An INTERTEC`/PRIMEDIA Publication www.americanradiohistory.com

An INTERTEC`/PRIMEDIA Publication www.americanradiohistory.com
An INTERTEC'/PRIMEDIA Publication
www.americanradiohistory.com
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www.americanradiohistory.com
June 1999
Volume 41
Number 7
Broadcast
ENGINEERING
THE
JOURNAL
OF O/GITAL TELEV/S /ON
IN THIS ISSUE
Features
NAB review
74 Pick Hits of NAB99
By Steve Epstein
The 20 most innovative and practical new products at the show.
1#10:141::-1_1MJ
O O
84 Hot off the floor
Our team of reporters sought out the latest solutions for your facility.
86 Product jackpot
By BE staff
Highlights from the show floor.
74
Beyond the Headlines
NEWS
t
aw
'
Tonight Show becomes first HD network program
CBS, Mitsubishi promote HD
ABC's Monday Night Football goes HD
Set -top boxes offer new possibilities
24 DTV reception
14
16
18
22
1
410
FCC UPDATE
11,!# e
30
FCC revokes Trinity license
EXPERT'S CORNER/VENDOR VIEWS
32
The 2GHz ENG spectrum skirmishes
Digital Handbook
TRANSITION TO DIGITAL
38
Audio synchronization
COMPUTERS AND NETWORKS
44
The EBU /SMPTE Task Force
-
Part VI, Potential impact
ASK DR. DIGITAL
50
I
ro
c
Confused crosspoints
I
jackpot
Telecast
6
(continued on page
Broadcast Engineering
www.americanradiohistory.com
8)
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PHILIPS
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Systems Design & Integration
SYSTEMS DESIGN SHOWCASE
52
PBS: A television technology leader stays true to form
TRANSMISSION & DISTRIBUTION
62
Maintaining transmission lines
PRODUCTION CLIPS
70
DAT sync field recordings
New Products & Reviews
APPLIED TECHNOLOGY
166
168
Harris /Hewlett- Packard build DTV test vehicle
Panasonic's AJ- UFC1800 Universal Format Converter
FIELD REPORT
170
172
Solid State Logic Aysis Air
WFAA/KHOU sign on with commercial digital two -channel STL
TECHNOLOGY IN TRANSITION
174
Shopping for DAWs
BUSINESS WIRE
177
Business highlights from broadcast and production
Departments
ON THE COVER:
Cover design by
John Hayes.
10
12
176
190
197
198
Editorial
Reader Feedback
Management
Classifieds
Advertisers' index
EOM
FREEZE FRAME
WEB SITE DIRECTORY
www.broadcastengineering.com
Feature Articles
Departments
New Products &
Reviews
Classifieds /Jobs
Reader Resources
Editorial calendar
Article archives
Contact the Editors
Questions? Contact:
Jim Saladin
jim saladin @intertec.com
913/967 -1905 fax
Marketing/
Advertising
June 1999
A look at the technology that shaped this industry.
Do you remember?
Broadcast Engineering has
long supported the best
possible DTV transmission
scheme. In what month and
year did Broadcast Engineering magazine call for a halt
to DTV standardization until
full -scale test of COFDM
could be completed. Correct
entries will win a BE- Tshirt.
Send entries to:
[email protected]
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1. waes
Professional Internet tools for
broadcasters
because you spent most of your time looking for HD solutions, Internet
and interactivity were the key terms at this year's NAB. I know it sounds strange to be discussing the
world's largest "broadcast" show in terms like these, but this year's assemblage was more focused on
In case you missed it, maybe
new types of services for broadcasters than in the past.
Sure, there was plenty of news and an overabundance of products on the TV side of things. There were
new HD cameras, lenses, storage and editing tools for those wanting to dabble in HD. Truly mature
products on the SD side of things were everywhere. A minor show, of sorts, was evident in the new HD
add -ons from a variety of vendors. Screen bugs and logo generators
for HD were widely seen. One vendor even showed a HD motion
logo product. While the traditional broadcast tools and toolmakers were predominant, there were some new kids popping
up in booths too.
It wasn't that products to support Internet broadcasting and
websites were new to the show, but this was the first time we've seen
long -time, traditional broadcast vendors bring such products to
market. Internet servers, editors and switches for Internet applications were evident not just in the Sands but the LVCC too. It was
largely the presence of such Internet products in the traditional
broadcast venue that was so encouraging.
What was most fascinating wasn't that some traditional broadcast
vendors showed up with Internet products, but that these products
were built around traditional broadcast technology. It was that
these players clearly recognized that serious delivery of video and
audio to the Internet requires equipment more akin to broadcast
hardware than to desktop computers.
Some of these new products allowed not just the coupling of video to the Internet, but also
editing, browsing, storage and Web page production. Some of the larger systems allowed the
production of traditional on -air graphics and programming, with the simultaneous and automatic generation of matching website products. For the first time, we see those who understand video
developing products that broadcasters can use to deliver content to the Internet. No longer are
TV stations and producers forced to kluge together QuickTime -like toys to develop, produce and
deliver video to their viewers.
As stations seek to repurpose their expensive locally generated material for the Web, finding familiar
broadcast tools to do so will be warmly greeted. Now if we could only get the telcos and PC-types to
understand that 3fps isn't real video.
Brad Dick, editor
Send comments to:
direct: brad_dick @compuserve.com
website: www.broadcastengineering.com
10
Broadcast Engineering
June 1999
www.americanradiohistory.com
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the original in 16:9 widescreen SDTV.
First, the 16:9 display will be fully
satisfied, assuming the broadcasters'
learning curve of shooting in the new
widescreen format is behind them (which
should not take very long based upon
European broadcasters' experiences over
the past few years). Of course, the aesthetic challenge of "protecting" for the
4:3 image (that will later be derived from
this original) is another of the new learning curves facing broadcasters, their in-
From the camera's
viewpoint
There's one sentence in your March
issue with which many directors, cine-
matographers, and editors would most
profoundly disagree. It's in Rob Willox's
piece on aspect ratios:
"From a technical and creative viewpoint, it is far easier to derive a 4:3
picture from a 16:9 original than to format convert a 4:3 picture to a 16:9 widescreen image."
For the creative side of the entertainshooting on high -resolution film or HDTV
(widescreen by definition). He is therefore
totally correct in his observations. Both of
these high -resolution formats fully facilitate the dynamic tilt and scan that John
advocates. This is a good solution to the
troublesome dual aspect ratio dilemma.
We, on the other hand, were speaking
to the broadcasters dilemma - in the
context of standard -definition (SDTV)
electronic shooting - as they transition
from the traditional 4:3 aspect ratio
analog world to a DTV world encompassing both 16:9 and 4:3 SDTV digital
formats, in addition to the ongoing analog 4:3 NTSC format.
Shooting news or traditional television programming with a 4:3 standard definition television camera CANNOT
facilitate the subsequent reformatting to
a satisfactory widescreen picture. In such
circumstances, the only choices are:
(a) to portray the complete original
4:3 image within the 16:9 screen, leaving
subjectively troublesome "bars" on the
left and/or right portions of the wide screen display;
(b) To electronically "zoom" into the
4:3 original to create a widescreen "slice"
which in turn throws away imagery top
JOHN SPRUNG
and/or bottom, while also reducing the
DIRECTOR OF TECHNOLOGY
already paltry vertical resolution of the
PARAMOUNT TV POST PRODUCTION
480 active line original.
While both of the above are choices
open to the creative, both alternatives
Sony's response:
John Sprung makes a very important remain visually quite unsatisfactory. We
and certainly a valid point. But it is a therefore stress again that under the
different point to the one we were mak- circumstances of dealing with dual aspect
ing. John is speaking to the issue of ratio SDTV, it is a far better choice to shoot
ment industry, exactly the opposite is true.
Compositions that are filled out with fluff
on the sides lose impact. It's usually far
easier to tighten on the top and bottom to
get a reasonable new vertical balance in
the composition. In normal storytelling,
characters tend to enter or exit through
the sides of the frame rather than the top
or bottom. Editors cut on entrances and
exits. Keeping common sides solves the
editorial problem completely.
Here at Paramount, we discussed this
issue with our cinematographers and
editors, and did extensive tests. The resulting policy is that we make 1.33:1 the
big picture, and when it becomes necessary, we will derive 1.78:1 from within it
by doing a dynamic tilt and scan.
That's why the 24 -frame progressive
1080 line system is important to us.
We'll do an anamorphic transfer, mapping 1.33 into the whole 1920x1080
grid. That will be our working and
archival format. Downconversions to
1080i or 720p would come from 810 of
those original progressive lines, yielding
as good a picture as could be made in
those native formats.
12
Broadcast Engineering
June 1999
dependent producers, and freelance
shooters. But, it can be done. Under this
16:9 shooting circumstance the later
choice of how to handle this imagery on
the 4:3 screen is more flexible. The entire
image can, of course, be shown letterboxed - but here the "bars" issue must
again be confronted.
Alternatively, the 4:3 can be "cut -out"
from the original (with a further freedom
to "pan" that selected cut. This provides
a full screen image with all of the original
resolution fully preserved. If the "protection" has been well implemented, then
both 16:9 and 4:3 will be well served.
In the case of the HDTV variant of
DTV, John Sprung's points are well taken. But then, HDTV is 16:9 by definition.
Best regards,
LISA YOUNG
SONY ELECTRONICS
March Freezeframe
winners
Winners of the March, "Do your remember?" contest include:
Jamie Allyn Anako, Rochester,NY
M.L. "Pete" Deets, WMTV, Madison, WI (Pete still has a copy of the
issue.)
The above winners received a newly designed Broadcast EngineeringT- shirt.
You too can win a BE T-shirt by entering this month's contest.
See page 8 for this month's contest
question.
.
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www.americanradiohistory.com
Beyond the Headlines
News
Tonight Show becomes first HD network program
BY LARRY BLOOMFIELD
fiber and copper cables, and
ensuring the program took
the right transmission path
and got to the right satellite
in both ATSC and NTSC,
rested with George Hamil-
the words, "This program is
being brought to you in high definition," Jay Leno launched the first
nightly television program in both digital and 16:9, 1080i high definition on
April 26.
This historic event, which originated
from the network's Burbank Studio 3,
marked NBC's, and network television's,
first full commitment to regularly
With
ton, NBC's HD project
manager.
"The Tonight Show with
Jay Leno" began taping at 5
p.m. PST and was edited in
a newly equipped HD edit
suite. The finished HD show
scheduled digital programming, not
to mention the first in a high- definition format.
Many months of planning and preparation were involved, which included
pulling the NTSC equipment out and
installing the new Sony HD equipment.
An easy task if the studio were dark, but
this was not the case. Several weeks of
the Tonight Show were done out of a
truck parked next to the NBC Burbank
studio.
Although NBC contracted with Sony
to install the new gear, the ultimate
responsibility of interfacing the miles of
was fed directly to affiliate'
via SBS -4 and transponder
6. The NTSC feed went to
engineer Mary Richardson works with Sony HDWNew York via AT &T fiber NBC
500 HDCAM VTRs in -The Tonight Show" edit tape
and then uplinked by New area. The show is the first network offering to adopt an
York to affiliates, all in time HD format. Photo by Concept: Benson & Rice. Courfor its first airing just two tesy of Sony.
hours and 35 minutes after the taping "The graphics were upconverted from
wide screen 601 with YEM upconconcluded.
"All commercials were upconverted verters." It is expected that commerfrom NTSC through the use of Snell & cials will be done in high- definition
Wilcox converters," Hamilton said. as the virtues of HDTV gain greater
acceptance.
FRAME GRAB
today's technology
A look at the issues driving
Viewers are unlikely to see much
"real" HD in early broadcasts.
Stations predict that most of their programming will be
upconverted NTSC.
Upconverted
NTSC
1
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71
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21%
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SOURCE: SCRI International www .scri.com scrf®rcti.eom
1
4
Broadcast Engineering
June 1999
www.americanradiohistory.com
The NBC projects department installed
the audio system last year. Hamilton
said that the audio console in Studio 3
is capable of 5.1 audio, but the remainder of the Burbank plant isn't wired for
that configuration yet, so the show was
done in stereo. The audio was digitized
at the output of the studio audio console with NVision equipment into the
normal AES audio format. It was then
sent to the tape room for recording and
editing in this format along with the HD
video as HD SDI. When the show was
fed to the affiliates, the audio and video
was MPEG -encoded by a Tiernan encoder to the 45Mb/s data rate for distribution by satellite to the HD affiliates.
Most of the studios at NBC Burbank
are equipped with five cameras, with
other cameras brought in as needed. In
comparison, the new HD studio sports
a total of 10 Sony HD cameras, includ-
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Circle (5) on Free Into Card
www.americanradiohistory.com
ABC's Monday Night
Football goes HD
the Super Bowl. The
truck will include
both full -size studio
BC -TV, in a joint statement with
anasonic Broadcast, recently announced it plans to produce and broadcast the traditional Monday Night Football games in high- definition.
"Live sporting events provide the best
platform to demonstrate the viewing
benefits of high -definition television,"
ABC -TV President Patricia Fili- Krushel
said. "'Monday Night Football' - as the
only live, primetime sporting event
-
offers the greatest opportunity to showcase HDTV to the American public.
This is an exciting way to celebrate the
30th anniversary of 'Monday Night
Football.
Panasonic is building and outfitting a
720p HD mobile production truck,
which will travel to all 17 of the 19992000 season Monday night gridiron
battles, one wild card playoff game and
-
USA Broadcasting
launches master
control center
re Barry Diller -owned USA Broadcasting is in the process of completing its new state -of-the -art broadcast
facility in the Los Angeles area that
will serve as a master control room for
each of its stations. The control center
and handheld portable cameras in the
720p format for
the HD football
broadcasts.
No sporting event
would be complete
without its share of
tape machines. ABC
plans to use Panasonic's AJ- HD2700
tape machines (D -5 format), which are
selectable between the 720p and 1080i
recording formats. Despite all this capability in the HD mobile unit, the HD
telecasts will be produced and transmit-
ted separately from ABC's regular
"Monday Night Football" on the traditional analog network.
Nobody to date has talked dollars
about any of the network deals, he they
will provide substantial savings in staffing and equipment costs and provide
more resources for programming and
station promotion.
Seeing a measure of success with new
programming at test station WAMITV in Miami, USA Broadcasting executives are getting ready to make the
format, a mixture of local programming and nationally syndicated fare, a
mold for all of their stations. Having
the rights to local NBA
and Major League Baseball games has helped
to fill the schedule in
Miami. If the network
secures broadcast rights
to sport franchises in
other markets, the logistics of running 12
channels or more of this
kind of live sports pro-
gramming through their
new Ontario, CA, master control could pose
problems.
The timetable to im-
USA Broadcasting plans to provide programming for its
stations from its new master control facility.
18
Broadcast Engineering
plement this project
through its master control as a single point of
control for its multiple station operation
will be over the next
June 1999
www.americanradiohistory.com
ABC, CBS or NBC. In exchange for the
720p HD equipment and production
subsidies, Panasonic will receive a billboard announcement in the pre -game
show on ABC's analog and HD telecast.
Panasonic will also receive commercial
time during the HD broadcasts.
ABC's "Monday Night Football" will
begin its season on Sept. 13 with Miami
at Denver.
three years. USA would not say which
markets it plans on hitting first. The
first phase of this construction program will service five stations, and
the second phase will serve five or
more additional stations when completed. Plans are to implement this
new programming model in three to
four new markets, such as New York,
Los Angeles or Dallas, in the next six
to seven months.
The master control facility, which USA
refers to as the "USA Broadcasting Station Works," will be up and running by
this fall and will initially supply programming for up to five USA broadcast
stations.
The new master control facility will
provide each station with local programming, while reducing operating
costs for individual stations. Howard
Bolter, vice president of production
and engineering at USA Broadcasting,
estimates the centralized master control will save $8- to IO million per
market in equipment and staffing costs.
Those savings could he applied toward
promotion and programming. USA
Broadcasting is planning to build a
second similar facility next year to
handle five more of its owned stations'
programming needs.
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22
Broadcast Engineering
JLine 1999
For many broadcast executives, the migration to digital
includes an uncertain financial picture for their stations.
At NAB99, many vendors shared their vision for a smooth
and profitable digital transition: datacasting.
A number of exhibitors, mostly at the Sands, had products
and services that push the frontier of digital broadcasting.
Demonstrations consisted of technologies directly related to
the "how and when" of television viewing with devices that
can either be built into a television set or cloaked in a set -top
box (STB).
Cable and direct -to -home service providers already take
advantage of many of these features today. Broadcasters need
to become familiar with them so they'll know where, how and
why the features can be incorporated into their systems for the
maximum return on their DTV investment.
Looking at the tops of most TV sets, this real estate is
becoming more valuable with every new device that hits the
market vying for space. Between cable boxes, VCRs, DVD
players and electronic games, planning is an absolute must in
the development of new set -top equipment. The combining of
feature and legacy considerations must play an important
role.
The most common features in today's STBs are tuners
capable of receiving both digital and analog signals with
baseband audio and video outputs. Since these devices cater
to the analog world, the baseband outputs are necessary for
both stereo components and S- Video, which gives higher
quality pictures than the composite output. There is usually
an RS -232 data port that can be used as a lower speed data
port for connection to other consumer devices and troubleshooting. When the system operator offers pay per view or
possibly connection to the Internet, a telephone modem could
be a part of the STB for a return path to the headend.
Mindport offers what is called an "IR Blaster" that allows
STBs to function as an interface to a VCR, eliminating the
second step of having to program two devices.
Most STBs incorporate the function of reception and also
act as an integrated receiver decoder (IRD). Most will also
have a "smart card" that gives each STB its own identity and
allows the system operator to distinguish between users. The
electronic serial number, which is part and parcel of the
"smart card," is entered into a subscription management
system (SMS). Through the SMS, broadcasters or operators
can exercise a certain amount of leverage over the user's
STB. It is the SMS and the conditional access signals
embedded within the digital signal that permit viewers to
see or be excluded from specific programs or services.
Conditional access can be set up on a regional or other
definitive basis, to grant viewers access to all or parts of
the system, packages of programs or other marketing
schemes.
Copy protection is an ongoing industry concern. Most of
today's STBs incorporate features that prevent unauthorized
copying of program material. Probably the most familiar
aspect of today's STB is the electronic program guide, which
gives the viewer the ability to click and tune rather than
reviewing channel lineups or surfing.
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"OpenTV has the additional capabilities to allow for interactive applications
such as weather, sports, home banking,
home shopping, games, etc. The next
generation of STBs will include most or
all of these features and a lot more," said
Mark Zisek, Mindport's product manager of STBs.
Many of the STBs, and the systems they
support, will work with current television
programming providers. For example,
Philips TiVo allows subscribers to access
special programming packages from entertainment providers such as Showtime,
E! Entertainment, FLIX and HBO.
Several models allow viewers to select
viewing preferences. The STBs can then
select programs and provide programming via cable, antenna or satellite. These
models, such as Philips TiVo, also recommend programming based upon the
viewer's selected preferences or past viewing history.
Many vendors aren't exactly excited
about sharing information about their
next generation of STBs, but the more
obvious features don't seem to be an
issue. Most plan to include a hard drive
that allows digital content to be downloaded into the STB for viewing at the
AM
viewer's convenience. NDS's XTV will
be offering this feature. USB is a consumer electronic standard that will allow
other devices to be plugged into the STB
and have a common interface.
Future features include DOCIS modems and cable modems that will be
built into the STB to allow for high speed
Internet searching. Two variations are
under consideration: one that will display the Internet on the TV screen and
the other will connect to a PC.
Consumer polling is an important aspect of the new STBs. It will provide
detailed statistics on what the consumer
is watching. Zisek noted, "Savvy operators are beginning to demand more of
advertisers, as they will have more information about viewing habits than ever
before. We are working in this area, as
we have capabilities in both the STB and
the billing system. This will also have a
big impact on the broadcasters."
With the FCC's recent decision permitting private ownership of STBs, standardization is a key issue. The closest
thing to this is the DVB/DAVIC Interoperability Consortium, which is dedicated to setting standards for cable modems
and interact ve set-top boxes. Its membership consists of the
who's who in the worldwide STB arena: Pace,
Alcatel, Cocom, Comatlas, DiviCom, Hughes
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24
Broadcast Engineering
June 1999
ations by congress to permit the capabilities of
local- into -local was one
STB area not highly visible at NAB99. With this
in mind, Thomson Consumer Electronics plans
to manufacture and market a new line of local into -local compatible receivers expected to be
available by the end of
the year. Despite the fact
that the legislative process has not run its
full course, Thomson engineers have
started work on software and hardware
upgrades that will be necessary with
DirecTV's local- into -local option.
DTV reception
he final link in any television chain
is in the display unit. Obviously, if
there is a TV signal present, the first step
to good picture, sound and data would
be to capture as much of the signal as
possible. Ensuring that the radio frequency (RF) energy gets to the TV set is
a whole subject unto itself. With digital
television, signal reception can be tricky.
Since cable systems have not started to
carry digital television signals, terrestrial
or over-the -air reception may be the only
way a viewer might be able to receive one
of the expanding ranks of digital television stations. It is not always possible to
erect a mast with an antenna, so many
viewers (for example, apartment dwellers) may have to settle for an indoor
antenna of the
type which have
been dubbed
"rabbit ears."
Rabbit ear antennas bring up
^..
a whole new set
r`1
. ..
of problems
_4..40146
and
Bud Tadiken, vice
president of engineering at Microtune.
receiving pro-
issues.
Since the entire
cess is a chain
and it is only as
good
as
its
weakest link, it's a good idea to have
some answers when the engineering department of your station gets those phone
calls on what to do.
Bud Tadiken, vice president of engineering at Microtune, spoke recently
about tuners, television set front ends
and other issues related to receiving DTV
signals. (See Microtune announces tuner
breakthrough, page 24 Broadcast Engineering, March 1999).
One of the more important issues, said
Tadiken, is the potential interference
effects that will be seen when all allocated DTV and legacy analog channels are
filled. "Already interference effects have
been reported in Los Angeles and Japan,
and right now only the major networks
in the top 10 markets are transmitting,
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and configured the equipment to our
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"The system
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aspect of the Telemetrics Trolley
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"This was a critical component in the
systems design," according to Mr.
Gratteau. "Telemetrics custom
designed their powerful Control
Panel Software so that we could control the entire system from any of the
three control sites. This provides us
with a great deal of flexibility.
"Telemetrics was the most cost- effective of all the companies we spoke to.
More importantly, Telemetrics was
able to give us exactly what we wanted in terms of performance and features at a price we could afford," said
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Teiemetrics Inc.
and they delivered."
CAMERA ROBOTICS SYSTEMS
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6
Kent Gratteau
VP of Broadcasting & Enginee'ing
Shop At Home Network
Circle (15) on Free Into Card
www.americanradiohistory.com
often at reduced power levels," he said.
"As the off -air spectrum becomes more
and more crowded with channels, including adjacent, image and other taboo channels, the characteristics of a broadcast
television tuner will have to more closely
resemble those of a dual conversion tuner
to avoid these interference effects. For this
reason, I expect to see future TVs using
dual conversion tuners as costs are reduced by silicon integration."
Multipath poses additional difficulties
to overcome, particularly in urban areas. "Multipath effects are most prevalent in urban areas where tall buildings
cause strong reflections," Tadiken said.
So long as the difference in signal strength
between the direct path and reflected path
is sufficiently large, the digital processing
in the demodulator ICs, combined with
improved directivity antennae, should be
quite capable of handling this issue."
Philips is working on a circuit that
would follow the tuner section in a digital television receiver. This circuit would
electronically exam the incoming signal
and, where there are multipath components in the received signal, would lock
to the most prevalent of the signals,
remember where it is with respect to the
other undesired signs, and pass one good
clean signal for decoding. According to
Philips, this is much easier to do in digital
than analog.
"In an urban area, signal strengths are
usually sufficient to penetrate building
materials, so in these areas indoor antennae (rabbit ears) should be sufficient for
DTV reception," Tadiken said. "However, in rural areas that may have fringe
reception, indoor antennae are generally
useless even for analog TV today. Fortunately, in rural areas there are normally
no restrictions on erecting an outdoor
antenna on a mast."
Tadiken suggested that a way of improving signal -to -noise ratio in a rural
area is to use an antenna -mounted preamplifier or buffer. "This buffering prevents the signal losses in the connection
from the antenna to the set from degrading the picture quality, particularly at
UHF frequencies," he said. "An even
better way to do this would be to mount
a tuner on the antenna so that the much
lower TV intermediate frequency (IF)
would be used to connect with the set.
This would minimize the losses and allow lower cost wiring or nonprofessional installation to produce satisfactory
CE
mm00
toetit
I
results. Of course, there are also very
smart people out there working on improved antenna technologies."
Most television sets are connected to a
chunk of copper with a cable system
between them and either a direct feed
from the TV station or an enhanced
antenna system at the cable company's
receive site. This does not always guaranteed the viewer will get the best possible signal -to -noise ratio at the RF input
to the TV set, but what is delivered is a
high level of what ever is on the cable
system, noise included. With the concept
that TV sets are virtually direct fed with
a reasonably high -level signal (typically
10 microvolts), there has been little incentive on the part of set manufacturers
to put a lot of design effort into the
improvement of their sets' front ends.
The technology is out there and this
appears to be changing with the increase
in off the air requirements of digital
television sets.
For additional information see Micro tune's website at www. microtune.com
and the Philips Semiconductor website
at www.semiconductors.philips.com.
questions and comments to:
arry_bloomfield @ intertec.com
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26
Broadcast Engineering
June 1999
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www.americanradiohistory.com
'
FCC
revokes Trinity license
BY HARRY MARTIN
In a recent decision, the Commission,
by a 3 -2 vote, revoked Trinity Broadcasting's license for station WHFT (TV),
Miami. The Commission's decision affirmed an ALJ 1995 ruling that Trinity
had exercised de facto control over National Minority TV, Inc., a purportedly
minority -owned company, and that the
principals of Trinity and NMTV abused
the Commission's processes by using
NMTV to evade the Commission's multiple ownership rules. At the time, Trinity was allowed to own a maximum of
12 TV stations but allegedly used NMTV
to buy two others based on NMTV's
minority ownership.
Although the Commission rarely denies license renewals, the outcome could
have been much worse for Trinity. Its
entire network of 12 full -power stations
and more than 300 LPTV stations was
potentially at risk. Nevertheless, the
Commission concluded that the loss of
one station (WHFT) was an adequate
and appropriate deterrent against future
violations.
The Commission's Trinity decision provides a strong warning signal that the
FCC takes its minority policies seriously
and that misrepresentation and/or attempts to circumvent the Commission's
ownership rules will not go unpunished.
Any broadcaster who violates these policies runs a substantial risk of having
their license revoked. The decision also
indicates that, with respect to any pending requests to obtain an extension of a
construction permit under the Commission's former rule (including appeals),
the FCC now is applying a strict standard for obtaining an extension.
out authorization, and broadcasting inadequately censored indecent material.
fines
The FCC fined a station in Washington
$19,000 for, among other things, failing
to keep its tower lit and painted. In
addition, the FCC recently issued fines
against other stations around the country for failing to maintain limited power,
failure to test equipment regularly, broadcasting a telephone conversation with-
In its recent fines for technical violations, the FCC determined that lighting
or transmission problems existed at individual stations and inspected the stations. In every case, the Commission
found additional noncompliant items
for which it issued fines. In the Washington case, the FCC determined that the
station's tower lights were not working
and entered the station. The FCC agents
determined that, in addition to the tower
lighting, the paint on the tower was
faded and chipped. Further, the agents
inspected the studio equipment and found
that Emergency Alert System (EAS)
equipment had not been installed and
that remote control and metering equipment had not been installed. The FCC
fined the station $19,000 for these violations.
During similar investigations, FCC
agents fined a Florida station $7,000
(finding a failure to keep a public inspection file available, failure to conduct
performance measurements and failure
to test and meet EAS requirements) after
a report of parasitic emissions. A Mississippi station was fined $10,000 for operating with too much power as well as for
inaccurate station logs, ineffective system monitoring, and a lack of fencing
around its tower.
The FCC also has fined several stations
for the content of their broadcasts. A
Virginia station and a California station
(which rebroadcasts the syndicated programming of the Virginia station) were
fined for broadcasting a telephone conversation with a caller who was incorrectly told that she was put on hold. The
caller settled a civil suit with the station
that arose from the incident. However,
the FCC stated that the resolution of the
civil suit had no bearing on the violation
of FCC rules. In another content -related
fine, a Rhode Island station was fined
$7,000 for ineffectively bleeping indecent words from a conversation. The
FCC found that a bleep in the middle of
30
June 1999
FCC assesses heavy
Broadcast Engineering
www.americanradiohistory.com
word, combined
with the context within which the word
was used, resulted in a violation of the
indecency rule.
a clearly recognizable
Auction rules affirmed
In an order released April 20, the FCC
affirmed the following provisions of its
program, first approved in August 1998,
for the use of auctions to resolve mutual
exclusivity among commercial broadcast applicants:
Auction processing of applications
which already have been through full
hearings was affirmed.
The FCC rejected requests for reimbursement of expenses by applicants
who counted on or who had already
paid for hearing processing.
The FCC affirmed that petitions to
deny will be permitted only after an
auction winner is selected. The deadline
for such petitions will be 10 days after
the auction winner's long -form application is accepted for filing. (Petitioners
against an LPTV or translator winner
will be afforded 15 days to file.)
The FCC changed the "new entrant"
35 percent/25 percent bidding credit
award procedures by redefining "recognizable interest" for purposes of assessing the number of other media interests
to mean any attributable interest.
Harry C. Martin is an attorney with Fletcher,
Heald & Hildreth, PLC., Rosslyn, VA.
Send questions and comments to:
harry martin @intertec.com
Dateline
Broadcast stations in the
following states must file their
biannual ownership reports on
or before Aug. 1, 1999: California, Illinois, North Carolina,
South Carolina and Wisconsin.
The December 1998 edition of
Form 323, which includes
gender and ethnicity information, must be used by commercial broadcasters.
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The 2GHz ENG spectrum skirmishes
JERRY WHITAKER, BE CONFERENCE CONSULTANT
may be reassuring to know that
today, even in the era of lighting-fast
technological change, there is at least
the
one thing that never changes
fight over spectrum. Then again, perhaps it is not very reassuring at all. The
tug -of-war over the limited resources
of the radio frequency spectrum, or at
least the practical, usable portions of it,
has been going on for decades. As new
technologies have pushed the limits of
creativity and personal communications
much without the benefit of wires
demands on the spectrum that broadcasters have claimed for decades have
come under increasing challenge.
One of the more visible and important battles of late is the 2GHz ENG
band issue. The fight has see -sawed
back -and -forth as the varied interests
involved made their arguments, debunked opposing arguments, and fashioned ways to deal with the final outcome, whatever that might be.
This month, two individuals who have
been in it from the beginning, Dane
Ericksen and Dan Shine, examine the
2GHz issue.
The battle for the 2GHz electronic
would not be compatible with high density uses such as cellular, personal
communications services and MSS.
Impacted systems would have included the Space Shuttle, the Hubble Space
Telescope, the future International
Space Station, the GOES Weather satellites, Landsat and the NASA Tracking and Data Relay satellites (TDRS).
The reallocation would also have violated treaty agreements the U.S. signed
with the European Space Agency, Japan and Russia. All in all, it was a
pretty impressive example of why
Congress should not try to micro manage a technical regulatory agency such as the FCC.
Another bright spot in the rule making was the FCC affirmation that MSS
entities must pay all relocation costs
to move 2GHz TV BAS licensees to the
new band plan. The most likely form
of that new band plan now appears to
be seven 12.1MHz -wide channels, although there is a possibility of an
alternative band plan, discussed in a
following paragraph, that would instead allow seven 14.3MHz -wide
channels. Both plans will, of course,
mean reduced deviation for links that
elect to remain analog, or early conversion to digital modulation. However, according to a report filed by
Walt Disney Imagineering Research
and Development, it appears that practical DTV pickup hardware is still at
least two generations, and probably a
year, away. Unlike fixed, point-to-
point TV BAS links that convert to
digital modulation where the increased
size, weight, power consumption and
latency problems can generally be tolerated, TV pickup stations do not
have such leeway. Indeed, the equipment the Disney engineers had to load
into a helicopter for dynamic performance tests was so heavy (550 pounds)
that a seat had to be removed from the
helicopter and the flying time restricted because a full tank of gas could not
be accommodated.
Another problem is that current FCC
rules only specifically authorize digital modulation in the 6.5 -, 18- and
31GHz TV BAS bands. However, a
pending Petition for Rulemaking, RM9418, filed by the Telecommunications Industry Association (TIA),
would amend the FCC rules to also
allow digital modulation in the 2 -,
2.5 -, 7- and 13GHz TV BAS bands,
plus other changes, and it appears
likely that the FCC will act favorably
on at least the digital modulation aspect of the TIA petition.
The most surprising of the comments filed in ET 95 -18 proceeding
was a proposal by Celsat to share
2010- to 2025MHz with broadcasters (i.e., all of Channel A 1 n and a
portion of Channel A2n). Celsat proposes dual -band handsets transmitting on both 890MHz cellular frequencies and 2GHz frequencies. Under the Celsat plan, TV BAS 2GHz
receivers would be equipped with
It
-
news gathering (ENG) band continues. In a Memorandum Opinion and
Order and Third Notice of Proposed
Rulemaking to ET Docket 95 -18, the
FCC has proposed reallocating 35MHz of
spectrum to mobile satellite services (MSS), thus
changing 2GHz
ENG from 1990 2110MHz to
2025- 2110MHz.
EXPERT'
Dane E. Ericksen,
P.E., CSRTE
A previous pro-
posal would have
shifted the 2GHz
TV broadcast
auxiliary services (BAS) band upwards
by 20MHz and would have resulted in
only a 15MHz net loss of bandwidth.
However, Congress instructed the FCC
to find another 55MHz of spectrum in
the 2GHz band for auction purposes
as part of the 1997 Balanced Budget
Act. An even more draconian reduction in bandwidth, from 120MHz to a
mere 70MHz, did not occur because
the Society of Broadcast Engineers and
others were able to show a further
reallocation would impact the National
Aeronautics and Space Administration, which uses 2025- to 2110MHz
on a secondary, shared basis for Earth to -space and space -to -space communications. Such sharing is possible with
low- density uses such as ENG, but
32
Broadcast Engineering
-
June 1999
-
Send questions and comments to
whitaker @intertec.com
Jerry_
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2.2GHz "keep away" beacons. Dual band handsets detecting a keep-away
beacon on the downlink frequency
would lock out 2GHz operation and
only allow 890MHz cellular transmissions. Thus, in populated areas where
broadcasters use 2GHz, but also where
good cellular coverage exists, MSS
subscribers would get service from
conventional terrestrial base stations.
But in remote areas where cellular
service is lacking and where there
would most likely be no 2GHz ENG
receivers requiring protection, the
handset would be free to transmit on
2GHz frequencies.
Under the Celsat proposal, broadcasters could end up with seven
14.3MHz wide channels instead of
seven 12.1MHz wide channels, and
such wider channels would be more
conducive to reduced -deviation analog operations with two audio subcarriers. Further, 14.3MHz wide chan-
nels open the possibility of half-channel splits for digital operations. Al-
Equipment manufacturers have
watched and waited for the final
word on the 2GHz broadcast auxiliary
band rechanneling for a number of years.
They have spent a considerable
amount of time and money working
out solutions to speculative proposals. Now, it appears that we may be
close to a final announcement and
hope that this issue can finally be
resolved. The
nal to noise proportionally. This is
not desirable because of the normally
nology. That may be worth a great
deal to progressive broadcasters who
use innovation to capture audience.
There have been some minor effects
to business in general that can be
attributed to the proposed change in
the channel plan for the 2GHz broadcast auxiliary band. It is not the change
itself but rather the length of time that
the issue has gone unresolved. I am
sure that all of the microwave equipment manufacturers have suffered
some ill effects due to the indecision.
For example, Adaptive Broadband
(MRC) has comprehensive retuning
plans for equipment in the field to
deal with the channel reallocation,
but we can not put the plans in effect
until the final ruling is announced
Broadcasters are unsure of how to
proceed with growth. We hope for a
final resolution soon so that we can
get on with the formidable task of
following are
some issues that
are affected by
reducing the
bandwidth of
the RF channels.
The proposed
reduction
in
channel bandwidth will have
Dan Shine, Adaptive
a profound afBroadband
fect on equipment performance it we are to continue with analog ENG. This is still under study,
but we know that channel bandwidths
of 12MHz or less will impair the ability to use multiple analog audio sub carriers above the video signal. Two
audio subcarriers will be possible, but
a third and fourth would be a problem
unless digital audio techniques are
employed. There also could be performance trade -offs with video filtering
and video deviation.
The video filtering issues are not
trivial. It is naive to think the video
low -pass filter bandwidths can be narrowed to allow more room for audio
subcarriers without degrading the
group delay of the video filter/equalizer. This degradation produces ringing and chroma distortions that can
not be corrected. Lowering the video
deviation will decrease the video sig-
VENDORI
34
Broadcast Engineering
low operating margins that exist with
analog ENG. All of these issues must
be addressed to keep the adjacent
channel interference to acceptable levels. The question is how much are we
willing to lower the performance bar
for analog ENG operation? It is a very
subjective question and each chief
engineer or director of engineering
tends to have a different answer.
The use of digital transmission techniques is an option that would produce acceptable video performance in
bandwidth. The cost of digital
ENG equipment, as was seen during
NAB99, is high and may be initially
prohibitive in some markets. Digital
ENG with COFDM technology does
have some major advantages in that it
is impervious to RF multipath distortions and has capabilities to transmit
multiple video and audio streams. This
may be the ultimate answer and its use
will depend on the worth broadcasters put on the increased performance.
This technology will allow the broadcaster to do ENG reports, sports and
EJ in ways that were prohibitive previous to the availability of this techless
though only standard- definition, heavily compressed digital signals would be
possible in a 7.15MHz split channel,
and that may he adequate for ENG
feeds.
Dane E. Ericksen, P.E., CSRTE is a member of
the SBE Board of Directors and is a consulting
Edison, San Franengineer with Hammett
ú
cisco.
equipment modifications that will lead
to operational stability in the 2GHz
broadcast auxiliary band.
Dan Shine is director, Advanced Products for
Adaptive Broadband, Chelmsford, MA.
The Dr. is listening!
Problems?
Questions?
Solutions?
Comments?
Contact the Dr. at
drdigital @compuserve.com
June 1999
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Digital Handbook
Audio synchronization
BY MICHAEL ROBIN
In digital audio production environments, digital audio equipment may he used as stand -alone
devices connected to other pieces
of equipment via analog I/O ports.
In this case no synchronization is
required. However, when several
digital audio signal sources are
connected to a digital audio mixer
using digital I/O ports, these digital sources must be synchronous.
In digital video production environments, especially when the end
result is an embedded audio signal, the synchronization requirements extend to audio/video syn-
chronization.
Digital audio studios
Digital audio signals are made of
TEMPORAL
REFERENCE POINT
AES/EBU DARS
CHANNEL
Z
A
CHANNEL
Y
AT RECEIVER INPUT
25
AES /EBU DIGITAL AUDIO SIGNAL
Z
CHANNEL
A
CHANNEL
Y
B
Microprocessors
ltranslslon
On chip
per chip)
frequency
Off chip frequency
Cost/transistor
,MHn
signals are not locked, clicks may be
heard as one signal runs through a
timing point with respect to another
signal being mixed with it.
To achieve synchronization, a central
2007
1995
1998
2001
2004
5M
14M
26M
50M
210M
12M
25M
64M
150M
350M
300
450
600
800
1000
150
200
300
250
500
1
0.5
0.2
0.1
0.05
I
SOURCE: Jon Peddle Associates www.jpa.com
38
X
CHANNEL A
Y
CHANNEL
B
Figure 1. To be considered in sync. digital audio signals must be within +/ -5 percent of an audio
frame at the transmitter output and +/ -25 percent of an audio frame at the transmitter input. The
timing reference is the first edge of the Z or X word.
An impressive array of features and power will reside
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FRAME GRAB
A look at tomorrow's technology.
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Items
CHANNEL
Y
TIMING TOLERANCE
discrete samples. Mixing, inserting and
assembling digital audio signals from a
variety of sources requires the samples
to he synchronized to a reference source
in both frequency and phase. If the
ASIC
CHANNEL A
X
B
Broadcast Engineering
June 1999
synchronizing generator is used to feed
each digital audio source with a reference sampling rate signal in a manner
similar to that of a television studio. To
this effect, a separate sync input is needed on every piece of equipment. The
preferred method is the use of a digital
audio reference signal (DARS). The
DARS has the format and the electrical
configuration of the two -channel AES/
EBU interface.
Digital audio samples must be in phase
with the DARS reference signal with a
tolerance of ±5 percent of an audio
frame at the transmitter output and a
tolerance of s25 percent of an audio
frame at the receiver input. The timing
reference signal is the first edge of the Z
or X sync word. Timing is expressed as
a percentage of the sampling period.
Failure to synchronize and phase digital
audio signals can result in pops and
clicks. Figure 1 shows the timing difference tolerance with respect to a DARS.
When connecting external digital signals to an otherwise synchronous and
timed audio studio or center, one of two
conditions may occur:
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rate. External 48kHz sampling rate, nonsynchronous
signals need to be audio
frame synchronized to lock
the drifting sampling rate
to the DARS signal.
AUDIO FRAME
NON- SYNCHRONOUS
EXTERNAL SOURCE
` SYNCHRONIZER
CD-ROM
DIGITAL AUDIO
INPUT
DIGITAL
PRODUCTION
MIXER
AUDIO RATE
CONVERTER
R-DAT
-
p-
--.
OUTPUT FOR
DISTRIBUTION
Audio /video production
In video production facilities, the distribution of dig-
ital video and audio signals
can be achieved by routing
them separately. Alternately, the digital audio signal
can be mapped (embedded)
into the ancillary data space
AESIEBU
of a bit- serial digital video
REFERENCE
GENERATOR
signal conforming to the
ANSI/SMPTE 259M standard for single coaxial caFigure 2. Digital audio studios are connected much like video facilities. The DARS signal is used
ble distribution. The distriin much the same manner as black burst.
bution of embedded digital
audio signals inside a digiThe incoming signal is nominally diagram of a digital audio production tal production facility requires that the
identical in sampling frequency but is studio. A central DARS generator feeds digital audio and digital video signals
out of phase with the DARS. In this case several pieces of equipment to achieve be synchronous, i.e. derived from a
a digital audio frame synchronizer is
synchronization and timing. Within this common reference as well as precisely
required using the DARS as a frequency type of facility, there are several com- timed to allow for click -free audio and
mon points that need to be addressed. video switching.
and timing reference.
The AES/EBU digital audio signal is
The incoming signal is not identical CD players use a sampling frequency of
in sampling frequency. In this case a 44.1kHz. This requires an audio fre- organized in blocks, frames and subfrequency -rate conversion is necessary. quency -rate converter to convert the frames. An audio block contains 192
Figure 2 shows a simplified block signal to the standard 48kHz sampling digital audio frames. A digital audio
www.americanradiohistory.com
frame contains two audio subframes
each representing an audio channel (e.g.
left and right). Each subframe is subdivided into 32 bits: four sync bits, four
auxiliary bits, twenty audio bits and
four utility bits (V,U,C,P). The dominant digital audio sampling rate in
broadcast and video production applications is 48 kilosamples per second or
a sampling frequency of:
fs = 48kHz
The duration of an audio frame is:
VIDEO TIMING REFERENCE
.1__ 20.83ps
A1602
1 /fs
I
A1602
Al
61602
FRAME
B2
1
-
A2
61
FRAME 2
62
-833ps
=
64=_325.527ns
One BPM bit -cell duration =
325.527ns/2=_163ns
Eye diagram unit interval (UI) = 163
ns/2s8I ns
A2
01
IN PHASE
20.8333µs
The duration of an audio block is:
TB = 20.8311s x 192 = 4000µs
Sampling the analog audio signal results in an NRZ AES/EBU bit rate of:
48 kilosamples/sec x 2 channels x 32 bits/sample = 3.072Mb/s
The NRZ AES/EBU signal is bi- phasemark (BPM) encoded resulting in a data
rate of 3.072 x 2 = 6.144 Mb/s. The sync
words are not BPM encoded and have a
data rate of 3.072/3 = 1.024 Mb/s. Each
audio frame contains 64 bits (32 bits
per audio channel) sent every
20.8333µs, hence:
Frame data bit duration = 20.8333µs/
TF =
Al
01602
A1601
81601
A2
B1
FRAME 3
B2
-4.18psA1602
FIVE FRAME
SEOUEIICE
B1602
I
Al
I
81
-8.16
I
A1601
61601
Al
-8.33 vs
A1602
81602
t81
I
Al
I
I
81
I
82
I
FRAME 4
82
Pe
82
I
82
I
I
82
FRAME
I
I
82
FRAME
1
5
-
sequence
IN PHASE
Figure 3. Because there is a nonintegral relationship between the audio frame rate
and the video frame rate, the number of samples /frame varies in a predefined
sequence. After five frames, the phase sequence repeats.
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and a coherent DARS signal
for distribution throughout the
NON -SYNCHRONOUS
AUDIO FRAME
EXTERNAL SOURCE
SYNCHRONIZER
facility. The color black signal
synchronizes all analog and digital video sources and the DARS
AUDIO
DIGITAL
synchronizes all audio A/D conAUDIO RATE
CD-ROM
PRODUCTION
CONVERTER
MIXER
verters.
Figure 4 shows a simplified
DIG TAL
blockdiagram of a digital
AUDIO
DELAY
production facility where digDIGITAL AUDIO
R-OAT
INPUT
ital audio and video signals
are locked to a common sync
source. Note that a digital
AUDIO/VIDEO
AUDIONIDEO
MULTIPLEXER
DISTRIBUTION
OARS
audio delay is used to comSYNC
pensate for the video delay
GENERATOR
COLOR BLACK
caused by the video producDVTR
tion switcher.
All other equipment locked
CAMERA A
to this generator will produce
DIGITAL
VIDEO
the same audio -to -video alignPRODUCTION
SWITCHER
ment. Under these conditions
CAMERA
AND
SPECIAL
the process of switching from
EFFECTS
one routing switcher source to
CAMERA
another will generate no clicks.
It is important to note that even
VIDEO FRAME
NON-SYNCHRONOUS
SYNCHRONIZER
EXTERNAL SOURCE
though there is no switching
click, switching between two
Figure 4. Within a digital audio /video facility, a common reference is used for both the video
signals having a different proreference (genlock) signal and the DARS signal. In many cases, digital audio delays are
gram content results in a disneeded to synchronize the audio and video signals after effects processing.
continuity which may be subThe number of audio samples per achieve this, five consecutive video jectively uncomfortable. To avoid this
frames will carry unequal numbers effect, the data block number (DBN)
video frame is given by:
Samples/video frame = Video frame of audio samples, respectively 1602, sequence needs to be continuously mon1602, 1601 (801 in field 1 and 800 itored. In case there is a DBN discontiduration/Audio frame duration
nuity as a result of switching, the validIn the 625/50 scanning standard the in field 2), 1602 and 1601 samples.
video frame duration is:
This results in a five video -frame ity bit (V) needs to be reset to 1. This
phase sequence of digital audio and will warn downstream equipment of
1/25 = 40,000.00µs
The phase relationship between audio video which must be taken into con- the occurrence of a switch and cause
and video signals can be easily main- sideration in the relative synchroni- the audio to be faded to silence durtained since the number of audio sam- zation of the digital audio and video ing the switching period, reducing
ples per video frame is almost exactly signal sources. After five video frames the audibility of the switch. It is to be
an integer number of 8008 audio mentioned here that not all demultian integer:
40,000.00µs/20.833ps =_ 1920 samples is obtained. The relative tim- plexers or D/A converters are capable
ing of the audio vs. video reference of correctly handling the V bit.
samples/video frame
point varies from frame to frame and
scanning
standard
In the 525/59.94
returns to zero timing difference af- Michael Robin, former engineer with the Cathe video frame duration is:
1/29.97 = 33,366.67µs
ter five video frames. Figure 3 illus- nadian Broadcasting Corporation engineering headquarters, is an independent broadcast
The number of audio samples per trates the five video frame digital consultant located in Montreal, Canada. He is
video frame is not an integer but a audio phase sequence for the 525/60 co-author of Digital Television Fundamentals, published by McGraw-Hill.
fractional number:
standard.
In routing switchers, the switching of
33,366.67µs / 20.8333µs=
Send questions and comments to:
[email protected]
digital video with embedded audio oc1601.6 samples/video frame
It takes five frames before an integer curs on line 10 of the vertical blanking
interval (VBI). This switching disrupts
number of audio samples is obtained:
Michael Robin's book may
1601.6 x 5 = 8008
the audio signal sequence. Faultless
be ordered directly from
the publisher by calling
This results in 8008/(5 x 525) = switching of embedded audio signals is
800 -262-4729. It is also
3.052 samples per TV line. As a possible if all signals, audio and video,
available from several
consequence, most lines carry three are synchronized to the same central
booksellers.
samples per channel while some car- sync source. The sync source generates
ry four samples per channel. To a video reference signal (e.g. color black)
B
C
42
Broadcast Engineering
June 1999
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The EBU /SMPTE Task Force Report
Part VI, Potential impact
-
BY BRAD GILMER
In the fall of 1998, the
EBU /SMPTE
Task Force published its report on the
future of TV technology. This is the
final article in a series that explores the
report and its impact on the industry at
large. Over the past few months, this
column has focused on the different
areas of the report Systems, Compression, Wrappers and Metadata, and
Networks and Transfer Protocols. This
month's column takes a summary look
at the report. It also examines the work
that has taken place since the report was
published and describes standards that
have been put in place or are currently
under development as a result.
Much of the Task Force's work concerned compressing and transporting
program content as data around TV
facilities. Because most facilities are not
based on this type of technology, the
impact of the report may not be immediate. However, for those anticipating
using 4x real -time transfers, getting
commercials via satellite, or building
centralized origination facilities, their
work will definitely impact your plans.
Just as the standards written five to 10
years ago have paved the way for the
conversion to digital, these new standards will have an impact on facility
design over the next five to 10 years.
The Task Force brought together an
unprecedented number of technical experts from many different disciplines.
Not only were some of the best and
brightest people from the TV industry
involved, but there were experts from
the ATM forum and the Fibre Channel
AudioNideo project. The computer
industry was well represented with participation from Microsoft, Apple, Intel,
Sun, SGI, Hewlett Packard and others.
Telecommunications companies and
equipment providers also participated,
along with experts from the imaging
section of the federal government. The
group was strongly international, with
delegates from Europe, Australia, Asia,
and the U.S. Judging from the list of
participants, this was truly a monumental effort.
One thing the Task Force made clear
is that in five to 10 years, broadcasting
(point-to- multipoint communications)
will still exist. However, we can already
see that streaming content (i.e. on the
Internet) from one source to one receiver will also be a popular method of
viewing program content (point -topoint). Along with these, file transfer of
program material will also become more
EBU /SMPTE Task Force
accomplishments:
Creation of the Serial Digital Transport Interface (SDTI) standard
Development of a System Model for compressed digital television
facilities
Initial definition of Metadata for television
Issuing of a preliminary Metadata dictionary
Standardization of "Metadata food-chain"
Standardization of simple and complex wrapper concepts
Development of a Reference Architecture for content transfer
Public disclosure of SX
Public disclosure of DVC -25, DVC-50, Digital -S, and DV-CAM
Transportation of a number of compressed formats via SDTI
Standardization of XTP, a protocol for point- to-multi-point transfers
Perhaps the creation of the Pro-MPEG forum
44
Broadcast Engineering
June 1999
www.americanradiohistory.com
prevalent. There are several reasons for
this. First, if getting content from one
place to another is all that is needed, it
can be done using unattended file transfers. Such transfers can be made without having someone feeding tapes one
after the other, or having someone at
the other end for recording and logging.
Second, labeling the tapes and marking
in and out points will not be necessary
as this information and other metadata
will travel with the program content
itself. Also, because file transfer is a bit for-bit guaranteed copy, if the file makes
it to the destination, it is exactly the
possibly
same as it was at its source
making QC less of a concern. Finally,
since file transfers can be made at faster
or slower than real time, flexibility is
increased.
-
The Task Force and SMPTE
The Task Force was a joint
effort
between members of the European
Broadcast Union (EBU) and the Society
of Motion Picture and Television Engineers (SMPTE). It was not charged with
making new standards. Instead, it had
the job of identifying standards to be
written to assure program content exchange between digital compressed facilities. Once the work was complete,
the Task Force passed on a list of recommendations for standards work to
SMPTE. As a direct result of this effort,
SMPTE itself underwent a major reorganization, with the new organization
closely matching the structure of the
Task Force.
Achievements
Here are some of the things the Task
Force accomplished:
resolved the conflict between two
competing and incompatible proposals
for transmitting digital data such as
compressed MPEG pictures over the
standard Serial Digital Interface (SDI).
The basis for a new standard, the Serial
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Digital Transport Interface
(SDTI) was formed. This is important because without a transport standard, it would be im-
possible to connect two MPEG
systems. SDTI is now a SMPTE
standard.
developed an overall system
model describing how the various components of digital facilities fit together. The Systems
group addressed migration from
existing facilities to the facilities
of the future. SMPTE has set out
to define the parameters for con- Figure 1. The Task Force system model defines areas, or activities, within a broadcast facility.
The areas can be divided into planes such as video essence or audio essence. Communications
trol systems, messages and other layers as well as a control and monitoring planes are used to connect all the pieces.
system elements, and is also
working to develop a standardized ob- These wrappers allow users to group MPEG forum, a group dedicated to
ject model approach for device control material together in the electronic world providing interoperability between various providers of MPEG equipment, is
in the broadcast environment. They just as they do in the physical world.
show
elean indirect result of the Task Force
For
example,
all
the
scripts,
looking
at
ways
to
achieve
are also
bandwidth management of overall sys- ments, contract rights, and EDLs for a work. Given everything that the Task
show may now be stored together in a Force work enabled in the area of DV,
tems. (See Figure 1)
addressed, for the first time, the issue filing cabinet or on a shelf. All of these some may have felt that this gave the
of metadata and how it was to be de- elements could be linked together in DV approach a competitive advantage, and may have begun this conscribed and used in the broadcast in- electronic form by using a wrapper.
made available a reference architec- centration on assuring the same sort
dustry.
SMPTE has issued a ballot for a ture in a public forum that describes an of interoperability for MPEG equipmetadata dictionary. This document de- approach to allow the interchange of ment. The work of the Task Force
scribes how a dictionary defining meta - program content in the digitally com- will not directly impact the majority
of daily operations or decisions this
data should be built so that all users can pressed domain.
made available the workings of Sony week, or perhaps even this year. Howcheck it for the definitions of metadata
SX in a public forum. While not all the ever, over time the standards that are
terms.
SMPTE has now begun the task of details of SX were published, enough being developed now will become the
standardizing the metadata food chain information was released to make some backbone of television and other rich
the path metadata will take through interchange of SX material a possibility. media distribution facilities of the
made available the workings of DV- future.
facilities.
If you would like to participate in
developed and documented the con- based 25Mb/s and 50Mb/s comprescept of simple and complex wrappers. sion schemes (DVC -25, DVC -50, and charting the future of this industry,
Digital S) in a public forum, and stan- attend the national SMPTE standards
dardized mappings of these compres- meetings. All meetings are open to
a
the public. Meeting notices are pubsion schemes onto SDTI.
nearing completion on standardiza- lished on the SMPTE website at
tion work on the mapping of the DV www.smpte.org under the Engineering
consumer format (DV-CAM) into SDTI. section. Users are particularly encourin the process of defining how to aged to attend. If you have shied away
map MPEG -2 4:2:2P transport streams from the technical committee meetings,
The Final Report is published
concerned that you do not have the ininto SDTI.
jointly by the EBU and SMPTE.
how
to
map
depth technical knowledge to make a
is
defining
SMPTE
also
Contact the EBU or SMPTE and
MPEG -2 elementary streams associat- contribution, do not be concerned. All
ask to be sent a paper copy
ed with metadata (audio, system infor- that is required from users is their
(the EBU can supply a Special
mation, etc.) into SDTI (SDTI -CP or thoughts on how new technologies will
Supplement, SMPTE can supply
be applied. Your contributions will be
Content Packages).
a Journal) or download the .pdf
DV
welcomed.
begun work on the transfer of
document from the EBU
across ATM networks.
website (www.ebu.ch/
nearing completion on standardiza- Brad Gilmer is president of Gilmer and Assopmc_es_tf.html) or from the
work on the Express File Transport ciates, a management and technology consulttion
SMPTE website
ing firm.
(XTP) protocol that will allow point -to(www.smpte.org /engr/
Send questions and comments to:
multipoint transfer of program content.
ebumeetl.html)
[email protected]
Some have suggested that the Pro-
-
Obtaining
copy of the
Task Force
report
46
Broadcast Engineering
June 1999
www.americanradiohistory.com
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Ask Dr. Digital
Confused crosspoints
BY STEVE EPSTEIN. TECHNICAL EDITOR
At NAB I was discussing
automation
with Stephen Damas,
an engineer from
WGBH, and it seems
they have had some
problems with the interface between their Louth
automation system and an old Utah
Scientific AVS -2 router. Every now
and then it would take and /or drop
crosspoints; seemingly at random.
The solution, as it turned out, was
using a different version of the Utah
control software. I checked with
Doug Pierce at Utah Comteck Video,
which handles the AVS series. Here
is what he had to say:
13c
he issue, which
came to us from
WGBH, Boston, was
that wrong sources
were being selected
and /or random sources were being
selected when Louth automation was
controlling the system. There have
been some reports from other customers with similar problems, but
none to the extent WGBH was seeing.
The main reason is WGBH runs two
stations on one router. They have
very heavy traffic or in other words,
a lot of switches happening.
We went to work and investigated
the problem by working directly with
Louth and WGBH. After consulting
with some of WGBH's engineers, we
discovered that the control card software was a version that included the
MRS -2 software. MRS -2 allows customers to make changes easily to the
control system (control panels) or
even burn PROMs. However, with
this version of software running the
control card (and because of some
hardware limitations) the baud rate
of the serial ports are slowed down
dramatically. The Louth automation
system needs to run at a higher baud
50
Broadcast Engineering
rate than what the serial ports can
handle to operate correctly.
The problem was solved by changing to a software version without
MRS -2. This allows the serial ports
to run at a higher baud rate, making
them compatible with Louth automation. One of our customers was
trying to run at 38400 -baud rate.
Reducing that to 9600 -baud has eliminated the problem, but he has much
lighter traffic on his router. It appears
that customers with light traffic on
their router can run at 9600 -baud
and they will be fine with the MRS -2
version software. Customers with a
lot of activity on the router that are
having problems running with automation need to change to a different
version of software.
The drawback of changing to this
version of software is that customers
using the MRS-2 software to download to the control panels will need to
change back to the MRS -2 software
long enough to do the download.
Doug Pierce
Utah Comteck Video
(801) 524-9999
Dr. Digital responds:
there you have it. If you have
been having problems like this
with older Utah routers, you might
want to check with Doug and see if this
solution can resolve your problem.
Well,
1720 bulb replacement revisited
In reference to changing the scale
lamps on the Tektronix 1720 (Dr.
Digital, May 99), Tektronix doesn't
mention that the plastic lamp bases
are almost always deteriorated from
heat or that they crumble when you
try to grip them. Metal tweezers don't
work very well to grip the glass lamp
envelope either. We use a short length
of soft plastic tubing to hold the lamp
June 1999
while it is
guided to
the correct
position to
slide over the
contact pins. I always thought it was
ironic that with all the scopes Tektronix has manufactured over the
last three decades, they never seem to
come up with a good design for scale
illumination lamps. We have had problems with every model we have encountered.
Seabrook
WETA -TV
Bill
Maintenance Department
Dr. Digital responds:
Thanks for the info. I've had plenty
of trouble myself. It always seemed
you needed two sizes of tubing, one
tight enough to grip the bulb and pull
it out, and another loose enough that
it won't pull the replacement bulb
back out once it is inserted. I have
seen a variety of bulb removal tools
over the years, but none seemed to
work well all the time. Sometimes
slipping pieces of tubing (rubber or
heatshrink) over the tweezer tips can
help when trying to grip the bulb.
If you are having trouble with a product or manufacturer, or simply have a
technical question. Drop me a note at
drdigitaI(a(,,;nfuíser('e.(nní.
The Dr. is listening!
Problems?
Questions?
Solutions?
Comments?
Contact the Dr. at
drdigital @compuserve.com
What do we really need in a video server?
thr
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and we can add storage whenever we want.
how many
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we start with five playback channels
and one record channel per unit.
then tie the units together on
I
see, we gain the
with a
flexibility
a
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of distributed processing
now,
how do we ensure recording quality?
let's build in a decoder for confidence
monitoring.
Okay, what format?
the DTV standard.
Its government mandated.
of course, It's
but,
our budget?
will cost thousands less just by usiné off - the -shelf storage
what about
it
and standard computer industry technologies.
so how do we make it happen?
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www.americanradiohistory.com
o
S
By Jim Seaman and Steve Lewis
The original PBS mission of providing superior TV programming has remained
unchanged over time despite the dramatic transformation of television operations
and the broadcast industry in the last 20 years. The PBS origination facility, located
in Alexandria, VA, currently provides extensive network program feeds across seven
time zones that arc viewed locally through public member station broadcasts and other
distribution clients such as DBS. To keep up to date as well as set the pace for the future, the PBS
technical team has incorporated many innovative approaches, including numerous new systems.
These facility enhancements provide increased media services to its 349 member stations and
their nearly 100 million viewers.
PBS completed its latest facility makeover with the help of Communications Engineering Inc.
(CEO, a turnkey broadcast design and engineering firm located in Newington, VA. The project
developed and created a completely automated multichannel facility, which also initiated PBS'
HDTV programming schedule.
Managing technical change within PBS' television facility begins with an analysis of existing
operations including program acquisition, preparation, storage, origination and transmission
Broadcast Engineering
June 1999
www.americanradiohistory.com
or
PBS' eight HP MectiaShvam sonrers are incorporated into
at II times.
a
PBS
ers. The embedded audio standard had
allowed incompatible vendor approaches to develop which PBS endeavored to
solve through product collaborations and
consultations with Tektronix, Sony, NVision, Philips BTS and other manufacturers whose equipment was chosen by PBS.
Solutions involved new firmware for some
Panasonic and Sony VTRs and enhancements to the Philips audio mux/demux
boards before the systems integrated together without producing sonic artifacts.
Multiple digital
tape standards had
emerged within the
industry by 1993,
most recent upgrade. As part of PBS's
1993 digital remake, it had considered
HD alternatives, but decided against
investing in any HD technologies until
ATSC, SMPTE, and other standards
bodies had finished their work. A benefit
of PBS' decision to hold off on investment
in its digital HD origination capability
was the ability to take advantage of the
quick rise of video server technology. In
keeping with its most recent renovations,
PBS organized a comprehensive move to
MPEG -2 4:2:2 servers and automation
that will quickly see a role in PBS's evolving DTV origination facility.
Creating
a
digital foundation
Beginning in 1997, PBS analyzed approaches to a new digital origination
¡
gram ideas, including PBS Kids. All argued for additional origination capacity.
The PBS cart machine capacity was
constrained and the broadcast industry's
MPEG -based server technology along
with automation solutions had matured
into a compelling origination alternative.
The broadcast industry was heralding a new technology direction called
DTV. PBS had to be made ready to serve
its stations in DTV. PBS early on saw
that the opportunity to offer SDTV
multicasts would fulfill a need for its
member stations, and that meant that
its composite distribution facility would
need to be upgraded to component.
PBS evaluated a number of server vendors and conducted extensive tests, evaluations, and demonstrations. During the
evaluation period
server technology
¡
evolved from predominately M -JPEG
but after careful
compression sysb......
00""!01008.
' OPIMIOL^°°'
TITT_LT]
analysis PBS chose
tems, at the start of
Panasonic D -3 as
PBS' analysis, into
, r
L1L I 71
its new in -house
MPEG-2 4:2:2 techPBS
digital videotape
nology that domiTECHNICAL
OPERATIONS
standard. An internates most server
e..wrn
CENTER
format room was
platforms today. PBS'
designed and built
other infrastructure
to process and
focus was an auto1,01:1.7
mation solution to
transfer the range
of analog and digicontrol the new servC=I
41+4441
PBS
tal tape formatsacer platform and other devices in the PBS
cepted by PBS onto
- t:l
program origination
D -3 for eventual
transmission. The
path. PBSselected HP
The new PBS technical operations center focuses on the use of servers for real -time
PBS library, which
and delayed playout. Sufficient expansion space has been allocated for both addi- servers and Louth auincluded -much tional servers and a new control room.
tomation due to their
one -inch tape and
ability to integrate
other analog material, began to use the infrastructure supporting serial digital fTU- closely. It was judged likely that ensuing
D -3 format to store program assets in the
R601, SMPTE 259M component video. vendor engineering enhancements into
digital domain. At the same time, 15 Once again the technical team at PBS 1999 and beyond would allow PBS to
component D -5 machines were purchased selected CEI's engineering staff in 1998 to expand and grow this origination platwith an eye toward an eventual ITU- collaborate on an upgrade that included form in the years ahead, to include DTV
R601 conversion of PBS and possible use servers, automation and HD origination solutions.
of D-5 with mezzanine level compression capability. The following is a description
Another factor influencing the choice
for HDTV.
of the design and build process that creat- of HP was that PBS and HP shared the
Since 1993, PBS origination has ed PBS' new digital foundation.
same strategic vision of servers becomThe move to an expanded digital plat- ing integrated with wide area networks
evolved to produce 18 program schedules along with the legacy C -band feed. form was accelerated in 1998 by four (WAN). An important consideration
The broadcast industry has made dra- technical and operational considerations: because PBS' future plans include the
The existing PBS tape delay system use of high -speed TCP/IP networks to
matic 'digital' product introductions in
transfer programs as files from producthe last six years particularly centered needed to be replaced.
Member stations and distribution ing stations into PBS, thereby becoming
on the serial digital component standard. The proliferation of vendor prod- clients wanted additional, customized more effiecient while eliminating the
ucts produced economies of scale sur- packaged feeds. This meant preparing physical transportation of videotape.
rounding industry 601 SD component additional program schedules for a DTV PBS' networked vision anticipates that
signals and pointed the way for PBS' multicast, DBS clients, and new PBS pro- future programs will eventually be re-
(171tto
T1=r
,,,.
_
j
-
B
ROPO
56
Broadcast Engineering
June 1999
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Circle (34) on Free Into Card
rr '
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tance from Philips factory personnel.
PBS
trieved as data files from a PBS archive
by its member stations.
PBS' regular on -air operations use HP's
current MPEG-2 technology with plans
to evolve and incorporate future HP
technology in wide area networking,
and to support HD origination when it
becomes available. HP's 4:2:2 encoder
technology helped address PBS' concerns regarding digital compression 'concatenation' artifacts associated with typical distribution client processes that involve program recording, local identification insertions and re-airing. PBS' experiencewith General Instrument DigiCipher (DC1 & DC2) compression issues
had started in 1994 when PBS was one of
the first networks to distribute programs
digitally over satellite.
Many other systems were designed and
built into the PBS digital upgrade to
support the move to 601 video, servers,
and automation. The key integration
modus operandi became the fabrication
of the racked systems at CEI and the
prewiring of the PBS raised floor facility.
This prework and planning meant that
minimal commotion intruded into existing on -air origination operations during
the transition. A third three- channel digital control room was built to deliver
Schedule X or the unscrambled program
schedule addressed to the C -Band backyard viewers and the DBS clients from
DirectTV and PrimeStar.
All programs to air are now originating
from the HP MediaStream servers arranged in a 4x4 redundant design. One
`hot spare' is maintained for all schedules at all times. Server operations and
Fiber Channel network management are
under control of Louth automation systems. The Odetics tape machines now
act as `caching' machines that feed programs into the HP servers several hours
in advance of airing. CEI integrated the
following systems as part of the overall
PBS upgrade:
The Philips BTS Saturn and Venus
systems were expanded. The SDI router
was expanded from 192x128 to 256x192
to add additional crosspoints and was
expanded during one weekend with assis-
60
Broadcast Engineering
Miranda video peripherals were used
to transition PBS to component 601
signals. PBS chose Miranda products
because of its extensive and innovative
product line, and its compact 16 -slot
frame (in SRUs). The boards provide
format conversion (4fsc/601), encode/
decode (601/RGB), synchronization, and
mux/demux (audio) solutions.
NVision's EnVoy switching was selected to provide 1.5Gb/s routing capability
for PBS' new HD origination system. Its
expandability to 128x128 was a key decision factor along with PBS' experience
using NVision AES switching systems.
PBS initiated HD transmission last
November in order to give member stations and viewers early access to HDTV
programs. The CEI designed and integrated solution uses D -5 machines connected through an NVision 1.5Gb/s HD
router. The HD program material is
encoded for air at PBS before being
stored on a Sencore 19.39Mb/s server.
Besides HD material, other 601 programs are upconverted by a Snell &
Wilcox HD5100 and then transmitted
through the Scientific Atlanta PowerVu
Plus system. The Sencore server then
records the 19.39Mb/s programs for
retransmission, a common scenario given that member station schedules span
seven time zones. All system operations
are under full automation control.
Future expansion plans
The PBS technical plant's efforts to enhance its program distribution offerings
and provide new services never rests. Plans
are being developed for new operational
capabilities that extend from the recent
transition to servers and automation. PBS
will increase its servers' storage later in
1999 and take advantage of the individua
disk subsystems that have grown from
9GB to 18GB each. PBS plans to upgrade
its servers to the recently announced 700
and 1600 products from HP to greatly
expand their Fibre Channel data throughput from 4x real -time transfers to 45x and
to enhance each server's I/O capabilities.
Currently PBS has 80 hours of online
storage associated with the HP servers
and retains approximately 12 to 24
months of programming at the Alexandria location. The rest of the PBS content
library, with over 100,000 tapes, is located off premises and stored in various
formats, including considerable one -inch
June 1999
analog material, and even Quadruplex.
The PBS asset library, storage methods
and retrieval processes will be addressed
in the next 12 months with the planned
addition of an integrated data tape archive solution. The vendors under consideration by PBS include StorageTek, Sony,
and Ampex. New HP servers will be
acquired to provide ingest services for the
archiving system and also to enhance PBS'
origination capabilities. The size of the
archive solution will range from 4TB to
5TB and be integrated with the rest of the
PBS facility thorough its Louth automa-
tion platform.
The PBS team remains poised to keep
at the forefront of television practices
with data services and Internet content
and distribution efforts underway.
PBS
Jim Seaman is PBS senior manager of video
engineering projects. Steve Lewis is director of
marketing for CEI, Newington, VA.
CEI Design Team:
Lawrence S. Brody, President
Jim Conley, Director of
Engineering
Jay Brown, Associate Director of
Engineering
Herman Reynolds, Senior
Managing Engineer
Lachlin Murdoch MacNeil, Senior
Design Engineer
Paul Tansill, Mechanical Design
Engineer
Equipment list:
Hewlett Packard MediaStream
Broadcast Servers (8)
Hewlett Packard Fiber Channel
Networking
Louth ADC -100 station automation
systems
Philips BTS Saturn, Mars, & Venus
audio /video systems
NVision 1.5 Gb HD routing system
NVision AES/EBU routing system
NVision RS-422 routing system
Leitch audio/video conversion &
distribution systems
Miranda audio/video conversion
systems
Snell & Wilcox, HD2100 conversion system
Sencore ATSC rackmount server
Sony BVM Monitors
Panasonic High Definition VTR
Panasonic HD Monitors
Chyron CODI Character Generator
Tektronix test & monitoring
equipment
Belden audio /video cabling
ADC patching systems
We contain 100%
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solutions. And isn't that what you're looking for? With our irtegrated approach, you have the real world benefits of a single source solution -a
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outh.com
Circle (36) on Free Into Card
Systems Design &Intégration
Transmission & Distribution
Maintaining transmission lines
BY DON MARKLEY
good weather of summer is with
again and it's time to call in your
friendly tower crew to inspect your tower, antenna(s) and transmission line(s).
While this subject has been discussed
previously in these pages, it is of sufficient importance to be touched on again.
'Pe
us
The primary problem seems to be
that the transmission lines are mostly
way up in the air, away from the prying
eyes of the front office suits. Unfortunately, they are also out of the eyes of
the technical staff. Problems aren't usually apparent until it is too late for
simple correction. Worse, when problems do appear, they often involve total failure and off -the -air time, something that is readily apparent to those
same front office suits. But, take heart,
with a little work, most problems
except those involving such things as
lightning and bullet holes
can be
-
avoided.
-
Hangers and such
An obvious problem is the manner in
which the lines are held in place. Rigid
lines should always be held in place by
sliding hangers with appropriate springs.
A fixed hanger should be located at the
top of the line as close to the elbow
complex as is practical and at the building entrance. That allows, as we all
should know, for compensation between
during tower inspections to ensure that
the hangers maintain good mechanical
integrity. The line itself should be checked
at each hanger to verify that no wear is
occurring due to hanger misalignment
and that the line is free to move through
the sliding section.
For flexible lines, a finger grip is still
advisable at the top and at recommended intervals along the line. Although
When problems do appear, they often involve
total failure and off -the -air time.
the expansion rate of the tower steel and
the aluminum or copper of the transmission line. The hanger springs should
be set to the tension recommended by
the manufacturer for the type of line.
Spring tension normally stays in order,
but hanger bolts need to be checked
FRAME GRAB
A look at the consumer side of DTV.
Consumers seek video and broadcast
interactivity from PCs andTVs.
Percentage of households with broadband PCs and interactive
TV capability.
some manufacturers no longer feel it
necessary to leave the grip in place after
the installation, it isn't a bad idea. The
clamps that hold the line in place are
used to keep the line from flopping
about rather than for support. They
only need to be adjusted to be snug and
should not be so tight that they deform
the outer conductor. Without the upper
grip to hold the line, it can gradually
work its way through the clamps from
vibration and expansion until all of the
weight is on the top connector. That will
shortly be followed by air leakage, which
will eventually be followed by smoke
and flames.
Broadband
PCs
Interactive TV
capability
o
1998
1999
2002
2
NOTE: broadband access includes DLS and cable modems and Interactive TV
includes digital and Internet STBs.
SOURCE: Strategy Anatytics wwwstralexyanalytiaa.con
62
Broadcast Engineering
June 1999
Line failures
That brings up the problem of what
to do when there is a failure at the top
of the line. For rigid line, the line
should be opened up to well below the
point where the failure occurred. Ashes, soot and pieces of copper can he
trusted to fall down into the transmission line from any burnout. This residue must be cleaned out of the line.
This should be done section by section
until no further trace can be found. For
flexible line, simply replace everything
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below the burnout. The alternative is the enjoyment
of another burnout after the trash works its way
down into a pile big enough for another arc over. By
the way, don't open the line and sniff the air inside
when looking for a burnout. Some of the materials
used in the manufacture of flexible lines create nasty
gases when burned.
Some rigid lines use a wrist- watch -type coil band for
the sliding contact at the flanges. That allows the
center conductor to move with respect to the outer
conductor as happens during normal operation. The
center conductor operates at a much higher temperature than the outer, resulting in greater expansion.
As the connectors are held by the outer conductor, a
sliding contact is necessary unless the center conductor uses expansion bellows. Depending upon the
manufacturer, those springs must be replaced periodically. In some cases, the springs last for 15 to 20
years; for others, six to seven years is not unusual. The
problem is that the continued heating and cooling of
the springs causes them to gradually lose their strength.
When springs are new, they are firm and stiff and
stand up well. As they age, they become softer and
tend to collapse and lie down. It is necessary to replace
the springs periodically along with the "O" rings at
each flange opened. If in question about the condition
of the springs, have your tower crew open up a few
sections and physically check them. If you remove
one and compare it to a new one, the need for
replacement should be fairly evident.
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Pressurization
Now for what should be obvious. All non -foam
dielectric lines and all waveguides must be pressurized. For coaxial lines of all types, three to five
pounds of pressure is adequate. When new lines are
installed, the lines must be purged thoroughly of
moisture by either pumping dry air through the
lines for awhile or by running a couple of bottles of
dry nitrogen gas through them. If you are unable to
do that while the tower crew is available to open the
top of the line, at least pressurize the line and then
dump it several times to remove as much moist air
as possible.
No matter how tight you may think the line is
sealed, moisture will still accumulate inside if it is
not pressurized. As the line is heated, the gas or air
inside the line will expand only to contract again
when the line cools back down. This occurs even if
the station is on the air full time. The line temperature varies due to heating from the sun. No line will
prevent some moisture from accumulating inside
due to this action. Even if it only leaks a few
molecules per cooling cycle, moisture will eventually accumulate and gather at the lowest spot, taking
the station off the air. The purpose of pressurization
is normally to insure that dry air or gas leaks out of
the line during such cycles and that pressure is
maintained during cooling, preventing the introduction of moist outside air.
www.americanradiohistory.com
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Circle (28) on Free Info Card
gets warm from the RF signal, you have a
greater problem than you want to deal
with - call the manufacturer for help
immediately. Waveguide is capable of carrying much more power than used in
television systems and should notgetwarm
conductive path can form as dust, dirt and moisture accumulate within a transmission line. When that path arcs over, the ultimate result is transmission line failure.
A
dehydrator is used, maintain it. Be
sure that lack of service has not caused
it to simply be pumping more moist air
that an adequate supply is available.
For waveguide systems, the amount of
pressure applied is much lower typically
less than one pound. Applying greater
pressure can cause the waveguide to de-
If a
into the line. If dry nitrogen gas is used,
be sure that nothing blocks the lines
from the regulator, and that the gas is
actually getting to the transmission lines.
Leave the gas turned on at all times and
check the cylinders regularly to insure
CALL
form slightly, which changes the tuning. A
gas dump is usually installed on waveguide
systems to let off any pressure buildup
caused by solar heating. If the waveguide
from the transmitter output.
Transmission line systems normally
provide very reliable service over many
years when properly designed and installed. The kicker is that they must he
maintained and pressurized properly.
Their reliability is actually a problem,
as transmission line systems tend to be
neglected as attention is placed on all
that unstable stuff found in the studio
making pictures (or whatever it is they
do in there). When ignored, line systems will reward you with really spectacular failures accompanied by smoke,
arcing and great destruction of parts.
While that may be interesting from a
gee -whiz point of view, it can be
avoided through a little simple maintenance.
Don Markley
is
president of Markley and
Associates, Peoria, IL.
SEND
Send questions and comments to:
don_markley ®intertec.corr
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66
Broadcast Engineering
June 1999
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Clrcle
(;
7)
on Free Into Card
Production Clips
DAT sync
field recordings
BY FLAWN WILLIAMS
perspectives are a great as were run to a small custom switcher after the shot. (To keep the internal clocks
set when making a sound portrait and headphone amp to monitor the powered through changes of D-cells, it's
of a complex event. But how do you get decks singly or in various combina- necessary to also have AA batteries in the
them when the action is a honey harvest tions. Each recorder would run for many internal battery sleds.)
The producer was able to start logging
taking place at night, 125 feet up a tree, hours powered by a D -cell sled.
in the presence of nearly 3 million bees?
tapes right immediately after the session, so we had an idea of what story
The micingand recordingdemands were That "synch -ing" feeling
These small Sony recorders are certain- elements we had on tape. That was
already grand in scale, with people in the
tree calling back and forth to counterparts ly not built for timecode synchroniza- crucial, because the piece was being
on the ground, but an additional hurdle tion, but they have very good inherent written on site. Voice tracks were recordwas presented when producers
ed on location, finishing just moments before the correspondent
wanted the option of recording a
headed for his next assignment.
version of this report in Dolby
ProLogic surround sound. The sitThe sound elements were audiuation required recording up to
tioned in greater detail on individ10 different perspectives, includual DAT tapes in the studio, and
decisions were made about which
ingwireless body mics, cabled omnis hung at various heights beevents to include in the final construction. Then we synched into
tween the climbers' location and
surround sound.
the ground, and mics on the correWe loaded the selections from
spondent and host scientist for
DAT
into a Sonic Solutions digital
play -by -play descriptions.
workstation. The timecode-chasBecause there was no way to
ing Sony studio DAT deck conguarantee that the mics could be
nected to the DAW would not
deployed properly on the tree,
display the time -of-day data from
several methods had been exthe tapes' subcode. Having
plored to get usable sound from
checked the various DAT tapes in
that height, including a parabolone of the Sony portables beforeic dish mic and helium balloons
hand, we had calculated the absoto lift some of the ultralight DPA
mics
(circled)
in
delicate
situlute time equivalents for a given
4060 omnis high into the air. But Using DATs and ultralight
time of day on each tape, and
the native climbers, our first ations can add another dimension to field acquisition.
were able to do our loads using
choice for mic deployment,
absolute
time.
turned out to be cooperative about car- time base stability and several subcode
This meant our loads were mostly withrying the wireless packs up, and also data features that make them useful.
hauled the tether for a string of omnis
Like almost all current DAT decks, in a second or two of being in sync. Once
reaching from the nests to the ground. they will record absolute time, which is dragged into the graphic waveform editing environment in the Sonic, it was easy
We were far removed from grid power, time measured from the top of the tape
and the rigors of getting equipment up in hours/minutes/seconds. They also can to nudge them into perfect sync.
In this case, "perfect" sync is a misnothe mountain precluded bringing a lot of encode numbered start ID markers
heavy batteries, so a true multitrack solu- called program numbers (PNOs) at the mer. With mics positioned as much as
tion like a Tascam or Alesis MDM was push of a button while recording. While 150 feet apart, a voice picked up by a
ruled out. The unpredictability of the the machines could not all be stopped nearby mic is also be heard at the distant
or started at once, nor could the PNOs mics about an eighth of a second later. So
event ruled out mixing at the site.
Instead, a small fleet of Sony TCD -D7 be synchronized, they could be marked part of the creative process of aligning
the tracks was to decide where to put the
and D8 portable DAT recorders, along within a window of several seconds.
note
the
time
listener in that big sonic panorama.
As they record, the DATs
with Sonosax SX -P2 battery mic
preamps, were employed. Two mics of day in a separate subcode address.
could be routed to each DAT recorder, The internal clocks on the decks could Flawn Williams is a broadcast recording
enabling up to ten channels of simulta- be set in very close sync, so we had engineer at National Public Radio, Washington, DC.
neous taping. The outputs of the DATs access to a more precise time reference
Multiple
70
Broadcast Engineering
June 1999
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Street. Anaheim. CA 92805
800.63í 987L '14.491.1500 FAx "14.491.151U.S.A.
12.1 RUN I .I.EC I RUN ICS.
I4chluhermweg6C.
38221
!TWIT
All Amenion
.31.33.453.40411 1l.x .3133.453.4050
Ile Netherland,
LX RUN I.LF.I:I HUN ICS. ASIA
41B Kreu Aver Road. Singapore 089003
.65.226.001.5 FAX .66.2 26.0019
1
Singapore
Circle (40) on Free Info Card
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FXIRON EI.ECI'RONI(: INFORMATION
F\1RONWEBna: www.ectmn.com
Esl Rt1RFAx t*t: 714.491.0192
24-hour uccss-woddwidc!
Broadcasters fouñd
wiñning techno!bgy
on thef loar ` of NAB
'
easi_
www.americanradiohistory.com
.//1,
\
vst
DIVICOM
DiviCast Data Broadcast System
j!3J'
The DiviCast transmission system enables
a
wide ran e ofdata services, servin
as a data_ -to-
MPEG -2 encapsulator and local multiplexer.
DiviCast enables services such as broadcast
data streaming (push), scheduled file transfer
services and overlay network interactive services.
This 5RU, rack-mountable, industrial grade platform has IP
networking capabilities and an MPEG -2 I/O board. With 35Mb/s of
throughput and more than 60 configurable program IDs (PIDs),
DiviCast provides considerable flexibility in provisioning services at
varying bit rates and quality of service. Geared toward usage in
mission critical applications, DiviCast comes with sophisticated
automatic redundancy, hot -swappable fans and power supplies and
detailed fault and status monitoring.
408 -490 -6700; 877-348 -4266; fax: 408 -490 -6999; www.divi.com
Circle (313) on Free Into Card
SONY
MAV-555 Multichannel Videodisk Recorder
Sony's MAV-555 is a multichannel videodisk recorder that is based on MPEG -2 4:2:2 P @ML compression. It combines
VTR -like control panel operation with all of the advantages of a disk recorder, providing both linear and nonlinear
editing capability. The disk -based technology is ideal for editing sports and live productions and allows unique functionality to enhance transmission time compression /delay/shift and news production applications. The MAV -555 supports
Fibre Channel connectivity as well as SDTI (SMPTE 305) for file transfers. A
fast Ethernet (100BaseT) connection allows network connectivity. Numerous internal audio/video effects such as audio crossfades and 2D video
rotation as well as key insertion allow operators to quickly enhance produc-
tions without requiring additional hardware or personnel.
408 -432 -1600; 800-635 -SONY; www.sony.com /professional
Circle (314) on Free Info Card
AJA VIDEO
HD-10C HD D/A Converter
If you are looking for a quick way to display HD images on a variety of monitors, the HD10C
miniature, high -quality (10-bit), HD digital -to-analog converter. Analog output is
available in SVGA, RGB and YUV formats, making it easy to drive most
high -resolution monitors including SVGA, SUN, SGI, and component
video. Signal input is 1.485Gb/s (SMPTE 292/296) and it auto-detects
1080i/720p. There are two equalized looping HD SDI outputs as well
as outputs for composite sync or H and V drive. Video sync is
selectable between bi -level and tri- level, and the unit can be easily
configured using external DIP switches. The unit is approximately
6 "x3 "x1" and consumes only 4W, making it easy to install on or near
the backs of analog monitors.
530- 274 -2048; 800 -251 -4224; fax: 530- 274 -9442; www.aja.com
Circle (315) on Free Info Card
80
Broadcast Engineering
June 1999
www.americanradiohistory.com
is a
NEC
Diskcam
NEC's DiskCam
is a dockable videodisk recorder that
combines MPEG -2 compression with cost -effective
rewriteable disk technology. It is designed for ENG/
field acquisition applications in broadcast and post,
and can dock with virtually any camera. MPEG -2
4:2:2P @ML compression at 25Mb /s provides high quality pictures with support for 16:9 images. On the
editing side, DiskCam includes a good shot marker and loop recording as well as frame -accurate editing and jog /still/
shuttle operation. Each disk is guaranteed for 300,000 20- minute record -erase cycles. DiskCam features two digital
audio channels with 16 -bit 48kHz sampling as well as an RS-422 edit control port and a disk -based table of contents for
-
metadata.
972- 751 -7246; 888-383 -4DTV; fax: 972 -751 -7245; www.nec.com /products/ccd/
Circle (316) on Free Info Card
TEKTRONIX
M9601/02HD HDTV DAs
Ip until now, HD DAs have been unwieldy, requiring additional connections, removal from the back of the frame,
etc.
hat problem has been solved by these new DAs from Tektronix. The M9601/02HD DAs are comparable to traditional
D DAs; they mount in a conventional manner and provide the functionality engineers are used to. The M9601 DA is an
equalizing DA that provides automatic equalization for cables up to 100 meters. The M9602
provides automatic cable equalization ( >100
meters) and signal reclocking (jumper selectable)
at 1.5Gb /s to eliminate signal jitter. These single width DAs mount in the standard MAX 9000
series frames and are front removable and hot
swappable. Each offers a single input and six
outputs, is capable of passing signals from 4Mb/s
to 1.5Gb /s and supports 1080i or 720p signals.
800-547 -8949; fax: 503-627-7275;
www.tektronix.comNND
Circle (317) on Free Into Card
June 1999
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Broadcast Engineering
81
jI
j
r
DATA CHECK
Series 2600 Multichannel Video Monitoring System
lot of monitoring in a small space? How about six 2.5" LCD color displays in 2RU.
What if they tilted + -20 degrees for easy viewing? Well, that's what you get with the 2600
monitoring system from Data Check. These displays offer 234x160 pixels on a 2.5 "diagonal
Need
a
screen and run on
12VDC. Front panel
controls offer blue field and
color kill capabilities along with standard
picture adjustments. In addition to the
displays, a baseband unit provides input for
PAL or NTSC video inputs. Sync is external,
internal, or if desired, a Master Sync input
can be used. NTSC or PAL tuner modules
are also available to allow these displays to
be used for off -air monitoring. Combine
this unit with the following Pick Hit and you
have the capability to monitor six channels
of audio and video in only 4RU.
619 -578 -0101; fax: 619-578 -9215
Circle (318) on Free Info Card
WOHLER TECHNOLOGIES INC
ATSC -3 AC -3 Powered Audio Monitor
The ATSC -3 is an audio monitoring and level metering system. It allows operators to easily monitor AC-3 surround
sound from an ATSC /MPEG -2 input (other input configurations are available) and is intended primarily for use in
machine rooms and edit bays
where on- the-spot high -
fidelity confidence monitoring
required. This self -powered
speaker system has six high resolution, 53- segment bar
graphs for monitoring 5.1
to
quickly alert operators to
LEDs
are
provided
/polarity
surround sound. Both left/right and front/surround phase
mixdown cancellation problems. For fault isolation, rotary switches allow routing of any one of pair or inputs to left
and right speaker channels for acoustic monitoring. A toggle switch mixes six channels down to two so that all channels can be listened to at once.
is
650 -589 -5676; 888-5- WOHLER; Fax 650 -589 -1355; www.wohler.com
Circle (319) on Free Info Card
82
Broadcast Engineering
June 1999
www.americanradiohistory.com
RULES:
NAB "Pick Hits" judges operate anonymously and independently. Each year they look
for new products that meet the
following criteria:
Products must be new and not shown at a previous NAB convention. In some cases, distinguishing a new
product from a modified older one is difficult. For Pick Hits purposes, a new product is one with a new model number or
designation.
Products must have some positive impact on the intended user's everyday work. Judges should search for
equipment that will be used on a regular basis. Products should provide new solutions to common problems.
Products must offer substantial improvement over previous technology. Unique circuit architecture need not
be involved, but some new approach or application should appear in the product's design.
The prices of the products must be within reach of their intended users. The
appropriate to
a
judges should seek products
wide range of facilities.
The products must be available for purchase within calendar 1999. Equipment must be displayed on the NAB
show floor and currently (or imminently) in production. Judges take the exhibitor's word on availability dates. Products
demonstrated in private showings off the general show floor do not qualify.
JUDGES:
Marvin Born
Vice President
WBNS- AM /FM/TV
Columbus, OH
Steven Blumenfeld
Director, private networks for the GTE Global Network Infrastructure
Carlsbad, CA
teven Blumenfeld
Stephen Damas
Stephen Damas
Technical Design Supervisor
WGBH
Boston
David Felland
Director of Engineering and Operations
WVMS/WVMT
Director of Engineering
Wisconsin Educational Communications Board
Milwaukee
Mike Grover
Chief Engineer
KJZZ-TV/Larry H. Miller Communications
Salt Lake City
Phil Hejtmanek
Phil Hejtmanek
Director of Engineering
WPWR-TV /Newsweb Broadcast
Chicago
Ken Hunold
Audio/Video Project Engineer
ABC Engineering Laboratory
New York
K
Hunold
Karl Renwanz
Vice President
Video Transfer Inc.
Boston
June 1999
www.americanradiohistory.com
Broadcast Engineering
www.americanradiohistory.com
lot Off
The Floor
86
Multichannel automation
86
Station automation
92
Router systems
100
Format conversion /synchronization
104
Long haul transmission
110
Compression systems
120
Cameras and tense technology
124
Production systems at NAB
132
Video editing systems
138
Audio for television
142
Test equipment
150
DTV
156
The RF side of television
162
Product
Jackpot
June 1999
www.americanradiohistory.com
86
Broadcast Engineering
85
Mt. Wilson
-
Los Angeles. CA
From television's infancy in the
1940's to the present.
Ii
,
r. p
t
www.americanradiohistory.com
Five
out of Five
DTV Los Angeles
Broadcasters chose
Dielectric Antennas
And that's a fact.
Fact.
By April 1, 1999, over
100 stations have installed or have
production DTV antennas from
Dielectric.
in
Fact.
In San
engineering partner. Their confidence
in us is founded on over a half
century of designing more than half
the NTSC antenna systems in the
United States.
Francisco, 7 out of
7 chose Dielectric DTV systems.
Fact.
In Charlotte, 4 out of 4
chose Dielectric DTV systems.
And we're so confident in the performance of our systems that we offer
the only 5 -year warranty for every
complete Dielectric -built system we
produce.
Fact.
In Indianapolis, 4 out of 4
chose Dielectric DTV systems.
Fact.
In Des Moines, 2 out of 2
chose Dielectric DTV systems.
The number of broadcasters racing
to be on air with DTV is growing
exponentially. In city after city
across the USA, broadcasters are
choosing Dielectric as their
Now that's a fact that will help your
engineer sleep at night.
Dielectric Communications
22 Tower Road
Raymond, Maine 04071
1- 800 -341 -9678
email: dcsales @dielectric.com
www.dielectric.com
Dielectric
COMMUNICATIONS
Engineering Excellence Since 1942
Circle (42) on Free Info Card
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product
jackpot
Omnibus introduced Hy-Brow, a desktop
browse system. Hy-Brow allows users to
view online material and copy and create
edits that can be played out on broadcast
servers. The system also synchronizes the
browse server and broadcast servers.
Circle (384) on Free Into Card
On the compression side.
SeaChange supports MPEG -2,
but not DV or SX. The company is also planning to introduce
MPEG effects such as jog, trim,
etc., but those are not available
yet. Show highlights included
ATSC support in the form of DVBASI and ATSC -ASI at rates of 8- to
24Mb/s, as well as 45Mb/s. New
lower pricing will be available in
the third quarter of this year - 33
hours at 8Mb /s for under
$100,000, 36GB drives that have
Itelco showed it DTV 50kW lOT
transmitter, which uses switch -mode
power supplies and offers twice the power
of previous Itelco DTV IOT transmitters. It
features two tubes and two 90kW switch mode power supplies.
Circle (362) on Free Info Card
Telecast Fiber offered the Python, which
handles eight channels of digital video.
The format is independent from 19.4Mb /s
to 1.5Gb /s uncompressed HD.
Circle (411) on Free Info Card
AMS Neve spotlighted its Libra Post, a
multiformat post -production console.
shipped and remote diagnostics.
Leitch showed the ASC server
again this year, with the message
that, while Fibre Channel is just
becoming available for some
companies, ASC has been doing
it for years. ASC also showed MPEG
capabilities on its servers for the first
time. The architecture, combined with
scalahility and I/O redundancy, are among
its strongest points. The ASC server now
supports DVCPRO, SX, MPEG and uncompressed SDI. They are working on
plans for an ATSC server, but do not have
anything available immediately. However, planning for this product is well under
way.
Omneon Video Networks provided
an interesting technology demonstration in the Hilton. The Omneon server
will he a new entry into the market,
providing excellent performance at
much lower costs than we are used to
seeing. The system will also be able to
mix and match just about any broadcast format you can name, from MPEG2 to DV to ASI and more. Omneon is
building its server around the IEEE
1394 (Firewire) specification for I/O
connectivity and Fibre Channel for storage. This approach allows the company
to take advantage of bandwidth reservation, low component costs, and mass
manufacturing to produce a product
that meets the needs of the professional
broadcaster, but at a cost that reflects its
use of mass -market technology. Omneon is the only server I saw running the
new Dolby E audio format, although
other servers are capable of doing so.
Libra's dedicated panel provides
monitoring and matrix processing inserts
For more information circle (450)
on the Fast Fact Card.
for up to eight-channel surround.
Circle (330) on Free Info Card
Brad Gilmer is president of Gilmer and Associates, a management and technology consult ing lirm.
92
Broadcast Engineering
June 1999
www.americanradiohistory.com
By Philip Hejtmanek
In the era of DTV, TV station owners
are faced with the need to efficiently
manage the operation of not only one
NTSC channel but also one or more
DTV
program
streams at minimum cost. Because all U.S. sta-
tions must construct digital facilities in the next
few years, most
owners are considering major facility changes. Many stations already
have some form of automation in place
for NTSC, but adding one or more
program streams will likely require significant additions to most master control
facilities. All of these DTV requirements
stimulate new interest in workflow management and facility design. Station automation systems are more than critical
components of a modern broadcast facility; they are the heart of the operation.
Recently there has been some new
terminology applied to this area, based
upon the convergence of traditional
broadcast technologies and the equipment and techniques of the MIS world.
The ability to handle digital video program material as data files has made the
hardware, software and system architectures familiar to the data processing
world applicable to digital television.
Nowhere is this convergence more evident than in the latest station automation products shown at NAB99. A num-
NAlf.riel,1 0011
Time Base Corrector /Synchronizer.
Correcting time doesn't take
a lot of money.
Sure, you could get the kind of performance and the wealth of features you get
with Prime Image's Model 5011. But you'd
have to pay more to get them. A lot more.
1
Or, you could save money with the
industry- standard -setting Model 5011. Full
proc amp control, automatic gain control,
horizontal position, three levels of detail
enhancement, and variable rate strobe are
part of the bargain.Along with one -, two -,
and three -line vertical color advance and
the ability to freeze a frame or field.
Nowhere else will you find this
combination of high performance and low
cost.The Model 5011 Time Base
Corrector /Synchronizer from Prime
Image, Inc. Once again, doing the most
with time for the least amount of money.
Call Prime Image for more information
the only company going that gives you top of- the -line digital video equipment and
improves your bottom line.We'd tell you
more. But it would take some dry
economics professor and lots of arcane
financial language to explain it.
The Digital Video People
662 Giguere
Court #C,
San Jose, CA 95133
Tel (408)867 -6519 Fax (408) 926 -7294 Service (408)926 -5177
Primeimagein @earthlink.net
Circle (43) on Free Into Card
www.primeimageinc.com
product
jackpot
J.LIJö.lJJLtIaUUilq.l LI;L' P,'
Klotz offered its Vadis DC, which is
designed for stations requiring powerful,
semicustom digital audio consoles. Any
source connected to the unit can be
assigned to any fader and source /output
configurations can be recalled by pushing
a
button.
Circle (364) on Free Info Card
Sennheiser showed it MKE2 Gold, a
compact and omnidirectional mic with a
dual-diaphragm system that eliminates
sweat -out problems.
Circle (402) on Free Info Card
Drake Automation featured the A-8000
master control automation system, which
uses a new distributed processor
architecture to permit in-service system
expansion from one to 100 -plus channels
with full resource sharing and operator
access.
Circle (349) on Free Info Card
Drake Automation's Network Control and
Monitoring is designed for MPEG
distribution systems. It provides transport
stream and off -air monitoring and alarm
systems, as well as country -wide network
monitoring and alarms for digital terrestrial
and satellite systems.
Circle (348) on Free Info Card
with the Sony HDCAM HD SDTI
processor card set. This one device can
handle storage and playback needs for
both standard and high definition.
For those looking for a simple way to
accomplish small -scale spot insertion,
Adtec showed its Duet commercial inserter /Soloist 2 digital video player. This
l RU device provides MPEG -2 playback from standard SCSI drives mounted in removable bays and is controllable through Ethernet or RS- 232/422.
There is no doubt that storage systems
are migrating from tape -based to disk based. One of the more astounding
things heard on the floor was from
Seagate. Though the company had a
rather low profile, showing in the Fibre
Channel Association booth along with
several other Fibre Channel vendors, but
estimated that there were approximately
45Th worth of Seagate drives in demo
units on the combined show floors.
Ciprico featured the FibreSTORE
RAID Storage System and the Fibre STORE Fibre Channel Disk Array. The
storage system is designed for high bandwidth single channel and multithreaded applications and can accommodate between 144GB and 2TB in a
single unit. The disk array can handle
72- to 324GB per disk array and up to
2.25TB for one rack of seven disk arrays, and the units feature an upgrade
path to RAID.
Sony was showing their MAV- 555/565
multichannel disk recorder, which has a
form factor and user interface that is very
similar to a VTR (for more information,
see Pick Hits p. 74). This unit may make
it far easier to integrate disk storage into
those smaller operations that are based
on older technology. Because it is very
similar to a VTR, operator training (and
anxiety) is likely to be minimal.
Lion
Asset management
Tiernan Communications featured its
TATM8, an ATM multiplexer/inverse
multiplexer supporting up to eight MPEG -2
virtual circuits on a single 0C- 3 /STM1 or
DS -3/E -3 physical layer connection. It is
compatible with Tiernan's line of encoders
and decoders.
Circle (414) on Free Info Card
96
Broadcast Engineering
Current digital TV facility designs call
for handling video program material as
data files and, in many ways, borrow
from the traditional data processing
architectures found elsewhere. A new
class of automation product has become available, designed to manage the
flow of data among the various assets
within a network. Typical assets within
a networked digital broadcast facility
could be video servers, near -line and
long -term digital tape archive systems,
MPEG encoders and other format conJune 1999
www.americanradiohistory.com
version boxes. Asset management software is less concerned with the minute to- minute sequencing of material on a
program output channel than with ensuring that the scheduled program material segments are efficiently stored
and available when needed by the automation system or other users.
The asset manager is also responsible
for moving program segments between
long -term archives and the video servers associated with real -time program
outputs. Several vendors use a Storage
Area Network (SAN) architecture,
which uses a highly reliable, high -bandwidth Fibre Channel network to move
data between major storage assets. This
allows the archive devices to be widely
separated from the servers, and permits
individual archive subsystems to work
together without a server in the middle
One interesting product capable of
operating within a SAN -based environment is the Nextore from Thomson
Broadcast. Nextore uses an AVI/OpenDML file format and supports the NT file
system (NTFS). This two- or four -channel server is based on PC/NT standards
and can be used in a lossless compression mode on networks such as ATM,
Fibre Channel and Ethernet.
Another feature of several systems
shown at NAB is the ability to provide
low bandwidth browser copies of program material for utility screening and
segment timing, without tying up excessive bandwidth within the system.
Typically, two copies of each program
are simultaneously ingested into the
system, one being the full -bandwidth
copy that will be played to air and the
other a highly compressed browse copy.
A master database keeps track of the
status of each copy and ensures that any
changes made to one are reflected in the
other. The low- bandwidth distribution
model has been in use for news applications for several years. In the news automation arena, two players have combined forces, Avid and Tektronix announced AVSTAR, a new company based
on a combination of the Avid news system and Tektronix's Newstar system.
On the subject of news automation
systems, NewsMaker Systems and Nexus demonstrated the integrated StarDrive/
OpenMedia newsroom management and
automation system. The system features
desktop browsing and editing, digitizing
of selected clips and linear viewing of
"The world will end up at the MPEG standard. That's
why we invested in Sony's Betacam SX technology."
-Ira Goldstone, Vice President Engineering & Technology, Tribute Broadcasting.
From Chicago to Miami to Los Angeles, the Tribune Broadcasting Company
is always
looking for what's next. So when Ira Goldstone saw Sony's Betacam SX camcorder, he realized he
had something that would help him with Tribune's DTV needs. "Backward
compatibility
is a
big issue right now," says Goldstone. "But because,
ultimately, the MPEG standard is going to be the long term winner in this
arena, we need something that will take us there, too. Sony's Betacam SX
DNW yLLS (:awarder
technology gives us the best of both worlds. The MPEG compression standard and backward
compatibility." Which means Betacam SX equipment gives him everything "from light, rugged
camcorders to VTRs that play back archival Betacam SP tapes and interface to
existing switchers and routers -showing Sony had
thought through
a
total DTV systems solution."
Sony's long history of commitment to technological
DNW -A25
Portable Edd,nq VTR
always been
service and support was an added benefit. "They've
behind us. They've always taken care of any problems
we've had." As Goldstone notes, "Sony's in it for the long
haul. And the backward compatibility and MPEG
2
compression standard of the Betacam SX equipment
makes it a perfect way to get to the HDTV future :'
We're ready. Are you ?'
www.sony.com/sx
C19Y4 Sony Electrwtwa Inc.
All
ngrns reserved Fiepruaucts
n
in
whole or n, pan wwpA wmlen pamess,on
e pronanea.
SONY
1-800-635-SONY ext. SXT
Spry, Batman Sx and Wire ready.
www.americanradiohistory.com
M ywy are lradamarks d Sony
F
valu es and
s{en.,,bons suo pcl
to
change *about
not..
timing elements in a news item.
Tape -based mass storage
Contrary to popular belief, tape is
NOT dead; its role has merely changed
from being the primary means of airing
program material to that of an effective
long -term archive for clips to be played
from a video server. Odetics continues
to market and support tape- and -serverbased solutions to video storage, as well
as a total facility management system
featuring browsing capabilities. The venerable Flexicart was also seen in the Sony
booth. Sony Recording Media was showing their full line of videotape for the
various Betacam lines (SP, SX, Digital
Betacam) as well as tape for the HDCAM
and DVCAM formats. Maxell introduced
its DVCPRO tape, a videotape designed
for durability in ENG/EFP applications
and editing and playback modes. The
tape's shell is coated with a static- reducing resin that prevents contamination
from dust and foreign particles.
Most of the activity on the tape front,
however, has been as a data archiving
component for file -based video storage
PI ug &P1cy
HDTV
Transmission Line Network Product Solutions
Your HDTV upgrade can be smooth and simple with Trompeter's just released coax wireline package for video signal management. The
package includes patch panels featuring the J214W and/or J214WT-75
serial digital jack, the MP2OW monitor plug, and the new UPL2000
"true 75ohm" digital BNC connectors (straight, 45° and 90° versions?.
These component were all specially developed for high frequency,
digital broadcast applications and meet the SMPTE 292M spec for full
bandwidth uncompressed signal transport at 1.485 Gbps data rates.
We've got your digital covered!
ATROMPETER
ELECTRONICS,
I
N C
.
GET QUOTES FAST... VISIT OUR WEBSITE TODAY!
www.trompeter.com or call: 800 982 -2629
Circle (39) on Free Into Card
98
Broadcast Engineering
June 1999
www.americanradiohistory.com
systems. Ampex and Sony, building
upon the technologies originally developed for the ACR 225 and LMS, respectively, have come up with data storage products such as Ampex's DST 412
Library and Sony's Hybrid Data Library
with huge, terabyte -level capacities. StorageTek and Exabyte, companies that have
branched into the video marketplace from
more traditional MIS systems, also
showed an assortment of digital archive
systems featuring a variety of tape format
options and total system data capacities
well into the terabyte level.
In all of these digital systems, the data
transfer rate and interface are important issues. Transfer rates are often specified with different values for uncompressed or compressed data, so some
consideration must be given to the form
in which video data will be stored. The
transfer rate and the speed of the interface must also be matched to the servers
to be connected to the tape archive.
Variants of SCSI and Fibre Channel are
common interfaces for these systems.
At least one firm, Avalon Consulting
Group, found a product niche by developing archive management software that
manages video files on digital tape systems and becomes a central data distribution point to the facility's video servers.
The station automation system is thereby
relieved of the responsibility for keeping
track of the data in the tape system, or
segmenting long programs across multiple data tapes, while allowing for a mixture of tape and server asset types.
Keeping track of it all
An automation system is only as good
as its ability to keep track of the programs being ingested and played out,
but there are new issues brought forth
by DTV that today's automation programs must consider. A typical DTV
plant may have video programs in many
forms: uncompressed serial HD, MPEG
compressed serial, 270Mb serial NTSC,
embedded audio, separate audio, different scanning formats and aspect ratios, etc. The database within the automation system will need to keep track
of metadata describing the nature of the
smallest video clip, as well as feature length program. This data will ensure
the system can make adjustments to the
controlled devices as necessary, to deliver the right clip in the right format to
the right output channel.
\ \1
\\\\1111\I11\I
II1111111111111111111
,/////////////////11111/111111111111111111111
Ani Video. Anywhere1 Ani firne.
Never ship a tape again.
ClipMail'" Pro, Telestream's new MPEG -2 digital media delivery
system, lets you send and receive video and audio, from approval
to digital master quality, across town or around the world. With
our store and forward technology, quality is never bound by
transmission speed.
Imagine, no more satellite time, no more expensive shipping,
no more Customs and no more rushing to meet overnight
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Thomson Tubes showcased its TH 755, a
Among the many new and interesting
products shown was the VideoLogger
3.0, a cataloging solution from Virage,
which is capable of automatically and
simultaneously indexing video, digitizing multiple video formats and outputting that information into any video application or data store.
In the Xytech booth, they showed
Enterprise 2.0, a fully integrated facility- management application that supports several databases, including Oracle v7/v8, Sybase Adaptive Server Enterprise V11.5, Adaptive Server Anywhere
v5 /v6 and Microsoft SQI Server 6.5/7.0.
Sun -Up Digital Systems released a version of its TCS Operating System for
broadcast TV and managing digital
multichannel direct -to-home (DTH)
operations.
Not every station will need all of the
automation features available from a
given vendor, but engineers should carefully assess their facility's needs and
workflow before considering a system
vendor. This will help the vendor to ask
the right questions and put together a
truly appropriate system.
water-cooled 44kW NTSC-compatible IOT
For more information circle (451)
that is fully interchangeable with most
on the Fast Fact Card.
10Ts now in service in the same power
class.
Circle (413) on Free Into Card
Philip Hejtmanek is director of engineering for
Newsweh Broadcasting, Chicago, IL.
Hewlett Packard showed its MediaStream
700 and 1600 servers, both offering more
than 1000 hours of storage and up to 16
channels in one chassis. The servers
By Ryan Steward
provide Fibre Channel networking up to
45x real-time transfers between systems.
Circle (359) on Free Info Card
NAB99 allowed router manufac
turers to showcase new products
and improved features. Many showed
new and larger matrixes, smaller-sized
frames and improved software packages. Most manufacturers now include
the very necessary migration path to
HD in their product lines.
Some of the older analog Philips routers can now be upgraded to handle HD
applications by changing ZIF connectors and swapping out I/O cards. Phil-
00
Broadcast Engineering
June 1999
ips also designed a unique feature for
AES/EBU audio. Internal to the router,
select any two audio inputs to create a
pair for output, two of the same source
for mono feed or one English and one
Spanish for SAP applications. A new
soft transition added to the audio side
drops the output to zero then switches
to the new source, eliminating any pops
at audio source switches. New Windows 95 software speeds and simplifies
router setup programming. Vulcan software lets you layout the router using
click and drag functions similar to Visio. It automatically locks out used ports
and only allows correct device options.
On the control side, Jupiter software
adds many options, among them the
ability to schedule, via time code, a
frame -accurate deterministic switch of
preset sources. With the VM -4000, an
unlimited number of outputs can be set
up and switched at a preset time code
mark. This is useful for dub facilities and
show recordings. Other items of interest
in the Philips booth included the GS-400
Venus Gigabit routing switcher and two
new control panels, the Series 2000 LCD
control panel and the CP3824 programmable control panel.
Tektronix's new 7500 series is a narrow bandwidth (50Mb /s and below)
serial digital router. It is small and very
efficient. A loaded 256x256 only uses
120W and is 12RU in
height, a smart choice
for mobile production
trucks. The frame can
be powered from
120VAC or 48VDC,
making it ideal for cable
applications. Tektronix
also added a new 48button- per-source control panel to its line.
Router software is GUI based for control and panel programming. If you're holding out for a Tek
HD router, stand by for an announcement at IBC.
NVision's Envoy line has a migration
path to HD capabilities. This is possible
by swapping out I/O cards in increments of eight. The HD cards can operate in the same frame as the SD, side by
side. The Envoy line can be expanded
up to 256x128 for SD or HD. These
frames will be available by the time you
read this. If digital audio routing is
more what you need, NVision offers
Clear Choice
HDTV and DTV Monitoring.
M Itiple format
di clay needs?
B/ 3 CO has your
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oa
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France tel. +33 4813 59 00 Germany tel. +49 78 25 906 0 Hong Kong tel. +852 2397 0752 India tel. +91 11 6410 842
Israel tel. +972 9 955 6444 Japan tel. +81 3 5950 8100 Malaysia tel. +60 3 7156 788 Mexico tel. +52 5 211 64 92 Russia tel. +7 095 785 52 63
The Netherlands tel. +31 30 634 0422 United Kingdom tel. +44 118 926 4091 USA tel. +1 770 590 3600 / 800 992 5016
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Circle (45) on Free Info Card
synchronous audio up to 2048x2048.
NVision also announced a price reduction due to improved production techniques
40% in some cases. The company also previewed Windows NT-based
control software that utilizes the SQL
database and makes layout, programming and control of the frames a snap.
Leitch showed its Integrator line of
routers. The 128x64 frames are now
available in the 128x128 size. At that
size, the router requires only 12RU.
The AES/EBU audio frames will support many formats. The need for external conversions is eliminated with synchronous or asynchronous, balanced
or unbalanced coax, and now DAC and
ADC daughter cards mounted to the I/
O cards in the frame. Nearly 40 control
panels are available, one to satisfy almost any situation. One new controller
is software programmable to be an X -Y,
single or multibus controller. This unit
uses a scroll knob for system navigation. Leitch has now added a new 12x2
HD router to its line. The new frames
provide a migration path for the future
by swapping out the existing I/O cards.
Leitch developed an impressive software
package for the setup and programming
of its frames and controllers. One of my
favorite features is the ability to print
labels for the panels from inside the
program. Just set up the panel and print
-
+
the corresponding labels as needed.
Sony had several routers on display,
among them the DVS-128 compact routing switcher for analog audio and video
applications. For SD/HD routing, the
Sony HDS -X3000 digital routers offers
several frame sizes to meet a variety of
needs. The HDS -X3400 is a 16x16
C/
switcher that fits in a single rack unit,
while the HDS -X3700 is a 128x128
switcher that fits in 8RU.
At Pesa, attendees found lots of unique
router options. One I found interesting
was the e- route, a remote router control
software that uses a 1RU server (located at the site to be controlled) on a
LAN, WAN or Internet to switch remote offsite routers. Simply go to the
address, run a Java applette and you
can control the switcher. The system
can support up to 10 online users. The
Tiger 144x144 dual AES/EBU digital
audio router is now available. Jumper
settings allow users to select either 11052
or 75Q input impedance. A 250MHz
bandwidth version of the Jaguar analog
1
consols.
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with limitless
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Or Contact Your Local Forecast Distributor
Circle (46) on Free Info Card
102
Broadcast Engineering
June 1999
&
DESIGN
2 0 7 0
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router is now available for high-quality
RGB applications. The Ocelot line sports
a new 16x16 switcher with a bandwidth
of 400MHz, also for high-quality RGB
applications. A new 1.5Gb/s Ocelot HD
router, in 16x8 or 16x16 versions, is
now available and only requires 1RU of
space. The Cougar line added a tally
matrix capable of single and multiple
color control. Frame sizes are 32x16 and
32x32. The LNS line now has a SD and
HD 8x2 switcher in a 1RU frame, with
expansion to 16x8. The 3500 Plus control software is available with upgrades
that provide control of larger frames and
more levels.
Datatek displayed its D -2800 and D2600 series of analog and routing switchers. The D -2800, designed for medium
and large operations, can accommodate 256x256 digital video in 44RU.
The D -2600 series can provide 32x32
routing of digital video, audio or RS422 data. Both systems use the same
control system that feature tie -line management, virtual tally system and matrix mapping.
Sigma Electronics spotlighted its Series SLX digital source selection switch ers, which are available in 16x1, 16x2,
32x1 and 32x2 models for a variety of
formats. Telect showcased an S -video
module, an 8c8 Y/C switcher module
that docks in Telect's configurable VersaFrame signal management system.
In the Vela booth, they were showing
their IDS compact router. It is an 8x8
that is expandable to 16x16 and supports analog and digital audio and video. As an IDS component, the router
can be controlled by a networked external PC with and intelligent GUI. One
interesting feature is the control panel/
front panel contains switches to control
the router, but disconnects just like a
blank panel. When combined with a
small rackmount back panel, the front
panel can be used as a remote control.
I also found two very interesting smaller routing companies. Network from
Norway offers some very small routers
in both analog and digital formats for
video and audio. If you need routing in
a small place for truck or offline areas,
these definitely deserve a look. A 64x
frame will be shown at IBC.
The other company is Quartz from
the UK. They also offer a great line of
analog and digital routers for audio and
video. Of special interest are the control
t
ti-
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Circle (54) on Free Into Card
www.americanradiohistory.com
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Evertz introduced its DTV Frame 7700FR,
a 3RU frame system capable of holding
HD, SDI and analog equipment in the same
frame. The frame system's features
include front loading, hot -swappable
redundant power supplies and hot -
swappable module configuration.
Circle (352) on Free Info Card
Chyron offered Meridian, a comprehensive
solution for smaller TV stations integrating
station automation and video servers into
their operations for the first time. It
includes a hardware automation controller
for single-channel control.
Circle (340) on Free Info Card
Pro-Bel featured the ICON modular family,
a versatile and cost -effective platform that
addresses the signal processing and
distribution needs of TV facilities. Status monitoring facilities are provided by an
optional control processor.
Circle (339) on Free Info Card
Chyron showed the TX 310, a new master
control switcher with HD video capability.
It features a compact 12 -input control
panel and processes serial digital video
options. They offer control interfaces to and from most major manufacturers. If you have
a Philips router and like Quartz
controllers, not a problem. If
you need a small router for
offline, controllable from your
production switcher, not a
problem. They also have a very
nice LCD button controller that
offers keycap text that changes
with each page and has three
different colored button illumination. If you are looking
for a way to monitor all of
those routing channels, Data Check
was showing some compact LCD monitors. The 2000 and 2600 series fit six
displays in 2RU (for more information,
see Pick Hits p.74).
Synonymous with routing switcher installation is cable and connectors. Trompeter highlighted its MPW20 monitor
plug, which can be plugged into a patch
panel and used to monitor signals without degrading or interupting the normal
through signal path. Also shown were
their UPL2000 series BNC connectors.
Gepco showcased its VSD2001TS, a
75W coaxial cable capable of transmitting 1.485 HD or composite digital video. The cable allows runs in excess of 340
feet for 1.485Mb/s uncompressed HD or
1200 feet for 270Mb /s transmissions.
Gepco also introduced the 5526FC, a
digital audio multipair cable designed
for transmission of 110W AES/EBU digital audio. The cable features 26 -gauge
conductors and integrates a nonconductive polyethylene rod that is twisted together with the insulated conductors.
Commscope showed their Quantum
video cables, which deliver broad bandwidth with low attenuation characteristics. Quantum cables are also sweep
tested for HD bandwidths out to 2.4GHz.
For those times when you need a
signal amplifier in an out of the way
place, VAC (Video Accessory Corp.)
showed its LDVBNDA -G line driver. It
has one adjustable gain output from
one input and offers flat frequency response from DC to 50MHz.
and AES, analog or embedded audio
inputs for single or multichannel
For more information, circle
(452) on the Fast Fact card.
operations.
Circle (341) on Free Info Card
Ryan Steward is chief engineer at WFTX -TV,
Cape Coral, FL.
104
Broadcast Engineering
June 1999
By Paul
McGoldrick
The
smorgas
bord of standards the ATSC created for DTV has
also created format conversion equipment opportunities for vendors and
decision and operational headaches for
users. When we had to think up ways of
converting encoded video standards
across international boundaries we
thought of the practitioners as being
involved in magic; they had to invent
video material that didn't exist by creating what it probably would have been if
it had existed. We now have to be
seriously involved in converting materials that we might even have created
ourselves.
It is possible, if not probable, that
some material might have to pass
through up to five stages of format
conversion before the home viewer receives it. Although these concerns were
raised and demonstrated by the manufacturers of the converters, not one of
those vendors was willing to justify that
position during discussions at NAB.
The typical comment was thatcare could
ensure that would not happen. More
concern was shown about the problems
associated with film insertion quality
and like issues.
Film is being held up as the digital
storage medium of the millennium.
From it, in 35mm or larger dimensions,
can be produced any of the SD or HD
formats of the ATSC Table 1. In that
scenario, the telecine becomes the ultimate format converter and the most
critical piece of equipment to be specified. With the present proposals being
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Circle (56)
www.americanradiohistory.com
on Free
Into
Card
4,,
i
474, /
formally and informally discussed there
would be a 1920x1080 24p, 16:9 mastering standard where the frames are
segmented into even lines and odd lines
from the progressive scan. Considering
that 35mm film has been the guide to
quality in determining what the HD
picture should look like, this makes a
lot of sense. The sequential frame proposal might even have some effect on
the motion judder of 24fps productions. A number of filmmakers are also
expressing interest in electronic production at 24Hz with equipment likely
to be available in short order.
The rest of the programs
Like it or not, we have to accept that
the vast majority of programming is not
new material and is probably not 35mm
film waiting to be converted perfectly,
film blemishes excepted. Programs from
the '60s, '705 and '80s will continue to
be shown through the first decade of the
what might be called the
millenium
'00s. That material has to be format
converted up, down and even (sort of)
sideways when we think about changing the aspect ratios either with overscan or letter- boxing. There was just
about every kind of conversion you could
think of at NAB and the products from
companies such as Leitch, Miranda, Panasonic, Snell & Wilcox, Sony, YEM
and Astro Systems showed rock -solid
format conversion with quality that
looked in all cases as you would expect.
Material used at a trade show, however, is not a clear indicator of real program operation. And talking with a
couple of vendors about that situation
brought some vehement remarks about
others. Clearly some companies believe
that other equipment is optimized for
show display between certain formats
and that you will probably get what you
pay for. Many customers are in the
decision phases without having the infrastructure available to test equipment
in their own facilities. Of course, this is
how any NTSC or component equipment would be validated today. Because of this, it is going to be difficult to
make purchase decisions without referring to colleagues at other stations or
production facilities who have already
made the jump. That could limit the
choice for the decisions and eliminate
some of the smaller companies who
have entered the market.
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Circle (57) on Free Info Card
108
Broadcast Engineering
June 1999
www.americanradiohistory.com
We are also being blindsided, perhaps, by the top 30 market euphoria.
There are only so many stations and
production/post production houses that
are in the A ++ market for equipment.
Those operations can afford the DTV
transition and will be stronger for it
when consumers start to buy receivers.
Below that core of high-technology savvy and financing there are a lot of other
users who will need the equipment without the price tags. The price range of
$40,000 to $100,000 doesn't work for
those users. There was no sign of any
manufacturer addressing that much larger, less- demanding market, a market
that is opening now and will likely have
about a four -year window.
-
Other formats
Going from computer to video, of all
formats, is still a technologically -demanding task, an arena revolutionized by
Magni Systems in the mid-80s. There are
manufacturers of products offering converters from $50 for a card to $35,000.
Take your pick for what you need but
take care about that ever -lingering descriptor "broadcast- quality."
Among these conversion products,
Extron showcased the VSC series, a line
of high -resolution computer -to -video
scan converters which offer user-selectable levels of horizontal and vertical
filtering, autoscanning technology and
optional digital output modules. Extron also introduced the EQ 100, a
video noise reduction system that provides independent adjustments to video
signals at six distinct frequencies and
functions as a six -band videographic EQ.
More significantly for DTV are two
areas that have induced some imagination from vendors. A studio operation
and there are other applications
has a considerable amount invested in
monitors. Those monitors are in the
vision control areas, the production
areas and the audio areas. How many
of them actually need to be HD displays
after you convert your operations? In
most cases maybe two: one for immediate quality detection, one for backup.
Realizing that, the guys at Tektronix
designed a unique distribution amplifier. It takes in a serial digital 274M
(1080i) or 296M (720p) and reclocks it
to give four distribution outputs (already useful) and, in addition, it scales
down the signal to produce two NTSC/
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Opticomm showed its FMX -5000, a
universal multimedia digital transport
system for distribution of signal over wide
networks, including PAL, NTSC and
SECAM for multichannel OAM and VSB
signals.
Circle (386) on Free Info Card
RT SET introduced the Laurus 3D
Virtual
Studio System Verison 3, the latest
version of the virtual studio system with
HD capabilities. The new version of Laurus
features a Pica Virtual Billboard, 3D
weather presentation capabilities and
template support.
Circle (398) on Free Info Card
RT SET also unveiled the second version
of the Ibis 20 Virtual Studio System. The
newest version offers improved user
interface for importing images, greater
control over video elements, control over
video mapping and remote control
features.
Circle (397) on Free Info Card
Storage Concepts launched FibreScan, an
intelligent remote administration utility for
Storage Concepts' real -time, RAID
protected FibreRAID storage systems.
Circle (406) on Free Info Card
110
Broadcast Engineering
PAL outputs and two 259M (4:2:2)
serial component outputs. The picture
quality of these converted signals (in the
M9603HD HDTV Monitoring DA) is
not at program level, but it is good
enough for signal identification and
confirmation purposes in a production
environment. Two companion DAs, the
HD9601 and HD9602, are also available (for more information, see Pick
Hits p.74).
A second, you- really -will- need -it converter comes from YEM. The SSC -292M
is a sync standards converter which can
take either NTSC color black (sync and
burst) and convert it to HD trilevel
sync, or it can operate in the opposite
direction. The whole matter of the use
of trilevel syncs is going to cause some
confusion in many production environments. This unit could well be a lifesaver when you need what amounts to an
SPG for one format or another. The HD
formats supported are 1035i, 1080i
and 720p with the outputs at HD in
both analog trilevel and TTL. YEM was
also showing a HD format converter,
the HFC -292M, that cross -converts
SMPTE- recognized HD formats within
the unit. The format converter also
responds to telecine signals and features motion adaptable line scanning
interpolation (for more information,
see Pick Hits p.74).
For another form of format conversion, check out Sierra Design Labs Ultra
SCSI option for its HD1.5PIus multiple- resolution DTV/HDTV disk recorder. It provides for the real -time upload
and download of HDTV pictures to or
from a workstation in either Y, Pb, Pr or
GBR colorspace, with all HD resolutions and rates supported on standard
multisync VGA monitors. A compact
and simple way to display HD signals
on a monitor was shown in the AJA
Video booth. The HD -10C is a small
convertor box that can be mounted
on or near the back of the desired
monitor (for more information, see
Pick Hits p.74).
In addition, there were a variety of
other interesting conversion products
at NAB. Here is a quick rundown of
some you might have missed. In the
Pixel Instruments booth they were showing their VS-5200 universal synchronizer along with the AD -3000 audio
delay/lip sync corrector which can work
as a companion product to the VSJune 1999
5200. Other audio/video delay systems
for correcting lip -sync problems were
also on display including the Lip Stick
from Calrec (for more information, see
Pick Hits p.74) and the ADL 200 from
Axon, which can track the frame synchronizer function of Axon's AS-240
and FLS -200 frame syncs.
Off the show floor, TeraNex offered the
VCA- 6110PXC all- format converter, a
combination up/downconverter and sideconverter that accepts and delivers SMPTE
259M SD I/O and 292M HD I/O.
Ensemble Designs introduced the Avenue, a digital video and audio converter designed for signal conversion, distribution and timing. The Avenue allows users to interface signals to a router,
synchronize incoming satellite feeds and
convert digital and analog signals. The
unit comes in a 3RU frame and accepts a
mix of 10 video and audio modules.
Finally, Video International showed
its DTC4600MV, a bidirectional DTV
standards converter offering framebased recursive filtering and 10 -bit digital encoder/decoder.
Whatever your format conversion
problem, it has been thought of.
For more information, circle
(453) on the Fast Fact Card.
Paul McGoldrick is an industry consultant
based on the West Coast.
114
Its
ILO
By Steven Blumenfeld
our industry attended the last
NAB of the millenium, it is only
fitting that I should he writing about
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105,000 attendees and more than
25,000 international attendees, the
broadcast medium is surely global. It
was evident that broadband fiber transport of production audio and video is
taking on a larger role in our world.
Science fiction writers have long written
about the day when all information will
be transported by way of light, and the
enormous information requirements of
our society will be moved as easily as we
make a phone call today. There is little
doubt that day is getting closer, if it is not
here already.
First, let me make a distinction between interfacility and intrafacility connectivity. Interfacility transport focuses
mainly on tying various routers and
switchers together to create a larger
local switching fabric. Intrafacility con-
nectivity is expanding this concept to a
global scale. To achieve this expanded
connectivity, hardware vendors and service providers are developing convergence tools for seamless media- to -network connectivity. Most of the work
has been centered on optical technology, which is evolving very rapidly.
The excitement in the intrafacility
transport saw numerous companies introducing new products. Products were
shown from Lucent Digital Video, ECI,
VPG, Tektronix, Broadband Networks
Corp. and transport services from
AT &T, I- Connect, Vyvx, Pac Bell,
WAM!NET and GTE's VideoConnect.
Fiber has become a cost-effective method of connecting facilities located across
the street or across the globe. This highly secure physical transport media cannot easily be compromised. In terms of
bandwidth, arguably, the most flexible
and the most efficient is a network
based on packet switching. Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM) service is
an integral element of many Network
broadband data service offerings and
provides an economical alternative to
frame relay and SONET transport for
large amounts of bandwidth.
ATM is a high- bandwidth, fast -packet switching technology based on
fixed -length cells of 53 bytes that
combines the statistical multiplexing
efficiencies of packet- switching with
the low delay characteristics of circuit switching technologies.
ATM service establishes connections
that may be permanent virtual channel
(PVC), permanent virtual path (PVP) or
switched virtual channel ( SVC ). ATM
service is a connection -oriented, cell-
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11 2
Broadcast Engineering
June 1999
www.americanradiohistory.com
based data service capable today of
physical access interconnection speeds
up to OC -48 (2.5Gb/s). PVCs are bidirectional circuits. Typically, these pa-
rameters are configured to be the same
information rates in both directions.
However, additional bandwidth may
be allocated in one direction and not the
other. In other words, ATM service
enables provisioning PVCs with different information rates between locations.
ATM offers a single network design
for all data needs (audio, video and
data) and supports the concept of quality of service (QoS). ATM service supports the following QoS categories for
virtual connections:
Constant Bit Rate (CBR): For when it
absolutely must be there! An ATM service category that supports a constant
or guaranteed rate to transport services, such as video distribution, that require rigorous timing control and performance parameters. The traffic parameters associated with CBR service
are Peak Cell Rate (PCR), Cell Transfer
Delay (CTD) and Cell Delay Variation
(CDV) and are tightly constrained.
Real -time Variable Bit Rate (rt -VBR):
The real -time VBR service category is
intended for time -sensitive services (i.e.,
those requiring tightly constrained delay and delay variation), such as interactive multimedia. Sources are, however, expected to transmit at a rate that
varies with time. Traffic parameters are
PCR and Sustainable Cell Rate (SCR).
Nonreal -time Variable Bit Rate (nrtVBR): The nonreal -time VBR service
category is intended for applications
that have bursty traffic characteristics
and do not have tight constraints on
delay and delay variation. Like rt -VBR,
nrt -VBR traffic parameters are PCR and
SCR. For those cells that are transferred,
the application expects a low CLR.
Unspecified Bit Rate (UBR): When it
needs to be there, but who cares when.
An ATM service category that does not
specify traffic- related service guarantees. Specifically, UBR does not include
the notion of a per -connection negotiated bandwidth. No numerical commitments are made with respect to the CLR
experienced by a UBR connection, nor
to the CTD experienced by cells on the
connection.
Some broadband data companiescombine ATM flexibility, SONET survivability, and the reliability of line-
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Philips' HD Media Pool, the HD edition of
its popular Media Pool, now consists of
newly manufactured components,
including the VR- 8000HD (video input/
output module), a AS -8000 storage array,
either 9GB or 18GB disk drives and a
control application.
Circle (387) on Free Info Card
DPS unveiled the Perception RT3DXi, a
nonlinear editing system that includes
RT3DX hardware and Video Action 6.3
editing software. When combined with a
Perception DDR, the system offers up to
two hours of storage, a Pentium
Il
450
processor and 128MB RAM.
Circle (345) on Free Info Card
Fujinon featured its A22X7.8BDEVM and
A22X7.8EVM lenses. They feature long
local length (172mm) and a wide angle of
view (58.58 degrees). The
A22X7.8BDEVM is designed for use with
16:9/4:3 switchable cameras, and the
A22X7.8EVM for use in 4:3 units.
Circle (358) on Free Info Card
Sachtler exhibited the DV 8, a tripod
system for lightweight digital cameras.
The system includes the DV 8 fluid head,
S14 tripod, Sp14 spreader and the 14/Pan
cover. The tripod system handles cameras
and accessories weighing from
11
to 22
pounds.
Circle (399) on Free Info Card
114
Broadcast Engineering
switched ring architecture into a system
that assures maximum network availability. SONET acts as the key infrastructure transport while ATM serves
as the integrated switching platform.
ATM services currently support multiple network access speeds based on
application requirements. ATM access
is usually offered at DS3 (45Mb /s), OC3 (15SMb /s), OC -12 (622Mb/s) and
OC -48 (2.SGb /s) speeds. This range of
ATM access options enables a facility to
use a single transport service to meet the
needs of remote locations as well as
centralized host locations.
Networking equipment
At NAB, Lucent Digital Video (LDV)
introduced the VideoStar LinkRunner
TXA, which transports compressed video over the public network. The TXA is
a bidirectional device, and supports remote control of equipment through a
single network connection. Also the
LinkRunner TXA is an MPEG -2 ATM
transport stream adapter, which allows
network providers to map up to four
MPEG -2 Transport Streams across an
ATM or a point -to -point network. This
flexible product supports a variety of
network interfaces and is factory -configured for interfaces including DVB/ASI
and OC -3. The product supports LAN
emulation and serial data communication for control of remote equipment.
Video Products Group had its recently
announced VPG8000 serial digital video /audio transport system. It can transport SMPTE 259M/ITU -R 601270Mb/
s serial digital video over 80km of fiber.
The 8000 can embed four AES/EBU
digital audio channels, two RS422 machine control channels, longitudinal
timecode, as well as talkback into the
270Mb/s data stream. The VPG8000
also incorporates multiple laser wavelengths in the 1310nm and 1SS0nm
range for distances up to 100km.
The VPG8000 either takes pre -embedded Dl video /audio or embeds analog or digital audio and other ancillary
data into the video stream. It features
error detection and handling support and
audio options with digital audio synchronization capability. The VPG8000 supports both intercom/coordination channels and longitudinal timecode in addition to ancillary data timecode.
The HD48 from Tektronix sends uncompressed HD video over standardsJune 1999
based networks and opens up new op-
portunities in the transport of high definition video. The HD48 video edge
device is a SONET /ATM, HD serial
digital video transport system. Its PCIbus card design allows additional video
interface cards to be coupled to the
same network interface card (NIC) to
facilitate transport of accompanying data
on independent ATM channels. This flexible design will allow standard definition
video or additional audio to be carried
on the same OC-48 link. Benefits of this
new video edge device include video
clock regeneration, full 10 -bit video transport to carry embedded audio and control data, auto sensing of video types and
rates, and monitoring of SONET and
ATM errors during transport.
The BBNC -2300N ATM Multiplexer
from Broadband Networks Corp. enables the implementation of BBNC's
video networking solution over standard ATM networks. The BBNC2300N provides the ability to multiplex
up to nine MPEG -2 video streams onto
a single ATM network interface compatible with the ATM Forum UNI 3.1
specification. The unit is housed in a
3RU VME chassis. It consists of a motherboard, supporting three channels, and
two daughter boards supporting an additional three channels each. In addition, the BBNC -2300N contains a CPU
board for control and Simple Network
Management Protocol (SNMP), a hard
disk and a power supply.
Optional multiplexing redundancy
may be implemented through the addition of a second set of multiplexer boards
inserted in the same VME chassis. The
resulting two ATM interface outputs
(one from each set of multiplexer boards)
are fed into a standard ATM switch. The
BBNC -2300N Multiplexer supports a
variety of ATM physical interfaces, including DS3, OC3c, E3, and STM1.
The BBNC -2300N implements a
management information base to control ATM, MPEG -2, and redundancy
specific parameters. It can be managed by an off -the -shelf SNMP management station.
ECI Telecom's Hi -TV is a broadband
ATM multiservice multiplexer (MPEG
and ATM) and network terminal. It
supports ATM UNI SVC and PVC (wide
area ATM network interfaces including
E -3, DS -3 OC -3, STM -1, OC -12 and
STM -4) with a range of video qualities
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Transporting Digital Video via Fiber
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Fiber Optic technology has been successfully employed by Telcos for many years. However, its use
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(O/E) converters offered for digital video applications are modified versions of telco designs. Although these products provide adequate performance, they often carry a high cost and do not
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in the video format.
as a
With the advent of digital television and the
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NVISION's 4000 Serles HD4270 module
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too high.
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nuances
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NVISION started by designing fiber converters
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lems for system engineers unfamiliar with the
Calculating transmission distances
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Leitch showed its VR400 MPEG-2 server,
and compression modes.
Hi -TV has a modular system architecture that consists of a common platform, plug-in network boards and plug in service boards. The Hi -TV board
architecture comprises a lower main
processing board which supports a range
of upper interface modules; each can be
easily plugged -in any of the platform's
12 universal slots. Hi -TV provides
SNMP-based control and management
and Tl/E1 circuit emulation for voice
and data user services. Call setup is
performed using a Windows -like GUI.
an MPEG-2 broadcast server that
incorporates high -bandwidth centralized
Fibre Channel storage, integrated software
RAID technology and multiformat codec
technology. The server is available
immediately for order.
Circle (366) on Free Info Card
Service providers
Network services from Vyvx, AT &T,
Pacific Bell, WAM!NET and GTE's
VideoConnect are being rolled out to
take advantage of these new hardware
interfaces.
Williams Vyvx Services is an international provider of integrated fiber -optic,
satellite and teleport video transmission
services. It provides complete transmission paths for worldwide distribution of
broadcast news, sports, advertising and
special events. Its transponder inventory is
r
Andrew also introduced the X14500
Dryline Automatic Dehydrator. Designed
for large operations, the unit provides
enough dry air for pressurizing up to 2500
feet cubed. The XT4500 is activated by a
programmable controller and remote
pressure sensing.
Circle (332) on Free Info Card
Sundance Digital unveiled FastBreak
Automation, a system that incorporates
TCP /IP-based SIDON architecture.
FastBreak Automation offers an easy-touse interface, and playlist events may be
triggered manually, by time or by
completion of a preceding event.
Circle (409) on Free Into Card
1
18
Broadcast Engineering
linked to Williams Communications'
20,000 -mile U.S. fiber network through
its four U.S. earth stations.
AT &T announced it will offer local
ATM service to 41 cities this year, providing end -to -end ATM service on a
single platform. AT &T's Local ATM
Service addresses the high -speed data
requirements of businesses regardless of
their location. It provides any distance
connectivity for businesses with either
local -only or a combination of local and
national data network requirements. The
new service extends the features, functionality and reliability of AT &T's national
ATM network to business' local networks.
AT &T Local ATM Service is being deployed over AT &T's existing switching
platform. This platform features web based tools that let customers order, track
and monitor their data network; selfhealing network capabilities via SONET
Rings; and FASTAR and FASTAR II automatic rerouting for connections between
points of presence in the same area.
A new entity called I- Connect is com-
mencing operations for a multicontinent
ATM addressed service. This new entertainment industry service is usage- based,
high capacity, and scalable. I- Connect is
the result of a three-year development
process with a group of strategic partJune 1999
ners, including major carriers and equipment manufacturers.
Pacific Bell offers two services: Advanced Video Services (AVS) and Advanced Video Services- Component Dig-
ital (AVS -CD). AVS offers broadcast
quality composite NTSC service that has
the ability to deliver video and audio to
multiple locations over its fiber-optic
network. AVS -CD is a fully digital, compressed video service offering component DI- quality service.
WAM!NET Inc. announced the availability of its compressed video delivery
service. This new MPEG -2 video delivery solution is designed to integrate existing workflow and digital capabilities.
WAM!NET's managed private network
and services can be tailored to support
customers' existing systems and production partner arrangements.
This service supports an MPEG -2 Video
Recorder and Desktop Review Station to
control recording and playback in a digital environment. WAM!NET claims that
incorporating the service into an existing
workflow is simple with the MPEG -2
recorder connected to a video device or
router. Review quality 4:2:0 MPEG -2 video is recorded at bitrates of 1.5 to 12Mb/
s and transported using the WAM!NET
service, which travels over a high -speed,
secure, private network. The desktop review station provides play back review quality MPEG-2 video on an NTSC/PAL
monitor with the ability to select, play,
store and delete any clip with ease.
There were several interesting items on
the small end of the scale, including
Clipmail Pro, from Telestream. Clipmail
Pro, a low -cost method for electronic
shipment of video packages over existing Internet and telecommunications networks. In the Sands, Innovacom showcased the TransPeg 500 ATM system
which can be used to broadcast and
record MPEG -2 (4:2:0 & 4:2:2) in point to-multipoint configurations. Opticomm
was showing its Series FMX -5000 fiber
optic, uncompressed, serial digital transport system for HD, DVB and Sil systems. These units featuring single mode
(1310, 1550nm) 20dB laser-based 40km
operation over one fiber.
For more information, circle
(454) on the Fast Fact Card.
Steven Blumenfeld is director, private net-
works for the GTE Global Network Infrastructure, Carlsbad, CA.
oVVE911_4_
THUMB UP!"
-Al
Giddings
World -renowned underwater film maker
and Co- producer of Titanic
It's easy to see why Fujinon High Definition
lenses are the clear choice in today's broadcast
industry. Just ask Al Giddings, the world's most
respected underwater cinematographer. For 30
years Al's been bringing the world outstanding
images from the depths of the seven oceans. He
has always relied on the consistently
quality of Fujinon lenses, and
is
superior
particularly
excited about the new HD format.
In a
field that changes day -to -day with new
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focused with Fujinon lenses.
HA20x7.5EVM
FUJINON
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FUJINON INC. 10 High Pont Dr.. Wayne NJ 074707434 (973) 633-5600
FUJI PHOTO OPTICAL CO., LTD. 1.324 Uetake.
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www.americanradiohistory.com
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POWER
By Mark
Boeddeker
The terns video
compression stands
for many things these days, and
every one of them was represented at
this year's NAB. Basically, video compression describes the various ways in
which redundant information is removed from a digital video stream so
humans do not notice the missing information. The various tape -based digital
acquisition formats on the market (SDigital, DV, DVC, Digital Betacam and
SX) all use a compression scheme of
úIJE]0
some kind, as do many satellite uplinks,
cable on demand or DSS systems. To
determine acceptable visual quality levels, human perceptual models have always been used, but as DTV and HD
implementation proceeds, the quality
model should become what is better
and best. Ultimately, different eyes will
see different things; therefore beauty,
and perceived digital artifacts, will continue to be in the eye of the beholder.
MPEG -1 was designed to transfer data
from a T1 line or single -speed CDROM. It has been widely implemented
in all manner of applications from games
and CD -ROM to video on demand and
point of purchase, but broadcast applications are limited. At video CD data
rates, it aspired to VHS quality in a
digital format. At slightly higher data
rates (in the 3 -4Mb/s range), MPEG -1
looks comparable to MPEG -2 at the
same data rate, especially with line doubling or other buffered techniques
used at the set -top. MPEG -2 was designed to support a much wider range
of resolutions and data rates. M -JPEG
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1
20
Broadcast Engineering
June 1999
www.americanradiohistory.com
M -JPEG, even though MPEG has become the standard for broadcast and
DTV delivery. One reason is that MPEG2 delivers a broadcast -quality image at
approximately 50 percent of the data
requirements of M -JPEG. Editing
MPEG is still problematic, but products on the market already claim to
address most problems.
As analog tape formats begin to fade
away in the broadcast world, MPEG
servers will take their place. Feeding
those servers will take a myriad of devices, leaving quite a hit of flexibility as
to exactly how it's done. Integrating
new technology is challenging, but systems and hardware exist to answer any
operation's needs.
Sony's SX product line is a system of
native MPEG -2 acquisition, editing and
transmission products that no one really knew what to do with a few years
ago. Things have changed. Staying
MPEG throughout the acquisition to
the transmission process has decided
advantages. Several of the networks
have implemented SX products in their
operations, and it is one of the less painful routes to DTV and HD. The media server technology that supports SX is an
example of how multiple workstations
can access the same digital image hase.
Integrating multiple workstations and
formats on one shared database requires file compatibility on a major
level. Often one would choose to keep
certain investments working (even if
they do generate obsolete file structures).
Products from companies like CentraVision/MountainGate create file systems
that allow products running on different
operating systems to access the same
database in their native file formats.
In terms of shared files, a major development in the field of compression in
general is C- Cube's release of its DVxpress architecture, which will allow a
new generation of editing products to
work in a mixed DV/MPEG environment. This is a great new idea, and all the
products involved certainly are going to
get more efficient in the year to come.
Although encoders exist for most computer operating systems, Mac -based
encoders led the way in creating files for
the early MPEG -1 applications. Mac based Minerva and Sonic Solutions
products proved very compatible with
DVD applications early on, but PCbased encoders from companies like
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Leitch showcased its Opus, a multichannel, high- and standard-definition unit that
offers eight auxiliary video outputs and
sixteen primary and eight key inputs. It
allows users to control the aux outputs
from a range of router control panels.
Circle (367) on Free Info Card
Optibase and Digital Vision are keeping pace. The simplicity of Linux would
lead one to expect more products running on that OS soon.
One thing to keep in mind is that the
MPEG specification is a multifaceted
gem that includes simple, main, and
high Profile specs at low, main and high
Levels, as well as several others. For
example, [email protected] refers to a main
profile (4:2:0 quality) at main level (601
resolution) MPEG environment.
Video Products Group showcased its
VPG8000, a serial digital video transmission system. The VPG8000 provides ITU-R
601 /SMPTE 259M-compliant 4:2:2 video
and audio transport over fiber or coaxial
MP @HL refers to 4:2:0 quality at high
level or HD resolution.
What this means is that there are
many types of MPEG, and you should
be sure you know what kind you need.
Higher-priced encoding products in
the $100,000+
Circle (418) on Free Info Card
range are capable
of customizing the
encode parameters of an MPEG
stream, both audio and video.
This makes them
capable of delivering virtually any
Acrodyne introduced its Renaissance
type or quality of
MPEG file. If you
need everything,
you'll have to pay
series of high -power UHF analog and
for everything.
digital transmitters. The Series includes
analog transmitters from 1kW through
240kW and digital transmitters from 1kW
through 100kW, and are scalable to meet
future needs.
Circle (326) on Free Info Card
Andrew introduced its new line of ValuStar
receive-only earth station antennas. The
antennas are operational with C-band,
INSAT C-band, and Ku -band reception
requirements, and polarization is
adjustable through 360 degrees by
rotating the feed horn.
Circle (333) on Free Info Card
a
telecine machine that can handle up to
3000 feet of film. The Y Front offers
greatly reduced noise, improved
colorimetry that elimnates contamination
between colors and makes film scratches
almost invisible.
Circle (360) on Free Info Card
22
areas. Some products utilize multiple pass encoding which produces a finer
analysis of the video in terms of things
like scene change detection, theoretically resulting in a better encode. Options
such as video preprocessing, inverse
telecine detection and the ability to reencode problematic video segments are
other features that can add to the final
price of any encoder.
MPEG audio is standard with most
encoders, but, for many applications,
PCM or Dolby
There are several capable encoders in the "less
exclusively,
some of these
minimum
configuration
encoders may be
sufficient, but
more flexibility in
the encoder will
let you use it for
other things.
DVD
than $100K" category that are often seen bundled with DVD systems.
Other encoders are only available as
part of a DVD authoring product. If
you intend to do DVD exclusively, some
of these minimum configuration encoders may be sufficient, but more flexibility
in the encoder will let you use it for other
things. Depending on your video source,
pre-processing may be required so you
are not wasting bits trying to compress
noise. Several pre -processors were on
display this year including the Prefix
from Snell & Wilcox (for more information, see Pick Hits, p.74). Digital Vision
introduced the BitPack -HD, an HD off line or premastering system for video
servers and DVD. The BitPack-HD creates HD files for 1080i/720p formats
using the same BitPack control environ-
ment as standard definition.
For encoding, a common feature is the
1
used in visually complex or problem
If you intend to do
links.
Innovation TK was showing the Y Front,
ability to do CBR (constant bit rate) as
well as VBR (variable bit rate) encodes.
VBR encoders use an average bit rate
process that allocates more data to be
Broadcast Engineering
June 1999
AC -3 is required.
This is an option
you pay for most
of the time. Integrated audio encoders work just
fine and sometimes have an advantage in terms of
maintaining sync
with the associated video, but an
audio -only facility
has some options
when it comes to
stand -alone PCM
and AC -3 encoders.
A new generation
of low -cost encoder/decoder prod-
ucts is also entering the marketplace. For
dedicated applications, some of these
products may be completely adequate.
One thing to consider is that the single
board, single chip type of encoder is not
going to have the flexibility to generate
the more esoteric MPEG streams, and
artifacts are more apparent in a low data
rate CBR type of encode. Decoders need
to be able to handle high data rates without choking or locking up.
MPEG decoders (play devices) usually require a multiplexed or muxed file
for playback. This is a file in which the
discrete video files (.mpeg, .mpv) and
audio files (.ac3 or .mpa) are merged
into one file. Encoders can do this on
the fly in real time, or they can deliver
elemental (discrete) audio and video
files which are muxed later. Some end
use applications require special recipe
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Pixel Power introduced its Clarity HD
graphics system, supporting the high-end
feature set of its Collage system, unlimited
real-time layers, and full -featured video
painting and keying. Clarity supports 720p
and 1080i and offers support for 1080 60p.
Circle (390) on Free Info Card
Louth introduced its DTV Manager, an
automation product that controls digital
transmission equipment as a stand -alone
system, with an existing Louth system or
with another automation system. The
system enables management of facility
without retooling.
Circle (371) on Free Info Card
INN
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Accom offered its Abekas 6000 multiflex
DTV server for news editing and playout.
The 6000 features 2, 4, 6 or 8 digital
video I/O channels, more than 100
channels local online storage and 3000
hours of network online storage and RAID 3 parity protection.
Circle (324) on Free Info Card
multiplexing, which is usually done after the initial encode with a dedicated
multiplexing tool, such as the applications available from Pixel Tools, Heuris
or Manzanita Systems.
Elemental MPEG -2 audio and video
files are multiplexed into transport or
program streams. Transport streams
are designed for use in potentially high
error environments, such as transmission. They include timing elements that
make them more error tolerant and so,
less dependent on specific playback
parameters. Program streams function
in a variety of software environments
and are less error tolerant. Many applications and/or hardware devices will only
play one stream type or the other. For
those wanting to analyze these streams,
Interra showed its MProbe MPEG bit -
24
Broadcast Engineering
Finally, ISLIP Media demonstrated the
MediaSite AutoLogger and MediaSite
BuilderNT. The Autologger allows users to encode, catalog and index video
of browsing and retrieval over intranet
or Internet. MediaSite BuilderNT analyzes and indexes video based upon
Autologger metadata and the video information itself.
For more information. circle
(455) on the Fast Fact Card.
Marc Boeddeker is director /DVD author with
Producer's Post, Burbank, CA.
stream analysis and compliance software
which can be very helpful when looking
for problems in these areas.
Software encoder/transcoders can give
new life to many systems by adding the
ability to create MPEG -2- and DVD compliant streams from a variety of
sources, including DV and .avi files.
Some products include a hardware assist in this conversion, but even with
dual processors, software crunches are
time consuming.
For now, we will continue to get what
we pay for. Many end use application'
don't require the highest quality MPE(
files available, and can be supported by
one of the less expensive encode/decode
solutions. On the other hand, the expensive encoders are more flexible in
terms of file type and encode parameters, and can produce higher -quality,
higher- bandwidth encoding than is possible with the cheaper gear.
Among the many products shown at
this year's show, several were interesting including OpenTV's OpenAuthor
2.0 software authoring tool that is designed to help create interactive television programming. The software includes 32 built -in gadgets and allows
them to import and preview content.
STB Systems (now 3dfx) showed its
Quartet series of multiport MPEG decoder cards, capable of decoding four
MPEG streams using a single PCI slot.
For those looking to make multiple
CDs on a small scale, Telex showed the
CDP 2001, a desktop CD duplicator
that supports all standard writing modes
and is easily expandable to support
1
DVD -R and CD -R.
June 1999
www.americanradiohistory.com
By Bob Bergfeld
t has been said that the only constants
in life are death and taxes. Unfortu-
nately, whoever made that statement
overlooked one other significant constant
change. Along with change
comes the need to make decisions.
Change and related decisions have always been synonymous with the broadcast industry. Broadcast technology evolution requires continuous change, more
so as we enter the FCC -mandated era of
digital and HD broadcasting. The decisions will be many, and among them are
decisions concerning acquisition. Last
year's NAB provided several image ac-
-
quisition /conversion solutions. This
year, the solutions offered were more
specific and many offered some form of
universal compatibility.
In years past, camera manufacturers
offered a variety of chip resolutions and
scan scenarios from 480i to 1035i. High-
In video, living with your work takes on new meaning. At Quantegy, we're dedicated to the manufacturing
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Sachtler showed its DV 12 fluid head,
which features a five-step fluid damping
and a five-step counterbalance system.
The DV 12 can handle camera weights
between 15 and 27 pounds and is
compatible with digital ENG cameras.
Circle (400) on Free Info Card
Advanced Digital showed FastStor 22
which can store more than 1.5TB of data
at normal 2:1 compression and has the
capacity needed to match the rapidly
growing storage needs of remote offices,
LANs, muhiserver workgroups and data
centers.
Circle (329) on Free Info Card
DNF Controls offered the 4000CL-X
,
a clip
management system offering fast access
to more than 400 stored video clips,
including one-button retrieval of fill and
key clip combinations.
Circle (347) on Free Info Card
The VR Archive Streamer uses Leitch's
FibreDrive technology to monitor, move,
and distribute video files between VR
servers and near-line storage for archiving
and back-up protection.
Circle (368) on Free Into Card
126
Broadcast Engineering
definition 1080i was obtained through
upconversion, as very few chips were
true 1080i. This year's NAB found several of the camera manufacturers introducing a new high -performance, native
1080i, 2.2 million pixel high-definition
CCD. These chips are available in both
ATSC -compliant studio and field cameras. Compatibility to the 720p, 480i,
and 480p standards is possible through
either camera CCU or external down conversion, and varies by manufacturer. One camera that very clearly illustrates the universal compatibility strategy is the HDK- 790D/HDK-79D series
from Ikegami. The HDK- 790D/HDK79D series is defined by Ikegami as a
"multi -use camera" to meet the format
requirements of both high- definition
and standard -definition. This series has
the ability to simulcast, providing both
high- definition video and standard -definition video simultaneously from the
CCU in both digital and analog form.
Most manufacturers are also offering
system expanders for conversion of field
cameras into full -facility studio cameras. The inclusion of copper clad fiber
optic cable between the camera head
and CCU provides a separation distance of up to 10,000 meters without
bandwidth compromise.
NAB99 also saw the introduction of
several wide bandwidth -selectable aspect ratio cameras to seemingly further
substantiate the universal compatibility strategy. The cameras are available in
both studio and field configuration and
offer a wide variety of features and
considerable flexibility. Most of the wide
bandwidth cameras are utilizing a
640,000 pixel IT CCD image sensor.
Several of the high -bandwidth cameras
are available with component or digital
triax communication between the camera head and CCU providing separation of up to 2100 meters. Portable
versions also provide multipin connectors for docking to digital or analog
recording media.
With its 640,000 pixel CCDs, the Z3000W digital camera from Hitachi
offers strong performance with pushbutton switching between 16:9 and 4:3
aspect ratios. The advanced new single chip DSP enhances color reproduction
accuracy, as well as providing sharper,
cleaner images (850 line resolution).
Thomson Broadcast's new camera at
this year's show was the 1707, available
June 1999
in both 525 and 625 versions. IT and
FIT 16:9 sensors are available for this
lightweight one -piece digital triax camera. The camera offers 12 -bit acquisition with 24 -bit processing and an uncompressed digital triax link.
Panasonic introduced its AW-E800
convertible camera. This camera offers
open -slot architecture and features three
2/3" CCDs. Open slot architecture permits the use of various plug- and -shoot
feature cards. It is switchable between
4:3 and 16:9 and is capable of 800 lines
of resolution.
Numerous selectable aspect ratio, one piece camcorders were introduced at
this year's NAB. The higher- resolution camcorders incorporate FIT CCD
technology with pixel arrays between
520,000 and two million pixels. IT
versions of the camcorders incorporated pixel arrays averaging 400,000
pixels. The types of camcorder recording formats were both digital and
analog, with each format being manufacturer specific. Among these camcorders, was the Philips LDK150 that
carries a DVCPRO deck. JVC had the
new Digital -S DY -90, which is lighter
than previous versions. Also shown
was the production version of the
NEC Diskcam, a dockable disk -based
recorder (for more information, see
Pick Hits, p.74)
High- definition 1080/24p camera
technology was shown in prototype
form by Sony. The technology is targeted primarily at the cinematography
market to utilize electronic cinematography as an alternative to motion picture film. Lucas Film will be the recipient of the first camera prototypes. With
the inclusion of its post -production 24p
system for video and film, Sony intends
to provide post facilities with the capability of producing a 24p digital master
that can then be downconverted to all
the various digital formats.
Light sensitivity for all the new HD
and digital cameras is quite impressive.
The new technology CCD cameras now
have the ability to resolve low -light and
high- contrast scenarios better than the
human eye, with minimum illumination being specified by some manufacturers as low as .12 lux.
A look at lenses
Changes in camera technology have
also mandated changes in another
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info @eevmc com
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UK: EEV Ltd..
Telephone: +44 (0)1245 493493
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FRANCE:
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Telephone: (331) 4080 5400
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Circle (53) on Free Info Card
www.americanradiohistory.com
pro uc
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t
Videoframe showed Its Tally Expander, a
general-purpose tally expansion unit that
offers 32 relay outputs, expandable to 64
-
technology
optics. Dual aspect ratio
cameras effectively utilize two different
size active chip areas for the 16:9 aspect
ratio and the 4:3 aspect ratio. Because
the 16:9 aspect ratio consumes the larger
active area, lenses are optimized to the
larger chip area. Unfortunately, when
the camera aspect ratio is changed to 4:3,
the image exiting the lens is now over scanning the active area of the CCD
because of the reduction in the size of the
active area. As this problem developed,
lens manufacturers began including a
mechanically operated .8 reduction device in the lens. The .8 reduction optically corrects for the overscan problem and
restores the lens to actual 4:3 character-
relay outputs; 16 opto-isolated GPI inputs
istics.
expandable to 32 and single channel and
New lens technology came in the form
of new lenses and some unique new
features from several manufacturers.
With field cameras becoming smaller
and lighter, lens weight and size have
become an issue. Last year, Canon introduced a new lens element named the
Xs (pronounced excess) element. The
Xs element is used in conjunction with
the Canon Power Optical System. It
reduces a wide range of chromic aberrations and allows production of a more
efficient and physically smaller lens. This
year, Canon introduced a 16x version of
the Xs lens technology. The new lens
also incorporates a new feature Servo
Zoom Override. This feature allows the
camera operator to manually override
the servo zoom control without disengaging the servo control, and is designed for immediate manual change in
zoom excursion speed. Canon has also
introduced a new wide -angle 12x zoom
lens in the IFpro series. The lens incorporates a three -group internal focus lens
configuration that greatly reduces the
zoom breathing effect normally associated with lens focusing. A new lower cost HD lens is now available from
Canon. The 125x lens incorporates the
Xs element technology, and contains a
digital zoom and focus servo system.
The lens also contains a constant angle
focusing system that uses a 32 -bit processor to control the zoom breathing
effect when focusing.
Fujinon introduced a new digital servo control system that is incorporated
in the Digi Power series of zoom lenses.
The new servo control technology has
provided for several new and advanced
lens features. Constant zoom excur-
multichannel operation.
Circle (420) on Free Info Card
Sprocket Digital's entry, a solid state
telecine sensor, replaces existing PMTs in
Cintel URSA and MKIII telecines. This
sensor system allows all Cintel telecines
total advantage of sensor technology
similar to that used in Cintel's C- Reality.
Circle (405) on Free Info Card
Philip's showed CleverScheduler, which,
when interfaced with a traffic and
scheduling system, manages and
configures play-out equipment, including
IP-DVB gateway, IP video servers, data
carousel players and IP tunnels.
Circle (388) on Free Info Card
Faroudja introduced the DVP2200 digital
video processor. The DVP2200 converts
interlaced video to high-resolution,
progressively scanned signals. The unit
also features scan rate scaling to 480p
and 600p and internal aspect ratio control.
Circle (355) on Free Info Card
130
Broadcast Engineering
-
June 1999
sion speed has always been dependant
on the camera operator's ability to
maintain even pressure on the zoom
rocker switch. Fujinon's new Cruise
Zoom feature allows the camera operator to set the zoom speed by a button
depression during the excursion, thereby locking the servo into a constant
speed. The new servo control technology also incorporates an RS -232 port
for connection to an external computer for robotic and virtual production
applications. Fujinon's Digital Quick
Zoom feature allows the operator to
check focus rapidly by zooming -in and
pressing a button that automatically
returns to the original zoom position.
Digi Power technology also incorporates technology to control the zoom
breathing effect by synchronizing the
zoom movement to the focus movement. New lenses from Fujinon that
incorporate the new Digi Power system include two new 22x lenses. They
both feature a maximum 172mm focal
length and a wide -angle view of 58.8 °.
One of the two new 22x lenses is
designed for dual aspect ratio applications while the other is designed for 4:3
applications. The Digi Power series
now includes a new 24x EFP lens and
two lenses specifically for high- definition. The 15x high- definition lens is
their first to be directed at the ENG
market. The new 26x high- definition
lens provides a maximum focal length
of 350mm with the 2x extender, and
wide, 71.37° horizontal range in high
definition.
Angenieux introduced the Digital Option for its studio and sports lenses.
The option provides several new features including three levels of lens focus sensitivity, five zoom speed presets,
zoom breathing compensation, illumination ramping limits, and an on lens
diagnostics display. The digital option
can also be upgraded as new software
becomes available. Angenieux also introduced several new lenses, including
a new sports lens with a focal length of
684mm. Other new lenses from Angenieux include an 11.5x cine style lens
and a 10x lens with an 84° horizontal
field of view. Both lenses are targeted
for the high-definition market. Angenieux's new HR series lenses include a
wide angle 12x and a 15x lens. The
new high- resolution lenses are targeted for digital broadcast cameras.
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Camera accessories
Cameras used in the field need batteries and support. Regarding batteries,
Anton Bauer was showing their Hytron
50 and 100 batteries along with the
new PowerCharger Model 2300 which
includes a universal switchable power
supply output for 6- and 12V batteries.
Cool -Lux introduced the Delta Force,
a battery charger for MiMh and NiCd
rechargeable batteries with global AC
power inputs. The Delta Force can be
used for any NiMH or NiCd battery
packs or power belts up to 10AH.
IDX Technology demonstrated the
KL-2, a battery charger that can charge
two IDX lithium batteries in three hours
with the full -power charging method.
On the support side, Vinten
launched its OB Quattro pedestal
and Vision 250 pan & tilt head for
studio /OB applications.
Bogen Photo showcased the G1380
series, a range of video fluid heads
designed for ENG /EFP, portable digital super -lightweight DV cameras. The
G1380 can accommodate cameras between 2.2 and 22 bounds and features
separate pan /tilt variable drag control
for smooth, repeatable movements.
OUR
Bogen also displayed the Man frotto 501 Pro Video Head,
which is designed for smaller
ENG and digital cameras and
features 360° pan and +90° pan
to -60° tilt.
Beyond cameras and lenses,
virtual sets were on the show
floor in ever growing numbers,
and in some cases, reduced prices
even reduced size. Orad Hi -Tec
was showing their Micro Panel portable sets, which allow the insertion of
animated 3 -D graphics and video sequences onto a small two -tone mobile
panel.
This year's offering from Radamec
was the Free -d, a virtual studio tracking system offering high performance
and flexibility for tracking free moving
or hand -held cameras. It uses coded
i
systems.
at NA3°'`a
-
targets placed in the studio lighting
grid to calculate the exact position and
orientation of the studio camera.
For more information, circle
(456) on the Fast Fact Card.
Bob Bergfeld is president of Presentation Systems Design, St. Louis, MO.
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132
Broadcast Engineering
/
Production/
June 1999
www.americanradiohistory.com
By Edward W. Fraticelli
the past few years, dedicated
black box post -production gear
has become less prevalent on the NAB
exhibition floor. The advantages of general-purpose, platform -based production systems have slowly displaced the
costlier single -purpose boxes that once
made up the majority of post suites. But
this year, the black box saw something
of a resurgence, with HD production
gear topping many NAB shopping lists.
The processing speed required for moving the substantial amount of data in
today's HD signals is requiring many to
look to the faster, dedicated hardware/
firmware combinations that these systems offer. Many of the switchers, DVEs
and various graphics devices found at
this year's NAB are being offered in this
form.
Over
HD products
Sony, for instance, showcased a complete HDCAM editing system at its
demo center adjoining the main convention floor. Here, updated models of
the HDS -7000 switcher and the HDME7000 digital video effects system were
assembled into a working post environment. Even more interesting was Sony's
display of 1080 line/24 frame progressive scan post system. The exhibit displayed I080i/24p material playing on a
HDW-F500 HDCAM recorder /player,
natively at 24 frames (48Hz segmented
frame display), at 1080/60i and 480/
60i, all from the same VTR without
external converters. A separate Sony
scan converter was used to derive 720/
30p and 480/30p signals. All of this
showed how the newly -proposed 24
frame mastering format really could
deliver all HD formats that may be
required for DTV.
Over at Panasonic, 1080/24p signals
were playing on a modified HD -D5
player, then converted through a Panasonic Universal Format Converter (UFC)
Got
Gear?
Mark Brooks
Vice President of Engineering
East Coast
National Mobile Television
does.
"My first installation of Ross distribution and
conversion gear was based on their features,
specs, and Ross' reputation for quality engineering.
Subsequent installations have been based on
the outstanding performance of the Ross products
and my reputation for quality engineering."
"Tou see, National Mobile Television supplies trucks
for major network's coverage of sports events.
Our continued relationship with our customers
is based on the quality and reliability of our trucks.
The RossGear line includes audio distribution
products, analog and digital video distribution
products, encoders, decoders, analog and
digital video keyers, telecine switchers, a frame
synchronizer, a frame store, a video capture card,
and a mini master control switcher.
Ross also manufactures the established line
of analog production switchers and the new
Synergy Series of digital production switchers
"The DTV Switcher ".
X00L
Ross' RossGear line has proven to be a factor in our success."
Mark Brooks
Switchers, Keyers,
& Terminal Gear
Vice President of Engineering - East Coast
National Mobile Television
Te (613) 652-4886
Fa) (613) 652-4425
:
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solutionsCQJrossvideo.com
Circle (66) on Free Info Card
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Odetics showed eDETICS, which will
provide video content owners with new
revenue opportunities by allowing buyers
to search, preview, purchase and take
delivery of archived video clips on demand
also showed the much -anticipated
DVCPRO 100 VTRs, with the AJHD150 model available for delivery
later this year. These 100Mb/s recorders can record and play at 1080i as well
as play back DVCPRO50 and
DVCPRO tapes and internally upconvert them to high definition.
In the JVC booth, they were showing
command and control, which allows users
Digital -S, which has recently been given the D -9 designation from SMPTE.
Digital -S (D -9) operates at 50Mb /s.
The new D-9 HD format is a 100Mb/
s extension to Digital -S that provides
HDTV recording and playback at 720P
and 1080i.
Tektronix entered the HD market
with the Grass Valley 110HD production switcher. Selectable between 1080i
and 720p formats, the 110HD will
appear very familiar to those who have
used the Grass Valley 100 series analog
switchers. The switcher is ideal for
small production suites and HD telecines. It includes features such as two
internal frame stores, all in a small
3RU chassis.
Snell & Wilcox offered an extensive
line of HD conversion products, and
featured its new line of HD production
to manage multiple resources in real time.
switchers. The three models, the
via the Web.
Circle (381) on Free Into Card
StorageTek showed the 9840 tape drive
storage system, which uses ultra-high
track and byte densities, moves the media
at 2M /second and provides an uncompressed data rate of 10mb per second.
Circle (407) on Free Into Card
Sarnoff featured its DS-CC digital studio
including servers, tape players, network
streams and system users, and work with
video, audio, data essence and metadata.
Circle (401) on Free Info Card
Telemetrics showed the LTS linear trolley
system, which provides smooth variablespeed camera movement and quiet
operation. Both motorized and manual
versions are available.
Circle (412) on Free Into Card
1
to any HD flavor desired. Panasonic
34
Broadcast Engineering
HD1010, HD1012 and HD1024, offer
from eight to 24 inputs and three HD
keyers. HD framestores, RGB color correctors and programmable timelines
round out these switchers' standard features. All three models are 1080i / 720p
switchable for maximum flexibility.
At Quantel, the famed Editbox, repackaged as the Editbox FX, replaces
both the Magnum and the Platinum
systems, which are no longer available. This very capable system boasts a
sizable palette of effects, four -layer corn positing, onboard Paintbox, automatic background loading via Clipnet and
color correction functions at a price
point midway between its two ancestor systems. Quantel has provided a
way for Editbox FX owners to step
into the world of high- definition by
offering the Chaser, an add -on system
to provide HD production without
replacing the entire system. The Publisher HD provides automatic conversion between resolutions. Quantel also displayed a 1080/24p post
system on an upper floor, showing
how this format can be used in filmJune 1999
based productions.
The HD version of Discreet Logic's
Fire post -production editing/effects system offers near real -time speeds and
nonlinear disk -based HD editing capabilities. Based on the SGI Octane platform, Discreet has teamed with Sony
to offer HDCAM codecs on the UO
boards to allow direct transfer of
HDCAM signals to and from Sony HD
VTRs. All of Discreet's well -known
post tools can he used on the HD
system, including the use of SPARKS
plug -ins, and automatic conversion of
standard -definition signals when imported into the HD Fire, over -the -wire
digital network system.
Chyron's interesting approach to the
Duet HD platform could be seen performing several post functions. This
Intel processor -based open platform
system offers high -speed processing
specifically tuned to video manipulations, allowing other parties to develop software to run on the system. The
Liberty digital paint and animation
system was demonstrated, along with
Chyron's Lyric character generator software package. Other companies are
slated to develop Duet software, as
well as using Chyron's CAL open API
development software.
Over at the Pixel Power booth, the
Clarity HD platform was shown for
the first time. Clarity offers the functionality of the Collage character generator and graphics system in a fast,
custom architecture that can handle
real -time animation of HD graphics
elements.
Leitch showed its Monarch aspect
ration converter. Monarch's architecture allows I/O processing to be configured to match the demands of the
application. It offers 10 -bit digital decoding and encoding for processing
composite video signals, and features
10 -bit resolution, preset and variable
ratios, selectable transition types and
serial I /O. It is offered in 1RU frame.
Viewgraphics offered its Viewstore
6000 DV image sequencer offering HD
serial I/O capability and increased storage capacity.
Avica was showing the Vecta DTV
still store, a unit that offers expanded
broadcast features and supports HD
formats including 480p, 720p, 1080p/
24 and 1080i. The Vecta also features
time -line functions including play -list
ie.
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Tests composite and component serial or
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Direct readout key signal parameters.
User selectable alarm thresholds.
A comprehensive CCIR601 pattern generator.
(34 different test patterns.)
Tests composite and component serial digital
video signals.
Continuous on -line monitoring of key parameters.
Graphic touch screen interface and menu system.
Errors displayed on the LCD screen, or routed to a
printer or stored on the built -in 3.5" floppy drive.
Real -time
detection of illegal colors.
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Single play or continuously looped
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Adjustable playout start and stop points.
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Transport Stream Analyzer
Record, playout, monitor and analyze
MPEG -2 and DVB signals.
Conformance test TS layer and PES layer.
Automatic determination of Transport
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Angenieux offered it Cine HD lens,
featuring T1.9 aperture with minimum
ramping; minimal breathing effect, and
0.6m minimum object distance (measured
from the film plane).
Circle (334) on Free Info Card
Play introduced its Pocket Producer
portable logger and editor, which allows
logging of clips during or after shooting on
location. Palm Pilot -based unit can record
timecode from LANC, RS-422 or LTC, add
comments, then download to any desktop
system.
Circle (392) on Free Into Card
The DS1100 from SGI houses up to eight
individual hard drives and can be
purchased in an upgradeable JBOD or
RAID configuration. Users can start with
as few as two disks and expand the array
incrementally as capacity requirements
increase.
Circle (403) on Free Info Card
Neumann showed the KM 180 series,
which features similar transformerless
circuitry as used in the KM 100 system.
Output is balanced and phantom (48V)
powered.
Circle (380) on Free Info Card
136
Broadcast Engineering
creation and playback sequencing and
remote control operations.
SD systems
Of course, all of these HD product
showings still left plenty of room for
innovations in the SD product arena.
SD production will still be around for
plenty of time to come as the availability of 480i equipment continues to flourish. Switchers saw such advanced features as integral frame stores, color
correctors and internal DVEs. Digital
video effects processors contained more
and more sophisticated effects, such as
light sources and shadows. Many more
specialized devices could be found for
applications such as telecine suites.
Ross Video Systems premiered its Synergy line of digital switchers at last year's
NAB. This year saw further advancement of the line. Ross' big news was its
switcher's built -in Aspectizers, an aspect
ratio converter enabling 16:9 and 4:3
production to occur simultaneously.
These converters are placed in every input and output path to enable mixing
video sources of both aspects. Also, the
Ultimatte Insider option provides an authentic Ultimatte compositer on up to
eight keyers. New video/audio server
control and dual -bordergenerators round
out Synergy switcher's offerings.
Philips added the huge DD35 live
production switcher to its DD line. With
enough buttons and readouts to please
any tech director, the DD35 has up to
48 SDI inputs, three mix/effects banks
and up to six downstream keyers. Philips' exclusive FXLoop feature provides
integration of nearly any DVE available
today. User preferences and switcher
setups can be saved on an internal hard
disk drive. The DD35 joins a complete
line of production switchers, from the
DD10 12- input, single MIE on up.
Echolab added the model 5900 and
5800 to its SuperSwitcher line of digital
production systems. Echolab's switchers
feature an integrated NT computer subsystem, allowing direct integration of plug in third party modules such as Pinnacle's
Genie DVE and Inscriber's CG and DPS
Clip Store. The 100BaseT Ethernet port
allows integration of external manipulation devices including the Pinnacle DVEXtreme, TypeDeko and the HP Video Server. Add to this system a V-LAN control
bus for VTR control and the SuperSwitcher
can be a complete post production sysJune 1999
tem. New for '99 is the Commander, an
interesting tool that extends the SuperSwitcher's versatility. Up to six Commanders can be attached, each completely programmable to control any switcher function on 18 different multicolor buttons
and a four -line display. The user- friendly
programming system makes the Commanders easy to configure.
The Masterkey 7 from Broadcast Video Systems Corp. provides a versatile SDI
linear keyer in a single rack unit package.
It is useful for telecine suites, small production systems and even as an add -on
downstream keyer to an existing SDI
switcher. Another handy item was the
KCT-50 from Horita. This keyboard
controlled titler is capable of adding nine
lines of 20 characters each with no PC or
PC software. Up to 25 KCT-50s can be
connected together, addressed and controlled from a single keyboard.
Play showed more developments on its
Trinity integrated digital production system in a variety of actual live production
applications. Trinity showed the second
version of its software that offers a 601
production switcher, DVE with real -time
reflection mapping and a 4ns character
generator. Options can be added to the
basic system to provide nonlinear editing,
virtual sets and audio mixing.
For -A Corporation showed its VPS400 video production system, a combination of video mixer and DVE, as
well as a combination of digital component, analog component and analog composite.
Evans & Sutherland introduced the
Tornado 3000, a graphics workstation
that provides resolution support up to
1920x1200 for 16:9 aspect ratio monitors. The Tornado 3000 also features
texture fill rates of 100Mpixels per
second and a 30MB 3DRAM frame
buffer. Anytime you are working with
workstations, or any computer for that
matter, a UPS is a good idea. MGE UPS
showed its Pulsar EX, a rack -mounted
version of its Pulsar UPS units offering
optional long- duration batteries and
full -time, seamless voltage regulation.
Forecast Consoles introduced the Image Master, a series of modular components and custom -designed furniture
for the broadcast environment. The
Image Master includes modules that
are molded and customized around
existing equipment and space.
Winsted had their new line of Digital
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UPS SYSTEMS
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Desks at the show, these new desks are
designed for both linear and nonlinear
Flexibility at this level can reduce the
possibility that systems will become
systems. These ergonomic, multifunction
outdated as requirements change and
technology improves.
workstations provide a comfortable and
efficient workspace environment.
Princeton Video Image showed the
Series 7, the latest generation of its Live
Video Insertion Systems (L -VIS), which
electronically inserts advertising or other images in real time into live or prerecorded programming.
Finally, when you are in the middle of
production, it is easy to lose track of time.
ESE's 5100 series of analog clocks can
read timecode and/or operate as standalone or impulse clocks. The 5100 series
comes in 5 -, 12- and 16 -inch models.
Miller Fluid Heads showed the DS30, a
For more information, circle
(457) on the Fast Fact Card.
100mm ball leveling fluid head featuring a
quick release plate for fast pull-downs and
set -ups, telescopic pan handle, and four
pan and tilt selections to give operators a
Ed Fraticelli is director of engineering for
Production Masters, Inc., Pittsburg.
wide range of repeatable drag settings.
Circle (374) on Free Info Card
Mindport showed its M -Crypt Schedule, a
program scheduler that allows the
importation of scheduling info from other
sources, and its M -Crypt EPG, which
allows the compilation and insertion of
DVB- compliant SI into an MPEG-2
transport stream.
Circle (375) on Free Info Card
By Marcus Weise
this year's NAB there were at
least 30 different manufacturers
offering video editing systems rangAt
o,05r.
Milla
Accuweather showed its FirstWarn
Neighborhood NEXRAD, a radar and
weather system that allows users to
customize weather forecasts from the
national level to the city street level.
System allows broadcaster and viewers to
track and time storms.
Circle (325) on Free Into Card
ing in price from under $1000 to over
$300,000. Offerings ranged from
news and simple cuts -only systems to
sophisticated units designed for editing video with extensive computer generated graphics and artwork.
Most systems are designed to work
with disk -based storage media, such as
VDRs and hard drives. Many of these
units provide sufficient capacity to hold
several hours of uncompressed video.
Also available were hybrid systems capable of interfacing with several VTRs.
In some cases, the less expensive systems consisted of software only, leaving
it up to the purchaser to decide the
hardware configuration. Many systems could be purchased in a basic
configuration and upgraded later.
138
Broadcast Engineering
June 1999
Low -cost systems
is
In the $1000 to $5000 range, EIDOS
offering two software -only systems,
the less expensive Judgement and the
higher-end Justice. These programs are
Windows NT-based, work in MJPEG
and use QuickTime effects. They accept
composite, component and SDI video
as inputs. The Justice includes a DVE.
United Media showed the On -Line
Express, an NT-based program available as software only or as a complete
system. It can input and output in any
format, including an option for SDI. It
displays four channels of video but can
create 2D and Pinnacle effects in real
time on two MJPEG channels and has
serial machine control capability.
The Casablanca from Draco is a selfcontained nonlinear edit system in a
box. About the size of a VHS deck, it
can be used for editing on location and
uses a standard TV set for its display.
This MJPEG system accepts and outputs Y /C, composite and, optionally,
DV. Another stand -alone nonlinear system is the ScreenPlay by Applied Magic
with real -time effects, titles and four
audio channels. I/Os include S- video,
composite and, as an option, DV. It has
two video streams that can be used for
layering.
Adobe is now in version 5.0 of Premiere with 14 new audio filters for
better audio control. In addition to
working on either Mac or Windows
platforms, it also works as an offline
system. The interface is improved, offering better support for long -form
shows. In:sync has three versions of the
Windows 98 -based Speed Razor: the
new SE, the S and the RT. The SE is a
real -time system with multiple layers
for effects, multitrack audio mixing and
3D DVE.
Pinnacle has a new MPEG -2 PC -based
system, the DC1000 and the DVD 1000.
Both programs have real -time playback
of effects and titles. The main difference
between them is that DVD1000 is designed for DVD authoring.
Mid -range systems
In the $6000 to $20,000 range, Play
has the new Time Machine software
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Circle (77) on Free Into Card
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(717)569 -4056
TELEPHONE
FAX
that runs with the Trinity 2.0 version on
Windows NT. A dual -channel system,
it combines nonlinear editing with corn positing, paint, animation and live production capabilities.
Matrox has the Realtime Pro -Edit
workstation that comes as a completely
integrated NT system on a Compaq
computer running Adobe Premiere,
Boris FX and Inscriber CG. Pinnacle
offered two nonlinear systems in this
price range
the Reel Time and the
Reel Time Nitro. Nitro is an online
upgrade with real time 3D effects.
The OZ-4.0 from Videomedia is a
Windows -based linear editing program
that, in its full configuration, can control up to eight machines, a video switch er and audio board. The Gravity from
DPS is an integrated PC nonlinear system that can create up to a 99 -layer
nondestructive composite in a single
render pass. Sony offers the DNE900
news editing system and the BVE2000
linear editing system.
Applied Digital Technology brought
out the ADeditFX nonlinear system that
works with real -time MPEG -2 2D and
3D effects and transitions with any standard video format in or out. Fast has the
-
NT -based 601, a real -time, dual stream
MPEG -2 nonlinear editing system that
takes any standard format in or out.
The Fury SX from Blossom is a Windows NT turn -key system with real time transitions, keying, titling and 2D
and 3D DVE effects.
Media 100's Finish is a completely
integrated, cross platform nonlinear
system that can handle up to eight simultaneous real -time effects. It handles
any standard video format in and out
and comes in a variety of configurations
that go from basic assembly editing to
broadcast quality, long form finished
product.
In the $20,000 to $50,000 range, JVC's
MW- S1000U is an MJPEG- based, multiformat in and out online quality system with real -time 2D and 3D effects. It
is a single unit turnkey package. Panasonic has two systems: the DVedit which
is a lower cost DVCPro edit system and
the original Postbox 2000 which has
two video streams and will do real -time
3D effects.
Tektronix and Avid teamed up to create the AVStar. In this form, the original
Newscutter integrates with the Profile
video server for both editing and play-
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1
40
Broadcast Engineering
June 1999
back. It is available as a cuts -only system
or as expanded forms incorporating wipes
and dissolves and an effects system. Editware has a new system, the DPE -500,
which also works with the Profile to
create a linear /nonlinear hybrid. The system is NT-based and uses MPEG. It
interfaces with a switcher and an audio
board and retains the traditional lineartype edit screen rather than a time-line.
The use of the Profile allows edits to be
moved in a nonlinear fashion.
ETC's Ensemble Gold Multi- Linear
uses the Profile to create a hybrid linear/
nonlinear environment. The display is
also a hybrid showing both the traditional timecode screen and a time line
display. It can handle four video streams
at once. They also offer the Cut/Time
with the Profile that allows editing to
begin while still recording.
Sony was showing the ES -3 and the
ES -7. The ES -7 is an NT-based linear/
nonlinear hybrid with two video streams
that can be used to composite layers.
The ES -3 is nonlinear system that allows for unlimited layers of rendered
effects.
The Vibrint NewsEdit is a hybrid system that is specifically designed for
news editing. The system can he networked so that several editors can work
with the material at the same time
Discreet Logic's Edit is a real -time 2D
and 3D effects editor with up to 99
video tracks that can used both for
offline and online. It integrates with
I )iscreet's Paint and Effect to allow creation of complex graphics and images.
Editing can continue while the effects
are being created, minimizing waiting
during rendering.
Blossom's system, the Fury X2, is a
dual -monitor, real -time nonlinear system with 3D effects that is an unpack
and plug -in package.
The Accom Axial 3000 is a hybrid
system that is an uncompressed, real time online edit suite. It combines hard
drive capabilities with machine and
switcher control that allows editing in
both environments at once.
In the $50,000 to $100,000 range,
Accom offers the Stratasphere 3.0 version with several improvements in the
program that smooth out and speed up
its operation. For news editing, Panasonic's NewsByte is an NT-based high end nonlinear news editing system with
real -time 3D DVE, lighting effects and
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www.americanradiohistory.com
product
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Omnibus unveiled GAMMA, Global Asset
and Media Management Applications.
GAMMA allows users to access OmniBus
databases, online media archives, and
dubbing and routing systems through a
Web browser.
Circle (382) on Free Info Card
character generator.
Pixel Power's Collage is an uncompressed nonlinear edit system with built
in DVE. It has a single channel of video
with real time cuts -only editing along
with rendered wipes and multiple DVE
layers. Text, graphics and animation
effects are handled in real time on a
separate time line layer.
In the over $100,000 range there is the
new Avid 9000 and the 9000XL. These
systems are nonlinear television and
film editing systems that can work at
ANDATACO Announced the first product
from its collaborative agreement with
Micron, the LVD /Ultra2-based Micron
DataFRAME 450, a scaleable, high -
performance storage solution.
Circle (331) on Free Info Card
SkyStream showed the DBN -25 Integrator,
a system that provides data delivery
services for multiple points. The DBN -25
can be be used for Web caching, highspeed Internet delivery and combining
data with MPEG -2 audio /video streams.
Circle (404) on Free Into Card
24, 25 and 30 frames per second. They
also handle multicamera requirements.
Quantel's newest version of the Edit box, the FX, is an uncompressed nonlinear system with four video layers, 16
audio tracks and a Paintbox. It has an
option for 24 frames per second for film
editing. Later in the year Quantel will
offer the Chaser option for HD to enable real -time HD editing.
Philips brought the EditStream, which
is a nonlinear network system designed
for news editing that allows editing to
begin while material is still being captured. Up to 100 edit stations can access
the material concurrently.
Clear -Corn showed its SmartLink linking
For more Information, circle
(458) on the Fast Fact Card.
cards, which allow System 200, Compact
Mixing gear
72 or MicroMatrix systems to be
intelligently linked, giving users with one
system the ability to communicate with
users in another system with one key
Marcus Weise is a post -production supervisor
based in Hollywood.
action.
Circle (342) on Free Info Card
Canon introduced its J16ax8B IRS /IAS
IFxs lens, a 16x lens that allows manual
By Roy W.
Rising
override of the servo zoom control,
maximizing operational freedom.
Circle (338) on Free Info Card
With
The RFE shown by Media 100 consists of
a
300MHz G3 PowerBook with 192MB of
RAM, 8GB internal hard drive, a 14.1"
active matrix display, and colored EZ Keys
for Media 100 editing shortcuts.
Circle (373) on Free Into Card
142
Broadcast Engineering
each pass
ing year it
becomes more difficult to expect the
NAB Convention to
yet
grow bigger, brighter and better
it does. The completion of the new
North Hall at the Las Vegas Convention Center seemed to ease congestion
while increasing the number of exhib-
-
June 1999
www.americanradiohistory.com
its. Here's a look at some of the new
offerings in the world of television
sound.
Important new products from 360
Systems were, for me, the highlight of
the show. The TCR4 and TCR8 are
synchronous digital hard disk recorders. Offering four and eight channels,
these systems are aimed at the center of
video production. Both models provide
24 -bit audio, large internal storage and
high -density removable disks. Complete
timecode implementation and VTR
emulation are included.
Building on 360's DigiCart file management and Short/Cut editing features,
the TCR4 outperforms DAT and audio- dedicated VTR systems. The added
channels of the TCR8 are ideal for 5.1,
L/R mixes and multiple language production. Editing abilities include selectable cross-fade lengths, dynamic edit
marking, preroll, edit in, edit out and
post -roll. A RMW (Read -Modify -Write)
feature aids layering and mix-down.
Digital and analog I/O, versatile remote control interfaces, a large display
screen and keypad for titling and file
management are among the many other
user -friendly features.
New from Roland is the V- Mixing
System. It allows the console and I/0processor units to he separated by up to
650 feet, connected only by two standard AES/EBU cables. This eliminates
bulky infrastructure wiring between studio and control room. Systems having
up to 94 channels of digital mixing and
eight stereo effects provide motorized faders, 5.1 surround and full automation.
Euphonix announced the enhanced
CS3100B on -air mixing system. Monitoring features include simultaneous 5.1
and Dolby Matrix stereo and mono
outputs. A new GPI interface enables
audio -follow- video, fader cart start and
server triggering, tally responses for external inputs and automatic input muting during tape winds. Tally -back visual
monitoring of all GPI activity and 32
assignable outputs are also included.
Solid State Logic showed its newest,
the Axiom MT mixing console, featuring up to 96 fully- featured channels, 48 multitrack buses, 12 main
mix buses, 12 aux buses and over 200
mix returns, with every control dynamically automated.
Step up to HIGH DENSITY
with Datatek's new D-2800 series of High Density
Digital Video Routing Switchers
Datatek
offers the
perfect solution
for Digital Video and
Digital Audio. The D-2800
and D-2600 series of routing
switchers are also capable of routing
Analog Video, Analog Audio, RS-422
Bi-Directional Data, and Time Code.
DATATEcK
Also ask about our new D-2600 Digital
Video Switcher for 48 x 32 in 2RU.
For additional information contact
Datatek at 1121 Bristol Road,
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Th
(=In--654-8100
800-8
Every Datatek routing switcher is
delivered with twenty-eight ears of
ex
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DIGITAL PRODUCTION SWITCHERS
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Direct control of VTR
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All MLEs have full
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www.americanradiohistory.com
product
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Omnibus introduced the Feed -Brow, a
stand-alone desktop browsing system.
Designed for small to medium stations,
Feed -Brow allows broadcasters to review
materials before tape is taken to the edit
suite. The system can be upgraded to the
Hy -Brow system.
Circle (383) on Free Info Card
Systems integrator A.
F.
Associates
demonstrated technology that provides for
the centralization of programming and
master control for multiple stations, giving
access to close integration of playout
facilities for an array of head-end
environments.
Circle (322) on Free Info Card
DEC -312, shown by Fortel DTV, decodes
composite analog and generates four SDI
outputs. The 12-bit A/D conversion and
processing offers users an improved S /N.
The digital comb filter uses adaptive
frame, field and 3/5 line modes for
accurate YC separation
Circle (357) on Free Info Card
Evertz was also displaying its 7710MD, an
HD downconverter for monitoring 1.5Gb /s
signals on a standard-definition monitor.
The unit accepts 1080i or 720p input and
offers four outputs of two 1.5Gb /s
reclocked outputs, two NTSC or two serial
component.
Circle (351) on Free Info Card
1
46
Broadcast Engineering
Soundscape Digital showed its Mix treme WinNT PCI sound card, featuring 16 I/Os, external high -quality breakout converter boxes and bundled mixing software from their high -end post
and broadcast workstations.
Harrison/GLW introduced the new
TV5.1 production console directed at
DTV operations. Modular in architecture and available in five frame sizes,
the system is aimed at broadcasters not
yet ready for wholesale digital conversion. Important features include integral 5.1 surround panning and monitoring buses, multiple mix -minus options with talkhack, and either mechanical VU meters or switchable VU/
PPM LED array meters. Mono input
modules provide two mic and two line
inputs; stereo line input modules have
two stereo line inputs. Four -band EQ
and compressors are available with
every input.
Otani showed its PicMix multiformat, surround sound monitoring system, which offers flexible monitor reassignment, calibrated SPL output control and scalable system architecture.
Wheatstone showed its TV-80 audio
console, with optional preselector system that provides up to eleven inputs
per channel and can communicate with
station router. Also on display was the
D -600, which is available in sizes up to
40 positions.
Yamaha showed its D24 digital multitrack recorder, which offers 16 -, 20and 24 -bit, eight -track simultaneous
record and play capability at 44.1 and
48kHz sampling rates, and four-track
record /play at 96kHz. Additionally, the
D24 offers modularity, all the benefits
of nonlinear editing, and the convenience of removable media.
Many production facilities have separate music and sound effects rooms
that feed the main audio control room.
A very good way to maintain quality
and versatility in these areas is to employ products developed for radio. New
from Ward -Beck Systems is the R2K
series digital radio console. Delivering
20 and 28 input models, installation is
simplified by use of Phoenix pluggable
connectors throughout. A unique power supply package provides dual redundancy and allows use of WBS' excellent
D/A and AID converters and DAs in
only two rack units of space.
Pacific Research and Engineering deJune 1999
www.americanradiohistory.com
buted the Integrity 16 input mixing
system. All inputs accept either analog
or digital signals. Acceptance of any
sampling rate overcomes conversion
problems from a wide range of source
equipment. Metering and information
displays are combined on an LCD color monitor. Each input has a 10 -character alphanumeric display for labeling. Setup parameters may be saved,
allowing quick transition between various types of production.
Microphones
Electro -Voice introduced a new ultra miniature condenser clip -on mic, the
RE9OL. Improved EMI /RFI suppression is achieved by placing an insulated
copper foil wrap around the circuitry.
The entire circuit module is further
enclosed in polycarbonate resin that
forms a very lightweight, yet highly
durable package.
Also new from Electro -Voice is the
MS3000 Diversity Wireless Microphone System. Using EV's DXN companion providing 104dB S /N, the
performance compares well with
hard -wired mics. Hand -held and
body -pack transmitters are available
with a broad choice of mic elements.
Operating in the UHF range from
690 to 720MHz, each single frequency system comes with specially
tuned quarter -wave antennas employing rugged TNC -type connectors. Rack mount kits are available
for the receiver and antennas, as are
multicouplers and half -wave and log
periodic directional antennas.
Audio -Technica presented the
ÁT895 Adaptive -Array mic systems.
Developed to minimize ambient pickup while capturing the intended
source, this DSP controlled system
uses acoustical, analog and digital
filtering to achieve up to 80dB of
cancellation. The outputs from five
elements are fed through a detachable seven -conductor cable to the
AT895CP Control Pack, which provides power, digital processing and
control for the mic. The Control
Pack provides pattern and filter selection, headphone jack with volume control, and LCD battery condition display. In addition to a three
9V click -on battery housing, 12V
power may be delivered through a
standard four-pin XLR connector.
Our experience
spans more than 65 years,
and our engineering still
makes it simple.
Plug it in!
A Division of
Ask anyone and they'll tell you the same thing.
The K2 Digital IOT sets the standard by which
other IOTs are made. Why? It's simple. Years of
experience have produced the best IOT. Our
unique, field -proven design features simple, user friendly tuning right on the front of the subsystem.
Engineered for long life and broadcasting's
highest efficiency. you don't even have to
disconnect the power or cooling water to
replace it. Sure we're an Emmy winner for
technical achievement. But we've kept our
focus on engineering the simplest and most
reliable tools in the industry-so you can focus
on the more important things in life. Plug it in!
Circle (69) on Free Into Card
Communications
&
Power Industries
301 Industrial Road
San Carlos. CA
94070
tel 650.592.1221
fax
650.592.9988
email iot<. eimac.cpii.com
www.eimac.com
1.-- - ISO 9001 Certified
Made in USA
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Evolving Video Technologies' Anteo3D
graphics system features multiple font and
logo formats, audio and video clip
playback, style markers, real-time pagebased and DVE effects, multiple HO format
support and real -time HD output.
Circle (354) on Free Info Card
New from Shure is the WL61 Series
subminiature clip -on mic. Frequency
response is 20Hz to 20kHz. Available
in black or tan, each unit comes with
two interchangeable grills, which are
easily attached, removed and cleaned as
required. One grill is for head -worn
applications and provides 3dB boost
from 8- 20kHz. The other, for chest worn use, delivers a 10dB boost at
12kHz. Designed for wireless service,
the six -foot cords are terminated in
either Switchcraft TA4F or LEMO
connectors.
Thomson spotlighted its MSE 5000, a
multiservice encoder which performs HD
and SD encoding and supports 13 ATSC
input formats from 1080p to 480i using
the same hardware.
Circle (430) on Free Info Card
Leitch showed BrowseCutter which
provides an MPEG-1 shadow version of
every clip stored in the VR300 or 400
broadcast server. Users can build
rundowns, edit scripts, search wires,
browse video and edit from their desks or
multiple remote locations.
Circle (369) on Free Info Card
Sierra Video Systems showed its GRIP
series of graphical router interfaces. GRIP
is composed of three groups of Win -
dows95/98/NT programs: GRIP Lite, GRIP
Pro, and GRIP FM.
Circle (431) on Free Info Card
1
48
Broadcast Engineering
AKG Acoustics introduced a new, affordable large diaphragm condenser
mic, the C4000B. Featuring a true one inch gold- sputtered mylar dual capsule,
this mic is packaged in a rugged wire
grill with an additional internal windscreen. Standard 10dB internal attenuation and low cut filtering are selectable. Omni, cardioid and hypercardioid patterns are provided. An optimized
transformerless output stage protects
LF accuracy and has very low self noise.
Vega offered its EMP series of wireless
microphone receivers, featuring frequency agility, audio control and the
ability to reprogram UHF frequencies
as often as needed.
Azden debuted the 411DRH UHF
receiver and the 4000DR portable UHF
receiver. The 411 UHF receiver features 63 user -selectable UHF channels,
twin removable antennas, balanced
XLR and an unbalanced one- fourth
inch ouput connector and a 12VDC
power connector. The portable
4000DR also offers 63 user-selectable
channels, LED indicators for AF peak,
XLR output with volume adjust and
operates with four AA batteries or a
12VDC connector.
June 1999
www.americanradiohistory.com
Serendipity
One of the bonuses of walking the
convention floors is the discovery of
many good things you were not seeking. Here are a few of the more interesting ones.
Directed at nonlinear video editing,
Antex Electronics presented a family
of high quality 20 -bit audio hardware
and software. StudioCard 2000 delivers full four-channel I/O and 32 -bit
mixing precision. Absolute synchronization, hardware genlock and comprehensive timecode functions are present
on a single PCI bus card. Windows NT
drivers handle both Intel and Alpha
platforms. Multiple StudioCards may
be clock locked with single sample
accuracy. Other cards include 20 -bit
digital audio adapters offering 2/2, 2/
4 and 4/4 channel record /play capabilities.
Martinsound offers the MuItiMAX
surround sound multiformat monitor
controller. More than a dozen surround formats are easily managed
and outputs to 16 loudspeakers are
provided, each with separate level
trim. A built -in noise generator
makes level matching easy. Master
volume, mute and variable dim controls function with all systems. Instant selection of main, alternate,
near field and mono systems make
for quick comparisons and compatibility verification.
Gentner has a new digital telephone
hybrid. Replacing the popular DH3,
the DH30 works with both analog and
digital consoles. Acoustic echo cancellation and DSP technology minimize
unwanted noise; additional processing
manages abrupt changes in audio levels yielding the best on -air results. All
parameters are adjustable through an
Who says you haue to pay for á
high'power digital transmitter tÒdy?
(Other TV Transmitter Manufacturers.)
have a choice! You do not have
to risk your capital today to build a
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You
You can conserve your capital resources
nd not waste a fortune on unnecessary
power bills. Acrodyne offers the only
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The scalable characteristics of our digital
product line allow broadcasters to migrate
to the digital future while conserving their
capital budget for the other important
purchases required by their stations today.
Contact us for more details.
°ansmission. This means that you can
i ivest in the power level equipment you
need today and easily upgrade to higher
power levels based on the future growth of
ylur market's digital receiver population.
The digital world
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ACRODYNE
THE BROADCASTERS' COMPANY
Acrodyne Industries, Inc.
(800) 523 -2596
E -mail:
516 Township Line Road Blue Bell, PA 19422
(215) 542 -7000 Fax (215) 540 -5837
acroinfo @acrodyne.com
www.acrodyne.com
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®1999 Acrodyne IndnAries. Inc.
product
jackpot
Sun Microsystems unveiled the Sun
StorEdge Media Central, a digital media
services platform. StorEdge supports ad
insertion, multichannel playout and payper-view and provides frame accuracy for
deterministic analog or digital video /audio
streaming.
Circle (408) on Free Info Card
Leitch's LogoMax is an integrated turnkey
solution that lets operators put graphics
into TV programming by defining, dragging
and dropping graphics created with
software programs like Photoshop and
3Dstudio.
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Video Products Group displayed the
VPG9000, a 622Mb/s SONET /SDH video
multiplexer. The VPG9000 combines
multiple video signals onto the same fiber
and supports component serial digital
video, ITU-R Rec. 721 digital video and
composite analog transport.
Circle (419) on Free Info Card
LCD display and convenient programming buttons.
Dolby premiered the first Dolby
E encoder and decoder models (see
Pick Hits p.74). Incorporating Dolby E coding, multichannel audio is
easily moved through existing digital audio systems prior to encoding to Dolby Digital for final delivery. The DP571 encoder and
DP572 decoder ease the transition
from two- channel to multichannel audio. Up to eight channels of
punchdown terminal, offering a split-barrel
IDC terminal that allows for easy
retermination of audio patchbay. The unit
accepts 22AWG through 26AWG wire.
Circle (429) on Free Into Card
The new Itelco W123 VHF transmission
system serves Band
1,
47- to 88MHz
applications and is capable of outputting
up to 1500W peak sync. The W123 will
or servers.
Benchmark had an eight -channel A/D
converter that offered 24 -bit conversion at sample rates up to 96kHz. It
had a variety of unique features and
fits in a single rack unit (for more
information, see Pick Hits p.74).
Prime Image featured its Cash audio
expander/compressor. This unit allows
stations to create an additional 60 seconds for every 10 minutes of programming undetectably, without altering
pitch or creating digital artifacts.
Klark Teknik offered the DN3600, a
dual -channel programmable graphic
equalizer. The DN3600 offers a 30
seletion keys that correspond to each
to digital has
affected every area
of the television facility. Regardless
of what format of
notch and
sweepable low /high pass filters for frequency level and alter level.
Among the hand -held audio tools on
the show floor, two stood out. The first
was the Audio Toolbox from Terra sonde. This little wonder provides audio analysis, test functions, hum cancellation and more in a compact package (for more information, see Pick
Hits p.74). The second hand -held unit
of note is the Minirator MR -1 from
Neutrik USA. This little audio generator provides a low distortion sine wave
(20- 20kHz), square wave, white /pink
noise, and more (for more information, see Pick Hits, p.74).
For more information, circle
(459) on the Fast Fact Card.
transmitters.
Circle (363) on Free Into Card
Nov Rising is a systems engineer and production mixer based in the Los Angeles area. He
is a contributing editor for Bt's sister publication, Video Systems.
Broadcast Engineering
by Kenneth
Hunold
serve in vision, sound and digital
150
equipment
audio plus Dolby metadata travel
through a single AES /EBU pair and
occupy two digital tracks of recorders
frequency band and
Switchcraft showed its professional
Test
June 1999
he transition
audio or video
passes through a facility, digital techniques will be used. Digital interfaces
are being used throughout broadcast
stations. Often they carry signals that
were once transported in analog form baseband audio and video. Analogs that
are impressed upon the digital interface
still need to be monitored for continuity
and quality. Tektronix offers its 601 series digital waveform monitors, and
Leader offers its 5100 digital waveform
monitor. For HD signals, Leader has the
5I5x series of waveform monitors (for
more information, see Pick Hits p.74)
and Tektronix has the WFM 1125. All
of these offer some sort of monitoring
of the digital interface itself, either
SMPTE 259M (standard definition) or
SMPTE 292M (high definition). Elaborate serial digital interface (SDI) analysis tools are available from SyntheSys in
its Bitalyzer products.
Digital audio monitoring devices with
varying amounts of interface analysis
are available from Tektronix (WFM
764) and Leader (583x series). These
units offer traditional bar graphs and
metering as well as vector displays for
phase and soundfield monitoring. The
Leader 5137 offers a 3 -1 surround, 3 -2
stereo surround, and 5.1 multichannel
surround plus LFE monitor for production and broadcast use.
The so- called digital interconnections
used in digital audio and video systems
really use analog methods to transmit
digital data. These digital interfaces require their own version of interface
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Columbine offered its PSIP Manager, a
traffic -driven generator that takes schedule
information from CJDS traffic systems and
converts it into the proper PSIP tables to
create an ATSC-compliant data stream for
inclusion in the DTV multiplex.
Circle (343) on Free Into Card
analysis tools and can also aid in troubleshooting systems with problems
(such as interoperability issues).
The AES /EBU digital audio interface also requires its own interface
analysis tools. Audio Precision, Tektronix, Prism, Rhode and Schwarz
and other manufacturers all showed
test and analysis equipment for digital audio interfaces.
The convergence of TV and computers has reached the audio /video monitoring area with the
current crop of
Prisa Networks demonstrated the 64-bit
NEtFX Fibre Channel adapters. The
adapters support NT servers with a 64-bit
bus and Silicon Graphics servers and
workstations equipped with 64-bit buses.
Single and dual channel adapters are
available.
Circle (395) on Free Info Card
Leitch introduced the VR3000 Series
video server system, which offers the
VR300 video server, FCR disk arrays,
RAIDsoft redundancy system, and
SpotBase play-to-air software as an
integrated solution.
Circle (365) on Free Info Card
V Bit's RateMux accepts up to 15 [email protected]
MPEG -2 input signals through DHEI or
DVB -ASI compliant interfaces. The unit
then performs real-time CBR and VBR rate
conversion and bitstream manipulation
processing to the input streams.
Circle (415) on Free Info Card
waveform rasterizers. Beginning with
companies such as
Hamlet and Magni,
these have evolved
from displays meant
for NTSC video
monitors to products that display
their information
on VGA (or better)
displays. VGA displays take advantage of the greater
resolution of the
monitor as well as
the lack of a color
subcarrier and its
associated filtering.
have made MPEG-2 data compression
very popular. The structure of MPEG,
DVB, and ATSC datastreams is very
complex, and these systems have inspired several tools for datastream
structure analysis. Analyzing the various elements in the MPEG bitstream is
not easy, and significant computer
horsepower is needed to store, analyze
and monitor these bitstreams. Sencore,
Tektronix, and HP have all developed
MPEG analysis solutions for broadcasters. MPEG analyzers are the data
Analyzing the
various elements
in the MPEG
bitstream is not
easy, and
significant
computer
horsepower is
needed to store,
analyze and
monitor these
bitstreams.
Videotek showed its
VTM line of combo
audio and video monitors for combining several monitoring functions on a
single VGA screen. The VTM 400 extended this functionality to the HD
area, incorporating 1080- and 720 line video signal displays and six -channel audio displays (for more information, see Pick Hits p.74).
HDTV broadcasts and SD file servers
broadcasting
equivalent to a TV
spectrum analyzer.
(Note that spectrum analyzers are
still required in
data broadcasting.) The data
packet is the "car rier" of information. If the audio
portion of a show
suddenly disappears, an MPEG
analyzer could
check to see if the
packet identifier
(PID) for that audio service is still
part of the bit-
stream. This is similar to using a spectrum analyzer to see
if the audio subcarrier is still present. If
the PID (or subcarrier in analog broadcasting) is still there but without data
(or modulation), then the problem exists elsewhere. Among the MPEG test
equipment at NAB was the Stream
Station and Stream Station II from
Adherent. The Stream Station II pro-
What's the difference between automation systems?
303.237.4000M www.cjds.com/automation.htm
Circle (81) on Free Info Card
i 52
Broadcast Engineering
June 1999
Changing the Face of Television
With today's technology, we communicate via
e -mail, digital cellular telephone, and fax
machine. But not since the advent of color
television nearly fifty years ago, has there been
such a buzz in the television industry. Some
say it's the natural progression of things; some
say the world of communications will never
again be the same. One thing is for certain:
digital television will change the way we view
the world.
As the new millennium approaches with the
transition to digital technology on every
broadcaster's schedule, you want to work with
the RF experts. With our vast experience in
the design, installation, and support of digital
transmission equipment, ADC Broadcast
Systems is poised to create innovative
solutions to meet your station's specific DTV
needs. We offer a complete line of DTV
transmission products including 100 kW
average power IOT transmitters, air- cooled
Diacrode and solid state transmitters, and
8VSB Modulators. We have engineered these
products with one thing in mind: to make your
conversion to DTV as smooth as possible.
DTV Transmitter Products from the RF Experts.
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Circle (82) on Free Info Card
www.americanradiohistory.com
broadcast infoeadc.com
prouc
jackpot
Media 100's ShakeVideo is a Windows
NT-based high-speed compositing
complement to the Finish line of content
creation systems. The graphical interface
is designed for production with intuitive
process tree control and extensible
scripting features.
Circle (372) on Free Into Card
Vela Research offered its RapidAccess
2.0, a video delivery system featuring
operational flexibility for news, sports or
any other type of live programming. The
system can simultaneously record and
monitor on one channel and play back four
other streams.
Circle (428) on Free Info Card
The SRR 2150/16x1 shown by DEC
provides a 16x1 broadband switch
spanning 950- to 2150MHz. Housed in a
one RU enclosure, the switch is controlled
locally via momentary pushbuttons and
remotely via RS-422 (or optional RS -232).
Circle (396) on Free Info Card
Miranda's Kaleido is a new video display
system that allows users to monitor up to
16 analog or digital video signals at the
same time on a single computer, plasma
or projection screen.
Circle (377) on Free Info Card
ADC Telecommunications introduced its
AccessPoint Universal Media Access
system, which is designed to transport
multimedia over ATM, SDH /SONET and
PDH-switched broadband networks. The
system integrates MPEG-2 compression
and ATM format adaptation.
Circle (327) on Free Info Card
154
Broadcast Engineering
vides MPEG -2, DVB and ATSC trans-
port stream parameters. Adherent's
Stream View allows up to four transport streams to be monitored. Another
device along these same lines is the
StreamScope from LG Electronics.
StreamScope is a PC -based instrument
for recording and analyzing ATSC
streams and signals.
A new area of MPEG analysis was
displayed at NAB this year. Snell &
Wilcox and Tektronix offered so- called
automatic MPEG picture quality assessment systems. The S &W PAR (Pic-
ture Appraisal Rating) function is part
of the MVA MPEG analysis system.
This system describes the quality of the
video signal (and the related effectiveness of the compression) as a numeric
value. This value is related to the S/N
of the signal, as any difference between
the original signal and its reconstructed form after compression and decompression can be thought of as distortion, or noise. The Tektronix PQA
system has two modes: one is an offline
measurement that compares the original signal to its compressed result,
while the PQR system is a single -ended
process that can measure the performance of an operating link. The PQR
system analyzes the compressed video
and looks for the characteristics of
noise, blocking and freeze frames to
indicate the effectiveness of the compression process. The MVA system analyzes the MPEG bitstream directly.
Broadcasters have always been familiar with the process of modulation
monitoring. AM, FM and TV broadcasters have always used modulation
monitors to verify the level and quality
of transmissions. With the introduction of 8 -VSB modulation, TV broadcasters now have an additional type of
modulation that must be checked. 8VSB modulation analyzers are available from several companies including
HP, Tek and Sencore (for more information on the Sencore AT985, see Pick
Hits p.74). The process of creating a
data modulation system that looks like
a 6MHz chunk of noise with very steep
skirts is not an easy one, and many of
these parameters are new to the broadcast engineer. Constellation diagrams
and error vector magnitude are new
concepts to many engineers, and the
meaning is very important in terms of
maximizing the coverage area of a TV
June 1999
station. Many different views and tables of data are available to describe
and measure this modulation process.
For those still monitoring NTSC
(aren't we all), Modulation Sciences
new MSI -320 features a Nyquist SWA
filter, synchronous video detector and
continuous all channel tuning. Videotek
was celebrating their 25" aniversary
this year and also showing an NTSC
demodulator. The DM -200 high performance demod offers 60dB SNR,
1° differential phase, 1percent differential gain and SAP -in a halfrack package.
With the advent of discrete multichannel audio broadcasts, audio monitoring is being revisited. Manufacturers and audio mixers are struggling
with developing methods to monitor
effectively six or more channels of audio on a graphic display that is easy to
read and comprehend. These attempts
vary from "fish finder" displays to
different styles of soundfield, lissajous
and bar graph displays. DK Audio,
Leader, Tektronix, Videotek and others are showing possible displays for
multichannel and/or surround sound
audio. A simple and compact audio
monitoring package is available from
Wohler in the form of their ATSC-3, a
2RU device with an ATSC/MPEG-2
digital input (for more information,
see Pick Hits, p.74). In addition to
audio displays, methods for monitoring the metadata associated with multichannel audio production must be
developed. Monitoring the metadata
portion of the AC -3 audio signal could
be the next growth industry in broadcast and production monitoring for
data and audio monitoring.
Thankfully, test equipment isn't going away with the transition to digital
broadcasting. Most engineers realize
that going digital doesn't eliminate the
need for test and measurement equipment. It just means that some tests will
be replaced by other, different tests.
NAB showed that, indeed, there is still
a lot of testing that needs to be done.
For more information, circle
(460) on the Fast Fact Card.
Ken Hunold is an audio /video project engineer
at the ABC Laboratory, New York
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The ATSC system provides for HD
and SD television. This 19.4Mb /s of
HD or SD data is modulated into a
6MHz TV channel using a modulation system known as trellis -coded
8 -VSB. This entire three -part system
is known as encoding.
ADC Telecommunications also unveiled
new interface modules for its DV6000
series of switchers. The new modules
Encoding
include ATSC modules for transport of
By
compressed HD and SD signals, a Digital
IF encoder /decoder card and a
DV6300S
SONET /SDH interface card.
Circle (328) on Free Info Card
Intergraph announced the TDZ 2000 GX1
workstations are now available with the
Pentium Ill Xeon processor at 500MHz.
The workstation offers faster performance
for NT-based applications and a 20
By Marvin Born
percent performance increase over older
models.
Circle (361) on Free Info Card
DPS introduced the dpsGravity, an online
nonlinear editing and compositing
workstation. The system includes new
DPS hardware and software and
compositing software by eyeon Software
Inc.
Circle (346) on Free Info Card
Pilot Broadcast showed its Pilot News
graphics management and automation
software, which allows the graphic artist's
2D or 3D designs to be stored as
templates and then employed in a desktop
environment by TV journalists and
producers for on-air use.
Circle (389) on Free Info Card
Calrec launched its Alpha 100 digital audio
production console. The unit offers a
maximum configuration of 96 stereo and
48 mono channels, a two-layer design
allowing for channel path per fader or dual
path arrangement and mix -minus output
per channel.
Circle (337) on Free Info Card
156
Broadcast Engineering
definition, HD encoders must
compliant for DTV broad-
be ATSC
the beginning, there was digital
(Morse Code is by definition digital;
on and off is digital in its purest form).
Then came analog with the introduction of voice modulation. That was
called radio. Later, with the addition of
a few more tubes, more bandwidth and
something called a lens, radio with pictures was discovered. It was called television. Since that early beginning, radio
with pictures has been analog. For more
than 50 years it remained that way,
until some sharp engineering type discovered the analog TV signal could he
broken into a number of smaller samples and measured. The sample value
could be used to reconstruct the radio n
with- pictures signal and it looked just
like it did before it was sampled. This
revolutionary technique was called digital. It could be considered somewhat
different than the first digital signal.
Also, it was transmitted at faster rates.
Now with more than 50 years of television experience behind us, we have
HD radio with pictures. A group of US
companies called the Grand Alliance
developed the system that became a
standard as defined by the Advanced
Television Systems committee. This system is divided into three parts: coding/
compression, multiplex/transport and
transmission. The system conforms to
the MPEG -2 standard of video compression at a data rate of 19.4Mb/s and
provides for the transmission of audio
via the Dolby AC -3 audio compression
system, which provides six channels of
surround sound audio.
June 1999
www.americanradiohistory.com
casting. There are several manufacturers who build compliant equipment. One of the earliest was General Instruments. Its current product,
DigiCipher II, houses a number of
features. One feature is panel overlap processing. This allows the passing of motion vectors from one panel to
another, eliminating the artifacts caused
by the changing of motion across panel
boundaries. Encoders typically have six
panels. Inter-panel multiplexing assigns
different hit rates to different panels,
depending on the complexity of the
picture information in that panel. This
allows more data to be delivered to the
panels with high demand picture elements. The result is fewer artifacts occurring in those high -demand panels.
The system also has scene change detection and fade detection. Scene change
detection allows the software to detect
two adjacent video frames that are either different video scenes such as a
camera switch or that the adjacent
frames are of the same scene but contain
high motion (such as a pan across a
football field). At points such as these,
the MPEG group of pictures can be
closed and a new one started. This
results in better bandwidth control and
higher video quality. The fade detection
is similar to scene change but detects the
fade to black that results in a change in
hit rate for the black.
Other interesting features of the
DigiCipher I1 include the internal AC-3
stereo processing, rapid switching from
SD to HD service and a DS -3 output
port. The AC -3 process is somewhat
self -explanatory. No external audio
encoder is necessary. Up to three stereo
pairs can be multiplexed into the transport stream, such as stereo, single mono
left and right or any combination from
six audio inputs. The system will, of
course, pass through pre -compressed/
encoded audio such as AC -3/5.1 from
an external source. There is also match-
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Circle (84) on Free Info Card
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Avid showed its Unity shared storage and
distributed computing products. A
combination of advanced media
networking and shared central computing
technology, the system connects and
enables digital media workstations
regardless of format or platform.
Circle (335) on Free Info Card
Videoframe showcased its Tally Mapper, a
general purpose tally mapping and routing
Thomson Broadcast was showing its
System 5000 Multi-service encoder MSE.
The MSE 5000 supports 13 ATSC input
formats from 1080P to 4801. Using Thomson's own encoding chipset, the encoder uses six panels and can be used to
compress either HD or multiple SD feeds.
NDS introduced a new product, a HD
ATSC encoder E5820 that supports
480i @30, 480p @60, 720p @60 and
1080i. It has additional expansion module space for future data support. The
E5820 has a special noise reduction system that increases picture quality and
reduces bit -rate overhead by not digitizing noise. It supports closed captioning
using an RS -232 interface.
unit, allowing one -button, instant
remapping. Expander units enable the
Mapper to grow to 320x640. A Windows
interface allows set up and configuration.
Circle (421) on Free Info Card
Video GainesVille showed the Mighty Mix.
a
single ME vision mixer that combines all
elements of a full-size mixer in one
compact unit. It has a DVE option and is
suitable for small edit suites or OB
vehicles.
Circle (422) on Free Info Card
Solid State Logic showed its Aysis Air
digital console, which provides up to 96
fully featured channels, improved surround
sound operating modes for 5.1, for AC3 or
Dolby Surround with a simultaneous
stereo mix, and integrated routing.
Circle (423) on Free Info Card
Canal + debuted its Mediaguard
conditional access system, which offers
high levels of security to protect revenue
sources for digital broadcasters while
allowing them flexibility in the way they
sell their services.
Circle (424) on Free Info Card
COFDM for ENG
Although not HD related, but extremely
important to broadcasters, NDS announced its system of COFDM -based
digital ENG. With the loss of spectum
space in the 2GHz band coming and the
reduction in either the number of channels or the bandwidth of the individual
channels, something is needed to support the present and future expansion of
electronic news gathering operations.
COFDM is a multicarrier system of carrier modulation. It reduces or eliminates
ghosting and multipath problems, as
well as being spectrum efficient. From
the field trials it appears to allow much
better mobile, meaning moving live shots
with no multipath, as well as reduced
mast height. The MPEG -2 data rate is
5Mb /s for mobile use, while the clear
path mode is up to 28Mb /s. Encoding is
4:2:2 or 4:2:0. Inputs include composite
or digital video plus four channels of
audio and an RS -232 or RS -422 data
channel.
The COFDM modulation consists of
2000 carriers in 6 -, 7 -, or 8MHz of
bandwidth, selectable QPSK, 16QAM
or 64QAM carrier modulation. The system provides a 70MHz interface to microwave radio systems. This system was
the subject of much discussion. A remaining test should include multiple systems operating at the same time in a
breaking news environment where the
users arc typical ENG operators and
direct competitors.
On another front, Scientific- Atlanta
showcased its Power Vu Plus MDR (Multiple Decrypting Receiver), which allows
programmers to deliver a digital multiplex easily down a cable system to any
160
Broadcast Engineering
June 1999
www.americanradiohistory.com
OpenCable set -top by simultaneously
receiving and decrypt up to 16 digital
channels.
On the subject of set -top boxes, Philips Semiconductor had their TriMedia
processor on hand. This VLIW chip is
ideal for multimedia tasks such as
MPEG -2 video, DVD, AC -3 audio and
real -time 3D graphics. It is very likely
that alarge number of DTV set -top boxes will he using powerful ICs such as
this one.
There were quite a few statistical multiplexing and encoding systems including one from Tadiran Scopus. The system is based on the Codico EI 000 series
encoders and RTM -3600 multiplexers.
Another was Divicom's Divicast which
is capable of handling up to 35Mb/s of
data with as many as 60 MPEG -2 PIDs
(for more information, see Pick Hits,
p.74).
Last is a look at Divicom's MV-400 HD
encoder. Divicom has a different approach
to HD encoding. Rather than dividing the
screen into six tiles and using six different
SD encoders (one for each tile). Divicom
divides the screen in a number of horizontal strips called image slicing. There are 10
slices, each with its own processing engine
and encoder. Some of the highlights of the
MV-400 include: compact size (1RU);
support for 1080i, 720p and 480p; use of
motion tracking to reduce artifacts; and
integrated Dolby Digital audio support
as well as closed caption encoding. There
is also an inverse telecine mode that
eliminates the 3:2 pull -down, reducing
bandwidth on film -based program material.
All manufacturers in the encoding business show a number of different HD
encoders including those for DBS and
cable as well as those for broadcast. The
only disturbing display was one manufacturer that showed the same material
in 480, 720 and 1080, so the attendee
could see the difference between the
formats. All the monitors were the
same, of course, but they were Gas
Plasma units with 700 line maximum
resolution. Many people could not see
much difference between 720 and 1080
in that booth. You would think they
would know.
For more information, circle
(461) on the Fast Fact Card.
Marvin Born is rice president at WRNS -AM/
FM/TV in Columbus OH.
`,..L)BE4100 encoders are flexible, upgradable and competitively priced.
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his was an
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decode multiple MPEG streams over
the PCI bus or ultra -wide SCSI interface
single -slot PCI solution for NT-based
was a lot of
workstations
smaller stuff
that was in the "interesting development" category.
analog video /audio outputs per card drive up to 32 NTSC or PAL displays
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Whether it is an article, ad,
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take advantage of this
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or fax 913 - 967-1900
or e-mail [email protected]
162
Broadcast Engineering
June 1999
interesting
year at the really big show. There
really wasn't anything of the "Oh,
my goodness!"
variety, but there
Harris Corp. showed its new generation DTV transmitter
with IOT amplifiers. The Sigma CD -II uses Harris' new
exciter. It incorporates a feature they
call real -time adaptive correction. That
system continuously samples the RF
signal at the output of the mask filter. If
any distortion occurs, the system detects
and corrects the condition automatically,
without taking the transmitter off the air.
Harris also showed a new monitoring
system that tracks the operation of the
corrective system and adds some additional control. This new monitoring system, known as Mon itorplus, monitors the RF signal quality, the transport stream
integrity and program audio and video signals. This all purpose system provides the novice (Aren't we all ?) DTV
operator with the information and control necessary to keep
the transmitted signal in top order.
The Comark Division of Thomcast Communications Corp.
showed a new version of its DTV transmitters. The Digital
Advantage series features an automatic precorrection system
that monitors the overall system and automatically corrects
for errors. This is an improved version of the series that has
been very popular in recent years. Comark announced a
cooperative sales alliance with DiviCom, Inc. to supply
MPEG -2 encoders. CDS will also provide consulting services
to Comark in the areas of system management. Comark also
is teaming with NUCOMM to provide STL systems.
LeBlanc announced a new series of low -power translators
and transmitters for DTV conversion. The series ranges from
1W to 100W and is designed to replace analog translators.
Larcan showed its Landmark series of DTV transmitters.
Those transmitters use an IOT amplifier rated at up to 25kW
average power per socket. LeBlanc also emphasized its
system's capability to manufacture and install towers, antenna systems and transmitters. Several of LeBlanc's projects
were listed to demonstrate the complete range of services
offered.
Acrodyne showed a new line of transmitters known as the
Renaissance Series. The series offers analog transmitters
through 240kW and digital transmitters from 1kW through
100kW average power. At the higher power levels, these
transmitters use the Diacrode in the power amplifier.
Acrodyne has been the largest user of those devices and
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www.americanradiohistory.com
product
jackpot
Globecast North America was offering its
suite of broadcast services, including
master control, studio production, post
production, language conversion,
worldwide mobile production, SNG,
decoder installation, and equipment
procurement.
Circle (425) on Free Info Card
features them in their ACT transmitter.
The ACT transmitter operates with
NTSC and DTV carriers on adjacent
channels. Acrodyne also showed its
solid state transmitters for up to 4kW
digital service and tetrode transmitters
for up to 25kW analog and 12kW
digital systems.
Continental Electronics Corp.
showed the newest version of its solid
state and IOT transmitters. Continental has acquired TELEFUNKEN
Sendertechnik and has developed LDMOS solid state TV transmitters for
up to 40kW average power. It also
offers a line of IOT devices for up to
240kW analog operation.
EEV showcased the 9000 series of
IOTs, as series of plug -in analog and
digital IOTs rated at 80kW and 130kW
at peak. The IOTs offers output powers in a compact package and provide
faster tube replacements than standard IOTs.
Antennas and feedline
\ndrew displayed
Systems Wireless featured the HME Series
800 UHF wireless intercom system, which
has been upgraded to include optional ISO
and stage -announce capabilities from
Beltpac remotes.
Circle (426) on Free Info Card
Wegener launched the Unity 401 receiver
for private network distribution. It provides
DVB-compliant MPEG-2 digital video
operating in either SCPC or MCPC modes
from 2.5- to 50MB, as well as audio and
data, in one unit.
Circle (427) on Free Info Card
Canal+ also showed its interactive digital
broadcast system, Mediahighway. The
system is adaptable to cable, satellite and
terrestrial environments and acts as a
virtual machine, running independently
from hardware platforms and operating
systems.
Circle (434) on Free Info Card
CPI Eimac introduced additions to its K2
Klystrode family of 10Ts. The new models
are designed for either analog or digital
transmission, and are conservatively rated
for 32 kW (K230W) and 43 kW (K240W)
when operated in visual service.
Circle (435) on Free Into Card
new line of receive -only earth station antennas. The
new Valustar line is designed for broadcast distribution needs and is constructed to operate in both varied and adverse
environments. Andrew also showed both
of its slot and panel antennas for DTV
and analog use as well as a new model of
automatic dehydrator. A new type of
rigid transmission line was shown with
broadband capabilities for multiple station use. The line uses Andrew's bellows
expansion section that now has varied
lengths to remove the taboo channels for
given lengths.
Myat Inc. also demonstrated a broadband coaxial line for multiple station
use. A very interesting development was
its new elliptical waveguide for UHF
television. Known as Spectraguide, this
product has a drag coefficient of 1.6
compared to 3.9 for standard rectangular waveguide. Four sizes cover the entire UHF band. Due to the manner in
which the fields propagate in elliptical
waveguide, there is no need for pins in
the waveguide to control moding. The
only tuning required is at the input and
output transistions as is done for circular waveguides. Signal loss is less than
for rectangular waveguide and only
slightly higher than for pure circular
a
waveguide.
RFS displayed its panel antenna sys-
164
Broadcast Engineering
June 1999
www.americanradiohistory.com
tems as well as its flexible and rigid
transmission lines. A popular item was
the company's rapid release U link
systems. Designed to replace the standard RF patch panels, U links are available in up to 6 1/8 ". The big feature is
a simple and quick release mechanism
that eliminates hose clamps. The smaller versions mount in a 19" rack section. As for other panels, the RFS antennas offer wideband capability for
multiple station operation.
Shiveley Laboratories was also showing panel antennas as well as the UHF
batwing type antenna introduced last
year. Both the panels and batwing antennas are designed for multiple -station wideband applications.
As indicated by the number of wide band antennas shown, combined station operations are becoming very popular for DTV operation. A modified
version of such a panel antenna was
the centerpiece of the Dielectric Communications booth. Dielectric showed
a five -panel -per-layer antenna known
as the TUP -05. Several of these can be
stacked to obtain the desired gain. The
five -around configuration results in a
larger structure then four around, offering more room for the supporting
structure. That is a particular advantage in areas of high wind loading where
the added strength is needed. The five around configuration also assists in improving pattern circularity. These antennas provide circularity of m1dB over
most of the UHF band.
ADC Broadcast (formerly ITS) displayed an expanded line of their Visionary series IOT transmitters including a
new model for DTV use. As applies to
most manufacturers, these transmitters
are available for use as either NTSC or
DTV with different exciters. The analog
transmitters also convert to DTV operation without changes to the amplifiers.
These transmitters use IOT amplifiers
driven by linear feed -forward IPAs for
power outputs from 20kW peak power
to 280kW. ADC was showing exciters
for retrofit applications. These units provide DTV capability for existing analog
transmitters from most manufacturers.
Solid state transmitters up to 10kW were
also on display for analog or digital
applications.
What has appeared to be a long- standing problem has been addressed by
Micro Communications Inc. Many sta-
ions have been assigned a DTV channel that is one channel above their
analog assignment. Such operation has
t
significant amount of concern
egarding its affect upon the analog
'ration. In particular, the concern has
been that the aural part
t
wised a
1
(If the analog signal
would be significantly impacted. MCI has develt sped
a combiner using
, ual aural cavities that
ppear to resolve the
problem. The entire sysi .m is temperature compensated for stability and
different names. California Microwave
also displayed a new series of portable
radios for news gathering. The
"CodeRunner" series supports digital
modulation in various formats including COFDM and MPEG (See Pick Hits
As indicated by the number of
wideband antennas shown,
combined station operations are
becoming very popular for DTV
operation.
shows good handpass and
isolation characteristics. The measurements are available from MCI by rey uesting Report #90462A.
Microwave systems for DTV were
s town at several booths including Harr s, Itelco and California Microwave.
California Microwave, using Adaptive
broadband (formerly MRC radio) plat t, .rms, demonstrated its "TwinStream"
r dios, which allow the transmission of
both analog and DTV signals on the
s.' me channel. That same concept is
available from Harris and Itelco under
p.74). One very small ENG microwave
transmitter was on display at Global
Microwave. This unit operates at 5.8GHz
and was smaller than the 9V battery
used to power it (See Pick Hits p.74).
Artel Video Systems was showing fiber based HDTV STLs as well as their
DL8000, a new multichannel analog
fiber optic transmission system.
Broadcast Microwave Services had
their line of microwave systems (1.4- to
15GHz) on display, including analog
and digital mode s for air-to ground
links and pointto -point data and
video links.
NSI displayed
5 Reasons to "Convert"
to Video International
Standards Converters
Transcoders
Frame Synchronizers
Frame Rate Converters
Median Noise Reducers
the Superquad
central receive
antenna system
and the Silhouette
transmit antenna.
Both systems are
designed to over-
I
and magnetic field strength measurements.
Along those same lines, Wavetek, Wan del and Golterman had its WG DTS400P MPEG -2/DVB digital broadcast
monitor, which offers remote troubleshooting and real -time continuous monitoring of MPEG -2 /DVB transport
streams up to 60Mb /s.
All of this DTV RF equipment has to
lead somewhere. Ultimately, it will end
up on viewer's receivers. Today 16:9
sets are somewhat pricey and somewhat scarce. Numerous vendors were
showing 16:9 monitors at the show, one
of which was Princeton. Their 30V
CRT HDTV monitor includes a fine
pitch 16:9 high
Series 2000
UHF Broadcast
Antennas
Multichannel
Superturnstile and
- Panel Antennas
Slot Antennas for
Single Channels
forAll Power Levels
Combiners
and Related
RF Equipment
VIDEO INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT CORP.
Circle (88) on Free into Card
Industries
provides magnetic field
detection between 10MHz and 1GHz.
Holaday also introduced the HI -3804,
an EMF detection and measurement
system for 10 -42MHz ISM frequency
hands. The HI -3804 features on -board
data logging and review, squared and
power density units display and electric
Complete Solutions
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65 -16 Brook Ave., Deer Park, NY 11729
Phone: (516) 243 -5414
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email: 74604,[email protected]
on the web: http:/ /www.videointemational.com
Holaday
showcased the HI -4455
and HI -4457 field probes,
two RF test probes that
provide electric field detection and measurement
between 200kHz ad
40GHz. The HI4457 also
ely Labs
VIDEO INTERNATIONAL has been a high quality Signal
Processing Equipment manufacturer since 1980. Our wide
range carries a generous two -year warranty on all labor and
parts. And, we can custom design units to fill special needs.
Our Service turn- around time is only one day, in most cases.
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come frequency congestion by operating at 2/2.5 plus 6.5/7 plus 12 /13GHz.
For those with satellite uplinks have a
new way to transport signals, Ortel was
showing their L -hand and 70MHz HD
fiber optic links, which are useful alternatives to coaxial cables
for broadcast uplinks.
resolution Invar
shadow mask,
high light output
and a built-in line
doubler.
For more
information.
circle (462) on
the Fast Fact
Card.
Don Markley is president of D.1,. Markley
and Associates. Peoria,
11..
P.o.Bos weg, Bridgton, Main. 04009 USA
T.Í. (207) 647.3327
FAX: (207) 647.8273
.-mall: sal.sffshlvely.com
w.b stt.: www.shiv.ly.cdm
- An Empoy.Own.d Company :
141e6- SMIVELY
Circle (104) on Free Info Card
June 1999
Broadcast Engineering
165
New Products &
Harris /Hewlett- Packard build DTV test vehicle
BY ELIZABETH AGUILAR AND JERRY PLEMMONS
broadcast television indus-
evaluation,
try is organizing its first digital HD
transmitting stations, under advisement
by the FCC that it do so or risk loss of
er, a PC, a
The U.S.
spectrum.
On a more positive note, the FCC
agreed that no existing station should
lose coverage and the revenue potential that accompanies it in the transition to HD. Accordingly, each station
can now determine its present NTSC
coverage pattern and
-
establish
a
-
a
Harris ARX -H200 receiv-
weather station, a GPS for
precision location logging, a spectrum
analyzer, stereo system and calibration
equipment (See Figure 1).
The centerpiece of the field test vehicle
is the HP 89441V vector signal analyzer.
This analyzer offers sufficient input sensitivity to monitor both the output at the
transmitter - Harris is building it into
their HD transmitter monitoring system
digital
transmission pattern
that duplicates it.
The obvious implication of signal coverage uncertainty is
bandwidth, it auto maticallycalculates the
signal power inside the
band. The analyzercan
of
both NTSC and
also automatically ap-
ATSC signals are required at selected lo-
ply the FCC weighting
mask to the measured
signals. The latter information is, of course,
crucial to neighboring
cations throughout
the coverage area.
The need for reliable
coverage data re-
channels. With the disappearance of taboo
channels, the precision
of HD signal propagation becomes critical to
the operation of the
broadcast network.
The HP 89441V can
quires a vehicle appropriately equipped
to
record
noise, and measuring it requires integrating the total power present over the
bandwidth of interest. A conventional
spectrum analyzer can calculate this
data by applying correction factors for
the resolution bandwidth, noise bandwidth and detectors. However, the HP
89441 V performs the
measurement automatically. It looks at
the channel and, when
the band power markers are set on 6MHz
that field strength
measurements
Digital signal strength is measured
differently from the analog NTSC signal. Because it employs a digital modulation format, HD television looks like
signal
strength in multiple locations. Harris Broadcast Systems devel- A Harris operator sits comfortably inside the van collecting data during the field
oped such a vehicle test. The keyboard provides easy input of information to the computer program
controlling the HP 89441V vector signal analyzer.
and is currently testing it under a variety of circumstances.
- and the signal strength at the outer replace multiple instruments, including
limits of coverage, where the cliff effect a spectrum analyzer, power meter and
Developing the field test vehicle
occurs. The particular advantage of such frequency counter. The instrument is
I arris outfitted a conventional Ford
flexibility is consistency of data. Using appropriate for both QAM and VSB
van
with
nine
pneumatic
350
a
-meter,
-lift the same instrument in both capacities measurements, particularly the new digital modulation formats such as 8VSB
mast and precision yagi antenna, includ- ensures that no errors will creep in as a
and 64/256 QAM. A downloadable proing a CCTV camera to serve as an elec- result of anomalies associated with diftronic periscope to enable operators to fering instruments. As the fledgling DTV gram developed during early ATSC field
avoid local obstructions while aiming the market expands and the inevitable spec- testing is available from Hewlett-Packtral interference issues arise, the advan- ard. The program allows technicians to
antenna back at the transmitter.
perform transmitter characterization tests
tages of having both measurement flexiInside the van is a full complement of
instrumentation, including standard and bility and recognized standard instru- of NTSC and 8VSB ATSC broadcast
DTV monitors for TASO signal -quality mentation become even more apparent. formats with one -button operations.
166
Broadcast Engineering
June 1999
www.americanradiohistory.com
,a.
Computer control table
Within the van, however, the PC acts
as a mission control processor. Harris
Navigator software simplifies the signal measurement process by automating many of the measurements. The truck
incorporates a LAN that controls the HP
89441V vector signal analyzer, the HP
8591E spectrum analyzer used for the
NTSC signal, the GPS, the antenna position system, the NTSC receiver and the
weather reporting equipment. After performing a calibration process and manually inputting basic data about the van
location and the channel being measured, the technician initiates the measurement procedure. Because the HP
89441V is computer -controllable, a computer can direct it through the process,
read all the data and print out the necessary reports on an inkjet printer. It all
happens very quickly and smoothly. Consistent, comparable data is recorded for
each site the van visits.
addition to numerical data, the HP
89441V provides a graphical output.
This provides a record of the signal bandwidth and any impairments. The eye
pattern is available as a printout, and its
digital data integrity can be observed.
The HP 89441V also displays the constellation of 8VSB voltage levels, which
provides an indication of problems with
the transmitter. For example, while the
transmitted signal would customarily
have a flat top, any problems will prompt
the instrument to display the spectrum
with a tilt in it. (See Figure 2.)
Another FCC specification requires
that the measuring antenna be the same
In
.,..- t.a.,.
MILO
0>,
arm+od°
LQnN
77-7
COMA
Figure 1. The versatile instrumentation allows
to be quickly performed.
height as the average home antenna,
hence the nine meter mast. When recording the strength of the signal, the
agency requires the operator to drive
the vehicle 100 feet with the antenna
pointed at the transmitter.
Versatility and flexibility
Prior to the advent of the HP 89441V,
signal strength measurement was taken
on a strip chart recorder. This displayed
the maximum and minimum signals in
the 100 -foot window, but the measurement was relatively primitive. The HP
89441V allows the analyzer to output
that information to the PC and manipulate data as necessary to display peaks
and nulls with great precision and then
rn Platter 711MRti Clnanal 7
nn
Rpe.0t4ôP,d"v41'.
n 4,1, ^
an0rß $e
ICIryPtY
Figure
2.
.f>
`
y A,e,44y
:ron°,.°
P g*4
a
variety of tests for TASO signal -quality
print a plot. An operator can store the
plot for future reference, either as a file
or in a hinder. Should the terrain somehow change - perhaps with the construction of a new building -a company
can bring the van back, take new measurements and compare data for any
effects the change may have on coverage in the immediate area.
Field strength measurements reveal
antenna anomalies and problems. if
zoning pre-empts antenna construction,
the broadcaster may opt to side mount
an antenna on an existing tower. if the
steel of the tower affects the signal
pattern, however, the broadcaster can
rethink the antenna position or consider augmenting the existing antenna with
a second one aimed at the current null
area. That scenario would require additional coverage measurements.
The HP 89441V provides capabilities
that include an extension beyond signal
strength measurements to indicate exactly
what a signal looks like and permit a thorough analysis of signal characteristics.
As the drive for a national database of
signal patterns moves forward, the need
for consistency will be at its greatest.
The HP 89441 V is evidence that the
project is off to a good beginning.
For more information, circle (252) on
the Free Info Card
Elizabeth Aguilar provides technical support
for the HP 89400 series rector signal analyzers
M[I
Tilt plot of the on -board 8VSB exciter graphed from the HP 89441V data.
unr 1999
www.americanradiohistory.com
in Hewlett- Packard's product marketing. Jerry
Plemmons is engineering manager at Harris
Bn i lcast ...stems.
Broadcast Engineering
167
New Products &
A plied Technolo
Panasonic's AJ- UFC1800 Universal Format Converter
BY DAVID WISWELL
The A J-UI-C I SUO was created forspa-
tial conversion of any ATSC image
format input to any ATSC DTV image
format video output. Film mode is provided to facilitate 3:2 or 2:2 pull -down
for video originated at 24 or 30 frames
per second whether from film or video
cameras. While performing conversions, user features for adjustment of
functions such as color space, aspect
ratio and audio and video
timing are available from a
simple operator interface
panel. New image formats
may he programmed into the
converter through a computer interface. The UFC1800
is designed to be a flexible
system for the conversion
to ATSC television.
Transition from the NTSC/
PAL television era to the new
Panasonic
era of ATSC television requires that systems design concepts and
production practices be modified to accept video images in multiple image for-
production and post -production facilities. It is not likely that facilities will
spend the large amount of money required to accumulate enough equipment
to be able to he fully functional in multiple image formats. The ability to convert images produced in one format to
another image format is key to developing a manageable technical system while
providing clients with the image formats
-__I_
mats. The ATSC system includes at least
18
different imaging structures with four
basic image format active picture areas,
1920 pixels by 1080 lines, 1280 pixels
by 720 lines, 720 pixels by 480 lines, and
640 pixels by 480 lines. The ATSC standard also allows progressive or interlace
scanning of the image formats as shown
in Figure 1.
When the FCC incorporated ATSCDTV broadcasting into its rules, it made
no mandate for compliance with Table 3
of the ATSC standard. Broadcasters and
others creating or delivering ATSC television may select any of the Table 3
formats for video production or delivery. Since Table 3 is a voluntary standard
by FCC rules, the possibility exists that
new image formats may be adopted.
This variability of the image format situation makes for a seemingly confusing
environment for broadcasters, as well as
168
Broadcast Engineering
mom
AJ- UFC1800 Universal Format Converter.
they require.
The insertion or deletion of 3:2 or 2:2
pull -down is key to 24 -frame video production. The AJ- UFC1800 converter is
capable of insertion or deletion of pull down and can use timecode or Aframe sync reference to maintain correct pull -down sequence. Metadata will
also be available for control of image
and pan and scan parameters.
Control of the pulldown sequence is
critical to proper operation of MPEG
encoders used by broadcasters for DTV
transmission. Transmitting at 24f and
allowing the viewer's DTV receiver or
set -top box to re- insert the sequence
can save 20 percent of the digital bandwidth required for video in the transport stream. This 20 percent savings
can be used to reduce the compression
ratio of the transmitted signal or multiplexing alternative data or program
material into the transport stream.
The converter is designed in two parts:
a hardware system with a new resizing
June 1999
engine being the central component, and
a software system with the various control, translation, subsystem and hardware interfaces. (See Figure 2.)
Panasonic developed a new programmable resizing engine as an ASIC for use
in the converter. The resizing engine is
the heart of the "Expert System" built
into the format converter control system
and assures optimal performance of a
complex set of possibilities.
More than 1000 filter selections are available to the
system for conversion pic-
ture optimization. Optimum settings for enhancement and filtering can only
be achieved by considering
the format of both the input
and output images. The control program optimizes the
enhancement filter settings
for the I/O side of the conversion engine but can also be user con-
trolled.
The PC 104 -control module controls
the audio and video paths through the
converter. Audio timing can be adjusted
to match video timing. The operating
software program provides control of
video filtering, enhancement, pan and
scan, and zoom. For aspect ratio conversions, a variety of side panel and cut
options are provided with background
color control. An internal test generator feature is provided for system testi ng.
Video from the input control module
is clocked in at the input data rate
determined by the system timing module. The data is resampled according to
the input format, output format, and
resizing parameters set with the front
panel controls. Color matrix control
for the conversion is applied using
preprogrammed parameters or user -
controlled color correction adjustments. Filtering and single dimension-
adjustment information from
the control panel and determines which
American ATSC Standard
FCC /ATSC
Scanning
Horizontal
Lines
Pixels
Aspect Ratio
Pixel Shape
Picture Rate
Frequency
1125 Total
1920 Active
16'9
5d, 30P. 24e
33.75 kHz
1080
HD
SD
1
Voluntary Formats
Arale
Square
750 Total
720 Active
1280 Active
525 Toral
480 Active
704 Active
525 Total
480 Active
Horizontal
(801)
16:9
60P, 30P. 24P
45 kHz
(60P)
6p
31.5 kHz
Square
640 Active
subsystems
16:9. 4:3
60P.
need
dated. The PC
104 module
creates down-
30P. 24P
(60e)
4:3
604, 601P,
Square
30P. 24P
15.75 kHz
(80p
load files for
subsystems
within
the
Figure 1. Of the 18 ATSC image formats, six are HD and 12 are
standard definition.
al
enhancement takes place in the
re-
justments are possible.
The operating software is divided into
two groups
controls and subsystem
parameters. Controls are user variables
with easy-to- understand values, such as
Zoom =1.2 or Pan =0.75. Subsystem parameters are variables required by
the subsystem
Video Path
hardware. Sub-
UFC Resizing ASIC
-
Concept
w
>+OM
re.
PC Co. ar
UFC1800 to
implement the
user control settings. The entire control
process is designed to take place in less
than one video frame, so real -time ad-
sizing engine. Two -dimensional enhancement is added later in the output
control module.
The output control module receives
video data from the resizing engine and
performs the 2D enhancement according to user control settings. The input
and output control modules receive nec-
Resizing ASIC
to he up-
Yaertion
..
04
system values are
not easily recognized such as
in
Ott,
.,
nue.I.
05.,vAS1r.
M.-.
Audio Path
Figure 2. The UFC Resizing ASIC Design Concept places the PC104 controller between the audio and video paths. The control
process is designed to take place in less than a single video frame,
making real -time adjustments possible.
hsiart
3
"
Translation software takes data
from the control
module and creates the corresponding subsystem parameters.
The format con-
eters for conversions between a wide
variety of image formats. The operating system software is preprogrammed
for conversions between any ATSC
image format controlled from the front
panel user interface.
Front panel control software responds
to user input from the front panel
control and manages the display panel. This module provides the user input
control data to the control system hardware module for implementation by
appropriate subsystem.
Video format files provide standard
image data to the control module. Each
video format recognized by the
UFC1800 has a fixed set of properties,
these values are held in the system
memory. Additional new input and
output image formats may be added by
entering the new video format file using the converter's nine -pin RS232
computer interface port.
The primary interface between the
user and the control and subsystems is
the front panel menu system and display, careful design was required to
assure simple, intuitive operation. The
menu screen and function keys are
used in combination with the keypad
and a continuously variable adjust control to select functions and make variable adjustments. In addition to the
"adjust" control knob, the front panel
consists of a 4x40 character display,
five function buttons, an exit button
and twelve menu buttons.
For more information about Panasonic's AJ -UFC 1800 Universal Format
Converter, circle (250) on the Free Info
Card.
verter software
essary timing from the control module,
which is controlled by the PC 104 module. The PC module receives values and
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June 1999
www.americanradiohistory.com
Broadcast Engineering
169
New Products & Reviews
Solid State Logic Aysis Air
BY JERRY AGRESTI
WRC -TV in Washington, D.C.
has a history of being first. Dedicated
in 1955 by Vice President Richard
NBC's
Nixon, and site of the Nixon/
In choosing a console for a project
of this scope, there are many factors
to consider, including familiarity of
operation, the ability to handle 5.1
stereo channels. An additional 12
faders in the center section provide eight group
masters and four stereo
subgroups, enabling full
5.1 operation with a simultaneous independent
stereo output mix. The
WRC console has 32
channel faders, controlling 16 mono and 16 stereo channels per level.
Aysis Air follows SSL's
digital practice of having a locally powered
digital control surface
connected to a remotefor SSL. and Jerry ly -sited digital processor.
Kennedy debates, it was
the first NBC station to
have a color infrastructure, the first station in
Washington to broadcast
stereo, and the first commercial station in Washington to go on air with
digital television. When
the process of re- equipping the station is completed later this year,
WRC will be one of the
first stations in the Washington area to boast a full
digital infrastructure, including an all -digital Ay- Dave Hansen (left). technical operations manager
sis Air audio console from Agresti. Director of Engineering for WRC. with the Aysis
WRC's move to a fully digital infrastructure.
Solid State Logic.
The decision to replace
WRC's analog system was influenced and Dolby AL-3 surround sound,
heavily by the upgrade to serial dig- the automated routing and recall of
ital by NBC's network news bureau, setups which digital provides, the
which is housed in the same build- manufacturer's attitude towards suping. This rebuild was carried out by port and development and, of course,
systems integration company Com- cost. In addition, the engineering staff
munications Engineering Inc (CEI), figured the cost of the A/D D/A conNewington, VA. CEI regards Wash- verters that would be necessary if an
ington as home territory, and because analog hoard was selected.The Aysis
of its familiarity with the facility's Air was competitive with that figure.
WRC's staff also valued the Aysis
infrastructure and staff, was a natuAir's
excellent specs and strong fearal fit for the project.
ture sets including the automation,
the elaborate routing system and the
deck, which has a very low operating
temperature. Staff found the hoard
a
easy to use, and SSL agreed to work
discrete control surface
with WRC on some features which
96 fully- featured channels
didn't exist in the original configuracontrolled snapshot reset
tion. SSL has subsequently delivered
integrated routing
those features.
inbuilt redundancy
With up to 96 fully featured channels of audio, Aysis Air may be spec-
Performance
at glance
170
Broadcast Engineering
ified with up to 48 channel faders in
bays of eight, each bay controlling
one or two layers of either mono or
June 1999
www.americanradiohistory.com
Air, part of
This interconnection
comprises three multi core cables of 16m or
48m length, plus analog audio lines
for monitoring, local PFL etc. SSL's
proprietary HiWay link supports up
to 95 mono audio channels bidirectionally, via standard coaxial cable
for distances of up to 150m. The
HiWay link is used to interconnect
the console processor and remote I/
O (RIO) units, which may be digital
(AES /EBU I /O), analog line level or
analog mic amp units. WRC's console has 56 analog /Os, 120 digital
I /Os (60 AES /EBU pairs) and 48 mic
amps and is fitted with SSL's Hub
Router option to provide the necessary additional number of HiWay
ports.
The Aysis Air control room has two
studios working to it, each of which
has two remote mic amp ADCs providing a total of 24 mic amps for each
studio. These are connected to the Hub
Router and processor rack in the ma1
chine room via coaxial HiWay links
and Ethernet links, the latter providing the control for the gain, 20dB
pad, impedance selection, high pass
filter(off /15Hz /60Hz), adaptive signal limiter and phantom power
switching for each mic amp, all of
which functions are controlled from
the associated console channel. Although full analog patchbay facilities are provided, no patching is necessary to select microphones or line
level sources or destinations, as all
audio signal paths in the station are
identified uniquely and are selected
as required by the SSL Hub Router.
The Hub Router, unique to SSL, is a
digital routing system that may be configured to provide over 2000 I/Os, and
may thus be used to share resources
between several studios and several
consoles. These resources may be microphone inputs, as noted above, and
also analog and digital line I/Os. In the
case of WRC's installation, the Hub
Router is interfaced with feeds from
the Philips station router, and the Aysis
Air's snapshot recall is utilized to configure the I/Os required for each different show. These configurations are done
during setup, which is the only time
that the console's pen and tablet control is used, as the setups are recalled
by keyswitches programmed with macros. The result is similar to but more
flexible than normaling on an analog
patchbay. Any part of the recalled setup may be changed. This is done simply by using individual panel switches
instead of over-patching and the normaling changes with every setup.
Although Aysis Air can provide simultaneous 5.1 surround and stereo
outputs, the news programming of
WRC uses only stereo. The console
output, digital AES/EBU, is fed to the
station router for selection to outgoing
reeds as required.
For more information on SSL's Aysis
Air audio console, circle (253) on the
Free Info Card.
Jerry Agresti is Director
of Engineering for
oa
One tough performer
you can count on.
The Telex' RTS" TW intercom system. The performance
you need day in and day out. The flexibility you need
to meet changing conditions. More than 25 different
components give you an almost infinite variety of
configurations. The RTS TW operates in full duplex
mode for up to 50 user stations. Solid state circuitry
enables dual channels through a standard 3 -pin XLR.
The system's high quality equipment is broadcast standard
for production with IFB and camera ISO. For solid
performance and thick- skinned durability, depend
on the RTS TW by Telex.
WRC in Washington, D.C.
® 1999 Telex Conmunica'ions. Inc.
Circle (92) on Free Info Card
New Products &
Field Re . ort
WFAA /KHOU sign on with commercial digital two -channel STLs
BY WAYNE KUBE
Dallas and KHOUTV in Houston initiated DTV
services with commercial two- channel
STLs. Both stations use Adaptive Broadband DAR45 7GHz digital microwave
systems to transport compressed digital
video signals from studios to DTV
transmitter, as well as to existing
analog TV transmitters.
A.H. Belo Corp., WFAA's group
WFAA -TV in
frame format and amplitude level to
meet the G.703 requirement for outputting from the TX connector in the
back of the encoding frame.
This DS3 output signal (44.736Mb/s)
from both encoders is then fed to both
data rate of
44.736Mb/s.
These two 70MHz IF signals (from
both modems) are then fed to the two
DAR transmitters. The modulated
70MHz signal is then processed in the
transmitter IF module. A phase-stable YIG oscillator is used to generate the LO signal. The LO and IF
signals are then mixed together with
the upconverter module and the output drives a power amplifier to produce a .5W output.
A wiring harness is used to connect the summary alarm outputs
from the QM4 modems, DAR transmitter and encoder frames to the
hot -standby shelf. If a failure occurs, an open circuit condition from
either the modem, radio or encoder
frame will drive the hot -standby RF
a level of -10dBm with a
owner, requested that Adaptive
Broadband provide a complete digital video transport solution, including microwave radios, MPEG -2 video codecs, multiplexers, protection
equipment and antennas. In response, the company worked closely with the engineering staff of WFAA
and KHOU to provide a thoroughly
designed, integrated and tested solution for our digital STL.
waveguide switch to pass the proThe two- channel digital STLs are
tected output.
protected DS3 STL configurations
At the transmitter site, the two
that use hot standby switching at the
incoming received signals (diversity
studio and modem diversity switchreception) are fed down through the
ing at the receiver. The DS3 rate is
applicable waveguide filters and isoused for the integration of the
lators where the signals are received
ATSC transport stream (19.39Mb/
by two DAR single- downconvers) with an MPEG -2 compressed
sion receivers. In the DAR, the low D1 formatted video signal and a
the
Adaptive
Wayne
Kube
(pictured)
employed
noise downconverter module conT1 data signal.
Broadband STL solution when WFAA -TV in Dalverts the incoming RF signal to
At the studio, a 270Mb /s D1 video las transitioned to DTV.
70MHz by using a low side LO
signal is routed to the input of both
signal generated by the phase -stable
MPEG -2 encoder frames at the seriYIG
oscillator module.
two
paralThe
DI
is
QM4
modems
thus
creating
al input connector.
signal
The 70MHz signal is then equalized
synchronized and compressed (factory lel information paths. The QM4 moset at 20Mb /s) internal to the encoder dems process the data by generating and amplified by the IF equalizer modframe, where it is then digitally for- B3ZS line coding and add Reed -So- ule and the IF AGC module. These
matted and multiplexed with the in- lomon error correction bits into the two modules filter and set the IF
coming analog audio signal which is data payload. The data payload is then output level to a constant -SdBm outalso digitized according to user selec- separated and bit encoded for integra- put. The two 70MHz signals (from
tion in an uncompressed PCM for- tion onto the I (in phase) channel and Q both receivers) feed the input to the
mat or compressed to MPEG -2, Lay- (quadrature phase) channel of the UQ QM4 demodulators.
The QM4s are configured for diversimodulator board (16QAM). The I/Q
er II (MUSICAM).
The DS3 interface module takes in the board sums the two channels together ty switching with a data cross conneccomposite digital bitstream and the to encode the data onto a 70MHz oscil- tion cable that connects the two moATSC stream and supplies the multi- lator with phase lock loop circuitry to dems together. The internal diversity
plexed data with the required timing, create a 70MHz modulated pedestal at switch demodulates the two 70MHz IF
172
Broadcast Engineering
June 1999
streams, synchronizes them toHDTV Transpon
Stream 1939 MRS
gether and optimally switches
Audio Input
Audio
Analog
between them to produce seamChannels
HOW
less switching without inducing
Outpw
45MeS
:HDTV
DI
errors. The system will track
propagation delay changes and
Data
Data Stream Input
provide a data output from the
receiver with the highest probability of being errorless and feed
that signal to both modems for
output. This allows the user to
take one system off line and still
Swath
have data continuity.
nonandbv
D53 OugM
The common DS3 output from
Man
both QM4 modems feed the
Alum
I7M15MPS
Tansmmet
160AM
6/12
l.T
two decoder shelves in parallel
and are supplied to the RX port
on the back of the DS3 interface
Tansminei
HDN Transport
69315
IMeçlXe
Stream 19.39 NOS
module. The decoder strips off
M12
the DS3 framing pattern and
separates the data streams (i.e.
MPEG, ATSC, TI). The indi- At WFAA's studio, the HD and data signals are multiplexed, forming the DS3 encoded (45Mb /s)
signal. The encoded signal is fed to two QM4 modems and then to a pair of DAR transmitters,
vidual streams are decoded then
monitored and, if necessary, the hot standby transmitter is switched on. Any failure causes
and routed to the appropriate the backup DAR transmitter to be automatically switched online.
output interface module where
the output is then supplied the necesdio channel feeds one channel of a hot point, they will cause intersymbol intersary analog waveforms or data interstandby shelf. A contact closure on ference inside the modem, which proface.
the decoder shelf is used to indicate duces a high bit error rate (BER). The
Each composite video and analog aufailure (air temp, rail voltages, and fan two signals can add or subtract in phase,
failure), an open circuit condition trig- creating IF notches. The card corrects
gers the common output out of the for any IF notches or skew in the pass shelf. On the second channel of the band to maintain good BER. Included
hot standby shelf, the two ATSC out- in the test data, there are M -curve meaMaintenance Software
puts from the decoder are connected. surements that reflect the modem's
The switch will select the same chan- ability to compensate for these notch
nel output as the composite video depths.
Tracks:
-fa's
channel.
For more information on Adaptive
An adaptive equalizer card is includBroadband's digital, two -channel STLs,
Equipment Inventory
ed in bottom board inside the chassis, circle (251) on the Free Info Card.
Spare Parts
the QM4 demodulator. The card is
Capital Parts
used to compensate for multi path from Wayne Kube is engineering technical manager
signal dispersion. If two signals of the WFAA -TV ir DT, Dallas, TX.
Repairs/Work Orders
same frequency unequal in phase or
Preventive Maintenance
equal in phase are received at the same
4
EEITCH MPEG
O53
4 2 2 ENCODER
MUG
Putout
RnAntenna
TO
Hot S79Y
T%
Shen
45 MIVS
Rf
Modem
DAR
6937 5 MHZ
70
Alarm
OAR
OS3 Network
Module
MHZ
16 DAM
70
WINBCAM
$299.
Repair Logs
Technical Staff Activities
Mean Time Between Failures
Technical Purchase Orders
Out of House Tracking
Technical Report Module
Graphical Report Module
Contacts Module
Diagnostics
NOW OVER 1 700 WINBCAM USERS
Computer Assisted Technologist Inc.
847A Second Avenue/Suits 1750
New York, NY
10017
TEL: 212-687 -2226 FAX: 212-687 -4380
Circle (94) on Free Into Card
DH2O
Digital Hybrid
The DH2O is the most affordable digital hybrid from Gentner. It
includes several features only available in more expensive units
such as selectable caller control, auto answer/disconnect, and
selectable call progress decoder.
57(1(1 E. Loop 82(I South
Fort Worth. Texas 76119 -7099
Phone: 817 -483- 7474
Fax: 817 -483 -9952
pas(rl`ligltts- audio.com
wAS...Ii his- audiu.com
'
.'
a0
fi
t
Q
`\S
\`
Qi
/
SUDPIV
Circle (93) on Free Info Card
June 1999
www.americanradiohistory.com
Broadcast Engineering
173
Shopping for DAWs
BY YASMIN HASHMI
benefits of random access playback and nondestructive editing
have been demonstrated for many years,
but, for the novice, the choice of systems
currently available can prove bewildering.
There are now tapeless systems for
almost every professional audio application, from PCMCIA -based portables
for location recording and simple editing, to post production editing with
surround sound mixing for video, television, film and DVD (Digital Versatile
Disc). There are simple cart replacement products for broadcast or theater,
and live -assist and full automation systems for radio. There are multitrack tape
replacement units, and systems for CD
premastering and /or delivering audio
content via existing and new media, such
as digital radio broadcasting, high -density (1) and the Internet.
e
What's best?
With so many systems available, finding the best system to suit a particular
application and budget can he a daunting task. For some, the price of a system
will be the most important factor, and
there are now affordable packages available which open the market to the masses. Indeed, taking advantage of standard
hardware provides the user with added
flexibility, potentially allowing other
software to he used on the same platform.
Calculating a realistic cost however,
may not be so straightforward, given the
number of variables involved in configuring a system for a particular application. For those who have strict budget
constraints, the software -only package
that can be used with an existing computer platform for example, may he the
only solution, but most stipulate minimum requirements for CPU power, storage performance and capacity.
the number of continuous streams or channels supported, as
well as the overall performance of the
system, will he highly dependent on the
specifications of the hardware you use,
including the disk drive(s). The final cost
may therefore involve not only the software package, but necessary upgrades to
the host and storage as well.
The user must also consider what type
of synchronization capabilities and I/O
will he required. Will the system be used
as a stand -alone device and if so, will its
integrated mixing capabilities suffice or
will there still be a need to use it with
certain outboard gear? Even if a personal computer has in -built audio capabilities, if professional I/O and sync interfaces are required, appropriate cards must
also be sourced.
While the computer industry is clearly
driving the overall direction of the random access market, it cannot be expected to completely address the particular
requirements of the audio professional.
There is still a need for hardware geared
specifically to handling and processing
audio, which explains why there are so
many proprietary processing engines
available.
These take the load off the host CPU
and are usually provided as plug -in cards
accompanied by proprietary software
applications, but some also come in the
form of custom rackmounts with all
required processing, I/O, storage and
sync interfaces.
platform
is used,
Packages that rely solely or partially
on the host processor will usually require the latest models, and whichever
Turnkey solutions
For those users who do not have the
confidence or desire to upgrade their
computers themselves, many manufacturers also offer their card and/or software packages in the form of a turnkey
system, complete with the required platform and storage. Ultimately for many
users, especially those seeking guaranteed performance, the proprietary turnkey system is the ideal solution. Manufacturers obviously agree, as the number
of such systems is on the increase, rang-
174
June 1999
DIY packages
Broadcast Engineering
www.americanradiohistory.com
ing from low -cost, compact self -contained desktop units to high -end systems
with integrated automated mixing and,
in some cases, nonlinear video.
Seeing is believing
In fact even if all technical and budgetary requirements are met, 'the best' system will still vary from person to person.
It may be determined by factors such as
personal preference of operating style
some people are perfectly content with
mouse -driven operation, whereas others
may eventually prefer more tactile control. It may depend on after-sales commitments and confidence in continued
technical support.
Not everyone has the time to find out
about all the systems on the market or to
review them all, but it is worth seeing as
many as possible. Relying solely on word
of mouth may mean missing out on a
system that is even more suitable or a
better value. In reviewing tapeless systems, it will soon become apparent that
each has its own way of presenting information, and on first appearances this
may he a key issue. Take note of how
easy it is to perform the types of function
you will require the most and how familiar the terminology used is. It is also
-
worth noting that familiarity with
a sys-
tem inevitably leads to certain things
being taken for granted, so if the demonstrator is using jargon that you do not
understand, it is almost certainly unintentional. Keep asking for explanations
whenever anything remains unclear, and
if in doubt about a certain feature or
capability, ask to see it demonstrated.
Yasmin Hashmi is a partner in SYPHA, independent consultant and publisher of The
Tapeless Audio Directory. The 7th edition of
this buyer's guide includes details on over S00
tapeless systems aimed at professional audio
applications, and includes technical specifications, typical configurations and costs, and
suppliers details worldwide. For more information, a -mail [email protected] ur
telephone +44 181 761 1042. The Tapeless
Audio Directory can be ordered directly from
Primedia Intertec at 1- 800 -543 -7771.
Company
Product
a of
tracks
-
d of I/O
channels
Compression
Storage capacity
real and virtual
Storage
in minutes
External synchronization, Type
RS Number
expandable
360 Systems
Short Cut
Two real
2x2
No
[email protected]
Yes
Yes
Circle (260)
AMS Neve
AudioFile98
32 real
16x32
No
12 hours
Yes
Yes. Sony protocol
Circle (261)
Akai
DD1500
12
2x2. 4x8
No
13 hours
Yes
Yes. time code
Circle (262)
Arrakis
DL4
Two real
3x1
Yes
2.982
Yes
No
Circle (263)
Arrakis
TS3
Eight virtual, two real
2x1
No
559
Yes
No
Circle (264)
Cartvorks
Digital Audio Systems
Four real
12x12
Yes. MPEG
2700 uncompressed.
Yes
No
Circle (265)
Layer II. MPEG
224 MPEG Layer II.
Layer Ill. WAV
640 dependent on bitrate
64 real. 128 virtual
two -72
No
200
Yes
Yes, MIDI
Circle (267)
OMR8
Eight real
8x8
No
3480
Yes
Yes, time code
Circle (268)
SoundStation Gold
up to 64
64x64
No
180
Yes
Yes, time code
Circle (269)
Fairlight USA
DaDplus
24
two -12
No
160 hours
Yes
Yes, time code
Circle (270)
Fostex
DMT-8VL
Eight
8x8
No
60
Yes
Yes, MIDI sync
Circle (271)
Fostex
D-90
Eight
8x8
No
60
Yes
Yes, time code
Circle ß721
Fostex
D-160
Sixteen
16x16
No
30
Yes
Yes, time code
Circle (273)
Orban
Audicy
10 real. 24 virtual
2x2
No
35
Yes
Yes, time code
Circle (274)
Otani
PD-80
Eight
8x8
No
120
Yes
Yes. time code
Circle (275)
Roland
VS-840EX
Eight real, 64 virtual
8x6
Yes. RDAC
187.258
Yes
No
Circle (276)
Roland
VS-880EX
Eight real. 128 virtual
8x6
Yes. RDAC
1782.1938.2673
Yes
Yes. MTC
Circle (277)
Roland
VS-1680
16 real. 256 virtual
11x10
Yes, RDAC
2226. 2424. 3342
Yes
Yes. MTC
Circle (278)
SADiE
Artemis
24 -90
32x32
No
840
Yes
Yes. Audio genlock
Circle (279)
Soundscape
R.Ed
32 real. 64 virtual
28x28
No
230 hours stereo
Yes
Yes. MIDI
Circle (280)
Tascam
MMR-8/MMP-16
Eight/16
8x8. 16x16
No
180
Yes
Yes, time code
Circle (281)
Yamaha
DSP Factory
16 real,
4x4.8x8.16x16
No
Dependent on host computer
Yes
Yes. SMPTE to MIDI interlaces
Circle (282)
2x2
No
120
Yes
Yes, SMPTE
Circle (283)
DigiDesign
Pro Tools 24 MIX.
Pro Tools 24 MIXplus
Digital Audio
Research/Studer
Digital Audio
Research
A
of virtual tracks
varies with software
Yamaha
024
Eight real. 56 virtual
,
serial TC,
MTC. D24 remote sync
r
news
world
111
November 1999
Fira Palace Hotel, Barcelona
n
2 -5
Phone: +44- 171- 491 -0880
Fax:
+44- 171- 491 -0990
E -mail: info @newsworld.co.uk
Mail:
News World Limited
39th St James's Street
London SWIA 11D, U.K.
Or Visit:
www.newsworld.co.uk
"If
you take the business of news
seriously then News World has
got to be the principal event on
your calendar " -CNN
World Broadcast News is the official
technology publication at News World.
.
WORLD BROADCAST
'
Broadcast Engineering
175
Synchronicity can signal
a
life change ahead
KARE ANDERSON
was a day no one in Beatrice, NE,
will ever forget. On March, 1,1950,
all 15 members of a church choir were
due at practice at 7:20 p.m. The minister
and his family were delayed when his
wife decided to re -iron their daughter's
dress. Another girl took longer than she
expected to complete her geometry homework; still another couldn't get her car
started. Two others lingered to hear the
end of an especially exciting radio program; one mother and daughter were
delayed when the daughter was late waking from her afternoon nap; and so on.
The 10 separate and quite unconnected
reasons for 15 responsible people all to be
late that one night seemed quite ordinary.
Fortunately, none of them arrived on
time. At 7:25 p.m. the church building
was destroyed in an explosion. The
story was covered by Life magazine, and
mathematician Warren Weaver recounted it in his book, Lady Luck: The Theory
of Probability, calculating the staggering
odds against the chance for this uncanny
event as about one in one million.
In this real-life story, coincidences
changed lives. Some coincidences are
It
almost too purposeful and too orderly
to be a product of random chance - but
then how do we explain them?
Everyone's life is based on story-
telling
Each of our lives is a story. Synchronistic events - coincidences that have
great meaning for the people who experience them - call attention to the structure of the story we are living. What if
you were a character in the story of your
life, but not the only author? When
external events so precisely mirror our
own inner state that the impact of a
coincidence cannot be ignored or its
significance denied, and our lack of
control over the events is indisputable,
we are faced with the question: If I am
not the author of my story, who is?
176
Broadcast Engineering
Synchronicity: the story of our times
Synchronicity is emerging as a phe-
nomenon from many directions of study
as diverse as quantum physics, medicine and astronomy. As Arthur Koestler
observes in his book The Roots of Coincidence, synchronicity reflects the
presumption of a "fundamental unity
of all things" which transcends mechanical causality and relates coincidence to
the "universal scheme of things."
on many people, even those you might
never meet face to face.
When coincidences happen, especially those that have an emotional impact, consider what special meaning
they have for you regarding your beliefs, especially about who you are and
what you should or could be doing.
Prepare yourself for change
Synchronistic events are often wake up calls for you to make a change in
your life. How do you work with synchronicity ? Be open to the meaning in
what you did not want to happen. Set
aside your agenda, and consider that
your story should take a different turn.
Be open to change and the
closer
connection it brings
The fear of losing control
Synchronous events can be
unnerv-
ing because they show we do not have
complete control over our life patterns, and we, like all animals, fear
the apparent loss of control in our
lives. The fear of losing control (as
when we experience coincidences that
cannot be explained) makes our emotional lives threatening to our rational minds.
What can you do?
Have a clear vision of your path in life
and be open to seeing the coincidences
that tell you to consider another direction.
Notice how meaningful coincidences
reveal your inevitable connection with
everyone, even those you do not know.
Be aware that every action you take
has immediate and continuing effects
June 1999
Every movement forward in your life
has three parts:
1. We recognize that the current situation no longer fits or works. An event
can make this clear.
2. We enter a state of confusion and
transition. We imagine how things might
be different.
3. Something happens. We take some
action, and we move to a different,
more satisfying way of being.
Our lives are full of meaningful events
we deliberately set out to cause for
ourselves in pursuing work and relationships. These are intentional actions.
When an accidental twist of fate reorganizes our lives and shows us something
we did not expect, we have a choice:
1. Numb out, ignore it, and move on
so we'll bump into a variation of it
again and again, until we take notice.
2. Notice what it means for us and
become more truly alive.
Kare Anderson is a speaker and author.
Send questions and comments to:
[email protected]
Business highlights from broadcast and production
BY SANDRA FERGUSON, EDITORIAL ASSISTANT
Four television affiliates selected
Wheatstone audio consoles: Fox network's KTVI and Gannett's KSDK installed TV-1000 consoles; St. Louis
market's WB affiliate, KPLR, chose the
SP-8 for its new broadcasts and KDNL,
an ABC affiliate, selected a SP -5A console for its news.
HBO chose Evertz to provide the terminal equipment for the HBO Communications Center's HD network.
Tektronix announced that four Grass
Valley Model 4000 -3 production
switchers will be installed in CNN's
Atlanta -based facility.
Tiernan announced that, beginning in
May 1999, it will integrate NagraVision's ATSC 2500 Conditional Access
System in its digital TV systems.
Panasonic announced that more than
70 U.S. TV stations placed orders for its
AJ -HD150 DVCPRO HD studio VTR
during NAB99. In related news, Sinclair Communications' WSYX -TV, the
ABC affiliate in Columbus, OH, pur-
Leitch's VR300 servers will be integrated into the CNN News Group's
new central content management system.
Screen Shot
WFSB -TV covers University of Connecticut's NCAA win
with Panasomic's DVCPRO
The University of Connecticut's hometown CBS affiliate, WFSB -TV, Channel 3 in
Hartford, used Panasonic's DVCPRO to cover UCONN's win at the NCAA's Final
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is transition to DVCPRO for digital news operatiors. In purchases
valued at close to $1 million, the station bought 13 AJ -D810 1/2" 3 -CCD camcorders,
three AJ -LT85 laptop editing systems and dozens of DVCPRO VTRs, including AJD75O and AJ -D65C studio editing VTRs, AJ -D64O recorder/players and AJ -D23O
desktop VTRs.
WFSB completed
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June 1999
www.americanradiohistory.com
Broadcast Engineering
177
chased more than $1 million of Panasonic's DVCPRO equipment for news
and programming operations.
JVC announced that Fox Television
credited its DIGITAL -S (D -9) videotape
format with saving the company more
than $33 million since its adoption as
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and the archive standard at the Fox
Network Center. Fox purchased more
than $3 million worth of new JVC four channel audio equipment.
PBS' program distribution plant was
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structure and an automated, multichannel solution.
Odetics announced the sale of its first
TCS90 -PRO Automated Tape Library
to Turner Entertainment Networks for
use at Turner South, a new regional
entertainment service.
is providing its Sigma CD -II
digital
TV transmitters to two
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Raleigh, North Carolina TV stations-
Harris
WRAL -TV and WRAZ -TV.
Pluto Technologies announced an alliance with Sundance Digital. This alliance will ensure full compatibility between Pluto's AirSPACE multichannel
broadcast server and Sundance Digi-
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Quante) recently opened its new Canadian sales headquarters in Toronto.
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development of new post -production
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Chyron announced a joint marketing
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GmbH and NewsMakcr Systems, Inc.
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will market the integrated Nexus Open Media/StarDrive and Chyron Duet solution.
People
John Turner, president of Turner Engineering Inc., received
the 1999 NAB Television Engineering
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and Geoffrey N. John Turner
Mendenhall, Harris
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for Advanced Product Development, received the 1999 NAB
Radio Engineering
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on April 20 in La, Geoffrey
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Pilot Broadcast Systems AS, headquartered in Bergen, Norway, announced
the establishment of its North American operation, Pilot Broadcast Systems
USA. Isaac Hersly has been appointed
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Broadcast Engineering
183
420 Ninth Avenue
Between 33rd & 34th Streets, New York, N.Y. 10001
Store and Mail Order Hours:
Sun. 10 -5, Mon thru Thurs. 9 -7,
Fri. 9 -2, Sat. Closed
For Orders Call:
800 -947-9928 212 -444 -5028
or FAX (24 Hours):
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DSR -200A
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lever mop protection
One step of dynamic counterbalance
Frictionless leak proof fluid damping
with one levels of drag
Vlhmtronless vertical horizontal makes
Sliding balance plate
Touch and Go quick release with automatic camera lock and safety lever /drop
protection
One step of dynamic counterbalance
Frictionless leak proof Bind damping
with one levels of drag
Vihr,ttmnless vertical horizontal brakes
The
interAclive digital technology
Equipped with an On-bond fuel computer which monitors vierinput and output as well as critical operating characteristics
old conditions This data is co notionicaled to the InterActive
Target to ensure sates,, aria optimrie rehab,lrt,
t
.
:
'
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Same as the DV4
P2 US
Same as DVS PLUS
096 System (06101 consists
Fluid re,aa
u.
(loot spreader ISP
DV12
Vinten
ENG LENSES
Same as
e1111l::,,yht
'
Ninon
broadcast handheld lenses feature the very tat
est in optical and mechanical design. and manufacturing
techniques. New EBC (Electron Beam Coating) reduces
flare and improves contrast. while AT2 Aspheric
Technology improves corner resolution and reduces chromatic ahberalion. And all except the 36:1 Super Telephoto
otter the exclusive "V-Grip" and Quick Zoom.
DVS PLUS
-
76.120 eM
Standard
100011111o...1.1.011 hall
Lomwenlr oil.
Simple external adiustment tor perfect balance over the lye I1,.
of fin
Infinitely variable drag with proven LF technology
Baek hl and calibrated drag knobs
on flick oil Pan and Tilt brakes
Llghtwergnt
-
only 6
2
lbs
15" and 17" On Camera Prompters
prompter r5 the industry standard and designed tor
The 15" am:
I,'r .111r application The high contrast. high resolution moniuse with an,
tor created b'i 01V. is the result of state of the art components and design The
monitor permits a much greater degree of till because of its cutaway feature Its
VPS Eyellne feature superimposes copy over the camera lens. enabling the reader
to maintain maximum eye-to-eye contact. II5 easy and comfortable to read. OTV's
On Camera prompter will make sure the talent has clear access to the prompter
The 17" model has a viewing area of 123 sq. inches. 39% more than the 15"
mlel The 15" On Camera prompter Is also available in a tree standing pedestal
,del. which can be utilized both in the studio and in remote situations
A36X 14.5ERD
"d inne
ice
lu
otter AT2
V -16 AND V -20
-t6 and A' A,
to walk inn go op
old down stairs shoot
V
nom moving vehicles and
ravel over uneven terrain
.,thoul any calnrra vistaarty or
shake The V' I6
IaDlhles cameras weigh.
ma from 10 to 20 pounds
old the V.20 from 1510
'G pounds They are both
vilest for shooting the
MVP -9
of ultra -smooth
tracking shots that take
your audience s and
client s breath away instantly adding high pro1001.4
duction value to every scene Whether
commercials. industrials documentaries music videos.
14.49
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6.99
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18.99
OVCPRe
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it es The same level of performance is achieved as the larger CRT based units but in
nailer configuration that is powered by AC or OC current (as above) Created for the
- Veneration of smaller lighter cameras. the MVP-9 weighs only 17 l '21bs and both
,monitor and camera mount set up quickly and easily. As with the other units Ilse
5 , reline feature assures Inannlum eye contact with lens while early raedrng the
I,I'VP
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120 BO
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:he MVP11 features the most advanced circuitry for a prompter of this sloe Fully self contained it offers high brightness and high resolution that ensures unmatched ease of
readability for the speaker. The MVP-11 is powered by AC or DC current utilizing the
Sony type NP-1 or Anton Bauer 13 -14 volt batteries. allowing on-location as well as studio prompting It weighs only 19 lbs includnlg the quick release roller plate for last
mounting and balancing. Below the lens mounting is utllrzed resullmg Ideal counter bah
ancnlq for ease of operation
u
'
VHS
2.99
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he
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carbon fiber or aluminum tripod and you nane a package r ii'
biggest height adjustment yet the smallest to carry Ideal
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(MI
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Lightweight Heads For the Future
ENG
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Me single-stage carbon liber tripod and you have the kohlnnbinatron possible for that all important event- wrthoul
Long the reliability and robustness that you require
,o pie external adjustment ton perfect balance over the tug
'80 0l tilt
lnómtely variable drag with proven LE technology
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Flick on flick on Pan and Tilt brakes
Single rotation counterbalance
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8 Pan & Tilt Head
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The Pro-130 tripod systems ale perfect for lomrk s on toe move LNG cameramen lightweight these systems nave been spy, e
designed to provide a coder balance range to suit the latest DV DVCPRO. DVCAM camcorder and camera:retorder comb,naho
systems come complete with the PH.130 fluid pan 8 till head choice of single or 2 -stage ENG tripod boor spreader and soil ,.,
ig case for easy lransportabon
The PH 130 pan 8 tilt head incorporates Vinten's continuously variable LF drag system to provide smooth movement and ea, : I'
S,lion into whir pin together with a l a 5 , 5 e t h.ilao ern r,,..r. omits, Rol/ the senrlh stare and two stage legs are toggle to
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7.49
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098 System (0810) consists et:
package the sun ul e nutAmuk , oniputer ami nnrgliing a mere
n lbs' The JO eon 2401 c,ui tnarge Pron. s ,n 1:0 hours and
m Pacs
onee Add the Diagnostic' Discharge module and the
,1502401
an all purpose power and test system The
n :ran QUAD 2702 has the nodule and rs the ultimate proles.
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M221 Hi 8
n..J Head I0V -4j. Long Tripod IDA 751
rin spreader (SP 751
,
1
in
29
Metal Particles
System (0410) consists of:
DV6 System
Iers ever
expand-
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3
3,,
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12M I61+
OV4
Flc
Four -Position Power /Chargers
'
non
Professional Grade VHS
2.59
Broadcast Grade VHS Box
H471S
Le.'
This system (0210) consists of
QUAD 2702/2401
''re Moan,
2.39
6.79
I
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PG.30
75
WH Watt Hours,
188kgI
25 Watt', T'
Al 5X8EVM
the Web: http: //www.bhphotovideo.com
Tripods & Fluid Heads
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IDEO and PRO AUDIO
AP
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TO INQUIRE ABOUT YOUR ORDER:
800
New Address:
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420 Ninth Ave. (Bet. 33rd & 34th St.)
New York, N.Y. 10001
947 -2215.212 239 -7549
OR FAX 24 HOURS:
800
Al
N ewTe k
Calibar Pocket
3 -0z.
of a ball point pen and run
'.. atop Caliber is an NTSC tet
it w
worth of lest equipment into a battery operated instrument Callbar is tine la,lesi easiest and most portable way
i,,alrbrate video equipment No patch bay racks Just one cable So besides giving you last accurate readnrgs In
idio. it's perfect tor oh -site events or trouble- shooting in the field.
ned for studio and field operation. it produces 24 test
De
Tuck Gabber in your pocket and you re
rat n [unctions at the touch of a button 113-bit precision
ready logo Touch the button to generate
dig, 1-to-analog conversion assures highly accurate signals
SMPTE color bars touch II again to cal.
Cali te s combination of low cost. portability and full-teaMate convergence and so on
lure operation makes it ideal for broadcast engineers. teleWith the supplied AC adapter it also Tumors
production Iacititles and video post houses
on, n
rib.,
The
at
moll
itv.4
-Sized Test Generator
RS4x4 /8x8/ 16x 16/ 1 6x8/ 1 2x2
t.
ever
the
$349
I
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r
1
KNOX VIDEO
Video /Audio Matrix Routing Switchers
satire easy -to re.
'-
mount chaslss Ito,
-
-
.
[natty any video son
ow
corrected video They also route halenced or rut
audio The audio tollows the video or you can rout..'
arately (breakaway audio) Each of the switchers
control via trout panel operation They can also be controlled
remotely by a PC. a Knox RS Remote Controller. or by a Knox
Remote Keypad via their RS 232 port Front panel LEDs indicate the current routed pattern at
all times Knox switchers are ideal for applications such as studio teed control and swllcher input soniron plus they have an internal timer allowing timed sequence of patterns for surveillance applications as well
1
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CIñh"ñ OInVI PC-CODI & PC
Scribe
Text and Graphics Generator and Video Titling Software
r
PC$r ill Incorporates a brood
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Wind. .is 95/NT PC Scribe oilers a new approach and cost effective
for composing Idles and graphics that is ideal for video produr
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tion i ,I display applications Combined. their a total solution tar real
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Trader generation with the quality you expect from Chyron
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PC -CODI
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nanosecond effective pixel resolution
rulllon color selections Fast realtime operations
otter. Logo and PCX Image transparency
le edges border drop shadow and offset
rsitmn and lustily control of character and row
efnable mtercharacter spacing (squeeze 8 expand)
le roll/crawl speeds Automatic character kerning
Minable lab/template fields
d backgrounds of variable sizes and transparency
m controlled video timing
16
Cm
Var.
Full
User
Hardware:
1
tetralused displays Display and non-display butters
Full
Les'
I
Mull
User
Sha
Soil.
10
able on RS12%2
t roil panel key pad operation for easy manual operation
Can also be controlled via RS-232 interlace with optional
RS Remote Controller or Remote Keypad
t root panel LED indicators display the
present routing patterns at all times
An internal battery remembers and restores the current
pattern In case of power failure
)
User definable
read effects playback. wipes. pushes. fades
NTSC or PAL sync generator with genlock
Board addressabdny for multi- channel applications
Auto display sequencing Local message'page memo,.
Preview output with safe-Idle/cursor/menu overlay
Conrposde and S -video Input with auto-genlock select
Multiple preview windows can be displayed simultaneously
Transitions effects include cut. lade. push. wipe. reveal.
peel. roan. matrix. wipe spiral. split. weave and piler.
Import elements to build graphics This includes OLE
objects. INFINIT! RGBA and TGA with alpha channel. Scribe
also Imports and expons TIFF JPEG. PCX. TGA. BMP GIF.
CLP ASCII IMG. SGI. PICT and EPS Iamals
level of anteallasing applied Is selectable
Adlu, a wide range of character attributes. Wide choice of
I
comic lotion tools
Char
ers. words. rows and fields can color flash
Charm er rolls. crawls and reveal modes. Speed is selectable m can be auto timed with pauses Messages can be
man,
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PC -COD( and PC- Scribe Bundle
2995.00
vaI
Manufacturing test and measurement equipment for over 40 years. Leader Instruments
Is the standard which others are measured against for reliability performance and
most important -cost effectiveness
1H. 1V. 2H 2V.
1
r
Professional Video Production Workstation
'Station mords roe meus of proariwUp prob
ured w
.
,
urpohn c,eunmmr.aurs educators and Inter nt authors
TARGA 1000
Features:
-
Genfock using separate sync input for working in proles.
smnal video suites
Audio is digitized at 44.1 KHt or 48KHz sampling rates. for
professional quality stereo sound. Delivers perfectly synchronized audio and video.
MCXpress Features:
The ram oil for video and multimedia producers who require predictable protect throughput and high -quality results when
creating deli and digital media for training promotional /marketing material. local television and cable commercials. CD -ROM
and Intl' el /Intranet distribution. Based on Avid s industry-leading technology. II combines a robust editing tunctionallty with a
streamly d interlace Otters Integration with third -party Windows applications. professional editing features. powerful media
manage. trl. title tool and a plug -in effects architecture It also features multiple output options including so you save time
and moo , ay reusing media assets across a range of video and multimedia protects
TARGA 1000/MCXpress Turnkey Systems:
300-o in 6 -Bay Full Tower ATX Chassis
Pentu.
ATX Motherboard with 512K Cache
Penh.,
Matou
64MB
Duan'
Seaga
Adapt
Teac
n.
Arec
Views
Focus
Windt,
Aver Fi
amui A
With FP
With IA
300 MHz Processor
Millenium II AGP 4MB WOW Display Card
'Ors 168 Pin DIMM) S -DRAM
n Fireball 64GB IDE System Drive
Barracuda External 91GB SCSI -3 Ultra Witte Capture Drive
AHA- 2940UW Ultra Wide SCSI -3 Controller Card
-532e 320 FIDE Internal CD-ROM Drive
3.5' Foppy Dove
coing ACS -48 3 -Piece Deluxe Speaker System
k. 0771 17-inch 11280 x 1024) Monitor (0 27mm dol pitclo
'701A Keyboard
Microsoft MS Mouse
.s NT 4b Operating System Software
%press for Windows NT
I
pionoI ,.mrgn,,,ein
I,Iru n bmrtlr channel for composite signals in mixed component /
composite !acetates features are overlaid and parade waveform displays. component vector displays and automatic bow -Ire or
shark fin' displays for liming checks Menu-driven options select format (525/60.625/50. and 112!/60 HDTV(. lull line- select.
vector calibration. preset Irunl'panel setups and more. On- screen readout 01 scan rates. line-select preset numbers. trigger
source cursor time and volts
5100D
If TARG,1 1000
non Pro Video Capture Gard
1000
to 1000 Pro Iconmonenl lnput/outputl
1A
ttyiml viamenwescarsespe
The 51000 can work In component digital as well as component analog facilities (and mixed operations) II provides compre
hensive waveform vector timing and picture monitoring capabilities Menu driven control functions extend familiar waveform
observations onto highly specialized areas and include local calibration control. the ability to show or [lank SAV'EAV signals in
both the waveform and picture. the ability to monitor digital signals in GBR or VCOCr form. line selec' (with an adtustable window). memory storage of test setup' ..
t. to provide onscreen labels- flexible cursor measurements. automatic
525/60 and 625/50 operation and I.
r'
5870 wave orm/vect.rseepe Noce aid Lime Sake
two-channel Wavelorm/Vecto,
n -run 5870 permits overlaid waveform and vector displays.
as well as overlaid A and B inputs
and liming /phase matching. Use of de,oded R-Y allows relatively high -resolution DG and UP n...nr
0 adds a precision SCH measurement with onscreen numerical
readout of error with an analog display of SCH error over field and Inne tonnes. Full -raster line select is also featured with
onscreen readout of selected lines, a strobe on the PIx MON unhurt gnnl to highlight The
hoe and presets for
up to nine lines for routine checks.
A
-
sced
I-
(
1
55995 00
56495 00
srmullaneous side-by-side
wavel0nn and vector monitoring Featured Is an electronically- generated lector scale that precludes
the need for fussy centering adluslmenls an d eases phase adlust
rents from relatively long viewing distance; Provision is made for
«nectinc the phase reference Iron either A or B Inputs or a separate
t
ring reference
5100
Component / Composite MAVEF61111
, wunwls4- Channel gnats
5872A Combination warefu, Vectorscope
In
/ed.,..+.
5864A Mavetwm Monitor
5854
All the operating advantages of the 5870. except
n
The ideal companion for the
5860G. the 5850C adds
The 5700 homd
The TAP A 1000 delivers high processing speed for video and audio effects. tilling and cornpositm9 Capture edit and playback fur notion, lull -resolution 60 fields per second digital ode° with fully synchronized CD'quallty audio
Compi tenon can be adjusted on the fly to optimize for
image T tnty and /or minimum storage space Has compos
ice am:
-video inputs/outputs Also available with componeni u rpoutput (TARGA 1000 PRO)
51 OdCíIIR
MAVÉFMOtiC1t11111M
two -Input waveform monitor me 5860C features
S div and 2V mag time bases as well
as vertical am IdI
response choices
qat IRE (low
pass) chroma and UIFSTEP lue taller latltitales
easy checks of luminance linearity using me staircase
signal A PIX MON output lack feeds observed IA or
B) Signals to a picture monitor and the und accepts
an extents svnr. reterenre Ruh m cahtraini and nn
A
TRUEVISION/A Vid
TARGA 1 000/MCXpress NT
the rear panel.
the RS4x4. RS8,8 and RS16x16 are also available with
balanced stereo audio. They operate at 660 ohms and handle the full range of balanced audio up to .4 dB with professional quick- connect. sell-locking. bare-wore connectors.
LEADER
PC- Scribe Software:
Nun' r of fonts is virtually unlimited Also supports most
inter Lionel language character sels Fonts load Instantly
and
Internal vertical Interval swdcnng firmware allows on -air
swllchnrg
Housed In a thin profile rackmcunt 1 chassis
Also except the RS12x2 are available In S'Video versions
with /without audio
Models RS16x8 and 0516016 are also available in
RGB /component version
With optional Remote Video Readout. the RS16x8 and
RS16.16 can display active routes on a monitor at remote
locations via a composite signal from a BNC connector on
Accept and mules virtually any one -volt NTSC or PAL video
signal Input to any Or all video outputs.
Accept and roule two -volt mono or stereo unbalanced
audio Inputs to any or all audio outputs
Video and audio Inputs can be routed independently they
don need to have the same destination
Can store and recall preset cross -point patterns (Not avail-
I
SI.-
I. o
why that Offers h:
.,. Il', and video Nils,'
'
I,awel selection of A or R Input, me cr.,.e
of 2H ur 2V display with sweep magnification. and Ilat Ire
quency response or the insertion of an IRE Idler In addition,
a swilchable gain boost of 04 magnifies setup to 30 IRE
units and a dashed graticule line at 30 units on screen facrll
tales easy selling of master pedestal. Intensity and locus are
fixed and automatic tor optimum display Supplied with an
instruction manual and DC power cable
A
'..
tar
5864o ,nw« ,.,,n
-
I)irie select retained), making
ml
,deal
satellite work
dual channel compact veclmscope, the 5854 provides precision checkout of camera encoders and camera balance. as
well as the means for precise genloce adluslmenls for two or
more video sources. Front panel controls choose between A
and B inputs for display and betweer A and B for decoder reference Gain Is heed or variable. wilt Iront panel controls tor
gain and phase adluslmenls. A gain boost of 5% facilitates
precise camera balance adlustments in the held Supplied
with a DC power cable
A
Designed for EFP and ENG (electronic held production and electronic news gathering) operations they feature compact sue.
',,Inn weight and 12 V DC power operation Thus full monitoring facilities can be carried into the held a rd powered from NP-1
tierces battery belts and vehicle power Careful thought has been raven In the reduction nl operating controls to facilitate the
Circle (90) on Free Into Card
www.americanradiohistory.com
ruipmeniMaintenance
iflanagement Made Easy
or
ai least easier
Management Software
LTSI Asset
Designed by Engineers for Broadcast Engineering
-
u
Ea BRADY
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TO
HERMAN
8889384316
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334. 335 or 338
305392 3311
hermanelectronics.com
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Quality, Integrity, Value, Reliability
Engineering, Excellence, Experience
8 -VSB MODULATOR
For HDTV Terrestrial Broadcast System
Conforms to ATSC Specs
All Solid State Construction for High
Reliability
Digital Implementation for High Performance
Indications for Lock and Error Conditions
Options for
- Non-Linear 6 Linear Pre -correction
- External / Internal IOMHZ Reference
- SMPTE -310M Input
- Remote Control
- SNR Quality Indicator
- Demod / Remod
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A as
Serial 601 Input with
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Circle (99) on Free Info Card
188
Broadcast Engineering
June 1999
www.americanradiohistory.com
1
Telecommunications, Inc.
550 San Fernando Mission Blvd.
I
Suite 100
Mission Hills CA 91 345
PH (818) 351 -2248 FAX(818)270 -2010
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June 1999
www.americanradiohistory.com
Broadcast Engineering
189
7z GALLERY
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RCA TTU -55 UHF Transmitter, dual RCA TTUE -44 exciter. One ITS exciter, and
RCA TFU -28 DAS channel 51 pylon antenna. Great for service or parts, still in
operation at this time. Contact: Richard Large 619-505 -5150
June 1999
www.americanradiohistory.com
Broadcast Engineering
191
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Input Output Twelve rear mounted DB9F connectors (four
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192
l
Broadcast Engineering
June 1999
www.americanradiohistory.com
Help Wanted
USA BROADCASTING, a subsidiary of
USA Networks Inc, is a leading supplier of TV Programming for syndication, network, and cable is currently
Responsibilities will include maintaining a variety of broadcast equip-
CHIEF ENGINEER - Television. Non -tenure- track. Primary duties include maintenance and repair of two computer labs,
audio production facility, television studio, TV control room and video editing
suites. Duties also include inventory,
equipment checkout, and possible course
instruction. The successful applicant will
need to know how to install and configure
ment, including Saturn switchers, BTS
router, DVC Pro, Philips Media Pool
networking protocols. P.E. certification
and Electrical Engineering degree re-
and Louth automation. Network certification preferred. Must be flexible to
work all shifts including weekends and
quired. Twelve-month appointment. Salary
commensurate with experience. Applications will be reviewed beginning May 15,
1999, and will be accepted until the position is filled. The successful candidate will
begin in August 1999. Applicants should
provide a letter of application providing
specifics regarding their professional and
academic experience; a resume or curriculum vitae; and the names, addresses, and
current telephone numbers of at least
three references. All materials should be
sent to: Search Committee Chair for Chief
Engineer - Television, Department of Communication, The University of Southwestern Louisiana, Post Office Box 43650,
Lafayette, LA 70504-3650. The University
of Southwestern Louisiana is an Equal Op-
seeking the following positions for our
new all digital plant in Ontario, CA.
Broadcast Maintenance Engineer:
holidays. Broadcast Operations Engineer: Responsibilities involve operating a variety of broadcast equipment,
including Saturn switchers,
BTS
router, DVC Pro, Philips Media Pool
and Louth automation. Candidate will
assist with all aspects of broadcast
operations with the exception of production. Will train the right energetic
person. Must be flexible to work all
shifts including weekends and holidays. For immediate consideration
identity position desire and fax resume to (909) 390 -8857.
WDAY -TV: Has an opening for a Broadcast Engineer. The position is for a technician in electronic repair. Experience
in the field of broadcasting preferred.
Person must have: 1) Minimum 2 years
degree or experience in electronics. 2)
Must be good with computers. 3) A good
driving record. Send resume to Tom Thompson at WDAY -TV, Box 2466, Fargo,
ND 58108
or Fax
701 -241 -5368. E.O.E.
ENGINEERING TECHNICIAN: WIFR -TV
is seeking an Engineering Technician
with a minimum of 2 years experience
in electronics with a strong emphasis in
digital electronics and computer /LAN
based systems. Must be able to maintain and repair all broadcast related
equipment to board level. UHF transmitter and RF experience a plus. Send resume to: Chief Engineer WIFR -TV P.O.
Box 123, Rockford, ILL 61105. No Phone
calls please. EOE.
couraged to apply.
advertising message
every month'.
Call Brian Huber
at 800-896-9939
ad today!
to place your
installation, repair and preventative
maintenance on all of the equipment in
the facility. Understanding of production workflow and IT experience a plus.
Competitive salary, excellent benefits
package. Please send resume to Vince
Forcier, Roland House Inc., 2020 N 14th
St. Suite 600, Arlington, VA 22201.
www
CHIEF ENGINEER - UHF CBS Affiliate with
AM /FM seeks a leader with strong management skills to manage the station's engineering staff. This is a terrific opportunity
to be part of a highly aggressive management team at a progressive, innovative
television station. We are looking for a candidate who has extensive experience in
transmitter, and microwave systems maintenance, including at least three years of
experience in broadcast television engineering management. AM directional experience a plus. This individual will prepare and administer capital and operating
budgets, and plan equipment purchases
and installation. Send resume and application to: Sue Sylvester, WMBD-TV, 3131
N. University St., Peoria, IL 61604. EOE M/F
8, the DC -metro
24 -hour local news
source, is looking for a production supervisor to lead its Production Team.
For more information, please check the
joblink at www.newschannel8.net. To
apply, please send a cover letter to re-
NEWSCHANNEL
qualified
industry professionals
with your classified
Digital Beta preferred), editing
equipment, production switchers, and
digital effects. Will be responsible for
SP,
portunity / Affirmative Action Employer
(LA 7 -98). Women and minorities are en-
PRODUCTION SUPERVISOR:
reaches 33,013
ENGINEER: Roland House, a full service
postproduction facility in Arlington Virginia has an opening in its Engineering
Department. We are an entirely component digital facility with 35,000 square
feet of space, just across the Potomac
River from Washington DC. We offer audio, linear online editing, graphics design, non -linear editorial (Avid and
Smoke /Flame), and film transfer. In addition, we are on the frontlines of HDTV,
having one of the first HD edit suites,
and color correction suites in the country. We are seeking a highly motivated,
self- starter to join our team. Applicants
should have experience in analog and
digital systems, broadcast VTRs (Beta
region's only
sume to Director, Human Resources,
NEWSCHANNEL 8, 7600 D Boston Blvd.,
Springfield, VA 22153 or fax to (703)
913-5436. No telephone calls, please. EOE.
June 1999
www.americanradiohistory.com
Vice President/
Chief Technology
Officer
Directs the technical operations and maintenance
of KERA -TV KDTN -TV. KERA (FM), including
mgmt of IT and telephone systems Manages
compliance with FCC and other government
technical regulations Will manage technical
transition to digital
Requires
5 yrs exp in broadcast tech mgmt
thorough understanding broadcasting/
production systems and govt regs. FCC
General Class license and/or SRI Professional
or Senior Certification required. as well as tech
degree or equivalent Management training and
experience needed
and
a
Please send /lax your resume and salary
history to
KERA/MDTM
Human Resources
3000 Harry Hines Mr d.
Dallas, Texas 75201
Fax 214 -754 -0635
KERA13
KERA90.1
KDTN 2
l'u wr.uln Iltn .ilAr I
x
uru
EEO/A/V/17
Broadcast Engineering
193
Help Wanted
Mayo Clinic Scottsdale
Broadcast Engineers
STUDIO MAINTENANCE
ENGINEER-
Must be able to per-
form the following duties: install and
maintain studio transmission equipment
including video switchers, audio consoles, DVE, CG, SS cameras and robotics. Familiarity with automation systems
and master control environment. Should
possess a general computer /networking
systems and master control environment. Must be able to work on a rotating shift schedule. Position Code SME
IT ENGINEER- Must be able to
install and maintain broadcast computer
based equipment. Applicants should
have a basic knowledge of video /audio
systems in a television environment.
Experience working with Tektronix
Profiles, Avid Media Composer and HP
Mediastream systems is essential Must
be proficient with PC hardware, server
and network architecture. Possess
knowledge of Newsroom computer systems and non -linear editing. Expertise in
various operating systems for MAC and
PC based platforms. Please include
salary history/requirements.
Position Code ITE
Broadcast Engineer
Live, Work
and Play in Beautiful Scottsdale, Arizona!
The world renowned Mayo Clinic in Scottsdale, Arizona is currently accepting
resumes for the position of Broadcast Engineer to support its ongoing video production and teleconferencing programs.The qualified candidate will be a selfstarter and creative thinker who possesses a knowledge of satellite and terrestrial
communication systems, knowledge of computer systems and networks, and a
familiarity with video production facilities.
For consideration, please send resume and cover letter to:
ma o
Mayo Clinic Scottsdale, Human Resources
Department, 13400 East Shea Blvd., Scottsdale, AZ
85259. Or email in text format to:
vanloon.ingridOmayo.edu (resumes only).
an equal opportunity etnpkaer, use value diversity. Mayo Clinic
Scottsdale conducts reference and background checks; drug testing
is required r>f all new bin's.
As
RF MAINTENANCE
ENGINEER-
Must be able to per-
form the following duties: install and
maintain RF related equipment in a studio, transmitter and remote site environment. Must be able to work on
VHF/UHF solid state transmitters and all
Ability to align and repair microwave
TX/RX and all wireless equipment such
as microphones and IFB. Knowledge of
FCC rules and regulations. You must
possess knowledge of analog /digital
systems and a minimum of five years
E
broadcast television experience.
Applicants must be able to do component level repair and work well under
pressure Position Code RFM
Candidates should have an engineering
degree or equivalent technical training.
SBE/FCC certification is a plus. If you
want to be a part of the exciting transition to HDTV in the most exciting city in
the world, please send your resume and
cover letter (with position code) to Kurt
Hanson, WABC -TV, 7 Lincoln Square,
New York, NY 10023. No telephone
calls or faxes please. We are an equal
opportunity employer.
CBS
international cable
network, has the following career opportunity
available in our Los An-
team of news promotion producers.
Need strategic thinker with solid mar-
an
associated transmitter equipment.
geles headquarters:
Director,
Engineering
Individual will oversee
the day -to -day operations
ENTERTAINMENT
TELEVISION.
of the Engineering Department including man-
aging systems design, installation, trouble- shooting and training. Minimum 5 years broad -
cast/cable related management experience
required. Familiarity with overall system
layout of a network including Master Control, Studio, and Post Production. Experience with Video Disk Servers, CCIR 601
digital format and digital equipment required. Bachelor degree in Engineering or
equivalent desired. SBE certification preferred.
Invest Your Advertising
Dollars Where Your
Prospects Invest Their
Time
194
Broadcast Engineering
Excellent health benefits package, flexible
spending and 401(k) Savings Plan. Please
send resume with salary history to:
E! Entertainment Television
Attn: Human Resources
5670 Wilshire Blvd.
Los Angeles, CA 90036
E -Mail: [email protected]
Fax to: (323) 954-2888
Equal Opportunity Employer
June 1999
NEWS PROMOTION DIRECTOR: WBTV,
affiliate in Charlotte, NC, seeks creative, hands -on talent to lead our great
E! Entertainment Television,
www.americanradiohistory.com
keting judgement, strong conceptual,
writing and producing skills, and good
sense of graphic design. Must have good
people skills and collaborative communication style. Great station, great town,
great opportunity to grow. For employment consideration at WBTV, a superb
technical facility and one of the nation's
premiere CBS affiliates forward resume
to Cathy Lockhart Cloud WBTV, One
Julian Price Place, Charlotte NC 28208
fax 704 -374 -3626, [email protected]
Jefferson -Pilot Communications is an
equal opportunity employer.
WE PLACE Engineers,
Colorists & Mfg. Sales/Marketing
Employer Paid Fees.
20 Years personalized &
confidential service.
All USA States & Canada
MAIL & FAX:
KEYSTONE INTL., INC.
Dime Bank
,
49 S. Main St.,
Phone (570) 655 -7143
Pittston, PA 19640 USA
Fax (570) 654-5765
website keystonemt.corn
We respond to all Employee & Employer Inquiries
Alan Cornish / Mark Kelly
Help Wanted
Broadcast Engineers
world leader in televised shopping.
seeks talented television broadcast engineers to
maintain our slateolI he -art digital broadcast facility at Studio Park (our corporate headquarters). the
QVC local (our remote vehicle) and Pioneer Studios
(our Post Production facility).
QVC, Inc.. the
Uplink (EIC) Engineers
currently has excellent opportunities available for
Maintenance and Uplink (VC) Engineers with s to 7 years
experience. Reporting to the Manager, Systems Support,
the successful candidates will supervise technical operations for remote broadcasts (equipment setup, mainte.
pane and repair, uplink /downlink set-up and operation)
as well as provide technical support to QVC's live broadcast and post production facilities. Other responsibilities
include: assisting with setup and breakdown of equip.
ment; technical performance logging and systems mainQVC
tenance; resolving complex technical problems including
those related to graphics computers, transmitters, switch.
ers, receivers, cameras. VTRs; and monitoring video and
audio transmission quality. Travel required for as %of the
year. The processionals we seek will possess: AS in Elea
Ironies or equivalent combination of training and experience; demonstrated knowledge of video and audio equip
merit and systems. component level troubleshooting, TV
systems design and installation: and competence in dealing quickly with critical problems that occur during live
broadcast situations. SBE Broadcast Engineer cerhfica
lion or FCC general class license preferred. Must have ex
perience with set up and maintenance of Sony inax cam.
eras, switc hers, Betaom VTRs, audio equipment, PCs and
modems and cellular communication.
Maintenance Engineers
Reporting to the Manager. Systems Support, the successful candidate will be responsible for repairs of broadcast
equipment including digital /analog beta decks, cameras.
routers and switchers. Ability to troubleshoot to the tom.
ponent level, detailed knowledge of nonlinear editing
systems, and strong computer skills (PC, Mac, Windows
NT. UNIX and LAN hardware and software) required. Cam
era robotics experience is a plus.
QVC offers a state.of-the -art environment. room for personal and professional growth, competitive salaries, and
comprehensive benefits. loin the nation's at electronic
retailer as we continue to change the way the world
shops! Interested individuals may forward a resume to:
QVC, Inc, Human Resources IE /BE /E NG, 1200 Wilson
Drive at Studio Park, West Chester, PA 19780. Fax: (61o)
7ot-n so. Visit us online at www.gvc.com. Equal Opportunity Employer. Drug free /Smoke Free Work Environ.
mom Pie employment drug screening required
-
BROOKDALE COMMUNITY COLLEGE
TV MAINTENANCE TECHNICIAN
(Sr. Specialist. Telecommunications)
REVISED AND EXTENDED SEARCH
One of the nation's most innovative community colleges. seeks an individual to assist in the
design. installation. repair and maintenance of all Telecommunications production and
instructional equipment. The successful candidate will have a Bachelor's degree in
Telecommunications. Electronics or related field, and two to three Fears related experience.
We will consider an equivalent combination of education/ experience. related to the
maintenance/ operations of telecommunications equipment and systems. .\ valid driver's
license is required. Position requires individual to be 'on call' 24 hours a day. Overtime may
he required to complete special projects. Annual salary range is S23.753 -$32.I00. depending
On related education and/or work experience (subject to current College contract negotiations).
You may apply in person at the Human Resources Office
S:30 AM to 5:120 PM Monday - Friday, or send your resume to:
BROOKDALE
COMMUNITY
COLLEGE
765 Newman Springs Rood, Uncroff, NJ, 07738
. \tt n.. Iluntan Resources Dept.
.\ review of applications will begin .lute 15. 1999 and continue until the position is filled.
Brookdale Conununity College is an Equal Opponunty /.\ffirmatiye Action Employer and
its stabbing process is pursued through an unwavering commitment to diversity.
not only as a compliance responsibility. but as an active conscious effort to
build and des n-lgt diversity Within the faculty and staff.
SONY
Contract /Consultant Opportunities
Always wanted to work with on undisputed World Leader? Here's o chance to work
with the best in the business. Opportunities available immediotely for state- of -theart turnkey broodcost production and ploy -out projects. Requires full time presence
of Sony's focilities in Son Jose. CA. to start. Travel to job site will be required. especially during the instollotion and testing stages of the project.
Sr.
a
experience. Special requirements: FCC Restricted Radio-Telephone permit; willingness to
travel to remote transmission sites; perform
heavy manual labor; and work under adverse
weather conditions. Prefer FCC General Class
Radio-Telephone license, SBE and /or NARTE
technical certification. Send cover letter, resume.
& three references to: Personnel Office, Dept.
5273, NMSU, Las Cruces, NM 88003. Deadline 5:00
PM, June 18, 1999. NMSU is an EEO /AA employer.
Females and minorities encouraged to apply.
Offer of employment contingent upon verification of individual's eligibility for employment in
the United States.
Level Video Systems Design Engineer
Job Code: BEM -LM- 7704233
great place to work
TELEVISION ENGINEER II, KRWG-7V: Full -time
Television Engineer Il at New Mexico State University, KRWG -TV. $23,539.32 minimum. Position
is contingent upon funding. Education: two years
technical training in television operation and
maintenance or Associate Degree in Electronic
Technology. Experience: three years experience
In the installation, operation, and maintenance
of Studio and RF broadcast television equipment
or any equivalent combination of education and
j
Job requires 5+ years' professionol exp in the design, operation, testing and
maintenance of large scale digital video and audio production and broodcost
facilities. Job duties focus on the design of floor pions. equipment rock and patch
boy elevations: and signol flow diagrams. Must be computer savvy, have in -depth
knowledge of MS Windows and Excel, and have o strong electronics background.
AutoCAD, LAN /WAN. ATSC, MPEG -2, AC-3 and video server experience o plus.
Project Managers
Job Code: BEM -DO- 7704233
Job duties focus on the monogement of resources to execute fully -integrated
broodcost systems. Must complete projects on time and within budget using
your 5+ years' exp in project management in broodcost /production systems.
Please forward your resume, Indicating job code, to: Sony Electronics Inc.,
3300 Zonker Rood, MD #5J2C2, Son Jose, CA 95134 -1901. Fox 408/955-5166
or
-moil sj.jobs ©moil.sel.sony.com.
EOE /M /F /D
/V
www.sony.com/jobs
Check out the Broadcast Engineering web site for
career opportunities! www.broadcastengineering.com
June 1999
Broadcast Engineering
195
Help Wanted
TU2f1E2 STUDIOS
TU21-1E2 STUDIOS
ENGINEERING /MAINTENANCE
DIRECTOR OF TECHNICAL OPERATIONS
Reports to VP of Engineering for Turner Studios. Responsible for technical
readiness of Turner Studios. Must have proven engineering management skills
and ability to consolidate varied Turner Studios Engineering departments and
activities. Ability to manage an overview of Turner Studios Engineering global
needs, and present strategic and unified solutions. Must have the ability to
create engineering project budgets and timelines, and track related accounting
details. Experience in television systems design /installation, and television
systems engineering /maintenance a must.
Minimum of five years experience at network level television engineering or
post /production engineering, with a minimum of a two -year associate degree in
electronic technology or equivalent. Must be a resourceful self- starter with
ability to make decisions. Must have ability to find creative solutions to
television problems. Must possess good organizational skills and be capable of
reviewing and supervising management -level engineers.
Please send all contact information to:
Kevin B. Shorter
Vice President of Engineering
Turner Studios
1050 Techwood Drive NW
Atlanta, GA 30318
Turner Studios is building a
world -class digital post /production
facility and has the following
positions available:
MANAGER OF STUDIO ENGINEERING
Min. 5 years exp. in managing
live television production events.
MAINTENANCE ENGINEER - EDITORIAL
Maintenance in an edit -support role.
Tape maintenance exp. desired.
Troubleshooting to component level.
Min. 5 years exp.
MAINTENANCE ENGINEER GRAPHICS /EFFECTS
Maintenance exp. in graphics related television environments.
Computer networking exp. a plus.
Troubleshooting to component level.
Min. 5 years exp.
Come be a part of our team!
Kevin B. Shorter
Vice President of Engineering
Turner Studios
Tech Wood Drive NW
Atlanta, GA 30318
1050
ENGINEERS
CNN
THE WORLD'S NEWS LEADER
Turner Broadcasting System has career opportunities for experienced television engineers. These career positions demand an extensive background in equipment maintenance,
digital video and audio, and knowledge of computer systems
and networks. Please mail or fax your resume and cover
letter to:
Jim Brown, Assistant Vice President of Engineering Services
Turner Broadcasting System, Inc.
One CNN Center P.O. Box 105366
Atlanta, GA 30348 -5366
Fax: 404 -827 -1835 Phone: 404 -827 -1638
TBS is an equal opportunity employer
TV NEWS PRODUCER: We need an experienced TV News Producer. Large CBS affiliate in dynamic Charlotte, NC is looking
for a line producer with strong writing, excellent news judgement and great people
skills. We have all the toys, and a talented
staff. We have a rich tradition and an emphasis on quality. If you know how to put
together a show that informs, entertains
and movies people, send us a tape of your
last newscast Minimum 2 years experience
preferred. Cathy Cloud, WBTV One Julian
Price Place, Charlotte NC 28208. (no
phone calls please.) Jefferson-Pilot Communications Company is an equal opportunity employer.
196
Broadcast Engineering
BROADCAST MAINTENANCE ENGINEER: for Public TV /Radio in a great
climate with entertainment, sports, and
cultural activities for all ages. Repair
and adjust equipment and assist in con
struction of new equipment or modification of existing facilities. Assist remote production team. FCC general radiotelephone operator license, background in analog and digital troubleshooting required. Resume to: Human
Resources, WMFE, 11510 East Colonial
Drive, Orlando, FL 32817, or fax to 407/
206 -2791. EOE.
REMOTE ENGINEER: for state-of- the-art re-
mote unit. Must have extensive experience
in the operation of television production
equipment and a strong background in corn ponent level maintenance. Must be able to
work well with people and provide technical leadership for remote television production. Competitive salary and benefits. Send
resume and references to: Technical Manager, Jefferson -Pilot Sports, 1 Julian Price
Place, Charlotte, NC 28208. Jefferson -Pilot
Communications Company is an equal opportunity employer.
Add Color to your
Classifieds
Looking for the right
candidate to fulfill your
job requirement??
Let Broadcast
Engineering help...
N
Call Brian Huber at
1- 800 -896 -9939
to place your Employment
advertisment.
June 1999
www.americanradiohistory.com
Broadcast
ENGINEERING
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LosArlgeks,CA 90036
( 321933-9485
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Broadway,
NewYak, NY 10019
(212)333-4655
FAx:(212)459-0395
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91
99
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June 1999
Broadcast EnginNAng
197
EOM
Musings from Las Vegas
BY PAUL MCGOLDRICK
Regular visitors to Las Vegas note the
continuing growth of the city, both
in housing and accommodations, and
wonder where all the people come
from and where they get all the extra
water they need. Others look at the
bechanging convention scenery
we
with
cause that is what
are stuck
during our visits.
The main concourse at the Las Vegas
Convention Center continues to grow
during NAB, but only in terms of how
full it can become. With the NAB Store
and the International Visitors' area,
there is not much crowd space during
the peak comings and goings. I am
somewhat surprised that the Las Vegas
Fire Marshal allows this encumbrance
in a public area.
The new North Hall at the LVCC
brings the Hilton Hotel a great deal
closer, making the non -air-conditioned
part of the walk (with a high concentration of cigarette smoke) only about
50 feet. That new hall is also the loca-
-
NAB
staff should visit
a
tion of the video -poor exhibitors. No,
not companies that produce poor pictures, but rather those companies that
have few exhibitor priority points,
which are gained only through longevity and the square footage rented
or, sometimes, through company
acquisitions.
Organizational problems
If one thought that the North Hall
was new and smart (although hot), one
saw that the second floor press room
was its usual NAB mess. It was a garbage area with sticky surfaces everywhere, badly used and poorly provisioned. NAB staff should visit a show
like COMDEX to find out how an
198
Broadcast Engineering
efficient press
room is really
run. It was also
extremely surprising to see
how few companies made use
of the opportu-
nity to show
their press kits
to the media.
Although delivery systems for
press releases
are now mostly
electronic, new
companies need
to push themselves into the forefront
by using all possible opportunities.
Those responsible for booth numbering in the LVCC this year should he
required to undertake a course in
Counting 101. The illogical jump from
North Hall to main floor, and from top
to bottom on the main floor, amazed
show like COMDEX
..
.
me and any number of other confused
visitors. It is bad enough that over the
years the hall names have changed as if
the geography of Las Vegas was in some
kind of magnetic imbalance, but it doesn't
help for that to be compounded with five
digit booth numbers moving geographically as well. There seems to have been
an inordinately high turnover of NAB
staff during the last couple of years and
maybe some of the historical knowledge
has disappeared
with those changes.
found it interesting that, during show
time, taxis are banned from the LVCC
premises. This was an inconvenience for
those of us staying at non -NAB hotels
(not by choice). Many of us ended up
exiting cabs in the middle of the Hilton's
driveway and hiking through to the
convention center. Of course, you have
to wonder just how many Greyhound
buses could be in one place to act as
hotel shuttle buses anyway. Apparently
they found some interesting routes
through the Las Vegas resort areas,
although there is little opportunity to
avoid traffic lights.
There were advances at this NAB. If
you believe 75 percent of the press
releases before and during the show, the
average company entered into mutual
relations with three or four other
companies to develop something -orother. In my opinion, these shotgun
partnerships not a shotgun to make
it happen, but rather a shotgun's
spread of inaccuracy really show a
lack of corporate ability to determine
direction and focus.
Finally, a thank -you to the strangers
who stopped me in the aisles of LVCC
to thank me for this column; the photograph must be pretty accurate.
I
June 1999
www.americanradiohistory.com
Paul McGoldrick is an industry consultant
based on the West Coast.
SEND
Send questions and comments to:
[email protected]
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Designed for Advanc d
Measurement in Vide tek Fashion!
601.
Multi
Multip
,
Vector, l'icture, Audio
Composite (NISC /PAL)
aveforms
e Selects
Cursors
The VTM -320 multi- format on screen monitor includes all
the features of the super successful
-200 family plus all of
the capabilities so many users have a ed for. The distinctive
style of display on any XGA (1024x7
monitor is a perfect fit
or all critical measurement occasions.
With eight models to choose from in our line -up of
iulti-format on screen monitors. there is sure to be one or
ore that will improve your look of qu ty and dramatically
uce the size of your budget. For mo information visit our
ebsite at www.videotek.com or call 1-800 -5719 and talk
one of our expert sales engineers.
Auto signal quality verification (unattended)
Time and date stamp
Timecode input with display
User definable alarms
m log
Frame Capt ure (optional)
loop and..,
ss
Premium Quality, Intelligent Design,
Smart Price...That's Videotek.
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i- VIDEOTEK
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A Zero Defects Company
243 Shoemaker Road. Pottsto}vn.
PA 19464 Toll Free: (800) 800-5719 (610)
327 -2292 Fax: (ti
Visit us on the Worldwide Web: www.videoek.com
Circle (2) on Free Info Card
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-
www.americanradiohistory.com
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TM
IScr Year Walcmlr
ISO-9001 Certified
:327 -9295
Easy Integrated HD Solution
Easy on your Engineers. Easy on your Budget.
-
Leitch brings you ezHD " the easy
and fast way to transition to HDTV.
Upconversion, logo insertion and
monitoring are three indispensable
components to your successful transition. Only one package has it all.
HD Equipment
Required
Standard Definition
Juno HD Upconverter
Upconverted HD
Generator
and Inserter
HD Logo
HD D/A Converter
-ry
Digibus Frame and
Component analog
for monitoring
Control Panel
The ezHD'" package begins with
Leitch's high -quality Juno HDTV
upconverter, which uses motion adaptive conversion to virtually
eliminate artifacts. Juno's powerful
noise reduction further enhances
signal quality, and its sophisticated
filters provide aspect ratio conversion. Auto film detection ensures
optimum resolution.
For local branding of your upconverted signal, ezHD'" also includes
Leitch's HDTV logo generator and
inserter. You can store multiple
logos for linear keying with userselectable logo positioning and
transparency.
Rounding out ezHD'" is an HDTV
digital -to- analog converter for monitoring your signal before ATSC
encoding. The ezHD'" package
includes a DigiBus frame and control panel, which allows you the
opportunity to further upgrade your
facility with any of the following
products:
HD frame synchronizers
HD test signal generators
HD A/D converters
for
HD distribution amplifiers
Package Savings
ATSC STL solutions
over
$13,000
On Air Package
Call
1
-800- 231 -9673
Other Leitch HD products include:
Master Control Switchers
Integrator HD16x16 Routers
wwwIeitcFt.corn
LEITCH
Latin America +1 (3051 591 -1u011
USA. East +1 18001 231 -9673, USA. West +1 18881 843 -7004
445 -964(1, (800) 387 -0233
Brazil +55 111) 867 -0218
-0028
2770
Kong
+1852)
Hong
-3031
5423
Japan +81 13)
Australia +01 121 9939 -3355
1483 -591000
International /Canada
Europe +44
(01
+1 1416)
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www.americanradiohistory.com
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