stretching
Clip Pitch Shifting
Effects for Tracks, Clips, and the Master
Output
About the CD Window
About Cloning Audio Montages
Snapshots
Mixing Down - The Render Function
Loudness Meta Normalizer
Navigator Window
Notes Window
About Groups
Backing Up Audio Montages
Multichannel Operations in the Audio
Montage
XML Export and Import of Audio
Montages
AES-31 Files Export and Import
Recording
Setting Up the Recording Dialog
Dropping Markers During Recording
Recording Dialog
Recording in the Audio Montage
Workspace
409
410
423
430
431
434
439
441
Master Section
Master Section Window
Rendering
Record From an ASIO Input
Smart Bypass
Saving a Master Section Preset
About Monitoring Background Tasks
About Dropouts
488
489
492
493
495
496
Basic Audio CD
Basic Audio CD Window
About CD Markers
Preparing a Basic Audio CD
Opening CD Tracks for Editing
About Playing Back Files in the Track
List
497 Saving Basic Audio CD Tracks as
Separate Files
498 Saving Basic Audio CD Tracks as One
File
442
443
444
448
454
457
457
459
459
459
461
462
463
463
Markers
Marker Types
Markers Window
About Creating Markers
Deleting Markers
Moving Markers
Moving Multiple Markers
Navigating to Markers
Hiding Markers of a Certain Type
Converting Marker Types
Renaming Markers
About Selecting Markers
Selecting the Audio Between Markers
Binding Markers to Clips in the Audio
Montage
464 Exporting the Markers List as Text
465 How Marker Information is Stored
466
466
466
467
468
468
469
469
470
474
478
480
481
484
486
487
Metering
Metering Window
Real Time vs. Non-Real Time
Metering Monitor Modes
About Meter Settings
Multichannel Metering
Resetting the Meters
Using Presets in the Meter Windows
Level Meter
Loudness Meter
Phasescope
Spectroscope
Spectrometer
Bit Meter
Oscilloscope
Wavescope
499
500
500
500
501
504
506
506
DVD-Audio
Structure of a DVD-Audio Project
DVD-Audio Formats
DVD-Audio Format Considerations
DVD-Audio Window
Preparing a DVD-Audio
Opening Audio Montages for Editing
Checking the DVD-Audio Conformity
507
507
510
511
514
530
535
539
Writing Operations
Write Audio CD or DDP Dialog
Erase Optical Media Dialog
About Writing Audio Files
About Writing Audio Montages
Write DVD-Audio Function
Data CD/DVD Projects
About Audio CD Formats
543
544
545
548
549
556
557
Spectrum Editing
Spectrum Display
Surgical Processing
Master Section Processing
Spectrum Editor Window
Defining a Region for Spectrum Editing
Processing Frequency Ranges via the
Master Section
558 Auto Split
558 Auto Split in Audio Files
562 Auto Split in Audio Montages
565
565
566
576
Loops
Basic Looping
About Refining Loops
About Looping Seemingly Unloopable
Audio
579 About Sample Attributes
581 Generating Signals
581 Signal Generator
585 DTMF Generator
5
588
589
593
594
594
594
Importing Audio CD Tracks
Import Audio CD Dialog
Importing Audio CD Tracks
Searching Track Names on the internet
About Ultra-Safe Mode
Converting Audio CD Tracks to an
Audio Montage
595 Converting Audio CD Tracks to a Basic
Audio CD
621
621
622
623
625
626
635
Batch Renaming
Batch Renaming Dialogs
Batch Renaming Files
Batch Renaming Markers
Batch Renaming Clips
Renaming Operation Categories and
Types
List of Renaming Operations
Preview Section
Range Parameters
Previewing and Performing All
Renaming Operations
About Regular Expressions
640
641
646
646
647
647
648
649
Podcasts
Podcast Workspace
Global Podcast Options
Creating a Podcast
Setting Up a FTP for Podcast Publishing
Publishing a Podcast
FTP Site Dialog
Checking the Podcast
632
632
633
635
596 Batch Processing
597 Advantages of the WaveLab Batch
Processor
598 Batch Processing Meta-data
598 Overview of the Batch Processors
Workspace
604 About Off-Line Processors
606 Opening the Batch Processors
Workspace
607 Creating a Batch Process Document
607 Saving a Batch Process Document
608 Adding Files to a Batch Process
610 Custom Plug-in Chain vs. Associated
Master Section Preset
611 Adding Plug-ins to the Batch Process
612 Removing Files and Plug-ins from the
Batch Process
612 Changing the Order of the Plug-ins in
the Batch Process
613 Previewing the Effect of the Batch
Process
613 About Processing Open Files
614 Selecting an Output Format for the
Batch Process
614 Setting Up a File Location for the Batch
Process
615 Specifying an Overwriting Strategy
615 Naming Rendered Audio Files
616 Running and Stopping the Batch
Process
616 Batch Processing Status Icons
617 About Multitasking During the Batch
Process
650
650
651
651
Master Projects
Setting Up a Master Project
Saving a Master Project
Writing Files of a Master Project to Data
CD/DVD
652 Master Project Window
654 Customizing
654 Window Layout
660 Customizing the Wave Window and the
Montage Window
669 About Customizing Shortcuts
676 Plug-ins Organization
685 Variables and Text Snippets
687 About Scripting
710
710
720
725
729
729
730
619 Batch Conversion
619 Batch Conversion Dialog
620 Batch Converting Files
6
Configuring the Software
About Global Preferences
Audio File Editing Preferences Dialog
Audio Montage Preferences Dialog
Settings Management
Multi-User Settings
About External Tools
734
734
739
800
809
809
812
815
Plug-in Reference
Built-in Plug-ins
Steinberg VST 3 Plug-ins
Sonnox Restoration Toolkit
Legacy Plug-ins
Dithering Plug-ins
ASIO Plug-ins
Batch Processing Plug-ins
825 Index
7
Introduction
The Help System
The detailed help system of WaveLab makes it easy to look up interface
features and get information from within the program.
Three main types of help are available:
•
The help provides detailed information on the features and
functionality of WaveLab. You can set bookmarks, and use the
search function and index to quickly find information.
•
“What’s This” tooltips give detailed information on the functionality
of a specific user interface element.
•
The status bar at the bottom of each workspace window gives
detailed information on menu items when moving the mouse over
an item.
•
In the Audio Montage workspace, the status bar shows what kind
of editing can be performed when using the mouse and modifier
keys.
Accessing the Help System
There are several ways of accessing the help system.
•
To open the WaveLab help, select Help > Contents.
•
To open the manual in PDF format, browse to the installation
folder. The documents are located in the Documentation folder.
•
To show tooltips, move the mouse over an interface icon.
•
To open the help for the active dialog, click the question mark icon
on the title bar (Windows) or in the dialog (Mac OS) to show the
Help button, and then click the Help button, or press [F1]
(Windows) or [Command]-[?] (Mac OS).
8
Introduction
About the Program Versions
•
To use the menu help, move the mouse over a menu item. The help
text is displayed on the status bar at the bottom of the workspace
window.
•
To see information on what kind of editing can be performed when
using the mouse and modifier keys in the audio montage window,
move the mouse over the montage window. The help text is
displayed on the status bar at the bottom of the workspace
window.
•
To activate/deactivate the help texts on the status bar, select
Options (WaveLab menu on Mac) > Global preferences >
Display tab, and in the Workspaces section, select Display
status bar.
To open the “What’s This” help, you have the following possibilities:
•
In any workspace, press [Shift]-[F1], and move the mouse over an
interface item, or select Help > What is this?.
•
In a dialog, select the question mark icon on any title bar
(Windows) or in the dialog (Mac OS), and move the mouse over
an interface item or a menu option.
•
Some “What’s this” tooltips have a different background color to
indicate that a dedicated help topic is available in the WaveLab
help. Click the link in the tooltip to open the corresponding
information in the help.
About the Program Versions
The documentation covers two different operating systems, Windows
and Mac OS X. Some features and settings are specific to one of the
operation systems.
This is clearly stated in the applicable cases. If nothing else is said, all
descriptions and procedures in the documentation are valid for all
WaveLab versions for both Windows and Mac OS X.
The screenshots are taken from the English Windows version of
WaveLab.
9
Introduction
Typographical Conventions
Typographical Conventions
Many of the default key commands in WaveLab use modifier keys, some
of which are different depending on the operating system. For example,
the default key command for Undo is [Ctrl]-[Z] on Windows and
[Command]-[Z] on Mac OS X.
When key commands with modifier keys are described in this manual,
they are shown with the Windows modifier key first, in the following way:
•
[Win modifier key]/[Mac modifier key]-[key]
For example, [Ctrl]/[Command]-[Z] means “press [Ctrl] on Windows or
[Command] on Mac OS X, then press [Z]”.
Similarly, [Alt]/[Option]-[X] means “press [Alt] on Windows or [Option]
on Mac OS X, then press [X]”.
NOTE
This manual often refers to right-clicking, for example, to open context
menus. If you are using a Mac with a single-button mouse, hold down
[Ctrl] and click.
How You Can Reach Us
On the Help menu in WaveLab, you find items linking to additional
information.
The menu contains links to various Steinberg web pages. Selecting a
menu item automatically launches your browser and opens the page. On
these pages, you can find support and compatibility information,
answers to frequently asked questions, information about updates and
other Steinberg products, etc. This requires that you have a web
browser installed on your computer, and a working internet connection.
10
Setting Up Your System
Before you start working, you need to make some settings.
IMPORTANT
Make sure that all equipment is turned off before making any
connections.
Connecting Audio
Your system setup depends on many different factors, for example, the
kind of project that you want to create, the external equipment that you
want to use, or the computer hardware available to you.
About Audio Cards and Background
Playback
When you activate playback or recording in WaveLab, other
applications cannot access the audio card. Likewise, if another
application uses the audio card, WaveLab is unable to play back. The
Windows MME driver is an exception from this.
You can run WaveLab together with other applications and always give
the active application access to the audio card.
To do so, select Options > VST Audio Connections, and on the
Options tab, activate Release driver when WaveLab is in
background.
11
Setting Up Your System
About Latency
About Latency
Latency is the delay between when audio is sent from the program and
when you actually hear it. While a very low latency can be crucial in a
real-time DAW application such as Steinberg Nuendo or Cubase, this
is not strictly the case with WaveLab.
When working with WaveLab, the important issues are optimum and
stable playback and editing precision. You should not try to reach the
lowest possible latency figures.
The latency in an audio system depends on the audio hardware, its
drivers, and settings. In case of dropouts, crackles, or glitches during
playback, raise the Buffer Number setting on the VST Audio
Connections dialog, or increase the buffer size in the ASIO control
panel, specific to the audio card.
Defining VST Audio Connections
To be able to play back and record audio in WaveLab, you must specify
how the internal input and output channels in WaveLab are connected
to your sound card and which device you intend to use for audio
playback and recording.
You can define the buffer settings for your device as well as set up
connections to external gear, such as external effects units. You should
select at least two channels for stereo playback and recording.
If you have no third-party audio card, you can select the Windows MME
driver or Built-in Audio (Mac) options. You can also use MME with most
third party audio cards, with the advantage that you can record and play
at different sample rates. However, Windows MME drivers do not allow
audio monitoring in the Recording dialog or multichannel operation, and
other drivers generally offer better sound quality and performance.
12
Setting Up Your System
Defining VST Audio Connections
Selecting an ASIO Driver
Audio Stream Input/Output (ASIO) is a computer device driver protocol
for digital audio specified by Steinberg. It provides a low-latency and
high fidelity interface between a software application and the soundcard
of a computer.
PROCEDURE
1.
In any workspace, except the Podcast workspace, select Options
> VST Audio Connections.
2.
From the Audio Device menu, select your ASIO driver.
The ASIO plug-ins tab and the Control panel button are activated.
3.
Optional: Click the Control panel button and make your settings.
4.
On the ASIO plug-ins tab, select the audio ports that are used for
recording and monitor input of the ASIO plug-ins.
5.
Click OK.
Selecting a Windows MME Driver
PROCEDURE
1.
In any workspace, except the Podcast workspace, select Options
> VST Audio Connections.
2.
From the Audio Device menu, select the Windows MME driver.
3.
On the Playback tab, select the audio ports that are used for
playback.
4.
On the Recording tab, select the audio ports that used for
recording and monitor input.
5.
Click OK.
VST Audio Connections Dialog
This dialog allows you to specify how the internal input and output
channels in WaveLab are connected to your sound card and which
device you want to use for audio playback and recording.
In any workspace, except the Podcast workspace, select Options >
VST Audio Connections.
13
Setting Up Your System
Defining VST Audio Connections
Global Settings
Audio device
Here, select the audio device that you want to use for playback and
recording audio. If you do not have a third-party audio card, you
can select the Windows MME driver or Built-in Audio (Mac)
options.
Control panel
When you select an ASIO driver, the Control panel button is
activated. Click the button to open the settings application of your
sound card, which is usually installed with the sound card.
Depending on your sound card and driver, this provides settings
for buffer size, digital formats, additional I/O connections, etc.
Refresh
This button causes audio devices to be evaluated again to reflect
device changes.
Playback Tab
This tab allows you to select and name audio ports that are used for
playback. If you are monitoring on a surround system, specify your
surround speaker outputs here. Furthermore, you can rename the
channels and set up the Speaker configuration to be able to switch
between different speakers.
14
Setting Up Your System
Defining VST Audio Connections
Recording Tab
This tab allows you to select and name your audio ports that are used
for recording and input monitoring. The inputs that you define here are
then available in the Recording dialog. Furthermore, you can rename the
channels and select the Speaker configuration.
External Gear Tab
This tab allows you to select inputs from and outputs to external audio
processing equipment. The name of this tab corresponds to the
installed driver, for example, ASIO plug-ins.
Options Tab
This tab allows you to specify the number of buffers and the control
driver functionality.
Buffer Number
Increasing this value improves the elasticity of audio streaming to
avoid dropouts.
MME Specific - Buffer size
Increasing this value improves the elasticity of audio streaming to
avoid dropouts. This is only available when an MME driver is
selected.
15
Setting Up Your System
CD/DVD Recorders
Initialize streaming engine at first use
Initializes the audio streaming engine when playback or recording
are used for the first time. If this option is deactivated, the audio
streaming engine is initialized at program startup.
Reset driver when changing sample rate
Resets the driver when sample rate is changed. When playback or
recording must be set to a new sample rate, certain audio device
drivers must be fully reset to work properly. This operation takes
some time.
Perform short fade-in/out when starting/stopping playback
Performs a short fade-in when starting playback and a short
fade-out when stopping playback. This avoids clicks that are
caused by waveforms that are not starting on a zero-crossing
point.
Release driver when WaveLab is in background
Closes the audio device when WaveLab is no longer the front
application. This allows other audio applications to use the same
audio device.
CD/DVD Recorders
For general instructions on installing internal or connecting external
recorders via USB or Firewire, please refer to the instruction manual for
your computer or your recorder.
Make sure to have the latest firmware version installed on your recorder
unit. For CD recorders, the existing firmware must support disc-at-once
mode. In addition, running a unit with older firmware can prevent you
from writing sub-index markers into the tracks, for example.
Remote Devices
You can use remote devices to remote-control WaveLab.
Several commands can be controlled with knobs and sliders of your
remote control device.For all commands that can be assigned to a
keyboard shortcut, a MIDI trigger can also be assigned.
16
Setting Up Your System
Remote Devices
Remote Devices Dialog
This dialog allows you to select a device to remote-control WaveLab,
and see and edit the control map of MIDI control devices.
In any workspace, except the Podcast workspace, select Options >
Remote devices.
Device Editing Tab
This tab lets you select a MIDI control device, see the control map,
assign WaveLab commands to MIDI controls, and import/export control
assignments.
Device menu
Select the MIDI device to edit. Select MIDI shortcuts for menus
to define the MIDI input port that is used for MIDI shortcuts. The
shortcuts can then be assigned in the Customize commands
dialog.
Select MIDI Control Device #1 - #10 to select a slot for a
connected MIDI control device. You can then assign a device by
selecting a MIDI input port and output port.
17
Setting Up Your System
Remote Devices
Active
Activates the selected device and scans the MIDI ports.
In-Port/Out-Port
Select the MIDI input/output ports of the device that you want to
use.
Edit map
Activates the edit mode of the MIDI control map for the selected
device. To leave the edit mode, click again.
Save
Saves the modifications that have been made to the MIDI control
map.
Undo
Undoes the modifications that have been made to the MIDI control
map.
Reset
If the map has a factory preset, clicking Reset resets all changes
that have been made to the map. If the map has no factory preset,
the map is cleared.
Import
Opens the file browser where you can select a map definition file
(XML file). This kind of file can be supplied by a MIDI device
manufacturer or another WaveLab user, for example.
Export
Lets you export a map definition file (XML file). This file can be sent
to another WaveLab user, for example.
Name
Lets you enter a map name.
Only display assignments
If this option is activated, the control map only displays the
parameters that are associated with a remote control.
Expand/Collapse
Expands/collapses the folder tree of the control map.
18
Setting Up Your System
Remote Devices
WaveLab action list
This folder tree lists the parameters that you can remote-control.
The top folder represent contexts. The related parameters can only
be controlled if the context is active. For example, if an audio file is
active.
A remote control can be used in several contexts if these are
exclusive. For example, parameters that can be used for an active
audio file or an active audio montage.
The Global folder contain the parameters that can always be
controlled.
Control editor - Save
If a control has been created or modified, click this button to save it.
Control editor - Undo
If a control has been modified, click this button to undo the
changes.
Control editor - Clear
Erases the selected control’s definition.
Control name
Lets you enter a name for the control. Each control must have a name.
Type
In the Type section, you can edit the type of the selected control.
When more than one type of control can be assigned to a
parameter, you can select a type from the first pop-up menu. You
can choose between relative and absolute editing for certain
parameters. For example, a master section slider can be
associated to a remote motorized fader (absolute editing), or to an
infinite knob (relative editing).
Several protocols are supported to interpret the MIDI messages.
You can select the protocol that you want to use from the second
menu. The MIDI learn function can automatically change this
protocol, according to the received MIDI messages.
Remote controls send messages but can also receive messages
from WaveLab, to light up a button or move a motorized fader, for
example. You can select the mode to use from the third menu.
Message
Activates the MIDI learn function. When activated, you can use the
control (knob, fader, etc.) on your MIDI controller. When MIDI
messages are received, they are analyzed after the MIDI activity stops
for several milliseconds. The result is displayed in the Message field.
This is then used by WaveLab as the control identifier.
19
Setting Up Your System
Remote Devices
Clear
Erases the MIDI event that identifies the control.
Conditions
A modifier is a WaveLab parameter that can be activated by a MIDI
control (for example, a foot switch) or a computer key
([Ctrl]/[Command], [Shift], etc.). By associating a remote control
with one or two modifiers, you can use a single remote control to
edit different parameters.
Options Tab
This tab lets you use the MIDI Learn function to assign a control of a
MIDI remote control device to a function.
Emulate mouse wheel
If this option is activated, the AI knob acts as a mouse wheel in the
WaveLab user interface, except for plug-ins.
Edit focused numeric field
If this option is activated, the AI knob can be used to edit the
focused numeric field that you find in many WaveLab windows and
dialogs.
Selecting a MIDI Remote Control Device
PREREQUISITE
The MIDI remote control device is connected to your PC/Mac.
PROCEDURE
1.
In any workspace, except the Podcast workspace, select Options
> Remote devices.
2.
On the Device editing tab, select one of the MIDI control device
slots or the MIDI shortcuts for menus option from the pop-up
menu at the top.
3.
Select Active to activate the selected device.
4.
From the In-Port and Out-Port menus, select a MIDI input port
and output port.
20
Setting Up Your System
Remote Devices
Assigning a MIDI Controller to a Parameter
If you are using a Steinberg remote control device, for example, the
CC121, the controls are already assigned to parameters. You can
customize these default settings.
PREREQUISITE
You have set up your MIDI remote control device.
PROCEDURE
1.
In any workspace, except the Podcast workspace, select Options
> Remote devices.
2.
From the pop-up menu at the top of the dialog, select your MIDI
control device.
3.
On the Device editing tab, click the Edit map button.
4.
In the tree structure, click the parameter that you want to
remote-control.
5.
In the Control editor section, enter a name in the Control name
field.
6.
Select the type of control.
Depending on the type of control on the MIDI remote control device, you
must select a control with relative values (knob), trigger values (button),
or absolute values (fader).
7.
Click in the Message field, and on your MIDI remote control
device, move the control that you want to assign.
The name of the controller is displayed in the Message field.
8.
Click the Save button to the right of the This control is modified
message.
9.
Click the Save button to the right of the Edit map button.
RESULT
The MIDI controller is now assigned to the function.
21
Setting Up Your System
Remote Devices
Assigning Custom Parameters to Plug-ins
You can assign custom parameters to many VST 3 plug-ins.
PREREQUISITE
In the Remote devices dialog, assign the controls of your MIDI
controller to the plug-in custom parameters. If you are using the
Steinberg CC121 controller, the parameters are assigned by default.
PROCEDURE
1.
From the Master Section or the Effects window, open the plug-in
that you want to control with the MIDI remote control device.
2.
[Ctrl]/[Command]-click the circle icon at the top of the plug-in
window to enter the Edit mode.
3.
Click OK.
The circle icon turns into a tool icon to indicate that you are in MIDI learn
mode.
4.
Move the mouse over a plug-in parameter, and move the MIDI
control that you want to assign.
Repeat this for all the parameters and controls that you want to assign.
5.
When finished, click the tool icon to exit Edit mode, and click OK.
RESULT
The assignment is saved. You can now control the assigned parameters
with your MIDI remote control device. A plug-in can be controlled via the
custom parameter if the Remote control mode is activated and only
one plug-in can be activated at a time.
When a plug-in is activated for remote control, it also has precedence
over other application settings that are controlled by the same
parameter.
To remove all remote control assignments on the plug-in, hold
[Ctrl]/[Command] and [Shift], and click the Remote control mode
button.
22
Setting Up Your System
Remote Devices
Importing and Exporting Remote Control Definition Files
Map definition files are XML files, containing control assignments for
your remote devices. You can exchange them with other users or save
a backup copy.
Select Options > Remote devices, and open the Device editing tab.
•
To import a map definition file, click the Import button, browse to
the location of the map definition file, and select the file.
•
To export a map definition file, click the Export button, and browse
to the location where you want to save the file.
Editing Changes in the Remote Control Devices Settings
Changes that have been made to the map, for example, changing the
name of a control, can be saved, reset, undone, and removed.
•
To save any changes that you have made, click Save.
•
To restore the factory preset of a MIDI remote control device, click
Reset. If the control device does not have factory presets, the map
is cleared.
•
To undo your last action, click Undo.
•
To remove the control definition of the selected control or to
unassign the selected control, click Clear.
Using Modifiers for Remote Controlling Parameters
You can use the same controller for controlling different parameters,
using one or two modifiers. A modifier can be a MIDI control (for
example, a foot switch) or a modifier key on your computer keyboard (for
example, [Shift] and/or [Ctrl]/[Command]).
To determine one or two modifiers, open the Remote devices dialog,
and when editing a parameter, select the modifiers from the Conditions
section.
You can use the [Shift] and [Alt]/[Option] modifiers to alter the edit steps
of infinite knob controls as follows:
•
Press [Shift] to edit values in small steps.
•
Press [Alt]/[Option] to edit values in bigger steps.
23
Setting Up Your System
Remote Devices
CC121 Advanced Integration Controller
You can use Steinberg's CC121 Advanced Integration Controller to
control WaveLab.
This section describes the WaveLab factory preset for the CC121. For
detailed information on how to use the controller, refer to the manual that
came with the CC121. Note that the CC121 was originally designed for
Cubase. The following mapping combines the WaveLab functionality
with the CC121 controls. The controls that are not listed in the following
paragraph are not assigned to a parameter.
Channel Section
You can use all controls of the CC121 channel section, except the
fader, to control the elements of the selected track in a WaveLab audio
montage. You can use the fader for the Master Section.
Fader
Controls the Master Section fader.
PAN knob
Controls the gain of the selected track.
Mute
Mutes/unmutes the selected track.
Solo
Activates/deactivates solo for the selected track.
CHANNEL SELECT
Selects the previous/next track in the audio montage.
To move the cursor to the previous/next clip edge in the audio
montage, hold [Alt]/[Option]. To move the cursor to the
previous/next region edge, hold [Shift]. To move the cursor to the
previous/next marker in the Audio Files workspace, hold
[Ctrl]/[Command].
24
Setting Up Your System
Remote Devices
EQ Section
With the EQ section you can easily control the Steinberg Studio EQ
plug-in.
If the EQ TYPE button is activated on the CC121, you can adjust the
parameters of the focused Studio-EQ. All necessary EQ parameters,
such as Q/F/G of each band, EQ TYPE selection, and ALL BYPASS
on/off can be set. You can switch to WaveLab navigation mode by
turning off the EQ TYPE button. In WaveLab navigation mode, you get
access to alternative functions, such as scrolling, zooming, and
switching between workspaces.
EQ Type activated:
Bandwidth knobs (Q)
Adjusts the Q (bandwidth) of each EQ band.
Frequency knobs (F)
Adjusts the center frequency of each EQ band.
Gain knobs (G)
Adjusts the gain of each EQ band
ON
Activates/deactivates the EQ bands.
ALL BYPASS
Activates/deactivates bypass for all plug-ins in the Master Section.
EQ Type deactivated:
LOW ON
Opens the Audio Files workspace.
LOW-MID ON
Opens the Audio Montage workspace.
HIGH-MID ON
Opens the Batch Processors workspace.
HIGH ON
Opens the Control Window.
EQ-1 knob for the EQ Gain (G)
Scrolls left/right on the timeline.
EQ-2 knob for the EQ Gain (G)
Adjusts the horizontal zoom on the timeline.
25
Setting Up Your System
Remote Devices
EQ-3 knob for the EQ Gain (G)
Adjusts the vertical zoom on the timeline.
EQ-4 knob for the EQ Gain (G)
Scrolls tracks on the Audio Montage workspace or scrolls
vertically on the Audio Files workspace.
EQ-1 knob for the EQ Frequency (F)
Scrolls left/right on the overview timeline of the Audio Files
workspace.
EQ-2 knob for the EQ Frequency (F)
Horizontally zooms in/out on the overview timeline of the Audio
Files workspace.
EQ-3 knob for the EQ Frequency (F)
Vertically zooms in/out on the overview timeline of the Audio Files
workspace.
EQ-4 knob for the EQ Frequency (F)
Vertically scrolls on the overview timeline of the Audio Files
workspace.
Transport Section
In this section you can control the transport functions of WaveLab.
Previous button
Moves the cursor position to the beginning of the project.
Rewind button
Rewind
Forward button
Forward
Next button
Moves the cursor position to the end of the project.
Cycle button
Activates/deactivates Cycle mode.
Stop button
Stops playback. Press again to move the cursor to the previous
start position. Press a third time to move the cursor to the
beginning of the project.
Play button
Starts playback.
26
Setting Up Your System
Remote Devices
Record button
Press once to open the Recording window. Press again to start
the recording. Press a third time to stop recording. The recorded
file opens in the Audio Files workspace.
Function Section
In this section, you can adjust certain functions, such as fades and
envelope level, by using the VALUE knob.
VALUE knob/button
Rotate this knob to adjust the assigned function. Press the knob to
reset the parameter to its default value.
FUNCTION button 1
Adjusts the fade-in settings of the focused clip.
FUNCTION button 2
Adjusts the fade-out settings of the focused clip.
FUNCTION button 3
Adjusts the envelope level of the focused clip.
FUNCTION button 4
The element clicked last on the Edit > Nudge menu in the Audio
Montage workspace is assigned to this button.
AI Knob Section
WaveLab can be controlled with the AI knob of Steinberg’s CC121,
CI2+, and CMC-AI controllers. With the AI knob, you can control the
parameter that the mouse points to.
NOTE
The AI knob only works on parameters that are automatable.
In this section you can control parameters via the AI knob.
AI KNOB
Controls the VST 3plug-in parameters, emulates the mouse wheel,
for example, for scrolling, and lets you edit a focused numeric field.
To control a parameter with the AI knob, move the mouse cursor
over the parameter that you want to control, and move the AI knob.
You can activate/deactivate the emulation of the mouse wheel and
the editing of the focused numeric field in the Options tab.
27
Setting Up Your System
Remote Devices
LOCK
When the mouse cursor points to a parameter, press LOCK to
control this parameter regardless of the position of the mouse
cursor.
JOG
Activates Jog mode. While Jog mode is activated, press LOCK to
enter shuttle mode.
CUBASE READY Indicator
The CUBASE READY indicator has no function in WaveLab.
Foot Switch Section
The foot switch has the same function as [Shift]. Press and hold the foot
switch while turning the AI knob to fine tune parameters.
28
WaveLab Concepts
This chapter describes general concepts that you will use when
working with WaveLab. Getting accustomed with these procedures
allows you to work more effectively with the program.
General Editing Rules
The common editing operations can be used in any Steinberg product.
•
To select and move interface items, and to select ranges, click and
drag with the mouse.
•
Use the keys of your computer keyboard to enter numeric values
and text, to navigate lists and other selectable interface items, and
to control the transport functions.
•
Common operations like cut, copy, paste, or the selection of
multiple items can be performed using standard keyboard
shortcuts.
NOTE
The behavior of your product is also governed by your preference
settings.
RELATED LINKS:
“Global Preferences Dialog” on page 710
29
WaveLab Concepts
Startup Screen
Startup Screen
When WaveLab starts, a startup screen opens where you can select
which window layout you want to use.
Restore last window layout
Restores the window layout that you last used in WaveLab,
including all files that were open.
Restore last window layout without files
Restores the same window layout that you last used in WaveLab
without opening any files.
Restore default window layout
Restores the default window layout without opening any files.
Restore factory window layout
Restores the factory window layout without opening any files.
Keep answer and do not show this message again
If this option is activated, the option that you select is used from
now on and the startup screen does not open anymore. To display
the General window layout dialog, even if this option has been
activated, press [Ctrl]/[Command] when starting WaveLab.
RELATED LINKS:
“Window Layout” on page 654
30
WaveLab Concepts
Basic Window Handling
Basic Window Handling
WaveLab follows the basic guidelines for the Windows/Mac OS
interface, which means that Windows/Mac OS standard procedures
apply.
Closing Windows
•
To close a tabbed window, click the “X” button of the
corresponding tab or press [Ctrl]/[Command]-[W].
•
To close a tabbed window without saving your changes, hold
[Ctrl]/[Command]-[Shift], and click the “X” button. This avoids
having to confirm a warning message whenever you want to close
an unsaved window.
•
To close all tabbed windows at once, right-click a tab, and select
Close all.
•
To close all tabbed windows but the selected tabbed window,
right-click a tab, and select Close all but this one.
•
To individually select the tabbed windows that you want to close,
right-click a tab, and select Select files to close. This opens the
Files to close dialog, where you can select the files that you want
to close.
RELATED LINKS:
“Files to Close Dialog” on page 74
“Managing Tabs” on page 73
Switching Between Files
You can have multiple files open and switch between them.
•
To bring a file to the front, click the corresponding tab.
•
To cycle between all open files in a workspace, hold
[Ctrl]/[Command], and press [Tab] continuously.
•
To cycle back and forth between the last two active files, press
[Ctrl]/[Command]-[Tab]. Between each step you have to release
all keys.
•
To cycle backwards, press [Ctrl]/[Command]-[Shift]-[Tab].
31
WaveLab Concepts
Basic Window Handling
Window Switcher
The window switchers let you easily switch between workspaces,
create new workspaces, or open existing projects. There are two types
of window switchers: The central switcher bar and the floating window
switcher.
The floating window switcher behaves like the central switcher bar, but
takes less room and floats above other windows.
•
To activate/deactivate the central switcher bar, in the Audio Files
workspace or the Audio Montage workspace, select Workspace
> Command bars > Central switcher bar.
•
To activate/deactivate the floating window switcher, in any
workspace, select Options (WaveLab menu on Mac) > Global
preferences, and on the Display tab, activate Use Floating
Window Switcher.
Using the Window Switcher
You can use the floating window switcher and the central switcher bar
to navigate through your workspaces.
•
To switch between workspaces, click a workspace button. If
several workspaces of the same type are open, [Alt]/[Option]-click
the workspace button to cycle between the workspaces. If the
workspace is not yet open, a pop-up menu opens from which you
can open a new workspace.
•
To copy a file from one workspace to another, drag it to the button
of the workspace that you want to open, wait until the workspace
becomes active, and release the file where you want.
•
To create a new file in any workspace, press [Ctrl]/[Command],
and click a workspace button.
•
To open the Open window to select a file, press [Shift], and click
a workspace button.
•
To display a menu listing the files that have recently been used in
a particular workspace, right-click any workspace icon.
32
WaveLab Concepts
Basic Window Handling
•
To create a new file or open a file, right-click any workspace icon,
and select New or Open. While left-clicking activates a
workspace, right-clicking does not activate a workspace.
Customizing the Central Switcher Bar
You can customize the central switcher bar using the settings menu.
To open the settings menu, right-click an empty part of the central
switcher bar.
Hide
Hides the central switcher bar.
Fold
Minimizes the central switcher bar to a thin line. To unfold the bar,
click the thin line.
Left side/Top/Right side/Bottom
Determines the location of the central switcher bar.
Large/Medium/Small size
Determines the size of the central switcher bar.
Workspace buttons
Determines which workspace buttons are visible on the central
switcher bar.
Extra buttons
Determines whether to show or hide the extra buttons that some
workspaces offer.
33
WaveLab Concepts
Selecting Audio
Customizing the Floating Window Switcher
You can set up the floating window switcher to your liking.
PROCEDURE
1.
In any workspace, select Options (WaveLab menu on Mac) >
Global preferences.
2.
On the Display tab, make sure that Use Floating Window
Switcher is activated.
3.
Customize the floating window switcher by activating/deactivating
the corresponding options.
4.
Click OK.
Selecting Audio
Almost all types of editing and processing that you perform in WaveLab
operate on the audio selection. There are numerous ways to make an
audio selection.
To select the whole audio file, double-click it. If the audio file contains
markers, triple-click it.
Selecting a Range by Dragging
The standard way to select a range in a wave window or a montage
window is to click and drag.
If you drag all the way to the left or right side of the window, it scrolls
automatically, allowing you to select larger sections than what can be
shown in the window. The speed of the scrolling depends on how far
from the window edge you are.
Audio Range Selection in an Audio File
You can edit, process, or play back selection of an audio file.
In the Audio Files workspace, select Edit > Select time range.
Edit
Opens the Audio Range dialog, where you can define selection
ranges very accurately.
34
WaveLab Concepts
Selecting Audio
All
Selects the entire waveform.
Toggle
Toggles the current audio selection on/off.
Extend to start of file
Extends the selection to the start of the audio file. If there is no
selection, a selection is created from the edit cursor position.
Extend to end of file
Extends the selection to the end of the audio file. If there is no
selection, a selection is created from the edit cursor position.
Extend to previous marker
Extends the left edge of the selection to the nearest marker to the
left or the start of the audio file. If there is no selection, a selection
is extended until the edit cursor position.
Extend to next marker
Extends the right edge of the selection to the nearest marker to the
right or the end of the audio file. If there is no selection, a selection
is extended until the next marker position.
Extend to cursor
Extends the selection to the edit cursor position.
From start of file until cursor
Selects the range between the start of the audio file and the edit
cursor position.
From cursor to end of file
Selects the range between the edit cursor position and the end of
the audio file.
From cursor to previous marker
Selects the range between the edit cursor position and the nearest
marker to the left or the start of the audio file.
From cursor to next marker
Selects the range between the edit cursor position and the next
marker or the end of the audio file.
Playback position => Selection start
Creates a selection range from the playback position to the end of
the audio file. If no playback is taking place, the position of the edit
cursor is used.
35
WaveLab Concepts
Selecting Audio
Playback position => Selection end
Creates a selection range from the playback position to start of the
audio file. If no playback is taking place, the position of the edit
cursor is used.
Double length
Doubles the length of the current selection range.
Halve length
Halves the length of the current selection range.
Extend to all channels
Extends the current selection range to all channels.
Left channel only
Reduces the current selection range to the left channel only.
Right channel only
Reduces the current selection range to the right channel only.
CD track
Selects the range between the two CD track markers that
encompass the edit cursor.
Loop region
Selects the range between the two loop markers that encompass
the edit cursor.
Exclusion region
Selects the range between the two exclusion markers that
encompass the edit cursor.
Generic region
Selects the range between the two generic markers that
encompass the edit cursor.
Audio Range Selection in an Audio Montage
You can edit, process, or play back selections of an audio montage.
In the Audio Montage workspace, select Edit > Select audio range.
Edit
Opens the Audio Range dialog, where you can define selection
ranges very accurately.
Double length
Doubles the length of the current selection range.
36
WaveLab Concepts
Selecting Audio
Halve length
Halves the length of the current selection range.
Toggle
Toggles the current selection range on/off.
Playback position => Selection start
Creates a selection range from the playback position to the end of
the audio montage. If no playback is taking place, the position of
the edit cursor is used.
Playback position => Selection end
Creates a selection range from the playback position to start of the
audio montage. If no playback is taking place, the position of the
edit cursor is used.
Audio Range Dialog
This dialog allows you to accurately specify an audio range for editing,
processing, or playing back.
In the Audio Files workspace, select Edit > Select time range > Edit.
In the Audio Montage workspace, select Edit > Select audio range >
Edit.
From/To Sections
Zero/End
The selection begins at the start/end of the file.
37
WaveLab Concepts
Selecting Audio
Cursor
The selection begins at the edit cursor.
Start/End of selection
The selection begins at the start/end of the selection range.
Marker (with name)
The selection begins at the marker that is selected from the pop-up
menu below.
Offset (±)
Allows you to specify an offset for the selected position.
Custom
Allows you to specify a start/end time for the selection.
Options Section
Specify length
The length you want to give to the selection.
Set as selection length
Clicking this button freezes the current selection length. This is
useful if you simply want to move the selection.
Round down length
If this option is activated, the selection length is rounded down to
the length specified in the value field.
Snap to zero-crossing
If this option is activated, the start and the end of a selected range
always snap to a zero-crossing point of the waveform.
Channels
Select whether the selection spans the left channel, the right
channel, or both.
Play Options
With the play options, you can preview the specified audio range.
Play to
Plays the range before the specified position.
Play from
Plays the range after the specified position.
38
WaveLab Concepts
Selecting Audio
Play once
Plays the selection once.
Play looped
Loops the selection.
Play duration
Sets the playback length. Note that this overrides the From/To
parameters.
Memorizing Selection Length and Cursor Position
You can copy the length of a selection range and the position of the edit
cursor position to an internal memory. This is useful if you want to use
these values in several places in WaveLab.
•
To save the length of the active selection range, in the Audio Files
workspace or the Audio Montage workspace, select Edit >
Memorize selection length.
•
To save the position of the edit cursor, in the Audio Files
workspace or the Audio Montage workspace, select Edit >
Memorize cursor position.
•
To apply the memorized information, right-click any time edit field
and select Set memorized position or Set memorized duration.
Selecting in Stereo Files
If you are working on stereo material in the Audio Files workspace, you
can apply an operation to one channel only or to the entire stereo
material.
Which channel is selected when you click and drag in the wave window
depends on where you position the mouse cursor, as indicated by the
pointer shape. The pointer shape indicates which channel will be
affected.
39
WaveLab Concepts
Selecting Audio
The following pointer shapes are available:
Pointer
Shape
Description
Clicking in the upper half of the left channel selects the left
channel.
Clicking in the middle area between the left and the right channel
selects both channels.
Clicking in the lower half of the right channel selects the right
channel.
Switching the Selection Between Channels
You can switch the selection that you have made for a channel to all
channels or switch the selection to the other channel.
PROCEDURE
1.
In the Audio Files workspace’s wave window, make a selection
range.
2.
Select Edit > Select time range, and select Extend to all
channels, Left channel only, or Right channel only, or press
[Tab] to cycle between the different channel selections.
Selecting in the Overview of the Audio Files Workspace
The selection ranges that you make in the overview of the Audio Files
workspace also apply to the main view.
PROCEDURE
•
In the Audio Files workspace’s wave window, hold down
[Ctrl]/[Command], and click and drag in the overview.
40
WaveLab Concepts
Selecting Audio
Moving a Selection Range
If a selection range is the right length, but at the wrong position, you can
move it.
PROCEDURE
1.
In the wave window, hold down [Ctrl]/[Command]-[Shift].
2.
Click in the middle of the selection and drag to the left/right.
Extending and Reducing the Selection
You can resize a selection range in the wave window or the montage
window without having to make a new one.
There are several ways to extend/reduce the selection:
•
Make a selection range, [Shift]-click outside the selection range,
and drag to the left/right, or click and drag the edges of the
selection range to the left/right.
•
To extend the selection to the previous/next boundary (marker or
start/end of file), press [Shift] and double-click the non-selected
area between the boundaries.
Extending and Reducing the Selection Using the Cursor Keys
•
To move the start/end of a selection in the wave window to the
left/right, hold down [Shift] and press the left/right cursor keys. To
move it in bigger steps, press the [Page Up]/[Page Down] keys.
•
To extend a selection to the previous/next boundary in the wave
window (marker or start/end of the audio file), hold down
[Ctrl]/[Command]+[Shift] and press the left/right cursor keys.
Deleting Selections
There are several options for deleting a selected time range.
Audio Files Workspace
The following options can be found on the Edit menu:
Trim
Removes the data outside the selection.
41
WaveLab Concepts
Sliders
Remove
Removes the selection. The audio to the right of the selection is
moved to the left to fill the gap.
Smooth remove
Removes the selection and inserts crossfades at the edges. You
can edit the default crossfade length and type in the Audio file
editing preferences dialog, on the Editing tab.
Audio Montage Workspace
The following options can be found on the Edit menu:
Delete
If there is a selection range, the clip parts inside the selection
range are deleted and the right section of the clips are moved to
the left to fill the gap.
If there is no selection, the selected clips are deleted.
Erase selected time range
Deletes the clip parts inside the selection range, without filling the
gap.
Sliders
At various places in WaveLab, slider controls are available to change
parameters. There are a number of ways to change the value of a slider.
•
Position the mouse over the slider and use the mouse wheel (no
click is required). Hold [Ctrl]/[Command] while using the mouse
wheel to scroll faster. This modifier also applies to the zoom
wheels. To move the button of a slider, click and drag it.
•
To move the slider handle directly to a position, click the slider at
any position.
•
To move the slider handle in smaller steps, right-click or below the
handle. Keep the mouse button pressed to automatically step to
the next value.
•
To reset the slider to the default value, if available,
[Ctrl]/[Command]-click the slider, or click using the third mouse
button, or double-click the handle.
42
WaveLab Concepts
Renaming Items in Tables
Renaming Items in Tables
You can rename items in tables in the Markers window, the CD window,
and the Clips window.
•
To rename an item, double-click it or select it, and press [Return],
and enter the new name.
•
To rename the previous/next item, press [Arrow Up] or [Arrow
Down] instead of [Return]. This way you move the focus on the
previous/next item, while staying in the edit mode.
File Browser
The File Browser window in the Audio Files workspace and the Audio
Montage workspace allows you to browse files directly from within
WaveLab. It can be very useful in speeding up the process of
auditioning sound files.
The File Browser window provides you with all the standard browsing
functions as well as additional controls to audition audio files and any
marker defined regions. You can use it to open or insert files or regions
of files by dragging them onto an open workspace.
You can also choose to only view certain types of files.
File Browser Window
In this window, you can browse files and open them in WaveLab.
In the Audio Files workspace or the Audio Montage workspace, select
Workspace > Specific tool windows > File Browser.
43
WaveLab Concepts
File Browser
You can add your favorite folders to the left pane by dragging them from
the middle pane.
The following options are available in the File Browser windows:
Look in
Lets you select a file location to browse and lists the recently used
locations.
Back/Forward/Parent Directory
Let you navigate through the list and file hierarchy.
List View
Shows only the file name in the file list.
Detail View
Shows the file name, size, type, and modification date in the file list.
File name
Shows the file name of the selected file.
File format list
Lets you select which file format to display.
The following options are only available in the File Browser window in
the Audio Montage workspace:
Select Audio Files
Shows only audio files.
Select Audio Montages
Shows only audio montages.
Select Clip Files
Shows only clip files.
Auto-Play mode
Starts playback automatically for the selected file.
Play selected audio file
Plays the selected audio file.
44
WaveLab Concepts
Tab Groups
Tab Groups
A tab group is a region within a workspace, in which you can open audio
files, audio montages, meters (Control Window only), batches, or Podcasts.
With tab groups, you can view the content of different files and meters at
the same time, without having to navigate through different windows.
3 empty tab groups in the Audio Montage workspace
Each tab group has its own content and title bar. In the Audio Files
workspace, each tab contains an audio file. In the Audio Montage
workspace, each tab contains an audio montage.
3 tab groups with audio montages in the Audio Montage workspace
In the Control Window, a tab group can contain meters and the Master
Project window.
2 tab groups in the Control Window
45
WaveLab Concepts
Peak Files
Using Tab Groups
Tabs are used differently depending on the type of window.
•
To add a tab group, select Workspace > Add Tab Group at right
or Workspace > Add Tab Group below.
•
To remove an empty tab group, activate the tab group, and select
Workspace > Remove active Tab Group.
•
To use one of the tab group layout presets, select Workspace >
Tab Group presets, and select a layout.
•
To reorder tabs, drag the tab to a new position on the tab bar.
•
To move a tab to another workspace, drag the tab to another
workspace.
•
To paste the content of a tab into an audio file, drag the tab onto
the waveform. The tab is inserted at the cursor position.
•
To create an empty file inside a tab group, double-click an empty
part of the tab bar. The created file uses the active file as template.
Peak Files
A peak file (extension “.gpk”) is automatically created by WaveLab each
time an audio file is modified or opened in WaveLab for the first time.
The peak file contains information about the waveform and determines
how it is drawn in the wave window or the montage window.
Peak files speed up the time it takes to draw the corresponding
waveform.
By default, the peak file is stored in the same location as the audio file.
The peak file behavior can be set in the Audio file editing preferences
on the File tab.
•
To store peak files in another location, activate Create peak files
in an independent folder, select Edit and specify another file
location.
•
To create peak files when writing audio files, activate Create peak
files when writing audio files.
•
To delete peak files when closing audio files, activate Delete peak
files when closing audio files.
46
WaveLab Concepts
Companion Files
Rebuilding Peak Displays
Normally, peak files are automatically updated when the peak file’s date
is older than the audio file’s date. However, it can happen that the date
of the audio file is wrong and therefore not automatically updated. In this
case you can force a rebuild of the peak file.
PROCEDURE
•
In the Audio Files workspace, select View > Rebuild peak
display.
Companion Files
Companion files (extension “.vs”) store Master Section presets and view
settings for audio files. If this feature is activated when you save a file,
the stored settings are recreated the next time that you load the file.
Companion files are only available in the Audio Files workspace.
The following view settings are included in companion files:
•
Window size and position
•
Zoom level
•
Scroll position
•
Display mode (Waveform/Spectrum/Loudness)
•
Snapshots
•
Master Section presets associated with the file
Deleting a companion file does not alter the audio contents.
Master Section presets are specific to WaveLab and can therefore not
be integrated inside the various audio file headers.
47
WaveLab Concepts
EBU Loudness Standard R-128
Storing Companion Files in Another Location
By default, companion files are stored in the same location as the audio
file. However, you can select another file location.
PROCEDURE
1.
In the Audio Files workspace, select Options > Folders.
2.
Select Companion files, and specify another file location.
EBU Loudness Standard R-128
The EBU loudness recommendation R-128 establishes well-defined
methods to measure loudness, dynamics, and peak values, and also
defines reference values to achieve for these measurements. Though
the reference values are intended for the broadcast world, the
measurement methods are helpful in any application dealing with audio
and loudness control.
WaveLab supports these audio measurements in many places, for
metering, audio analysis, and processing. The following text gives some
basic information about the EBU R-128 standard. For more information,
refer to the internet.
Loudness Measurement
This method takes into account the frequency sensitivity of the human
ear to loudness levels. There are 3 types of measurements:
1)
Integrated loudness, also called programme loudness: this reports
how loud an audio piece is, on average. This measurement uses a
gating method to ignore long periods of silence.
2)
Short-term loudness: this measures the loudness every 1 second
on an audio block of 3 seconds. This gives information about the
loudest audio passages.
3)
Momentary loudness: every 100 ms, a range of 400 ms of audio is
measured. This gives instantaneous feedback about the loudness.
48
WaveLab Concepts
EBU Loudness Standard R-128
Loudness Range
This measures the dynamics of the audio signal. It reports the ratio
between the loudest and the quietest (but non-silent) sections. The
audio is divided into small blocks. There is one audio block every second
and each block lasts 3 seconds (analyzed blocks overlap).
The top 10 % of the quiet blocks and the top 5 % of the loud blocks are
excluded from the final analysis. The calculated loudness range is the
ratio between the loudest and quietest remaining audio blocks. This
measurement helps to decide if and how much compression or
expansion can or should be applied to the audio.
True Peaks
When a digital signal is converted to an analog signal, the EBU R-128
recommends measuring an estimation of the real peaks, rather than
relying on digital peaks, to avoid clipping and distortion. This is
accomplished by over-sampling the signal 4 times and retaining the
peak values.
Naming and Units
The EBU R-128 proposes naming and units conventions:
•
A relative measurement, such as a value relative to a reference
level: "LU" as "Loudness Unit" (1 LU is 1 dB).
•
An absolute measurement, LUFS as "Loudness Unit Full Scale". 1
LUFS can be understood as 1 dB in the AES-17 scaling.
When WaveLab relates to the EBU R-128 loudness, these units are
used rather than dB.
49
Program Overview
Command Bars
Commonly used tools, shortcuts, and commands are represented by
command buttons. Related buttons are grouped into various
Command bars.
Command bars in the Audio Files workspace
You can dock Command bars to any window edge or open them in a
separate window, and rearrange them freely. Each workspace has an
appropriate set of command bars that can be displayed. All the
commands that are represented by the command buttons are also
available on the menus.
RELATED LINKS:
“Locking the Window Layout” on page 657
Hiding and Showing Command Bars
You can hide command bars that are irrelevant for your project.
•
To view a list of available command bars, in the Audio Files
workspace or the Audio Montage workspace, right-click an empty
part of the top edge of the workspace, or select Workspace >
Command bars.
50
Program Overview
Status Bar
Docking Command Bars
Command bars can either be used as separate floating windows or
docked at the top, bottom, left, or right side of the workspace window.
•
To make a command bar floatable, right-click the bar, and select
Floatable. Then click the dots on the left side or the top of the
command bar to drag the bar to another location.
•
To dock a floating command bar, right-click the bar, and select
Floatable. Then click the dots on the left side of the command bar
to drag the bar to the top, bottom, left, or right side of the
workspace window.
Status Bar
The status bar at the bottom of the screen of the Audio Files workspace
and the Audio Montage workspace shows information about the active
window using the units specified in the rulers.
The information displayed on the status bar is updated depending on
the cursor position and on the audio selection that you have made.
Time/Level (dB)
Displays the time of the audio file at the mouse cursor position. In
the Audio Files workspace, it also displays the level.
Audio information at edit cursor
Displays the time at the position of the edit cursor. This information
changes when you reposition the cursor.
•
To define the cursor position, click the indicator to open the
Cursor position dialog.
•
To focus the cursor position, right-click the indicator.
51
Program Overview
Status Bar
Audio selection indicator (Audio Files workspace)/
Audio range indicator (Audio Montage workspace)
In the Audio Files workspace, this displays the length of the current
selection, or the total length of the audio file if no selection has
been made.
In the Audio Montage workspace, this displays the length of the
audio selection, if a clip is focused, or the size of the audio
montage.
When you have zoomed in, you can right-click the indicator to
display the selected audio range, the focused clip, or the whole file.
Left-click the indicator to open the Audio Range dialog, where you
can define or refine a selection.
Zoom indicator
Displays the current zoom factor.
•
To open a pop-up menu, where you can make additional zoom
settings, click the indicator.
•
To open the Zoom factor dialog, where you can edit the zoom
factor, right-click the indicator.
Sampler key indicator (Audio Files workspace only)
Indicates the key of the current audio file (if defined). Click the
indicator to open the Sample Attributes window.
Audio properties indicator
In the Audio Files workspace, this displays the bit resolution and
the sample rate. It also indicates whether the audio file is mono or
stereo. Click the indicator to open the Audio properties dialog.
In the Audio Montage workspace, this displays the number of
audio channels and the sample rate of the audio montage. Click
the indicator to open the Audio Montage properties dialog.
Play through Master Section
If this button is activated, the audio is played through the Master
Section. If the button is deactivated, the Master Section is ignored.
Store Master Section preset
Opens the Save Master Section Preset dialog, where you can
save the active Master Section configuration inside the companion
file or audio montage.
Load Master Section preset stored with the audio file/audio
montage
Applies the Master Section with the configuration previously saved
to the audio file/audio montage.
52
Program Overview
Context Menus
Include Master Section preset when rendering as super clip
(Audio Montage workspace only)
If this option is activated, the Master Section preset stored with the
audio montage is used when rendering super clips of audio
montages.
Document button (drag and drop)
Allows you to drag the current file into another file, for example, an
audio file to the Audio Montage workspace. This is equivalent to
dragging the file tab.
Background information
The status bar shows the progress of some background
operations, such as rendering an effect. The operation can be
paused or canceled using the provided buttons.
Context Menus
Throughout WaveLab, various context menus are available. These
menus group the commands and/or options that are specific to the
current working window.
The context menus appear when you right-click certain areas and are
useful for speeding up your workflow.
For example, right-click a file tab to open a context menu with some
relevant file options. Right-click the ruler of the waveform window brings
up the Time Ruler context menu that allows you to access a number of
options for changing the time ruler display format.
53
Program Overview
Time Ruler and Level Ruler
You can find most context menu commands in the main menus, but
some commands are only available in context menus. When you search
for a function, right-click the current working window to check if it has a
context menu.
Context menu in the wave window
Time Ruler and Level Ruler
In the Audio Files workspace, you can display a time and a level ruler in
the wave window. In the Audio Montage workspace, you can display a
time ruler in the montage window.
You can also determine which time and level units the rulers show.
Level ruler
(Audio Files workspace only)
Time ruler
54
Program Overview
Time Ruler and Level Ruler
Time Ruler and Level Ruler Options
You can specify the time and level (amplitude) formats for each ruler in
each wave window and the time formats for each ruler in the montage
window separately by right-clicking the ruler, and selecting a format
from the pop-up menu.
Time Ruler Menu
Timecode
Displays a list of frames per second for various SMPTE timecodes
and for CD resolution.
Clock
Displays time units.
Samples
Positions are shown as number of samples. The number of
samples per second depends on the sample rate of the audio file.
For example, at 44.1 kHz, there are 44100 samples per second.
Bars and beats
If this is selected, the ruler is linear relative to the meter position.
File size (Audio Files workspace only)
Shows positions in MegaBytes. Decimals represent KiloBytes.
Show grid (Audio Montage workspace only)
Displays vertical lines in the montage window, aligned with time
ruler marks.
Time format
Opens the Time format dialog, where you can edit the
appearance of the time ruler formats.
Save current settings as default
If this option is activated, the time ruler uses the current time format
in all new wave windows or montage windows.
Set ruler’s origin to start of file
If this option is activated, the ruler’s zero position is set to the
beginning of the first sample.
Set ruler’s origin at cursor
If this option is activated, the ruler’s zero position is set to the
current cursor position.
55
Program Overview
Time Ruler and Level Ruler
Set ruler’s origin to BWF reference (Audio Files workspace only)
If this option is activated, the first sample matches the BWF time
reference, provided that the time reference is available.
Show playback range
If this option is activated, the time ruler displays the audio range
that is played with the “Play Range” command.
Show playback anchor
If this option is activated, a marker is displayed below the time ruler
to indicate the audio anchor that corresponds to the “Play From”
and “Play To” commands.
Show pre-/post-roll
If this option is activated, the pre-roll and post-roll times are
displayed.
Level Ruler Menu (Audio Files workspace only)
dB
Sets the level format to decibels.
+-100 %
Sets the level format to percentage.
Normalized +1/-1
Sets the level format to a ruler gradation corresponding to 32-bit
float audio.
16-bit range
Sets the level format to a ruler gradation corresponding to 16-bit
audio.
24-bit range
Sets the level format to a ruler gradation corresponding to 24-bit
audio.
Save current settings as default
If this option is activated, the level ruler uses the current level
format in all new wave windows.
56
Program Overview
Time Ruler and Level Ruler
Time Format Dialog
In this dialog, you can customize the time format. The time format of the
ruler is also used in various time fields, for example, the status bar and
certain dialogs.
In the Audio Files workspace, depending on whether you want to set the
time format for the overview display or the main view display, select
View > Overview display > Time ruler > Time format or View >
Main view display > Time ruler > Time format.
In the Audio Montage workspace, select View > Time ruler > Time
format.
Timecode Tab
On this tab, you can configure the appearance of the Timecode option.
Frames per second
List of standard frame rates. From the drop-down menu, select
Other to enter a custom frame rate. You can also choose which
frames/units are displayed.
Show absolute frames
Shows the time format as a number of frames, without other time
elements.
Show quarter frames
Adds the quarter frame number to the time format.
Show hundredth frames
Adds the number of a hundredths of a frame to the time format.
Show units
Adds time units to the time format of the ruler.
57
Program Overview
Time Ruler and Level Ruler
Clock Tab
On this tab, you can configure the appearance of the Clock option.
Show Units
Adds time units to the time format of the ruler.
Compact
Shows the time without unit indicators.
Meter Tab
On this tab, you can configure the appearance of the Bars and beats
option.
Time signature
Lets you edit the time signature used to display the time
represented as a musical notation.
Tempo
Lets you edit the tempo used to display the time represented as a
musical notation.
Ticks per quarter note
Lets you edit the number of ticks per quarter note that are used to
display times that are compatible with your sequencer.
58
Program Overview
Time Ruler and Level Ruler
Offset Tab
On this tab, you can configure the Time ruler offset.
Zero (default)
Deactivates the time offset in the ruler.
Set zero-point at cursor position
Sets the current cursor position to be the starting point of the ruler.
Set zero-point at BWF time reference (Audio Files workspace only)
If the audio file contains BWF meta-data, the corresponding time
reference value is used as offset.
Set time of first sample
Specifies the time that corresponds to the ruler’s zero origin.
Setting the Cursor Position
Many operations, such as playback and selection, depend on the
current cursor position. For example, playback often starts at the cursor
position. The current cursor position is indicated by a vertical flashing
line.
There are various ways to move the cursor:
•
Click somewhere in the wave window, the montage window, or the
time ruler. If you have made a selection, click the time ruler to
prevent deselecting.
•
Click and drag in the time ruler.
•
Use the transport controls.
•
Select View > Move cursor to, and select an option.
•
Use the cursor keys.
•
Double-click a marker.
59
Program Overview
Time Ruler and Level Ruler
Setting the Ruler Start Position
By default, the audio file starts at the ruler position “0”. However, you
can set the “0” position at another position.
PROCEDURE
1.
In the wave window or the montage window, right-click the time
ruler, and select Time Format.
2.
Select the Offset tab.
3.
Select one of the Time ruler offset options, and click OK.
Working With a Meter-Based Display
If your working material is tempo-based, you can select the meter format
(bars, beats, and ticks) for the ruler legend. This makes it easier to find
musically related cutting points.
PROCEDURE
1.
In the wave window or the montage window, right-click the time
ruler, and select Bars and beats.
2.
Right-click the time ruler, and select Time format.
3.
On the Meter tab, set the Time signature and Tempo to values
that match your audio file.
4.
Set the Ticks per quarter note setting to a number that you feel
comfortable with.
For example, this can be the same value that is used by your MIDI
sequencer.
5.
Click OK.
60
Program Overview
Value Editing
Value Editing
At various places in the program, numerical values can be edited by
using a combination of text fields and spin controls.
These values are sometimes composed of several parts, for example,
12 mn 30 sec 120 ms. Each value can be edited by using any of the
following methods:
•
To change a value, click in a value field and type a new value, or
click the small arrows in the value field.
•
To change the value by one unit at a time, press the [Left Arrow]
and [Right Arrow] keys.
•
To change the value by several units, press the page up and page
down keys.
•
To change the value using the mouse wheel, position the mouse
cursor over a value, and spin the mouse wheel, or use the AI knob
of your MIDI controller.
•
To change the value with the mouse, click a value and drag the
mouse up or down.
•
To jump to the maximum and minimum values, press the [Home]
and [End] keys.
•
To move from one part of the value to another, press the [Left
Arrow] and [Right Arrow] keys.
Drag Operations
WaveLab makes much use of drag-and-drop techniques to perform
various operations, some of which cannot be performed otherwise.
These are referred to as drag operations in this documentation.
•
To drag an object, click and hold with the mouse when positioned
on the object and drag it. Drop the object by releasing the button.
Many types of objects can be dragged between different source and
destination locations including files, text, clips, items in a list, and markers.
NOTE
It is also possible to drag and drop files from WaveLab to Steinberg’s
Nuendo.
61
Program Overview
Drag Operations
Drag objects within and between workspaces to perform the following
operations:
•
To dock a tool window, drag its title bar to any side of the
workspace, beside or above another tool window.
•
To move a command bar, drag the bar grip at the left-hand end of
a command bar and reposition it.
•
To reorder a tab within its own tabbed group, drag horizontally. To
move a tab to another workspace, drag vertically.
•
To drag any object to another workspace, use the Central
Switcher bar. Drag the object over the corresponding workspace
icon in the Central Switcher bar, wait until the new workspace
becomes active, and drag the tab in the target workspace.
•
To open a file, drag a compatible file from the File Browser
window of WaveLab, from the file browser of the operation system,
or from another application to the tab bar.
•
To create a copy of a file, drag its tab vertically to another position
of the tab bar, then press [Ctrl]/[Option], and release the mouse
button.
Dragging in the Audio Files Workspace and Audio Montage
Workspace
•
To insert an audio file in another audio file, drag the title bar tab or
document button of the file onto the waveform area of another file.
You can also drag an audio file directly from the File Browser
window, the file browser of your system, or from another
application into the Audio Files workspace.
•
To move a marker, drag it along the time ruler.
•
To create a copy of this marker, press [Shift], and drag it to another
position on the time ruler.
•
To delete a marker, drag it above the time ruler.
•
To copy an audio selection, drag a selected region of audio onto
the waveform area of the same file or another file.
•
To change the extent of a selection range, position the edit cursor
at the start/end of the selection range, and drag to the left or right.
•
To move the edit cursor without losing the current selection, and
to snap it to an anchor, press [Shift], and move the mouse near the
audio file/montage cursor. The mouse cursor shape changes and
you can drag the cursor left and right.
62
Program Overview
Drag Operations
•
To move the edit cursor without changing or losing the current
selection, press [Shift], click the edit cursor, and drag it to another
position.
•
To scroll the waveform horizontally, click the bar above the time
ruler and drag left or right. You can also click anywhere on the
waveform using the 3rd mouse button, and drag left or right.
•
To create a generic marker from a selected text, drop text that you
have selected in an external application onto the time ruler. The text
becomes the marker’s name.
•
To create a stereo copy of a mono file, or a mixed copy of a stereo
file, drag a tab to another position of the tab bar, press [Ctrl]-[Alt]
(Windows) or [Options]-[Ctrl] (Mac), and release the mouse
button.
Dragging in the Podcast Workspace
•
To reorder episodes in the episodes list, drag them to another
position.
Dragging in the Master Section
•
To change the order of processing, drag effects between different
effects slots.
Dragging in the Batch Processors Workspace
•
To change the order in which plug-ins are processed, drag
plug-ins within the audio plug-in chain window.
•
To add a file to batch process, drag a file tab to the batch
conversion tool or batch processor.
63
Program Overview
Undoing and Redoing
Undoing and Redoing
You can undo and redo as many steps as you like. The only limitation is
the available hard disk space.
By default, when undoing or redoing any operation in the Audio Files
workspace or the Audio Montage workspace, the zoom factor, cursor
position, scroll position, clip selection status, and time range are
restored to the state before the operation occured.
To exclude the scroll and zoom settings when undoing/redoing,
deactivate Edit > Undo/Redo including zoom settings. This is useful
if you make an operation, zoom in on the changed area, and then undo
the step to see the change, for example. When you do this you do not
want snapshots to be restored and change your scroll and zoom
settings. This option is independent for the Audio Files workspace and
the Audio Montage workspace.
•
To undo a step, in the Audio Files workspace or Audio Montage
workspace, select Edit > Undo.
•
To redo a step, in the Audio Files workspace or Audio Montage
workspace, select Edit > Redo.
Clearing the Undo/Redo History
If you have a large number of undo/redo steps that you no longer need,
you can clear the whole change history. This frees up memory, hard disk
space, and any involved audio file.
This function must be activated for each file separately. Only the
undo/redo history for the active file is cleared.
•
In the Audio Files workspace, select Edit > Clear change history,
and click OK.
•
In the Audio Montage workspace, select Edit > History > Clear,
and click OK.
NOTE
When you save an audio file, the undo history is cleared automatically.
This is not the case for audio montages.
64
Program Overview
Undoing and Redoing
About Undo/Redo and History in the Audio Montage
Workspace
The undo/redo function in the Audio Montage workspace is identical
with the undo/redo function in the Audio Files workspace. However, the
Audio Montage workspace provides additional undo/redo functions and
a History window that allows you to view a history of all recent editing
activities in the audio montage and to revert to a previous state.
Each audio montage has its own history.
•
To open the History window, select Workspace > Specific tool
windows > History.
•
To revert the current audio montage to a previous state,
double-click the operation to which you want to return.
•
To group similar operations in the undo history, select Options >
Audio Montage Preferences, and on the All Audio Montages tab,
activate Group similar operations. This groups all operations of
the same type to one single operation, as soon as an operation of
another type is performed.
•
To clear the history after each saving, select Options > Audio
montage preferences, and on the All Audio Montages tab,
activate Clear after each saving.
•
To undo all operations, select Edit > History > Undo all
operations.
•
To undo all operations since the last saving command, select Edit
> History > Undo all operations since the last saving
command.
•
To redo all operations, select Edit > History > Redo all
operations.
•
To clear the history, select Edit > History > Clear.
65
Program Overview
Zooming
History Window
In this window, you can see all the operations that have been performed
in the Audio Montage workspace at a specific time and revert to a
previous state.
In the Audio Montage workspace, select Workspace > Specific tool
windows > History.
Status
Shows which operations are done and undone.
Operation
Shows the type of the performed operation.
Time
Shows the time at which the operation was performed.
Description
Describes the performed operation in detail.
Zooming
There are several zooming functions in the Audio Files workspace and
Audio Montage workspace.
Horizontal Zooming
•
When you zoom out as far as possible, the entire file fits in the
window.
•
When you zoom in as far as possible, each sample occupies
several pixels on the screen. This allows for single
sample-accurate editing of waveforms.
66
Program Overview
Zooming
Vertical Zooming
•
When you zoom out as far as possible, the height of the wave fits
in the window.
•
As you progressively zoom in, the display only shows a part of the
total height. The vertical scrollbars lets you adjust exactly which
section is shown. Check the ruler to see which part of the
waveform is currently shown in the display.
•
To optimize the vertical zoom of the waveform, press
[Ctrl]/[Command], click and hold the time ruler, and move the
mouse up or down.
High Zoom Level
•
When the zooming level is very high, each sample is shown with a
step and a bullet. The steps show the real digitized state, while the
bullets make it easier to see the samples, especially for zeroed
samples.
•
The curve also represents an estimation of the analog
reconstructed signal to give hints on true peaks.
Zooming in the Overview and Main View Sections (Audio Files
Workspace Only)
•
You can have different zoom levels in the overview and main view
section. In the overview, a range indicator on the time ruler
indicates which section of the file is currently displayed in the main
view. The range indicator is only shown if the option Sync with
other view is deactivated.
•
To adjust the zoom level, drag the edges of the range indicator.
67
Program Overview
Zooming
•
To scroll in the main view, drag the range indicator.
Range indicator at the top of the overview display
•
To adjust the zoom level using the scrollbar, drag the edges of the
scrollbar.
Zooming Using the Zoom Controls
Both the main view and the overview have horizontal and vertical zoom
controls.
•
To zoom horizontally, click the Horizontal zoom control, and drag
left or right, or use the mouse wheel.
•
To zoom vertically, click the Vertical zoom control, and drag up or
down, or use the mouse wheel.
•
To fully zoom-out, double-click the zoom controls.
68
Program Overview
Zooming
Zooming Using the Magnifying Glass Tool
The Magnifying Glass tool is used to zoom in a specific section of the
waveform so that is occupies the entire wave window. This is only
available in the Audio Files workspace.
Using the Magnifying Glass Tool in the Main View
The selection that you make in the main view of the wave window is
magnified and fills up the entire main view.
PROCEDURE
1.
2.
In the Audio Files workspace, activate the Magnifying Glass tool by
doing one of the following:
•
Click the Magnifying Glass icon.
•
Hold down [Ctrl]/[Command].
In the main view of the wave window, click and drag left or right,
and release the mouse button.
The selected part of the wave now occupies the entire main window.
Using the Magnifying Glass Tool in the Overview
The selection that you make in the overview of the wave window is
displayed in the main view.
PROCEDURE
•
In the overview of the wave window, click and drag left or right, and
release the mouse button.
RESULT
The selected range of the waveform is shown in the main view.
69
Program Overview
Zooming
Zooming Using the Mouse
With the mouse, you can change the zoom factor by clicking and
dragging or by scrolling the mousewheel.
•
To zoom horizontally, in the wave window or the montage window,
position the mouse cursor over the time ruler, click, and drag up or
down.
•
To zoom horizontally while maintaining the cursor position, position
the mouse cursor over the time ruler, press [Shift], and drag up or
down.
•
To zoom horizontally using the mousewheel, press
[Ctrl]/[Command], point at a waveform, and move the
mousewheel.
•
To zoom vertically using the mousewheel, press [Shift], point at a
waveform, and move the mousewheel.
Audio Files Workspace Only
•
To zoom vertically, in the wave window, position the mouse cursor
over the level ruler, click, and drag left or right.
•
To reset the vertical zoom to 0 dB, double-click the level ruler.
•
To set the vertical zoom to the best value that is the current
minimum and maximum displayed samples, make sure that the
level ruler is set to 0 dB, and double-click the level ruler.
Zooming Using the Keyboard
A quick way to zoom the active wave or montage window is to use the
arrow keys on the computer keyboard.
•
To zoom horizontally in the active wave window or montage
window, press [Arrow Up] or [Arrow Down].
•
To zoom vertically in the active wave/montage window, hold [Shift],
and press [Arrow Up] or [Arrow Down].
•
To zoom vertically to fit the available height, press
[Ctrl]/[Command]-[Shift]-[Arrow Up].
•
To zoom out fully, press [Ctrl]/[Command]-[Arrow Down]. To zoom
in fully, press [Ctrl]/[Command]-[Arrow Up].
70
Program Overview
Zooming
Zoom Menu
The zoom menu allows you to quickly access various zoom settings.
In the Audio Files workspace or the Audio Montage workspace, select
View > Zoom.
View all
Zooms out as far as possible.
Zoom in on 1 minute/30 seconds/10 seconds/.../500 ms
Adjusts the zoom to display the selected time range.
Zoom in 1:1
Zooms in so that one pixel on the screen represents one sample.
Microscope
Zooms in as far as possible.
Zoom selection
Zooms the window so that the current selection occupies the
entire wave/montage window.
Zoom in on selected clips (Audio Montage workspace only)
Zooms in to display all selected clips in the wave/montage
window.
Zoom in audio
Zooms in in small steps.
Zoom out audio
Zooms out in small steps.
Edit
Opens the Zoom factor dialog, where you can edit the zoom
factor.
•
Samples per screen point allows you to specify how many audio
samples are summarized in each screen point.
•
Screen points per sample allows you to specify how many
screen points are used to represent a single audio sample.
71
Program Overview
Zooming
Reset vertical zoom to 1:1
Adjusts zoom to display audio levels up to 0 dB.
Optimize vertical zoom
Changes the vertical zoom factor so that the peaks are clearly
visible. This adjustment is done according to the section of the
wave that is currently visible in the wave/montage window.
Optimize vertical zoom (Audio Files workspace only)
Zooms in to display all audio peaks in the wave window.
Zoom to -12 db/-24 db/.../-96 db
Adjusts the zoom to only display samples below the selected dB
value.
Zoom in vertically
Zooms in to show waveforms with a lower level.
Zoom out vertically
Zooms out to show waveforms with a higher level.
About Zooming in the Audio Montage Workspace
Zooming options in the Audio Montage workspace are almost similar to
those in the Audio Files workspace. However, there are additional
zooming options for tracks and the Zoom window for displaying a
close-up view of the beginning of the focused track.
Zoom Buttons in the Audio Montage Workspace
The zoom buttons in the Audio Montage workspace allow you to apply
zoom presets.
•
To only display the focused track, or also the tracks below and/or
above the focused track, click the corresponding buttons.
•
To set the zoom setting to fit the focused clips in 25 %, 50 %, or
100 % of the available space, click the corresponding buttons.
72
Program Overview
Managing Tabs
•
To select a certain area, click [Ctrl]/[Command], and drag the
rectangle over the tracks and clips that you want to zoom in.
Displaying More or Less Tracks
The number of tracks that are displayed in the Audio Montage
workspace can be changed with the magnification controls in the lower
right corner of the montage window.
•
To display more tracks, click the smaller magnifying glass icon.
•
To display less tracks, click the larger magnifying glass icon.
•
To make a single track fit the whole montage window, click the
numbered button to the left of a track, and select Zoom from the
pop-up menu. You can also right-click the lower area of a track,
and select Whole clip from the pop-up menu.
Managing Tabs
A tab is a container for a file in WaveLab. You can open several tabs, but
only one can be active at a time. The Tabs menu allows you to sort and
close tabs and navigate between the tabs.
Close/Close all but active/Close all
Closes the active tab, all tabs except the active tab, or all tabs.
Select files to close
Opens a dialog in which you can specify the files to be closed.
Sort
Lets you sort the tabs by name, date, or modification date. If
several tab groups exist, only the active tab group is sorted.
Activate next/previous
Selects the next/previous tab.
Pick list
Opens a list of all open tabs. To open a tab, double-click it.
73
Program Overview
Managing Tabs
Move to new workspace
Opens the active tab in a new workspace of the same type.
The following options are only available in the Audio Files workspace:
Cascade
Cascades the open tabs.
Tile
Tiles the open tabs.
Fold
Displays only the title bar of the tabs.
Restore
Restores the tab to its original size.
Minimize/Maximize
Minimizes/maximizes the tab.
Files to Close Dialog
In this dialog, you can specify which files you want to close.
In any workspace, except the Control Window workspace, select Tabs
> Select files to close.
Files list
Displays all open files. You can set a checkmark for the files that
you want to close. By default, only the active file will remain open
and all other files will be closed.
Select all
Select all files in the list.
Select none
Deselects all files in the list.
Close files
Closes the files.
74
Program Overview
Presets
Presets
You can create presets to save commonly used settings. WaveLab
provides a selection of presets that can be used by most dialogs.
You can save customized presets. The next time that you load the
program, the presets are available.
Presets are saved as single files and can be organized in subfolders.
The root folder of the preset is different for each type of preset and
cannot be changed.
Saving a Preset
Saved presets can be used to apply commonly used settings to dialogs
or plug-ins.
PROCEDURE
1.
Open the dialog that you want to use, and modify the parameters.
2.
Select the Preset menu, and select Save as.
3.
Optional: Click the folder icon, and select a name for a subfolder
in which you want to save the preset.
4.
Type in a name, and click Save.
Loading Presets
To apply a saved preset to a dialog or plug-in, you must load the preset.
PROCEDURE
•
Inside a dialog, click the Presets menu, and select the preset that
you want to apply to the dialog.
75
Program Overview
Presets
Modifying a Preset
You can modify a preset and save the changes.
PROCEDURE
1.
Open the dialog that you want to use, and load the preset that you
want to modify.
2.
Modify the parameters of the dialog.
3.
Click the Preset menu, and select Save.
Deleting a Preset
PROCEDURE
1.
Open the dialog that you want to use and select the preset that you
want to delete.
2.
Click the Presets menu, and select Organize presets.
3.
In the Explorer window, select the preset file that you want to
delete, and press [Delete].
Storing and Restoring Temporary Presets
Some dialogs allow you to save and load up to 5 temporary presets. This
is useful if you want to quickly test and compare different settings.
Storing Presets
PROCEDURE
1.
Open the dialog that you want to use, and make your settings.
2.
Click the Presets menu, and from the Store temporarily
submenu, select a slot.
76
Program Overview
Saving a Picture of the Active Window
Restoring Presets
PROCEDURE
1.
Open the dialog in which you have saved a preset.
2.
Click the Presets menu, and from the Restore submenu, select a
preset.
Saving a Picture of the Active Window
You can save a picture of the active window in the BMP, JPG/JPEG, or
PNG file format, or copy it to the clipboard.
NOTE
Plug-in windows are not included in the picture.
PROCEDURE
1.
Click in the window for which you want to save a picture.
For example, click in the wave window or the montage window.
2.
In the Audio Files workspace or the Audio Montage workspace,
select View > Save picture of active window.
The Save picture of active window dialog opens.
3.
In the Save picture of active window dialog, you have the
following options:
•
To copy the picture to the clipboard, activate Copy to clipboard.
•
To save the picture in a specified file format, activate Save as file.
Optionally, you can activate Open picture after saving.
77
Program Overview
Log Window
4.
Click OK.
•
If you have activated Copy to clipboard, the picture is copied to
the clipboard.
•
If you have activated Save as file, the Save as dialog opens where
you can specify the file location, file format, and file name. Click
Save to confirm your settings.
If you have set the montage window as the active window, the resulting picture
could look like this.
Log Window
This window allows you to view log messages that have been issued by
WaveLab.
For example, when using the scripting language of WaveLab, the
logWindow( ) function outputs messages to this window. Toggle
buttons allow you to filter the types of messages that are displayed.
In the Audio Files workspace, the Audio Montage workspace, or the
Control Window select Workspace > Shared tool windows > Log.
Clear
Removes all messages from the window.
78
Program Overview
Log Window
Show errors
If this option is activated, error messages are displayed.
Show warnings
If this option is activated, warning messages are displayed.
Show notes
If this option is activated, notes are displayed.
79
File Operations
List of All Open Files Throughout the
Application Dialog
In this dialog, all open files in WaveLab are listed.
In any workspace, select Global > List of all open files.
The dialog displays all the files that are opened in workspaces. These
can be opened, closed, renamed, and saved, and audio files can be
auditioned. The list can also be filtered by file type.
The dialog is automatically updated if a file is closed, opened, saved, or
edited. You can navigate in the list using the arrow keys, or pressing
[A]-[Z] on your keyboard.
Filter pop-up
The pop-up in the top right corner allows you to filter the list by file
type.
Visible/Hidden files
This opens let you show visible files and/or hidden files. Hidden
files are shown with gray text.
Bring to front
Brings the file that is selected in the list to the front.
and close this window
If this option is activated, this window closes, after you have
clicked Bring to front.
Close
Closes the selected file.
Play/Stop
Plays back the selected audio file. If you click the button again, the
playback stops.
80
File Operations
Recently Used Files
Save
If a file has unsaved changes, you can click this button to save the
file in its current location.
Rename
Opens the Rename dialog where you can rename the selected file,
and optionally change its path.
Close this window
Closes the dialog.
Recently Used Files
All files that you have recently used in WaveLab are saved in a list. This
helps you to gain fast access to recent projects.
Opening Recently Used Files
You can open recently used files via the File menu, or open the Recently
used files dialog, which displays more files and offers additional
options.
PROCEDURE
1.
In any workspace, except the Control Window, select File > Open
recent.
2.
Choose from which workspace you want to open the file, by
selecting the corresponding tab.
3.
Optional: Use the search field to enter the name of the file that you
are looking for.
4.
Select the file that you want to open, and select Open selection.
NOTE
If you cannot find the file that you are looking for in the list, select Open
other, and select the file from the Windows Explorer/Mac OS Finder.
81
File Operations
Recently Used Files
Recently Used Files Dialog
This dialog allows you to view and manage all the files that you have
recently used in WaveLab. You can search for files, open multiple files
at once, and remove individual files or files that cannot be located from
the list.
In any workspace, except the Control Window, select File > Open
recent.
Only show recently created files
Only shows the files that have not been opened since they were
created by WaveLab. For example, a file that is rendered has this
status until it is opened.
Search field
Lets you search for text in the Name column.
Remove non-existing files
Removes files from the list that cannot be located on the media.
Remove selected files
Removes all selected files from the list.
Filtering Recently Used Files by Name
The search field in the Recently used files dialog allows you to filter the
files list by name.
To specify if the Name or the Path column is used, click the column
header.
•
In the Recently used files window, enter the text that you want to
search for in the search field.
•
To switch the focus from the search field to the list of recently used
files, press the arrow down key.
•
To switch the focus from the list of recently used files to the search
field, press [Ctrl]/[Command]-[F].
82
File Operations
Favorite Files
Setting the Number of Recently Used Files
PROCEDURE
1.
In any workspace, select Options (WaveLab menu on Mac) >
Global preferences > Display.
2.
In the Miscellaneous options section, set the maximum number
of items that you want to list in the following areas:
3.
•
Recent file menus
•
Recent file manager
•
Recent folders menu
Click OK.
Favorite Files
You can add files that you are using regularly to the favorite files list.
•
To add a file to the favorite files list, select File > Favorite files >
Add active file.
•
To open a file from the favorite files list, select File > Favorite files,
and select the file from the menu.
•
To remove files from the favorite files list, select File > Favorite
files > Edit list, select the files that you want to remove, and click
Remove selected files.
•
To remove files that have been deleted from the favorite files list,
select File > Favorite files > Edit list, and click Remove
non-existing files.
•
To save a list of all open files, select File > Export > List of all
open files, specify a name and a location for the file list, and click
Save.
•
To open a saved list of all open files, select File > Import > List
of files to open, select the file list, and click Open.
83
File Operations
Favorite Files
Favorite Files Dialog
This dialog allows you to display and edit the favorite files list.
In any workspace, select File > Favorite files > Edit list.
List of favorite files
Shows the favorite files.
Only show recently created files
Only shows the files that have not been opened since they were
created by WaveLab. For example, a file that is rendered has this
status until it is opened.
Search field
Lets you filter the favorite files list.
Audio File/Audio Montage/Batch Processor/Podcast
Lets you display the favorite files of a specific workspace.
Remove non-existing files
Removes files from the list that are no longer present on the media.
Remove selected files
Removes all selected files from the list.
Open selected
Opens the selected files in WaveLab.
Open other
Opens the file selector where you can select files and add them to
the favorite files list.
84
File Operations
Save and Save As
Filtering Favorite Files
The search field in the Favorite files dialog allows you to filter the
favorite files list by names.
•
In the Favorite files dialog, enter the text that you want to search
for in the search field.
•
To switch the focus from the search field to the favorite files list,
press the arrow down key.
•
To switch the focus from the favorite files list to the search field,
press [Ctrl]/[Command]-[F].
Save and Save As
•
When you save a file for the first time, it does not matter whether
you select Save or Save as.
•
Once a file has been saved, select File > Save, or press
[Ctrl]/[Command]-[S] to update the file and make the changes
permanent.
•
If you want to specify a new name, location, and/or file format,
select File > Save as.
•
In the Audio Files workspace, all save operations except Save
Copy clear the undo history, which means that after saving you
cannot undo or redo.
About Tab Colors
Tab colors give information on whether a file is saved or not.
The following colors can be shown:
Orange
The file is saved.
Green (Audio Files workspace only)
The file uses a decoded file format and is saved.
85
File Operations
Save and Save As
Purple
A new file that is not empty but has not been saved yet. For
example, when creating a new file and pasting content into it.
Red
The file has been modified and changes have not been saved yet.
Unsaved Changes Indicator
When you have made changes to a file, an asterisk is displayed next to
the file name until you save the file and the tab changes its color.
Save Multiple Files at Once
You can save some or all open files at once.
PROCEDURE
1.
In any workspace, except the Control Window, select File > Save
all.
2.
Select the files that you want to save.
3.
Click Save.
86
File Operations
Save and Save As
Reverting to Saved File
You can revert the file you are working on back to its last saved state.
This undoes all the changes made to the file since it was last saved.
PROCEDURE
1.
In any workspace, except the Control Window, select File >
Revert to saved.
2.
In the warning dialog, click Yes to revert to the last saved state.
RESULT
The last saved version of the file is loaded from disk.
Automatic Backups
Backups are created automatically if a file with the same name already
exists.
For example, if you select Save As and specify a file name already used
in that folder, you will be asked if you want to back up the existing file
first. If you click Yes, the backup name will be the original name, with
“.bak” added at the end.
About Saving Audio Montages
The saving operations for audio montages are the same as for audio
files. However, there are things to note when saving audio montages.
•
Audio montage files only contain references to audio files. If you
want to rename audio files referenced by audio montages, use the
Rename dialog. All clip references are updated automatically.
•
If the audio montage contains clips that refer to untitled audio files,
save these audio files before saving the audio montage.
87
File Operations
Templates
Templates
You can create a template from an active audio montage, audio file,
Podcast, or batch processor document and use it as a basis for newly
created files.
Creating a Template
Templates are useful when creating new audio files, audio montages,
Podcasts, or batch processes.
PREREQUISITE
Set up the audio file, audio montage, Podcast, or batch processor file
properties.
PROCEDURE
1.
Select File > Export > Template.
2.
In the Save Template dialog, do one of the following.
3.
4.
•
To create a new template, select New, enter a name, and click OK.
•
To update an existing template, select Update.
When saving or updating an audio file template or an audio
montage template, you can make additional settings.
•
When saving an audio file template, the Audio File Template
Parameters dialog opens. Here, select whether WaveLab should
propose a specific audio file configuration with optional meta-data
when saving an audio file.
•
When saving an audio montage template, the Audio Montage
Template Parameters dialog opens. Here, select whether to
include track plug-ins, clips, and/or markers. Also select whether
WaveLab should propose a specific audio file configuration with
optional meta-data when rendering an audio montage.
Click OK.
88
File Operations
Templates
Audio File Template Parameters Dialog
This dialog displays the audio properties of the audio file template that
you are creating. You can also specify whether to always propose a
specific audio file configuration with optional meta-data when creating
an audio file template or not.
In the Audio Files workspace, select File > Export > Template.
When saving, always propose a specific audio file configuration
(with optional meta-data)
If this option is activated, whenever you open the Render or Save
as dialogs, the audio file configuration specified below is proposed
by default.
Audio Montage Template Parameters Dialog
In this dialog, you can set various options when creating an audio
montage template.
In the Audio Files workspace, select File > Export > Template.
Include track and master plug-ins
If this option is activated, track plug-ins and master plug-ins are
saved in the template.
Include clips
If this option is activated, clips are saved in the template.
Include markers
If this option is activated, markers are saved in the template.
89
File Operations
Templates
When saving, always propose a specific audio file configuration
(with optional meta-data)
If this option is activated, whenever you open the Render dialog,
the audio file configuration specified below is proposed by default.
Setting a Template as Default
You can set a template as default template.
PREREQUISITE
Create a template with the settings that you want to use as default
settings for a file.
PROCEDURE
1.
In any workspace, except the Control Window, select File > New
from.
2.
From the templates list, select the template that you want to use as
the default template.
3.
Click Set as default.
4.
Click OK.
RESULT
When you select New, a file based on the selected template is created.
To remove the default template setting, click the Do not set as default
button.
Creating a File From a Template
You can create a file from a template to use its settings.
PROCEDURE
1.
In any workspace, except the Control Window, select File > New
from.
2.
From the list of the available templates, select the template that you
want to take as the basis of the new file.
3.
Click Open.
90
File Operations
Templates
Create From Template Dialog
This dialog shows all templates. Here, you can open and delete them,
and set a default template.
In the any workspace, except the Control Window, select File > New
from. If no template exists, the dialog will not open.
List of the available templates
Lists all saved templates.
Use template name as default document name
If this option is activated, the new file uses the name of the
template. If this option is deactivated, the name of the new file is
“untitled”.
Set as default
Saves the selected template as default template.
Open
Creates a new file from the selected template.
None
Creates a new file without any reference to a template.
Explore
Opens the folder where the template files are located. Here, you
can delete templates.
91
File Operations
File Renaming
File Renaming
The Rename function allows you to rename a file and update all
references automatically. For example, if you rename an audio file named
“India” to “Sitar”, all currently open files that reference the file “India” are
updated to reference the file as “Sitar”.
Audio files, peak, and marker files are also renamed accordingly.
The following files use audio file references:
•
Audio montages
•
Basic Audio CDs
•
DVD-Audio projects
Renaming a File
PROCEDURE
1.
Select the file that you want to rename.
2.
In any workspace, except the Control Window, select File >
Rename.
3.
Enter the new name and/or a new file location.
4.
Select a file suffix from the drop-down list.
5.
Click OK.
Rename File Dialog
In this dialog, you can choose a new file name, file extension, and folder
location for the active file.
In any workspace, except the Control Window, select File > Rename.
92
File Operations
Deleting Files
Name
Type in the new name.
File extension drop-down list
Select a case for the file extension.
Change folder
If this option is activated, you can change the folder location of the
file.
NOTE
This is only possible within the same drive partition.
Keep as default
If this option is activated, the same path is selected next time you
open the dialog. This is useful if you need to move several files
successively.
Deleting Files
You can delete the currently active file from within WaveLab.
PREREQUISITE
The file that you want to delete is not copied to the clipboard, is not
pasted into another file that is open, and is not open in another
application.
PROCEDURE
1.
Select the file that you want to delete.
2.
In any workspace, except the Control Window, select File >
Delete.
3.
Click OK.
RESULT
The file, including it’s peak and marker files, is deleted.
93
File Operations
Special Menu
Special Menu
From this menu you can select various file related options, for example,
you can add the active file to a Master Project, Batch Processor, Data
CD/DVD, or Podcast.
In any workspace, except the Control Window, select File > Special.
Depending on the workspace, not all options are available.
Information
Displays information about the active file.
Add to Master Project
Adds the active file to a Master Project.
Add to Batch Processor
Adds the active file to a Batch Processor.
Add to Data CD/DVD
Adds the active file and all the related files to a Data CD/DVD.
Add to Podcast
Adds the active file to a Podcast.
Reveal in Windows Explorer/Mac OS Finder
Opens the Windows Explorer/Mac OS Finder to show the location
of the active file.
Copy to clipboard
Opens a menu, from which you can select which information about
the active file you want to copy to the clipboard.
Create a file link on the desktop (Windows only)
Creates a file link on the desktop. The link opens the file with the
default application associated with the file type.
94
File Operations
Temporary Files
Temporary Files
Temporary files are used for certain operations, such as the undo/redo
functions. You can specify where WaveLab saves its temporary files.
You can specify up to three different folders for storing temporary files.
If you have access to more than one drive, saving your temporary files
on separate physical drives (not partitions) can speed up performance
considerably.
For example, if your source files are located on the C: drive, you could
specify D:\temp and E:\temp as temporary folders. This improves the
performance and reduces disc fragmentation.
RELATED LINKS:
“Specifying Folders” on page 95
Work Folders vs. Document Folders
WaveLab distinguishes between two types of folders: work folders and
document folders.
In work folders, temporary files are stored. Document folders contain
WaveLab-specific files, such as wave files, audio montages, etc.
Specifying Folders
You can specify which folder should open when you perform any open
or save operation (document folder). You can also specify up to three
folders for temporary files (work folder).
PROCEDURE
1.
Open the workspace for which you want to specify document
folders.
2.
Select Options > Folders.
3.
Click the type of folder for which you want to specify a location.
4.
Specify a location in the Folder field.
5.
Optional: Depending on the selected type of folder, you can make
additional settings.
6.
Click OK.
95
File Operations
Work Folders vs. Document Folders
Folders Dialog
In this dialog, you can specify default document folders and work folders
for each workspace.
In any workspace, select Options > Folders.
In the list to the left, you specify the folder type that you want to make
settings for. The following options are available:
Folder for temporary files #1, #2, and #3
You can specify three folders for storing temporary files. If your
system comprises multiple hard disks, specifying one folder for
temporary files on each of these hard disks can speed up file
operations.
Companion files
Specify a folder for storing the companion files, that is Master
Section presets and view settings for audio files.
Cache folder
Activating Use cache folder for decoded files allows you to
specify a cache folder. The cache folder contains wave files that
are created when you are working with files in compressed file
formats, such as MP3 files. To prevent the cache folder to grow
indefinitely, WaveLab checks the date of each file in this folder and
deletes files that were created before a certain number of days.
When Use cache folder for decoded files is deactivated, the
compressed files are decoded each time they are opened.
Audio File - Open Folder/Save Folder
The default open and save folders for audio files.
Audio Montage - Open folder/Save folder
The default open and save folders for audio montage files.
Basic Audio CD - Open Folder/Save Folder
The default open and save folders for Basic Audio CD files.
96
File Operations
Work Folders vs. Document Folders
Batch Processor - Open Folder/Save Folder
The default open and save folders for Batch Processor files.
DVD-Audio Project - Open Folder/Save Folder
The default open and save folders for DVD-Audio Project files.
Master Project - Open Folder/Save Folder
The default open and save folders for Master Project files.
Podcast - Open Folder/Save Folder
The default open and save folders for Podcast files.
Script (Audio File/Audio Montage) - Open Folder/Save Folder
The default open and save folders for script files.
Depending on the selected item, different settings are available on the
right side of the dialog:
Current Folder
In this field, the folder that is currently used as default is displayed.
You can click the folder button to the right to navigate to a folder,
or to create a new folder.
Keep last used
Uses the last folder for saving or opening files of the selected type.
Change when save-folder/open-folder changes
Updates the default open folder when you change the default save
folder, and vice versa. Activate this option for both the save folder
and the open folder for a specific file type to use the same folder
for saving and for opening this type of file.
On opening the application, revert to this folder
Activate this option to restore a specific folder each time you open
WaveLab. This way changes to save/open folders are only
temporary and reset when you restart WaveLab.
97
File Operations
Uploading to SoundCloud
Uploading to SoundCloud
SoundCloud is an online platform for uploading and sharing your audio
recordings. The Upload to SoundCloud option in WaveLab allows you
to upload an audio file directly to your SoundCloud account.
If you do not have a SoundCloud account, visit www.soundcloud.com
to register.
PROCEDURE
1.
In the Audio Files workspace, select File > Export > Upload to
SoundCloud.
2.
Once you have logged in to your SoundCloud account, the file
upload starts.
AFTER COMPLETING THIS TASK:
After uploading the audio file, you can edit the privacy settings and add
meta-data.
Copying Audio Information to the
Clipboard
You can copy information about the name and location of the selected
audio file, including any selection information and cursor position. This
information can be pasted into an external text application.
This is useful if you need accurate file path/selection information when
writing a script, for example.
PROCEDURE
1.
In the Audio Files workspace or the Audio Montage workspace,
select Edit > Copy audio information.
98
File Operations
Setting the Focus on the Current File
2.
In the Copy audio information dialog, activate the textual
information that you want to copy to the clipboard.
3.
Click OK.
Setting the Focus on the Current File
If you are editing inside a floating window or a tool window and want to
switch back the focus to a wave/montage window, you can use the Set
focus on current file option.
PROCEDURE
•
In any workspace, press [Win]/[Ctrl]-[ESC], to set the focus on the
wave/montage window.
99
About Workspaces
A workspace provides an editing and playback environment for a
particular audio file type. Each type of workspace has functions for its
specific file types.
In WaveLab, each file type has its own workspace designed for a
specific purpose:
•
Audio Files workspace for viewing and editing audio files.
•
Audio Montage workspace for assembling and editing audio
montages.
•
Batch Processors workspace for processing a list of audio files
with offline effects, VST plug-ins, and Master Section presets.
•
Podcast workspace for preparing and uploading Podcasts.
•
Control Window workspace for hosting and organizing tool
windows, especially in a multi-monitor setup.
A workspace is highly customizable to match your workflow. A
workspace can appear as a simple window with a single menu or as a
sophisticated arrangement of command bars, tool windows, tab
groups, and active meters.
When a file is opened from a given workspace, it is added to the active
tab group of this workspace. If a file is opened from the Control
Window, a new workspace is created for it.
You can have several instances of the same workspace open
simultaneously. For example, you can have two Audio Files workspaces
open with different layouts.
You can drag files between workspaces if their formats are compatible.
For example, you can drag an audio file from the Audio Files workspace
to the Audio Montage workspace by using its tab bar or its document
button.
100
About Workspaces
Elements of a Workspace
Elements of a Workspace
The center of the workspace is about the data that you want to edit, and
all the menus, command bars, tool windows, controls, and tools to help
you with that.
Each workspace contains the following elements:
•
A menu bar. Each workspace has a different menu bar, but certain
menus are common for all workspaces and each menu can be
customized in various ways. The workspace menu has a submenu
to show/hide the available Command bars and tool windows.
•
One or more Command bars with buttons for instant access to
functions. Command bars can be customized extensively.
•
Tab groups to host the files to edit. This is the central part of the
workspace. You can move a tab to another workspace, create a
new empty tab, display the file path, and access other functions by
right-clicking.
•
A set of Specific tool windows. Which tools are available
depends on the workspace. They can be activated/deactivated
individually.
•
A set of Shared tool windows. The shared tools vary according
to the workspace, and can be turned on or off individually. A shared
tool window is a global window that is located in one workspace
at a time.
Audio Files Workspace
This workspace provides tools and functions for sample-accurate audio
editing, high-quality analysis, and processing. It is the environment
commonly known as an audio editor.
Features include various metering tools, a signal generator, a compare
function, and a tool for correcting errors.
The wave window gives you a graphical representation of the audio file
and allows you to view, play back, and edit the file.
101
About Workspaces
Audio Montage Workspace
Audio Montage Workspace
In this workspace, you assemble audio clips into a montage. You can
arrange, edit, and play back clips on an unlimited number of both stereo
or mono tracks.
Features include track and clip-based effects, volume and pan
automation, and wide-ranging fade and crossfade functions. You can
use the Audio Montage workspace for creating music CDs, mastering,
multimedia work, radio spot production, etc. You can create multitrack
compositions and author professional audio CDs or DVD-Audio.
Depending on the channel configuration of the montage, you can route
each track to different surround channels (up to 6) or non-surround
channels (up to 8).
You can place any number of clips, on an audio track. A clip contains a
reference to a source audio file on your hard disk, as well as start and
end positions in the file.
The montage window gives you a graphical representation of clips on
tracks. In it you can view, play back, and edit the tracks and clips.
Batch Processors Workspace
This workspace allows you to batch process any number of audio files or
audio montage files using the plug-ins and presets of the Master Section,
offline effects, and other plug-ins that are unique to batch processing.
You can save the processed file in a different file format, rename files,
and run an external application when the batch is finished.
RELATED LINKS:
“Batch Processing” on page 596
Podcast Workspace
In this workspace, you assemble, define, and publish your Podcast to
the internet.
RELATED LINKS:
“Podcasts” on page 640
102
About Workspaces
Control Window
Control Window
In this workspace, you can organize certain tool windows, for example,
a selection of meters in a separate window.
This is useful if you have multiple monitors. You can place the Control
Window on your secondary display and use it to manage the tool
windows you use most.
Furthermore, the Control Window can contain the following windows:
•
Meters
•
Master Section
•
Master Project
•
Log window
•
Background task monitor
•
Import Audio CD
•
Data CD/DVD
Control Window Options
In the Control Window, select Options.
Show tab if only one window is open
If this option is activated, the tab is displayed, even if only one
window is open.
103
About Workspaces
Creating an Empty Workspace
Stay on top
If this option is activated, the Control Window stays on top of other
windows.
Creating an Empty Workspace
When creating an empty workspace, no file is opened.
There are two ways of creating an empty workspace:
•
In any workspace, select Workspace > New Workspace, and
select the type of workspace that you want to create.
•
On the Central switcher bar, click a workspace icon, and select
Open empty workspace. The New Workspace dialog opens,
where you can select what layout to use for the new workspace.
New Workspace Dialog
In this dialog, you can select what layout you want to use when creating
a new workspace.
In any workspace, select Workspace > New workspace and select
which workspace you want to open.
As last closed workspace
This is the layout of the workspace of the same type that was
closed last.
104
About Workspaces
Opening Files in a Workspace
The default layout
This is the layout that you previously saved as default.
Factory preset: Empty layout
The workspace will be created without any docked tool windows.
This preset is used by default if your screen is small.
Factory preset: Moderate
The workspace will be created with only the most important tool
windows. This preset is used by default if your screen size is
moderate.
Factory preset: Power-user
The workspace will be created with almost all possible docked tool
windows. This preset is used by default if your screen size is large.
Factory preset: Ultimate
The workspace will be created with all possible docked tool
windows. This preset is used by default if your screen
configuration is made up of two large screens.
Don’t show this dialog again
If this option is activated, WaveLab will select the layout
automatically in the following order:
1)
As the default layout if one has been saved from the Workspace
menu.
2)
As the last similar workspace that was closed during the present
session.
3)
A factory preset according to the screen configuration.
Opening Files in a Workspace
You can open files in the workspace that you are working in and in any
other workspace, without having to switch workspaces first.
•
To open a file in a workspace, select File > Open. From the file
browser, select the workspace file that you want to open, and click
Open.
•
On the Central switcher bar, click a workspace icon, and select
Open. From the file browser, select the file that you want to open,
and click Open.
105
About Workspaces
Organizing Workspace Windows
Organizing Workspace Windows
For working with several workspace windows, WaveLab offers
functions to organize the windows.
•
To lock a workspace layout, activate Workspace > Lock layout.
This prevents you from moving or closing tool windows.
•
To automatically move the shared tool windows to the newly
activated workspace, every time you switch between workspaces,
activate Workspace > Auto move shared tool windows.
•
To activate full screen view, select Workspace > Full screen
view.
•
To specify the workspace position on the screen, select
Workspace > Position on screen, and select an option.
•
To bring all workspace windows to front, select Workspace >
Bring all to front.
•
To cascade all workspace windows, select Workspace >
Cascade all.
•
To switch between the previously selected workspace window
and the active workspace window, select Workspace > Switch to
previous workspace, or press [F5].
•
To close the active workspace, select Workspace > Close.
Saving a Workspace Layout
You can save a workspace layout and use it in other projects or other
instances of WaveLab.
PREREQUISITE
Set up your workspace layout.
PROCEDURE
1.
Optional: If you want to use the current workspace layout as default,
select Workspace > Layout > Save current layout as default.
NOTE
The default layout is the layout that is used when a new workspace
window is created.
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About Workspaces
About Tool Windows
2.
In any workspace, select Workspace > Layout > Save as.
3.
In the Workspace layout dialog, enter a Name for the layout.
4.
Optional: Decide whether you want to use the following options:
5.
•
To save the size and position of the workspace and its command
bars and tool windows, activate Save placement of this
workspace and its peripheral windows.
•
To save the position and size of the tab groups within the
workspace, activate Save layout of tab groups.
Click Save.
About Tool Windows
Throughout WaveLab there are various tool windows available that
allow you to view, analyze, and edit the active file.
Generally, the content of a tool window is synchronized with the active file,
with the exception of the audio meters which displays the audio file being
played back. Tool windows can be docked and undocked, and saved in
your custom layouts. There are two types of tool windows available:
•
Specific tool windows
•
Shared tool windows
The tool windows can be accessed via the Workspace menu.
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About Workspaces
About Tool Windows
Specific Tool Windows
Specific tool windows are windows that are specific to the current
workspace. The following specific tool windows are available:
Audio Files
workspace
Audio Montage
workspace
Batch Processors workspace
Podcast
workspace
Control Window workspace
Shared Tool Windows
The difference between specific and shared tool windows is that there
can only be a single instance of a shared window in WaveLab. For
example, a single Master Section, or a single level meter.
When you open a shared tool window in another workspace it undocks
and moves from its original workspace, if this option is activated. An
empty tab container with a title bar remains in its previous workspace.
You can set the moving behavior by activating/deactivating Workspace
> Auto move shared tool windows.
A shared tool window, if docked, can only appear in a single workspace
at a time. To retrieve a shared tool window from another workspace,
click the tool window. For example, if you have the Level Meter displayed
in the Audio Montage workspace and you want to display it in the Audio
Files workspace, click the icon in the Level Meter window of the Audio
Files workspace.
108
About Workspaces
About Tool Windows
If there are several workspaces of the same type, each workspace has
its own independent tool window set.
The following shared tool windows are available:
Audio Files workspace and Audio Montage workspace
Batch Processors workspace
Opening and Closing Tool Windows
You can close all tool windows you do not need for your project.
•
To open or close a specific tool window, select Workspace >
Specific tool windows, and select a tool window, or use the
Specific Tool Windows command bar.
•
To open or close a shared tool window, select Workspace >
Shared tool windows, and select a tool window, or use the
Shared Tool Windows command bar.
•
To close a tool window, move the mouse on the left side or the top
of the window, and on the toolbar that appears, click Close.
109
About Workspaces
About Tool Windows
Tool Windows Command Bar
On the Specific Tool Windows and Shared Tool Windows command
bars you can quickly switch tool windows on and off, without having to
navigate through a menu.
To open or close the Shared Tool Windows command bar, select
Workspace > Command bars > Shared Tool Windows.
Shared Tool Windows command bar in the Audio Montage workspace
To open or close the Specific Tool Windows command bar, select
Workspace > Command bars > Specific Tool Windows.
Specific Tool Windows command bar in the Audio Montage workspace
Docking and Undocking Tool Windows
Tool windows can be used as docked windows or as floating windows.
They can be freely dragged around and docked at various locations.
Command bars can also be freely moved around and docked along the
edges of most windows.
To dock/undock a tool window, use one of the following methods:
•
Double-click the title bar, located on the left or the top of the tool
window.
•
Click the double window icon at the top left corner of the window.
•
Drag the tool window title bar of a specific tool window. To dock
the tool window, drag it by its title bar to another position.
To prevent an undocked tool window from docking, use one of the
following methods:
•
Hold down [Ctrl]/[Command] before dragging the tool window.
•
Activate the Floating versus docking priority icon on the left or
the top of the tool window.
Differences Between Windows and Mac OS
Floating windows behave slightly different on Windows and Mac OS.
•
On Windows systems, a floating window is hidden when its
dependent workspace is minimized or covered by another window.
If WaveLab is not the active application, all its independent floating
windows are hidden.
110
About Workspaces
About Tool Windows
•
On Mac OS X systems, a tool window is always on top of all other
windows and a floating window remains visible even if its
dependent workspace is not active or is minimized. If WaveLab is
not the active application, all its floating windows are hidden.
111
Playback
WaveLab offers numerous playback functions.
There are 4 playback modes available:
•
Traditional playback, with playback starting from the cursor
position and stopping anywhere when stopping playback.
•
Play range, where playback starts from a given point and stops at
another point of interest.
•
Play from anchor, where playback starts from a specific point of
interest.
•
Play until anchor, where playback starts anywhere but stops at a
given point of interest.
RELATED LINKS:
“Playback Shortcuts” on page 126
Transport Bar
With this command bar you can control playback of an audio file or
audio montage, navigate between various positions in an audio file or
audio montage, and open the Recording dialog.
In the Audio Files workspace or the Audio Montage workspace, select
Workspace > Command bars > Transport bar.
Transport bar in the Audio Files workspace
Transport bar in the Audio Montage workspace
Presets
Lets you save and apply transport bar presets.
112
Playback
Transport Bar
Jog and Shuttle
Activates the Jog and Shuttle mode.
Speed settings
Opens a menu where you can specify the playback speed.
Skip range
If this option is activated, playback skips the selected range and
any region surrounded by exclusion markers.
On stop, move cursor back
If this option is activated, the edit cursor jumps back to the start
position when playback stops. If you want to activate this option for
the options Play from anchor, Play until anchor, and Play range,
right-click this button, and activate On alternate playback stop,
move cursor back to start.
Perform pre-roll
Activates pre-roll for the commands Play from anchor, Play until
anchor, and Play range.
Right-click the button to select the pre-roll length and to specify to
which commands you want to apply pre-roll to. To edit the pre-roll
times, select Edit pre/post-roll.
Perform post-roll
Activates post-roll for the commands Play from anchor, Play until
anchor, and Play range.
Right-click the button to select the post-roll length and to specify
to which commands you want to apply post-roll to. To edit the
post-roll times, select Edit pre/post-roll.
Auto selection
If this option is activated, the anchor and/or range are automatically
selected according to the editing actions. Right-click to open a
menu with related options and auto selection modes.
Ranges
Lets you select one of the following ranges:
•
Selected time range
•
Marked region where edit cursor is located
•
Range of focused clip (audio montage only)
•
Crossfade range (audio montage only)
•
Fade-in range (audio montage only)
•
Fade-out range (audio montage only)
113
Playback
Transport Bar
Play range
Plays the selected range. Post-roll and Pre-roll settings are taken
into account.
Anchors
Lets select which anchor to use as reference for the commands
Play from anchor and Play until anchor. When there are multiple
possibilities, for example, multiple markers, the last selected item
is taken into account as a reference anchor or the closest marker
near the edit cursor position if no marker is selected.
You can select one of the following anchors:
•
Start of file
•
Start of selected time range
•
End of selected time range
•
Any marker
•
Region start marker
•
Region end marker
•
Clip start (audio montage only)
•
Clip end (audio montage only)
•
Selected envelope point in focused clip (audio montage only)
When an anchor is detected, for example, a region marker pair, this
is indicated by a green anchor marker.
Play from anchor
Plays from anchor. Pre-roll and post-roll settings are taken into
account.
Play until anchor
Plays until anchor. Pre-roll and post-roll settings are taken into
account.
Move cursor to previous/next anchor
Moves the edit cursor position to the previous/next anchor. To set
the type of anchor, right-click the next anchor button and select an
option from the menu. If you click during playback, playback
continues from the anchor position.
114
Playback
Transport Bar
Move playback position backwards/forwards
Moves the edit cursor position to the left/right. If you click during
playback, playback jumps to the new edit cursor position.
To move the edit cursor to the start/end of the file, press
[Ctrl]/[Command], and click the Move playback position
backwards/forwards button.
Loop
Activates the loop mode. Right-click the loop button to select
whether to loopforever or only a few times.
Stop
Stops the audio being played. If playback is already stopped, the
edit cursor is moved to the previous start position.
Play
Starts playing the active audio file or audio montage from the edit
cursor position.It can also be used to play back other sources, for
example, the focused Basic Audio CD track or the focused clip in
the Clips window.
If the audio being played back is not the active audio file, the Play
button has a different color. This happens if you switch to another
workspace during playback, for example.
The playback button when playing back in the active window (left) and when playing
in another window or workspace (right).
Record
Opens the Recording dialog.
Time display
Displays the edit cursor or playback position. Click to select
another time unit.
Fold bar
Minimizes the transport bar. To unfold the transport bar again, click
the thin line where the transport bar was located.
Settings
Opens layout menu of the transport bar and lets you edit shortcuts
for the transport bar. You can also right-click the transport bar to
open this menu.
115
Playback
Transport Bar
Transport Bar in the Podcast Workspace and Batch Processors
Workspace
In the Podcast workspace and Batch Processors workspace, a
simplified transport bar allows you to play back the selected Podcast
episode and selected batch process source files and destination files.
Play Button
Clicking the Play button on the transport bar starts playing back the
active audio file or audio montage from the edit cursor position.It can
also be used to play back other sources, for example, the focused Basic
Audio CD track or the focused clip in the Clips window.
You can also use the Space bar or the Enter key on your keyboard to
start playback. Pressing the Space bar during playback stops playback,
while pressing Enter during playback makes playback restart from the
last start position.
When loop is activated, the audio selection is looped, if available.
Otherwise, the region defined by loop markers is looped, if available. If
there are no selection ranges or loop markers, the entire file is looped.
The standard Play command is not influenced by the Play range, Play
from anchor, and Play to anchor options.
Stop Button
The result of clicking the Stop button or on the transport bar or [0] on
your numeric keypad depends on the current situation.
•
If you trigger Stop in stop mode, the edit cursor moves either to
the previous Playback start marker, or to the selection start
(whatever is closer), until the start of the file is reached.
•
If there is no selection or if the edit cursor is positioned to the left
of the selection, it is moved to the beginning of the file instead.
116
Playback
Transport Bar
Playing Back Audio Ranges
You can play back audio ranges using the Ranges options on the
transport bar.
PROCEDURE
1.
On the transport bar, select the type of range that you want to play
back.
2.
Optional: Activate pre-roll and/or post-roll.
3.
Position the edit cursor inside the range that you want to play back
or make a selection range.
This selected range and, if activated, the pre-roll and post-roll times are
displayed on the time ruler.
4.
To play back the selected range, click the Play range button on the
transport bar or press [F6].
RESULT
The selected range is played back. Pre-roll and post-roll settings are
taken into account. When the Loop mode is active, pre-roll is used
before the first loop only, and post-roll is only used after the last loop.
Playing Back From an Anchor or Until an Anchor
You can play back audio from an anchor or until a specified anchor using
the Anchor options on the transport bar.
PROCEDURE
1.
On the transport bar, select an anchor type
If nothing is selected and you use the Play from anchor button, the edit
cursor is the default anchor.
117
Playback
Transport Bar
2.
Depending on the selected anchor type, position the edit cursor in
the wave window or montage window inside the range that you
want to play back.
For example, if you have selected Region start marker, click somewhere
in the area of the region marker pair from which you want to play back
from/to. The green anchor marker jumps to the selected anchor.
3.
Optional: Activate pre-roll and/or post-roll.
4.
To play back from the anchor marker, click the Play from anchor
button on the transport bar or press [F7]. To play back until the
anchor marker, click the Play until anchor button on the transport
bar or press [F8].
RESULT
Play back starts from the anchor/until the anchor. Pre-roll and post-roll
settings are taken into account.
About the “Play From Anchor” and “Play Until Anchor”
Functions
You can play back audio from an anchor or until an anchor using the
Play from anchor or Play until anchor functions on the transport bar.
These playback functions behave differently depending on the pre-roll
and post-roll settings.
Play from anchor
•
If post-roll is selected, playback starts at the anchor position and
stops after the post-roll time. If no post-roll is selected, playback
continues until the end of the audio file or audio montage.
•
If pre-roll is selected, playback starts from the selected anchor,
minus the pre-roll time.
•
If pre-roll and post-roll are selected, playback starts from the
selected anchor, minus the pre-roll time and stops after the anchor
point plus the post roll time.
•
If the loop mode is activated, the pre-roll and post-roll settings are
taken into account. This way you can play a loop around the edit
cursor position, without having to make further range settings.
118
Playback
Transport Bar
Play until anchor
•
Playback starts from the cursor, and stops at the selected anchor.
If the cursor is beyond the selected anchor, playback starts at the
selected anchor. If pre-roll is activated, it is taken into account.
•
If pre-roll is selected, playback starts from the selected anchor
minus the pre-roll time, until the selected anchor.
•
If there is no selected anchor, Play until anchor is disabled.
•
The loop settings have no effect.
Using the Auto Selection Mode
You can use the auto selection mode in combination with the playback
shortcuts to play back audio ranges or anchors, without needing to
interact with the transport bar. This makes it easy to monitor your editing
actions.
PROCEDURE
1.
On the transport bar, activate Auto selection mode.
2.
In the wave window or the montage window, do one of the
following:
•
Make a selection range.
•
Click inside the area of a marker pair.
•
Click a fade-in, fade-out, or crossfade.
•
Click anywhere in the wave/montage window.
•
Drag a marker.
Depending on your action, the most appropriate range, or anchor is
selected. For example, if you click inside a marker pair, this region is
selected as playback range.
The time ruler shows the selected range or anchor.
NOTE
In Auto selection mode, you can still change some range and anchor
options in the transport bar to play a different range/anchor. However,
the range/anchor will be reselected when you starting editing again with
the mouse.
119
Playback
Transport Bar
3.
Use the playback shortcuts to start playback.
•
To play back the selected audio range, press [F6].
•
To play back from an anchor, press [F7].
•
To play back until an anchor, press [F8].
You can also use the Play range, Play from anchor, and Play to anchor
buttons on the transport bar.
RESULT
The selection range is played back, or play back starts from the
anchor/until the anchor. Pre-roll and post-roll settings are taken into
account.
NOTE
A selection range has priority over any other range. To allow other
ranges to be auto-selected, deselect the selection range.
Using Auto Replay While Editing
You can have playback automatically re-triggered while editing audio
with the mouse. This is useful if you want to monitor the adjustment of a
selection boundary, for example.
PROCEDURE
1.
On the transport bar, right-click the Auto selection mode icon,
and activate Auto replay while editing.
2.
In the wave window or the montage window, make a selection
range and hold the mouse button pressed.
3.
Start playback by using one of the following shortcuts:
4.
•
To play back the selected audio range, press [F6].
•
To play back from an anchor, press [F7].
•
To play back until an anchor, press [F8].
Drag the cursor to the right or left.
The selection range is adjusted and played back until you release the
mouse button. When playback ends, the new selection range is played
back.
120
Playback
Transport Bar
Automated Selection Mode Settings
You can select whether the automated selection mode should select
only ranges, only anchors, or both. To use the selected settings, activate
Auto selection of anchor and range, based on editing actions.
To open the automated selection mode settings menu, right-click the
Auto selection of anchor and range, based on editing actions icon
on the transport bar, and make your selection.
Auto replay while editing
If this option is activated, playback is automatically restarted when
you hold down the mouse button while editing ranges or anchors,
and used the shortcuts to trigger playback. This is useful to find a
loop, for example.
This option works even when the automated selection mode is
deactivated.
Solo track when editing
If this option is activated, when holding down the mouse button
when editing ranges or anchors in the montage window, the track
is soloed when playing back via the shortcuts for Play range, Play
from anchor, or Play until anchor. This option is only available in
the Audio Montage workspace.
This option works even when the automated selection mode is
deactivated, because it is independent from this mode.
Auto select range and anchor
If this option is activated, ranges and anchors are automatically
selected.
Auto select range
If this option is activated, ranges are automatically selected.
Auto select anchor
If this option is activated, anchors are automatically selected.
121
Playback
Transport Bar
Skipping Sections During Playback
You can automatically skip a selected audio range during playback. This
way, you can audition what the material would sound like with certain
sections cut out.
PROCEDURE
1.
On the transport bar, activate Skip range.
2.
Activate Use Pre-Roll and Use Post-Roll.
3.
If you want to use the Play range function, activate one of the
Ranges modes.
4.
Depending on the Ranges mode, do one of the following:
•
If you have activated Selected audio range, make an audio
selection in the wave window.
•
If you have activated Marked region where edit cursor is
located, click the section between a marker pair.
The audio range that will be skipped is displayed on the time ruler along
with the pre-roll and post-roll times.
5.
Select Play range, or press [F6]
RESULT
The selected range is skipped during playback.
You can also use the factory preset for skipping selections during
playback. Activate Skip range, make an audio selection, and press
[Shift]-[F6].
NOTE
This mode also works with the standard Play button, if there is a time
selection or if exclusion start and end markers are set. In this case, the
pre-roll and post-roll times are ignored.
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Playback
Transport Bar
About Loops
Loop points are updated continuously during playback. If you change
the loop start or end during playback, the loop changes. This way you
can audition selection points for rhythmic material.
If you loop a section in an audio montage, playback loops within the
boundaries of the current selection range. This selection range may be
on any track, even if empty. The vertical position of the selection range
is of no relevance for loop playback, only the left and right selection
boundaries matter.
Pre-Roll and Post-Roll
You can start playback slightly before a specific position (pre-roll) and
stop playback slightly after another position (post-roll). This gives you a
brief context if you are auditioning a clip, for example.
The position can be an anchor or the start or end of a range. The pre-roll
and post-roll times are displayed in the time ruler.
To activate pre-roll and/or post-roll, activate the Use Post-Roll and Use
Pre-Roll buttons on the transport bar.
When right-clicking the pre-roll or post-roll icon on the transport bar,
you can select a pre-roll/post-roll time. Here, you can also select which
play option you want to apply the pre-roll/post-roll to, and you can open
the Edit Times dialog.
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Playback
Transport Bar
Pre-Roll and Post-Roll Times Dialog
This dialog allows you to define a short, an average, and a long pre-roll
and post-roll time. These settings are global to WaveLab.
In the wave window or the montage window, on the transport bar,
right-click the pre-roll or post-roll icon, and select Edit pre/post-roll.
Playback Speed Dialog
This dialog allows you to specify the playback speed of the active audio
file and all clips of the active audio montage.
On the Transport bar, click the Speed settings icon, and select Edit
speed.
Presets
You can enter a name to save the settings as a preset and select
them from the Playback Speed pop-up menu later.
Speed factor
Sets the playback speed as a percentage of the normal speed
(100 %).
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Playback
Transport Bar
Time stretching
Compared to the speed coefficient, this is the inverse, a
deceleration coefficient. This value is equivalent to the percentage
found in the Time Stretching dialog.
Keep constant pitch (pure time stretching)
Indicates the time stretching.
Quality
The Best and High quality modes provide the highest quality, but
are also the most CPU intensive. In most cases, the Standard
quality is sufficient.
Acceleration by skipping low level regions
If this option is activated, regions of the audio that are below the
threshold level (level under which audio is skipped) are skipped
during playback.
Level detection sensitivity
Determines the resolution of the level detection analysis, and thus
its sensitivity.
Level under which audio is skipped
Determines the threshold level for a region to be considered low
level.
Bypass effects and Master Section
If this option is activated, all active effects in the audio montage
and all global effects in the Master Section are bypassed. This
saves processing power and usually the plug-ins are not needed
trying to locate audio material.
Bypass audio meters
If this option is activated, all meters are bypassed to save
processing power.
NOTE
Changing the playback speed does not change the original audio, but
only its playback speed in WaveLab.
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Playback
Transport Bar
Playback Shortcuts
In addition to the buttons on the transport bar, there are shortcuts that
can be used even when the wave window or montage window is not the
active window.
Space bar
Start/stop playback.
0 on numeric keypad.
Stop. If the program is stopped and you trigger Stop again, the
edit cursor moves either to the previous Playback start marker, or
to the selection start (whatever is closer), until the start of the file
is reached. This is the same as clicking the Stop button on the
transport bar.
Enter
Starts playback. If pressed during playback, playback restarts from
the previous start position. This is the same as clicking the Play
button on the transport bar.
[F6]
Starts playback of the selected range, depending on the selected
option in the Ranges section of the transport bar.
[F7]
Starts playback from the selected anchor, depending on the
selected option in the Anchors section of the transport bar.
[F8]
Starts playback until the selected anchor, depending on the
selected option in the Anchors section of the transport bar.
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Playback
Transport Bar
Save Transport Bar Presets Dialog
In this dialog, you can save a transport bar setup as preset.
On the transport bar, click the preset icon, and select Save as.
Path name
Opens the root folder of the preset in the Windows Explorer/Mac
OS Finder. Here, you can create subfolders for your presets.
Presets list
Lists all existing presets.
Name
Lets you specify a name for your preset.
Create shortcut for selecting the preset
If this option is activated and you click Save, the Shortcut
Definitions dialog opens, where you can define a shortcut for this
preset.
If a preset already has an assigned shortcut, this option is grayed
out. To change the existing shortcut, double-click the preset name
in the presets list.
When preset is selected with shortcut
This lets you assign a customized playback command to a
shortcut. For example, you can set a shortcut to play a range with
a short pre-roll/post-roll, and another shortcut to play a range
without a pre-roll/post-roll.
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Playback
Transport Bar
On stop, restore previous settings
If this option is activated, the settings are restored as they were
before playback start. This is useful to trigger a special play task,
and automatically switch back to the standard settings, as soon as
playback is finished.
Transport Bar Settings
In the transport bar settings menu, you can customize the transport bar.
This is useful to optimize the transport bar according to the available
screen space.
To open the settings menu, right-click the transport bar, or click the
Settings button on the transport bar.
Hide
Hides the transport bar. To make it visible again, select
Workspace > Command bars > Transport bar.
Fold
Minimizes the transport bar. To unfold the transport bar again, click
the thin line where the transport bar was located.
Top/Bottom
Aligns the transport bar at the top/bottom of the wave window or
the montage window.
Large transport buttons/Small transport buttons
Determines the size of the transport bar buttons.
Align buttons left/Align buttons right/Center button
Moves the transport bar buttons to the corresponding position.
Show time display
Shows/hides the time display.
Show alternate play buttons
Shows/hides the alternate play buttons in the Ranges and
Anchors section of the transport bar.
Show all Range and Anchor buttons
Shows/hides the full range of Ranges and Anchors buttons. If this
option is deactivated, only one range and one anchor button is
visible. The other buttons can be accessed via shortcuts or when
you right-click this button.
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Playback
Playing Back Only One Channel
Show Preset button
Shows/hides the Presets button.
Show Skip button
Shows/hides the Skip mode button.
Show Speed button
Shows/hides the Speed settings button.
Show Jog and Shuttle button
Shows/hides the Jog and Shuttle button.
Edit shortcuts
Opens the Customize commands dialog, where you can edit the
shortcuts for the transport bar commands.
Playing Back Only One Channel
You can choose to play only the left or the right channel of an audio file
in the Audio Files workspace.
PROCEDURE
•
In the Audio Files workspace, select Options, and
activate/deactivate Play left channel and/or Play right channel.
Starting Playback From the Ruler
You can use the ruler to quickly jump to a position and start playback
from there.
•
Double-clicking the ruler starts playback from that position.
Playback continues until you click Stop or until the end of the audio
file or audio montage.
•
To set the playback position to a certain position, click the ruler
during playback. This also applies for clicking the time rulers of
another audio file or audio montage, which allows you to quickly
switch playback between audio files or audio montages.
•
To start playback from a marker position, press [Ctrl]/[Command]
and double-click a marker.
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Playback
Using the Play Tool
Using the Play Tool
This tool allows you to play back from any position on one or both stereo
channels.
PROCEDURE
1.
In the Audio Files workspace, select the Play tool from the Edit
tools command bar, or press and hold [Alt]/[Option].
2.
In the wave window, click at the position where you want playback
to start.
The cursor shape indicates whether the left (L), the right channel (R), or
both channels are played back.
RESULT
Playback continues for as long as you keep the mouse button pressed,
or until the audio file ends. After playback has stopped, the cursor is
moved to the playback start position.
Playback Scrubbing
Playback scrubbing helps you find a certain position in an audio file, by
restarting playback repeatedly when you click and drag on the time ruler
during playback or use the Play tool.
Scrubbing Using the Play Tool
PROCEDURE
1.
In the Audio Files workspace, select the Play tool from the Edit
tools command bar, or press and hold [Alt]/[Option].
2.
Click in the wave window, or click and drag the time ruler.
If you click in the wave window, playback starts at the position where you
clicked. If you click and drag in the time ruler, the audio is played back
from the edit cursor position and a small section is looped once.
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Playback
Playback Scrubbing
Scrubbing Using the Time Ruler
PROCEDURE
1.
Optional: In the Audio Files workspace, activate Options > Stop
after playback scrubbing, to stop playback after scrubbing.
The edit cursor then jumps back to the start position.
2.
Start playback.
3.
Click the time ruler and hold the mouse button pressed, and drag
left or right.
4.
When you are done scrubbing, release the mouse button.
Playback Scrubbing Preferences
You can define the behavior of the Play tool in the Audio file editing
preferences.
In the Audio Files workspace, select Options > Audio file editing
preferences > Editing tab.
•
If Restrict to Play Tool is activated, scrubbing is not available
when you click and drag on the time ruler during playback.
•
The Sensitivity setting determines the length of the audio loop that
is played once when click and drang on the time ruler with the Play
tool activated.
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Playback
Timecode Window
Timecode Window
This window can display the recorded time, the time offset in relation to
various positions, and dynamic colors according to the context. During
playback, the song position is displayed. If there is no playback, the edit
cursor position is displayed.
In the Audio Files workspace, Audio Montage workspace, or Control
Window, select Workspace > Shared tool windows > Timecode.
View Menu
Edit colors
Opens the Timecode colors dialog, where you can edit the colors
of the Timecode window.
Positive times
If this option is activated, positive values are displayed. If Negative
times is also activated, the closest offset, negative or positive, is
displayed.
Negative times
If this option is activated, negative values are displayed. If Positive
times is also activated, the closest offset, negative or positive, is
displayed.
Time ruler
Displays the position in relation to the origin of the time ruler. The
time format is displayed according to the ruler.
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Playback
Jog/Shuttle Function
Offset display
Lets you select from which position you want to display the offset.
The following positions are available: edit cursor, selection
start/end, marker, CD track start/end, clip start/end.
Recorded time
If this option is activated, when you start recording, the Timecode
window displays the recorded time.
Recorded time (from last marker)
If this option is activated, when you start recording, the Timecode
window displays the recorded time since the last dropped marker.
Jog/Shuttle Function
This function allows you to play back audio forwards or backwards, at
any speed. This is useful for finding exact spots in the audio file and
audio montage.
NOTE
The Jog and Shuttle functions are CPU intensive. If you experience
stuttering playback, try reducing the window size.
Using the Jog Function
This can be viewed as dragging the audio past a playback point, much
like dragging a reel-to-reel tape past the playback head.
PROCEDURE
1.
Zoom in the wave window or the montage window, so that you get
a good visual feedback.
2.
On the transport bar, activate Jog/Shuttle.
A vertical line appears in the middle of the wave/montage window. This
is the playback point.
3.
Click in the area above the time ruler and drag to the left or right,
to play back the audio.
Dragging to the left of the line plays the audio forwards, dragging to the
right plays the audio backwards.
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Playback
Scroll During Playback
Using the Shuttle Function
This can be viewed as playing back with a continuous control for tape
speed and direction.
PROCEDURE
1.
Zoom in the wave window or the montage window, so that you get
a good visual feedback.
2.
On the transport bar, activate Jog/Shuttle.
A vertical line appears in the middle of the wave/montage window. This
is the playback point.
3.
Click in the wave/montage window and drag to the left or right of
the vertical line.
Clicking to the left of the line plays the audio backwards, clicking to the
right plays the audio forwards.
The playback speed is determined by the distance from the line to the
pointer. The further away from the line you move the pointer, the faster
the playback.
4.
Release the mouse button to stop playback.
5.
Deactivate the Jog/Shuttle button on the transport bar by using
any stop command.
Scroll During Playback
You can determine how the view should be scrolled in Play mode.
In the Audio Files workspace or the Audio Montage workspace, select
View > Scroll during playback.
The following options are available:
Immobile view
Disables scrolling.
View follows cursor
The view automatically changes to keep the playback cursor
visible.
Scroll view (partial)
The view only scrolls when necessary to keep the playback cursor
visible.
134
Playback
About Playback in the Audio Montage Workspace
Scroll view (always)
Scrolls the view to keep the playback cursor centered.
NOTE
If you get dropouts during playback, do not use the scroll options.
About Playback in the Audio Montage
Workspace
Playback in the Audio Montage workspace works the same way as in the
Audio Files workspace. However, there are some things to note.
Mute and Solo Tracks
You can mute or solo tracks in an audio montage by using the
corresponding buttons in the track control area.
•
When a track is muted, the mute button is yellow.
•
When atrack is soloed, the solo button is red.
•
Solo can only be activated for one track at a time. However, you
can unmute other tracks when Solo is active if you want to listen
to a combination of tracks.
Muting Individual Clips
You can mute individual clips of a track.
PROCEDURE
1.
In the Audio Montage workspace, open the Clips window.
2.
Select the clips that you want to mute, and select Functions >
Mute/Unmute selected clips, or check the box in the Mute
column.
135
Playback
Speaker Configuration
Playing Back Individual Clips
You can play back an individual clip on a track. Overlapping clips or clips
on other tracks are muted.
PROCEDURE
1.
In the Audio Montage workspace, right-click the lower part of the
clip that you want to play back.
2.
On the menu, select one of the following play options:
•
To play back the clip, select Play focused clip.
•
To play back the clip with pre-roll, select Play focused clip with
pre-roll.
Playing Back a Selection Range of a Track
You can select a section of a clip and play it back, while overlapping
clips or clips on other tracks are muted.
PROCEDURE
1.
In the Audio Montage workspace, make a selection range, either in
a clip or in an empty section of a track.
2.
Right-click the selection range, and select Play clip inside
selection range.
Speaker Configuration
You can configure up to 8 speaker setups to switch to another audio
speaker configuration with no latency. This allows you to compare the
sound on different speaker setups.
After setting up the speaker configurations in the VST Audio
Connections dialog, the configurations can be selected from the
bottom of the Master Section.
The switching between different setups is done at the lowest level, right
before sending the audio to the hardware, and without any plug-in
processing.
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Playback
Speaker Configuration
A gain can be set individually for each configuration.
•
The speaker gain is not taken into account by the meters. This
means that the signal could clip even if the meters do not indicate
clipping.
•
The speaker gain has no effect on file rendering or CD writing.
•
Since a gain affects samples, any dither settings are reset when
changing the gain. This has an effect when monitoring quiet music
passages.
The speaker configuration #1 is active on startup and should be the
default configuration, without a gain change.
The gain settings are saved with the active configuration. To save the
gain settings of the speaker configurations as a preset, open the VST
Audio Connections dialog, and save the speaker configurations as a
preset.
RELATED LINKS:
“Speaker Configurations Pane” on page 422
“VST Audio Connections Dialog” on page 13
Speaker Configuration LED Colors
Dark green
No gain is applied and dithering is preserved.
Red
Positive gain is applied, dithering is canceled, and there is a risk of
clipping.
Orange
Negative gain is applied without the risk of clipping, but dithering
is canceled.
Setting Up the Speaker Configuration
PROCEDURE
1.
In any workspace, except the Podcast workspace, select Options
> VST Audio Connections.
2.
In the VST Audio Connections dialog, select an Audio Device.
3.
Select the Playback tab, and select the speaker configuration that
you want to edit.
4.
Select and name the audio ports used for playback.
137
Playback
Speaker Configuration
5.
Select the Recording tab, and select the speaker configuration
that you want to edit.
6.
Select and name the audio ports used for recording and input
monitoring.
NOTE
The input selection is not affected by the speaker configuration.
7.
When you are done setting up the speaker configurations, click
OK.
138
Audio File Editing
Audio file editing refers to opening, editing, and saving audio files.
Wave Window
The wave window displays audio files graphically. Here, you view, play
back, and edit individual audio files.
The wave window consists of two displays. You can use one display as
an overview to navigate through the project and the other as the main
view for editing.
139
Audio File Editing
Wave Window
You can select different display modes for the two displays. For
example, one display can show the waveform and the other the
loudness.
You can synchronize the waveform displays so that they display the
same part of the audio file, by clicking the Sync with other view button.
Display Modes
In the wave window, the upper and the lower displays can independently
be set to one of three display modes.
•
The Waveform tab displays the waveform of the audio file.
•
The Spectrum tab displays the audio as a spectrogram.
•
The Loudness tab displays the loudness graphs of the audio file.
140
Audio File Editing
Wave Window
Waveform Tab
The Waveform tab displays the waveform of the audio file. The
horizontal axis shows the time and the vertical axis the amplitude of the
waveform.
Spectrum Tab
This allows you to view the level intensity of each area in the frequency
spectrum. The Spectrum tab in conjunction with the Spectrum Editor
is a unique editing and restoration tool.
141
Audio File Editing
Wave Window
Spectrogram Options
In this dialog, you can define how the frequency spectrum is displayed.
In the Audio Files workspace, select the Spectrum tab, and click the
Edit settings button.
Colors
Displays the frequency spectrum in colors.
Black & White
Displays the frequency spectrum in black and white. Frequencies
with a high intensity are displayed in white, and frequencies with a
low intensity in black.
White & Black
Displays the frequency spectrum in black and white. Frequencies
with a high intensity are displayed in black, and frequencies with a
low intensity in white.
Logarithmic frequency scale
If this option is activated, the frequency spectrum is displayed on a
logarithmic scale instead of a linear scale, thus spacing the octaves
equally. This models the perception of pitch of the human ear more
closely. However, for audio restoration purposes the linear scale is
more useful, because you typically want to edit higher frequencies
which can be located more easily on a linear scale.
Display frequencies higher than
Any frequency below this level is not displayed in the spectrogram.
Increasing this value allows you to focus the display on the more
audible part of the spectrum.
Audio gain for analysis
Allows you to apply gain to the analyzed signal without changing
the level of the original audio. This helps you find low-level artifacts.
142
Audio File Editing
Wave Window
Resolution
Sets the number of samples that are analyzed to create the
spectrogram. If you specify a higher value, more frequencies are
analyzed but they are located less accurately in the time domain.
Loudness Tab
The curves on the Loudness tab represent the loudness over time in an
audio file.
Because isolated peaks do not alter the perceived loudness of audio
material very much, this display represents the loudness of an audio file
more accurately than the waveform display.
This display mode also gives you an overview of the compression or
dynamic range of a song. For example, the more peaks and valley
expressions in the curve, the more dynamics in the audio material. An
even curve with few peaks indicates that the material is compressed
with a limited dynamic range.
RELATED LINKS:
“EBU Loudness Standard R-128” on page 48
143
Audio File Editing
Wave Window
Loudness Envelope Curves
The loudness envelope curves represent the average loudness of the
signal in different areas of the frequency spectrum. These curves are
shown in the Loudness display of the wave window.
The following loudness curves are available:
1)
Momentary loudness (100 ms resolution)
2)
Short-term loudness (1 sec resolution)
3)
Integrated loudness (loudness of the whole file)
4)
Loudness range
5)
True peak hints
The curves can be shown individually or in any combination. Which
curves are displayed and what frequency area they represent is
specified in the Loudness Display dialog.
NOTE
The resolution is 100 ms, which means the momentary loudness
information is collected every 100 ms and the short-term loudness every
second to match the EBU standard. This is the same for true peaks. A
clipping indicator is displayed when a 400 ms audio region contains one
or more over peaks.
144
Audio File Editing
Wave Window
Loudness Display Settings Dialog
In this dialog, you can specify how the loudness envelope waveform is
displayed.
In the Audio Files workspace, select the Loudness tab, and click the
Edit Settings button.
Momentary Loudness/Short-term Loudness
Color
Lets you edit the color of the associated element.
Curve thickness
Lets you customize the curve thickness. When Auto Thickness is
selected, the curve thickness increases when zooming in.
Show range
If this option is activated, the dynamic range is visualized. This
displays the difference between the recent minimum and maximum
loudness values. The wider the band, the wider the dynamics.
Range transparency
Lets you specify the transparency of the range section.
Range inertia
Determines the inertia of the loudness range, that is, how fast the
range edges meet each other after a new minimum or maximum
loudness is reported.
145
Audio File Editing
Wave Window
Integrated Loudness/Loudness Range/True Peaks
Color
Lets you edit the color of the associated element.
Curve thickness
Lets you customize the curve thickness. When Auto Thickness is
selected, the curve thickness increases when zooming in.
Only show hot points (True Peaks section only)
If this option is activated, the curve is hidden and only the peak
overloads are displayed as red bullets.
Axes
Upper/Reference/Lower
Lets you activate several axes, and edit their color and position in
the loudness tab to get a visual reference.
Additional Color Settings
Background/Selected background
Lets you edit the color of the associated element.
Additional Options
Curve smoothing
If this option is activated, the transitions between the loudness
measurements are smoothly drawn. This is less accurate when
abrupt changes occur.
Apply to all open files
If this option is activated, the settings are applied to all open audio
files, when clicking OK to close this dialog.
146
Audio File Editing
Wave Window
Magnetic Bounds in Audio Files
Certain positions, such as markers or selection edges, can be defined
as magnetic. Dragged elements can snap to these positions. This makes
it easier to position items accurately.
For example, when you move a marker and it gets close to one of the
magnetic bounds, the marker snaps to this position. A label is displayed,
indicating the snap position.
Magnetic Bounds Menu
On this menu, you can specify which positions should be magnetic.
When Snap to magnetic items is activated, items that you move snap
to these positions.
In the Audio Files workspace, select Options > Magnetic bounds.
You can let items snap to the following positions:
Start/End of file
Moved elements snap to the start/end of the file when they are
moved near these positions.
Time ruler marks
Moved elements snap to the time ruler grid when they are moved
near these positions.
Markers
Moved elements snap to marker positions when they are moved
near these positions.
Selection edges
Moved elements snap to the selection edges when they are moved
near these positions.
Cursor
Sets the edit cursor magnetic when moved near this position.
147
Audio File Editing
Wave Window
Zero Crossing
A zero crossing is a point where the waveform crosses the zero level
axis.
If you cut out a portion of a wave and paste it in somewhere else, there
often is discontinuity where the two waves are joined. This discontinuity
results in a transient in the wave, which is perceived as a click or bump
in the sound.
To avoid this, you must make the splice at a zero crossing, especially if
you do not use crossfades.
If you activate Options > Snap selection to zero crossings, the
selections that you make are always adjusted so that they start and end
at the nearest zero crossing.
WaveLab can automatically search for zero crossings and extend the
selection outwards so that it begins and ends at a zero crossing. This
helps avoid clicks, pops, and bumps.
When you perform editing operations, such as cutting, pasting, or
dragging, make sure that the material is inserted at a zero crossing.
148
Audio File Editing
Wave Window
Setting Up the Zero Crossing Detection
You can let selection edges automatically snap to the nearest zero
crossing point when making a selection. In the Audio file editing
preferences dialog, you can specify whether to allow snap at high zoom
factors, and specify the scan range for the zero crossing detection.
PROCEDURE
1.
In the Audio Files workspace, select Options > Snap selection
to zero crossing.
2.
Select Options > Audio file editing preferences.
3.
On the Editing tab, fill out the Snap selection to zero crossing
options.
4.
Click OK.
Moving the Cursor Position to the Closest Zero Crossing
You can automatically move the cursor position to the closest zero
crossing.
PROCEDURE
1.
In the Audio Files workspace, position the cursor in the waveform.
2.
Select View > Move cursor to > Snap position.
149
Audio File Editing
File Handling in the Audio Files Workspace
File Handling in the Audio Files
Workspace
About Mono/Stereo Handling
WaveLab is very flexible in its handling of stereo. All editing operations
can be performed on either one channel or on both.
Supported File Formats
WaveLab can open and save audio files in a number of file formats.
The following table gives you some basic information about the formats:
Format
Description
Wave (.wav)
The following bit resolutions are supported: 8 bit, 16 bit,
20 bit, 24 bit, and 32 bit (float)
Wave 64 (.w64)
This file format is very similar to the Wave format but with
one important difference; it allows you to record and/or
edit files of virtually any length. Standard Wave files are
limited to 2 GB (stereo files) in WaveLab.
NOTE: Wave 64 does not support meta-data. If you need
large files and meta-data, use Wave with the RF64 option.
RF64
In the Audio file editing preferences, on the File tab, you
can activate the RF64 file format support. If this is
activated, the standard Wave file format switches
automatically to the RF64 file format as soon as the file size
exceeds 2 GB, without any performance loss or
interruption. This is useful when recording very long
sessions. A RF64 file has the extension “.wav”, but it can
only be opened with an application that supports the RF64
standard if the file exceeds 2 GB.
AIFF (.aif, .aiff, .snd)
Audio Interchange File Format, a standard defined by
Apple Computers Inc.. The following bit resolutions are
supported: 8 bit, 16 bit, 20 bit, and 24 bit
150
Audio File Editing
File Handling in the Audio Files Workspace
Format
Description
MPEG-1 Layer 3
(.mp3)
The most common audio compression format. The major
advantage of MPEG compression is that the file size is
significantly reduced, while there is little degradation of
sound quality. WaveLab can both open and save files in
this format.
NOTE: When you open an MPEG compressed file in
WaveLab, the file is converted to a temporary wave file. On
saving, the temporary wave file is converted back to MP3.
MPEG-1 Layer 2
(.mp2, .mpa, .mpg,
.mus)
MP2 (sometimes referred to as “Musicam files”) is a
common file format in the broadcast industry. With regard
to file sizes, the same applies for MP3 files.
Original Sound
Quality (.osq)
This is the proprietary lossless compressed audio format of
WaveLab. By saving files in this format, you can save
considerable disk space without compromising audio
quality.
Sound Designer II
(.sd2)
This audio file format is used by Digidesign applications
(such as Pro Tools). The following bit resolutions are
supported: 8 bit, 16 bit, and 24 bit
U-LAW (.ulaw, .vox)
This is an audio encoding and compression technique
supported by Windows and Web phones, using 8 bit
resolution. The U.S. telephone system uses U-law
encoding for digitization.
A-LAW (.alaw, .vox)
This is an audio encoding and compression technique for
telephony, using 8-bit resolution. The EU telephone system
uses A-law encoding for digitization.
Sun/Java (.snd, .au)
This is an audio file format used on Sun and NeXT
computers. The following bit resolutions are supported:
8 bit, 16 bit, and 24 bit
ADPCM –
Microsoft/Dialogic
(.vox)
This is a format commonly used for games and telephony
applications. It offers a lower bit rate than linear PCM and
thus requires less storage space/bandwidth.
Ogg Vorbis (.ogg)
Ogg Vorbis is a compressed file format that is open,
patent-free, and creates very small audio files maintaining
comparatively high audio quality.
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Format
Description
Text/Excel (.txt)
This is a text representation of a waveform. By saving an
audio file as a text file and then opening it in a spreadsheet
application such as Excel, you can view it in textual,
decimal form, and edit the sample values. When you open
a text file representing a waveform in WaveLab, it is
decoded and opened as an audio file. Note that these files
are not compressed in any way, so they become get very
large. Note that when using 32-bit float files, the .txt format
is not 100 % lossless. This is because it is not possible to
express a binary floating point value in textual decimal form
without some precision loss.
Windows Media
Audio (.wma, .asf)
Microsoft’s own compressed format. WaveLab lets you
import/export audio in this format (Windows only). To
import/export audio in WMA surround format, Windows
Media Player 9 or later must be installed on your system.
Ensoniq Paris (.paf)
Used by the Ensoniq Paris™ system. The following bit
resolutions are supported: 16 bit and 24 bit
Raw PCM files
(.raw, .bin, .pcm,
.$$$)
In this format, no information about bit resolution or sample
rate is included. If you open a file in this format, WaveLab
asks you to specify the bit resolution and sample rate. If
this is not done correctly, the file will not play back as
intended.
FLAC (.fla)
Free Lossless Audio Codec (FLAC) is a codec which
allows digital audio to be losslessly compressed.
Apple formats
(.aac, .m4a, .mp4,
.m4b, .caf, .3gp,
.3g2, .caf)
If Quicktime is installed on your system, these formats are
available (read-only and only on 32-bit Windows or MAC
systems).
NOTE
The “$$$” file type is a temporary file format of WaveLab. In case you
experience a computer, crash you may restore some of your work by
opening any stray “$$$” files on your hard disk.
About 20-bit, 24-bit, and 32-bit Float Files
You do not need a 20-bit or 24-bit audio card to take advantage of the
fact that WaveLab can handle 20-bit and 24-bit audio files. Any
processing or editing performed on the files is always done at full
resolution (32-bit float), even if your card does not support the full
resolution.
For playback, WaveLab automatically adapts to the card that you have
installed.
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Creating a New Audio File
You can create an empty audio file, to assemble material from other
audio files, for example.
PROCEDURE
1.
In the Audio Files workspace, select File > New.
2.
In the dialog, specify the audio properties, and click OK.
Saving an Audio File
PROCEDURE
1.
In the Audio Files workspace, do one of the following:
•
To save an audio file that has never been saved before, select File
> Save as.
•
To save an audio file that has been saved before, click the Save
button, or select File > Save.
2.
In the Save Audio File dialog, specify a file name and location.
3.
Set up the available options:
4.
•
Keep this format for next time
•
Save copy
•
Open standard file selector before this dialog
Click Save.
Saving in Another Format
You can change the file format, sampling frequency, bit resolution, and
stereo/mono status when saving.
PROCEDURE
1.
In the Audio Files workspace, select File > Save as.
2.
Specify the file name and location.
3.
Click in the Output Format field.
4.
In the Audio File Format dialog, set the file format and specify the
properties.
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5.
Click OK.
6.
Click Save.
RESULT
A new file is created. The original file is not affected by the operation.
Audio File Format Dialog
In this dialog, you can change various file settings when saving.
In the Audio Files workspace, select File > Save as, and click the
Output Format field. This dialog can also be opened from various other
locations in WaveLab.
Type
Select an audio file type. This affects the options available on the
Audio format menu.
File extension
Select a file extension compatible with the current file type.
Audio format
Select an audio format compatible with the current file type.
Channels
Specify the number of audio channels for the files to be created.
For multichannel audio montages, you can create multiple files.
Sample rate
Select a sample rate for the audio file. If you change this setting, a
sample rate conversion takes place.
IMPORTANT
Use this only for simple conversions. For professional results, use the
Resample plug-in to add limiting and dithering.
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Bit resolution
Select a bit resolution for the audio file. This option is only available
for certain file types.
IMPORTANT
Reducing the bit resolution is only advised for simple conversions. For
professional results, it is recommended to add dithering in the Master
Section.
Meta-data
Lets you make meta-data settings that are saved with the file. This
option is only available for certain file types.
The following options are available:
•
When Do not save anything is selected, no meta-data are saved
with the file.
•
When Inherit from source file is selected, the meta-data of the
source file are used. If this option is selected and the source
meta-data is empty, the default meta-data will be used, if available.
For example, this can be used to create Wave files with a Unique
Material Identifier (BWF standard).
•
When selecting Specific to this configuration, you can edit the
meta-data, or replace it with a meta-data preset. To edit the
meta-data, open the meta-data pop-up menu again, and select
Edit.
About Changing the Format
When changing the sample rate, bit resolution, and number of channels
of an audio file, several operations are performed.
Property
Action
Sample rate
If a new sample rate is specified, a sample rate conversion is
performed.
Bit
resolution
If a different bit resolution is specified, the file is either “truncated”
down to 8 bits, or “padded” up to 24 bits. If you are converting to a
lower bit resolution, you should consider adding dithering.
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Property
Action
Mono/
Stereo
If the file is converted from mono to stereo, the same material is
used in both channels. If the conversion is from stereo to mono, a
mix of the two channels is created.
•
If you only want to change the bit resolution, you can do this
directly in the Edit > Audio properties dialog instead, and then
save the audio file.
•
For high quality mastering purposes, it is not recommended to
change the sample rate and number of channels using the Audio
properties dialog, but instead use plug-ins and functions of the
Master Section.
•
For the available compressed file formats (MP3, MP2, WMA, and
Ogg Vorbis), you can specify various options, such as bit rate and
compression method, and also enter text tags for the file.
Saving as OSQ File
OSQ (Original Sound Quality) is a lossless audio compression format,
which can significantly reduce the audio file size without affecting the
audio quality.
PROCEDURE
1.
In the Audio Files workspace, select File > Save as.
2.
Specify the file name and location.
3.
Click in the Output Format field.
4.
In the Audio File Format dialog, set the type to Original Sound
Quality (OSQ) and specify the properties.
5.
Click OK.
6.
Click Save.
Saving a Selection as an Audio File
You can save a selection in the currently open audio file as a new audio file.
PROCEDURE
1.
In the wave window, make a selection range.
2.
Select File > Export > Selected time range.
3.
Specify a file name, location, and output format.
4.
Click Save.
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Saving Left/Right Channel as Audio File
You can save each channel individually into a separate file. Use this
option when you have been editing dual mono files, for example.
PROCEDURE
1.
In the Audio Files workspace, select File > Export > Left channel
or Right channel.
2.
Specify a file name, location, and output format.
3.
Click Save.
Encoding Audio Files
Audio can be stored in different formats. The process of converting
audio to another format is called encoding. When saving audio files, you
can specify various encoding options for some file formats.
MP3 Encoding Dialog
You can edit the encoding options when you save an MP3 audio file.
You can open the MP3 encoding dialog from most places where you
can select an output file format. For example, in the Audio Files
workspace, select File > Save as, click the Output Format field, select
MPEG-1 Layer 3 (MP3) as type, click the Encoding field, and select
Edit.
Encoder
Lets you select the encoder (Fraunhofer or Lame).
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Constant/Variable Bit Rate
The bit rate is related to the quantity of data used to encode the
audio signal. The higher the value, the better the quality, but the
larger the output file. If you choose Variable Bit rate, the rate
changes, according to the complexity of the audio material.
Highest quality (slowest)/Fastest
Select the quality that you want to achieve. The higher the quality,
the more resources and time are required to analyze and compress
the audio signal.
NOTE
When selecting Highest quality (slowest), this can enforce a certain
sample rate for the audio file. If this is the case and the sample rate is
different from the input sample rate, a message is displayed.
When using the Lame encoder, additional settings can be made on the
Advanced tab.
Allow intensity stereo coding
Decreases the bit rate by reorganizing the intensity information
between the channels.
Specify as “Original Recording”
Marks the encoded file as the original recording.
Write private bit
This is a custom flag.
Write copyright flag
Marks the the encoded file as copyright protected.
Write check-sum
Allows other applications to check the integrity of the file.
Create long frames
Saves space by writing fewer headers in the file (not compatible
with all decoders).
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MPEG-1 Layer 2 Encoding Dialog
You can edit the encoding options when you save an MPEG-1 Layer 2
(MP2) audio file.
You can open the MPEG-1 Layer 2 encoding dialog from most places
where you can select an output file format. For example, in the Audio Files
workspace, select File > Save as, click the Output Format field, select
MPEG-1 Layer 2 as type, click the Encoding field, and select Edit.
Bit rate
Lets you select the bit rate. The bit rate is related to the quantity of
data used to encode the audio signal. The higher the value, the
better the quality, but the larger the output file.
Stereo encoding - Standard
In this mode, the encoder does not use the correlation between
channels. However, the encoder can take space from a channel
that is easy to encode and use it for a complicated channel.
Stereo encoding - Joint
In this mode, the encoder uses existing correlations between the
two channels to increase the ratio quality/space.
Stereo encoding - Dual
In this mode, both channels are independently encoded. This
mode is recommended for signals with independent channels.
Specify as “Original Recording”
Marks the encoded file as the original recording.
Write private bit
This is a custom flag.
Write copyright flag
Marks the encoded file as copyright protected.
Write check-sum
Allows other applications to check the integrity of the file.
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Encode peaks (ancillary data)
This must be activated for compatibility with certain system, for
example, DIGAS.
FLAC Encoding Dialog
You can edit the encoding options when you save a FLAC audio file.
You can open the FLAC Encoding dialog from most places where you
can select an output file format. For example, in the Audio Files
workspace, select File > Save as, click the Output Format field, select
FLAC as type, click the Encoding field, and select Edit.
Compression level
Lets you specify the compression level. The more compression,
the slower the encoding.
Ogg Vorbis Dialog
You can edit the encoding options when you save an Ogg Vorbis audio
file.
You can open the Ogg Vorbis dialog from most places where you can
select an output file format. For example, in the Audio Files workspace,
select File > Save as, click the Output Format field, select Ogg Vorbis
as type, click the Encoding field, and select Edit.
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Average bit rate
If this option is activated, the average bit rate in the file remains
constant during encoding. Because the file size is proportional to
time, the localization of a given point is easier, but it can result in a
lower quality compared to the Variable bit rate option.
Variable bit rate
If this option is activated, the bit rate in the file will vary during
encoding, depending on the complexity of the material. This can
give a better quality/size ratio in the resulting file.
In the Quality field, select the quality. Lower quality settings result
in smaller files.
Windows Media Audio Encoding Dialog
You can edit the encoding options when you save a Windows Media
Audio (WMA) audio file. This dialog is only available in on Windows
systems.
You can open the Windows Media Audio dialog from most places
where you can select an output file format. For example, in the Audio
Files workspace, select File > Save as, click the Output Format field,
select Windows Media Audio (WMA) as type, click the Encoding field,
and select Edit.
Encoder
Lets you select the encoder.
Output sample rate
Lets you specify the output sample rate of the encoded file. The
higher the sample rate, the higher the quality, but the larger the
output file.
Output bit resolution
Lets you specify the output bit resolution of the encoded file. This
parameter is not available for all encoders.
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Channels and bit rate
The available items here depend on the selected encoding method
and the output sample rate.
VBR (Variable bit rate)
If this option is activated, the bit rate in the file will vary during the
encoding, depending on the complexity of the material. This can
produce a better quality/size ratio in the output file.
In the Quality field, select the quality. Lower quality settings result
in smaller files.
Two-pass encoding (better, but twice as long)
If this option is activated, the encoding quality increases, but the
process takes twice as long.
Constrained bit rate
This option is available when the VBR and Two-pass encoding
options are activated. This is used to maintain the bit rate within
limits to avoid peaks. This is recommended for certain media, such
as CD or DVD.
Creating an Audio Montage from an Audio File
You can export audio files to an audio montage, including all markers
that you have set in the audio file.
PROCEDURE
1.
Optional: If you only want to use a certain time range of the audio
file, create a selection range in the wave window.
2.
In the Audio Files workspace, select File > Export > Create
audio montage from active file.
3.
Select whether to export the whole file or the selected time range.
4.
Optional: Decide if you want to perform any of the following marker
operations:
5.
•
Transcribe markers
•
Split at generic region markers
•
Split at CD Track markers
Click OK.
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Inserting Audio Files into Another Audio File
You can assemble an audio file from several audio files.
PROCEDURE
1.
In the Audio Files workspace, open the audio file in which you want
to insert another audio file.
2.
If you want to insert an audio file at the edit cursor position, select
View > Move cursor to > Snap position.
The edit cursor snaps to the nearest zero crossing. This avoids glitches.
3.
Select File > Import and choose one of the following options:
•
Insert audio file at start
•
Insert audio file at end
•
Insert audio file at cursor position
When you select Insert audio file at cursor position, the audio file is
cut at the insert position. The part after the cut is moved to the right.
4.
Select the audio file that you want to insert, and click Open.
Turning Selections Into New Files
You can turn selections into new files via dragging, or by using the Edit
menu.
Turning Selections Into New Files By Dragging
PROCEDURE
1.
In the Audio Files workspace, make a selection in the wave
window.
2.
Drag the selection to the WaveLab tab bar, and release the mouse
button.
RESULT
The selection appears in a new stereo window.
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Turning Selections Into New Files Using the Menu
PROCEDURE
1.
In the Audio Files workspace, make a selection in the wave
window.
2.
Select Edit > Copy selection to new window > As is.
RESULT
The selection appears in a new stereo window.
Special File Format Dialog
When opening files via the Unknown audio file option, you can specify
how to interpret the format of the audio file that you want to open.
In the Audio Files workspace, select File > Import > Unknown audio
file.
Sample format
Specifies the binary representation of the samples in the file.
Byte order
Specifies the order in which bytes should be interpreted. This only
applies for 16 bit or more.
Channels
Specifies the number of audio channels in the audio file.
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Data to ignore (number of bytes)
Specifies how many bytes WaveLab should ignore at the start and
end of the audio file.
Sample rate
Specifies the sample rate of the audio file.
File extension
Specifies the default file name extension for the audio file. When
the file selector opens after closing this dialog, only the file with this
extension is displayed.
Dual-Mono Files
Dual-mono files are two mono files that are the left and right channels of
a stereo recording. You can open several dual-mono files at the same
time and have them grouped automatically, provided the files have
channel tags in their file name.
You can open dual-mono files like stereo files in the Audio Files
workspace, the Audio Montage workspace, and the Batch Processors
workspace.
In the Audio file editing preferences, on the File tab, you can set the
channel ID for the left and right channel, and the channel ID to add to
dual-mono files when saving the files. Up to 7 name descriptors can be
defined, each one can be of the type Suffix or Advanced.
In the Advanced mode, the channel ID can be located anywhere in a file
name. For this purpose, a name pattern must be defined. This name
pattern must have a {capture} section.
Name matching is not case sensitive and the file extension is ignored.
By default, WaveLab recognizes the file name endings “.L/.R”, “-L/-R”,
or “_L/_R” as the left and right channels.
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Allowing Opening of Dual Mono Files
NOTE
To avoid accidentally opening two separate mono files as a dual-mono
file, you should only activate Allow opening of dual-mono files for the
time that you are opening dual-mono files on purpose.
PROCEDURE
1.
In the Audio Files workspace, select Options > Audio file editing
preferences.
2.
Open the File tab, and activate Allow opening of dual-mono files.
3.
If you want to open several dual-mono files at the same time, define
the naming scheme of the dual-mono files in the Dual-mono file
identification section.
4.
Click OK.
RELATED LINKS:
“Audio File Editing Preferences Dialog” on page 720
Opening Dual-Mono Files in the Audio Files Workspace
PREREQUISITE
Activate Allow opening of dual-mono files, and place the dual-mono
files in the same folder.
PROCEDURE
1.
In the Audio Files workspace, select File > Open.
2.
Browse to the file location.
3.
Select the dual-mono files that you want to open, and click Open.
Opening Dual Mono Files in the Audio Montage Workspace
PREREQUISITE
Activate Allow opening of dual-mono files, and place the dual-mono
files in the same folder.
PROCEDURE
1.
In the Audio Montage workspace, select File > Import > Insert
audio files.
2.
Browse to the file location.
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3.
Select the dual-mono files that you want to open, and click Open.
4.
In the Insert Audio Files dialog, make your settings.
5.
Click OK.
Opening Dual-Mono Files in the Batch Processors Workspace
PROCEDURE
1.
In the Audio file editing preferences dialog, activate Allow
opening of dual-mono files, and place the dual-mono files in the
same folder.
2.
In the Batch Processors workspace, drag the dual-mono files from
the File Browser window to the Files to process list, or right-click
the list, and select Insert audio files.
Dual-mono files are displayed in purple in the list.
Converting From Stereo to Mono and From Mono to Stereo
You can convert audio files from mono to stereo and from stereo to
mono. Converting a mono file into a stereo file produces an audio file
that contains the same material in both channels, for example for further
processing into real stereo.
Converting a Selection From Stereo to Mono Using the Menu
PROCEDURE
1.
In the Audio Files workspace, make a stereo selection in the wave
window.
2.
Select one of the following options:.
•
To mix the left and right stereo channels when converting to mono,
select Edit > Copy selection to new window > Convert to Mono
(Mix).
•
To mix the left channel with the inverse of the right channel when
converting to mono, select Edit > Copy selection to new window
> Convert to Mono (Subtract right channel from left channel).
The resulting mono wave contains the difference between the
channels. For example, this allows you to verify that a wave file really is
a true stereo file rather than a mono file converted to stereo format.
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RESULT
The selection appears in a new stereo window.
Converting From Stereo to Mono While Saving
PROCEDURE
1.
In the Audio Files workspace, select File > Save as.
2.
Click in the Output Format field.
The Audio File Format dialog opens.
3.
From the Channels menu, select one of the mono settings.
For example, when selecting Mono (Mix -3 dB), the resulting audio file is
attenuated by 3 dB. Because mixing two channels into mono can
introduce clipping. These two settings can be used to remedy this.
4.
Click OK.
5.
Click Save.
Converting a Selection From Mono to Stereo
PROCEDURE
1.
In the Audio Files workspace, make a mono selection in the wave
window.
2.
Select Edit > Copy selection to new window > Convert to
Stereo.
RESULT
The selection appears in a new stereo window.
Swapping Channels in a Stereo File
You can move the audio in the left channel to the right channel, and vice
versa.
•
To swap the channels of the whole audio file in the Audio Files
workspace, select Edit > Swap stereo channels.
•
To swap only a selected range of the audio file, make a selection
range in the wave window, and select Edit > Swap stereo
channels.
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Special Paste Operations
On the Paste special menu, you find additional paste options.
In the Audio Files workspace, select Edit > Paste special.
Overwrite
Overwrites data in the destination file, rather than moving data to
make room for the inserted audio. How much is overwritten
depends on the selection in the destination file:
•
If there is no selection in the destination file, a section with the
same length as the pasted selection is overwritten.
•
If there is a selection in the destination file, the pasted selection
replaces that selection.
Append
Adds the pasted audio after the end of the file.
Prepend
Adds the pasted audio before the beginning of the file.
Multiple copies
Opens a dialog in which you can enter the number of copies that
you want to create.
Mix
Blends two files into each other, starting at the selection or, if there
is no selection, at the cursor position.
•
When you select the Mix option, a dialog opens, allowing you to
specify the gain for the audio on the clipboard and at the
destination.
•
All the data on the clipboard is always mixed in, regardless of the
length of the selection.
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Moving Audio
You can rearrange the order of audio in a file by dragging, and cutting
and pasting.
Moving Audio by Dragging
PREREQUISITE
Decide whether you want to use Snap selection to zero-crossing.
PROCEDURE
1.
In the wave window, make a selection.
2.
Click in the middle of the selection.
3.
Drag to a position outside the selection in the same file, or to
another wave window.
4.
Release the mouse button.
Moving Audio Using Cut and Paste
PREREQUISITE
Decide whether you want to use Snap selection to zero-crossing.
PROCEDURE
1.
In the wave window, make a selection.
2.
Use one of the following copy methods:
3.
4.
•
Select Edit > Cut.
•
Press [Ctrl]/[Command]-[X].
•
Drag the selection onto the Cut icon.
Select how you want to insert the selection:
•
If you want to insert the audio, click once at the position in the same
file or in another file.
•
If you want to replace a section of audio, select it.
Select Edit > Paste or press [Ctrl]/[Command]-[V].
RESULT
The selection is removed from its original position and inserted where
you drop it.
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NOTE
To completely undo a move between two files you must first undo the
paste in the destination window and then undo the cut in the source
window.
Moving Audio by Nudging
The Nudge left/right tools can be used to move the audio in small steps
within a file.
PROCEDURE
1.
In the wave window, make a selection.
2.
Depending on whether you want to nudge the selection to the left
or to the right, select one of the following tools:
3.
•
Select Edit > Tools > Nudge left, or click the Nudge left icon on
the toolbar.
•
Select Edit > Tools > Nudge right, or click the Nudge right icon
on the toolbar.
Click the selection.
Pressing [Shift] switches nudge left to nudge right and vice versa.
4.
To exit the nudge tool mode, click anywhere outside of the
selection.
RESULT
The audio is moved one pixel. Exactly how much this is depends on how
far you are zoomed in. For example, if the status bar displays x1:256, the
selection is moved 256 samples. The moved section overwrites the
audio at that position.
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Copying Audio
You can copy sections of audio within the same file or between audio
files.
Stereo/Mono Handling
Stereo/mono is handled as follows when you drag between files:
Dragged
section
Drop wave
Action
Stereo
Stereo
The dragged audio is always inserted into
both channels.
Stereo
Mono
Only the left channel is inserted.
Mono
Stereo
What happens depends on the vertical
drop position. This is indicated by the
cursor shape. The selection can be
inserted into only one of the channels, or
the same material can be inserted into
both channels.
Stereo/mono is handled as follows when you copy and paste files:
Copied section
Paste wave
Action
Stereo
Stereo
If the wave cursor extends across both
channels of the destination file, the
material is inserted into both channels.
Stereo
Stereo
If the wave cursor is only in one channel,
the audio is only pasted in that channel.
Material from the left channel is pasted in
the left channel and vice versa.
Stereo
Mono
Only the left channel is pasted.
Mono
Stereo
What happens depends on whether the
wave cursor is in one channel or both. The
audio is either pasted in one of the
channels, or the same material is inserted
into both channels.
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Sample Rate Conflicts
If you copy or move audio from one window to another, and the sample
rates of the two files are not the same, the copied/moved sound plays
back at the wrong pitch (speed). The program warns you if this is about
to happen.
While mixing sample rates can be used as an effect, it is most often not
intended. There are two ways to get around this:
•
Convert the sample rate of the source file to the same rate as the
destination file before editing.
•
Convert the sample rate of the destination file to the same rate as
the source file before adding the audio.
Copying Audio Using Copy and Paste
PREREQUISITE
Decide whether you want to use Snap selection to zero-crossing.
PROCEDURE
1.
In the Audio Files workspace, make a selection.
2.
Use one of the following copy methods:
3.
4.
•
Select Edit > Copy.
•
Press [Ctrl]/[Command]-[C].
•
Drag the selection onto the Copy icon.
Select how you want to insert the selection:
•
If you want to insert the audio, click once at the position in the same
file or in another file.
•
If you want to replace a section of audio, select it.
Select Edit > Paste, or press [Ctrl]/[Command]-[V].
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Audio File Editing
Changing the Audio Properties
Copying Audio by Dragging
PREREQUISITE
Decide whether you want to use Snap selection to zero-crossing.
PROCEDURE
1.
In the Audio Files workspace, make a selection.
2.
Click the middle of the selection, and drag it to a position outside
the selection in the same file, or to another wave window.
3.
Release the mouse button.
RESULT
The selection is inserted at the indicated point. The audio that previously
began at that point is moved to the right.
Information About the Active Audio File
You can open a dialog that shows the name, file location, size, date, and
file format of the active audio file.
PROCEDURE
•
In the Audio Files workspace, select File > Special > Information.
Changing the Audio Properties
You can change the declared sample rate and sample accuracy of audio files.
Changing these values does not process the audio file in any way (in
contrast to using Save as). However, the following rules apply:
•
If you change the sample rate, the file plays back at a new pitch.
•
If you change the bit resolution, the file is converted to the new
resolution the next time you save it.
NOTE
There is no undo for this. If you save with a lower bit resolution, the file
is converted permanently.
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Audio File Editing
Changing the Audio Properties
PROCEDURE
1.
In the Audio Files workspace, open an audio file.
2.
Select Edit > Audio properties.
3.
Specify a new Sample rate and/or Accuracy.
4.
Click OK.
Audio Properties Dialog
This dialog reports the audio properties of the active audio file. It allows
you to change the number of audio samples per second (sample rate)
and the accuracy of samples in the audio stream (bit rate).
In the Audio Files workspace, select Edit > Audio properties.
Channels
The number of audio channels (mono/stereo).
Sample rate
The number of audio samples per second.
Accuracy
The accuracy of samples in the audio stream.
175
Audio File Editing
Meta-Data
Meta-Data
Meta-data consists of attributes that describe the audio contents, for
example, the title of the track, the author, and the date the track was
recorded. Depending on the file format of the selected audio file, this
data varies.
When opening an audio file, audio montage, or batch process, the
meta-data found in the file is loaded. You can also create different
meta-data presets for audio files, audio montages, and batch
processes. When creating a new file from a template, this file can inherit
the meta-data of the preset, if available.
A preview of the meta-data is displayed in the Meta-data window. To
view the complete meta-data of the file and edit the meta-data, select
Edit > Meta-data, or click the Edit button in the Meta-data window.
Not all file formats can store meta-data. Depending on the output file
format, all meta-data or only part of the meta-data will be stored in the
audio file. The following file formats can contain meta-data:
•
.wav
•
.mp3
•
.ogg
•
.wma
•
.flac
For MP3, the following meta-data types are available:
•
ID3 v1 and ID3 v2, including picture support, and ReplayGain
standard
For WAV, the following meta-data types are available:
•
RIFF
•
BWF version 2 (EBU R-128 loudness support)
•
BWF support for USID and UMID standards (Unique Source
Identifier and Unique Material Identifier)
•
iXML (with EBU R-128 loudness support)
•
aXML (BWF standard to attach XML data)
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Audio File Editing
Meta-Data
•
CART (AES standard, dedicated to broadcast needs)
•
MD5 (Extra tab)
•
ID3 v2, including picture support
When saving or recording an audio file in the Audio File Format dialog,
you can specify whether not to use any meta-data, inherit the meta-data
from the source file, or edit the meta-data of the file.
Meta-data can be entered manually or generated automatically.
The following options can be generated automatically:
•
Unique Source Identifier (BWF, Basics tab)
•
UMID (BWF, Unique Material Identifier (UMID) tab)
•
Loudness and true peak values* (BWF, Loudness tab)
•
Insert BWF data (iXML)
•
Time markers (CART)
•
MD5 checksum* (Extra)
•
ReplayGain information* (ID3, ID3 v2 tab)
•
USID (BWF, Basics tab)
(*) These options cause a file analysis while the file is written, which
means that the file writing process can take longer.
WaveLab includes several meta-data presets. They are used as
examples and can be customized for your needs. You can load
meta-data presets from the Meta-data presets pop-up menu in the
Audio File Format dialog, or from the Meta-data dialog.
RELATED LINKS:
“Audio File Format Dialog” on page 154
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Audio File Editing
Meta-Data
Meta-Data Dialog
This dialog allows you to define the meta-data to be embedded in your
audio file.
In the Audio Files workspace, the Audio Montage workspace, or the
Batch Processors workspace, select Edit > Meta-data.Depending on
the workspace, the meta-data is handled differently.
When opening the Meta-data dialog in the Audio Files workspace, you
can edit the meta-data that is stored in the audio file. This meta-data is
saved to disk later.
When opening the Meta-data dialog in the Audio Montage workspace
or the Batch Processors workspace, you can edit the meta-data for the
WAV and MP3 audio files when rendering the audio montage or
processing through the batch processor. If you render to WAV or MP3
formats, the meta-data will be be associated to these files.
Meta-data dialog for a WAV file
Meta-data dialog for a WMA file
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Audio File Editing
Meta-Data
Meta-Data Presets
In the Meta-data dialog, you can save meta-data presets and apply
these presets to other files. Meta-data presets can be applied to WAV
and MP3 files.
The Use as default for new .wav files option allows you to define a set
of meta-data as default.
When you create a new file, and do not add any meta-data, this default
meta-data is applied to the file when saving it. For example, you can save
or record WAV files with BWF meta-data and automatically add a
Unique Material Identifier.
To edit the default meta-data preset, select Load default, and edit the
preset.
About CART and Markers
WaveLab reads the CART markers, if any, and merges them with the
existing markers of the file.
The CART standard can contain up to 8 markers. WaveLab stores them
if their names obey the CART standard.
When Generate time markers is activated in the CART tab of the
Meta-data dialog, the markers are generated if at least one CART text
field has content. Otherwise the CART data is meant to be unused.
When rendering a file, the render option Copy markers must be
activated in the Render dialog.
About Meta-Data and Variables
Variables make handling meta-data more efficient. You can use the
various variable options to quickly add meta-data to a file, without having
to type the same information multiple times.
You can also quickly add available information such as dates or file
names.
The idea behind this is to set up the meta-data and variables once, and
then be able to output various file versions from the project.
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Audio File Editing
Meta-Data
Example of Using Meta-Data and Variables
Let’s say we have an audio montage that contains CD tracks and want
to render all CD tracks to individual audio files, including meta-data
information. We have already added some CD-Text to each track. The
CD-Text of each CD track is automatically available in the CD
Meta-data dialog and can be used as variables.
Now we want to add information that is not available as CD-Text, for
example, the year of the CD track and a comment, to have these
information available in the rendered audio files.
1)
In the CD window, select Functions > Edit Meta-data, and fill out
the @CdTrackYear@ and @CdTrackInfo1@ fields. Use the
scroll-bar on the right of the dialog to select the other tracks, and
add these information for all tracks. Close the dialog.
2)
Edit the meta-data from the Meta-data dialog in the Audio
Montage workspace. In this Meta-data dialog, set up the ID3 v2
fields, using the variables. Click the arrow icon to open the
variables and text snippets pop-up menu for a field. You can also
fill out other meta-data chunks, such as BWF, RIFF, or CART, or
add an album picture. Or you could apply a previously set up
meta-data preset to add meta-data.
3)
Once the information are complete, we can open the Render
dialog. In the What to render section, activate Regions, and select
Tracks from the Regions pop-up menu.
4)
Open the File Format dialog, and in the Meta-data pop-up menu,
select Inherit from source file.
5)
Once you have set up the dialog, click OK. Then click OK again to
close the Audio file format dialog. Then in the Render dialog,
click OK to render the files.
Result: When we now open the rendered audio files and look at the
meta-data, we can see that the variables were automatically replaced
with the meta-data that has been set up for each track.
An alternative way of step 2 is to select Specific to this configuration
in the Audio file format dialog, and select a preset.
RELATED LINKS:
“Variables and Text Snippets” on page 685
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Audio File Editing
Meta-Data
Meta-Data in the Batch Processors Workspace
You can batch process meta-data. For this you can set up the
Meta-data dialog in the Batch Processors workspace, and apply the
meta-data to the files of the batch process.
In the Batch Processors workspace, on the Format tab, the following
options are available:
•
Select Ignore if you do not want the batch meta-data to change
the meta-data of the files in the batch.
•
Select Merge if you want to merge the meta-data of the batch with
the meta-data of the source files (WAV files only).
•
Select Replace if you want to replace the meta-data of the source
files with the meta-data of the batch.
Examples for Merging Meta-Data
A simple example would be if you have 1000 files with a mistake in a
copyright field of their meta-data. With this batch option, you can
preserve the meta-data of the files, and edit only the copyright field.
However, the merge option can also be used for complex batch
meta-data. You can process an audio file and specify which meta-data
to use from the source audio file and which from the batch meta-data.
For this, use the Merge codes options in the Meta-data dialog of the
Batch Processors workspace.
If you enter #Source# in a value field, the value of the source audio file’s
meta-data is used when batch processing. If you enter #Remove# in a
value field, the corresponding value of the source audio file’s meta-data
is removed when batch processing. In order to set up the merging
process, you must set up these codes in the value field that you want to
merge.
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Audio File Editing
Meta-Data
An example on how to merge meta-data while using the #Source# and
#Remove# options:
•
The batch process contains an audio file that already has
meta-data.
•
The batch meta-data is set up.
When starting the batch process, the meta-data are merged in the
following way:
•
If value field “A” in the audio file meta-data contains the text “Jazz”,
while value field “A” is empty in the batch meta-data, the resulting
output file has the text “Jazz” in value field “A”.
•
If value field “B” in the batch meta-data contains the text “Modern”,
while value field “B” in the audio file meta-data is empty, the
resulting output file has the text “Modern” in value field “B”.
•
If value field “C” contains text both in the source audio file and in
the batch meta-data, some more editing in the Meta-data dialog
of the Batch Processors workspace is necessary to specify which
meta-data should be used.
Examples on how to use the #Source# and #Remove# codes:
•
No code is used, the source audio file has the text “Piano”, and the
batch meta-data has the text “Trumpet”. Result: “Piano” is
retained, because the source audio file meta-data has precedence
over the batch meta-data.
•
The source audio file has the text “Piano”, and the batch meta-data
has the text “Electric #Source#”. Result: The resulting output file
has the text “Electric Piano”.
•
The source audio file has the text “Piano”, and the batch meta-data
has the text “#Remove#”. Result: “Piano” is removed from the
value field.
•
The source audio file has the text “Piano”, and the batch meta-data
has the text “#Remove#Trumpet”. Result: “Piano” is removed,
and “Trumpet” is added.
182
Audio File Editing
Silence Generator Dialog
Silence Generator Dialog
This dialog allows you to insert silence or background noise in an audio
file.
In the Audio Files workspace, select Edit > Silence (advanced).
Type of silence - True silence
Select this to insert digital silence.
Type of silence - Background noise (file will be looped if needed)
Allows you to select an audio file containing ambient noise.
Type of silence - Gain to apply to this file
Lowers or raises the gain of the background noise.
Silence Duration - As selection
Uses the duration of the active audio selection as the duration of
the silent section. Specify the duration of the silent section in the
value field below.
Edges - Fade-in/out
Performs a crossfade at the start and end of the silent section for
smoother transitions. Specify the fade time in the value field below.
Destination - Replace selection
Replaces the current audio selection with the silent section.
Destination - Insert at cursor
Inserts the silent section at the cursor position.
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Audio File Editing
Silence Generator Dialog
Destination - From end of file until cursor
Extends the audio file with silence up to the cursor position.
Activating this option also defines the silence duration and ignores
the Silence Duration setting.
True Silence vs. Background Noise
Recordings can sound unnatural when you insert true silence. This is
particularly true for voice recordings and field recordings, where a
natural background noise is often present. To produce more natural
results, you can insert a file with background noise.
The file that you specify must have the same properties (stereo/mono,
sample rate, etc.) as the file in which you want to insert the silence. The
file can be any length – if the silence region is longer than the file, the
file is looped.
Replacing a Selection with Silence
You can replace a section of an audio file with true silence or
background noise.
PROCEDURE
1.
In the Audio Files workspace, make a selection.
2.
Select Edit > Silence (advanced).
3.
In the Silence Generator dialog, select the type of silence:
•
True silence
•
Background noise. For this option you must select a file
containing the background noise.
4.
Set the silence duration to As selection, and the destination to
Replace selection.
5.
Click Apply.
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Audio File Editing
Silence Generator Dialog
Inserting Silence
You can insert a specified length of true silence or a background noise
at any position of the audio file.
PROCEDURE
1.
In the Audio Files workspace, set the cursor where you want the
inserted silence to begin.
2.
Select Edit > Silence (advanced).
3.
In the Silence Generator, select the type of silence:
•
True silence
•
Background noise. For this option you need to select a file
containing the background noise.
4.
Deactivate As selection, and specify the length.
5.
Set the destination to Insert at cursor.
6.
Click Apply.
Fast Muting a Selection
The Fast mute function replaces the selection with true silence without
needing to write any audio sample to the media.
PROCEDURE
•
In the Audio Files workspace, make a selection, and select Edit >
Fast mute.
185
Audio File Editing
Waveform Restoration with the Pen Tool
Waveform Restoration with the Pen Tool
The Pen tool allows you to redraw the waveform directly in the wave
window. This can be used to quickly repair waveform errors.
The Pen tool can be used if the zoom resolution is set to 1:8 (one pixel
on the screen equals 8 samples) or higher.
•
To redraw the waveform, select the Pen tool, click in the waveform,
and draw the new waveform.
•
To redraw the waveform of both channels at once, press [Shift]
during the drawing process.
186
Audio Analysis
WaveLab provides you with a comprehensive set of tools for analyzing
your audio and for detecting any errors.
For example, you can use the suite of audio meters, or the 3D
Frequency Analysis. There are also several tools that help you examine
any sample of your audio for errors or anomalies.
You can compare two audio files with the Audio File Comparator tool
and view audio in a Spectrum or Loudness view.
Error Detection and Correction
You can search for unwanted clicks and digital artifacts in an audio file.
You can use several detection and restoration methods to detect, mark
and name, jump to, play back, and remove individual audio errors.
You can also restore damaged portions of an audio file by using
waveform replacement. The Error Correction window in the Audio
Files workspace gives you access to the error detection and correction
tools.
NOTE
Since errors can have multiple origins and effects, various algorithms
are needed to cover these cases. Experience with the settings to find
the best parameters to detect the errors in your files.
187
Audio Analysis
Error Detection and Correction
Selecting an Error Detection and Correction Method
Before searching for errors in your audio file, set up the error detection
and correction methods. Try out different settings.
PROCEDURE
1.
In the Audio Files workspace, open the Error Correction window.
2.
In the Error Correction window, open the Detection tab.
3.
Select an error detection method from the Method used to detect
errors menu, and set the parameters.
Depending on the method that you have selected, different detection
parameters are available.
4.
Open the Correction tab.
5.
Select an error correction method from the Default method to
correct errors menu.
AFTER COMPLETING THIS TASK:
When you have selected error detection and correction methods, you
can continue to detect and correct errors in the active audio file.
Strategies to Detect and Correct Errors
There are several strategies for detecting and correcting errors.
Depending on the error, some detection and correction methods are
more successful than others.
Set up the error detection and correction methods before following
these strategies.
•
To correct an error, select a range in the audio part that contains
the error, then in the Error Correction window, select Correct or
Mark for subsequent correction.
•
To automatically locate the next error, in the Error Correction
window, select Detect next error, then select Correct or Mark for
subsequent correction.
•
To detect all errors in the selected range, select Detect all errors.
Then you can browse the detected errors and correct them
individually, or select Correct all marked errors.
188
Audio Analysis
Error Detection and Correction
Correcting Individual Errors
You can detect and correct individual errors using different detection
methods and parameter settings for each error. This is useful when
errors are difficult to correct.
PROCEDURE
1.
In the Audio Files workspace, open the audio file in which you want
to correct errors.
2.
Open the Error Correction window.
3.
In the Error Correction window, open the Detection tab.
4.
Select an error detection method from the Method used to detect
errors menu, and set the parameters.
Depending on the method that you have selected, different detection
parameters are available.
5.
Click Detect next error.
WaveLab analyzes the audio file from the beginning and stops at the first
found error.
RESULT
In the browse and correct section you now have several options for how
to proceed. For example, you can correct the error, detect the next error,
or mark the error for later restoration. Some of the options are only
available after selecting another option.
RELATED LINKS:
“Error Correction Window” on page 190
Automatically Detecting and Correcting Errors
Use WaveLab to automatically remove all click noise errors that it
detects.
PROCEDURE
1.
In the Audio Files workspace, open the Error Correction window.
2.
In the Error Correction window, click Detect all errors.
WaveLab searches the complete file and inserts a pair of markers for
each found error.
189
Audio Analysis
Error Detection and Correction
3.
In the Correction tab, select a correction method from the Default
method to correct errors menu.
A description of what the selected method does is displayed below the
Default method to correct errors menu.
4.
Click Correct all marked errors.
RESULT
WaveLab automatically corrects all detected errors.
Error Correction Window
This window provides access to the error detection and correction
tools.
In the Audio Files workspace, select Workspace > Specific tool
windows > Error Correction.
Detection Tab
On this tab, you can specify how to detect errors.
190
Audio Analysis
Error Detection and Correction
Method used to detect errors
Lets you select the error detection method. Depending on which
method you have selected, different detection parameters are
available.
Threshold
Specifies the threshold value for the error detection. Lower values
detect softer clicks.
Detection
Specifies the lower limit of the analyzed frequency range.
Detection Width
Specifies whether to detect short or long error lengths.
Correction Tab
On this tab, you can specify the method that is used to correct errors.
Default method to correct errors
Lets you select the error correction method. The following
methods are available:
•
Linear interpolation draws a straight line between the first and the
last selected samples.
•
Optimal for small clicks – 1 ms is optimal for clicks smaller than
1 ms.
•
Optimal for common clicks – 3 ms is optimal for clicks smaller
than 3 ms.
•
Waveform replacement – 4 s replaces the corrupt samples with
the best match found in the material up to 4 seconds to the
left/right.
191
Audio Analysis
Error Detection and Correction
•
Waveform replacement – 500 ms replaces the corrupt samples
with the best match found in the material up to 500 milliseconds to
the left/right.
•
Waveform replacement – left 6 s replaces the corrupt samples
with the best match found in the material up to 6 seconds to the
left.
•
Waveform replacement – right 6 s replaces the corrupt samples
with the best match found in the material up to 6 seconds to the
right.
Search Area Tab
On this tab, you can specify the range of audio that you want to search
for errors.
Range to scan - Define as whole file
Searches the whole audio file for errors.
Range to scan - Define as selected audio range
Searches the selected audio range for errors. Once defined, you
can change the audio selection without altering this search area.
Range to scan - Whole audio file
Displays the active scan area.
Position to search from - Set at cursor
Starts the search at the edit cursor position.
Position to search from - Set at beginning of search area
Starts the search at the beginning of the defined search area.
192
Audio Analysis
Error Detection and Correction
Options Tab
This tab provides a range of preferences for playing back, viewing, and
marking any found errors.
Set markers around corrected errors
Creates correction markers around the audio section each time an
error is corrected. This area can be larger than the marked error
area when crossfades are performed by the corrector.
Remove markers after correction
Removes the error marker each time an error is corrected.
Zoom level
Specifies the zoom level when displaying an error.
Adjust selection by this number of samples
Defines by how many samples the selection edges are moved,
when you use the Adjust selection buttons to adjust the error
area.
Auto-play
Automatically plays back the error area after it has been detected
or corrected.
Pre-roll time
Specifies a pre-roll time to play some audio before the start of the
error section.
Post-roll time
Specifies a post-roll time to play some audio after the end of the
error section.
Override global shortcuts
Gives priority to the error correction shortcuts if these shortcuts
are also used elsewhere in WaveLab. Use this when you are
working mainly with this tool. However, this option should be
deactivated when you are done with the error correction.
193
Audio Analysis
Error Detection and Correction
Browse and Correct Section
In this section, you can step through your defined search region
detecting each error in turn. You can choose to correct any errors or
mark them for later correction. There are controls to jump between error
markers and to make fine adjustments to the selection. You can also
automatically detect and correct all marked errors in the search region.
Detect next error
Searches for the next error, starting at a specified position or from
the end of the last found error.
Back to previous error
Returns to the last detected error.
Correct
Restores the audio selection with the default correction method.
You can use the pop-up menu to correct the audio with any of the
other methods.
Mark for subsequent correction
Sets a pair of error markers to the audio selection, without
performing any correction.
Unmark
Deletes the error markers surrounding the audio selection.
Play
Starts playback of the current audio selection while taking into
account the pre-roll and post-roll settings.
Adjust selection
The green arrows move the left edge of the selection to the
left/right. The orange arrows move the right edge of the selection
to the left/right. This lets you finely adjust an audio selection that
was suggested by the detection function.
194
Audio Analysis
Global Analysis
Macro - Detect all errors
Searches the specified range from the beginning to the end and
creates pairs of error markers for each detected error without
performing any correction.
Macro - Correct all marked errors
Restores the audio located within each pair of error markers in the
specified range.
Previous/Next correction mark
Jumps to the previous/next correction marker pair.
Previous/Next error mark
Jumps to the previous/next error marker pair.
Auto move on correction
Automatically jumps to the previous/next marked error when you
click Correct.
Global Analysis
In WaveLab you can perform advanced analysis on your audio to identify
areas with specified properties. This helps you find problem areas such
as glitches or clipped samples. You can also check general information,
such as the pitch of a sound.
When you analyze a section of an audio file, WaveLab scans the section
or the audio file and extracts information which is displays in the dialog.
WaveLab also marks sections of the file that meet specific
characteristics, for example, sections that are very loud or almost silent.
You can then browse between these points, set markers, or zoom in on
markers. On most of the tabs, you find settings that determine exactly
how the analysis is performed. Each tab focuses on a particular analysis
area.
You perform the global analysis in the Global Analysis dialog. This
dialog consists of the following tabs that provide different analysis
types:
•
The Peaks tab lets you find individual samples with very high
values.
•
The Loudness tab lets you find sections with high intensity.
•
The Pitch tab lets you find the exact pitch of a sound or section.
195
Audio Analysis
Global Analysis
•
The Extra tab provides information about DC offsets and the
significant bit resolution.
•
The Errors tab lets you find glitches and sections where the audio
has been clipped.
Most of the analysis types provide a number of positions in the file that
indicate peaks, glitches, etc. These points are called “hot points”.
Opening the Global Analysis Dialog
The Global Analysis dialog provides various analysis options.
PROCEDURE
1.
In the Audio Files workspace, select a range in the audio file that
you want to process.
If you want to analyze the entire file, press [Ctrl]/[Command]-A. If
Process whole file if there is no selection is activated in the Audio file
editing preferences dialog, the whole file is processed automatically
provided that no selection has been made.
2.
Select Analysis > Global analysis.
RELATED LINKS:
“Audio File Editing Preferences Dialog” on page 720
Choosing the Analysis Type
Several types of analysis can be performed. Each of them takes some
time, so make sure that only the types that you need are included in the
analysis.
Select the analysis types by activating them in the corresponding tabs.
•
To include the Peaks analysis, activate Find Peaks.
•
To include the Loudness analysis, activate Analyze Loudness.
•
To include the Pitch analysis, activate Find Average Pitch.
•
To include the Extra analysis, activate Find DC Offset.
•
To include the Errors analysis, activate Find Possible Glitches
and Find Clipped Samples.
196
Audio Analysis
Global Analysis
Global Analysis - Peaks Tab
This tab is used to find digital peak and true peak values in the audio,
that is, single samples with very high values.
In the Audio Files workspace, select Analysis > Global Analysis, and
select the Peaks tab.
Find Peaks
Enables peak analysis.
Digital/True
Displays the highest peak in the analyzed section. When you click
this value, the number of peaks that are found in the selection is
shown in the Number of hot points section in the lower left corner
of the dialog. You can use the hot points to move the cursor
between the peaks.
At cursor
Displays the level at the current audio file cursor position at the
time of the analysis.
Maximum number of peaks to report
Restricts the number of reported peaks. For example, setting this
to “1” reports only the highest peak.
Minimum time between 2 peaks
Controls the distance between points, so they do not appear too
close to each other. For example, setting this to “1 s” ensures that
there is always at least one second between reported points.
Results of the Analysis
The Find Peaks fields show the highest peak in the analyzed section
and the level of the sample at the wave cursor position at the time of the
analysis.
197
Audio Analysis
Global Analysis
Global Analysis - Loudness Tab
This tab is for finding sections that are perceived by the human ear as
louder or weaker in volume. To find sections that the ear perceives as
significant in volume, you must look at a longer section of audio.
In the Audio Files workspace, select Analysis > Global Analysis, and
select the Loudness tab.
The following options are available for both the Raw Loudness tab and
the EBU R-128 tab:
Maximum number of loudness points to report
Restricts the number of reported hot points. The highest points are
reported. For example, setting this to “1” reports only the loudest
section or one of the sections with the same highest value.
Minimum time between 2 points
Controls the distance between points, so they do not appear too
close to each other. For example, setting this to “1 s” ensures that
there is always at least one second between reported points.
Raw Loudness
Analyze Loudness
Enables RMS loudness analysis.
Average
Displays the overall loudness of the analyzed selection.
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Audio Analysis
Global Analysis
Maximum
Displays the level of the loudest section in the analyzed selection.
Clicking this value displays the number of loud sections found
within the selection, in the Number of hot points section in the
lower left corner of the dialog.
Minimum
Displays the level of the quietest section in the analyzed selection.
Clicking this value displays the number of weak sections that are
found within the selection in the Number of hot points section in the
lower left corner of the dialog. This provides adequate information
about the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of the audio material.
Around cursor
Displays the loudness at the audio file cursor position at the time
of the analysis.
Resolution
The length of audio to be measured and averaged. If this value is
lowered, short passages of loud/weak audio are detected. When
it is raised, the sound must be loud/weak for a longer period to
result in a hot point.
Threshold (for the average)
Ensures that the average value is calculated correctly for
recordings with pauses. The value that you set here determines a
threshold below which any found audio is considered to be
silence, and is therefore excluded from average value calculations.
EBU R-128
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Audio Analysis
Global Analysis
Integrated loudness
Displays the integrated loudness of the analyzed selection, also
known as Programme Loudness, according to the EBU R-128
specification. This indicates how loud the audio is on average.
Loudness range
Displays the loudness range according to the EBU R-128
specification. It is based on a statistical distribution of loudness
within a programme, thereby excluding the extremes.
Short-term loudness: Maximum
Displays the level of the loudest 3 seconds section in the analyzed
selection. When you click this value, the number of loud sections
that are found within the selection is shown in the Number of hot
points section in the lower left corner of the dialog.
Short-term loudness: Minimum
Displays the level of the quietest 3 seconds section in the analyzed
selection. When you click this value, the number of quiet sections
that are found within the selection is shown in the Number of hot
points section in the lower left corner of the dialog. This provides
adequate information about the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of the
audio material.
Momentary loudness: Maximum
Displays the level of the loudest very short section (400
milliseconds) in the analyzed selection. When you click this value,
the number of loud sections that are found within the selection is
shown in the Number of hot points section in the lower left corner
of the dialog.
Momentary loudness: Minimum
Displays the level of the quietest very short section (400
milliseconds) in the analyzed selection. When you click this value,
the number of quiet sections that are found within the selection is
shown in the Number of hot points section in the lower left corner
of the dialog.
RELATED LINKS:
“EBU Loudness Standard R-128” on page 48
200
Audio Analysis
Global Analysis
Global Analysis - Pitch Tab
This tab is for finding the average pitch of an audio section.
In the Audio Files workspace, select Analysis > Global Analysis, and
select the Pitch tab.
You can use this tab to gather information for pitch shifting, for example,
to get one sound in tune with another. The display shows the pitch for
each channel, both in Hertz (Hz) and as semitones and cents
(hundredths of a semitone). Since the display shows an overall value for
the entire analyzed section, the hot point controls in the lower section of
the dialog are not used on this tab.
Usage guidelines for the Pitch tab:
•
The result is an average value for the whole selection.
•
The method only works on monophonic material, not on chords or
harmonies.
•
The algorithm assumes that the analyzed section has a reasonably
stable pitch.
•
The material must be relatively well isolated from other sounds.
•
It is preferable to analyze the sustain portion of a sound rather than
the attack. The pitch is usually not “stable” during the attack.
•
Some synthetic sounds may have a weak fundamental (first
harmonic) which can irritate the algorithm.
Global Analysis - Extra Tab
This tab shows the average DC Offset of the analyzed section and the
Apparent Bit Resolution.
In the Audio Files workspace, select Analysis > Global Analysis, and
select the Extra tab.
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Audio Analysis
Global Analysis
The Apparent Bit Resolution attempts to detect the actual resolution
in the audio. This is useful, for example, if you want to check, whether a
24-bit file really uses 24 bits or if it was actually recorded with 16-bit
resolution and then expanded to 24 bits.
NOTE
For more accurate results on the bit resolution, use the Bit Meter.
RELATED LINKS:
“Bit Meter” on page 484
Errors Detection
You can detect errors, such as glitches and sections where the audio
has clipped. For a more advanced error detection, use the Error
Correction window.
Glitches
•
These are disruptions in the audio. Glitches may occur after
problematic digital transfers, after careless editing, etc. They
manifest themselves as “clicks” or “pops” in the audio.
Clipping
•
A digital system has a finite number of levels that it can represent
properly. When recorded sound levels are too high or when the
system cannot handle levels that have been raised by digital
processing, hard clipping occurs that you can hear as strong
distortion.
A sine waveform before clipping and after.
Result of the Analysis
This reports the number of glitches and clipping instances that have
been found.
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Audio Analysis
Global Analysis
Global Analysis - Errors Tab
This tab helps you find glitches and sections where the audio has
clipped.
In the Audio Files workspace, select Analysis > Global Analysis, and
select the Errors tab.
Maximum number of error points to report
Allows you to restrict reported numbers of hot points.
Minimum time between 2 points
Controls the distance between points, so they do not appear too
close to each other. For example, setting this to “1 s” ensures that
there is always at least one second between reported points.
Find possible glitches
Enables glitch analysis.
Find possible glitches - Threshold
Sets the value at which a change in level is considered to be a
glitch. The higher the value, the less sensitive the detection.
Find possible glitches - Sensitivity
Length value that represents the length of time in which the
waveform must exceed the threshold to be reported as a glitch.
The higher the value, the less sensitive the detection.
Find possible glitches - Output format
Displays the number of clipping occurrences that are found by the
analysis. Clicking this value displays the number of clips in the
Number of hot points section in the lower left corner of the
dialog.
NOTE
Make sure that the points that are found by the algorithm are real
glitches. Zoom in and play back to check whether the found points really
indicate a problem.
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Audio Analysis
Global Analysis
Find clipped samples
Enables clipping analysis.
Find clipped samples - Threshold
Checks for a number of consecutive samples at full value, to
determine whether clipping has occurred. The Threshold setting
determines the exact number of these consecutive samples that
must occur for the program to report clipping.
Find clipped samples - Output format
Displays the number of clipping occurrences that are found by the
analysis. Clicking this value displays the number of clips in the
Number of hot points section in the lower left corner of the
dialog.
Performing a Global Analysis
PREREQUISITE
In the Audio Files workspace, select Analysis > Global Analysis, and
select the tab that you want to include in the analysis.
PROCEDURE
1.
In the Global Analysis dialog, set up the parameters.
Most of the tabs have settings that determine how the analysis should be
performed.
2.
If the Peak or Loudness tab is selected, move the cursor to the
position that you want to analyze.
The Peak and Loudness tabs report values specifically for the position of
the cursor.
3.
Click Analyze.
Results of the Global Analysis
Depending on the analysis type, one or several values are returned for
the analyzed audio.
For the Pitch and Extra analyses, only one value is returned. The other
analysis types provide a number of positions in the file that indicate
peaks, glitches, etc. These points are called “hot points”.
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Audio Analysis
Global Analysis
Checking the Results of the Global Analysis
The results of the global analysis are marked with hot points. You can
browse through these points to see the results of the analysis.
PREREQUISITE
In the Audio Files workspace, select Analysis > Global Analysis, and
perform the analysis.
PROCEDURE
1.
In the Global Analysis dialog, click the tab that represents the
values that you want to check.
2.
Check the display for maximum/minimum values in the entire
analyzed section.
3.
Decide which of these values you want to browse.
4.
Click the button that currently displays this value.
5.
Check the Number of hot points value at the bottom of the dialog.
The value shows the number of positions that were found by the analysis.
6.
Use the scrollbar below the Number of hot points value to
browse between the found positions.
The edit cursor shows the position in the wave window.
7.
To browse another property, click the corresponding tab, and then
the value button.
NOTE
The result of the analysis is saved until you close the dialog or click
Analyze again.
Creating Markers at Hot Points
Creating markers at hot points simplifies browsing the results of the
global analysis.
PREREQUISITE
In the Audio Files workspace, select Analysis > Global Analysis, and
perform the analysis.
PROCEDURE
1.
In the Global Analysis dialog, select the analysis type for which
you want to create markers at hot points.
You can add markers for only one channel at a time.
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Audio Analysis
Audio File Comparator
2.
Click the Create markers at hot points button.
Temporary markers are added at all hot points.
RESULT
The markers are named using the following principle: “Hot point number
(Channel)”. For example, a marker at the third hot point in the left
channel would be labeled “3 (L)”.
Focusing Hot Points
After a global analysis, you can focus the display on a certain hot point.
PREREQUISITE
In the Audio Files workspace, select Analysis > Global Analysis, and
perform the analysis.
PROCEDURE
1.
Use the Number of hot points scroll bar to move the position
indicator to the position in which you are.
2.
Click the Focus button.
The wave window zooms in on the selected point. The Global Analysis
dialog is reduced to the bottom part.
3.
To return to the unzoomed view and return to the full view of the
Global Analysis dialog, click the Focus button again.
Audio File Comparator
You can compare audio files to find differences.
Use the Audio File Comparator to:
•
See and hear the effect of using an equalizer.
•
Check the noise added by a processor.
•
Check the effects of data compression.
•
Compare two versions of an apparent similar recording to see if
they are really the same.
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Audio Analysis
Audio File Comparator
You can create a delta audio file that contains only the differences
between the two compared audio files. To see and hear small
differences easily, you can amplify them.
Markers can be automatically added at positions in the audio file where
differences are found.
Audio File Comparator Dialog
In this dialog, you can compare two audio files.
In the Audio Files workspace, select Analysis > File Comparator.
Files to Compare
If more than two audio files are open in the Audio Files workspace,
select the two files that you want to compare.
Generate Delta File
A delta file contains only the differences between the two
compared files.
Difference amplification
Amplifies the differences in the delta file to facilitate seeing and
hearing them.
Create markers at points of difference
Creates markers at points where differences are found.
Maximum number of markers
Sets the maximum number of markers to be inserted.
Minimum time between two markers
Determines the density of the generated difference markers.
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Audio Analysis
3D Frequency Analysis
Comparing Audio Files
The File Comparator lets you see the differences between two files.
PREREQUISITE
In the Audio Files workspace, open the audio files that you want to
compare.
PROCEDURE
1.
Select Analysis > File Comparator.
2.
If more than two audio files are open, select the two files that you
want to compare.
3.
Optional: Activate Generate Delta File.
This creates a new audio file that contains only the differences between
the compared audio files.
4.
Optional: Make marker settings.
This creates markers at points of differences, to facilitate finding the
differences.
5.
Click OK.
3D Frequency Analysis
Using the 3D Frequency Analysis, you can view an audio file in the
frequency domain.
Use the 3D Frequency Analysis to:
•
See how the frequency spectrum is distributed in a mix.
•
Identify which frequencies to reduce or boost as a basis for
equalizing.
•
See which parts of the frequency spectrum are occupied by a
certain background noise that you want to filter out.
A wave display (time domain) informs you about the start and end of a
sound in a file, but lacks information about the timbral contents of the file
that a frequency graph (frequency domain) provides. The graph that is
used in WaveLab is often referred to as an FFT (Fast Fourier Transform)
plot. If you select a stereo recording, a mix of the two channels is
analyzed.
208
Audio Analysis
3D Frequency Analysis
The wheel control allows you to view the frequency spectrum from
different angles. For example, you can open several 3D Frequency
Analysis windows, each with a different perspective. This allows you to
get a better view of an otherwise crowded graph.
Creating a Graph for 3D Frequency Analysis
The length of the selected audio affects the accuracy of the analysis. For
short selections, the result is more detailed. Consider making a separate
analysis of the attack in which the most drastic variations occur.
PROCEDURE
1.
In the Audio Files workspace, select the section of the file that you
want to analyze.
If you make no selection, the whole audio file is analyzed.
2.
Select Analysis > 3D Frequency Analysis.
The audio is analyzed.
3.
To edit the analysis parameters, click the 3d analysis options
button.
4.
Adjust the parameters, and click OK.
The audio is re-analyzed.
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Audio Analysis
3D Frequency Analysis
3D Analysis Options
In the options dialog of the 3D Frequency Analysis dialog, you can
define which frequency range is analyzed and modify the appearance of
the graph for the 3D frequency analysis.
In the Audio Files workspace, select Analysis > 3D Frequency
Analysis, and click the 3D analysis options button.
Top/Bottom frequency
Specifies the highest/lowest frequency of the range.
Logarithmic ruler (octaves)
Divides the frequency ruler in equally spaced octaves.
Amplitude
Select whether you want the peaks to be proportional to their
amplitude (Linear) or to their power (Logarithmic with decibel
scale).
Colors
Defines the color scheme of the graph.
Background
Defines the background color.
210
Offline Processing
Offline processes are useful for a variety of editing purposes and
creative effects. For example, when the computer is too slow for
real-time processing or when the editing requires more than one pass.
After the processing the audio file is permanently altered.
Applying Processing
Processing can be applied to a selection or to a whole file. For certain
operations processing the entire file is necessary.
NOTE
If Process whole file if there is no selection is activated in the
Options > Audio file editing preferences > Editing tab, the whole file
is automatically processed if no selection exists.
PROCEDURE
1.
In the wave window, make a selection
2.
Select the type of processing that you want to apply from the
Process menu.
3.
If a dialog appears, make the settings.
4.
Click Apply to render the effect to file.
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Offline Processing
Gain Dialog
Gain Dialog
In this dialog, you can apply a gain to change the level of an audio file.
In the Audio Files workspace, select Process > Gain.
Click Find current peak level to obtain a report on the peak level of the
audio selection, or the whole file if there is no selection. This is useful if
you want to calculate how much you can increase the overall gain of a
file without clipping (exceeding 0 dB), for example.
This processor also lets you add clipping. Clipping is when the gain is
raised to a point where distortion is added. While this is normally not
wanted, mild clipping can add some punch, for example, to accentuate
the attack of a drum sound.
Normalize Level Dialog
In this dialog, you can change the peak level of an audio file.
In the Audio Files workspace, select Process > Level Normalizer.
This dialog is also available as a multipass plug-in in the Batch
Processors workspace.
Peak level
Enter the peak level (in dB) that you want the audio selection to
have.
212
Offline Processing
Loudness Normalizer
Stereo Link
Applies the gain to both channels.
Reference menu
Select whether WaveLab should use sample values (digital peaks)
or analog reconstructed values (true peaks).
Mix to Mono
Mixes the left and the right channel. The resulting mono file will
have the specified peak level. This ensures a mix without clipping.
Find current peak value
Creates a report on the peak level of the current audio selection,
or the whole audio file if there is no selection.
Loudness Normalizer
You can use the Loudness Normalizer to achieve a specific loudness.
Increasing the loudness to a certain value can provoke clipping. To
remedy this, a peak limiter (Peak Master plug-in) can be part of the
process. The Loudness Normalizer raises the loudness and limit peaks
in the signal at the same time if needed, to achieve the wanted loudness.
This process happens in several stages. First an analysis and then the
final rendering.
213
Offline Processing
Loudness Normalizer
Loudness Normalizer Dialog
In this dialog, you can specify the loudness of a file.
In the Audio Files workspace, select Process > Loudness Normalizer.
This dialog is also available as a multipass plug-in in the Batch
Processors workspace.
Loudness (EBU R-128)
Loudness to achieve
If the loudness cannot be achieved with a simple positive gain
change, a limiter must come into action to prevent clipping.
Here, specify the loudness that you want to achieve. The EBU
R-128 recommendation for broadcast is -23 dB.
Specifying high values might require a gain outside the normal
capabilities of the limiter, which can cause distortion.
It is recommended to use Statistics after specifying a loudness.
This way you know how much the gain needs to be raised and if
peak limiting needs to be applied. If heavy limiting is necessary this
might degrade the audio quality. In such cases a warning is shown
after applying the process, allowing you to undo it.
Catch loudness from audio selection
Sets the Loudness to achieve value to the average loudness
found in the audio file.
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Offline Processing
Loudness Normalizer
Reference menu
Select a reference: the loudness of the entire file (EBU R-128
recommendation), the average loudest 3 second audio section
(Top of loudness range), or the loudest 3 seconds audio section
(Maximum short-term loudness).
Peaks menu
Select whether WaveLab should limit the sample values (digital
peaks) or the analog reconstructed samples (true peaks).
Peak Limiter
Max peak level
Here, specify the maximum peak level of the resulting audio. The
lower this value, the lower the loudness.
Softness
This parameter affects the way that the Peak Master operates. A
high setting maximizes the perceived loudness effect, but can
result in a slight harshness of the sound.
Adjust this parameter to optimize the balance between sound
quality and the effect that you want to achieve.
Pre-Processing Options
Remove DC offset
DC offset in the file affects the loudness computation. Therefore it
is recommended that you keep this option activated.
Attempts/Analysis
Tolerance (+/-)
If the Loudness to achieve requires peak limiting, this also
reduces the loudness to some degree. This cannot be computed
in advance and cannot be automatically applied to the gain
change. Instead, several simulation passes are performed to find
the best possible gain. This option lets you define the precision of
the result that you want to achieve.
Maximum number of passes
WaveLab performs as many analysis passes as needed to match
the precision that you want to achieve. Use this option to specify
the maximum number of passes to be performed.
215
Offline Processing
Pan Normalizer Dialog
Authorized peak compression
As too much compression degrades the audio quality, you can
specify a limit for the applied compression. The value can be set
between -1 and -20 dB. Consider to lower the Loudness to
achieve, as this renders better results.
Warn if unmatched
If this option is activated, you are warned if the normalizing process
does not meet the specified loudness/precision. This option is not
available during batch processing.
Statistics
Opens a window which shows you information about the file to be
processed. It shows any DC offset, the current loudness, the
current peak level, and the required gain to achieve the specified
loudness. Furthermore you are informed if limiting is required.
RELATED LINKS:
“EBU Loudness Standard R-128” on page 48
Pan Normalizer Dialog
This dialog allows you to ensure that both channels of a stereo file have
the same level or loudness, and helps you to get the best possible
stereo balance.
In the Audio Files workspace, select Process > Pan Normalizer.
This dialog is also available as a multipass plug-in in the Batch
Processors workspace.
This process first analyzes the audio and then renders any required level
changes. You must have a stereo selection in a stereo file to apply this
process.
Peak level
Raises the channel with the lowest peak level to match the peak
level of the other channel.
216
Offline Processing
Envelope Dialog
Loudness (EBU R-128)
Analyzes the loudness of both channels and adjusts their gain so
that both channels get the same loudness. No clipping can be
introduced using the Pan Normalizer.
Remove DC offset
Removes DC offsets which affect the loudness computation. We
recommend to keep this option activated.
Analyze channel difference
Shows the current Loudness ratio between the left/right channels.
The result changes depending on the selected Peak/Loudness
mode.
Envelope Dialog
In this dialog, you can create a volume envelope which can be applied to a
selected range or a whole audio file. This is useful if you want to even-out
loud and quiet parts or create a sophisticated fade-in/fade-out, for example.
In the Audio Files workspace, select Process > Envelope.
The dialog shows a waveform with an envelope curve (initially a straight
line). A vertical ruler displays the level in dB, and the horizontal ruler
displays the timeline.
The following options are available:
•
Undo/Redo the last operation
•
Deselect the envelope points
•
Delete the selected envelope points
217
Offline Processing
Envelope Dialog
•
Reset the selected envelope points
•
Reset the whole envelope
•
Flip the envelope around the horizontal axis
•
Reverse the envelope time sequence
•
Toggle the envelope smoothing
Basic Envelope Operations
By adding points to the envelope curve you can create an envelope
curve that changes the volume of the material over time. When you point
the mouse in the display or move a point, the current position and level
change is shown in the field above the display.
•
To add a point, double click the envelope curve.
•
To select a point, click it.
•
To select several points, click and drag the selection rectangle.
•
To move a point, click and drag it. If more than one point is
selected, all points are moved.
•
To move the whole curve up or down, click the envelope curve, and
drag up or down.
•
To move the curve segment between selected points, select the
points, click the envelope curve between the points, and drag up
or down.
•
To move two points horizontally, press [Shift], click the curve
segment between two points, and drag left or right.
•
To move the segment between 2 points vertically, press
[Ctrl]/[Command], click the segment, and drag up or down.
218
Offline Processing
Fades in Audio Files
Fades in Audio Files
A fade-in is a gradual increase in level and a fade-out is a gradual
decrease in level.
You can create fades by selecting an individual fading type for each
fade-in/fade-out, or by using the Easy Fade function.
Creating a Fade-In and Fade-Out
PROCEDURE
1.
In the Audio Files workspace, make a selection.
2.
Depending whether you want to create a fade-in or a fade-out,
select one of the following:
3.
•
To create a fade-in, select Process > Fade-in.
•
To create a fade-out, select Process > Fade-out.
Select the type of fade that you want to create.
A graph in the waveform indicates the resulting shape.
Applying Easy Fades
The Easy Fade function allows you to quickly apply a default fade-in or
fade-out to an audio file.
The shape of the fade is governed by the default fade/crossfade setting
in the Options > Audio file editing preferences > Editing tab, in the
Default fade/crossfade section.
PROCEDURE
1.
2.
In the Audio Files workspace, make one of the following selections:
•
From the start of the audio file to where you want the fade-in to end.
•
From the position where you want the fade-out to start to the end
of the audio file.
Select Process > Easy Fade.
219
Offline Processing
Crossfades
Crossfades
A crossfade is a gradual fade between two sounds, where one is faded
in and the other faded out. You can automatically create a crossfade
when pasting an audio section into another.
Creating Crossfades
The material that you want to crossfade can either be in two different
sections of the same audio file, or in two different audio files.
PROCEDURE
1.
In the Audio Files workspace, select the section that you want to
fade-in.
2.
Select Edit > Copy, or press [Ctrl]/[Command]-C.
3.
Select the section that you want to fade-out.
The length of this selection determines the length of the actual crossfade
(check the length on the status bar). The section can be within the
selected audio file or in another wave window. However, the selection
must not be longer than the selection that you just copied.
4.
Select Edit > Paste and crossfade, and select one of the
crossfade types.
5.
Play back the file and adjust the crossfade if necessary.
RESULT
The crossfade is created. Any material that originally appeared after the
selection in the file into which you paste, is moved so that it now appears
after the pasted material.
Any excess material in the copied selection appears after the fade at full
level.
NOTE
If both files already have full level sections in the crossfade area (for
example, if you have normalized both files), clipping and distortion might
occur. If this happens, reduce the amplitude of both files by 3 to 6 dB
and try again.
220
Offline Processing
Inverting the Audio Phase
Paste and Crossfade Options
These options allow you to select a crossfade type for pasting.
In the Audio Files workspace, select Edit > Paste and crossfade.
Linear (equal gain)
Level changes linearly.
Sinus (equal power)
Level changes according to a sine curve, the power of the mix
remains constant.
Square-root (equal power)
Level changes according to the square-root curve, the power of
the mix remains constant.
Inverting the Audio Phase
Inverting the phase turns the signal upside down. The most common use
for this function is to fix a stereo recording where one of the channels
has been recorded out of phase with the other.
PROCEDURE
1.
Optional: If you only want to invert the phase for a certain time range
of the audio file, create a selection range in the wave window.
2.
In the Audio Files workspace, select Process > Invert phase.
An inverted phase is indicated by an icon in the wave window.
221
Offline Processing
Reversing Audio
Reversing Audio
You can reverse an audio file or a part of an audio file as if playing a tape
backwards.
PROCEDURE
1.
Optional: If you only want to reverse a certain time range of the
audio file, create a selection range in the wave window.
2.
In the Audio Files workspace, select Process > Reverse.
DC Offset
A DC offset is when there is too large a DC (direct current) component
in the signal. This most often appears due to mismatches between
various types of recording equipment.
A DC offset is problematic for the following reasons:
•
It affects where the zero crossing positions.
•
Certain processing options do not give optimal results when
performed on files with a DC offset.
Removing DC Offset
PROCEDURE
1.
In the Audio Files workspace, open the audio file that you want to
check for DC offset and fix.
2.
Select Process > Remove DC offset.
A dialog appears, stating the amount of DC offset in the audio file. You
can also create a selection range in the wave window and then select
this option, to only show the DC offset in the selection range.
NOTE
This function should be applied to whole files, since the problem is
normally present throughout the entire recording.
3.
Click OK to remove the DC offset.
222
Offline Processing
Time Stretching
Time Stretching
Time stretching is an operation that allows you to change the length of
a recording without affecting its pitch.
With time stretching you can make audio material longer or shorter. This
function is most often used to make a section of audio fit in with some
other material. You select the material to be stretched and use the
options in the Time stretching dialog to find a stretch factor. This is
done by specifying a length or a tempo, according to what the situation
requires.
Time Stretching Dialog
In this dialog, you can change the duration of an audio selection, usually
without changing its pitch. You can stretch a selection to a specified
duration (in minutes, seconds, and milliseconds), tempo (in bpm), or
stretch factor (as percentage).
In the Audio Files workspace, select Process > Time stretching.
This dialog is also available as a monopass plug-in in the Batch
Processors workspace.
Source (Audio Selection)
Duration - Edit tempo
If this option is activated, you can change the tempo of the audio
source. The number of bars and beats and the stretch factor is
updated automatically.
Duration - Edit bars
If this option is activated, you can set the number of bars and beats
and the signature for the audio source. The source tempo and
according the stretch factor is automatically updated.
223
Offline Processing
Time Stretching
Result
Target duration
If this option is activated, the audio source changes its duration.
Target tempo
If this option is activated, the audio changes its tempo. For this to
work, you must specify the original tempo or the number of bars
and beats.
Target stretch factor
Lets you see how much the audio duration changes. This
parameter is automatically updated when you edit the other
parameters, but you can also activate this option to edit it manually.
Reset
Resets the stretch factor to 100 % (no stretch).
Method
Preserve pitch
If this option is activated, the pitch of the audio material is not
affected when you apply time stretch. If this option is deactivated,
the pitch changes proportionally with the time stretch ratio.
Method pop-up menu
Auto/Preview: Automatically selects the best time/frequency
trade-off for real-time/preview performance. This is the fastest
setting, but might not provide optimal results in all cases.
Time localization ++ (instruments, voices): Selects full time
localization. This is a good setting for single instruments and solo
voices.
Time localization +: Time/frequency localization with the
emphasis on time localization. If the previous mode produces echo
artifacts, try this option.
Average Time/Frequency localization: Sets the time/frequency
localization halfway between the time and frequency domains. It is
the best setting for all general purpose signals.
Frequency localization +: Time/Frequency localization with the
emphasis on frequency localization. Good setting for classical
music.
Frequency localization ++ (complex mixes): Highest possible
frequency localization. This setting might not work well on material
with many sharp attack transients, but it can produce good results
with less transient/percussive material.
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Offline Processing
Pitch Shift
Transcribe mode (for large changes): This uses a content aware
algorithm to time stretch and pitch shift music by up to 4x the
original length without losing information critical to transcription,
such as attack transients.
Quality pop-up menu
The High quality and Best (very slow) modes provide high quality
time stretching, but the processing takes longer. For most uses,
the Standard quality mode is sufficient.
Use modulation envelope
Modulates the stretch factor over time.
Time Stretching Limitations
Time stretch is a complicated Digital Signal Processing (DSP)
operation, that always affects the sound quality to some extent.
•
For speech, stretch factors within a ±30 % limit provide good
results.
•
For composite music, try to limit the range to ±10 %.
•
For sensitive material, like solo piano, try to limit the range to ±3 %.
About the DIRAC Time Stretching Processor
The DIRAC engine is a high quality time stretcher. It produces the best
quality results possible, but takes longer to process.
Pitch Shift
Pitch shift allows you to detect and to change the pitch of a sound, with
or without affecting its length. This is useful for fixing an off-key vocal
note in a live recording, or tuning the pitch of a kick drum sample to fit a
particular song, for example.
225
Offline Processing
Pitch Shift
Pitch Shift Dialog
In this dialog, you can change the pitch of a sound.
In the Audio Files workspace, select Process > Pitch shifting.
This dialog is also available as a monopass plug-in in the Batch
Processors workspace.
Amount of Shift - Semitones
Specifies the amount of pitch change in semitones.
Amount of Shift - Cents
Specifies the amount of pitch change in cents.
Find current pitch of audio selection
Analyzes the pitch of the selected audio and displays it below.
According to the current pitch, compute the required shift to match
the key hereafter
Click to adjust Amount of Pitch parameters automatically, based
on the currently detected pitch and the pitch specified in the value
field below this button.
Pitch field
Specifies the resulting pitch.
Length preservation
Specifies how the length of the selection is affected by the
operation:
•
A setting of 100 means that the length of the audio remains
unchanged.
•
A setting of 0 means that the program behaves like a tape
recorder, when the speed of its tape is changed. For example, if
you raise the pitch by one octave, the audio is half as long.
•
Intermediate values give results in between these two extremes.
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Offline Processing
Pitch Shift
For large transposition values, the lower this setting, the better the
quality of the effect.
Method pop-up menu
Auto/Preview: This automatically selects the best time/frequency
trade-off for real-time/preview performance. This is the fastest
setting, but might not provide optimal results in all cases.
Time localization ++ (instruments, voices): Selects full time
localization. This is a good setting for single instruments and solo
voices.
Time localization +: Time/frequency localization with the
emphasis on time localization. If the previous mode produces echo
artifacts, try this option.
Average Time/Frequency localization: This sets the
time/frequency localization halfway between the time and
frequency domains. It is the best setting for all general purpose
signals.
Frequency localization +: Time/Frequency localization with the
emphasis on frequency localization. Good setting for classical
music.
Frequency localization ++ (complex mixes): Highest possible
frequency localization. This setting might not work well on material
with many sharp attack transients, but it can produce good results
with less transient/percussive material.
Transcribe mode (for large changes): This uses a content aware
algorithm to time stretch and pitch shift music by up to 4x the
original length without losing information critical to transcription,
such as attack transients.
Quality pop-up menu
The High quality and Best (very slow) modes provide high quality
time stretching, but the processing takes longer. For most uses,
the Standard quality mode is sufficient.
Correct formants
If this option is activated, changing the pitch of vocal material gives
a more realistic result. When processing non-vocal material you
should leave this option deactivated, since it uses a slightly slower
processing algorithm.
NOTE
This Algorithm might cause a noticeable increase in signal level.
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Offline Processing
Pitch Quantize Dialog
Modulate formants correction
If this option is activated, the formant correction is modulated over
time.
NOTE
When the envelope is not used and the formant correction is activated,
a 100 % correction is performed.
Pitch Quantize Dialog
This dialog allows you to automatically detect and correct the pitch of
an audio file. The input signal is quantized to discrete notes.
In the Audio Files workspace, select Process > Pitch quantizing.
This dialog is also available as a monopass plug-in in the Batch
Processors workspace.
Pitch quantize works best on recordings that have monophonic signals,
such as voice or single instruments.
Reference frequency
Defines the reference tuning (in Hz) for the pitch shift.
Liaison time
Defines the time it takes for the correction to reach the full
correction amount. Typically, sung notes are slightly unstable at
the beginning, because the attack phase of a sound has a higher
amount of noise, and because singers gradually adjust their tuning
after the onset of the note.
The slur time makes the pitch shift sound more natural because it
mimics this effect.
Preserve Formants
If this option is activated, the formants are corrected according to
the pitch shift amount.
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Offline Processing
Pitch Bend
Quality pop-up menu
The High quality and Best (very slow) modes provide high quality
time stretching, but the processing takes longer. For most uses,
the Standard quality mode is sufficient.
Pitch Bend
Pitch bend allows you to change the pitch of a sound over time.
Changing the pitch using pitch bend affects its duration unless
Preserve duration is activated.
This function can be used for creating the classic tape stop effect, or for
blending the tempo/pitch of one track into another, for example.
You can draw the curve that you want the pitch to follow. The pitch
offset is displayed on the vertical ruler of the envelope and the range of
the envelope effects can be adjusted. Positive pitch values produce
sounds with a higher pitch and a shorter length, negative values
produce sounds with a lower pitch and a longer length.
If Preserve duration is activated, you can choose the algorithm that is
used to perform the pitch bend operation. Depending on the type of
audio material you are processing, choose the appropriate mode. You
can also adjust the quality used when processing the pitch bend. The
quality setting and the selected mode affect the processing time for this
effect.
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Offline Processing
Pitch Bend
Pitch Bend Dialog
In this dialog, you can gradually change the pitch of a sound using an
envelope curve.
In the Audio Files workspace, select Process > Pitch bend.
The following options are available at the top of the dialog:
•
Undo/redo the last operation
•
Deselect the envelope points
•
Delete the selected envelope points
•
Reset the selected envelope points
•
Reset the whole envelope
•
Flip the envelope around the horizontal axis
•
Reverse the envelope time sequence
•
Toggle the envelope smoothing
The following options are available at the bottom of the dialog:
Preserve duration
If this option is activated, a time stretching process is applied to
compensate for the change of duration caused by the pitch
modifications.
Method menu
Auto/Preview: This automatically selects the best time/frequency
trade-off for real-time/preview performance. This is the fastest
setting, but might not provide optimal results in all cases.
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Offline Processing
Pitch Bend
Time localization ++ (instruments, voices): Selects full time
localization. This is a good setting for single instruments and solo
voices.
Time localization +: Time/frequency localization with the
emphasis on time localization. If the previous mode produces echo
artifacts, try this option.
Average Time/Frequency localization: This sets the
time/frequency localization halfway between the time and
frequency domains. It is the best setting for all general purpose
signals.
Frequency localization +: Time/Frequency localization with the
emphasis on frequency localization. Good setting for classical
music.
Frequency localization ++ (complex mixes): Highest possible
frequency localization. This setting might not work well on material
with many sharp attack transients, but it can produce good results
with less transient/percussive material.
Transcribe mode (for large changes): This uses a content aware
algorithm to time stretch and pitch shift music by up to 4x the
original length without losing information critical to transcription,
such as attack transients.
Varies with envelope
If this option is activated, time stretching is continuously applied,
but varies, depending on the pitch changes. If this option is
deactivated, time stretching is applied equally to all audio parts.
In both cases, the global audio duration is preserved. The option is
activated by default because this gives a more natural result. Note
however, that this affects the quality of the audio.
Quality menu
The High quality and Best (very slow) modes provide high quality
time stretching, but the processing takes longer. For most uses,
the Standard quality mode is sufficient.
Range (semitones)
Specifies the maximum range in semitones for the pitch change.
When you change this value, this is indicated in the vertical ruler.
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Offline Processing
Resample
Resample
You can change the sample rate of a recording. This is useful if the file
that you want to use in a certain audio system was recorded at a sample
rate that this system does not support.
Note the following:
•
Sample rate conversion from a low frequency upwards does not
improve the sound quality. The high frequencies that were lost
cannot be restored by a conversion.
•
When you resample to a lower frequency, high frequency material
is lost. Therefore, converting down and then up again leads to a
degradation in sound quality.
NOTE
Using the Crystal Resampler in the quality mode High to change the
sample rate results in the same quality as when using Process >
Resample in the Audio Files workspace. However, that is only the case
if the sample rate in the Sample rate dialog exists in the values of the
Crystal Resampler Sample rate menu. If you choose a custom sample
rate, another algorithm is used, which results in a lower quality of what
the Crystal Sampler can achieve.
Converting a Sample Rate
NOTE
Sample rate conversion is always applied to the entire file.
PROCEDURE
1.
In the Audio Files workspace, select Process > Resample.
2.
In the Sample Rate dialog, select a sample rate from the pop-up
menu.
3.
Click OK.
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Offline Processing
Effect Morphing
Effect Morphing
Effect morphing allows you to smoothly morph from one effect to
another, or from an unprocessed audio segment to a processed audio
segment.
Effect morphing always involves two audio ranges. For example, two
versions of the same audio range, of which one is processed and the
other unprocessed.
Effect Morphing Dialog
In this dialog, you can gradually mix two audio ranges that have different
effects/processing applied to them.
In the Audio Files workspace, select Edit > Effect morphing.
The dialog consists of a waveform display that shows the current
selection and an envelope curve (by default a straight line) in the middle.
By adding points to the envelope, you can create a curve that is used for
the morphing process.
The following options are available at the top of the dialog:
•
Undo/Redo the last operation
•
Deselect the envelope points
•
Delete the selected envelope points
•
Reset the selected envelope points
•
Reset the whole envelope
•
Flip the envelope around the horizontal axis
•
Reverse the envelope time sequence
•
Toggle the envelope smoothing
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Offline Processing
Effect Morphing
The following options are available in the lower right corner of the dialog:
Mix current selection with - Unprocessed selection
Mixes the audio selection with the unprocessed version of the
same audio.
Mix current selection with - Clipboard
Mixes the audio selection with the clipboard.
RELATED LINKS:
“Basic Envelope Operations” on page 218
Setting Up the Effect Morphing
Effect Morphing always involves two audio ranges.
PROCEDURE
1.
In the Audio Files workspace, open the two audio files that you
want to apply effect morphing to.
2.
In the wave window, make a selection range over the time that you
want the effect morphing to take place.
3.
Process this range by using any Master Section effects or offline
processing.
You cannot use processing/effects that alter the length of the selection,
for example, time stretching.
4.
Select Edit > Effect morphing.
5.
Make sure that Unprocessed selection is activated.
The current processed selection is mixed with an unprocessed version
of the same selection.
6.
Adjust your envelope points over time between 0 % and 100 %.
This determines the level and direction of the morph. For example,
starting at 100 % and ending at 0 % fades out the effect.
7.
Click Apply to apply the effect morphing.
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Offline Processing
Effect Morphing
Morphing Effects of Differently Processed Audio Segments
Effect Morphing can take place between two differently processed
audio segments.
PREREQUISITE
In the Audio Files workspace, make a range selection, and process the
selection.
PROCEDURE
1.
Select the result, and press [Ctrl]/[Command]-[C].
2.
Undo the processing.
3.
Process the selection again, this time with a different effect.
4.
Select Edit > Effect morphing.
5.
Activate Clipboard.
6.
Select Apply.
RESULT
The curve enables you to morph between two different processing
methods.
NOTE
The clipboard could also be a copy from another wave file, but the
clipboard size and the selection size must match.
235
Audio Montage
The audio montage is a multichannel and multitrack non-destructive
editing environment which allows you to arrange, edit, play back, and
record audio clips on multiple tracks and channels.
Non-destructive means that when you delete or change a part of an audio
file, the audio is not deleted or permanently changed. Instead, a set of
pointers keeps track of all the edits, so these can be readily reversed.
WaveLab provides comprehensive facilities for non-destructive editing.
Features include both track- and clip-based effects, volume and pan
automation, as well as wide-ranging fade and crossfade functions.
Multichannel support makes it possible to create surround mixes that
can be written to DVD-Audio compatible discs.
The audio montage is a great tool for Audio CD or DVD-Audio creation,
mastering, multimedia work, radio spot production, etc.
Basic Terminology
Audio montages can contain an unlimited number of stereo or mono
audio tracks. You can use them to structure the work graphically or
logically, but do not see them as virtual tape tracks. Depending on the
channel configuration of the audio montage, you can route each track
to a stereo output or route each track to different surround channels (up
to 6) or non-surround audio channels (up to 8).
On an audio track, you can place any number of clips. These are
containers for the audio, and include a number of settings and functions
such as volume and pan curves, fades, etc.
A clip contains a reference to a source audio file on your hard disk, as
well as start and end positions in the file (allowing clips to play back
smaller sections of their source audio files). Any number of clips can
reference the same source file.
In addition to audio tracks, you can create DVD-Audio picture tracks in
the audio montage.
236
Audio Montage
Montage Window
Montage Window
The montage window in the Audio Montage workspace is where you
assemble your audio montage. This is where you view, play back, and
edit audio montages.
The montage window gives you a graphical representation of the tracks
and clips.
Track Control Area
The track control area offers several options regarding the track.
Fold/Unfold
Folds/unfolds the track.
Mute
Mutes the track.
Solo
Solos the track.
FX
Opens the Effects menu in which you can select effects for the
track. A blue icon indicates that a track has track effects.
Track menu
Opens the track menu that contains track-related options.
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Audio Montage
Montage Window
Audio Track Dispatching
Opens the Audio Track Dispatching dialog in which you can
route a track to an output channel.
Track name
Opens the Track name dialog where you can enter a name for the
track.
Track Menu
This menu contains all track-related options. In the Audio Montage
workspace, open the Track menu, or click the number button of a track.
Add stereo track
Adds a stereo track below the active track.
Add mono track
Adds a mono track below the active track.
Add picture track
Adds a picture track below the active track.
Move track up
Moves the track one position up in the track list.
Move track down
Moves the track one position down in the track list.
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Audio Montage
Montage Window
Virtual-split into two mono tracks
Converts the stereo track into two mono tracks without altering the
audio material.
Duplicate track
Creates a copy of the active track. The duplicated track is created
below the active track.
Remove track
Deletes the active track.
Mute
Mutes the active track.
Solo
Solos the active track.
Route to Master Section
Routes the audio signal of the active track to the Master Section
input.
Route to Master Section and upper track
Routes the audio signal of the active track to the Master Section
input and to the modulation input of the Ducker plug-in.
Route to upper track only
Routes the audio signal of the active track to the modulation input
of the Ducker plug-in.
Record at cursor
Opens the Recording dialog to start recording at the cursor
position.
Lock
If this option is activated, you cannot edit the track.
Half-height
Reduces the track height to half the current size.
Quarter-height
Reduces the track height to a quarter of the current size.
Zoom
Shows the active track in the full available height.
Color
Opens a submenu where you can select a color for the active
track.
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Audio Montage
Signal Flow in the Audio Montage
Signal Flow in the Audio Montage
The audio signal flow goes through the various sections of WaveLab in
a certain way.
•
Read audio clip samples
•
Clip envelope (unless post-effects mode is active)
•
Clip effects
•
Clip envelope (if post-effects mode is active)
•
Clip pan
•
Clip individual gain (Clips window)
•
Clips are mixed into the track slot (for example, overlapping clips)
•
Track effects
•
Track leveling/surround pan
•
Each track is mixed into a bus that has as many channels as
defined by the Audio montage properties (between 1 to 8,
usually 2).
•
These audio channels are processed through the plug-ins of the
master output.
•
These channels are then sent to the Master Section input.
Master Section:
•
Channels/sample rate might change at each plug-in slot
•
Master Section meters
•
Master Section Dithering slot
•
Independent meters
•
Playback or file format rendering
240
Audio Montage
Creating a New Audio Montage
Creating a New Audio Montage
You can add tracks and clips to your new audio montage.
PROCEDURE
1.
In the Audio Montage workspace, select File > New.
2.
In the Audio montage properties dialog, select a Mode,
Channels, and a Sample rate.
3.
Click OK.
Audio Montage Properties Dialog
This dialog allows you to define the mode (stereo, mono, or
multichannel), the number of audio channels, and the sample rate of the
project.
This dialog open when you create a new audio montage.
To change the settings for the currently opened audio montage, select
Edit > Audio montage properties.
Mode
Lets you select the following modes for audio montage projects.
•
CD creation, optimized for a stereo mixdown
•
Multichannel configuration (1-6 output channels), compatible with
the DVD-Audio format
•
Free multichannel configuration (8 output channels)
Channels
Lets you define the number of audio channels and their
configuration at the output of the audio montage. This is only
available when Multichannel, DVD-Audio compatible mode is
selected.
241
Audio Montage
Creating a New Audio Montage
Enable additional DVD-Audio configurations
Enables additional DVD-Audio channel configurations in the
channels pop-up menu. This is only available when Multichannel,
DVD-Audio compatible mode is selected.
Sample rate
Lets you select the sample rate of the audio montage.
Alternative Ways of Creating a New Audio Montage
There are several ways to create a new audio montage.
•
Import cue-sheet/CD images as audio montage
•
Import audio CD tracks to an audio montage
•
Convert a Basic Audio CD into an audio montage
•
Create an audio montage from a wave file with the Auto Split
function
•
Import an AES-31 project file to an audio montage
•
Import an XML text file to an audio montage
•
Convert wave files to an audio montage
•
When you render, you can open the resulting file into a montage.
•
File > New from
•
File > Import > Audio Montage copy
•
File > Import > Audio DDP image
•
File > Clone
•
File > Export > Clone completly
•
Press [Ctrl]/[Option], and drag a montage tab on the tab bar
•
Double-click an empty section of the tab bar
•
From a script
242
Audio Montage
Creating an Audio Montage from an Audio File
Creating an Audio Montage from an Audio
File
You can export audio files to an audio montage, including all markers
that you have set in the audio file.
PROCEDURE
1.
Optional: If you only want to use a certain time range of the audio
file, create a selection range in the wave window.
2.
In the Audio Files workspace, select File > Export > Create
audio montage from active file.
3.
Select whether to export the whole file or the selected time range.
4.
Optional: Decide if you want to perform any of the following marker
operations:
5.
•
Transcribe markers
•
Split at generic region markers
•
Split at CD Track markers
Click OK.
Import Options for Audio Montages
You can import different files into your audio montage, for example,
audio files, audio montages, and DDP images.
In the Audio Montage workspace, select File > Import. The following
import options are available:
Insert audio files
Opens the file browser where you can select one or more audio
files to insert at the edit cursor position on the focused track.
Insert clips
Opens the file browser where you can select one or more
previously saved clips to insert at the edit cursor position on the
focused track. If you import several clips at the same time, they will
be lined up in alphabetical order, according to their file names, and
separated according to the set pre-gap.
243
Audio Montage
Import Options for Audio Montages
Insert audio montages
Opens the file browser where you can select an audio montage to
insert at the edit cursor position on the focused track.
Insert surround audio files
Opens the file browser where you can select a surround audio file
to insert at the edit cursor position on the focused track. The audio
montage must be set to Multichannel, DVD-Audio compatible
mode with 6 channels.
Each file is placed on a different track, and routed to the
corresponding surround output. Mono surround channels are
placed on mono tracks and stereo surround channels on stereo
tracks.
Audio CD
Opens the Import Audio CD dialog where you can browse for
audio CD tracks to extract.
Audio DDP image
Converts a DDP image to an audio montage.
Audio CD cue file
Converts a CD cue file with its audio data to an audio montage.
Basic Audio CD
Converts a Basic Audio CD to an audio montage.
Audio montage copy
Creates a copy of an existing audio montage and opens it.
AES-31 file
Converts an AES-31 file to an audio montage.
Audio montage as XML file
Opens an audio montage that has been previously saved as an
XML file.
List of files to open
Opens all files that are listed in a text file.
244
Audio Montage
Missing Files in Audio Montage Dialog
Missing Files in Audio Montage Dialog
This dialog opens when you open an audio montage, and some audio
files that the audio montage refers to could not be found. You can then
search for the files or select a replacement.
Missing files list
Lists the files that could not be found. Each file can be replaced by
an existing file. To search replacements for multiple files, select the
files and specify a new path in the Where to search field.
A file with a green checkmark is associated with a valid
replacement. A file with a red checkmark is not yet associated with
a valid replacement, but there are possible replacement
candidates available at the bottom of this dialog.
Find files with the same name
Instructs WaveLab to find all files with the same name in the folder
specified in the Where to search field.
Replace selected files with
Replaces the missing files with a single specific file.
Reset
Removes all possible replacements for the selected missing files.
Where to search
Lets you specify a location for searching files. Click Find files with
the same name to start the search.
Replacement list
Lists the files that can be used as a replacement. You can also
drag a file into the list from the Windows Explorer/Mac OS Finder.
245
Audio Montage
Assembling the Audio Montage
Assembling the Audio Montage
You assemble your audio montage by adding tracks and clips.
In the audio montage, only one track can be focused at a time. This
focused track has a different color for the header. Certain WaveLab
functions are always applied to the focused track.
About Tracks
Tracks form the structure that is used to organize clips. The tracks can
be mono/stereo audio tracks or picture tracks.
•
Audio tracks allow you to add clips to an audio montage.
•
Picture tracks allow you to add pictures to an audio montage.
These are shown when you play back the final DVD-Audio.
Adding Tracks
You can add stereo tracks, mono tracks, and picture tracks.
•
In the Audio Montage workspace, click the number button of a
track to open the Track menu, and then select the type of track that
you want to add to your audio montage.
NOTE
By default, the new track is added below the focused track. If you want
to place it above the focused track, press [Ctrl]/[Command] when
adding the new track.
246
Audio Montage
Assembling the Audio Montage
Adding Pictures to a Picture Track
PROCEDURE
1.
In the Audio Montage workspace, add a picture track to your audio
montage.
2.
On the picture track, set the edit cursor at the position where you
want to insert the picture.
3.
Right-click an empty area of the picture track, and select Insert
files.
4.
Select a picture, and click Open.
Moving Tracks in the Track View
You can change the order of the tracks in the montage window.
PROCEDURE
1.
In the Audio Montage workspace, click a track’s number button.
2.
Select Move track up/Move track down.
Removing Tracks
Removing a track with clips also removes the clips. However, the audio
files to which the clips refer are not affected.
PROCEDURE
1.
In the Audio Montage workspace, click the number button of the
track that you want to remove.
2.
Select Remove track.
Folding and Unfolding Tracks
To save screen space in the Audio Montage workspace, you can fold
tracks that do not need to be visible.
•
To fold a track, click the arrow button at the top left corner of the
track control area.
•
To unfold a folded track, click the button again, or double-click
anywhere in the folded track.
247
Audio Montage
Assembling the Audio Montage
Locking and Unlocking Tracks
You can lock tracks to prevent them from being accidentally moved,
edited, or deleted.
•
To lock a track, click the number button of the track, and activate
Lock. The waveform is marked with stripes to indicate that the
track is locked.
•
To unlock a track, click the locked track, and confirm the dialog, or
click the number button of the track, and deactivate Lock.
Splitting Audio Tracks
You can split a stereo audio track into two mono tracks. This is a virtual
split which does not affect or create audio files.
PROCEDURE
1.
In the Audio Montage workspace, click the number button of the
track that you want to split.
2.
Select Virtual-split into two mono tracks.
RESULT
The track is split. If the track has no clips, this is the same as deleting
the track and inserting two new mono tracks. However, if there are clips
on the track, the two stereo sides are now separate clips, allowing you
to move, edit, or process them independently.
About Clips
A clip contains a reference to a source audio file on your hard disk as
well as start and end positions in the file, volume and pan curves, fades,
etc. This allows clips to play back smaller sections of their source audio
files.
Any number of clips can reference the same source file. Since a clip only
references to the original source file, it contains no audio data. Any
number of clips can reference the same source file.
You can also use envelopes and effects on clips.
248
Audio Montage
Assembling the Audio Montage
You can see the clips of the active audio montage in the Clips window.
3 clips on a track
Adding Audio Clips to the Audio Montage
You create clips by copying audio selections into the audio montage.
There are several ways to do this.
NOTE
You cannot add a mono clip to a stereo track or vice versa.
Dragging from the Wave Window
PROCEDURE
1.
In the wave window of the Audio Files workspace, select the audio
section that you want the clip to refer to.
2.
Drag the selection on a track of the audio montage.
If you want to add the whole audio file, drag the tab on a track.
3.
Select an insert option from the pop-up menu that appears when
you release the mouse button.
RESULT
A clip is created, named after the original file.
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Inserting From Open Wave Windows Using the Insert Menu
PREREQUISITE
In the Audio Files workspace, open the audio files that you want to insert
as clips.
PROCEDURE
1.
In the Audio Montage workspace, right-click an empty part of a
track.
2.
From the pop-up menu, select the audio file that you want to insert
as clip.
Using Copy and Paste
PROCEDURE
1.
In the wave window of the Audio Files workspace, select the audio
section to which you want the clip to refer to.
2.
Select Edit > Copy, or press [Ctrl]/[Command]-[C].
3.
In the Audio Montage workspace, select the track where you want
to insert the clip.
The clip insert position is indicated by the edit cursor.
4.
Select Edit > Paste, or press [Ctrl]/[Command]-[V].
5.
Select an insert option from the pop-up menu.
Dragging Audio Files From the File Browser Tool Window
NOTE
The following can also be done from the Windows Explorer/Mac OS
Finder.
PROCEDURE
1.
In the Audio Montage workspace, open the File Browser window.
2.
Select the audio files to which you want the clip to refer, and drag
them on a track, or double-click the file to insert it.
•
If you have selected a single audio file, the Insert pop-up menu
opens.
•
If you have selected several audio files, the Insert Audio Files
dialog opens.
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3.
Depending on whether you have selected one or several audio
files, do one of the following:
•
If you have selected a single audio file, select an insert option from
the pop-up menu.
•
If you have selected several audio files, specify how the files should
be ordered and placed, and click OK.
Dragging Regions From the File Browser Tool Window
If you have defined marker regions in an audio file, you can drag these
regions directly from the File Browser onto a track.
PROCEDURE
1.
In the Audio Montage workspace, open the File Browser window.
2.
Select the audio file to which you want the clip to refer.
On the right side of the File Browser window, a list shows the available
audio regions of the selected file.
3.
Drag any region to the track.
4.
Select an insert option from the pop-up menu.
Importing Audio Files
PROCEDURE
1.
In the Audio Montage workspace, select the track on which you
want to put the clip.
The clip insert position is indicated by the edit cursor.
2.
Right-click an empty area on the track, and select Insert audio
files from the pop-up menu.
3.
Select the audio files that you want to import as clips, and click
Open.
4.
Depending on whether you have selected one or several audio
files, you have the following options:
•
If you have selected a single audio file, select an insert option from
the pop-up menu.
•
If you have selected several audio files, specify how the files should
be ordered and placed, and click OK.
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Copying Clips From Another Audio Montage
If you have opened more than one audio montage, you can copy clips
from one audio montage to another, either by using drag and drop or by
using copy and paste.
Dragging Clips From the Clips Tool Window
You can add clips that are already used in the same audio montage.
PROCEDURE
1.
In the Audio Montage workspace, open the Clips window.
2.
Select one or several clips, and drag them to a track.
If you have selected a single audio file, select an insert option from the
pop-up menu.
Clip Inserting Options
When inserting a clip in another clip, you can choose between different
clip inserting options. For example, you can create default fades. You
can also insert multiple clips at the same time.
You can insert clips by pasting, importing from disk, using drag and
drop, etc. When inserting multiple clips at the same time, the Insert
audio files dialog opens, in which you can decide where to insert the
files.
Single Clip Inserting
When adding a single clip to an audio montage, a pop-up menu appears
at the insert position. By selecting one of the menu items, you specify
how the clip should be inserted, whether existing clips should be
affected or not, etc.
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Add/Mix
Inserts the clip without affecting any clips that already exist on the
destination track. However, if an inserted audio clip partially
overlaps another audio clip, a crossfade is created in the
overlapping zone provided that an auto crossfade option is active.
Add/Mix & bind right clips (track)
When the clip is inserted, all clips to the right of the clip (on the
same track) are moved to the right.
Add/Mix & bind right clips (global)
When the clip is inserted, all clips to the right of the clip (on all
tracks) are moved to the right.
Split/Insert
Only available if the insertion point is within an existing clip (audio
tracks only). When the clip is inserted, the existing clip is split and
the right section is moved to the right. Other clips are not affected.
Split/Insert & bind right clips (track)
Applies the Split/Insert function and moves all other clips on the
same track to the right (audio tracks only).
Split/Insert & bind right clips (global)
Applies the Split/Insert function and moves all other clips on all
tracks to the right (audio tracks only).
Replace selected range
Only available if there is a selection range on the destination track.
The clip with the selection range is split at the selection range
edges, the inserted clip replaces the range, and the section to the
right of the range is moved to the left or right (depending on the
length of the inserted clip and the length of the selection range), to
prevent gaps behind the inserted clip.
Replace selected range (trim source accordingly)
Only available if there is a selection range on the destination track
and if that selection range is shorter than the range of the clip that
is to be inserted. The inserted clip overwrites only the selected
range, for example, the range to be inserted is trimmed according
to the current selection.
Replace selected range & bind right clips (track)
Applies the Replace selected range function and moves all other
clips on the same track to the right.
Replace selected range & bind right clips (global)
Applies the Replace selected range function and moves all other
clips on all tracks to the right.
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Overwrite from cursor
If the inserted clip overlaps any other clips, the overlapped regions
are removed from the existing clips.
Make next choice persistent
If this option is activated, you can select a default option from the
menu. This default option is used when inserting audio. However,
there are two exceptions:
•
If the option is not compatible with the context, it is not processed
and the default option is deactivated. For example, when using
Replace selected range while there is no range selected.
•
You can fully deactivate this option by deactivating Options > Use
default insert action.
Cancel
No clip is added.
Multiple Clips Inserting
When you add multiple audio clips to an audio montage by importing
from disk or using drag and drop, the Insert Audio Files dialog appears.
Arrow up/down
Moves the selected file up/down in the list.
Add file
Opens the file browser where you can select files to be added to
the list.
Remove file
Removes the selected file from the list.
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Line up on the current track
If this option is activated, the clips are added to the audio montage,
lined up contiguously on a single track and spaced according to
the pre-gap. The pre-gap can be defined in the Audio montage
preferences.
Shift existing clips to the right
If this option is activated, any already existing clips in the audio
montage are moved to the right by an amount equaling the length
of the first new added file.
Place each file on a different track
If this option is activated, the clips are added to the audio montage
on separate tracks, according to the following settings.
Start inserting below focused track
If this option is activated, the new tracks for the added files are
inserted below the focused track.
Always create new tracks (otherwise only create when required)
If this option is activated, and you add more files to an audio
montage, they end up on separate tracks.
RELATED LINKS:
“Dual-Mono Files” on page 165
Mismatched Sample Rates When Inserting Audio Files
When inserting audio files with a different sample rate than the sample
rates of the audio montage, WaveLab can create and use resampled
versions of the files.
The resampled file versions are created in the implicit folder that is
defined in the Audio montage preferences. The name of the file is the
name of the original file name with the new sample rate as suffix. If the
resampled file already exists, it is not recreated. However, you can also
activate the option Recreate resampled files in the Mismatched
sample rates dialog.
The created file is a 32-bit float file without any dithering process.
If you modify the original audio file, you must use the Replace audio file
option in the Focused clip window to select the modified audio file. This
will recreate the resampled file.
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Mismatched Sample Rates Dialog
This dialog opens when you insert an audio file with a different sample
rate than the sample rate of the audio montage. This dialog lets you
create a resampled copy of the audio file.
Resampling quality
This option allows you to select the resampling quality.
Recreate resampled files
If this option is activated and a resampled file exists, it is recreated.
Otherwise, the existing version is used. Activate this option if the
original audio file has been modified and you want to recreate its
resampled version.
Empty Clips
If the audio file of a clip is missing, the clip is displayed as an empty clip.
This way the length and position of the clip is visible, even if the
corresponding audio file is unavailable.
Empty clips can also be used for the following:
•
To create audio montage templates with empty clips as place
holders.
•
As an alternative to muting a clip. The difference is that for empty
clips no audio is copied when cloning the audio montage.
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•
To define regions. Since a clip has a start and end point in the
audio montage, it defines a range which can be used as a
reference for any purpose.
Creating Empty Clips
You can create an empty clip out of a selection range.
PROCEDURE
1.
In the Audio Montage workspace, make a selection range.
2.
Right-click an empty area of the track, and select Create empty
clip from selection range.
Removing the Source of a Clip
By removing a source file of a clip you create an empty clip.
PROCEDURE
1.
In the Audio Montage workspace, select the clip for which you
want to remove the source audio file.
2.
In the Focused clip window, open the Edit panel.
3.
Right-click the Replace audio file option, and select Remove
source.
Saving and Loading Clips
You can save clips to disk as separate files. This is useful if you have, for
example, created a perfect fade, envelope, or clip effect configuration,
but want to continue experimenting with the clip in the audio montage.
By saving the clip, you can always revert to the perfect version by
reloading it. However, saved clips are still a reference to the original
source file and contain no audio data.
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Saving Clips
PROCEDURE
1.
In the Audio Montage workspace, right-click the bottom area of a
clip.
2.
From the pop-up menu, select Save.
3.
Specify a name and location, and click Save.
Loading Clips
PREREQUISITE
Select a stereo track for stereo clips and a mono track for mono clips.
PROCEDURE
1.
In the Audio Montage workspace, on an empty part of a track,
right-click where you want to insert the clips.
2.
From the pop-up menu, select Insert clip files.
3.
Select a “.clip” file, and click Open.
RESULT
The clips are inserted on the focused track. If you selected more than
one clip, the first clip is positioned at the audio montage cursor, and any
following clips are spaced according to the default pre-gap time that is
set in the Audio Montage Preferences. When you import several clips,
they are sorted alphabetically according to their the file names.
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Rearranging Clips
You can freely arrange clips in the montage window.
About Selected and Focused Clips
There is a distinction between selected and focused clips. Some editing
functions can only be processed on an individual clip or focused clip,
while others can be processed on multiple clips or selected clips.
•
A selected clip is a clip that you have selected using any of the
selecting clips procedures. Several clips can be selected at the
same time. This allows you to edit multiple clips at the same time
using functions such as copy, delete, move, etc. Selected clips
have a different background color. Right-clicking in the top part of
a clip opens the Clip selection menu. More options for the
selected clips are available in the Clips window. More options for
the selected clips are available in the Clips window.
•
A focused clip is the clip that you selected, clicked, or edited last.
Only one clip can be focused at a time. By default, the focused clip
is distinguished by a highlighted name label. There are certain
functions that can only be processed on a focused clip.
Right-clicking in the lower part of a clip opens the Focused Clip
menu. More options for the focused clip are available in the
Focused Clip window.
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About Mouse Zones
Basic rearranging of clips in the audio montage is achieved by clicking
and dragging with the mouse. However, the results of dragging with the
mouse depend on where in the clip you click. The different areas in a clip
are called mouse zones.
By default, the mouse zones have the following basic functionalities:
Top clip area
• Copy a clip by dragging
• Open the source file by
double-clicking
• Split at cursor position by
double-clicking the edit cursor or
pressing [S].
Upper clip area
• Make a selection range
• Open the Clip selection menu by
right-clicking
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Lower and bottom clip area
• Move a clip by dragging
• Open the Focused clip menu by
right-clicking
Clip edges
• Resize a clip by dragging the edges,
while keeping the audio source
static
• Resize the left or right side of a clip
while letting the audio follow by
holding [Ctrl]/[Command] and
dragging the left or right edges
Clip name
• Open the effects menu by
right-clicking the clip name
• Rename the clip by double-clicking
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When you move the mouse cursor over a mouse zone, the info line at
the bottom left indicates the corresponding actions.
Info Line
The info line at the bottom of the Audio Montage workspace shows what
happens when you click the mouse button with or without modifier keys,
depending on the cursor position.
•
To activate/deactivate the info line, select Options > Audio
montage preferences, and on the All Audio Montages tab,
activate/deactivate Display indications of possible actions.
The following symbols are used in the info line:
Indicates that you can right-click to display a menu. The name of
the menu is displayed to the right of the symbol.
Indicates what happens when you click.
Indicates what happens when you double-click
Indicates that you can [Ctrl]/[Command]-click for an additional
function.
Indicates that you can [Alt]/[Option]-click for an additional
function.
Indicates that you can [Shift]-click for an additional function.
Indicates what happens when you click and drag up or down.
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Indicates what happens when you click and drag left or right.
Indicates what happens when you click and drag an item in any
direction within the audio montage.
Indicates what happens when you click and drag an item out of the
audio montage.
This indicates that you are moving or resizing clips, or changing
envelope values, for example.
Indicates that you can use combined modifier keys.
Magnetic Bounds in Audio Montages
Certain positions, such as markers or the start and end of a clip, can be
defined as magnetic.
When you move or resize, for example, a clip, and its edges or its cue
point get close to one of the magnetic bounds, the clip snaps to this
position. A label is displayed, indicating to what the clip snaps. This
makes it easier to position items accurately.
Activating Snapping to Magnetic Items
To make use of the magnetic bounds function, Snap to magnetic items
must be activated.
PROCEDURE
•
In the Audio Montage workspace, select Options > Snap to
magnetic items, or click the Snap to magnetic items icon.
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Magnetic Bounds Menu
In this menu, you can specify which positions should be magnetic.
When Snap to magnetic items is activated, items that you move snap
to these positions.
In the Audio Montage workspace, select Options > Magnetic bounds.
You can let items snap to the following positions:
Start of montage
Makes the start of the audio montage magnetic.
Clip start
Makes the start of the clips magnetic.
Clip end
Makes the end of the clips magnetic.
Clip cue point
Makes the cue point in the clips magnetic.
Clip end cue point
Makes the position that is located after the clip end magnetic. If
this option is deactivated, all end cue points are invisible in the
audio montage.
Time ruler marks
Makes the main time units that are displayed in the ruler magnetic.
Markers
Makes the markers magnetic.
Markers in audio sources
Makes the markers in the original audio files of the clip magnetic if
they are visible.
Time selection edges
Makes the edges of the selected time range magnetic.
Cursor
Makes the edit cursor magnetic.
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Selecting Clips
You can edit multiple selected clips at once.
•
To select a clip, click in the bottom clip area. Selected clips are
displayed in a different color.
•
To select multiple clips, [Ctrl]/[Command]-click in the bottom clip
areas.
•
To select a range of clips, [Shift]-click them.
•
To select several adjacent clips, double-click the upper area of a
clip, and after the second click, drag to select the adjacent clips.
•
To select several clips on several tracks with a selection rectangle,
hold down [Ctrl]/[Command]-[Shift], and drag the rectangle.
•
To choose between several clip selection options, in the Clips
window, open the Select menu, or right-click the top clip area, and
select from the menu.
Selection Ranges in the Audio Montage Workspace
A selection range is a selected area on a track. The selection range can
be entirely or partially within a clip or in an empty section of the track.
There are several uses for selection ranges:
•
Edit clips by cutting or erasing the selection, or trimming the clip to
contain only the selection.
•
Create a new clip by dragging the selection range to another track.
•
Open a montage window with the selection range from the source
audio file by dragging the selection range to the Audio Files
workspace.
•
Play back only the selection range, either the whole audio montage
or only the clip with the intersecting clip part .
•
Loop the playback within the selection by activating the loop and
selecting the Loop mode on the transport bar.
Creating and Editing Selection Ranges in the Audio Montage Workspace
You can resize, create, move, and remove selection ranges.
•
To create a selection range in an empty area on a track, click and
drag with the mouse. The start and end position and the length of
the range are displayed in the info line.
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•
To create a selection range within a clip, click and drag with the
mouse in the upper clip area. The start and end position and the
length of the range are displayed in the info line.
•
To create a selection range of the area between two markers,
double-click between the markers.
•
To create a selection range from a region marker pair, press [Shift],
and double-click the start or end marker. In the Markers window,
you can also double-click the Length field of a region marker.
•
To create a selection range from a CD track, in the CD window,
double-click the number to the left of the corresponding track.
•
To create a selection range from a clip, in the Clips window,
[Alt]/[Option]-click the number to the left of the corresponding clip.
To zoom in on the selected clip, double-click the number to the left
of the clip.
•
To resize a selection range, [Shift]-click and drag left or right, or
click and drag the edges of the selection range.
•
To move a selection range while keeping its length, press
[Ctrl]/[Command] and [Shift], and drag the selection range to the
left or right.
•
To remove a selection range, click elsewhere in the audio montage,
or press [ESC].
Clip Context Menus
Many editing functions for clips can be accessed via the clip context
menus. Depending on where you right-click the clip, different context
menus are available.
1)
Fade-in section: Opens the Fade-in menu where you can edit the
fade-in.
2)
Bottom part of a clip: Opens the Focused clip menu where you
can edit the focused clip.
3)
Upper part of a clip: Opens the Clip selection menu where you
can select certain areas of a clip, lock a clip, etc.
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4)
Sustain section: Opens the Envelope menu where you can edit
the envelope.
5)
Clip name: Opens the Effects menu where you can add effects to
the clip.
6)
Fade-out section: Opens the Fade-out menu where you can edit
the fade-out.
Clip Editing
All currently used clips are displayed in the Clips window in the Audio
Montage workspace. In this window, you can edit and rearrange clips
and drag them in the audio montage.
The currently focused clip is highlighted in bold in the clips list.
RELATED LINKS:
“Clips Window” on page 267
Clips Window
This window contains a list of the clips that are placed in the currently
active audio montage together with additional information about the
clips.
In the Audio Montage workspace, select Workspace > Specific tool
windows > Clips.
Clip List
In the columns of the clip list, you can edit the following settings for each
clip:
•
Name
•
Track number
•
Pre-gap
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•
Start and end time
•
Length
•
Gain
•
Comment
You can also mute and lock clips, search for clip names, and play back
a clip with or without pre-gap. The playback buttons work in the
following way:
Playback from start with a pre-roll.
-[Alt]/[Option]
Playback from start with a long pre-roll.
Playback from start.
The blue Fx icon indicates that a clip has one or more plug-ins.
Double-clicking the Fx icon activates the Effects window.
•
To zoom in on the clip, click the name of the clip.
•
To select the time range corresponding to the clip,
[Alt]/[Option]-click the number to the left of the clip name.
•
To perform both of the previous functions, double-click the number
to the left of the clip name.
Select Menu
Select all clips
Selects all clips in the audio montage.
Select clips on focused track
Selects all clips that are included in the focused track.
Select clips inside selected time range
Selects all clips that are fully encompassed in the selected time
range on all tracks.
Select clips located before the cursor on the focused track
Selects all clips that have their end point left of the cursor on the
focused track.
Select clips located before the cursor on all tracks
Selects all clips that have their end point left of the cursor on all
tracks.
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Select clips located after the cursor on the focused track
Selects all clips that start to the right of the cursor on the focused
track.
Select clips located after the cursor on all tracks
Selects all clips that start to the right of the cursor on all tracks.
Inverse selection
Deselects all selected clips and selects all other clips.
Deselect all clips
Deselects all selected clips.
Functions Menu
Create super clip from selected clips
Replaces the selected clips with a super clip that refers to a
sub-montage.
Export clip list as text
Opens a plain text version of the clip list in the default text editor.
Batch clip renaming
Opens the Batch renaming dialog in which you can
batch-rename any number of clips.
Use audio file name for selected audio clips
Gives each clip the name of the audio file to which it refers.
Update BWF time stamps (selected clips)
Updates the time stamp of each audio file that is referenced by a
selected clip to reflect the clip position in the audio montage.
The file header of a WAV audio file may contain a time stamp in the
Broadcast Wave Format. This time stamp makes it possible to
insert audio at precise positions in different applications. The audio
files are marked as modified and must be saved.
Move selected clips to their related BWF time stamp
Moves the selected clips to the positions that are contained in their
source audio files, provided the audio files contain a time stamp.
Align clips
Opens the Align clips dialog which lets you align all selected clips
on the focused track relatively to one another.
Resize selected clips to match the focused clip
Uses the length of the focused clip as reference to change the
length of all selected clips.
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Mute/Unmute selected clips
Mutes/unmutes all selected clips.
Lock/Unlock selected clips
Locks the clip to prevent that it is edited by accident.
Lock/Unlock moving and resizing
Locks the position and size of a clip. Other editing options are still
possible.
Show/Hide source’s ruler and markers
Changes the visibility of the ruler and the marker display of the
source audio files for all selected clips.
Options Menu
Only show clips externally selected
If this option is activated, only clips that are selected in the
montage window are displayed. This is useful to display only the
clips that belong to a given group (Groups window) or to a given
audio file (File Browser window).
Show audio/picture clips
Shows the activated clip type.
Show global pre-gaps
Displays the length of the gap between the start of a clip and the
end of the previous clip on any track in the Pre-gap column. If the
clips overlap, the time is displayed in red.
Show pre-gaps by track
Displays the length of the gap between the start of a clip and the
end of the previous clip on the same track. If the clips overlap, the
time is displayed in red.
Zoom the clip when selected
If this option is activated when you select a clip in the list, the clip
is displayed to fill the space in the track area in the most efficient
way.
Make clip entirely visible when selected
If this option is activated when you select a clip in the list, the track
area is scrolled and/or zoomed to display the whole clip.
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Filtering Clip Names
The search field allows you to filter the clips list for names.
You can search for text in the Name and Comment columns. The
Comment column is only searched if it is the sorted column. Otherwise,
the name column is searched. The Select All function only selects the
filtered items.
•
In the Clips window toolbar, click in the search field, and enter
some letters of the clip that you are searching.
•
To switch the focus from the search field to the clips list, press the
arrow down key.
•
To switch the focus from the clips list to the search field, press
[Ctrl]/[Command]-[F].
Focused Clip Window
This window allows you to edit the focused clips using various tools. For
example, you can edit the cue points, envelope curves, fade-in/fade-out,
and colors of clips.
In the Audio Montage, select Workspace > Specific tool window >
Focused Clip.
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Edit
Edit plug-ins
Opens the plug-ins used by the focused clip.
Edit audio/Edit sub-montage
Opens the source file of the clip in the related workspace.
Zoom
Adjusts the view to display mainly the focused clip.
Play focused clip
Plays the focused clip from start to end.
Play focused clip with pre-roll
Plays the focused clip with a pre-roll. The amount of pre-roll is
defined in the transport bar.
Play selection range inside clip
Plays the selection in the focused clip.
Split at cursor position
Splits the focused clip into two new clips, at the edit cursor or
playback cursor position.
Create clip from selection
Creates a clip from the selection range.
Cut to clipboard
Cuts the focused clip to the clipboard.
Copy to clipboard
Copies the focused clip to the clipboard.
Erase part of clip inside selection range
Removes the intersection between the clip and the selected time
range.
Erase selection and patch up
Removes the selection in a focused clip. If a second clip is created,
it is crossfaded with the original clip.
Trim to selection
Resizes the selected part of the clip at both boundaries.
Delete clip
Deletes the focused clip.
Auto Split
Opens the Auto Split dialog where you can select how to split
clips.
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Repeat clip
Opens the Repeat Clip dialog where you can select how clips
should be repeated.
Clone and substitute
Creates a copy of the source audio file and makes the clip
reference this new file. As a result, you can modify the new source
file without affecting other clips of the original audio file. The
cloned audio file is stored in the implicit folder, that is specified in
the Audio Montage Preferences.
Replace audio file
Allows the clip to refer to another audio file while all clip settings
are retained. The audio file must be at least as long as the end
position of the clip. You cannot substitute a stereo file with a mono
file or vice versa. Clicking the arrow icon opens a list of recently
used folders.
Time stretch to cursor
Opens the Time Stretching dialog that allows you to time stretch
the clip so that it ends at the audio montage edit cursor position.
When this function is used, a clone of the original audio file is
created, containing the audio range used in the clip. The process
is applied to the clone, and the clip references to this file instead.
Neither the original audio file nor other clips that refer to the same
audio file are affected. The cloned audio file is stored in the implicit
folder, that is specified in the Audio montage preferences.
Pitch shifting
Opens the Pitch Shift dialog, where you can change the pitch of
the clip. When this function is used, a clone of the original audio
file is created, that contains the audio range used in the clip. The
Process is applied to the clone, and the clip references to this file
instead. Neither the original audio file nor other clips that refer to
the same audio file are affected. The cloned audio file is stored in
the implicit folder, that is specified in the Audio montage
preferences.
Save
Opens the Save Clip as dialog where you can select a file
location. Clips get the “.clip” extension and can be reused in any
audio montage.
Shortcuts
Opens the Customize commands where you can define
shortcuts for all the commands that are found in the Focused clip
window.
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Options
Lock editing
Locks the clip to prevent accidental editing.
Lock moving and resizing
Locks the position and size of a clip. Other editing options are still
possible.
Mute
Mutes the clip.
Invert phase
Inverts the phase of the clip. An inverted phase is indicated by an
icon in the wave window.
Source’s ruler and markers
Displays the markers in the source audio file of the clip in the clip,
together with the ruler.
Cue Points
Cue point - Set at cursor
Sets the cue point at a fixed position from the start of the clip.
Cue point - Set at default pre-gap position
Sets the cue point before the start of the clip, at a distance
governed by the default pre-gap position.
Cue point - Follows fade-in end point
Sets the cue point to be the fade-in end point.
Cue point - Follows fade-out start point
Sets the cue point to be the fade-out start point.
End cue point - Custom offset
Sets the end cue point at a custom position from the end of the
clip. This option allows you to edit the gap individually for each clip.
If this option is deactivated, the default gap defined in the Audio
Montage Preferences is used.
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Envelope
The following options are available for all envelope types:
Envelope type menu
Sets the type of envelope. Depending on the selected type,
different options are available.
The following options are available, when selecting Volume/Fades or
Pan:
Reset all
Resets the envelope to its neutral form.
Delete selected points
Deletes the selected envelope points.
Deselect
Resets the selection status of all envelope points.
Copy shape
Copies the envelope shape into a dedicated clipboard while
excluding any fade part.
Paste shape
Replaces the envelope shape while excluding any fade part.
Presets menu
Lets you save and restore envelope presets.
Smoothing
Rounds the resulting envelope curve angles. This produces
smoother, more natural envelope curves.
Lock
Hides the envelope curve points. This way, they cannot be edited with
the mouse. However, you can drag the whole curve up or down.
The following options are only available, when selecting
Volume/Fades:
Convert to stereo envelope
Creates independent envelopes for the left and right channels.
Reset level to 0 dB
Replaces the segments between the fade-in and fade-out points
to a single neutral segment.
Reset selected points to 0 dB
Resets the selected points to their default level.
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Raise selection with envelope
Adds volume envelope points and draws a curve to raise the audio
level with 20 ms fall and rise times. You can drag the created
segment up and down to adjust the level.
Mute selection with envelope
Adds volume envelope points and draws a curve to mute the
selection between the clip and the selected time range by lowering
the volume to zero with default 10 ms fall and rise times.
Duck according to other track
Opens the Ducking options dialog. This allows you to create
ducking effects between clips on two adjacent tracks while having
the volume of one track lowered whenever there are clips on the
other track.
Level/fade envelope after effects
Places the level/fade envelope after the clip effect section. This is
useful when using dynamic processors that alter the level of the clip.
The following options are only available when selecting Pan:
Pan menu
Lets you select a pan mode.
Fade-in/Fade-out
Zoom
Adjusts the view to display mainly the fade-in/fade-out part of the
focused clip.
Copy
Copies the fade-in/fade-out shape to the clipboard.
Paste
Replaces the fade-in/fade-out shape and duration with the
clipboard contents.
Paste shape only
Replaces the fade-in/fade-out shape with the clipboard contents.
The original length is preserved.
Paste to selected clips
Replaces the fade-in/fade-out shape and duration of the selected
clips with the clipboard contents.
Linear
Changes level linearly.
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Sinus (*)
Changes level according to a sine curve. When used in a crossfade,
the loudness (RMS) remains constant during the transition.
Square-root (*)
Changes level according to the square-root curve. When used in a
crossfade, the loudness (RMS) remains constant during the transition.
Sinusoid
Changes level according to the sine curve.
Logarithmic
Changes level logarithmically.
Exponential
Changes level exponentially.
Exponential+
Changes level strongly exponentialy.
Crossfade compensation menu
Lets you select the crossfade compensation.
Set time
Sets the clip fade-in/fade-out time to the specified value.
Presets menu
Lets you save and restore fade presets.
Apply default
Replaces the current fade-in/fade-out with the default setting
saved from the Presets menu.
Smoothing
Rounds the resulting envelope curve angles. This produces
smoother, more natural envelope curves.
Automatic changes
If this option is activated, the fade-in/fade-out is not changed
automatically, for example, by automatic crossfading of overlapping
clips. This is useful if you have set a fade that you do not want to be
altered, even though you may want to overlap the clip with another clip.
This option is individual for each clip, as opposed to Mode > No
automatic crossfading which is global.
Colors
On this panel, you apply the custom colors that you have set in the
Audio Montage Colors dialog (Options > Colors).
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Align Clips Dialog
This dialog allows you to align clips at specific intervals, with an optional
space between them. You must select at least two clips to use this
function.
In the Audio Montage workspace, in the Clips window, select
Functions > Align clips.
NOTE
This tool ignores audio montage groups. This means that a clip can be
moved independently from the group to which it belongs.
Place clips one after the other, using end cue points as reference
Positions the selected clips successively on the focused track.
Each clip is aligned to the end cue point of the preceding clip.
Place clips one after the other, with the gap below
Positions the selected clips successively on the focused track. In
the time field, specify the time between the end of a clip and the
start of the next clip.
Place clips one after the other, crossfading them over the time
specified below
Crossfades all clips successively. In the time field, specify the
crossfade time.
Place every
Lets each clip start at the specified interval from the start of the
preceding clip. In this case, the clips can overlap each other. In the
time field, specify the interval between the start of a clip and the
start of the next one.
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Treat overlapping clips on a track as one unit
All overlapping or adjacent clips on a track are treated as one unit.
This means that all clips are shifted with the same offset.
Treat overlapping clips as one unit, regardless of their tracks
All overlapping or adjacent clips on a track are treated as one unit,
even if they are on different tracks. This means that all clips are
shifted with the same offset.
Only selected clips
If this option is activated, only selected clips are moved. For
example, if a group of overlapping clips has any clip which is not
selected, the whole group is not moved.
Only clips of focused track
If this option is activated, only clips of the focused track are moved.
For example, if a group of overlapping clips has any clip which is
not part of the focused track, the whole group is not moved.
Re-ordering Clips in the Audio Montage By Dragging
In the Clips window, you can re-order clips by dragging them to another
position in the list.
PROCEDURE
1.
In the Audio Montage workspace, open the Clips window.
2.
In the clip list, drag a clip to another position in the list.
The option Move overlapping clips together is taken into account.
You can move more than one clip at the same time, by selecting multiple
clips and dragging them. If more than one clip is selected, all clips
between the leftmost selected clip and the rightmost selected clips are
moved.
Exporting the Clip List as Text
You can export the clip list as text to various formats. For example, the
list contains the names, source files, tracks, and length of the clips in the
active audio montage.
PROCEDURE
1.
In the Audio Montage workspace, open the Clips window.
2.
In the Clips window, select Functions > Export clip list as text.
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3.
Choose the information that you want to export and the output
format.
4.
Click OK.
RESULT
The clip list opens in the selected output format. When selecting Print,
the Print Preview window opens. The text file is stored in the specified
folder for temporary files.
RELATED LINKS:
“Temporary Files” on page 95
Export Clip List as Text Dialog
This dialog allows you to export the clip list in various file formats, or as
printout. You can decide which information about the clips to include in
the exported file.
In the Audio Montage workspace, in the Clips window, select
Functions > Export clip list as text.
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About Moving and Crossfading Clips
You can let clips overlap other clips, move clips to another location, and
create crossfades between clips.The Options menu in the Audio
Montage workspace provides several options for defining the behavior
when inserting, moving, and crossfading clips.
Moving Clips
NOTE
You cannot move mono clips to stereo tracks and vice versa.
PROCEDURE
1.
Select the clips that you want to move.
2.
Click the clip area, and move the clips in any direction.
While dragging, the info line displays the current start position of the clip
you are dragging.
Moving Clips with Auto-Grouping
You can specify the behavior of clips when moving them horizontally.
There are four different options that affect the result when moving clips.
The options can be selected in the Audio Montage workspace on the
Options menu.
RELATED LINKS:
“Options for Moving and Crossfading Clips” on page 282
Optimized Crossfades When Snapping to Other Clips
If you line up clips so that one clip ends exactly where the next one
starts, for example, by using Magnetic bounds, the waveforms at the
intersection point probably do not match. To remedy a possible abrupt
jump in level, that may result in pops and clicks, you can optimize the
crossfade when snapping to other clips.
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On the Options menu, activate Snap to waveform when crossfading.
When this option is activated and you move a clip so that its start snaps
to the end of another clip, the following happens:
•
WaveLab scans the waveforms of the clips within a short range to
find the position where the waveforms of the two clips match best.
This is the same automatic phase matching as in the Zoom
window. You can specify how far you want the program to scan
into the clips, by selecting a Search range on the menu of the
Zoom window.
•
The position of the clip that you moved is adjusted slightly to
achieve the best possible match between the waveforms. This
creates a short crossfade.
NOTE
This function only applies when moving from right to left, for example,
when you let the start of the moved clip snap to the end of the clip on
the left.
About Overlapping Clips
You can move clips so that they overlap each other.
Note the following:
•
The tracks in the audio montage are polyphonic, which means that
each track can play back several overlapping clips at the same
time. Overlapping clips are transparent, allowing you to see the
underlying clips and their waveforms.
•
To select an overlapped clip, click the bottom clip area of the
crossfade area.
•
There are crossfading options that automatically adjust the volume
envelope curves when you overlap clips.
Options for Moving and Crossfading Clips
The Options menu provides you with options that help you when moving
and crossfading clips. You can choose how you want clips to be
handled when they are moved, decide whether automatic fades are
created or not, and select the behavior of clips when they are moved.
In the Audio Montage workspace, select Options.
Auto-shift clips on the right (on same track)
Moves all clips that are located on the right of the edited clip to the
right. This option is taken into account when moving or resizing clips,
and when inserting or pasting more than one clip at the same time.
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Auto-shift clips on the right (on all tracks)
Moves all clips that are located on the right of the edited clip to the
right. This option is taken into account when moving or resizing
clips, and when inserting or pasting more than one clip at the same
time.
Move overlapping clips together (on same track)
If this option is activated and you move a clip horizontally, all
overlapping clips or clips with adjacent clip edges on the same
track are also moved.
Move overlapping clips together (on all tracks)
If this option is activated and you move a clip horizontally, all
vertically overlapping clips in the audio montage are moved.
Create default fades in new clips
If this option is activated, all new clips get the default fade-in and
fade-out shape and length. For clips that are created by splitting a
clip, only the default fade time is used.
Lock fade times when adjusting clip edges
If this option is activated, the defined fade-in and fade-out lengths
are locked to the clip start or end, even if you adjust the clip edges.
This means that if you resize a clip by dragging its edge, the
corresponding fade junction point moves accordingly, while
maintaining the fade length.
No automatic crossfading
If this option is activated, no automatic crossfading is performed
when clips overlap.
Automatic crossfading -- free overlaps
If this option is activated, automatic crossfades are created when
a clip overlaps the edge of another clip on the same track. The
length of the overlap determines the length of the crossfade.
Automatic crossfading -- fade-in constrains overlaps
If this option is activated, the fade-in length of a clip constrains the
maximum possible overlap, and thus the crossfade time. If the clip
on the right side (the clip with the fade-in in the overlap) is moved
to the left, past the set overlap time, the other clip is progressively
resized. Moving the other clip to the right (into the clip that contains
the fade-in in the overlap) produces the same result.
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Automatic crossfading -- fade-out constrains overlaps
If this option is activated, the fade-out length of a clip constrains
the maximum possible overlap, and thus the crossfade time. If the
clip on the left side (the clip with the fade-out in the overlap) is
moved to the right, past the set overlap time, the other clip is
progressively resized. Moving the other clip to the left (into the clip
that contains the fade-out in the overlap) produces the same
result.
Snap to waveform when crossfading
If this option is activated and you create a crossfade by dragging
a clip towards another one located at its left side, the position of
the moved clip is automatically adjusted to obtain a good
correspondence between the clip waveforms. This correlation
process provides a crossfade that is aligned in phase and thus
sounds correct.
Auto-create crossfade and snap to waveform when snapping to left
clip
If this option is activated and you move a clip to let its start snap to
the end of another clip to its left, the clip is slightly moved to the
left to create a short crossfade that is based on an optimal
correlation between the two waveforms. This correlation process
provides a crossfade that is aligned in phase and thus sounds
correct.
Auto-create a crossfade when snapping to left clip
If this option is activated and you move a clip to let its start snap to
the end of another clip to its left, the clip is slightly moved to the
left to create a crossfade.
The length of the crossfade is the fade-in length of the clip on the
right. If the fade-in length is zero, the fade-out length of the left clip
is used as a basis instead. If that length is also zero, the Create
crossfade and snap to waveform when snapping to left clip
function is performed if activated.
Allow automatic crossfading with clips on focused track
If this option is activated, crossfades are automatically created
when you move a clip on any track so that it overlaps another clip
that is located on the focused track.
Allow multiple automatic crossfades
If this option is activated, crossfades are automatically created for
all moved clips that overlap other clips on their track. If deactivated,
a crossfade is only created for the clip that you drag, even if several
clips are moved simultaneously due to being selected.
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Snap to magnetic items
If this option is activated, moved elements such as clip edges, time
selection edges, cursor, and markers snap to the magnetic items
that are activated in the Magnetic bounds submenu.
Magnetic bounds
From this submenu, select which items should be magnetic. The
following items can be selected:
•
Start of montage
•
Clip start
•
Clip end
•
Clip cue point
•
Time ruler marks
•
Markers
•
Markers in audio sources
•
Time selection edges
•
Cursor
Global envelope lock
If this option is activated, all envelopes are locked and cannot be
edited with the mouse. The envelopes and their points are still
displayed but cannot be selected or edited.
Duplicating Clips
NOTE
You cannot copy mono clips to stereo tracks and vice versa.
PROCEDURE
1.
In the Audio Montage workspace, select one or more clips.
2.
Click the upper clip area and drag the clips in any direction.
While you are dragging the clips, a dotted line indicates where the first
of the copied clips will be placed. The position is also indicated on the
info line.
If you dragged a single clip, a pop-up menu opens. Select the option that
you want to apply to the duplicate of the clip. If you dragged more than
one clip, the duplicates are inserted, taking the auto-grouping settings
into account.
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Duplicating with Auto-Grouping
If you duplicate more than one clip, two of the auto-grouping settings on
the Options menu affect the result.
•
If Auto-shift clips on the right (on same track) is activated when
you duplicate clips, all clips on the destination track to the right of
the new copy are moved to the right.
•
If Auto-shift clips on the right (on all tracks) is activated when
you duplicate clips, all clips to the right of the new copy in the
whole audio montage are moved to the right.
Repeating Clips
You can make a number of copies of a clip and lay them out at various
intervals on the current track of your audio montage.
NOTE
The repeating clip function does not create overlapping clips.
PROCEDURE
1.
If you do not know how many copies you need, but know roughly
where you want to position the last clip in the row, click this
position to place the edit cursor.
2.
Right-click the lower area of a clip, and select Repeat clip.
3.
In the Repeat clip dialog, select one of the following options:
•
Select Count, and specify the number of copies.
•
Select Repeat until cursor.
4.
Select one of the Placement options.
5.
Click OK.
RESULT
The copies are created. If you chose the Repeat until cursor option, the
last clip starts on the left of the audio montage cursor.
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Repeat Clip Dialog
This dialog allows you to specify the number of clones to produce and
control their placement, alignment, and spacing.
In the Audio Montage workspace, in the Focused Clip window, on the
Edit panel, select Repeat clip.
Number of clones - Count
Creates the specified number of clips.
Number of clones - Repeat until cursor
Creates as many clips as possible until the last clip crosses the
edit cursor.
Placement - Place clips one after the other
Places the clips one after the other on the track.
Placement - Use end cue points as reference
Places the selected clips one after the other on the the focused
track. Each clip is aligned with the end cue point of the preceding
clip.
Placement - Gap between clips
Sets the gap duration between clips.
Placement - Place every
Places the copied clips in the time interval that you set in the field
below. This is the interval between two succeeding clip starts.
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Placement - Align with clips of focused track
Aligns the copied clips with the starting position of the clips on the
focused track, including any offset value that you can set in the
Offset field.
Placement - Insert copies at markers
Aligns the copied clips with certain markers. Specify these
markers on the menus below.
Dragging Selection to Create New Clips
If you have made a selection range in a clip, you can copy this range to
create a new clip.
PROCEDURE
1.
In the Audio Montage workspace, create a selection range.
If the selection range covers more than one clip, only the section that is
part of the focused clip is copied.
2.
Click the upper clip area and drag the selection to the new
position.
When you are dragging, the position of the pointer is displayed on the
info line. Magnetic bounds apply.
3.
Select one of the insert options.
NOTE
Envelopes and effects are not included when you copy selection ranges.
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Clip Resizing
In this context, resizing usually means moving the start and end points
of a clip so that more or less of the original audio file is revealed. You
can resize a clip while keeping the audio source static relative to the time
line of the audio montage, or relative to the resized edge of the clip.
Resize Clips With a Static Audio Source
To resize clips, click the left or right edge of the clip and move the start
or end point to the left or to the right.
The start and end positions and the length of the clip are displayed on
the info line while you are dragging. You cannot drag the edge of a clip
past the start or end point of the audio file to which it refers.
When you drag the right edge of a clip, the auto-grouping settings are
taken into account. This means that if Auto-shift clips on the right (on
same track) is activated, all the following clips on the track are moved
when you resize the clip. If Auto-shift clips on the right (on all tracks)
is activated, this applies to clips on all tracks in the audio montage.
If you press [Alt]/[Option], all selected clips are resized by the same value.
Resize Clips With a Tied Audio Source
When you resize a clip using this method, the audio source is tied to the
edge that you are moving. This means that the audio is scrolled at the
other edge of the clip. You [Ctrl]/[Command]-click the left or right edge
of the clip and move the start or end point to the left or to the right
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The start and end positions and the length of the clip are displayed on
the info line while you are dragging. Magnetic bounds and the
auto-grouping options apply.
If you press [Alt]/[Option]-[Ctrl]/[Command] when resizing, all selected
clips are resized by the same value.
Resizing Clips by Trimming
You can use trimming to remove unnecessary material at the beginning
and end of a clip.
PROCEDURE
1.
In the Audio Montage workspace, select a range within a clip while
encompassing the audio material that you want to keep in the clip.
2.
Right-click the selection range, and select Trim to selection.
RESULT
The clip is resized so that is contains only the selected audio.
Sliding the Audio in a Clip
You can adjust the position in the audio file to which the clip refers by
sliding the audio within the clip, without resizing the clip.
PROCEDURE
1.
In the Audio Montage workspace, position the mouse cursor over
the lower area of the clip.
2.
Press [Ctrl]/[Command]-[Alt]/[Option], and drag left or right to
slide the audio source.
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Moving a Clip With the Audio Source Fixed
When you have resized the clip to only display a section of the audio
source, you can move the clip while the audio source remains fixed in
position.
PROCEDURE
1.
In the Audio Montage workspace, position the mouse cursor over
the lower area of the clip.
2.
Press [Shift]-[Alt]/[Option], and drag left or right to move the clip.
This reveals other sections of the underlying audio source.
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Splitting a Clip
You can split a clip in two.
PREREQUISITE
Decide whether you want to automatically create crossfades between
the left and right clip by activating/deactivating Options > Create
default fades in new clips.
PROCEDURE
1.
In the Audio Montage workspace, click the position where you
want to split the clip.
2.
Position the mouse cursor on the edit cursor position in the top clip
area.
The cursor takes on the shape of a pair of scissors.
3.
Double-click.
RESULT
The clip is split in two. The two clips have the same name and settings.
Envelopes and fades are converted so that the two clips play back as if
they were still one clip.
To split clips on all track, select Edit > All tracks > Split at cursor
position.
Erase Selections of a Clip
You can erase a selection range within a clip.
Erase Part of Clip Inside Selection Range
If you right-click the lower area of a selection, and select Erase part of
clip inside selection range, the selected range is removed. This results
in a gap between two clips.
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If Snap to waveform when crossfading or Auto-create a crossfade
when snapping to left clip are activated on the Options menu, the
position of the right clip is adjusted for the best possible phase match
between the clips.
The auto-grouping settings are taken into account.
Erase Selection and Patch Up
If you right-click the lower area of a selection, and select Erase
selection and patch up, the selected range is removed, and the right
section of the clip is moved to the left to fill the gap.
If any of the automatic crossfading modes or the option Create default
fades in new clips are activated on the Options menu, a default
crossfade is created between the resulting two clips, to create a clean
transition.
Erasing a Selected Time Range of a Clip
PROCEDURE
1.
In the Audio Montage workspace, select a range.
2.
Right-click the selection in the lower part of the clip, and choose
one of the following options:
•
Erase part of clip inside selection range
•
Erase selection and patch up
Deleting Clips
There are two principal ways to delete a clip:
•
Right-click a clip, and select Delete.
•
Select a clip, and press [Delete]. Make sure that there is no
selection range before deleting. Otherwise the range is deleted
instead of the clip. To ensure that there is no selection range, press
[ESC].
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Locking Clips
You can lock clips to prevent them from being accidentally moved,
edited, or deleted.
PROCEDURE
1.
In the montage window, select a clip.
2.
Do one of the following:
•
In the Focused clip window, select the Options panel, and
activate Lock editing or Lock moving and resizing.
•
In the montage window, right-click the upper half of a clip, and
activate Lock/Unlock selected clips or Lock/Unlock moving
and resizing.
•
In the Clips window, select Functions, and activate Lock/Unlock
selected clips or Lock/Unlock moving and resizing.
RESULT
A lock symbol indicates that a clip is locked.
Unlocking Clips
Use one of the following ways to unlock a locked clip:
•
Click the locked clip, and confirm the dialog.
•
Open the Focused clip window, and on the Options panel,
deactivate Lock editing or Lock moving and resizing.
About Clips and Cue Points
A cue point is a defined position marker that belongs to a clip. It may be
positioned within or outside the clip. Cue points are displayed as dotted
vertical lines.
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When you move a clip, its cue point is magnetic to any edges, markers,
or positions that are activated on the Magnetic bounds menu. There are
several uses for this:
•
To set the cue point at a relevant position in the audio, and use it
to align the clip with other clips, etc.
•
To set the cue point before the start of a clip to position clips in a
row with pre-defined spaces.
•
To set the cue point at the fade-in or fade-out point of a clip,
making it easy to maintain defined fade lengths when crossfading.
Making the cue points magnetic makes it easy to select them.
NOTE
Each clip can only have one cue point. If you select another cue point
insert option, the cue point is moved to a new position.
Using Cue Points
You can add one cue point for each clip.
PROCEDURE
1.
In the Audio Montage workspace, click the clip position where you
want to set a cue point.
2.
Open the Focused clip window, and on the Cue points panel,
select one of the following options:
3.
•
Set at cursor
•
Set at default pregap position
Decide if you want to activate the following options:
•
Follows fade-in end point
•
Follows fade-out start point
•
End cue point
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Clip Editing
About Nudging
The audio montage window has a special function for making fine
adjustments, which is called nudging. The Nudge function is not restricted to
the position of clips and can be applied to a number of objects and properties.
Each time that you use the nudge function, the selected element is
nudged by a certain amount. By holding down user-specified modifier
keys, you can nudge the element by smaller or larger amounts.
Generally, the magnetic bounds are not used when nudging. That is, the
nudged elements do not snap to other positions but can be moved freely.
Nudging
PROCEDURE
1.
In the Audio Montage, select the objects that you want to nudge.
For example, if you want to adjust the position of a clip or any property of
a clip, such as left/right edge, fade-in/fade-out length, etc., select the
clip.
2.
Select Edit > Nudge, and activate the element that you want to
nudge.
3.
Select Edit > Nudge, and select one of the Nudge - or Nudge +
options, use the nudge icons on the transport bar, or the keyboard
shortcuts.
By holding down the user specified modifier keys, you can nudge the
element by smaller or larger amounts.
Setting the Default Nudge Impulse
You can define the nudge value that is used to adjust the elements. The
large, small, and micro impulses are relative to the default value.
PROCEDURE
1.
In the Audio Montage workspace, select Options > Audio
montage preferences.
2.
On the All Audio Montage tab, in the Basic amplitudes for
nudging section, specify a default time for the nudge impulse in
the Time field.
3.
In the Gain field, specify the default impulse gain for the nudging
volume.
4.
Click OK.
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Elements That Can Be Nudged
The nudge menu lists the elements and properties that can be nudged.
In the Audio Montage workspace, select Edit > Nudge.
Nudge - x10
Nudges the target to the left or down, with 10 times the amplitude
that is defined in the Audio montage preferences.
Nudge + x10
Nudges the target to the right or up, with 10 times the amplitude
that is defined in the Audio montage preferences.
Nudge Nudges the target to the left or down, with the amplitude that is
defined in the Audio montage preferences.
Nudge +
Nudges the target to the right or up, with the amplitude that is
defined in the Audio montage preferences.
Nudge - /10
Nudges the target to the left or down, with 10 times less the
amplitude that is defined in the Audio montage preferences.
Nudge+ /10
Nudges the target to the right or up, with 10 times less the
amplitude that is defined in the Audio montage preferences.
Nudge - /100
Nudges the target to the left or down, with 100 times less the
amplitude that is defined in the Audio montage preferences.
Nudge +/100
Nudges the target to the right or up, with 100 times less the
amplitude that is defined in the Audio montage preferences.
Auto-select item
Attempts to automatically select what should be nudged,
depending on your last action. For example, if your last action was
to select or move a clip, the Clip position option is automatically
selected in the Nudge submenu. In most cases, this allows you to
use the nudge feature without having to manually select nudge
elements on the submenu.
Clip position
Moves all selected clips.
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Clip Editing
Clip’s left/right edge
Resizes the focused clip. This function is similar to resizing with a
static audio source.
Clip’s fade-in/fade-out
Moves the fade-in/fade-out junction points of the focused clip. If
the envelope is a stereo envelope, both sides are adjusted.
Clip’s crossfade
Narrows or widens the crossfade zone by moving the junction
points of both clips in the crossfade. This nudging only functions if
you select the second clip (the one to the right) in a crossfade pair.
Edit cursor
Moves the edit cursor.
Left edge of selected time range
Moves the left edge of a selection range.
Right edge of selected time range
Moves the right edge of a selection range.
Selected marker
Moves the selected audio montage marker. To select a marker,
click it in the area above the ruler.
Volume of focused clip
Adjusts the volume of the focused clip step by step according to
the Gain setting in the Audio Montage Preferences.
Volume of all selected clips
Adjusts the volume of all selected clips step by step according to
the Gain setting in the Audio Montage Preferences.
Pan of focused clip
Adjusts the pan of the focused clip. Nudge + pans to the left and
Nudge – to the right.
Pan of selected clips
Adjusts the pan of all selected clips. Nudge + pans to the left and
Nudge – to the right.
Surround Pan of focused clip
Adjusts the Pan of the focused clip. Nudge + pans to the left and
Nudge – to the right.
Surround Pan of all selected clips
Adjusts the Pan of all selected clips. Nudge + pans to the left and
Nudge – to the right.
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Audio Montages Within Audio Montages
Audio Montages Within Audio Montages
You can insert external audio montages to an open audio montage or
gather several clips of an audio montage to an internal sub-montage.
This makes it easy to build large audio montages while hiding edit
complexities inside other audio montages.
This also increases the performance of your system by providing options
to freeze edits and audio effects in cached audio files.
An example: You have an album that is composed of 15 songs. Each
song requires complex edits. In this case you can create 15 super clips,
of which each one represents a song. The main audio montage will be
composed of these super clips, while each song can have its own audio
montage.
Moreover, because super clips can represent external audio montages
with different sample rates, you could provide your songs in
high-resolution audio (96k sample rate), and build an audio montage
album in 44.1k for a CD and another album at 96k for a DVD-Audio, for
example.
RELATED LINKS:
“Super Clips” on page 299
Super Clips
A super clip is the representation of another audio montage. It refers to
an audio file that is the rendering of either an internal sub-montage or an
external sub-montage.
A super clip is handled as any other clip that you can split or copy, or to
which you add fades and effects, etc.
You can reopen the super clip to edit the containing tracks and clips,
and then render the changes to update the super clip.
A super clip can either be a mono or a stereo audio montage.
External Sub-Montages
A super clip can refer to an external sub-montage which is an audio
montage in another file. An external sub-montage is independent from
the audio montage in which you insert it.
External sub-montages can be shared between projects and used in
audio montages with a different sample rate. They can be nested to any
depth.
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External sub-montage files can contain other external audio montages
to any depth.
Super clips that refer to external sub-montages are indicated by a yellow
icon.
A super clip that refers to an external sub-montage is also called X-Clip.
NOTE
An external sub-montage is a normal audio montage. The term “external”
is to point out its inclusion in another audio montage.
Internal Sub-Montages
A super clip can refer to an internal sub-montage, which is an audio
montage that is stored in the same file as the audio montage of the super
clip. Such a super clip can be regarded as a folder that contains another
audio montage.
Internal sub-montages are handled within a single audio montage file.
For example, when you have finished editing certain clips of your audio
montage, you can render them as a super clip.
An internal sub-montage cannot contain another internal sub-montage.
However, it can contain super clips that represent external audio
montages.
Super clips that are internal sub-montages are indicated by a blue icon.
A super clip that refers to an internal sub-montage is also called I-Clip.
Creating a Super Clip
You can render clips of an audio montage to a super clip and thereby
create an internal sub-montage or export the clips to an external audio
montage.
PROCEDURE
1.
In the Audio Montage workspace, open the audio montage in
which you want to create a super clip.
2.
Select the clips that you want to render to a super clip in the
montage window or in the Clips window.
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3.
Select one of the following options:
•
Right-click in the upper half of one of the selected clips, and select
Create super clip from selected clips.
•
In the Clips window, select Functions > Create super clip from
selected clips.
4.
In the Super Clip Creation dialog, decide whether to create an
I-Clip (internal sub-montage) or an X-Clip (external sub-montage).
5.
Optional: Enter a name for the super clip.
6.
Click OK.
RESULT
The clips are rendered as a super clip inside the audio montage.
Super Clip Creation Dialog When Creating Super Clips from Selected Clips
In this dialog, you specify how to create super clips for internal and
external sub-montages.
In the Audio Montage workspace, right-click the upper half of one or
several selected clips, and select Create super clip from selected
clips.
Name
Lets you specify the name for the super clip. For X-Clips, the name
is also used as the name of the audio montage.
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Create I-Clip (internal sub-montage)
Creates a new audio montage inside the open audio montage and
inserts a super clip to reference it.
Place I-Clip
When creating a sub-montage from clips that reside on different
tracks, you can specify on which track the super clip is inserted.
Export as external audio montage and create X-Clip (external
sub-montage)
Creates a independent audio montage and a super clip that refers
to this audio montage.
Destination
Lets you select the destination folder of the external sub-montage.
Include track effects
If this option is activated, the track effects are included in the
sub-montage. If you want to keep the super clip on the track,
deactivate this option.
Super Clip Creation Dialog When Inserting External Audio Montages
In this dialog, you can select whether to create X-Clips or I-Clips when
inserting an external audio montage in another audio montage.
In the Audio Montage workspace, right-click the upper half of one or
several selected clips, and select Create super clip from selected
clips.
If the sample rates of the external audio montage and the currently
opened audio montage are the same, the following dialog opens:
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Audio Montages Within Audio Montages
If the sample rates of the external audio montage and the currently
opened audio montage differ, the following dialog opens:
Create X-Clip (external sub-montage)
The super clip refers to the audio montage file.
Make a deep copy and create I-Clip (internal sub-montage)
The audio montage is copied into the other audio montage. The
super clip refers to this independent copy.
Resampling quality
If the sample rate of the external audio montage and the currently
opened audio montage differ, you can use the Crystal Resampler
plug-in to perform a sample rate conversion.
Inserting External Sub-Montages into Audio Montages
You can insert an external sub-montage as a super clip into another
audio montage.
PROCEDURE
1.
In the Audio Montage workspace, open the audio montage in
which you want to insert another audio montage.
2.
Do one of the following:
3.
•
Right-click an empty area of the montage window, select Insert
audio montages > Browse, select the audio montages that you
want to insert, and click Open.
•
Drag the audio montage that you want to insert from the Windows
Explorer/Mac OS Finder or from inside WaveLab onto the
montage window.
In the Super Clip Creation dialog, select whether to create an
X-Clip or an I-Clip, and click OK.
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4.
From the pop-up menu, select how to add and mix the external
sub-montage.
RESULT
The external sub-montage is rendered, and the resulting super clip is
inserted at the edit cursor position.
Editing Super Clips
You can reopen super clips’ sources, edit the clips that they contain,
and apply the changes to update the super clips of the external or
internal audio montages.
The changes in the internal or externale audio montage are applied to
the the parent audio montage when the sub-montages are rendered.
Editing External Sub-Montage of a Super Clip
PROCEDURE
1.
In the montage window, right-click the bottom area of a super clip
of an external sub-montage and select Edit sub-montage, or
double-click at the top area of the super clip.
The external sub-montage opens in another tab.
2.
Edit the external sub-montage, and save the changes.
3.
Decide on how you want to update the audio montage.
4.
•
To apply the changes to all audio montages that refer to the
updated audio montage, select File > Export > Render for
montages using it as a sub-montage.
•
To apply the changes to a single audio montage, go back to the audio
montage that contains the external sub-montage that you have
updated. Select the updated audio montage, and in the Files window,
select Menu > Update rendering of selected audio montage.
Save the audio montage.
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Managing Source Files of Clips
Editing Internal Sub-Montage of a Super Clip
PROCEDURE
1.
In the montage window, right-click the bottom area of a super clip
of an internal sub-montage and select Edit sub-montage, or
double-click at the top area of the super clip.
The internal sub-montage opens in another tab.
2.
Edit the clips of the internal sub-montage, and save the changes.
RESULT
The changes are automatically rendered to update the super clip.
Freezing External Sub-Montages
Freezing external sub-montages renders the external sub-montage to an
audio file while converting the super clips into regular clips.
IMPORTANT
Once a sub-montage has been frozen, it is no longer possible to edit it
as an audio montage.
PROCEDURE
1.
In the Audio Montage workspace, select the external sub-montage
that you want to freeze.
2.
In the Files window, select Menu > Freeze external
sub-montage.
3.
Specify a name and a location, and click Save.
Managing Source Files of Clips
The Files window helps you to manage files that are used in the current
audio montage.
It displays all files that are used by clips in the current audio montage
along with their location, size, and last modification date. In addition, the
following file operations are available:
•
Replace files in the audio montage
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•
Rename files (all internal clip references are updated)
•
Open files that are used in the audio montage in the Audio Files
workspace
•
Export file names as text
Files Window
This window helps you to manage files that are used in the current audio
montage, including internal and external montages.
In the Audio Montage workspace, select Workspace > Specific tool
windows > Files.
Files List
The files list shows the names, dates, sizes, and paths of the files that
are used in the current audio montage. The location and type of the files
determine how paths are displayed:
•
If the path is relative to the file audio montage location, the path is
displayed in green.
•
If the path is on the same partition as the audio montage, for
example in a subfolder, the path is displayed in blue.
•
If the path is on another partition, the path is displayed in red.
•
Internal sub-montages have no path.
Menu
Update rendering of selected audio montage
Renders the focused audio montage to a new audio file. This is
necessary, to forward the changes that you have made in the
selected sub-montage to the open audio montage.
Update outdated renderings
Renders all audio montages that have been modified since their
rendered audio file was created.
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Managing Source Files of Clips
Exchange file
Replaces the selected file with another one.
Freeze external sub-montage
Renders the external sub-montage to an audio file while converting
the super clips into regular clips.
Rename file
Lets you change the file name. The internal references of the audio
montage are updated accordingly.
Export file names as text
Creates a text file that lists all files that are used in the active audio
montage.
Select clips of selected file
Selects all clips that make reference to the selected file.
Edit audio
Opens the selected files in the Audio Files workspace. If the
selected files are sub-montages, the related audio montage opens
in the Audio Montage workspace.
Reveal in Windows Explorer
Opens the Windows Explorer/Mac OS Finder to locate the
selected file.
Exchanging the Source File of a Clip
You can replace a source file of a clip with another file and have all clips
that refer to the old source file refer to the new source file.
PROCEDURE
1.
In the Audio Montage workspace, open the Files window.
2.
In the Files window, select the file that you want to exchange.
3.
Select Menu > Exchange file, or click the Exchange file icon.
4.
Select the replacing file, and click Open.
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Managing Source Files of Clips
Changing Name and File Location of Audio Files
You can change the name and location of an audio file in your audio
montage project. All clips that reference this file are automatically
updated.
PROCEDURE
1.
In the Audio Montage workspace, open the Files window.
2.
In the Files window, select the file that you want to rename.
3.
Select Menu > Rename file, or click the Rename file icon.
4.
In the Rename File dialog, enter a new name.
5.
To enter a new file location, activate Change folder, and enter a
new file location.
6.
Optional: If you want the related clips to change their name
according to the new file name, activate Rename related clips as
file name.
7.
Click OK.
Exporting File Names as Text
You can export the file names list as text to various formats. The list
contains the names and paths of the audio files in the active audio
montage.
PREREQUISITE
Set up your audio montage.
PROCEDURE
1.
In the Audio Montage workspace, open the Files window.
2.
In the Files window, select Menu > Export file names as text.
3.
Choose the information that you want to export and the output
format.
4.
Click OK.
RESULT
The file names list opens in the selected output format. When selecting
Print, the Print Preview window opens. The text file is stored in the
specified folder for temporary files.
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Managing Source Files of Clips
Editing the Source File of a Clip
Editing the audio montage may require that you process or edit the
actual audio files that are referenced by the clips.
Use one of the following methods to edit the source file of a clip:
•
Right-click the bottom area of the clip that you want to edit, and
select Edit, or double-click the top area of the clip. The source file
of the clip opens in the Audio Files workspace. Edit the clip, save
it, and return to the audio montage.
•
Drag the clip onto the Audio Files workspace.
Note the following:
•
Any editing that you perform this way affects all clips that use the
audio file, including clips in other audio montages.
•
You can undo/redo all changes in audio files. These changes are
reflected immediately in all open audio montages.
•
If you use File > Save as to save the source audio file with a
different name, all open audio montages that refer to the file now
refer to the new file.
About Cloning and Substituting the Source File of a Clip
Cloning an audio source file avoids the risk that other clips are affected
when the source file of a clip is edited.
Use the Clone and substitute function to create a copy of the audio
source file, and make the clip reference to the new file. As a result, you
can edit the source file without affecting other clips or the original audio
file.
The cloned audio file has the original file name with the suffix “_#X”,
where X is a number. The cloned audio file is stored in the implicit folder
that is specified in Audio Montage preferences.
The implicit folder is used when WaveLab needs to create new files that
can be referenced by an audio montage. Files that are stored in the
implicit folder are not temporary, that is, they are not deleted when you
close WaveLab. This is necessary since the audio montage contains
references to the files.
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Audio Montage
Managing Source Files of Clips
Cloning and Substituting the Source File of a Clip
PROCEDURE
•
In the Audio Montage workspace, right-click the bottom area of a
clip, and select Clone and substitute.
RESULT
A clone of the source file replaces the selected clip. All clips that are
referring to the original file are referenced to the new file.
Replacing the Audio File of a Clip
You can replace the audio file of a clip to compare different takes.
NOTE
You cannot substitute a stereo file with a mono file and vice versa.
PROCEDURE
1.
In the Audio Montage workspace, right-click the bottom area of a
clip, and select Replace audio file.
2.
Select the file to which you want to reference, and click Open.
Make sure that the selected audio file is long enough. It must at least
cover the range between the start and end points of the clip.
RESULT
The selected audio file replaces the clip. All clip settings are retained,
and any other clip references to the replaced file are still available.
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Track Activity Indicator
Track Activity Indicator
The track activity indicator shows the volume level for audio tracks. It is
located on the right side of the track control area in the Audio Montage
workspace.
Instead of exact level readings the track activity indicator provides an
overview of which tracks are currently playing back audio at what
approximate level.
Envelopes for Clips
For clips in the audio montage, you can create envelopes for volume and
fades and for panning.
You can create an independent volume envelope curve to automate
volume, to create fades and crossfades, and to mute clip sections.
You can also draw pan envelopes to automate pan settings for clips. For
mono clips, pan governs the left/right position in the stereo field. For
stereo clips, pan sets the left/right balance.
Edit the envelope settings in the Focused clip window, or by
right-clicking an envelope curve. The settings menu is different,
depending on whether you click the fade-in part, the fade-out part, or
the sustain part.
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How the Envelope is Displayed
By default, all clips display a volume envelope curve. You can view the
envelope as three separate envelopes: the fade-in part, the sustain part,
and the fade-out part.
The points on the left and right side of the curve are the fade-in and
fade-out junction points that separate the fade parts from the sustain
part.
The envelope curve indicates if points, fade-ins, or fade-outs have been
defined. In addition to the curve, changes in the volume envelope are by
default also reflected in the waveform.This can be activated/deactivated
by selecting View > Map waveform to volume.
Selecting the Envelope
You can switch between volume/fade envelopes and pan envelopes.
PROCEDURE
1.
In the Audio Montage workspace, select a clip, and open the
Focused clip window.
2.
On the Envelope panel, select which envelope to edit from the
menu at the top.
Hiding the Envelope Curves
All clips display envelopes by default. You can hide these envelopes.
However, hidden envelopes are still active.
PROCEDURE
•
In the Audio Montage workspace, select a clip, open the Focused
clip window, and on the Envelope panel, select Hide all.
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Envelopes for Clips
Clip Envelope Editing
Curve points allow you to create volume curves, pan curves, and fade
curves for a clip. You can edit the envelope curve by adding and moving
curve points.
Editing Curve Points
Many of the editing operations that are commonly used in the context of
your computer operating system can be applied when editing curve
points. On top of these, a number of specific procedures apply.
•
To add a curve point, double-click the envelope curve.
•
To delete a curve point, double-click the curve point. The curve
point between the sustain and fade parts of the envelope cannot
be deleted.
•
To delete several curve points, select the curve points that you
want to delete, right-click one of the points, and select Delete
selected points.
•
To select a range of points, [Alt]/[Option]-click and drag to create
a selection rectangle.
•
To move all selected points, click one of the selected points and
drag.
•
To raise or lower the value of two consecutive curve points,
[Ctrl]/[Command]-click the segment between the points and drag
up or down.
•
To change the time position of two consecutive curve points,
[Shift]-click the segment between the points and drag left or right.
•
To raise or lower the entire envelope curve, make sure that no
curve point is selected, click the envelope curve, and drag up or
down. Do not drag a segment that is delimited by selected points.
•
To adjust the envelopes in all selected clips, hold down
[Alt]/[Option], and drag any envelope curve up or down. This is a
quick way to adjust the level or pan of several clips at the same
time and also to adjust both sides of a stereo envelope
simultaneously.
•
To move a fade-in/fade-out point vertically, [Ctrl]/[Command]-click
and drag the fade point.
•
To change the level or the fade in/out time of multiple envelopes at
the same time, select the clips that you want to edit, then press
[Alt]/[Option], and edit the envelope with the mouse.
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Resetting Curve Points
You can reset curve points to the default level.
•
To reset a single point to 0 dB, right-click the point, and select
Reset selected points to 0 dB.
•
To reset the whole envelope curve to default, right-click the
envelope curve, and select Reset level to 0 dB.
Copying Envelopes
You can use existing envelope curves in other clips.
PROCEDURE
1.
In the Audio Montage workspace, right-click on an envelope curve,
and select Copy shape.
2.
Right-click the envelope curve of the destination clip, and select
Paste shape.
Raising the Level of a Selection
You can raise the audio level with certain fall and rise times (by default
20 ms) and then adjust the level.
PROCEDURE
1.
In the Audio Montage workspace, in a clip, select the range for the
section that you want to raise in level.
2.
Right-click the envelope curve, and select Raise selection with
envelope.
The level of the selection range is raised.
3.
Click the envelope of the selection range and drag up or down to
adjust the level.
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Envelopes for Clips
Muting a Selected Range of a Clip
You can mute a selected range by lowering the volume to -144 dB.
These muted sections are not affected when you drag the envelope
curve up or down.
PROCEDURE
1.
In the Audio Montage workspace, in a clip, make a selection range
for the section that you want to mute.
2.
Right-click the envelope curve, and select Mute selection with
envelope.
RESULT
The section is muted. A fade-in and fade-out of 20 ms is applied to the
muted section.
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Envelopes for Clips
Envelope Smoothing
To produce smoother, more natural envelope curves, you can activate
the Smoothing function. It can be used while drawing the envelope
curve or it can be applied to an existing curve.
•
To activate this function, open the Focused clip window, and on
the Envelope panel, activate Smoothing.
Creating Envelope Presets
You can create envelope presets that you can later recall and apply to
other clips. There are separate presets for the sustain parts (envelope
presets) and the fade parts.
PROCEDURE
1.
In the Audio Montage workspace, activate the clip with the
envelope curve that you want to save as a preset.
2.
Open the Focused clip window, and on the Envelope panel, click
the Presets menu.
3.
Select Save as.
4.
Enter a name for the preset, and click Save.
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Applying Envelope Presets
PROCEDURE
1.
In the Audio Montage workspace, activate the clip to which you
want to apply the envelope preset.
2.
Open the Focused clip window, and on the Envelope panel, click
the Presets menu.
3.
Select a preset from the list.
RESULT
The envelope curve is applied.
NOTE
Volume envelope presets can only be applied to volume envelopes.
Non-volume envelope presets (such as pan and effect presets) can be
applied to any other non-volume envelope, but not to volume envelopes.
Locking the Envelope Curve
When an envelope curve is locked, the volume envelope curve points
are hidden and cannot be edited with the mouse. However, you can
drag the whole curve up or down.
PROCEDURE
1.
In the Audio Montage workspace, activate the clip that you want to
lock.
2.
Open the Focused clip window, and the Envelope panel, activate
Lock.
Locking All Envelope Curves
If you lock all envelope curves globally, they cannot be edited with the
mouse.
PROCEDURE
•
In the Audio Montage, select Options, and activate Global
envelope lock.
RESULT
The envelopes and their points are still displayed, but cannot be
selected or edited.
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Envelopes for Clips
Changing the Overall Volume Envelope of a Clip
The default envelope curve contains no volume envelope points. In this
condition, you can still use the curve to change the overall volume for a
clip.
PROCEDURE
1.
In the Audio Montage workspace, place the mouse cursor on the
envelope curve.
The mouse cursor takes on the shape of a circle with two arrows that
point up and down.
2.
Click and drag the curve up or down to change the clip envelope
volume.
Mono/Stereo Volume Envelopes
It is possible to display two volume envelope curves for stereo clips,
allowing you to control the volume separately for the left and right
channels.
•
To convert a mono envelope to a stereo envelope, right-click the
volume envelope of a clip, and select Convert to stereo.
•
To convert a stereo envelope to a mono envelope, right-click the
volume envelope of a clip, and select Convert to mono.
NOTE
Only volume envelopes can be converted to stereo.
About Pan Modes
The power of the sum of the channels drops by about 3 dB if a signal is
panned hard left or right, compared to the same signal being panned
center. This can be compensated with pan modes.
Experiment with the modes to see which fits best. The pan modes can
be set for tracks, clips, and the master output.
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•
To set the pan modes for clips, use the pan modes menu in the
Focused clip window on the Envelope panel, or use the pan
modes menu and knob in the Effects window.
•
To set the pan modes for tracks and the master output, use the pan
modes menu and knob in the Effects window.
The following pan modes are available:
Pan Mode
Description
Channel damp
(0 dB/mute)
This mode does not compensate for power loss at all. If a
signal is panned hard left or right, the power of the sum of the
channels drops by 3 dB.
Constant power
(+3 dB/mute)
This is the default mode. Regardless of the pan position, the
power of the sum of the channels remains constant.
Channel boost
(+4.5 dB/mute)
If this mode is selected and a signal is panned hard left or
right, the power of the sum of the channels is higher than with
a signal-panned center.
Channel boost
(+6 dB/mute)
If this mode is selected and a signal is panned hard left or
right, the power of the sum of the channels is higher than with
a signal-panned center. This is the same as the previous
option, but with even greater power boost.
About Modulating Audio With Other Audio
You can use the audio signal of one track to modulate the compression
factor of another track. The signal of the upper audio track (clip) is
usually called the carrier signal, because it contains the audio to be
transmitted.
The Ducker plug-in is used for this purpose as it lowers the volume of
one signal whenever another signal is present.
RELATED LINKS:
“Ducking Clips” on page 319
Ducking Clips
Ducking happens when the signal level on one track or channel is
automatically lowered through the presence of another signal on
another track or channel. You can create ducking effects between clips
on two adjacent tracks.
If you activate the Duck according to other track option, the presence
of another clip on an adjacent track causes ducking.
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Envelopes for Clips
A typical application for ducking would be a music track with a
commentary voice-over on another track. Whenever the commentary
voice is heard, the volume of the music track is lowered by a certain level
through automatically created volume envelope curves.
NOTE
The method of ducking clips is independent from clip modulation,
though they share some concepts. Ducking clips is more flexible but
needs more manual adjustments.
NOTE
The clips that cause ducking must be located completely inside the time
range of the clip to which ducking is applied.
NOTE
If the clips that cause ducking contain silent passages, ducking does not
function properly. These clips must be edited so that each phrase is a
separate clip without any silence. The reason for this is that, in this case,
the clip activates the ducking.
NOTE
When Duck according to other track is performed it is applied to one
clip at a time. For example, if the music consists of several clips that have
been spliced together, only one of the clips is ducked by the voice-over.
To solve this issue, you can to repeat the function for each clip or use
the Render function in the Master Section to create a specific (single)
file from the separate clips and re-import this as a new clip in the audio
montage.
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Envelopes for Clips
Creating a Ducking Effect
In the following example, the track to which ducking is applied contains
music and an adjacent track that causes ducking contains a voice-over.
PROCEDURE
1.
In the Audio Montage workspace, place the clips that contain the
music and the voice-over on separate adjacent tracks.
The voice-over clips must be located inside the time range of the music
clip.
2.
Select the clip containing the music, and open the Focused clip
window.
3.
In the Envelope panel, from the envelope type menu, select
Volume/Fades.
4.
In the Envelope panel, select Duck according to other track.
5.
In the Ducking options dialog, make your settings.
Depending on whether the voice-over track is above or below the music
track, you must select Previous track or Next track.
6.
Click OK.
RESULT
The level of the music is automatically lowered by the voice-over clips.
Ducking Options Dialog
In this dialog, you can create ducking effects.
In the Audio Montage workspace, in the Focused Clip window, on the
Envelope panel, select Duck according to other track.
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Fall region - Balance clip fade-in
Ignores any duration or gap settings in the Fall region section.
Instead, the ducking envelope lowers the volume from the fade-in
end position of the voice-over clip.
Fall region - Duration
The time it takes for the level to fall when ducking starts.
Fall region - Gap before clip
The time between the end of the Fall region and the start of the
voice clip.
Rise region - Balance clip fade-out
Ignores any duration or gap settings in the Rise region section.
Instead, the ducking envelope raises the volume from the fade-out
start position of the voice-over clip.
Rise region - Duration
The time it takes for the level to rise to the original level after
ducking ends.
Rise region - Gap before clip
The time between the end of the voice clip and the start of the Rise
region.
Modulator clips - Previous/Next track
Defines whether the modulator track should be before (Previous
track) or after (Next track) the track that is to be ducked.
Modulator clips - Only selected clips
If this option is activated, only the selected clips on the modulator
track cause ducking.
Damp factor
Sets the amount of ducking, that is, the degree of attenuation that
is applied to the affected clip.
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Fades and Crossfades in the Audio Montage
Fades and Crossfades in the Audio
Montage
A fade-in is a gradual increase in level and a fade-out is a gradual
decrease in level. A crossfade is a gradual fade between two sounds,
where one is faded in and the other faded out.
Creating Fades
By default, all clips display a fade-in and a fade-out junction point. These
can be dragged horizontally to create a fade-in or fade-out for a clip.
You can add envelope points to a fade just as with volume envelopes.
•
To create a fade-in, click the fade-in point at the beginning of a clip,
and drag it to the right.
•
To create a fade-out, click the fade-out point at the end of a clip,
and drag it to the left.
•
To move a fade-in/fade-out point vertically, press
[Ctrl]/[Command] while dragging.
The resulting linear fade-in/fade-out curve is displayed in the clip, and
the fade is also reflected in the waveform. If you position the mouse over
the fade-in point, a label appears, showing the fade-in time in seconds
and milliseconds and the volume in dB.
Editing Fades Menu
In this menu, you can select various preset fade curves and other
fade-related options.
In the Audio Montage workspace, right-click the fade-in or fade-out
point to open the Fade-in/Fade-out menu. This menu is a subset of the
Focused clip window.
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Fade-in region/Fade-out region
Adjusts the view to mainly display the fade-in/fade-out part of the
focused clip.
Copy shape
Copies the fade-in/fade-out shape to the clipboard.
Paste shape
Replaces the fade-in/fade-out shape with the shape that was
copied to the clipboard. The original length is preserved.
Paste to selected clips
Replaces the fade-in/fade-out shape of all selected clips with the
shape that was copied to the clipboard. The original length is
preserved.
Linear
Changes level linearly.
Sinus (*)
Changes level according to the first quarter period of the sine
curve. When used in a crossfade, the loudness (RMS) remains
constant during the transition.
Square-root (*)
Changes level according to the square-root curve. When used in
a crossfade, the loudness (RMS) remains constant during the
transition.
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Sinusoid
Changes level according to a half period part of the sine curve.
Logarithmic
Changes level logarithmically.
Exponential
Changes level exponentially.
Exponential+
Changes level strongly exponential.
Set fade-in time/Set fade-out time
Sets the fade-in time/fade-out time to the value that you have
specified in the Focused clip window on the Fade-in/Fade-out
panel.
Apply default
Replaces the current fade-in/fade-out with the default setting that
is specified in the Focused clip window on the Fade-in/Fade-out
panel.
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Saving a Fade-In/Fade-Out as Default
The default fade-in/fade-out curve shape is linear. You can change this
setting and define a default shape and/or length separately for fade-ins
and fade-outs.
PROCEDURE
1.
In the Audio Montage workspace, drag the fade-in/fade-out point
to the position that you want to set as default.
2.
Open the Focused clip window, and on the Fade-in or Fade-out
panel, open the Presets menu.
3.
Depending on whether you want to save the current fade as default
for fade-ins and/or crossfades, select one of the following options:
4.
•
Save as default for automatic fade-ins/fade-outs
•
Save as default for automatic crossfades
Click OK.
RESULT
When you right-click a fade-in/fade-out point and select Apply default,
the saved fade is applied. In addition, when you create a new clip and
Create default fades in new clips is activated, the default fade is used.
NOTE
The default fades are saved for each audio montage. If you want to use
the same default fade for several audio montages, you should update
the audio montage template file.
Applying a Default Fade-In/Fade-out
PROCEDURE
1.
In the Audio Montage workspace, right-click the fade-in/fade-out
area for which you want to apply the default fade-in/fade-out.
2.
Select Apply default.
You can also click the Apply default button in the Focused clip window.
RESULT
The fade-in/fade-out time is set to the defined default value.
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Applying Default Fades to New Clips
PROCEDURE
•
In the Audio Montage workspace, select Options > Create
default fades in new clips.
RESULT
All new clips that are imported or recorded in the audio montage get the
default fade-in and fade-out shape and length if Create default fades
in new clips is active. In this case, the default crossfade shapes are
used. This also applies to clips that are created through splitting clips.
Locking the Fade Times When Adjusting Clip Edges
PROCEDURE
•
In the Audio Montage workspace, select Options > Lock fade
times when adjusting clip edges.
RESULT
The defined fade-in/fade-out length is locked to the clip start or end,
even if you adjust the clip edges.
Copying Fades
You can copy a fade-in or fade-out and paste it onto another clip.
PROCEDURE
1.
In the Audio Montage, right-click a fade-in/fade-out point, and
select Copy shape.
2.
Right-click the fade-in/fade-out point for which you want to apply
the fade, and select Paste shape.
RESULT
The fade is applied to the clip.
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Fades and Crossfades in the Audio Montage
Setting the Fade/Level Envelope After the Effects
When using dynamic processors that alter the level of the clip, it is
useful to place the level/fade envelope after the clip effect section.
PROCEDURE
1.
In the Audio Montage, open the Focused clip window.
2.
On the Envelope panel, activate Level/fade envelope after
effects.
Deactivating Automatic Fade Changes for Individual Clips
You can deactivate automatic fade changes for individual clips. This can
be used if you have set a fade that you do not want to be altered in any
way, even though you may want to overlap the clip with another clip.
PROCEDURE
1.
In the Audio Montage workspace, select the clip for which you
want to disable automatic fade changes.
2.
Open the Focused clip window, and on the Fade-in or Fade-out
panel, deactivate Automatic changes.
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Creating Automatic Crossfades in Audio Montages
Crossfades in audio montages can be created automatically when clip
edges overlap. You can specify the type of crossfade that is performed.
PREREQUISITE
Deactivate Options > No automatic crossfading.
PROCEDURE
1.
2.
In the Audio Montage, select Options, and select one of the
following automatic crossfade types:
•
Automatic crossfading - free overlaps
•
Automatic crossfading - fade-in constrains overlaps
•
Automatic crossfading - fade-out constrains overlaps
Move a clip so that it overlaps the edge of another clip.
RESULT
The crossfade is automatically created in the overlap. By default, there
are two equal length linear fade curves, one fading out and the other
fading in. This also happens if you paste a clip so that it overlaps another
clip.
About the Crossfade Compensation Attributes
When creating a crossfade, the fade-in/fade-out shape changes to
optimize the volume evolution during the crossfade.
In the Audio Montage workspace, in the Focused clip window, on the
Fade-in or Fade-out panel, open the crossfade compensation menu.
Pure shape
The fade shape is not changed and is used as defined. This is the
default setting when any fade-in/fade-out preset is selected.
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Amplitude compensation
If this option is selected for a fade-in/fade-out curve in a crossfade,
the summed fade-in/fade-out gains remain constant along the
crossfade region. This option is recommended for short
crossfades.
Medium compensation
Provides an intermediary between amplitude compensation and
power compensation. This is recommended if the other two
compensation attributes do not provide the expected result.
Power compensation
If this option is selected, the energy (power) of the crossfade is
constant all along the crossfade region. Crossfading between
completely different types of audio material can sometimes cause
harmonics to “cancel out each other” at the crossfade splice point,
causing the volume to drop. Constant power crossfades
compensate for this problem. Using either the Sinus (*) or
Square-root (*) fade presets for a fade-in/fade-out provide a
constant power crossfade without selecting this option.
NOTE
Selecting a compensation attribute for a single fade (not in a crossfade)
changes the shape of the curve. However, the actual compensation is
only applied when the fade becomes part of a crossfade.
Crossfade Editing
You can create crossfades with independent shapes and lengths for the
fade-in and fade-out curves.
The default automatic crossfade is linear. It uses the same shape and
fade lengths for fade-in and fade-out. In most cases, an unaltered linear
or sine crossfade produces the intended result. The following rules
apply:
•
A crossfade includes fade-in and fade-out.
•
You can edit the fade-in and fade-out curves in crossfades in the
same way as fades.
•
To resize the crossfade time symmetrically, press [Shift], click the
crossfade area, and drag left and right.
•
To move the crossfade region while keeping its length, press
[Ctrl]/[Command], click the crossfade area, and drag left and right.
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•
When you move a clip so that it overlaps another clip to create a
crossfade, and neither clip has a defined fade in the overlap, a
default crossfade is created, if one of the auto crossfade options
is activated.
•
When moving a clip with a defined fade curve so that it overlaps
the adjacent edge of another clip (without a defined fade), the
unmoved clip automatically gets the same fade shape as the
moved clip (but as a corresponding opposite fade), with amplitude
compensation. This only applies if the fade-out length of the
unmoved clip is set to zero.
•
If both clips have different defined fade curves at their adjacent
edges when creating a crossfade, this creates an asymmetrical
crossfade, based on the defined fade curves.
Apart from the different combinations described above, there are other
factors that govern the result when creating crossfades. In the following
example a pre-defined fade-out and an undefined fade-in are used. The
fade-in is created when the crossfade is performed. What happens
depends on what type of defined fade-out curve is used:
•
If the fade-out is a preset (except Sinus (*) or Square-root (*))
that uses Pure shape, the corresponding fade-in gets the same
preset with amplitude compensation.
•
If the fade-out is a preset that uses a compensation attribute, the
fade-in gets the same preset, but with Pure shape activated, for
the compensation to take effect.
•
If the fade-out uses either the Sinus (*) or Square-root (*) presets
with the Pure shape setting, the fade-in gets the same preset also
with the Pure shape setting, and the compensation attribute is
grayed out on the menu. In fact, power compensation is used. This
is because the Sinus (*) and Square-root (*) curves provide
constant power crossfades by themselves.
The Options menu provides additional options that affect crossfades.
RELATED LINKS:
“Options for Moving and Crossfading Clips” on page 282
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Audio Montage
Fades and Crossfades in the Audio Montage
Crossfading with Fade Constrained Overlaps
PREREQUISITE
To use fade-in/fade-out constrained overlaps, there must be a defined
(not set to zero) fade-in/fade-out in the overlap. Otherwise, Automatic
crossfading - free overlaps is activated for that crossfade.
The following description applies to fade-in constrained overlaps and
fade-out constrained overlaps. For the latter, however, the defined
fade-out length constrains the overlap, and accordingly, the left edge of
the right clip is adjusted.
PROCEDURE
1.
In the Audio Montage workspace, activate Options > Automatic
crossfading - fade-in constrains overlaps.
2.
On a track that contains several clips, create a fade-in curve in a
clip.
3.
Drag the clip to the left so that it overlaps another clip, past the
right clip edge.
A crossfade is created in the overlap.
4.
Continue dragging the clip, so that the fade-in point of the dragged
clip overlaps the right edge of the left clip.
5.
Drag the clip to the right again.
The resized clip is gradually uncovered. The original clip length is
memorized, so you can later restore the resized clips.
6.
Separate the two clips again without creating an overlap so that
they return to the original left/right position relative to each other.
7.
Drag the left clip to the right so that it overlaps the other clip, and
continue dragging to the right.
The right edge of the left clip is progressively resized as you drag the clip
further to the right.
RESULT
Fade constrained overlaps can also be used with the options Allow
multiple automatic crossfades and Allow automatic crossfading
with clips on focused track.
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About Adjusting Crossfades Between Clips
The Zoom window shows a magnified view of the beginning of the
selected clip and allows you to accurately adjust the crossfade point for
two adjacent clips.
The main purpose of this is to help you splice two consecutive clips
together. In this case, the zoom view displays the end of the left clip and
the start of the right clip. This type of splicing is achieved by applying
short crossfades.
There are two main types of crossfades:
•
Artistic crossfades: for example, if you want to crossfade two
songs to make a nice transition. Usually, these types of crossfades
are quite long and can easily be created from the audio montage
window.
•
Patch crossfades: for example, if you want to replace a section of
audio as transparently as possible, without audible discontinuity in
the resulting audio. In these cases, you must shorten the
crossfades as much as possible. These types of crossfades are
best created in the Zoom window.
NOTE
The zoom view is centered around the starting point of the right clip. If
you move the right clip on the track, the left clip appears to be moving
in the zoom view.
Adjusting Crossfades Between Clips
Accurately adjusting the crossfades between clips is important to avoid
clicks at the junction points. WaveLab analyzes the waveforms to
automatically find the best crossfade offsets.
PROCEDURE
1.
In the Audio Montage workspace, on a track, align the two clips
that you want next to each other.
2.
Select the clip that is located on the right.
3.
Open the Zoom window.
This shows a close-up of the two clips.
4.
Set the zoom factor using the icons above the zoom view, or select
a zoom factor from the Menu.
If you activate Menu > Automatic level zooming, the waveforms are
automatically zoomed vertically to fill out the Zoom view.
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5.
If necessary, move or resize the clip located on the right in the
zoom view.
6.
Set the search range using the icons above the zoom view, or
select a search range from the Menu.
7.
Decide whether you want to move the clip on the left or the clip on
the right.
•
To move the clip on the left, click the Move to left (match
waveform) icon, or select Menu > Move to left (match
waveform).
•
To move the clip on the right, click the Move to right (match
waveform) icon, or select Menu > Move to right (match
waveform). This is useful if the two clips are already overlapping.
RESULT
WaveLab scans the audio to the left of the splice point and moves the
clip on the right to the position which provides the best possible phase
match, to avoid harmonic cancelation. When the clip on the right is
moved over the clip on the left, a short crossfade is automatically
created.
Zoom Window
In the Zoom window, you can find the best crossfade point for two
adjacent clips.
In the Audio Montage workspace, select Workspace > Specific tool
windows > Zoom.
On the Menu, you have the following options:
Move to left (match waveform)
Scans the audio to the left of the splice point and finds the best
possible phase match to avoid harmonic cancelation. The clip on
the right is moved over the clip on the left. This automatically
creates a short crossfade, ensuring the smoothest possible splice.
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Audio Montage
Clip Time Stretching
Move to right (match waveform)
Scans the audio to the right of the splice point and finds the best
possible phase match, to avoid harmonic cancelation. The clip on
the right is then moved further to the right. This automatically
creates a short crossfade, ensuring the smoothest possible splice.
This function is useful if the two clips already overlap.
Search range
Determines how deep WaveLab scans the clips when searching
for the best possible phase match. Higher values result in greater
accuracy but also longer processing times. If the sounds contain a
lot of bass, avoid the shortest search range setting.
Zoom
Sets the zoom factor. For example, 1:4 means that 1 pixel on the
screen corresponds to 4 audio samples.
Automatic level zooming
Automatically zooms the waveform vertically to fill the view.
Show envelope
Displays the envelope curves of the clips in the view. Which curves
are exactly displayed depends on the settings of each clip.
Clip Time Stretching
You can adjust the length of a clip by using time stretching.
The best results when stretching or compressing a clip are achieved
when using small or moderate amounts of time stretch. You should
avoid time stretching of already time stretched material.
When you perform time stretching on a clip, a copy of the original audio file
is created, that contains the audio range that is used in the clip. The time
stretch is applied to the copy, and the clip now references to the copy.
•
The copied audio file has the same name as the original, but with
the suffix “_#X” where X is a number.
•
The copied audio file is stored in the implicit folder that is specified
in the Audio montage preferences.
NOTE
Since the new copied audio file contains exactly the audio range that the
clip uses, it is not possible to lengthen the clip by resizing after Time
stretch to cursor has been applied.
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Audio Montage
Clip Pitch Shifting
Time-Stretching Clips
PROCEDURE
1.
In the Audio Montage workspace, move the edit cursor to the
position where you want the clip to end.
2.
Right-click the clip that you want to time-stretch, and select Time
stretch to cursor position.
The Time Stretching dialog opens. Only the Method section is available
for editing, since the other settings are determined by the edit cursor
position.
3.
In the Time Stretching dialog, edit your settings, and click OK.
RESULT
The clip is stretched or shortened so that it ends at the edit cursor
position.
RELATED LINKS:
“Time Stretching Dialog” on page 223
Clip Pitch Shifting
You can adjust the pitch of a clip by using pitch shifting.
When you perform pitch shifting on a clip, a copy of the original audio
file is created, that contains the audio range that is used in the clip. The
pitch shift is applied to the copy, and the clip references to the copy.
•
The copied audio file has the same name as the original, but with
the suffix “_#X” where X is a number.
•
The copied audio file is stored in the implicit folder that is specified
in the Audio montage preferences.
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Effects for Tracks, Clips, and the Master Output
Pitch-Shifting Clips
PROCEDURE
1.
In the Audio Montage, right-click the lower part of a clip for which
you want to apply pitch shifting, and select Pitch shifting.
The Pitch shift dialog opens.
2.
In the Pitch shifting dialog, edit your settings, and click OK.
RELATED LINKS:
“Pitch Shift Dialog” on page 226
Effects for Tracks, Clips, and the Master
Output
You can add VST effect plug-ins to individual clips, tracks, or the master
output of an audio montage. Clip effects affect individual clips only, track
effects affect all clips on a track, and the master output affects the whole
audio montage.
Only VST 2 and VST 3 plug-ins can be used in the audio montage. Each
clip, audio track, and the master output can be independently processed
by up to 10 VST effect plug-ins.
Effects are configured as follows:
•
As inserts, when all sound is processed by the effects
•
As send effects (split mode), where the balance between the
unprocessed sound and the effect send level can be adjusted or
controlled by effect envelope curves (clip effects and certain
VST 2 plug-ins only)
An icon in front of a clip name indicates that effects are applied to a clip.
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Effects for Tracks, Clips, and the Master Output
Hovering over a clip name shows the effects that are used for the clip.
NOTE
Only clip effects for clips that are active at the current playback position
consume CPU power. Track and master output effects are always
active.
NOTE
The first time that you play an audio montage after is has been opened
or copied, the program has to load all effects into memory. If you have
many effects, this can result in a short silence before the playback starts.
NOTE
Effects that are used for tracks must support stereo audio, even if the
audio track is mono.
About the Master Output Effects
You can add master output effects to an audio montage. While the
Master Section is shared among all audio montages, the master output
effects are local to each montage. This allows you to have a fully
embedded project, without needing to use the Master Section.
The master output effects are located at the output of the audio
montage.
NOTE
If you want to use a dithering plug-in, place it in the master output.
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Effects Window
This window lets you add effect plug-ins to tracks, clips, and the master
output, import the plug-ins from the Master Section, and make pan and
gain settings.
In the Audio Montage workspace, select Workspace > Specific tool
windows > Effects.
Menu
Clip effects
Displays the plug-ins of the focused clip.
Track effects
Displays the plug-ins of the focused track.
Master effects
Displays the plug-ins of the master output.
Add slot
Adds a slot into which an audio plug-in can be inserted.
Remove
Removes the selected plug-in.
Remove from selected clips
Removes the plug-in if a selected clip uses the same plug-in.
Close all
Closes all plug-in windows that relate to this audio montage.
Copy
Copies the selected plug-in and its settings to the clipboard.
Paste
Replaces the selected plug-in with the plug-in that was copied to
the clipboard. If no slot has been added, a new slot is created.
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Paste to selected clips
Replaces the selected plug-in with the plug-in that was copied to
the clipboard on all selected clips. If no slots have been added,
new slots are created.
Load plug-in chain
Replaces the current plug-ins with a plug-in chain that has
previously been saved on disk.
Save plug-in chain
Saves the current plug-in chain as a preset.
Import Master Section plug-ins
Imports the plug-ins that are currently loaded in the Master
Section. Existing plug-ins are overwritten.
Plug-in map
Opens the Plug-in Map dialog, that displays all plug-ins that are
used in the audio montage and the clips and tracks that are using
them.
Plug-in window handling
Opens the Plug-in Window Handling dialog in which you can set
up the appearance of plug-in windows.
Customize commands
Opens the Customize commands dialog in which you can set up
shortcuts for the Effects window.
Effects List
The effects list displays the effect plug-ins of the selected track, clip, or
master output. In the list, you can select new effects for the existing
effect plug-ins, change the effect order, and edit the Send level and
Tail of effects.
The following options are available:
Plug-in window icon
Opens the plug-in window.
Effect name
Shows the effect name. Clicking an effect name opens the
Plug-ins menu where you can select a new effect.
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Preset
Shows the last preset that was loaded for the plug-in.
Send level
If this option is activated, you can enter a send level for the effect.
This mode is only available for certain VST 2 plug-ins.
Latency
Shows the latency (delay) in the audio path. Certain plug-ins must
analyze the sound before passing it on. However, real-time
changes, such as turning an effect knob, are delayed according to
the maximum latency that is found among all clips. Plug-ins with
latency cannot be used for adjusting the send level.
Tail (clip effects only)
Effects, such as reverb and delay, produce audio tails. This means,
for example, that the effect sound continues after the clip sound
ends. For example, if you add echo to a clip without specifying a
tail value, the echo effect is muted as soon as the clip ends. Set
the tail length so that the effect is allowed to decay naturally. If you
add another plug-in to the clip that also produces a tail, there is no
need to set a separate tail value for this plug-in, unless you want
the decay to sum up. The overall tail length for the clip is the sum
of the tail of each plug-in. The maximum tail setting is 30 seconds.
Gain/Pan Section
In this section, you can edit gain and pan settings for each clip and track.
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Global Gain Section
In this section, you can set the global gain for the active audio montage.
This gain can be applied before (pre) or after (post) the master output,
depending on the setting of the pre/post button on the left of this
section. Pre is the default setting.
The Loudness Meta Normalizer can change the global gain to set the
audio montage output loudness, for example, to match the EBU R-128
recommendation.
RELATED LINKS:
“About Pan Modes” on page 318
Adding Effects to a Track, Clip, or Master Output
You can add effect plug-ins to every track and clip of the audio montage,
and to the master output of the audio montage.
Adding Effects Via the Effects Window
PROCEDURE
1.
In the Audio Montage workspace, open the Effects window.
2.
Select the clip section, track section, or master output section.
3.
Click the Add slot button.
4.
In the Effect name column, select the added slot.
5.
Select a plug-in.
RESULT
The selected effect opens in a window.
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NOTE
You can add effects during playback. However, if you add an effect with
a latency larger than zero it is better to stop and restart playback to avoid
timing discrepancies. In addition, a small number of VST plug-ins may
change latency depending on parameter settings. If that is the case,
make sure to stop and restart playback after the latency is changed.
Additional Ways of Adding Effects
•
To add an effect to a track, click the FX button in the track control
area, select Add effect, and select an effect from the menu.
•
To add an effect to a clip, in the montage window, right-click the
clip name, select Add effect, and select an effect from the menu.
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Adding the Master Section Effects to the Track, Clip, or Master Output
You can add the Master Section effects to the clip, track or master
output of an audio montage.
PREREQUISITE
Set up the Master Section plug-ins.
PROCEDURE
1.
In the Audio Montage workspace, open the Effects window.
2.
Select the track, clip, or master output to which you want to add
the Master Section effects.
3.
Select Menu > Import Master Section plug-ins.
RESULT
The Master Section effects are added to the focused track, clip, or
master output.
NOTE
To copy a single Master Section effect, you can drag it from a Master
Section slot to the effects list of the Effects window.
Removing Effects from Tracks, Clips, or the Master Output
PROCEDURE
1.
In the Audio Montage workspace, open the Effects window.
2.
Select the clip section, track section, or master output section.
3.
Click the effect that you want to remove, and select None.
RESULT
The effect is removed from the slot. You can either select a new effect
for the slot or leave the slot unused.
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Rearranging the Order of Effects
The effect order in the effects list determines to a certain degree how
the effects affect each other. You can rearrange the effects to change
the processing order.
PROCEDURE
1.
In the Audio Montage workspace, open the Effects window.
2.
In the effects list, drag the effect that you want to rearrange to
another position.
Applying Effects to Another Track, Clip, or Master Output
You can save the plug-in chain of a track, clip, or master output as a
preset and apply it to other tracks, clips, or the master output of another
audio montage.
PROCEDURE
1.
In the Audio Montage workspace, open the Effects window, and
set up your plug-in chain.
2.
Select Menu > Save plug-in chain.
3.
Enter a name and the file location for the effect chain, and click Save.
4.
Select the track, clip, or master output for which you want to apply
the effect chain.
Plug-in chains are applied to the focused clip.
5.
Select Menu > Load plug-in chain.
6.
Select a plug-in chain, and click Open.
Copying Effect Settings to Other Tracks, Clips, or the Master
Output
You can copy the effect and its settings of a track, clip, or master output
to other tracks, clips, or the master output of the same or another audio
montage.
PROCEDURE
1.
In the Audio Montage workspace, open the Effects window.
2.
Select the effect from which you want to copy the settings.
3.
Select Menu > Copy.
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4.
Decide if you want to paste the effect settings to a new slot or
replace an existing effect.
•
To paste the effect settings to a new slot, add a new slot, and
select Menu > Paste.
•
To replace an existing effect, select the effect, and select Menu >
Paste.
•
To copy to multiple clips, select the clips, and select Menu >
Paste to selected clips.
Undoing Effect Changes
You can undo/redo changes to the effect settings. However, WaveLab
only registers the changes when the Effects window loses focus.
PROCEDURE
1.
In the plug-in window, click another window to lose focus of the
plug-in in which you want to undo the settings.
2.
Go back to the plug-in in which you want to undo the settings.
3.
Press [Ctrl]/[Command]-[Z] to undo the settings.
Using Effect Envelopes
You can automate the effect send level for split mode clip effects by
using effect envelope curves.
PREREQUISITE
Set up a split mode effect plug-in for a clip.
PROCEDURE
1.
In the Audio Montage workspace, in the Focused clip window,
open the Envelope panel.
2.
In the envelope type menu, select the effect that you want to use
for the envelope curve.
3.
Create the envelope curve.
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Setting the Pan and Gain for Effects
You can set the pan and gain of the effects for each clip and track
individually.
PROCEDURE
1.
In the Audio Montage workspace, select the Effects window.
2.
Select a clip or track.
3.
Adjust the pan and gain using the controls on the left of the Effects
window.
Setting the Global Gain for Effects
You can set a global gain for the master output effects of your audio
montage and apply it before (pre) or after (post) the master output
effects.
PROCEDURE
1.
In the Audio Montage workspace, select the Effects window.
2.
Select the master output.
3.
Adjust the global gain using the fader on the left of the Effects
window.
4.
Click the pre/post button on the left of the global gain fader.
If you use a dithering plug-in, set the gain to be pre-master.
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Setting the Send Level for Tracks, Clips, or the Master Output
Effects for tracks, clips, and the master output can be configured either
as insert or send effects. To set the send level for a track or clip, you
must activate the Send level option.
NOTE
Only effect plug-ins that are capable of using send effects can be
activated for setting the send level. For all other effect plug-ins, this
function is deactivated.
PROCEDURE
1.
In the Audio Montage workspace, open the Effects window.
2.
In the Send level column, activate the checkbox for the track/clip
for which you want to set the send level.
3.
Specify the send level in dB.
About Resetting Plug-ins
You can reset the plug-ins before playing back or rendering the audio
montage.
The following options are available in the Audio Montage workspace,
when you select Options > Audio montage preferences, and open
the Active Audio Montage tab.
•
If Reset plug-ins when starting playback is activated and you
start playback, the plug-ins release any samples in the plug-in
memory. Activate this if you get a small click or noise when the
playback position reaches the start of a clip with effects (typically
reverb or delay effects). Only use this option if you need it, since
having it activated could result in a slightly delayed response when
you start playback, especially in an audio montage with many
plug-ins.
•
If Reset plug-ins before rendering is activated, all plug-ins are
reloaded before the files are rendered. Certain plug-ins are only
properly initialized when they are created. If you have activated
Reset plug-ins when starting playback and still get clicks on
playback, you can activate Reset plug-ins before rendering. This
requires twice the amount of plug-in memory.
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Plug-in Window
In this window, you can display the effect plug-ins that are used for a
track, clip, or the master output. You can display all effects in one plug-in
window or have separate windows for each effect, for all track effects,
all clip effects, or all master output effects.
Plug-in chain window
Single plug-in window
When you add a new effect plug-in to a track, clip, or master output, the
plug-in window opens automatically. In the plug-in window, the effects
are displayed in a plug-in chain by default. To change the processing
order of the effects, you can drag each effect to a new position in the
chain.
You can adjust the handling of the effects in the plug-in window in the
Plug-in window handling dialog.
Opening the Plug-in Window
You can open the plug-in window from different locations in the Audio
Montage workspace.
•
To open the plug-in window from the Effects window, in the
effects list, click the plug-in window icon to the left of a plug-in.
•
To open the plug-in window for a clip from the montage window,
right-click the bottom part of a clip, and select Edit plug-ins. You
can also right-click the clip name and select a plug-in.
•
To open the plug-in window for a track, click the FX button in the
track control area.
•
To open the plug-in window for a focused clip, in the Focused clip
window, on the Edit panel, select Edit plug-ins.
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Adding Effects From Within the Plug-in Window
Effects that are added to a clip, track, or the master output in the Effects
window are automatically displayed in the plug-in window. However,
you can also add effects to a track or a clip directly from within the
plug-in chain window.
PROCEDURE
1.
In the Plug-in window handling dialog, activate Use plug-in
chain windows.
2.
In the Audio Montage workspace, open the plug-in window for the
clip, track, or master output to which you want to add an effect.
3.
In the plug-in chain window, click the Add plug-in button.
4.
Select an effect from the menu.
The effect is added at the end of the plug-in chain. The added effect is
also displayed in the Effects window.
5.
Optional: If you want to move the added effect in the plug-in chain,
drag it to another position.
Changing Effects From Within the Plug-in Window
When displaying effect plug-ins in the plug-in window, you can change
plug-ins to change the processing.
PROCEDURE
1.
In the Audio Montage workspace, open the plug-in window for the
clip, track, or master output for which you want to change an effect.
2.
Click the plug-in menu icon, and select an effect from the menu.
The changed effect is also displayed in the Effects window.
3.
Optional: If you want to move the changed effect in a plug-in chain
window, drag it to another position.
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Switching Between Clip, Track, and Master Output Effects in the Plug-in
Windows
In the plug-in window, you can quickly switch between the effect chain
of clips, tracks, and the master output, and between plug-in windows,
when you have opened several plug-in windows.
•
To skip through the clips, tracks, and the master output of the
active audio montage, use the left and right arrow icons.
•
When using one plug-in window for both clips and tracks of an
audio montage, you can switch between the plug-ins of the
focused clip or the track which displays the focused clip by
clicking the Show Clip Plug-ins or Show Track Plug-ins icons.
•
To lock a plug-in window, activate Lock Window. If this option is
activated, and you select another track or clip, another plug-in
window opens. If this option is deactivated, and you select another
track or clip, the effects are displayed in the same plug-in window.
NOTE
This button is only visible if Use plug-in chain windows and Unlimited
number of open windows is activated.
Closing All Plug-in Windows
PROCEDURE
1.
In the Audio Montage workspace, open the Effects window.
2.
Select Menu > Close all.
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Plug-in Window Handling Dialog
In this dialog, you can set up the appearance and behavior of the plug-in
window.
In the Audio Montage, open the Effects window, and select Menu >
Plug-in window handling.
Use one window per plug-in
Opens each plug-in in an individual window. Several plug-in
windows can be open at the same time.
Close other windows when opening a new one
Closes all open plug-in windows of the same audio montage each
time that you open a plug-in window. This means that only one
plug-in is displayed at a time for a each audio montage.
Use plug-in chain windows
Shows all open plug-ins in the plug-in window as tabs, which
allows you to quickly switch between the plug-ins.
Unlimited number of open windows
Allows for any number of plug-in chain windows to be open at the
same time. There can be one for each track and one for each
plug-in.
Lock window on opening
Automatically locks a plug-in each time a plug-in chain window is
opened.
If a plug-in window is locked, and you select another track or clip,
another plug-in window opens. If this option is deactivated, and
you select another track or clip, the effects are displayed in the
same plug-in window.
Use one window for clips and one for tracks
Uses one plug-in window for all clips, one for all tracks, and one
for the master output. This means that the plug-in window for clips
is reused when activating a new clip, and the plug-in window for
tracks is reused when activating a new track.
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Use one window per montage
Uses one plug-in window for the clips, tracks, and the master
output of an audio montage. This means that the plug-in window
for clips is reused when you select any element that uses plug-ins
(clips, tracks, master output).
Auto switch between tracks and clips
If this option is activated and you click the track control area of a
track, the plug-in window switches to display the track plug-ins,
even if the window was displaying clip plug-ins or the master
output plug-ins. If you click a clip header, the plug-in window
switches to display the clip plug-ins, even if the window was
displaying track plug-ins or the master output plug-ins.
About the CD Window
The CD window combines the functions for creating an audio CD or
DVD-Audio within WaveLab.
It displays a list of CD tracks along with information about each track.
You can edit each track and the playback properties of the CD, check
the conformity to the Red Book standards, add and edit CD-Text, add
UPC/EAN and ISRC codes, generate a CD report, and write the CD.
You can also choose whether to replace the gap between track markers
with silence or with sound by using the Audio in pauses function.
When you select a clip in the montage window, the corresponding track
is highlighted in the CD window.
A CD track in the audio montage is defined by CD markers.
You can reorder CD tracks in the CD track list with drag and drop.
However, only ranges of CD tracks that are located between a CD track
start marker and a CD end marker can be moved. For example, we have
the following markers:
•
Start marker A
•
Splice marker B
•
Splice marker C
•
End marker D
•
Start marker E
•
Start marker F
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Then the range between A and D (which is a group of 3 CD tracks) is
moved as well as the range between E and F. The ranges A-B, or B-C,
or C-D cannot be moved individually.
About CD Markers
A track in the audio montage is defined by CD track start and end
markers or CD track splice markers.
•
CD track splice markers indicate the end of one track and the start
of the next.
•
If you delete the CD markers defining a track, the track is deleted
from the CD window.
•
If you edit a marker position of a CD track, the change is reflected
in the track in the CD window.
•
The name of a CD track is the name of the CD track start marker.
Editing the marker name also changes the CD Track name, and
vice versa.
CD Window
In this window, you can create an audio CD or DVD-Audio.
In the Audio Montage workspace, select Workspace > Specific tool
windows > CD.
Track List
You can edit tracks directly from the track list in the CD window.
Playback triggers
The following playback buttons are available:
Playback from start with a pre-roll.
-[Alt]/[Option]
Playback from start with a long pre-roll.
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Playback from start.
You can also hold [Ctrl]/[Command] and double-click a CD track
start marker triangle to start playback from the marker position.
Name
Shows the track name. To change the name, double-click in the
corresponding cell, and enter a new value.
Pause
Shows the pause between two tracks.
Start
Shows the start position of the track.
End
Shows the end position of the track.
Length
Shows the time value from the CD track start position to the
corresponding end or splice marker.
Pre-gap
Shows the pre-gap of a track.
Post-gap
Shows the post-gap of a track.
Lock
The key symbol indicates a track copy protection flag. Note that
not all CD-R units can handle this flag.
Emphasis
The rainbow-colored symbol indicates the emphasis flag. This
setting is used to indicate if the track was recorded with emphasis
or not. Activating/deactivating this option does not apply/remove
emphasis from the audio. It is just an indicator for how the file was
created.
ISRC
Lets you enter an ISRC code. To change the code, double-click
the corresponding cell, and enter a new value.
CD-Text
Lets you specify the CD-Text. To change the CD-Text,
double-click the corresponding cell, and enter a new value.
Comment
Allows you to enter a comment. To enter a comment, double-click
a cell.
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Functions Menu
Write Audio CD or DDP
Opens a dialog from which you start writing a CD.
Check CD conformity
Verifies that the settings for the audio montage are in accordance
with the Red Book standard.
CD Wizard
Opens a dialog that helps you generate and adjust CD markers.
Edit CD-Text
Opens the CD-Text editor that allows you to enter descriptive text
for the tracks that are written on CD.
Edit CD meta-data
Opens the CD Meta-data editor that allows you to associate
meta-data with each CD track. When rendering CD tracks via the
Render dialog, the audio files inherit this meta-data.
Generate Audio CD report
Opens a dialog that lets you create a text report that describes the
contents of the audio CD.
Play previous/next CD-track
This is used to audition the track before/after the selected track.
This depends on the pre-roll settings.
Play all CD-track starts
This is used to check the transitions between all tracks. In the Edit
playback times dialog of the CD window, you can set the
playback length of CD track starts.
Options Menu
Mode “Audio in pauses”
Usually, when you create a CD, only the sections between track
markers are written, and the pauses between tracks are replaced
by silence. However, if Mode “Audio in pauses” is activated, the
exact image of the audio montage is written, including any audio
between tracks. This makes it possible to hear audio either
between CD tracks or before the first track, for example, to create
a hidden track.
Show times relative to track #1
If this option is activated, the start of track #1 is the time code
reference, excluding any pause before that track.
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Show times relative to CD’s absolute zero
If this option is activated, the beginning of the CD, including any
pause before track #1, is the time code reference.
Time code with CD frames
If this option is activated, the time code is displayed in hours,
minutes, seconds, and CD frames.
Time code with milliseconds
If this option is activated, the time code is displayed in hours,
minutes, seconds, and milliseconds.
Pre-Roll mode
If this option is activated, all tracks start with a pre-roll time when
they are played back using the commands of the CD tool window.
Edit playback times
Opens a dialog to adjust time values that are related to CD track
playback.
Toolbar
The following indicators are only available on the toolbar of the CD
window:
Cursor Position Indicator
Indicates the position of the playback/edit cursor, relative to the
CD track start in which it is located.
UPC/EAN Code
Opens a dialog in which you can specify an UPC/EAN code.
Edit Playback Times Dialog
In this dialog, you can edit time values that are related to the playback of
the CD track when using the playback commands of the CD window.
In the Audio Montage workspace, in the CD window, select Options >
Edit playback times.
CD Track Pre-Roll
Specifies the time that passes before the start of a CD track to
help you evaluate the transition between one CD track and
another.
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Add One Second of Silence Before Playback
If this option is activated, WaveLab waits one second before
starting playback of the next CD track start. This improves the
listening experience.
Test Time
Specifies the playback length of CD track starts before jumping to
the next one. This applies when Play all CD-track starts is
selected in the CD window.
Meta-Data for CD Tracks
You can associate meta-data with each CD track or for the entire CD.
When rendering CD tracks via the Render dialog, the audio files can
inherit this meta-data.
Since standard CD Text is not unicode, it does not always provide the
optimum text data. To solve this issue, WaveLab provides variables.
For CD tracks, there are two type of variables:
•
Auto variables
•
Custom variables
Auto variables are automatically added by WaveLab. For example,
ISRC, track names, and CD-Text. Custom variables can be manually
edited to add additional meta-data for the track.
To see and edit the CD track meta-data, in the CD window, select
Functions > Edit CD meta-data.
NOTE
In this dialog, you prepare the meta-data. How they are stored, for
example, as ID3 or RIFF, is specified in the Meta-data dialog. See the
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meta-data chapter for more information about using the meta-data that
you have specified in the CD Meta-data dialog.
RELATED LINKS:
“Meta-Data” on page 176
Creating Audio CD Tracks From Clips
The CD Wizard tool lets you generate CD track and splice markers from
clip regions and crossfade points. You can use the Check CD
conformity option to check whether the audio montage is ready for
writing to audio CD.
PROCEDURE
1.
In the Audio Montage workspace, make sure that the audio
montage contains the material that you want on the audio CD.
CD tracks must have a length of at least 4 seconds.
2.
In the CD window, select Functions > CD Wizard, or click the CD
Wizard icon.
3.
Edit the settings in the CD Wizard dialog, and click Apply.
4.
Audition the tracks in the CD window, and make corrections if
necessary.
5.
In the CD window, select Functions > Check CD conformity.
•
If a warning message appears, make corrections and check the CD
conformity again.
•
If no warning message appears, the audio montage is ready to
write to audio CD.
CD Wizard Dialog
In this dialog, you can generate and adjust CD markers for audio
montages.
In the Audio Montage workspace, in the CD window, select Functions
> CD Wizard, or click the CD Wizard icon.
Generate CD Track Markers
If this option is activated, the CD Wizard automatically generates
CD track markers according to the sub-options.
Create markers at clip boundaries
If this option is activated, CD track start and end markers are
added at the beginning and end of all non-overlapping clips.
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Use splice markers (keep pauses within tracks)
If this option is activated, single splice markers are generated
instead of start/end markers. Instead of a standard pause, pause
spaces are generated. The pauses are kept within tracks. This can
be useful for electronic distribution and for compatibility with
portable players.
Create markers at crossfade points
If this option is activated, CD track splice markers are created at all
crossfade intersection points. Activate this option if you have clips
that overlap each other and that should become different tracks on
the CD.
Keep locked CD track markers
Normally, any previously created CD track markers in the montage
are removed by the CD Wizard. If Keep locked CD track markers
is activated, any locked CD track markers are kept.
CD marker naming
Allows you to set up a naming scheme.
Start marker
On this menu, select a naming scheme for the CD track start
markers. The following options are available:
•
As clips: The name of the closest clip.
•
Specific name: The name specified below.
•
Specific name + number X: The name and a number.
•
Specific name + number XX: The name and a number that is
padded on the left with 0.
•
Specific name + number (auto): As Specific name + number
XX, but only if the number of tracks is greater than 10.
•
Number X + specific name: A number and a name.
•
Number XX + specific name: A number that is padded on the left
with 0 and a name.
•
Number (auto) + specific name: As Number XX + specific
name, but only if the number of tracks is greater than 10.
•
Custom: Opens the Marker Naming dialog where you can
rename multiple markers according to specified settings.
End marker
On this menu, select the name of the CD track end marker. The
following options are available:
•
No name
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•
As start marker
•
As start maker + “(end)”
•
Custom
Adjust pauses before tracks
If this option is activated, pauses before tracks are automatically
adjusted according to the sub-options.
Set time
If this option is activated, you can specify the length of the pauses
between tracks.
Round existing pauses to closest second
If this option is activated, the existing pauses between tracks are
rounded to seconds.
Don’t change first pause
If this option is activated, the pause between the start of the
montage and the first track are not changed. If you change the
length of the pauses to anything other than 2 seconds and want to
be conform to the Red Book standard, you must activate this
option.
Adjust gaps between markers and sound (as CD frames)
If this option is activated, small adjustments to the spacing before
and after the CD track markers are made according to the
sub-options. This is useful to ensure that a low-quality CD player
does not miss the start of tracks or cuts them off before their actual
end. In most cases, the default settings are sufficient.
Silence after first track start marker
Lets you add a few frames of silence before the first track of the
CD. Usually, the pause needs to be longer for the first track than
for the other tracks to ensure that a low quality CD player does not
miss the start of the first track.
Silence after track start marker
Lets you add a few frames of silence before each track on the CD
to ensure that a low quality CD player does not miss the start of
tracks.
Silence before each track end marker
Lets you add a few frames of silence after each track of the CD to
ensure that a low quality CD player does not cut off tracks before
their actual end.
Silence before last track end marker
Lets you add a few frames of silence after the last track of the CD
to ensure that a low quality CD player does not cut off the end of
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About the CD Window
the track or that the listener is not disturbed by any clicks or motor
noise that the player makes at the end of a CD.
Ensure required minimum size for CD tracks
If this option is activated, markers are adjusted to ensure that each
CD track has the minimum length that the standard requires.
Quantize CD markers to nearest CD frame
If this option is activated, markers are quantized to the nearest CD
frame.
Generate ISRC codes
If this option is activated, ISRC codes for the CD tracks are
created. Each code is based on the code that is specified in this
option, but with an ending number that is set according to the
order of the tracks.
UPC/EAN code (13 digits)
Lets you specify an optional UPC/EAN code for the CD.
Audio in Pauses
When you normally write an audio montage on an audio CD, only the
sections between the CD markers are written, and the pauses between
tracks are replaced by silence. However, when Audio in pauses is
activated, the exact image of the audio montage is written on the CD,
including any audio between tracks.
Using Audio in Pauses
The following describes two use cases for the Audio in pauses
function.
Adjusting CD Track Markers to Hide Audio Sections
If you have a live recording with a section of applause between two
songs, you can move the track markers so that the applause section is
between the tracks and activate Audio in pauses. Thus the applause
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About Cloning Audio Montages
cannot be heard if you play any of the two tracks on their own, but you
can hear it when playing through the CD tracks.
PROCEDURE
1.
In the Audio Montage workspace, place the CD track end marker
of the first track at the position where the music ends, but before
the applause section.
2.
If necessary, place the CD track start marker of the following track
at the position where the music starts.
3.
Select Options > Mode “Audio in pauses”, or click the
corresponding icon on the toolbar.
Placing a Clip Before Track 1
You can create a hidden CD track before track 1, for example.
PROCEDURE
1.
In the Audio Montage workspace, place a clip without CD track
markers prior to the first track start marker in the audio montage.
NOTE
It is recommended that you do not place the hidden track at the very start
of the montage but leave a little room between the montage start and the
start of the hidden track.
2.
Select Options > Mode “Audio in pauses”, or click the
corresponding icon on the toolbar.
If you now select Functions > Check CD conformity, the audio CD
track list is valid, given that the rest of the montage is ok.
3.
Proceed with writing the CD.
To hear the hidden track after writing the disc, rewind from the start of
track 1.
About Cloning Audio Montages
When you clone an audio montage, you create a copy.There are two
different types of cloning: Clone and Clone completely.
Clone copies the audio montage and lets the new clips reference to the
original audio files. This is useful if you want to create several versions
of the audio montage, for example, to experiment with variations.
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However, any processing or editing that you apply to the actual audio
files are reflected in both audio montages.
Clone completely copies the audio montage and the actual audio files,
thus creating a new self-contained audio montage. There are several
uses for complete cloning:
•
Edit and process the audio files without affecting other audio
montages.
•
Create different versions of the audio montage that focus on a
certain aspect of the audio montage by removing any unused audio
sections.
•
Split audio files and give them specific names.
•
Reduce the size of an audio montage project by only using the
needed audio material.
NOTE
Clone completely does not render effects to files.
Cloning Audio Montages
This creates a copy of the audio montage in which the new clips
reference to the original audio files.
PROCEDURE
•
In the Audio Montage workspace, select File > Clone, or press
[Ctrl]/[Command], drag a tab, and drop it on the tab bar.
RESULT
A copy of the audio montage opens in another tab.
Cloning Audio Montages Completely
This creates a copy of the audio montage in which the actual audio files
are cloned, thus creating a new self-contained audio montage.
PROCEDURE
1.
In the Audio Montage workspace, select File > Export > Clone
completely.
2.
Specify a file name and destination path.
3.
In the How to recreate audio files section, select the type of
cloning.
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4.
Optional: Decide if you want to reset the clips names from the file
names and/or if you want to copy audio file markers by activating
the corresponding options.
5.
Click OK.
RESULT
A copy of the audio montage opens in another tab.
Complete Audio Montage Cloning Dialog
In this dialog, you can specify how the selected audio montage is
cloned.
In the Audio Montage workspace, select File > Export > Clone
completely.
Clone file name
The name of the file to write.
Destination path
The path where you want to create the audio montage clone and
all its audio files.
Recreate exact audio files
If this option is activated, the cloned audio files are exact copies of
the original files. Unused ranges are not removed.
The files are recreated and saved in an uncompressed format. For
example, an MP3 file that is included in an audio montage will be
recreated as a PCM file. In other words, the content is recreated,
not the file format.
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Optimally combine all audio files into as few audio files as possible
If this option is activated, all used ranges in the original audio files
are copied and combined into a single audio file to which the clips
in the clone refer. The file gets the same name as the audio
montage clone file.
NOTE
If the audio montage contains both mono and stereo clips, there will be
two combined audio files, one for mono material (with the suffix “M”) and
one for stereo material (with the suffix “S”).
Keep same number of files but remove unused ranges
If this option is activated, the same number of audio files is created,
but any unused ranges in the files are removed. This reduces the
file size.
Split files to remove unused ranges
If this option is activated, unused ranges in the files are removed,
and the file is split into several new files when a range is removed.
Create exactly one file per clip
If this option is activated, every clip in the audio montage clone
refers to a unique file, containing only the audio that is used in the
clip. The files are named after the clips. A number is added if
several clips have the same name.
Create one file per clip, avoid duplicates
If this option is activated, every clip in the audio montage clone
refers to a unique file, containing only the audio that is used in the
clip. The files are named after the clips. However, if two clips use
the same audio range, a common file is created for these clips.
Clips margins
Allows you to add a specified number of seconds before and after
the beginning and end of the clip range in the created audio files.
If you want to be able to lengthen the clips in the cloned audio
montage at a later stage, specify a clip margins value greater than
zero.
Reset clip names from file names
If this option is activated, the clips in the cloned audio montage get
the name of the corresponding audio file.
Copy audio file markers
If this option is activated, the markers in the original audio files are
included in the recreated files.
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About Cloning Audio Montages
Importing Audio Montage Copies
You can open a copy of an existing audio montage in various ways.
PROCEDURE
1.
In the Audio Montage workspace, select File > Import > Audio
montage copy.
2.
Select the audio montage that you want to open as a copy, and
click Open.
3.
In the Import audio montage copy dialog, select which parts of
the audio montage you want to include in the copy.
4.
Click OK.
Import Audio Montage Copy Dialog
In this dialog, you can specify which parts of the audio montage to
include in the copy of this audio montage.
In the Audio Montage workspace, select File > Import > Audio
montage copy, select an audio montage, and click Open.
Do not import clips
If this option is activated, the clips of the opened audio montage
are not imported. For example, this can be used to open an audio
montage with all the CD markers in place and to insert alternate
audio clips to compare them with the original audio montage.
Import markers
If this option is activated, the markers of the opened audio montage
are imported.
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Snapshots
Import track and master plug-ins
If this option is activated, the track and master plug-ins of the
opened audio montage are imported.
Reuse existing audio files
If this option is activated, the audio files of the opened audio
montage are used for the copy of this audio montage.
Duplicate audio files
If this option is activated, you can specify a name and destination
folder for the duplicates of the audio files to create a fully
independent audio montage.
Snapshots
You can save a number of snapshots of your audio montage, to capture
the current zoom factor, cursor position, scroll position, clip selection
status, and time range.
You can recall a particular view or snapshot at any time. Snapshots can
be named and updated.
To recall a snapshot, double-click its title in the list. This restores all of
its view settings. You can also choose to recall only specific view
properties by activating the corresponding checkbox for a snapshot.
Capturing the Current View
Capturing the current view saves the current zoom factor, cursor
position, scroll position, clip selection status, and time range.
PROCEDURE
1.
In the Audio Montage workspace, set up the view of the audio
montage window.
2.
In the Snapshots window, click the Take snapshot icon.
3.
Optional: To rename a snapshot, click its name and enter a new
name.
RESULT
A new snapshot is added to the snapshots list.
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Snapshots
Updating Snapshots
You can update a previously captured snapshot with the current view.
PROCEDURE
1.
In the Audio Montage workspace, in the Snapshots window, click
the snapshot that you want to update.
2.
Click the Update snapshot icon.
RESULT
The new snapshot replaces the selected snapshot.
Deleting Snapshots
PROCEDURE
1.
In the Audio Montage workspace, in the Snapshots window, click
the snapshot that you want to delete.
2.
Click the Delete snapshot icon.
Snapshots Window
In this window, you can take, recall, and edit snapshots.
In the Audio Montage workspace, select Workspace > Specific tool
windows > Snapshots.
Snapshot List
In the snapshot list, you can activate which view properties you want to
restore when applying a snapshot. You can activate the following view
properties:
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Restore zoom and scroll position
Restores the scroll position and zoom.
Restore cursor position
Restores the edit cursor position.
Restore time range selection
Restores the selected time range.
Restore clip selection status
Restores the selection status of each clip as well as the focused
clip.
Menu
Take snapshot
Saves the view settings into a new snapshot.
Update snapshot
Takes a snapshot and replaces the selected snapshot.
Delete snapshot
Deletes the selected snapshot.
Apply
Applies all checked view settings that are stored in the selected
snapshot. Double-click a snapshot for the same result.
Mixing Down - The Render Function
The render function in the Master Section allows you to mix down the
whole audio montage or sections of it to a single audio file or to several
files in case of a multichannel audio montage. It also allows you to render
to an audio CD, to a CD image and cue sheet, or to a new audio
montage.
A mixdown is necessary to produce an audio file from the audio
montage. The render function can be used for the following purposes:
•
Write a CD from a CPU-intensive audio montage, because it
allows you to first render all track and clip effect processing to
recreate a new audio montage and then write the CD in a second
pass.
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•
Render surround channels as multiple files while retaining the
stereo/mono status of the individual surround channels.
•
Create a CD image and cue-sheet.
•
Render audio montages to a single file or various parts to multiple
audio files in one operation. For example, you can render regions,
groups, clips, or CD tracks.
RELATED LINKS:
“Rendering” on page 423
Rendering to Audio File
PREREQUISITE
Set up your audio montage.
PROCEDURE
1.
In the Audio Montage workspace, select File > Export > Render.
2.
In the Render dialog, make your settings.
3.
If you want to render the audio montage to a single audio file, click
OK. If you want to render a multichannel audio montage to multiple
files or multichannel files, proceed with the next step.
4.
Activate Create named file.
5.
Click the File format field.
6.
In the Audio File Format dialog, click the Channels field.
7.
From the pop-up menu, select Multi Mono or Multi Stereo/Mono,
and click OK.
8.
Click OK.
RESULT
The audio montage is rendered.
If you render a surround mix to Multi Stereo/Mono files, the
mono/stereo status of the rendered files reflect the mono/stereo status
of the surround channels. If the audio montage uses a 6 channel (5.1)
surround mode, two stereo files (Lf/Rf and Ls/Rs) and two mono files
(C/Lfe) are rendered. The names of the rendered files reflect the name
of the surround channel to which they belong.
If you render an 8 channel configuration using the Multi Stereo/Mono
option, the channels are grouped as logical pairs (1-2, 3-4, etc.). Thus,
for tracks that are routed to only one channel in a pair, a mono file is
created.
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Audio Montage
Loudness Meta Normalizer
Under Windows, you can also render single multichannel surround files
in the WMA 5.1 and 7.1 formats. Use the Windows Media Audio 9
Professional encoder.
Loudness Meta Normalizer
This tool is a key mastering component to ensure that all songs get the
same loudness and to prevent clipping. It allows you to adjust the
loudness of each clip in the audio montage so that they all have the
same loudness. It is also possible to adjust the loudness of the audio
montage mix down as well as the loudness at the Master Section output.
This tool operates on gains. It does not affect the underlying audio files
or use any audio compressor.
If it is not possible to match the loudness in a given clip without clipping,
the level of the other clips is reduced so that all clips still achieve the
same loudness. This does not happen if the Ignore peaks option is
selected.
To avoid clipping at the Master Section stage, you can limit the mixdown
output of the audio montage before it goes into the Master Section
and/or the Master Section output.
The loudness is computed according to the EBU R-128 specification.
The reference loudness can either be the loudness of the loudest clip,
of a given clip, or a specific custom value.
There are three possible loudness references:
•
Loudness of an entire file (EBU R-128 recommendation).
•
Top of a loudness range, that is, the average loudest 3 second
audio section of the file. This ensures that a single unusually loud
sound is not taken into account for the reference.
•
Maximum short-term loudness, that is, the maximum loudness that
is found in a 3 second audio section of the file, for example, the
loudness of a short music passage.
NOTE
The audio path in the audio montage uses 32-bit floating point
processing. You can therefore overload it, for example, use levels above
0 dB in clips, without causing clipping in the signal path. The only
section of the audio path that can introduce clipping is the output of the
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Loudness Meta Normalizer
Master Section or the output of the audio montage. Both of these issues
can also be solved by the Loudness Meta Normalizer.
NOTE
Since loudness requires several seconds of audio to be correctly
computed, this tool is not adapted for very short clips (under 3
seconds).
Loudness Meta Normalizer Dialog
In this dialog, you can adjust the loudness of each clip in the audio
montage so that they get the same loudness. You can also adjust the
whole output, while taking the EBU R-128 audio measurement
recommendation and a true peak analysis into account.
In the Audio Montage workspace, select Tools > Loudness Meta
Normalizer.
Clips, Master Section Output, and Audio Montage Output
•
When Clips is activated, the gain settings of all clips in the audio
montage are adjusted individually so that all clips play back at
equal loudness.
•
When Audio montage output is activated, the general gain
setting of the audio montage is modified so that the audio montage
mixdown matches a given loudness and optionally does not clip.
•
When Master section output is activated, the Master Section
gain is adjusted so that the audio montage mixdown that is
processed through all Master Section plug-ins matches a given
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loudness and optionally does not clip. The audio montage itself is
not modified by this operation.
The following options are available for the gain settings of clips, the
audio montage output, and the Master Section output.
Match loudness menu
Select whether the audio montage output should match a given
loudness or not. The following options are available:
•
Do not change loudness
•
Match loudest clip
•
Match focused clip
•
Match specific loudness
Loudness
Determines the specific loudness to match. For example, -23 LUFS
if you want to follow the EBU R-128 recommendation for
broadcast.
Reference menu
Select the loudness, that WaveLab should reference:
•
Loudness of the entire clip (EBU R-128 recommendation)
•
Average loudest 3 second audio section (Top of loudness range)
•
Loudest 3 seconds audio section (Maximum short-term
loudness)
Peaks menu
Select whether WaveLab should limit the sample values (digital
peaks), the analog reconstructed samples (true peaks), or ignore
the peaks.
This setting is less important for clips, as the whole audio montage
mixdown can be further reduced.
Maximum peak
Determines the maximum peak value that is not to be exceeded.
Additional Options
Exclude audio montage effects
If this option is activated, audio montage effects are not taken into
account when you use the Loudness Meta Normalizer for
processing.
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Navigator Window
Only selected clips
If this option is activated, only selected clips are processed with
the Loudness Meta Normalizer.
Navigator Window
This window displays a representative view of the entire active audio
montage and allows you to quickly navigate around it. It is useful if you
have a large audio montage with many tracks and clips.
In the Audio Montage workspace, select Workspace > Specific tool
windows > Navigator.
Each clip is represented by a colored block. The visible window content
is shown by a black rectangle.
Navigating in the Navigator Window
Navigating in the Navigator window allows you to quickly find positions
in large audio montages.
Dragging this rectangle in any direction scrolls the main audio montage
window, thus allowing you to easily navigate to a location in your audio
montage.
•
To adjust the visible range of the active window, you can resize the
selection rectangle vertically and horizontally by dragging its
edges. You can also resize by [Shift]-clicking the selection
rectangle.
•
To zoom in on a clip, left-click its block, or double-click if the clip
is inside the black rectangle.
•
To completely zoom out, right-click anywhere.
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Notes Window
Notes Window
This window allows you to keep notes about the current audio montage
session.
In the Audio Montage workspace, select Workspace > Specific tool
windows > Notes.
You can type into the window and use the standard HTML text editor
controls to format your text, add images, and lists. The notes are saved
with the audio montage file.
About Groups
Groups are a selection of clips that you can quickly re-select via the
Groups window in the Audio Montage workspace, or by clicking any
clip of a group.
NOTE
Groups can be seen as a clip selection facility. For advanced grouping
features, see the chapter about super clips.
A clip cannot be part of more than one group. If you add a clip to a
group, it is automatically removed from any other group. You can select
a specific color for a group to make it easy to discern it in the track view.
You can render all groups as individual files in the Render dialog of the
Master Section.
•
To create nested groups, drag a group into another group.
•
To temporarily deactivate a group, deactivate the checkbox to the
left of a group in the list. When a group is deactivated, you can
move individual clips in the group as if they were not grouped.
•
To rename a group, double-click its name.
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About Groups
•
To select all clips of a group in your audio montage for editing, click
a group.
RELATED LINKS:
“Super Clips” on page 299
Groups Window
This window displays a list of groups within the current audio montage.
In the Audio Montage workspace, select Workspace > Specific tool
windows > Groups.
Group selected clips
Adds all selected clips to a group.
Remove selected group
Removes the group that is selected in the list. The clips in the
group are not affected.
A mouse click selects a group
If this option is activated, selecting a clip in the track view
automatically selects all clips in the same group.
If this option is deactivated, selecting a whole group requires that
you click the group name in the groups view list. This is useful if you
want to be able to modify the relative positions of clips in the group
without having to remove them from the group.
Color
Lets you select a color for the group.
Grouping Clips
PROCEDURE
1.
In the Audio Montage workspace, select the clips that you want to
group.
2.
In the Groups window, select Group selected clips.
3.
Enter a name for the group, and click OK.
RESULT
The new group appears in the group list. The group name is prepended
to the names of the clips that are included in the group. This applies to
the clip names on each track.
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About Groups
Adding Clips to an Existing Group
PROCEDURE
1.
In the montage window, select the clips that you want to group.
2.
In the Groups window, select Group selected clips.
3.
Select the group to which you want to add the clips, and click OK.
Removing Groups
PROCEDURE
1.
In the Audio Montage workspace, in the Groups window, select a
group.
2.
Select Functions > Remove selected group.
RESULT
The group is removed, and the clips are not affected.
Coloring Groups
Coloring groups in different colors makes it easier to navigate through
the groups.
PROCEDURE
1.
In the Audio Montage workspace, in the Groups window, select a
group.
2.
From the Color menu, select a color.
Any individual color selections for the clips override the group color.
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Audio Montage
Backing Up Audio Montages
Backing Up Audio Montages
The Audio Montage workspace backup mechanism allows you to
maintain previous versions of saved audio montages and automatically
save the audio montage.
Whenever you save the audio montage, the previously saved version is
copied to the subfolder “Backup.mon” which is in the same folder as the
audio montage file. This backup folder is automatically created by
WaveLab. The backup files are named “Montage_#X”, where
“Montage” is the name of the audio montage and “X” is a number.
You can specify how many previous versions you want to keep
(maximum 1000). Once the specified number of backups is created, the
oldest file is overwritten each time the audio montage is backed up.
NOTE
The numbers in the backup file names are not related to the age of the
backup files. Instead, you must check the dates of the files to know
which backup is the most recent.
Unsaved and untitled audio montages are also backed up. The backup
files for “Untitled” audio montages are saved in the temporary folder, and
use a number as name, so that the files are called “Y_#X”, where “Y” is
a number identifying the audio montage, and “X” is the number of the
backup file. Once the audio montage is saved, these temporary backup
files can be discarded.
Setting Up the Audio Montage Backup
You can specify the number of audio montage backups and define how
often the backup should be updated.
PROCEDURE
1.
In the Audio Montage workspace, select Options > Audio
montage preferences.
2.
Select the All Audio Montages tab.
3.
Specify the maximum number of backups.
To turn off the backup function, set this setting to 0.
4.
Optional: Activate Auto save, and specify how often the backup
should be updated.
5.
Click OK.
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Multichannel Operations in the Audio Montage
Opening an Audio Montage Backup
You can open the backup of an audio montage to restore a former
version of the audio montage.
PROCEDURE
•
In the Audio Montage workspace, select File > Open previous
version.
RESULT
If the audio montage has no unsaved changes, the most recent backup
file is opened in a new window. If you select the function from an open
backup file, the previous backup version is opened.
If the audio montage has unsaved changes, the saved audio montage
file is opened in a new window. The opened audio montage is not a
backup file. This is not the same as selecting File > Revert to saved.
Revert to saved closes the current (unsaved) audio montage and
opens the last saved version. This replaces the current audio montage,
while Open previous version opens the saved version in a new window
without closing the current, unsaved version.
Multichannel Operations in the Audio
Montage
WaveLab supports the use of up to 8 ASIO inputs and outputs. If you
use a multichannel audio interface with an ASIO driver, you can route
audio montage tracks to up to 8 separate channel outputs and to up to
6 surround outputs.
You can also record up to 8 channels simultaneously. This automatically
creates new tracks in the montage, one for each recorded channel or
channel pair.
To be able to use WaveLab for multichannel/surround projects, you
need the following:
•
An audio card/interface with multiple inputs and outputs (at
least 8).
•
Set up an ASIO driver in the VST Audio Connections dialog, and
specify how the internal input/output channels are connected to
your audio card.
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Multichannel Operations in the Audio Montage
Multichannel Configuration
You can configure the number of channels to use for each audio
montage. All multichannel configurations except the free configuration
mode have surround formats and are internally assigned to surround
channels in WaveLab. This means that the channels go through the
Master Section and then to the audio card.
The are two operational modes that you can use for multichannel
operation:
•
In the Multichannel, DVD-Audio compatible mode, in surround
mode, tracks can be routed to one or several surround output
channels (Left/Right Front, Center, etc.). You can route up to 6
surround channels.
•
In the Multichannel, free configuration mode, channels refer to
the names of the 8 WaveLab output channels instead of the
surround channels. Track channels can be routed to one (mono
tracks) or two (stereo tracks) of the 8 available output channels.
Which configuration you should select depends on a number of factors:
•
The number of outputs that are available on your audio card. If you
only have 4 outputs on your card, you can only use surround
formats with 4 or less channels.
•
Whether or not you intend to mix the audio montage to a surround
format. If not, select normal stereo operation or 8 channel mode
which is non-surround-oriented.
•
The intended use of the final surround mix. For example, if you want
your mix to be compatible with the 5.1 surround set-up, select 6
channel mode.
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Assigning Track Channels to Output Channels
When you select a multichannel configuration, you must create and
assign track channels to surround output channels manually. However,
when you import a multichannel interleaved audio file in the 5.1 format,
tracks that are routed to the corresponding surround channels are
automatically created.
PROCEDURE
1.
In the Audio Montage workspace, in the track control area, click
the Audio Track Dispatching button for an audio track.
2.
In the Audio Track Dispatching dialog, route each channel of a
track to an output channel by activating the corresponding
channels.
Which channels are available depends on the selected channel
configuration.
3.
Click OK.
RESULT
If you have selected a surround format, you can route a track channel to
several or all surround output channels. If you select more than one
output channels for a stereo track channel, the Surround Panner
automatically appears in the track control area for the corresponding
track.
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Multichannel Operations in the Audio Montage
Audio Track Dispatching Dialog
In this dialog, you set up to which channels the top and bottom audio
channels of the audio montage are sent. The available channels depend
on the selected channel configuration, for example, stereo or
multichannel.
In the Audio Montage workspace, in the track control area, click the
Audio Track Dispatching button for an audio track.
Top audio channel is sent to
Lets you select to which audio montage audio outputs the left
channel of the track is sent and mixed.
Bottom audio channel is sent to
Lets you select to which audio montage audio outputs the right
channel of the track is sent and mixed.
Low pass filtering of the LFE channel
If an LFE output is selected, a low pass filter (12 dB/octave) can be
applied to the track signal so that only the low frequency content
can pass. The cutoff frequency for the filter can be adjusted.
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Surround Panning
You can use surround panning to position a track freely in the surround
image.
The Surround Panner lets you adjust the pan of your audio between
surround sound channels. Each track can have its own Surround
Panner window, and several of these windows can be open at the same
time.
Using Surround Panning
You can route any audio montage channel of a track directly to a
surround channel or to a combination of surround channels using the
Audio Track Dispatching dialog. However, if you also want to position
a track freely in the surround image, you can use the Surround Panner.
In this example, it is assumed that you have set up an audio montage in
5.1 surround format and that you want to use the Surround Panner for a
stereo track.
PROCEDURE
1.
In the Audio Montage workspace, in the track control area, click
the Audio Track Dispatching button for the track that you want to
use for surround panning.
2.
In the Audio Track Dispatching dialog, activate the surround
channels.
You can activate different surround channel combinations for the top
(left) and bottom (right) audio channels.
3.
Click OK.
A Surround Panner display appears in the track control area.
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4.
Click and drag in the Surround Panner display to make coarse
adjustments.
For a more precise control of the imaging, right-click the Surround
Panner display to open a larger version of the Surround Panner.
5.
In the Surround Panner dialog, click the blue square and move
the mouse.
This pans the audio of the left/top channel. The other channel is
automatically mirrored horizontally. Right-click the display to choose from
a number of positioning presets.
6.
To view and edit the other channel, click the gray square.
The gray square turns to red, and red speaker lines indicate the speaker
levels.
7.
When you have finished your settings, click Close.
Surround Panner Dialog
This dialog allows you to adjust the pan of your audio between surround
sound channels.
In the Audio Montage workspace, set up a multichannel, DVD-Audio
compatible audio montage, and select 2 or more output channels per
track channel. For each track that is set to Surround in the Audio Track
Dispatching dialog, a small Surround Panner window is displayed in the
track view.
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Right-click on the small Surround Panner window to open the Surround
Panner dialog.
In the graphic display, the positions of the left/right audio channels of the
clip are shown as small squares. The proportional signal levels of the
individual speakers are indicated by colored lines from the speakers to
the center of the display.
The graphic display shows the surround imaging of either the left/top
(blue) track audio channel, or the right/bottom (red) track audio channel.
The color of the speaker lines shows which channel is selected for
viewing and editing.
If you are viewing the left/top channel, you see a blue square indicating
the position of the audio. The other, gray square represents the other
channel. Click the gray square to view and edit this channel. The gray
square turns to red and red speaker lines indicate the speaker levels.
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Center
Determines how much the track signal should be mixed into the
audio montage output corresponding to the center speaker. This
is only available if the Center channel is activated in the Audio
Track Dispatching dialog.
Divergence
Determines the attenuation curve that is used when positioning
sound sources. If this is set to 0 %, positioning a sound source on
a speaker sets all other speakers to zero level, except for the center
speaker which depends on the center level. With higher values, the
other speakers receive a percentage of the sound source. This
makes the sound less localized.
Front/Rear ratio
Determines how much the front and rear levels are affected by the
vertical positioning in the Surround Panner dialog. The higher the
ratio, the less difference exists between sounds that are panned
front and rear. If set to 100 %, the rear and front levels are always
the same.
Constant power
Determines whether the loudness (RMS) or the level of the
summed signals should be preserved. If set to 100 %, the total
loudness is the same regardless of panning settings. If set to 0 %,
the total level is preserved.
LFE Gain
Sets the amount of signal that are sent to the LFE channel. This is
only available if the LFE channel is activated in the Audio Track
Dispatching dialog.
Copy
Copies the settings of the selected Surround Panner to the
clipboard.
Paste
Applies the copied settings to the Surround Panner.
Presets menu
Right-click the graphical view of the Surround Panner to select
from different surround panning presets.
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About Surround Pan Envelopes
You can automate surround panning for individual clips using
envelopes. This is slightly different from using regular volume and pan
envelopes.
•
Internally, there is a single surround pan envelope where each
envelope point contains a complete surround state (left-right
position, front-rear position, and LFE amount).
•
When you look at the envelope for a clip, you can choose to view
either the left-right, front-rear, or the LFE curve.
•
When setting envelope points for either one of the envelope types,
that point is automatically added to the other envelope types at the
same position in the clip. This happens because there is actually
only one surround pan envelope. However, you can only edit a part
of it at the same time.
Setting Up Surround Panning Envelopes
You can use the Surround Panner to program each envelope point. This
makes it easy to set up automated surround panning for a clip.
If you want the signal to start at the front center position, then move to
the left rear speaker, and finally move to the right rear speaker, do the
following:
PROCEDURE
1.
In the Audio Montage workspace, set up a track for surround
panning by activating the surround channels in the Audio Track
Dispatching dialog.
2.
Select the clip, and open the Focused Clip window.
3.
On the Envelope panel, select one of the Surround Pan
envelopes.
For example, Surround Pan (Left <-> Right).
4.
In the montage window, double-click the envelope to add a new
envelope point in the middle of the clip.
This will be the position where the signal reaches the left rear speaker.
Only the position in the clip is important when you create envelope points
at this stage, not the vertical position of the point.
5.
In the track control area, right-click the Surround Panner display.
6.
In the montage window, select the envelope point at the start of the
clip.
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7.
Use the Surround Panner dialog to position the sound. In our
example, the panning should start in the front center position. Drag
the position square to the top middle of the display. You can also
right-click the display and select the Front Center preset.
8.
In the montage window, select the next envelope point in the clip,
and in the dialog, drag the position square to the lower left corner
of the display. You can also right-click the display and select the
Rear left preset.
9.
In the montage window, select the last envelope point, and in the
dialog, drag the position square to the lower right corner of the
display. You can also right-click the display and select the Rear
right preset.
The left-right surround envelope curve now looks like this:
10. In the Focused Clip window, on the Envelope panel, select
Surround Pan (Front <-> Rear).
The Front-Rear surround envelope curve looks like this:
11. Play back the clip.
You should hear the sound move from center front to left rear to right
rear.
12. To create more complex surround panning, add more envelope
points and program these in the same way.
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Editing Envelope Curves Directly
You can edit the envelope curves without affecting other panning
settings, by adjusting their points in the clip. This can be useful if you
only want to change the LFE amount without affecting panning, or if you
only want to change the left-right panning without affecting front-rear
panning and vice versa.
NOTE
If you move an envelope point in time, all surround pan envelopes are
affected in the same way.
About the Multichannel, DVD-Audio Compatible Mode
When the Multichannel, DVD-Audio compatible mode is activated for an
audio montage, you can choose between various multichannel
configurations. The surround channels can be handled as mono or
stereo channels.
In the Audio Montage properties dialog, select Multichannel,
DVD-Audio compatible. In the Channels menu, the following
multichannel configurations are available:
Surround channel
Description
Left/Right front
(Lf, Rf)
This is used in all surround configurations. These correspond
to standard left/right stereo speaker positions in front of the
listener. You should route a stereo track to these channels.
Center (C)
This is placed in between the Lf/Rf surround speakers.
You should route a mono track to this channel.
Low Frequency
Effects (LFE)
The LFE channel is connected to a subwoofer and provides
low frequency content (normally below 120 Hz). It normally
used to provide special low frequency effects like deep
rumbles, explosions, etc. For each channel that is routed to
the LFE channel, there is a low-pass filter that allows you to
extend or lower the low frequency range that is reproduced
by the LFE channel. There are no strict rules for where to
place the LFE subwoofer, but it is usually placed in an
asymmetrical position beside the center speaker. You should
route a mono track to this channel.
Surround (S)
This is sometimes referred to as the back surround channel
and is normally placed in between the left/right surround
channels. You should route a mono track to this channel.
Left/Right Surround
(Ls, Rs)
These are placed behind the listening position, mirroring
the left/right front speakers. You should route a stereo
track to these channels.
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About the Free Configuration Mode
When the free configuration channel mode is selected, you can route
track channels to one of the 8 output channels. Free configuration mode
is non-surround oriented and enables you to use the audio montage as
an 8 channel recording/playback environment.
To activate this mode, select Edit > Audio montage properties, and
from the Mode menu, select Multichannel, free configuration.
Channels are grouped as stereo pairs (1-2, 3-4, etc.), which is reflected
in the Master Section and when rendering to multiple files.
About the Enable Additional DVD-Audio Configurations Option
The DVD-Audio specification allows for mixed sample resolutions within
the same channel configuration, which therefore needs to be divided
into two separate groups. For example, the Lf/Rf channel group could,
according to the standard, have a higher sample rate resolution than the
other surround channels in the same configuration.
The slash in the surround channel menu indicates which channels
belong to which group.
However, the use of mixed resolutions is not supported in WaveLab and
disabled by default.
To allow all possible modes, in the Audio Montage properties dialog,
select Multichannel, DVD-Audio compatible mode, and activate
Enable additional DVD-Audio configurations.
Multichannel Recording
You can record up to 8 channels simultaneously in the audio montage.
Multichannel Recording Preparations
PREREQUISITE
Set up how the inputs on your audio card are connected to the internal
channels of WaveLab.
PROCEDURE
1.
In the transport bar of the Audio Montage workspace, click the
Record button, or press [*] on the numeric key pad.
2.
From the File to create section, select whether to create a named
file or a temporary file.
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3.
Specify a file name and the location where you want to store the file.
4.
Click the audio format text to open the Audio File Format dialog.
5.
Select the audio file format.
6.
On the Channels menu, select Multi Stereo/Mono or Multi
Mono.
Multi Stereo/Mono produces single stereo or mono files, depending on
the activated channels in the Recording channels dialog. The channels are
logically grouped as pairs (1-2, 3-4, etc.). This governs the mono/stereo
status of the recorded files and the tracks they will end up on. For example,
if you have activated the channels 1, 2, and 3, one stereo file (containing
channels 1 and 2) and one mono file (channel 3) will be created.
7.
Click OK.
8.
On the menu below the file format, select Add to focused track
of montage.
9.
Select Set input, activate the channels from which you want to
record, and click OK.
For each of the activated recording channels, a meter is displayed in the
Recording dialog.
10. Optional: Make further settings.
Recording a Multichannel Project
PREREQUISITE
Prepare a multichannel recording.
PROCEDURE
1.
In the Audio Montage workspace, set the edit cursor where you
want to start recording.
2.
In the Recording dialog, click Record.
3.
When you have finished recording, click Stop.
When you record on multiple channels, new tracks are automatically
created in the audio montage, one for each mono or stereo clip that is
recorded. Each track is routed to the same output by default, but can be
routed to any output that is used in the current configuration in the Audio
track dispatching dialog.
RESULT
If you have activated more than 2 input channels in the Recording
channels dialog and select any channel option except the Multi Mono
or Multi Stereo/ Mono options, the activated recording inputs are
mixed and produce a single file (or two if you selected Dual Mono).
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Multichannel Configurations in the Master Section
The Master Section automatically rearranges itself when starting play
back of a multichannel audio montage. You can rearrange the Master
Section without starting playback by clicking the Rearrange icon at the
top of the Master Section.
The output channels for the selected channel configuration are
displayed in the Master Section, with one level fader and clip indicator
for each output channel.
Stereo Mixdown of a Multichannel Configuration
The Stereo button in the Master Section allows you to monitor a stereo
mixdown of the Master Section outputs.
You can use this for the following:
•
Preview a stereo mixdown of a surround mix.
•
Preview stereo mixdown settings for DVD-Audio projects.
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Audio Montage
XML Export and Import of Audio Montages
Master Effects and Multichannel Audio Montages
Handling effects for a multichannel audio montage is similar to handling
effects when working in stereo mode. However, not all plug-ins support
multichannel operations. In this case, a warning is displayed when you
try to insert them.
XML Export and Import of Audio Montages
You can export and import audio montages as XML.
This option can be used for the following:
•
Change many file names that are used by the audio montage.
•
Generate audio montages from scratch or from a template.
•
Compare two audio montages with a text file comparing tool.
Exporting and Importing XML Files
•
To export an audio montage to XML, in the Audio Montage
workspace, select File > Export > Export as XML file.
•
To import an audio montage that was previously saved as an XML
file, in the Audio Montage workspace, select File > Import >
Audio Montage as XML file.
AES-31 Files Export and Import
The AES-31 standard is an open file interchange format for overcoming
format incompatibility issues between different audio hardware and
software. It can be used for transferring projects via disk or network from
one workstation to another, retaining time positions of events, fades, etc.
AES-31 uses Broadcast Wave as the default audio file format. AES-31
files can be transferred to and used with any digital audio workstation
that supports AES-31, regardless of the used hardware and software,
as long as the workstation can read Broadcast Wave files.
The exported files are XML files but with the extension .adl (audio
decision list).
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AES-31 Files Export and Import
Exporting AES-31 Files
When exporting audio montages to an AES-31 file, the file contains all
audio track data, including audio file references.
PROCEDURE
1.
In the Audio Montage workspace, select File > Export > Export
as AES-31 file.
2.
Specify a name and file location, and click Save.
3.
In the AES-31 Export options dialog, edit the settings, and click OK.
AES-31 Export Options Dialog
In this dialog, you can set up the behavior of the AES-31 export.
In the Audio Montage workspace, select File > Export > Export as
AES-31 file, specify a name and file location, and click Save.
Render linear fades as audio files
If this option is activated, linear fades, which are dynamically
computed by WaveLab, are rendered to small audio files while
preserving the exact audio effect.
Render curved fades as audio files
If this option is activated, complex fades, which are dynamically
computed by WaveLab, are rendered to small audio files while
preserving the exact audio effect.
Render crossfades as audio files
If this option is activated, crossfades, which are dynamically
computed by WaveLab, are rendered to small audio files while
preserving the exact audio effect.
Skip muted clips
If this option is activated, muted clips are not included in the AES-31 file.
After exporting, import file
If this option is activated, the exported file is immediately imported.
This lets you check the export result.
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AES-31 Files Export and Import
Importing AES-31 Files
PROCEDURE
1.
In the Audio Montage workspace, select File > Import > AES-31
file.
2.
In the file browser, select the AES-31 file that you want to import,
and click Open.
3.
In the AES-31 Import options dialog, edit the settings, and click
OK.
RESULT
The imported AES-31 file opens as a new, untitled audio montage that
contains all the audio tracks that are stored in the AES-31 file.
AES-31 Import Options Dialog
In this dialog, you can set up the behavior of the AES-31 import.
In the Audio Montage workspace, select File > Import, and open an
AES-31 file.
Use linear fade files if available (otherwise, create dynamic fades)
If this option is activated, the available audio files for linear fades
are used. If no files are available, dynamic fades are created.
Use curved fade files if available (otherwise, create dynamic fades)
If this option is activated, the available audio files for complex fades
are used. If no files are available, dynamic fades are created.
About Importing AES-31 Files Created in Nuendo
By importing an AES-31 file, you can, for example, import a project that
was created in Steinberg’s Nuendo into WaveLab.
In this case, it is possible to add specific codes to the marker names in
Nuendo to facilitate their conversion into WaveLab-specific markers.
For example, if an AES-31 file that was exported in Nuendo is imported
into WaveLab, the markers that it contains are interpreted as WaveLab
markers upon import.
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AES-31 Files Export and Import
For the CD track markers, you can use the following codes:
Marker Type
Marker Code
Example Marker Name
CD track start
[t-start]
“So it begins [t-start]”
CD track end
[t-end]
“The end [t-end] of the
road”
CD track splice
[t-splice]
Intermission [t-splice]
CD track index
[t-index]
[t-index] Hello
•
You must use Nuendo 2.0 or later if you want to create specially
named markers that are interpreted as WaveLab markers.
•
In Nuendo, a marker track must be created for the specially named
markers.
•
When importing AES-31 projects that contain specially named
markers, the marker codes are not displayed in WaveLab.
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Recording
You can record audio in the Audio Files workspace and in the Audio
Montage workspace.
Setting Up the Recording Dialog
Before you start recording, set up the Recording dialog.
PROCEDURE
1.
In the Audio Files workspace or the Audio Montage workspace,
click the Record button, or press [*] on the numeric key pad.
2.
In the File to create section, open the pop-up menu, and select
whether you want to record a named file or a temporary file.
3.
In the File to create section, select a file name and the location
where you want to store your file.
4.
Select the audio format by doing one of the following:
5.
•
Click the down arrow button to select a preset audio format.
•
Click the audio format text to open the Audio File Format dialog,
select the format, and click OK.
Select whether you want to record to an audio file or an audio
montage track, by selecting one of the following options:
•
Create new audio file window
•
Add to active audio file
•
Add to focused track of montage
6.
Select an Input mode, depending on whether you want to record
the audio card input or the playback output.
7.
Select Set input, activate the channels that you want to record to,
and click OK.
For each of the activated recording channels, a meter is displayed in the
Recording dialog.
8.
Select whether you want the Level or the Spectrum display.
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Dropping Markers During Recording
9.
Optional: Make further settings in the Options section, and on the
Options and the Values tabs.
10. Click Record, to start recording.
If you have selected one of the Auto-start options, the recording goes
into Pause mode, until the specified Auto-start criteria are met.
The background of the Recording dialog turns red to indicate that you
are recording.
11. Optional: You can pause the recording by clicking the Pause
button.
12. Optional: You can drop markers in the file during recording by
clicking the drop marker buttons.
13. When you have finished recording, click Stop.
14. Optional: If you want to record another take, click Record again.
Dropping Markers During Recording
When you are recording, you can click the marker buttons to add a
marker to the recorded file.
PROCEDURE
1.
Open the Recording dialog.
2.
Optional: If you want to name the markers that you drop rather than
using generic markers, do the following:
3.
•
Activate Recording > Options tab > Confirm name of markers
to drop.
•
On the Method tab, type the name in the Next marker name field.
Make your settings and start recording.
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Recording
Recording Dialog
4.
Select the type of marker that you want to drop.
•
To drop a numbered generic marker, click the yellow marker
button, or press [Ctrl]/[Command]-M.
•
To drop numbered generic region start and end markers, click the
white buttons, or press [Ctrl]/[Command]-L/[Ctrl]/[Command]-R.
When you chose to confirm marker names to drop, a dialog appears
each time you drop a marker. In this dialog, you can enter a name and
specify an offset, which allows you to place a marker at a specific time
before you triggered the command.
RESULT
The markers are dropped each time that you click the marker button.
NOTE
If you insert two or more region start markers in a row with no region end
markers in between, only the last of these start markers is kept. The
same applies for region end markers.
Recording Dialog
In this dialog, you can make recording settings and start recording an
audio file.
In the Audio Files workspace or the Audio Montage workspace, click the
Record button or select Transport > Record.
Main Buttons
Record
Starts recording. Depending on the recording options, the Pause
mode is activated.
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Recording Dialog
Split now
Opens the audio already recorded in a new window while
recording continues. By clicking this button, you can decide when
the splitting occurs. The button is activated if you are recording a
named file, you are not pausing, and Split mode is not activated.
Pause
Pauses recording.
Stop
Stops recording.
Discard
Stops recording and deletes anything recorded so far.
Method Tab
On this tab, you can define options for starting, stopping, and pausing
the recording automatically. You can select an input device and choose
to start a recording at a specific time or stop if after a specific duration.
File to create
Specify whether you want to record a temporary file to be saved
later, or record to a file with a specific name and location.
Auto number from
If this option is activated, increasing numbers are added to the file
names of the successively saved files.
Name
The name of the file to be written, without the path. When typing,
all files in the selected folder that start with the same letters are
displayed. To display all files in the selected folder, click the list
icon.
Where
Specifies the folder where you want to save the recording.
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Recording
Recording Dialog
Audio File Format
Opens the Audio File Format dialog, where you can specify the
file format.
Location of the Recording
Specifies where the audio is recorded:
•
In a new audio file window.
•
In an existing audio file is inserted at the edit cursor position (if
none exists, a new one is created).
•
In an existing audio montage is inserted at the edit cursor position
(if none exists, a new one is created).
Input
Specify if you want to record the audio device input or the audio
output from the Master Section.
Set input
If you are using an ASIO driver, this button opens the Recording
channels dialog, where you can activate channels for recording.
Up to 8 input channels can be used simultaneously. When
additional inputs are selected, the number of meters in the dialog
is automatically updated.
Auto-start if sound detected
If this option is activated, recording starts when the audio input
level exceeds the threshold level specified on the Values tab.
Auto-start at given time
If this option is activated, recording starts at a specified time
according to the computer clock. Specify the time on the Values
tab.
Auto-stop after given duration
If this option is activated, recording stops automatically after the
duration specified on the Values tab.
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Recording
Recording Dialog
Auto-stop if silence
If this option is activated, recording automatically stops when the
audio input level drops below a specified threshold level and stays
there for a certain amount of time. Specify the level and the
duration on the Values tab.
Auto-pause if silence
If this option is activated, recording automatically pauses when the
audio input level drops below a specified threshold level and stays
there for a certain amount of time. Specify the level and the
duration on the Values tab.
Auto-create markers at pause point
If this option is activated, a generic marker is created each time you
click Pause during recording.
Auto-create markers at silence points
If this option is activated, a generic marker is created each time the
audio input level drops below a specified threshold level and stays
there for a certain amount of time. You specify the level and the
duration on the Values tab.
Split mode
If this option is activated, the recording is split into several audio
files. The files can be split either by size (after a certain amount of
MB), or by duration (after a certain amount of time). Split mode is
useful if you make long continuous audio recordings, such as live
recordings.
•
This option is only available when Named File is selected.
•
Split files are contiguous, that is, there are not gaps between the
files.
•
Selecting Split mode automatically activates the Auto number
option for audio file names.
NOTE
It is recommended to save each Split mode recording in an empty
folder. This prevents the Auto number option from creating files with
names that already exist in this location.
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Recording
Recording Dialog
Options Tab
On this tab, you can make additional settings for the recording process.
Activate monitoring when opening record window
If this option is activated, the meters are activated when the
Recording dialog opens. If this option is deactivated, the meters
and the audio thru are displayed when pressing Record or
activating Monitor.
Deactivate monitoring when ending recording
If this option is activated, the meters and the audio thru are
deactivated when recording ends. This releases the audio device
input.
Stop playback when monitoring or recording
If this option is activated, playback stops before monitoring or
recording starts.
Show Discard button
Determines whether the Discard button is visible or hidden.
Confirm when discarding recording
If this option is activated, you are asked to confirm before
discarding a recording.
Confirm when stopping recording
If this option is activated, you are asked to confirm before stopping
a recording.
Confirm name of markers to drop
If this option is activated, you are asked to enter a name for the last
dropped marker.
Open audio file in WaveLab after recording
If this option is activated, the audio files are opened in WaveLab
after recording.
Add markers when inserting recording in audio file
If this option is activated and a recording is inserted into an audio
file, markers are added encompassing the new samples.
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Recording
Recording Dialog
After recording, move edit cursor at the end
When recording into an audio file or montage, it is often convenient
to move the cursor to the end of the recording.
Values Tab
On this tab, you can define values for the various recording options.
Auto-start on sound - Threshold (RMS)
Specify the average sound level that is sufficient to trigger
recording.
Auto-start on sound - Record previous samples
Allows you to include a short section of audio before the start
point, to capture attacks, for example. It is only relevant when the
option Auto-start if sound detected is activated.
Silence Detection - Threshold (RMS)/Silence duration required
The threshold value used for the options Auto-stop if silence and
Auto-create markers at silence points. It is used in conjunction
with the Silence duration required setting, so that recording is
stopped or a marker is added if the input level stays below the
threshold value for the specified duration.
Recording programming - Start
Determines the time at which recording starts when the option
Auto-start at specific time is activated.
Recording programming - On tomorrow
If this option is activated, you can specify a time on the next day.
Recording programming - Duration
Determines the length of the recording when the option Auto-stop
after specific duration is activated.
Split argument - File size
If this option is activated, a new file is created when the recorded
file reaches the size specified in the corresponding value field.
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Recording
Recording Dialog
Split argument - File duration
If this option is activated, a new file is created when the recorded
file reaches the length specified in the corresponding value field.
Pause memory
This is a safety buffer when you are using the Pause button. When
you resume recording, this buffer is used to restore the last short
section of audio before you deactivated the pause button. This
way, you can resume recording even if you deactivated the Pause
button a bit too late.
Meter Display
Level/Spectrum
Specifies which meter to display.
Settings
Opens the LeveL/Pan Meter Settings dialog, where you can
customize the meter settings.
Reset
Resets the peak values.
Monitor
If this option is activated, the audio input is also sent to the output
ports (not available if Windows MME drivers is used).
Mix with playback
If this option is activated and the same audio ports are selected for
monitoring and for playback (in the VST Audio Connections
dialog), the signals are mixed. If this is not activated, the monitoring
signal has priority.
This allows you to toggle between the auditioning of the recorded
signal and the playback signal, and to have full control over the
monitor outputs.
Next marker name
Edit the name of the next marker to insert.
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Recording
Recording Dialog
Solo
Reduces/increases the size of the window and hides/shows all
other WaveLab windows.
Meter Display
In the lower part of the Recording dialog, you find a meter display. This
is useful for checking the input level and the frequency spectrum of the
input signal.
The meters in the Recording dialog are miniature versions of the Level,
Spectrum in the meter windows. Activate the meters, by activating the
Monitor checkbox.This is done automatically, if the option Activate
monitoring when opening record window is activated on the Options
tab in the Recording dialog.
To reset the meters, click the Reset button.
Level Meter
In the Level meter, horizontal bars show the peak level (outer bars) and
average loudness (VU, inner bars) of each channel. Values are also
shown numerically. When clicking the Settings button, the Level/Pan
Meter Settings dialog opens.
Spectrum Meter
The Spectrum Meter shows a bar diagram, providing a continuous
graphical representation of the frequency spectrum. From the Settings
pop-up menu you can choose whether to restrict to high audio levels, or
to include medium or low audio levels.
Disk Capacity Indicator
This indicator at the bottom of the Recording dialog indicates the
approximate amount of available disk space on the hard disk specified
in the File to create section, or the hard disk that you have selected for
temporary files.
NOTE
When there is less than 30 seconds of available hard disk space left, the
disk capacity indication is displayed in red.
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Recording
Recording in the Audio Montage Workspace
Recording in the Audio Montage
Workspace
You can record audio directly as clip in the audio montage.
By Using the Track Menu
PROCEDURE
1.
In the Audio Montage workspace, click at the position where you
want the recorded clip to start.
2.
Select Track > Record at cursor.
By Using the Track Menu During Playback
PROCEDURE
1.
In the Audio Montage workspace, start playback.
2.
Select Track > Record at cursor.
3.
In the Recording dialog, make your settings.
4.
Click Record.
NOTE
If you first go into Pause mode and then activate recording, you get a
pre-roll time according to the pause buffer, allowing you to capture the
audio just before you start recording.
About Playing Back During Recording
When you record in a multitrack environment, it is often necessary to
have the existing track play back during recording, performing an
overdub.
For this to be possible in the audio montage, Stop playback when
monitoring or recording must be deactivated on the Options tab of the
Recording dialog.
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Master Section
The Master Section is the final block in the signal path before the audio
is sent to the audio hardware, to an audio file, or to the audio meters.
This is where you adjust master levels, add effects, and apply dithering.
The settings and effects in the Master Section are taken into account
in the following cases:
•
When playing back an audio file in the wave window.
•
When playing back an audio montage. Note that the Master
Section effects are global for all clips and tracks in an audio
montage, as opposed to the individual clip or track effects.
•
When using the Render function.
•
When using the Audio input plug-in.
•
When writing a CD from the audio montage.
By default, the Master Section is active. You can turn it off for each file
individually by deactivating the Play through Master Section button at
the bottom of the wave/montage window.
To turn the Master Section off globally, deactivate the Playback goes
through Master Section button at the bottom right of the Master
Section.
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Master Section
Master Section Window
Master Section Window
In this window you can apply effect plug-ins, adjust the master level,
apply dithering, and render the audio file or audio montage.
To open the Master Section window, in any workspace, select Global
> Master Section.
The Master Section consists of the Effects pane, the Master Level
pane, the Dithering pane, and the Speaker Configurations pane.
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Master Section
Master Section Window
Signal Path
The three panes in the Master Section window correspond to the three
processing blocks of the Master Section: Effects, Master Level, and
Dithering.
The signal passes through these blocks from top to bottom, as shown
in the following figure:
In the Master Section, the signal goes through all plug-ins, even when
some plug-ins are soloed. However, the sound is not affected by this
because the muted plug-ins are bypassed from the playback process
stream.
When removing the bypass, the process signal is immediately available
without latency. This allows you to quickly switch between different
solo/mute settings.
The Master Section meters can monitor the signal right after any slot if
the Monitoring point icon is activated for the corresponding slot.
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Master Section
Master Section Window
Effects Pane
This pane in the Master Section allows you to add up to 10 effect
plug-ins in series, and manage them.
In the Audio Files workspace or the Audio Montage workspace, select
Workspace > Shared tool windows > Master Section.
Rearrange
Rearranges the Master Section according to the sample rate and
channel configuration of the active audio file. The internal bus of
the Master Section and any active plug-ins are configured
accordingly.
This operation is performed automatically before playback or
rendering. It is sometimes helpful to manually rearrange the Master
Section, because some plug-ins do not accept a mono or stereo
signal as input, or a given sample rate. In that case, clicking the
button informs you about any problems, before playback or
rendering.
This operation has no effect if playback is already in progress or if
there is no active audio file.
Show one more slot
Makes one more slot visible.
Hide bottom slot
Hides the bottom slot.
Fold/unfold section
Expands or collapses the Effects pane.
Bypass during playback
Bypasses the plug-in during playback and optionally for a
rendering operation. The signal is still processed by the plug-in,
but is not injected in the audible stream.
Solo (bypass)
Bypasses all plug-ins except this one during playback.
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Master Section
Master Section Window
Monitoring point
Lets the Master Level meter monitor the signal right after this
plug-in.
Effect plug-in slot
Slot where you can insert an effect plug-in.
Presets menu
Lets you store and restore preset settings. The Presets menu
offers additional options to save and load default banks and
effects.
Plug-in visibility
Activates/deactivates the plug-in window.
Lock slot
Locks the slot. A locked slot is not bypassed if the Solo function is
active. The plug-in in the slot remains as is, when a Master Section
preset is loaded, or when Reset all is used.
Switch effect on/off
Excludes the plug-in from both playback and rendering, and
rearranges the bus without this effect.
Supported Effect Plug-in Formats
WaveLab supports different plug-in standards. WaveLab-specific
plug-ins, VST 2 plug-ins and VST 3 plug-ins, and plug-ins that adhere
to the Microsoft DirectX standard.
WaveLab-specific Plug-ins
Some specific plug-ins are included in WaveLab, for example, the Audio
Input and External Gear plug-ins. These are only available if you are
using an ASIO driver.
VST Plug-ins
Steinberg’s VST plug-in format is supported by a lot of programs and
plug-in manufacturers. You find a number of VST plug-ins included with
WaveLab. Other plug-ins can be purchased separately from Steinberg
or other manufacturers, or in some cases downloaded from the internet.
NOTE
If you have Cubase installed on your computer, you can use the effects
that are included with Cubase in WaveLab. See the Cubase
documentation for details.
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Master Section
Master Section Window
Plug-ins that Adhere to the Microsoft DirectX Standard
These are known as DirectX or DX plug-ins and are also widely
available.
Setting Up Effects
The number of effects available depends on which plug-ins you have
installed.
•
To select an effect plug-in for a slot, click the slot, and select an
effect from the pop-up menu. When you have selected an effect, it
is automatically activated, and its control panel opens.
•
To turn off an effect, click its Switch effect on/off button. To
activate the effect, click again.
•
To remove an effect plug-in, click the slot, and select None.
•
To hide the control panel of an effect, click its Plug-in visibility
button.
•
To solo an effect, click the Solo button to the left of the effect slot.
This allows you to check the sound of that effect only. You can also
bypass effects in their control panels.
•
To change the order of the slots, and thus the order in which the
signal passes through the effects, click a slot, and drag it to a new
position.
Master Section Plug-in Window
In the plug-in windows of the Master Section, you can make settings for
a Master Section effect plug-in, such as bypass, solo, render in place,
monitoring, or presets.
In the Master Section’s Effects pane, click an effect’s Plug-in visibility
button to open the corresponding plug-in window for the effect.
Plug-in chain
If Use plug-in chain window is activated in the settings menu of
the Master Section, the effects of the active audio document are
displayed in a plug-in chain at the top of the plug-in window.
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Master Section
Master Section Window
You can right-click a plug-in tab or an empty tab to select a new
plug-in for the slot.
Bypass during playback
If this option is activated, this plug-in is bypassed during playback,
and optionally for a rendering operation. To deactivate an effect
when rendering, use the Switch effect on/off buttons in the
Master Section’s Effects pane.
Solo (bypass)
If this option is activated, all plug-ins except this one are bypassed
during playback.
Render in place
Processes the audio in place without any intermediary step.
Bypassed plug-ins are excluded and rendered audio is crossfaded
at boundaries.
Monitoring point
If this option is activated, the Master Level meters monitor right
after this plug-in.
Switch effect on/off
If you deactivate the plug-in, it is excluded from both playback and
rendering.
Presets
Opens a menu to save/load presets for this plug-in.
Effect Plug-in Presets
With WaveLab comes a number of factory presets for the included
effect plug-ins that you can select and use as is, or use as a starting
point for your own settings.
Third-party plug-ins can provide their own factory presets. To access
the presets for an effect, click the Preset button in its control panel
window. The available functions depend on the type of plug-in.
Presets for VST 3 Plug-ins
Applying and saving presets for WaveLab specific plug-ins works
exactly as with any other preset, apart from the fact that there are no
preset tabs or menu items as in dialogs. Instead, clicking the Preset
button opens a separate Preset dialog.
The options in this dialog are the same as for dialogs with Preset tabs.
The file format is compatible with Cubase.
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Master Section
Master Section Window
Presets for VST 2 Plug-ins
VST 2 plug-ins have their own preset handling. When you click the
Preset button for this type of effect, a pop-up menu with the following
options opens:
Load/Save Bank
Loads and saves complete sets of presets. The file format is
compatible with Cubase.
Load/Save Default Bank
Load the default set of presets or saves the current set of presets
as the default bank.
Load/Save Effect
Loads or saves a preset. This is also compatible with Cubase.
Edit name of current program
Allows you to define a name for the preset.
Preset List
Allows you to select one of the currently loaded presets.
Presets for DirectX Plug-ins
For DirectX plug-ins, the same functionality is provided as for WaveLab
plug-ins. In addition, you can import native presets created for the
plug-in.
Master Level Pane
This pane in the Master Section allows you to control the master level of
the active audio file.
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Master Section
Master Section Window
Faders
The faders in the Master Level pane govern the final output level. Use
the faders to optimize the level of the signal that is sent to the audio
hardware.
NOTE
It is important to avoid clipping, especially when mastering. Clipping is
indicated by the clip indicators of the Master Section.
Meters
The Master Section meters show the signal level of the signal before
dithering or any other plug-in that you have applied post-master fader.
Use these to get an overview of the signal levels. The numeric fields
above the faders show the peak levels for each channel. The peak
indicators turn red whenever the signal clips. If this happens, you should
lower the faders, reset the clip indicators by clicking the Reset peaks
button, or clicking the values, and play back the section again until no
clipping occurs.
NOTE
For critical level metering, we recommend using the Level Meter. It is
more precise, and it is applied after the whole Master Section (after
dithering) and thus shows the actual signal level that is sent to the audio
hardware.
Mono Button
The Mono button sums two channels to mono. The output level is
automatically reduced by -6 dB, to avoid clipping. The Mono button is
useful for checking mono compatibility of stereo mixes, etc.
If the Mono button is activated, the red indicator for the Master Level
pane is lit, even if the master level is not adjusted. This helps you avoid
accidentally leaving the Mono button activated.
Unlink Button
Determines whether the faders should be individually adjustable or
ganged.
If Unlink is deactivated, moving one fader also moves the other by the
same amount. Activating Unlink allows you to correct improper stereo
balancing by adjusting the channels’ levels individually.
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Master Section
Master Section Window
•
If you offset the faders with Unlink activated and then deactivate
Unlink again, you can adjust the overall level without changing the
level offset between the channels.
•
Fader offsets are not preserved at the end of the range of
movement or once the mouse button is released.
True peaks button
If this button is activated, the analog reconstructed peaks (true peaks)
are displayed in the Master Level meter. If this button is deactivated, the
sample values (digital peaks) are displayed.
About Dithering
Dithering is the technique of adding small quantities of noise to a signal
to reduce the audibility of low level distortion in a digital recording. A
small amount of random noise is added to the analog signal before the
sampling stage, reducing the effect of quantization errors.
In the case of WaveLab, dithering is applied when reducing the number
of bits in a recording, for example, when moving from 24 to 16 bits, and
when applying processing.
You can choose between WaveLab’s internal dithering algorithm,
Apogee’s UV22HR algorithm, or any external dithering plug-in.
Dithering largely depends on the type of material. When making the
dithering settings we recommend that you experiment and let your ears
be the final judge.
During low level passages, only a few bits are used to represent the
signal, which leads to audible quantization errors and distortion. This is
perceived as graininess during low level passages in a recording.
When truncating bits, as a result of moving from, for example, 24- to
16-bit resolution, such quantization noise is added to an otherwise
immaculate recording.
By adding a special kind of noise at an extremely low level, the
quantization errors are minimized. The added noise can be perceived as
a very low-level quiescent hiss added to the recording. However, this is
hardly noticeable and preferred to the distortion that occurs otherwise.
The Noise Shaping options allow to filter this noise to a frequency area
less sensitive to the human ear.
NOTE
Dithering should always be applied after the output bus fader stage, and
after any kind of audio process.
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Master Section
Master Section Window
Selecting Dithering Algorithms
WaveLab comes with two dithering plug-ins: Internal dithering and the
UV22HR dithering. However, you can also add other dithering plug-ins.
•
To select and activate a dithering algorithm in the Master Section,
click the dithering plug-in slot in the Dithering pane, and select
one of the options from the pop-up menu.
•
To deactivate the dithering algorithm, open the dithering pop-up
menu, and select None.
Adding Other Plug-ins to the Dithering Pane
If you want to use another dithering plug-in than the internal or UV22HR
dithering, you can add it to the Dithering pane.
NOTE
The meters in the Master Section monitor the signal before the
Dithering pane. To avoid clipping, check the Level/Pan Meter and
adjust the output level setting of the plug-in, if available.
PROCEDURE
1.
In any workspace, select Options > Plug-in settings.
2.
Open the Organize tab.
3.
Locate the plug-in that you want to add to the Dithering pane in
the list, and activate the checkbox in the Post column for the
plug-in.
4.
Click OK.
RESULT
The plug-in appears on the pop-up menu in the Dithering pane, and can
be inserted after the Master Level faders. The plug-in is still available for
selection as a regular pre-master effect if the corresponding entry in the
Post column in the Plug-in settings dialog is activated.
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Master Section
Master Section Window
When to Apply Dithering
The basic rule is that you should dither when moving to a lower bit
resolution. One instance of this is when converting an audio file to a
lower resolution. For example, preparing a 24-bit file for mastering to
CD, that uses 16-bit format.
However, even if you are playing back or rendering a 16-bit or 24-bit file
to the same resolution, you need to dither if you are using any
processing in WaveLab. The reason for this is that WaveLab works with
an internal resolution of 32 bit (floating point) for supreme audio quality.
This means that as soon as you perform any kind of processing, the
audio data is treated at this high resolution instead of the original 16 bits
or 24 bits, thus making dithering necessary.
Examples of real-time processing include level adjustments, any effects,
mixing of two or more clips in a Montage, etc. The only time when a
16-bit file is played back at 16-bit resolution is if you play it without any
fades or effects, and with the Master Faders set to 0.00 (no level
adjustment – Master level indicator turned off).
NOTE
To make sure whether you need to dither or not, use the Bit Meter to
check the actual resolution of your audio signals.
Dither Quality Testing
In the Master Section, you can compare the quality of different dither
plug-ins, by making the quantization noise and the dither signal more
audible.
Now, when you activate a dither plug-in, and play back an audio section,
you can hear what the effect of the dither plug-in sounds like. You can
try different dither plug-ins, to find out which one has the best dither
effect on the audio.
To activate this option, in the Master Section, click the settings button,
and activate Monitor 16-bit dithering.
For a significant dithering test, listen to a long decaying sound, such as
a piano dying note. This option has no effect on the rendering process.
NOTE
Only dither to 16 bit, otherwise the result does not have any meaning.
IMPORTANT
Make sure to deactivate Monitor 16-bit dithering once you are done
testing the dithering quality.
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Master Section
Master Section Window
Dithering Pane
This pane in the Master Section allows you to add dithering to the
signal before it is sent to the audio hardware or saved as a file on a disk.
Fold/unfold section
Expands or collapses the Dithering pane.
Bypass during playback
Bypasses the plug-in during playback, and optionally for a
rendering operation.
Monitoring point
Lets the Master Level meter monitor the signal right after this plug-in.
Effect plug-in slot
Slot where you can insert an effect plug-in.
Presets menu
Lets you store and restore preset settings. The Presets menu of
the top slot offers additional options to save and load default banks
and effects.
Plug-in visibility
Activates/deactivates the plug-in window.
Lock slot
Locks the slot. A locked slot is not bypassed if the Solo function is
active. The plug-in in the slot remains as is, when a Master Section
preset is loaded, or when Reset all is used.
Switch effect on/off
Excludes the plug-in from both playback and rendering.
Noise type
Lets you set one of the available noise types that are added to the
signal. This is only available if Internal dither is activated.
Noise shaping
Lets you select the type of filtering for improving the apparent
signal-to-noise ratio of the output. This is only available if Internal
dither is activated.
Number of bits
Lets you select the number of bits that the signal should be
quantized to. This is only available if Internal dither is activated.
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Master Section
Master Section Window
Speaker Configurations Pane
This pane of the Master Section allows you to select the speaker
configurations. The speaker configurations are set up in the Audio file
editing preferences dialog.
Speaker configurations
Lets you select the speaker configurations.
Audio file editing preferences button
Opens the Audio file editing preferences dialog, where you can
set up the speakers for the speaker buttons.
Speaker gain
Lets you edit the gain of the speaker configuration. Positive gains
are indicated by a red LED, and negative gains are indicated by an
orange LED. When the gain is zero, the LED is dark green (off).
RELATED LINKS:
“Speaker Configuration” on page 136
Master Section Tools
The tools and options at the bottom pane of the Master Section window
allow you to make various settings before rendering the file, make
bypass settings, and decide whether the playback goes through the
Master Section or not.
Bypass all effects
Bypasses any kind of processing in the effect panel during
playback, and optionally when rendering.
Smart bypass
Opens the Smart bypass dialog, where you can make special
bypass settings.
Reset all
Removes all the active effects from the effects slots and sets the
master output to 0 dB.
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Master Section
Rendering
Setting menu
Opens the Master Section settings menu.
Render
Clicking opens the Render dialog. Right-clicking opens a menu
where you can select whether you want to open the Render
dialog, render using the last settings, or use in-place rendering.
Playback goes through Master Section
If this option is deactivated, the Master Section is ignored during
playback of any file, freeing up resources. However, rendering to
file is still possible. If playback is activated when you change this
option, it stops and restarts.
Rendering
By rendering the effects in the Master Section, they become a
permanent part of a file, rather than using them in real-time to test a set
of effects on a file. So instead of performing all processing in real-time
during playback, you can save the audio output to a file on disk.
This is done with the Render function of the Master Section.
Writing the outputs of the Master Section to a file on disk allows you to
apply Master Section processing to an audio file, or mix down an audio
montage to an audio file. In case of a multichannel audio montage,
several files can be created, one for each channel in the selected
configuration.
There are several uses for rendering:
•
Mix down a complete audio montage to an audio file.
•
Process a file and save a file to a new audio file, including Master
Section effects, dithering, and other settings. You can choose the
format of the new audio file, which allows you to create an MP3 file
and add effects at the same time, for example.
•
Process a region of an audio file in place.
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Master Section
Rendering
Rendering Files
PROCEDURE
1.
In the Master Section, make your settings.
2.
On the bottom of the Master Section, click the Render button.
3.
In the Render dialog, make your rendering settings.
4.
When you have set up the rendering process, click OK.
RESULT
The file is rendered. You can see the progress in the Background tasks
window.
NOTE
Several rendering operations can be run at the same time when using
different files.
In-Place Rendering
In the Audio Files workspace, you can process a section of an audio file
or the whole audio file directly from within a plug-in window, without any
intermediary step. This is a quick way to process several audio sections
in an audio file, or test the effect of different plug-ins on an audio file.
When using this function, the following render settings are always
active:
•
Fade-in/out at boundaries
•
Exclude bypassed plug-ins
NOTE
Once an audio section has been processed, there is no automatic
bypass of plug-ins or the Master Section.
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Master Section
Rendering
An example for using in-place rendering:
Let’s say that you are restoring a file and have 3 favorite plug-ins, for
example, 3 DeClicker plug-ins. Now you want to use the one that gives
the best results.
1)
Load all 3 plug-ins in the Master Section.
2)
Select a region, solo plug-in #1, and play the region.
3)
Solo plug-in #2, and play the region.
4)
Solo plug-in #3, and play the region.
5)
Solo the plug-in that you think sounded the best, and click the
Render in place button, or press [Alt]/[Option]-[A].
Rendering an Audio Selection In-Place
You can render the plug-ins of a section of an audio file or the whole
audio file.
PREREQUISITE
In the Audio Files workspace, open the audio file that you want to render,
and set up the Master Section.
PROCEDURE
1.
If you only want to process a section of the audio file, in the wave
window, select the audio section that you want to process.
2.
Open the plug-in window.
3.
Optional: If you only want to use some plug-ins of the Master
Section, solo the plug-ins that you want to use.
4.
Do one of the following:
•
In the plug-in window, click the Render-in place button.
•
In the Master Section, right-click the Render button, and select
In-place rendering.
RESULT
The audio section or the audio file is processed.
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Master Section
Rendering
Render Dialog
This dialog allows you to select what parts of an audio file to render, into
which format, and what to do with the result.
To open the Render dialog, click the Render button in the Master
Section.
The following options are available for both rendering in the Audio Files
workspace and in the Audio Montage workspace:
Audio range - One region
Processes and renders a time range specified using region
markers. In the drop-down menu below this option, select the
region you want to render. For example, a CD track.
Multiple sources - Regions
Processes and renders each marked audio range to an
independent file, or renders in place, according to the related
settings. By defining multiple isolated regions in an audio file, you
can process them in place in one operation.
Specify the type of marked regions to process in the drop-down
menu.
Create named files
If this option is activated, you can set name of the rendered file.
Otherwise, the file is named “untitled”.
Name
Enter a name for the rendered file. Clicking the arrow icon opens a
menu that offers you several automatic naming options.
Auto naming
When rendering multiple sources, you can activate this option to
add a numeric prefix to all rendered files.
Where
Select a folder where the file is rendered to.
File format
Opens the Audio File Format dialog, where you can select the file
format.
Batch Processor
Opens the Batch Processor with the same plug-in setup as the
one currently used in the Master Section. This allows you to
process more files in a batch, or add off-line processors to the
audio processing chain.
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Master Section
Rendering
Fade-in/out at boundaries
If this option is activated, a fade is performed at the audio range
bounds when a new file is created, or a crossfade with the audio
neighborhood is created if the audio range is processed in place.
Crossfades allow a smooth transition between the processed and
the non-processed parts. The crossfade time and shape are set in
the Audio file editing preferences. If the fade time is longer than
half the length of the processed file, it is not performed.
Copy markers
If this option is activated, markers included in the range to process
are copied to the rendered file.
Bypass Master Section on resulting audio file
If this option is activated, playback of the resulting audio file
bypasses the entire Master Section after rendering. This setting
can be toggled by clicking on the button at the bottom right of the
wave window or montage window.
NOTE
It is recommended to have this option activated, because you do not
want to monitor this new file through the effects again when the effects
have been applied to a file.
No tail
If this option is activated, the audio tail produced by effects such
as reverbs is not included in the rendered file.
Some plug-ins do not provide a tail duration to WaveLab. In this
case, this option has no effect. For such plug-ins, you could add
the Silence plug-in to add extra samples at the end of the file. An
audio tail appears in this space.
Upload to SoundCloud
If this option is activated, the rendered file is uploaded to
SoundCloud, after the rendering process is finished.
Bypass Master Section
If this option is activated, the plug-ins and gain of the Master
Section are bypassed when rendering.
Exclude bypassed plug-ins
If this option is activated, the plug-ins that are bypassed during
playback are not used for rendering.
This applies to the bypass states managed by WaveLab, not any
bypass state that is under the control of the plug-ins.
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Master Section
Rendering
Open resulting audio file
If this option is activated, each rendered file is opened in a new
window.
Render Dialog in the Audio Files Workspace
The following options in the Render dialog are exclusive to the Audio
Files workspace:
Automatic pre-selection
If this option is activated, the source to render is automatically
selected according to the selected time range of the Audio
Montage. This can lead to the selection of one of the following
options:
•
Whole file
•
Selection
•
One region
Time range - Whole file
Processes and renders the whole audio range.
Time range - Selection
Processes and renders the selected audio range.
Time range - Skip exclusion regions
If this option is activated, audio ranges marked as muted are
skipped and not included in the result.
Process in place
If this option is activated, the rendered audio range replaces the
source audio range. Otherwise, a new file is created.
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Master Section
Rendering
Render Dialog in the Audio Montage Workspace
The following options in the Render dialog are exclusive to the Audio
Montage workspace:
Automatic pre-selection
If this option is activated, the source to render will automatically be
selected according to the selected time range of the audio
montage. This can lead to the selection of one of the following
options:
•
Whole montage
•
Time selection
•
Selected CD track
•
One region
For Selected CD track to work, the time selection must match the
CD track range. To select the CD track range, in the CD window,
double-click the track number of the track that you want to select.
Time range - Whole montage
Processes and renders the whole audio range.
Time range - Time selection
Processes and renders the selected audio range.
Time range - As selected clips
Processes and renders the audio range that starts from the first
selected clip and ends with the last selected clip. Only the
selected clips are included in the process.
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Master Section
Record From an ASIO Input
Time range - Selected CD track
Processes and renders the selected CD track in the CD window.
Multiple sources - Groups
Processes and renders each audio montage group to an
independent file. The group names are used for the output file
names.
Multiple sources - Selected clips
Processes and renders each clip to an independent file. The clip
names are used as output file names.
Create Basic Audio CD
If this option is activated, a file of the whole audio montage,
including clip effects and master effects, is created. Then a Basic
Audio CD window opens.
Create CD image and cue-sheet
If this option is activated, the audio montage is exported as a CD
image with an accompanying cue-sheet (a text file identifying the
CD tracks in the image file). The cue-sheet and the image file it
describes can then be imported into any CD recording application
that supports this function (including WaveLab) and written onto a
CD.
The CD image is a Wave file.
Open as new audio montage
If this option is activated, the rendered audio file is imported in a
new audio montage.
Record From an ASIO Input
You can record an audio file directly to disk from an ASIO input, while
the audio is collected from the audio input. The ASIO input audio is
rendered through the Master Section and any of its plug-ins and saved
as a file, as when rendering normally.
This is another way to record. When you record normally, no plug-ins are
used, but more options are possible.
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Master Section
Smart Bypass
Rendering ASIO Input to File
PREREQUISITE
In the VST Audio Connections, set up the input and output channels of
the ASIO plug-in.
PROCEDURE
1.
In the Master Section, at the top of the Effects panel, add the
Audio input plug-in to a slot.
2.
In the lower part of the Master Section, click Render.
3.
In the Render ASIO input to file dialog, make your settings.
4.
Click OK.
RESULT
The audio file is recorded to disk from the ASIO input, until you click the
Stop button on the transport bar.
Smart Bypass
Smart bypass allows you to compare the original (unprocessed) signal
to the processed signal with a level correction applied to it. This function
is particularly useful when you are making final level adjustments to a
recording, for example, during mastering.
Smart bypass compares the signal at the input of the Master Section to the
signal at the output of the Master Section, and adjusts the level accordingly.
The main reason for Smart bypass is that processing audio often
changes the level or loudness of the signal. When comparing the
processed signal with the original signal, your ears are sensitive to this
loudness change, which may in turn affect your judgment. If you need to
compare the sound of the effect independently from the loudness
change, a level correction is required.
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Master Section
Smart Bypass
Smart Bypass Dialog
In the Master Section, click the Smart bypass button to open the Smart
bypass dialog, which allows you to choose whether to bypass all the
active effects in the Effects slots, including faders. This allows you to
compensate for any level difference introduced by the Master Section.
NOTE
This is for playback only, not for file rendering.
The following options are available:
Play - Original audio
Monitors the unprocessed signal at the Master Section input.
Play - Processed audio + level correction
Monitors the signal at the Master Section output plus the applied
level correction. To be able to listen to the corrected level, click the
Update gains button first.
Play - Processed audio
Monitors the unprocessed signal at the Master Section output
without level correction.
Level Correction - Match loudness (RMS)
If this option is activated, the output is adjusted so that the
loudness of the processed signal corresponds to that of the
original signal.
Level Correction - Match peaks
If this option is activated, the output is adjusted so that the peak
levels of the processed signal correspond to those of the original
signal layout.
Level Correction - Custom correction
Allows you to set a custom level compensation (no analysis).
Level Correction - Analysis time
Determines how many samples are used to calculate the reference
loudness.
Level Correction - Update gains
Updates the volume analysis.
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Master Section
Smart Bypass
Using Smart Bypass
PROCEDURE
1.
Click the Smart bypass button.
2.
Select one of the following Play options:
3.
4.
5.
•
Original audio
•
Processed audio + level correction
•
Processed audio
Select one of the following Level correction modes:
•
Match loudness (RMS)
•
Match peaks
•
Custom correction
Depending on your selection, you have the following options:
•
If you have selected Custom correction, specify a value, start the
play back, and proceed with step 7.
•
If you have selected Match loudness (RMS) or Match peaks,
specify the time range you want to analyze in the Analysis time
field, and proceed with step 5.
Play back the audio and wait for the analysis to complete.
For example, wait as long as the time specified in the Analysis time field.
6.
Click the Update gains button.
Depending on the selected correction method, the level correction that
is applied is shown below the corresponding button.
7.
Switch between the three Play mode options to compare between
the processed audio with level correction, the processed audio
without level correction, and the original audio (unprocessed).
AFTER COMPLETING THIS TASK:
Optional: If you change the analysis time or start playback from another
position you have to wait for the set time, and then click the Update
gains button again to update the analysis.
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Master Section
Saving a Master Section Preset
Saving a Master Section Preset
You can turn all settings currently made in the Master Section into a
preset. This includes which processors are used, what settings are
made for each one of them, and dithering options.
PROCEDURE
1.
Set up the Master section as you want it.
2.
Click the presets button at the bottom of the Master Section, and
select Save as.
3.
Optional: In the Save Master Section Preset dialog, click the path
name, enter a name, and click OK to create a new subfolder in the
Master Section preset folder.
4.
Enter a name for the preset in the Name field.
5.
Decide, whether you want to include one or several of the following
options in the preset:
•
To include the plug-ins from the Effects pane, activate Save
Effects plug-ins.
•
To include the settings made in the Master Level pane, activate
Save Master Level settings.
•
To include the plug-in from the Dithering pane, activate Save
Dithering plug-in.
•
To exclude locked plug-ins, activate Exclude locked plug-ins.
6.
Optional: Activate Create shortcut for selecting the preset, to
assign a shortcut to open the preset, after you clicked Save.
7.
Click Save.
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Master Section
Saving a Master Section Preset
Save Master Section Preset Dialog
In this dialog, you can save a Master Section setup as preset and define
which parts of the current Master Section you want to include in the
preset.
In the Master Section, click the Presets button at the bottom, and select
Save as.
Path name
Opens the root folder of the preset in the Windows Explorer/Mac
OS Finder. Here, you can create subfolders in which presets can
be stored.
Presets list
Lists all existing presets.
Name
Lets you specify the name of the preset to save.
Create shortcut for selecting the preset
If this option is activated and you click Save, the Shortcut
Definitions dialog opens, where you can define a shortcut to apply
this preset.
If a preset already has an assigned shortcut, this option is grayed
out. To change the existing shortcut, double-click the preset name
in the presets list.
Save Effects plug-ins
If this option is activated, the effect plug-ins are saved with the
preset.
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Master Section
Saving a Master Section Preset
Save Master Level settings
If this option is activated, the Master Level settings are saved with
the preset.
Save Dithering plug-in
If this option is activated, the dithering plug-in is saved with the
preset.
Exclude locked plug-ins
If this option is activated, locked plug-ins are not saved as part of
the Master Section preset.
Loading a Master Section Preset
You can load a previously saved Master Section presets, a temporarily
stored Master Section preset, or import WaveLab 4/5/6 presets.
Open the Presets menu on the bottom of the Master Section window.
•
To load a preset that has been previously saved in the
Presets\Master Section folder, select a preset from the Presets
menu.
•
To load a preset from any location, select Open from any
location, select a preset, and click Open.
•
To load a temporarily saved preset, open the Restore submenu,
and select a preset.
•
To import a WaveLab 4/5/6 preset, select Import WaveLab
4/5/6 presets, select a preset, and click Open.
Storing a Master Section Preset in an Audio File or Audio
Montage
You can store the current settings of the Master Section along with an
audio file or inside an audio montage.
•
To store a current setting in the Master Section along with an audio
file, in the Audio Files workspace, select Edit > Store Master
Section preset along with audio file. The preset is stored in
companion files.
•
To store a current setting in the Master Section as part of an audio
montage, in the Audio Montage workspace, select Edit > Store
Master Section preset inside montage.
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Master Section
Saving a Master Section Preset
Loading a Master Section Preset to an Audio File or Audio
Montage
You can apply the Master Section settings that have been stored along
with an audio file or inside an audio montage to the project.
If the option Open option box when selecting a preset is activated in
the Presets menu of the Master Section, the Load Master Section
Preset dialog opens when applying a Master Section preset. In this
dialog, you can specify which parts of a saved Master Section preset to
load when opening it.
•
To load a Master Section preset stored along with the currently
opened audio file, in the Audio Files workspace, select Edit >
Load Master Section preset stored with the audio file.
•
To load a Master Section preset stored inside the currently opened
audio montage, in the Audio Montage workspace, select Edit >
Load Master Section preset stored with the montage.
Load Master Section Preset Dialog
In this dialog, you can specify which parts of a saved Master Section
preset to load when opening it.
This dialog only opens if it is activated in the Master Section’s Presets
menu. Open the Presets menu at the bottom of the Master Section
window, and activate Open option box when selecting preset.
Now, when restoring a temporarily saved preset or opening a saved
preset a dialog with the following options opens:
Name
Displays the name of the preset.
Load/Replace effect plug-ins
If this option is activated, the active effect plug-ins are removed,
and any new plug-ins are inserted from the top slot.
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Master Section
Saving a Master Section Preset
Insert effect plug-ins from focused slot (keep existing plug-ins)
If this option is activated, the present effect plug-ins are kept, and
any new plug-ins are inserted from the top slot.
Load/Reset Master Level settings
If this option is activated, the present Master Level settings are
reset, and any new settings are loaded.
Load/Replace Dithering plug-in
If this option is activated, the present Dithering plug-in is removed,
and the new plug-in is loaded.
Including a Master Section Preset When Rendering
You can include the Master Section preset that is stored with the audio
montage in the rendering process of super clips’ audio montages.
This means that when this option is activated for an audio montage,
anytime this audio montage is rendered so that its image is used in a
parent montage, its associated Master Section preset is used by the
rendering process.
•
To include the Master Section preset when rendering a super clip,
in the Audio Montage workspace, select Edit > Include Master
Section preset when rendering as super clip, or activate the
Include Master Section preset when rendering as super clip
icon on the lower right of the montage window.
Master Section Preset Menu
This menus offers several options for saving, managing, and restoring
Master Section presets.
To open the Preset menu of the Master Section, click the preset icon
on the bottom of the Master Section window.
Save
Saves the changes you have made to an existing preset.
Save as
Opens a dialog where you can select a name for the preset and
choose a location.
Organize presets
Opens the Preset folder of the Master Section, where you can
rename or delete presets.
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Master Section
About Monitoring Background Tasks
Define shortcut for the current preset
Opens the Shortcut Definitions dialog, where you can define key
sequences and keywords.
Open from any location
Selects any Master Section preset located anywhere, not just in
the default root folder. For example, this is useful if you want to load
a preset provided by another source that is not located in your
default root folder.
You can also navigate to any other location where you have stored
presets.
Import WaveLab 4/5/6 presets
Lets you select WaveLab 4/5/6 presets.
Presets are relative to Master Project
If this option is activated, presets are searched in the preset folder
of the Master Project. This is useful if you want to organize Master
Section presets per project, rather than having a common central
place for them.
Open option box when selecting preset
If this option is activated, a dialog opens that allows you to choose
how to load the preset you select.
Store temporarily
Lets you select one of the slots to temporarily store a preset.
Restore
Lets you restore a previously stored preset.
List of saved presets
Lists the presets that are stored in the Preset folder of the Master
Section.
About Monitoring Background Tasks
When rendering you can monitor the process, and pause or cancel
tasks.
You can adjust the priority with which they are processed, pause, or
cancel them. This is useful if you have a number of lengthy processes
underway and want to free up some processing power to focus on
editing. You can either lower the priority of a task so it does not use as
much of the computer processor capacity, or pause the task temporarily.
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Master Section
About Monitoring Background Tasks
You can set the Background tasks window to open automatically, by
activating Options (WaveLab menu on Mac) > Global preferences >
Options tab > Make the Background Task Monitor visible when a
task starts.
A status bar below the wave window and the montage window shows
the progress of the current rendering process, and lets you cancel and
pause the rendering, without opening the Background tasks window.
Background Tasks Window
This window allows you to view all background rendering processes that
are in progress.
In the Audio Files workspace, Audio Montage workspace, or Control
Window, select Workspace > Shared tool windows > Background
tasks.
The list of background tasks shows the following information about the
rendered file during the rendering process:
•
Name
•
Status
•
Elapsed Time
•
Remaining Time
•
Progress in %
•
Progress bar
With the Pause and Cancel buttons, you can pause and cancel the
rendering process.
From the Tasks menu, you can select the following options:
Suspend
Pauses the selected task.
Suspend all
Pauses all tasks.
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Master Section
About Dropouts
Resume
Resumes the selected paused task.
Resume all
Resumes all paused tasks.
Cancel
Cancels the selected task.
Lowest priority
Runs the task at a the lowest speed to leave processing power to
other tasks, and only when the mouse or keyboard are not in use.
Low priority
Runs the task at a low speed to leave processing power to other
tasks.
High priority
Runs the tasks as fast as possible while giving you the possibility
to continue working in WaveLab.
About Dropouts
A dropout most likely occurs when your computer does not have the
processing power to handle all effect processors you have inserted.
To avoid dropouts, try the following:
•
Use fewer effects.
•
Consider rendering the processing rather than running it in real
time. Then master from the processed file without any effects.
Dropouts never occur when rendering to a file.
•
Do not process any files in the background.
•
If neither of the above helps, check the audio card preference
settings. You might need to adjust the audio buffer settings. If a
dropout occurs during a real-time mastering process we
recommend that you re-master. Stop playback, click the dropout
indicator to reset it, and try again.
441
Markers
Markers allow you to save and name certain positions in a file. Markers
are useful for editing and playback, for example, to indicate cue points
or absolute time locations, to highlight problem sections, and to visually
separate tracks.
For example, markers can be used to:
•
Set the wave cursor to a specific position.
•
Select all audio between two positions.
•
Define CD tracks.
•
Loop sections in an audio file.
There is no limit to the amount of markers that you can have in a file.
The following marker types come in pairs: CD, Loop, Mute, Region,
Error and Correction. When you delete a marker of a marker pair, the
other marker is also deleted.
Since you cannot have a CD track that starts but never ends, a loop end
point without a start, etc., special rules exist for creating, deleting, and
moving these types of markers. CD track markers must always be
balanced. For example, if you delete a track start, the corresponding
end marker is also deleted.
Loop, mute, correction, error, and region markers only have a
functionality when balanced.
NOTE
The functions in the Markers window of the Audio Files workspace and
the Audio Montage workspace are the same. However, the Markers
window of the Audio Montage workspace offers additional options
regarding clips.
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Markers
Marker Types
Marker Types
The following marker types are available:
Generic markers
Allow you to locate positions and select all the audio between two
points, for example. They can be created during recording.
Temporary markers
Can be used for any purpose. They are deleted when the
corresponding file is closed.
CD track start and end markers
Denote where a CD track begins and ends. They also serve for
DVD-A discs. CD/DVD markers are used in pairs.
CD track splice markers
Are used when a CD track starts exactly where another ends. They
also serve for DVD-A discs.
CD track index markers
Are used to create index points in CD tracks. They also serve for
DVD-A discs.
Playback start markers
Define a playback start point.
Region start and end markers
Define start and end points for generic regions. They can be
created during recording and are used in pairs.
Exclusion start and end markers
Let you temporarily silence a section. Sections between exclusion
regions are skipped if you select Transport > Skip range. The
Render dialog also allows you to exclude regions from being
rendered. Exclusion markers are used in pairs.
Loop start and end markers
Are used to define loop points and are required to access loop
editing functions on the Process menu of the Audio Files
workspace. They are connected to the Loop mode when playing
back audio. These markers are useful for editing and creating
loops before transferring a sound to a sampler. Loop markers are
used in pairs.
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Markers
Markers Window
Error start and end markers
Are used to highlight errors such as clicks. They are saved in audio
files if Save Error and Correction markers is activated in the
Audio file editing preferences dialog, on the File tab. The error
start and end markers can be placed manually, but their main use
is with the Error Correction tool.
Correction start and end markers
Are used to highlight corrections performed on regions previously
marked as errors. They are saved in audio files if Save Error and
Correction markers is activated in the Audio file editing
preferences dialog, on the File tab. The correction markers can be
placed manually, but their main use is with the Error Correction
tool.
Markers Window
In this window, you can create, edit, and use markers while working on
an audio waveform or audio montage.
If the window is not already visible, do the following: In the Audio Files
workspace or the Audio Montage workspace, select Workspace >
Specific tool window > Markers.
Markers window in the Audio Files workspace
Markers List
The Markers window contains a list of all markers of the active file along
with their details and controls. You can create and edit markers directly
from the markers list.
Numbers
Clicking the number of a marker scrolls the waveform to reveal the
corresponding marker.
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Markers
Markers Window
Playback triggers
The following playback buttons are available:
Playback from start with a pre-roll.
-[Alt]/[Option]
Playback from start with a long pre-roll.
Playback from start.
Marker type
Shows the marker type. To change the marker type, click the
marker icon and select another marker type from the pop-up list.
Name
Shows the marker name. To change the name, double-click in the
corresponding cell and enter a new value.
Time
Shows the marker position on the time ruler. To change the time
position, double-click in the corresponding cell and enter a new value.
Length
Shows the time value from the marker start position until the
corresponding end or splice marker.
•
To zoom on the region between a start and end marker, in the
Length column, click the corresponding cell.
•
To select the region between a start and end marker, in the Length
column, double-click the corresponding cell.
Lock
Allows you to lock markers. Locking markers prevents them from
being accidentally dragged to a new position in the wave window
or the montage window. To lock a marker, activate the checkbox
for the markers that you want to lock.
Clip reference (Audio Montage workspace only)
A marker can be attached to the left or right edge of a clip, and to
its waveform. When such reference moves, the marker moves
along. The clip reference column shows the name of the clip.
Offset (Audio Montage workspace only)
Shows the distance between the marker and the reference point.
Comment
Allows you to enter a comment. To enter a comment, double-click
in a cell.
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Markers
Markers Window
Insert Menu
On this menu, you can select the marker type that you want to insert at
the edit or playback cursor position.
Functions Menu
The options on this menu differ depending on the workspace. The
following options are available in the Audio Files workspace and the
Audio Montage workspace:
Select all
Selects all markers in the markers list.
Select in time range
Selects the markers located in the selection range.
Deselect all
Deselects all markers.
Delete selected markers
Deletes all markers that are selected.
Delete selected markers
Opens the Delete Markers dialog, where you can select the
markers to delete according to various criteria.
Convert marker types
Opens a dialog where you can convert markers to another type.
Move markers
Opens the Move multiple markers dialog, where you can select
which markers you want to move by a specified amount.
Batch renaming
Opens the Batch renaming dialog where you can rename several
markers in one go.
Generate markers
Opens the Generate Markers dialog where you can specify a
sequence of markers to create.
Export markers list as text
Opens a dialog where you can export the markers list in various file
formats, or as print out. You can decide which information about
the markers to include in the exported file.
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Markers
Markers Window
Lock selected marker
Locks the selected marker. If this option is activated, the marker
cannot be moved or deleted.
Customize commands
Opens a dialog where you can customize marker-related menus
and shortcuts.
The following options of the Functions menu are only available in the
Audio Montage workspace:
Transcribe markers from focused clip’s audio file to audio montage
Automatically adds all markers of the clip’s source audio file to the
audio montage. To visualize these markers before transcribing
them, it is recommended to activate Source’s ruler and markers
in one of the following ways:
•
In the Focused clip window, select Options, and activate
Source’s ruler and marker.
•
In the Clips window, select Functions, and activate Show/Hide
source’s ruler and marker. You can also right-click the upper
part of a clip, and activate this option in the pop-up menu.
Bind selected marker to start of focused clip
Makes the marker’s position relative to the start of the focused clip.
When the start of this clip moves, the marker moves, too.
Bind selected marker to end of focused clip
Makes the marker’s position relative to the end of the focused clip.
When the end of this clip moves, the marker moves, too.
Bind selected marker to audio samples of focused clip
Locks the selected marker relatively to audio samples referenced
by the focused clip. The marker moves when the audio samples
move relatively to the start of the montage.
Detach selected marker from its associated clip
Makes the marker’s position relative to the start of the audio
montage.
Automatically attach new marker to the most suitable clip
Links all newly created markers to a clip when a reasonable pattern
is detected. For example, an end marker at the end of a clip or
slightly beyond, or any marker inside a clip. The marker type and its
position relatively to the closest clip determine the type of bond.
Full clip attachment
Attaches markers to a clip so that they are copied or deleted when
the clip is copied or deleted.
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Markers
About Creating Markers
Filter Menu
Use the Filter menu to toggle which types of markers are displayed in
the markers list and on the timeline.
Filtering Markers
The search field allows you to filter the markers list by names.
You can search for text in the Name and Comment columns. The
search only happens in the sorted columns. The function Select All only
selects the filtered items.
•
In the Markers window’s toolbar, click in the search field, and
enter the text that you want to search for. You can use wildcard
characters. “*” substitutes for zero or more characters, and “?”
substitutes for any character.
•
To switch the focus from the search field to the markers list, press
the arrow down key.
•
To switch the focus from the markers list to the search field, press
[Ctrl]/[Command]-[F].
•
To view all markers again, erase the search.
About Creating Markers
Markers can be created during playback or in stop mode. You can
generate a sequence of markers or mark a selection range, for example.
You can create specific markers if you already know what you want to
mark, or create generic markers. Creating markers is done in the same
way in the Audio Files workspace and the Audio Montage workspace.
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Markers
About Creating Markers
Creating Markers
You can create markers in the wave window and montage window in
stop mode or during playback.
PROCEDURE
1.
2.
Do one of the following:
•
Start playback.
•
In the wave/montage window, set the cursor to the position where
you want to insert the marker.
Do one of the following:
•
In the Markers window, click a marker button, or select a marker
from the Insert menu.
•
In the Markers window, select Insert > Create/Name marker,
enter a name and select a marker type, and click Create or Create
and close.
•
Right-click the upper part of the time ruler, and select a marker
from the context menu.
•
Press [Insert]/[M]. This creates a generic marker.
•
To create CD start/end markers in the Audio Montage workspace,
open the CD window, and use the CD Wizard. This only works in
stop mode.
Create Marker Dialog
This dialog allows you to create and name a marker in stop mode and
during playback.
In the Markers window, select Insert > Create/Name marker.
Name
Lets you enter the name of the marker.
When clicking the icon to the right of the name field, a default
name is generated. To edit the default names, in the Markers
window, select Functions > Default names.
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Markers
About Creating Markers
Type
Lets you select the type of marker.
Toggle start/end markers
If this option is activated, and you create a region start or end
marker, the related end or start marker is created when you click
the Create or Create and close button again.
Create and close
Creates the defined markers and closes the dialog.
Create
Creates the defined markers while leaving the window open
allowing you to create more markers.
RELATED LINKS:
“Default Marker Names Dialog” on page 462
Creating Markers at Selection Start and End
You can mark a selection for looping or review, for example.
PROCEDURE
1.
In the wave window or the montage window, create a selection
range.
2.
Do one of the following:
•
In the Markers window, click a marker pair button, or open the
Insert menu and select one of the marker pairs.
•
In the Markers window, select Insert > Create/Name region
from selection, enter a name for the start and end marker, select
a region type, and click Create or Create and close.
•
In the wave window, make a selection range, right-click it, and
select one of the marker pairs.
•
In the wave window or the montage window, create a selection
range, right-click the time ruler, and select one of the marker pairs.
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Markers
About Creating Markers
Create Region Dialog
This dialog allows you to create and name a start and end marker from
a selection during stop mode and during playback.
In the Markers window, select Insert > Create/Name region from
selection.
Region name
Lets you enter the name of the start and end marker. If nothing is
entered, a generic name is created.
When clicking the icon to the right of the name field, a default
name is generated. To edit the default names, in the Markers
window, select Functions > Default names.
Set a different name for the closing marker
If this option is activated, you can enter a different name for the
closing marker. If this option is deactivated, the name of the start
marker is also used for the end marker.
Region type
Lets you select the type of region marker.
Create and close
Creates the defined markers and closes the dialog.
Create
Creates the defined markers and leaves the window open allowing
you to create more markers.
RELATED LINKS:
“Default Marker Names Dialog” on page 462
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Markers
About Creating Markers
Duplicating Markers
This is a quick way to create a marker from an existing marker.
PROCEDURE
•
In the wave window or the montage window, hold down [Shift],
click a marker, and drag.
Generating a Sequence of Markers
You can generate several markers at once in a specified time range. This
allows you to create markers at every beat, or create markers as
guidelines for inserting silence when you want to distribute demo
sounds, for example.
PROCEDURE
1.
Decide where you want to insert the generated markers. Do one of
the following:
•
To generate markers in a certain time range, create a selection
range in the wave window or the montage window.
•
To generate markers from the cursor position to the end of the
audio or generate a fixed number of markers from the cursor
position, set the cursor position where you want the first marker to
be created.
2.
In the Markers window, select Functions > Generate Markers.
3.
Select the type of marker and specify the gap between markers,
and if you have selected a marker pair, the region length.
4.
Optional: Activate Naming and select a naming scheme.
5.
Select a numbering scheme.
6.
Click OK, to generate the markers.
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Markers
About Creating Markers
Generate Markers Dialog
This dialog allows you to generate markers at regular intervals in a
specified time range. You can fill a selected time range, the region
between the cursor position and the end of the audio, or specify a fixed
number of markers to be generated.
In the Markers window, select Functions > Generate Markers.
Marker type
Specifies the type of marker to be generated.
Gap between markers
Sets the time between two markers or two regions.
Region length
Sets the length for the region to be generated.
Naming
Allows you to set up a naming scheme.
Depending on whether you have selected a single marker or a
start/end marker, you can specify the naming scheme for a single
marker, or one naming scheme for the start marker and one for the
end marker.
If you select Custom, the Marker Naming dialog opens, where
you can specify a custom naming scheme.
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Markers
Deleting Markers
Naming fields
Allows you to specify a base name for the markers, an optional
separator between name and marker number, and the start value
of the marker index.
The base name is also used as a basis for the Custom naming
scheme.
Fill selected time range
Generates markers in the selected time range.
Start after gap
If this option is activated, the first generated marker is inserted after
the gap time specified at the top of the dialog.
Fill from cursor till end
Generates markers between the edit cursor position and the end
of the audio.
Fixed number, starting from cursor
Generates a specified number of markers or regions, starting at
the edit cursor position.
Allow to insert past last clip
Determines whether markers can be generated beyond the end of
the last clip, when Fixed number, starting from cursor is
activated.
Deleting Markers
Markers can be deleted in the wave window or the montage window, in
the Markers window, and in the Delete Markers dialog.
Deleting Markers in the Wave/Montage Window
Individual markers can easily be deleted in the wave window.
•
In the wave/montage window, right-click a marker, and select
Delete.
•
Drag and drop a marker icon above the time ruler.
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Markers
Deleting Markers
Deleting Markers in the Markers Window
This is useful if your project has many markers or if the marker that you
want to delete is not visible in the wave/montage window.
PROCEDURE
1.
In the Markers window, select one or several markers.
You can also select Functions > Select all.
2.
Click the Delete selected markers button, or select Functions >
Delete selected markers.
Deleting Markers by Type
This is useful to delete markers of a certain type in the whole
wave/montage window or in a selection range.
PROCEDURE
1.
Optional: If you only want to delete markers in a certain time range,
create a selection range in the wave/montage window.
2.
In the Markers window, select Functions > Delete Markers.
3.
Select the marker types that you want to delete.
4.
Optional: Define conditions that have to be met for markers to be
deleted.
5.
Set the Range.
If you have selected an audio range and want to use it, activate In
selected audio range.
6.
Click OK.
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Markers
Deleting Markers
Delete Markers Dialog
In this dialog, you can define which markers to delete by selecting
marker types and conditions.
In the Markers window, select Functions > Delete Markers.
Marker types
Allows you to select the marker types to delete.
Conditions
Allows you to select a condition that has to be met for markers to
be deleted. For example, Marker name must contain this text.
Select all
Selects/deselects all markers.
Range – All
Deletes all markers.
Range – In selected time range
Deletes all markers in the selected time range.
Range – Skip locked markers
Skips locked markers.
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Markers
Moving Markers
Moving Markers
You can adjust marker positions in the wave window and the montage
window.
PROCEDURE
1.
In the wave/montage window, drag a marker to a new position on
the time ruler.
If Magnetic bounds is activated, the marker snaps to the cursor position,
or the beginning/end of a selection or waveform.
Moving Multiple Markers
You can move multiple markers simultaneously, keeping the relative
distances between the markers.
PROCEDURE
1.
Optional: If you only want to move markers in a certain time range,
create a selection range in the wave window or the montage
window.
2.
In the Markers window, select Functions > Move Markers.
3.
Specify the amount of time by which you want to move the
markers.
4.
Select the marker types that you want to move.
5.
Optional: Define conditions with or without regular expressions.
6.
Optional: If you have selected an audio range and want to use it,
activate In selected audio range.
7.
Click OK.
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Markers
Moving Multiple Markers
Move Multiple Markers Dialog
In this dialog you can select which markers you want to move by a
certain amount of time.
In the Markers window, select Functions > Move Markers.
Move markers by this amount
Defines the distance that markers are moved.
Move these marker types
Allows you to select the marker types that are moved.
Conditions
Allows you to select a condition that has to be met for markers to
be moved. For example, Marker name must contain this text.
Range - All
Moves all markers.
Range - In selected time range
Moves all markers in the selected time range.
Range - Skip locked markers
Skips locked markers.
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Markers
Navigating to Markers
Navigating to Markers
You can jump to the previous or next marker using the corresponding
marker buttons.
•
To jump to the previous/next marker, on the View command bar,
click the Previous marker/Next marker button.
•
To set the wave cursor to a marker position, in the wave window or
the montage window, double-click a marker triangle.
Hiding Markers of a Certain Type
For a better overview, you can hide marker types.
PROCEDURE
1.
In the Markers window, select Filter.
2.
Deactivate the marker type that you want to hide.
You can make the markers visible again by activating the corresponding
marker type.
Converting Marker Types
You can convert markers of a specific type to another type.
Converting the Type of a Single Marker
PROCEDURE
1.
In the Markers window, click the marker icon that you want to
convert.
2.
Select a new marker type from the list.
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Markers
Converting Marker Types
Converting All Markers of a Specific Type
You can convert loop markers to CD track markers, for example.
PROCEDURE
1.
Optional: If you only want to convert markers in a certain time
range, create a selection range in the wave window or the montage
window.
2.
In the Markers window, select Functions > Convert marker
types.
3.
Use the From and To pop-up menus to specify the source and
target marker type.
4.
Optional: Specify a condition.
5.
Select whether you want to convert all markers or only markers in
the selected range.
6.
Click OK.
Convert Marker Type Dialog
In this dialog, you can convert marker types.
In the Markers window, select Functions > Convert marker types.
From
Specifies the source marker type.
460
Markers
Renaming Markers
To
Specifies the target marker type.
Conditions pop-up menu
Allows you to specify conditions for the conversion. Select an
option and enter a text in the text field below.
The following conditions are available:
•
Marker name must be empty
•
Marker name must contain this text
•
Marker name must NOT contain this text
•
Marker name must contain this text (with wildcards)
•
Marker name must NOT contain this text (with wildcards)
•
Marker name must contain this regular expression
•
Marker name must NOT contain this regular expression
Markers to convert - All
Converts all markers.
Markers to convert - In selected time range
Converts only markers of the selected time range.
Markers to convert - Skip locked markers
Excludes locked markers from the conversion.
Renaming Markers
You can change the automatically generated names of markers.
•
To rename a marker in the wave window or the montage window,
right-click a marker, select Rename, and enter a new name.
•
To rename markers in the Markers window, double-click a marker
name in the Name column, and enter a new name.
•
To batch rename multiple markers according to specified settings,
in the Markers window, select Functions > Batch renaming.
•
To edit the default names, in the Markers window, select
Functions > Default names.
RELATED LINKS:
“Batch Renaming” on page 621
461
Markers
About Selecting Markers
Default Marker Names Dialog
In this dialog, you can specify the default marker names.
In the Markers window, select Functions > Default names.
Marker type
Lets you select the type of marker to which you want to assign a
default name.
Default name for this type of marker
Lets you specify the default name for the selected marker type.
About Selecting Markers
There are several ways to select markers.
•
In the wave window or the montage window, click a marker.
•
In the Markers window, click in a cell. The corresponding marker
is selected.
•
Use [Ctrl]/[Command] and [Shift] to select multiple markers.
The marker icon changes its background, to indicate the selected
marker.
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Markers
Selecting the Audio Between Markers
Selecting the Audio Between Markers
You can quickly select the audio between two adjacent markers or
between any two markers. This allows you to select a section that has
been marked.
•
To select the audio between two adjacent markers, double-click
between two adjacent markers.
•
To select several regions between two adjacent markers,
double-click between two adjacent markers, and after the second
click, drag to select the adjacent regions.
•
To select the audio between a region marker pair, hold down
[Shift], and double-click a region marker.
•
To extend the selection until the end of a marker region, in the
wave/montage window, hold down [Shift], and double-click in the
marker region that you want to select.
•
To activate the Markers window and display further information
about a certain marker, hold down [Alt]/[Option], and double-click
a marker.
Binding Markers to Clips in the Audio
Montage
In the Audio Montage workspace, you can bind markers to clips. By
doing this, the marker remains in the same position relative to the clip
start/end, even if the clip is moved in the audio montage or resized.
You can find the options regarding clips and markers in the Functions
menu of the Markers window, and when right-clicking a marker.
When a marker is bound to a clip element, its name is preceded by a
blue character.
RELATED LINKS:
“Markers Window” on page 444
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Markers
Exporting the Markers List as Text
Exporting the Markers List as Text
You can export the markers list as text. The markers list contains the
marker’s names, positions, region lengths, types, and comments.
PROCEDURE
1.
In the Audio Files workspace or the Audio Montage workspace,
open the Markers window.
2.
In the Markers window, select Functions > Export markers list
as text.
3.
Choose the information that you want to export, and the output
format.
4.
Click OK.
RESULT
The markers list opens in the selected output format. When selecting
Print, the Print Preview window opens. The text file is stored in the
specified folder for temporary files.
RELATED LINKS:
“Specifying Folders” on page 95
Export Markers List as Text Dialog
This dialog allows you to export the markers list in various file formats, or
as print out. You can decide which information about the markers to
include in the exported file.
In the Audio Files workspace or the Audio Montage workspace, in the
Markers window, select Functions > Export markers list as text.
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Markers
How Marker Information is Stored
How Marker Information is Stored
WaveLab uses MRK files to have a file format independent way to store
information. However, to make marker information exchangeable
between applications to a certain extent, WaveLab also stores
optionally some information in the Wave headers.
This makes saving files quicker if only a marker settings has been
changed. However, this only applies when Write markers in WAV file
header is deactivated in the Audio File editing preferences on the File
tab. By default, both MRK files are created and information are stored in
the Wave headers.
•
When you import a file for the first time, any loop points are
imported and displayed as loop markers.
•
When you save the file in the Wave format, the loop points are
saved both as part of the actual file and in the MRK file.
•
When you open a file that includes markers that were added in
WaveLab, and markers that were added in another application, all
markers are displayed when reopening the file in WaveLab.
465
Metering
WaveLab contains a variety of audio meters that you can use when
monitoring and analyzing audio. Meters can be used to monitor audio
during playback, rendering, and recording. Furthermore, you can use
them to analyze audio sections when playback is stopped.
Metering Window
Audio Meters can be used in the Audio Files workspace, in the Audio
Montage workspace, and in the Control Window.
They can be used as following:
•
A docked window in a workspace
•
A tabbed window in the Control Window
•
An independent floating window. In this mode, it can be useful to
select Window > Hide frame, to save screen space. In this case,
the whole menu is accessed by right-clicking.
There can only be one instance of each audio meter.
The axis of most audio meters can be rotated, to view the graphics
horizontally or vertically. For some meters, you can also style and
customize parameters via a settings dialog.
Real Time vs. Non-Real Time
Metering can be used to measure audio in real time (playback, record),
or offline audio in non-real time (audio range or around cursor stats).
Real time in the context of metering means that audio is played back.
Non-real time means that the audio is in stop mode.
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Metering
Metering Monitor Modes
Metering Monitor Modes
You can choose which audio source to monitor and select a mode for
displaying information in the meters.
You can access the following monitoring functions from the Meters
menu or via the Meter commands bar.
Monitor Playback
This is the standard metering mode, in which the meters reflect the
audio being played back. Metering occurs after the Master
Section, which means that effects, dithering, and Master faders are
taken into account. You can monitor playback in audio files, audio
montages, audio CD track lists, etc.
Monitor Audio Input
In this mode, the meters reflect the audio input. Typically, this is the
mode to use when recording. The Master Section settings are not
taken into account.
Freeze meters
This mode freezes the values for all open meters. The meters
remain frozen until you select another monitor mode.
Monitor File Rendering
In this mode, you can monitor what is being written to disk during
file rendering or when recording. Like Analyze audio selection,
average and min/max peak values are calculated. After rendering,
the meters freeze until you refresh or change monitor mode.
Monitor Edit cursor position (Audio Files workspace only)
In this mode, the meters are static, showing the levels and other
values for the audio at the position of the edit cursor, in stop mode.
This allows you to analyze a certain position in an audio file in real
time. The Master Section settings are not taken into account.
Analyze audio selection (Audio Files workspace only)
In this mode the meters display the average values calculated for a
selected range. The Master Section settings are not taken into
account.
When you change the selection, you have to update the meter
displays by selecting Meters > Update selection analysis, or by
clicking the Update selection analysis button on the Meters
command bar.
Update selection analysis (Audio Files workspace only)
Analyzes the audio selection again and updates the meters.
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Metering
About Meter Settings
About Meter Settings
You can set up most meters according to your needs in the
corresponding settings dialogs. For example, you can adjust the
behavior, scale, and color of the meters.
•
To open the settings dialog for a meter, select Functions >
Settings.
•
To check the results after changing the settings without closing
the settings dialog, click Apply.
•
To close the settings dialog and discard any changes that you have
made, even if you have clicked the Apply button before, click
Cancel.
Multichannel Metering
WaveLab features 8 audio channels that can be routed to inputs and
outputs on a multi i/o audio card. The audio montage supports various
surround channel configurations using up to 8 channels.
WaveLab can display multiple meters. When working with multiple
channels in an audio montage, each channel has its own meter. This
applies to all meters (up to 8 real time FFTs, 8 level meters, 4 pan
meters, 4 phase scopes, etc.). If a surround configuration is selected,
each meter indicates the corresponding surround channel (Lf, Rf, LFE,
etc.).
When working with more than two channels, it is recommended to use
floating meter windows, because they can be resized more easily.
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Metering
Resetting the Meters
Resetting the Meters
You can reset the display of some meters, for example, the values of the
Level Meter.
PROCEDURE
•
In the meter window, click the Reset icon, or select Functions >
Reset.
RESULT
All meters and numerical indicators are reset.
Using Presets in the Meter Windows
You can save the settings that you have made for a meter window as a
preset. By assigning presets to preset buttons, you can quickly switch
between different level scales and display modes, for example.
•
To save your settings as a preset, select Functions > Settings,
click the Presets button, and select Save as.
•
To assign a preset to one of the preset buttons, select Functions
> Settings, click the Presets button, and from the Assign to
preset submenu, select a preset button.
•
To apply a preset, select it from the Functions menu, or click the
corresponding preset button.
Preset buttons 1-5
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Metering
Level Meter
Level Meter
The Level Meter displays the peak and average loudness/decibel level
of your audio file, and the balance between the left and right channels in
a stereo file.
In the Audio Files workspace or the Audio Montage workspace, select
Meters > Level Meter.
Level Meters
The upper part of the window shows the peak level and average
loudness in the following way:
•
The Peak Level meters display the peak levels of each channel,
graphically and numerically.
•
The VU meters measure the average loudness (RMS) of each
channel. These meters have a built-in inertia, evening out loudness
variations over a user-defined time span. If you are monitoring
playback or the audio input, you can see two vertical lines following
each VU meter bar. These lines indicate the average of the most
recent minimum RMS values (left line) and the average of the most
recent maximum RMS values (right line). To the left, the difference
between the minimum and maximum average values is displayed.
This gives you an overview of the dynamic range of the audio
material.
•
If you are monitoring real-time audio (playback or input), the
maximum peak and loudness values are displayed to the right of
the meter bars. The numbers in brackets to the right of the
maximum peak values indicate the number of times that clipping
occurs (0 dB signal peaks). Values between 1 and 2 clips are
acceptable, but if you get a larger number, you should lower the
master level to avoid digital distortion.
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Metering
Level Meter
•
Recording levels should be set so that they only rarely clip. If the
master level is set too high, the sound quality and frequency
response are compromised at high recording levels, with
unwanted clipping effects. If the level is set too low, noise levels
can be high relative to the main sound being recorded.
Pan Meters
The lower part of the window shows the difference in level between the
left and right channel of a stereo audio file.
•
The upper pan meters show the peak level difference between the
channels. The level bars can go to the left or right, indicating which
channel is loudest.
•
The lower pan meters show the average difference in loudness
between the channels. This gives you a visual indication of whether
a stereo recording is properly centered, for example.
•
If you are monitoring real-time audio (playback or input), the
maximum balance difference values (peak and loudness) for each
channel are displayed numerically to the left and right of the meter
bars.
Level/Pan Meter Settings Dialog
In this dialog, you can adjust the behavior, scale, and color of the meters.
In the Level Meter window, select Functions > Settings, or click the
tool icon.
Peak Meter Section
Peaks pop-up menu
On this pop-up menu, select whether WaveLab should use sample
values (digital peaks) or analog reconstructed values (true peaks).
Ballistics - Release rate
Determines how fast the peak level meter falls after a peak.
Ballistics - Peak hold time
Determines how long a peak value is displayed. The peak can be
displayed as a line or a number. If the meter's height is too narrow,
only the line is displayed.
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Metering
Level Meter
Top/Middle/Low zone
The color buttons allow you to select colors for the low, middle,
and top zones of the level meter. You can define the range for the
top and middle zones by changing the corresponding values.
Cursor mode - Unit
If this option is activated, you can specify which unit is used to
display the peak value.
Show value of single sample
If this option is activated, the value of the single sample is
displayed at the cursor position. If this option is deactivated,
several samples are scanned around the cursor to determine the
peak value. Generally, this is best activated when you have zoomed
in on the waveform to see the details.
VU Meter (Loudness) Section
VU Meter (Loudness)
Activates/deactivates the VU meter.
Modes pop-up menu
On this pop-up menu, you can choose between the standard
mode and three K-System modes. The settings for K-System
modes are shown in the Zones section.
Ballistics - Resolution
Sets the time that is used for determining the loudness. The
smaller this value, the more the VU meter behaves like the Peak
meter.
Ballistics - Range inertia
Sets the time that is used for determining the recent minimum and
maximum value lines, and therefore determines how quickly these
respond to changes in loudness.
Top/Middle/Low zone
The color buttons allow you to select colors for the low, middle,
and top zones of the VU level meter. You can define the range for
the top and middle zones by changing the corresponding values.
Cursor mode - Samples to scan
Determines how many samples are scanned when calculating the
VU meter value in Monitor edit cursor position mode.
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Metering
Level Meter
Panning Meter Section
Panning Meter
Shows/hides the panning meter in the Level Meter window.
Range
Determines the dB range of the panning meter.
Peak and Loudness Left/Right, Global colors
Lets you specify the colors for the different elements.
Global Colors Section
In this section, you select colors for the meter background, marks (scale
units), and grid lines.
Global Range (Peak and VU Meter) Section
In this section, you specify the minimum and maximum values of the
displayed level range. Typically, you want to create a preset showing the
full level range, and other presets for a detailed view of a smaller range.
K-System VU Meter Modes
K-System integrates standardized metering, monitor calibration, and
level practices.
In WaveLab, you can choose between three metering modes which all
set the 0 dB VU point below the standard Level meter. To fully utilize the
K-System, you have to calibrate your monitor level so that 0 VU equals
83 dB.
You should use a pink noise reference signal and a SPL level meter. Use
C weighting (slow response), and adjust your playback level so that your
noise meter indicates 83 dB SPL per channel or 86 dB SPL when played
on the two channels simultaneously.
The K-System has three meter operating modes (selectable from the
VU-Meter pop-up in the Level/Pan Meter Settings dialog). These are
intended for different uses:
•
K-System 20: This places 0 VU 20 dB lower than standard VU
mode, and is intended for music with a very wide dynamic range,
e.g. classical music.
•
K-System 14: This places 0 VU 14 dB lower than standard VU
mode, and is intended for music with a slightly more compressed
dynamic range. Use this for pop, R&B, and rock music.
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Metering
Loudness Meter
•
K-System 12: This places 0 VU 12 dB lower than standard VU
mode, and is primarily intended for broadcast applications.
Loudness Meter
Loudness Meter is an audio meter for monitoring loudness, according to
the EBU R-128 standard.
In the Audio Files workspace, select Meters > Loudness Meter.
1) Momentary loudness bar
Displays the loudness of a 400 milliseconds slice that is evaluated
every 100 milliseconds.
2) Short-term loudness bar
Displays the loudness of a 3 seconds slice that is evaluated every
second.
3) Integrated loudness bar
Displays the average loudness. This bar is evolving over time,
because it makes an average of the loudness by measuring 400
millisecond slices every 100 milliseconds.
4) Target loudness
The purple vertical line corresponds to the target loudness defined
in the Loudness Meter Settings dialog. The purple shadow
around it corresponds to the acceptable deviation.
5) EBU R-128 Loudness Range (LRA)
This loudness range displays the difference between the estimates
of the 10th and the 95th percentiles of the loudness distribution.
The lower percentile of 10 % can, for example, prevent the fade-out
of a music track from dominating the loudness range. The upper
percentile of 95 % ensures that an unusually loud sound, such as
a gunshot in a movie, is not responsible for a large loudness range.
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Metering
Loudness Meter
The loudness ranges of number 5, 6, and 7 help to decide if
dynamic compression is necessary, by giving instant feedback
about the dynamics (too low, good, too much).
6) Dynamics range of the short-term loudness
This loudness range monitors the recent minimum/maximum
loudness measurements to provide a hint about the short-term
dynamics.
7) Dynamics range of the momentary loudness
This loudness range monitors the recent minimum/maximum
loudness measurements to provide a hint about the momentary
dynamics.
8) Loudness curve
This curve shows where the loudness is distributed in a song. The
audio signal is divided into small blocks, and the loudness of each
block is computed. The curve informs about how often audio
events with a given loudness appear in the file in comparison to all
other events. If the curve has a peak, the given loudness often
appears in the song.
The curve is always normalized. The peak shows which loudness
is the most represented in a song. The curve is directly related to
the LRA as the LRA starts at the left part of the curve and ends at
the right part, with a 10 %/95 % tolerance.
9) Gate LED
The Gate LED lights up when audio is discarded from
measurement. The EBU standard discards audio below a certain
level, relative to the average loudness.
10) Numerical values of the bars
This section shows the numerical values of the bars. The values in
brackets are the loudness ranges.
11) True Peak LED
The True Peak LED is based on a true peak analysis and lights up
when clipping is detected.
RELATED LINKS:
“EBU Loudness Standard R-128” on page 48
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Metering
Loudness Meter
Loudness Meter Settings Dialog
In this dialog, you can set up the appearance of the Loudness Meter
window.
In the Loudness Meter window, select Functions > Settings, or click
the tool icon.
Short-term Loudness/Momentary Loudness
Top zone/Middle zone/Low zone
Here, you can specify the colors for the top, middle, and low zones
of the meter.
From
Allows you to specify what should be considered as middle and
top zones.
Show maximum values
If this option is activated, the maximum short-term and momentary
values are displayed instead of the loudness range values.
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Metering
Loudness Meter
Loudness range
If this option is activated, a moving rectangle is displayed, which
symbolizes the short-term loudness range/momentary loudness.
Ballistics
Determines the inertia of the loudness range for the short-term
loudness/momentary loudness, that is, how fast the range edges
meet each other after a new minimum or maximum loudness is
reported.
Integrated Loudness
Target loudness
Here, specify the ideal loudness to match. -23 LUFS is the EBU
R-128 standard.
Acceptable deviation
Here, specify the loudness range that you consider as acceptable
deviation from the target loudness.
Outside the acceptable deviation
Lets you specify the color of the range that is outside the
acceptable deviation.
Loudness Range
Range color
Lets you specify the range colors if the range size is above the
associated value (too much), exactly as the associated value
(good), or below the associated value (not enough).
Below/From
A loudness range that you consider to be not enough (Below) and
too much (From).
Transition
Lets you specify how fast the color changes from Good to Too
Much, and from Good to Not Enough. 0 % means that the color
changes abruptly when a threshold is reached. 100 % means that
the color changes gradually.
Additional Settings
Background/Marks/Grid/Curve
Lets you set the colors for the meter background, marks, grid lines,
and the loudness distribution curve of the Loudness Meter.
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Metering
Phasescope
Peak hold time
Determines how long the peak LED remains lit after a new true
peak.
Show loudness histogram
If this option is activated, a loudness histogram is displayed in the
Loudness Meter.
Scale
In this section, you can specify the low and high end of the displayed
level range. Typically, you may want to create a preset showing the full
level range, and other presets for a detailed view of a smaller range.
The EBU +9 scale and the EBU +18 scale are EBU recommendations.
Both of these scales are centered around 0 LU, which represetns
-23 LUFS, the recommended EBU loudness.
Phasescope
The Phasescope indicates the phase and amplitude relationship
between two stereo channels.
In the Audio Files workspace or the Audio Montage workspace, select
Meters > Phasescope.
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Metering
Phasescope
Reading the Phasescope
The Phasescope works as follows:
•
A vertical line indicates a perfect mono signal (the left and right
channels are the same).
•
A horizontal line indicates that the left channel is the same as the
right, but with an inverse phase.
•
A fairly round shape indicates a well balanced stereo signal. If the
shape leans to one side, there is more energy in the corresponding
channel.
•
A perfect circle indicates a sine wave on one channel, and the
same sine wave shifted by 45° on the other.
•
Generally, the more you can see a “thread”, the more bass is in the
signal, and the more “spray-like” the display, the more high
frequencies are in the signal.
Phase Correlation Meter
The Phase Correlation meter at the bottom of the display works as
follows:
•
The green line shows the current phase correlation, and the two
red lines show the recent minimum and maximum values.
•
With a mono signal, the meter shows +1, indicating that both
channels are perfectly in phase.
•
Similarly, –1 means that the two channels are the same, but one is
inverted.
•
Generally, for a good mix, the meter should show a value between
0 and +1.
The Phase Correlation meter is also available in Analyze audio
selection mode, showing an average value for the selected range.
Phasescope Settings Dialog
In this dialog, you can adjust the behavior, scale, and color of the meters.
In the Phasescope window, select Functions > Settings.
Background
Click this to change the background color.
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Metering
Spectroscope
Coil display
Allows you to adjust the color for the grid and phase coil display.
Auto-size
When Auto-size is activated, the display is optimized to fit within
the window.
Correlation display
This is where you select colors for the elements in the Phase
Correlation meter display, and adjust the Peak hold time for the
maximum and the minimum indicator.
Number of samples to display
This setting affects the length of the phase coil and the density of
the display. For audio with high sample rates, you might want to
raise this value.
Spectroscope
The Spectroscope shows a graphical representation of the frequency
spectrum, analyzed into 60 separate frequency bands, represented as
vertical bars.
In the Audio Files workspace or the Audio Montage workspace, select
Meters > Spectroscope.
Peak levels are shown as a horizontal lines above the corresponding
bands, indicating recent peak/maximum values. The Spectroscope
offers a quick spectrum overview. For a more detailed analysis of the
audio spectrum, use the Spectrometer.
On the Functions menu, you can specify whether only high audio levels
are displayed, or whether medium and low levels are also shown.
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Metering
Spectrometer
Spectrometer
The Spectrometer uses FFT (Fast Fourier Transform) techniques to
display a frequency graph, providing a precise and detailed real-time
frequency analysis.
In the Audio Files workspace or the Audio Montage workspace, select
Meters > Spectrometer.
The current frequency spectrum is shown as a linear graph. Spectrum
peaks are shown as short horizontal lines.
Zooming
In the Spectrometer window, you can zoom in on a frequency area.
•
To zoom in on a frequency area, click and drag a rectangle in the
spectrum. The display is zoomed in so that the selected frequency
range fills the window.
•
To return to full-scale display, select Functions > Zoom out fully,
or double-click in the spectrum.
Snapshots of the Spectrometer
You can take snapshots of the current spectrum, to check the effects of
adding EQ, for example.
The snapshots are displayed on the spectrum graph. Up to five
snapshots can be displayed. The sixth snapshot replaces the earliest
snapshot.
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Metering
Spectrometer
•
To take a snapshot, select Functions > Add snapshot.
•
To erase the last snapshot, select Functions > Erase last
snapshot.
Exporting FFT Data as ASCII Text
FFT (Fast Fourier Transform) analysis is a method to convert a waveform
from the time domain to the frequency domain. You can export the
displayed FFT data as a text file.
PROCEDURE
1.
In the Audio Files workspace, on the Meters menu, activate
Monitor edit cursor position or Analyze audio selection.
2.
In the Spectrometer window, select Functions > Export FFT
data as ASCII.
3.
Specify a file name and location.
4.
Click Save.
RESULT
The resulting text file can be imported into Microsoft Excel, or other
applications that allow graph plotting from text files.
Spectrometer Settings Dialog
In this dialog, you can adjust the behavior and display of the meters, and
assign up to five sets of Spectrometer settings to the preset buttons.
In the Spectrometer window, select Functions > Settings.
Process Tab
Analysis block size
The higher this value, the higher the accuracy in the frequency
domain (the spectrum is divided into more bands). At the same
time, the time localization is reduced. This means that the higher
the value, the less easy to know where a given frequency starts and
ends in time.
However, raising the block size value also requires more CPU
power and introduces a higher latency. Therefore, high values
should only be used for off-line monitoring.
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Metering
Spectrometer
Analysis overlapping
To get more accurate results, the program can analyze overlapping
blocks. This setting determines the amount of overlap between
these blocks – the higher the value, the more accurate the results.
Raising this value is very CPU intensive. A setting of 50 % requires
twice the amount of CPU power, a setting of 75 % requires four
times the CPU power, etc.
Smoothing window
Allows you to choose which method to use for pre-processing the
samples in order to optimize the spectrum display.
Display Tab
Frequency ruler range
Determines the frequency range to be shown, at full-scale display.
The lowest frequency to be shown depends on the Analysis block
size setting and the highest actual frequency depends on the
sample rate.
Logarithmic scale
When this is activated, each octave occupies the same horizontal
space in the display. If you need more resolution in the high
frequency range, you may want to turn this off.
Level ruler range
Determines the range of the vertical level ruler, in dB or as a
percentage value.
Normalize display to 0 dB
If this option is activated, the level display is offset, so that the
highest point on the curve is displayed as 0 dB. This is only
possible in non-real time mode.
Optimize scale
Optimizes the level scale so that only the relevant level range is
shown. This is only possible in non-real time mode.
Display type
Allows you to switch the display between curve and bar graph.
Peak Hold time
Determines for how long the peak level graph remains displayed
when the levels drop.
Colors
This is where you select colors for the curves, grid, background,
etc.
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Metering
Bit Meter
Bit Meter
The Bit meter shows how many bits are used.
In the Audio Files workspace or the Audio Montage workspace, select
Meters > Bit-meter.
While you may expect the maximum number of bits to be the same as
the resolution of the audio file, this is not necessarily the case.
As soon as you perform any kind of real-time processing on an audio file,
the audio data is treated at a much higher resolution (32-bit floating
point), to allow for pristine audio quality. The only time when a 16-bit file
is played back at 16-bit resolution is, for example, if you play it without
any fades or effects, and with the master faders set to 0.00.
How to Read the Bit Meter
•
The inner meters show how many bits are used.
•
The outer meters show how many bits were recently in use.
•
The Over segment indicates clipping.
•
If the Below segment is lit, there are more than 24 bits. The bit
meter shows the 24 higher bits, and the Below segment indicates
the existence of extra, lower bits.
•
If the Inter segment is lit, this indicates that the audio data cannot
be correctly expressed on a regular 24-bit scale. For example, this
is the case when floating point values in between bits are present,
which is typically the case if you apply effects, etc.
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Metering
Bit Meter
When to Use the Bit Meter
The Bit meter is useful in the following situations:
•
To check whether dithering is necessary or not. As a rule if you are
playing back or mixing down to 16 bits, and the Bit meter shows
that more than 16 bits are used, you should apply dithering.
•
To see the actual resolution of an audio file. For example, even
though a file is in 24-bit format, only 16 bits may be used. Or, a
32-bit file may only use 24 bits, in which case, the Below segment
would not be lit.
•
To see whether a plug-in that is set to zero still affects your signal,
or whether a plug-in uses 16-bit internal processing.
Bit Meter Settings Dialog
In this dialog, you can adjust the behavior and display of the Bit meter.
In the Bit meter window, select Functions > Settings.
Colors
You can adjust the colors of the meter segments, grids,
background, etc. by clicking the corresponding color buttons.
Bit hold time
Determines for how long peak values are held by the outer meters.
Bit display
Determines how the bits are displayed. In Intuitive mode, the
absolute value of the signal is shown. The bar graph goes higher
with higher signal levels, similar to a common level meter.
In True mode, the meter shows the direct mapping of the bits.
However, because the actual values may be negative, there is no
intuitive relationship with the level. This mode is useful if you want
to quickly check the full range, because all bits are displayed,
regardless of the audio signal level.
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Metering
Oscilloscope
Oscilloscope
The Oscilloscope offers a highly magnified view of the waveform around
the playback cursor position.
In the Audio Files workspace or the Audio Montage workspace, select
Meters > Oscilloscope.
If you are analyzing stereo audio, the Oscilloscope normally shows the
separate levels of the two channels. However, if you activate Show sum
and subtraction on the Options pop-up menu, the upper half of the
Oscilloscope shows the mix of the two channels and the lower half
shows the subtraction.
Oscilloscope Settings Dialog
In this dialog, you can adjust the display colors, and activate/deactivate
Auto-zoom. When Auto-zoom is activated, the display is optimized so
that the highest level reaches the top of the display at all times and even
small signals are visible.
In the Oscilloscope window, select Functions > Settings.
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Metering
Wavescope
Wavescope
The Wavescope meter displays a real-time waveform drawing of the
audio signal being monitored. It can be useful when recording or
rendering a file if Monitor File rendering mode is active.
In the Audio Files workspace or the Audio Montage workspace, select
Meters > Wavescope.
Wavescope Settings Dialog
In this dialog, you can make various color settings for the background,
grid, and waveform display, and set the waveform rendering speed and
vertical zoom.
In the Wavescrope window, select Functions > Settings.
Colors
Lets you select colors for the waveform graphics.
Waveform rendering speed
Determines how much the waveform display is compressed.
Level zoom
Determines the level zoom. Set a high value if the waveform has a
low amplitude.
Clear waveform when reaching right of pane
If this option is activated, the waveform display is cleared each time
the cursor reaches the right end of the display. If this option is
deactivated, the new waveform overwrites the previous waveform.
487
Basic Audio CD
In WaveLab, you can write Basic Audio CDs that are compatible with
the Red Book standard.
In the Basic Audio CD window, you create your audio CD by adding
audio files to a list of tracks. Each track contains a reference to the
external audio file. This means that you can save your Basic Audio CD
layout as its own session and continue editing individual tracks, for
example.
A Basic Audio CD project contains the information about the CD track
start position and the length of the referenced audio file. If the CD
markers of an audio file are deleted, the audio file is removed from the
Basic Audio CD project.
Once you have set up your CD layout, you can check the CD for
conformity to the Red Book standard, write the CD, or export it to the
Audio Montage workspace for further editing. You can also consolidate
the audio files in the CD into a single audio file containing track markers.
A Basic Audio CD can also be used as a generic playlist. It allows you
to assemble lists of files or sections of files with adjustable pauses in
between.
IMPORTANT
Writing Basic Audio CDs offers only basic functionality. For
professional CD creation you should use the Audio Montage
workspace.
RELATED LINKS:
“About the CD Window” on page 353
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Basic Audio CD
Basic Audio CD Window
Basic Audio CD Window
In this window, all tracks of the Basic Audio CD are listed. Here you can
assemble and write Basic Audio CDs that are compatible with the Red
Book standard.
In the Audio Files workspace, select Workspace > Specific tool
windows > Basic Audio CD.
Track List
The track list shows information about the CD tracks. Apart from the
entries in the Name column, you cannot edit the information shown in
this window. The following informations are available for each track:
•
Name
•
Start position
•
Length
•
ISRC code
•
Comment (not stored on the CD)
To show the markers and pauses of a track, click the arrow icon in front
of the track.
The total time of the CD is displayed at the bottom of the window.
The following playback buttons are available:
Playback from start with a pre-roll.
-[Alt]/[Option]
Playback from start with a long pre-roll.
Playback from start.
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Basic Audio CD
Basic Audio CD Window
The following options are available on the menus of the Basic Audio CD
window:
File Menu
New
Closes the current Basic Audio CD and opens an empty one.
Open
Lets you open a Basic Audio CD.
Add Tracks
Opens a file browser where you can select the audio files that you
want to add to the Basic Audio CD.
Save
Saves the current Basic Audio CD.
Save as
Saves the current Basic Audio CD with a specific name.
Create an independent clone
Creates a single audio file that contains all the audio material used
by the Basic Audio CD, as well as a new Basic Audio CD file. The
new Basic Audio CD is independent from the audio files and
markers that are referenced by the active Basic Audio CD.
Save each CD track as an audio file
Opens a dialog where you can specify a location to save each
track as separate audio file.
Open recent
Opens the list of recently used files.
Edit Menu
Delete
Deletes the selected track from the Basic Audio CD.
Edit audio
Displays the audio of the selected track in the wave window.
Write Audio CD or DDP
Opens a dialog from which you can write a CD.
490
Basic Audio CD
Basic Audio CD Window
Check CD conformity
Verifies that the structure of the Basic Audio CD is correct
according to the Red Book standard.
Display all CD tracks as one audio file
Creates an audio file that recreates the structure of the Basic
Audio CD and opens it in the wave window, without writing any
audio sample to disk.
Convert to audio montage
Creates an audio montage with the same structure of CD tracks as
the Basic Audio CD.
Options
Options
Opens the Basic Audio CD Options dialog.
Basic Audio CD Options Dialog
In this dialog, you can specify an UPC/EAN code for the CD, add
silence before and after tracks, specify pauses, and decide whether to
play back the audio through the Master Section.
In the Basic Audio CD window, select Options > Options.
UPC/EAN Code
Here you can specify an optional UPC/EAN code for the CD.
Adjust gaps between markers and sound (as CD frames)
If this option is activated, WaveLab performs small adjustments to
the spacing before and after the CD Track Markers. This is useful
to ensure that a low-quality CD player does not miss the start of
tracks or cut them off before their actual end, for example. You can
specify the silence length for the following options:
•
Silence after first track start marker
•
Silence after track start marker
•
Silence before each track end marker
•
Silence before last track end marker
491
Basic Audio CD
About CD Markers
Default pause
Lets you add a few frames of silence before the first track of the
CD. Usually, the pause needs to be longer for the first track than
for the other tracks, to ensure that a low-quality CD player does not
miss the start of the first track, for example.
Reset pause of all tracks
If this option is activated, the pauses of all tracks are reset to the
default value when you close the dialog.
Play through Master Section
If this option is activated, playback of the Basic Audio CD passes
the Master Section.
NOTE
You cannot use this option when writing a Basic Audio CD.
Save as default settings
If this option is activated, the settings made in this dialog are used
for newly created Basic Audio CDs.
About CD Markers
A track in the Basic Audio CD window is defined by CD track start and
end markers or CD track splice markers.
•
CD track splice markers indicate the end of one track and the start
of the next. If you insert a start marker after another start marker,
the second marker is automatically converted into a splice marker.
•
If you delete the CD markers defining a track, the track is deleted
from the Basic Audio CD list.
•
If you edit the marker position of a CD track, the change is
reflected in the track in the Basic Audio CD.
•
When you create a CD track start marker, a CD track end marker
is automatically created at the start of the next track or at the end
of the audio file, whichever comes first.
•
If you try to move CD track markers beyond the end of the
corresponding file, to a position inside another track, etc., the
marker is automatically moved to the closest valid position.
•
The name of a CD track is the name of the CD track start marker. Editing
the marker name also changes the CD Track name, and vice versa.
492
Basic Audio CD
Preparing a Basic Audio CD
Preparing a Basic Audio CD
You can add any type of file to a Basic Audio CD. However, when
writing the files to CD, the files must meet certain specifications.
•
44100 Hz (44.1 kHz).
•
Mono, dual-mono, or stereo
•
8, 16, 20, or 24-bit resolution. During the writing process, files are
converted to 16-bit stereo.
A track can only be used once in a Basic Audio CD.
Creating a Basic Audio CD
PROCEDURE
1.
In the Basic Audio CD window, select File > New.
2.
Add tracks to the Basic Audio CD project using the following
methods:
•
In the Basic Audio CD window, select File > Add Tracks, select
the audio files that you want to add, and click Open.
•
Drag audio files from the file browser of your computer to the Basic
Audio CD window.
•
Drag a selection of an audio file from the wave window to the Basic
Audio CD window.
If a file contains CD start and sub-index markers, these are used to define
the track in the list.
If a file does not contain markers, a dialog asks you if you want to use the
file start and end as boundaries for the track.
3.
Select File > Save, specify a name and location, and click Save.
RESULT
The audio files are added to the Basic Audio CD project.
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Basic Audio CD
Preparing a Basic Audio CD
Saving a Basic Audio CD
PREREQUISITE
Set up your Basic Audio CD.
PROCEDURE
1.
In the Basic Audio CD window, do one of the following:
•
To save a Basic Audio CD that has never been saved before, select
File > Save as.
•
To save a Basic Audio CD that has been saved before, click the
Save button, or select File > Save.
2.
In the Save Basic Audio CD dialog, specify a file name and location.
3.
Decide whether to activate one of the following options:
4.
•
Open standard file selector before this dialog
•
Save copy
Click Save.
Opening a Basic Audio CD Project
There can only be one Basic Audio CD project open at a time per
workspace.
PROCEDURE
1.
In the Basic Audio CD window, select File > Open.
2.
Select a Basic Audio CD file and click Open.
RESULT
All audio files referenced by the Basic Audio CD are opened in
WaveLab. However, they do not appear in the wave windows.
Deleting CD Tracks from a Basic Audio CD
You can delete a CD track from a Basic Audio CD project by deleting
its CD track markers or by deleting it from the Basic Audio CD list.
•
In the wave window, right-click the CD track start or end marker of
the CD track that you want to delete, and select Delete.
•
In the Basic Audio CD window, select a track, and select Edit >
Delete or click the Delete button.
494
Basic Audio CD
Opening CD Tracks for Editing
Adjusting Pauses in CD Tracks
You can change the length of the pause that is played before the
beginning of a track in the Basic Audio CD.
PROCEDURE
1.
In the Basic Audio CD window, click the arrow icon next to a track
to unfold it.
2.
Double-click the Length column of the Pause row, enter a value,
and press [Return].
Opening CD Tracks for Editing
You can open the tracks of a Basic Audio CD in a wave window to edit
the audio or open the tracks as a clip in an audio montage.
•
To open an entire CD track, double-click it in the Length column.
A wave window opens and the entire CD track is selected.
•
To open an entire CD track and position the cursor at track start or
end, click the arrow icon to unfold the CD track, and double-click
the Length column of the Track Start or Track End rows.
•
To insert a CD track into an open audio file, drag a CD track on an
open audio file in the wave window.
•
To open a CD track as a clip in an audio montage, drag the CD
track into an audio montage and select one of the insert options.
495
Basic Audio CD
About Playing Back Files in the Track List
About Playing Back Files in the Track List
You can play back files directly from the Basic Audio CD window by
using the play buttons of each CD track.
•
What you hear during playback is identical to the audio that is
played back from the actual CD. All pauses and other adjustments
are taken into account.
•
If you have audio files in the list that do not have the correct sample
rate (44.1 kHz), they can still be played back. However, when you
activate playback, all files play back at the same rate. The inherent
rate of the selected file (the one that plays first) is used for all files.
Playing Back Files in the Track List
There are several ways to play back files in the track list of a Basic Audio
CD.
•
In the Start column, click the time information of the track that you
want to play back.
•
Select a track, and click Play on the transport bar. Press Stop to
stop playback.
•
To play back from the marker position, in the Start column, click
the right play icon of a track. To play back from the marker position
with a pre-roll, click the left play icon.
496
Basic Audio CD
Saving Basic Audio CD Tracks as Separate Files
Playing Back Files in the Track List Through the Master Section
Playing back files through the Master Section takes all the settings and
effects in the Master Section into account.
PROCEDURE
1.
In the Basic Audio CD window, select Options > Options, or
click the options icon.
2.
Activate Play through Master Section, and click OK.
Saving Basic Audio CD Tracks as
Separate Files
You can save tracks of a Basic Audio CD as separate audio files on your
hard disk. This is useful for archiving, for example.
PROCEDURE
1.
Set up a Basic Audio CD as you want it.
2.
In the Basic Audio CD window, select File > Save each CD track
as an audio file.
3.
Specify a location, and the output format.
4.
Click OK.
RESULT
The tracks in the list are saved as separate audio files in the specified
folder.
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Basic Audio CD
Saving Basic Audio CD Tracks as One File
Saving Basic Audio CD Tracks as One File
You can save tracks of a Basic Audio CD as one audio file on your hard
disk.
PREREQUISITE
Set up a Basic Audio CD as you want it. A track must be at least 4
seconds long.
PROCEDURE
1.
In the Basic Audio CD window, select File > Create an
independent clone.
2.
Specify a location, and the output format.
3.
Click OK.
RESULT
The tracks in the list are saved as one audio file in the specified folder.
498
DVD-Audio
In WaveLab, you can author a DVD-Audio from a collection of audio
montages and then write it to DVD-Audio.
You can add your audio montages to the DVD-Audio window, check
the DVD-Audio layout for conformity, and write a DVD-Audio disk.
Compared to a Basic Audio CD, the DVD-Audio has the following
advantages:
•
More disk space
•
Higher audio quality with up to 192 kHz and 24 bit
•
Surround support
•
Picture slide show support
The contents of a DVD-Audio project are stored in a folder named
AUDIO_TS (Audio Title Set), which includes all audio, still picture, text,
and visual menu data.
The AUDIO_TS contents are created when you render a DVD-Audio
project, these data files are readable by the DVD-Audio player, but
cannot be opened or edited in WaveLab.
You can use DVD+R, DVD-R, DVD+RW, DVD-RW, DVD-RAM for
writing DVD-Audio compatible discs.
NOTE
Throughout WaveLab, where “CD” is mentioned (for example, in
messages or marker names), this usually also applies for DVD-Audio.
499
DVD-Audio
Structure of a DVD-Audio Project
Structure of a DVD-Audio Project
You structure your DVD-Audio projects in groups.
•
An album can contain up to 9 groups. In WaveLab, a group
corresponds to an audio montage. A group is similar to a CD and
can be represented by an audio montage.
•
Each group can contain up to 99 tracks. Tracks are defined by CD
track start and end markers in the audio montage.
DVD-Audio Formats
A DVD-Audio project can contain audio in a variety of resolutions.
The sample rates can be 48 kHz, 96 kHz, 192 kHz, 44.1 kHz, 88.2 kHz, or
176 kHz and the bit-depths can be 16 or 24.
You can use other bit resolutions for audio files in a montage, but they
are stored on the DVD-Audio disc as either 16-bit or 24-bit audio
samples, regardless of the original resolution. The bit resolution of the
DVD is specified in the Audio montage preferences dialog.
DVD-Audio Format Considerations
There are two main considerations when planning a DVD-Audio project:
the total size of the album and the maximum allowable data rate for a
group.
A single album cannot contain more data than 4.7 GB (using a standard
single layer DVD).
Maximum Allowable Data Rate for a Group
The data rate is the data bandwidth necessary to reproduce a given
number of channels at a certain bit resolution and sample frequency.
The DVD-Audio specification allows for a maximum data rate of 9.6
Mbps when using an uncompressed PCM audio format.
500
DVD-Audio
DVD-Audio Window
To keep a DVD-Audio project within the allowable data rate limit, use the
following table as a guide:
Number of
Channels
Maximum Bit Resolution/Sample Rate
6
Up to 16 bit/96 kHz or 24 bit/48 kHz
4
Up to 24 bit/96 kHz
2
Up to 24 bit/192 kHz
DVD-Audio Window
In this window, you can author DVD-Audio and write it to DVD.
In the Audio Montage workspace, select Workspace > Specific tool
windows > DVD-Audio.
DVD-Audio List
The columns in the DVD-Audio window show information about the
audio montages in the project. Apart from the entries in the Group
Name column, you cannot edit any of the information shown in this
window.
Group name
If you double-click the name, you can enter a new name for the
group. By default the name of the audio montage is used as the
group name. The group name is shown in the DVD menu display.
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DVD-Audio
DVD-Audio Window
File
The name of the audio montage. If you double-click the audio
montage name, the corresponding audio montage opens.
Titles
The number of titles in the audio montage.
Time
The total time of all titles.
Bits
The bit depth of the samples in the audio montage (as they will be
stored on the final DVD).
Rate
The sample rate of the audio montage.
Channel
The number of audio channels used in the audio montage.
Size
The total size of the audio montage.
Menu Options
The following options are available from the menus of the DVD-Audio
window:
New
Closes the currently opened DVD-Audio and opens an new one.
Open
Lets you select a DVD-Audio file. This closes the currently opened
DVD-Audio.
Add audio montages
Opens the file browser where you can select the audio montages
that you want to add to the DVD-Audio.
Delete
Deletes the selected audio montage from the DVD-Audio.
Edit audio montage
Opens the montage window of the selected audio montage.
Write DVD-Audio
Opens a dialog from which you can write a DVD.
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DVD-Audio
DVD-Audio Window
Check DVD-Audio conformity
Verifies that the structure of the DVD-Audio is correct according
to the standard.
Options
Opens the DVD-Audio options dialog.
Save/Save as
Lets you save the DVD-Audio.
DVD-Audio Options Dialog
In this dialog, you can make various settings for the DVD-Audio.
In the DVD-Audio window, select Options > Options.
Disc identification - Volume ID/Number of volumes
Allows you to specify disc information. For example, if you have a
project that has 3 DVD discs, you can specify 3 volumes, and
specify the ID for the volumes 1, 2, and 3.
Disc identification - Album name
Lets you type in the name of the album. This name is also used as
the DVD volume name.
Disc identification - Provider information
Lets you type in information about the DVD-Audio provider.
Default still picture
If this option is activated, you can define a default still picture that
is displayed when the DVD-Audio is played back.
Still picture effects - Mode
Lets you define effect transitions between pictures. Choose a
mode and a duration of the transition for start and end of playback.
Not all DVD players support this feature.
Options - Generate menus
If this option is activated, a basic menu displaying the
album/group/tracks structure is automatically generated. This
menu appears when playing back the DVD-Audio in a DVD player.
Options - Include still picture tracks
If this option is activated, pictures placed on audio montage
picture tracks are included on the DVD, and are displayed by a
compatible DVD player.
503
DVD-Audio
Preparing a DVD-Audio
Options - Auto play
If this option is activated, DVD playback starts automatically when
the DVD is inserted into a compatible DVD player.
TV System
Specifies whether the DVD-Audio disc should conform to the
NTSC or PAL/SECAM video standard.
About TV Systems
If you want to use still pictures you need to specify whether the
DVD-Audio disc should conform to the NTSC or PAL/SECAM video
standard.
This is important because the NTSC (used in North America and Asia)
and PAL/SECAM (used in Western Europe, Australia/France, and
Eastern Europe) use different resolutions.
Preparing a DVD-Audio
Creating a DVD-Audio
PROCEDURE
1.
In the DVD-Audio window, select File > New.
2.
Add tracks to the DVD-Audio project using the following methods:
3.
•
In the DVD-Audio window, select File > Add Audio Montages,
select the audio montages that you want to add, and click Open.
•
Drag audio montages from the file browser of your computer to the
DVD-Audio window.
•
Drag an audio montage by its Document button to the
DVD-Audio window.
Select File > Save, specify a name and location, and click Save.
RESULT
The audio montages are added to the DVD-Audio project.
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DVD-Audio
Preparing a DVD-Audio
Opening a DVD-Audio Project
There can only be one DVD-Audio project open at a time per
workspace.
PROCEDURE
1.
In the DVD-Audio window, select File > Open.
2.
Select a Basic Audio CD file and click Open.
RESULT
All audio montages referenced by the DVD-Audio file are opened in
WaveLab. However, they do not appear in the montage window.
Setting an Audio Montage to DVD-Audio Mode
To be able to write an audio montage to DVD-Audio, the mode of the
audio montage must be DVD-Audio compatible.
PROCEDURE
1.
In the Audio Montage workspace, select Edit > Audio Montage
properties.
2.
From the Mode pop-up menu, select Multichannel, DVD-Audio
compatible.
3.
Click OK.
4.
Click File > Save to save the changes.
Deleting Audio Montages from a DVD-Audio
When deleting audio montages from a DVD-Audio, the audio montage
references are removed from the DVD-Audio, but the audio montage
files are not affected.
PROCEDURE
•
In the DVD-Audio window, select an audio montage, and select
Edit > Delete or press the Delete button.
505
DVD-Audio
Opening Audio Montages for Editing
Opening Audio Montages for Editing
There are several ways to open an audio montage of a DVD-Audio
project for editing in the montage window.
•
Double-click the audio montage in DVD-Audio window. A
montage window opens.
•
Select an audio montage from the list, and click the Edit Audio
Montage button.
•
Drag an audio montage from the DVD-Audio window to an open
audio montage, or the montage window area.
Checking the DVD-Audio Conformity
Before rendering the DVD-Audio project, you can use the Check
DVD-Audio conformity function. This checks all audio montages in the
project and displays a warning if the project does not comply with the
DVD-Audio standard. However, this is done automatically before writing
to disk.
PROCEDURE
•
In the DVD-Audio window, select Edit > Check DVD-Audio
conformity, or click the Check DVD-Audio conformity icon.
RESULT
All audio montages added to the DVD-Audio project open, and a
message appears stating the result of the conformity check.
506
Writing Operations
This chapter describes the CD/DVD writing processes in WaveLab.
This chapter assumes that the preparations have been completed, and
that you are ready to run the actual writing process.
Refer to the chapters Basic Audio CD, DVD-Audio, and CD window for
a description of the preparations before following the instructions in this
chapter.
RELATED LINKS:
“Basic Audio CD” on page 488
“DVD-Audio” on page 499
“About the CD Window” on page 353
Write Audio CD or DDP Dialog
In this dialog, you can write your Audio CD project and audio montage
to audio CD or DDP image.
•
When you want to write audio files to an audio CD or a DDP
image, in the Audio Files workspace, open the Basic Audio CD
window, and select Edit > Write Audio CD or DDP.
•
When you want to write audio montages to an audio CD or a DDP
image, in the Audio Montage workspace, open the CD window,
and select Functions > Write Audio CD or DDP.
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Writing Operations
Write Audio CD or DDP Dialog
The following options are the same for writing both audio files and audio
montages to audio CD/DDP image:
Device
Here, select the disc writer that you want to use, or select DDP
Image to write a set of DDP files on the hard drive.
NOTE
On the Mac, insert a media in the drive after opening WaveLab.
Otherwise, the drive is under the control of the operating system and is
not available for WaveLab.
Refresh
Scans the system for connected optical devices. This is done
automatically, when this dialog opens. Click the refresh icon after
you insert a new blank media to update the Speed menu.
NOTE
On the Mac, insert a media in the drive after opening WaveLab.
Otherwise, the drive is under the control of the operating system and is
not available for WaveLab.
Eject optical medium
Ejects the optical medium present in the selected drive.
Information about selected device
Opens the Device information dialog, that shows information
about the selected device.
Erase optical media
Erases the optical disc present in the selected drive, provided it is
a rewritable media.
If DDP Image is selected, clicking the button erases the existing
DDP files.
Bypass Master Section
If this option is activated, the audio signal is not processed through
the Master Section before being written to the media. For writing
a Basic Audio CD, this option is always activated.
Destination folder (DDP Image must be selected)
Lets you specify the destination path. If you type a non-existing
path, it is automatically created.
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Writing Operations
Write Audio CD or DDP Dialog
Write table of contents and customer information (DDP Image
must be selected)
If this option is activated, a file called “IDENT.TXT” is written in the
DDP folder. It contains a table of contents of the tracks and some
customer information. This file is not officially part of the DDP
specification, but it can be used by the recipient of the DDP image
to identify the files.
Speed
Lets you select the writing speed. The highest speed depends
both on the capabilities of your writing device and of the media
present in the device.
Copies
Lets you enter the number of copies that you want to write.
Test only, do not write
If this option is activated, clicking OK initiates a simulation of
writing the CD. If this test is passed, the real write operation will
succeed. If the test fails, try again at a lower writing speed.
Render to temporary file before writing (only available for writing
audio montages)
If this option is activated, a disk image is created before writing,
which eliminates the risk of buffer underruns. This is useful if your
project uses many audio plug-ins while writing. It is activated
automatically when writing multiple copies. While this option
makes the writing operation longer, it may allow you to select an
higher writing speed.
CD-Extra compatible (new session possible)
If this option is activated, the resulting audio CD is compatible with
the CD-Extra format.
Eject after completion
If this option is activated, the disc is ejected after the write process.
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Writing Operations
Erase Optical Media Dialog
Erase Optical Media Dialog
In this dialog, you can quickly or fully erase the disc before writing.
In the Write Audio CD or DDP dialog, click the eraser icon.
Quick erase
Erases the table of contents of the disc.
Full erase
Erases all parts of the disc.
Force erasing even if a disk appears to be blank
If this option is activated, the disc is erased, even if it is declared
as blank. Use this option to make sure that discs that were partially
or minimally erased are fully erased.
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Writing Operations
About Writing Audio Files
About Writing Audio Files
You can write the audio files of a Basic Audio CD project to an audio
CD or a DDP image.
Writing Audio Files to an Audio CD
PREREQUISITE
Set up a Basic Audio CD project.
NOTE
On the Mac, insert a media in the drive after opening WaveLab.
Otherwise, the drive is under the control of the operating system and is
not available for WaveLab.
PROCEDURE
1.
Optional: Check the Basic Audio CD project to make sure that all
starts, ends, and transitions are as intended.
2.
Optional: In the Basic Audio CD window, select Edit > Check CD
conformity, to check that all settings conform to the Red Book
standard.
3.
Insert an empty CD into your drive.
4.
In the Basic Audio CD window, select Edit > Write Audio CD or
DDP.
5.
From the Device pop-up menu, select the writing device that you
want to use.
6.
Select the writing speed from the Speed pop-up menu.
7.
Optional: Activate one or several of the following options:
8.
•
Activate Test only, do not write, if you want to test if the writing
operation would be successful.
•
Activate CD-Extra compatible (new session possible), if you
want the resulting audio CD to be compatible with the CD-Extra
format.
•
Activate Eject after completion, if you want the disc to be
automatically ejected after the writing operation.
Click OK to start the writing operation.
RELATED LINKS:
“Write Audio CD or DDP Dialog” on page 507
511
Writing Operations
About Writing Audio Files
Writing Audio Files to DDP Image
There might be situations when you want to freeze an entire Basic Audio
CD, without actually writing a CD. This is done by saving as a DDP
image.
PREREQUISITE
Set up a Basic Audio CD project.
PROCEDURE
1.
Optional: Check the Basic Audio CD project to make sure that all
starts, ends, and transitions are as intended.
2.
Optional: In the Basic Audio CD window, select Edit > Check CD
conformity, to check that all settings conform to the Red Book
standard.
3.
In the Basic Audio CD window, select Edit > Write Audio CD or
DDP.
4.
From the Device pop-up menu, select DDP Image.
5.
Specify the destination folder.
6.
Optional: Activate Write table of contents and customer
information, to create a text file, containing information about the
DDP file.
7.
Click OK, to start the writing operation.
RESULT
The following files and folders are created:
•
A Basic Audio CD file with the specified name. This is the file you
need to open the next time you want to access this CD image.
•
A single wave file, containing all the tracks and markers.
•
A marker file that contains the markers.
•
A peak file for the wave file.
RELATED LINKS:
“Write Audio CD or DDP Dialog” on page 507
512
Writing Operations
About Writing Audio Files
Write Audio CD From DDP Image
In this dialog, you can write a CD from a DDP image that you have
previously created with WaveLab or another application.
In the Audio Files workspace or the Audio Montage workspace, select
File > Export > Write Audio CD from DDP image.
Device
Here, select the disc writer that you want to use.
NOTE
On the Mac, insert a media in the drive after opening WaveLab.
Otherwise, the drive is under the control of the operating system and is
not available for WaveLab.
Refresh
Scans the system for connected optical devices. This is done
automatically, when this dialog opens. Click the update icon after
you insert a new blank media to update the Speed menu.
NOTE
On the Mac, insert a media in the drive after opening WaveLab.
Otherwise, the drive is under the control of the operating system and is
not available for WaveLab.
Eject optical medium
Ejects the optical medium present in the selected drive.
Information about selected device
Opens the Device information dialog, that shows information
about the selected device.
Erase optical disc
Erases the optical disc present in the selected drive, provided it is
a rewritable media. If DDP Image is selected, clicking the button
erases the existing DDP files.
513
Writing Operations
About Writing Audio Montages
Speed
Here, select the writing speed. The highest speed depends both
on the capabilities of your writing device and of the media present
in the device.
Test only, do not write
If this option is activated, clicking OK initiates a simulation of
writing the CD. If this test is passed, the real write operation will
succeed. If the test fails, try again at a lower writing speed.
Eject after completion
If this option is activated, the disc is ejected after the write process.
DDP Image folder
Lets you specify the source path of the DDP image.
About Writing Audio Montages
You can write audio montages to an audio CD or a DDP image.
Writing an Audio Montage to an Audio CD
PREREQUISITE
Set up your audio montage, and make your CD writing settings in the
Global preferences.
NOTE
On the Mac, insert a media in the drive after opening WaveLab.
Otherwise, the drive is under the control of the operating system and is
not available for WaveLab.
PROCEDURE
1.
Optional: Check the audio montage to make sure that all starts,
ends, and transitions are as intended.
2.
Optional: In the CD window, select Functions > Check CD
conformity, to check that all settings conform to the Red Book
standard.
3.
Insert an empty CD into your drive.
4.
In the CD window, select Functions > Write Audio CD or DDP.
514
Writing Operations
About Writing Audio Montages
5.
From the Device pop-up menu, select the writing device that you
want to use.
6.
If you want to bypass the Master Section, activate Bypass Master
Section.
7.
Select the writing speed from the Speed pop-up menu.
8.
Select the number of copies that you want to write.
When you want to write more than one copy, it is recommended to
activate Render to temporary file before writing.
9.
Optional: Activate one or several of the following options:
•
Activate Test only, do not write, if you want to test if the writing
operation would be successful.
•
Activate Render to temporary file before writing, if your audio
montage uses many plug-ins. This way, the audio data is sent to
the CD writer fast enough.
•
Activate CD-Extra compatible (new session possible), if you
want the resulting audio CD to be compatible with the CD-Extra
format.
•
Activate Eject after completion, if you want the disc to be
automatically ejected after the writing operation.
10. Click OK.
RESULT
The writing operation starts.
RELATED LINKS:
“Write Audio CD or DDP Dialog” on page 507
Writing an Audio Montage to a DDP Image
PREREQUISITE
Set up your audio montage, and make your CD writing settings in the
Global preferences.
PROCEDURE
1.
Optional: Check the audio montage to make sure that all starts,
ends, and transitions are as intended.
2.
Optional: In the CD window, select Functions > Check CD
conformity, to check that all settings conform to the Red Book
standard.
3.
In the CD window, select Functions > Write Audio CD or DDP.
4.
From the Device pop-up menu, select DDP Image.
515
Writing Operations
About Writing Audio Montages
5.
If you want to bypass the Master Section, activate Bypass Master
Section.
6.
Specify the destination folder.
7.
Optional: Activate Write table of contents and customer
information, to create a text file, containing information about the
DDP file.
8.
Click OK, to start the writing operation.
RELATED LINKS:
“Write Audio CD or DDP Dialog” on page 507
Writing Audio Montages With Any Sample Rate
You can write audio montages to CD/DDP even if they are not at
44.1 kHz. To be able to do this, you must set up the Crystal Resampler
plug-in in the Master Section. This procedure is not automated so that
you can customize the resampling quality, limiting, and dithering.
PREREQUISITE
Set up your audio montage.
PROCEDURE
1.
In the Master Section, add the Crystal Resampler plug-in to an
Effects slot.
2.
In the Crystal Resampler, set the Sample rate to 44.1 kHz.
3.
Optional: Add a Peak Limiter and a Dithering plug-in at the end
of the Master Section.
4.
Write the audio montage as you would write any other audio
montage.
RELATED LINKS:
“Writing an Audio Montage to an Audio CD” on page 514
“Writing an Audio Montage to a DDP Image” on page 515
516
Writing Operations
About Writing Audio Montages
Checking the Transition Between Tracks
You can set up a pre-roll time before tracks start and then play back all
tracks. This way you can check the transition between tracks.
PREREQUISITE
Set up your audio montage.
PROCEDURE
1.
In the Audio Montage workspace, in the CD window, select
Options > Edit playback times.
2.
Make your settings, and click OK.
3.
In the CD window, select Functions > Play all CD-track starts.
RESULT
Each track start and end point is played back according to the values
set in the Edit playback times dialog.
About CD-Text
CD-Text is an extension of the Red Book Compact Disc standard and
allows you to store text information such as title, songwriter, composer,
and disc ID on an audio CD.
The text data is then displayed by CD players that support the CD-Text
format. The CD-Text can also be included in the audio CD report.
CD-Text Editor Dialog
In this dialog, you can specify information such as track title, performer,
and songwriter, that is written onto the CD as CD-Text.
You can add information about the disc itself and each individual track.
This information is entered in the text fields that scroll horizontally. There
is one pane of fields for the disc itself and a pane for each track.
517
Writing Operations
About Writing Audio Montages
In the Audio Montage workspace, in the CD window, select the track for
which you want to edit the CD-Text, and select Functions > Edit
CD-Text.
Copies the name of the CD track start marker to this field.
Copies the name of each CD track start marker to the title field of
each CD track.
Copies the text to all tracks located after the current one.
Scrollbar
Use the scrollbar to navigate across all CD-Texts. The first position
corresponds to the whole CD, other positions to individual tracks.
Language selection
Here, select how characters should be encoded on the CD.
NOTE
If a character is not CD-Text compatible, it is displayed as a ? character.
Restrict to ASCII
To ensure the maximum compatibility with CD players, it is
recommended to restrict the characters to ASCII when using the
Western European option. If this option is activated, and you type
a non-compatible character, a ? character is displayed.
Enable CD-Text writing
If this option is activated, the CD-Text is written onto the CD.
518
Writing Operations
About Writing Audio Montages
Audio CD Reports
An audio CD report is a detailed report about the active audio CD. This
report includes a full track listing with ISRC codes, track times, and
CD-Text.
The audio CD report can be output in HTML, Adobe PDF, XML, simple
text format, CSV format, or printed out. You can choose the details of
what is displayed and include your custom logo. You can send the audio
CD report to your client, an album artwork designer, or to the CD
replication house when presenting them with a master CD, for example.
There are two types of variables:
•
Factory variables provide automatically generated information
about a project such as number of tracks, track times, track names,
etc. – based on the actual contents of the project.
•
User defined variables contain personal data such as company
name and copyright information, etc.
Along with the variables, the audio CD report can also include any CD-Text
that you have specified, for examples, composers, performers, etc.
Generating an Audio CD Report
An audio CD report should be generated when an audio montage is fully
prepared and ready for CD writing.
PROCEDURE
1.
In the Audio Montage workspace, open the audio montage that
you want to create a report for.
The audio montage must be in stereo mode.
2.
Open the CD window.
3.
In the CD window, select Functions > Generate Audio CD
report.
4.
On the Rich Text tab, in the Output format section, specify one
of the following output formats:
•
HTML, Adobe PDF, Print, XML, or CSV
5.
Make your settings.
6.
Optional: On the Raw Text tab, select a cue-sheet template or
enter cue-sheet information.
7.
Optional: If you want to save the audio CD report to a specific
location, activate Generate specific file, and specify a file name
and location.
8.
Click Apply.
519
Writing Operations
About Writing Audio Montages
Audio CD Report Dialog
In this dialog, you can generate an audio CD report and specify which
information to include in this report.
In the Audio Montage workspace, in the CD window, select Functions
> Generate Audio CD report.
Global Options
The following option is available on the Rich Text tab and the Raw Text
tab.
Generate specific file
Lets you specify a name and location for the report. The file is
created, when you click Apply.
Rich Text Tab
Font and Font Size
Determines the font and font size to use in the report.
Header image
Lets you select an image to be inserted at the top of the report.
520
Writing Operations
About Writing Audio Montages
Center image
Centers the image horizontally. If deactivated, the image is placed
on the left.
Header
Adds general information at the start of the report.
Custom text
Lets you enter text to be inserted at the top of the report. To insert
custom variables, right-click the text field.
Extra lines
Lets you select which of the following information you want to add
to the header:
•
Date
•
Name of the audio montage
•
UPC/EAN Code
•
Number of tracks
•
Disc duration
Skip lines with empty values
If this option is activated, when a line contains an empty variable,
the line is not added to the report.
Details
Adds a description of the pause, track start, and possible
sub-indexes to the report.
CD-Text
If this option is activated, the CD-Text is included in the report.
Pause
If this option is activated, the pause information is included in the
report
Pre-emphasis status
Adds a column to the report to display the track pre-emphasis
status.
Copy status
Adds a column to the report to display the copy status of the track.
ISRC
Adds a column to the report to display the ISRC code.
521
Writing Operations
About Writing Audio Montages
Sub-indexes
If this option is activated, track sub-indexes are described in the
report.
Sub-indexes are relative to track
Sets the sub-index values to be relative to the start of the
corresponding track. If deactivated, they are relative to the start of
the CD.
Start time (in audio montage)
Adds a column to the report to display the event times from the
start of the audio montage.
Start time (on CD)
Adds a column to the report to display the event times from the
start of the CD.
Output format
Lets you select the output format for the report.
•
HTML generates an html file with a UTF-8 character format.
•
Adobe PDF generates a PDF file.
•
Print generates a preview of the report, allowing you to print the
report. If no printer is connected, the preview is empty.
•
XML generates an XML file that includes the CD information.
•
CSV generates a CSV file that can be imported in a spreadsheet.
The CSV file can only store the main properties of the CD report.
You can set the type CSV delimiter in the Global Preferences
dialog.
Value format
Opens the Value formats dialog, where you can edit the format of
the auto-generated values. These variables are part of any presets
saved for this dialog.
Generate specific file
Lets you specify a name and location for the report. The file is
created, when you click Apply.
522
Writing Operations
About Writing Audio Montages
Raw Text Tab
Template
Lets you select a template for the report layout. When selecting
Custom, you can also create your own cue-sheet template.
Cue-sheet field
Lets you write a cue-sheet.
Copy to clipboard
Copies the text to the clipboard.
Cue-Sheet Templates
A cue-sheet is an alternate form of the CD report, based on raw UTF-8
text, and can be customized in several ways. Creating a cue-sheet
requires an understanding of computers, and some knowledge about
programming, since it makes use of the commands and variables
concept.
Cue-sheets are organized in the following way. There are a number of
codes, commands, and variables, which you place in a text file - the
template. When you ask the program to generate a cue-sheet, it creates
the text file based on the codes it finds in the template.
523
Writing Operations
About Writing Audio Montages
If the program encounters a variable, it replaces this with some
information about the CD. For example, there is a variable called
"NUM_TRACKS". When the program finds this, it replaces it with the
actual number of tracks in the CD.
Commands, on the other hand, are instructions for the program to do
something. For example, the command "TIMECODE SEPARATOR ="
followed by a few special characters, instructs the program what
characters should be inserted between time code values, so that you
can get time code values printed out in the format 00:00:00.00,
"00 00 00 00", or anything else you prefer.
The following codes can be entered for specific purposes:
Code
Description
$
A variable. The text that follows right after the "$" is the command name,
for example, "$TITLE". A variable can occur anywhere on a line, and
there can be any number of variables on a line.
#
A command. The text that follows after the "#" is the command name, for
example, "#FOR EACH TRACK". There can only be one command per
line and there should not be anything else on that line.
;
If a line starts with a semi-colon (;), the line is interpreted as a comment.
Nothing on such a line is used in the cue-sheet. This is useful for making
notes, for example.
All other text characters can be entered on their own lines or among the
variables, and are used as they are. For example, if you type
"Title: $TITLE" and the title you have entered is "My Greatest Hits!", the
text "Title: My Greatest Hits" appears in the cue-sheet.
To find out about the available commands and how they are used, you
can open the included templates and study them. The following
variables are available:
Track Number
Variable
Description
T0
As decimal number "1" or "22"
T1
Blank Justified Two Digit Number "1" or "22"
T2
Zero Justified Two Digit Number "01" or "22"
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Writing Operations
About Writing Audio Montages
Track Index
Variable
Description
I0
As decimal number "1" or "22"
I1
Blank Justified Two Digit Number "1" or "22"
I2
Zero Justified Two Digit Number "01" or "22"
Copy Protection Status
Variable
Description
C1
"x" or " "
C2
"Y" or "N"
Emphasis Status
Variable
Description
E1
"x" or " "
E2
"Y" or "N"
Absolute Time of Index
Variable
Description
TIME_IA_0
As decimal number
TIME_IA_1
Blank justified 7 digit decimal number
TIME_IA_2
Time as "hh:mm:ss:ff"
TIME_IA_3
Time as "hh:mm:ss:ff" blank justified, leading zero not
displayed
TIME_IA_4
Time as "hh:mm:ss:ff" compressed, if there are no hours,
none are displayed
TIME_IA_5
Time as "mm:ss:ff" no hours displayed
TIME_IA_6
Time as "mm:ss:ff" blank justified, leading zero not shown, no
hours displayed
TIME_IA_7
Time as "mm:ss:ff" no minutes displayed if not required, no
hours displayed
525
Writing Operations
About Writing Audio Montages
Variable
Description
TIME_IA_8
Time format as "1h 2mn 3s 4f"
TIME_IA_9
Time format as "1h 2mn 3s"
Index Time Relative to Start of CD
Variable
Description
TIME_IR_0
As decimal number
TIME_IR_1
Blank justified 7 digit decimal number
TIME_IR_2
Time as "hh:mm:ss:ff"
TIME_IR_3
Time as "hh:mm:ss:ff" blank justified, leading zero not
displayed
TIME_IR_4
Time as "hh:mm:ss:ff" compressed, if there are no hours,
none are displayed
TIME_IR_5
Time as "mm:ss:ff" no hours displayed
TIME_IR_6
Time as "mm:ss:ff" blank justified, leading zero not shown, no
hours displayed
TIME_IR_7
Time as "mm:ss:ff" no minutes displayed if not required, no
hours displayed
TIME_IR_8
Time format as "1h 2mn 3s 4f"
TIME_IR_9
Time format as "1h 2mn 3s"
Index Time Relative to Start of Track
Variable
Description
TIME_IT_0
As decimal number
TIME_IT_1
Blank justified 7 digit decimal number
TIME_IT_2
Time as "hh:mm:ss:ff"
TIME_IT_3
Time as "hh:mm:ss:ff" blank justified, leading zero not
displayed
TIME_IT_4
Time as "hh:mm:ss:ff" compressed, if there are no hours,
none are displayed
TIME_IT_5
Time as "mm:ss:ff" no hours displayed
526
Writing Operations
About Writing Audio Montages
Variable
Description
TIME_IT_6
Time as "mm:ss:ff" blank justified, leading zero not shown, no
hours displayed
TIME_IT_7
Time as "mm:ss:ff" no minutes displayed if not required, no
hours displayed
TIME_IT_8
Time format as "1h 2mn 3s 4f"
TIME_IT_9
Time format as "1h 2mn 3s"
Pause Length
Variable
Description
TIME_PA_0
As decimal number
TIME_PA_1
Blank justified 7 digit decimal number
TIME_PA_2
Time as "hh:mm:ss:ff"
TIME_PA_3
Time as "hh:mm:ss:ff" blank justified, leading zero not
displayed
TIME_PA_4
Time as "hh:mm:ss:ff" compressed, if there are no hours,
none are displayed
TIME_PA_5
Time as "mm:ss:ff" no hours displayed
TIME_PA_6
Time as "mm:ss:ff" blank justified, leading zero not shown, no
hours displayed
TIME_PA_7
Time as "mm:ss:ff" no minutes displayed if not required, no
hours displayed
TIME_PA_8
Time format as "1h 2mn 3s 4f"
TIME_PA_9
Time format as "1h 2mn 3s"
Track Length
Variable
Description
TIME_TR_0
As decimal number
TIME_TR_1
Blank justified 7 digit decimal number
TIME_TR_2
Time as "hh:mm:ss:ff"
TIME_TR_3
Time as "hh:mm:ss:ff" blank justified, leading zero not
displayed
527
Writing Operations
About Writing Audio Montages
Variable
Description
TIME_TR_4
Time as "hh:mm:ss:ff" compressed, if there are no hours,
none are displayed
TIME_TR_5
Time as "mm:ss:ff" no hours displayed
TIME_TR_6
Time as "mm:ss:ff" blank justified, leading zero not shown, no
hours displayed
TIME_TR_7
Time as "mm:ss:ff" no minutes displayed if not required, no
hours displayed
TIME_TR_8
Time format as "1h 2mn 3s 4f"
TIME_TR_9
Time format as "1h 2mn 3s"
CD Length
Variable
Description
TIME_CD_0
As decimal number
TIME_CD_1
Blank justified 7 digit decimal number
TIME_CD_2
Time as "hh:mm:ss:ff"
TIME_CD_3
Time as "hh:mm:ss:ff" blank justified, leading zero not
displayed
TIME_CD_4
Time as "hh:mm:ss:ff" compressed, if there are no hours,
none are displayed
TIME_CD_5
Time as "mm:ss:ff" no hours displayed
TIME_CD_6
Time as "mm:ss:ff" blank justified, leading zero not shown, no
hours displayed
TIME_CD_7
Time as "mm:ss:ff" no minutes displayed if not required, no
hours displayed
TIME_CD_8
Time format as "1h 2mn 3s 4f"
TIME_CD_9
Time format as "1h 2mn 3s"
Various
Variable
Description
NUM_TRACKS
Total number of tracks as decimal number
UPC
UPC/EAN code
528
Writing Operations
About Writing Audio Montages
Variable
Description
ISRC
ISRC code
FILE
File name (no path)
PFILE
File name (with path)
TRACK_NAME
Track name
TRACK_COMM
ENT
Track comment
Creating a Cue-Sheet Template
You can create a cue-sheet template and load it each time you want to
create an audio CD report.
PROCEDURE
1.
In the Audio Montage workspace, open an audio montage that
contains CD tracks.
The audio montage must be in stereo mode.
2.
Open the CD window.
3.
In the CD window, select Functions > Generate Audio CD
report.
4.
Open the Raw Text tab.
5.
In the Template section, select Custom to start with an empty
cue-sheet, or select one of the available cue-sheets to modify
them.
6.
Enter the cue-sheet information.
7.
Activate Generate specific file, and specify a file name and
location.
8.
Click Apply to save the cue-sheet template.
529
Writing Operations
Write DVD-Audio Function
Write DVD-Audio Function
Before writing an audio montage to DVD-Audio, the contents of the
DVD-Audio project must be rendered to an AUDIO_TS folder. This
folder is automatically added to a Data CD/DVD project, from where you
can start the actual writing operation.
DVD-Audio Creation Dialog
This dialog allows you to make settings for the DVD-Audio creation.
In the Audio Montage workspace, in the DVD-Audio window, set up the
DVD-Audio project and click the Write DVD-Audio icon.
Test only
If this option is activated, all data is checked and rendered in
memory, to know if the DVD-Audio project is complete and ready
for rendering. When the test is finished, a report opens.
Render each audio montage with its own plug-in set
If this option is activated, each audio montage is rendered with its
own Master Section effects.
Use current Master Section settings for all audio montages
If this option is activated, all audio montages are rendered using
the selected Master Section settings.
Ignore
If this option is activated, the audio montages are rendered without
any Master Section effects.
Output folder
Lets you select the destination folder for the rendered files.
Rendering the DVD-Audio
To be able to write the DVD-Audio project to disk or ISO image, you
must render the DVD-Audio project first.
PREREQUISITE
Set up the DVD-Audio project.
530
Writing Operations
Write DVD-Audio Function
If you want to use the Master Section plug-ins when rendering the
project, set up the Master Section to your liking.
PROCEDURE
1.
In the DVD-Audio window, select Edit > Write DVD-Audio, or
click the Write DVD-Audio icon.
2.
In the Master Section plug-ins section, activate one of the
following options:
•
Render each audio montage with its own plug-in set
•
Use current Master Section settings for all audio montages
•
Ignore
3.
Specify an output folder.
4.
Click OK.
RESULT
The Write Data CD/DVD dialog opens, allowing you to write your
DVD-Audio project.
Write Data CD/DVD Dialog When Writing DVD-Audio
In this dialog, you can write your DVD-Audio project to CD/DVD or ISO
file.
In the Audio Montage workspace, in the DVD-Audio window, set up and
render the DVD-Audio project. After the rendering operation is finished,
the Write Data CD/DVD dialog opens.
531
Writing Operations
Write DVD-Audio Function
Device
Lets you select the disc writer that you want to use, or select ISO
Image to write a file on the hard drive. Writing an ISO image
creates a copy of a future optical media.
NOTE
On the Mac, insert a media in the drive after opening WaveLab.
Otherwise, the drive is under the control of the operating system and is
not available for WaveLab.
Refresh
Scans the system for connected optical devices. This is done
automatically, when this dialog opens. Click the update icon after
you insert a new blank media, to update the speed menu.
NOTE
On the Mac, insert a media in the drive after opening WaveLab.
Otherwise, the drive is under the control of the operating system and is
not available for WaveLab.
Eject optical medium
Ejects the optical medium present in the selected drive.
Information about selected device
Opens the Device information dialog, that shows information
about the selected device.
Erase optical disc
Erases the optical disc present in the selected drive, provided it is
a rewritable media. If ISO Image is selected, clicking the button
erases the existing ISO file.
ISO file name
When ISO Image is selected on the Device menu, specify the file
name and file location of the ISO file in the text field.
Speed
Here, select the writing speed. The highest speed depends both
on the capabilities of your writing device and of the media present
in the device.
Test only, do not write
If this option is activated, clicking OK initiates a simulation of
writing the CD. If this test is passed, the real write operation will
succeed. If the test fails, try again at a lower writing speed.
Verify after write
If this option is activated, the data on the medium is automatically
verified after the writing process.
532
Writing Operations
Write DVD-Audio Function
Eject before verifying
If this option is activated, the disc is ejected and retracted before
the verification process, to force the drive out of the write state.
This is only possible if the disc can be retracted automatically.
Eject after completion
If this option is activated, the disc is ejected after the write process.
Writing a DVD-Audio Project to a Data CD/DVD
After rendering the DVD-Audio project, you can write it to a
Data-CD/DVD.
PREREQUISITE
Set up and render a DVD-Audio project.
IMPORTANT
On the Mac, insert a media in the drive after opening WaveLab.
Otherwise, the drive is under the control of the operating system and not
available for WaveLab.
PROCEDURE
1.
Optional: Check the DVD-Audio project to make sure that all
starts, ends, and transitions are as intended.
2.
Optional: In the DVD-Audio window, select Edit > Check
DVD-Audio conformity, to check that all settings are compatible
with the Red Book standard.
3.
Insert an empty DVD into your drive.
4.
From the Device pop-up menu, select the disc writing device you
want to use.
5.
Select the writing speed from the Speed pop-up menu.
6.
Optional: Activate one or several of the following options:
7.
•
Activate Test only, do not write, if you want to test if the writing
operation would be successful.
•
Activate Verify after write, if you want the file to be verified after
the writing operation.
•
Activate Eject before verifying and/or Eject after completion if
you want the disc to be automatically ejected at the corresponding
situations.
Click OK to start the writing operation.
533
Writing Operations
Write DVD-Audio Function
Writing a DVD-Audio Project to an ISO Image
When you want to save an entire DVD-Audio project without actually
writing a DVD, you can save the project as an ISO image.
PREREQUISITE
Set up and render a DVD-Audio project.
PROCEDURE
1.
Check the DVD-Audio project to make sure that all starts, ends,
and transitions are as intended.
2.
Optional: In the DVD-Audio window, select Edit > Check
DVD-Audio conformity, to check that all settings conform to the
Red Book standard.
3.
In the Write Data CD/DVD dialog, from the Device pop-up menu,
select ISO image.
4.
Specify an ISO file name and location.
5.
Click OK.
The writing of the ISO file starts.
6.
When the operation is finished, click OK.
534
Writing Operations
Data CD/DVD Projects
Data CD/DVD Projects
A data CD/DVD project can be used to compile and write a data-only
CD, DVD, Blu-ray, or to write to ISO image. You can enter a name for
your disc and change the disc file structure before writing your data to
a CD, DVD, Blu-ray, or ISO image.
Creating a Data CD/DVD Project
A data CD/DVD project can be used to compile and write a data-only
CD, DVD, Blu-ray, or to write to ISO image.
PROCEDURE
1.
In any workspace, select Global > Data CD/DVD.
2.
Add files to the project, using one of the following methods:
3.
•
Drag the files from the WaveLab file browser or from the
Explorer/Finder into the Data CD/DVD window.
•
Drag a tab from any workspace into the Data CD/DVD window.
•
In any workspace, select File > Special > Add to Data CD/DVD,
to add the open file to the Data CD/DVD project.
Optional: Click the New Folder icon, specify a folder name, and
arrange the files by dragging.
Writing a Data CD/DVD Project
PREREQUISITE
Open the Data CD/DVD dialog, and add the files that you want to write
to a data CD/DVD.
PROCEDURE
1.
Click the Write Data CD/DVD icon.
2.
Select a writing device.
3.
•
When you select ISO Image, specify a file name and file location.
•
When you select a CD/DVD writer, specify the writing speed and
make further settings.
Click OK.
535
Writing Operations
Data CD/DVD Projects
Data CD/DVD Dialog
In this dialog, you can create a data CD/DVD project, and write it to CD,
DVD, Blu-ray, or ISO image.
In any workspace, select Global > Data CD/DVD.
Media
Select the media type you want to write. If the media size that you
want to use is not listed, select the media type that offers a size
closest to your requirements.
Volume name
Specify the volume name of the CD/DVD.
Open Explorer/Finder
Opens the Explorer/Finder to show the location of the selected file.
Remove selected files and folders
Removes the selected files and folders from the CD/DVD project.
New folder
Creates a folder. You can also create sub-folders.
Write Data CD/DVD dialog
Opens the Write Data CD/DVD dialog from which you can write
the media.
Data CD/DVD list
Shows the contents of the CD/DVD project, and the size and
creation date of the files.
Available space on media
Indicates how much space is used on the media. The total size of
the data CD/DVD project is shown below the data CD/DVD list.
536
Writing Operations
Data CD/DVD Projects
Reset
Removes all files from the data CD/DVD project.
Write Data CD/DVD Dialog
In this dialog, you can write a data CD/DVD project to CD/DVD or ISO
file.
In the Data CD/DVD dialog, click the Write Data CD/DVD icon.
Device
Here, select the disc writer you want to use, or select ISO Image
to write a file on the hard drive. Writing an ISO image creates a
copy of a future optical media.
NOTE
On the Mac, open WaveLab without a media in the drive. Otherwise, the
drive is under the control of the operating system and is not available for
WaveLab.
Refresh
Scans the system for connected optical devices. This is done
automatically, when this dialog opens. Click the update icon after
you insert a new blank media, to update the speed menu.
Eject optical medium
Ejects the optical medium present in the selected drive.
Information about selected drive
Opens the Device information dialog, that shows information
about the selected device.
Erase optical disc
Erases the optical disc present in the selected drive, provided it is
a rewritable media. If ISO Image is selected, clicking the button
erases the existing ISO file.
537
Writing Operations
Data CD/DVD Projects
ISO file name
When ISO Image is selected in the Device menu, specify the file
name and file location of the ISO file in the text field.
Speed
Here, select the writing speed. The highest speed depends both
on the capabilities of your writing device and of the media present
in the device.
Test only, do not write
If this option is activated, clicking OK initiates a simulation of
writing the CD. If this test is passed, the real write operation will
succeed. If the test fails, try again at a lower writing speed.
Create CD-Extra session
If this option is activated, the data is written in a new session, after
the audio tracks. This creates a CD Extra, also known as Enhanced
CD and CD Plus. For this to work, the CD in the drive must have
audio tracks on it, written with the CD Extra option. Otherwise the
operation fails.
Verify after write
If this option is activated, the data on the medium is automatically
verified after the writing process.
Eject before verifying
If this option is activated, the disc is ejected and retracted before
the verification process, to force the drive out of the write state.
This is only possible if the disc can be retracted automatically.
Eject after completion
If this option is activated, the disc is ejected after the write process.
538
Writing Operations
About Audio CD Formats
About Audio CD Formats
This chapter provides you with background information on the CD
format, to help you better understand how to create your own CDs.
This documentation can only give basic information on this subject. For
more information, try a text-book on the subject, or search the internet.
Basic CD Formats
There are a number of different formats for the contents of a CD disc.
For example, audio CDs, CD-ROMS, and CD-I. These are all slightly
different.
The audio CD specification is called Red Book. It is this standard to
which WaveLab conforms.
NOTE
Red Book CD is not a real file format. All the audio on the CD is stored
in one big file. This is different from hard disks, for example, where each
file is stored separately. Keep in mind that all the audio is in fact one long
stream of digital data.
CD-Extra Support
CD-Extra is a format that allows for the writing of both audio and data
on a single CD, just like Mixed Mode CDs. When writing an audio CD,
you can prepare it for CD-Extra support (also known as Enhanced CD
or CD Plus).
The difference is that when Mixed Mode CDs are written with the audio
placed on the last tracks of the CD, for CDs in the CD-Extra format the
audio is contained in the first tracks of the CD, and the data follows
subsequently.
All features of the Red Book audio CD are possible with CD-Extra,
unlike with Mixed Mode CDs. After an audio CD has been written with
CD-Extra support, the data can be added to the CD in a separate
session, by creating and writing a Data CD Project.
NOTE
Some computer CD drives may not recognize CDs in the CD-Extra
format.
539
Writing Operations
About Audio CD Formats
Types of Events on an Audio CD
There are three types of events that can be used to specify various
sections of audio on the CD.
Event
Description
Track start
There can be up to 99 tracks on one CD. Each is identified by
its start point only.
Track sub-index
On advanced CD players, a track can be divided into
sub-indexes (sometimes called only indexes). These are used
to identify important positions within a track. There can be 98
sub-indexes in each track. However, since it is difficult and
time-consuming to search for and locate to a sub-index, many
CD players ignore this information.
Pause
A pause appears before each track. Pauses can be of
variable lengths. Some CD players indicate the pauses
between tracks on their displays.
About Frames, Positions, Small Frames, and Bits
The data on an audio CD is divided into frames.
A frame consists of 588 stereo samples. 75 frames make up one second of
audio. This is because 75 x 588 = 44100, and since the sampling
frequency of the CD format is 44100 Hz (samples per second), this equals
one second of audio. When you specify positions on the CD, in WaveLab,
you do it in the format mm:ss:ff (minutes:seconds:frames). The frame values
go from 0 to 74, since there are 75 frames to a second.
Technically, there is no way to specify something smaller than a frame
on a CD. One effect of this is that if the sample length of a track on the
CD does not equal a perfect number of frames, some blank audio must
be added at the end. Another effect of this is that when you play the CD,
you can never locate to anything closer than a frame. If you need some
data in the middle of a frame, you still have to read the whole frame.
Again, this is unlike a hard disk, where you can retrieve any byte on the
disk, without reading the surrounding data.
But frames are not the smallest block of data on a CD. There is also
something called “small frames”. A small frame is a container of 588 bits.
98 small frames together make up one regular frame. In each small frame
there is only room for six stereo samples, which means that a lot of space is
left for data other than the actual audio. There is information for encoding,
laser synchronization, error correction, and the PQ data to indentify the
track boundaries. This PQ data is of major importance to anyone who wants
to create their own CD, and handled effortless in WaveLab.
540
Writing Operations
About Audio CD Formats
PQ Codes Handling
The PQ codes convey information about track start, sub-indexes, and
pauses.
However, when creating a CD there are a number of rules you must take
into account. For example, there should be some silent frames before
each track, sub-indexes should be slightly early, there should be pauses
at the beginning and end of the entire CD, etc.
When creating CDs from an audio montage, these rules and settings
are handled by the CD Wizard. If you do not change these settings, you
will get default values that ensure your CD will work properly. However,
you can still adjust the PQ codes to your liking. We recommend to leave
the settings as they are.
WaveLab only exposes intuitive CD markers and automatically
generates the corresponding PQ codes to be written to CD.
ISRC Codes
International Standard Recording Code (ISRC) is an identification that is
only used on CDs intended for commercial distribution. WaveLaballows
you to specify an ISRC code for each audio track. These codes are
provided by your publisher or clients.
The ISRC code is structured as follows:
•
Country Code (2 ASCII characters)
•
Owner Code (3 ASCII characters or digits).
•
Recording Year (2 digits or ASCII characters)
•
Serial Number (5 digits or ASCII characters)
The groups of characters are often presented with hyphens to make
them easier to read, but hyphens are not part of the code.
UPC/EAN Codes
UPC/EAN code - the Universal Product Code/European Article
Number, is a catalog number for an item (such as a CD) intended for
commercial distribution. On a CD, the code is also called the Media
Catalog Number and there is one such code per disc. These codes are
provided by your publisher or clients.
541
Writing Operations
About Audio CD Formats
UPC is a 12-digit barcode widely used in the USA and Canada.
EAN-13 is a 13-digit barcoding standard (12 + a checksum digit)
defined by the GS1 standards organization. EAN is now renamed as
International Article Number, but the abbreviation has been retained.
Pre-Emphasis
CD pre-emphasis refers to process designed to increase, within a band
of frequencies, the magnitude of some (usually higher) frequencies
compared to the magnitude of other (usually lower) frequencies in order
to improve the overall signal-to-noise ratio by lowering the frequencies
during reproduction.
Pre-emphasis is commonly used in telecommunications, digital audio
recording, record cutting and in FM broadcasting transmissions. The
presence of pre-emphasis on a track is sometimes indicated by a tick in
the
column on the Import Audio CD dialog.
Disc-At-Once - Writing CD-Rs for Duplication Into Real CDs
WaveLab only writes audio CDs in Disc-at-Once mode.
•
If you want to create a CD-R to use as a master for a real CD
production, you must write the CD-R in Disc-At-Once mode. In
this mode, the entire disc is written in one pass. There are other
ways of writing a CD, namely Track-At-Once and Multi-Session. If
you use these writing formats, the link blocks created to link the
various recording passes together will be recognized as
uncorrectable errors when you try to master from the CD-R. These
links can also result in clicks when playing back the CD.
•
Disc-At-Once mode provides more flexibility when specifying
pause lengths between tracks.
•
Disc-At-Once is the only mode that supports sub-indexes.
Writing On The Fly vs. CD Images
WaveLab writes a CD on the fly, that is, it does not create a CD image
before writing. This method makes writing CDs/DVDs faster and
requires less disc space. However, you can also create an image prior
to writing a CD/DVD.
542
Spectrum Editing
Spectrum editing allows you to edit and process individual frequency
ranges instead of the full frequency spectrum.
There are two main operational modes:
•
Surgical processing (offline processing) is intended for audio
restoration purposes applied to short time ranges.
•
Master Section processing allows you to process a specific
frequency range via the Master Section.
Both modes operate on a spectrum region, which is set using the
Spectrum selection tool. The region selection defines a time and a
specific frequency range. This allows you to edit and process audio
both in the time domain and in a specific frequency domain.
Spectrum editing can perform many different types of processing.
Although it is developed for audio restoration, it can also be used for
artistic or special effects.
Spectrum editing comprises the following steps:
•
Switching the wave window to spectrum display mode.
•
Defining the region that you want to edit.
•
Editing the region in the Spectrum Editor by applying filter
operations, by copying regions, or by sending it to the Master
Section to apply effects.
Spectrum editing can only be performed when the Spectrum mode is
selected.
543
Spectrum Editing
Spectrum Display
Spectrum Display
The spectrum display in the wave window shows the frequency
spectrum in relation to time.
To see the spectrum view of the audio file in the Audio Files workspace,
click the Spectrum tab below the waveform display
To see the spectrum view of the audio file and activate the spectrum
editing mode, click the Spectrum selection tool.
Each vertical line represents the frequency spectrum at a particular time
position.
•
Low frequencies are shown at the bottom of the display, and high
frequencies at the top.
•
In the Spectrogram options dialog, you can define how to
represent the spectrum. The spectrum can be represented in
color, or in black and white. In color mode, frequencies with loud
volume intensities are shown in red, and soft frequencies in dark
purple.
•
The vertical ruler on the left shows the frequency range in Hz.
•
The status bar shows the time/frequency position of the mouse
cursor.
544
Spectrum Editing
Surgical Processing
•
If you point the mouse cursor at a defined region, a tooltip appears
showing the frequency range and the time range for the current
region.
NOTE
The spectrum display is useful for audio restoration purposes using the
editing and processing procedures in the Spectrum Editor. These are
usually applied to very short time segments in an audio file. For standard
editing procedures, use the wave display.
RELATED LINKS:
“Spectrogram Options” on page 142
Surgical Processing
Surgical processing can be used to process short regions up to 30
seconds offline. This type of processing is mainly used to reduce,
remove, or replace unwanted sound artifacts in the audio material with
great precision.
For example, this can be useful to replace a part of a live recording that
contains an unwanted noise such as a mobile phone ring tone, with a
copy of a similar region of the spectrum that contains a clean signal.
NOTE
In general, the spectral copy/paste combination gives the best results,
if that the source and destination regions are properly chosen.
As with all Spectrum editor operations, you first have to define a
time/frequency region. Once a region has been set, you can select one
of the following Surgical processing modes:
•
Filtering operations allow you to filter the selected region in various
ways.
•
Copy operations allow you to copy the spectrum region and apply
it to another region.
545
Spectrum Editing
Surgical Processing
Filtering Individual Frequencies
Filtering individual frequencies is useful for audio restoration purposes.
PREREQUISITE
Select the Spectrum selection tool and define the region to process.
The selected region must not exceed 30 seconds.
PROCEDURE
1.
In the Spectrum Editor window, click the Surgery button.
2.
In the Processing of the selection section, select a processing
type.
3.
In the Filter settings section, make the filter settings that you want
to use.
4.
Set up the Crossfade time of processed audio parameter.
5.
Click Apply.
Spectrum Editing by Copying Regions
You can edit the spectrum of an audio file by copying a defined region
to another region. The crossfade times and the filter settings have an
effect here, because the audio is copied and crossfaded both in the time
domain and in the frequency domain.
PREREQUISITE
Select the Spectrum selection tool to switch the wave window to
spectrum editing. In the Spectrum Editor window, click the Surgery
button.
Spectrum editing by copying regions is useful for removing unwanted
sounds in the audio material. You first define a source region and a
target region. Then you copy the audio from the source region to the
target region.
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Spectrum Editing
Surgical Processing
PROCEDURE
1.
In the Audio Files workspace, use the Spectrum selection tool to
select the region that you want to use as source region.
2.
In the Spectrum Editor window, click Define selection as
SOURCE.
3.
Click the source region to select it, then press [Shift] to preserve
the frequency range or [Ctrl]/[Command]-[Shift] to preserve the
time range, and click and drag the selection to the region that you
want to edit.
4.
With the region you want to edit selected, click Define selection
as TARGET.
5.
In the Copy audio from one region to another section, open the
pop-up menu and select one of the options.
•
Selecting Copy exactly copies the defined source region exactly.
•
Selecting Copy ambience copies an average of the frequencies of
the source region, blurring the original dynamics and pitches, and
making the copied region appear less identifiable.
6.
In the Filter settings section, set a high Steepness value, or
activate the Infinite option.
7.
Click Copy SOURCE to TARGET.
8.
Play back the audio file to hear the result.
Rules and Tips for Spectrum Editing by Copy Operations
Copy operations in the Spectrum Editor are mainly intended for audio
restoration purposes. You define a source region and a destination region,
then you copy audio from the source region to the destination region.
•
The source and the target region must have the same length and
the same frequency range.
•
The regions have to be part of the same audio file.
•
Setting the source region just before or after the sound to remove can
produce very accurate results, as this region probably contains a
similar frequency spectrum as the target region containing the artifact.
•
When copying between different frequency regions, pitch shifting
occurs. Using the Move upwards/downwards 1 oct options may
produce better results.
•
In the low to low-mid frequency range, the masking or removal of
unwanted artifacts is difficult to achieve without audible
interruptions. Finding a limited frequency area is important to not
interrupt the flow of the audio when removing artifacts.
547
Spectrum Editing
Master Section Processing
Master Section Processing
Master Section Processing allows you to process a specific frequency
range via the Master Section.
The selected or non-selected regions of the spectrum can be
processed differently. You can also use a number of filters
(Bandpass/Low-pass/High-pass) to further refine the range of
frequencies to be affected by any Master Section effects.
The signal is split so that one part (selected spectrum or non-selected
spectrum) is sent to the plug-ins, while the other part can be mixed with
this processed signal, after the Master Section output.
The arrows show the three possible routing options for the spectrum
region selection. The non-selected spectrum has the same options,
although it cannot use the same routing destination as the region
selection.
The following operations can be performed:
•
Processed separately by the Master Section plug-ins. The
non-selected spectrum can either be bypassed or sent to the
Master Section.
•
Bypassed. This removes the selected spectrum region from the
audio file. The non-selected spectrum can either be routed to the
Master Section input or the Master Section output.
•
Sent to Master Section output. The non-selected spectrum can be
bypassed or sent to the Master Section input. In the latter case, it
is mixed with the selected spectrum region at the Master Section
output.
548
Spectrum Editing
Spectrum Editor Window
Applying Master Section Processing
PROCEDURE
1.
In the Audio Files workspace, select the Spectrum selection tool
and define a region.
2.
In the Spectrum Editor window, activate Master Section.
3.
In the Filter settings, select a filter and specify a Steepness.
4.
Specify a crossfade time for the processed audio.
5.
Select how to process the selected region.
6.
Click Render to apply the settings.
Spectrum Editor Window
The Spectrum Editor is an audio restoration and processing tool set
that provides high quality linear-phase filters to process a frequency
range selection.
In the Audio Files workspace, click the Spectrum selection icon to
open the Spectrum Editor window.
The Spectrum Editor window provides two modes:
•
The Surgery mode is intended for audio restoration purposes
applied to short time ranges.
•
The Master Section mode allows you to process an individual
frequency range via the Master Section.
549
Spectrum Editing
Spectrum Editor Window
Filter and Crossfade Settings
The filter and crossfade settings are available in Surgery mode and in
Master Section mode. The following options are available:
Bandpass filter
Attenuates all frequencies outside the region equally.
Low-pass filter
Attenuates high frequencies in the region more strongly.
High-pass filter
Attenuates low frequencies in the region more strongly.
Steepness
Determines how quickly frequencies are attenuated. Steepness is
expressed in dB per octave, with higher numbers indicating a
steeper filter. The Steepness parameter creates a crossfade in the
frequency domain between the processed and the unprocessed
section. If the steepness value is low, the selected region contains
much of the unprocessed signal near the frequency edges.
Infinite
Sets the filter steepness to an infinite number of dB per octave.
Crossfade time of processed audio
Sets the duration of the crossfade between the processed and the
unprocessed signal.
Settings
Opens the Spectrum editing options dialog, where you can
activate the following options:
•
Show pop-up window about regions
•
Maintain independent settings for each file
Pin button
If this option is activated, the Spectrum Editor window remains
displayed when the Spectrum selection tool is not selected.
Otherwise the window is hidden as soon as the Time selection
tool is selected, and none of the opened audio files is associated
with the Spectrum Editor.
550
Spectrum Editing
Spectrum Editor Window
Spectrum Editor Window - Surgery Mode
The Surgery mode of the Spectrum Editor allows you to process short
regions up to 30 seconds offline.
In the Audio Files workspace, select Workspace > Specific tool
windows > Spectrum Editor, and activate Surgery.
Selection Options
Edit
Opens the Audio Range dialog that allows you to accurately
define a selection.
Deselect channel with cursor
When you edit a stereo file, this option deselects the channel
where the cursor is located.
Change channel
When you have defined a region in only one channel in a stereo file,
this option moves the selection to the other channel.
Zoom
Zooms in on the selected region.
Select a single channel
Generally, when you edit a stereo file and make a selection on one
channel, the selection is automatically applied to the other channel.
Activating this option allows you to unlink the channels, and edit a
single channel.
Select till top/bottom
Extends the selection to the top/bottom of the frequency axis.
Select till start/end of file
Extends the selection to the beginning/end of the audio file.
551
Spectrum Editing
Spectrum Editor Window
Select all file length
Extends the selection to the entire file.
Move backwards
Moves the selection to the left so that it ends at its previous start
position on the time axis.
Move forwards
Moves the selection to the right so that it starts at its previous end
position on the time axis.
Move upwards
Moves the selection up on the frequency axis so that its lower edge
is placed at the previous upper edge.
Move downwards
Moves the selection down on the frequency axis so that its upper
edge is placed at the previous lower edge.
Move upwards/downwards 1 oct
Moves the selection up/down by one octave on the frequency axis.
Define selection as source
Defines the current selection as source region for copy operations.
Define source at cursor
Copies the selection rectangle to the current cursor position, and
defines it as source region for copy operations. This ensures that
the selection to copy and the selected region that you want to edit
have the same size.
Define selection as target
Defines the current selection as the target region for copy
operations.
Define target at cursor
Copies the selection rectangle to the current cursor position, and
defines it as target region for copy operations. This ensures that
the selection to copy and the selected region that you want to edit
have the same size.
Clear all
Clears all selections.
552
Spectrum Editing
Spectrum Editor Window
Copy Operations
Copy exactly
Copies the defined source region exactly.
Copy ambience
Copies an average of the frequencies of the source region, blurring
the original dynamics and pitches, and making the copied region
appear less identifiable. Depending on the audio material, this may
avoid a repetition effect.
Copy from cursor to replace selection
Copies a region of the size of the current selection starting at the
cursor, and replaces the selection by it.
Copy from cursor to replace target
Copies a region of the size of the defined target region starting at
the cursor, and replaces the target region by it.
Copy source to target
Copies the defined source region to the defined target region.
Copy source to cursor
Copies the defined source region to the current cursor position.
Processing Options
Crossfade times and filter settings are taken account for these options.
Gain
Determines the level of the filter processing. Negative gain settings
attenuate the level, positive gain settings boost the level.
Damp
Attenuates or boosts the level of the selected region according to
the set gain.
Blur peaks
Attenuates or boosts the level of the frequencies with the highest
level in the selection according to the set gain. If the gain is set to
a negative value, these frequencies are blurred. This is useful for
removing acoustic feedback, for example.
Dispersion
Blurs the dynamics and pitches of the selected region without
changing the frequency content.
553
Spectrum Editing
Spectrum Editor Window
Fade-Out
Gradually filters out the frequencies in the region along the time
axis, creating a fade-out.
Fade-In
Gradually lets pass frequencies in the region along the time axis,
creating a fade-in.
Fade out then in
Lets the frequencies fade out and fade in again.
Fade in then out
Lets the frequencies fade in and fade out again.
Apply
Applies the selected processing mode.
Spectrum Editor Window - Master Section Mode
The Master Section mode of the Spectrum Editor allows you to
process the selected spectral region through the Master Section.
In the Audio Files workspace, select Workspace > Specific tool
windows > Spectrum Editor, and activate Master Section.
Master Section Mode Options
In Master Section mode, you can decide whether you want to send the
selected region or the non-selected region to the Master Section for
processing. The following options are available for both the selected
region and the non-selected region:
Bypass
Mutes the selected/non-selected region.
554
Spectrum Editing
Spectrum Editor Window
Send to Master Section input
Sends the selected/non-selected region to the Master Section,
allowing you to apply plug-ins to it.
Send to Master Section output (pre-master)
Sends the selected/non-selected region directly to the Master
Section output without plug-in processing. Only the post-master
plug-in is applied.
Render
Processes the selected/non-selected region according to the
settings in the Spectrum Editor.
Spectrum Editing Options Dialog
In this dialog, you can make settings for the spectrum editing.
In the Audio Files workspace, select Workspace > Specific tool
windows > Spectrum Editor, and select Settings.
Show pop-up window about regions
If this option is activated, a pop-up window displays details when
you position the mouse cursor over a region or adjust a region.
Maintain independent settings for each file
If this option is activated, the settings are saved when you switch
to another audio file and restored when you switch back to the
original file.
555
Spectrum Editing
Defining a Region for Spectrum Editing
Defining a Region for Spectrum Editing
All Spectrum editing functions are applied to a selected region, or from
a selection region if Master Section processing is used. A region set in
the Spectrum editor contains a time range and a frequency range.
PREREQUISITE
Zoom in on the time range where you want to perform spectrum editing.
PROCEDURE
1.
In the Audio Files workspace, on the toolbar, click the Spectrum
selection tool.
2.
Click in the spectrum display and drag a rectangle around the
region that you want to edit.
When defining a region in a stereo file, a corresponding region is
automatically created in the other channel.
3.
Optional: Click and drag the defined region to move it.
Pressing [Shift] restricts to horizontal movement, to ensure that the
frequency range is retained. Pressing [Ctrl]/[Command]-[Shift] restricts
to vertical movement, to ensure that the selected time range is retained.
4.
Optional: Move the cursor over a region edge, and click and drag
to resize the defined region.
AFTER COMPLETING THIS TASK:
Process the selected region by means of the Spectrum Editor window.
556
Spectrum Editing
Processing Frequency Ranges via the Master Section
Processing Frequency Ranges via the
Master Section
The Spectrum Editor allows for frequency-selective processing via the
Master Section.
PREREQUISITE
Select the Spectrum selection tool, and define the region to process.
The selected region must be longer than one second.
You can route the frequency spectrum of the selected region to the
Master Section where it is processed separately from the non-selected
frequency spectrum, or vice versa. At the Master Section output, the
processed region is mixed with the non-processed signal.
PROCEDURE
1.
In the Spectrum Editor window, click the Master Section button.
2.
In the Filter settings section, select a filter type from the pop-up
menu.
3.
Set the Steepness value and the Crossfade time of processed
audio value.
The Crossfade time of processed audio value is needed for rendering.
4.
In the Routing of selected spectral region and Routing of
non-selected spectral region sections, make settings to define
where to route the selected frequency range and the non-selected
frequency range.
5.
Open the Master Section and set up the plug-ins that you want to
apply to the selected/non-selected frequency range.
Do not use any plug-ins that change the number of samples.
6.
Click Render to apply the Master Section settings to the selected
region.
557
Auto Split
The auto split function allows you to automatically split audio files or
clips in an audio montage according to specific rules.
Auto split can create new audio files or audio montage clips referencing
the original files. The new audio files or clips can be automatically
named and/or numbered.
Auto Split in Audio Files
You can use the auto split function in many situations, for example, to
cut a recorded audio file into single takes, to cut a drum loop into its
individual drum hit samples, to output individual tracks from an album
master file, or to silence the regions between audio information in an
instrumental take.
You can use auto split to split audio files at:
•
Markers
•
Regions containing silences
•
Beats using beat detection
•
Specific intervals
•
Specific regions derived from a text file
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Auto Split
Auto Split in Audio Files
Auto Split Dialog in the Audio Files Workspace
In this dialog, you can set up auto split rules for audio files.
In the Audio Files workspace, select Tools > Auto Split.
The Auto Split dialog contains a series of pages, with different
parameters and options depending on the selected auto split method.
On the first page, you specify which files to process with auto split. You
have the following options:
•
The audio file in the active window.
•
All audio files are in a specified folder.
•
The audio files derived from a file list.
On the second page, you select the type of splitting that you want to
perform. The following types are available:
Split according to markers
Splits the files at specific marker positions. If you select this option,
you can specify the marker type that will be used for the splitting
on the next page.
Split at specific intervals
Splits the files at specific time intervals. If you select this option,
you can specify the time interval, that is, the duration of each
region, on the next page.
Split between silences
Splits the files so that each non-silent section becomes a separate
region. If you select this option, you can specify the minimum
region duration, the minimum duration of a silent section, and the
signal level that should be considered as silence on the next page.
559
Auto Split
Auto Split in Audio Files
Split at beats
Detects beats in the audio material and splits the files at each beat.
If you select this option, you can specify the sensitivity of the beat
detection, the minimum beat level to create a split point, and the
minimum region duration on the next page.
Cut head and tail
Removes sections from the start and/or end of the files, silent
sections or specified sections.
Learn regions from a text file
Splits an audio file according to a description of regions stored in
a text file.
Convert stereo files to two mono files
Splits stereo files into two mono files.
The third page of the dialog varies according to the selected split
method. The following pages of the dialog are common to all types of
auto split, except that certain options are grayed out in the dialogs if they
are not applicable.
On the fourth page, you specify what to do with the regions created by
auto split. You can save the regions as separate files or create clips and
add these to a new or existing audio montage. You can also select to
create markers at the split points instead of splitting the files.
On the fifth page, you can insert silence at the start and/or end of the
files, or automatically assign root key note numbers to the files.
On the last page, you specify how to name the files, clips, or markers
created by auto split. Options include name as source file name plus a
key name or number, or name as specified in a text file. To open a saved
naming scheme file, click Open, select the text file that you want to
open, and click Open.
560
Auto Split
Auto Split in Audio Files
The Finish button is available from all pages. If you are sure about your
settings, you can click Finish without having to go to all pages. For
example, when you are using a preset and you know that you do not
want to make changes on the last pages, you can click Finish earlier.
Learn Regions From Text File
You can split an audio file according to a description of regions stored
in a text file.
Each region must be described by a name, a start position, and an end
position (or region length). The text file must be placed in the same
folder as the audio file, with the same name, and with the extension that
you specify in the WaveLabdialog (for example, “txt” or “xml”).
You can use four tags to specify the regions.
•
Region name
•
Start
•
End
•
Length
These tags can be customized in the Auto Split dialog. The text file must
specify either the “End” or the “Length” parameter.
Each parameter must be located on a separate text line.
The time values must be in samples or in timecode format.
•
Hours:minutes:seconds:samples
You can use three text formats.
•
“Tag”=”Value”: The tag comes first, then “=”, then the value.
•
“Tag” Tabulation “Value”: The tag comes first, then a tabulation,
then the value.
•
XML style: The tag comes first, surrounded by < and >, then the
value, then the tag surrounded by </ and >.
Text files must be in UTF-8 format.
561
Auto Split
Auto Split in Audio Montages
Example for Using Auto Split for Audio Files
You can split a long recording into samples. This is useful if you are
working with a sampler, for example, HALion.
PROCEDURE
1.
In the Audio Files workspace, select Tools > Auto Split.
2.
Select Audio File in active window, and click Next.
3.
Select Split at silences, and click Next.
4.
Set up the page according to the audio file, and click Next.
Adjust the first setting according to the length of the shortest recorded
note, the second setting according to the shortest period of silence
between two notes, and the third setting according to the level of the
silence between the notes.
5.
Select Save as separate files, specify the format and location for
the new files, and click Next.
6.
On the Options page, activate Assign Key, select Detect pitch,
and click Next.
This way, the correct key is assigned to each sample. If you activate
Quantize to nearest semitone, WaveLabsets the key according to the
closest semitone. If not, the Detune setting in the sample may also be
adjusted, according to any pitch deviations.
7.
Select the naming option As audio file name + key, and click
Finish.
RESULT
The file is split according to your settings, and creates new files in the
specified location.
Auto Split in Audio Montages
You can use the auto split function to split the focused clip. You can use
the auto split function in many situations, for example, to cut single clip
of a recording into single takes, to cut a drum loop into its individual
drum hit samples, to output individual tracks from an album master file,
or to silence the regions between audio information in an instrumental
take.
During the analysis, only the audio files of the audio montage are taken
into account. Envelopes and effects are ignored.
562
Auto Split
Auto Split in Audio Montages
You can use auto split to split the focused clip at:
•
Markers
•
Specific intervals
•
Between silences
•
Beats
Auto Split Dialog in the Audio Montage Workspace
In this dialog, you can set up auto split rules for audio montages.
In the Audio Montage workspace, in the Focused clip window, on the
Edit pane, select Auto Split.
The Auto Split dialog contains a series of pages, with different
parameters and options depending on the selected auto split method.
On the first page, you select the target for the auto split.
On the second page, you select the type of splitting. The following types
are available:
Split according to markers
Splits the files at specific marker positions. If you select this option,
you can specify the marker type that will be used for the splitting
on the next page.
Split at specific intervals
Splits the files at specific time intervals. If you select this option,
you can specify the time interval, that is, the duration of each
region, on the next page.
563
Auto Split
Auto Split in Audio Montages
Split at silences
Splits the files so that each non-silent section becomes a separate
region. If you select this option, you can specify the minimum
region duration, the minimum duration of a silent section, and the
signal level that should be considered as silence on the next page.
Split at beats
Detects beats in the audio material and splits the files at each beat.
If you select this option, you can specify the sensitivity of the beat
detection, the minimum beat level to create a split point, and the
minimum region duration on the next page.
Cut head and tail
Removes sections from the start and/or end of the files, silent
sections or specified sections.
The third page of the dialog varies according to the selected split
method. The following pages of the dialog are common to all types of
auto split, except that certain options are grayed out if they are not
applicable.
On the fourth page, you specify what to do with the regions created by
auto split. For example, you can choose to split the regions or cut out
silent parts. You can also select to not split the files but to create
markers at the split points instead.
On the last page, you specify how to name the clips created by auto
split. Options include name as marker names, name as clip name, or
name as specified in a text file. To save this text file, select Save, enter
a name and location, and select Save. To open a saved naming scheme
file, click Open, select the text file that you want to open, and click
Open.
The Finish button is available from all pages. If you are sure about your
settings, you can click Finish without having to go to all pages. For
example, when you are using a preset and you know that you do not
want to make changes on the last pages, you can click Finish earlier.
564
Loops
This chapter describes various operations that are related to looping.
Looping is used to simulate the infinite or at least very long sustain of
many instrumental sounds. WaveLab has tools for creating smooth
loops, even for the most complex types of sounds.
Basic Looping
Looping a sound allows you to repeat a section of the sample
indefinitely in order to create a sustain of unlimited length. Instrumental
sounds in samplers rely on looping. An example of this would be an
organ sound.
Without looping, you can only play audio as long as the original
recording. With looping, audio can be of any length. In WaveLab, loops
are defined by loop markers. Loop markers are added, moved, and
edited such as any other type of marker.
To ensure that you find a good loop point note the following:
•
There are only two types of loops: very long and very short loops.
Loops of intermediate lengths usually do not provide good results.
•
A long loop sounds the most natural and should be used
whenever possible. However, if the sound does not have a stable
section in the middle (an even sustain part), it might be hard to find
a good long loop. For example, a piano note which decays
continuously is hard to loop since the start point of the loop is
louder than the end point. A flute is much simpler, because the
sound in the sustain section is very stable.
•
Very short loops that cover only a few cycles or periods can almost
always be found but may sound static and unnatural.
•
A loop should start shortly after the attack portion, that is, when
the sound has stabilized to a sustaining note.
•
If you set up a long loop, it should end as late as possible but
before the sound starts decaying to silence.
565
Loops
About Refining Loops
•
Short loops are difficult to position within the sound. Try to position
them near the end.
NOTE
More information about looping in general, and the exact capabilities of
your sampler in particular can be found in the manual of the sampler.
Creating a Basic Loop
PROCEDURE
1.
In the Audio Files workspace, select the audio section that you
want to loop.
2.
Right-click the top of the ruler, and select Create loop from
selection.
3.
On the Transport bar, activate Loop.
4.
Play back the loop and adjust the position of the markers to change
the loop.
AFTER COMPLETING THIS TASK:
Dragging markers to various positions does not necessarily lead to good
loops. Most often, you hear a click or an abrupt change in timbre at the
turning point.
We suggest you only use this method for setting up the basic length of
the loop and then use the Loop Tweaker and Loop Tone Uniformizer
for optimizing.
About Refining Loops
The Loop Tweaker tool allows you to refine a region of audio for
seamless looping. Use the Loop Tweaker to tweak an existing loop
selection so that it loops perfectly or use it to create a loop from material
which does not naturally repeat.
You can automatically detect loop points by scanning the area between
two loop markers. You can specify parameters that determine how
accurate the program should be when suggesting loop points.
566
Loops
About Refining Loops
If the automatic search for loop points is not successful, you can
process the waveform to allow for smoother loops by crossfading areas
of the waveform close to the loop start and end points.
To use the Loop Tweaker, you must first define a loop using a pair of
loop markers.
Loop Points Adjustment Tab
Use the Loop Points Adjustments tab in the Loop Tweaker dialog to
manually refine a loop selection by dragging on the waveform left/right
or by using the automatic search buttons to find the nearest good loop
point. The aim is to align the waveforms so that they meet at a
zero-crossing point where the waveforms match as closely as possible.
When you adjust your loop start and end points within the dialog, the
start and end loop markers in the main waveform window adjust
accordingly. Note that this movement may or may not be visible
depending on how much you move the markers and on the zoom factor
that you have selected.
It may be helpful to loop the transport during playback so that you can
hear the difference when you adjust the loop markers within the dialog.
Note that if you are not using a crossfade or post-crossfade, you do not
need to click Apply when tweaking loop points. You can also leave this
dialog window open and manually adjust the position of the markers in
the main waveform windows.
Crossfade Tab
This tab allows you to apply a crossfade of the end of a loop with a copy
of the beginning of the loop. This can be useful to smooth the transition
between the end of a loop and its beginning, especially when you use
material that does not naturally loop. Use the envelope drag points or
value sliders to adjust the crossfade envelope. Click Apply to process
the crossfade.
Post-Crossfade Tab
This tab allows you to cross fade the loop back into the audio behind the
end of the loop by mixing a copy of the loop back into the audio. Use the
envelope drag points or value sliders to adjust the crossfade envelope.
Click Apply to process the post crossfade.
567
Loops
About Refining Loops
Refining Loops
You can refine loops using the Loop Tweaker tool.
PREREQUISITE
Set up a basic loop.
PROCEDURE
1.
In the Audio Files workspace, select the loop that you want to
refine by clicking between its loop start and loop end marker.
2.
Select Process > Loop Tweaker.
3.
Refine your loop using the settings in the Loop Tweaker tool.
4.
Click Apply.
Moving Loop Points Manually
If your loop still has glitches or bumps at the turning points, you can use
the Loop Tweaker tool to move the points in small steps to remove the
glitch.
This is similar to moving the loop points in the wave display, but with a
visual feedback to facilitate finding good loop points.
There are two ways of moving the loop points manually on the Loop
points adjustment tab in the Loop Tweaker dialog:
•
Drag the waveform to the left and right.
•
Use the green arrows below the waveform to nudge the audio to
the left and right. Each click moves the loop point by a single
sample.
The following applies when moving the loop points manually:
•
To move the end point to a later or earlier position, move the left
part of the display.
•
To move the start point to a later or earlier position, move the right
part of the display.
•
To move the start and end points simultaneously, activate Link
start and end points. This way, when adjusting a loop point, the
length of the loop stays the same, but the entire loop is moved.
•
You can also adjust the loop markers in the wave window.
568
Loops
About Refining Loops
Automatically Detect Good Loop Points
The Loop Tweaker tool can automatically search for good loop points.
PROCEDURE
1.
In the Audio Files workspace, select the loop that you want to
refine by clicking between its loop start and loop end marker.
2.
Select Process > Loop Tweaker.
3.
On the Loop points adjustment tab, make sure that Link start
and end points is deactivated.
4.
In the Automatic search section, specify the Aimed
correspondence and the Search accuracy.
5.
Click the yellow arrow buttons to start the automatic search for a
good loop point.
WaveLab scans from the current point forwards or backwards, until it
finds a point that matches. You can stop at any time by clicking the right
mouse button. The program then jumps back to the best found match.
6.
Check the loop by playing it back.
7.
Optional: If you think there might be a better loop point, continue
with the search.
Temporarily Storing Loop Points
Temporarily saving and restoring loop points allows you to quickly
compare different loop settings.
PREREQUISITE
Set up a basic loop and open the Loop Tweaker tool.
NOTE
There are five slots for temporarily saving loop point settings per wave
window and montage window, not one per set of loop points. This
means that if you have several sets of loops in your file, you must be
careful to not recall the wrong set.
NOTE
Only loop positions are temporarily saved.
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Loops
About Refining Loops
PROCEDURE
1.
On the Loop points adjustment tab, in the Temporary
memories section, select M.
2.
Select one of the five memory slots.
About Crossfades in Loops
Crossfading is useful to smooth the transition between the end of a loop
and its beginning, especially when using material that does not naturally
loop.
Sometimes it is impossible to find a loop that does not cause any
glitches. This is especially true for stereo material, where you might be
able to find a perfect candidate for only one channel.
In this case crossfading smears the material around the end loop point
so that it loops perfectly. This is achieved by mixing material from before
the loop start with material that is located before the loop end.
Note that this technique alters the waveform and therefore changes the
sound. However, normally you can find settings that minimize this
problem.
Creating a Crossfade
PROCEDURE
1.
In the Audio Files workspace, create a good a loop as you can.
2.
Select Process > Loop Tweaker.
3.
Decide if you want to create a crossfade or a post-crossfade:
•
If you want to create a crossfade, click the Crossfade tab.
•
If you want to create a post-crossfade, click the Post-Crossfade
tab.
4.
Make sure that Crossfade audio at end of loop with audio
before loop (Crossfade tab) or Crossfade audio after loop with
audio of loop start (Post-Crossfade tab) is activated.
5.
Decide on a length for the crossfade either by dragging the length
handle or by adjusting the Length value below the graph.
6.
Decide on a crossfade shape by dragging the shape handle or by
adjusting the Shape (from equal gain to equal power) value.
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Loops
About Refining Loops
7.
Click Apply.
The sound is processed. Each time that you click Apply, the previous
loop process is automatically undone. This allows you to try out many
settings quickly.
NOTE
Do not move the loop points after you have performed a crossfade. The
waveform has been processed specifically for the current loop settings.
AFTER COMPLETING THIS TASK:
•
You can check the crossfade visually by opening the Loop points
adjustment tab and activating Display processed audio. When
this is activated, the display shows a preview of the crossfaded
waveform. When the option is deactivated, the display shows the
waveform original. Switching back and forth allows you to compare
the two.
About Post-Crossfades
Post-crossfading means crossfading the loop back into the audio after
the end of the loop so that there is not glitch when playback continues
after the loop. This is done by mixing a copy of the loop back into the
audio.
The post-crossfade can be set up on the Post-Crossfade tab of the
Loop Tweaker dialog.
The post-crossfade analyzes the part of the waveform that occurs just
after the loop start and processes a certain area that begins at the end
of the loop. The length parameter adjusts the size of this area. Everything
else is identical with regular crossfading.
Loop Tweaker Dialog
This dialog allows you to adjust the loop start and end points, and
crossfade the loop boundaries.
In the Audio Files workspace, select Process > Loop Tweaker.
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Loops
About Refining Loops
The Loop Tweaker dialog consists of the following tabs:
Loop Points Adjustment Tab
The top of this dialog shows the beginning and the end of the waveform
between the loop markers. The bottom of this dialog offers the following
options:
Loop End - Green Arrows
Move the loop end points to the left/right.
Loop End - Yellow Arrows
Invokes an automatic search for the nearest good loop point to the
left/right of the loop end point and moves the end point to that
position.
Loop Start - Green Arrows
Moves the loop start points to the left/right.
Loop Start - Yellow Arrows
Invokes an automatic search for the nearest good loop point to the
left/right of the loop start point, and moves the start point to that
position.
Stereo merge
If this option is activated for a stereo file, the two waveforms are
overlayed, otherwise they are shown in two separate sections.
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Loops
About Refining Loops
Overlap
If this option is activated, the waveforms of both halves are
continued in the other half. This shows how the waveform looks like
right before and after the loop.
Display processed audio
If this option is activated, the display shows a preview of the
waveform after crossfading. If deactivated, you see what the
waveform looks like without crossfading. This option only makes
sense after you have set up a crossfade and clicked Apply.
Automatic vertical zooming
If this option is activated, the vertical magnification is adjusted so
that the waveform always fills the entire display vertically.
Zoom
Sets the zoom factor.
Current correspondence
Indicates how well the waveforms near the loop points match one
another. The left value estimates the similarity across several wave
cycles, while the right value estimates the similarity of the few
samples near the loop points. The higher the values, the better the
match.
Aimed correspondence (0-1000)
Sets up the automatic search for good loop points. This defines
how well the found section must resemble the section to which it
is compared, in order to be considered a match. The higher the
value, the more precise the resemblance must be. A value of 1000
most likely fails, since it requires a 100 % perfect match.
Search accuracy
Determines how many samples should be taken into account by
the auto-find analysis. Higher values result in greater accuracy, but
also in longer processing times.
Link start and end points
If this option is activated, both the start and end points move
simultaneously when you adjust the loop points manually. That is,
the loop length is exactly the same, but the entire loop moves.
Temporary memories
Allows you to save up to five different sets of loop points which you
can later recall. This allows you to try out several different loop
settings. To store a set, click this button, then on one of the buttons
1-5.
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Loops
About Refining Loops
Crossfade Tab
Crossfade audio at end of loop with audio before loop
To enable crossfading, activate this checkbox. The crossfade is
applied when you click Apply.
Length
Determines the section length of the audio file to be used in the
crossfade. Generally, you want the crossfade to be as short as
possible, with an acceptable result:
•
Using a long crossfade smoothens the loop. However, more of the
waveform is processed, which changes its character.
•
A shorter crossfade affects the sound less, but the loop is not as
smooth.
Shape (from equal gain to equal power)
Determines the shape of the crossfade. Generally, use low values
for simple sounds and high values for complex sounds.
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Loops
About Refining Loops
Post-Crossfade Tab
Crossfade audio after loop with audio of loop
To enable crossfading, activate this checkbox. The crossfade is
applied when you click Apply.
Length
Determines the section length of the audio file to be used in the
crossfade. Generally, you want the post-crossfade to be as short
as possible, with an acceptable result:
•
Using a long post-crossfade smoothens the loop. However, more
of the waveform is processed, which changes its character.
•
A shorter post-crossfade affects the sound less, but the loop is not
as smooth.
Shape (from equal gain to equal power)
Determines the shape of the post-crossfade. Generally, use low
values for simple sounds and high values for complex sounds.
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Loops
About Looping Seemingly Unloopable Audio
About Looping Seemingly Unloopable
Audio
Sounds that constantly decay in level or continuously change in timbre
are difficult to loop. The Loop Tone Uniformizer allows you to create
loops from sounds that seem unloopable.
The Loop Tone Uniformizer applies processing to the sound that
evens out changes in level and timbral characteristics in order for a
sound to loop properly. For example, this is useful for creating looped
samples for a softsynth or hardware sampler.
The Loop Tone Uniformizer includes a crossfade facility so that the
original sound fades into the processed sections as playback
approaches the loop start.
To use the Loop Tone Uniformizer, you must have a loop defined using
a pair of loop markers. The original length of the loop is not changed.
Looping Seemingly Unloopable Audio
PROCEDURE
1.
In the Audio Files workspace, set up a basic loop.
2.
Select Process > Loop Tone Uniformizer.
3.
Make sure that either Slice mixing or Chorus smoothing is
activated and make the settings.
4.
Optional: Open the Pre-Crossfade tab, and set up a crossfade.
5.
Click Apply.
The sound is processed. Each time that you click Apply, the previous
loop process is automatically undone. This allows you to try out many
settings quickly.
NOTE
Do not move the loop points after you have performed a crossfade. The
waveform has been processed specifically for the current loop settings.
AFTER COMPLETING THIS TASK:
After using the Loop Tone Uniformizer, the transition from the end of
the loop to the end of the file is in many cases not very natural. This can
be fixed by creating a post-crossfade using the Loop tweaker.
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Loops
About Looping Seemingly Unloopable Audio
Loop Tone Uniformizer Dialog
This dialog allows you to create sounds that loop from audio that seems
unloopable. These are normally sounds that constantly decay in level or
continuously change in timbre.
In the Audio Files workspace, select Process > Loop Tone
Uniformizer.
The Loop Tone Uniformizer dialog consists of the following tabs:
Uniformizers Tab
This tab allows you to specify the methods that are used to even out the
sound that you want to loop.
For slice mixing, you must experiment to see how many slices are
needed. Generally, the more slices you use, the more natural the sound
will be.
Slice Mixing
Cuts the loop in slices, which are then mixed together to uniformize
the sound.
For slice mixing, you need to determine the number of slices. Only
experimentation can tell how many slices are needed, but
generally, the more slices you have, the more natural the sound (to
a certain extent). However, the program puts a restriction on the
number of slices, so that each one is never shorter than 20 ms.
For example, if you specify eight slices, the loop is cut up into eight
sections of equal length. These sections are then overlapped and
mixed together as one sound which is repeated eight times. This
new piece of audio replaces all audio inside the loop in a smart way
so that no harmonic cancelation due to phase offsets occurs.
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Loops
About Looping Seemingly Unloopable Audio
Slice Mixing - Number of slices
The more slices you have, the more the sound changes.
Chorus smoothing
This processor uses a method known as phase vocoding to filter
the harmonics. This method is recommended for looping ensemble
and choir sounds and can drastically change the timbre.
Chorus smoothing - Timbre
Governs the amount by which the timbral characteristics of the
sample should be evened out. The higher the value, the more
pronounced the effect.
Chorus smoothing - Chorusing
Determines the depth of the chorus effect.
Chorus smoothing - Enhance Warmth
Creates a smoother, warmer sounding effect.
Chorus smoothing - Stereo Expansion
Increases the width of the sample in the stereo sound image.
Pre-Crossfade Tab
This tab allows you to crossfade the end of the loop with the start of the
newly processed section so that transition into the newly looped section
is smoother during playback. Use the envelope drag points or value
sliders to adjust the cross fade.
You need to use this feature since the Loop Tone Uniformizer itself
changes the timbre only inside the loop. This means that the transition
into the loop is not as smooth as expected unless you apply crossfading.
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Loops
About Sample Attributes
Crossfade audio before loop with audio of end of loop
Enables crossfading, which is applied when you click Apply.
Length
Determines the section length of the audio file to be used in the
crossfade. Generally, you want the post-crossfade to be as short
as possible, with an acceptable result:
•
A long crossfade produces a smoother loop. However, more of the
waveform is processed, which changes its character.
•
A shorter crossfade affects the sound less, but the loop is not as
smooth.
Shape (from equal gain to equal power)
Determines the shape of the crossfade. Generally, use low values
for simple sounds and high values for complex sounds.
About Sample Attributes
Sample attributes allow you to define settings for an audio sample
before loading it into a hardware or software sampler.
Sample attributes do not process the sample, they just provide the file
properties that the receiving sampler can use. This includes information
about the pitch of the sample, which can be detected automatically, the
key range that the sample should span, and the velocity range to
occupy. For WAV and AIFF files, this information is stored in the header
of the file. By default, there are no sample attributes in an audio file.
NOTE
Depending on your sampler and the protocol that you use for
communicating, the sample attributes may not be supported.
Editing Sample Attributes
PROCEDURE
1.
In the Audio Files workspace, open the Sample Attributes
window.
2.
In the Sample Attributes window, select Create.
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Loops
About Sample Attributes
3.
Optional: If you want to automatically detect the pitch of an audio
selection, select an audio range, and select Detect from audio
selection.
4.
Specify the sample attributes.
5.
Save the audio file to store the sample attributes settings in the
audio file.
The sample attribute is only saved in WAV and AIFF files.
Sample Attributes Window
In this window, you can create sample attributes for an audio sample.
In the Audio Files workspace, select Workspace > Specified tool
windows > Sample Attributes.
Create/Remove
Creates/Removes sample attributes for the active audio file.
Tune - Key
Specifies which key plays back the sound at its basic pitch.
Tune - Detune
Specifies whether the sample should be played back at a slightly
different pitch. The range is ±50 % of a semitone, which translates
into a quarter tone in each direction.
Detect from audio selection
Detects the pitch from an audio selection. Make sure that the audio
selection contains a clearly defined pitch.
Key range - High/Low
Specifies the key range for the sample if the sample is part of a
multi-sample key map.
Velocity range - High/Low
Specifies the velocity range for the sample if the sample is part of
a multi-sample key map with velocity-switchable samples.
580
Generating Signals
In WaveLab, you can generate synthesized sounds and DTMF or MF
tones.
Signal Generator
The Signal Generator allows you to generate complex synthesized
sounds in mono or stereo.
You can layer different waveform generators together and if outputting
a stereo file, adjust different settings for both the left and right channels.
There are a multitude of settings to adjust the character (Source tab),
frequency (Frequency tab), and amplitude (Level tab) of the generated
signals.
Use the Signal Generator for:
•
Testing the specifications of audio equipment.
•
Measurements of various kinds, including calibrating tape
recorders.
•
Testing signal processing methods.
•
Educational purposes.
The Signal Generator is based on a waveform generator that can
generate a large number of basic waveforms, such as sine, saw, pulse,
and various types of noise.
The Signal Generator has a multitude of settings for character (Source
tab), frequency (Frequency tab), and amplitude (Level tab).
You can combine up to 64 signal generators into layers and make
separate settings for the left and right channel.
NOTE
The Signal Generator is not intended for synthesizing musical sounds.
581
Generating Signals
Signal Generator
Signal Generator Dialog
This dialog allows you to generate complex synthesized sounds in mono
or stereo.
In the Audio Files workspace, select Tools > Signal Generator.
Audio properties
Opens the Audio Properties dialog in which you can select
sample rate, bit resolution, etc.
Global gain
Adjusts the global level of all combined layers.
Number of layers
Determines the number of layers, for example, the number of
independent signals to be combined.
All channels, Left channel, Right channel
Determines whether the settings on the tab are applied to the left
or right channel of the selected layer, or to both channels.
Copy
Copies all settings of the current layer.
Paste
Pastes the settings to the selected layer.
NOTE
Clicking Paste replaces the source, frequency, and level settings on all
tabs, not just on the selected one.
Generate
Applies the settings.
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Generating Signals
Signal Generator
Source Tab
Waveform
Use this pop-up menu to select a waveform for the selected layer.
Width
If you select one of the pulse waveforms, you can set this
parameter to the width of the pulse, specified as a percentage or
a number of samples.
Angle (0-359°)
Sets the phase of the signal for the selected layer.
Adjust signal length to end on a cycle boundary
If this option is activated, the generated waveform ends with a
complete cycle, regardless of the phase setting.
Frequency Tab
Envelope section
In this section, you can set up the frequency envelope of the
selected layer. The envelope consists of four frequency values and
three duration values in between the frequency values.
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Generating Signals
Signal Generator
If you want to set a static frequency (no envelope curve), make sure
that all time values are set to 0, and set the frequency with the
Median Freq. 2 parameter.
Vibrato section
In this section, you can add vibrato to the frequency of the selected
layer. You can select a waveform for the vibrato, set the frequency,
and adjust the intensity.
Change frequency at cycle boundaries
If this option is activated, the vibrato is not continuously applied
from sample-to-sample, but recomputed after each cycle.
Linear frequency variations
If this option is activated, the frequency varies linearly.
Level Tab
Envelope
In this section, you can set up the amplitude envelope of the
selected layer. The envelope consists of three level values and
three duration values in between the level values. In addition, the
Silence Before and Silence After parameters make it possible to
include a period of silence before or after the signal of the selected
layer.
NOTE
The Overall gain parameter determines the overall level of the layer.
Tremolo
In this section, you can add tremolo (continuous level variation) to
the selected layer. You can select a waveform for the tremolo, set
the frequency, and adjust the intensity.
Change level at cycle boundaries
If this option is activated, the tremolo is not continuously applied
from sample-to-sample, but recomputed after each cycle.
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Generating Signals
DTMF Generator
DC Offset
Allows you to add a DC offset to the signal of the selected layer.
Overall gain
Allows you to set an overall level for the selected layer.
Generating an Audio Signal
PROCEDURE
1.
In the Audio Files workspace, select Tools > Signal Generator.
2.
Click the audio properties to open the Audio properties dialog,
and set up the channels, sample rate, and accuracy.
3.
Choose how many layers of signal generators you want to use by
setting the Number of layers parameter.
You can change this value at a later stage.
4.
Set the Global gain.
5.
For each layer, edit the settings on the Source, Frequency, and
Level tabs.
6.
If you have selected stereo channels, you can make changes for
both or just one of the channels by selecting All channels, Left
channel, or Right channel.
7.
Once all settings are made, select Generate.
The file is generated and opens in a new window.
DTMF Generator
With the DTMF Generator you can generate DTMF (Dual Tone Multi
Frequency) or MF tones as used by analog telephone systems.
These tones are created by combining two sine waves with variable
frequencies. Push button telephones generate these two sine waves at
different frequencies depending on the number that you press. These
dial pulses are then decoded by the telephone exchange to identify
which letters or numbers you pressed.
585
Generating Signals
DTMF Generator
DTMF Generator Dialog
This dialog allows you to generate DTMF or MF tones.
In the Audio Files workspace, select Tools > DTMF Generator.
Dial string
Lets you enter the numbers that you want to convert to DTMF
tones. The characters that you can use for DTMF are
0123456789ABCD*#,) and for MF 0123456789ABC*#,.
DTMF
DTMF is the most commonly used standard. DTMF strings are
limited to 16 characters.
MF
MF uses a different frequency than DTMF. MF strings are limited to
15 characters.
Leading silence
Determines the length of the silent region before the first tone.
Tone
Sets the length of each tone.
Inter-tone
Adjusts the time interval between the tones.
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Generating Signals
DTMF Generator
Pause
Determines the length of any pauses in the dial string. A pause is
entered by typing a comma character (,) in the dial string.
Trailing silence
Determines the length of the silent region after the last tone.
Overall
Controls the level of the tone’s mix.
High frequencies gain
The DTMF signal consists of a mix between two tones. One high
frequency tone and one low frequency tone. You can either
choose to let the two tones have the same amplitude by leaving
this at zero, or you can raise the high frequency tone by up to
12 dB. On some telephone lines, the high frequency tones are set
2 dB higher than the low ones.
Fade in/out tones
If this option is activated, the generated tones will fade in and out.
Time
Lets you set the time of the fades if the corresponding option is
activated.
Audio Properties
Opens the Audio Properties dialog in which you can select
sample rate, bit resolution, etc.
Generating DTMF Files
PROCEDURE
1.
In the Audio Files workspace, select Tools > DTMF Generator.
2.
Enter a dial string in the text field at the top of the dialog.
The characters that you can use are shown above the text field.
3.
Select the standard to use.
4.
Make the settings for Durations and Amplitude.
5.
Click the audio properties to select a bit resolution and a sample
rate.
The Audio Properties dialog opens where you can edit settings for the
audio file.
6.
Click Generate.
The file is generated and opens up in a new window.
587
Importing Audio CD Tracks
You can read audio tracks from regular CDs and save them as a digital
copy in any audio format on your hard disk.
Although WaveLab supports a large number of CD drives, there are
some restrictions you need to be aware of:
•
There are a number of different protocols for retrieving audio from
a CD-ROM/CD-R drive. WaveLabsupports as many of these
methods as possible, but there are no guarantees that it works
with any particular drive. This applies for CD-Text and ISRC.
•
Observe and respect any copyright notices on the CDs from
which you are importing tracks.
When importing tracks, they are named “Track XX” by default, where
XX is a number starting at 01. The numbering scheme can be changed.
NOTE
Importing audio CD tracks is technically more complicated than reading
files from a CD-ROM or hard disk, because audio sectors can be hard
to detect. Some CDs which do not conform completely to the CD
standard may cause problems, especially when being copy protected.
NOTE
If you import a CD track with Emphasis, and later want to use this on a
CD of your own, remember to activate Emphasis for that track in the
audio montage or Basic Audio CD window.
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Importing Audio CD Tracks
Import Audio CD Dialog
Import Audio CD Dialog
In this dialog, you can import one or more tracks from an audio CD.
In any workspace, select File > Import > Audio CD.
Menus
Functions - CD Info
Displays the CD length and the UPC/EAN code, if available.
Functions - Extract ISRC codes
Reads the ISRC codes and displays them in the track list.
Depending on your CD drive, this can take a while.
Functions - Examine CD-Text
Opens the CD-Text dialog where you can view the CD-Text. Not
all CD drives support CD-Text.
Functions - Extract CD-Text
Extracts the CD-Text and displays a summary in the track list.
Rename tracks - Name
Renames the tracks according to the selected renaming scheme.
Rename tracks - Search track names on the internet (FreeDb)
Searches track names from an internet database. If the album is
found, the CD track list is updated.
Convert - Convert to audio montage (all)
Extracts all audio CD tracks and uses them to create an audio
montage.
Convert - Convert to audio montage (selected tracks)
Extracts the selected audio CD tracks and uses them to create an
audio montage.
Convert - Convert to Basic Audio CD (all)
Extracts all audio CD tracks and uses them to create a Basic Audio
CD.
Convert - Convert to Basic Audio CD (selected tracks)
Extracts the selected audio CD tracks and uses them to create a
Basic Audio CD.
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Importing Audio CD Tracks
Import Audio CD Dialog
Actions Tab
Source
Select the CD drive from which you want to import audio CD
tracks.
Speed
Here, you select the writing speed. The highest speed depends on
the capabilities of your writing device and of the media present in
the device.
Refresh
If you insert a CD while the Import Audio CD dialog is open, you
need to click this button to show the contents of that CD in the list.
Eject optical medium
Ejects the medium of the selected drive.
Track list
Shows the tracks on the CD.
Range - Start/Length
Use the Range Start and Length fields to define a start point and
length if you want to import only a section of a track.
Output - Where
Here, you define an output location.
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Importing Audio CD Tracks
Import Audio CD Dialog
Output - File Format
Here, you define an output file format.
Select All
Selects all CD tracks in the track list.
Play
Plays back the selected CD track.
Options Tab
Trim silence
If this option is activated, silence between imported tracks is
removed. Only digital silence is removed, that is, samples with a
zero level.
Automatically refresh on CD change
If this option is activated, WaveLab checks for the presence of a
new CD in the drive several times a second. If a new CD is found,
the track list display is refreshed.
Automatically extract ISRC codes
If this option is activated, ISRC codes are automatically extracted
when a CD is inserted.
Automatically extract CD-Text
If this option is activated, CD-Text is automatically extracted when
a CD is inserted.
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Importing Audio CD Tracks
Import Audio CD Dialog
Automatically search track names on the internet
If this option is activated, track names are automatically searched
on the internet when a CD is inserted.
Grab pause before first track, if any
If this option is activated, when a section of audio is located before
the first track, it is extracted together with the first track. This
usually corresponds to a hidden bonus track.
Use a Japanese CD-Text decoder
If this option is activated, CD-Text is interpreted as Japanese the
next time it is extracted.
Create Peak File
If this option is activated, a peak file is created together with the
rendered files.
Show times with CD frame units
If this option is activated, times are shown in CD frame units. There
are 75 CD frames per second.
Playback through Master Section
If this option is activated, the audio track signal goes through the
Master Section when playing back.
Convert titles and CD-Text to meta-data
If this option is activated when importing tracks into an audio
format supporting meta-data (for example, MP3 and WMA), the
titles of the tracks and the CD-Text are automatically added to the
file header.
Ultra-Safe Mode (slow)
If this option is activated, each CD track is read several times until
the same result is found (checksums are used). Specify the
number of times that a track should be read with the same result
before it is saved to disk.
Real audio before and after tracks
You can ensure that entire tracks are imported properly by defining
how much audio should be read before and after a CD track.
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Importing Audio CD Tracks
Importing Audio CD Tracks
Importing Audio CD Tracks
PROCEDURE
1.
Insert a CD into the CD-ROM/CD-R device.
2.
Select File > Import > Audio CD.
3.
In the Source section, select the drive from which you want to
read, as well as the read speed.
4.
Optional: Rename the files and adjust the numbering scheme.
The tracks must have unique names if you want to import them all.
5.
Optional: On the Options tab, in the Read audio before and after
tracks section, define how much audio should be read before and
after a CD track.
6.
In the track list, select the tracks that you want to import.
7.
Optional: If you have only selected one file, in the Range section,
you can define a Start and Length, to import just a part of the
track.
8.
In the Output section, click the folder icon, and select an output
location.
You can also drag one or more CD tracks onto an audio montage track.
9.
In the Output section, click the file format field, and select a file
format for the imported audio files.
10. Click Save.
RESULT
The tracks are retrieved.
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Importing Audio CD Tracks
Searching Track Names on the internet
Searching Track Names on the internet
You can search for information about your CDs, using the FreeDb
database of CD information.
PREREQUISITE
You need to be connected to the internet to use the FreeDb function.
PROCEDURE
1.
Insert a CD into the CD-ROM/CD-R device.
2.
Select File > Import > Audio CD.
3.
Select Rename tracks > Search track names on the internet
(FreeDb), or click the corresponding icon.
About Ultra-Safe Mode
Sometimes, a small bit of a CD track is not properly retrieved. This
depends on the quality of your CD drive. This can result in unpleasant
clicks and pops. To solve this issue, you can activate the Ultra-Safe
Mode in the Import Audio CD dialog options.
When this option is activated, you can specify how many times each CD
track is read with the same result, before it is saved to disk.
Converting Audio CD Tracks to an Audio
Montage
PROCEDURE
1.
Insert a CD into the CD-ROM/CD-R device.
2.
Select File > Import > Audio CD.
3.
Optional: On the Options tab, select which information you want
to extract from the Audio CD when converting.
594
Importing Audio CD Tracks
Converting Audio CD Tracks to a Basic Audio CD
4.
Decide whether to convert only selected tracks or all tracks.
•
To convert only selected tracks, select Convert > Convert to
Audio Montage (selected tracks).
•
To convert all tracks, select Convert > Convert to Audio
Montage (all).
RESULT
When the conversion is finished, the imported files open in the Audio
Montage workspace.
Converting Audio CD Tracks to a Basic
Audio CD
PROCEDURE
1.
Insert a CD into the CD-ROM/CD-R device.
2.
Select File > Import > Audio CD.
3.
Optional: On the Options tab, make your settings.
4.
Decide whether to convert only selected tracks or all tracks.
•
To convert only selected tracks, select Convert > Convert to
Basic Audio CD (selected tracks).
•
To convert all tracks, select Convert > Convert to Basic Audio
CD (all).
RESULT
When the conversion is finished, the imported files are added to the
Basic Audio CD window in the Audio Files workspace.
595
Batch Processing
Batch processing in WaveLab allows you to process any number of
audio files or audio montage files with Master Section plug-ins and
presets, offline effects, and other plug-ins that are unique to batch
processing.
Each file is processed and then saved to a folder of your choice. You
can change the file format, rename the file according to a set of rules,
and run an external application when the batch is finished. You can
process as many files as you want taking advantage of multi-processing
on multi-core processors, if available.
When you save batch process files you can run batches repeatedly, if
required. For example, you may have a folder of 24-bit audio files which
you want to normalize, add a fade-out to, and dither down to 16 bit
44.1 kHz. You could save this as a batch process file, and re-run the
batch each time that you update the original files. This procedure can
be simplified using batch templates.
596
Batch Processing
Advantages of the WaveLab Batch Processor
Advantages of the WaveLab Batch
Processor
While processing multipass plug-ins, other plug-ins of the plug-in chain
are only gone through when necessary and file writing is reduced to a
single writing process. This results in an improved performance of the
batch processing. The following graphic shows the advanced uses of
the multipass plug-ins of the batch processor.
597
Batch Processing
Batch Processing Meta-data
Batch Processing Meta-data
You can batch process meta-data. For this you can set up the
Meta-data dialog in the Batch Processors workspace, and apply this
meta-data to the files of the batch process.
RELATED LINKS:
“Meta-Data in the Batch Processors Workspace” on page 181
Overview of the Batch Processors
Workspace
This workspace allows you to process any number of audio files or audio
montages with Master Section plug-ins and presets, offline effects, and
other plug-ins.
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Batch Processing
Overview of the Batch Processors Workspace
Edit Menu
Add specific audio files
Opens the file dialog to select audio files.
Add specific audio montages
Opens the file dialog to select audio montages.
Add files from folder
Opens a dialog in which you can select files of a specific type from
a folder.
Remove all files
Removes all files from the list that are not currently being
processed.
Remove selected files
Removes all selected files from the list that are not currently being
processed.
Remove all but selected
Removes all files that are currently not selected and not being
processed.
Remove successfully processed files
Removes files with the status “Success” from the list.
Remove files with errors
Removes files with the status “Error” from the list.
Reset the status of all files
Sets the files with the status “Done” or “Error” to “To do”.
Reset the status of all files with an error
Sets the files with the status “Error” to “To do”.
Process Menu
Play
Runs the batch process.
Pause
Interrupts the process to reduce the CPU load. You can continue
the process by clicking Pause again.
Cancel
Cancels the running process.
599
Batch Processing
Overview of the Batch Processors Workspace
Run all batches in workspace
Runs sequentially all batches in workspace. That is, a batch
process starts when the previous one ends. An error does not
prevent a new batch process from starting. If you stop the active
process, the global process stops.
Tools Menu
List of external tools
Lists the external tools.
Configure external tools
Opens a dialog in which you can configure external tools.
Plug-ins
Here, you can select plug-ins and Master Section presets for the batch
process. A plug-in or preset can be dragged into the audio plug-in chain
of the active batch processor document. You can also double-click a
plug-in to add it at the end of the chain. From the following categories,
you can select plug-ins or Master Section presets:
Master Section presets
This is the list of Master Section presets.
Master Section Plug-ins
This is the list of all plug-ins available in the Master Section.
Monopass Plug-ins
This is the list of monopass plug-ins. Monopass means that the
audio signal needs to pass through the plug-in only once to be
processed. These plug-ins are not available in the Master Section.
Multipass Plug-ins
This is the list of multipass plug-ins. Multipass means that the
audio needs to be analyzed at least once before it is modified.
These plug-ins are not available in the Master Section. Some are
unique to the Batch Processor.
Metapass Plug-ins
This is the list of metapass plug-ins. Metapass means that the
audio is analyzed once, and is processed after all other files have
been analyzed, to take all analyses into account. These plug-ins
are not available in the Master Section and are unique to the Batch
Processor.
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Batch Processing
Overview of the Batch Processors Workspace
Audio Plug-in Chain
Here, you can add plug-ins that the audio signal traverses, from top to
bottom.
You set up the list by dragging plug-ins from the plug-ins section.
•
To remove a plug-in from the list, drag it back onto the plug-ins
section, or select it and press [Delete], or right-click a plug-in and
select Remove.
•
To edit a plug-in, double click it, or right-click a plug-in and select
Edit.
Red, green, and blue arrows on the right of the Audio plug-in chain
visualize the audio signal path when plug-ins have been added to the
list.
You can prevent a plug-in from processing by deactivating it.
Files to Process
Here, you specify which files to process. You can add files to the list via
drag and drop, or use the Edit menu. You can right-click a file, to access
a context menu with the following options:
Reset status
Sets the status of the selected files to “unprocessed”.
Remove
Removes the selected files from the list.
Open source file in WaveLab
Opens the selected file in WaveLab.
Reveal source file in Windows Explorer/Finder
Opens the folder of the selected file in the Windows Explorer/Mac
OS Finder.
Open output file in WaveLab
Opens the processed file in WaveLab.
Open output file with default application
Opens the processed file with the default application, for example,
a media player.
Reveal output file in Windows Explorer/Finder
Opens the folder of the processed file in the Windows
Explorer/Mac OS Finder.
601
Batch Processing
Overview of the Batch Processors Workspace
Insert all open audio files
Inserts all audio files currently open in WaveLab.
Preview duration
Determines the length of the preview duration.
Accept dual-mono files
If this option is activated, you can add dual-mono files to your
batch process. Clicking the tool icon opens the Audio file editing
preferences dialog, where you can set up the dual-mono file
identification.
Output Tab
Type of destination folder
Define a type of destination folder. The following types are
available:
•
Temporary, and can be undone - Writes the processed audio in
a temporary file. For this, the source file must be open in the Audio
Files workspace.
•
As source path - The file is rendered in its own folder.
•
Explicit path - The file is rendered in a destination folder that you
must specify.
•
Explicit path + Source folder - As previous option, but the folder
name of the source file is added to the path.
•
Explicit path + Source folder (2 levels) - As previous option, but
the folder name of the source file, and its parent, are added to the
path.
•
Explicit path + Source folder (3 levels) - As previous option,
with one more added element of the source path.
•
No output - Processing takes place while no file is written to the
disk.
Path
Specify the folder into which the files are rendered.
Renaming
If this option is activated, the source file names are processed
through a renaming preset, to produce new names for the
rendered files.
Renaming field
Opens the Renaming dialog, where you can set up a renaming
scheme.
602
Batch Processing
Overview of the Batch Processors Workspace
Format Tab
File format
Opens the Audio File Format dialog.
Batch meta-data
Lets you select one of the following options for handling the batch
meta-data:
•
Ignore the batch meta-data and preserve the meta-data in the
audio file.
•
Merge the batch meta-data with the meta-data found in the audio
file.
•
Replace the meta-data of the audio file with the batch meta-data.
These options only have effect if Inherit from source file is
activated in the Audio File Format dialog.
For audio montages, render CD images and cue-sheets
If this option is activated, audio montages are rendered as CD
images together with cue-sheets.
External Tool Tab
On this tab, you can select an external tool to run after the batch process
is finished. For example, you could email, upload, or archive the resulting
files. To be able to select tools, you need to specify them in the
Configure external tools dialog.
Options Tab
Auto start when dropping files
If this option is activated, the processing starts automatically when
dragging a file into the list.
Auto remove converted files
If this option is activated, a file is removed from the list once it is
successfully processed.
Stop on error
If this option is activated, the global process stops if an error is
encountered. If it is deactivated, the file associated with the error
is marked in red, and the next file is processed.
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Batch Processing
About Off-Line Processors
Include file list when saving
If this option is activated, the list of files (with their status) is saved
with the batch processor document.
Create peak files
If this option is activated, peak files are created for each rendered
file.
When a file is to be overwritten
Specify the behavior when a file is to be overwritten. The following
options are available:
•
Overwrite without question
•
Stop and ask
•
Report as error
•
Skip and mark as done
Multitasking Tab
On this tab, you select how many cores are to be used simultaneously.
The contents of this tab depend on your computer hardware.
Comment Tab
On this tab, you can enter a comment for the active batch process
document.
About Off-Line Processors
There are several different types of plug-ins that can be applied to a
batch process.
The following types of batch processing plug-ins are available:
•
Monopass plug-ins only require one pass when processing. A
monopass plug-in effect processes the signal and then outputs it
to any subsequent plug-in.
604
Batch Processing
About Off-Line Processors
•
Multipass plug-ins require two or more passes (one or more
analysis passes followed by a process pass) before processing
the audio. Some are unique to the Batch Processor workspace
while others are also found as offline processors in the Audio Files
workspace.
•
Metapass plug-ins are unique to the Batch Processors
workspace and require at least one analysis pass on all audio files
before audio is processed. After analyzing the audio, a metapass
plug-in takes into account all other plug-ins in the effects chain
before processing the audio.
Master Section Presets
These presets are updated each time that you save a new preset in the
Master Section. The presets also contain the Master Section gain
settings.
Master Section Plug-ins
These plug-ins are all the plug-ins available from the Master Section,
sorted in the same manner.
About Metapass Plug-ins
A metapass plug-in analyzes all files in the batch, collects the results,
and processes the files by varying amounts. The result of the analysis of
one file can affect how other files are processed.
A typical example of a metapass plug-in is the Loudness Meta
Normalizer, which can process a number of files so that they all get the
loudness of the loudest file in the batch.
Metapass plug-ins can be freely combined with other types of
processors. For example, you can use both the Loudness Meta
Normalizer and a regular Normalizer in the same batch. You may also
combine metapass plug-ins with multipass plug-ins.
A metapass plug-in requires two processing passes. During the first
pass all the files in the batch are analyzed and during the second pass
they are all processed.
This is different from other multipass plug-ins, where each file is
analyzed/processed twice or more times if required.
605
Batch Processing
Opening the Batch Processors Workspace
Avoid Clipping When Increasing the Signal Level
Processors often increase the signal level. If you are not careful, your file
may be distorted when it exits the batch. To prevent this, you can use
the Level Normalizer plug-in’s Only if clipping option.
It is no problem for the signal to be amplified above 0 dB (full level) within
the audio stream, since WaveLab uses 32-bit internal processing. There
is a lot of extra headroom and the signal will not be clipped. However,
when a signal that exceeds 0 dB is converted to a 16-bit file at the
output of the Batch Processor, clipping occurs.
To remedy this, you can insert the Normalizer effect at the end of the
signal chain. The Normalizer raises or lowers the levels as required so
that the signal peaks exactly at the specified value just before it is
converted to a file. This is useful to do even when Only if Clipping is not
activated.
If you only want the Normalizer to be applied to avoid clipping, activate
Only if Clipping. When this is activated, the signal output may be low,
but the audio does not clip due to amplification within any of the
processors.
This allows you to use the Normalizer as a completely distortion-free
limiter.
If you reduce the bit depth, add the dithering plug-in after the Normalizer
plug-in.
Opening the Batch Processors Workspace
PROCEDURE
1.
Click the Batch Processors icon, and select Open empty
workspace, or select Workspace > New Workspace > Batch
Processor.
2.
Activate the layout that you want to use.
3.
Click OK.
606
Batch Processing
Creating a Batch Process Document
Creating a Batch Process Document
There are several ways to create a batch process document. The
following steps describe the way of creating a batch process document
in the Batch Processors workspace.
PROCEDURE
1.
In the Batch Processors workspace, click the Create empty
document button, or select File > New.
If you have specified a template to be the default template, clicking New
opens a new template with the settings of the default template.
2.
If you have created a batch process template before, the Create
from Template dialog opens. Choose one of the following
options:
•
To create a new document from a template, select a template from
the list, and click Open.
•
To create an empty document, click None.
Saving a Batch Process Document
PREREQUISITE
Set up your batch process.
PROCEDURE
1.
In the Batch Processors workspace, do one of the following:
•
To save a batch process document that has never been saved
before, select File > Save as.
•
To save a batch process document that has been saved before,
click the Save button, or select File > Save.
2.
In the Save Batch Processor dialog, specify a file name and
location.
3.
Decide whether to activate one of the following options:
4.
•
Include file list
•
Open standard file selector before this dialog
•
Save copy
Click Save.
607
Batch Processing
Adding Files to a Batch Process
Save Batch Processor Dialog
In this dialog, you can specify the name and location of the batch
process file that you want to save.
In the Batch Processors workspace, click the Save as button, or select
File > Save as.
Name
The name of the file to write.
Where
The location where you want to save the file.
Include file list
If this option is activated, the file list is also saved, including the
status of each file.
Open standard file selector before this dialog
If this option is activated, the standard file selector opens before
this dialog. Use this option if you rarely change the options in this
dialog and prefer the standard file selector.
Save copy
If this option is activated, a copy of the open batch process file is
saved and the batch process continues to refer to the source file.
Adding Files to a Batch Process
You can add audio files and audio montages to a batch process.
Adding Audio Files
PREREQUISITE
In the Batch Processors workspace, create a new document or open an
existing document.
PROCEDURE
1.
Select Edit > Add specific audio files.
2.
Browse to the location of the audio file that you want to add, and
select it.
608
Batch Processing
Adding Files to a Batch Process
3.
Click Open.
RESULT
The audio file is added to the batch process.
NOTE
You can also add audio files by right-clicking the Files to process
window, and selecting Insert all open audio files, or selecting one of
the open audio files from the list.
Adding Audio Montages
PREREQUISITE
In the Batch Processors workspace, create a new document or open an
existing document.
PROCEDURE
1.
Select Edit > Add specific audio montages.
2.
Browse to the location of the audio montage that you want to add,
and select it.
3.
Click Open.
RESULT
The audio montage is added to the batch process.
NOTE
You can also add audio montages by right-clicking the Files to process
window, and selecting one of the open audio montages from the list.
609
Batch Processing
Custom Plug-in Chain vs. Associated Master Section Preset
Adding Files from a Folder
You can add all audio files or audio montages that are included in a
folder to a batch process.
PREREQUISITE
In the Batch Processors workspace, create a new document or open an
existing document.
PROCEDURE
1.
Select Edit > Add files from folder.
2.
Specify the folder location.
3.
Optional: Activate Search also in subfolders if you want to
include files located in subfolders.
4.
Specify the file type.
5.
Click OK.
RESULT
All audio files are added to the Files to process list.
Custom Plug-in Chain vs. Associated
Master Section Preset
You can batch process files using a common custom plug-in chain or
batch process each file with its own associated Master Section preset.
You can also choose to use no plug-in at all for the batch process and
only use the other features of the Batch Processors workspace, for
example, the file format conversion or meta-data processing.
610
Batch Processing
Adding Plug-ins to the Batch Process
Adding Plug-ins to the Batch Process
You can create a custom plug-in chain and include it in the batch
process.
PREREQUISITE
In the Batch Processors workspace, create a new document or open an
existing document.
PROCEDURE
1.
Open the batch processing menu, and select Custom plug-in
chain.
2.
Do one of the following:
•
In the plug-in section, select the plug-in or the Master Section
preset that you want to use, and drag it to the Custom plug-in
chain.
•
Double-click a plug-in or a Master Section preset to add it at the
end of the plug-in chain.
Audio Signal Path
The audio signal path of a batch process is indicated by red, green, and
blue arrows in the Audio plug-in chain list.
•
A red arrow indicates that the signal is processed, then sent to the
next plug-in.
•
A green arrow indicates that the signal is analyzed at this stage of
the audio chain, but is not yet modified and therefore not sent to
the next plug-in. When the audio stream comes to an end, it is
restarted. Next time the signal reaches this plug-in, it is modified,
and sent to the next plug-in. Certain plug-ins need several
analyses before passing to the next plug-in.
•
A blue arrow indicates that the signal has been fully processed at
this stage and is written to disk.
•
A vertical separator line indicates that a meta-pass happens. This
means that the files are read and processed again one after the
other.
611
Batch Processing
Removing Files and Plug-ins from the Batch Process
NOTE
Some multipass plug-ins request more than one analysis pass, or send
the signal further in the chain without ordering the audio stream to
restart. This behavior depends on the plug-in settings and on the audio
material and cannot be influenced.
Removing Files and Plug-ins from the
Batch Process
PROCEDURE
•
In the Custom plug-in chain or Files to process list, right-click
the item that you want to remove, and select Remove, or select the
item and press [Delete].
Changing the Order of the Plug-ins in the
Batch Process
PREREQUISITE
In the Batch Processors workspace, create a new document, or open
an existing document.
PROCEDURE
•
Select a plug-in or Master Section preset from the Audio plug-in
chain list, and drag it to another position.
612
Batch Processing
Previewing the Effect of the Batch Process
Previewing the Effect of the Batch
Process
You can preview the effect of the batch processor on any file of a batch.
The preview includes all effects and the file format.
PREREQUISITE
Set up your batch process.
PROCEDURE
1.
In the lower right corner of the Batch Processors workspace, set
up the Preview duration.
The preview duration can be between 2 seconds and 59 seconds.
2.
Right-click the file that you want to preview, and select Preview
processing.
About Processing Open Files
If you are processing a file that is already open there are certain things
to consider.
•
If the new file will have the same name and is saved in the same
location, the file will not be saved since it is already open.
•
If the new file will have the same name and is saved in the same
location, and the number of channels changes in the file (mono
becomes stereo or vice versa), a new document is created, which
is opened in an untitled window.
613
Batch Processing
Selecting an Output Format for the Batch Process
Selecting an Output Format for the Batch
Process
PREREQUISITE
In the Batch Processors workspace, create a new document or open an
existing document.
PROCEDURE
1.
In the Batch Processors workspace, select the Format tab.
2.
Click the File Format field.
The Audio File Format dialog opens.
3.
Make the settings, and click OK.
Setting Up a File Location for the Batch
Process
PREREQUISITE
In the Batch Processors workspace, create a new document or open an
existing document.
PROCEDURE
1.
In the Batch Processors workspace, select the Output tab.
2.
Set the type of destination folder, and the folder in which the audio
files are rendered.
614
Batch Processing
Specifying an Overwriting Strategy
Specifying an Overwriting Strategy
PREREQUISITE
In the Batch Processors workspace, create a new document or open an
existing document.
PROCEDURE
1.
Select the Options tab.
2.
From the When a file is to be overwritten menu, select one of the
following overwriting strategies:
•
Overwrite without question
•
Stop and ask
•
Report as error
•
Skip and mark as done
Naming Rendered Audio Files
With the renaming function of the Batch Processors workspace, you
can generate new names for the rendered files according to custom
rules.
PREREQUISITE
Open a batch processor document in the Batch Processors workspace.
PROCEDURE
1.
In the Batch Processors workspace, select the Output tab.
2.
Activate Renaming, and click the renaming field.
3.
Make your settings, and click OK.
615
Batch Processing
Running and Stopping the Batch Process
Running and Stopping the Batch Process
Once all settings are made, you can start the batch process. You can
pause and cancel the processing procedure at any time.
•
To start the batch process, select Process > Start, or click the
Start button.
•
To pause the batch process, select Process > Pause, or click the
Pause button. You can continue the batch processing by clicking
the Pause button again.
•
To cancel the batch process, select Process > Cancel, or click
the Cancel button.
Batch Processing Status Icons
The icons next to the file number indicate the status of the files in the
Files to process list.
Icon
Description
Green circle
Indicates that the file is ready to be processed.
Cogwheel icon
Indicates that the file is currently being processed. The Batch
Processing workspace cannot be closed if any files have this
status.
Yellow dot
Indicates that the process is done partially. For example, the
files have been analyzed (analysis pass), but not yet
processed (modifying pass).
Green dot
Indicates that the file has been successfully processed. In
order to process the file again, you need to reset its status.
Red dot
Indicates that an error occurred.
616
Batch Processing
About Multitasking During the Batch Process
Resetting the Status of Batch Processor Files
To apply the batch process again on already processed files, you need
to reset the status of these files.
•
To reset the status of one or several files in the File to process list,
select one or several files, right-click them, and select Reset
status.
•
To reset the status of all files in the Files to process list, select
Edit > Reset the status of all files.
•
To reset the status of files with an error in the Files to process list,
select Edit > Reset the status of all files with an error.
About Multitasking During the Batch
Process
You can select how many CPU cores of your computer should be used
simultaneously. The available number of cores depends on your
computer hardware.
Each task uses one core, therefore the multitasking setting represents
the maximum number of tasks that can be run in parallel. It is not always
recommended to use the highest settings for the following reasons:
•
If you want to continue working with your computer during batch
processing, you need to spare power.
•
The disk is slower.
•
Graphics performance and user interface responsiveness are
reduced.
•
If your processor uses hyper-threading, half of the cores are virtual
and do not bring as much power as real cores.
If many large files are written, using multitasking is not always
recommended, because the files can become more fragmented on your
disk. The resulting files might be slower to read, unless you are using
SSD drives.
NOTE
The number of cores to be used can be changed at any time. Tasks that
are already running are continued or paused, depending on the new
setting.
617
Batch Processing
About Multitasking During the Batch Process
Selecting Processor Cores for the Batch Process
PROCEDURE
•
On the Multitasking tab, select the number of processor cores
that you want to use.
618
Batch Conversion
You can convert multiple files simultaneously to another format. If no
processing is needed, this can be done using the Batch Conversion
dialog.
Batch Conversion Dialog
This dialog allows you to convert the file format of a group of audio files.
In the Audio Files workspace, select Tools > Batch conversion of
audio files.
Plus icon
Opens a dialog, where you can select files to add to the list.
Minus icon
Removes the selected item from the list.
619
Batch Conversion
Batch Converting Files
List of files to convert
Shows the files to convert.
Output - Folder
Specify the folder in which the converted files are stored.
Output - File Format
Opens the Audio File Format dialog, where you can set the file
format.
Options - Auto start when dropping files
If this option is activated, the conversion starts automatically when
you drag a file into the list.
Options - Auto remove converted files
If this option is activated, a file is removed from the list, once it is
successfully converted. Otherwise, it remains in the list with a
green mark indicating its status.
Options - Stop on error
If this option is activated, the global process stops if an error is
encountered. If this option is deactivated, the file associated with
the error is marked in red, and the next file is processed.
Multitasking - Usage of processor cores
Selects how many core to use simultaneously. The contents of this
menu depend on your computer hardware.
Batch Converting Files
PROCEDURE
1.
In the Audio Files workspace, select Tools > Batch conversion
of Audio Files.
2.
Click the plus icon to add files, or simply drag the files into the
Files to convert list.
3.
On the Output tab, select a file location and a file format.
4.
Optional: Make further settings on the Options and Multitasking
tabs.
5.
Click Start to begin converting the files.
620
Batch Renaming
With the batch renaming functions, you can batch rename multiple files,
markers, and clips. You can convert, remove, format, import, and insert
text. This allows you to batch rename file names according to user
specified rules.
You can use simple options to match text, or you can build your own
regular expressions. Batch renaming can be useful with large projects,
for example, so you can apply easily identifiable names to all referenced
files, clips, and markers belonging to the project.
You can use batch renaming for the following operations:
•
Rename files
•
Rename clips in an audio montage
•
Rename markers in audio files and audio montages
Batch Renaming Dialogs
The Batch renaming dialogs for files, clips, and markers share most
features, with some differences.
The Batch renaming dialog has 3 pages.
1)
The first page defines which files, clips, or markers are renamed.
It is different for all renaming operations.
2)
The second page defines how the renaming is run. It is identical
for all renaming operations.
3)
The third page shows you a preview of the resulting names.
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Batch Renaming
Batch Renaming Files
Batch Renaming Files
You can batch rename multiple files according to specified seettings.
PROCEDURE
1.
Select File > Batch file renaming.
2.
Select the files that you want to rename and click Next.
3.
Define the batch rename operation and click Next.
4.
Verify that the renaming is performed as intended, then click
Finish.
Batch File Renaming Dialog
In this dialog, you can batch rename individual files. Any currently open
files that reference these files are updated automatically.
Select File > Batch file renaming.
On the first page of this dialog, you can define which files to rename, by
using the following options:
Rename files in this folder
Specify the folder that contains the files to rename.
Scan subfolders
If this option is activated, files are also searched in subfolders.
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Batch Renaming
Batch Renaming Markers
Only rename files with this extension
If this option is activated, only files with the extension specified in
the text field below are renamed.
Only rename files with specific names
If this option is activated, only files with a name that corresponds
to a certain specification are renamed. You can type in a text string
in the text field below, and select one of the following options from
the menu:
•
File name must contain this text
•
File name must NOT contain this text
•
File name must contain this text (with wild cards)
•
File name must NOT contain this text (with wild cards)
•
File name must contain this regular expression
•
File name must NOT contain this regular expression
Skip read-only files
If this option is activated, files that are read-only are not renamed.
Set new extension
If this option is activated, the extension of files is changed with the
extension specified below.
Batch Renaming Markers
You can batch rename multiple markers according to specified settings.
PROCEDURE
1.
Optional: If you only want to rename markers in a certain time
range, create a selection range in the wave window or the montage
window.
2.
In the Audio Files workspace or the Audio Montage workspace,
open the Markers window, and select Functions > Batch
renaming.
3.
On the Target page, make your settings, and click Next.
If you have made an audio selection and want to use it, activate All
markers in audio selection.
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Batch Renaming
Batch Renaming Markers
4.
Define the batch rename operation, and click Next.
5.
Verify in the preview list that the renaming is performed as
intended, and click Finish.
Batch Marker Renaming Dialog
In this dialog, you can batch rename markers of any type.
In the Markers window, select Functions > Batch renaming.
All markers
If this option is activated, all markers in the selected file are
renamed.
All markers in audio selection
If this option is activated, all markers in the selected audio range
are renamed.
Types to rename
Only the markers of the type selected here are renamed.
Only markers with specific names
If this option is activated, only markers with a name that
corresponds to a certain specification are renamed. You can type
in a text string in the text field below, and select one of the following
options from the menu:
•
Marker name must contain this text
•
Marker name must NOT contain this text
•
File name must contain this text (with wild cards)
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Batch Renaming
Batch Renaming Clips
•
File name must NOT contain this text (with wild cards)
•
Marker name must contain this regular expression
•
Marker name must NOT contain this regular expression
Skip locked markers
If this option is activated, markers that are locked are not renamed.
Batch Renaming Clips
You can batch rename multiple clips according to specified seettings.
PROCEDURE
1.
In the Audio Montage workspace, from the Clips window, select
Functions > Batch clip renaming.
2.
Select the clips that you want to rename and click Next.
3.
Define the batch rename operation and click Next.
4.
Check in the preview list if the renaming is as intended, then click
Finish.
Batch Clip Renaming Dialog
In this dialog, you can batch rename clips in the Audio Montage
workspace.
In the Clip window, select Functions > Batch clip renaming.
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Batch Renaming
Renaming Operation Categories and Types
On the first page of this dialog, you can define which clips to rename, by
using the following options:
All clips
If this option is activated, all clips are renamed.
All clips in focused track
If this option is activated, all clips on the focused track are
renamed.
All selected clips
If this option is activated, all selected clips are renamed.
Only clips with specific names
If this option is activated, only clips with a name that corresponds
to a certain specification are renamed. You can type in a text string
in the text field below, and select one of the following options from
the menu:
•
Clip name must contain this text
•
Clip name must NOT contain this text
•
File name must contain this text (with wild cards)
•
File name must NOT contain this text (with wild cards)
•
Clip name must contain this regular expression
•
Clip name must NOT contain this regular expression
Skip locked clips
If this option is activated, clips that are locked are not renamed.
Renaming Operation Categories and Types
On the first page of the Batch renaming dialog which clips after
selecting, files, or markers to batch rename you set up the renaming
operation that you want to perform.
The Category pop-up menu lists the renaming operations categories.
The Type pop-up menu lists the various types of renaming operations.
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Batch Renaming
Renaming Operation Categories and Types
When you select a type, the related controls are displayed. The types
depend on the selected category.
The following categories and types are available:
Remove
All
Removes all characters from the selected range.
Spaces
Removes all spaces from the selected range.
Spaces at start/end
Removes all spaces at start and end of the selected range.
Duplicate
Replaces two consecutive similar characters by one. Specify the
character to remove in the Character field.
Specific characters
Removes all instances of one or more characters. Specify the
characters to remove in the Character field.
Surrounded text
Removes all instances of one or more characters. In the Left
character field, specify the characters from which on the text is
removed. In the Right character field, specify the characters until
which the text is removed.
Then specify in the Occurrence menu, which character to remove
if several are found.
Convert
To lower case
Sets all characters in the selected range to lower case.
To upper case
Sets all characters in the selected range to upper case.
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Batch Renaming
Renaming Operation Categories and Types
Capitalize
Sets the first character to upper case, and the rest to lower case.
On the menu, you can specify whether only the first word or all
words should be capitalized.
Initials to upper case
Sets only isolated letters to upper case. For example, u.s.a to
U.S.A.
Specific character to text
Replaces each instance of a given character with a custom string.
In the Character to replace field, enter the character you want to
replace. In the Replacement field, enter the replacement string.
Pad number with zeros
Pads a number present in the selected range with zeros at the left
side. On the menu below, specify how many digits the number
should consist of.
Invert character order
Inverts the order of the characters in the selected range.
Replace with new text
Replaces the selected range by a specific text string. In the text
field below, enter this string.
Insert
Nothing
Inserts nothing.
Counter
Inserts a number at the selected position, and updates its value for
the next insertion. Set up the counter with the additional options.
Specific text
Inserts a string at the selected position. In the text field below,
enter the text to be inserted.
Part of original name
Inserts a part of the original name (before the first operation was
performed) at the selected position. In the text field below, enter
the regular expressions. Clicking on the bulb icon opens a menu
with shortcuts for several regular expressions.
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Batch Renaming
Renaming Operation Categories and Types
Pair of characters around text
Inserts specific characters before and after the selected range. In
the Left character field, specify the characters to insert before the
selected range. In the Right character field, specify the characters
to insert after the selected range.
Spaces around text
Inserts a space before and after the selected range.
Space after specific characters
Inserts a space after certain characters. In the field below, enter
the characters that should be followed by a space.
Space before each capitalized word
Inserts a space before each word starting with an upper case
letter. For example, MyNicePiano to My Nice Piano.
If Lower case for each word but first one is activated, only the
first word is capitalized (My nice piano).
Today’s Date/Time
Inserts the current date and time.
Universal unique identifier
Inserts a unique identifier. This is useful for recordings, for example.
Random word
Inserts a random pronounceable word.
Find and Replace from Table
This category allows you to define a table of words and to associate
each word with a replacement. This feature is useful to reformat a text
according to a new style. For example, it can be used to map a series of
numbers to a series of tags, to change a numerical sequence like “000
- 127” to “C-2 - G8” (MIDI notes).
Find anywhere in text
Replaces each word of the table which is present in the selected
range.
Find exact text
Replaces a word of the table if it equals the selected range.
In the table below these types, you can define a list of strings to find, and
define a replacement for each one. Double-click the cells to edit the list.
If a file cell is empty, it is ignored.
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Batch Renaming
Renaming Operation Categories and Types
If Case sensitive search is activated, the search takes the letter cases
into account. If Keep letter case is activated, the case of the
replacement text is adapted to the case of the found text.
Import and Insert External Data
This category allows you to insert information taken from a file or current
context. This is mostly audio-oriented as some features analyze the
audio file headers. The available options differ depending on the
selected Batch Renaming dialog.
Sample rate
Inserts the sample rate of the file. In the fields below, enter a prefix
and suffix, and select how to format the imported data.
Number of channels
Inserts the number of channels of the file. In the fields below, enter
a prefix and suffix, and select how to format the imported data.
Sample bit resolution
Inserts the bit resolution of the file. In the fields below, enter a prefix
and suffix, and select how to format the imported data.
Bit rate
Inserts the bit rate of the file if the file is encoded. In the fields
below, enter a prefix and suffix, and select how to format the
imported data.
Variable/Constant Bit Rate
Inserts the tag VBR or CBR if the file is encoded. In the fields
below, enter a prefix and suffix.
File length
Inserts the length of the file. In the fields below, enter a prefix and
suffix.
File extension
Inserts the extension of the file. In the fields below, enter a prefix
and suffix.
Date/Time
Inserts the date/time of the item at the selected position. In the
Format field below, enter a date.
Folder name
Inserts the name of the folder containing the item. In the fields
below, enter a prefix and suffix.
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Batch Renaming
Renaming Operation Categories and Types
Folder name (2 positions up)
Inserts the name of the folder located two positions higher in the
hierarchy. In the fields below, enter a prefix and suffix.
Folder name (3 positions up)
Inserts the name of the folder located three positions higher in the
hierarchy. In the fields below, enter a prefix and suffix.
Sample: MIDI note
Inserts the sample note of the item if available. In the fields below,
enter a prefix and suffix, and select how to format the imported
data.
Sample: detune
Inserts the sample detune if available. In the fields below, enter a
prefix and suffix.
Sample: key range
Inserts the sample note of the item if available. In the fields below,
enter a prefix, suffix, and separator, and select how to format the
imported data.
Sample: velocity range
Inserts the velocity range of the item, if available. In the fields
below, enter a prefix, suffix, and separator, and select how to
format the imported data.
Meta-data: Title
Inserts the title if this information is present in the meta-data of the
item. In the fields below, enter a prefix and suffix.
Meta-data: Artist
Inserts the artist if this information is present in the meta-data of
the item. In the fields below, enter a prefix and suffix.
Meta-data: Genre
Inserts the genre if this information is present in the meta-data of
the item. In the fields below, enter a prefix and suffix.
Meta-data: Album
Inserts the album if this information is present in the meta-data of
the item. In the fields below, enter a prefix and suffix.
Meta-data: BWF description
Inserts the corresponding meta-data. You can insert the title, artist,
genre, album, and BWF description.
Timeline position
Inserts the position of the item in the timeline. In the fields below,
enter a prefix and suffix.
631
Batch Renaming
List of Renaming Operations
Line [x] from text file
Inserts the specified line from a text file to the specified renaming
operation. In the field below, specify the location of the text file
(UTF-8) from which the strings should be collected.
List of Renaming Operations
In this section on the Operation page of the Batch renaming dialog, you
can create, delete, and arrange renaming operations.
Plus icon
Adds a new operation at the end of the list.
X icon
Deletes the selected operation.
Arrow Up/Down icons
Moves the selected operation one position up/down.
List of the operations to be performed on the original name
Lists all operations performed on the original name. The operations
are run one after the other.
Preview Section
In this section on the Operation page of the Batch renaming dialog,
you can preview the renaming result of the selected operation.
When you enter a name in the Original field, the change is automatically
reflected in the Output format field. This preview is continuously
updated.
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Batch Renaming
Range Parameters
If the preview cannot display missing data, an "X" is shown instead.
Range Parameters
In the range sections on the Operation page of the Batch renaming
dialog, you can specify where in the name the operation is run.
Range to Process
All
If this option is activated, the whole name is processed by the
operation.
Regular expression
Select this option if you want only a part of the name to be
processed by the operation. In this case, you need to define a
regular expression. Clicking on the bulb icon opens a menu with
shortcuts for several regular expressions. The sub-string found by
this regular expression is the range to process.
From/To
If this option is activated, you can set the start and end position of
the range independently in the From and To sections.
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Batch Renaming
Range Parameters
From
Start
If this option is activated, the position is the beginning of the
source name.
Character position
If this option is activated, the position is a fixed offset from the
beginning of the of the source name.
Start of regular expression
Select this option if you want the position to be the one of the
sub-strings found by the regular expression applied on the source
name.
After regular expression
Select this option if you want the position to be the one right after
the sub-string found by the regular expression applied on the
source name.
End of previous operation
If this option is activated, the position corresponds to the end of
the change performed by the previous operation.
End
The end of the source name.
To
End
If this option is activated, the position is the end of the source
name.
Position from end
If this option is activated, the position is a fixed offset before the
end of the source name.
Number of characters
If this option is activated, the end position is given by the start
position plus a number of characters.
Before start of regular expression
Select this option if you want the position to be just before the
sub-string found by the regular expression applied on the source name.
End of regular expression
Select this option if you want the position to be the end of the sub-string
found by the regular expression applied on the source name.
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Batch Renaming
Previewing and Performing All Renaming Operations
Previewing and Performing All Renaming
Operations
On the last page of the Batch Renaming dialog, you can see how all
the selected file, clip, or marker names are changed before you start the
batch renaming. If the name contains a random item, this item name will
likely be different in the preview.
PREREQUISITE
In the Batch renaming dialog, after setting up what files, clips, or
markers to rename and in which way, click Next, to open the third page
of the dialog.
PROCEDURE
1.
In the list, check if the changes are as you intended.
2.
Click Finish.
About Regular Expressions
A regular expression is a formula composed of characters that have
special meanings (called operators). Other characters are plain letters
and numbers that are searched for. The search engine browses the
target text one character at a time and stops as soon as it finds a
sequence of characters that matches the regular expression.
At various places in WaveLab, you can use regular expressions to build
complex text matching capabilities into your conversion and renaming
processes. A regular expression is a set of text symbols that describe a
method to find a specific text string within a large body of text, and then
apply a specific operation to this text string. Regular expressions are
available for the advanced user to perform powerful string
search/replace operations, for example, in batch renaming or batch
processing.
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Batch Renaming
About Regular Expressions
Throughout WaveLab, wherever you see the bulb icon, there is a field
where you can create your own regular expressions. A menu containing
shortcuts to build up the basic syntax of an expression is also available.
It is beyond the scope of the WaveLab documentation to describe this
subject thoroughly, please see other resources for further details on
regular expressions.
Common Regular Expressions
There are various versions of regular expressions. WaveLab uses a
version that represents a good compromise between power and
ease-of-use.
The term “expression” refers to a single character, a character class, or
a sub-expression enclosed with () or {}. Searches for regular
expressions are not case sensitive.
The following items are available on the Regular Expression pop-up
menu.
Regular Expressions Menu
Menu Item
Operator
Description
Any character
.
Symbolizes any character.
Character in
range
[]
A bracketed text is treated as a single character,
for example: [AEW13] means A or E or W or 1
or 3. A hyphen within the brackets specifies a
range of characters. For example, [F-I] means F
or G or H or I, and [A-Z0-9] matches all letters
and all digits.
Character not in
range
[^]
A circumflex located at the first position in a
bracket is a complement operator. It describes a
situation where all characters match except
those included in the bracket. For example, [^E]
means any character except E.
0 or 1 match
(1 if possible)
?
Matches 0 or 1 time the preceding expression. 1
repeat if possible is grabbed, then the rest of the
regular expression continues to be evaluated.
0 or 1 match
(0 if possible)
??
Matches 0 or 1 time the preceding expression. 0
repeat if possible (the NEXT step in the regular
expression is also evaluated and has priority).
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Batch Renaming
About Regular Expressions
Menu Item
Operator
Description
0 or more
matches
(as many as
possible)
*
Matches 0 or more times the preceding
expression. As many repeats as possible are
grabbed, then the rest of the regular expression
continues to be evaluated.
0 or more
matches
(as few as
possible)
*?
Matches 0 or more times the preceding
expression. As few repeats as possible are
grabbed (the NEXT step in the regular
expression is also evaluated and has priority).
1 or more
matches
(as many as
possible)
+
Matches 1 or more times the preceding
expression. As many repeats as possible are
grabbed, then the rest of the regular expression
continues to be evaluated.
1 or more
matches
(as few as
possible)
+?
Matches 1 or more times the preceding
expression. As few repeats as possible are
grabbed (the next step in the regular expression
is also evaluated and has priority).
Or
|
OR operator. Use this to separate two
expressions and to match expression #1 or
expression #2. For example, Piano|Drum
matches all texts that contain Piano or Drum.
Not
!
Negation operator: the expression following !
must not match the text. For example, a!b
matches any "a" not followed by "b".
Generic group
()
Grouping operator. Useful to form a
sub-expression.
Capture
{}
Capture operator. By default, the found text
corresponds to the entire regular expression. But
it is possible to limit a part of the regular
expression with { }, and if a part is matched, this
will be the retained part. For instance the regular
expression "ab{cd}ef" that is applied on "abcdef"
will return "cd".
Beginning of
text
^
Use the circumflex sign to specify that the text
must be located at the start of the browsed text.
Any match not located at the start of the
browsed text is ignored.
End of text
$
Use this sign to specify that the text must be
located at the end of the text. Any match not
located at the end of the text is ignored.
637
Batch Renaming
About Regular Expressions
Special Characters Submenu
On this submenu, all special characters for regular expressions are
available.
Shortcuts Submenu
Menu Item
Operator
Description
Any digit (0-9)
/d
Symbolizes any digit, as [0-9].
Any non-digit
(not 0-9)
/D
Symbolizes any non-digit, as [^0-9].
Any letter
(a-z or A-Z)
/l
Symbolizes any letter, as [a-z].
Any non-letter
(not a-z, not
A-Z)
/L
Symbolizes any non-letter, as [^a-z]. - Any
alphabetic /w Special code to symbolize any
alphabetic character, as [0-9a-z].
Any alphabetic
(a-z, or A-Z, or
0-9)
/w
Symbolizes any alphabetic character, as
[0-9a-z].
Any
non-alphabetic
(not a-z, not
A-Z, not 0-9)
/W
Symbolizes any non-alphabetic character, as
[^0-9a-z].
Number
/u
Symbolizes a number (without a sign).
Number
(with possible
+- before)
/i
Symbolizes a number which can be preceded by
a + or - sign.
Quoted string
/q
Symbolizes quoted text.
Simple word
/z
Symbolizes a simple word (a sequence of letters
surrounded by non-letters, for example, spaces).
Presets Submenu
Menu Item
Description
1st/2nd/3rd word
Searches for the first, second, or third word (separated by
a space).
Last word
Searches for the last word (separated by a space).
638
Batch Renaming
About Regular Expressions
Menu Item
Description
1st/2nd/3rd
expression in
parentheses
Searches for the first, second, or third string enclosed in
parentheses.
Last expression in
parentheses
Searches for the last string enclosed in parentheses.
1st/2nd/3rd
expression in
brackets
Searches for the first, second, or third string enclosed in
brackets.
Last expression in
brackets
Searches for the last string enclosed in brackets.
639
Podcasts
Podcasting is a method of distributing multimedia files over the internet,
for example, for playback on mobile devices and personal computers.
A Podcast can be downloaded automatically, using software that is
capable of reading RSS feeds. RSS (Really Simple Syndication) is a
standard for distributing news and other information via the internet. An
RSS news feed sends short messages on a certain topic from a
specific web site. In order to read the messages, the user employs a
program that has the ability to monitor multiple feeds and automatically
download new messages on a regular basis. This can be special feed
readers or an internet browser, for example.
A Podcast is an RSS feed including data content, such as audio or
video files. This can be a show of which new episodes are released
regularly. The file formats .mp4a, .mp3, and .ogg are commonly used for
podcasts.
640
Podcasts
Podcast Workspace
Podcast Workspace
The Podcast workspace is divided into two panes. The upper pane
shows the information for the feed or an episode, depending on the item
that is selected in the list below. This is where you can add files, internet
links, or textual information to the Podcast feed and its episodes. The
lower pane shows an item list of the basic feed and all episodes that are
included in the Podcast.
Episodes Menu
In the Episodes menu, you can create, delete, and move individual
Podcast episodes.
New
Adds a new untitled episode without any information present.
Duplicate selected
Adds a new episode, copying all the information from the existing
episode to the new one.
641
Podcasts
Podcast Workspace
Delete selected
Deletes the selected episode. Alternatively, you can exclude an
Episode from the Podcast by deactivating the Enabled box.
Cut/Copy/Paste
Cuts, copies, and pastes the selected episode.
Move up/Move down
Moves the selected episode one position up or down in the item
list. Alternatively, use drag and drop.
Publish Menu
In the Publish menu, you can define where your Podcast is going to be
uploaded via FTP.
Update all items on FTP
Uploads/updates the XML Podcast file on the FTP server. It also
uploads all media files of the item, but only if they are not yet
available on the FTP server. This is the most common function to
upload and update your Podcast.
Update selected item on FTP
Uploads/updates the XML Podcast file on the FTP server. It also
uploads the media file of the selected item in the list, but only if it
is not yet available on the FTP server.
Upload/Replace all items on FTP
This is the same as above, but it always uploads/replaces all of the
media files belonging to the item. This is useful if you have changed
the audio data, for example.
Upload/Replace selected items on FTP
This is the same as above, but it always uploads/replaces the
media file of the selected item in the list. This is useful if you have
changed the audio data, for example.
View published Podcast
Opens your Podcast (via the URL specified in your FTP site
settings) using your default browser.
View XML source code
Opens an XML editor to display the source code of the Podcast.
FTP site
Edit the FTP settings that are related to this Podcast.
642
Podcasts
Podcast Workspace
Options Menu
On the Options menu, you can set additional options that are valid for
all Podcast windows.
Options
Edit the automatic picture resizing, set a time offset with
Greenwich Mean Time, and specify the path of the HTML editor.
Folders
Edit the default folders where to open and save files.
Main Tab
On the Main tab, you can assign parameters to your Podcast. The
available parameters change, depending on whether you select a feed
or an episode. Field labels in bold letters mark fields that are mandatory
to fill.
Title
Sets the title of the feed, for example, the topic of your Podcast.
Description
Gives space for a further description of the feed content.
Internet link (URL)
The main link of the feed that the user sees. Use this to direct
people to a certain web site that is related to your feed. Clicking
the world icon opens the specified URL in your default internet
browser.
Picture (only available for feeds)
According to the RSS standard, this picture may not be larger than
144 x 400 pixels, so the picture is automatically resized. Clicking
the sunglasses icon opens the specified picture in your default
image viewer of your system.
Publication date and time
Sets the publication date and time of the feed or episode. Clicking
the Now button transfers current date and time of your system.
As most recent episode (only available for feeds)
If As most recent episode is activated, the date and time of the
most recent episode are automatically matched.
Import HTML file (only available for episodes)
Lets you browse for an HTML document that replaces the
description.
643
Podcasts
Podcast Workspace
Audio file (only available for episodes)
This sets the path to the audio file that you want to add to the
episode. The audio file can be any file type that is supported by the
media reader of your browser. An .mp3 file provides best
compatibility. Click the icon to list the audio files that are already
open in WaveLab. Select one for your episode.
Alternatively, you can drag the list icon of an audio file into the
audio file pane. Click the play icon to open the specified file in the
default media player or viewer of your system, for previewing or
checking purposes.
Extra Tab
In the Extra tab, you can assign parameters to your Podcast. The
available parameters change, depending on whether you select a feed
or an episode.
The following parameters are available when a feed is selected:
•
Webmaster (email address)
•
Editor (email address)
•
Copyright
•
Category
•
Related domain (URL)
•
Language
•
Frequency of updates
•
Skip hours (0 to 23, separate each one with a comma)
•
Time to live (number of minutes)
The following parameters are available when an episode is selected:
•
Author (email address)
•
Comments (URL)
•
Category
•
Related domain (URL)
•
Title
•
Original domain (URL)
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Podcasts
Podcast Workspace
iTunes Tab
In the iTunes tab, you can activate the iTunes extension, that allows you
to specify additional feed and episode information. The available
parameters change, depending on whether you select a feed or an
episode.
The following parameters are available when a feed is selected:
•
Subtitle
•
Summary
•
Categories
•
Keywords (separate them with a comma)
•
Author
•
Owner name
•
Picture
•
New URL of Feed
•
Hide in iTunes
•
Explicit material
The following parameters are available when an episode is selected:
•
Subtitle
•
Summary
•
Keywords (separate them with a comma)
•
Author
•
Duration
•
Hide in iTunes
•
Explicit material
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Podcasts
Global Podcast Options
Global Podcast Options
You can set some additional options that are valid for all Podcast
windows.
In the Podcast workspace, select Options > Options.
Automatic picture resizing (not for iTunes)
Defines what to do if specified pictures exceed the maximum size
allowed by the RSS standard. If pictures need resizing, the original
images on your hard disk is not modified.
Time offset with GMT (Greenwich Mean Time)
The displayed dates and times are local. If your system is properly
set, WaveLab automatically adjusts the time offset in relation to
GMT. However, if you want to have time and date relative to a
different time zone, adjust the value with this option.
HTML Editor
Sets the path to the external HTML editor that is launched when
clicking the Pen button in the Import HTML file section.
Creating a Podcast
There are several ways to create a new Podcast feed or episode.
•
To create a new podcast, in the Podcast workspace, select File >
New.
•
To create a new podcast from the selected audio file, in the Audio
Files workspace, select File > Export > Create Podcast from
active file.
•
To add an audio file to an existing podcast, in the Audio Files
workspace, select File > Special > Add to Podcast.
•
To add a new untitled episode to a podcast, in the Podcast
workspace, select Episodes > New.
•
To duplicate an episode, in the Podcast workspace, select
Episodes > Duplicate. This adds a new episode, and copies all
information from the existing episode to the new one.
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Podcasts
Setting Up a FTP for Podcast Publishing
Setting Up a FTP for Podcast Publishing
To be able to upload a Podcast to your FTP server, you must enter the
FTP server details first.
PROCEDURE
1.
In the Podcast workspace, select Publish > FTP site.
2.
Enter the following details:
3.
•
The log-in details for your FTP server.
•
The relative path and file name of the Podcast (extension .xml).
•
Your web site address including the path to the feed.
Click OK.
Publishing a Podcast
You can upload a Podcast from within WaveLab directly to your FTP
server.
PREREQUISITE
Set up your FTP settings within WaveLab.
PROCEDURE
1.
2.
In the Podcast workspace, select the Publish menu, and select
one of the following options:
•
Update all items on FTP
•
Update selected item on FTP
•
Upload/Replace all items on FTP
•
Upload/Replace selected items on FTP
Check if the FTP settings are correct, and click OK.
RESULT
The Podcast is uploaded to your FTP site.
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Podcasts
FTP Site Dialog
FTP Site Dialog
In the FTP site dialog, you can manage all required information for the
Podcast upload process.
In the Podcast workspace, select Publish > FTP site.
Host
The host name or IP address of the FTP server.
User name
The login name to your FTP server.
Password
The password to the login.
Use Passive Mode
Keep this activated and only change this if you experience
problems with the FTP connection.
Feed file name (with path)
The Podcast file name that is displayed on your FTP server
(extension .xml), including the relative path. File name and path are
part of the final public internet address of the Podcast, so you may
want to avoid long names.
Associated web site (URL)
Your own web site address including the path to the feed.
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Podcasts
Checking the Podcast
FTP Site Dialog Example
•
Your FTP host address is "ftp.MyPage.com", your public web site
address is "www.MyPage.com".
•
The feed file name setting is "podcasts/fantastic-cast.xml", the
associated web site setting is "www.MyPage.com/podcasts".
•
The media files of the Podcast will be uploaded to the FTP server
at "ftp.MyPage.com/podcasts".
•
The Podcast file itself and the internet address to be distributed
will be found at "www.MyPage.com/podcasts/fantastic-cast.xml".
Each Podcast saves its own complete FTP site information. It is also
possible to save and recall FTP site presets using the Preset functions
at the bottom of the dialog.
Checking the Podcast
After creating and publishing a Podcast, you can check if the upload
was successful.
•
To visualize the contents of the feed XML file in your default XML
editor, in the Podcast workspace, select Publish > View XML
source code.
•
To open your default internet browser and receive the Podcast that
you have just published from the internet, in the Podcast
workspace, select Publish > View published Podcast.
649
Master Projects
If you work on a large project that consists of several audio montage
files, audio files, and editing notes that all belong to an album project, it
is useful to open all these items from a central place. In the master
project, you can organize the files in folders and subfolders.
You can drag files into the master project and from the master project
to external locations. Each file is listed with its path and has a comment
field. Only one master project can be open at a time.
The master project also stores a general window layout.
Setting Up a Master Project
To set up a master project, can add all kinds of files to a master project,
for example, audio montages, audio files, text files, and pictures.
PROCEDURE
1.
Select Workspace > Specific tool windows > Master Project.
2.
Add files to the master project by dragging them into the Master
Project window.
You can drag files from various locations, for example, from the File
Browser window or the Windows Explorer/Mac OS Finder.
3.
4.
Optional: Edit further settings in the master project.
•
In the Comments column, add comments to the files.
•
Click the New folder icon to add folders in which you can
organize the master project.
•
Select the Notes tab and add notes to the master project.
Click the Save icon.
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Master Projects
Saving a Master Project
Saving a Master Project
PREREQUISITE
Set up your master project.
PROCEDURE
1.
In the Master Project window, do one of the following:
•
To save a master project that has never been saved before, select
File > Save as.
•
To save a master project that has been saved before, click the
Save button, or select File > Save.
2.
In the Save Master Project dialog, specify a file name and
location.
3.
Optional: Activate the following settings:
4.
•
Open standard file selector before this dialog
•
Save copy
Click Save.
Writing Files of a Master Project to Data
CD/DVD
You can archive the contents of a master project to a data CD or DVD.
PREREQUISITE
You have set up and saved a master project.
PROCEDURE
1.
In the Master Project window, select File > Add to Data CD/DVD.
2.
Set up the data CD/DVD and click the Write Data CD/DVD icon.
3.
Select a writing device.
4.
•
If you select ISO Image, specify a file name and file location.
•
If you select a CD/DVD writer, specify the writing speed and edit
further settings.
Click OK.
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Master Projects
Master Project Window
Master Project Window
This window allows you to organize the files of a master project in
folders and subfolders and add comments to the files.
In any workspace, select Workspace > Specific tool windows >
Master Project.
File List
The file list displays the name and path of the files in the master project.
In the Comment column you can add comments to the files.
Double-clicking a file in the list opens the file.
File Menu
New
Creates a new master project. The current master project is
closed.
Open
Opens a dialog where you can select a master project.
Open recent
Opens the Recently used files dialog from where you can open
recently used master project files.
Save
Saves the current master project.
Save as
Allows you to save the current master project with a different name
and in a different location.
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Master Projects
Master Project Window
Add to Data CD/DVD
Opens the Data CD/DVD dialog and adds the documents of the
master project to the data CD/DVD.
Favorite Master Projects
Opens a submenu that lets you add the master project to the list
of favorite master projects. To edit this list, select Edit list.
Functions Menu
Find
Opens a search field at the bottom of the Master Project window
in which you can enter text to search files in the master project.
You can search for file names and path names.
New folder
Creates a new folder in the master project where you can add file
references and subfolders.
Delete
Deletes the selected item.
Save general layout
Saves the general layout as the layout for the master project. This
layout contains all open files. This means that you can recover an
exact session.
Restore general layout
Restores the general master project layout.
Customize commands
Opens the Customize commands dialog, where you can define
shortcuts for the Master Project window.
Help
Opens the WaveLab help.
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Customizing
Customizing means making settings so that the program behaves and
looks the way that you want it to.
Window Layout
Window layouts are used for creating various work displays for different
situations.
You can create a window layout that always appears when you launch
WaveLab. Optionally, the snapshots and the files that you had opened
automatically reopen.
There are 2 types of layouts:
•
Workspace layouts that concern a given type of workspace
•
General window layouts that concern the placement of all main
windows
Workspace Layout
You can save a workspace layout to later recall the favorite layout for a
given editing task. Since workspaces can be complex, it is useful to
have layouts with a reduced number of visible tool windows to perform
a given task.
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Customizing
Window Layout
General Window Layout
A general window layout serves two different purposes, each one being
selectable when saving a general window preset.
1)
It can recall the placements of all main windows, without recalling
how they are layouted inside. This is useful when you work with
multi screen setups or large screens, for example, to display two
workspaces next to each other. The position and sizes of the
windows are saved. When restoring such a layout, only the already
open windows are adjusted. For example, if the layout contains a
Batch Processors workspace, and none is open when applying the
preset, no batch workspace will open.
2)
It can save the exact window snapshot. In this case, the inner
layouts (tool windows, command bars, tab groups, etc.) are saved
and restored. When restoring such a layout, all the open windows
are first closed, and an exact snapshot is restored. Whether the
data files are reopend or not, is an option.
Windows such as the Import Audio CD dialog are part of general
window layouts.
Working with Window Layouts
Once you have your tool windows, command bars, and tab groups set
up the way that you want to work, you can save them as a preset. You
can either save the window layout of the currently active workspace, or
for all workspaces.
NOTE
If you hold down [Ctrl]/[Command] when launching the program, the
startup dialog that allows you to choose the startup layout is displayed.
Workspace Layout
You can define options when saving the layout of a workspace. You can
save the placement of the workspace frame and all its tool windows
and/or the layout of tabbed data windows. It allows you to choose
whether to retain or discard these elements of your current layout
arrangement when saving a new layout.
•
To save the layout of the currently active workspace as preset,
select Workspace > Layout > Save as, enter a name, and click
Save.
•
To save the layout of the currently active workspace as default,
select Workspace > Layout > Save current layout as default.
655
Customizing
Window Layout
•
To restore the default layout, select Workspace > Layout >
Restore default layout. The default layout is used when a new
workspace is created.
•
To activate a previously saved preset, select Workspace >
Layout, and select a preset from the menu.
•
To save the position and size of the workspace and its command
bars and tool windows in the preset, activate Save placement of
this workspace and its peripheral windows before saving.
•
To save the position and size of the tab groups within the
workspace in the preset, activate Save layout of tab groups
before saving.
General Window Layout
•
To save the current layout as preset for all workspaces, select
Global > General window layout > Save as, enter a name, and
click Save.
•
To save the current layout as default layout for all workspaces,
select Global > General window layout > Save current layout
as default.
•
To apply the default window layout, select Global > General
window layout > Close all and restore default layout. The
default layout saves all window placements as well as their inner
layouts, but not the documents links. This option can be selected
from the startup dialog, too.
•
To activate a previously saved preset, select Global > General
window layout, and select a preset from the menu.
NOTE
Plug-in windows are not part of a general layout.
656
Customizing
Window Layout
Locking the Window Layout
Once you have set up a window layout, you can lock it, to prevent tool
windows from being closed or moved by accident. This also makes the
layout more compact by hiding certains caption bars used to move tool
windows. The only edit possibility for locked windows is to move the
separators and to move floating windows.
PROCEDURE
1.
Set up the window layout to your liking.
2.
In any workspace, activate Workspace > Lock layout.
RESULT
The window layout is globally locked for all workspaces.
Workspace Layout Dialog
This dialog allows you to save the window layout of the active
workspace as a preset.
In any workspace, select Workspace > Layout > Save as.
Path name
Opens the root folder of the preset in the Windows Explorer/Mac
OS Finder. Here, you can create subfolders in which presets can
be stored.
Presets list
Lists all existing presets.
Name
Lets you specify the name of the preset to save.
657
Customizing
Window Layout
Create shortcut for selecting the preset
If this option is activated and you click Save, the Shortcut
Definitions dialog opens, which allows you to define a shortcut to
apply to this preset.
If a preset already has an assigned shortcut, this option is grayed
out. To change the existing shortcut, double-click the preset name
in the presets list.
Save placement of this workspace and its peripheral windows
Saves the position and size of the workspace and its command
bars and tool windows.
Save layout of tab groups
Saves the position and size of the tab groups within the
workspace.
General Window Layout Dialog
This dialog allows you to save the current layout as preset for all main
windows.
In any workspace, select Global > General window layout > Save as.
Path name
Opens the root folder of the preset in the Windows Explorer/Mac
OS Finder. Here, you can create subfolders in which presets can
be stored.
Presets list
Lists all existing presets.
658
Customizing
Window Layout
Name
Lets you specify the name of the preset to save.
Create shortcut for selecting the preset
If this option is activated and you click Save, the Shortcut
Definitions dialog opens, which allows you to define a shortcut to
apply to this preset.
If a preset already has an assigned shortcut, this option is grayed
out. To change the existing shortcut, double-click the preset name
in the presets list.
Restore options
Lets you select the way a general window layout is restored.
Restore position and size of the currently active windows
If this option is activated, when the preset is restored later, only the
position and size of the currently opened main windows are
adjusted, according to the layout they had when the preset was
saved.
When restoring a general layout, currently opened main windows
that were not part of this layout, are not affected and no new
window are created.
Restore the currently active layout
If this option is activated, when the preset is restored later, all
windows are first closed and the same window layout as when the
preset was saved, is restored. No files are reopened, though.
This option is useful to create reference working layouts to which
you can add files.
This is the same as selecting Restore last window layout without
files on the launch screen of WaveLab.
Restore documents
This option is as the previous option, with some additions. If this
option is activated, the files that are opened when the preset is
saved, are restored when the preset is recalled. This is like
saving/restoring an exact working session.
This is the same as selecting Restore last window layout on the
launch screen of WaveLab.
659
Customizing
Customizing the Wave Window and the Montage Window
Starting WaveLab With a General Layout Preset
You can start WaveLab with a given general window layout by
specifying a preset name in the command line.
The format of the command line is “-layout presetName”.
If the preset is stored inside a folder in the layout preset, you must
specify the relative path. If the preset name contains spaces, put the
name in quotes. For example, -layout "My Folder/presetName".
An example of setting up the command line:
1)
Set up a general window layout, and save it as “Layout 1”.
2)
Start WaveLab with the command line -layout “Layout 1”.
Customizing the Wave Window and the
Montage Window
You can style the wave/montage window to your liking, by adjusting
colors of waveforms, background, cursor lines, etc., and changing the
look of the ruler and other window details. This helps you find your way
through the audio file or audio montage.
Customizing can be done in the following ways:
•
By changing the default style.
•
By assigning different styles, according to specific conditions. For
example, a certain file type or a certain file name.
Default colors are provided, but you can also define custom colors. You
can copy and paste colors to transfer colors between various parts of
the wave/montage.
660
Customizing
Customizing the Wave Window and the Montage Window
Assigning Custom Colors to the Wave Window or the Montage
Window
PROCEDURE
1.
Depending on whether you want to customize the colors of the
wave window or the montage window, do the following:
•
In the Audio Files workspace, select Options > Audio file editing
preferences, and select the Style tab.
•
In the Audio Montage workspace, select Options > Colors.
2.
Select the part from the Parts list.
3.
Specify a color using the color picker or the RGB fields.
4.
Click OK.
Assigning Custom Colors According to Conditions
You can have different color schemes automatically applied to different
clips, according to their names or properties of their audio files.
IMPORTANT
If you redefine colors, be careful not to choose colors that cause some
elements to disappear. For example, when having black marker lines on
a black background.
PROCEDURE
1.
2.
Depending on whether you want to customize the colors of the
wave window or the montage window, do one of the following:
•
In the Audio Files workspace, select Options > Audio file editing
preferences, and select the Style tab.
•
In the Audio Montage workspace, select Options > Color.
Depending on the workspace you are in, do one of the following:
•
In the Audio file editing preferences dialog, on the Style tab, select
one of the Conditional options from the menu at the top of the dialog.
•
In the Audio montage colors dialog, in the Parts list, select one
of the Custom entries.
3.
Specify a color using the color picker or the RGB fields.
4.
In the This style is used if these conditions apply section,
specify the conditions.
5.
Click OK.
661
Customizing
Customizing the Wave Window and the Montage Window
Copying Color Settings
You can copy the color settings of one part, or all parts of a custom color
schema.
•
To copy a color setting, select the part from which you want to
copy the color, and select Copy color. Then select the part to
which you want to copy the color, and select Paste.
•
To copy all color settings of a custom color setting, drag the name
of a custom color setting onto another custom color name, and
click OK.
Audio Montage Colors Dialog
In this dialog, you can specify custom colors to clips and parts of a clip
in the montage window.
In the Audio Montage workspace, select Options > Colors.
Parts list
Shows parts that can be colorized. Click a part to edit the color.
Undo all
Undoes all changes that have been made since this dialog was
opened.
Undo
Undoes the last change.
Hide
Hides the selected part.
662
Customizing
Customizing the Wave Window and the Montage Window
Change both channels
It is possible to make separate color settings for the left and the
right side of stereo clips. If this option is activated, settings for the
left side of a clip are automatically mirrored on the right side, and
vice versa.
Color picker
Lets you select the color for the selected part. Click the
surrounding circle to select the hue. Click in the triangle to adjust
the saturation and lightness.
Red/Green/Blue
Lets you specify the red, green, and blue components of the RGB
color spectrum.
Copy color
Copies the current color to the clipboard.
Paste
Pastes the color from the clipboard.
This style is used if these conditions apply
Lets you define conditions under which a certain color style is
applied.
File extension is any of
If this option is activated, the color style is applied to clips
referencing a file with the specified extension. Separate extensions
with a “;” character.
Name contains any of these keywords
If this option is activated, the color style is applied to clips with
certain keywords in their name. Separate keywords with a “;”
character.
Sample rate is in the range
If this option is activated, the color style is applied to clips
referencing a file having a sample rate within the specified range.
Bit resolution is in the range
If this option is activated, the color style is applied to clips
referencing a file having a bit resolution within the specified range.
Number of channels is
If this option is activated, the color style is applied to clips having
the specified number of channels.
663
Customizing
Customizing the Wave Window and the Montage Window
Color Elements in the Audio Montage Workspace
You can assign custom colors to various elements of the Audio Montage
workspace.
In the Audio Montage workspace, select Options > Colors.
Clip Colors
The following clip types are available:
Crossfade region
Allows you to set the background color for overlapping clip
sections.
Default
The default colors, used for clips for which you have not selected
any specific color.
Locked
The colors used for all fully locked clips.
Muted
The colors used for all muted clips.
Custom
These options correspond to the items on the color submenus.
These can be renamed, and you can also set up conditions for
when these should be automatically applied.
The following color elements are available:
Background top/bottom (normal/selected/selected range)
The background colors of the clip for selected and unselected
clips, and the selection range). The resulting display backgrounds
are gradient fades from the top colors to the bottom colors.
Waveform (normal/selected/selected range)
The waveform color for selected and unselected clips, and the
selection range.
Waveform outline (normal/selected/selected range)
The color of the waveform outline for selected and unselected
clips, and the selection range).
Edge
The left and right edge of the clip.
664
Customizing
Customizing the Wave Window and the Montage Window
Edge (selected)
The left and right edge if the clip is selected.
Edge (selected range)
The left and right edge if within a selection range.
Axis (level zero)
The color of the horizontal dotted line in the middle of a clip,
indicating zero level.
Axis (half level)
The color of the horizontal dotted lines halfway up and down from
the middle of a clip, indicating 50 % level.
Channel separator (stereo clip)
The line dividing the two sides in a stereo clip.
Clip name
The name label of the clip.
Focused clip name
The name label of the focused clip.
Focused clip name background
The name label background of the focused clip.
Miscellaneous
Background top/bottom
The background colors of the track view for area without a clip.
Background (selected range) top/bottom
The background colors in selected ranges.
Cursor (edit)/Cursor (edit, no focus)/Cursor (playback)
The color of the corresponding cursor.
Marker line
The color of the marker lines in the audio montage.
Cue point line/End cue point line
The color of the vertical dotted cue point lines and end cue point
lines.
Marker line (source)
The color of marker lines from the source montage window. The
marker lines are displayed, when the option Show/Hide source’s
ruler and markers is activated on the Functions menu of the
Clips window.
665
Customizing
Customizing the Wave Window and the Montage Window
Time ruler (source)
The color of the source ruler. The source ruler is displayed, when
the option Show/Hide source’s ruler and markers is activated
on the Functions menu of the Clips window.
Time grid lines
The color of the time grid if activated in the menu of the time ruler.
Audio Files Colors Dialog
This tab in the Audio file editing preferences dialog allows you to
specify custom colors to parts of the wave window.
In the Audio Files workspace, select Options > Audio file editing
preferences, and select the Style tab.
Styles list
Lets you select the default style and conditional styles.
Parts list
Shows parts that can be colorized. Click a part to edit the color.
Hide (for certain parts only)
Hides the selected part.
Dotted line (for certain parts only)
Changes the line to a dotted line.
Transparency (for certain parts only)
Lets you edit the degree of transparency of the selected element.
Element size (for certain parts only)
Lets you edit the size of the selected element.
666
Customizing
Customizing the Wave Window and the Montage Window
Change both channels
Allows you to make separate color settings for the left and the right
side of stereo file. If this option is activated, settings for the left side
of a file are automatically mirrored on the right side, and vice versa.
Change both main view and overview
Allows you to make separate color settings for the main view and
the overview. If this option is activated, settings for the main view
are automatically mirrored on the overview, and vice versa.
Color picker
Lets you select the color for the selected part. Click the
surrounding circle to select the hue. Click in the triangle to adjust
the saturation and lightness.
Red/Green/Blue
Lets you specify the red, green, and blue components of the RGB
color spectrum.
Copy color
Copies the current color to the clipboard.
Paste
Pastes the color from the clipboard.
This style is used if these conditions apply
Lets you define conditions under which a certain color style is
applied.
File extension is any of
If this option is activated, the color style is applied to files with the
specified extension. Separate extensions with a “;” character.
Name contains any of these keywords
If this option is activated, the color style is applied to files with
certain keywords in their name. Separate keywords with a “;”
character.
Sample rate in the range
If this option is activated, the color style is applied to files having a
sample rate within the specified range.
Bit resolution is in the range
If this option is activated, the color style is applied to files having a
bit resolution within the specified range.
Number of channels is
If this option is activated, the color style is applied to files having
the specified number of channels.
667
Customizing
Customizing the Wave Window and the Montage Window
Color Elements in the Audio Files Workspace
You can assign custom colors to various elements of the Audio Files
workspace. Depending on the selected element, additional settings can
be made for transparency, appearance, or whether a line should be
dotted, for example.
In the Audio Files workspace, select Options > Audio file editing
preferences, and select the Style tab.
Left/Right Channel
Waveform
The waveform color.
Waveform (selected)
The waveform color of the selected part of the waveform.
Waveform outline
The outline color of the waveform.
Waveform outline (selected)
The outline color of the selected part of the waveform.
Background top
The color of the background top.
Background top (selected)
The color of the selected part of the background top.
Background bottom
The color of the background bottom.
Background bottom (selected)
The color of the selected part of the background bottom.
Waveform main axis
The color of the waveform main axis and its style.
Waveform 50 % axis
The color of the waveform 50 % axis and its style.
Waveform Elements
Channel separator
The color of the channel separator line.
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Customizing
About Customizing Shortcuts
Cursor (edit)
The color of the edit cursor, its width, and transparency.
Cursor (edit, no focus)
The color of the edit cursor for a file that does not have the focus.
Cursor (play)
The color of the cursor during playback.
Marker line
The color of the marker lines and an optional transparency.
End of file indicator
The color of the end of the file indicator.
Time ruler style
The color of the time ruler and its style.
Time ruler font
The color of the font on the time ruler and the font size.
Level ruler style
The color of the level ruler, its style, and transparency.
Level ruler font
The color of the font on the level ruler and the font size.
About Customizing Shortcuts
In WaveLab, you can control many functions via shortcuts to speed up your
workflow. You can edit existing shortcuts, and create new shortcuts.
Most shortcuts are restricted to a specific context, so you can reuse the
same shortcut combination in different workspaces. The exception is the
Master Section where all shortcuts are global to the application.
Shortcuts that cannot be edited are grayed out. The shortcuts that you
created are displayed in blue in the editor.
You can create new shortcuts in the following ways:
•
By specifying a key sequence of between one to three keys that
must be pressed in a certain order to invoke the operation.
•
By specifying a MIDI command. You need a MIDI controller device
connected to your PC/Mac for this to work.
•
By specifying keywords.
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Customizing
About Customizing Shortcuts
Keywords
Keywords are custom words that are assigned to a function in the
Customize commands dialog or to a preset in the Shortcut
Definitions dialog. When entering the keyword in the Keyword field
command bar, the corresponding function is triggered.
For example, you want to have a quick way to normalize audio to -1 dB.
1)
In the Audio Files workspace, select Process > Normalize level.
2)
Set the Peak level to -1 dB.
3)
Click the Presets field, and select Save as.
4)
Enter a name for the preset, and activate Create shortcut for
applying the preset.
5)
Click Save.
6)
In the Shortcut Definitions dialog, enter “norm_1” as a Keyword,
and click OK.
7)
Now, to trigger the preset, enter “norm_1” in the Keyword field,
and press [Return].
Editing Shortcuts
You can see the list of all shortcuts in the Customize commands
dialog, and edit and assign shortcuts in the Shortcut Definitions dialog.
NOTE
The Customize commands dialog provides a different command set
for each menu or dialog.
•
To open the Shortcut Definitions dialog, where you can edit the
shortcuts, double-click the shortcut text or its placeholder, or
select a command and click Edit shortcut.
•
You can enter a keyword which you can later use to activate a
command by typing it into the Keyword field command bar.
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Customizing
About Customizing Shortcuts
•
You can assign a command to be triggered by an external MIDI
controller. For example, this could be useful for issuing transport
commands from your midi keyboard. You can specify a sequence
of up to three midi events. The MIDI shortcut is displayed in the
MIDI Trigger column.
•
You can define one key shortcut, and/or one MIDI shortcut, and/or
one keyword per command. Each shortcut can be a sequence of
up to four keystrokes or three MIDI events. A keyword can be of
any length.
•
To reset some or all types of shortcuts to their factory defaults use
the Reset button.
Defining Key Sequences
You can define key sequences for a keyboard and for a MIDI controller.
PREREQUISITE
If you want to define a key sequence for a MIDI controller, make sure that
your MIDI controller is connected to your PC/Mac, and selected in the
Remote devices dialog.
On Mac, commands for the main menus must be of a single key
command.
When using multiple key stroke commands, make sure that the key
commands do not interfere with each other. For example, when you have
one shortcut [Shift]+L, M and define another to be [Shift]+L, the second
shortcut has no effect.
PROCEDURE
1.
In any workspace, select Options > Customize commands, or
select Customize commands when available in tool windows or
other places in WaveLab.
2.
In the customize commands list, select the command for which you
want to define a key sequence, and click Edit shortcut, or
double-click the Key sequence column of the corresponding
command.
3.
In the Shortcut Definitions dialog, click in the 1st key stroke
field, and press the buttons that you want to use as the key
sequence.
4.
Optional: Define up to 4 key sequences for the command.
5.
Click OK.
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Customizing
About Customizing Shortcuts
RESULT
When you now press the keys/buttons specified in the dialog, the
corresponding operation is performed. The key strokes must be
executed one after the other.
Selecting a MIDI Controller for Defining MIDI Commands
Before you can use MIDI commands, you have to select a MIDI
controller.
PROCEDURE
1.
In any workspace, except the Podcast workspace, select Options
> Remote devices.
2.
On the Device editing tab, select the MIDI shortcuts for menus
option from the pop-up menu at the top.
3.
Select Active, to activate the selected device.
4.
From the In-Port menu, select a MIDI input port.
Customizing Menus and Command Bars
You can individually decide whether to hide or show a certain option in
the menu and/or command bar icons. This way you can customize
menus and command bars by removing unwanted commands.
PROCEDURE
1.
In any workspace, select Options > Customize commands, or
select Customize commands when available in tool windows or
other places in WaveLab.
2.
Do the following:
3.
•
To show a certain command in menus, activate the checkbox in the
Menu column for corresponding command.
•
To show a certain command in the command bar, activate the
checkbox in the Bar column for the corresponding command.
Click OK.
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Customizing
About Customizing Shortcuts
Generating a List of All Shortcuts
You can generate an HTML file or print out a list that contains all
shortcuts for the active command set.
PREREQUISITE
When you want to print out the list, make sure a printer is connected to
your system.
PROCEDURE
1.
In any workspace, select Options > Customize commands, or
select Customize commands when available in tool windows or
other places in WaveLab.
2.
Click Summary, and select one of the following options:
•
To open the Print preview dialog, from which you can print out the
list of all shortcuts, select Print preview. For Print preview to be
available, a printer must be connected.
•
To open the list of all shortcuts in the HTML file format in the
standard browser, select HTML report.
Customize Commands Dialog
This dialog allows you to customize your own shortcuts for WaveLab. It
shows a list of already assigned shortcuts for WaveLab commands and
menu options.
In any workspace, select Options > Customize commands, or select
Customize commands when available in tool windows or other places
in WaveLab.
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Customizing
About Customizing Shortcuts
Search by
Allows you to select the part of the commands list in which the
search is performed.
Search field
Allows you to search for a command.
Use wildcards
If this option is activated, the wildcard characters “*” and “?” can
be used.
“*” substitutes zero or more characters, and “?” substitutes any
character.
For example, if Search by keyboard shortcut is selected, type “*”
to display all the commands already associated with a shortcut.
Expand/Collapse
Expands/collapses the folder tree.
Commands list
Shows all commands and their shortcuts for the active command
set.
Reset
Resets the commands to the factory setting.
Summary
Opens a menu from which you can generate a list of all commands
and their shortcuts either in HTML or as a print out.
Edit shortcut
Opens the Shortcut Definitions dialog where you can edit the
shortcuts of the selected command.
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Customizing
About Customizing Shortcuts
Shortcut Definitions Dialog
This dialog allows you to define your own customized shortcuts for a
particular function. These custom shortcuts can speed up your workflow
in WaveLab.
In the Customize commands dialog, select a command, and click Edit
shortcut.
Key Sequence
1st key stroke
Lets you select the first key of an optional sequence of up to 4
keys. Set the focus in the key stroke field, then press the key
combination. If nothing is displayed, a key is not allowed in this
context.
2nd/3rd/4th key stroke (optional)
Lets you select additional keys that have to be triggered to execute
the command. The command is only executed if this key event
happens after the first one.
Clear
Erases all key event fields.
Keyword
Lets you type in a keyword that invokes the command.
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Plug-ins Organization
MIDI event sequence
This section is only available if a MIDI input port has been specified in
the main preferences in WaveLab.
1st event
Lets you select the first MIDI event of an optional sequence of up
to 4 MIDI events. Set the focus in the event field, then trigger the
MIDI event from your MIDI controller.
2nd/3rd event (optional)
Lets you select additional MIDI events that have to be triggered to
execute the command. The command is only executed if this MIDI
event happens after the first one.
Clear
Erases all MIDI event fields.
Plug-ins Organization
WaveLab comes with various plug-ins, and additional plug-ins can be
added. To remain an overview about the plug-ins that are relevant to
your project, you can organize your plug-ins in groups.
In the Organize tab of the Plug-in settings, you can organize how your
plug-ins appear on menus in the program. In the plug-ins list, you find
subfolders, representing groups of plug-ins.
How you organize your effects is up to you, but initially, they are
categorized by vendor, category, favorite plug-ins, and recently used
plug-ins.
In case 32 bit and 64 bit versions of WaveLab are used on the same
system, their settings are shared. An exception to this rule are the
following options in the Plug-in settings dialog:
•
Additional VST plug-in folders
•
Ignore plug-ins located in the following subfolders
This is because 32-bit plug-ins cannot be used in WaveLab 64 bit and
reciprocally.
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Customizing
Plug-ins Organization
Deactivating Plug-ins
You can deactivate plug-ins. This is useful if you have plug-ins installed
that you do not want to use in WaveLab.
Many of the DirectX plug-ins, for example, do not apply to audio and are
of no relevance to WaveLab. By disabling these, you make it easier to
find the plug-ins that you want to use in WaveLab.
PROCEDURE
1.
In any workspace, except the Podcast workspace, select Options
> Plug-in settings.
2.
Select the Organize tab.
3.
In the plug-ins list, navigate to the plug-in that you want to
deactivate, or use the search field.
4.
Deactivating the checkbox in for the corresponding plug-in.
•
When selecting multiple plug-ins, you can deactivate all of them
with a single click.
•
To deactivate the plug-in from the plug-in selection menus,
deactivate the checkbox in the Effect column.
•
To deactivate the plug-in in the Dithering panel of the Master
Section, deactivate the checkbox in the Post column.
Adding Plug-ins to the Favorites Menu
You can add plug-ins that you are using regularly to the Favorites menu
of the plug-in selection menu.
PROCEDURE
1.
In any workspace, except the Podcast workspace, select Options
> Plug-in settings.
2.
Select the Organize tab.
3.
In the plug-ins list, navigate to the plug-in that you want to add to
the favorites, or use the search field.
4.
Specify whether to add or remove a plug-in from the favorites, by
activating/deactivating the checkbox in for the corresponding
plug-in in the Favorites column.
NOTE
If the Favorites menu is empty, it does not appear in plug-in selection
menus.
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Customizing
Plug-ins Organization
Customizing Plug-in Groups
In any workspace, except the Podcast workspace, select Options >
Plug-in settings, and open the Organize tab. Here, you can customize
the appearance and sorting of plug-ins.
•
To update the tree with the following changes, click the Show
changes button.
•
To create a custom category for a plug-in, click the Custom
category column for the corresponding plug-in, and enter a new
category name. [Alt]/[Option]-click to delete the category. Use the
character “|” to create subcategories, for example,
“Folder-1|Folder-2”. If you select multiple plug-ins, the category
name is set to all selected plug-ins.
•
To rename a custom category, click the existing category name in
the Custom category column, and select Rename category from
the pop-up menu. In the Rename category dialog, enter the name
of the category that you want to rename in the Find field, and the
name that you want to replace it with in the Replace with field.
Then click Replace all.
•
The category labels used to create the hierarchy are supplied by
the plug-in manufacturers. To change the category name, in the
Category renaming table, click in the Original column, and select
the category that you want to rename. Then click in the Modified
column, and enter a new name.
•
To change the sorting of plug-in groups, in the Customize section,
in the sorting menu, select whether to sort by category or by
vendor. If a plug-in does not publish a vendor name or category,
the name of the enclosing plug-in folder on disc is used as vendor
name or category, if it is not the VST plug-in root folder.
•
To group all plug-ins that start with the same prefix in one
submenu, activate Create submenus based on prefixes, and
specify the number of plug-ins that must start with the same prefix.
Only if this number is reached, a submenu is created.
•
To group plug-ins in a single submenu if their number is below a
specified value, activate Compress hierarchy, and specify the
threshold. A tree is flattened to a single submenu if the number is
below the threshold. This prevents having small submenus.
•
To activate the Recently used category, activate Submenu with
recently used plug-ins, and specify the maximum number of
recently used plug-ins that should be displayed in this category.
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Customizing
Plug-ins Organization
•
You can make the Recently used category global to all places or
individual for each context, for example, for the Master Section,
audio montage track, audio montage clip, or batch processors. To
make the Recently used category individual for each context,
activate Independent for each context.
Adding Additional VST Plug-ins
You can specify folders where additional VST plug-ins can be found.
This is useful if you are using third-party VST plug-ins that you do not
want to store in the standard VST folder.
PROCEDURE
1.
In any workspace, except the Podcast workspace, select Options
> Plug-in settings.
2.
Select the General tab.
3.
In the Additional VST plug-in folder (WaveLab specific) section,
click the folder icon, and navigate to the folder that contains the
VST plug-ins that you want to add.
4.
Click OK.
Excluding Plug-ins
You can specify a list of plug-ins that WaveLab does not open.
PROCEDURE
1.
In any workspace, except the Podcast workspace, select Options
> Plug-in settings.
2.
Select the General tab.
3.
In the Do not load the following plug-ins section, type in the
name of the plug-in that you do not want to open:
4.
•
Enter the exact file name, without path and without file extension.
•
Enter one name per line.
•
If you put * in front of the name, any plug-in that contains the name
is ignored.
Click OK.
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Customizing
Plug-ins Organization
Replacing Missing Plug-ins
When opening an audio montage and some plug-ins for tracks or clips
are missing, you can select plug-ins to replace the missing plug-ins.
PROCEDURE
1.
In the Missing plug-ins dialog, click the Replacement column,
and select a replacement for the plug-in displayed in the Original
column.
2.
If you want the settings to be persistent for the future, activate
Save the replacements as default.
3.
Click OK.
Plug-in Settings Dialog
In this dialog, you can access a number of options for managing your
VST plug-ins.
You can specify where WaveLab should search for your VST plug-ins
and which ones it should ignore. It also allows you to choose how your
VST plug-in knobs respond to mouse interactions and how frequently
graphics are updated.
If you use your own file structure to organize and store VST plug-ins, this
dialog allows you to have full control over which ones are loaded or not.
This is useful if you want to disable a particular plug-in that you suspect
of not functioning properly, or if you want to ignore certain plug-ins you
never want to use with WaveLab.
In any workspace, except the Podcast workspace, select Options >
Plug-in settings.
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Plug-ins Organization
General Tab
Search standard VST plug-in shared folders
If this option is activated, WaveLab searches VST plug-ins in the
default VST plug-in folders.
Information about the searched folders
Clicking on the info icon opens a window in which you can see in
which folders WaveLab searched for plug-ins when it was
launched. When you cannot find a plug-in in WaveLab, this helps
you to determine whether you have specified the correct folder, for
example.
Additional VST plug-in folders (WaveLab specific)
Lets you specify additional folders where VST plug-ins can be
found.
Ignore plug-ins located in the following subfolders (separate folder
names with a semicolon)
Lets you specify folder names, that WaveLab skips when
searching VST plug-ins.
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Plug-ins Organization
Do not load the following plug-ins
Lets you specify plug-ins that WaveLab does not open. Enter the
file names, without path and without file extension. Write each
plug-in on a new line.
If you put the character * in front of the name, any plug-in that
contains the name is ignored.
Force plug-in detection at next launch
Analyzes the plug-ins when launching WaveLab the next time. To
reduce the start time of WaveLab, the plug-ins are not analyzed
every time WaveLab is started. However, WaveLab keeps a list of
plug-ins and updates this automatically when a date or size
change is detected.
Keep plug-ins in memory until WaveLab ends
If this option is activated, the plug-ins are kept in memory even
when no longer used. This results in a faster reopening of plug-ins.
However, if you use many plug-ins, too much memory could be
used after a certain time, which slows down the application.
Faster graphics refreshing (consumes more computer power)
Refreshes the graphics of VST plug-ins more quickly.
VST plug-in knobs
Lets you set the mode for using knobs in plug-ins. You can set the
mode to Circular, Circular with relative movement, and Linear.
Organize Tab
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Plug-ins Organization
Plug-ins list
Displays the hierarchy of the plug-ins in WaveLab. Here, you can
specify whether a plug-in should be available from the plug-in
selection menus and/or the Dithering panel of the Master Section.
You can add plug-ins to the Favorites list, create shortcuts for
plug-ins, specify custom categories, and decide whether to use
the generic user interface or the plug-in specific user interface.
Expand/Collapse
Expands/collapses the folder tree.
Search field
The search field allows you to filter the plug-ins list for names.
•
Click in the search field, and enter the text that you want to search
for.
•
To switch the focus from the search field to the plug-ins list, press
the arrow down key.
•
To switch the focus from the plug-ins list to the search field, press
[Ctrl]/[Command]-[F].
Only show new plug-ins
If this option is activated, only the recently detected plug-ins are
displayed.
Clear “new” status
Resets the “new” status of the recently detected plug-ins.
Display changes
Regenerates the plug-in tree according to the current settings.
Sorting
Determines how the plug-ins should be primarily hierarchized. The
other parameters act on that hierarchy.
Compress hierarchy
Merges all items into a single submenu if a submenu and all its
submenus contain less than a certain number of plug-ins
(Threshold).
Compress hierarchy - Threshold
Represents the minimum number of items that are needed to
compress the hierarchy.
Create submenus based on prefixes
Creates a submenu that is labeled as the prefix, when several items
in a submenu start with the same prefix.
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Plug-ins Organization
Create submenus based on prefixes - Threshold
Represents the minimum number of items that must start with the
same prefix that are needed to create submenus that are labeled
as the prefix.
Merge single submenus
Merges submenus that contain another submenu with only a single
item in it.
Category renaming
The category labels used to create the hierarchy are supplied by
the plug-in manufacturers. In this section you can change the
category name. This can also be useful to merge two categories
into one, by renaming these two categories with the same name.
Submenu with recently used plug-ins
Toggles if the Recently used submenu is shown or hidden.
Submenu with recently used plug-ins - Maximum size
Determines the maximum number of plug-ins in the Recently used
submenu.
Submenu with recently used plug-ins - Independent for each
context
Determines whether the Recently used submenu is global to all
places where plug-ins can be selected, or if it is local to each
context.
Ignored plug-ins
Opens the Ignored Plug-ins dialog, where you can see the
plug-ins that were not loaded. This dialog lets you instruct
WaveLab to rescan these plug-ins at the next launch. This is fast
than a full rescan.
Number of plug-ins
Shows the number of plug-ins that are available in WaveLab.
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Customizing
Variables and Text Snippets
Variables and Text Snippets
You can define and use custom variables and text snippets, or use auto
variables in various places in WaveLab, for example, in the Meta-data dialog.
Custom variables can be used to replace codes with a specified text in
meta-data saved within audio files. For example, you can define the
variable %proj% to be replaced by the name of the current project. A
custom variable can also contain references to other variables. For
example, %comment% can be defined as "%proj% started on
@Date1@".
Variable codes are replaced with the variable values at the time of file
writing. For example, when the meta-data is saved inside an audio file.
Auto variables are automatically set by WaveLab. For example, the
current date, the sample rate, or the bit resolution.
Text snippets can be used to define words that you are using regularly
when filling in text fields. These can be inserted into a text field over the
Text Snippets menu.
Certain auto-variables depend on contexts. For example:
•
CD Text variables are only used when rendering an audio montage.
•
Auto-variables that relate to CD tracks are only used when
rendering CD tracks from an audio montage. To render CD tracks,
activate one of the following options in the Render dialog:
Selected CD track, One region (CD Track markers), or Regions
(track markers).
If a variable is used in a wrong context, it is replaced with a blank.
NOTE
Variable codes are case sensitive. It is recommended to select the
codes from the menus.
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Customizing
Variables and Text Snippets
Defining Variables and Text Snippets
You can create new variables and text snippets, and define values for them.
PROCEDURE
1.
In any workspace, except the Podcast workspace, select Options
> Variables and Text Snippets.
2.
Do one of the following:
•
On the Custom Variables tab, click the plus icon to add a new
variable, or double-click an existing variable that you want to modify.
•
On the Text Snippets tab, click the plus icon to add a new definition,
or double-click an existing definition that you want to modify.
3.
For custom variables, enter the name, code, and value for the
variable. For text snippets, enter the text.
4.
If you are done defining variables and text snippets, click OK.
Applying Variables and Text Snippets
You can apply custom variables, auto variables, and text snippets at
various places in WaveLab.
PREREQUISITE
Define custom variables and text snippets.
PROCEDURE
1.
In a value field, click the arrow icon. When several fields are
selected, right-click to access the pop-up menu.
2.
From the menu, select a custom variable, auto variable, or text snippet.
The variable or text snippet is added to the value field.
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Customizing
About Scripting
Variables and Text Snippets Dialog
This dialog allows you to define custom variables, see the auto variables,
and define text snippets that are local to the project that you are working
on.
In any workspace, except the Podcast workspace, select Options >
Variables and Text Snippets.
Plus icon
Adds a new variable/text snippet.
Minus icon
Removes the selected variable/text snippet.
About Scripting
WaveLab contains a powerful scripting language to help advanced
users create their own scripts to automate tasks. Using basic scripts
can be useful for automating repetitive editing tasks such as trimming
and cropping a file at specific times, for example.
You can write scripts that perform other basic editing commands, apply
offline processing, place markers, and display information about the
active file. You can script commands to edit the active audio file or the
active audio montage. If you have some experience of programming with
modern scripting languages you should have no problem writing utility
scripts for WaveLab.
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Customizing
About Scripting
The WaveLab Scripting language is based on ECMAScript, with the
addition of WaveLab specific commands. If you have had any
experience with Javascript, Jscript, or Actionscript the code syntax will
be familiar to you as they are all based on ECMAScript, too. If not, there
is a large amount of teaching and reference material available online. A
Javascript reference such as www.w3schools.com or a book like
JavaScript: The Definitive Guide are good places to start.
To begin exploring the WaveLab specific functions available see
WaveLab Scripting Language chapter. For a broader look at the
complete subset of commands available see ECMAScript Reference.
On Windows, there is an additional scripting interface, to control
WaveLab from external applications using VBScript or JScript. The
documentation of this interface can be found in the folder: WaveLab
8\Tools\Windows Scripting\
This topic is about scripts executed from within WaveLab.
Writing and Executing a Script
PROCEDURE
1.
In the Audio Files workspace or the Audio Montage workspace,
open the Script window.
2.
Type your script directly in the Script window or copy and paste it
from an external text editor.
A script can also be written in another text editor, and loaded via the File
menu or by copying it into the Script window.
3.
To run the script, click the Execute script icon.
RESULT
The script runs if there are no syntax errors. Any errors appear in a dialog
box to help you debug them.
NOTE
There are several free utility text editors that are context sensitive. This
means that they can color and highlight parts of your code to make it
more readable. If you use one of these for writing and editing your
scripts, choose Javascript as the editing language and/or save the file
with a .js (Javascript) extension.
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About Scripting
Script Window
This window allows you to write and execute scripts in WaveLab.
The inbuilt text editor helps you when writing scripts by highlighting the
different parts of the script with colors, making it more readable.
In the Audio Files workspace or the Audio Montage workspace, select
Workspace > Specific tool windows > Script.
New
Creates a new script. The current script is closed as only one
instance can be opened at a time.
Open
Opens a dialog where you can select a script.
Save
Saves the current script.
Save as
Allows you to save the current script with a different name and in
a different location.
Execute script
Executes the script.
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Customizing
About Scripting
Using the Log Window When Scripting
It is a good idea to begin scripting by writing some simple scripts that
output some text to the Log window.
The goal of the following example is to output a simple text message in
the Log window.
PROCEDURE
1.
In the Audio Files workspace or the Audio Montage workspace,
open the Log window.
2.
Copy and paste the following script into the Script window.
//output the number of samples in the active wave as text in the log
window.
logWindow.printInfo("This file has " + activeWave.size() + " samples");
NOTE
Any lines of a script that begin with two forward slashes // are comments,
and are ignored when the script is executed.
3.
Execute the script.
RESULT
In the Log window, the number of samples used in the active file is
displayed.
WaveLab Scripting Language
The scripting language of WaveLab varies slightly between
workspaces. This chapter briefly introduces you to the commands that
are available in each workspace and to those that are global.
Global Commands
These are scripting commands that are available in all scripting contexts.
logWindow
Object representing the Log window, where you can output
messages to. If the Log window is not open, all functions are
ignored.
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About Scripting
printInfo(messageString)
Outputs an informal message to the Log window. The message
argument must be typed as a string. For example, between
inverted commas:
logWindow.printInfo("start");
printWarning(messageString)
Outputs a warning message to the Log window.
printError(messageString)
Outputs an error message to the Log window.
clear()
Clears the Log window. For example:
logWindow.clear();
Audio Files Workspace
activeWave
Object representing the active audio file. Many functions make use
of presets as an argument. For example, the normalize() function
accepts a preset as an argument:
activeWave.normalize("myPreset");
The advantage is that you do not need to specify many parameters
in your scripts, instead you can use the corresponding dialog to
define the settings of a particular function, and then save them as
a preset file. Since each type of preset is unique, you do not need
to specify a full path name to the preset. Only specifying the preset
name is enough, there is no need for its file extension. Since
presets can also be stored in a subfolder, you can use a relative
path name if necessary.
For example, if you want to normalize a file using a preset you have
defined in the Level Normalizer dialog and saved in a subfolder
as a preset, it looks like this:
activeWave.normalize("mySubFolder/myPreset");
All audio processing functions operate on the selected audio
range. If there is no selection the whole file range will be
processed, if this option is activated in the Audio file editing
preferences. If the cursor or selection is in one channel only, only
that channel is processed. In other words, it operates exactly the
same as if you were applying a process from within a dialog.
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All positions and sizes are measured in sample units. If you want to
specify a time range in another unit you need to convert it from
samples:
var twoSeconds = 2 * activeWave.sampleRate();
size()
Returns the number of samples in the audio file.
sampleRate()
Returns the sample rate of the audio file.
numChannels()
Returns the number of channels of the audio file.
cursorPosition()
Returns the current cursor position in samples.
setCursorPosition(pos)
Sets the current cursor position at a certain sample location.
selectionStart()
Returns the index of the first selected sample, or -1 if there is no
selection.
selectionSize()
Returns the number of selected samples.
select(presetName)
Loads the audio range preset and applies its setting to the active
audio file.
select(start, size)
Selects a number of samples, starting from a given position.
setCursorChannel(channel)
Sets the cursor position to a new channel. Use leftCh, rightCh or
allCh as arguments.
addMarker(type, name, comment)
Adds a marker at the cursor position. Possible values for type are:
•
generic
•
temporary
•
cdTrackStart
•
cdTrackEnd
•
cdTrackFrontier
•
cdTrackIndex
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•
loopStart
•
loopEnd
•
muteStart
•
muteEnd
•
playbackStarter
•
regionStart
•
regionEnd
•
errorStart
•
errorEnd
•
correctionStart
•
correctionEnd
For example:
activeWave.addMarker(generic, "SomeName",
"SomeComment");
findNextMarkerPosition(posStartSearch, type)
Searches for the next marker of type, from a given position. Returns
the marker position if any is found, or -1.
normalize(presetName)
Loads the normalizer preset and applies its setting to an audio
range.
normalizeLoudness(presetName)
Loads the loudness normalizer preset and applies its setting to an
audio range.
normalizePan(presetName)
Loads the pan normalizer preset and applies its setting to an audio
range.
silence(presetName)
Loads the silence preset and applies its setting to an audio range.
timeStretch(presetName)
Loads the time stretch preset and applies its setting to an audio
range.
pitchCorrection(presetName)
Loads the pitch correction preset and applies its setting to an
audio range.
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pitchQuantize(presetName)
Loads the pitch quantize preset and applies its setting to an audio
range.
changeLevel(dbValue)
Changes the level of the selected audio range.
fadeIn(shape) and fadeOut(shape)
Applies a fade on the selected audio range. Shape can be one of
the following:
•
linear
•
sinus
•
squareRoot
•
sinusoid
•
log
•
exp
•
expp
For example:
activeWave.fadeIn(squareRoot);
levelEnvelope(presetName)
Loads the envelope shape and applies its setting to an audio
range.
morph(presetName)
Loads an effect morphing preset and applies it according to its
settings.
invertPhase()
Inverts the phase of the samples in the audio range.
reverse()
Reverses the order of the samples in the audio range.
cut()
Cuts the selected audio range.
copy()
Copies the selected audio range.
paste()
Pastes audio from the clipboard to the current cursor position.
trim()
Trims the selected audio range.
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remove()
Deletes the selected audio range.
removeSmooth()
Deletes the selected audio range and cross fades the resulting
regions together.
mute()
Mutes the selected audio range.
swapChannels()
Swaps stereo channels.
undo()
Undoes the last command.
removeDcOffset()
Removes the DC offset in the audio range.
readSamples(channelIndex, from, numSamples)
Reads a number of samples from a given cursor position, on a
given channel:
•
Use 0 for the left channel
•
Use 1 for the right channel
This returns the result in an array. For example:
buf = activeWave.readSamples(0, 20, 100); // read 100
samples on left channel, from sample index 20
for (i = 0; i < 100; i++)
{
logWindow.printInfo(buf[i]);
}
Audio Montage Workspace
size()
Returns the number of samples in the audio montage.
sampleRate()
Returns the sample rate of the audio montage.
numChannels()
Returns the number of output channels of the audio montage.
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numTracks()
Returns the number of tracks of the audio montage.
cursorPosition()
Returns the current cursor position (in samples).
setCursorPosition(pos)
Sets the current cursor position at a certain sample location.
selectionStart()
Returns the index of the first selected sample, or -1 if there is no
selection.
selectionSize()
Returns the number of selected samples.
select(presetName)
Loads the audio range preset and applies its setting to the active
audio montage.
select(start, size)
Selects a number of samples, starting from a given position.
setFocusedTrack(index)
Sets the focused track.
addMarker(type, name, comment)
Add a marker at the cursor position. Possible values for type are:
•
generic
•
temporary
•
cdTrackStart
•
cdTrackEnd
•
cdTrackFrontier
•
cdTrackIndex
•
loopStart
•
loopEnd
•
muteStart
•
muteEnd
•
playbackStarter
•
regionStart
•
regionEnd
•
errorStart
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•
errorEnd
•
correctionStart
•
correctionEnd
For example:
activeWave.addMarker(generic, "SomeName",
"SomeComment");
findNextMarkerPosition(posStartSearch, type)
Searches for the next marker of type, from a given position. Returns
the marker position if any is found, or -1.
insertMonoTrack(where)
Adds a mono audio track at index 'where'.
insertStereoTrack(where)
Adds a stereo audio track at index 'where'.
insertClip(iTrack, timePosition, fileName, autoShift)
Creates a clip from 'fileName', inserts it in track 'iTrack', on the
timeline at position 'timePosition', and shifts other clips to make
room according to the following autoShift parameters:
•
autoShiftNo
•
autoShiftTrack
•
autoShiftGlobal
This function returns the ID of first created clip, or 0.
clipWithName(name)
Returns the ID of first clip with name 'name', or 0.
clipWithFile(name)
Returns the ID of first clip that refers to 'fileName', or 0.
firstClip()
Returns the first audio montage clip ID, or 0 if the audio montage
is empty.
nextClip(clipId)
Returns the ID of the clip stored after 'clipId', or 0. Clips are not
sorted in any special order. Using both firstClip and nextClip allow
to access all audio montage clips.
clipName(clipId)
Returns the name of the clip identified by 'clipId'
clipPosition(clipId)
Returns the timeline position of the clip identified by 'clipId'
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clipSize(clipId)
Returns the size of the clip identified by 'clipId'
setClipName(clipId, name)
Rename the clip identified by 'clipId'
setTrackName(index, name)
Rename the track identified by 'index'
moveClip(clipId, newPos)
Move on the timeline the clip identified by 'clipId'
resizeClip(clipId, qlonglong newSize)
Resize the clip identified by 'clipId'. The size will be limited by the
audio file referenced by the clip.
setClipDefaultFadeIn(clipId)
Sets the default fade-in shape and time for the clip identified by
'clipId'
setClipDefaultFadeOut(clipId)
Sets the default fade-out shape and time for the clip identified by
'clipId'
undo()
Undoes the last command.
ECMAScript Reference
The scripting language of WaveLab is based on the ECMAScript
scripting language, as defined in standard ECMA-262. Microsoft's
JScript, Netscape's JavaScript, and Adobe's Actionscript are also
based on the ECMAScript standard.
If you are not familiar with the ECMAScript language, there is a large
amount of teaching and reference material available online.
This reference page contains a list of all ECMAScript objects, functions
and properties supported by the WaveLab scripting system. These are
available in any scripting context but are not WaveLab specific.
Some basic scripting examples are included below so you can see the
scripting syntax in context. These scripts will work if you copy, paste,
and execute them in a script window.
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Supported ECMAScript Subset
Global Object
Values
•
NaN
•
Infinity
•
undefined
•
Math
Functions
•
eval(x)
•
parseInt(string, radix)
•
parseFloat(string)
•
isNaN(number)
•
isFinite(number)
•
decodeURI(encodedURI)
•
decodeURIComponent(encodedURIComponent)
•
encodeURI(uri)
•
encodeURIComponent(uriComponent)
Objects
•
Object
•
Function
•
Array
•
String
•
Boolean
•
Number
•
Date
•
RegExp
•
Error
For example
//Test if a value is not a number
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var isNumber = isNaN("this is a string");
//Print the result in the log window
logWindow.printInfo(isNumber); //Traces "true" because it is a
String
//Convert a string to a number
var numStr = "2.345";
var num = parseFloat(numStr);
//Print the result in the log window
logWindow.printInfo(num);
//Encode a string into an internet valid ASCII String
var str = "a sentence with spaces";
var encodedStr = encodeURI(str);
logWindow.printInfo(encodedStr);
Function Object
Prototypes
•
toString()
•
toLocaleString()
•
valueOf()
•
hasOwnProperty(V)
•
isPrototypeOf(V)
•
propertyIsEnumerable(V)
Functions
•
toString()
•
apply(thisArg, argArray)
•
call(thisArg [, arg1 [, arg2, ...]])
For example
//Create a new custom marker Object
function customMarker(name, comment, timeSecs)
{
this.name=name;
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this.comment=comment;
this.timeSecs=timeSecs;
}
//Create a new instance of the custom marker
var myMarker=new customMarker("A custom marker", "My custom
marker comments",5);
//Use prototype function to add a new property to it
customMarker.prototype.samples = null;
myMarker.samples = activeWave.sampleRate() *
myMarker.timeSecs;
//Trace the results in the log window
logWindow.printInfo(myMarker.name);
logWindow.printInfo(myMarker.samples);
Array Objects
Functions
•
toString()
•
toLocaleString()
•
concat([item1 [, item2 [, ...]]])
•
join(separator)
•
pop()
•
push([item1 [, item2 [, ...]]])
•
reverse()
•
shift()
•
slice(start, end)
•
sort(comparefn)
•
splice(start, deleteCount[, item1 [, item2 [, ...]]])
•
unshift([item1 [, item2 [, ...]]])
For example
//Create an empty array
var a = new Array();
//Add some items to it
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a.push("first array item");
a.push("next array item", "last array item");
//Print them out in the Log window
logWindow.printInfo(a.toString());
//Call the Array's reverse function
a.reverse();
//View the results in the Log window
logWindow.printInfo(a.toString());
String Objects
Functions
•
toString()
•
valueOf()
•
charAt(pos)
•
charCodeAt(pos)
•
concat([string1 [, string2 [, ...]]])
•
indexOf(searchString ,position)
•
lastIndexOf(searchString, position)
•
localeCompare(that)
•
match(regexp)
•
replace(searchValue, replaceValue)
•
search(regexp)
•
slice(start, end)
•
split(separator, limit)
•
substring(start, end)
•
toLowerCase()
•
toLocaleLowerCase()
•
toUpperCase()
•
toLocaleUpperCase()
For example
//Create a string variable
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var str = new String("WaveLab is a powerful editing tool");
//Make it all upper case
var capsStr = str.toUpperCase();
//View the results in the Log window
logWindow.printInfo(capsStr);
Boolean Objects
Functions
•
toString()
•
valueOf()
For example
//Test if an equation is true or false
var isTrue = (1 + 1 == 3);
//Convert the Boolean to a String and trace in the Log window
logWindow.printInfo(isTrue.toString());
Number Objects
Functions
•
toString(radix)
•
toLocaleString()
•
toFixed(fractionDigits)
•
toExponential(fractionDigits)
•
toPrecision(precision)
For example
//Convert a number into exponential notation
var num = new Number(13.3714);
//Show the result in the Log window
logWindow.printInfo(num.toExponential());
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Math Objects
Values
•
E
•
LN10
•
LN2
•
LOG2E
•
LOG10E
•
PI
•
SQRT1_2
•
SQRT2
Functions
•
abs(x)
•
acos(x)
•
asin(x)
•
atan(x)
•
atan2(y, x)
•
ceil(x)
•
cos(x)
•
exp(x)
•
floor(x)
•
log(x)
•
max([value1 [, value2 [, ...]]])
•
min([value1 [, value2 [, ...]]])
•
pow(x, y)
•
random()
•
round(x)
•
sin(x)
•
sqrt(x)
•
tan(x)
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For example
//Get a random number from 0 to 1
var r = Math.random();
//Print it out in the log window
logWindow.printInfo(r);
//Trace out Pi in the log window
logWindow.printInfo(Math.PI);
Date Objects
Functions
•
toString()
•
toDateString()
•
toTimeString()
•
toLocaleString()
•
toLocaleDateString()
•
toLocaleTimeString()
•
valueOf()
•
getTime()
•
getFullYear()
•
getUTCFullYear()
•
getMonth()
•
getUTCMonth()
•
getDate()
•
getUTCDate()
•
getDay()
•
getUTCDay()
•
getHours()
•
getUTCHours()
•
getMinutes()
•
getUTCMinutes()
•
getSeconds()
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•
getUTCSeconds()
•
getMilliseconds()
•
getUTCMilliseconds()
•
getTimeZoneOffset()
•
setTime(time)
•
setMilliseconds(ms)
•
setUTCMilliseconds(ms)
•
setSeconds(sec [, ms])
•
setUTCSeconds(sec [, ms])
•
setMinutes(min [, sec [, ms]])
•
setUTCMinutes(min [, sec [, ms]])
•
setHours(hour [, min [, sec [, ms]]])
•
setUTCHours(hour [, min [, sec [, ms]]])
•
setDate(date)
•
setUTCDate(date)
•
setMonth(month [, date])
•
setUTCMonth(month [, date])
•
setFullYear(year [, month [, date]])
•
setUTCFullYear(year [, month [, date]])
•
toUTCString()
For example
//Create a new date object
var d = new Date();
//Print it out in the log window
logWindow.printInfo(d);
//Get just the hours
logWindow.printInfo(d.getHours());
RegExp Objects
Functions
•
exec(string)
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•
test(string)
•
toString()
For example
//Create a new regular expression defining a 5 digit number
var reg = new RegExp(/^\d{5}$/);
//Test a string with it to see if it contains a 5 digit number
var isFiveDigit = reg.test("12345");
//Trace the result to the log window
logWindow.printInfo(isFiveDigit);
Errors Objects
Values
•
name
•
message
Functions
•
toString()
Types of native errors available
•
EvalError
•
RangeError
•
ReferenceError
•
SyntaxError
•
TypeError
•
URIError
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Basic Scripting Example
Below is a basic scripting example which uses some WaveLabscripting
functions to perform some simple operations on an audio file in the
Audio Files workspace.
The script first displays information about the audio file, fades in the start
and fades out the end of the file, and then adds ten markers at 1 second
intervals. Examine it line by line and read the comments for each
operation to see how it works.
/* To run this script:
- open an Audio File that is at least 10 seconds long
- open the Log window via the Global menu
- copy and paste this script into the Script window
- choose Functions > Execute Script */
//clear the log window
logWindow.clear();
//show some information about the active wave file in the log window
logWindow.printInfo("This wave file has " + activeWave.size() + "
samples");
logWindow.printInfo("Its sample rate is " +
activeWave.sampleRate());
logWindow.printInfo("It has " +activeWave.numChannels() + "
channels");
//Work out how long the file is in seconds and round to a whole number
var lengthSecs = activeWave.size() / activeWave.sampleRate();
logWindow.printInfo("This wave file is " + lengthSecs + " seconds
long");
//Select the first 10 seconds of the file
activeWave.select(0, 10 * activeWave.sampleRate());
//Trim the file to 10 seconds
activeWave.trim();
//select the first two seconds of the file and fade it in
activeWave.select(0, 2 * activeWave.sampleRate()); //sample rate
multiplied by two = 2 seconds
activeWave.fadeIn(linear);
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//select the last two seconds of the file and fade it out
activeWave.select(activeWave.size() - (2 *
activeWave.sampleRate()), activeWave.size());
activeWave.fadeOut(linear);
//loop through 10 times and add a marker each second
for (i = 1; i <= 10; i++)
{
//work out next cursor time
var nextCursorPosition = i * activeWave.sampleRate();
//set cursor position forwards by a second
activeWave.setCursorPosition(nextCursorPosition);
//add a generic marker at the next cursor position and give it a name and
comment
activeWave.addMarker(generic, "Marker "+i, "A comment for
marker "+i);
//write some information about the new marker
var cursorTimeSecs =
nextCursorPosition/activeWave.sampleRate();
logWindow.printInfo("created a new marker at " + cursorTimeSecs
+ " seconds");
}
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Configuring the Software
You can configure WaveLab according to your needs.
About Global Preferences
Global preferences are preferences that apply throughout WaveLab.
Before starting to work with WaveLab, edit these preferences to set up
WaveLab according to your needs.
Global Preferences Dialog
This dialog allows you to view and change options that are common
throughout WaveLab.
In any workspace, select Options (WaveLab menu on Mac) > Global
preferences.
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About Global Preferences
General Tab
This tab allows you to change the location of settings files and the user
interface language. You must restart the application for changes to take
effect.
Language
Allows you to select the user interface language.
Setting location - Common for all users
Shares the preferences settings with all users on this computer.
Setting location - Independent for each user
Lets each user on this computer make their own preferences
settings.
Setting location - In the application folder (portable installation)
Saves settings in the application directory. Use this option to install
the application on a portable device.
Setting location - Specific folder
Allows you to save the settings in a specified folder.
Setting location - Open active setting folder
Opens the folder that is currently used to save settings. This way
you know where the settings are stored and you can back up the
settings.
Synchronization settings - Master folder
Lets you specify where the reference settings are saved.
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Configuring the Software
About Global Preferences
Synchronization settings - Synchronize at every launch
If this option is activated, the settings are synchronized whenever
WaveLab is launched.
Synchronization settings - Synchronize at next launch
If this option is activated, the settings are synchronized the next
time that WaveLab is launched.
Synchronization settings - Preferences handling
Determines how to synchronize the preferences, that is, all settings
except the presets. You can either ignore or mirror the
preferences.
Synchronization settings - Preset handling
Determines how to synchronize the presets that are saved in the
master folder. The following options are available:
•
Ignore presets: the presets are not synchronized.
•
Mirror presets: the presets will be restored from the master folder,
regardless of their time stamp. Any additional local presets are
deleted.
•
Import new presets: the presets in the master folder that are
unavailable on the computer are imported.
•
Update old presets: as above, but existing presets are
overwritten if a newer version is found in the master folder.
Ignore the following preset folders (separate them with a
semicolon)
Lets you specify which preset folders you want to ignore when
synchronizing the settings. For example, to ignore the VST Audio
Connection settings, add "VST Audio Connections" to the field.
Synchronization settings - Update master
If you click this button, the settings that were used when launching
WaveLab are used to update the master folder.
IMPORTANT
This procedure should only be run by the system administrator if multiple
WaveLab stations are used.
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Configuring the Software
About Global Preferences
Display Tab
This tab allows you change many aspects of the user interface that apply
across the whole application. These options provide useful information
and usability functions but can be deactivated to streamline the
interface.
Style
Overall style
Changes the overall look of the application.
Button size in main command bars
Increases the button size in the command bars, but not in the tool
windows.
Window transparency
Sets the degree of transparency for windows that have this option
activated.
Use textured background for non-blocking windows
If this option is activated, you can easily determine whether a
dialog is modal or not.
Show icons in menus
If this option is activated, icons are displayed in textual menus.
Miscellaneous options
Maximum number of items in Recent File menus
Sets the maximum number of files that are listed in menus.
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Configuring the Software
About Global Preferences
Maximum number of items in Recent File Manager
Sets the maximum number of files that are listed in the Recent File
Manager.
Maximum number of items in the Recent Folders menu
Sets the maximum number of files that are listed in the Recent
Folder menus.
Show tips when mouse stays over buttons
If this option is activated, tooltips are displayed when you move the
mouse cursor over markers or command bar buttons.
When available, tips have a link to “What is this” information
If this option is activated, tooltips contain “What is this” information
if available.
Hide top level windows when the application is not active.
(Windows only)
If this option is activated, all floating windows are automatically
hidden when another application becomes active. When
deactivated, floating windows remain on top of other application
windows.
Workspaces
Tab Groups - Show tab if there is a single window
If this option is activated, the tabs are always visible, even if there
is only one active file.
Tab Groups - Show tabs in classical mode (MDI)
If this option is activated, the tabs are always visible in classical
mode (MDI). (Audio Files workspace only)
Tab Groups - When closing the active tab
Determines the behavior of the program when closing the active
tab.
Docked Tool Windows - Auto-fold title bars of tabbed
windows/Auto-fold title bars of isolated windows
If these options are activated, the title bar of docked tool windows
is partially hidden to provide slightly more space to the contents
area. A thin bar remains visible.
To unfold a title bar, simply move the mouse cursor over the thin
bar.
Display active file path in title bar
Displays the file path of the active file in the title bar of the
workspace.
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Configuring the Software
About Global Preferences
Display status bar
If this option is activated, a status bar is displayed at the bottom of
each workspace. The status bar is used to show hints, for example,
when moving the mouse in a menu.
Use Floating Window Switcher
Activates the Floating Window Switcher.
Auto-hide if active workspace has a switcher
If this option is activated, the Floating Window Switcher is only
visible in the following cases:
•
WaveLab is not active and there is no blocking dialog. The
apparent switcher allows you to re-activate WaveLab easily or to
drag a file onto it to open it in WaveLab.
•
The active workspace does not have a Switcher bar.
Keep visible when switching to other applications
Keeps the Floating Window Switcher visible when WaveLab is not
the active application.
Include Audio Montage
Enables the button that activates the Audio Montage workspace in
the Floating Window Switcher.
Include Batch Processor
Enables the button that activates the Batch Processors workspace
in the Floating Window Switcher.
Include Podcast
Enables the button that activates the Podcast workspace in the
Floating Window Switcher.
Include Control Window
Enables the button that activates the Control Window workspace
in the Floating Window Switcher.
Semi-transparent
Displays the Floating Window Switcher semi-transparent,
according to the settings in the Window transparency field in the
Style section.
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Configuring the Software
About Global Preferences
Formats tab
This tab allows you to adjust settings for some of the audio formats and
units that WaveLab uses.
Use AES17 standard for RMS values
Determines how RMS values are reported.
•
If this option is activated, the displayed level for a full scale sine
audio file is 0 dB. This follows the AES17 standard.
•
If this option is deactivated, the displayed level for a full scale sine
audio file is -3 dB.
Pitch of A3 (used in frequency-to-note conversions)
Sets the reference pitch in WaveLab. The frequency-to-note
conversions take this pitch into account.
MIDI note display
The options in this section allow you to choose whether to display
the different key values in WaveLab with the pitch or the MIDI note
number of the key. In musical notation, keys are denoted according
to their pitch. For example, C3 means the note C in the third
octave.
Each key corresponds to a MIDI note number from 0 to 127. For
example, key C3 corresponds to the MIDI note number 48. MIDI
note numbers make it possible for samplers to automatically map
samples to the correct keys.
MIDI note display - Numeric style
Determines the format for MIDI notes that are displayed as
numbers.
MIDI note display - Middle C (note #60)
Determines the key convention for the MIDI note range (0-127).
MIDI note display - Display
Determines how MIDI notes are displayed throughout the
application.
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Configuring the Software
About Global Preferences
CSV delimiter
In several places of WaveLab, it is possible to export information in
the CSV text format. This option lets you set the character that you
want to use as a text delimiter to achieve the best match with the
3rd-party-software that imports these files.
CD Writing tab
This tab allows you to set a number of parameters for CD writing.
Use burnproof
Fixes possible buffer underrun errors automatically, provided the
CD writer supports this technology.
Allow disc overflow
Allows WaveLab to attempt writing more data (max. 2 minutes)
than the official capacity of the disc.
Maximum Audio CD size
Allows you to specify the maximum length for a CD. A warning
message will appear if the project exceeds this length.
The standard maximum length is 74 minutes.
DDP Creation - Format 1.0/Format 2.0
Determines which format to create when producing DDP files for
an audio project.
Write checksum file (CRC-32)
If this option is activated, a file called “CHECKSUM.CHK” is
added to the DDP files that are created on the hard drive. The
checksum contains the CRC32 checksums of the created DDP
files.
717
Configuring the Software
About Global Preferences
Write checksum file (MD5)
If this option is activated, a file called “CHECKSUM.MD5” is
added to the DDP files that are created on the hard drive. The
checksum file contains the MD5 checksums of the created DDP
files.
Write log file
If this option is activated, a text file called “gear.log” is added to the
DDP files that are created on the hard drive. The log file contains
the trace of all operations.
Warn if files already exist
If this option is activated, a warning message is displayed if files
are about to be overwritten in the specified destination folder.
Options Tab
This tab allows you to control application-wide start-up options. You
can also reset the default message boxes.
Show logo screen on start-up
Determines whether the WaveLab logo is displayed during
initialization.
Make the Background Task Monitor visible when a task starts
If this option is activated, the Background tasks window opens
when a background task starts.
Play a sound when a long task completes
Allows you to select a sound that is played when a task finishes.
Minimum duration
Specifies how long a task must be for a sound to be triggered at
its end. When the task duration is shorter, no sound is triggered.
Path and name of the audio file
Lets you select which audio file is played. On Windows systems,
the file format must be WAV, and on Mac OS, the file format can
be WAV or AIFF.
718
Configuring the Software
About Global Preferences
Only play the sound for blocking tasks
If this option is activated, the sound only plays if the task prevents
you from working elsewhere in WaveLab. For example,
background tasks do not produce a sound upon their completion.
Reset default answers
Resets all message box options to their default settings. For
example, the “Do not show again” options are cleared.
Global Shortcuts Tab
This tab allows you edit key sequences for shortcuts that are available
across all workspaces.
Search by
Allows you to select the part of the commands list in which the
search is performed.
Search field
Allows you to search for a command.
Use wildcards
If this option is activated, you can use the wildcard characters “*”
and “?” for searching.
“*” substitutes zero or more characters, and “?” substitutes any
character.
For example, if Search by keyboard shortcut is selected, type “*”
to display all the commands that are already associated with a
shortcut.
Expand/Collapse
Expands/collapses the folder tree.
Commands list
Shows all commands and their shortcuts.
719
Configuring the Software
Audio File Editing Preferences Dialog
Reset
Resets the commands to their default setting.
Summary
Opens a menu from which you can generate a list of all commands
and their shortcuts either in HTML or as a print out.
Edit shortcut
Opens the Shortcut Definitions dialog where you can edit the
selected shortcut.
RELATED LINKS:
“About Customizing Shortcuts” on page 669
“Multi-User Settings” on page 729
Audio File Editing Preferences Dialog
This dialog allows you to define settings for editing in the Audio Files
workspace. However, these settings also effect other parts of WaveLab.
You can choose defaults for editing and playback, adjust the visual
appearance of the waveform displays, and determine how WaveLab
works with audio and peak files.
In the Audio Files workspace, select Options > Audio file editing
preferences.
720
Configuring the Software
Audio File Editing Preferences Dialog
Editing Tab
Save view settings in companion file
If this option is activated, zoom settings, ruler settings, and
optionally the Master Section preset that is associated with the
audio file are saved in a companion file. When the audio file is
reopened, these settings are reused. Deleting a companion file
does not alter the audio contents.
Save in an independent folder
If this option is activated, the companion file is not saved in the
same folder as the related audio file but in a specific folder that you
can choose.
Edit
Opens the Folders dialog, where you can specify where to save
the companion files.
Open new audio file windows with overview
If this option is activated and you open an audio file, the overview
is also displayed.
Overview: passive range indicator also covering the waveform
If this option is activated, the range indicator that is displayed in the
time ruler of the overview also covers the waveform area. Unlike the
time ruler indicator, it is passive and cannot be modified.
Auto zoom for overviews
If this option is activated on opening a file, the zoom of the overview
is set to display the whole file.
Display file extension on tabs
If this option is activated, tabs display file names with their
extension. For example, “piano.mp3” instead of “piano”.
721
Configuring the Software
Audio File Editing Preferences Dialog
Number of seconds to display on opening
Lets you specify how much time to display when opening an audio
file for the first time. WaveLab converts this time to the appropriate
zoom factor.
Whole audio file
If this option is activated, the horizontal zoom is set to display the
whole file.
Select all channels with the mouse
If this option is activated when you select a range with the mouse
in a stereo file, both channels are selected. To select the channels
individually, press [Shift] while selecting. To switch from one
channel selection to the other, press [Tab].
Process whole file if there is no selection
If this option is activated and a process is to be applied to an audio
file, the whole file is processed if there is not audio selection. In the
same situation, if the option is deactivated, a warning appears.
Playback scrubbing - Restrict to Play Tool
If this option is activated, this function only works if the Play Tool is
used.
Playback scrubbing - Sensitivity
Lets you set the micro audio loop duration that is performed when
you move the mouse cursor over the time ruler.
Snap selection to zero-crossing - Do not snap at high zoom factors
If this option is activated, snapping does not occur if the waveform
is displayed at a high zoom factor.
Snap selection to zero-crossing - Scan range
Lets you define how far WaveLab can search a zero-crossing point
in the left and right direction.
Default fade/crossfade
Lets you specify the default duration and shape of the fades or
crossfades that WaveLab creates automatically in certain
processes.
722
Configuring the Software
Audio File Editing Preferences Dialog
File Tab
Warn when opening a file with a malformed header
If this option is activated, a message appears when you open a file
with a corrupt header. This might be a damaged file, or a file that is
not properly formatted by another application.
If this option is deactivated, WaveLab tries to open the file, but you
are not informed about possible issues.
Support RF64 file format
If this option is activated, WaveLab creates WAV files that can be
larger than 2 GB. This file type is not supported by all applications.
Default sample rate for files without header
Lets you specify the sample rate of audio files that do not have a
header describing this property.
Create optimized audio file headers
If this option is activated, WaveLab increases the WAV file headers to
a value that slightly improves disk access. Although this is a standard
procedure, some applications cannot open these files correctly.
Save audio files in the background
If this option is activated, WaveLab saves audio files in the
background so that you can continue working.
Write markers in WAV file header
If this option is activated, markers are written in WAV file headers.
Thus, the markers are always available even if you open the files in
another application.
Write markers in separate file
If this option is activated, markers are written in a separate file (.MRK
extension) that is saved in the same folder as the audio file. This allows
to support markers in file formats that do not support markers, or that
do not support markers in a way that is as advanced as WaveLab.
723
Configuring the Software
Audio File Editing Preferences Dialog
Save Error and Correction markers
If this option is activated, Error and Correction markers are saved
with the other markers.
Create peak files in an independent folder
If this option is activated, peak files are not saved in the same folder
as the related audio file. You can specify the folder location by
clicking Edit, and specifying a folder.
Create peak files when writing audio files
If this option is activated, WaveLab writes peak files while
rendering audio files.
Delete peak files when closing audio files
If this option is activated, peak files are deleted after use. This
saves disk space but means that audio files take longer to open.
Allow opening of dual-mono files
Allows to recognize multiple selected mono files as stereo files
according to their name, and edit them as one stereo file.
Dual-mono file identification - Name creation/Name interpretation
You can define a name creation pattern and up to 7 name
interpretation patterns for different naming schemes.
•
Name interpretation patterns (up to 7) are used by WaveLab to
identify the original channel of mono files through an analysis of
their name.
•
Name creation pattern (only 1) is used by WaveLab to add the
specified suffix to audio files when creating dual-mono files. The
default suffix is “-L” and “-R”.
Dual-mono file identification - Left channel ID/Right channel ID
These IDs are the character sequences that are used to identify the
left and right channel files in their name. For example, “_l” for the
left channel and “_r” for the right channel.
Dual-mono file identification - Suffix
In this mode, the channel ID string must be located at the end of
the file name.
Dual-mono file identification - Advanced
In this mode, the channel ID string can be located anywhere in the
file name and not only as a suffix. For this purpose, a name pattern
must be defined. This name pattern must have a {capture} section.
724
Configuring the Software
Audio Montage Preferences Dialog
The default suffixes for recognizing dual-mono files are as follows:
•
-L/-R
•
_L/_R
•
.L/.R
This mode is only available for input patterns.
Style Tab
This tab allows you to specify custom colors to parts of the wave
window.
Audio Montage Preferences Dialog
In the Audio montage preferences, you can set up general parameters
for all audio montages or the active audio montage only.
In the Audio Montage workspace, select Options > Audio montage
preferences.
725
Configuring the Software
Audio Montage Preferences Dialog
Active Audio Montage Tab
The settings made on this tab apply only to the active audio montage.
Default gap
Sets the default gap for clips. This setting is used for separating
clips, for example, when you insert several clips at the same time.
DVD-Audio resolution
Defines the DVD-Audio resolution for writing the audio montage to
DVD-Audio. You can select 16 bit (more room available) or 24 bit
(best quality).
Implicit relative folder to store audio files
Sets the path, which is relative to the audio montage folder, to the
folder where audio files are implicitly created. For example, if you
enter “Data” in the text field, a folder named “Data” is created in the
audio montage folder. Files in this folder are not deleted when you
close the audio montage.
If no folder is defined, the audio montage folder is used.
Reset plug-ins when starting playback
If this option is activated, all active effect plug-ins are instructed to
release all samples in their memory when you start playback.
Use this option if you experience clicks or noises when the
playback position reaches the start of a clip that contains effects
(typically reverb or delay). Otherwise you should leave this option
deactivated since it could lead to a delayed response upon
playback start.
It is recommended to deactivate this option, unless you experience
shortage of memory that is caused by too many plug-ins.
Reset plug-ins before rendering
If this option is activated before rendering, all active plug-ins are
reloaded.
726
Configuring the Software
Audio Montage Preferences Dialog
Use this option if you experience clicks or noises in rendered audio
files.
Auto save Master Section preset
Automatically saves the current Master Section preset along with
the audio montage when closing the audio montage. This is
recommended when you work on one audio montage at a time.
All Audio Montages Tab
The settings made on this tab apply to all audio montages.
Maximum number of backups
Specifies how many previous versions are kept.
Auto save
Automatically saves the audio montage in intervals which you can
specify in the time field below.
History - Clear after each saving
Clears the memory that is used by the operation history each time
the audio montage is manually saved. Any operations that is
performed before saving can no longer be undone.
History - Group similar operations
Groups similar successive operations into one undo operation.
For example, if you move a clip in several steps until you find the
right position, you can undo each step as usual. However, as soon
as you perform another operation, all the previous steps are
considered as one entry in the undo history. This saves memory
and facilitates work, since you do not have to undo every step to
revert to the clip’s original position.
727
Configuring the Software
Audio Montage Preferences Dialog
Closing of unmodified montages
Defines the actions that are performed, when closing an
unmodified audio montage. An audio montage is only tagged as
modified if the audio-related data has been modified. The following
options can be selected:
•
Save and update time stamp: The audio montage is saved to
remember its current state (for example, selection and zoom), and
the time stamp of its file is updated.
•
Save and retain time stamp: The audio montage is saved to
remember its current state, and the time stamp of its original file is
retained.
•
Do not save: The audio montage is not saved and therefore not
preserved for the next launch of WaveLab.
Display indications of possible actions
Displays hints in the status bar of the audio montage about what
you can do at the current mouse position in the montage window.
Display envelope tooltip while editing
Displays a tooltip when you click and drag an envelope element.
The tooltip indicates the value of the performed editing.
Synchronize super clip size and sub-montage size
If this option is activated, the length of super clips is adjusted if the
length of the corresponding audio file is changed.
Basic amplitudes for nudging - Time/Gain
Defines the amount with which elements are adjusted when you
modify them with the nudge commands. This is used for nudging
the position of objects or edges and for nudging volume gains.
CD cue-sheets - Write audio file names without path
If this option is activated, audio files are referenced without a path
when generating CD cue-sheets.
728
Configuring the Software
Settings Management
Settings Management
You can make some reference settings available to other WaveLab
installations. These settings can then be used by other WaveLab
stations to keep the settings in sync on different computers.
PROCEDURE
1.
In any workspace, select Options (WaveLab menu on Mac) >
Global preferences, and select the General tab.
2.
In the Setting location section, specify where to store the
settings.
3.
Click OK.
Multi-User Settings
If you use multiple WaveLab stations in your studio, in your school, as
administration, etc., you can set up one WaveLab station to be the
master station. The shared preferences and presets of this station can
then be used by other slave stations.
These settings can be stored on the local network, for example.
If the administrator updates these settings, the different WaveLab
stations can synchronize with the master settings. You can also use this
feature for single computers to back up a reference setting and revert to
this if necessary.
The settings in the General tab of the Global preferences dialog are
not synchronized. These are stored for each user in the startup.ini
(Windows) or startup.plist (Mac).
IMPORTANT
Settings cannot be synchronized between PC and Mac.
RELATED LINKS:
“Global Preferences Dialog” on page 710
729
Configuring the Software
About External Tools
Setting Up a Multi-User Setup
You can use the settings that you have made on a master WaveLab
station for other slave WaveLab stations.
PROCEDURE
1.
Set up a WaveLab station with all settings and presets that you
want to use on other WaveLab stations.
2.
Assign read-only access to the settings folder of the master
WaveLab station.
3.
Open WaveLab on another station for which you want to use the
master settings.
4.
In any workspace, select Options (WaveLab menu on Mac) >
Global preferences, and select the General tab.
5.
In the Synchronization settings section, set up the Master
folder, specify when the settings should be synchronized, and
specify whether to include the preferences and/or presets.
6.
Click OK, and close WaveLab.
7.
Copy the startup.ini (Windows) or startup.plist (Mac) of the slave
WaveLab station to the settings folder of the other WaveLab
stations, except the master WaveLab station.
This avoids having to make the above procedure on each slave station.
RESULT
All slave WaveLab stations use the settings of the master WaveLab
station.
About External Tools
You can configure external tools to work with WaveLab. You can pass
command line arguments to the external tools so that they can process
the current file/folder on which you are currently working on, or the
settings folder of WaveLab.
This function is useful if you want to edit an audio file in another
application, or if you want to compress all your audio files into a backup
ZIP file, for example.
730
Configuring the Software
About External Tools
Once you have defined an external tool, you can run it by selecting it
from the Tools menu in the Audio Files workspace, Audio Montage
workspace, or Batch Processors workspace.
NOTE
An external tool only works within the workspace in which it is defined.
Thus, each type of workspace can have its own external toolkit.
RELATED LINKS:
“Configuring External Tools” on page 731
“Configure External Tools Dialog” on page 732
Configuring External Tools
To be able to select external tools from the Tools menu, you must
configure them.
PROCEDURE
1.
In the Audio Files workspace, the Audio Montage workspace, or
the Batch Processors workspace, select Tools > Configure
external tools.
2.
Click the plus icon to create a new tool definition.
3.
Specify a title, the path to the external tool that you want to run,
arguments, an initial folder, and a comment.
4.
Optional: Add more tool definitions by clicking the plus icon again.
5.
When you are finished, click OK.
RESULT
The external tool is configured and can be selected from the Tools
menu.
Once an external tool has been configured you can assign a shortcut
from the Customize commands dialog on the Options menu.
RELATED LINKS:
“Configure External Tools Dialog” on page 732
“About Customizing Shortcuts” on page 669
731
Configuring the Software
About External Tools
Running an External Tool After a Batch Process
You can specify external tools to be run after completing the batch
process. For example, you can run a tool to zip the output files or an FTP
tool to upload the files to the internet.
PREREQUISITE
Configure the external tool that you want to run after the batch process.
PROCEDURE
1.
In the Batch Processors workspace, select the External Tool tab.
2.
From the On success, run external tool menu, select the external
tool that you want to run after the batch process.
RELATED LINKS:
“Configuring External Tools” on page 731
“Configure External Tools Dialog” on page 732
Configure External Tools Dialog
In this dialog you can configure external tools to work with WaveLab. For
example, you can run a tool to zip the output files or an FTP tool to
upload the files to the internet.
In the Audio Files workspace, the Audio Montage workspace, or the
Batch Processors workspace, select Tools > Configure external
tools.
List of external tools
The list of all external tools that are currently defined, in the order
as they appear in the Tools menu.
Create item
Creates a new tool definition.
Delete item
Deletes the selected tool definition from the list.
Move selected item one position up/down
Moves the selected tool definition one position up/down.
Title
The title for the tool definition.
Application
The full path and file name of the application to run.
732
Configuring the Software
About External Tools
Arguments text field
The list of arguments to pass to the application. Normally, there is
at least one argument, for example, the active file name in
WaveLab. The required arguments depend on the application to
run. Refer to the related documentation.
The arguments must be separated from one another by a space
character. If an argument contains space characters, it must be
enclosed in quotes.
Predefined arguments can be selected via the menu button next to
this text field.
Arguments button
This button opens a menu with a list of predefined arguments.
These are placeholders that are replaced by actual values at
runtime.
For example, if you select from the menu Active file name with its
path, the following text is inserted: $(FilePathAndName). At
runtime, this symbol could be replaced by C:/Music/Piano.wav,
presuming that this is the active file in WaveLab.
Initial folder
Specify the reference path that might be needed by the
application. This path depends on the application. This setting is
optional.
Comment
Allows you to add comments.
Before execution - Warn if active file has unsaved changes (Audio
Files workspace and Audio Montage workspace only)
If this option is activated, WaveLab warns you if the active file has
unsaved changes before running the external tool.
Before execution - Close active file (Audio Files workspace and
Audio Montage workspace only)
If this option is activated, WaveLab closes the active file before
running the external tool. This is useful if the tool is meant to modify
the active file.
Before execution - Stop playback (Audio Files workspace and
Audio Montage workspace only)
If this option is activated, WaveLab stops playing back the file
before running the external tool. This is useful if the tool is meant
to play back the file.
RELATED LINKS:
“About External Tools” on page 730
“Configuring External Tools” on page 731
733
Plug-in Reference
Steinberg created Virtual Studio Technology (VST) to allow effect
plug-ins to be integrated with audio editors, such as WaveLab. VST
uses Digital Signal Processing (DSP) to closely simulate the effects of
familiar recording studio hardware in software.
A vast number of plug-ins are available, from freeware to high-end
commercial products.
The order of processing is significant. You can change the order in
which effects are processed by moving the effect icons by dragging
them between slots. WaveLab provides slots for up to ten plug-ins.
Most plug-ins provide a custom GUI, often displaying controls similar to
the physical switches and knobs of audio hardware. Other plug-ins rely
on the host application for their UI.
Built-in Plug-ins
These plug-ins use a plug-in format of WaveLab, and cannot be used
with other applications.
•
WaveLab specific plug-ins can only be used in the Master Section
and in batch processes. However, some WaveLab effects are also
included as VST plug-ins, available as track or clip effects in audio
montages.
•
You can specify which plug-ins should be available in the Effects
pane and Dithering pane of the Master Section by using the
Plug-in settings dialog.
•
Only certain built-in plug-ins can be used as master effects when
a multichannel configuration is used in the audio montage. Note
that all channels in the Master Section are affected equally.
734
Plug-in Reference
Built-in Plug-ins
Crystal Resampler
This plug-in is a professional sample rate converter providing
exceptional transparency and preservation of the frequency content. It is
only available in the Master Section.
NOTE
This plug-in is very CPU consuming, especially in high quality modes.
Sample rate (6-384 kHz)
Defines the output sample rate while the input sample rate is
determined by the sample rate of the active audio file or audio
montage.
Quality
Defines the quality of the algorithm that is used (Preview (fast),
Standard, High, Ultra (slow)). In Preview mode the CPU load is
much lower than in Ultra mode but the sound quality of the
resulting audio is also lower.
Ducker
This plug-in lets you control (modulate) the volume of clips placed on a
track with the signal of one or more clips placed on the next adjacent
track below it. The Ducker plug-in can only be used as a clip effect in
the audio montage.
It uses the Route to... options that can be found on the Track menu. You
can use mono or stereo tracks for both the modulating and the upper
track.
735
Plug-in Reference
Built-in Plug-ins
Threshold
Sets the loudness threshold that triggers the Ducker. Clips on the
modulator track with levels above the threshold will cause the level
of a clip on the upper track to be lowered.
Damping
Sets the amount of level reduction that is applied to the clip on the
upper track.
Fall time
Sets the time it takes for the level to change from 0 dB to the set
damping level.
Hold time
When the modulating signal falls below the set threshold, this
setting determines how long the level will stay reduced before it
starts rising to normal level again.
Rise time
Sets the time after which the reduced level rises to the normal level
when the modulating signal falls below the set threshold (after the
Hold time).
Mix mode
If this is activated, the Ducker outputs a mix of the two tracks. This
is only useful if the Route to upper track only option has been
activated for the modulating track. Then this feature can be used
for processing several clips through the same plug-in chain if more
plug-ins have been assigned after the Ducker on the upper track.
Note that the mixed output is controlled by the upper track. If this
is not playing a clip, both of the tracks will be silent.
Leveler
This plug-in is useful for correcting an imbalance or adjusting levels
between stereo channels, or for mixing down to mono.
736
Plug-in Reference
Built-in Plug-ins
Volume Left/Volume Right (-48 dB to 12 dB)
Governs how much of the signal is included in the left and/or right
channel of the output bus.
Stereo Link (OFF or LINKED)
When set to LINKED, Volume Right delivers the gain that is set
for Volume Left.
Mix to Mono (OFF or ON)
When set to ON, a mono mix of the stereo channels is delivered to
the output bus.
Leveler Multi
This plug-in takes multichannel input and applies a fader equally to all
channels.
Volume (-48 dB to 12 dB)
Governs how much gain is applied to the signal before it is routed
to the output bus.
Peak Master
This is a basic plug-in that minimizes peaks in your audio file, allowing a
louder mix without clipping. It is useful in taming dynamic instruments.
It is primarily used as a brickwall limiter. For example, you can limit audio
peaks without altering the rest of the audio signal. In this case, set Input
Gain to 0 dB and Out Ceiling to 0 dB, to achieve a clip-free audio signal.
When used in this way, Peak Master is an excellent plug-in to succeed
a resampler plug-in, and to proceed a dithering plug-in.
Input Gain
Values range from -12 dB to 24 dB.
737
Plug-in Reference
Built-in Plug-ins
Out Ceiling
This is the maximum level of the output signal. Values range from
-18 dB to 0 dB.
Softness
This governs the speed at which the signal becomes unaffected
after limiting has been triggered on some samples. Values range
from -5 to +5.
Silence
This plug-in provides a simple way of inserting a precise period of
silence at the start or at the end of an audio file. Use this plug-in to add
silence at the end of a file, so that the tail of a reverb plug-in does not
cut immediately at the end of the file.
Start
Use the slider to insert from 0 to 60,000 ms of silence at the start
of the file.
End
Use the slider to insert from 0 to 60,000 ms of silence at the end
of the file.
Stereo Expander
This plug-in is a stereo width enhancer that makes a stereo signal sound
wider. It gives better results from real stereo material, as opposed to
mono channels panned to different positions in the stereo image.
Width (0 to 100 %)
Higher values result in a greater stereo width. Usually, you set
Width to values between 0 % and 20 %. Higher values can be used
for special effects.
738
Plug-in Reference
Steinberg VST 3 Plug-ins
Steinberg VST 3 Plug-ins
In WaveLab there is no limitation to the use of VST plug-ins. They can
be used wherever plug-ins can be inserted.
•
You can specify which VST plug-ins should be available in the
Effects pane and Dithering pane of the Master Section by using
the Plug-in settings dialog.
•
VST plug-ins have their own preset handling. You can save or load
effect programs (presets).
AutoPan
This plug-in is a simple auto-pan effect. It can use different waveforms
to modulate the left-right stereo position (pan), using manual modulation
speed settings.
Rate
Sets the auto-pan speed from 0.1 to 10, by rotating the knob by
dragging, or using the mouse wheel.
Width
Sets the depth of the auto-pan effect, that is, how far out to the
left/right speaker the sound should move, from 0 % to 100 %.
Waveform Shape selector
Allows you to select the modulation waveform. Sine produces a
smooth sweep. Triangle creates a ramp, that is, a sweep from one
speaker to the other and then a quick jump back.
739
Plug-in Reference
Steinberg VST 3 Plug-ins
Brickwall Limiter
This plug-in ensures that the output level never exceeds a set limit.
Due to its fast attack time, Brickwall Limiter can reduce even short audio
level peaks without creating audible artifacts. Brickwall Limiter features
separate meters for input, output, and the amount of limiting. Position
this plug-in at the end of the signal chain, before dithering.
Threshold (-20 to 0 dB)
Only signal levels above the set threshold are processed.
Release (10 to 1000 ms or Auto mode)
Sets the time after which the gain returns to its original level when
the signal drops bellow the threshold level. If the Auto button is
activated, Brickwall Limiter automatically finds the optimal release
setting, depending on the audio material.
Link button
If this option is activated, Brickwall Limiter uses the channel with
the highest level to analyze the input signal. If the Link button is
deactivated, each channel is analyzed separately.
Detect Intersample Clipping
If this option is activated, Brickwall Limiter detects and limits signal
level between two samples to prevent distortion when converting
digital signals to analog signals.
NOTE
Brickwall Limiter is designed for the reduction of occasional peaks in the
signal. If the Gain Reduction meter indicates constant limiting, try raising
the threshold or lowering the overall level of the input signal.
740
Plug-in Reference
Steinberg VST 3 Plug-ins
Chorus
This plug-in is a single stage chorus effect. It works by doubling
whatever is sent into it with a slightly detuned version.
Rate
The sweep rate can be set with the Rate knob, without sync to
tempo.
Width
Determines the depth of the chorus effect. Higher settings
produce a more pronounced effect.
Spatial
Sets the stereo width of the effect. Turn clockwise for a wider
stereo effect.
Mix
Sets the level balance between the dry signal and the wet signal.
If Chorus is used as a send effect, this should be set to the
maximum value as you can control the dry/effect balance with the
send.
Waveform Shape selector
Allows you to select the modulation waveform, altering the
character of the chorus sweep. A sine and triangle waveform are
available.
Delay
Affects the frequency range of the modulation sweep by adjusting
the initial delay time.
Filter Lo/Hi
Allow you to roll off low and high frequencies of the effect signal.
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Compressor
This plug-in reduces the dynamic range of the audio, making softer
sounds louder or louder sounds softer, or both.
Compressor features separate controls for threshold, ratio, attack, hold,
release, and make-up gain parameters. It also features a separate
display that graphically illustrates the compressor curve shaped
according to the Threshold and Ratio parameter settings. A Gain
Reduction meter shows the amount of gain reduction in dB, Soft
knee/Hard knee compression modes, and a program-dependent auto
feature for the Release parameter.
Threshold (-60 to 0 dB)
Determines the level where Compressor kicks in. Signal levels
above the set threshold are affected, but signal levels below are
not processed.
Ratio (1:1 to 8:1)
Sets the amount of gain reduction applied to signals over the set
threshold. A ratio of 3:1 means that for every 3 dB the input level
increases, the output level increases by only 1 dB.
Soft Knee button
If this button is off, signals above the threshold are compressed
instantly according to the set ratio (hard knee). When Soft Knee
is activated, the onset of compression is more gradual, producing
a less drastic result.
Make-up (0 to 24 dB or Auto mode)
Compensates for output gain loss, caused by compression. If the
Auto button is activated, the knob becomes dark and the output is
automatically adjusted for gain loss.
Attack (0.1 to 100 ms)
Determines how fast Compressor responds to signals above the
set threshold. If the attack time is long, more of the early part of the
signal (attack) passes through unprocessed.
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Hold (0 to 5000 ms)
Sets the time the applied compression affects the signal after
exceeding the threshold. Short hold times are useful for DJ-style
ducking, while longer hold times are required for music ducking, for
example, when working on a documentary film.
Release (10 to 1000 ms or Auto mode)
Sets the time after which the gain returns to the original level when
the signal drops below the threshold. If the Auto button is
activated, Compressor automatically finds an optimal release
setting that varies depending on the audio material.
Analysis (0 to 100) (Pure Peak to Pure RMS)
Determines whether the input signal is analyzed according to peak
or RMS values or a mixture of both. A value of 0 is pure peak and
100 pure RMS. RMS mode operates using the average power of
the audio signal as a basis, whereas Peak mode operates more on
peak levels. As a general guideline, RMS mode works better on
material with few transients such as vocals, and Peak mode works
better for percussive material with a lot of transient peaks.
Live button
When this button is activated, the look-ahead feature of
Compressor is disengaged. Look ahead produces more accurate
processing, but adds a certain amount of latency as a trade-off.
When Live mode is activated, there is no latency, which might be
better for live processing.
CurveEQ
Voxengo CurveEQ is a spline equalizer for professional music and audio
production applications. CurveEQ shows the filter response you are
designing by means of a spline, that is, a smooth curvy line. This way you
can see how the EQ alters the sound.
CurveEQ implements spectrum matching technology that allows you to
transfer the spectral shape of one recording to another. In other words,
you can copy the frequency balance of existing time-proven mixes so
that other mixes can be improved. CurveEQ’s filters can be switched
between linear-phase and minimum-phase modes. CurveEQ also
features a customizable spectrum analyzer. Furthermore, you can
display, save, and load static spectrum plots for comparison and
matching purposes.
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Main Layout
Title Bar
Plug-in instance name
This text box allows you to name the current plug-in instance.
Bypass
Use this button to compare the sound of the unprocessed signal
to that of the processed signal. The Bypass button does not
reduce the plug-in’s CPU load when switched on. The bypass
state is not saved between project sessions and is not restored
when the project is reloaded.
General Control Bar
Presets selector
Allows you to store and restore custom settings.
Undo
Allows you to undo changes.
History
Opens a change log that lists up to 32 changes in the order you
have made them.
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Parameter changes are logged with the group name in
parentheses, for example, “Gain (Ls) change”.
Redo
Allows you to redo changes that were undone.
A/B button
By pressing the A/B button, you can switch between two plug-in
states (A and B).
A>B (B>A) button
Copies the current plug-in state to the other state (A or B). This is
useful to copy programs between Session Bank slots.
Reset
This is the master reset button. It resets the plug-in to its default
state. The default state can be chosen in the Preset Manager
window.
Routing selector
The Routing button opens the Channel Routing Window, where
you can change several routing options. The pop-up menu
provides access to common routing options.
Save CSV
Allows you to save the selected EQ curve in a comma-separated
text file. The EQ curve is stored as series of frequency/gain pairs,
one per line, in the following form:
20.00,3.00
400.00,2.51
1000.00,1.45 # comment
5000.00,3.40
20000.00,1.05
Each pair defines the position of a single control point on the
CurveEQ’s control surface. Write decimal points as a period, not
as a comma. Comments can be added at any position, starting
with a hash character.
Load CSV
Allows you to load a previously saved CSV file or any externally
generated EQ curve specification, such as room correction or
RIAA phono correction. Frequencies defined in the file should lie
between 20 and 20000 Hz.
Settings
Allows you to change general settings.
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EQ Top Control Bar
Equalizer dB gain range
Lets you change the maximum gain when boosting/decreasing
frequencies per band.
MIN-Phase
Enables minimum-phase filtering instead of linear-phase filtering.
Minimum-phase filtering sounds better at steeper EQ slopes
because it lacks pre-ringing artifacts present in linear-phase filters.
Furthermore, it does not add a considerable processing latency.
Static & Match
Opens the Static Spectrums Editor where you can display static
spectrums and perform spectrum matching. Spectrum matching
allows you to match the spectrum shape of a sound recording to
that of another sound recording.
Mode selector
Allows you to select a mode for spectrum matching.
Edit
Opens the Spectrum Mode Editor.
Main EQ Control Surface
The heart of CurveEQ is the equalizer control surface with a built-in
real-time spectrum analyzer.
•
To add a control point, double-click the curve.
•
To delete a control point, double-click it.
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The picture above shows the equalizer control surface with control
points that can be dragged with the left mouse button to adjust the
filter’s gain and frequency. For more precise adjustments, hold [Shift]
while dragging.
The readouts show the mouse cursor position within the display, the
musical note and detune in cents that correspond to the frequency
position, and the mouse cursor position within the spectrum power
range.
If two or three curves are displayed, a white curve shows the summary
frequency response of all currently enabled filters.
While dragging a control point with the left mouse button, you can
adjust the filter’s bandwidth by additionally holding the right mouse
button or pressing [Alt]/[Option]. Alternatively, you can use the mouse
wheel to adjust the filter’s bandwidth.
•
To enable the gain adjustment only, press [Ctrl]/[Command] while
dragging a point.
•
To enable frequency adjustment only, press
[Ctrl]/[Command]-[Alt]/[Option].
•
To set a control point to 0 dB, press [Ctrl]/[Command], and
double-click it.
Equalizer - Group Editing
You can perform editing operations on a group of control points.
•
To select several control points, click inside the equalizer control
surface and drag a rectangle over the control points that you want
to select.
•
To select all control points at once, right-click the control surface.
•
To deselect any selected points, click in the control surface.
•
To add control points to the current selection, press [Shift] and
click the control points that you want to add.
•
To remove control points from the selection, hold [Shift] and click
the control point that you want to remove.
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For group editing, the following buttons are available:
Up/down arrow button
Allows you to scale the gain of the selected control points.
Inv
Inverts the gain of the selected control points.
Reset
Resets the current filter to its default state.
Equalizer - Spectrum
The equalizer control surface can display the Fourier spectrum analysis
plot. The spectrum analysis and the display of parameters can be
selected via the Mode selector. The Spectrum Mode Editor can be used
to customize these parameters further. You can also click the control
surface anywhere to reset the spectrum analysis display.
A red vertical line is displayed if the visible frequency range is wide. This
line shows the maximum frequency of the input signal and depends on
the input sample rate.
By default, Voxengo plug-ins use a slope value of 4.5 dB per octave for
the spectrum display. This setting can be changed in the Spectrum
Mode Editor window.
To zoom in on the spectrum’s peak values, [Alt]/[Option]-click and drag
a selection rectangle.
If the spectrum does not fit the display, adjust the visible spectrum range
in the Spectrum Mode Editor.
Equalizer - Narrow-Band Sweeping
To highlight the resonances in the sound, you can enable the narrow-band
sweeping function by pressing [Ctrl]/[Command] and dragging in the
control surface with the left mouse button. As a result of this action, the
curve of the band-pass filter only passes the selected frequency range. You
can adjust the bandwidth of the filter with the mouse wheel.
The band-pass filter’s curve is applied on top of the existing equalizer
curve. This means that the curve you see when engaging the
narrow-band sweeping is composed of the existing equalizer curve and
band-pass filter’s own equalizer curve.
Zooming
•
To zoom into the spectrum display, press [Alt]/[Option] and drag
the control surface.
•
To zoom out of the spectrum display, press [Alt]/[Option] and
double-click the control surface.
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Scrollbar
The horizontal and vertical scrolling controls feature zooming
functionality. The scrollbars are found at the sides of the equalizer
control surface.
The diamond-shaped button between a horizontal and vertical scrollbar
can be used to control the positions of both scrollbars at once in a single
X-Y coordinate space.
You can double-click scrollbars and diamond-shaped buttons to quickly
switch between the zoomed and non-zoomed views of the control
surface.
EQ Bottom Control Bar
Hide Points
Hides the control points, which allows you to evaluate the EQ
curve more precisely.
Freeform
Enables freeform mode, in which you can draw the EQ curve
manually by drawing on the control surface with the left mouse
button.
Note that switching to freeform mode and back can be destructive
and some EQ curve features can be lost.
Curve 1/2/3
You can define up to 3 equalizer curves for every channel group.
This is useful when you are using spectrum matching. For example,
you can apply a matching EQ curve generated automatically and
at the same time apply any additional EQ curve that you draw
manually.
Note that CurveEQ has a lower resolution at the frequencies
below 200 Hz. At these frequencies, the EQ curve does not always
follow the control point positions.
Underlay
Allows you to select another EQ curve from any other channel
group that is displayed as an underlay.
Up/down arrow button
Allows you to scale the gain of the EQ curve.
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Inv
Inverts the current EQ curve.
Copy To
Copies the envelope to the same envelope in another group.
Reset
Resets the current EQ curve to its default state.
Group Bar and Hint Line
Group 1/2/3/4
These buttons represent the channel groups. You can select the
channel group whose parameters are being edited or monitored.
Only groups that are assigned to the internal channels in the
Channel Routing window are shown.
Solo
Allows you to solo the output of the selected group. The state of
the Solo button is not saved between project sessions and is not
restored when the project is reloaded.
Copy To
Allows you to copy parameter settings defined for the selected
channel group to another channel group.
Reset
Resets the parameters of the active group.
NOTE
Note that the group bar is not visible if the “Min Infrastructure” option in
the Settings window is activated. In that case, you can use the Routing
selector to select a channel group.
Channel Group List
CurveEQ shows a list of input channels that are routed to the selected
channel group. This list is connected to the Channel Routing window
and displays routing settings defined by it. Internal channel names (A, B,
C, etc.) that accept the corresponding input channel are displayed in a
superscript style. These internal channel names are also displayed on
the level meters. If more than one input channel is routed to the same
internal channel, the sum is displayed in the form “(IN1+IN2)”.
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When the internal channel is assigned to a mid/side group, its input
channels are written in parentheses with the “m” (mid) or “s” (side)
prefix. For example, “s(IN1 & IN2)” means “side part of the mid/side pair
consisting of IN1 and IN2 input channels”.
Hint Line
This interface element displays hint messages and can also display
other informational messages. The hint line can be disabled in the
Settings window.
Level Meter
The level meter shows several bars that correspond to the channels (A,
B, etc.) of the selected channel group. The level meter displays all
available channels if the “Show All Channel Meters” button is activated
in the Channel Routing window.
Level meters can show a small horizontal white bar that represents the
peak level. In output level meters, such as peak level, it can turn red. This
means that the output level has entered the area above the 0 dBFS
signal level and clipping can occur if the plug-in is inserted at the final
position in the signal chain of the host application. If the plug-in is
inserted in an intermediate position, that is, before other plug-ins,
clipping does not necessarily occur.
Level meter ballistics and peak level hold time can be defined for all
instances of the plug-in in the Settings window.
Output level meters usually feature a “Out/In” display, showing the
difference in RMS level between the input and output signals of the
plug-in.
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Spectrum Matching
With CurveEQ you can match the sound of any audio track to another,
whether it is your to-die-for guitar into or your favorite kick drum sample.
All spectrum related functions are located in the “Static & Match”
display.
NOTE
Spectrum matching uses parameters specified in the Spectrum Mode
Editor. Only spectrums present in static spectrum slots can be used for
matching. The usual realtime primary and secondary spectrums are not
used for matching, unless taken as snapshots by means of the Take or
“Take 2nd” buttons.
When you perform spectrum matching it is suggested to set the Type
selector in the Spectrum Mode Editor to “Avg”, so that average
spectrum is used for matching. You must run the averaging for several
seconds until the visible spectrum becomes smooth enough. After
achieving the required spectrum shape on the screen you can click the
Take (or “Take 2nd”) button in the static spectrum slot to store this
spectrum for matching purposes.
You need at least two spectrum snapshots in two slots for matching.
The spectrum that you want to equalize and the reference spectrum
should be marked with the “Apply To” and “Reference” switches. You
can define more than one “Apply To” or “Reference” spectrum. In that
case the mean value of the spectrums is used.
The Points parameter specifies how many equidistant points to use for
matching. The more points you use the more precise the match will be.
However, in many cases more precise match does not mean a better
sounding match. It is suggested to try several values to determine which
one sounds best.
IMPORTANT
The EQ curve present on the screen affects the spectrum averaging
process, so the EQ curve should be flat when spectrum data is being
collected.
NOTE
The static spectrum’s gain shift has no effect on the matching process.
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Spectrum Mode Editor
Spectrum matching options are placed in the Spectrum Mode Editor,
which can be opened by clicking the Edit button on the EQ top control
bar.
Spectrum Disable
Disables the spectrum analysis function of the plug-in.
Filled Display
Enables additional semi-transparent filling of the spectrum display.
2nd Spectrum
Enables the secondary spectrum curve, which is displayed in a
darker color.
Type selector
Allows you to select a spectrum analysis type. The “RT Avg” mode
applies realtime spectrum averaging analysis. This type of analysis
produces an RMS-averaged spectrum over the period specified
by the “AVG Time” parameter. The analysis type “Max” produces a
cumulative maximum power spectrum. The “Avg” type produces a
cumulative average power spectrum. The “RT Max” mode
produces a realtime maximum spectrum with spectrum fall-down.
For better spectrum maximum estimate, use a higher Overlap
setting. If you need an infinite peak hold, use the “Max” analysis
type.
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Block Size
Specifies the block size of the FFT (fast Fourier transform)
spectrum analyzer. Higher block sizes provide more resolution in
the lower frequency range, but decrease time coherence (time
precision) in the higher frequency range; the higher frequency
information becomes over-averaged. Also, at higher block size
settings the spectrum is refreshed less frequently. This can be
compensated by increasing the Overlap parameter.
When working at increasingly higher sample rates, you need to
increase the block size value, because the setting is used over the
full spectral bandwidth. Therefore, at higher sample rates the
analyzer’s resolution in the visible frequency range will be lower for
the given block size.
If you want to measure the frequency of a low-frequency sound
such as a drum or bass guitar precisely, use a higher “Block Size”
value along with a higher Overlap value.
In order to avoid clicks and glitches in playback when using high
“Block Size” values, you need to increase the audio buffer size in
your host application.
2nd Type
If “2nd Spectrum” is activated, you can use this pop-up menu to
select an analysis type for the secondary spectrum. For example,
by setting the “2nd Type” to “RT Max” and “Type” to “RT Avg”, you
can see the average and maximum spectrums simultaneously.
Note that the secondary spectrum uses the same “Block Size” and
“Avg Time” values as the primary spectrum.
Overlap
Controls the overlap between the adjacent FFT spectrum analysis
windows. Higher overlap values allow spectrum to be updated
more frequently at the expense of a higher CPU load.
AVG Time
Specifies the average (fall-down) time used when the “RT Avg” or
“RT Max” analysis is active. This value specifies after how many
milliseconds the spectrum level falls down by 20 dB.
Smoothing
Lets you select the smoothing function’s resolution in octaves.
Smoothing produces a drop of 6 dB per octave when stationary
sine wave signals are used. For example, even if the signal consists
of 2 sine waves (1 kHz and 2 kHz) of equal peak amplitude, the
2 kHz sine wave looks like it is 6 dB quieter. This happens because
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the fast Fourier transform produces a narrower spectrum for
high-frequency stationary signals in comparison to low-frequency
stationary signals. This drop does not appear when non-stationary
(musical) signals are analyzed.
Freq Low/Freq High
Specify the visible frequency range of the spectrum view.
Range Low/Range High
Specify the accessible spectrum power range.
Slope
Allows you to adjust slope in the spectrum analyzer display around
1 kHz. Skewing the spectrum can be useful because higher
frequencies usually have weaker power in comparison to the lower
frequencies. By choosing an appropriate spectrum slope, you can
compensate for this fact.
Static Spectrums Editor
CurveEQ features a static spectrum display that can be controlled via
the Static Spectrums Editor.
You can select the display name of the spectrum slot, its color, and the
shift in dB of the static spectrum. The static spectrum can be shown or
hidden using the visibility checkbox. The shift in dB can be used for a
more convenient placing of the static spectrum on the screen and it
does not affect the shape of the spectrum.
Take/Take 2nd
These buttons take a snapshot of the primary or secondary
spectrum. The static spectrum snapshots are taken using the
spectrum parameters specified in the Spectrum Mode Editor.
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Before taking a spectrum, choose a spectrum analysis type via the
Spectrum Mode Editor, usually “Avg” or “Max”, and analyze long
enough so that the spectrum becomes general enough. When
analyzing a song, it is recommended to store separate spectrums
for verse, chorus, and bridge parts, as they can have distinctively
differing spectral balance.
If no snapshot is taken after pressing a Take button, no spectrum
is available. You either have to configure the spectrum mode or
start the audio playback first.
Load/Save
You can save the spectrum in a static spectrum slot as a spectrum
file with the extension .csf (compressed spectrum file).
X
Resets the spectrum in the selected slot.
Preset Manager
You can use the main preset manager to save and load plug-in state
presets.
Presets in the main preset manager are shared among all instances of
the same Voxengo plug-in. All presets within the main preset manager
are stored in user preset banks. Beside user preset banks two special
banks exist: the Session Bank and Factory ROM bank.
The Session Bank contains programs rather than presets. Each
program in the Session Bank contains its own undo/redo change log.
The Session Bank lists programs that mirror programs of the host
application. When you activate a program in the Session Bank, the
program in the host application switches.
The Factory ROM bank contains presets that cannot be changed. The
Factory ROM bank is loaded into the Session Bank every time a new
instance of the plug-in is created in the host application.
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The main preset manager contains the following control buttons:
+/Allow you to add and remove a bank or preset. Right-clicking the
plus button (+) inserts the preset at the current list position rather
than at the end of the list.
Load/Save
Allow you to save and load the bank or preset to and from a file.
U
Updates the selected preset with the current plug-in state.
Set as Default
Makes the selected preset the default preset. The default preset is
loaded every time a new plug-in instance is created in the host
application or when the master Reset button is pressed. If you
want to restore the original default preset, select the “Default”
preset in the Factory ROM bank and click the “Set as Default”
button.
Activate
Loads the selected preset. You can also double-click a preset
name.
NOTE
Voxengo plug-ins use a proprietary format to store presets and preset
banks. Add a meaningful prefix to bank and preset file names so that you
do not mix up presets created in different Voxengo plug-ins. Voxengo
plug-in preset files have the extension .cpf, preset bank files the
extension .cbf.
To rename a preset or bank, select it and after a small delay click the
item again.
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Channel Routing Window
In the Channel Routing window, the following options are available:
Routing Presets
Opens a window that contains presets for the Channel Routing
window, including channel labels.
Show all Channel Meters
Enables displaying of all channel meters and statistics counters
regardless of the selected channel group. When this option is
deactivated, only meters belonging to the selected channel group
are shown.
Activating this option is useful when you are using dual-mono or
mid-side processing. This option allows you to see channel meters
for left and right, or mid and side channels together.
Input and Output Routing
Allow you to route external plug-in inputs to internal plug-in
channels and vice versa, and to route internal plug-in channels to
external plug-in outputs. The plug-in has a pre-defined number of
internal channels, but the number of input and output channels can
vary depending on the host application’s track or bus on which the
plug-in is inserted.
Note that if the input routing selector is red, the selector refers to
a non-existent input channel. You can correct this by selecting an
existing channel. External side-chain inputs are denoted by
parenthesized labels, for example, “(IN3)”, “(IN4)”.
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Mid/Side Pairs
Allow you to assign internal channels to mid/side pairs for
encoding and decoding. The mid/side encoding is a wide-spread
technique that allows you to process the middle (center) and side
(spatial) information in stereo signals independently of each other,
thus offering a great deal of control over that signal’s stereophony.
Mid/side encoding works with paired channels only and thus
requires two channels to be assigned to the same mid/side pair.
An input signal is mid/side encoded before it is processed by the
plug-in, and decoded afterwards before it is routed to an output of
the plug-in.
Group Assignments
The plug-in allows you to assign its internal audio channels to
logical channel groups. Each group is affected by its own set of
parameter values (EQ shape, gain factor, overdrive setting, etc.).
The current channel group is selected via the channel group
selector.
Individual audio channels can be assigned to different channel
groups. For example, you can make separate EQ settings for
channel 1 and for channel 2 by assigning channel 1 to group 1 and
channel 2 to group 2.
In a surround setup you can assign left and right channels to group
1 and surround channels to group 2, and apply different EQ
shapes to the groups.
Each plug-in audio channel can be assigned to a single channel
group only. Channel grouping also affects channel-linking in case
of dynamics processing and other processes that estimate signal
loudness envelope: channels assigned to the same group are
linked during processing and signal loudness estimation.
IN Channel Labels
Opens the label assignment window where you change the display
names for the input channels.
You can also import channel labels from the host application by
pressing the “Import labels from host” button. However, not all host
applications provide distinctive input channel names.
Group Names
Opens the group names where you can change the display names
for the groups.
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CurveEQ Settings
In the CurveEQ Settings window the following parameters are available:
Color scheme
The icons show possible color schemes. To change the color
scheme, click an icon.
UI scale
Adjusts the size of the plug-in panel. Note that changing this
setting requires a restart of the host application.
Show hints
If activated, hint messages appear at the bottom of the plug-in
panel.
Min Infrastructure
Activate this to hide part of the plug-in interface in favor of showing
a larger EQ control surface.
Level meter settings – Density mode
Activates the density metering mode. In this mode you can see
levels at which a signal stays often. By examining the range of
levels at which a signal stays, you can draw conclusions about the
effective dynamic range of the material.
Note that the signal level estimation is affected by the meter’s
integration and release times. In this mode, the display of the signal
level is also affected by the Peak Level hold time setting.
Level meter settings – Integration time
Affects the level integration time of all level meters. The value
reflects the time it takes for a signal level to fall down by 20 dB, or
raise up from one steady level to another steady level.
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Note that this setting does not affect the peak level on the level
meters, but directly affects the visible difference between the peak
and RMS levels when a musical signal is measured.
Level meter settings – Release Time
Changes the level meter’s release time. This is the time it takes for
a signal to fall down by 20 dB.
Level meter settings – Peak level hold time
Adjusts the time that a registered peak level with a width of 1
sample stays unchanged on the level meter.
Global Plug-in Settings
The global plug-in settings can be accessed via the Settings window.
The following parameters are available:
Mouse Wheel Precision
Affects the precision of the mouse wheel. The higher the precision,
the finer the value changes using the mouse wheel.
SHIFT Key Precision
Affects the precision when using the [Shift] key and dragging a
control with the mouse.
Drag Precision
Affects how quickly knobs and readouts react to mouse
movements.
Visual settings
You can customize the look of the plug-in with the following
settings:
•
Flat Panels – When enabled, all buttons and panels of the plug-in
look flat, without a gradient fill.
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•
Spotlight – Enables a wide light area that looks like a spotlight.
•
Textures – Adds texture to the plug-in panel.
•
Shadows – Enables shadows on graphical elements.
•
Flat Level Meters – Enables the flat, non-blocky look of the level
meters.
Show Knob Labels
Enables numeric labels that appear when you point the mouse at
a knob.
Tablet Mode
When activated, you can control the plug-in with a pen tablet.
Show Virtual Keyboard
When this is activated, a virtual computer keyboard is shown when
you enter values. The virtual computer keyboard is useful if the host
application blocks certain keys from reaching the plug-in’s user
interface.
Radial Knob Mode
When this is activated, you can click on the corona to set the
parameter value immediately.
Control Surface Crosshair
Displays a crosshair cursor in the control surface area.
Anti-Denormal Noise
Enables insertion of anti-denormalization noise on the plug-in
inputs. This noise has an RMS value of -220 dB – well below the
audible dynamic range. If you are using the plug-in in a host
application that applies such noise automatically, you can
deactivate this option to save CPU power. Without
anti-denormalization noise the filters of the plug-in can overload
the CPU when silence is processed.
Remember Window Positions
When this is activated, the relative position of the plug-in windows
is remembered after reopening the plug-in.
Show All Filter Shapes
When this is activated, all active filters are shown together with the
shape of the selected filter.
Do Not Show Latency Changes
Disables the “Latency Changed” warning message completely.
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Standard Control Elements in Detail
Knob
Knobs can be controlled as follows:
•
If “Radial Knob Mode” is activated, you can drag the corona of a
knob to adjust the value of the corresponding parameter. During
dragging, you can move the mouse cursor away from the knob to
increase value adjustment precision.
•
Drag the center of a knob to adjust the value of the parameter with
up and down mouse movements, linearly. If you press the left and
right mouse buttons together while dragging the center, you enter
high-precision adjustment mode. You can also enter this mode by
holding down [Shift] when dragging. The dragging precision can
be adjusted in the global settings window.
•
Turn the mouse wheel to adjust the parameter.
•
Double-click a knob to reset it to the default state.
When you point the mouse at a knob, an additional ring shows
approximate parameter values at different knob positions. These values
are also referred to as knob labels. Thousands are suffixed with an
asterisk (2*). This ring can be disabled in the global settings window.
Keyboard Value Entry
Most readout values such as gain or frequency can be clicked to enter
a new value.
Value List Selector
This type of control allows you to choose a value or an option from the
list. You can click the selector button to display the value list. You can
also use the mouse’s forward and backward buttons or the mouse
wheel to scroll through the values of a list without opening it.
To reset a value list to its default value, right-click the selector.
Slider
Sliders can be dragged with the left mouse button. If you press the left
and right mouse buttons together while dragging the slider, you enter
high-precision adjustment mode. You can also enter this mode by
holding down [Shift] when dragging.
Location of CurveEQ Files
CurveEQ creates settings files, including presets. All CurveEQ settings
and presets are available to the specific user of the computer only.
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On Windows systems, the files reside in the following folder:
“\Users\<user name>\ Application Data\Voxengo\Audio Plug-ins\”.
On Mac OS X systems, the files reside in the following folder:
“/Users/<user name>/Library/Preferences/ Voxengo/Audio Plug-ins/”.
You can safely remove, copy and replace these files, including the whole
“Voxengo\Audio Plug-ins\” subfolder.
DeEsser
This plug-in reduces excessive sibilance, primarily for vocal recordings.
Basically, it is a special type of compressor that is tuned to be sensitive
to the frequencies produced by the "s" sound.
Close proximity microphone placement and equalizing can lead to
situations where the overall sound is just right, but there is a problem
with sibilants.
Reduction
Controls the intensity of the de-essing effect.
Threshold
When the Auto option is deactivated, you can use this control to
set a threshold for the incoming signal level, above which the
plug-in starts to reduce the sibilants.
Auto
Automatically and continually chooses an optimum threshold
setting independent of the input signal. The Auto option does not
work for low-level signals (< -30 db peak level). To reduce the
sibilants in such a file, set the threshold manually.
Release
Sets the time after which the de-essing effect returns to zero when
the signal drops below the threshold.
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Level meters
Indicate the dB values of the input (IN) and output (OUT) signals
as well as the value by which the level of the sibilant (or
s-frequency) is reduced (GR). The gain reduction meter shows
values between 0 dB (no reduction) and -20 dB (the s-frequency
level is lowered by 20 dB).
Distortion
This plug-in adds crunch to your tracks.
Boost
Increases the distortion amount.
Feedback
Feeds part of the output signal back to the effect input, increasing
the distortion effect.
Tone
Lets you select a frequency range to which to apply the distortion
effect.
Spatial
Changes the distortion characteristics of the left and right channel,
thus creating a stereo effect.
Output
Raises or lowers the signal going out of the effect.
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DualFilter
This plug-in filters out certain frequencies while allowing others to pass
through.
Position
Sets the filter cutoff frequency. If you set this to a negative value,
DualFilter acts as a low-pass filter. Positive values cause DualFilter
to act as a high-pass filter.
Resonance
Sets the sound characteristic of the filter. With higher values, a
ringing sound is heard.
EnvelopeShaper
This plug-in can be used to attenuate or boost the gain of the attack and
release phase of audio material.
You can either use the knobs or drag the breakpoints in the graphical
display to change parameter values. Be careful with levels when
boosting the gain and if needed reduce the output level to avoid
clipping.
Attack (-20 to 20 dB)
Changes the gain of the attack phase of the signal.
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Length (5 to 200 ms)
Determines the length of the attack phase.
Release (-20 to 20 dB)
Changes the gain of the release phase of the signal.
Output (-24 to 12 dB)
Sets the output level.
Expander
Expander reduces the output level in relation to the input level for signals
below the set threshold. This is useful when you want to enhance the
dynamic range or reduce the noise in quiet passages.
You can either use the knobs or drag the breakpoints in the graphical
display to change the Threshold and the Ratio parameter values.
Threshold (-60 to 0 dB)
Determines the level where expansion kicks in. Signal levels below
the set threshold are affected, but signal levels above are not
processed.
Ratio (1:1 to 8:1)
Determines the amount of gain boost applied to signals below the
set threshold.
Soft Knee button
If this button is off, signals below the threshold are expanded
instantly according to the set ratio (hard knee). When soft knee is
activated, the onset of expansion is more gradual, producing a less
drastic result.
Attack (0.1 to 100 ms)
Determines how fast Expander responds to signals below the set
threshold. If the attack time is long, more of the early part of the
signal (attack) passes through unprocessed.
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Hold (0 to 2000 ms)
Sets the time the applied expansion affects the signal below the
Threshold.
Release (10 to 1000 ms or Auto mode)
Sets the time after which the gain returns to its original level when
the signal exceeds the threshold. If the Auto button is activated,
Expander automatically finds an optimal release setting that varies
depending on the audio material.
Analysis (0 to 100) (Pure Peak to Pure RMS)
Determines whether the input signal is analyzed according to peak
or RMS values, or a mixture of both. A value of 0 is pure peak and
100 pure RMS. RMS mode operates using the average power of
the audio signal as a basis, whereas Peak mode operates more on
peak levels. As a general guideline, RMS mode works better on
material with few transients such as vocals, and Peak mode better
for percussive material with a lot of transient peaks.
Live button
When this button is activated, the look-ahead feature of Expander
is disengaged. Look ahead produces more accurate processing,
but adds a certain amount of latency as a trade-off. When Live
mode is activated, there is no latency, which might be better for live
processing.
Steinberg Gate
Gating, or noise gating, silences audio signals below a set threshold. As
soon as the signal level exceeds the set threshold, the gate opens to let
the signal through.
Threshold (-60 to 0 dB)
Determines the level where Gate is activated. Signal levels above
the set threshold trigger the gate to open, and signal levels below
the set threshold close the gate.
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State LED
Indicates whether the gate is open (LED lights up in green), closed
(LED lights up in red) or something in between (LED lights up in
yellow).
Filter buttons (LP, BP, and HP)
When the Side-Chain button is activated, you can use these
buttons to set the filter type to either low-pass, band-pass, or
high-pass.
Side-Chain button
(Below the Center knob.) Activates the side-chain filter. The input
signal can then be shaped according to set filter parameters.
Internal side-chaining can be useful for tailoring how the Gate
operates.
Center (50 to 20000 Hz)
When the Side-Chain button is activated, this sets the center
frequency of the filter.
Q-Factor (0.01 to 10000)
When the Side-Chain button is activated, this sets the resonance
of the filter.
Monitor button
Allows you to monitor the filtered signal.
Attack (0.1 to 1000 ms)
Sets the time after which the gate opens after being triggered.
Deactivate the Live button to make sure that the gate is already
open when a signal above the threshold is played back. Gate
manages this by looking ahead in the audio material, checking for
signals loud enough to pass the gate.
Hold (0 to 2000 ms)
Determines how long the gate stays open after the signal drops
below the threshold.
Release (10 to 1000 ms or Auto mode)
Sets the time after which the gate closes (after the set hold time).
If the Auto button is activated, Gate will find an optimal release
setting, depending on the audio material.
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Analysis (0 to 100) (Pure Peak to Pure RMS)
Determines whether the input signal is analyzed according to peak
or RMS values, or a mixture of both. A value of 0 is pure Peak and
100 pure RMS. RMS mode operates using the average power of
the audio signal as a basis, whereas Peak mode operates more on
peak levels. As a general guideline, RMS mode works better on
material with few transients such as vocals, and Peak mode better
for percussive material, with a lot of transient peaks.
Live button
When this button is activated, the look-ahead feature of Gate is
disengaged. Look ahead produces more accurate processing, but
adds a certain amount of latency as a trade-off. When Live mode
is activated, there is no latency, which is better for live processing.
GEQ-10/GEQ-30
These graphic equalizers are identical except for the number of available
frequency bands (10 and 30).
Each band can be attenuated or boosted by up to 12 dB, allowing for
fine control of the frequency response. In addition there are several
preset modes available that can add color to the sound of
GEQ-10/GEQ-30.
You can draw response curves in the main display by click-dragging
with the mouse. Note that you have to click one of the sliders first before
dragging across the display.
At the bottom of the window the individual frequency bands are shown
in Hz. At the top of the display the amount of attenuation/boost is shown
in dB.
Output
Controls the overall gain of the equalizer.
Flatten button
Resets all the frequency bands to 0 dB.
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Range
Allows you to relatively adjust how much a set curve cuts or boosts
the signal. If the Range parameter is turned fully clockwise, the
range is ± 12 dB.
Invert button
Inverts the current response curve.
Mode pop-up menu
The filter mode set here determines how the various frequency
band controls interact to create the response curve, see below.
Filter Modes
On the pop-up menu in the lower right corner there are several different
EQ modes available. These modes can add color or character to the
equalized output in various ways.
True Response
Applies serial filters with an accurate frequency response.
Digi Standard
In this mode the resonance of the last band depends on the
sample rate.
Classic
Applies a classic parallel filter structure where the response does
not follow the set gain values accurately.
VariableQ
Applies parallel filters where the resonance depends on the
amount of gain.
ConstQ u
Applies parallel filters where the resonance of the first and last
bands depends on the sample rate.
ConstQ s
Applies parallel filters where the resonance is raised when
boosting the gain and vice versa.
Resonant
Applies serial filters where a gain increase of one band lowers the
gain in adjacent bands.
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Limiter
This plug-in is designed to ensure that the output level never exceeds a
set output level, to avoid clipping in following devices.
Limiter can adjust and optimize the Release parameter automatically
according to the audio material, or it can be set manually. Limiter also
features separate meters for the input, output and the amount of limiting
(middle meters).
Input (-24 to 24 dB)
Adjusts the input gain.
Output (-24 to 6 dB)
Determines the maximum output level.
Release (0.1 to 1000 ms or Auto mode)
Sets the amount of time it takes for the gain to return to its original
level. If the Auto button is activated, Limiter automatically finds an
optimal release setting that varies depending on the audio material.
L/R -> M/S, M/S -> L/R
This plug-in allows you to convert a stereo signal into a M/S signal and
vice versa.
The L/R -> M/S tool converts a L/R signal that is devided into a left and
a right signal into a M/S signal that is devided into a mid signal (L+R)
and side signals (L-R).
The M/S -> L/R tool reconverts the M/S signal into a L/R signal.
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Maximizer
This plug-in raises the loudness of audio material without the risk of
clipping. Optionally, there is a soft clip function that removes short
peaks in the input signal and introduces a warm tube-like distortion to
the signal.
Output (-24 to 6 dB)
Determines the maximum output level. Should normally be set to 0
to avoid clipping.
Optimize (0 to 100)
Determines the loudness of the signal.
Soft Clip button
When this button is activated, Maximizer starts limiting or clipping
the signal softly, at the same time generating harmonics which add
a warm, tube-like characteristic to the audio material.
Mix6to2
This plug-in lets you quickly mix down your surround mix format to
stereo. You can control the levels of up to six surround channels and
decide for each channel up to which level it is included in the resulting
mix.
This plug-in does not simulate a surround mix or add any
psycho-acoustical artifacts to the resulting output – it is simply a mixer.
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The plug-in is only available in the Master Section and when a surround
audio montage is active.
Sourround Channels
Volume faders
Govern how much of the signal is included in the left and/or right
channel of the output bus.
Link button
Links the two volume faders.
Invert buttons
Allow you to invert the phase of the left and right channel of the
surround bus.
Output Bus
Volume faders
Set the volume of the of the mixed output.
Link button
Links the two Output faders.
Normalize button
If this option is activated, the mixed output is normalized. For
example, the output level is automatically adjusted so that the
loudest signal is as loud as possible without clipping.
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Mix8to2
This plug-in lets you quickly mix down your surround mix format to
stereo. You can control the levels of up to eight surround channels and
decide for each channel up to which level it is included in the resulting
mix.
This plug-in does not simulate a surround mix or add any
psycho-acoustical artifacts to the resulting output – it is simply a mixer.
The plug-in is only available in the Master Section and when a 8 channel
audio montage is active.
Sourround Channels
Volume faders
Govern how much of the signal is included in the left and/or right
channel of the output bus.
Link button
Links the two volume faders.
Invert buttons
Allow you to invert the phase of the left and right channel of the
surround bus.
Output Bus
Volume faders
Set the volume of the of the mixed output.
Link button
Links the two Output faders.
Normalize button
If this option is activated, the mixed output is normalized. For
example, the output level is automatically adjusted so that the
loudest signal is as loud as possible without clipping.
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Mono Delay
This is a mono delay effect using freely specified delay time settings.
Delay
Sets the base note value for the delay from 0.1 to 5000 ms.
Feedback
Sets the number of repeats for the delay.
Filter Lo
Affects the feedback loop of the effect signal and allows you to roll
off low frequencies from 10Hz up to 800 Hz. The button below the
knob activates/deactivates the filter.
Filter Hi
Affects the feedback loop of the effect signal and allows you to roll
off high frequencies from 20 kHz down to 1.2 kHz. The button
below the knob activates/deactivates the filter.
Mix
Sets the level balance between the dry signal and the wet signal.
If MonoDelay is used as a send effect, set this to the maximum
value as you can control the dry/effect balance with the send.
MonoToStereo
This effect turns a mono signal into a pseudo-stereo signal. The plug-in
must be inserted on a stereo track playing a mono file.
Width
Controls the width or depth of the stereo enhancement. Turn
clockwise to increase the enhancement.
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Delay
Increases the amount of differences between the left and right
channels to further increase the stereo effect.
Color
Generates additional differences between the channels to
increase the stereo effect.
Mono button
Switches the output to mono, to check for possible unwanted
coloring of the sound which sometimes can occur when creating
an artificial stereo image.
MultibandCompressor
MultibandCompressor allows a signal to be split into a maximum of four
frequency bands, each with its own freely adjustable compressor
characteristic.
The signal is processed on the basis of the settings that you have made
in the Frequency Band and Compressor sections. You can specify the
level, bandwidth, and compressor characteristics for each band.
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Frequency Band Editor
The Frequency Band editor in the upper half of the panel is where you
set the width of the frequency bands as well as their level after
compression. The vertical value scale to the left shows the input gain
level of each frequency band. The horizontal scale shows the available
frequency range.
The handles at the sides are used to define the frequency range of the
different frequency bands. By using the handles on top of each
frequency band, you can cut or boost the input gain by ± 15 dB after
compression, for that specific frequency band.
The handles provided in the Frequency Band editor can be dragged
with the mouse. You use them to set the corner frequency range and the
input gain levels for each frequency bands.
•
The handles at the sides are used to define the frequency range of
the different frequency bands.
•
By using the handles on top of each frequency band, you can
attenuate or boost the input gain by ±15 dB after compression.
Bypassing Frequency Bands
Each frequency band can be bypassed using the B button in each
compressor section.
Soloing Frequency Bands
A frequency band can be soloed using the S button in each
compressor section. Only one band can be soloed at a time.
Compressor Section
By moving breakpoints or using the corresponding knobs, you can
specify the Threshold and Ratio. The first breakpoint from which the line
deviates from the straight diagonal is the threshold point.
Threshold (-60 to 0 dB)
Determines the level where Compressor kicks in. Signal levels
above the set threshold are affected, but signal levels below are
not processed.
Ratio (1000 to 8000) (1:1 to 8:1)
Determines the amount of gain reduction applied to signals above
the set threshold. A ratio of 3000 (3:1) means that for every 3 dB
the input level increases, the output level increases by only 1 dB.
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Attack (0.1 to 100 ms)
Determines how fast the compressor responds to signals above
the set threshold. If the attack time is long, more of the early part of
the signal (attack) passes through unprocessed.
Release (10 to 1000 ms or Auto mode)
Sets the time after which the gain returns to its original level when
the signal drops below the threshold. If the Auto button is
activated, the compressor automatically finds an optimal release
setting that varies depending on the audio material.
Output knob
Controls the total output level of MultibandCompressor. The range
is from -24 to 24 dB.
Octaver
This plug-in can generate two additional voices that track the pitch of
the input signal one octave and two octaves below the original pitch.
Octaver is best used with monophonic signals.
Direct
Adjusts the mix of the original signal and the generated voices. A
value of 0 means only the generated and transposed signal is
heard. By raising this value, more of the original signal is heard.
Octave 1
Adjusts the level of the generated signal one octave below the
original pitch. A setting of 0 means that the voice is muted.
Octave 2
Adjusts the level of the generated signal two octaves below the
original pitch. A setting of 0 means that the voice is muted.
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PingPongDelay
This is a stereo delay effect that alternates each delay repeat between
the left and right channels.
Delay
Sets the base note value for the delay from 0.1 to 5000 ms.
Feedback
Sets the number of repeats for the delay.
Filter Lo
Affects the feedback loop of the effect signal and allows you to roll
off low frequencies up to 800 Hz. The button below the knob
activates/deactivates the filter.
Filter Hi
Affects the feedback loop of the effect signal and allows you to roll
off high frequencies from 20 kHz down to 1.2 kHz. The button
below the knob activates/deactivates the filter.
Spatial
Sets the stereo width for the left/right repeats. Turn clockwise for
a more pronounced stereo ping-pong effect.
Mix
Sets the level balance between the dry signal and the wet signal.
If PingPongDelay is used as a send effect, set this to the maximum
value as you can control the dry/effect balance with the send.
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PostFilter
This is the filter plug-in to use if you are working on a post-production
mix, but you can use it in music production, too, as an alternative to
complex EQ configurations. It allows quick and easy filtering of
unwanted frequencies, creating room for the important sounds in your
mix.
The PostFilter plug-in combines a low-cut filter, a notch filter, and a
high-cut filter. You can make settings by dragging the curve points in the
graphical display, or by adjusting one of the controls below the display
section.
Level meter
Shows the output level, giving you an indication of how the filtering
affects the overall level of the edited event.
Low Cut Freq (20 Hz to 1 kHz, or Off)
Use this low-cut filter to eliminate low-frequency noise. The filter is
off when the curve point is moved all the way to the left.
Low Cut Slope pop-up menu
Allows you to choose a slope value for the low-cut filter.
Low Cut Preview button
Use the this button between the Low Cut Freq button and the
graphical display to switch the filter to a complementary high-cut
filter. This deactivates any other filters, allowing you to listen only
to the frequencies you want to filter out.
Notch Freq
Sets the frequency of the notch filter.
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Notch Gain
Adjusta the gain of the selected frequency. Use positive values to
identify the frequencies that you want to filter out.
Notch Gain Invert button
Inverts the gain value of the notch filter. Use this button to filter out
unwanted noise. While looking for the frequency to omit, it
sometimes helps to boost it first (set the notch filter to positive
gain). After you have found it, you can use the Invert button to
cancel it out.
Notch Q-Factor
Sets the width of the notch filter.
Notch Preview button
Use the Preview button between the notch filter buttons and the
graphical display to create a band-pass filter with the peak filter's
frequency and Q. This deactivates any other filters, allowing you to
listen only to the frequencies you want to filter out.
Notches buttons (1, 2, 4, 8)
These buttons add additional notch filters to filter out harmonics.
High Cut Freq (3 Hz to 20 kHz, or Off)
Use this high-cut filter to remove high-frequency noise. The filter is
off when the curve point is moved all the way to the right.
High Cut Slope pop-up menu
Allows you to choose a slope value for the high-cut filter.
High Cut Preview button
Use the Preview button between the High Cut Freq button and
the graphical display to switch the filter to a complementary
low-cut filter. This deactivates any other filters, allowing you to
listen only to the frequencies you want to filter out.
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RoomWorks
RoomWorks is a highly adjustable reverb plug-in for creating realistic
room ambiance and reverb effects in stereo and surround formats. The
CPU usage is adjustable to fit the needs of any system. From short room
reflections to cavern-sized reverb, this plug-in delivers high quality
reverberation.
Input Filters
Lo Freq
Determines the frequency at which the low-shelving filter takes
effect. Both the high and low settings filter the input signal prior to
reverb processing.
Hi Freq
Determines the frequency at which the high-shelving filter takes
effect. Both the high and low settings filter the input signal prior to
reverb processing.
Lo Gain
Controls the amount of boost or attenuation for the low-shelving
filter.
Hi Gain
Controls the amount of boost or attenuation for the high-shelving
filter.
Reverb Character
Pre-Delay
Controls how much time passes before the reverb is applied. This
allows you to simulate larger spaces by increasing the time it takes
for first reflections to reach the listener.
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Reverb Time
Allows you to set the reverb time in seconds.
Size
Alters the delay times of early reflections to simulate larger or
smaller spaces.
Diffusion
Affects the character of the reverb tail. Higher values lead to more
diffusion and a smoother sound, while lower values lead to a
clearer sound.
Width
Controls the width of the stereo image. 100 % gives you full stereo
reverb. At 0 %, the reverb is all in mono.
Variation button
Clicking this button generates a new version of the same reverb
program using altered reflection patterns. This is helpful when
certain sounds are causing odd ringing or undesirable results.
Creating a new variation often solves these issu