2006, 2007 AP Latin Course Description

2006, 2007 AP Latin Course Description
LATIN
VERGIL
LATIN LITERATURE
Course Description
M AY 2 0 0 6 , M AY 2 0 0 7
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Dear Colleagues:
In 2004, nearly 15,000 schools offered high school students the opportunity
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The College Board is committed to supporting the work of AP teachers.
This AP Course Description outlines the content and goals of the course,
while still allowing teachers the flexibility to develop their own lesson
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them in the years leading up to AP courses.
Sincerely,
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Contents
Welcome to the AP Program . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1
AP Courses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1
AP Exams . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1
AP Latin: Vergil and Latin Literature . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
Multiple-Choice Section: Reading Latin Poetry and Prose . . . . . . . . . . 5
Sample Vergil Passage and Questions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6
Sample Catullus Passage and Questions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
Sample Sight Passages and Questions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
Answers to the Multiple-Choice Questions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
Vergil . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19
The Course . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19
Syllabus for the Exam . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19
Translation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20
Writing Free-Response Essays. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21
Scansion and Figures of Speech . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22
Background Knowledge . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22
Free-Response Section . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23
Sample Questions V1–V5 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24
Latin Literature . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27
The Course . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27
Syllabi for the Exam . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28
Writing Free-Response Essays. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29
Translation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30
Short Identification . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31
Scansion and Figures of Speech . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31
Background Knowledge . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31
Free-Response Section . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32
Part A: Sample Questions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33
Questions LL1–3 (Catullus) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33
Part B: Sample Questions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36
Questions LL4–6 (Cicero) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36
Questions LL7–9 (Horace) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38
Questions LL10–12 (Ovid) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40
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Information on Figures of Speech and Meter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42
Figures of Speech . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42
Meter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42
Vergil Exam . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42
Latin Literature Exam . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43
Bibliography (New Books) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46
Catullus . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46
Vergil . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46
AP Program Essentials . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47
The AP Reading . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47
AP Grades . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47
Grade Distributions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47
Why Colleges Grant Credit, Placement, or Both for AP Grades . . . 48
Guidelines on Setting Credit and Placement Policies
for AP Grades . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49
College and University AP Credit and Placement Policies . . . . . . . 49
AP Scholar Awards . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49
AP Calendar . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50
Exam Security . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50
Teacher Support . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51
AP Central. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51
Online Workshops and Events. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52
Pre-AP . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52
Pre-AP Professional Development . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53
AP Publications and Other Resources . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53
Free Resources . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53
Priced Publications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55
Electronic Publications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 57
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Welcome to the AP® Program
The Advanced Placement Program (AP) is a collaborative effort
between motivated students; dedicated teachers; and committed high
schools, colleges, and universities. Since its inception in 1955, the Program
has enabled millions of students to take college-level courses and exams,
and to earn college credit or placement, while still in high school.
Most colleges and universities in the United States, as well as colleges
and universities in more than 30 other countries, have an AP policy granting incoming students credit, placement, or both on the basis of their AP
Exam grades. Many of these institutions grant up to a full year of college
credit (sophomore standing) to students who earn a sufficient number of
qualifying AP grades.
Each year, an increasing number of parents, students, teachers, high
schools, and colleges and universities turn to the AP Program as a model
of educational excellence.
More information about the AP Program is available at the back of this
Course Description and at AP Central, the College Board’s online home
for AP professionals (apcentral.collegeboard.com). Students can find more
information at the AP student site (www.collegeboard.com/apstudents).
AP Courses
Thirty-eight AP courses in a wide variety of subject areas are available
now or are under development. A committee of college faculty and master
AP teachers designs each AP course to cover the information, skills, and
assignments found in the corresponding college course. See page 2 for a
complete list of AP courses and exams.
AP Exams
Each AP course has a corresponding exam that participating schools
worldwide administer in May (except for AP Studio Art, which is a
portfolio assessment). AP Exams contain multiple-choice questions and
a free-response section (either essay or problem solving).
AP Exams are a culminating assessment in all AP courses and are thus
an integral part of the Program. As a result, many schools foster the
expectation that students who enroll in an AP course will take the corresponding AP Exam. Because the College Board is committed to providing
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access to AP Exams for homeschooled students and students whose
schools do not offer AP courses, it does not require students to take an AP
course prior to taking an AP Exam.
AP Courses and Exams
Art
Art History
Studio Art: 2-D Design
Studio Art: 3-D Design
Studio Art: Drawing
Government and Politics
Comparative Government and
Politics
United States Government and
Politics
Biology
History
European History
United States History
World History
Calculus
Calculus AB
Calculus BC
Chemistry
Chinese Language and Culture
(2006-07)
Human Geography
Italian Language and Culture
(2005-06)
Japanese Language and Culture
(2006-07)
Computer Science
Computer Science A
Computer Science AB
Latin
Latin Literature
Latin: Vergil
Economics
Macroeconomics
Microeconomics
Music Theory
English
English Language and Composition
English Literature and Composition
Environmental Science
French
French Language
French Literature
German Language
Physics
Physics B
Physics C: Electricity and
Magnetism
Physics C: Mechanics
Psychology
Russian Language and Culture
(Date to be determined)
Spanish
Spanish Language
Spanish Literature
Statistics
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AP Latin: Vergil and Latin Literature
Introduction
AP Latin comprises two courses, Vergil and Latin Literature, the aims of
which are in general conformity with college Latin studies in the fourth
through sixth semesters. As in all such courses at this level, the basic
objective is progress in reading, translating, understanding, analyzing, and
interpreting Latin in the original.
AP Latin Exams are offered for each of these two courses; a student
may take either one, or both, in any given year. Students take one exam in
the three-hour testing period. Those wishing to take both exams take one
on the day of the regularly scheduled administration and the other as an
alternate exam. The alternate exam is taken at a designated time separate
from the time of the regularly scheduled AP Latin Exam.
This book is intended as an aid to teachers in planning courses and in
helping students prepare for the exams. The works selected are among
those frequently studied in comparable college courses. The AP Latin
Development Committee notes that many colleges allot a single semester
at this level to a partial reading of the Aeneid, while others devote an
entire year to more extensive reading; some colleges teach the authors
included in the AP Latin Literature course in a single semester, while
others devote one semester to each author.
In both courses, as in the parallel courses at colleges, students are
expected to be able to translate accurately from Latin into English the poetry
or prose they are reading and to demonstrate a grasp of grammatical structures and vocabulary. Since the appreciation of Latin literature requires an
understanding of the literary techniques of Latin writers and of poetic meters
when appropriate, stylistic analysis is an integral part of the advanced work
in both courses. In addition, AP Latin courses include the study of the cultural, social, and political context of the literature on the syllabus.
The annual exams (Vergil and Latin Literature) have a 60-minute
multiple-choice section that contains three passages common to both
exams as well as one syllabus-based passage on either Vergil’s Aeneid
(the AP Latin: Vergil Exam) or the poetry of Catullus (the AP Latin
Literature Exam). The three common passages will test a student’s ability
to read and understand Latin poetry and prose at sight, while the fourth
passage will test knowledge of passages that have been read in the AP
courses.
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Vergil and Latin Literature
The free-response section for each course measures a student’s ability
to comprehend, translate, analyze, and interpret the literature read in the
course. Each free-response section is 2 hours long, including a 15-minute
reading period and 1 hour and 45 minutes of actual writing time. Thus
candidates are given 3 hours to finish one exam. The AP Latin: Vergil and
Latin Literature Exams do not appear as a single unit but are offered
separately.
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Vergil and Latin Literature
Multiple-Choice Section:
Reading Latin Poetry and Prose
The format of the multiple-choice section is as follows:
50 questions in 60 minutes
4 passages: 3 sight passages, at least 1 poetry and at least 1 prose
1 syllabus-based passage
(Vergil booklets contain a Vergil passage; Latin
Literature booklets contain a Catullus passage.)
The questions on the Vergil and Catullus passages test knowledge of
grammar and syntax, reference, context, meter, and figures of speech as
well as background knowledge. The meter question on the Catullus passage may test the hendecasyllabic line or either line of the elegiac couplet.
The greater the experience that students have with close reading at
sight, the better their performance will be on this part of the exam.
Unusual words are glossed. Significant long vowels (for example, ablative
singular of the first declension) are indicated in the prose passages.
Students will be asked to scan the hexameter line on the AP Latin: Vergil
Exam; they will be asked to scan either the hendecasyllabic line or a line
of the elegiac couplet on the AP Latin Literature Exam. The ability to do so
can also be an aid to translation.
The multiple-choice section, which is taken by all AP Latin candidates,
includes approximately 50 questions in the following categories:
20–30%
35–45%
2–5%
2–5%
20–30%
2–5%
(10–15 questions)
(17–23 questions)
(1–3 questions)
(1–3 questions)
(10–15 questions)
(1–3 questions)
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grammar and lexical questions
translation or interpretation of a phrase
or sentence
metrics: i.e., scansion of the dactylic
hexameter line (Vergil) and of the hendecasyllabic line or either line of the
elegiac couplet (Latin Literature)
figures of speech
identification of allusions or references,
recognition of words understood but
unexpressed, explication of inferences to
be drawn
background questions (on the Vergil and
Catullus passages only)
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Vergil and Latin Literature
The following are sample questions and do not constitute a 60-minute
exam. Answers to the multiple-choice questions are given on page 18.
Additional passages and questions can be found in the Multiple-Choice
Item Writing Tutorial on the Latin Home Pages on AP Central.
Sample Vergil Passage and Questions
The ghost of Hector visits Aeneas.
Line
(5)
(10)
(15)
6
In somnis, ecce, ante oculos maestissimus Hector
visus adesse mihi largosque effundere fletus,
raptatus bigis ut quondam, aterque cruento
pulvere perque pedes traiectus lora tumentes.
Ei mihi, qualis erat, quantum mutatus ab illo
Hectore qui redit exuvias indutus Achilli
vel Danaum Phrygios iaculatus puppibus ignes!
Squalentem barbam et concretos sanguine crines
vulneraque illa gerens, quae circum plurima muros
accepit patrios. Ultro flens ipse videbar
compellare virum et maestas expromere voces:
“O lux Dardaniae, spes O fidissima Teucrum,
quae tantae tenuere morae? Quibus Hector ab oris
exspectate venis? Ut te post multa tuorum
funera, post varios hominumque urbisque labores
defessi aspicimus! Quae causa indigna serenos
foedavit vultus? Aut cur haec vulnera cerno?”
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Vergil and Latin Literature
1.
In line 2, largos(que) modifies
(A) oculos (line 1)
(B) visus (line 2)
(C) fletus (line 2)
(D) bigis (line 3)
2.
In line 3, ut is translated
(A) so that
(B) as
(C) in order to
(D) that
3.
The word traiectus (line 4) modifies
(A) Hector (line 1)
(B) fletus (line 2)
(C) cruento (line 3)
(D) pedes (line 4)
4.
In line 4 ( perque . . . tumentes), we learn that
(A) Hector’s feet are wounded and swollen
(B) Hector pierced his enemy’s feet
(C) Hector threw the reins at the fearful man’s feet
(D) Once on foot, Hector threw down the reins
5.
In line 6, the words exuvias . . . Achilli refer to the
(A) armor of Achilles worn by his comrade Patroclus
(B) mistreatment of Hector’s corpse by Achilles
(C) armor worn by Achilles in his duel with Hector
(D) wounds inflicted upon Achilles by Hector
6.
The case and number of Danaum (line 7) are
(A) accusative singular
(B) nominative singular
(C) accusative plural
(D) genitive plural
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Vergil and Latin Literature
7.
The word quae (line 9) refers to
(A) barbam (line 8)
(B) sanguine (line 8)
(C) crines (line 8)
(D) vulnera (line 9)
8.
The metrical pattern of the first four feet of line 9 is
(A) dactyl-dactyl-spondee-spondee
(B) dactyl-spondee-spondee-spondee
(C) dactyl-spondee-spondee-dactyl
(D) spondee-dactyl-spondee-spondee
9.
The words muros . . . patrios (lines 9-10) describe
(A) Alba Longa
(B) Pallanteum
(C) Carthage
(D) Troy
10.
The clause Ultro flens ipse videbar compellare virum (lines 10-11) is
translated
(A) I myself seemed to address the man as he wept openly
(B) I myself advanced quickly to confront the man I was seeing
(C) Weeping spontaneously, I myself seemed to speak to the man
(D) Fleeing to the rear, I saw myself confronting the man
11.
In line 12, Aeneas calls Hector O lux Dardaniae because he
(A) wore gleaming armor
(B) brought hope to the Greeks
(C) was the founder of Troy
(D) was the defender of the Trojans
12.
The form of the word tenuere (line 13) is
(A) present infinitive
(B) perfect indicative
(C) present indicative
(D) perfect participle
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Vergil and Latin Literature
13.
In line 14, exspectate is
(A) vocative
(B) imperative
(C) infinitive
(D) ablative
14.
A figure of speech that appears in lines 14-15 (Ut . . . labores) is
(A) antithesis
(B) anaphora
(C) ecphrasis
(D) hendiadys
15.
Why does Hector have the appearance that he does in lines 16-17
(Quae. . . cerno)?
(A) Vergil wants to forecast Hector’s death.
(B) Vergil wants to show the glory and beauty of Hector.
(C) Hector looked this way when he died.
(D) This passage imitates a scene in Homer’s Odyssey.
16.
What do Aeneas and Hector have in common?
(A) Their father is Priam, king of Troy.
(B) They each have a divine parent.
(C) Their wives suffer because of the war.
(D) They both will found cities.
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Vergil and Latin Literature
Sample Catullus Passage and Questions
Catullus addresses his farm.
Line
(5)
(10)
(15)
O funde noster seu Sabine seu Tiburs
(nam te esse Tiburtem autumant, quibus non est
cordi Catullum laedere; at quibus cordi est,
quovis Sabinum pignore esse contendunt),
sed seu Sabine sive verius Tiburs,
fui libenter in tua suburbana
villa, malamque pectore expuli tussim,
non inmerenti quam mihi meus venter,
dum sumptuosas appeto, dedit, cenas.
Nam, Sestianus dum volo esse conviva,
orationem in Antium petitorem
plenam veneni et pestilentiae legi.
Hic me gravedo frigida et frequens tussis
quassivit usque, dum in tuum sinum fugi,
et me recuravi otioque et urtica.
Quare refectus maximas tibi grates
ago, meum quod non es ulta peccatum.
1.
The word quibus (line 2) refers to
(A) funde (line 1)
(B) Sabine (line 1)
(C) Tiburtem (line 2)
(D) the subject of autumant (line 2)
2.
In line 3, the case of cordi (quibus cordi est) is
(A) dative
(B) nominative
(C) genitive
(D) ablative
3.
What is one way to annoy Catullus as indicated in lines 2-4 (nam . . .
contendunt)?
(A) Allege that the farm is not fertile.
(B) Allege that the farm does not belong to Catullus.
(C) Claim that the farm is Sabine.
(D) Claim that the farm is Tiburtine.
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Vergil and Latin Literature
4.
The discussion of the farm in lines 1-5 (O funde . . . Tiburs) is
primarily concerned with
(A) whether or not it is convenient to Rome
(B) whether or not it is fashionable
(C) the beauty of its setting
(D) the size of its fields
5.
In lines 1-6 (O funde . . . libenter), the phrase in which Catullus tells
how he felt about staying in the country is
(A) te esse Tiburtem autumant (line 2)
(B) Catullum laedere (line 3)
(C) quovis . . . pignore esse contendunt (line 4)
(D) fui libenter in tua suburbana villa (lines 6-7)
6.
In line 7, malam(que) refers to
(A) Catullus’ cough
(B) Catullus’ indigestion
(C) the villa that Catullus had inherited
(D) a woman whom Catullus had forced to leave his villa
7.
A figure of speech that appears in line 8 (non . . . venter) is
(A) asyndeton
(B) hyperbole
(C) litotes
(D) metonymy
8.
The direct object of dedit (line 9) is
(A) pectore (line 7)
(B) quam (line 8)
(C) venter (line 8)
(D) cenas (line 9)
9.
Line 10 (Nam . . . conviva) tells us that
(A) Sestius wanted to come to Catullus’ dinner party
(B) Catullus lived with Sestius for a while
(C) Catullus flew off to Sestius’ house
(D) Sestius was hosting a dinner party
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Vergil and Latin Literature
10.
In line 12, plenam modifies
(A) conviva (line 10)
(B) orationem (line 11)
(C) Antium (line 11)
(D) petitorem (line 11)
11.
Lines 10-12 (Nam . . . legi) reveal that Antius is
(A) the banquet’s host
(B) an orator
(C) a poisoner
(D) an office seeker
12.
In lines 7-12 (malamque . . . legi), Catullus describes the negative
effect of Sestius’ speech on him. Which of the following is another
writer of whose work Catullus does not approve?
(A) Calvus
(B) Cinna
(C) Volusius
(D) Caecilius
13.
In line 14, dum is translated
(A) although
(B) then
(C) until
(D) as long as
14.
From lines 10-15 (Nam . . . urtica), we can infer that
(A) the speech made Catullus sick
(B) a coughing fit made Catullus leave his farm
(C) Catullus was exiled because of politics
(D) Catullus suffered from chills because of the plague
15.
In lines 16-17 (Quare . . . peccatum), we learn that Catullus
(A) is grateful to the farm for his recovery
(B) is guilty of having offended Antius
(C) thanks his friend for his help
(D) regrets his earlier behavior towards Sestius
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Vergil and Latin Literature
Sample Sight Passages and Questions
Questions 1-21
(Suggested time—25 minutes)
Directions: Read each of the following selections carefully for comprehension. Each selection is followed by a number of related questions and
incomplete statements. Select the best answer or completion and fill in the
corresponding oval on the answer sheet.
Cicero assesses his situation under Caesar’s government.
De illo autem, quem penes1 est omnis potestas, nihil video, quod
timeam; nisi quod omnia sunt incerta, cum a jure discessum est;2
nec praestari3 quidquam potest, quale futurum sit, quod positum est
Line in alterius voluntate, ne dicam libidine. Sed tamen eius ipsius nullā
(5) re a me offensus est animus.4 Est enim adhibita in eā re ipsā summa
a nobis moderatio. Ut enim olim arbitrabar, esse meum libere loqui,
cuius operā5 esset in civitate libertas, sic, eā nunc amissā, nihil loqui,
quod offendat aut illius aut eorum, qui ab illo diliguntur, voluntatem.
1
penes (+ acc.): in the possession of, belonging to
discessum est: there has been a departure
3 praesto, -stare, -stiti, -stitum: guarantee, promise
4 animus, -i, m.: personal desire, will
5 opera, -ae, f.: effort
2
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Vergil and Latin Literature
1.
The main verb in De illo . . . discessum est (lines 1-2) is
(A) est (line 1)
(B) video (line 1)
(C) sunt (line 2)
(D) discessum est (line 2)
2.
The word cum (line 2) is translated
(A) both
(B) although
(C) with
(D) when
3.
The case of libidine (line 4) depends on
(A) in (line 4)
(B) alterius (line 4)
(C) ne (line 4)
(D) dicam (line 4)
4.
From lines 1-4, De . . . libidine, we can infer that Cicero
(A) is disturbed about having to abandon the lawcourts
(B) believes Caesar has decided to treat him well
(C) harbors no fears about Caesar’s government
(D) is apprehensive because he cannot predict the future under
Caesar
5.
Which of the following is a literal translation of the sentence Sed
tamen . . . animus (lines 4-5)?
(A) Nevertheless, my will has not been offended by anything coming
from that man.
(B) But nevertheless, the will of that very man has been offended in
no way by me.
(C) Nevertheless, nothing has offended the will of that very man, in
my opinion.
(D) But nevertheless, nothing belonging to that man himself has
offended my will.
6.
The gender of adhibita (line 5) is determined by
(A) the second re (line 5)
(B) ipsā (line 5)
(C) nobis (line 6)
(D) moderatio (line 6)
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Vergil and Latin Literature
7.
From the words Ut . . . libertas (lines 6-7), we learn that Cicero
(A) used to think he could speak freely
(B) intends to speak freely
(C) credits Caesar with defending freedom of speech
(D) expected that Caesar would speak freely to him
8.
The words eā nunc amissā (line 7) are best translated
(A) since this has now been lost
(B) now that she has been sent away
(C) these things must now be sent away
(D) now dismiss these things
9.
The object of the infinitive loqui (line 7) is
(A) libertas (line 7)
(B) nihil (line 7)
(C) eorum (line 8)
(D) voluntatem (line 8)
10.
The word illo (line 8) refers to the same person as
(A) nobis (line 6)
(B) cuius (line 7)
(C) illius (line 8)
(D) qui (line 8)
11. From lines 6-8 (Ut . . . voluntatem), we learn that Cicero
(A) resolves to be silent because he has offended Caesar and his
men
(B) believes he has the right to offend Caesar and his followers if
necessary
(C) thinks he should say nothing to displease Caesar and his
favorites
(D) has sent away those who might prove offensive to Caesar and
his supporters
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Vergil and Latin Literature
In the midst of a violent volcanic eruption, most people are trying to
save their belongings. But two brothers try instead to save their elderly
parents.
Amphinomus1 fraterque pari sub munere2 fortes
cum iam vicinis streperent incendia tectis,
aspiciunt pigrumque patrem matremque senecta3
Line eheu defessos posuisse in limine membra.
(5) Parcite avara manus,4 dites5 attollere praedas:6
illis divitiae solae materque paterque,
hanc rapiunt praedam mediumque exire per ignem
ipso dante fidem7 properant. O maxima rerum
et merito pietas homini tutissima8 virtus!
(10) Erubuere9 pios iuvenes attingere flammae
et quacumque10 ferunt illi vestigia cedunt.
1 Amphinomus,
-i, m.: name of one of the two brothers described in the passage
-eris, n.: task, duty
3 pigrum(que) . . . senecta: “slowed because of old age”
4 avara manus: treat as plural
5 dis, ditis, adj.: rich
6 praeda, -ae, f.: treasure, valuable possession
7 ipso dante fidem: “(the fire) itself giving (them) confidence”
8 tutissima: “most sure”
9 erubesco, -ere: be ashamed (with the infinitive)
10 quacumque: wherever
2 munus,
12.
In line 1, fortes modifies
(A) Amphinomus fraterque (line 1)
(B) vicinis (line 2)
(C) incendia (line 2)
(D) tectis (line 2)
13.
Line 2 (cum . . . tectis) is translated
(A) when the fire was already raging in the neighboring houses
(B) since the neighbors were now shouting that they were covered
with flames
(C) when they saw the neighbors touched by fire
(D) since they had already shouted to the neighbors that the houses
were covered by fire
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Vergil and Latin Literature
14.
The subject of posuisse (line 4) is
(A) Amphinomus fraterque (line 1)
(B) incendia (line 2)
(C) patrem matremque (line 3)
(D) membra (line 4)
15.
How many elisions occur in line 5 (Parcite . . . praedas)?
(A) None
(B) One
(C) Two
(D) Three
16.
The word illis (line 6) refers to the
(A) brothers
(B) parents
(C) neighbors
(D) hands
17.
The words divitiae solae (line 6) are translated
(A) for the wealthy only
(B) lonely divinities
(C) only divine
(D) the only riches
18.
From lines 7-8 (hanc . . . properant), we learn that the
(A) boys are successful in saving their parents
(B) boys order their parents to seize the treasure
(C) parents expire in the middle of the fire
(D) fire seizes the parents in the middle of their prayers
19.
Lines 8-9 (O maxima . . . virtus) contain an example of
(A) apostrophe
(B) chiasmus
(C) synecdoche
(D) transferred epithet
20.
The subject of Erubuere (line 10) is
(A) iuvenes (line 10)
(B) flammae (line 10)
(C) illi (line 11)
(D) vestigia (line 11)
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Vergil and Latin Literature
21.
From lines 10-11 (Erubuere . . . cedunt), we learn that the
(A) flames yielded wherever the young men went
(B) flames burned the young men
(C) young men followed the footsteps of their parents
(D) young men had to put down what they were carrying
Answers to the Multiple-Choice Questions
Vergil Questions
1–C
4 – A 7 – D 10 – C 13 – A 16 – C
2–B
5 – A 8 – A 11 – D 14 – B
3 – A 6 – D 9 – D 12 – B 15 – C
Catullus Questions
1–D 4–B
7–C
2–A 5–D 8–B
3–C
6–A 9–D
Questions on
1–B
5–B
2–D 6–D
3–A 7–A
4–D 8–A
18
10 – B 13 – C
11 – D 14 – A
12 – C 15 – A
Sight Passages
9 – B 13 – A
10 – C 14 – C
11 – C 15 – B
12 – A 16 – A
17 – D 21 – A
18 – A
19 – A
20 – B
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Vergil
Vergil
The Course
The Vergil section of the exam is designed to test the student’s ability to
read, translate, understand, analyze, and interpret the lines of the Aeneid
that appear on the course syllabus in Latin.
Syllabus for the Exam
Book 1: lines 1–519
Book 2: lines 1–56, 199–297, 469–566, and 735–804
Book 4: lines 1–448, 642–705
Book 6: lines 1–211, 450–476, and 847–901
Book 10: lines 420–509
Book 12: lines 791–842, 887–952
Total number of lines: 1,856
Familiarity with the content of Books 1 through 12 will also be tested.
Selections from the Oxford edition of Vergil’s Aeneid appear on the
exam. Note that consonantal -u is changed to -v and in the case of
i-stem nouns and adjectives -is is changed to -es. English rules for capitalization are followed. Punctuation on the exam may vary slightly from that
in a given edition.
The following will not be glossed:
• Alternate spellings resulting from assimilation of prefixes (e.g.,
illepidum/inlepidum)
• Words that may be written as one word or more than one word with
the same meaning (e.g., siqua/si qua, quemadmodum/quem ad
modum)
• Alternate spellings that are easily recognizable (e.g., carta/charta).
In cases where a variant spelling or a variant textual reading has a significant impact, glosses will continue to be provided. Teachers are advised to
consult the Oxford text in order to identify cases where the students’ text
may vary from it.
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Vergil
The exam will test some or all of the following abilities:
1. to write a literal English translation of a Latin passage on the
syllabus;
2. to identify the context and significance of short excerpts from the
required books;
3. to identify and analyze characteristic or noteworthy features of the
poet’s mode of expression, including his use of word choice and
placement, imagery, figures of speech, sound, and metrical effects, as
seen in specific passages;
4. to discuss particular motifs or general themes not only suggested by
specific passages but also relevant to the poem as a whole;
5. to analyze characters or situations as portrayed in specific passages.
Critical appreciation of the Aeneid as poetry implies the ability to translate
literally, analyze, interpret, read aloud with attention to pauses and phrasing, and scan the dactylic hexameter verse. Students should be given
extensive practice in reading at sight and in translating literally.
Translation
The instructions for the translation questions, “translate as literally as possible,” call for a translation that is accurate and precise. In some cases an
idiom may be translated in a way that makes sense in English but is rather
loose compared to the Latin construction. In general, however, students
should remember that:
• the tense, voice, number, and mood of verbs need to be translated
literally;
• subject–verb agreement must be correct;
• participles should be rendered precisely with regard to tense and
voice;
• ablative absolutes may be rendered literally or as subordinate
clauses; however, the tense and number of the participle must be
rendered accurately;
• historical present is acceptable as long as it is used consistently
throughout the passage.
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Vergil
Writing Free-Response Essays
Some questions in the free-response section of the exam instruct the students to write either a short essay or a long essay that is “well developed.”
In both instances, the students may be asked to
• interpret the text;
• analyze critical statements about the text;
• compare and contrast different aspects of the form, structure, or content of the text;
• evaluate some issue of importance relevant to the text.
Essays receiving the highest scores are analytical and interpretive rather
than merely descriptive or narrative. In both types of essays, the students
must refer specifically to the Latin throughout the passage or poem to support their statements. When students are asked to refer specifically to the
Latin, they must write out the Latin and/or cite line numbers. They must
also translate, accurately paraphrase, or otherwise make clear in their discussion that they understand the Latin. When referring to a relatively long
portion of Latin text, students may either cite the line numbers or use
ellipsis (“word . . . word”). When referring only to words or phrases, students should write them out. The responsibility rests with the student
to convince the Reader that the student is drawing conclusions
from the Latin text and not from a general recall of the passage.
When writing their essays, students should
• use the Latin most appropriate to supporting their argument and cite
it properly;
• understand that referring to the Latin “throughout” the poem or passage means that they should, at a minimum, use material from the
beginning, middle, and end of the text;
• connect the cited Latin to the point that they are making and explain
the connection;
• omit information they have learned when it is not relevant to the specific question;
• refer to a figure of speech or aspect of meter only when it can be
used to make their analysis of the passage stronger, unless the question specifically asks them to do so;
• avoid making figures of speech, scansion, or sound effects the basis
or major focus of their essays;
• refer to other poems or passages by the same author only if there is a
strong connection that strengthens the point they are making.
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Vergil
Scansion and Figures of Speech
Students should understand how to scan dactylic hexameter. Scansion
includes recognizing elision and the metrical quantities of syllables.
Students should also be familiar with the figures of speech commonly
used by Vergil in the Aeneid. Information on scansion and figures of
speech is given beginning on page 42.
Background Knowledge
Familiarity with pertinent Roman cultural, social, and political history
and study of the ancient epic as a literary genre are assumed. Although
reading from the Iliad & Odyssey is not required, it is hoped that the
teacher will point out parallels between the Aeneid and the works of
Homer. The amount of time devoted to the AP Latin: Vergil course is flexible and depends upon such factors as the extent and character of the
students’ prior training and general ability as well as the teacher’s own
background and inclinations.
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Vergil
Free-Response Section
The time allotted for this section includes a 15-minute reading period and
1 hour and 45 minutes of testing time. The format is as follows:
Question V1:
Question V2:
Question V3:
Question V4:
Question V5:
a 10-minute translation
a 10-minute translation
a 45-minute long essay
a 20-minute short essay
a 20-minute short essay based on the parts of the
Aeneid read in English and, when appropriate, on
the selections read in Latin
The translation passages tested in V1 and V2 are usually between 4
and 10 lines in length. The questions asked in V3, V4, and V5 are similar to
previous long and short essay questions on the AP Latin: Vergil Exam
since 1999. The increased time allotted to V3 and V4 is intended to provide
students with more time to plan their essays; they are not required to write
longer essays. Most recently, the V5 short essay question has provided the
students with a list of episodes or events from which to choose the subject
of their essay.
To supplement the sample questions that follow, see AP Central.
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Vergil
Sample Questions V1-V5
Directions: Read the following passages carefully and answer ALL of
the questions. Please indicate the letter and number of the question you
are answering.
Question V1 (15 percent of free-response score)
(Suggested time — 10 minutes)
Ac velut in somnis, oculos ubi languida pressit
nocte quies, nequiquam avidos extendere cursus
velle videmur et in mediis conatibus aegri
Line succidimus; non lingua valet, non corpore notae
(5) sufficiunt vires nec vox aut verba sequuntur:
sic Turno, quacumque viam virtute petivit,
successum dea dira negat. . . .
Aeneid 12. 908-914
Translate the passage above as literally as possible.
Question V2 (15 percent of free-response score)
(Suggested time — 10 minutes)
“Heu fuge, nate dea, teque his” ait “eripe flammis.
Hostis habet muros; ruit alto a culmine Troia.
Sat patriae Priamoque datum: si Pergama dextra
Line defendi possent, etiam hac defensa fuissent.
(5) Sacra suosque tibi commendat Troia Penates;
hos cape fatorum comites . . .”
Aeneid 2. 289-294
Translate the passage above as literally as possible.
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Vergil
Question V3 (35 percent of free-response score)
(Suggested time — 45 minutes)
(A)
“Anna, fatebor enim, miseri post fata Sychaei
coniugis et sparsos fraterna caede Penates
solus hic inflexit sensus animumque labantem
Line impulit. Agnosco1 veteris vestigia flammae.
(5) Sed mihi vel tellus optem prius ima dehiscat
vel pater omnipotens adigat2 me fulmine ad umbras,
pallentes umbras Erebo3 noctemque profundam,
ante, Pudor, quam te violo aut tua iura resolvo.
Ille meos, primus qui me sibi iunxit, amores
(10) abstulit; ille habeat secum servetque sepulchro.”
1
also appears as adnosco in some texts
also appears as abigat in some texts
3 also appears as Erebi in some texts
2
Aeneid 4.20-29
(B)
“Te propter Libycae gentes Nomadumque tyranni
odere, infensi Tyrii; te propter eundem
exstinctus pudor et, qua sola sidera adibam,
Line fama prior. Cui me moribundam deseris, hospes,
(5) hoc solum nomen quoniam de coniuge restat?
Quid moror? An mea Pygmalion dum moenia frater
destruat aut captam ducat Gaetulus Iarbas?
Saltem si qua mihi de te suscepta fuisset
ante fugam suboles, si quis mihi parvulus aula
(10) luderet Aeneas, qui te tamen ore referret,
non equidem omnino capta ac deserta viderer.”
Aeneid 4.320-330
The passages above reveal Dido’s feelings at the beginning and at the end
of her relationship with Aeneas. In a well-developed essay, contrast her
feelings in these two passages.
BE SURE TO REFER SPECIFICALLY TO THE LATIN THROUGHOUT
THE PASSAGES TO SUPPORT THE POINTS YOU MAKE IN YOUR ESSAY.
Do NOT simply summarize what the passages say.
(When you are asked to refer specifically to the Latin, you must write
out the Latin and/or cite line numbers AND translate, accurately paraphrase, or make clear in your discussion that you understand the Latin.)
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Vergil
Question V4 (20 percent of free-response score)
(Suggested time — 20 minutes)
Begin your answer to this question on a clean page.
Hunc ubi contiguum missae fore credidit hastae,
ire prior Pallas, si qua fors adiuvet ausum
viribus imparibus, magnumque ita ad aethera fatur:
Line “Per patris hospitium et mensas, quas advena adisti,
(5) te precor, Alcide, coeptis ingentibus adsis.
Cernat semineci sibi me rapere arma cruenta
victoremque ferant morientia lumina Turni.”
Audiit Alcides iuvenem magnumque sub imo
corde premit gemitum lacrimasque effundit inanes.
Aeneid 1. 457-465
In the passage above, Pallas prepares to fight Turnus. In a short essay,
contrast the hopes of Pallas with the reality of his situation. Refer
specifically to the Latin throughout the passage to support the points
you make in your essay.
(When you are asked to refer specifically to the Latin, you must write
out the Latin and/or cite line numbers AND translate, accurately paraphrase, or make clear in your discussion that you understand the Latin.)
Question V5 (15 percent of free-response score)
(Suggested time — 20 minutes)
Begin your answer to this question on a clean page.
Many episodes in the Aeneid reflect tension between reasonable and rash
behavior. Choose one example from Group A and one example from
Group B. In a short essay, discuss how each example illustrates this tension. Be sure to support your essay with specific details.
26
Group A
Aeneas’ encounter with Helen
during Troy’s destruction
Group B
Amata’s behavior after Lavinia’s
engagement to Aeneas
The Trojan women’s attempt to
burn their ships in Sicily
The story of Hercules
and Cacus
The boxing match between
Dares and Entellus
The nighttime expedition
of Nisus and Euryalus
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Latin Literature
Latin Literature
The Course
Teachers of the AP Latin Literature course may choose to follow one
of the three following syllabi: Catullus–Cicero, Catullus–Horace, or
Catullus–Ovid. On the day they take the exam, students will
indicate the pair of authors (Catullus–Cicero, Catullus–Horace, or
Catullus–Ovid) they are prepared to be tested on. Grade reports will
not indicate the choice of authors, and grades will be reported as AP Latin
Literature. Teachers should ensure that the chosen authors are designated
on their students’ high school transcripts. The AP Latin Literature course
is designed to be taken only once.
The AP Latin Literature course offers selections from Catullus paired
with selections from Cicero (Pro Caelio), Horace (Odes and Satire 1.9),
or Ovid (Amores and Metamorphoses). The exam is designed to test the
student’s ability to read, translate, understand, analyze, and interpret the
required selections. Students will be tested on approximately 800 lines of
Catullus and either approximately 500 lines of Horace or Ovid or an equivalent selection from Cicero. The exam will test some or all of the following
abilities:
1. to write a literal English translation of a Latin passage on the
syllabus;
2. to explicate specific words or phrases in context;
3. to identify the context and significance of short excerpts from
Catullus’ poetry and selections from Cicero, Horace, or Ovid, as
indicated by the chosen syllabus;
4. to identify and analyze characteristic or noteworthy features of the
authors’ modes of expression, including their use of imagery, figures
of speech, sound, and metrical effects (in poetry only), as seen in
specific passages;
5. to discuss particular motifs or general themes not only suggested by
passages but also relevant to other selections;
6. to analyze and discuss structure and to demonstrate an awareness of
the features used in the construction of a poem or an argument;
7. to scan the meters specified in the syllabus.
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27
Latin Literature
Syllabi for the Exam
The Catullus, Cicero, Horace, and Ovid syllabi are as follows:
Catullus (as numbered in Mynors’s Oxford Classical Text): 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 7,
8, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14a, 22, 30, 31, 35, 36, 40, 43, 44, 45, 46, 49, 50, 51, 60, 64
lines 50-253, 65, 68 lines 1-40, 69, 70, 72, 76, 77, 84, 85, 86, 87, 96, 101, 109,
116.
Cicero, Pro Caelio:
sections 1 (Si quis, judices . . . )–4 ( . . . luctusque declarat.)
sections 6 (Equidem, ut ad me revertar . . . )–14 ( . . . crimen
reformidet.)
sections 30 (Sunt autem duo crimina . . . )–36 ( . . . molesta es?)
sections 41 (Multa enim nobis blandimenta . . .)–43 ( . . . qui vellet
excusatione defenderet.)
sections 47 (Nihilne igitur illa vicinitas . . . )–50 ( . . . ad se defendendum facultatem dabit.)
sections 56 (Reliquum est igitur crimen . . . )–58 ( . . . comprobatum
venenum.)
sections 61 (Sed tamen venenum . . . )–63 ( . . . per se ipsa defendat!)
sections 66 (Quaero enim cur Licinium . . . )–67 ( . . . innocentis
fortunisque parcant.)
sections 74 (Vellem alio potius eum . . . )–77 ( . . . legibus iam obligavit.)
sections 79 (Quod cum huius vobis adulescentiam . . . )–80 end.
The parts of the Pro Caelio not read in Latin are to be read in English.
The following Cicero syllabus will be tested beginning with the 2007
exam.
Cicero, Pro Archia Poeta (entire)
De Amicitia, sections 17 (ego vos hortari . . . )–23 ( . . . iudicari
potest.)
sections 100 (Virtus, virtus . . . )–104 end.
The parts of the De Amicitia not read in Latin are to be read in
English.
Horace, Odes:
Sermones:
28
Book 1.1, 5, 9, 11, 13, 22, 23, 24, 25, 37, 38;
Book 2.3, 7, 10, 14;
Book 3.1, 9, 13, 30;
Book 4.7.
1.9
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Latin Literature
Ovid, Metamorphoses:
Book 1—Daphne and Apollo (lines 452 –567);
Book 4—Pyramus and Thisbe (lines 55–166);
Book 8 —Daedalus and Icarus (lines 183 –235);
Book 8—Baucis and Philemon (lines 616–724);
Book 10 —Pygmalion (lines 238–297).
Amores: 1.1, 1.3, 1.9, 1.11, 1.12, 3.15.
Selections from the most recent Oxford editions of Catullus, Horace,
and Ovid appear on the exam. For Cicero’s Pro Archia Poeta, selections
from volume VI of the Oxford edition of Cicero’s Orationes will appear.
For Cicero’s De Amicitia, selections from J.G.F. Powell’s edition (Aris &
Phillips, 1990) will appear. Note that on the exam consonantal -u is
changed to -v and in the case of i-stem nouns and adjectives -is is
changed to -es. English rules for capitalization are followed. Punctuation
on the exam may vary slightly from that in a given edition of a work.
The following will not be glossed:
• Alternate spellings resulting from assimilation of prefixes (e.g.,
illepidum/inlepidum)
• Words that may be written as one word or more than one word with the
same meaning (e.g., siqua/si qua, quemadmodum/quem ad modum)
• Alternate spellings that are easily recognizable (e.g., carta/charta)
In cases where a variant spelling or a variant textual reading has a significant impact, glosses will continue to be provided. Teachers are advised to
consult the official text for each author and work on the syllabus in order
to identify cases where the students’ texts may vary from those listed
above.
Students should be given extensive practice in translating accurately
and reading at sight. Teachers should not feel bound to limit their syllabus
to the selections required for the exam. If time and the preparation of their
students allow it, teachers may want to read additional selections of their
own choosing.
Writing Free-Response Essays
Some questions in the free-response section of the exam instruct the students to write either a short essay or a long essay that is “well developed.”
In both instances, the students may be asked to
• interpret the text;
• analyze critical statements about the text;
• compare and contrast different aspects of the form, structure, or content of the text;
• evaluate some issue of importance relevant to the text.
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Latin Literature
Essays receiving the highest scores are analytical and interpretive
rather than merely descriptive or narrative. In both types of essays, the
students must refer specifically to the Latin throughout the passage or
poem to support their statements. When students are asked to refer specifically to the Latin, they must write out the Latin and/or cite line numbers.
They must also translate, accurately paraphrase, or otherwise make clear
in their discussion that they understand the Latin. When referring to a relatively long portion of Latin text, students may either cite the line numbers
or use ellipsis (“word . . . word”). When referring only to words or phrases,
students should write them out. The responsibility rests with the student to convince the Reader that the student is drawing conclusions
from the Latin text and not from a general recall of the passage.
When writing their essays, students should:
• use the Latin most appropriate to supporting their argument and cite
it properly;
• understand that referring to the Latin “throughout” the poem or passage means that they should, at a minimum, use material from the
beginning, middle, and end of the text;
• connect the cited Latin to the point that they are making and explain
the connection;
• omit information they have learned when it is not relevant to the specific question;
• refer to a figure of speech or aspect of meter only when it can be
used to make their analysis of the passage stronger, unless the question specifically asks them to do so;
• avoid making figures of speech, scansion, or sound effects the basis
or major focus of their essays;
• refer to other poems or passages by the same author only if there is a
strong connection that strengthens the point they are making.
Translation
The instructions for the translation questions, “translate as literally as possible,” call for a translation that is accurate and precise. In some cases an
idiom may be translated in a way that makes sense in English but is rather
loose compared to the Latin construction. In general, however, students
should remember that:
• the tense, voice, number, and mood of verbs need to be translated
literally;
• subject–verb agreement must be correct;
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• participles should be rendered precisely with regard to tense and
voice;
• ablative absolutes may be rendered literally or as subordinate
clauses; however, the tense and number of the participle must be
rendered accurately;
• historical present is acceptable as long as it is used consistently
throughout the passage.
Short Identification
In the short identification questions, when students are asked to demonstrate their understanding of the Latin they cite, they should:
• write out the relevant Latin. Note that the use of ellipses or references to line numbers in this part of the exam is not acceptable;
AND
• either translate the Latin
OR
• write an accurate paraphrase.
Scansion and Figures of Speech
Scansion of the following meters is expected when appropriate: Alcaic,
Sapphic, dactylic hexameter, the elegiac couplet, and the hendecasyllabic
line. Scansion includes indicating elision and the metrical quantities of the
syllables. (The last syllable of the line in all meters may be marked long.)
Students should be familiar with the figures of speech commonly used by
Catullus and Cicero, Horace, or Ovid. Information on scansion and figures
of speech is given beginning on page 42.
Background Knowledge
Students should be familiar with the cultural, social, and political context
of the literature on the syllabus. Furthermore, they should have an understanding of the development of Latin lyric and elegiac poetry as literary
genres. If students have opted for the Catullus–Cicero syllabus, they
should also be familiar with Ciceronian style in particular and oratorical
technique in general. Roman culture, society, and politics may be taught in
a variety of ways; teachers need not introduce a separate unit on this
material but may wish to incorporate it, when appropriate, into their discussions of the literature.
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Latin Literature
Free-Response Section
The time allotted for this section includes a 15-minute reading period and
1 hour and 45 minutes of testing time. The format is as follows:
Required Questions on Catullus
Question LL1: a 10-minute translation
Question LL2: a 30-minute long essay
Question LL3: a 20-minute short essay
Choice Questions on Cicero, Horace, or Ovid
Question LL4, LL7, or LL10: a 20-minute short essay
Question LL5, LL8, or LL11: a 15-minute translation
Question LL6, LL9, or LL12: a 10-minute short identification
The types of questions asked are similar to those asked previously on
the AP Latin Literature Exam since 1999. The increased time allotted to
the essays since 1999 is primarily intended to provide students with more
time to plan their essays; they are not required to write longer essays.
Following are the directions that appear in the exam booklet and some
sample questions. To supplement them, see the AP Latin section of
AP Central.
Directions: Read the directions carefully and answer six of the questions.
PART A:
• You are required to answer the Catullus questions: LL1, LL2,
and LL3.
PART B:
• You are then required to choose ONE of the following three
authors and answer ALL the questions on that author.
• If you have chosen Cicero, answer LL4, LL5, and LL6.
• If you have chosen Horace, answer LL7, LL8, and LL9.
• If you have chosen Ovid, answer LL10, LL11, and LL12.
Please indicate the letter and number of the question and the number
and letter of the part you are answering.
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Latin Literature
Part A: Sample Questions
ANSWER THE FOLLOWING QUESTIONS: LL1, LL2, AND LL3.
Question LL1 — Catullus (15 percent of free-response score)
(Suggested time — 10 minutes)
Verani, omnibus e meis amicis
antistans mihi milibus trecentis,
venistine domum ad tuos penates
Line fratresque unanimos anumque matrem?
(5) Venisti. O mihi nuntii beati!
Visam te incolumem audiamque Hiberum
narrantem loca, facta, nationes,
ut mos est tuus . . .
Catullus 9, 1-8
Translate the passage above as literally as possible.
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Latin Literature
Question LL2 — Catullus (20 percent of free-response score)
(Suggested time — 30 minutes)
Line
(5)
(10)
(15)
Lugete, O Veneres Cupidinesque,
et quantum est hominum venustiorum:
passer mortuus est meae puellae,
passer, deliciae meae puellae,
quem plus illa oculis suis amabat.
Nam mellitus erat suamque norat
ipsam tam bene quam puella matrem,
nec sese a gremio illius movebat
sed circumsiliens modo huc modo illuc
ad solam dominam usque pipiabat
qui nunc it per iter tenebricosum
illud, unde negant redire quemquam.
At vobis male sit, malae tenebrae
Orci, quae omnia bella devoratis:
tam bellum mihi passerem abstulistis.
O factum male! O miselle passer!
Tua nunc opera meae puellae
flendo turgiduli rubent ocelli.
Catullus 3
The poem above is a lament for Lesbia’s pet. Interpretation of the poem
may be influenced by whether you believe the lament to be serious or
playful. Considering these possibilities, discuss and support your interpretation of the poem in a well-developed essay.
BE SURE TO REFER SPECIFICALLY TO THE LATIN THROUGHOUT
THE POEM TO SUPPORT YOUR ESSAY. Do NOT simply summarize what
the poem says.
(When you are asked to refer specifically to the Latin, you must write out
the Latin and/or cite line numbers AND translate, accurately paraphrase,
or make clear in your discussion that you understand the Latin.)
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Question LL3 — Catullus (15 percent of free-response score)
(Suggested time — 20 minutes)
Lesbia mi praesente viro mala plurima dicit:
haec illi fatuo maxima laetitia est.
Mule, nihil sentis? Si nostri oblita taceret,
Line
sana esset: nunc quod gannit et obloquitur,
(5) non solum meminit, sed, quae multo acrior est res,
irata est. Hoc est, uritur et loquitur.
Catullus 83
The poem above describes an awkward social situation. In a short
essay, discuss this situation and the poet’s perception of it. Refer specifically to the Latin throughout the poem to support the points you make in
your essay.
(When you are asked to refer specifically to the Latin, you must write out
the Latin and/or cite the line numbers AND translate, accurately paraphrase, or make clear in your discussion that you understand the Latin.)
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Latin Literature
Part B: Sample Questions
IF YOU HAVE CHOSEN CICERO, ANSWER QUESTIONS LL4, LL5,
AND LL6.
Question LL4 — Cicero (20 percent of free-response score)
(Suggested time — 20 minutes)
Etenim si attendere diligenter atque existimare vere de omni hac
causā volueritis, sic constituetis, iudices, nec descensurum
quemquam ad hanc accusationem fuisse cui utrum vellet liceret
Line nec, cum descendisset, quicquam habiturum spei fuisse, nisi
(5) alicuius intolerabili libidine et nimis acerbo odio niteretur. Sed ego
Atratino, humanissimo atque optimo adulescenti, meo necessario,
ignosco, qui habet excusationem vel pietatis vel necessitatis vel
aetatis. Si voluit accusare, pietati tribuo, si iussus est, necessitati, si
speravit aliquid, pueritiae. Ceteris non modo nihil ignoscendum sed
(10) etiam acriter est resistendum.
Pro Caelio 1.2
In the passage above, Cicero characterizes the motives of the prosecutor
and his allies. In a short essay, discuss both this characterization and its
intended effect on the jury. Refer specifically to the Latin throughout the
passage to support the points you make in your essay.
(When you are asked to refer specifically to the Latin, you must write out
the Latin and/or cite line numbers AND translate, accurately paraphrase,
or make clear in your discussion that you understand the Latin.)
Question LL5 — Cicero (15 percent of free-response score)
(Suggested time — 15 minutes)
Itaque alii voluptatis causā omnia sapientes facere dixerunt, neque
ab hac orationis turpitudine eruditi homines refugerunt; alii cum
voluptate dignitatem coniungendam putaverunt, ut res maxime inter
se repugnantes dicendi facultate coniungerent.
Pro Caelio 17.41
Translate the passage above as literally as possible.
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Question LL6 — Cicero (15 percent of free-response score)
(Suggested time — 10 minutes)
“Nonne te, si nostrae imagines viriles non commovebant, ne
progenies quidem mea, Q. illa Claudia, aemulam domesticae laudis
in gloriā muliebri esse admonebat, non virgo illa Vestalis Claudia
quae patrem complexa triumphantem ab inimico tribuno plebei de
(5) curru detrahi passa non est?
Pro Caelio 14.34
1. (a) Name the person Cicero represents as speaking in this passage.
(b) To what Roman custom do the words nostrae imagines viriles
refer in line 1?
(c) Why is it appropriate for the speaker to refer to this custom?
2. In lines 1-3 (Nonne . . . admonebat), what kind of role model do the
female members of the Claudian family advise Clodia to be? Write
out and translate the Latin that supports your answer.
3. Name one figure of speech in lines 3-5 (Vestalis . . . de curru) and
write out the Latin that illustrates it.
4. In lines 4-5 (quae . . . non est):
(a) On what occasion did the Vestal Virgin Claudia help her father?
(b) What did she want to prevent from happening to her father?
Write out and translate the Latin that supports your answer.
(c) What did she do to help her father?
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Latin Literature
IF YOU HAVE CHOSEN HORACE, ANSWER QUESTIONS LL7, LL8,
and LL9.
Question LL7 — Horace (20 percent of free-response score)
(Suggested time — 20 minutes)
Rectius vives, Licini, neque altum
semper urgendo neque, dum procellas
cautus horrescis, nimium premendo
Line
litus iniquum.
(5) Auream quisquis mediocritatem
diligit, tutus caret obsoleti
sordibus tecti, caret invidenda
sobrius aula.
...
Rebus angustis animosus atque
(10) fortis appare; sapienter idem
contrahes vento nimium secundo
turgida vela.
Odes 2.10. lines 1-8, 21-24
In the excerpts above, Horace uses contrasting images to express his
philosophy. In a short essay, discuss his philosophical advice and how the
contrasting images illustrate it. Refer specifically to the Latin throughout
the passage to support the points you make in your essay.
(When you are asked to refer specifically to the Latin, you must write out
the Latin and/or cite line numbers AND translate, accurately paraphrase,
or make clear in your discussion that you understand the Latin.)
Question LL8 — Horace (15 percent of free-response score)
(Suggested time — 15 minutes)
Te flagrantis atrox hora Caniculae
nescit tangere, tu frigus amabile
fessis vomere tauris
Line
praebes et pecori vago.
(5) Fies nobilium tu quoque fontium,
me dicente cavis impositam ilicem
saxis, unde loquaces
lymphae desiliunt tuae.
Odes 3.13, lines 9-16
Translate the passage above as literally as possible.
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Latin Literature
Question LL9 — Horace (15 percent of free-response score)
(Suggested time — 10 minutes)
. . . Melpomene, cui liquidam pater
vocem cum cithara dedit.
Ergo Quintilium perpetuus sopor
Line urget! Cui Pudor et Iustitiae soror,
(5) incorrupta Fides, nudaque Veritas
quando ullum inveniet parem?
Multis ille bonis flebilis occidit,
nulli flebilior quam tibi, Vergili.
Odes 1.24, lines 3-10
1. In lines 1-2 (Melpomene . . . dedit):
(a) Identify Melpomene.
(b) Name a gift given to her.
2. To what does the metaphor perpetuus sopor (line 3) refer?
3. Briefly explain what the question in lines 4-6 (Cui . . . parem)
reveals about Quintilius’ character.
4. Name a figure of speech that appears in line 7 (Multis . . . occidit)
and write out the Latin that illustrates it.
5. In lines 7-8 (Multis . . . Vergili), Quintilius is described in two ways.
Briefly compare these descriptions. Write out and translate two
Latin phrases that support your answer.
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Latin Literature
IF YOU HAVE CHOSEN OVID, ANSWER QUESTIONS LL10, LL11,
and LL12.
Question LL10 — Ovid (20 percent of free-response score)
(Suggested time — 20 minutes)
Saepe, ubi constiterant hinc Thisbe, Pyramus illinc,
inque vices fuerat captatus anhelitus oris,
“Invide” dicebant “paries, quid amantibus obstas?
Line Quantum erat, ut sineres toto nos corpore iungi
(5) aut, hoc si nimium est, vel ad oscula danda pateres?
Nec sumus ingrati: tibi nos debere fatemur,
quod datus est verbis ad amicas transitus aures.”
Talia diversa nequiquam sede locuti
sub noctem dixere “Vale” partique dedere
(10) oscula quisque suae non pervenientia contra.
Metamorphoses 4.71-80
In the passage above, Pyramus and Thisbe meet at a wall. In a short essay,
contrast the reality of the situation with the lovers’ hopes and desires.
Refer specifically to the Latin throughout the passage to support the
points you make in your essay.
(When you are asked to refer specifically to the Latin, you must write out
the Latin and/or cite line numbers AND translate, accurately paraphrase,
or make clear in your discussion that you understand the Latin.)
Question LL11 — Ovid (15 percent of free-response score)
(Suggested time — 15 minutes)
Cum puer audaci coepit gaudere volatu
deseruitque ducem caelique cupidine tractus
altius egit iter. Rapidi vicinia solis
Line mollit odoratas, pennarum vincula, ceras;
(5) tabuerant cerae; nudos quatit ille lacertos,
remigioque carens non ullas percipit auras.
Metamorphoses 8.223-228
Translate the passage above as literally as possible.
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Question LL12 — Ovid (15 percent of free-response score)
(Suggested time — 10 minutes)
Mittitur infestos alter speculator in hostes;
in rivale oculos alter, ut hoste, tenet.
Ille graves urbes, hic durae limen amicae
Line
obsidet; hic portas frangit, at ille fores.
(5) Saepe soporatos invadere profuit hostes
caedere et armata vulgus inerme manu.
Sic fera Threicii ceciderunt agmina Rhesi,
et dominum capti deseruistis equi.
Amores 1. 9. lines 17-24
1. What two actions are described in lines 1-2 (Mittitur . . . tenet)?
Write out and translate the Latin that describes each action.
2. In lines 3-4 (Ille . . . fores), the poet lists more actions that both the
soldier and the lover perform.
(a) Name one of these actions.
(b) Explain why, according to the poet, this action is appropriate
both to the soldier and to the lover.
3. In lines 5-6 (Saepe . . . manu), what two military tactics are
described?
4. During what event did the incident described in lines 7-8
(Sic . . . equi) occur?
5. Name a figure of speech that appears in line 8 (et . . . equi) and write
out the Latin that illustrates it.
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Latin Literature
Information on Figures of Speech and Meter
Figures of Speech
The figures of speech tested are allegory, alliteration, anaphora, aposiopesis, apostrophe, asyndeton, chiasmus, ecphrasis, ellipsis, enjambment,
hendiadys, hyperbaton, hyperbole, hysteron proteron, irony, litotes,
metaphor, metonymy, onomatopoeia, oxymoron, personification,
pleonasm, polyptoton, polysyndeton, praeteritio, prolepsis, prosopopoeia,
simile, synchesis, synecdoche, tmesis, transferred epithet, tricolon
crescens, and zeugma.
Meter
AP Latin: Vergil Exam
For the AP Latin: Vergil Exam, knowledge of the dactylic hexameter is
required. A dactyl is a metrical foot consisting of a long syllable followed
by two short syllables (_ØØ), and the hexameter is a line consisting of six
metrical feet. A spondee, a metrical foot consisting of two long syllables
(— —), can substitute for a dactyl anywhere but in the fifth foot, which
only rarely is spondaic. The sixth foot is always spondaic. Thus, the
metrical pattern is:
___* _ ___* _ ___* _ ___* _
_ ØØ
ØØ ØØ ØØ ØØ* _ Ø_
The student should be able to recognize elision. Elision is the elimination of a final vowel, diphthong, or final syllable in - m, before a following initial vowel or h, e.g., litora multum
/ Øille, Aeneid 1.3. The student
should also recognize the correct length of each syllable. It is acceptable
to consider the final syllable of the line long in all cases. The student is not
required to recognize ictus, caesura, or the divisions between metrical feet.
Unusual lines will not be tested.
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Latin Literature
AP Latin Literature Exam
The AP Latin Literature Exam requires knowledge of the following meters
according to the student’s choice of authors: for Catullus, the hendecasyllabic line and the elegiac couplet; for Horace, the Sapphic and Alcaic strophes; and for Ovid, the dactylic hexameter and the elegiac couplet. The
student should be able to indicate elision. Elision is the elimination of a
final vowel, diphthong, or final syllable in -m, before a following initial
vowel or h, e.g., Mauris iaculis neque/Øarcu, Horace 1.22.2. The student
should also indicate the correct length of each syllable. It is acceptable to
mark the final syllable long in all meters. The student is not required to
mark caesura, ictus, or the divisions between metrical feet.
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Latin Literature
1. The metrical pattern for the hendecasyllabic (eleven syllable)
line is:
Ø
Ø * _ ØØ* _ Ø* _ Ø* _ Ø
_
In most cases the two initial syllables are long, but actual
length should be indicated:
ØØ
Ø Ø
Ø
Corneli, tibi: namque tu solebas
Ø
ØØ
Ø Ø
Ø
meas esse/ aliquid putare nugas
Ø
Catullus 1.3- 4
2. The metrical pattern for the dactylic hexameter is:
___ * _ ___ * _ ___ * _ ___ * _
_ ØØ
ØØ ØØ ØØ ØØ * _ Ø_
as in:
ØØ
ØØ
Ø Ø
ØØ
Ø
oscula dat ligno: refugit tamen oscula lignum.
Ovid, Met. 1.556
3. The elegiac couplet consists of two lines: first, a dactylic hexameter
line; and second, a pentameter line, made up of two equal halves, each
of which is two-and-a-half dactylic feet. The caesura of the pentameter
falls between the two halves and is indicated by two vertical lines. The
metrical pattern is
___ * _ ___ * _ ___ * _ ___ * _
_ ØØ
__
___ * _ ØØ
___ ØØ ØØ ØØ * Ø
_ ØØ
ØØ * _ * _ ØØ * _ ØØ * _
as in
_
_ _ _ _ _ _
_ Ø Ø _ ØØ _ Ø
Multas per gentes et multa per aequora vectus
_ ØØ _ ØØ _
_ Ø Ø _ ØØ _
advenio/Øhas miseras, frater, ad inferias,
Catullus 101. 1-2
and
_ ØØ _ Ø Ø _
Ø Ø _ ØØ _ Ø Ø _ Ø
Militat omnis amans, et habet sua castra Cupido;
_
_ Ø Ø _ Ø Ø _ _ ØØ _ Ø Ø Ø
Attice, crede mihi, militat omnis amans.
Ovid, Amores 1.9.1-2
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4. The Sapphic strophe:
_ Ø* _ Ø
_ * _ ØØ* _ Ø* _ Ø
_ (3 times)
_ ØØ* _ Ø
_
as in
_ Ø _ _ _ ØØ _ Ø _ Ø
_
Integer vitae scelerisque purus
_ Ø _
_ _ Ø Ø_ Ø
_ Ø
_
non eget Mauris iaculis neque/Øarcu
_ Ø _ _ _ ØØ _ Ø _ Ø
_
nec venenatis gravida sagittis,
_ Ø
_
Ø_ Ø
Fusce, pharetra,
Horace 1.22.1-4
5. The Alcaic strophe:
_ * _ Ø* _ _ * _ ØØ* _ Ø* Ø
_ (twice)
_ * _ Ø* _ _ * _ Ø* _ Ø
_
_ ØØ* _ ØØ* _ Ø* _ Ø
_
The first syllable of the first three lines is very rarely short;
lines containing short first syllables will not be tested.
_
_ Ø_ _
_ ØØ _ Ø Ø
_
nunc et latentis proditor intimo
_ _ Ø_ _ _ Ø Ø _ Ø _
gratus puellae risus ab angulo
_ _ Ø _ _ _ Ø _ _
pignusque dereptum lacertis
_ ØØ _ ØØ _ Ø _ _
aut digito male pertinaci.
Horace 1.9.22-24
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Latin Literature
Bibliography
Bibliographies for each of the authors on the AP Latin syllabi are found
beginning on page 201 in the most recent edition of the AP Latin Teacher’s
Guide (2001). The following works have appeared since the publication of
the guide:
Catullus
Ancona, Ronnie. 2004. Writing Passion: A Catullus Reader. Wauconda,
Ill.: Bolchazy-Carducci Publishers. Student Text: ISBN 0-86516-482-7.
Teacher’s Edition: ISBN 0-86516-483-5.
Bender, Henry V., and Phyllis Forsyth. 2004. Catullus for the AP: A
Supplement. Wauconda, Ill.: Bolchazy-Carducci Publishers. Student Text:
ISBN 0-86516-575-0. Teacher’s Edition: ISBN 0-86516-576-9.
Vergil
Boyd, Barbara Weiden. 2004. Vergil’s Aeneid: Selections from Books 1, 2,
4, 6, 10, and 12 (2nd edition). Wauconda, Ill.: Bolachazy-Carducci
Publishers. Paperback Student Text: ISBN 0-86516-584-X. Hardbound
Student Text: ISBN 0-86516-583-1. Teacher’s Edition: ISBN 0-86516-481-9.
LaFleur, Richard A., and Alexander G. McKay. 2003. A Song of War:
Readings from Vergil’s Aeneid (contains all AP selections plus Book
Two in its entirety). Upper Saddle River, N.J.: Prentice Hall. Student
Text: ISBN 0-13-053450-1. Teacher’s Guide: ISBN 0-13-0534501.
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AP® Program Essentials
The AP Reading
Each year in June, the free-response section of the exams, as well as the
AP Studio Art portfolios, are scored by college faculty and secondary
school AP teachers at the AP Reading. Thousands of Readers participate,
under the direction of a Chief Reader (a college professor) in each AP subject. The experience offers both significant professional development and
the opportunity to network with likeminded educators.
If you are an AP teacher or a college faculty member and would like to
serve as a Reader, you can apply online at apcentral.collegeboard.com/
reader. Alternatively, you can send an e-mail to [email protected], or call
Performance Assessment Scoring Services at 609 406-5384.
AP Grades
The Readers’ scores on the essay and problem-solving questions are
combined with the results of the computer-scored multiple-choice
questions, and the total raw scores are converted to a composite score
on AP’s 5-point scale:
AP GRADE
5
4
3
2
1
QUALIFICATION
Extremely well qualified
Well qualified
Qualified
Possibly qualified
No recommendation
Grade Distributions
Many teachers want to compare their students’ grades with national
percentiles. Grade distribution charts are available at AP Central, as is
information on how the grade boundaries for each AP grade are established. Grade distribution charts are also available on the AP student site
at www.collegeboard.com/apstudents.
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Why Colleges Grant Credit, Placement, or Both for
AP Grades
Colleges know that the AP grades of incoming students represent a level
of achievement equivalent to that of students who take the same course in
the colleges’ own classrooms. That equivalency is ensured through several
AP Program processes:
• College faculty serve on the committees that develop the Course
Descriptions and exams in each AP course.
• College faculty are responsible for standard setting and are involved
in the evaluation of student responses at the AP Reading.
• AP courses and exams are reviewed and updated regularly, based on
the results of curriculum surveys at up to 200 colleges and universities, collaborations among the College Board and key educational
and disciplinary organizations, and the interactions of committee
members with professional organizations in their discipline.
• Periodic college comparability studies are undertaken in which the
performance of college students on AP Exams is compared with that
of AP students to confirm that the AP grade scale of 1 to 5 is properly aligned with current college standards.
In addition, the College Board has commissioned studies that use a
“bottom-line” approach to validating AP Exam grades by comparing the
achievement of AP students with non-AP students in higher level college
courses. For example, in the 1998 Morgan and Ramist “21-College” study,
AP students who were exempted from introductory courses and who completed a higher level course in college compared favorably, on the basis of
their college grades, with students who completed the prerequisite first
course in college, then took the second, higher level course in the subject
area. Such studies answer the question of greatest concern to colleges:
Are AP students who are exempted from introductory courses as well prepared to continue in a subject area as students who took their first course
in college? To see the results of several college validity studies, go to AP
Central. (The complete Morgan and Ramist study can be downloaded from
the site.)
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Guidelines on Setting Credit and Placement Policies for
AP Grades
The College Board has created two useful resources for admissions administrators and academic faculty who need guidance on setting an AP policy
for their college or university. The printed guide AP and Higher Education
provides guidance for colleges and universities in setting AP credit and
placement policies. The booklet details how to set an AP policy, summarizes AP research studies, and describes in detail course and exam development and the exam scoring process. AP Central has a section geared
toward colleges and universities that provides similar information and additional resources, including links to all AP research studies, released exam
questions, and sample student responses at varying levels of achievement
for each AP Exam. Visit apcentral.collegeboard.com/highered.
The Advanced Placement Policy Guide for each AP subject field is
designed for college faculty responsible for setting their department’s AP
policy. These folios provide content specific to each AP Exam, including
validity research studies and a description of the AP course curriculum.
Ordering information for these and other publications can be found in the
AP Publications and Other Resources section of this Course Description.
College and University AP Credit and
Placement Policies
Each college and university sets its own AP credit and placement policies.
The AP Program has created a new online search tool, AP Credit Policy
Info, that provides links to credit and placement policies at hundreds of
colleges and universities. The tool helps students find the credit hours and
advanced placement they can receive for qualifying exam scores within
each AP subject. AP Credit Policy Info is available at www.collegeboard.
com/ap/creditpolicy.
AP Scholar Awards
The AP Program offers a number of AP Scholar Awards to recognize high
school students who have demonstrated college-level achievement through
consistently high performance on AP Exams. Although there is no monetary award, students receive an award certificate, and the achievement is
acknowledged on any grade report sent to colleges following the
announcement of the awards. For detailed information about AP Scholar
Awards (including qualification criteria), visit AP Central or contact the
College Board’s national office. Students can find this information at
www.collegeboard.com/apstudents.
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AP Calendar
The AP Program Guide for education professionals and the Bulletin for
AP Students and Parents provide important Program information and
details on the key events in the AP calendar. Information on ordering or
downloading these publications can be found at the back of this book.
Exam Security
All parts of every AP Exam must be kept secure at all times. Forty-eight
hours after the exam has been administered, the inserts containing the
free-response questions (Section II) can be made available for teacher and
student review.* However, the multiple-choice section (Section I)
must remain secure both before and after the exam administration.
No one other than students taking the exam can ever have access to or see
the questions contained in Section I—this includes AP Coordinators and
all teachers. The multiple-choice section must never be shared, copied in
any manner, or reconstructed by teachers and students after the exam.
Schools that knowingly or unknowingly violate these policies will
not be permitted to administer AP Exams in the future and may be
held responsible for any damages or losses the College Board
and/or ETS incur in the event of a security breach.
Selected multiple-choice questions are reused from year to year to
provide an essential method of establishing high exam reliability, controlled levels of difficulty, and comparability with earlier exams. These
goals can be attained only when the multiple-choice questions remain
secure. This is why teachers cannot view the questions, and students
cannot share information about these questions with anyone following
the exam administration.
To ensure that all students have an equal opportunity to demonstrate
their abilities on the exam, AP Exams must be administered in a uniform
manner. It is extremely important to follow the administration
schedule and all procedures outlined in detail in the most recent
AP Coordinator’s Manual. Please note that AP Studio Art portfolios and
their contents are not considered secure testing materials; see the AP
Coordinator’s Manual and the appropriate AP Examination Instructions
book for further information. The Manual also includes directions on how
to handle misconduct and other security problems. All schools participating in AP automatically receive printed copies of the Manual. It is also
available in PDF format at apcentral.collegeboard.com/coordinators.
* The free-response section of the alternate form (used for late testing administration) is NOT
released.
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Any breach of security should be reported to the Office of Testing Integrity
immediately (call 800 353-8570 or 609 406-5427, fax 609 406-9709, or e-mail
[email protected]).
Teacher Support
AP Central® (apcentral.collegeboard.com)
You can find the following Web resources at AP Central (free registration
required):
• AP Course Descriptions, AP Exam questions and scoring guidelines,
sample syllabi, research reports, and feature articles.
• A searchable Institutes and Workshops database, providing information about professional development events. AP Central offers
online events that participants can access from their home or school
computers.
• The Course Home Pages (apcentral.collegeboard.com/
coursehomepages), which contain insightful articles, teaching tips,
activities, lab ideas, and other course-specific content contributed
by colleagues in the AP community.
• In-depth FAQs, including brief responses to frequently asked questions about AP courses and exams, the AP Program, and other
topics of interest.
• Links to AP publications and products (some available for immediate download) that can be purchased online at the College Board
Store (store.collegeboard.com).
• Moderated electronic discussion groups (EDGs) for each AP course
to facilitate the exchange of ideas and practices.
• Teachers’ Resources database—click on the “Teachers’ Resources”
tab to search for reviews of textbooks, reference books, documents,
Web sites, software, videos, and more. College and high school faculty write the reviews with specific reference to the value of the
resources in teaching AP courses.
AP teachers can also obtain a number of AP publications, CD-ROMs, and
videos that supplement these Web resources. Please see the following
pages for an overview and ordering information.
apcentral.collegeboard.com
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Online Workshops and Events
College Board online events and workshops are designed to help support
and expand the high level of professional development currently offered
teachers in workshops and AP Summer Institutes. Because of budgetary,
geographical, and time constraints, not all teachers and administrators are
able to take advantage of live, face-to-face workshops. The College Board
develops and offers both standard and customized online events and workshops for schools, districts, and states, which are available in both live and
archival formats. Online events and workshops are developed and presented by experienced College Board consultants and guest speakers;
online workshops are equivalent to one-day, face-to-face workshops.
Pre-AP®
Pre-AP® is a suite of K–12 professional development resources and services designed to help equip middle school and high school teachers with
the strategies and tools they need to engage their students in high-level
learning, thereby ensuring that every middle school and high school student has the opportunity to acquire a deep understanding of the skills,
habits of mind, and concepts they need to succeed in college.
Pre-AP is based on the following premises. The first is the expectation
that all students can perform at rigorous academic levels. This expectation
should be reflected in the curriculum and instruction throughout the
school so that all students are consistently being challenged to bring their
knowledge and skills to the next level.
The second important premise of Pre-AP is the belief that educators can
prepare every student for higher intellectual engagement by starting the
development of skills and the acquisition of knowledge as early as possible. When addressed effectively, the middle school and high school years
can provide a powerful opportunity to help all students acquire the knowledge, concepts, and skills needed to engage in a higher level of learning.
Pre-AP teacher professional development explicitly supports the goal of
college as an option for every student. It is important to have a recognized
standard for college-level academic work. The AP Program provides these
standards for Pre-AP. Pre-AP professional development resources reflect the
topics, concepts, and skills taught in AP courses and assessed in AP Exams.
The College Board does not design, develop, or assess courses labeled
“Pre-AP.” Courses labeled “Pre-AP” that inappropriately restrict access to
AP and other college-level work are inconsistent with the fundamental
purpose of the Pre-AP initiatives of the College Board. Schools, districts,
and policymakers are encouraged to utilize Pre-AP professional
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development in a manner that ensures equitable access to rigorous academic experiences for all students.
Pre-AP Professional Development
Pre-AP professional development is available through workshops and conferences coordinated by the College Board’s regional offices. Pre-AP professional development is divided into three categories:
1. Vertical Teaming—Articulation of content and pedagogy across the
middle school and high school years. The emphasis is on aligning
curricula and improving teacher communication. The intended outcome is a coordinated program of teaching skills and concepts over
several years.
2. Classroom Strategies—Content-specific classroom strategies for
middle school and high school teachers. Various approaches, techniques, and ideas are emphasized.
3. Instructional Leadership—Administrators and other instructional
leaders examine how to use Pre-AP professional development—
especially AP Vertical Teams®—to create a system that challenges
all students to perform at rigorous academic levels.
For a complete list of Pre-AP professional development offerings, please
contact your regional office or visit AP Central.
AP Publications and Other Resources
A number of AP resources are available to help students, parents, AP
Coordinators, and high school and college faculty learn more about the AP
Program and its courses and exams. To identify resources that may be of
particular use to you, refer to the following key.
AP Coordinators and Administrators
College Faculty . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Students and Parents . . . . . . . . . . .
Teachers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
.
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A
C
SP
T
Free Resources
Copies of the following items can be ordered free of charge at
apcentral.collegeboard.com/freepubs. Items marked with a computer
mouse icon m can be downloaded for free from AP Central.
apcentral.collegeboard.com
53
m The Value of AP Courses and Exams
A, SP, T
This brochure can be used by school counselors and administrators to
provide parents and students with information about the many benefits of
participation in AP courses and exams.
AP Tools for Schools Resource Kit
A
This complimentary resource assists schools in building their AP
programs. The kit includes the new video Experience College Success,
the brochure The Value of AP Courses and Exams, and brief descriptions
of the AP Credit Policy Info search and the Parent’s Night PowerPoint
presentation.
Experience College Success is a six-minute video that provides a short
overview of the AP Program, with commentary from admissions officers,
college students, and high school faculty about the benefits of participation in AP courses. Each videotape includes both an English and Spanish
version.
m Bulletin for AP Students and Parents
SP
This bulletin provides a general description of the AP Program, including
information on the policies and procedures related to taking the exams.
It describes each AP Exam, lists the advantages of taking the exams,
describes the grade reporting process, and includes the upcoming exam
schedule. The Bulletin is available in both English and Spanish.
m Opening Classroom Doors: Strategies for
Expanding Access to AP
A, T
Increasing AP participation while maintaining the Program’s high academic standards is a challenge for many schools. This booklet profiles best
practices from urban, suburban, and rural schools nationwide that have
successfully met this challenge, and offers powerful strategies for fostering
a culture of excellence and equity.
m Get with the Program
SP
All students, especially those from underserved backgrounds, should
understand the value of a high-quality education. Written especially for
students and their families, this bilingual (Spanish/English) brochure highlights the benefits of participation in the AP Program. (The brochure can
be ordered in large quantities for students in grades 8–12.)
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m AP Program Guide
A
This guide takes the AP Coordinator through the school year step by step—
organizing an AP program, ordering and administering the AP Exams, AP
Exam payment, and grade reporting. It also includes information on teacher
professional development, AP resources, and exam schedules.
m AP and Higher Education
A, C, T
This publication is intended to inform and help education professionals at
the secondary and postsecondary levels understand the benefits of having
a coherent, equitable AP credit and placement policy. Topics included are
the development of AP courses and exams, grading of AP Exams, exam
validation, research studies comparing the performance of AP students
with non-AP students, uses of AP Exams by students in college, and how
faculty can get involved in the AP Program.
m Advanced Placement Policy Guides
A, C, T
These policy guides are designed for college faculty responsible for setting
their department’s AP policy, and provide, in a subject-specific context,
information about AP validity studies, college faculty involvement, and AP
course curricular content. There are separate guides for each AP subject
field.
Priced Publications
The following items can be ordered through the College Board Store at
store.collegeboard.com. Alternatively, you can download an AP Order
Form from AP Central at apcentral.collegeboard.com/documentlibrary.
m Course Descriptions
A, C, SP, T
Course Descriptions are available for each AP subject. They provide an
outline of each AP course’s content, explain the kinds of skills students are
expected to demonstrate in the corresponding introductory college-level
course, and describe the AP Exam. Sample multiple-choice questions with
an answer key and sample free-response questions are included.
Note: PDF versions of current AP Course Descriptions for each AP subject may be downloaded free of charge from AP Central and the College
Board’s Web site for students. Follow the above instructions to purchase
printed copies. (The Course Description for AP Computer Science is available in electronic format only.)
apcentral.collegeboard.com
55
Released Exams
C, T
About every four or five years, on a rotating schedule, the AP Program
releases a complete copy of each exam. In addition to providing the
multiple-choice questions and answers, the publication describes the
process of scoring the free-response questions and includes examples of
students’ actual responses, the scoring standards, and commentary that
explains why the responses received the scores they did.
Teacher’s Guides
T
For those about to teach an AP course for the first time, or for experienced AP teachers who would like to get some fresh ideas for the classroom, the Teacher’s Guide is an excellent resource. Each Teacher’s Guide
contains syllabi developed by high school teachers currently teaching the
AP course and college faculty who teach the equivalent course at colleges
and universities. Along with detailed course outlines and innovative teaching tips, you’ll also find extensive lists of suggested teaching resources.
AP Vertical Teams® Guides
A, T
AP Vertical Teams (APVT) are made up of teachers from different grade
levels who work together to develop and implement a sequential curriculum in a given discipline. Teams help students acquire the skills necessary
for success in AP courses. To assist teachers and administrators who are
interested in establishing an APVT at their school, the College Board has
published these guides: AP Vertical Teams Guide for English; Advanced
Placement Mathematics Vertical Teams Toolkit; AP Vertical Teams Guide
for Science; AP Vertical Teams Guide for Social Studies; AP Vertical
Teams Guide for Fine Arts, Vol. 1: Studio Art; AP Vertical Teams Guide
for Fine Arts, Vol. 2: Music Theory; and AP Vertical Teams Guide for
Fine Arts, Vols. 1 and 2 (set).
Multimedia APCD®
(home version, multinetwork site license)
SP, T
These CD-ROMs are available for AP Calculus AB, AP English Language,
AP English Literature, AP European History, and AP U.S. History. They
each include actual AP Exams, interactive tutorials, and other features,
including exam descriptions, answers to frequently asked questions, studyskill suggestions, and test-taking strategies. Also included are a listing of
resources for further study and a planner to help students schedule and
organize their study time.
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The teacher version of each CD, which can be licensed for up to
50 workstations, enables you to monitor student progress and provide
individual feedback. Included is a Teacher’s Manual that gives full explanations along with suggestions for utilizing the APCD in the classroom.
Electronic Publications
Additional supplemental publications are available in electronic format
to be purchased and downloaded from the College Board Store. These
include a collection of 13 World History Teaching Units, Calculus freeresponse questions and solutions from 1969 to 1997, the Physics Lab
Guide, and a collection of Java syllabi for Computer Science.
Announcements of new electronic publications can be found on the
AP Course Home Pages on AP Central (apcentral.collegeboard.com/
coursehomepages).
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Contact Us
NAT IONA L OF FIC E
NEW ENGLAND REGIONAL OFFICE
Advanced Placement Program
45 Columbus Avenue
New York, NY 10023-6992
212 713-8066
E-mail: [email protected]
Serving Connecticut, Maine, Massachusetts,
New Hampshire, Rhode Island, and Vermont
470 Totten Pond Road
Waltham, MA 02451-1982
866 392-4089
E-mail: [email protected]
AP SERVICES
P.O. Box 6671
Princeton, NJ 08541-6671
609 771-7300
877 274-6474 (toll free in the U.S.
and Canada)
E-mail: [email protected]
AP CANADA OFFICE
1708 Dolphin Avenue, Suite 406
Kelowna, BC, Canada V1Y 9S4
250 861-9050
800 667-4548 (toll free in Canada only)
E-mail: [email protected]
A P I N T E R NAT IONA L OF FIC E
Serving all countries outside the U.S.
and Canada
45 Columbus Avenue
New York, NY 10023-6992
212 373-8738
E-mail: [email protected]
M I DDL E STAT E S R E G IO NA L O F F IC E
Serving Delaware, District of Columbia,
Maryland, New Jersey, New York, Pennsylvania,
Puerto Rico, and the U.S. Virgin Islands
Two Bala Plaza, Suite 900
Bala Cynwyd, PA 19004-1501
866 392-3019
E-mail: [email protected]
MIDWESTERN REGIONAL OFFICE
Serving Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Kansas,
Michigan, Minnesota, Missouri, Nebraska,
North Dakota, Ohio, South Dakota, West Virginia,
and Wisconsin
1560 Sherman Avenue, Suite 1001
Evanston, IL 60201-4805
866 392-4086
E-mail: [email protected]
SOUTHERN REGIONAL OFFICE
Serving Alabama, Florida, Georgia, Kentucky,
Louisiana, Mississippi, North Carolina, South
Carolina, Tennessee, and Virginia
3700 Crestwood Parkway NW, Suite 700
Duluth, GA 30096-7155
866 392-4088
E-mail: [email protected]
SOUTHWESTERN REGIONAL
OFFICE
Serving Arkansas, New Mexico, Oklahoma,
and Texas
4330 South MoPac Expressway, Suite 200
Austin, TX 78735-6735
866 392-3017
E-mail: [email protected]
WESTERN REGIONAL OFFICE
Serving Alaska, Arizona, California, Colorado,
Hawaii, Idaho, Montana, Nevada, Oregon, Utah,
Washington, and Wyoming
2099 Gateway Place, Suite 550
San Jose, CA 95110-1051
866 392-4078
E-mail: [email protected]
2004-05 Development Committee and Chief Reader
Shelley Haley, Hamilton College, Clinton, New York, Chair
Robert Cape, Austin College, Sherman, Texas
Linda Gillison, University of Montana, Missoula
Wells Hansen, Milton Academy, Milton, Massachusetts
Rosa Motta-Bischof, Maury High School, Norfolk, Virginia
Karen Singh, Florida State University School, Tallahassee
James Updegraff, The Bishop’s School, La Jolla, California
Chief Reader: John Sarkissian, Youngstown State University, Ohio
ETS Consultants: Kathleen Rabiteau, James Hessinger
apcentral.collegeboard.com
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