INSTRUCTION MANUAL FOR MODEL H

INSTRUCTION MANUAL FOR MODEL H
INSTRUCTION MANUAL
FOR
MODEL H-7650
TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPE
(USER’S OPERATION & MAINTENANCE, Ver.01.03 upward)
Please read through this manual carefully
and store it in a safe place.
• Before using the instrument, read the safety
instructions and precautions carefully.
• Keep this manual in a safe place nearby so it
can be referred to whenever needed.
Copyright
©
Hitachi High-Technologies Corporation 2005.
All rights reserved.
Printed in Japan.
Part No. 817-9624 TG-S (N-LH)
NOTICE:
1.
2.
3.
4.
Information contained in this document is subject to
change without notice for improvement.
This manual is copyrighted by Hitachi High-Technologies
Corporation with all rights reserved.
No part of this manual may be reproduced, transmitted
or disclosed to a third party in any form or by any means
without the express written permission of Hitachi
High-Technologies Corporation.
Hitachi High-Technologies Corporation assumes no
liability for any direct, indirect, or consequential damages
arising from use not described in this manual.
Utmost care must be exercised when using the
instrument.
This document does not provide any warranty or
permission for industrial properties or any rights to grant
license lawfully and without infringement.
FOREWORD
Thank you very much for purchasing the Hitachi Model H-7650
Transmission Electron Microscope. It is designed for observation
and evaluation of the specimens prepared for TEM by using an
electron beam accelerated with 100 kV as a light source.
This instruction manual provides instructions for the persons who
have a basic knowledge of electron microscope. A wrong handling
of the Model H-7650 may result in not only improper images but also
specimen damage.
Before using the Model H-7650, be sure to read this manual carefully
and use this product correctly.
First, be sure to read these precautions on safety.
After reading the manual, keep it in a safe place nearby so it can be
referred to whenever needed.
ABOUT THIS INSTRUCTION MANUAL
• This instruction manual explains the operating procedure,
maintenance and caution on the Model H-7650 TEM.
• First of all, be sure to read the precautions at the beginning of this
manual and “SAFETY SUMMARY.”
• For operation and maintenance of the options for the Model
H-7650, refer to the respective instruction manuals.
The instruction manuals of the option for the Model H-7650 are
listed below.
◊ Instruction manual of H-7501SS one-touch specimen holder
(for user’s operation)
◊ Instruction manual of H-7501MS 3-specimen holder (for user’s
operation)
◊ Instruction manual of H-7502MS one-touch 3-specimen holder
(for user’s operation)
◊ Instruction manual of H-7501RS specimen rotation holder (for
user’s operation)
◊ Instruction manual of H-7501DS specimen double tilt holder
(for user’s operation)
-1-
• The basic format of the manual is as follows.
reading.
(1)
Refer to it in your
Pages, diagrams and tables are numbered consecutively in
each section.
Example: (page) 1-10, (diagram) Fig. 1-10,
(table) Table 1-10
(2)
Smaller groups of description than section and sub-sections
are numbered as follows.
(1), (2), (3) ...
-2-
CAUTION
The effective dose equivalent of leakage x-ray radiation from the
H-7650 TEM is 2 μSv/h maximum under its actual operating
conditions. According to the recommendation Publ. 60 of the
International Committee on Radiation Hazard Prevention (ICRP) in
1990, the average effective dose equivalent over 5 years should not
exceed 20 mSv/year. It is therefore required to restrict usage time
so that the reference value will not be exceeded. In particular, note
that there are stipulations on effective dose equivalent with respect to
certain locations of the human body, or with respect to a user in
pregnant condition, etc. Besides, the International Electrotechnical
Commission Standard IEC 61010-1 states that the effective dose
equivalent must not exceed 5 μSv/h, and the above figure of the
H-7650 TEM is far below this effective dose limit per unit time.
It also conforms with the Japan Analytical Instruments Manufacturers
Association Standard JAIMAS 1010-2001. However, confirmation is
not obtained with regard to the laws or directives on radiation of each
individual country, so one must check the related laws of the relevant
country and use the instrument under conditions that conform with
those laws. It is recommended that the users establish their own
working time standards for using this instrument.
It is essential also to operate the instrument carefully taking into
account the following fundamental precautions.
(1)
Use the instrument within the application range and by the
method specified in the catalog, instruction manual and other
relevant document. Note that long usage under the conditions
given below may cause the x-ray leakage amount to exceed the
stipulated value, so avoid usage under these conditions.
(a) Usage with the condenser lens movable aperture
completely pulled out from the column.
(b) Usage with emission current greater than 20 μA flowing.
(c) Usage with the movable aperture inserted for the purpose
of interrupting the electron beam.
(d) Usage with parts used to protect the instrument eliminated
or replaced with substitute parts.
(e) Usage after making modifications such as unlocking safety
devices.
-3-
(2)
Since the laws related to radiation hazard prevention are
subject to modification without prior notice, sufficient measures
must be taken to conform with the modifications before use of
the instrument. The users should set up their own work
management standards for using the instrument.
-4-
WARRANTY
The Model H-7650 TEM is warranted as follows, based on the
specifications indicated in this manual, only when it is used
according to the instructions given therein.
Hitachi High-Technologies Corporation will not indicate warranties,
express or implied, as to product quality, performance, value of
commodity and applicability for a particular purpose.
No oral or written information given by this company’s dealer,
distributor, agent or employee without an approval procedure
determined by the company shall create a warranty if such
information does not match product performance.
(1)
Scope of Warranty
(a) If the instrument becomes faulty due to a defect in Hitachi
High-Technologies Corporation workmanship, it will be
repaired free of charge.
(b) A substitute part may be used for repair or replacement
with an equivalent component may be made instead of
partial repair.
(2)
Period of Warranty
Within one year from the date of initial installation
-5-
(3)
Disclaimer of Warranty
This warranty will not be valid for the following failures and/or
cases even during the period of warranty.
(a) Failure due to operation at a place not meeting the
installation requirements specified by Hitachi
High-Technologies Corporation.
(b) Failure due to power supply voltage/frequency other than
specified by Hitachi High-Technologies Corporation or due
to abnormal power supply.
(c) Corrosion or deterioration of the tubing due to impurities
contained in gas, compressed air or cooling water supplied
by user.
(d) Corrosion of the electric circuits or deterioration of the
optical elements due to highly corrosive atmosphere, dusty
environment, etc.
(e) Failure due to use of hardware, software or spare parts
other than supplied by Hitachi High-Technologies
Corporation.
(f) Failure or damage to the basic software, application
software or data due to improper handling or maintenance
by user.
(g) Failure due to maintenance or repair by a service agent not
approved or authorized by Hitachi High-Technologies
Corporation, or failure resulting from disassembly or
modification by user.
(h) When the instrument is disposed of or resold without
informing Hitachi High-Technologies Corporation.
(i) Failure due to relocation or transport after initial installation.
(j) When the instrument is disassembled, modified or
subjected to parts replacement without Hitachi
High-Technologies Corporation approval, or reinstalled
without informing Hitachi High-Technologies Corporation.
(k) Consumables and parts limited in period of warranty.
(l) Parts excluded from warranty in the instruction
manual, etc.
(m) Failure due to force majeure including fire, earthquake,
storm, flood, lightning, social disturbance, riot, crime,
insurrection, war, radioactive pollution, contamination with
harmful substance, etc.
-6-
(n) Failure of the hardware, or damage to the basic software,
application software or data due to computer virus
infection.
(o) Failure of the personal computer connected with the
instrument, or damage to the basic software, application
software or data due to power interruption or momentary
power voltage drop caused by lightning.
(p) Failure of the personal computer connected with the
instrument, or damage to the basic software, application
software or data due to disconnection of main power to the
personal computer without taking the specified normal
shutdown procedure.
HITACHI HIGH-TECHNOLOGIES CORPORATION MAKES NO
WARRANTIES, EITHER EXPRESS OR IMPLIED, EXCEPT AS
PROVIDED HEREIN, INCLUDING WITHOUT LIMITATION
THEREOF, WARRANTIES AS TO MARKETABILITY,
MERCHANTABILITY, FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE OR USE,
OR AGAINST INFRINGEMENT OF ANY
PATENT. IN NO EVENT SHALL HITACHI HIGH-TECHNOLOGIES
CORPORATION BE LIABLE FOR ANY DIRECT, INCIDENTAL OR
CONSEQUENTIAL DAMAGES OF ANY NATURE, OR LOSSES OR
EXPENSES RESULTING FROM ANY DEFECTIVE PRODUCT OR
THE USE OF ANY PRODUCT.
NO ORAL OR WRITTEN INFORMATION OR ADVICE GIVEN BY
HITACHI HIGH-TECHNOLOGIES CORPORATION, ITS DEALERS,
DISTRIBUTORS, AGENTS OR EMPLOYEES SHALL CREATE A
WARRANTY OR IN ANY WAY INCREASE THE SCOPE OF THIS
WARRANTY.
HITACHI HIGH-TECHNOLOGIES CORPORATION ASSUMES NO
LIABILITY FOR ANY DAMAGE TO DATA OR APPLICATION
SOFTWARE DUE TO ANY POSSIBLE FAULT OR FAILURE OF
THIS INSTRUMENT.
(4)
Warranty Card
Warranty card will not be reissued.
-7-
Keep it in a safe place.
INSTALLATION, RELOCATION AND AFTER-SALE TECHNICAL SERVICE
(a) Installation at delivery will be carried out by our installation
service staff or the engineers authorized by Hitachi
High-Technologies Corporation. User shall not attempt to
install the instrument.
For installation, the user is requested to take responsibility
of preparing utilities, referring to “23. Installation conditions”
in “1.3 Standard Specifications” of Section 1.
When relocation of the instrument becomes necessary
after initial installation (delivery), be sure to notify your local
Hitachi High-Technologies Corporation sales or service
representative, partly because possible troubles involved in
relocation may be prevented.
For after-sale service, also contact the Hitachi
High-Technologies Corporation representative. And for
service after the warranty period, please consult us about a
maintenance & inspection contract.
(b) For 10 years after delivery of this instrument, maintenance
service is available so that the instrument can operate.
During this time period, maintenance of such system
components as a personal computer and printer to be
updated frequently in the market may entail a request for
purchasing a substitute because the possible period of
their repair is limited. Even after 10 years from the
delivery, maintenance can be provided if system
components are available.
CUSTOMERS’ PRACTICE COURSE AND TRAINING
Customers’ practice course or training (to be charged) can be
received at the Hitachi High-Technologies Corporation facility or at
the site so that the instrument will be used safely and exactly.
For receiving procedure, contact Hitachi High-Technologies
Corporation.
-8-
DISPOSAL OF THIS INSTRUMENT
This instrument uses lead (toxic) and FRP (non-biodegradable) in
some parts. Lead is mounted to the electron gun section, column
and evacuation pipe, viewing chamber, camera chamber and
operation console. FRP is used in the operation table and operation
panel.
In other parts, the materials that will directly harm the environment
are not used as of March 2004.
However, changes are apt to be made in relevant laws and/or
regulations. So be sure to consult a qualified specialist when
planning to dispose of the instrument.
OTHER PRECAUTIONS
(1)
Handling of Chemicals
(a) The user is responsible for following the relevant legal
standards and regulations in the handling and treatment of
chemicals used for cleaning of this instrument.
(b) Chemicals shall be handled, stored and discarded as
instructed by the respective suppliers.
(2)
Notice on This Instruction Manual
(a) The Information contained in this document is subject to
change without prior notice for further improvement.
(b) This manual is copyrighted by Hitachi High-Technologies
Corporation with all rights reserved.
(c) No part of this manual may be reproduced or transmitted in
any form or by any means without the express written
permission of Hitachi High-Technologies Corporation.
(3)
During Use
Gazing at the monitor screen for long hours may cause a vision
impairment due to fatigue, etc. The customer is recommended
to establish work management standards and follow them.
-9-
SAFETY SUMMARY
General Safety Guidelines
Before operating the Model H-7650 TEM, read the following
instructions carefully.
The hazard warnings which appear on the warning labels on the
instrument or in the manual have one of the following alert headings
consisting of an alert symbol
and a signal word DANGER,
WARNING or CAUTION.
: The alert symbol shown at left precedes
every signal word for hazard warnings, and
appears in safety related descriptions in
the manual.
DANGER : Indicates an imminently hazardous
situation which, if not avoided, will result in
death or serious injury.
WARNING : Indicates a potentially hazardous situation
which, if not avoided, can result in death or
serious injury.
CAUTION : Indicates a hazardous situation which, if
not avoided, can result in minor or
moderate injury, or serious damage of the
product.
NOTICE
: Indicates a potentially hazardous situation
which, if not avoided, can result in damage
to property.
The warning by safety alert symbol + signal word DANGER is not
used for this instrument.
In addition, the following signal word is used for ensuring proper use
of the product.
NOTE: Used to indicate an instruction for ensuring correct
trouble-free use of the instrument and accurate
measurement therewith.
SAFETY - 1
SAFETY SUMMARY
General Safety Guidelines (Continued)
Precautions on Use
• Before using this product, read the instruction manual carefully
until an adequate understanding is acquired.
• Keep this manual in a safe place nearby so it can be referred to
whenever needed.
• Follow the procedure indicated in this manual for handling the
product.
• The instructions on safety in this manual should always be
followed after confirming an adequate understanding of their
contents.
• Be sure to observe all the hazard warnings attached to the
instrument or provided in the manual. Failure to do so could
result in personal injury or damage to the instrument.
• Be sure to follow the original usage of this product and that
specified in the instruction manual.
• Never modify the instrument, use unspecified parts nor operate
the instrument with safety devices removed, because it is
dangerous.
• Do not perform any operation or action other than described in
this manual. When in doubt, contact your dealer or the nearest
Hitachi High-Technologies Corporation service office.
• The electron beam used in this instrument will give rise to x-rays.
So avoid using the instrument with its cover or door removed, or
with any particular part attached.
• When using a chemical, adequate room ventilation should be
secured under the customer’s responsibility.
Inadequate ventilation could endanger human health.
SAFETY - 2
SAFETY SUMMARY
General Safety Guidelines (Continued)
• Keep in mind that the hazard warnings in this manual or on the
instrument cannot cover every possible case, as it is impossible to
predict and evaluate all circumstances beforehand. Be alert and
use your common sense.
The above precautions should be observed strictly.
Otherwise, not only will the correct result of microscopy be
unobtainable, but also human injury may be caused.
Precaution during Use
If an abnormal condition such as abnormal noise, odor or fuming
occurs during operation of the instrument, turn off power supply
immediately. Then, after providing proper safety measures as
required, contact our nearest service office.
Caution on Installation, Maintenance and Relocation
• Installation at delivery should not be performed by the customer.
For ensuring safety and high accuracy in operation of the
instrument, qualified technical personnel from Hitachi
High-Technologies Corporation service office or its authorized
service agent will carry out installation when the instrument is
delivered to the customer.
• At the time of installation, it is requested for the customer to check
that all the standard accessories have been delivered.
If the instrument is operated without any standard accessory
equipped, it might become faulty to cause an unsafe condition.
So if any standard accessory is lost or damaged or if you have
any question on it, consult with the installer, your dealer or Hitachi
High-Technologies Corporation service office.
SAFETY - 3
SAFETY SUMMARY
General Safety Guidelines (Continued)
• Maintenance to be performed by the customer should be within
the scope described in this instruction manual.
Before proceeding to maintenance, be sure to attain a clear
understanding of maintenance items described in the instruction
manual. Do not carry out any maintenance items other than
those contained in the instruction manual, or a failure in the
instrument or personal injury will result.
• After installation of the instrument, do not relocate it because the
finely adjusted electron-optics may be affected by possible shock
during relocation.
• Contact the nearest Hitachi representative if warning labels are
deteriorated or damaged.
SAFETY - 4
SAFETY SUMMARY
Safety Instructions in This Manual
Shown below are the safety instructions contained in this manual and
their relevant sections in it. Note that the indication “
DANGER”
does not apply to this instrument.
WARNING Indications
Electric Shock
• Electric shock could cause fatal or serious injury. At filament
exchange, be sure to ground the Wehnelt and shield ring with the
supplied grounding rod.
(Section 4. MAINTENANCE)
Low Temperature
• Because liquid nitrogen is as cold as -196 °C, its contact with
body or its splash into an eye may result in frostbite. Pay
attention not to touch liquid nitrogen. Before handling of liquid
nitrogen, put on protective goggles and leather gloves.
If a large amount of liquid nitrogen is injected rapidly, it may
splash to cause frostbite. To prevent this, inject liquid nitrogen
gradually
(Section 2. OPERATION)
High Temperature
• The surface temperature of oil rotary pump reaches about 70 °C
while it is operating. Touching it could result in burns.
(Section 4. MAINTENANCE)
• The Wehnelt and filament holder are at high temperature and
could cause burns. At filament exchange, wait 10 to 20 minutes
for the Wehnelt temperature to drop, and wear gloves for handling
it.
(Section 4. MAINTENANCE)
SAFETY - 5
SAFETY SUMMARY
WARNING Indications (Continued)
Beware of Pinching Your Fingers
• Be careful not to get your fingers caught in moving parts or you
may be injured. Before putting your hands into the camera
chamber, be sure to turn OFF the POWER switch.
(Section 4. MAINTENANCE)
• Do not touch the electron gun while it is moving. You may get
your fingers caught and suffer injury.
(Section 4. MAINTENANCE)
Oxygen Shortage
When dry nitrogen gas is used for vacuum leak of the instrument,
suffocation may occur due to oxygen deficiency. So ventilation is
required. While the gas is unused, the dry nitrogen gas valve must
be kept closed.
(Section 2. OPERATION, Section 4. MAINTENANCE)
Beware of Explosion
This instrument uses a lithium battery for memory backup.
A mistake in handling the battery could cause it to explode.
Absolutely avoid disassembling the battery or tossing it into a flame.
(Section 4. MAINTENANCE)
SAFETY - 6
SAFETY SUMMARY
CAUTION Indications
Heavy Weight
The air compressor weighs approximately 26 kg. Don’t try to lift it
unreasonably, or you may be injured.
(Section 4. MAINTENANCE)
The oil rotary pump weighs approximately 30 kg. Don’t try to lift it
unreasonably, or you may be injured.
(Section 4. MAINTENANCE)
Eye Injury due to Drain Scattering
Be sure to open the drain cock gradually when draining the
compressor. The interior of the tank is pressurized, so if the drain
cock were opened abruptly, drain would spatter out and may injure
your eyes.
(Section 4. MAINTENANCE)
Inhalation of Hazardous Substance
Inhalation of a large amount of organic solvent could result in toxic
symptoms. Be sure to ventilate the room well when using such
substances for cleaning, etc.
(Section 4. MAINTENANCE)
Eye Injury due to Scattering of Hazardous Substance
Spattering of an organic solvent could cause injury to the eyes.
One should wear protective goggles when using such substances.
(Section 4. MAINTENANCE)
SAFETY - 7
SAFETY SUMMARY
CAUTION Indications (Continued)
Overhead Danger
The column of this instrument has protrusions. Hitting your head
against those protrusions may result in injury. So attention should
be paid to overhead danger when you stand up from the chair.
(Section 2. OPERATION)
Handling
• Troubleshooting of the air compressor by the user should be
confined to confirming the symptoms (Table 4-5). Inspection and
repair by a person other than the service engineers may result in
loss of a part related to safety.
(Section 4. MAINTENANCE)
• Troubleshooting of the RP by the user should be confined to
confirming the symptoms (Table 4-7). Inspection and repair by a
person other than the service engineers may result in loss of a
part related to safety.
(Section 4. MAINTENANCE)
• The lithium battery must be handled separately from general
waste matter. When lithium battery replacement is required, be
sure to contact the dealer from whom you purchased the
instrument or your nearest Hitachi service agent. Entrust the
replacement to a qualified service engineer. (Replacement will
be provided at charge after the guarantee period of the
instrument.)
(Section 4. MAINTENANCE)
SAFETY - 8
SAFETY SUMMARY
Locations of Warning Labels
The following warning labels are stuck on the Model H-7650 electron
microscope.
Read each warning labels carefully and confirm the contents while
pointing to the relevant component.
Check the warning labels occasionally, and clean and keep intact
them so that they can be read clearly at a safe distance.
If the warning labels cannot be read due to deterioration, ask the
nearest Hitachi representative to supply new ones.
Cold finger (option)
Camera chamber
Digital camera
Fig. S-1.
Model H-7650 TEM Main Unit (front face)
SAFETY - 9
SAFETY SUMMARY
Locations of Warning Labels (Continued)
Fig. S-2.
Model H-7650 TEM Main Unit (rear face)
SAFETY - 10
SAFETY SUMMARY
Locations of Warning Labels (Continued)
Cold trap (option)
Fig. S-3.
Model H-7650 TEM Main Unit (side face)
SAFETY - 11
SAFETY SUMMARY
Locations of Warning Labels (Continued)
DC power unit
Fig. S-4.
Model H-7650 TEM Accessory (DC power unit)
SAFETY - 12
SAFETY SUMMARY
Locations of Warning Labels (Continued)
HV tank
Fig. S-5.
Model H-7650 TEM Accessory (HV tank) (left and right side faces)
SAFETY - 13
SAFETY SUMMARY
Locations of Warning Labels (Continued)
Rotary pump × 2
Pipe fixture × 2
Fig. S-6.
Air compressor
Model H-7650 TEM Accessory (other)
SAFETY - 14
SAFETY SUMMARY
Precautions for Proper Use
Scintillator for Digital Camera
This instrument uses a scintillator (fluorescent material) for
converting an electron beam to light in its digital camera. If an
intense electron beam hits the scintillator, it may be damaged to
cause spots in an image. Usually, such spots can be removed by
background correction, but may not be correctable when damage is
heavy. For using the instrument, observe the following precautions.
(1)
Avoid image observation with the condenser lens aperture
removed.
(2)
Avoid image observation while changing the lens current level.
Particularly, near a current level of 0 A, a large current flows
only to damage scintillator.
(3)
Use a beam spot size of No. 3 or less.
(4)
Use an emission current of 10 μA or less.
Degassing after LaB6 Emitter Replacement
After replacing the LaB6 emitter, set a degassing time at 2 hours or
longer. Abrupt degassing will deteriorate vacuum level in the
electron gun section, which may damage the emitter.
Setting of TEM Adjustment
The adjustment window in the software is protected by means of
password.
SAFETY - 15
SAFETY SUMMARY
Precautions for Proper Use (Continued)
Cassette Receiver
For using both digital camera and films, the exposed film should be
recovered from the cassette receiver, because it may otherwise be
exposed again.
COOLING Water
(1)
For cooling water, use tap water of a low residual chlorine
concentration (0.5 ppm or lower). In case residual chlorine
concentration is high, a circulatory temperature-controlled bath
should be used. High concentration will corrode the water line
to cause leakage.
(2)
Cooling water needs to be run at about 2 L/min through 2 lines.
(3)
Fasten the joint between the cooling water supply port and hose
with a tapered screw for pipe.
(4)
The hose from the drain port should be led to a drainage ditch
and fastened firmly so that it will not come out of the ditch.
(5)
After operation, be sure to close the main valve of cooling water
supply port.
(6)
The water supply/discharge hoses are made of soft vinyl
chloride. As the hoses are used longer, they will harden to
degrade elasticity. Therefore, the hoses need to be replaced
periodically and checked for water leakage before their use.
(7)
If freezing of cooling water can be predicted in a cold climate, it
is requested to use antifreeze solution and circulatory
temperature-controlled bath.
(8)
Attention should be paid to the temperature of cooling water.
A large difference from the room temperature will result in
condensation.
SAFETY - 16
SAFETY SUMMARY
Precautions for Proper Use (Continued)
Data Backup
Computer data may become unusable due to a failure or malfunction
of the instrument. As a countermeasure, transfer the contents of
hard disk into a floppy disk periodically. Such a periodic data
transfer is called “backup.”
Application Software of Computer
In the personal computer (PC) of this instrument, never install any
other application software than specified. Otherwise, not only may
an unexpected action window be displayed, but also the instrument
may be adversely affected and its system may not operate normally.
The instrument will not be warranted if it cannot function normally
due to installation of unspecified application software.
Computer Virus
• If program or data is broken suddenly or an unexpected action or
window is displayed, then it is probable that the personal
computer (PC) is infected with a computer virus.
• Computer virus refers to a vicious program which trespasses on
your PC stealthily, moves it forcibly and breaks the data.
• A program for eradicating computer viruses is called a “vaccine
program.”
• PC may be infected with a computer virus when using a
replaceable recording medium such as a floppy disk that contains
a virus. An infected PC may infect other PC by propagating a
virus through a recording medium. Avoid using a recording
medium which may contain a virus.
SAFETY - 17
SAFETY SUMMARY
Precautions for Proper Use (Continued)
• If there is a fear of infection with a computer virus, a vaccine
program should be run for check.
• However, some viruses cannot be eradicated by your vaccine
program. In this case, make a backup copy of the hard disk in
advance.
• Customer is responsible for preparing a vaccine program and
eradicating computer viruses.
Lens Current
If each lens current is changed with a specimen loaded, the current
increases so that the specimen may be damaged and the scintillator
of digital camera and the fluorescent paint on screen may burn.
So attention should be paid to change of each lens current.
Power Interruption
• If a momentary drop of power voltage occurs due to power failure,
lightning, etc., the PC used for the instrument may become faulty
or the OS, application software and data may be broken.
• As a countermeasure against a momentary drop of power
voltage, use of an AC uninterruptible power equipment or the like
is recommended.
SAFETY - 18
SAFETY SUMMARY
Precautions for Proper Use (Continued)
Personal Computer (PC)
• Do not turn off the PC power supply alone in negligence of the
entire system. If the PC power supply is cut off individually while
HD or FD is accessed, data and software saved in the drives may
be broken.
• Be sure to turn on/off the PC power supply by the key switch of
column power supply (COL.).
Water Leakage
This instrument is not equipped with a water leak detector.
When tap water is used for coolant, there is a risk of water leakage
through the pipe corroded or cracked due to a change in water
quality or pressure. In case a coolant circulator or the like cannot
be used, be sure to purchase and install the water supply unit
(option). This unit is provided with a pressure-reducing constant
flow valve and prevents leakage of large-volume water with the aid of
a water leak sensor.
SAFETY - 19
TERMINOLOGY
Following is a list of abbreviations and/or special terms that appear in the text of this manual, and
is intended for your reference.
ABS (Auto Brightness Set) ...............................Auto brightness setting
ACC.VOLTAGE (accelerating voltage)
AF (Auto Focus) ...............................................Auto Focus
AIR....................................................................Airleak (exposure to air) of vacuum section.
AMF (Auto Multiple Frame) ..............................Automatic successive photographing
AP. (Aperture)...................................................Movable aperture (plate)
API (Auto Pre-Irradiation)
ATS (Auto exposure Time Set)
AV-1∼3 (Auto Valve-1∼3)..................................Auto valves 1 to 3 for vacuum use
BD (Beam Deflector) ........................................Electromagnetic deflector
BH (Beam Horizontal).......................................Beam horizontal shift
BRIGHT (brightness)
BT (Beam Tilt)
C1 (Condenser lens-1) ...................................First Condenser lens
C2 (Condenser lens-2) ...................................Second Condenser lens
CALIB. (Calibration) ) ......................................Calibration
CAUX (Condenser lens-3)................................Condenser lens for analysis kit (option)
CCArea (Capture Comment Area) ...................Area for entering photographing information
COL. (column)
CS (Condenser lens Stigmator)
DIFF (diffraction)...............................................Electron beam diffraction (mode)
DP (Diffusion Pump).........................................Oil diffusion pump
EVAC (evacuation)
EXP. (exposure)
TERMINOLOGY - 1
F/C (Fine/Coarse).............................................Fine/coarse adjustment selection
FOCUS .............................................................Focusing
F-ZOOM ...........................................................Fine probe (FA) observation mode
GH (Gun Horizontal).........................................Electron gun axial alignment deflector (horizontal
shift)
GT (Gun Tilt).....................................................Electron gun axial alignment deflector (tilt)
GV (Gun Valve) ................................................Electron gun vacuum valve
HC (High Contrast) ...........................................High contrast viewing mode
HR (High Resolution)........................................High resolution viewing mode
HV (High Voltage).............................................High accelerating voltage
I1 (Intermediate lens-1)
I2 (Intermediate lens-2)
IA (Intermediate lens Alignment) ......................Intermediate lens axial alignment deflector
IMAGE ROT. (Image Rotation)
IS (Intermediate lens Stigmator)
ISF (Image Shift) ..............................................Image shift function using electromagnetism
LaB6 ..................................................................Filament using lanthanum hexaboride single
crystal
LD (=LOW DOSE)
LED...................................................................Liquid crystal monitor
LENS MODE ....................................................Observation conditions (mode)
LOW DOSE ......................................................Electron beam reduced irradiation mode (function)
LOW MAG (Low Magnification) ........................Low magnification viewing mode (×50 to ×1,000)
LV-1∼3 (Leak Valve-1∼3)
MODU. (modulation).........................................Function for varying accelerating voltage or
objective lens current
MV-1∼9 (Main Valve-1∼9).................................L-type main valves 1 to 9 for vacuum use
OBJ. (Objective lens)
OM (Objective Mini-lens) ..................................Objective auxiliary lens
TERMINOLOGY - 2
OPT.DENSITY (Optimum Density)...................Optimum electron beam density (optimum film
blackness)
OS (Objective lens Stigmator)
OSP (Objective lens Stigmator Preset) ............Objective lens stigmator presetting function
P1 (Projector lens-1)
P2 (Projector lens-2)
PA (Projector lens Alignment) ..........................Projector lens axial alignment deflector
PHOTO (photographing) ..................................Photographing or photo recording mode
PROBE (electron probe)
RP (Rotary Pump) ............................................Oil rotary pump
SCAN................................................................Visual field selection mode in low dose mode
SPEC (specimen)
SPOT (beam spot)............................................Status in which electron beam is converged into a
spot
SPOT (spot screen)..........................................Fluorescent screen for focusing, which contains
detection elements for partial photometry
STEM (Scanning Transmission Electron Microscope) (option)
STIGMONITOR ................................................Astigmatism correction monitor for enlarged
images at low and medium magnifications
SV (Separate Valve).........................................Vacuum valve for separating viewing chamber and
column
TEM (Transmission Electron Microscope)
TMP (Turbo Molecular Pump) (option)
TX .....................................................................Function for correcting brightness escape during
beam tilt in X direction
TY .....................................................................Function for correcting brightness escape during
beam tilt in Y direction
UNDO ...............................................................Function for returning to previous status after
conducting a certain operation
TERMINOLOGY - 3
WHOLE (whole screen)....................................Large fluorescent screen for observation
(containing detection elements for overall
photometry)
WOB. (wobbler) ................................................Wobbler, or focusing monitor
ZOOM...............................................................Mode for enlarging specimen image (×200 to
×600k)
TERMINOLOGY - 4
MODEL H-7650
TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPE
(USERS’ OPERATION AND MAINTENANCE)
Table of Contents
FOREWORD ..............................................................................................................................1
ABOUT THIS INSTRUCTION MANUAL.....................................................................................1
CAUTION ...................................................................................................................................3
WARRANTY ...............................................................................................................................5
INSTALLATION, RELOCATION AND AFTER-SALE TECHNICAL SERVICE ....................8
CUSTOMERS’ PRACTICE COURSE AND TRAINING.......................................................8
DISPOSAL OF THIS INSTRUMENT ...................................................................................9
OTHER PRECAUTIONS .....................................................................................................9
SAFETY SUMMARY ............................................................................................SAFETY-1
General Safety Guidelines ..............................................................................SAFETY-1
Safety Instructions in This Manual ..................................................................SAFETY-5
WARNING Indications ..............................................................................SAFETY-5
Electric shock............................................................................................SAFETY-5
Low temperature .......................................................................................SAFETY-5
High temperature ......................................................................................SAFETY-5
Beware of pinching your fingers................................................................SAFETY-6
Oxygen shortage.......................................................................................SAFETY-6
Beware of explosion..................................................................................SAFETY-6
CAUTION Indications ...............................................................................SAFETY-7
Heavy weight ............................................................................................SAFETY-7
Eye injury due to drain scattering..............................................................SAFETY-7
Inhalation of hazardous substance ...........................................................SAFETY-7
Eye injury due to scattering of hazardous substance ...............................SAFETY-7
Overhead danger ......................................................................................SAFETY-8
Handling....................................................................................................SAFETY-8
Locations of WARNING Labels ................................................................SAFETY-9
Precautions for Proper Use ..................................................................................SAFETY-15
Scintillator for Digital Camera ........................................................................SAFETY-15
Degassing after LaB6 Emitter Replacement..................................................SAFETY-15
Setting of TEM Adjustment ............................................................................SAFETY-15
Cassette Receiver .........................................................................................SAFETY-15
Cooling water.................................................................................................SAFETY-16
Data backup ..................................................................................................SAFETY-17
-i-
Table of Contents (cont’d)
Application software of computer ..................................................................SAFETY-17
Computer virus ..............................................................................................SAFETY-17
Lens Current..................................................................................................SAFETY-18
Power interruption .........................................................................................SAFETY-18
Personal computer (PC) ................................................................................SAFETY-19
Water Leakage ..............................................................................................SAFETY-19
TERMINOLOGY ............................................................................................. TERMINOLOGY-1
1.
OVERVIEW ..................................................................................................................... 1-1
1.1 Functions................................................................................................................ 1-1
1.1.1
Introduction............................................................................................... 1-1
1.1.2
Composition ............................................................................................. 1-2
1.1.3
Configuration ............................................................................................ 1-3
1.1.4
Names of Major Components................................................................... 1-5
1.1.5
Control Knobs and Switches on Operation Panels .................................. 1-6
1.1.6
Outline of Personal Computer (PC) for Control ........................................ 1-7
1.2 System Diagnosis................................................................................................... 1-11
1.2.1
Air Tubing of Evacuation System ............................................................. 1-11
1.2.2
Cooling Water Piping................................................................................ 1-12
1.3 Standard Specifications.......................................................................................... 1-13
1.4 Outline of Automatic Specimen-tilting Image Acquisition Function (option) ........... 1-19
1.4.1
Specifications ........................................................................................... 1-19
1.4.2
Diameter of Image Field ........................................................................... 1-20
2.
OPERATION.................................................................................................................... 2-1
2.1 Startup and Shutdown............................................................................................ 2-1
2.1.1
Operation in Emergency........................................................................... 2-1
2.1.2
Startup (from power-on to column evacuation) ........................................ 2-2
2.1.3
COL.ON Operation ................................................................................... 2-5
2.1.4
Application of Accelerating Voltage and Generation of Electron Beam ... 2-8
2.1.5
COL.OFF Operation ................................................................................. 2-18
2.1.6
Stop of Evacuation System ...................................................................... 2-20
2.2 Basic Operations before Microscopy...................................................................... 2-22
2.2.1
Notes on Magnification............................................................................. 2-22
2.2.2
Specimen Exchange (with H-7501SS standard specimen holder)........... 2-23
2.2.3
Handling of Specimen Holder................................................................... 2-26
2.2.4
Operation of Movable Aperture ................................................................ 2-30
2.2.5
Adjustment of Condenser Lens System ................................................... 2-34
2.2.6
Adjustment of Electron Gun ..................................................................... 2-37
2.2.7
Adjustment of Spot Size ........................................................................... 2-40
2.2.8
Astigmatism Correction of Condenser Lens ............................................. 2-42
- ii -
Table of Contents (cont’d)
2.3
2.4
2.5
3.
Image Observation ................................................................................................. 2-44
2.3.1
Observation in LOW MAG Mode .............................................................. 2-44
2.3.2
Adjustment of Imaging System................................................................. 2-49
2.3.3
Observation with Digital Camera .............................................................. 2-55
2.3.4
Focusing................................................................................................... 2-57
2.3.5
Astigmatism Correction of Objective Lens................................................ 2-64
2.3.6
Image Rotation ......................................................................................... 2-70
2.3.7
HC and HR Modes ................................................................................... 2-71
2.3.8
Specimen Anticontamination Devices (option) ......................................... 2-73
Image Recording with Digital Camera.................................................................... 2-74
2.4.1
Setting Method (Type A only) ................................................................... 2-74
2.4.2
Saving Method (Type A only) ................................................................... 2-76
2.4.3
Image Saving Format (Type A only)......................................................... 2-79
2.4.4
Gain Control(Type A only) ........................................................................ 2-81
2.4.5
Background Subtraction (Type A only)..................................................... 2-83
Image Recording with Film Camera (option).......................................................... 2-91
2.5.1
Photographing Method ............................................................................. 2-91
2.5.2
Setting of Photographing Conditions ........................................................ 2-100
2.5.3
Film Exchange (option) ............................................................................ 2-104
SOFTWARE FUNCTIONS
3.1 Outline of Operation Window ................................................................................. 3-1
3.1.1
Startup of H-7650 Control Software ......................................................... 3-1
3.1.2
Configuration of Control Window.............................................................. 3-2
3.2 File Menu (Hitachi H-7650 control window)............................................................ 3-5
3.2.1
Transmission image (Type A only) ........................................................... 3-5
3.2.2
Photo log file (applicable only when sheet film camera (option) is set) .... 3-11
3.2.3
Image viewer (Type A only)...................................................................... 3-17
3.2.4
Thumbnail (Type A only) .......................................................................... 3-18
3.2.5
Save as (Type A only) .............................................................................. 3-19
3.2.6
Quick save (Type A only) ......................................................................... 3-19
3.2.7
Save option (Type A only) ........................................................................ 3-20
3.2.8
Exit ........................................................................................................... 3-21
3.3 Operate Menu (Hitachi H-7650 control window) .................................................... 3-22
3.3.1
Observation .............................................................................................. 3-22
3.3.2
HV Control ................................................................................................ 3-31
3.3.3
Photo setting (applicable only when sheet film camera (option) is set).... 3-42
3.3.4
Stage ........................................................................................................ 3-53
3.4 Function Menu (Hitachi H-7650 control window).................................................... 3-59
3.4.1
CCD Control (Type A only)....................................................................... 3-59
3.4.2
Auto Focus (Type A only) ......................................................................... 3-65
- iii -
Table of Contents (cont’d)
3.4.3
3.4.4
3.4.5
3.4.6
3.5
3.6
3.7
3.8
Digital AMF Condition (Type A only) ........................................................ 3-68
AMF condition (applicable only when sheet film camera (option) is set).. 3-73
Digital Low Dose Condition (Type A only) ................................................ 3-76
Low Dose Condition (applicable only when sheet film camera (option) is
set) ........................................................................................................... 3-82
3.4.7
API condition (specimen damage minimizing function) ............................ 3-84
3.4.8
PDS condition........................................................................................... 3-88
3.4.9
EVAC control ............................................................................................ 3-92
3.4.10 Lens control.............................................................................................. 3-94
3.4.11 BD control................................................................................................. 3-96
3.4.12 OBJ stigma preset .................................................................................... 3-98
3.4.13 Modulation condition ................................................................................ 3-100
3.4.14 Wobbler condition..................................................................................... 3-101
3.4.15 Digital image shift ..................................................................................... 3-105
3.4.16 Specimen scale ........................................................................................ 3-112
3.4.17 Tilt/Azim control (Type A only).................................................................. 3-117
3.4.18 Maintenance............................................................................................. 3-132
Image Menu (in the Hitachi H-7650 control window) (Type A only) ....................... 3-133
3.5.1
Stop (Type A only).................................................................................... 3-133
3.5.2
Run (Type A only)..................................................................................... 3-133
3.5.3
Freeze (Type A only) ................................................................................ 3-133
3.5.4
Save image (Type A only) ........................................................................ 3-134
3.5.5
Exposure whole screen (Type A only)...................................................... 3-134
3.5.6
Exposure CCD camera (Type A only) ...................................................... 3-135
3.5.7
Size (Type A only) .................................................................................... 3-135
3.5.8
Target marker (Type A only)..................................................................... 3-138
3.5.9
Auto gray control (Type A only) ................................................................ 3-139
Window Menu (in the Hitachi H-7650 control window) (Type A only) .................... 3-140
3.6.1
Close all sub window (Type A only).......................................................... 3-140
3.6.2
Easy operation (Type A only) ................................................................... 3-140
3.6.3
--- Align, option (Type A only)................................................................... 3-141
3.6.4
Close-up information (Type A only) .......................................................... 3-142
3.6.5
Operation color......................................................................................... 3-143
3.6.6
Screen color ............................................................................................. 3-143
3.6.7
Color switch.............................................................................................. 3-144
About Menu ............................................................................................................ 3-145
3.7.1
About H-7650 ........................................................................................... 3-145
Information Area (in the Hitachi H-7650 control window) ....................................... 3-146
3.8.1
MAGNIFICATION Label: Enlarged display of magnification
(camera length) ........................................................................................ 3-146
3.8.2
LENS MODE Label: Selection of observation mode ................................ 3-146
- iv -
Table of Contents (cont’d)
3.8.3
3.8.4
3.9
4.
FOCUS STEP Label: Setting of focus step/defocus indication ................ 3-146
ACC. VOLTAGE Label: Accelerating voltage manual
operation/flashing ..................................................................................... 3-147
3.8.5
UNEXPOSED FILM/FILM INFORMATION/NUMBERING Label:
Film condition setting (available in cases where an optional
sheet film camera is mounted) ................................................................. 3-147
3.8.6
EXPOSURE TIME Label: (Available in cases where an optional
sheet film camera is equipped) ................................................................ 3-147
Control Area (Hitachi H-7650 control window: Easy operation) (Type A only) ....... 3-148
3.9.1
Filament/Bias control (Type A only).......................................................... 3-148
3.9.2
Film information/Exposure time (Available in cases where an optional
sheet film camera is equipped) ................................................................ 3-149
3.9.3
CCD control (Type A only)........................................................................ 3-150
3.9.4
Stage control Tab (Type A only)............................................................... 3-150
Maintenance .................................................................................................................... 4-1
4.1 Cautions on Use and Maintenance of Electron Microscope................................... 4-1
4.1.1
Cautions on Routine Operation ................................................................ 4-1
4.1.2
Periodic Maintenance............................................................................... 4-1
4.1.3
Frequency of Maintenance ....................................................................... 4-1
4.1.4
Maintenance Contract .............................................................................. 4-1
4.2 Prior to Maintenance .............................................................................................. 4-3
4.2.1
Tools, Instruments, Consumables .......................................................... 4-3
4.2.2
Consumables (1 to 2 years’ supply) for Electron Microscope .................. 4-4
4.3 Maintenance in Routine Operation......................................................................... 4-5
4.3.1
Filament Exchange................................................................................... 4-5
4.3.2
Cautions and Maintenance at Specimen Exchange................................. 4-12
4.3.3
Cautions and Maintenance at Film Exchange (option)............................. 4-13
4.3.4
Inspection and Maintenance of Air Compressor ...................................... 4-15
4.3.5
Inspection and Maintenance of Oil Rotary Pump (RP)............................. 4-18
4.3.6
Cooling Water Inspection & Maintenance of Cooling Water System........ 4-21
4.3.7
Column Mild Baking Function................................................................... 4-23
4.4 Periodic Maintenance............................................................................................. 4-25
4.4.1
Cleaning of Movable Apertures (Hitachi).................................................. 4-25
4.4.2
Maintenance of Penning Gauge (Hitachi) ................................................ 4-29
4.4.3
Replacement of Backup Battery (Hitachi)................................................. 4-29
4.4.4
Maintenance of Digital Camera System (Hitachi)..................................... 4-30
4.5 Error Messages (for user’s reference).................................................................... 4-31
4.5.1
Error Messages Requiring an Urgent Remedy......................................... 4-31
4.5.2
Error Messages Appearing in Control Area.............................................. 4-32
4.5.3
Error Messages Appearing in Window ..................................................... 4-33
-v-
Table of Contents (cont’d)
4.6
4.7
4.8
Troubleshooting (for user’s reference) ................................................................... 4-35
4.6.1
Evacuation Sequence Does Not Proceed ................................................ 4-35
4.6.2
System Program Doesn’t Operate............................................................ 4-37
4.6.3
Accelerating Voltage Not Applied............................................................. 4-39
4.6.4
Electron Beam Not Emitted ...................................................................... 4-41
4.6.5
Magnification Not Selected Normally........................................................ 4-43
4.6.6
Brightness Doesn’t Change...................................................................... 4-43
4.6.7
Focus Not Obtainable............................................................................... 4-44
4.6.8
Photographing Doesn’t Work Normally .................................................... 4-44
4.6.9
Turbomolecular Pump (TMP) Doesn’t Work Properly .............................. 4-46
Software Adjustments ............................................................................................ 4-48
4.7.1
Maintenance Menu on Hitachi H-7650 Control Window........................... 4-48
4.7.2
Alignment Mode ....................................................................................... 4-49
4.7.3
Column Baking (column mild baking function) ......................................... 4-51
4.7.4
LaB6 Outgassing (option) ......................................................................... 4-52
4.7.5
Customize Toolbar ................................................................................... 4-53
4.7.6
Password Check ...................................................................................... 4-54
4.7.7
Installation of TEM System Program ........................................................ 4-54
Spare Parts for Electron Microscope...................................................................... 4-55
- vi -
1.1.1
1.
1.1
1.1.1
OVERVIEW
Functions
Introduction
The Model H-7650 electron microscope has been designed so that a wide field of view is
obtainable in the low and medium magnification range frequently used for research in medical
science and biology, and for research and development of pharmaceuticals, polymer materials,
etc. and that biological specimens can be observed with a high contrast. Accelerating voltage is
120 kV at maximum. Focal distance is selectively usable between high-resolution and
high-contrast applications by means of a double-gap objective lens. Both TEM main unit and
standard-equipped digital camera system are integrally controllable by one personal computer
(PC). On the liquid crystal display (LCD), magnification and other imaging conditions are
displayable and settable. In addition, TEM images shot with the digital camera can be displayed
on the same LCD. The auto focus and auto stigma functions characteristic of the Model H-7600
are incorporated as standard. Since the mounted digital camera is capable of displaying max.
18 frames per second, focus adjustment and astigmatism correction can be carried out while
watching the LCD and a checked image can be saved as it is. Thanks to a high sensitivity of
the camera, image observation can be started from an electron beam dose as low as 10-12 C/cm2
order where nothing can be seen on the fluorescent screen.
Therefore, specimen damage due to electron beam irradiation can be minimized.
System configuration is selectable according to application including the evacuation system
(selection of oil diffusion pump or turbo molecular pump, selection or avoidance of cold trap) and
the camera chamber for film exposure (installation selectable).
1-1
1.1
1.1.2
Functions
Composition
The composition of each version is shown below.
Digital camera
Type A
Type B
Type C
Standard
Option
Option
Option (It depends on the
No setting
(AMT ER-B)
Auto focus
Standard
Auto stigma
specification of the camera. )
Film camera
Option
Option
Option
Digital AMF
Standard
No setting
No setting
Digital Low dose
Standard
No setting
No setting
CCD Control
Standard
No setting
No setting
Image viewer
Standard
No setting
No setting
Standard
No setting
No setting
Automatic tilt function
Option
No setting
No setting
Auto search
Option
No setting
No setting
Analysis kit
Option
Option
Option
(Image
processing)
Thumbnail
(Image management)
1-2
1.1.3
1.1.3
(1)
Configuration
Column
Illumination system
Electron gun
1st condenser lens (C1)
2nd condenser lens (C2)
Optional condenser lens (CAUX)
Specimen chamber
Specimen goniometer (stage)
±20° tilting
Imaging system
Objective lens (OBJ)
Auxiliary objective lens (OM)
1st intermediate lens (I1)
2nd intermediate lens (I2)
1st projector lens (P1)
2nd projector lens (P2)
Image observation/
recording system
Viewing chamber
Camera chamber (option)
Digital camera
Console
(2)
Evacuation system
Upper evacuation line
Oil diffusion pump (DP)
* Turbo molecular pump (TMP)
(option for dry evacuation spec.)
Main evacuation piping
Buffer tank
Penning gauge
Pirani gauge
Oil rotary pump (RP)
Lower evacuation line
Oil diffusion pump (DP)
Main evacuation piping
Buffer tank
Pirani gauge
Oil rotary pump (RP)
Pre-evacuation piping
Evacuation sequence control line
1-3
1.1
(3)
Functions
Electrical system
Common power supply
Stabilized DC power supply
AC power supply
High voltage supply
High voltage control circuit
Filament current circuit
Bias current circuit
Lens power supply
Constant current circuit
Beam deflector power supply
Gun axial alignment circuit
Condenser stigmator circuit
Objective stigmator circuit
Beam horizontal and tilt adjustment
circuits
Wobbler circuit
Image shift circuit
Intermediate stigmator circuit
Intermediate axial alignment
circuit
Projector axial alignment circuit
Control circuit
Personal computer (PC)
Left/right operation panel control
circuit
Evacuation system CPU circuit
Stage control unit
Lens/beam deflection control circuit
Digital camera control line
Image processing unit
Camera chamber
control circuit
Exposure meter circuit
Film feed control circuit
Numbering circuit
1-4
1.1.4
1.1.4
Names of Major Components
Electron gun
Condenser lens system
Objective movable
aperture
Condenser lens
movable aperture
Specimen stage
Binocular
Imaging lens system
Liquid crystal monitor
Viewing window
Left operation panel
Keyboard
Mouse
Right operation
panel
Camera chamber
(option)
PC
Digital camera
Fig. 1-1
Appearance of Model H-7650
1-5
1.1.5
1.1.5
Control Knobs and Switches on Operation Panels
Knob/Switch Indication
22
23
24
26
25
9
10 11 12 13 14
15 16
28
27
17 18
19
8
21
20
3
4
7
5
8
6
2
1
C960851
C960850
30
29
31
32
33
34
35
36
Purpose or Function
(1) STAGE (left operation panel)
Specimen motion in X direction
(2) STAGE (right operation panel)
Specimen motion in Y direction
(3) Multi-knob (left operation panel)
Beam axis alignment and its correction
(4) Multi-knob (right operation panel)
Beam axis alignment and its correction
(5) BRIGHT
Brightness variable
(6) MAG
Magnification changeover
(7) FOCUS
Focusing
(8) DIFF
Focusing in DIFF mode
(9) BD PS
Setting of BD data (BD PRESET)
(10) BH
Setting of beam shift (BH)
(11) BT
Setting of beam shift (BT)
(12) CS
Setting of condenser lens stigmator
(13) OS
Setting of objective stigmator
(14) BD RESET
Loading of set BD stigmator value
(15) WOB.
Focusing and astigmatism correction
(16) MODU.
Adjustment of voltage center (current center)
(17) LOW DOSE
Field finding/focusing in LOW-DOSE mode
(18) AUTO FOCUS
Activation of Auto Focus
(19) PHOTO
Image recording switch (option)
(20) ×10, ×20
Setting of focus variation step
(21) F/C
FINE/COARSE selection for DIFF knob
(22) HV
Automatic application of accelerating voltage
(23) LENS
Resetting of lens data
(24) Option
Unused unless option specified
(25) WHOLE, SPOT
Screen up/down
(26) ZOOM, ZOOM, DIFF, LOW MAG
Lens mode selection
(27) IMAGE ROT.
Image rotation changeover
(28) F/C
FINE/COARSE selection for BRIGHT knob
(29) PR EVAC (option)
Pre-evacuation chamber EVAC/AIR
selection
(30) PANEL LAMP
Brightness selection for each switch lamp
(31) ROOM LAMP
Lighting of room lamp
(32) CAMERA EVAC
Camera chamber (option) EVAC/AIR
selection
(33) FULL/HALF
Film FULL/HALF size selection
(34) COLUMN EVAC
Column EVAC/AIR selection
(35) GUN EVAC
Gun EVAC/AIR selection
(36) POWER
Key switch for power supply
1-6
1.1.6
1.1.6
Outline of Personal Computer (PC) for Control
Regarding the functions of Model H-7650 TEM, the methods of calling each window and setting
conditions and others are outlined here. For details, refer to “3. SOFTWARE FUNCTIONS.”
Mouse operations used in this manual and the name of each window part are described below.
(1)
Mouse Operations
(a) Mouse cursor
When moving the mouse, an arrow on the screen moves in response.
called “mouse cursor.”
The arrow is
(b) Clicking
This action refers to pressing the left switch of mouse once and releasing it.
(c) Double clicking
This indicates that you press the left switch of mouse twice in succession.
(d) Dragging
This is an action of moving the mouse with its left switch held down.
(2)
Names of Window Parts
Input box
Title bar
Sample form
Button
Radio button
Check box
Indication box
Scroll bar
Fig. 1-2
Sample Form
1-7
Group
1.1
Functions
(a) Title bar
On this bar, the name of the relevant window is indicated. The window can be moved
by dragging the title bar with the left mouse switch held down.
(b) Control menu box
Window can be closed by double clicking. Or when you click once, a menu appears.
According to the menu, the window can be closed.
(c) Button
The function of a button is executed by moving the mouse cursor on it and clicking the
mouse.
(d) Scroll bar
There are two kinds of scroll bars. Both bars are used for input or selection of data
instead of the keyboard. The set data is indicated in the input box.
1)
Data is settable by clicking the arrow at the left or right end with the mouse or
dragging the marker on the bar with the mouse.
Scroll bar marker
2)
Data is settable by clicking the arrow at the top or bottom with the mouse.
Arrow
(e) Input box
Into this box, input data with the keyboard or scroll bar. With the keyboard, data is
input from the left side of the box and added on the right side as the number of digits
increases. After input of the final value, be sure to press the enter key.
1-8
1.1.6
(f)
Indication box
This box only indicates data.
justification.
No data can be input here.
Data is indicated in right
(g) Radio button
This is used for specifying only one among multiple choices ordinarily. When clicking
a radio button with the mouse, a dot, or “bullet” appears in the button center to notify
your selection.
(h) Check box
This is used for specifying multiple choices among multiple candidates ordinarily.
When clicking a check box, a check mark appears in it to notify your selection.
(i)
(3)
Group
In display of multiple functions on a window, display may be divided in blocks of
function. This method is called “grouping.”
Configuration of Control Window
(a) Initial display
1)
2)
The electron microscope system program can be started by turning the POWER
switch key to COL.ON.
The initial screen will be displayed on the monitor and the initial setting of each
control unit will be executed. Upon normal execution of the initial setting, the
version of each control unit and PASSED messages will be reported. The initial
display screen will automatically close and then the control window will be called.
1-9
1.1
Functions
Fig. 1-3
Initial Display Screen
Fig. 1-4
Control Window
1 - 10
1.2.1
1.2
1.2.1
System Diagnosis
Air Tubing of Evacuation System
PI-4
PE-1 PI-3
MV-8
GV
AV-3
MV-7
PI-2
SPC
AV-2
MV-2
MV-6
LV-3
DP-2
SV
RP-2
(TMP)
BT-2
MV-5
PI-1
PI-5
AV-1
MV-4
MV-1
DP-1
PR
(OPTION)
BT-1
MV-3
MV-9
RP-1
LV-1
LV-2
Electromagnetic valve
Electromagnetic valve
Fig. 1-5
*
Air Tubing of Evacuation System
DP-2 is replaced with TMP when DRY Vacuum specification is selected.
1 - 11
1.2
System Diagnosis
1.2.2
Cooling Water Piping
CAUX (option)
C1
C2
OBJ1
OBJ2
Int1
Int2
P1
LENS INLET valve
P2
BAKING valve
INLET
LENS OUT valve
OUTLET
Heat sink
Water baffle
Water baffle
INLET (DP)
DP-1
DP-2
OUTLET
WFS
Fig. 1-6
*
Cooling Water Piping
The cooling water path enclosed by dashed lines (DP-2) is not provided for DRY vacuum specification.
1 - 12
1.3
1.3
Standard Specifications
Table 1-1
Item
Standard Specifications
Specification/Configuration
Remarks
1. Resolution
0.204 nm (lattice image)
Digital image
2. Max. tilt angle of
specimen image
±20°
HIPER-stage
3. Accelerating voltage
40 to 120 kV (variable in 100 V/step)
Applied voltage fine adjustment function
(within -2048 V to 2047 V in
1 V/step)
Linked with lens system and
BD system in
1 kV/step
×200 to ×200,000 (30 steps)
×4,000 to ×600,000 (20 steps)
• Rotation-free image
• Magnification direct
readout
• Visual field diameter
160 mm on fluorescent
screen at ×700 min.
4. Magnification (on film
face)
ZOOM
(HC mode)
(HR mode)
LOW MAG
×50 to ×1,000 (10 steps)
5. Image rotation
Magnification range (HC
mode)
×1,000 to ×40,000 (18 steps)
Rotation angle range
±90° (15° step)
6. Electron diffraction
camera length
Selected area diffraction
• 100-kV guarantee
Magnification accuracy
not guaranteed for
40 kV and 60 kV
HC mode .......0.05 to 8.0 m (10 steps)
HR mode .......0.05 to 2.0 m (10 steps)
• ZOOM and DIFF images
coincide in direction.
• Digital camera system
unusable in this mode
7. Spot size
Parenthesized value
effective with analysis kit
HC mode.......0.8 to 4 μm dia.
(60 to160 nm) (5 steps)
HR mode.......0.6 to 2 μm dia.
(40 to 120 nm) (5 steps)
Analysis kit available at
option
8. Filament
• DC heating
• Tungsten hairpin type
• Single-crystal LaB6 emitter
9. Anticontamination
function/device
10. Specimen damage
reducing function
Option
• Column mild baking function
• Dry vacuum system selection
Option
• Cold trap in specimen chamber
evacuation pipe
Option
• Cold finger in objective lens
Option
• Super-low dose
• Preparatory irradiation function
(API: Auto Pre-Irradiation)
Super-low dose function
usable with film function
(option) incorporated
1 - 13
1.3
Standard Specifications
(cont’d)
Item
11. Digital camera system
(Type A only)
Specification/Configuration
No. of pixels
:
Frame rate
:
Visual field range :
Coupling method :
Scintillator
:
12. Auto focus
(Type A and B only)
13. Electron gun
Bias
Filament
14. Condenser lens
Number of lens stages
Condenser stigmator
Beam tilt
Condenser lens
movable aperture
Remarks
1,024 × 1,024
18 [frame/second]
16 mm × 16 mm
(on fluorescent
screen)
Lens
Fluorescent
material
Applicable magnification:
×200 to ×20k
Focus correction range:
±25 μm (at ×20k)
Focus correction accuracy:
±5 μm (at ×20k)
Auto stigma:
×200 to ×5k
Accelerating voltage 60 kV
or higher, exposure amount
5 × 10-12 to 2 × 10-11 C/cm2
(at 1 s, 8 × 10-12 to 2 ×
10-11 C/cm2 at 60 kV)
• Semi-fixed bias
• Automatic emission current control
function incorporated
• DC heating
• Filament operation time integrating
function incorporated
• Tungsten filament
• LaB6 emitter
• Auto gun lift system
• 2-stage deflection electromagnetic
beam alignment
(Bias voltage preset system)
• 2-stage condenser lens system
(Or 3 stages: Option for
analysis kit specification)
(In HC/HR mode)
• Electromagnetic stigmator
• Tilt angle ±2.0° (at 100 kV)
• COS-winding electromagnetic
2-stage deflection coil
• 3 systems independent of each
other
(For instantaneous changeover
between bright and dark field
images)
• Click stop with 4 openings
Bore diameter: 20, 50, 100, 200 μm
1 - 14
(Filament voltage preset
system)
(Shaped filament and
pointed filament usable)
Option (Pneumatically
driven)
1.3
(cont’d)
Item
15. Specimen stage
(HIPER-stage)
Movable range
Functions
16. Imaging lens system
Objective lens
Objective lens movable
aperture
Focusing
Intermediate lens
Specification/Configuration
Remarks
• Eucentric side entry goniometer
stage
• Specimen grid: 3.0 mm dia.
(standardized one)
• X, Y....................... ±1 mm
Z ........................... ±0.3 mm
Specimen tilting .... ±20°
• Stage control interlinked with
magnification
• Collective monitor display of stage
information such as specimen
position and tilt angle
• Memory storage of 20 specimen
positions and automatic feed to
those positions
• Micro trace function
(Specimen position tracing display)
• Specimen observable at
same position in all
observation modes
• Field search function
• Range specification by
dragging with mouse
• Rotation-free image available in
each observation mode (within ±5°)
• Field rotating function incorporated
• Vertically symmetrical objective yoke
structure
• Composite objective lens
• Electromagnetic stigmator
• Intrinsic astigmatism correcting
function dependent on preset
memory for each accelerating
voltage
• Click stop with 4 openings
Bore diameter: 10, 20, 50, 80 μm
• Wobbler type focusing monitor
2-way wobbler
Amplitude variable in 10 steps
Frequency variable from 0 to 20 Hz
• Focusing and astigmatism correction
by stigmonitor
• Optimum focus
• Auto through-focus
• All modes
CPU-controlled
• 2-stage intermediate lens
• Stigmator built in
• Electromagnetic deflection coil
1 - 15
• Motor drive under CPU
control
• Focus step and
magnification interlinked
• Defocus amount directly
readable
• 5 independent stigmator
systems
• Available in 3 types of
conditions, interlinked
with magnification
(OF-1, 2, 3)
1.3
Standard Specifications
(cont’d)
Item
Field limiting movable
aperture (option)
Projector lens
17. Viewing chamber
Fluorescent screen
18. Exposure meter
(functional with optional
camera chamber
mechanism)
19. Camera system (option)
Film feeding
No. of loadable film
frames
Film size
Specification/Configuration
Remarks
• Click stop with 4 openings
Bore diameter: 50, 100, 200,
400 μm
• 2-stage projector lens
• Electromagnetic deflection coil
(Electron diffraction image alignment
coil)
• Fluorescent screen up/down
mechanism by motor drive
• Main screen.............160 mm dia.
• Focusing screen ......33 mm dia.
(Also used for spot exposure)
• Beam current detection system
(Digital display of detected electron
density)
• Detection amount ....10-8 to 10-12
coulomb/cm2
• Shutter operation linked with
full-automated exposure meter
• Shutter time .............0.5 to 100 s
• Exposure difference automatically
compensated for each accelerating
voltage
• Automatic film feeding linked with
shutter operation (double exposure
prevented, multiple exposure
possible)
• No-film feeding preventive function
with film detection mechanism
• Equipped with camera chamber leak
buzzer
• One-touch changeover of full/half
size by pneumatic drive
• Auto through-focus photographing
sequence incorporated
• 50 film frames (standard)
• 82.5 × 118 mm (Japan)
3-1/4 × 4 inch (other countries)
1 - 16
• Optimum exposure
indicated by green pilot
lamp
• ABS and ATS built in
• ABS (Auto Brightness
Set):
Sets optimum brightness
at selected exposure time
(priority given to
brightness).
• ATS (Auto exposure
Time Set):
Sets optimum exposure
time at brightness under
observation (priority
given to timer).
• 100 fields recordable
(with 50-frame film
loaded)
1.3
(cont’d)
Item
Exposure size
Film marking
Specification/Configuration
• Full size
113 × 76 mm (Japan),
95 × 76 (other countries)
Half size 76 × 53 mm (Japan),
76 × 46 (other countries)
• Character printout through monitor
Magnification, operator code, film
number, accelerating voltage,
comment (in up to 20 characters),
micron marker and photographing
date printable
20. Plate reservoir (option)
• Automatic evacuation (incorporation
in front left of main unit console)
• Capable of accommodating 2
cassette magazines
21. Evacuation system
• Vacuum sealed with liner tube
• Fully automated vacuum sequence
control with vacuum sensor
• Oil diffusion pump (DP) of
evacuation rate 570 L/s × 2 units
Water baffle and buffer tank
provided
• Oil rotary pump (RP) of evacuation
rate 160 L/min × 2 units
• Pirani gauge ......... × 5 sets
• Penning gauge ..... × 1 set
Vacuum pump
Vacuum gauge
22. Safety devices
Remarks
* Evacuation rate in DRY
vacuum specification
(option)
• DP ......... 570 L/s × 1 unit
• TMP....... 340 L/s × 1 unit
Against:
• Power interruption
• Water shutoff
• DP overheating
• High voltage discharge
• Power transistor overheating
• Vacuum failure
23. Installation conditions
Power requirements
Single-phase 100 V AC ± 10%,
50/60 Hz, 6 kVA
Grounding terminal
Cooling water
100 Ω or less, class D grounding
Flow rate.......... 2 L/min or more ×
2 lines
Pressure .......... 50 to 200 kPa
Temperature.... 10 to 20 °C
Drain................ Natural drain
Water inlet ....... Rc 3/8 connector
1 - 17
Auto transformer (option) is
required for 115, 200, 220
and 240 V AC.
Two tapered screws of
internal thread for Rc 3/8
pipe are required when
circulator is used.
1.3
Standard Specifications
(cont’d)
Item
Installation room
Specification/Configuration
Dimensions:
300 (W) × 300 (D) × 250 (H) cm or
more
Entrance/exit:
100 (W) × 200 (H) cm or more
Temperature .... 15 to 30 °C
Humidity ........... 30 to 60% RH or less
24. Dimensions and weight
Main instrument:
180 (W) × 120 (D) × 220 (H) cm, 930
kg
Power unit:
70 (W) × 38 (D) × 75 (H) cm, 150 kg
HV transformer:
69 (W) × 38 (D) × 67 (H) cm, 190 kg
Oil rotary pump (RP):
20 (W) × 2 (units) × 48 (D) ×
30 (H) cm,
27 kg × 2 (units) = 54 kg
Air compressor:
64 (W) × 28 (D) × 53 (H) cm, 27 kg
25. Standard equipment
Main instrument .............. 1
HV transformer ............... 1
RP ................................... 2
Standard accessories ..... 1 set
Standard tools................. 1 set
Instruction manual .......... 1
1 - 18
Remarks
Screw of internal thread for
pipe × 2 pcs
120 (W) × 200 (H) cm or
more with cold trap
1.4.1
1.4
Outline of Automatic Specimen-tilting Image Acquisition Function (option)
Automatic specimen-tilting image acquisition function is an option for Model H-7650.
This function enables the user to automatically acquire image data while tilting a specimen.
Image escape in specimen tilting can be corrected using the electromagnetic image shift function
(ISF) and specimen stage, and the acquired images can be saved in the PC for control.
The Model H-7650 with this function is different from the standard Model H-7650 in the following
points.
(1)
(2)
(3)
(4)
1.4.1
The position of the objective lens aperture is lower (more distant from specimen).
Bore diameter of the objective lens aperture is different.
When the cold finger (option) is mounted, the shape of the part at its tip is different.
Specimen tilting is controllable from the PC.
Specifications
Table 1-7 lists the operational specifications of the automatic specimen-tilting image acquisition
function.
Table 1-7
Specifications
Digital Camera
Applicable Magnification
Tilting Step
Tilt Angle
AMT ER-B camera
×10k max.
5.0° max.
Within ±60°
Note 1) Correction may be ineffective depending on specimen and field of view.
Note 2) Correction may stop halfway if specimen drift is excessive.
1 - 19
1.4
Outline of Automatic Specimen-tilting Image Acquisition Function (option)
1.4.2
Diameter of Image Field
When the 60° tilting mechanism is mounted, image field will be restricted because of the
objective movable aperture. Table 1-8 lists the effective image field diameters at different
positions of the objective movable aperture.
Table 1-8
Image Field Diameter at each Position of Objective Movable Aperture
Objective Movable Aperture
No. 1
No. 2
No. 3
No. 4
160 mm
120 mm
80 mm
40 mm
Magnification for full imaging on
fluorescent screen
×0.7k min.
×1.2k min.
×2.5k min.
×4.0k min.
Magnification for full camera image
field
×0.2k min.
×0.2k min.
×0.3k min.
×0.5k min.
Image field diameter on fluorescent
screen at ×0.7k
Note:
The fluorescent screen has a diameter of 160 mm.
1 - 20
2.1.1
2.
2.1
2.1.1
(1)
OPERATION
Startup and Shutdown
Operation in Emergency
Emergency Stop
The Model H-7650 transmission electron microscope is not equipped with an emergency
stop button.
(2)
Power Interruption
If power interruption occurs, the instrument will shut down completely. Even after power
supply is recovered, the instrument will remain inactive. Start up the instrument according
to “Startup” in 2.1.2.
(3)
Water Interruption
If water interruption occurs, the instrument will shut down completely. Even after power
supply is recovered, the instrument will remain inactive. Start up the instrument according
to “Startup” in 2.1.2.
(4)
Safety Device
Shutdown status varies with safety device. If normalcy is automatically restored just
before activation of a safety device, you may continue microscopy with no measure taken.
However, if accelerating voltage or lens current turns off due to activation of a safety device,
the voltage or current remains off even after normalcy is automatically recovered.
2-1
2.1
Startup and Shutdown
2.1.2
(1)
Startup (from power-on to column evacuation)
Check of Cooling Water
Cooling water has 2 lines; one for evacuation system (DP cooling water) and the other for
lens system cooling (lens coil and heat sink cooling water). For water cooling of the lens
system, there are 3 cooling water valves; LENS IN, LENS BAKING (for mild baking) and
LENS OUT valves from the left as shown in Fig. 2-1.
Before operation, confirm the following.
• The LENS IN and LENS OUT valves are open.
• The LENS BAKING valve is closed.
LENS BAKING valve
LENS IN valve
Fig. 2-1
LENS OUT valve
Location of Cooling Water Valves (main unit rear)
NOTE: Usually, the flow rate of cooling water has been factory-regulated. So avoid valve
operation unless absolutely required. After checking opening/closing, return each
valve to the original status. Cooling water should be turned on/off from the cooling
water circulator or by means of the tap water valve.
(2)
Power Supply
Turn on the main circuit breaker on the switchboard to supply power.
2-2
2.1.2
(3)
DC Power Supply Switch
Turn on the MAIN switch of DC power supply.
Fig. 2-2
(4)
Usually, this switch may be kept ON.
DC Power Supply and MAIN Switch (in ON status)
EVAC ON Operation
Turn the key switch of power supply to the EVAC ON position. Make sure the GUN EVAC
and COLUMN EVAC switches on the front panel are “flickering in green.” The instrument
reaches a high vacuum in about 20 to 30 minutes. Then, the EVAC switches stop
“flickering in green” and “remains lit in green.”
C960918
Fig. 2-3
Key Switch of Power Supply
2-3
2.1
(5)
Startup and Shutdown
How to Check EVAC/AIR Switches
The respective EVAC and AIR selector switches on the front operation panel stand for
vacuum states of the relevant column blocks. When you press each switch once, it is left
in the pressed status (ON). When you press the switch again, it returns to the original
status (OFF). Table 2-1 shows the relation between the selector switch lamps and
selected states.
When the column is in the AIR or CLOSE state, the instrument won’t reach a high vacuum
(cannot be set in EVAC state) though the key switch of power supply is turned to EVAC ON.
And while the DP warms up, each EVAC switch of GUN, COLUMN and CAMERA “flickers
in green.”
Table 2-1
Selected State
EVAC/AIR Switches
EVAC Switch
Open to atmospheric air (AIR state)
Lamp off
Valve closed (CLOSE state)
Lit, green
AIR Switch
OFF
Orange flickering
OFF
Lit, orange
(ON)
ON
OFF
(ON)
Under evacuation
Green flickering
ON
Lamp off
OFF
Evacuated state (EVAC state)
Lit, green
ON
Lamp off
OFF
The procedure for selecting each state is shown in Fig. 2-4. For changing from the EVAC
state to CLOSE state, press the EVAC switch. For further changing to the AIR state,
press the AIR switch. Reversely for transition from the AIR state to CLOSE state, press
the AIR switch. And for advancing to the EVAC state, press the EVAC switch.
AIR switch
AIR state
EVAC switch
CLOSE state
AIR switch
Fig. 2-4
EVAC state
EVAC switch
EVAC/AIR Switch Operation
NOTE: As is known from Table 2-1, the CLOSE state is also set when both selector switches
are pressed. However, for transition to the AIR/EVAC state from the ON status of both
switches, the procedure is reverse to that in the above figure. To avoid confusion, the
procedure shown in Fig. 2-4 is recommended.
2-4
2.1.3
2.1.3
(1)
COL.ON Operation
Turning POWER switch key to COL.ON
(a) Turn on the POWER switch of digital camera controller.
left on. (Type A only)
HAMAMATSU CAMERA CONTROLLER
Usually, this switch may be
C4742-95
POWER
|
Power switch
section
0
Fig. 2-5
Digital Camera Controller
(b) Turn the POWER switch key to the COL.ON position, and PC power supply will turn
on. Then, the electron microscope system program starts.
C960920
Fig. 2-6
POWER Switch Key
NOTE: Start of the control system takes about 3 minutes after turning the POWER switch key
from OFF to COL.ON.
And before the instrument is evacuated to a high vacuum after start of the control
system, accelerating voltage cannot be applied.
2-5
2.1
(2)
Startup and Shutdown
Initial Screen
(a) The initial screen appears on the monitor as shown in Fig. 2-7 and initial setting of
each control unit proceeds.
Fig. 2-7
Initial Screen
(b) If an error is detected in the initial setting, an error message window as shown in Fig.
2-8 will open and the communication line to the error-detected unit will be
disconnected.
Fig. 2-8
Error Message (example)
2-6
2.1.3
(c) In addition, a window as shown in Fig. 2-9 opens. On this window, press the Close
button to terminate the initial setting. According to “error messages” in 4.5, take a
proper measure or contact Hitachi representative.
Fig. 2-9
(3)
System Error Message
Control Window
When the initial setting is normal, the initial screen will close automatically, and the control
window (Easy operation window) and digital camera image (Transmission Image window)
appear as shown in Fig. 2-10. For details and operation method of the control window,
refer to “configuration of control window” in 3.1.2.
Transmission Image Window
Easy operation Window
Close-up information Window
(Type A)
(Type B,C)
Fig. 2-10
Control Window
2-7
2.1
Startup and Shutdown
2.1.4
Application of Accelerating Voltage and Generation of Electron Beam
For observing an electron microscope image on the fluorescent screen or with the digital camera,
an accelerating voltage must be applied to generate an electron beam. Implement the following
procedure.
(1)
Full Auto Mode up to Generation of Electron Beam
This is effective when an automatic sequence is set with an accelerating voltage, filament
voltage, emission current, etc. already input properly. For change of accelerating voltage
setting, refer to “Acc. voltage” in 3.3.2 (1). For change of filament voltage and emission
current settings, refer to “Filament/Bias” in 3.3.2 (4).
(a) Use the following method for checking whether an automatic sequence is set or not.
If it is evident that an automatic sequence has already been set, go to (b).
1)
Select Operate - HV Control - Filament/Bias to open the Filament/Bias control
window.
Fig. 2-11
2)
HV Control Menu
Confirm that the Auto setup radio button in the Filament setup time group on the
Filament/Bias control window is turned on and that Auto radio button in the
Emission current group is also turned on. If the Manual side is selected, an
automatic sequence will not be set. So, select the Auto side and click the Set
button at the top right of this window.
2-8
2.1.4
Fig. 2-12
Filament/Bias Control Window
(b) In the control area on the Easy operation window, click the HV tab to display the HV
control area.
Fig. 2-13
HV Control Area
2-9
2.1
Startup and Shutdown
(c) Press the HV switch on the left operation panel. A step-up sequence starts and the
HV switch flickers in green. However, this is ineffective unless the column is under a
high vacuum. If ineffective, an error message will be reported. Wait until a high
vacuum is reached.
HV switch
Fig. 2-14
Left Operation Panel
(d) The HV/Filament meter window as shown in Fig. 2-15 automatically opens.
Accelerating voltage rises continuously until the determined level is attained.
Fig. 2-15
During Rise of Accelerating Voltage
2 - 10
2.1.4
(e) In succession, the filament voltage rises until the set level is attained.
HV/Filament meter window will close automatically.
Fig. 2-16
(f)
Then, the
During Rise of Filament Voltage
Now, a bias voltage is set and an electron beam is generated at the determined
emission current.
Fig. 2-17
Setup of Bias Voltage
NOTE: Shortly after raising the filament voltage, the bias voltage changes gradually until the
filament temperature stabilizes. During this process, image may be defocused.
NOTE: When the specimen chamber evacuation switch is set at AIR, the bias voltage setup
sequence does not function. This switch must be set at EVAC.
NOTE: If the OFF button in the Beam group on the Easy operation window is pressed, the bias
voltage setup sequence does not function. Press the ON button.
2 - 11
2.1
(2)
Startup and Shutdown
Application of Accelerating Voltage Alone
Perform this operation when accelerating voltage needs to be stabilized more than usual
for high resolution imaging or the like.
(a) Generate an electron beam by applying an accelerating voltage according to (1).
(b) Click the OFF button in the Filament group on the Easy operation tab.
Filament voltage is then reduced to 0.0 V and electron beam emission stops.
The accelerating voltage is now applied without beam emission.
Fig. 2-18
Filament OFF Status
(c) For resuming the beam emission, click the ON button in the Filament group.
Fig. 2-19
Filament ON Status
2 - 12
2.1.4
(3)
Bias Blanking (method of stopping electron beam generation without turning off
accelerating voltage and filament voltage)
This operation is effective for temporarily stopping the projection of electron beam to a
specimen.
(a) Generate an electron beam by applying an accelerating voltage according to (1).
(b) Click the OFF button in the Beam group on the Easy operation tab. Bias voltage
output is maximized while keeping the filament voltage applied, and electron beam
emission stops. The accelerating voltage and filament voltage remain applied.
This mode is called “bias blanking.”
Fig. 2-20
Bias Blanking Mode
(c) For resuming the beam emission, click the ON button in the Beam group.
Fig. 2-21
Bias Blanking Released
2 - 13
2.1
(4)
Startup and Shutdown
Change of Accelerating Voltage
Follow the instructions given here for changing the accelerating voltage from the status
where electron beam is emitted. Filament voltage application and electron beam
generation after accelerating voltage setup are dependent on the auto or manual sequence
whichever selected.
(a) Select Operate - HV Control - Acc. voltage to open the Acc. voltage control window.
Fig. 2-22
HV Control Menu
(b) Input the desired accelerating voltage value in the Preset input box in the HV preset
data set group on the Acc. voltage control window. Or use the up/down arrow button.
Reference accelerating voltage values (40, 60, 80, 100, 120 kV) have been prepared
as button icons in the HV preset data set group. For selecting a reference
accelerating voltage value, click the relevant button icon, and the desired accelerating
voltage value is read in the Preset input box.
Fig. 2-23
Acc. voltage control Menu
2 - 14
2.1.4
(c) Determine the input value by clicking the Set button at the top right.
(d) Press the HV switch on the left operation panel.
left of the Acc. voltage control window.
Or click the HV ON button at the top
HV switch
Fig. 2-24
Left Operation Panel
(e) Filament voltage turns off, bias voltage is set at the Preset level and electron beam
emission stops. Then, accelerating voltage rises or falls continuously until the
desired level is reached.
(f)
(5)
Subsequently, filament voltage is applied and electron beam is emitted according to
the auto or manual sequence whichever selected.
Change of Filament Voltage
Follow the steps below to change the filament voltage due to change of the filament with
time, etc. This is not required routinely.
(a) Generate an electron beam according to (1).
(b) Select Operate - HV Control - Filament/Bias to open the Filament/Bias control window.
Fig. 2-25
HV Control Menu
2 - 15
2.1
Startup and Shutdown
(c) Turn on the Manual radio button in the Emission current group.
Fig. 2-26
Filament/Bias control Window
(d) Change the Present value in the Filament group by clicking the up/down arrow button
in this group. Clicking the Set button at the top right determines the input value.
NOTE: As the filament voltage is raised, the emission current begins changing. However, the
emission current remains the same at a certain filament voltage and higher.
This status is called “filament saturation.” The filament voltage in the filament
saturation status should be input as the preset value.
(6)
Change of Emission Current
Carry out the following procedure for a change of emission current, e.g., when a brighter or
darker beam is temporarily required. For details of the Filament/Bias control window
shown below, refer to “Filament/Bias” in 3.3.2 (2).
(a) Generate an electron beam in the routine procedure.
2 - 16
2.1.4
(b) Select Operate - HV Control - Filament/Bias to open the Filament/Bias control window.
Fig. 2-27
HV Control Menu
(c) Turn on the Auto radio button in the Emission current group.
Fig. 2-28
Filament/Bias control Window
(d) Input the desired emission current value in the Auto input box and click the Set button
at the top right of this window.
(e) Bias voltage will be automatically set so as to obtain the input emission current.
NOTE: An appropriate emission current varies with the kind of filament. Its value ranges from
5 to 15 μA for a standard tungsten hairpin type filament, and from 5 to 10 μA for an
optional LaB6 emitter.
2 - 17
2.1
Startup and Shutdown
2.1.5
(1)
COL.OFF Operation
Turning Off Accelerating Voltage
On the left operation panel, press the HV switch twice in succession to turn off accelerating
voltage. Bias voltage and filament voltage also turn off automatically interlinked with
accelerating voltage.
HV switch
Fig. 2-29
(2)
Left Operation Panel
COL.OFF Operation by POWER Switch Key
Turn the POWER switch key from the COL.ON position to the EVAC ON position
(COL.OFF status).
C960918
Fig. 2-30
POWER Switch Key
2 - 18
2.1.5
(3)
COL.OFF
The shutdown message window opens on the monitor screen. After a few seconds, the
COL. power supply turns off. All the switch lamps on the left and right operation panels
turn off.
Fig. 2-31
Shutdown Message
NOTE: For the next COL.ON operation, wait for about 10 sec after COL. power supply has
turned off. Otherwise, the fuse may be blown or the circuit breaker turns off due to a
rush current.
NOTE: Usually, the PC power switch need not be turned on/off.
NOTE: Avoid installing any other application software in the PC of this instrument. If installed,
a longer time will be taken for shutting down the PC and the COL. power supply may
turn off while the PC is activated. In this case, there is a risk of the PC becoming faulty
or the data and software saved in the hard disk, etc. being damaged.
(4)
Caution on Closing of Control Software
(a) When the software is closed in the normal procedure, a window as shown in Fig. 2-32
opens to confirm closing of the control window. Click the Cancel button here.
For COL.OFF, use the POWER switch key when the control software has started up.
Fig. 2-32
System Message
2 - 19
2.1
Startup and Shutdown
(b) If you clicked the OK button in error, use of the POEWER switch key should be
avoided. Instead, restart the control software with the key kept at COL.ON.
Then, perform COL.OFF operation.
NOTE: If you turned the POWER switch key up to EVAC ON in error, return the key to COL.ON
and carry out step (b). If the key remains at EVAC ON, the timer starts and after about
2 minutes, the COL. power supply turns off. Until the timer reaches the end, the
Windows must be shut down. Otherwise, there is a risk of the PC becoming faulty or
the data and software saved in the hard disk, etc. being damaged.
2.1.6
Stop of Evacuation System
It is recommended to run the evacuation system continuously in order to maintain a high vacuum
quality and reduce the influence by contamination. For continuous operation of the evacuation
system alone, keep the POWER switch key at EVAC ON. For stopping the evacuation system
as well, follow these steps:
(1)
Off Operation by POWER Switch Key
Turn the POWER switch key to the OFF position. Even in the OFF status, RP continues
running for about 20 minutes. After this time period, the RP stops and the evacuation
system is inactivated.
C960918
Fig. 2-33
(2)
POWER Switch Key
Turning Off Power Supply
Turn off the main circuit breaker on the switchboard to cut off power supply.
need for turning off the MAIN switch of DC power supply.
2 - 20
There is no
2.1.6
(3)
Stop of Coolant
After inactivation of the DP, stop the coolant. Usually, the flow rate of coolant is regulated.
For stopping the coolant, therefore, close the tap water valve or turn off the power supply to
coolant circulator without manipulating the valves at the rear of column.
LENS BAKING valve
LENS IN valve
Fig. 2-34
LENS OUT valve
Coolant Valve Location (rear of main unit)
2 - 21
2.2
Basic Operations before Microscopy
2.2
Basic Operations before Microscopy
For operations described here, an electron beam must be generated with an accelerating voltage
applied. A specimen need not be loaded.
NOTE: The operations described here must always be performed on the fluorescent screen.
If a spot-shaped beam is projected into the digital camera, its scintillator might be
damaged.
2.2.1
(1)
Notes on Magnification
Film Magnification
The Model H-7650 transmission electron microscope can mount a film camera at option.
When using this camera, an electron microscope image is exposed on a photographing film.
A magnification on this film is called “film magnification.”
The magnification data to be marked on a photographing film stands for film magnification.
Unless otherwise specified, “magnification” in this manual indicates “film magnification.”
(2)
Printer
The Model H-7650 is standard-equipped with a digital camera. When an electron
microscope image is shot with this camera, it will be saved in the hard disk, etc. of PC and
can be pasted as image data to a document file. The pasted image data can be output
with a printer. Output in 143 dpi (dot per inch) will present a square image whose one
side is about 182 mm long. Since a scale bar is marked in a digital image, it should be
used for calibrating magnifications.
(3)
Magnification Display
Film magnification is displayed on the Easy operation window.
Fig. 2-35
Easy operation Window
2 - 22
2.2.2
2.2.2
(1)
Specimen Exchange (with H-7501SS standard specimen holder)
Specimen Unloading
(a) Set the specimen holder on the specimen exchange table.
Fig. 2-36
Specimen Exchange Table
(b) Return the retainer <1> with tweezers as directed by the arrow until the spring <4> is
hooked.
<2>
<1>
<4>
Fig. 2-37
Retainer
(c) Remove the grid retainer <2> from the specimen holder using tweezers.
Fig. 2-38
Grid Retainer
(d) Take out a specimen from the recess of specimen holder <3> shown below.
2 - 23
2.2
(2)
Basic Operations before Microscopy
Specimen Loading
(a) Place a specimen in the recess of specimen holder <3>.
<3>
Fig. 2-39
Recess
(b) Put the grid retainer <2> at the specimen setting position. Align the notch on each
side of the grid retainer with the longitudinal axis of specimen holder.
<2>
Fig. 2-40
Grid Retainer
(c) Raise the spring <4>, and the grid retainer <2> will be fixed.
<4>
<2>
Fig. 2-41
2 - 24
Spring
2.2.2
(d) Make sure the grid retainer <2> is held completely by the spring <4>.
For confirmation, hold the specimen holder manually and tap its part outside the O-ring
and near the grip with your finger. Avoid tapping with tweezers, otherwise the holder
might be damaged.
NOTE: If the grid retainer is not mounted securely to the specimen holder, the specimen
may be damaged due to spring action.
O-ring
AS568-110FPM
Stopper
872-1577
Specimen
holder <3>
Fig. 2-42
Guide pin
530-1500
Specimen
setting position
Spring <4>
872-0272
Retainer <1>
Grid retainer <2>
817-1551
Schematic Diagram of Specimen Holder
2 - 25
2.2
Basic Operations before Microscopy
2.2.3
(1)
Handling of Specimen Holder
How to Insert Specimen Holder
(a) Insert the specimen holder, aligning its guide pin with the cylinder groove of specimen
stage, until it stops. The cylinder is now at position A. Then, the AIR red lamp
comes on.
B960855
Fig. 2-43
Insertion of Specimen Holder (position A)
NOTE: At this time, the specimen holder is locked so that it will not turn.
turned forcibly, the lock mechanism may be broken.
If the holder is
(b) Turn the specimen chamber evacuation switch to EVAC.
B960859
Fig. 2-44
Specimen Chamber Evacuation Switch
NOTE: Unless the specimen holder is properly set at the position A, evacuation will not
start. In this case, the specimen chamber evacuation lamp (red lamp) does not
light. Push the specimen holder manually in the inserting direction until the red
lamp is lit.
2 - 26
2.2.3
(c) Upon completion of evacuation, the red lamp goes out. The lock release lamp (green
lamp) lights to indicate that the lock mechanism of specimen holder is released (for
about 15 seconds).
B960856
Fig. 2-45
Release of Specimen Holder Lock Mechanism
(d) Hold the grip of specimen holder manually and turn it clockwise at 45° until it stops.
At this time, the holder receives a force to draw into the column due to vacuum.
So without releasing your hand from the holder, push it in slowly until it stops (position
B). At the stop position, turn the holder counterclockwise at 15° and insert it in the
axial direction until it stops. (The holder is now at position C.)
NOTE: Insertion of the specimen holder is allowed while the green lamp is lit. Once the
green lamp is turned off, the lock mechanism is activated to inhibit insertion of the
holder. If this occurs, turn the specimen chamber evacuation switch to AIR, and
then to EVAC for re-evacuation. After completion of pre-evacuation, the
specimen holder can be pushed in.
NOTE: Upon insertion of the specimen holder, the green lamp goes out. For inserting
the specimen holder from position B to C, pre-evacuation is not required.
Turn CW at 45°
for insertion
Position A
Turn CCW at 15°
for insertion
Position B
Fig. 2-46
Holder Insertion
2 - 27
Position C
2.2
Basic Operations before Microscopy
(2)
How to Take out Specimen Holder
(a) From position C, draw out the specimen holder until it stops and turn it clockwise at
15° until stops. (The holder is now at position B.) At the present position, draw out
the holder again until it stops, and turn counterclockwise at 45° until stops.
Draw out and turn
CW 15°
Position C
Draw out and turn
CCW 45°
Position A
Position B
Fig. 2-47
Holder Takeout
NOTE: When the holder comes to position A, the lock mechanism is activated to inhibit
insertion of the holder to position B.
(b) Turn the specimen chamber evacuation switch to AIR. After a few seconds, the red
lamp lights on the specimen chamber evacuation panel to notify the completion of air
leak.
B960858
Fig. 2-48
Specimen Chamber Evacuation Switch
2 - 28
2.2.3
(c) Extract the specimen holder.
WARNING
Oxygen Shortage
When dry nitrogen gas is used for vacuum leak of the instrument,
suffocation may occur due to oxygen deficiency. So ventilation is
required. While the gas is unused, the dry nitrogen gas valve must
be kept closed.
CAUTION
Overhead Danger
The column of this instrument has protrusions. Hitting your head
against those protrusions may result in injury. So attention should
be paid to overhead danger when you stand up from the chair.
(3)
Specimen Tilt Angle
(HIPER-stage)
Specimen tilt restriction is imposed.
maximum tilt angle is ±20°.
When the standard specimen holder is inserted,
NOTE: If a specimen is tilted beyond the maximum tilt angle, the tip of holder may come in
contact with the cold finger (option) or objective movable aperture to cause
breakage. Therefore, this angle limit should be followed strictly.
NOTE: The allowable maximum tilt angle varies with holder. Use each holder within the
allowable maximum tilt angle described in its instruction manual.
2 - 29
2.2
Basic Operations before Microscopy
2.2.4
(1)
Operation of Movable Aperture
Control Knobs of Condenser Lens Movable Aperture
Figure 2-49 shows an external view of the condenser lens movable aperture unit.
(c) Y position
adjustment knob
(a) Aperture bore
selector knob
(d) Number
B9608554
Fig. 2-49
(b) X position
adjustment knob
Condenser Lens Movable Aperture
(a) Aperture Bore Selector Knob
A smaller-diameter aperture bore can be selected by turning this knob clockwise.
And a larger-diameter aperture bore can be selected by turning the knob
counterclockwise. The movable aperture can be removed from the electron beam
path by turning the knob completely in the counterclockwise direction.
(b) X Position Adjustment Knob
This knob adjusts the aperture bore position in the in/out direction of the movable
aperture.
(c) Y Position Adjustment Knob
This knob adjusts the aperture bore position perpendicularly with respect to the in/out
direction of the movable aperture.
(d) Number
Indicates the movable aperture bore No. presently selected.
movable aperture is off the electron beam path.
2 - 30
At the “0” position, the
2.2.4
(e) Aperture Bore Diameter
Table 2-2
Bore Diameter of Condenser Lens Movable Aperture
Bore No. of movable aperture
Bore diameter
(2)
No. 1
No. 2
No. 3
No. 4
200 μm
100 μm
50 μm
20 μm
Control Knobs of Objective Lens Movable Aperture
Figure 2-50 shows an external view of the objective lens movable aperture unit.
(a) Aperture bore
selector knob
(c) Y position
adjustment knob
(b) X position
adjustment knob
(d) Number
(e) Vertical position
adjustment knob
Fig. 2-50
Objective Lens Movable Aperture
(a) Aperture Bore Selector Knob
A smaller-diameter aperture bore can be selected by turning this knob clockwise.
And a larger-diameter aperture bore can be selected by turning the knob
counterclockwise. The movable aperture can be removed from the electron beam
path by turning the knob completely in the counterclockwise direction.
(b) X Position Adjustment Knob
This knob adjusts the aperture bore position in the in/out direction of the movable
aperture.
(c) Y Position Adjustment Knob
This knob adjusts the aperture bore position perpendicularly with respect to the in/out
direction of the movable aperture.
2 - 31
2.2
Basic Operations before Microscopy
(d) Number
Indicates the movable aperture bore No. presently selected. At the “0” position, the
movable aperture is not aligned with the electron beam path.
(e) Vertical Position Adjustment Knob
The vertical position of the objective lens movable aperture is adjustable by this knob.
Because the vertical position has been factory-adjusted and fixed, the user is not
required to adjust the position.
(f)
Aperture Bore Diameter
Table 2-3 Bore Diameter of Objective Lens Movable Aperture
Bore No. of movable aperture
No. 1
No. 2
No. 3
No. 4
Bore diameter
80 μm
50 μm
20 μm
10 μm
NOTE: Please do not expand electron beams more than fluorescent boards when magnification
× inserts real aperture 10μm diameter by 30,000 or less and it takes a picture of the image.
Irregular brightness is occasionally caused in the image. Because scattering by the
irradiation system might be generated, it is recommended to use it with focusing lens
movable aperture No2 and Spot size No4 or less. Besides this, when scattering with the
sample mesh is generated, the mesh of a hall that is smaller than 200 meshes is
recommended. The emission current is lowered, and please the doing observation and
take a picture of the focus match again when you do not satisfy the above-mentioned
condition if you do not darken brightness when taking a picture in the film and CCD camera.
(3)
Control Knobs of Field Limiting Movable Aperture (option)
Figure 2-51 shows an external view of the field limiting movable aperture unit (option).
(a) Aperture bore
selector knob
(c) Y position
adjustment knob
(d) Number
(b) X position
adjustment knob
Fig. 2-51 Condenser Lens Movable Aperture (option)
(a) Aperture Bore Selector Knob
A smaller-diameter aperture bore can be selected by turning this knob clockwise.
And a larger-diameter aperture bore can be selected by turning the knob
counterclockwise. The movable aperture can be removed from the electron beam
path by turning the knob completely in the counterclockwise direction.
2 - 32
2.2.4
(b) X Position Adjustment Knob
This knob adjusts the aperture bore position in the in/out direction of the movable
aperture.
(c) Y Position Adjustment Knob
This knob adjusts the aperture bore position perpendicularly with respect to the in/out
direction of the movable aperture.
(d) Number
Indicates the movable aperture bore No. presently selected.
movable aperture is deviated from the electron beam path.
At the “0” position, the
(e) Aperture Bore Diameter
Table 2-4
Bore Diameter of Field Limiting Movable Aperture (option)
Bore No. of movable aperture
Bore diameter
No. 1
No. 2
No. 3
No. 4
400 μm
200 μm
100 μm
50 μm
2 - 33
2.2
Basic Operations before Microscopy
2.2.5
(1)
Adjustment of Condenser Lens System
Securing of Electron Beam Path
(a) For electron beam to reach the fluorescent screen directly, remove the condenser lens
movable aperture, objective lens movable aperture and field limiting movable aperture
(option) from the optical axis as they may block the electron beam.
(b) When a specimen is introduced, set the specimen holder at position B according to (2)
of 2.2.3.
(2)
Centering of Electron Beam
(a) Press the ZOOM1 switch on the left operation panel.
ZOOM1 switch
Fig. 2-52
Left Operation Panel
(b) Press the LENS RESET switch on the left operation panel.
LENS RESET switch
Fig. 2-53
Left Operation Panel
2 - 34
2.2.5
(c) Set magnification at about 5,000× by the MAG knob on the left operation panel.
MAG knob
Fig. 2-54
Left Operation Panel
(d) Manipulate the BRIGHT knob on the left operation panel until the beam is formed into
a spot.
BRIGHT knob
Fig. 2-55
Left Operation Panel
(e) Press the BH switch on the right operation panel to set BH for the multi-knobs on the
left and right operation panels. Then, move the electron beam to the center of the
fluorescent screen by manipulating the multi-knobs.
Multi-knob
Fig. 2-56
BH switch
Left and Right Operation Panel
2 - 35
2.2
(3)
Basic Operations before Microscopy
Positional Adjustment of Condenser Lens Movable Aperture
(a) Insert the condenser lens movable aperture, referring to 2.2.4 (1).
(b) Broaden the electron beam by the BRIGHT knob. If the beam spot does not change
in a concentric manner, the aperture bore is deviated from the optical axis.
Manipulate the X and Y knobs of the condenser lens movable aperture so that the
beam spot is broadened concentrically. Make sure the electron beam can be
broadened by manipulating the BRIGHT knob.
CCW rotation
Fig. 2-57
CCW rotation
Fig. 2-58
Spot
CW rotation
Condenser Lens Movable Aperture not Aligned
Spot
Condenser Lens Movable Aperture Aligned
2 - 36
CW rotation
2.2.6
2.2.6
(1)
Adjustment of Electron Gun
Unsaturated Filament Image
(a) Manipulate the BRIGHT knob on the left operation panel until the beam is formed into
a spot.
BRIGHT knob
Fig. 2-59
Left Operation Panel
(b) Select Operate - HV Control - Filament/Bias to open the Filament/Bias control window.
Fig. 2-60
Filament/Bias control Window
2 - 37
2.2
Basic Operations before Microscopy
(c) Reduce the filament voltage by about 2 V using the arrow-mark button in the Filament
group, and a shadow of the filament appears at the center of the beam spot on the
fluorescent screen, so a doughnut-like spot is formed as shown in Fig. A or B of Fig. 261. Now, the filament is not saturated.
Fig. A Axis properly
aligned
Fig. 2-61
(2)
Fig. B Axis not aligned
Filament Image
GH/GT Adjustment
If the filament image in the unsaturated status is as shown in Fig. B, the optical axis of
electron gun is not aligned. In this case, form a symmetrical filament image as shown in
Fig. A in the following procedure.
(a) Click Function - BD control to open the BD control window.
Fig. 2-62
Function Menu
2 - 38
2.2.6
(b) In the BD data (X, Y) group, click the GT button, and each multi-knob on the left and
right operation panels will be set to GT. Then, manipulate the multi-knobs X and Y on
the left and right operation panels so that the image is corrected as shown in Fig. A.
Fig. 2-63
BD control Window
(c) If the beam spot moves from the center of the fluorescent screen after correction, set
GH by clicking the GH button in the BD data (X, Y) group and move the beam spot to
the center using the multi-knobs on the left and right operation panels.
(d) Set BH by clicking the BH button in the BD data (X, Y) group or pressing the BH
switch on the right operation panel.
BH switch
Fig. 2-64
Right Operation Panel
(e) Close the BD control window by pressing the close button at the top right of this
window.
2 - 39
2.2
Basic Operations before Microscopy
(f) Using the arrow-mark button in the Filament group on the Filament/Bias control
window, raise the filament voltage. The beam will return to the original spot.
The filament is now in the saturated status.
2.2.7
(1)
Adjustment of Spot Size
Selection of Spot Size
Changing the spot size alters not only the size of the beam spot when formed, but also the
dose of irradiating beam. For observation of a specimen vulnerable to beam irradiation,
select a smaller spot size in advance. To select a spot size, follow the procedure given
below.
(a) Click Operate - Observation - Lens mode to open the Lens mode set window.
Fig. 2-65
Observation Menu
(b) A spot size is selectable in the Spot number input box in the Spot number select
(Micro) group. For usual operation, select “1” or “2.” When a brighter electron beam
is necessary, a larger value should be selected.
Fig. 2-66
Les mode set Window
2 - 40
2.2.7
(c) Spot size is selectable in 5 steps. The relation among each lens mode, selection
step and spot size is listed in Table 2-5.
Table 2-5
Selection Step and Spot Size in each Lens Mode
No.
1
2
3
4
5
HC (μm dia.)
0.8
1.0
2.0
3.0
4.0
HR (μm dia.)
0.6
0.7
0.8
1.0
2.0
(d) When the analysis kit (option) is mounted, F-Zoom and F-Diff buttons on the Lens
mode set window are validated as shown in Fig. 2-67. “X-ray shutter” denotes the
shutter for the detector of X-ray spectrometer. It is validated when F-Zoom is
selected. OUT opens the shutter and IN closes it. For X-ray analysis, the shutter
should be used in the OUT status.
Fig. 2-67
Table 2-6
Selection Step and Spot Size in F-Zoom Mode (option)
No.
(2)
Lens mode set Window
1
2
3
4
5
HC (μm dia.)
0.06
0.08
0.10
0.12
0.14
HR (μm dia.)
0.04
0.06
0.08
0.10
0.12
Adjustment of Spot Size
BH data can be stored independently for each lens mode (HC/HR) and each spot size.
While changing the spot size sequentially, adjust BH so that the beam spot comes to the
center of the fluorescent screen.
2 - 41
2.2
Basic Operations before Microscopy
2.2.8
(1)
Astigmatism Correction of Condenser Lens
Astigmatism of Condenser Lens
(a) Insert the condenser lens movable aperture according to 2.2.4 (1).
(b) Move the BRIGHT knob on the left operation panel.
BRIGHT knob
Fig. 2-68
Left Operation Panel
(c) When the condenser lens system does not have astigmatism, the electron beam will
broaden in a concentric manner as shown in Fig. 2-69A. But if it has astigmatism, the
electron beam will broaden elliptically as shown in Fig. 2-69B.
Fig. A Spot Broadening
without
Astigmatism
Fig. B Spot Broadening
with Astigmatism
Fig. 2-69
Schematic Astigmatism of Beam Spot
2 - 42
2.2.8
(2)
Astigmatism Correction of Condenser Lens
(a) If the spot is distorted as shown in Fig. 2-69B, press the CS switch on the right
operation panel for assigning CS to the multi-knobs on the left and right operation
panels.
CS switch
Fig. 2-70
Right Operation Panel
(b) Adjust the multi-knobs so that the spot changes concentrically.
Multi-knob
Fig. 2-71
Left and Right Operation Panels
(c) If the spot moves from the center of the fluorescent screen upon manipulating the
multi-knobs, press the BH switch on the right operation panel to set BH. Then, adjust
the multi-knobs so that the spot comes to the center of the fluorescent screen.
BH switch
Fig. 2-72
Right Operation Panel
2 - 43
2.3
Image Observation
2.3
Image Observation
For image observation, a specimen needs to be introduced into the microscope column.
Introduce a specimen, referring to 2.2.3.
2.3.1
(1)
Observation in LOW MAG Mode
Field Selection
For observation of an image after completion of routine axial alignment, you should begin
with selection of an appropriate field and focus its image. In the LOW MAG mode, a wide
range can be observed. So this mode is advantageous for field selection.
(a) Click the STAGE tab on the Easy operation window.
observed is now displayed.
Fig. 2-73
Where in the specimen is now
Easy operation Window (STAGE tab)
2 - 44
2.3.1
(b) On the left operation panel, press the LENS MODE switch, LOW MAG.
LOW MAG switch
Fig. 2-74
Left Operation Panel
(c) Magnification in the LOW MAG mode is selectable from 50× to 1,000× in 10 steps.
Use the MAG knob for selection.
MAG knob
Fig. 2-75
Left Operation Panel
(d) When the objective lens movable aperture has been inserted, remove it from the
electron beam path.
Fig. 2-76
Objective Lens Movable Aperture
2 - 45
2.3
Image Observation
(e) Bring the desired field to the center of the fluorescent screen by manipulating the
STAGE knob on the left/right operation panel.
STAGE knob
Fig. 2-77
(f)
STAGE Knob
Focus the image by the FOCUS knob on the right operation panel.
FOCUS knob
Fig. 2-78
Right Operation Panel
NOTE: In the LOW MAG mode, an image is to be focused by changing the first
intermediate lens current level.
(g) For enhancing contrast, insert the field limiting movable aperture (option).
(h) Set the ZOOM mode by pressing the ZOOM switch on the left operation panel and
observe the image.
ZOOM switch
Fig. 2-79
Left Operation Panel
2 - 46
2.3.1
NOTE: In observation of a specimen vulnerable to irradiation by electron beam, carefully
prevent the electron beam from being formed into a spot on the specimen.
Otherwise, the specimen may be damaged due to charge-up.
(2)
Adjustment of Field Position at each Magnification Step
If the central field does not match between the ZOOM and LOW MAG modes, positional
adjustment is required in the following procedure.
(a) In the ZOOM mode, bring the image of a referential specimen area to the center of
fluorescent screen.
(b) Press the LENS MODE switch, LOW MAG on the left operation panel.
LOW MAG switch
Fig. 2-80
Left Operation Panel
(c) Click Function and then BD control to open the BD control window.
Fig. 2-81
Function Menu
2 - 47
2.3
Image Observation
(d) Click the IA button in the BD data (X, Y) group.
operation panels are now set in the IA mode.
Fig. 2-82
The multi-knobs on the left and right
BD control Window
(e) Find the image of the referential specimen area selected in (a) and bring it to the
center of the fluorescent screen using the multi-knobs on the left and right operation
panels.
NOTE: Avoid moving the specimen in this step.
(f)
Repeat the above procedure at all magnification steps available.
2 - 48
2.3.2
2.3.2
(1)
Adjustment of Imaging System
Adjustment of Specimen Z Position (Height)
NOTE: Unless Z position is adjusted, objective lens current level may be significantly deviated
to degrade magnification accuracy. Adjust Z position immediately after specimen
exchange.
(a) Load a specimen and reset the lens data by pressing the LENS RESET switch on the
left operation panel.
LENS RESET switch
Fig. 2-83
Left Operation Panel
(b) Set a magnification of 20,000× and focus the image by the Z control knob at the
bottom of specimen stage.
Z control knob
Fig. 2-84
Z Control Knob
NOTE: Avoid moving the FOCUS knob in this step.
2 - 49
2.3
(2)
Image Observation
Voltage Center
Axis of the imaging system can be aligned by matching the point, which does not move
during a cyclic change of accelerating voltage, with the center of the fluorescent screen.
After Z position adjustment, follow these steps:
(a) Turn the MAG knob on the left operation panel to set a magnification within a range
from 5,000× to 10,000×.
(b) Press the MODU. switch on the right operation panel.
screen moves radially.
An image on the fluorescent
MODU. switch
Fig. 2-85
Right Operation Panel
(c) Just after pressing the MODU. switch, BT is automatically assigned to the multi-knobs
on the left and right operation panels. However, when returning to this step after (f),
press the BT switch on the right operation panel.
(d) From the movement of the entire image, judge the voltage center and match the
center of image movement with that of the fluorescent screen using the multi-knobs X
and Y on the left and right operation panels.
C821483
Fig. A Voltage center is not
aligned.
Fig. 2-86
C821485
Fig. B Voltage center is
aligned.
Movement of Entire Image (crosshairs indicate voltage center)
2 - 50
2.3.2
(e) Assign BH to the multi-knobs on the left and right operation panels by pressing the BH
switch on the right operation panel.
(f)
Adjust the multi-knobs so that the center of electron beam is aligned with that of the
fluorescent screen.
(g) Repeat the above steps (c) to (f) until both electron beam center and voltage center
come to the center of the fluorescent screen.
(h) After completion of this adjustment, stop the radial image movement by pressing the
MODU. switch.
(3)
Adjustment of BT Shift Compensation (TX, TY)
If the electron beam moves significantly due to BT operation, the shift compensation should
be adjusted in the following procedure.
(a) Click Function - BD control to open the BD control window. Turn on the Reset check
box for BT. Then, click the Reset button on this window for resetting BT to zero.
Fig. 2-87
BD control Window (turning on BT check box)
2 - 51
2.3
Image Observation
(b) Assign BH to the multi-knobs by pressing the BH switch on the right operation panel
and move the electron beam to the center of the fluorescent screen.
(c) Assign BT to the multi-knobs by pressing the BT switch on the right operation panel.
Adjust the X multi-knob on the left operation panel to set a value of about 200 on the X
side alone of BT.
(d) Assign BT-X shift compensation to the multi-knobs by clicking the TX button on the BD
control window.
(e) Move the electron beam to the center of the fluorescent screen by the multi-knobs on
the left and right operation panels.
(f)
Reset BT to zero by clicking the Reset button on the BD control window.
(g) Repeat the steps (b) to (f) until the electron beam will not be moved when operating
the X side of BT.
(h) Make the same adjustment on the Y side of BT.
(4)
Insertion of Objective Lens Movable Aperture (observation of electron beam diffraction
image in DIFF mode)
Image contrast can be enhanced by blocking the electron beam which is widely scattered
by a specimen, using the objective lens movable aperture. Contrast will be higher when
the inserted objective lens movable aperture has a smaller bore diameter. Insertion of this
aperture is also required for observation of an electron beam diffraction image and
recording it with a film camera (option).
For introducing this aperture properly onto the optical axis of electron beam, carry out the
following procedure.
(a) When the field limiting movable aperture (option) is mounted, it should be inserted
according to 2.2.4 (3).
Select an aperture bore that can cover the target field.
2 - 52
2.3.2
(b) Press the lens mode selector switch DIFF on the left operation panel. Lens mode is
now changed to DIFF and an electron beam diffraction image appears on the
fluorescent screen.
DIFF switch
Fig. 2-88
Left Operation Panel
NOTE: The DIFF mode cannot be set while an image is observed with the digital camera.
A DIFF image necessitates the fluorescent screen for its observation. In the
DIFF mode, the fluorescent screen will not rise.
NOTE: The operations described here must always be performed on the fluorescent
screen. If a spot-shaped beam is projected into the digital camera, its scintillator
might be damaged.
(c) Camera length is variable by the MAG knob on the left operation panel.
camera length of about 2.0 m.
MAG knob
Fig. 2-89
Left Operation Panel
2 - 53
Set a
2.3
Image Observation
(d) Minimize the DIFF spot diameter using the DIFF knob on the right operation panel.
DIFF knob
Fig. 2-90
Right Operation Panel
(e) Insert the objective lens movable aperture according to 2.2.4 (2).
(f)
Adjust the X and Y knobs of this aperture so that the shadow of the aperture becomes
concentric with the beam spot with the center located on the optical axis of electron
beam. Remove the field limiting movable aperture, select the lens mode selector
switch ZOOM on the left operation panel and start image observation.
NOTE: If a specimen is not aligned with the optical axis, the shadow of the objective lens
movable aperture cannot be observed.
(g) Adjust image brightness by the BRIGHT knob on the left operation panel so that an
exposure time of about 10 to 30 seconds usually suffices recording of an electron
beam diffraction image (when the film camera option is set).
2 - 54
2.3.3
2.3.3
(1)
Observation with Digital Camera
Observation of Live Image
(a) Click the CCD tab on the Easy operation window.
buttons, etc. appear in the control area.
Fig. 2-91
A histogram, camera control
CCD Control Area
(b) Click the Run button in the control area. The large viewing fluorescent screen rises
and a live image (max. 18 f/s) is displayed on the Transmission image window.
Fig. 2-92
Live Image of TEM
2 - 55
2.3
Image Observation
(c) Adjust the BRIGHT knob on the left operation panel so that the histogram comes close
to the center.
BRIGHT knob
Fig. 2-93
Left Operation Panel
(d) When image observation is carried out at a low beam dose, turn on the Auto gray
control check box. Automatic control will function so that the histogram is brought
close to the center by reducing the frame rate.
Fig. 2-94
Auto gray control Check Box
2 - 56
2.3.4
2.3.4
(1)
Focusing
Manual Focusing
(a) An image can be focused by turning the FOCUS knob on the right operation panel.
Using the ×10 and ×20 switches, focus step is selectable among ×1, ×10, ×20 and
×200 (press both switches for ×200).
×10/×20 switches
FOCUS knob
Fig. 2-95
Right Operation Panel
(b) For image observation with the binoculars, bring the spot (focusing) fluorescent screen
by pressing the SPOT switch on the left operation panel. Turn off room lamps in
order to enhance image contrast.
SPOT switch
Fig. 2-96
Left Operation Panel
2 - 57
2.3
Image Observation
(c) Adjust the binocular focusing knob so that the focus of binoculars matches the scribed
line on the focusing fluorescent screen.
Fixing screw
Adjustment
screw
Fig. 2-97
Binocular Focusing Knob
(d) For image observation with the digital camera, press the Run button in the CCD
control area.
Fig. 2-98
(e)
CCD Control Area
After selecting the desired field and magnification, carry out adjustment, and then
focus the image by the FOCUS knob on the right operation panel.
2 - 58
2.3.4
(f)
The image can be photographed in the best contrast when the image is slightly
underfocused (at a reduced objective lens current level with the FOCUS knob turned
counterclockwise). The optimum amount of underfocus varies from 30 μm to 20 nm
depending on magnification.
Fig. 2-99
Optimum Underfocus
2 - 59
2.3
(2)
Image Observation
Focusing by Wobbler
Focusing can be expedited by utilizing the wobbler function. When it is self-evident that
the wobbler function is assigned to the WOB. switch on the right operation panel, go to (c).
If it is unknown or you know that a different function is assigned, begin with (a).
(a) Click Function and then Wobbler condition to open the Wobbler condition window.
Fig. 2-100
Function Menu
(b) Turn on the Wobbler radio button in the Wobbler select group and determine your
selection by clicking the Set button. To close the Wobbler condition window, click the
close button at its top right.
Fig. 2-101
Wobbler condition
2 - 60
2.3.4
(c) Press the WOB. switch on the right operation panel. The tilt angle of the electron
beam incident on the specimen is varied periodically.
WOB. switch
Fig. 2-102
Right Operation Panel
(d) If the image is defocused, it appears doubly or drifts as shown in Fig. 2-103A or C.
Just focus is obtained when image drift is stopped as shown in Fig. 2-103B.
A:
Overfocus
Fig. 2-103
B:
Just focus
Image Focusing with Wobbler
2 - 61
C:
Underfocus
2.3
(3)
Image Observation
Adjustment of Wobbler
Since the wobbler is changeable in its frequency, direction and amplitude, it should be used
according to the specimen orientation, magnification, etc. The frequency, direction and
amplitude are changeable in the following procedure.
(a) Open the wobbler condition window by clicking Function and then Wobbler condition.
Fig. 2-104
Wobbler condition
(b) Select Wobbler in the Wobbler select group.
(c) For wobbler frequency, input its value (max. 20 Hz, in 1-Hz increments) directly in the
Frequency input box or set it by the up/down arrow keys. Determine your selection
by the Set button.
(d) For wobbler amplitude, input its value (among 10 steps) directly in the Amplitude input
box or set it by the up/down arrow keys. Determine your selection by the Set button.
(e) For wobbler direction, input its angle value (in increments of 1°) directly in the Direction
input box or set it by the up/down arrow keys. Determine your selection by the Set
button.
NOTE: If image movement is not easy to determine because brightness is split into two
levels, adjust BT shift compensation according to 2.3.2 (3). If this phenomenon
persists, wobbler amplitude should be set at a lower step.
2 - 62
2.3.4
(4)
Usage of Auto Focus
Focusing can be automatically carried out by the auto focus function.
(a) Set the digital camera in the RUN status.
Fig. 2-105
CCD Control Area
(b) Press the AUTO FOCUS switch on the right operation panel.
AUTO FOCUS switch
Fig. 2-106
Right Operation Panel
NOTE: Even when an image is not observed with the digital camera, the control sequence
of auto focus advances. In this case, a proper objective lens current will not be
reached.
2 - 63
2.3
Image Observation
2.3.5
(1)
Astigmatism Correction of Objective Lens
Principle of Astigmatism Correction
(a) Astigmatism of the objective lens appears as an image that has another different-focus
image at right angles. Because focuses are not symmetrical, the image is seen to
drift in one direction.
Electron beam
Objective lens
Astigmatism (Δf)
Fig. 2-107
(2)
Principle Diagram of Objective Lens Astigmatism
How to Correct Objective Lens Astigmatism
(a) For a specimen, use a film hole specimen for astigmatism correction (commercially
available microgrid).
(b) Assign OS to the multi-knobs on the left and right operation panels by pressing the OS
switch on the right operation panel.
OS switch
Fig. 2-108
Right Operation Panel
2 - 64
2.3.5
(c) Adjust the FOCUS knob to obtain just focus. Next, focus the image slightly higher
than the just focus, and an overfocus fringe appears outside the film hole as shown in
Fig. 2-109A.
Fig. A
Fig. 2-109
Fig. B
Fig. C
Schematic Diagram of Objective Lens Astigmatism Correction
(d) Manipulate the multi-knob X/Y until the fringe width becomes even over the entire
circumference of the film hole as shown in Fig. B.
(e) Bring the image close to just focus from overfocus by the FOCUS knob in order to
narrow the fringe width.
(f)
If the image becomes as shown in Fig. C in narrowing of the fringe width, astigmatism
remains in the arrow direction. So, carry out step (e) again.
(g) Astigmatism correction of the objective lens has now been completed.
(h) The correction value can be saved and loaded as desired. For saving, press the BD
PS switch on the right operation panel when OS is assigned to the multi-knobs.
For loading the saved value, press the BD RESET switch when OS is assigned to the
multi-knobs.
2 - 65
2.3
(3)
Image Observation
Principle of Stigmonitor
The stigmonitor is helpful for efficient astigmatism correction of the objective lens at low
and medium magnifications. The operating principle of the stigmonitor is shown in Fig.
2-110. The electron beam tilted at θ is rotated azimuthally pivoting on a certain point of
the specimen. This allows the system to observe a focal difference between the X and Y
axes, i.e., astigmatism as an image movement ΔX. Astigmatism can be corrected by
adjusting the objective lens stigmator so as to minimize the image movement.
If it is obvious that the stigmonitor function is assigned to the WOB. switch on the right
operation panel, move on to (b). If it is not obvious or a different function is assigned, start
from (a).
Beam deflector
θ
Specimen
Objective lens
Δf
Δ X=M⋅θ⋅Δf
M : Magnification
θ : Angle of incident beam
Δf : Astigmatism
ΔX
Fig. 2-110
Principle Diagram of Stigmonitor
2 - 66
2.3.5
(a) Click Function and then Wobbler condition to open the Wobbler condition window.
Turn on the Stigmonitor radio button in the Wobbler select group and determine your
selection by clicking the Set button. Close the Wobbler condition window by clicking
the Close button at the top right.
Fig. 2-111
Wobbler condition
(b) Press the WOB. switch on the right operation panel to activate the stigmonitor.
WOB. switch
Fig. 2-112
Right Operation Panel
2 - 67
2.3
Image Observation
(c) When astigmatism is not corrected, a rotary movement in a certain orientation can be
seen. If without astigmatism, the rotary movement occurs concentrically with respect
to the just focus point. And if with astigmatism, the rotary movement occurs even at
the just focus point.
Fig. A Without
astigmatism
Fig. B With
astigmatism
Underfocus
Fig. 2-113
Overfocus
Just focus
Image Movement by Stigmonitor (schematic diagram)
(d) Obtain the just focus by the FOCUS knob. If astigmatism is noticeable, adjust image
focus so as to minimize the rotary movement, referring to the image movement with
respect to the just focus in Fig. 2-113B.
(e) Assign OS to the multi-knobs on the left and right operation panels by pressing the OS
switch on the right operation panel.
(f)
Adjust the multi-knobs so that image movement is minimized.
shown in Fig. 2-113A should be attained.
The same status as
(g) While shifting the focusing position, make sure the status shown in Fig. A is
maintained.
(h) Astigmatism is correctable by repeating the procedure from (e) to (h).
(i)
For stopping the stigmonitor, press the WOB. switch again.
2 - 68
2.3.5
(4)
Automatic Astigmatism Correction Function (auto stigmator)
Astigmatism of the objective lens is automatically correctable through selection of the auto
stigmator function. When it can be confirmed that the wobbler function is assigned to the
WOB. switch on the right operation panel, go to (b). If it cannot be confirmed or a different
function is assigned, begin with (a).
(a) Open the Wobbler condition window by clicking Function and then Wobbler condition.
Turn on the Auto Stigmator radio button in the Wobbler select group and determine
your selection by clicking the Set button. Close the Wobbler condition window by
clicking the Close button at its top right.
Fig. 2-114
Wobbler condition
(b) Set the digital camera in the Run status.
Fig. 2-115
CCD Control Area
2 - 69
2.3
Image Observation
(c) Press the WOB. switch on the right operation panel.
auto stigmator function automatically progresses.
The control sequence of the
WOB. switch
Fig. 2-116
Right Operation Panel
NOTE: Even when an image is not observed with the digital camera, the control sequence
of auto stigmator advances. In this case, a proper objective lens current will not
be reached.
2.3.6
(1)
Image Rotation
Usage of Image Rotation
Field rotation function (image rotation) is usable within an image rotation angle range of
±90° (in steps of 15°) when magnification ranges from 1,000× to 40,000× (18 steps).
(a) Press the IMAGE ROT. switch on the left operation panel.
function outside the above magnification range.
IMAGE ROT.
switch
Fig. 2-117
Left Operation Panel
2 - 70
The switch does not
2.3.7
(b) The image can be rotated by the MAG knob under IMAGE ROT. while keeping the
present magnification. Rotation angle will be displayed together with magnification on
the monitor.
MAG knob
Fig. 2-118
Left Operation Panel
(c) For changing the image magnification, press the IMAGE ROT. switch again to release
the image rotation mode.
2.3.7
(1)
HC and HR Modes
Magnification and Camera Length Range
The ZOOM mode of Model H-7650 comprises 2 modes; HC mode for zooming at a
reduced objective lens current level and HR mode for zooming at a raised objective lens
current level. In the HC mode, a wide field is observable at lower magnifications.
Usually, images are observed and photographed in the HC mode, and the HR mode is
used for image observation and recording at 200,000× and higher magnifications. In each
mode, magnification is settable within the following range. When the analysis kit is
mounted, F-Zoom and F-DIFF mode options are added to both HC and HR modes.
HC mode
ZOOM-1
ZOOM-2
DIFF
F-Zoom
F-DIFF
200× to 200,000×
200× to 200,000×
0.05 m to 8.0 m
200× to 200,000× (option)
0.05 m to 8.0 m (option)
HR mode
ZOOM-1
ZOOM-2
DIFF
F-Zoom
F-DIFF
4,000× to 600,000×
4,000× to 600,000×
0.05 m to 2.0 m
4,000× to 600,000× (option)
0.05 m to 2.0 m (option)
LOW MAG mode
50× to 1,000×
2 - 71
2.3
(2)
Image Observation
HC/HR Mode Changeover
(a) Click Operate, Observation and then Lens mode.
Fig. 2-119
The Lens mode set window opens.
Operate Menu
(b) On this window, select the HC or HR mode by the HC or HR mode radio button in the
HC/HR select group. When the analysis kit (option) is mounted, select F-Zoom and
F-Diff.
Fig. 2-120
Lens mode set Window
2 - 72
2.3.8
2.3.8
Specimen Anticontamination Devices (option)
When a specimen is irradiated with an intense beam for a long time, it will be contaminated and
image contrast will fall in the contaminated area. For preventing the contamination, the Model
H-7650 is equipped with <1> cold trap (P/N 817-0538) and <2> cold finger (P/N 817-0537).
For using these devices, liquid nitrogen needs to be injected.
WARNING
Low Temperature
Because liquid nitrogen is as cold as -196 °C, its contact with body or
its splash into an eye may result in frostbite. Pay attention not to
touch liquid nitrogen. Before handling of liquid nitrogen, put on
protective goggles and leather gloves.
If a large amount of liquid nitrogen is injected rapidly, it may splash to
cause frostbite. To prevent this, inject liquid nitrogen gradually.
2 - 73
2.4
Image Recording with Digital Camera
2.4
Image Recording with Digital Camera (Type A only)
2.4.1
(1)
Setting Method (Type A only)
Manual Setting
(a)
Select Function and then CCD control.
Fig. 2-121
The CCD control window opens.
Function Menu
(b) Turn off the Check box in the Camera control group.
(ms) and Integrate are now allowed.
Fig. 2-122
Entries for Live (ms), Rec. exp
CCD control window
2 - 74
2.4.1
(c) In the Live (ms) input box, input a live image display speed. It is defaulted to 55.6 ms
(18 frames/s). Beyond 55.6 ms, input values are limited to integer multiples of 55.6.
Below 55.6 ms, any desired value can be input. Determine the value by the Enter
key.
(d) In the Rec. exp (ms) input box, input an exposure time for acquiring one image. It is
defaulted to 222.4 ms. Usually, input a value 4 times as large as the one input for
Live (ms). Determine your value by the Enter key.
(e) In the Integrate input box, input the number of the images to be integrated. It is
defaulted to 16. Usually, the default value is employed. Determine the input value
by the Enter key.
(f)
(2)
Since settings are to be saved, they are not always required for image recording.
Default Setting
(a) Turn on the Default button in the Camera control group.
Fig. 2-123
CCD control Window
(b) By default, Live (ms), Rec. exp (ms) and Integrate are set at 55.6 ms, 222.4 ms and 16
frames, respectively.
(c) Since settings are to be saved, they are not always required for image recording.
2 - 75
2.4
Image Recording with Digital Camera
(3)
Photographing Procedure
(a) On the Easy operation window, click the CCD tab to display the CCD control area.
Then, click the Run button
to display a live image.
Fig. 2-124
CCD Control Area
(b) While the live image is displayed, click the Freeze button
2.4.2
(1)
Saving Method (Type A only)
Saving by “Save as” Function
(a) Click File - Save option to open the Save option window.
Fig. 2-125
2 - 76
File Menu
.
2.4.2
(b) Turn on the Save as radio button in the Save icon select group.
Fig. 2-126
Save option Window
(c) Since settings are to be saved, they are not always required for image recording.
(d) Under display of a still image, click the Save button
Fig. 2-127
CCD Control Area
2 - 77
in the CCD control area.
2.4
Image Recording with Digital Camera
(e) The Save image window now opens.
Save button.
Fig. 2-128
(2)
Input a directory and a file name, and click the
Save image Window
Saving by “Quick save” Function
(a) Turn on the Quick save radio button in the Save icon select group.
Fig. 2-129
Save option Window
(b) Specify a directory and a serial file name by clicking the Path button in the Quick save
condition group.
(c) A number to be added to the serial file name should be input in the Start counter value
input box in the Quick save condition group.
2 - 78
2.4.3
(d) Since settings are to be saved, they are not always required for image recording.
(e) While a still image is displayed, click the Save button
Fig. 2-130
(f)
2.4.3
(1)
in the CCD control area.
CCD Control Area
In the directory specified above, the file name is created and saved in the serial
number.
Image Saving Format (Type A only)
BMP File Format
(a) On the Save option window, turn on the bmp radio button in the Save type default
group.
Fig. 2-131
Save option Window
(b) When an image is then saved according to 2.4.2, the file format is BMP. The bit
depth of image data is compressed to 8 bits according to the BMP file format.
2 - 79
2.4
(2)
Image Recording with Digital Camera
TIFF File Format
(a)
On the Save option window, turn on the tif radio button in the Save type default group.
Fig. 2-132
Save option Window
(b) When an image is then saved according to 2.4.2, the file format is TIFF. The bit
depth of image data remains at 16 bits according to the TIFF file format.
(3)
JPEG File Format
(a) On the Save option window, turn on the jpg radio button in the Save type default
group.
Fig. 2-133
Save option Window
(b) When an image is then saved according to 2.4.2, the file format is JPEG. The bit
depth of image data is compressed to 8 bits according to the JPEG file format.
2 - 80
2.4.4
(1)
Gain Control (Type A only)
Gain of Digital Camera
The digital camera standard-equipped with the Model H-7650 is capable of changing
camera sensitivity by controlling electrical gain. Gain should be reduced for recording a
bright image such as a low-magnification image and should be enhanced for recording
high-magnification images and the specimens vulnerable to beam damage.
Gain has 256 steps from 0 to 255 and relative sensitivity (with respect to gain 0) is widely
variable as shown in Fig. 2-134.
10
9
8
Relative sensitivity
2.4.4
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
0
32
64
96
128
160
192
224
256
Gain
Fig. 2-134
Relative Sensitivity of Digital Camera
2 - 81
2.4
(2)
Image Recording with Digital Camera
Gain Changing Procedure
(a) Open the CCD control window by clicking Function and then CCD control.
Fig. 2-135
CCD control Window
(b) Input a value within 0 to 255 into the Gain (0 to 255) input box in the Camera control
group.
(c) Determine the input value by the Enter key.
(d) The input value will be saved and remain valid till the next change.
2 - 82
2.4.5
2.4.5
(1)
Background Subtraction (Type A only)
Background Subtraction Process
The digital camera used in the Model H-7650 incorporates the function for correcting an
unevenness of sensitivity due to the background of scintillator and the dark current of
camera. The function can be validated independently for each of still and live images.
The respective validation procedures are shown below.
(a) Click Function - CCD control to open the CCD control window.
Fig. 2-136
CCD control Window
(b) For background correction of a still image, turn on the Background correction check
box in the Rec. image group.
(c) For background correction of a live image, turn on the Background correction check
box in the Live image group.
(d) The input value will be saved and remain valid till the next change.
2 - 83
2.4
(2)
Image Recording with Digital Camera
Ho to Acquire Background Data
It is necessary to reacquire background data if sensitivity changes or becomes uneven due
to deterioration of the scintillator or if the scintillator is contaminated or damaged.
Carry out the following procedure.
(a) Draw out the specimen holder up to position B according to (2) in 2.2.3.
(b) Emit an electron beam and set a magnification of about 100k× in the HC ZOOM
mode.
(c) Turn the BRIGHT knob on the left operation panel so that the electron beam is formed
evenly on the fluorescent screen.
BRIGHT knob
Fig. 2-137
Left Operation Panel
(d) Open the CCD control window by clicking Function and then CCD control.
(e) Select Default for Camera control, referring to (2) in 2.4.1.
(f)
Set gain at 128, referring to (2) in 2.4.4.
Fig. 2-138
CCD control Window
2 - 84
2.4.5
(g) On the Easy operation window, click the CCD tab to display the CCD control area.
Then, click the Run button
to display a live image.
Fig. 2-139
CCD Control Area
(h) Bring the histogram to the center by turning the BRIGHT knob on the left operation
panel.
(i)
Click the Execute button in the Acquire image group.
Fig. 2-140
CCD control Window
2 - 85
2.4
Image Recording with Digital Camera
(j)
Click the Acquire button for Acquire background image in the Acquire image group.
Fig. 2-141
CCD control Window
(k) Acquisition of background data starts.
Fig. 2-142
Message Window
NOTE: Before completion of this acquisition, avoid any access to the Model H-7650.
(3)
How to Acquire Dark Current Data
Once dark current data has been acquired, it need not be reacquired.
recommended to require this data in the following cases.
However, it is
• For regular use at any gain other than the standard gain value 128
• After change of the camera head
How to acquire this data is shown below.
(a) When an accelerating voltage is applied, set Filament OFF status and stop beam
emission according to (2) in 2.1.4.
2 - 86
2.4.5
(b) Close the fluorescent screen.
Viewing
chamber
Fig. 2-143
Fluorescent Screen
(c) Put the lid on the viewing chamber.
Lid
Fig. 2-144
Viewing Chamber
(d) Turn off the room lamps to prevent entrance of stray light.
(e) Open the CCD control window by clicking Function - CCD control.
(f)
Set Default for Camera control according to (2) in 2.4.1.
(g) Set gain at 128 according to (2) in 2.4.4.
case, set the value here.
2 - 87
For using other gain value in a special
2.4
Image Recording with Digital Camera
Fig. 2-145
(h)
CCD control Window
On the Easy operation window, click the CCD tab to display the CCD control area.
Then, click the Run button
to display a live image.
Fig. 2-146
CCD Control Area
2 - 88
2.4.5
(i)
Click the Execute button for Acquire dark image in the Acquire image group.
Fig. 2-147
(j)
CCD control Window
Click the Acquire button for Acquire dark image in the Acquire image group.
Fig. 2-148
CCD control Window
2 - 89
2.4
Image Recording with Digital Camera
(k) Acquisition of dark current data starts.
Fig. 2-149
Message Window
NOTE: Before completion of this acquisition, avoid any access to the Model H-7650.
2 - 90
2.5.1
2.5
2.5.1
Image Recording with Film Camera (option)
Photographing Method
For image recording after completion of field selection, magnification setting and focusing, you
must begin with determination of photographic conditions, etc. Photographic conditions are
settable by 3 methods; ATS mode, ABS mode and manual mode. Every method presents a
negative film having almost the same photographic density.
Before image recording, (1) setting of photographic density and (2) setting of exposure time are
required.
(1)
Setting of Photographic Density
(a) Click Operate, Photo setting and Exposure time.
opens.
Fig. 2-150
The Exposure time window now
Operate Menu
(b) Input a photographic density for the Optimum density (at 100 kV) input box in the
Density setting group. Standard value is 4.97E-11 C/cm2 for using electron
microscope film FG made by Fuji Photo Film.
Fig. 2-151
Exposure time Window
2 - 91
2.5
Image Recording with Film Camera (option)
(c) Determine your input by clicking the Set button.
NOTE: For using both digital camera and films, the exposed film should be recovered
from the cassette receiver, otherwise it may be damaged through re-exposure.
(2)
Setting of Exposure Time
(a) Click Operate, Photo setting and Exposure time to open the Exposure time window.
(b) Input an exposure time in the Manual time input box in the EXP. mode group.
Fig. 2-152
Exposure time Window
(c) Determine your input by clicking the Set button.
(3)
Usage of Automatic Exposure Time Setting Mode (ATS: AUTO EXPOSURE TIME SET)
This mode provides a function for automatically setting an exposure time so as to obtain
the optimum photographic density of film under a given brightness.
(a) Setting of ATS Mode
1)
Click Operate, Photo setting and then Exposure time to open the Exposure time
window.
2 - 92
2.5.1
2)
Turn on the Auto exposure time (ATS) radio button in the EXP. mode group.
Fig. 2-153
3)
Exposure time Window
Determine the input by clicking the Set button.
(b) Photographing Procedure
1)
Develop a TEM image on the large (main) fluorescent screen or spot (focusing)
fluorescent screen. Electron beam dose is measured and an appropriate
exposure time is automatically calculated.
B960936
Fig. 2-154
NOTE:
B960935
Large and Spot Fluorescent Screens
If there is a significant brightness change in the large fluorescent screen
(due to the shadow of grid, uneven thickness of specimen, etc.), calculation
may entail an error. In this case, the spot fluorescent screen should be
used.
2 - 93
2.5
Image Recording with Film Camera (option)
2)
3)
The exposure time for obtaining the photographic density set in (1) of 2.5.1 is
indicated at the EXPOSURE TIME position. At this time, the green lamp of
exposure indicator lights on the right operation panel.
Start photographing by pressing the PHOTO switch on the right operation panel.
PHOTO switch
Fig. 2-155
(4)
Right Operation Panel
Usage of Automatic Brightness Setting (ABS: AUTO BRIGHT) Mode
This mode provides a function for automatically setting a brightness level so as to obtain
the optimum photographic density of film in the set exposure time.
(a) Setting of ABS Mode
1)
Click Operate, Observation and then Lens mode to open the Lens mode set
window.
Fig. 2-156
Observation Menu
2 - 94
2.5.1
2)
On the Lens mode set window, click the ON button in the Brightness control/ABS
mode group. Beam dose is now automatically controlled.
Fig. 2-157
Lens mode set Window
(b) Photographing Procedure
1)
Develop a TEM image on the large fluorescent screen or spot fluorescent screen.
B960936
Fig. 2-158
NOTE:
B960935
Large and Spot Fluorescent Screens
If there is a significant brightness change in the large fluorescent screen
(due to the shadow of grid, uneven thickness of specimen, etc.), calculation
may involve an error. In this case, the spot fluorescent screen should be
used.
2 - 95
2.5
Image Recording with Film Camera (option)
2)
3)
Set the ABS mode according to (a) above. Electron beam dose is measured and
brightness is automatically controlled to an appropriate level.
When the optimum exposure level is reached, the green lamp of exposure
indicator lights on the right operation panel.
PHOTO
PHOTO
Red
Red
Green
Fig. 2-159
4)
Exposure Indicator Lamp
Start photographing by pressing the PHOTO switch on the right operation panel.
PHOTO switch
Fig. 2-160
NOTE:
NOTE:
Right Operation Panel
If the set photographic density of film corresponds to an extremely high or
low brightness level, message characters CANNOT ADJUST will be
indicated on the monitor for reporting a failure to set brightness automatically.
In this case, employ manual operation or the ATS mode for photographing.
The ABS mode can be released by turning the BRIGHT knob on the left
operation panel.
2 - 96
2.5.1
(5)
Manual Method
(a) Setting of Manual Mode
1)
Click Operate, Photo setting and then Exposure time to open the Exposure time
window.
Fig. 2-161
2)
Click the Manual time radio button in the EXP. mode group.
Fig. 2-162
3)
Photo setting Menu
Exposure time Window
Determine your input by clicking the Set button.
2 - 97
2.5
Image Recording with Film Camera (option)
(b) Photographing Procedure
1)
Develop a TEM image on the large fluorescent screen or spot fluorescent screen.
B960936
Fig. 2-163
NOTE:
2)
B960935
Large and Spot Fluorescent Screens
If there is a significant brightness change in the large fluorescent screen
(due to the shadow of grid, uneven thickness of specimen, etc.), calculation
may involve an error. In this case, the spot fluorescent screen should be
used.
Adjust brightness by turning the BRIGHT knob on the left operation panel.
BRIGHT knob
Fig. 2-164
Left Operation Panel
2 - 98
2.5.1
3)
When the optimum level is reached, the green lamp of exposure indicator lights
on the right operation panel.
PHOTO
PHOTO
Red
Red
Green
Fig. 2-165
4)
Exposure Indicator Lamp
Start photographing by pressing the PHOTO switch on the right operation panel.
PHOTO switch
Fig. 2-166
Right Operation Panel
NOTE: Please do not expand electron beams more than fluorescent boards when
magnification × inserts real aperture 10μm diameter by 30,000 or less and it takes
a picture of the image. Irregular brightness is occasionally caused in the image.
Because scattering by the irradiation system might be generated, it is
recommended to use it with focusing lens movable aperture No2 and Spot size
No4 or less. Besides this, when scattering with the sample mesh is generated, the
mesh of a hall that is smaller than 200 meshes is recommended. The emission
current is lowered, and please the doing observation and take a picture of the
focus match again when you do not satisfy the above-mentioned condition if you
do not darken brightness when taking a picture in the film and CCD camera.
2 - 99
2.5
Image Recording with Film Camera (option)
2.5.2
(1)
Setting of Photographing Conditions
Film Field Size Changeover (FULL/HALF)
Model H-7650 allows selection of film exposure field size.
FULL size
HALF size
FULL size
HALF size
FULL size
HALF size
:
:
:
:
:
:
113 × 76 mm
53 × 76 mm
95 × 76 mm
46 × 76 mm
113 × 76 mm
53 × 76 mm
(1 field when using 82.5 × 118 mm film)
(2 fields when using 82.5 × 118 mm film)
(1 field when using 3 1/4 × 4 inch film)
(2 fields when using 3 1/4 × 4 inch film)
(1 field when using 90.0 × 120 mm film)
(2 fields when using 90.0 × 120 mm film)
There are two selection methods; (a) and (b).
Use either method as you desire.
(a) Selection by FULL/HLAF Switch on the Right Side Of Camera Chamber
1)
Select either FULL or HALF.
Fig. 2-167
2)
3)
FULL/HALF Switch
When the FULL size is selected, the switch is lit brightly, and it is lit dimly when
the HALF size is selected.
The selected field size is indicated in the information area.
NOTE:
If size is changed with a film already loaded, the film is fed without exposure
and the effective size is obtainable from the next film.
2 - 100
2.5.2
(b) Selection by Window Operation
1)
To open the Film information window, click Operate, Photo setting and then Film
information.
Fig. 2-168
2)
Select field size by clicking the Full or Half radio button in the Film select group on
the Film information window.
Fig. 2-169
3)
Photo setting Menu
Film information window
The selected field size is indicated in the information area.
NOTE:
If size is changed with a film already loaded, the film is fed without exposure
and the effective size is obtainable from the next film.
2 - 101
2.5
(2)
Image Recording with Film Camera (option)
Comment Input
On a film, you can input a comment or set printout of date and micron marker (bar).
Carry out the following procedure.
(a) Click Operate, Photo setting and then Film information, and the Film information
window will open.
Fig. 2-170
Photo setting Menu
(b) On the Film information window, input characters directly in the comment input box in
the Film numbering/Auto print group. A maximum of 20 characters (14 characters
when micron bar is set) can be input.
Fig. 2-171
Film information window
(c) Determine your input by the Set button.
2 - 102
2.5.2
(3)
Auto focus link Function (Type A only)
In image recording, auto focus can be activated.
following procedure.
This link function can be validated in the
(a) Click Operate, Photo setting and then Camera control, and the Camera control window
will open.
Fig. 2-172
Photo setting Menu
(b) On this window, turn on the Auto focus link check box in the Photo group.
Fig. 2-173
Camera control Window
(c) For details, refer to 3.3.3 in “3. SOFTWARE FUNCTIONS.”
2 - 103
2.5
Image Recording with Film Camera (option)
2.5.3
Film Exchange (Option)
Films can be taken out even when there are unexposed films in the instrument. Film exchange
should be carried out in the following procedure when there are no unexposed films remaining
inside the instrument.
(1)
Film Loading into Film Cassette Magazine
The method of loading a new film in the film cassette magazine is explained here.
NOTE: The following operations should all be carried out under a safe light in a dark room so
that the film will not be exposed to light.
(a) Load a film into the cassette.
948-A-29
Fig. 2-174
Loading Film into Cassette
NOTE: If a film is not loaded correctly in the cassette, it may slip off the cassette, causing
the feed mechanism to be caught halfway.
NOTE: During loading, pay attention not to touch your fingers to the emulsion-coated
surface.
2 - 104
2.5.3
(b) Place the film-loaded cassette into the film cassette magazine.
films can be loaded in the standard magazine.
A maximum of 50
948-A-30
Fig. 2-175
Placing Film Cassette in Film Cassette Magazine
(c) Put the shield plate in finally.
B960902
Fig. 2-176
(2)
Shield Plate
Exchange of Cassette Receivers
Explained here is the method of taking out the film receiver, which contains the exposed
film, from the camera chamber and introducing an empty film receiver yet to receive
exposed films.
(a) Press the EVAC switch in the CAMERA EVAC block to set the CLOSE status.
2 - 105
2.5
Image Recording with Film Camera (option)
(b) Press the AIR switch in the CAMERA EVAC block to set the AIR status.
B960909
Fig. 2-177
CAMERA EVAC/AIR Switch
(c) When the buzzer sounds, open the front cover of the camera chamber. By pulling the
grip, draw out the table which mounts the cassette receiver and cassette magazine.
B960925
Fig. 2-178
Front Cover of Camera Chamber
(d) Pull out the cassette receiver by raising the grip as shown in Fig. 2-179. The area A
in this figure serves as a lock mechanism for prevention of film exposure.
Raising the grip as directed by the arrow will lock the lid.
A
Fig. 2-179
Cassette Receiver
2 - 106
2.5.3
(e) Introduce an empty cassette receiver.
B960923
Fig. 2-180
(f)
Insertion of Cassette Receiver
Release the locked status of the lid by lowering the grip with its lever pushed as
directed by the arrow shown below.
Fig. 2-181
Releasing Lock of Cassette Receiver
NOTE: If the receiver is inserted without unlocking, the front cover of the camera chamber
won’t close.
(g) Return the table, which mounts the cassette receiver and cassette magazine, to the
original position.
2 - 107
2.5
Image Recording with Film Camera (option)
(h) Close the front cover of the camera chamber.
Fig. 2-182
Front Cover of Camera Chamber
(i)
Press the AIR switch in the CAMERA EVAC block to set the CLOSE status.
(j)
Press the EVAC switch in the CAMERA EVAC block to start evacuation.
switch lamp will flicker.
The EVAC
(k) When the EVAC switch lamp comes on to indicate the end of evacuation, cassette
receiver exchange is completed.
(3)
Exchange of Film Cassette Magazines
Explained here is the method of inserting the cassette magazine, which accommodates
unexposed films, into the camera chamber.
(a) Effect steps (a) to (d) in (2) to take out the cassette receiver.
(b) Further pull out the grip of the table which mounts the cassette receiver and cassette
magazine.
Fig. 2-183
View with Grip Pulled out
2 - 108
2.5.3
(c) Take out the cassette magazine and attach the L-shaped shield plate to a new
cassette magazine.
B960903
Fig. 2-184
L-shaped Shield Plate
(d) Insert the cassette magazine into the camera chamber.
B960923
Fig. 2-185
Insertion of Cassette Magazine
(e) Carry out step (e) onward in (2) to evacuate the camera chamber.
(4)
Film Pre-evacuation (usage of optional plate reservoir tank)
Since a new photographing film contains much moisture, it takes a long time for the
instrument to dry the film adequately and reach a high vacuum. Therefore, pre-evacuation
of unexposed films is recommended. For pre-evacuation, follow these steps:
2 - 109
2.5
Image Recording with Film Camera (option)
(a) Open the cover under the table on the left side of main unit and press the PR EVAC
switch of the plate reservoir tank on the inside.
PR EVAC switch
Fig. 2-186
PR EVAC Switch
(b) The lamp of the PR EVAC switch flickers.
over.
When buzzer stops ringing, air leak is
(c) Pull the drawer lever of plate reservoir tank toward you.
Fig. 2-187
Plate Reservoir Tank
(d) Place the new film-loaded cassette magazine onto the drawer rails and close the door
with the drawer lever pushed down.
Fig. 2-188
Cassette Magazine Placed on Drawer Rails
2 - 110
2.5.3
(e) Press the PR EVAC switch again, and evacuation will start.
Fig. 2-189
(f)
PR EVAC Switch
When the lamp of PR EVAC switch comes on, pre-evacuation is completed.
NOTE: Make sure the drawer of the plate reservoir tank is closed.
evacuation cannot be carried out normally.
2 - 111
Unless closed, pre-
3.1.1
3.
3.1
3.1.1
SOFTWARE FUNCTIONS
Outline of Operation Window
Startup of H-7650 Control Software
(1)
Turn the POWER key switch to the COL. ON position, and the electron microscope system
program will start.
(2)
The initial screen shown in Fig. 3-1 appears on the monitor and initial setting of each
control unit will be carried out.
The initial screen automatically closes, and then the control window appears.
Fig. 3-1
(3)
Initial Screen
If an error occurs in initial setting, an error message window is displayed and the
communication line with the defective unit is closed. (Refer to 2.1 1 in this instruction
manual.)
3-1
3.1
Outline of Operation Window
3.1.2
Configuration of Control Window
Hitachi H-7650
control window
(Easy operation)
Transmission
image window
(Type A)
(Type B,C )
Fig. 3-2
Information
Area
Control Window
Menu bar
Toolbar
Image area
Information area
Control area
Transmission image window is
enlarged/reduced at each clicking.
Fig. 3-3
Hitachi H-7650 control Window
3-2
3.1.2
(1)
Menu Bar
The commands necessary for H-7650 operation can be accessed by opening the relevant
menu. The commands are divided into menus. Some commands will be executed as
soon as they are selected, and others will be executed when you select an option in the
dialog box which is displayed upon their selection.
(2)
Toolbar
The functions of frequently used commands can be promptly provided by selecting their
tool icon buttons. Bring the mouse cursor to an icon button, and the corresponding
command name will be indicated. The command is selectable just by clicking the button.
You can delete unnecessary buttons and add new buttons by selecting Function –
Maintenance – Customize toolbar on the menu bar.
Table 3-1
Icon
Icons on Toolbar
Name
Function
Transmission image
Display of SSCCD image
Stage
Stage control
Camera control
Control of camera mechanism (option)
View
Switching of Easy operation
HV control
Setting of accelerating voltage
Filament/Bias
Setting of filament/bias
LENS
Setting/change of observation mode
Magnification
Enlarged display of magnification/camera length
Focus step
Setting of focus step
Film information
Photographing film information (option)
Exposure time
Setting of photographing film exposure time (option)
Auto focus
Automatic focusing
Modulation
Setting of modulation
Wobbler
Setting of wobbler
PDS
Personal data set
EVAC
Display of evacuation system condition
LENS CONTROL
Display/control of LENS current
3-3
3.1
Outline of Operation Window
(cont’d)
Icon
(3)
Name
Function
BD CONTROL
Display/control of BD current
OBJ stigma preset
Saving/loading of objective astigmatism correction amount
API
Preparatory irradiation on specimen
Information Area
In this area, the basic TEM status is indicated.
a condition setting window.
(4)
Double-clicking on each indication will call
Control Area
Some commands used for TEM operation/image observation can be accessed from the
control area at any time. Those commands are selectable by clicking their tabs.
(5)
Image Area
Digital camera image is displayed.
CAUTION: Do not change display setting of the control window from the initial values, because
screen display may become inappropriate. If the setting happened to be changed,
then open the Display Properties window from the control panel of Windows, and
match Screen area and Font size settings with those shown in Fig. 3-4.
1280 × 1024
24 bit
Small
Fig. 3-4
Display Properties Window
3-4
3.2.1
3.2
File Menu (Hitachi H-7650 control window)
Click File in the Hitachi H-7650 control window, and the pull-down menu shown in Fig. 3-5 will
appear.
Fig. 3-5
3.2.1
File Menu
Transmission image (Type A only)
Upon startup of the system program, the Hitachi H-7650 control window and Transmission image
window shown in Fig. 3-6 appear. The Transmission image window provides the moving picture
display of TEM images and displays a static image after image capture.
The Transmission image window size is changeable. You can enlarge/reduce the window size
as shown in Figs. 3-7 and 3-8 by clicking the
button on CCD control tab in the Hitachi H7650 control window.
Hitachi H-7650
control window
(Easy operation)
Transmission
image window
Fig. 3-6
Transmission image Window
3-5
3.2
File Menu (Hitachi H-7650 control window)
Fig. 3-7
Transmission image Window (Full display)
Fig. 3-8
Transmission image Window (Half display)
When you click the right button of the mouse on the Transmission image window, the pop-up
menu shown in Fig. 3-9 appears. The window size can also be changed by selecting Size from
the pop-up menu.
3-6
3.2.1
Fig. 3-9
(1)
Pop-up Menu
Stop
Stops the moving picture display of TEM images and lowers the large-sized fluorescent
screen (Whole screen). Use this command for observation on the fluorescent screen.
(2)
Run
Starts the moving picture display of TEM images with the digital camera system.
(3)
Freeze
Stops the moving picture display and captures an image.
(4)
Save image
Saves the image captured with the Freeze function. When you select this command, the
widow shown in Fig. 3-10 opens. Specify a folder and file name, then click the Save
button. To abandon the saving, click the Cancel button.
Fig. 3-10
Save image Window
3-7
3.2
(5)
File Menu (Hitachi H-7650 control window)
Save mode
You can make settings for saving an image in which the photographic conditions and
micron marker displayed at the bottom of the Transmission image window are embedded.
(a) Embed none
The photographic conditions and micron marker are not embedded in an image to be
saved.
(b) CCArea embed
An image is saved with the photographic conditions and micron marker embedded the
same as at the bottom of the Transmission image window.
(c) Property embed
An image is saved with its photographic data also embedded.
(6)
Exposure whole screen
The main fluorescent screen is lowered to allow image observation on the fluorescent
screen.
(7)
Exposure CCD camera
The main fluorescent screen is raised to allow image observation and saving with the CCD
camera.
CAUTION: In the Diff mode, protection is applied to prevent the spot beam from damaging the
scintillator. When you conduct the operation for opening the main fluorescent
screen, the system message shown in Fig. 3-11 will appear. Click OK, then open
the main fluorescent screen in the ZOOM mode.
Fig. 3-11
System message Window
3-8
3.2.1
(8)
Size
This is a function for changing the size of the Transmission image window.
(a) Full display
The Transmission image window is displayed in full size as shown in Fig. 3-7.
(b) Half display
The Transmission image window is displayed in half size as shown in Fig. 3-8.
The viewing area is the same as in the Full display mode. Only the display size is
reduced.
(9)
Target marker
This is a function for displaying a line that indicates the central location in the Transmission
image window. Figure 3-12 shows an example of target marker display.
Target marker
Fig. 3-12
Example of Target Marker Display
3-9
3.2
File Menu (Hitachi H-7650 control window)
(a) Off
Erases the target marker.
(b) White
Displays the target marker in white line.
(c) Black
Displays the target marker in black line.
(10) Auto gray control
You can specify automatic/manual brightness adjustment for the displayed image.
(a) OFF
Turns off the Auto gray control function to manually adjust the brightness of displayed
image.
(b) ON
Turns on the Auto gray control function to automatically adjust the brightness of
displayed image.
3 - 10
3.2.2
3.2.2
Photo log file (applicable only when sheet film camera (option) is set)
This function is available only when the optional film mechanism (film camera kit) is mounted.
The function cannot be selected from the pull-down menu when the film mechanism is not
provided.
The function is used for automatically saving photographic conditions in a log file at the time of
photographing.
Fig. 3-13
(1)
Photo log file Menu
Start log
When this command is checked, photographic conditions are automatically recorded in the
Photo log file at the time of photographing.
(2)
Stop log
When this command is checked, photographic conditions are not recorded in the Photo log
file.
3 - 11
3.2
(3)
File Menu (Hitachi H-7650 control window)
Show
Dragging this command will open the Photo log file window shown in Fig. 3-14. Note that
Show remains gray and cannot be executed when Restore (mdb) is in execution or the
Photo log file window has already opened.
Log display area
Input of date
All log display
button
File search start
Find counter
Input of comment
Fig. 3-14
Photo log file Window
In the Photo log file window, 4 photographic condition sets registered in the database are
displayed in the ascending order of Data Number. When there are 5 or more
photographic condition sets registered, the remaining ones can be seen in blocks of 4 sets
by using the scroll bar.
In this window, the database is searched for a photographic condition set corresponding to
the input Date and/or Comment.
The search function is explained below.
3 - 12
3.2.2
(a) Search by Date
1)
2)
3)
4)
5)
Input a search condition in the Date input box using the keyboard or scroll bar.
Date data is settable within 1.1.1 to 9999.12.31.
After input, press the Enter key to check if your setting is correct. If the setting is
wrong, the input box becomes blank to validate it. For February, input of 29th
day is effective regardless of year.
Search by Date is possible with the following keys: year, month and day.
Any key can be excluded from the search conditions by leaving its input box blank.
After setting your search condition, put a check mark in the Date check box to
validate the search condition. File Search Start is now executable.
Execute search by clicking the Start button. Note that the check mark will
disappear from the check box and search will not be executed if all the search
condition keys are blank.
(b) Search by Comment
1)
2)
3)
Input a search condition in the Comment input box using the keyboard. Up to 8
characters can be input. The database can be searched for a photographic
condition set containing the input character string.
After setting your search condition, put a check mark in the Comment check box
to validate the search condition. File Search Start is now executable.
Execute search by clicking the Start button.
(c) Search by both Date and Comment
1)
2)
3)
4)
5)
6)
Set Date and Comment search conditions.
Put a check mark in each of the Date and Comment check boxes to validate the
search conditions. File Search Start is now executable.
Execute search by clicking the Start button.
Upon execution of search, the photographic condition sets that match the search
conditions are displayed in the ascending order of Date Number on the Photo log
file window. File reload Refresh is now executable. Displayed in the Find
counter indication box is the number of photographic condition sets that match the
search conditions.
Clicking the Refresh button will return the Photo log file window to the initial status,
excluding Date and Comment search conditions.
If you attempt to photograph an image and register the photographic conditions in
the database with the Photo log file window open, the latest photographic
conditions will be indicated after photographing.
3 - 13
3.2
(4)
File Menu (Hitachi H-7650 control window)
Create text
Select Create text from the File menu, and a new set of commands will appear as shown in
Fig. 3-15.
Fig. 3-15
Create text Menu
(a) Execute
A text file of photographic conditions can be created. However, Create text cannot be
executed when any of Create text, Backup (mdb) and Restore (mdb) is being executed
or the System message window for Delete all log is displayed.
(b) During creation of a text file, the main window displays a message “Execute creating
photo log text files.” and a progress bar. Text file creation is completed when the
progress bar indication reaches 100%. After completion, a message “Create photo
log text files successful.” is displayed. After 1.5 seconds, the message and progress
bar disappear. Note that photographing is impossible during creation of a text file.
(c) Cancel
For halting creation of a text file, select Cancel.
(d) When a text file creation is successful, a text file named photo_sp.txt or photo_tb.txt is
created. Photo_sp.txt stands for a file whose data is separated by space, and
photo_tb.txt stands for a file whose data is separated by tab.
(5)
Backup (mdb)
Select Backup (mdb) from the File menu shown in Fig. 3-16, and a different set of
commands will appear.
3 - 14
3.2.2
(a) Execute
Upon selection of Execute, the PHOTO LOG FILE BACKUP window opens to allow
backup of a log file.
Select
Fig. 3-16
Backup (mdb) Menu
Fig. 3-17
PHOTO LOG FILE BACKUP Window
(b) Specify a saving location and file name and click the Save button. A new database
and backup photo log table will be created and backup of photographic conditions will
start. Note that backup is impossible when the file name is Appsys.mdb, Pds.mdb or
it is invalid.
(6)
Restore (mdb)
Select Restore (mdb) from the File menu shown in Fig. 3-18, and a different set of
commands will appear.
(a) Execute
Upon selection of Execute, the Photo log file restore window opens.
Fig. 3-18
Restore (mdb) Menu
Fig. 3-19
3 - 15
Photo log file restore Window
3.2
File Menu (Hitachi H-7650 control window)
(b) Determine the file name and click the Open button. Restoring of photographic
conditions will start. Note that restoring is impossible when the file name is
Appsys.mdb. If restoring is attempted in this case, the Photo log file restore window
will close. Restoring is not possible either unless the file contains a backup photo log
table even when its name is other than Appsys.mdb.
(c) Cancel
For halting the restoring operation, select Cancel. When the operation is halted, the
progress bar disappears and a message “Canceled execution!: 6320” appears.
A restore photo log table under creation will be deleted and Appsys.mdb will be
optimized.
(7) Delete all log
Upon selection of this command, the system message shown in Fig. 3-20 appears. Note
that the command cannot be executed when any of Create text, Backup (mdb) and
Restore(mdb) is being executed or the System message window has already opened.
Fig. 3-20
1)
2)
System message Window
When the OK button is clicked, the photographic conditions and text file
(photo_sp.txt or photo_tb.txt) are deleted and the System message window
closes.
Clicking the Cancel button cancels the deletion of photo log data and text file and
closes the System message window.
3 - 16
3.2.3
3.2.3
Image viewer(Type A only)
Described below is the procedure for activation of EM viewer. For the image processing
procedure, refer to the separately issued instruction manual for EM viewer.
(1)
Activation of EM Viewer
(a) As shown in Fig. 3-21, select Image viewer from the File menu in the Hitachi H-7650
control window. The Open image window will appear. Select a file for image editing
and click the Open button.
Fig. 3-21
Image viewer Menu and Open image Window
(b) EM viewer is activated to display the selected image on the EM viewer window as
shown in Fig. 3-22.
Fig. 3-22
EM viewer Window
3 - 17
3.2
File Menu (Hitachi H-7650 control window)
3.2.4
Thumbnail (Type A only)
Described below is the procedure for activation of Thumbnail. For the image management
procedure, refer to the separately issued instruction manual for EM viewer.
(1)
Activation of Thumbnail
(a) As shown in Fig. 3-23, select Thumbnail from the File menu in the Hitachi H-7650
control window. The Open IDB (thumbnail) window will open. Listed IDB names
stand for databases created at the time of image saving. They are especially referred
to as IDB. Every image is managed in a master database for each folder. For the
file name, a folder name is automatically registered. “#TEMIMG.mdb” is registered at
default. In case of image saving in a different folder, a new master database is
created for image management for the folder.
Fig. 3-23
Thumbnail Menu and Open IDB (thumbnail) Window
(b) Thumbnail
In Fig. 3-23, select an IDB name and click the Open button. The registered images
will be displayed on the Thumbnail window as shown in Fig. 3-24.
Fig. 3-24
Thumbnail Window
3 - 18
3.2.5
3.2.5
Save as (Type A only)
This is a function for saving an image in the specified saving location and file name.
Upon selection of Save as, the Save image window shown in Fig. 3-25 opens.
Fig. 3-25
Save image Window
(1)
When you click Save, the images captured with the digital camera are saved and the saved
information are registered in the image database. Note that image saving is limited to the
files in “c:\Hitachi\temimg” and “c:\Hitachi\imgdata”.
(2)
The saved image is recorded with the date set by PC. And if an image is saved in the
same file name as before, the capture conditions, etc. in the database will be updated.
(3)
Up to 9999 sets of data can be registered in the image database.
9999th data, a message window appears.
3.2.6
Upon registration of the
Quick save (Type A only)
An image can be saved instantly without displaying the Save image window.
are settable in the Save option window. For details, refer to 3.2.7.
3 - 19
Saving conditions
3.2
File Menu (Hitachi H-7650 control window)
3.2.7
Save option (Type A only)
Image saving conditions are settable.
opens.
Upon selection of this command, the Save option window
Fig. 3-26
(1)
Save option Window
Save icon select
The function of the
button is settable by the radio button.
(a) Save as
Refer to 3.2.5.
(b) Quick save
Refer to 3.2.6.
(2)
Save type default
The default file format of the image to be saved is settable by the radio button.
(a) bmp
(b) tif
(c) jpg
(3)
Quick save condition
The image saving location and file name can be entered for execution of Quick save.
(a) Quick save path & name
The image saving location and file name for Quick save are indicated.
3 - 20
3.2.8
(b) No overwrite message
If the file name entered for saving is already used, a message box appears to caution
you on overwriting. When a check mark is put in the No overwrite message check
box by clicking, the image data will be overwritten and saved without displaying the
message box.
(c) Start counter value
You can set an initial value of the total number of saved images using the scroll bar or
keyboard.
(d) Path Button
When you click the Path button in the window, the Save image window shown in Fig.
3-25 opens. In this window, you can set an image saving location and file name.
(4)
Image viewer condition
When a check mark is put in the Show image viewer check box by clicking, EM viewer is
automatically activated to display the saved image on the EM viewer window at the time of
saving.
3.2.8
Exit
(1)
Upon selection of this command, the System message dialog box opens.
(2)
Clicking the OK button will terminate the H-7650 system program.
(3)
Clicking the Cancel button will restore the H-7650 system program.
Fig. 3-27
System message Dialog Box
3 - 21
3.3
Operate Menu (Hitachi H-7650 control window)
3.3
Operate Menu (Hitachi H-7650 control window)
3.3.1
Observation
Select Observation from the Operate menu, and a new set of commands will appear as shown in
Fig. 3-28.
Fig. 3-28
(1)
Observation Menu
Magnification
(a) Clicking Magnification in the Operate menu shown in Fig. 3-29 will open the enlarged
magnification display window in Fig. 3-30. In the Zoom or LOW MAG mode, the
magnification is indicated, but the camera length is indicated in the ZIFF mode.
Image rotation is effective in a magnification range of ×1,000 to ×40,000 in the HC
mode.
U: Magnification up
V: Magnification down
Fig. 3-29
U: Rotation in + direction
V: Rotation in – direction
Magnification Menu
Fig. 3-30
3 - 22
Magnification Window
3.3.1
(b) Double-clicking on section A in Figs. 3-31 and 3-32 will call the enlarged magnification
display window the same as in (a).
A
B
B
A
Fig. 3-31
Easy operation
Window
Fig. 3-32
Close-up information Window
(c) The magnification value can be changed by clicking the manual change buttons in the
window (section B in Figs. 3-31 and 3-32).
(2)
Lens mode
(a) Clicking Lens mode in the Operate menu shown in Fig. 3-33 will open the Lens mode
set window in Fig. 3-34. In the Zoom or LOW MAG mode, HC or HR condition is
indicated.
Fig. 3-33
Lens mode Menu
3 - 23
Fig. 3-34
Lens mode set Window
3.3
Operate Menu (Hitachi H-7650 control window)
(b) Double-clicking on section A in Figs. 3-35 and 3-36 will open the Lens mode set
window the same as in (a).
A
A
Fig. 3-35
Easy operation
Window
Fig. 3-36
Close-up information Window
(c) The lens mode is selectable by clicking the relevant lens mode button shown in Fig.
3-37. Note, however, that the grayed option modes cannot be selected.
Assignment button
Lens mode button
Assigned mode
display
Fig. 3-37
Lens Mode Button
(d) You can assign a desired mode to the lens mode selector switch in the following
procedure.
3 - 24
3.3.1
1)
Select a lens mode selector switch shown (Fig. 3-38), to which a mode is to be
assigned, by the assignment button (Fig. 3-37). The pressed status of this
button means that it is selected.
Lens mode selector switch
Fig. 3-38
2)
3)
Left Operation Panel
Then, click a lens mode button for mode assignment. The lens mode cannot be
changed by clicking the assignment button.
When you click the selected assignment button again, the assignment function is
released. The assigned mode remains stored in memory even after turning off
the power supply.
(e) In the ZOOM and DIFF modes, HC or HR mode is selectable by the radio button in the
HC/HR select group shown in Fig. 3-39. Appearance of a dot in the center of each
radio button denotes selection of the button. For each of the HC and HR modes, 3
BD systems (BH, BT) are selectable (HC-1, HC-2, HC-3, HR-1, HR-2 and HR-3
switches in Fig. 3-39).
Fig. 3-39
HC/HR select Group
3 - 25
3.3
Operate Menu (Hitachi H-7650 control window)
HC mode
ZOOM-1 (×200 to ×200,000)
F-ZOOM (same magnification as in ZOOM-1): Analysis kit
(option)
ZOOM-2 (×200 to ×200,000)
DIFF (0.05 m to 8.0 m)
F-DIFF (same camera length as in DIFF): Analysis kit
(option)
HR mode
ZOOM-1 (×4,000 to ×600,000)
F-ZOOM (same magnification as in ZOOM-1): Analysis kit
(option)
ZOOM-2 (×4,000 to ×600,000)
DIF (0.05 m to 2.0 m)
F-DIFF (same camera length as in DIFF): Analysis kit
(option)
LOW MAG mode
(f)
(×50 to ×1,000)
Brightness control/ABS mode
In the Free mode, the brightness (C2 lens current) is constant at different
magnifications.
In the Link mode, the brightness (C2 lens control) is controlled so as to be constant at
magnifications of ×2,000 to ×40,000 in the HC mode.
ABS is a function for controlling the current value on the fluorescent screen so as to
provide a suitable brightness for the exposure level on a film. FULL film size alone is
effective.
ABS setting
ON : Set
OFF : Released
Fig. 3-40
Brightness control/ABS mode Group
(g) Spot number select (Micro)
The spot size can be changed.
button.
Specify a new spot number and then click the Set
S:
T:
Increases the spot size.
Decreases the spot size.
Click
Fig. 3-41
Spot number select (Micro) Group
3 - 26
3.3.1
(3)
Focus step
(a) Clicking Focus step in the Operate menu shown in Fig. 3-42 will open the Focus
step/Defocus amount set window in Fig. 3-43. In this window, a shift of focal point
due to one step of the FOCUS knob (Fig. 3-44) is displayed. This shift is
automatically set for the selected magnification. It is also possible to set a desired
focus step value and defocus amount display function.
Fig. 3-42
Focus step Menu
Fig. 3-43
Focus step/Defocus
amount set Window
FOCUS knob
Fig. 3-44
Right Operation Panel
(b) The amount of defocus from the current in-focus status is displayed in the Defocus
amount indication box shown in Fig. 3-45.
Fig. 3-45
Defocus amount Indication Box
3 - 27
3.3
Operate Menu (Hitachi H-7650 control window)
(c) Double-clicking on section A in Fig. 3-46 will open the Focus step/Defocus amount set
window the same as in (a).
A
Fig. 3-46
Close-up information Window
How to Set Focus Step
1) Select either nm or μm unit by the Unit select button.
Fig. 3-47
2)
Unit select Buttons
Input a step value in the data input box using the scroll bar or keyboard.
allowed within 1 to 9999 nm or 1 to 50 μm.
Focus step input box
Fig. 3-48
Scroll bar
Focus step Input Box
3 - 28
Input is
3.3.1
3)
For registration of the input value, press the Set button. If the input value is
wrong, then press the Cancel button to retrieve the previous value.
Cancellation is valid until the Set button is pressed.
Fig. 3-49
4)
Set/Cancel Buttons
When you change the magnification, the focus step value is reset and the preset
value is taken.
(d) Defocus Amount Display
Whenever turning the FOCUS knob on the right operation panel shown in Fig. 3-44,
the corresponding defocus amount is displayed. When you want to know the defocus
amount with reference to the present in-focus status, reduce the indication of defocus
amount to 0 nm by pressing the Reset button. After that, change the focus by the
FOCUS knob (Fig. 3-44), and a defocus amount will be displayed. In defocus amount
display, a sign “+” indicates underfocus and “-” stands for overfocus.
Defocus amount
Fig. 3-50
Reset button
Defocus amount Indication box
(e) Optimum under focus (when optional film mechanism is provided)
1)
2)
3)
When the optional film mechanism is set, display of the Optimum under focus
group area becomes effective as shown in Fig. 3-52. Click any of OF-1, OF-2
and OF-3 buttons in the Optimum under focus group. The pressed status will be
displayed.
For releasing the optimum focus function, click the OF button which is pressed.
The optimum focus level is linked with the magnification as shown in Fig. 3-51.
You can select an optimum level according to the magnification and specimen.
The optimum focus level changes with the film enlarging ratio and defocus
amount, so set a value that appears to be optimum.
3 - 29
Operate Menu (Hitachi H-7650 control window)
104
OF-3
Defocus (nm)
3.3
103
OF-1
102
OF-2
10
0.1
1
Fig. 3-51
10
100
Magnification (×10)
600
Optimum Underfocus and
Magnification
3 - 30
Fig. 3-52
Optimum under focus
Group
3.3.2
3.3.2
HV Control
Select HV Control from the Operate menu, and a new set of commands will appear as shown in
Fig. 3-53. You can make settings for the accelerating voltage, filament and bias.
Fig. 3-53
(1)
HV Control Menu
ACC. voltage
Clicking ACC. voltage in the Operate menu shown in Fig. 3-54 will open the Acc. voltage
control window in Fig. 3-55. In this window, you can turn on/off the accelerating voltage,
assign a preset value of accelerating voltage and execute flashing as described below.
Fig. 3-54
Acc. Voltage Menu
Fig. 3-55
Acc. voltage control Window
(a) Turning On/Off Accelerating Voltage
Upon clicking the HV ON button in the Acc. voltage control window, the preset
accelerating voltage (refer to (b) below) is applied. The voltage turns off when you
click the HV OFF button.
Fig. 3-56
HV ON/OFF Buttons
3 - 31
3.3
Operate Menu (Hitachi H-7650 control window)
(b) How to Assign a Preset Value of Accelerating Voltage
1)
Enter a preset voltage in the Preset data input box within 0.1 to 120.0 kV (in
0.1 kV steps) with the scroll bar or keyboard. Or specify a preset voltage by
clicking the 40, 60, 80, 100 or 120 kV preset button (20 kV step).
Accelerating voltage
preset button
Accelerating voltage
preset data input box
Scroll bar
Fig. 3-57
2)
HV preset data set Group
For registration of the input value, press the Set button. If the input value is
wrong, then press the Cancel button to retrieve the previous value.
Cancellation is valid until the Set button is pressed. Once a preset voltage has
been assigned, it is automatically applied just by pressing the HV key.
Fig. 3-58
Set/Cancel Buttons
(c) How to Operate Accelerating Voltage Manually
1)
The accelerating voltage can be stepped up and down by clicking the manual
setting buttons in the HV preset data set group.
Step-up button, 1 kV step
Step-up button, 100 V step
Fig. 3-59
Step-down button, 1 kV step
Step-down button, 100 V step
Manual Setting Buttons for Accelerating Voltage
3 - 32
3.3.2
2)
The current accelerating voltage value is displayed in the Present data indication
box.
Present accelerating
voltage indication box
Fig. 3-60
3)
HV preset data set Group
The manually set accelerating voltage value is reset by turning off the
accelerating voltage once. When the voltage is turned on again, the HV preset
voltage will be applied.
(d) How to Set Automatic Accelerating Voltage Setup Time
1)
This time is settable in the data input box for each accelerating voltage range in
the HV setup time group. Set your data using the scroll bar or keyboard.
Automatic accelerating
voltage setup time input box
Fig. 3-61
2)
HV setup time Group
Table 3-2 shows the settable automatic voltage setup time in each accelerating
voltage range. The time is settable in steps of 1 ms/kV.
Table 3-2
Automatic Voltage Setup Time
Accelerating Voltage Range (kV)
Settable Time (ms/kV)
20 to 2500
30 to 2500
40 to 2500
50 to 2500
60 to 2500
0 to 25
26 to 50
51 to 75
76 to 100
101 to 120
3 - 33
Initial Value (ms/kV)
400
600
1000
2000
2500
3.3
Operate Menu (Hitachi H-7650 control window)
(e) Flashing Procedure
1)
When you click the Execute button in the Flashing group, a flashing voltage of
20 kV is output in addition to the present HV. Note, however, that no flashing
voltage will be output when the accelerating voltage is at 0 kV.
Execute button
Fig. 3-62
2)
3)
4)
(2)
Flashing Group
The indicator on the status bar changes during the flashing operation.
Execution of flashing will entail cancellation of FINE voltage output (refer to 3.3.2
(3)) or HV MODULATION when it is active.
For execution of flashing, make sure that the Fil. Current ON/OFF button is turned
off and then click the Execute button.
Filament/Bias
Clicking Filament/Bias in the Operate menu shown in Fig. 3-63 will open the Filament/Bias
control window in Fig. 3-64. In this window, you can assign preset values of filament
voltage and bias voltage, perform manual voltage setting and make settings for the total
filament ON time and emission current (automatic emission current control function).
Fig. 3-63
Filament/Bias Menu
Fig. 3-64
3 - 34
Filament/Bias control Window
3.3.2
(a) How to Change Filament Voltage
1)
2)
The current filament voltage value is displayed in the Present data indication box.
You can step up and down the filament voltage by clicking the manual change
buttons in the Filament group.
Step-up button, 1 V step
Step-up button, 0.1 V step
Fig. 3-65
3)
Step-down button, 1 V step
Step-down button, 0.1 V step
Manual Change Buttons for Filament Voltage
The manually set filament voltage value is reset by turning off the accelerating
voltage once. When the filament voltage is turned on again, the preset voltage
will be applied.
(b) How to Assign a Preset Value of Filament Voltage
The filament voltage rises to the preset level when the filament is turned on after
application of an accelerating voltage.
1)
Assign a preset value of filament voltage in the Preset data input box in the
Filament group. The preset value can be assigned within 0.0 to 40.0 V (in 0.1 V
steps) using the scroll bar or keyboard. In case of the LaB6 filament, its
maximum preset value is marked on the container. In filament voltage setting,
the value should be input.
Filament Preset
data input box
Scroll bar
Fig. 3-66
Filament Group
3 - 35
3.3
Operate Menu (Hitachi H-7650 control window)
2)
For registration of the input value, press the Set button after assignment in above
step 1). If the input value is wrong, then press the Cancel button to retrieve the
previous value. Cancellation is valid until the Set button is pressed.
Fig. 3-67
3)
Set/Cancel Buttons
For output of the preset filament voltage, click the Fil. Current ON button in the
Filament group. When Auto setup is selected in the Filament setup time group
(Auto setup mode), the preset voltage can be output by pressing the HV switch
(Fig. 3-69) again. In the Auto setup mode, the filament voltage automatically rise
to the preset level after application of an accelerating voltage. For turning off the
filament voltage, click the Fil. Current OFF button or turn off the accelerating
voltage.
Fil. Current ON/OFF Buttons
Fig. 3-68
Filament Group
HV switch
Fig. 3-69
4)
Left Operation Panel
When you assign a preset value of filament voltage and select the Auto setup
mode, the filament voltage will automatically rise after application of an
accelerating voltage.
3 - 36
3.3.2
(c) How to Set Total Filament ON Time
The total filament ON time is displayed in the Fil. counter indication box.
should be reset after filament exchange.
1)
The time
Click the Set button, and the total filament ON time setting mode will start.
0:00 button
Fil. counter
indication box
Set button
Scroll bar (hour)
Fig. 3-70
2)
3)
4)
Scroll bar (minute)
Total Filament ON Time Setting Mode
When you press the 0:00 button, the total filament ON time is reset to 0:00.
For changing to a desired time, input is allowed within 0:00 to 999:59 (999 hours
and 59 minutes) (in 1 hour and 1 minute steps) using the scroll bar or keyboard.
Clicking the Set button registers the data entered in step 2) and terminates the
total filament ON time setting mode.
When the total filament ON time exceeds 999:59, it returns to 0:00.
(d) How to Set Filament Voltage Setup Time
You can set a filament voltage setup time and mode (auto or manual) after application
of an accelerating voltage.
1)
Enter a filament voltage setup time in the Setup time input box in the Filament
setup time group. The time is settable within 5 to 999 sec (in 1 sec steps) using
the scroll bar or keyboard.
Setup time input box
Radio button
Scroll bar
Fig. 3-71
2)
Filament setup time Group
When Auto setup is selected in the Filament setup time group, the filament
voltage automatically turns on and rises to the preset level after application of an
accelerating voltage.
3 - 37
3.3
Operate Menu (Hitachi H-7650 control window)
3)
4)
When Manual setup mode is selected in the Filament setup time group, the
filament voltage turns on and automatically rises to the preset level by clicking the
Fil. current ON button in the Filament group after application of an accelerating
voltage.
All the settings in steps 1) to 3) can be registered by clicking the Set button.
(e) How to Assign a Preset Value of Bias Voltage
The preset bias voltage is applied when the filament is turned on after application of an
accelerating voltage.
1)
Assign a preset value of bias voltage in the Preset voltage input box in the Bias
group. The preset value can be assigned within 0 to 1500 V with the scroll bar or
keyboard. The maximum bias voltage value is linked with the accelerating
voltage and it is obtainable by the following equation.
Maximum value = E × (1 + 0.9785 × 10-6 × E)/258.71
When the accelerating voltage is 100 kV, a value of 100 × 103 needs to be
substituted for E in the equation.
Preset bias voltage
input box
Scroll bar
Fig. 3-72
2)
For registration of the input value, press the Set button. If the input value is
wrong, then press the Cancel button to retrieve the previous value.
Cancellation is valid until the Set button is pressed.
Fig. 3-73
3)
Bias Group
Set/Cancel Buttons
The bias voltage automatically rises to the preset level in linkage with application
of an accelerating voltage.
3 - 38
3.3.2
4)
Upon clicking the OFF button in the Beam group, the bias voltage becomes
maximum and the beam current no longer flows. For output of the preset voltage,
click the ON button in the Beam group. When Auto is selected in the Filament
current group, the preset voltage can be output by pressing the HV switch again.
Fig. 3-74
(f)
Beam Group
How to Set Bias Voltage Manually
1)
The bias voltage can be stepped up and down by the manual setting buttons
displayed when Manual is selected in the Filament current group. The variation
width of bias voltage is linked with the accelerating voltage. The following step
values are available at an accelerating voltage of 100 kV.
Setup time input box
Scroll bar
Radio button
Manual setting buttons
for bias voltage
Step-up button, approx. 40 V step
Step-up button, approx. 4 V step
Fig. 3-75
2)
Step-down button, approx. 40 V step
Step-down button, approx. 4 V step
Emission current Group
The current bias voltage value is displayed in the Present bias voltage indication
box in the Bias group.
Present bias voltage
indication box
Fig. 3-76
3 - 39
Bias Group
3.3
Operate Menu (Hitachi H-7650 control window)
3)
The manually set bias voltage value is reset by turning off the accelerating voltage
once. When the bias voltage is turned on again, the preset voltage will be
applied.
(g) Automatic Emission Current Control Function (AECC)
AECC is a function for automatically correcting the bias voltage so that the emission
current is output at the constant level.
1)
Select Auto in the Emission current group and input an emission current value in
the input box. After input, click the Set button at the top right of the window.
Radio button
Fig. 3-77
2)
3)
4)
(3)
Emission current Group
AECC is started shortly after a filament voltage turns on following application of
an accelerating voltage.
When the beam is turned off, AECC will be canceled. When the beam is turned
on again, AECC will be restarted.
When you select Manual in the Emission current group, AECC is released to
allow manual setting of an emission current.
HV fine control
Clicking HV fine control in the Operate menu shown in Fig. 3-78 will open the HV fine
control window in Fig. 3-79. HV fine control is a function for changing the accelerating
voltage (main accelerating voltage) set in the Acc. voltage control window in a range of
-2048 to 2047 V (in 1 V steps) (sub accelerating voltage).
Fig. 3-78
HV fine control Menu
Fig. 3-79
3 - 40
HV fine control Window
3.3.2
(a) How to Set Sub Accelerating Voltage Manually
1)
The sub accelerating voltage can be stepped up and down by clicking the manual
setting buttons in the Sub Acc. voltage group. (These buttons do not function
when the accelerating voltage is turned off).
Manual setting buttons for
sub accelerating voltage
Step-up button, approx. 10 V step
Step-down button, approx. 10 V step
Step-up button, approx. 1 V step
Step-down button, approx. 1 V step
Fig. 3-80
2)
3)
Sub Acc. voltage
The current sub accelerating voltage value is displayed in the Present data
indication box.
The manually set sub accelerating voltage is reset by turning off the accelerating
voltage once. When the accelerating voltage is turned on again, the sub
accelerating voltage is not output.
(b) How to Assign a Preset Value of Sub Accelerating Voltage
1)
Assign a preset value of sub accelerating voltage in the Preset data input box in
the Sub Acc. voltage group. The preset value can be assigned within -2048 to
2047 V using the scroll bar or keyboard.
Preset sub accelerating
voltage input box
Scroll bar
Set/Cancel buttons
Sub accelerating voltage
ON/OFF buttons
Fig. 3-81
2)
Sub Acc. voltage Group
For registration of the input value, press the Set button. If the input value is
wrong, then press the Cancel button to retrieve the previous value.
Cancellation is valid until the Set button is pressed.
3 - 41
3.3
Operate Menu (Hitachi H-7650 control window)
3)
4)
3.3.3
For output of the preset voltage, click the sub accelerating voltage ON button in
the Sub Acc. Voltage group. For turning off the sub accelerating voltage, click
the sub accelerating voltage OFF button or turn off the accelerating voltage.
The sub accelerating voltage turns off if HV Modulation or Flashing is used during
application of the voltage.
Photo setting (applicable only when sheet film camera (option) is set)
Select Photo setting from the Operate menu, and a new set of commands will appear as shown
in Fig. 3-82. You can set conditions necessary for image observation.
Fig. 3-82
(1)
Photo setting Menu
Film information
Clicking Film information in the Operate menu shown in Fig. 3-83 will open the Film
information window in Fig. 3-84. This window is also called by double-clicking section A in
Fig. 3-85. In the window, you can set the information to be printed on a film such as
operator code and serial film number. In addition, the film size is settable here.
Figure 3-85 shows a window displayed when the optional sheet film camera is provided.
When the option is not provided, the window displays MAGNIFICATION (CAMERA
LENGTH), LENS MODE, FOCUS STEP and ACC. VOLTAGE alone.
Fig. 3-83
Film information Menu
Fig. 3-84
3 - 42
Film information Window
3.3.3
A
Fig. 3-85
Close-up information Window
(a) How to Set Information to be Printed on Film
Operator code input box
Serial number input box
Scroll bar
Numbering time input box
Fig. 3-86
1)
2)
3)
Input Area for Information to be Printed on Film
Input an operator code in the Operator code input box using the scroll bar or
keyboard. The operator code is settable within 1 to 9.
Input a serial film number in the Serial number input box using the scroll bar or
keyboard. The serial film number is settable within 0000 to 9999.
The serial film number is independent for each operator code. However, this
number cannot be set for operator code 0. This code is used for indicating the
total number of film exposures. The serial film number for each operator code is
updated after each photographing.
Input a numbering time in the Numbering time input box using the scroll bar or
keyboard. The numbering time is settable within 0.0 to 100.0 sec (in 0.5 sec
steps).
3 - 43
3.3
Operate Menu (Hitachi H-7650 control window)
4)
Input a film comment in the film comment input box in the Film numbering/Auto
print group using the keyboard. A maximum of 20 characters can be input. If a
blank space is input after a comment, input is impossible though the number of
input characters is apparently less than 20. In this case, delete the space by the
DEL key, etc. on the keyboard. The film comment is also independent for each
operator code.
The photographing date (8 characters) and micron bar (8 characters) can be
printed in the comment area by turning on the Date and Micro bar check boxes,
respectively. They are printed following a film comment. Therefore, the length
of film comment is limited to 6 characters at maximum.
Upon changeover to a different operator code, the serial film number and film
comment will change. This means that the film number and film comment are
stored independently for each operator code.
Table 3-3 shows the usable numbering characters.
5)
6)
7)
Table 3-3
Usable Numbering Characters
Numerals
0 to 9
Alphabetic characters
A to Z, a to z
Special characters
[email protected]#$%^&*()-+=[]:;<>,.?/
If any character other than given above is input from the keyboard, a blank space
will be provided in printing.
(b) Contents of Film Numbering Print
600 k× ZOOM 100 kV 0 1234
1)
2)
3)
4)
5)
HITACHI TEM
6)
1)
2)
3)
4)
5)
6)
7)
8)
7)
8)
Magnification or camera length (including unit) ........ 6 characters
Image observation mode .......................................... 4 characters
Accelerating voltage ................................................. 5 characters
Operator code (0 to 9) .............................................. 1 character
Serial film number (0 to 9999) .................................. 4 characters
Comment without auto print selection ...................... 20 characters
By turning on the auto print check boxes, 8-character date and 6-character micron
bar can be printed in the comment area. Therefore, the number of freely
printable characters is given by subtracting the total of auto print characters from
20 characters.
Micron bar line
3 - 44
3.3.3
(c) For registration of the input value, press the Set button. If the input value is wrong,
then press the Cancel button to retrieve the previous value. Cancellation is valid until
the Set button is pressed.
Fig. 3-87
Set/Cancel Buttons
(d) Film select
The film size is selectable by the radio button.
1)
2)
Full/Half
When Full is selected, one exposure field is available on a film. When Half is
selected, two exposure fields are available in half size on a film. Upon selection
of Half, auto focus does not function in exposure of the second field and the
digital camera cannot be used for image observation and recording.
mm size/inch size
You can select mm size or inch size for the film size.
(e) Indication and Setting of Number of Films
In the information area (section A in Fig. 3-88), the number of unexposed films and the
selected film size are indicated. They are updated when films are transferred to the
cassette receiver. The number of unexposed films is settable in the Unexposed film
set group.
A
Fig. 3-88
Close-up information Window
3 - 45
3.3
Operate Menu (Hitachi H-7650 control window)
1)
2)
Put the cassette magazine in the camera chamber and carry out evacuation.
Input the number of unexposed films accommodated in the cassette magazine
into the Unexposed film input box in the Unexposed film set group. A maximum
of 50 films can be set. The input number must coincide with the number of films
loaded in the cassette magazine.
Unexposed film input box
Set button
Fig. 3-89
3)
4)
Unexposed film set Group
By pressing the Set button, the input value is registered and at the same time, the
shield plate of the cassette magazine is automatically fed.
If the input value is wrong, then press the Cancel button to retrieve the previous
value. Cancellation is valid until the Set button is pressed.
Fig. 3-90
(f)
Set/Cancel Buttons
Photo log file
Photographic conditions can be saved in a log file by selecting the ON button in the
Photo log file group. (For details, refer to 3.2.2.)
3 - 46
3.3.3
(2)
Exposure time
Clicking Exposure time in the Operate menu shown in Fig. 3-91 will open the Exposure
time window in Fig. 33-92. In this window, you can set an exposure time (Manual time),
exposure wait time (Exposure time), film feed wait time (Film feed wait) and optimum
electron dose (Optimum density).
Fig. 3-91
Exposure time Menu
Fig. 3-92
Exposure time Window
(a) Select a photographing mode by the Auto exposure time (ATS) or Manual time radio
button in the EXP. mode group. After selection, press the Set button.
Radio button
Fig. 3-93
1)
2)
EXP. mode Group
Selection of Manual time enables you to set a desired exposure time.
For details, refer to (b) below.
When Auto exposure time is selected, the optimum exposure time will be
automatically set on the basis of the optimum electron dose (Optimum density)
and electron dose on the fluorescent screen (Exposure density). Whenever the
electron dose on the fluorescent screen changes, the optimum exposure time is
updated.
3 - 47
3.3
Operate Menu (Hitachi H-7650 control window)
(b) How to Set Exposure Time and Optimum Electron Dose
Once an optimum exposure time is set, it need not be adjusted for each photographing
unless the kind of film is changed or a unique specimen is photographed.
For the first setting, take the following procedure.
Radio button
Fig. 3-94
1)
2)
3)
EXP. mode Group
Click the Manual time radio button in the EXP. mode group and press the Set
button.
Input an exposure time in the Manual time input box using the scroll bar or
keyboard. The exposure time is settable within 0.1 to 1000.0 sec (in 0.1 sec
steps). (For usual photographing, input a value in a range of 2.0 to 4.0 seconds
as a standard.)
Adjust the brightness on the fluorescent screen with the BRIGHT knob (Fig.
3-95). Carry out image recording at different brightness conditions and find the
optimum electron dose (Exposure density). Once you determine the optimum
electron dose, input its value in the Optimum density input box using the scroll bar
or keyboard. (For Optimum density, input a value in a range of 2.5 × 10-11 to
4.5 × 10-11 C/cm2 as a standard.)
PHOTO switch
BRIGHT knob
Optimum exposure
indicator
Fig. 3-95
4)
Right/Left Operation Panels
For registration of the input value, press the Set button. If the input value is
wrong, then press the Cancel button to retrieve the previous value.
Cancellation is valid until the Set button is pressed.
3 - 48
3.3.3
5)
6)
The optimum exposure condition is always arranged when the green lamp of the
optimum exposure indicator (Fig. 3-95) is lit on the right operation panel once the
optimum exposure dose has been set in the above procedure.
Exposure wait time (Exposure wait) stands for a wait time till start of exposure
with the shutter open after the fluorescent screen is moved to the full-open
position. Film feed wait time (Film feed wait) denotes a wait time till film feed
after the shutter closes to terminate exposure. Both wait times are settable
within 0.0 to 10.0 seconds. However, they are set only for special photographing.
Use the initial values for usual photographing.
PHOTO switch
Screen
Full-open
position
BOTTOM
CLOSE
Shutter
OPEN
Film feed
Exposure
wait time
Fig. 3-96
(3)
Exposure time
Film feed
wait time
Film feed
Photographing Sequence
Camera control
Clicking Camera control will call the Camera control window shown in Fig. 3-97. In this
window, you can carry out automatic photographing, film feed and screen control.
Fig. 3-97
Camera control Menu
Fig. 3-98
3 - 49
Camera control Window
3.3
Operate Menu (Hitachi H-7650 control window)
(a) Photographing
When you click the Start button in the Photo group, photographing starts according to
the conditions set in the Exposure time (3.3.3 (2)) and Film information (3.3.3 (1))
windows. Photographing will start even with no contrast on the image (when no
beam is emitted or the beam has been spread fully with the BRIGHT knob for
example). It is therefore necessary to check the image on the fluorescent screen or
with the digital camera in advance. The Focus knob is valid even during
photographing. So avoid manipulating the knob.
(b) The through-focus function serves to take a series of micrographs while automatically
shifting the focus little by little.
1)
Click the Through focus mode ON button in the Through focus group. Input an
offset value in the Offset data input box using the scroll bar or keyboard.
This value determines how much an image is defocused from the in-focus point
for starting sequential photography.
The offset value is settable within -9999 to 9999 nm. For starting from the
overfocus status, the offset value must have a minus (-) sign, and have a plus (+)
sign for starting from the underfocus status.
Through focus mode
ON/OFF buttons
Offset data input box
Set button
Step data input box
Photo number input box
Fig. 3-99
2)
3)
4)
Through focus Group
Input a focus step value in the Step data input box using the scroll bar or
keyboard. This value determines the amount of change in focus after each
photographing. The step value is settable within -9999 to 9999 nm. A minus (-)
step value is required for taking photographs toward the overfocus side. Also for
taking photographs toward the underfocus side, a plus (+) step value needs to be
input.
Input the number of photographs in the Photo number input box using the scroll
bar or keyboard. This number is settable within 1 to 99.
For registration of your input values in 1) to 3), press the Set button.
3 - 50
3.3.3
5)
After registration in 4), click the Through focus mode ON button. Then, press the
PHOTO switch on the right operation panel. Through-focus photography will
start.
Fig. 3-100
6)
Through focus mode ON/OFF Buttons.
The number of films exposed in the through-focus mode is displayed in the
Exposed film indication box. When the set number of films are exposed, the
through-focus function is automatically terminated. This function can also be
stopped by pressing the PHOTO switch on the right operation panel or the screen
button on the left operation panel during photographing.
PHOTO switch
Fig. 3-101
7)
Right Operation Panel
If the cassette magazine becomes empty during through-focus photography, it will
be suspended. In this status (a window for through-focus photography is
displayed and the screen is raised), leak air into the camera chamber and carry
out film exchange to resume through-focus photography. After film exchange,
specify the number of unexposed films with reference to 3.3.3 (1) and click the
Continue button.
Continue button
Fig. 3-102
Through focus Group
3 - 51
3.3
Operate Menu (Hitachi H-7650 control window)
(c) Film feed
All button
Cancel button
Feed button
Auto/Stop buttons
Fig. 3-103
1)
2)
Film feed Group
Upon clicking the Feed button in the Film feed group, the film is fed to the
exposure position. If a film is already fed to the exposure position, it will be fed
from this position to the cassette receiver. Note, however, that when a film is
presently at the first half-size field, it will be fed to the next exposure position.
Clicking the All button will feed all the films yet to be exposed to the cassette
receiver. Clicking the Cancel button will stop film feed.
The Auto/Stop buttons in the Film feed group are used for multiple exposure.
For usual photographing, select Auto. For multi-exposure photography, click the
Stop button with a film fed to the exposure position by clicking the abovementioned Feed button. The film will not be fed after its exposure, so you can
expose it as many times as desired. After completion of multiple exposure, feed
the film by the Feed button or return to the automatic sequence by clicking the
Auto button before the final exposure in multi-exposure photography.
(d) Screen control
The buttons in the Screen control group move the Whole or Spot fluorescent screen
vertically.
Moves the
screen upward.
Fig. 3-104
Moves the screen
downward.
Stops the screen.
Buttons in Screen control Group
(e) Optimum under focus
Refer to 3.3.1 (3)-(e).
3 - 52
3.3.4
3.3.4
Stage
Clicking Stage in the Operate menu shown in Fig. 3-105 will display the Stage control window in
Fig. 3-106.
Start button
Stop button
List button
Offset button
Fig. 3-105
(1)
Stage Menu
Fig. 3-106
In the Specimen position indication box, the present X and Y coordinates of a specimen are
indicated in μm. When you click the List button, the specimen position memory list will
appear. In this list, 20 specimen positions can be stored. A specimen position stored in
memory is indicated by list number on the graphics. By using the scroll bar, 20 specimen
position memories can be checked in this list. When you click the List button again, the
list disappears and the previous display returns.
Memory button
Fig. 3-107
(2)
Stage control Window
Del All button
Delete button
Specimen Position Memory List
How to Store Specimen Position in Memory (see Figs. 3-106 and 3-107)
(a) Determine the specimen position by double-clicking on the graphics.
(b) Move the specimen to the position by clicking the Start button.
3 - 53
3.3
Operate Menu (Hitachi H-7650 control window)
(c) Display the specimen position memory list by clicking the List button.
(d) Select a list number for data storage by clicking it with the mouse.
(e) Click the Memory button. The present specimen position is registered and at the
same time, the list number appears on the graphics.
(f)
Clicking the Delete button after selection of a list number will erase the relevant
memory.
(e) Clicking the Del All button will erase all the specimen positions stored in memory.
(2)
How to Move Specimen (Auto drive) (see Figs. 3-106 and 3-107)
(a) Display the specimen position memory list by clicking the List button.
(b) Select a stored list number by clicking it with the mouse. The selected list number
turns from yellow to green, and the relevant X and Y coordinates in memory are
indicated in the Auto drive input box.
(c) Click the Start button.
X and Y coordinates.
The specimen begins moving to the position determined by the
(d) For movement to a desired coordinate location, input the destination coordinates in the
Auto drive input box using the scroll bar or keyboard. Or click the mouse on the
graphics, and the clicked location will be read in the Auto drive input box. Then, click
the Start button. The specimen will begin moving.
(e) Clicking the Stop button will stop specimen movement.
(3)
Stage control Menu Bar
(a) Holder
You can set a specimen holder to be used.
From the pull-down list, select the model of the holder to be used and set it by pointing.
A check mark will be put before the set holder. As a standard, H-7501SS is set and
other holders are settable when prepared at option. The specimen stage control
method varies with the type of holder. Therefore, setting change is mandatory when
using an optional holder.
3 - 54
3.3.4
(b) Speed
Fig. 3-108
1)
2)
Speed Menu
Auto speed
You can set a moving speed in Auto drive and Search.
Values 10 and 1 stand for maximum and minimum speeds, respectively.
Manual speed
You can determine the moving speed of the specimen stage in manual operation.
Values 10 and 1 stand for maximum and minimum speeds, respectively.
(c) Trace
Fig. 3-109
Trace Menu
Clicking Trace on will activate the trace mode. When this mode is activated, a check
mark is put before it. In this mode, a moving course of the specimen stage can be
traced to allow efficient search for a specimen field of interest. Even after the Stage
control window is closed, the moving course is retained in the trace mode.
However, a moving course of the specimen stage with the window closed will not be
stored in memory.
3 - 55
3.3
Operate Menu (Hitachi H-7650 control window)
1)
2)
Trace on
Validates the trace mode.
Trace off
Invalidates the trace mode.
Fig. 3-110
Trace Mode Window
(d) Search
Fig. 3-111
Search Menu
3 - 56
3.3.4
1)
Search mode
Clicking Search mode will activate the specimen field search mode. When this
mode is activated, a check mark is put before it. At this time, the search area is
displayed on the graphics. This area can be set within 0 to 990 from the X and Y
input boxes in the Search area size group by use of the scroll bar or keyboard.
Search will start when you click the Start button in the Stage control window.
And it will stop when the Stop button is clicked. The moving distance in the Y
direction is automatically corrected in linkage with the magnification, so the entire
visual field can be searched on the fluorescent screen. While the search mode
is selected, the specimen position moving (Auto drive) function does not work.
Graphics
X/Y input
boxes
Search mode Window
Start point
Y μm
Fig. 3-112
X μm
Fig. 3-113
2)
3)
Procedure for Field Search
Start
Starts search.
Same as the Start button in the Stage control window.
Pause
Suspends search.
3 - 57
3.3
Operate Menu (Hitachi H-7650 control window)
4)
5)
Stop
Stops search.
Same as the Stop button in the Stage control window.
Mouse drag mode
When Mouse drag mode is clicked, you can specify a search area and change the
search position by dragging the mouse on the graphics. If Mouse drag mode is
not selected, the search area needs to be set from the X and Y input boxes in the
Search area size group in the Stage control window by using the scroll bar or
keyboard. This area is settable within 40 to 99 μm in steps of 10 μm.
(e) Color (Black/Blue/Red)
You can specify the color of the frame line on the graphics to show the center marker,
cross cursor and search area.
(f)
Limit
This is a function for limiting the specimen tilt angle. The tilt angle varies with the
specimen holder. With the standard specimen holder, the specimen can be tilted up
to 20°. So input is allowed within ±20° for Limit. When 0º is input, the specimen is
not tilted.
Fig. 3-114
Limit Group
3 - 58
3.4.1
3.4
Function Menu (Hitachi H-7650 control window)
This menu contains functions for efficient TEM image observation, etc. Clicking this menu will
present the list shown in Fig. 3-115. If an optional function is added, it will be included in this list.
Fig. 3-115
3.4.1
Function Menu in Hitachi H-7650 control Window
CCD Control (Type A only)
This is a function for controlling the digital camera. Clicking CCD control in the Function menu
shown in Fig. 3-116 will open the CCD control window.
When the Transmission image window
is not displayed, the buttons are indicated in gray and cannot be pressed.
Fig. 3-116
CCD control Menu and CCD control Window
3 - 59
3.4
(1)
Function Menu (Hitachi H-7650 control window)
Histogram Display Area and Image Control Buttons
In the Run status, the histogram and black/white/gamma level are graphically displayed in
real time.
Fig. 3-117
Histogram Display Area
(a) Run button:
Starts the moving picture display of TEM images in the Transmission image window.
When the main fluorescent screen is closed, it will open.
(b) Stop button:
Stops the moving picture display of TEM images in the Transmission image window.
(c) Freeze button:
Stops a moving picture to display it as a still image.
(d) Save button:
Saves a moving picture captured with the Freeze function.
The Save image window shown in Fig. 3-118 appears. Specify a folder, file name
and file type, then click the Save button. For the file type, you can select any of TIFF
format (*.tif), Windows Bitmap format (*.bmp) and JPEG format (*.jpg).
Fig. 3-118
Save image Window
3 - 60
3.4.1
(e) If the histogram peak reaches the right end, the fluorescent screen is automatically
lowered to prevent the digital camera from burning and a system message (Too bright)
appears. In this case, spread the beam to suppress the overall brightness and then
raise the fluorescent screen.
(f)
In image observation at low magnifications, an image may be too bright with the beam
spread to the maximum by the BRIGHT knob on the right operation panel. In such a
case, reduce the beam spot size for use.
(g) When the optional sheet film camera is provided, image observation/recording with the
digital camera is impossible while waiting for recording of the second half-size field.
(2)
Gray control
When you turn on the Auto gray control check box (by placing a check mark), the
histogram is automatically adjusted. When the Auto gray control check box is turned off
(by removing the check mark), you can carry out gray control using Black, White and
Gamma from the histogram at image display.
Fig. 3-119
Gray control Group
(a) Black scroll bar:
Sets the rise of histogram at image display.
(b) White scroll bar:
Sets the fall of histogram at image display.
(c) Gamma scroll bar:
Sets the gray level for image display.
3 - 61
3.4
(3)
Function Menu (Hitachi H-7650 control window)
Camera control
Fig. 3-120
Camera control Group
(a) Auto control
When the Auto control check box is turned on, Auto control is automatically activated
to allow you to fix Live (ms) and change Gain. When the check box is turned off,
you can change the Live, Rec. exp and Integrate values.
(b) Live (ms):
Sets and indicates an image display speed. This speed is settable within 0.1 to
55.6 ms (in 0.1 ms steps) using the keyboard. If a value of 55 or more is input, it is
automatically rounded down to 55.6.
(c) Rec. exp (ms):
Sets and indicates an exposure time for image capture. This time is settable in steps
of 1 ms within 1 to 111 ms and in steps of 111.2 ms within 111.2 to 9896.8 ms using
the keyboard. If a value of 112 or more is input, it is automatically rounded down to a
multiple of 111.2. Note that the maximum value is 9896.8 ms.
(d) Integrate:
Sets and indicates the integrated number of images. This is a function for image
integration to enhance the S/N ratio of captured image.
This number is settable within 1 to 48 using the keyboard. If a value of 49 or more, it
is automatically rounded down to 48.
(e) Gain (0 to 255)
Controls the gain in the camera control unit.
3 - 62
3.4.1
(f)
Default
Returns each of the Gain, Live, Rec. exp and integrate values to the default. This is a
function for setting a exposure time and integrated number of images for image display
and capture.
(4)
TV output
• TV output (Scion board required)
Provides NTSC output from the rear of PC.
function, be sure to turn on this check box.
(5)
For auto focus or any other automatic
Fig. 3-121
TV output Group
Fig. 3-122
Live image Group
Live image
(a) Background correction
This is a function for background correction on a moving picture. Before use of this
function, record a background image with Acquire image. This function serves to
mask burning of the scintillator.
(b) Recursive filter (4 to 8)
Applies a recursive filter.
For the degree of filtering, values 4 to 8 are selectable.
3 - 63
3.4
(6)
Function Menu (Hitachi H-7650 control window)
Rec. image
Fig. 3-123
Rec. image Group
• Background correction
This is a function for background correction on a still image. Before use of this function,
record a background image and dark image with Acquire image. The function serves
to mask burning of the scintillator.
(7)
Acquire image
Fig- 3-124
Acquire image Group
(a) Execute button
When you press this button, the Acquire image mode starts. In this mode, the
scintillator protecting function stops and the Execute button changes to the Acquire
button. Once a background image or dark image is recorded, the normal condition is
retrieved.
(b) Acquire background image
Validated by pressing the Execute button. By selecting this mode and pressing the
Acquire button, a background image is recorded. Before pressing the Acquire button,
adequately spread the electron beam and adjust the TEM brightness so that the peak
of histogram in the CCD control window is brought to almost the center.
Image recording is carried out as many times as Averaging time in (d) and the average
value thus obtained is registered as a background image.
It is recommended to perform this operation once a week.
3 - 64
3.4.2
(c) Acquire dark image
Validated by pressing the Execute button. By selecting this mode and pressing the
Acquire button, a dark image is recorded. Before pressing the Acquire button, close
the fluorescent screen to prevent the electron beam from entering the camera. Image
recording is carried out as many times as Averaging time in (d) and the average value
thus obtained is registered as a dark image.
It is recommended to perform this operation once a week.
(d) Averaging time
Recording is carried out as many times as the set number of recordings and the
average value obtained for each picture element is stored as image data.
3.4.2
Auto Focus (Type A only)
This is a function for correcting the image focus automatically. In response to a positional
deviation of image, which occurs when tilting the electron beam, the electron lenses are
automatically controlled so that the image focus can be corrected without using the FOCUS knob.
Clicking Auto focus in the Function menu shown in Fig. 3-125 will open the Auto focus window.
Fig. 3-125
Auto focus Menu and Auto focus Window
3 - 65
3.4
(1)
Function Menu (Hitachi H-7650 control window)
Focusing condition
You can select any one of just focus and underfocus-side defocus amounts corresponding
to 3 kinds of optimum focuses (OF-1 to OF-3) by the radio button
(
).
Particularly for a thin-sectioned biological specimen, a proper underfocus-side defocus
amount will enhance the contrast to make an image sharper.
(2)
Direction (deg)
The direction of correction is selectable by the radio button (
(3)
).
Defocus:
The underfocus-side defocus amount selected by the radio button in the Focusing condition
group is indicated.
(4)
Focusing times input box:
The number of auto focus operations is settable within 1 to 3 using the
button or
keyboard. (In 3 auto focus operations, correction takes about 3 seconds.)
(5)
Beam tilt input box:
The beam tilt angle is settable within 0.1 to 0.5º by use of the
(Normally use at 0.3º.)
3 - 66
button or keyboard.
3.4.2
For registration of your input value, press the Set button. If the input value is wrong, then
press the Cancel button to retrieve the previous value. Cancellation is valid until the Set
button is pressed.
(6)
Focusing execute
Click the Start button, and auto focus will start. The same operation is activated by
clicking the icon (
) or pressing the AUTO FOCUS switch on the right operation panel.
(7)
Image compare:
The image coincidence degree calculated in image correlation is indicated in the Image
compare box. If the indicated value is 5% or less, auto focus is ineffective. For use of
auto focus, pay attention to the following.
(a) It is recommended to use auto focus at an accelerating voltage of 30 to 120 kV.
(b) Use auto focus under the exposure condition within 5 × 10-12 to 2 × 10-11 C/cm2 (at 1 s).
(At an accelerating voltage of 60 kV, use within 8 × 10-12 to 2 × 10-11 C/cm2 (at 1 s).)
(c) Axial alignment is required. Particularly, the voltage center and objective aperture
center should be aligned exactly, referring to 2.3.2 and 2.2.4.
(d) The following table lists correctable defocus amounts (correctable range) in auto focus
as a reference.
Table 3-4
TEM Magnification and Correctable Range
Accelerating Voltage
TEM Magnification
Correctable Range
60 to 120 kV
* 0.7 to 4.0k
±100 μm max.
60 to 120 kV
* 5.0 to 15k
±50 μm max.
60 to 120 kV
* 20k
±25 μm max.
(e) Auto focus is usable at a magnification of ×100,000 or lower.
(f)
Auto focus may not function properly depending on the feature (pattern) of a specimen
even when the above conditions are satisfied. In such a case, lower the
magnification by a few steps, and then execute auto focus again. (Due to the
characteristic of auto focus, it is recommended to start correction from a lower
magnification.)
3 - 67
3.4
Function Menu (Hitachi H-7650 control window)
(g) Auto focus may not function properly in the HR mode or at image rotation.
(h) Auto focus may not function normally when the Image compare value is low (10% or
less).
3.4.3
(i)
Avoid activating auto focus with no beam emitted.
It may not function normally.
(j)
When the optional sheet film camera is set, auto focus will not function in recording of
the second half-size field.
Digital AMF Condition (Type A only)
Digital AMF is a function for sequentially capturing and saving digital images of 1024 × 1024
pixels in linkage with the stage movement.
With this function, multiple images are joined together after they are captured. If images at
different gray levels are joined together, the joint line may be noticeable. To avoid this as much
as possible, it is recommended to invalidate Auto gray control in the CCD control window before
activation of this function.
Clicking Digital AMF condition in the Function menu shown in Fig. 3-126 will open the Digital
AMF window.
Fig. 3-126
Digital AMF condition Menu and Digital auto multiple frames Window
3 - 68
3.4.3
(1)
Specimen position
The stage coordinates are indicated.
Fig. 3-127
(2)
Specimen position Group
Auto focus link:
When this check box is turned on, auto focus will be executed
(3)
at image capture.
Movement condition
Fig. 3-128
Movement condition Group
(a) Matrix
Set a number of captured images.
1)
2)
3)
4)
Make your setting independently for Horizontal and Vertical.
Settable range : 1 to 4
Default value : 3
Minimum step : 1
(b) Overlap
Set an amount of overlapping between images.
1)
2)
3)
4)
5)
Make your setting independently for Horizontal and Vertical.
Unit
: Pixel
Settable range : 0 to 100
Default value : 5
Minimum step : 0.1
3 - 69
3.4
Function Menu (Hitachi H-7650 control window)
(c) Angle
Set a rotation correction value at stage movement.
1)
2)
3)
4)
(4)
Unit
Settable range
Default value
Minimum step
:
:
:
:
° (degree)
-10 to 10
0.0
0.1
Save condition
Fig. 3-129
Save condition Group
(a) Save path & name
The save path and file name are indicated.
(b) Start counter value
Se an initial value of serial number for Quick save file.
(c) Path button
Clicking this button will open the Save image window shown in Fig. 3-130.
save path and file name.
Fig. 3-130
Save image Window
3 - 70
Set a
3.4.3
(5)
Start Button
Click this button, and sequential image capture will start under the set conditions.
Upon completion of capture, the stage is moved to the position at start and a system
message appears as shown in Fig. 3-131.
(a) Figure 3-132 shows the sequence of image capture.
(b) When the Start button is clicked with CCD in the Stop or Freeze status, it is put in the
Run status.
(c) You can capture as many images as the number set for Matrix in the Movement
condition group.
(d) Images are saved in the save path and file name specified in the Save condition
group. After saving, Start counter value is automatically updated. Note that the
value is updated to 0 after it reaches 9999.
Fig. 3-131
Fig. 3-132
System message Window
②
①
④
③
Sequence of Image Capture and Image Check
3 - 71
3.4
(6)
Function Menu (Hitachi H-7650 control window)
Check Button
Click this button, check of the image capture position will start under the set conditions.
Upon completion of check, the stage is moved to the position at start and a system
message appears as shown in Fig. 3-131.
(a) Images are checked in the same sequence as for image capture.
Refer to Fig. 3-132.
(b) When the Check button is clicked with CCD in the Stop or Freeze status, it is put in the
Run status.
(c) You can check as many images as the number set for Matrix in the Movement
condition group.
(7)
Stop Button
(a) When the Stop button is clicked during image capture, the processing is halted and
the stage stops at the present position.
(b) When the Stop button is clicked during image check, the processing is halted and the
stage moves to the check start position.
(8)
Position Display Area
As shown in Fig. 3-133, the positions obtained according to your setting for Matrix in the
Movement condition group are graphically displayed. The position at which image capture
and check has been finished is discriminated by color.
Position where processing
has been finished
Position where processing
has not been finished
Fig. 3-133
Position Indication Area
3 - 72
3.4.4
(9)
As shown in Fig. 3-134, you can specify an area to be skipped at image capture and check
by clicking the relevant position. The specified position is discriminated by color.
Fig. 3-134
Selection of Area to be Skipped
(a) You can cancel the selection by clicking the position specified as a skip area again.
(b) The skip area can be specified even during the course of image capture/check.
3.4.4
AMF condition (applicable only when sheet film camera (option) is set)
AMF is a function for sequentially photographing adjacent visual fields with sheet films in linkage
with the stage movement. This option is selectable when the film camera kit is provided.
Clicking AMF condition in the Function menu shown in Fig. 3-135 will open the AMF window.
Fig. 3-135
AMF condition Menu and AMF Window
3 - 73
3.4
(1)
Function Menu (Hitachi H-7650 control window)
X-sheet/Y-sheet Input Boxes
Input a number of exposures, or film sheets in each of the X and Y directions using the
scroll bar or keyboard.
You can input an odd number within 1 to 11. After input with the keyboard, be sure to
press the Enter key. When the input number is valid, an exposure field image will be
graphically displayed.
In addition, you can specify an unnecessary area for recording by moving the mouse cursor
to the exposure field image on the graphics and clicking it.
Fig. 3-136
(2)
Specimen position and X/Y-sheet Input Boxes
Check Button
By clicking this button, the photographing area specified by X-sheet and Y-sheet can be
checked while moving it field by field. Clicking the Stop button during check will stop the
check mode and retrieve the initial position.
(3)
Start Button
In response to clicking of this button, sequential photography starts.
During photographing, avoid changing the brightness, exposure time, emission current, etc.
which concern the photographic density of film, otherwise the density would become
uneven among the fields.
The amount of overlapping between fields is automatically set. Clicking the Stop button
during photographing will stop the photographing mode and retrieve the initial position.
(4)
If Check or Start cannot be executed (continued), any of the following messages will
appear in the message area.
(a) AREA ERROR
The specified photographing area is wider than the movable range of the specimen
stage. Narrow the photographing area.
(b) MAG ERROR
Photographing is impossible at the present magnification.
3 - 74
3.4.4
(c) MODE ERROR
Photographing is impossible in the present lens mode.
MAG mode.
Select the ZOOM or LOW
(d) FILM SIZE ERROR
Half size is selected.
Change to full size.
(e) NO FILM
There is no unexposed film.
refer to 4.3.3.
(f)
Carry out film exchange.
For the exchange procedure,
EVAC WAIT
The evacuation system is not at a high vacuum during film exchange, etc.
(g) AMF FINISHED
The AMF mode has been finished.
(h) SHEET SETTING ERROR
The number of film sheets in the X or Y direction cannot be set.
and input a proper value.
(i)
STAGE BUSY
The stage unit is under motion.
(j)
Check the set value
Stop the stage.
CAMERA BUSY
The camera unit is now working. Wait until image recording, through-focus
photography, film feed or any other camera work is terminated.
NOTE: If the number of remaining unexposed film sheets is insufficient for the set number of
exposures, “NO FILM” appears at the bottom right of the window after exposure of the
final sheet.
3 - 75
3.4
Function Menu (Hitachi H-7650 control window)
3.4.5
Digital Low Dose Condition (Type A only)
The low dose function is intended to reduce specimen damage due to electron beam irradiation.
The field to be photographed can be protected from electron beam irradiation during focusing,
astigmatism correction and axial alignment, which are to be carried out in an area near the one to
be photographed. Thus, you can minimize irradiation of the electron beam to the inside of the
field to be photographed.
Upon execution of photographing, the electron beam is irradiated to the field to be photographed
on a specimen, an electron microscope image is recorded with the TV camera and it is stored as
digital data. A series of operations can be performed on the Digital low dose condition window.
Clicking Digital low dose condition in the Function menu shown in Fig. 3-137 will open the Digital
low dose condition window.
Fig. 3-137
(1)
Digital low dose condition Menu and Digital low dose condition Window
Photographing Wait Time Input
You can input a wait time till execution of photographing following electron beam irradiation
to the area to be photographed on a specimen after magnification and axial data are set for
low dose photographing conditions. The wait time is given by adding the input value for
Delay time to that for Blanking wait. Note that the minimum wait time is 0 second.
3 - 76
3.4.5
(a) Delay time:
Input a time period till start of photographing after magnification and axial data are set
for low dose photographing conditions. This time is settable within -100.0 to 100.0
seconds. When you want to use beam blanking as a shutter, input a negative value.
Photographing will start before beam blanking is released. In this case, however,
photographing may not be carried out normally due to a lack of exposure time
according to the Live time set in the CCD control window. So check the Live time and
input an optimum exposure time.
(b) Blanking wait:
Input a wait time till releasing of beam blanking after magnification and axial data are
set for low dose photographing conditions. This time is settable within 0 to 100.0
seconds.
(2)
Set Button
Validates the input in (1) above. When the sum of input values for Delay time and
Blanking wait is a negative value, the input value for Blanking wait is automatically adjusted
so that the sum becomes 0.
(3)
Cancel Button
Invalidates the input in (1) above and retrieves the previous value (value validated by the
Set button).
(4)
Mode select
Lens conditions, etc. in each low dose mode can be output by clicking the Scan, Focus and
Photo buttons. For changing the output condition, it is necessary to carry out
magnification changeover and brightness adjustment as in usual operation with any one
mode selected. The final status is stored as conditions in each mode. Note that the
conditions are not stored in any other lens mode than ZOOM-1. To minimize specimen
damage, avoid changing the lens mode in process of low dose observation/photography.
Fig. 3-138
Mode select Group
3 - 77
3.4
Function Menu (Hitachi H-7650 control window)
(a) Scan button
Clicking this button will select the Scan mode. This mode is used for selecting the
field of view. Arrange a dark state at a low magnification in the Zoom-1 mode in order
to minimize specimen damage.
(b) Focus button
Clicking the Focus button will select the Focus mode. This mode is used for focusing
and astigmatism correction. Set a magnification 2 to 3 times higher than for
photographing. Upon selection of the Focus mode, image shift X and Y values are
automatically output and the electron beam is shifted from the field to be photographed
on a specimen.
(c) ISF-X/ISF-Y input boxes
You can input image shift (ISF) values in the Focus mode within -10.0 to 10.0 μm in
both X and Y directions. Make setting so that the electron beam is not irradiated to
the field to be photographed on a specimen.
(d) Photo button
Clicking the Photo button will select the Photo mode. This mode is used for setting
the magnification for photographing with a low dose. Set a photographing
magnification as in usual operation.
(e) Focus link:
For photographing with a low dose, you can select or avoid focusing current correction
(Focus link) in response to magnification change. The focus is changed in response
to magnification change in execution of Low dose expose from the Focus mode.
When Focus link is avoided, the same focusing current adjusted in the Focus mode
will be output at the time of photographing.
3 - 78
3.4.5
(5)
Expose
Fig. 3-139
Expose Group
(a) Auto focus link
Upon pressing the Execute button, auto focus is executed before photographing.
(b) Execute button
Selecting a low dose mode will validate the Execute button. By clicking this button,
photographing is executed in the mode selected in the Mode select group. Note that
the photographing operation differs depending on the selected mode.
Table 3-5
Operation when Execute Button is Clicked
Mode
(6)
Operation
Scan
Photographing is executed in Scan mode.
Focus
Photographing is executed in Photo mode.
the mode is changed to Focus mode.
Photo
Photographing is executed in Photo mode.
Upon completion of photographing,
Save condition
Fig. 3-140
Save condition Group
(a) Save path & name
The location and file name for saving the photographed image are indicated.
(b) Start counter value:
Set a serial number of file name.
3 - 79
3.4
Function Menu (Hitachi H-7650 control window)
(c) Path button
This button opens a window for setting a location for saving the photographed image.
The Save image window shown in Fig. 3-141 will open. Specify a saving location and
file name.
Fig. 3-141
(7)
Save image Window
How to Use Digital low dose
Given below is how to use Digital low dose.
(a) With no specimen inserted, click the Scan button in the Digital low dose condition
window to activate the Scan mode.
(b) Change to the magnification at which field selection is possible, and turn the BRIGHT
knob on the right operation panel until the image is darkened to an observable limit.
(c) Insert a specimen to be observed.
(d) Move to the specimen area not to be photographed using the specimen goniometer
stage.
(e) Click the Photo button in the Digital low dose condition window to activate the Photo
mode.
(f)
Set a photographing magnification.
(g) Carry out image capture in the specimen area not to be photographed, and adjust the
brightness properly. In the Photo mode, the magnification and brightness in this state
are reproduced.
3 - 80
3.4.5
(h) Click the Scan button in the Digital low dose condition window to activate the Scan
mode.
(i)
Using the specimen goniometer stage, adjust the position so that the field to be
photographed is brought to the center of the image display area.
(j)
Click the Focus button in the Digital low dose condition window to activate the Focus
mode. The field of view will shift automatically through image shift as much as the
ISF-X and ISF-Y values at the right of the button.
(k) Focus the beam within the focus-adjustable range. If the beam is excessively
spread, it will be irradiated to the field to be photographed. It is therefore
recommended to focus the beam as far as possible.
(l)
Adjust the focus on the field in the Focus mode.
(m) Click the Execute button in the Exposure group. The Photo mode is activated
automatically to carry out image capture. Photographing and exposure are carried
out at the timing based on Delay time and Blanking wait. The image is saved in the
path and file name specified in the Save condition group. After completion of image
capture, the Focus mode is retrieved.
3 - 81
3.4
Function Menu (Hitachi H-7650 control window)
3.4.6
Low Dose Condition (applicable only when sheet film camera (option) is set)
The low dose function is intended to reduce specimen damage due to electron beam irradiation.
When the condition is preset for each mode, the field to be photographed can be protected from
electron beam irradiation during focusing, astigmatism correction and axial alignment, which are
to be carried out in an area near the one to be photographed. Thus, an electron microscope
image can be recorded with minimum specimen damage in the field to be photographed.
Clicking Low dose condition in the Function menu shown in Fig. 3-142 will open the Low dose
condition window. This window can also be called by clicking the icon (
). Note that the
menu and icon cannot be selected unless the optional sheet film camera is set.
Fig. 3-142
(1)
Low dose condition Menu and Low dose condition Window
Mode select
Fig. 3-143
Mode select Group
(a) Lens conditions in each mode can be set by clicking the Scan, Focus and Photo
buttons. For changing the set condition, it is necessary to carry out magnification
changeover and brightness adjustment as in usual operation with any one mode
selected. The final status is stored as conditions in each mode. The same modes
are also selectable by the LOW DOSE switch on the right operation panel.
3 - 82
3.4.6
(b) Scan mode
Arranges the viewing conditions for selecting the field of view. Usually, a dark state is
arranged at a low magnification in the ZOOM mode in order to minimize specimen
damage. For field selection in the Diff mode, the viewing conditions in this mode can
be registered.
(c) Focus mode
Arranges the viewing conditions for focusing and astigmatism correction. Usually, a
magnification for focusing with a low dose is set 2 or 3 times higher than for
photographing. Upon selection of the Focus mode, image shift X and Y values are
automatically output. In the ISF-X and ISF-Y input boxes, you can input image shift
(ISF) values in the Focus mode. Input a value within -10.0 to 10.0 μm in both X and
Y directions using the
button or keyboard.
(d) Photo mode:
Arranges the conditions for photographing with a low dose. A photographing
magnification needs to be set in the relevant window. The Focus link check box
allows you to select or avoid focusing current correction (Focus link) in response to
magnification change. By turning on the Focus link check box, you can set the LINK
function between the focusing (OBJ) current and Focus mode. If Focus link is
avoided, the same focusing current adjusted in the Focus mode will be output at the
time of photographing. Focus and Photo conditions can be registered in the same
lens mode (HC, HR, ZOOM or DIFF).
(2)
Delay time Input Box:
A time period till opening the exposure shutter can be input with reference to the beam
blanking end time point. Input a desired value within -100.0 to 100.0 seconds using the __
button or keyboard. When a minus (-) value is input, the shutter will open first, and then
exposure will start at the end of beam blanking.
(3)
Blanking wait Input Box:
A time period from film feed for photographing to release of beam blanking can be input.
Input a desired value within 0.0 to 100.0 seconds using the
button or keyboard.
(4)
LD exp. time Input Box:
An exposure time period in low-dose photography can be input.
within 0.1 to 1000.0 seconds using the
button or keyboard.
3 - 83
Input a desired value
3.4
Function Menu (Hitachi H-7650 control window)
3.4.7
API condition (specimen damage minimizing function)
API (Auto Pre-Irradiation) is a function for preparatory irradiation intended to prevent drift and
damage of a specimen due to its heat exchange by acclimatizing the specimen to the electron
beam before image observation or recording when the specimen is a beam-sensitive biological
one.
Clicking API condition in the Function menu shown in Fig. 3-144 will open the API condition
window. This window can also be opened by clicking the icon (
).
Fig. 3-144
(1)
API condition Menu and API condition Window
Mode select
The API function has Whole mode, Frame mode and Area mode. These modes are
usable in combination with one another. When two or mode modes are selected, they will
be executed in the order of Whole, Frame and Area.
Fig. 3-145
Mode select Group
3 - 84
3.4.7
(a) Whole mode:
In this mode, the entire field is irradiated with the electron beam. First, the beam is
spread beyond the fluorescent screen, and then gradually focused with time.
The diameter of the finally focused beam needs to be adjusted by the BRIGHT knob
on the left operation panel and then registered.
Electron beam
Electron
beam
Electron beam irradiation
area with beam spread
Fluorescent
screen
Area irradiated with
spot beam
Fig. 3-146
Specimen
surface
Schematic Diagram of Whole Mode (pre-irradiation function)
(b) Frame mode:
The electron beam is scanned along the perimeter of the area to be irradiated.
The spot diameter of this electron beam needs to be adjusted by the BRIGHT knob on
the left operation panel, and then registered.
Electron
beam
Spot moving
course
Fluorescent
screen
Fig. 3-147
Schematic Diagram of Frame Mode
3 - 85
3.4
Function Menu (Hitachi H-7650 control window)
(c) Area mode:
The entire area of microscopic interest is irradiated by scanning the electron beam.
While keeping the beam diameter constant, the beam is moved toward the inside of
the area. The spot diameter of the electron beam needs to be registered by using the
BRIGHT knob.
Electron
beam
Spot moving
course
Fluorescent
screen
Fig. 3-148
(2)
Schematic Diagram of Area Mode
Beam size [C2]
Fig. 3-149
Beam size [C] Group
(a) The Set button for Whole registers the diameter (current value) of the electron beam
finally focused in the Whole mode. Adjust the beam diameter by the BRIGHT knob
on the left operation panel and press the Set button for Whole.
(b) The Set button for Frame/Area registers the diameter (C2 current value) of the
electron beam used in the Frame/Area mode. Determine the beam diameter by the
BRIGHT knob and press the Set button for Frame/Area.
(c) The beam diameter (current value) in the Whole mode, which is to be determined by
the BRIGHT knob, has a restriction that it cannot be set on the underfocus side from
the spot status.
3 - 86
3.4.7
(3)
Scan position
The P1, P2 and P3 buttons in the Scan position group are used to determine the irradiation
area in the Frame and Area modes. Each coordinate point is based on the center of the
fluorescent screen.
(a) On the left operation panel, set the multi-knob to BH.
(b) Turn the multi-knob so that the beam center comes to the P1 point, and press the P1
button. The P1 point is now registered, and the X and Y coordinates of BH are
displayed.
(c) In the same way as above, bring the beam center to the P2 and P3 points, and press
the P2 and P3 buttons. After specification of 3 points for an irradiation area, the
fourth point will be automatically calculated.
Start position of
preparatory irradiation
P1
Irradiation area
P2
Fig. 3-150
Scan position
Spot moving course
Fig. 3-151
(4)
P3
Determination of Irradiation Area in
Frame/Scan Mode
Repeat data input box:
You can input a number of repetitions within 1 to 10 using the
(5)
button or keyboard.
Speed data input box:
You can input a scan speed within levels 1 to 3 using the
button or keyboard.
When the Whole mode is combined with the Frame or Area mode in the Mode select group,
the set number of repetitions is applied to the Frame or Area mode. This means that the
Whole mode will be executed only once.
3 - 87
3.4
Function Menu (Hitachi H-7650 control window)
(6)
3.4.8
Click the Start button, and the API function will be executed. However, an error buzzer
sound is emitted 3 times and the API function will not be executed if an invalid value is set
for any parameter. So input each parameter value correctly in the procedure instructed in
(3) and (4). The API function can be stopped by clicking the Stop button during execution
of this function.
PDS condition
The PDS (Personal Data Set) condition function is available for storing (registering) lens system
conditions and beam deflector system conditions. The conditions stored with this function can
be called up for setting the lens system and the beam deflector system.
As shown in Fig. 3-152, select “PDS condition” from the Function menu. The Personal data set
(PDS) window will then appear. Alternatively, you can open this window by clicking the
icon.
Condition lists
Fig. 3-152
(1)
PDS condition Menu Item and Personal data set (PDS) Window
PDS condition Lists
Up to 20 PDS condition lists can be stored. Using the scrollbar, you can check all the list
names in the PDS window. To select a list, click its name. The name of the selected list
will be highlighted in blue.
(a) Load button:
Pressing this button calls up the currently selected PDS condition list and sets up the
lens/beam deflector system conditions specified in it. In this step, the present
lens/beam deflector system conditions will be overwritten. As required, store the
present lens/beam deflector system conditions as a PDS condition list beforehand.
3 - 88
3.4.8
(b) Save button:
Pressing this button stores the current lens/beam deflector system conditions as a
PDS condition list. A name entered in the List name box is assigned to this PDS
condition list.
(c) Check button:
Pressing this button presents the detailed information regarding the currently selected
PDS condition list. Thus, you can view its contents in the PDS check window shown
below. To close the PDS check window, click the Return button on it.
Fig. 3-153
PDS Check Window
(d) Delete button:
Pressing this button removes the currently selected PDS condition list. Note that if
the check box of “List delete protect” is turned on (
), it is not allowed to delete the
selected PDS condition list. For its removal, turn off the check box of “Lost delete
protect” and then click the Delete button.
(e) List name:
In this text box, enter a list name for storing the present lens/beam deflector system
conditions. A list name may be up to 12 alphanumeric characters long.
After entering a list name, you can edit it using the mouse.
3 - 89
3.4
Function Menu (Hitachi H-7650 control window)
(f)
Auto date:
With this check box turned on (
), the date and time is automatically updated at the
time of storing the present lens/beam deflector system conditions.
(g) List delete protect:
With this check box turned on (
), the stored PD condition list concerned cannot be
deleted.
(The Delete button becomes ineffective.)
(2)
Backup Button:
Using this button, you can save a group of 20 PDS condition lists onto a floppy disk (FD) or
hard disk (HD).
Note that if the remaining free space of HD becomes insufficient, a trouble may occur in
operation of the TEM system program. For saving ten or more groups of PDS condition
data, use floppy disks.
(a) Clicking the Backup button opens the PDS data backup window shown below.
Fig. 3-154
PDS data backup Window
(b) In the File name input box, enter a file name through the keyboard, and then click the
Save button. Thus, a group of 20 PDS condition lists can be saved as a backup file.
3 - 90
3.4.8
(3)
Restore Button:
Using this button, you can call up PDS data saved in a FD or HD and add it as an
applicable PDS condition list.
(a) Clicking the Restore button opens the PDS data load window shown below.
Fig. 3-155
PDS data load Window
(b) Select the file to be called up, or enter its name in the File name input box through the
keyboard. Then, click the Open button, and the PDS data concerned will then be
added as an applicable PDS condition list.
(4)
Create Button:
Using PDS data (“mdb” file), you can create the following two text files to be used for data
management. To prevent inadvertent overwriting, rename the files names just after their
creation.
(a) PDS_sp.txt :
(b) PDS-tb.txt :
(5)
A text file in which space characters are used as delimiters in data.
A text file in which tab characters are used as delimiter in data.
Print Button:
Clicking this button prints out a text file. Note that the Print button can be made active
only where the printer driver has been set up.
3 - 91
3.4
Function Menu (Hitachi H-7650 control window)
3.4.9
EVAC control
The EVAC control function is available for displaying the current states of the evacuation system.
In the graphic display on the EVAC control window, the AIR state is indicated in red, the CLOSE
state in yellow, and the EVAC state in blue. The current vacuum level of each block and the
temperatures of the DP-1 and DP-2 are always indicated also.
As shown in Fig. 3-156, click “Evac control” on the Function menu. The EVAC control window
will then appear. Alternatively, you can open this window by clicking the
icon.
Fig. 3-156
(1)
Evac control Menu Item and EVAC control Window
The Sequence select field indicates the Auto or Manual mode of the evacuation valve
sequence.
(a) Auto mode:
Select this mode for common practice.
Full-automatic evacuation is performed.
(b) Manual mode:
This mode is to be used for maintenance servicing. Since the Manual mode is
password-protected, it is not allowed for the user to select the Manual mode in
common practice.
3 - 92
3.4.9
(2)
Figure 3-157 shows the EVAC control window of the Dry evacuation version (option).
In the Dry evacuation version, the electron gun and microscope column are evacuated by
the turbo molecular pump. The observation chamber and camera chamber are evacuated
by the oil diffusion pump.
Modified
Fig. 3-157
(3)
Evac control Window (Dry evacuation version)
The PR (plate reservoir) is available as an option.
3 - 93
3.4
Function Menu (Hitachi H-7650 control window)
3.4.10
Lens control
The Lens control function allows you to view each lens current and select a lens for adjusting its
current. To increase/decrease each lens current, use the DIFF SPOT knob equipped on the
right operation panel.
As shown in Fig. 3-158, click “Lens control” on the Function menu. The Lens control window
will then appear. Alternatively, you can open this window by clicking the
icon.
Fig. 3-158
(1)
Lens control Menu Item and Lens control Window
In the Lens current field of the Lens control window, click one of the Aux1, Cl, ... P2 buttons.
Thus, each current value of the Aux1 to P2 lenses can be changed. When one of the lens
buttons is clicked for selection, the graphic element corresponding to the selected lens is
highlighted in red. In this state, the lens current concerned can be adjusted using the
DIFF SPOT knob on the right operation panel. To deselect the lens button being selected,
just click it again. Since the current value of each lens is linked with an accelerating
voltage, the maximum allowable current value varies depending on the accelerating voltage
being applied. Note that when the accelerating voltage function is turned off, it is not
allowed to set up a lens current. Shown below is a list of maximum allowable current
levels corresponding to accelerating voltages to be used in common practice.
NOTE: The Aux1 lens is optionally available.
Its selection is not accepted unless it is provided.
3 - 94
3.4.10
Table 3-6
(2)
Maximum Allowable Lens Current Levels
120 kV
100 kV
80 kV
70 kV
60 kV
50 kV
AUX1
1.878 A
1.700 A
1.506 A
1.455 A
1.293 A
1.175 A
C1
1.878 A
1.700 A
1.506 A
1.455 A
1.293 A
1.175 A
C2
1.878 A
1.700 A
1.506 A
1.455 A
1.293 A
1.175 A
OBJ
2.144 A
1.940 A
1.719 A
1.661 A
1.475 A
1.340 A
OM
0.559 A
0.506 A
0.449 A
0.418 A
0.385 A
0.350 A
Int1
1.878 A
1.700 A
1.506 A
1.455 A
1.293 A
1.175 A
Int2
1.878 A
1.700 A
1.506 A
1.455 A
1.293 A
1.175 A
P1
1.878 A
1.700 A
1.506 A
1.455 A
1.293 A
1.175 A
P2
1.878 A
1.700 A
1.506 A
1.455 A
1.293 A
1.175 A
Mini Reset Button:
Clicking this button sets up 0.0 A for a lens with its check box turned on (
(3)
).
Max Rest Button:
Clicking this button sets up a maximum allowable current value corresponding to each
accelerating voltage for a lens with its check box turned on (
). For maximum allowable
current levels corresponding to accelerating voltages, refer to Table 3-6.
(4)
Scroll bar adjust
As in the above item (2), you can adjust each selected lens current in this field.
(5)
Set Button
Clicking this button sets up the lens current being indicated.
Fig. 3-159
Scroll bar adjust and Set Button
3 - 95
3.4
(6)
Function Menu (Hitachi H-7650 control window)
Reset Switch
Using the LENS Reset switch on the left operation panel, you can reset lens current values
changed in the above items (2) to (5).
LENS Reset switch
Fig. 3-160
Left Operation Panel
NOTE: If a lens current is changed with a specimen inserted, the specimen may be damaged or
a burn-in may occur on the fluorescent coating of the screen. To prevent this, take
care not to leave a specimen inserted.
3.4.11
BD control
The BD control function is available for controlling a current applied to the beam deflector (BD)
coil.
As shown in Fig. 3-161, click “BD control” on the Function menu. The BD control window will
then appear. Alternatively, you can open this window by clicking the
icon.
Fig. 3-161
BD control Menu Item and BD control Window
3 - 96
3.4.11
(1)
In the BD data field of the BD control window, click one of the GH, GT, ... PA buttons.
Thus, the BD to be controlled can be selected. When one of the coil buttons is clicked,
the graphic element corresponding to the selected coil is highlighted in red. To deselect
the coil button being selected, just click it again. Using the ALIGNMENT select switch on
the right operation panel, you can also select BH, BT, CS or OS. The output value of
each coil can be adjusted in the range of –2048 to 2047 by turning the multi-knob X on the
left operation panel or the multi-knob Y on the right operation panel.
(2)
Clicking the screen size change button
presents a row of lens buttons for BD coil
selection as shown in Fig. 3-162. Fore restoration, click the button
.
Fig. 3-162
(3)
BD Coil Selection
Reset Button:
Clicking this button resets a BD with its check box turned on (
(4)
).
Scroll bar adjust
As in the above item (2), you can adjust the output value of the BD coil being selected.
(5)
Set Button
Clicking this button sets up the output value of the BD coil under adjustment.
Fig. 3-163
Scroll bar adjust and Set Button
3 - 97
3.4
Function Menu (Hitachi H-7650 control window)
3.4.12
OBJ stigma preset
The OBJ stigma preset function is available for storing offset data for correction of objective lens
astigmatism. Up to five offset conditions can be saved for each of HC and HR, i.e., up to ten
offset conditions can be saved in total. Each saved offset conditions can be called up as
required.
As shown in Fig. 3-164, click “OBJ sigma preset” on the Function menu. The OBJ stigma
preset window will then appear. Alternatively, you can open this window by clicking the
icon.
Fig. 3-164
(1)
OBJ sigma preset Menu Item and OBJ stigma preset Window
OS condition [X, Y]:
The Present indication box shows an offset value of objective astigmatism correction being
selected. It can be changed by turning the OS-assigned multi-knob.
(2)
OS preset data [X, Y]
The OS preset data field indicates a list of OS preset data being held in the memory areas
OS-1 to OS-5.
Fig. 3-165
OS preset data [X, Y]
3 - 98
3.4.12
(3)
Save Button:
For saving the Present data of OS condition [X, Y] being indicated, select one of the
memory areas OS-1 to OS-5 of OS present data [X, Y] by turning on its radio button (
),
and then click the Save button. The data thus saved is indicated in the OS preset data
field.
(4)
Load Button:
For loading any existing OS preset data, select its corresponding one of the memory areas
OS-1 to OS-5 of OS preset data [X, Y] by turning on its radio button (
), and then click
the Load button. The data thus loaded is indicated in the Preset indication box of OS
condition [X, Y].
(5)
Note that the amount of change to be made by turning the multi-knob is linked with the
magnification being selected.
Multi-knob
Fig. 3-166
Left and Right Operation Panels
3 - 99
3.4
Function Menu (Hitachi H-7650 control window)
3.4.13
Modulation condition
The Modulation condition function allows you to set up the frequency and amplitude of HV
modulation (voltage center adjustment)/OBJ modulation (current center adjustment).
As shown in Fig. 3-167, click “Modulation condition” on the Function menu. The Modulation
condition window will then appear.
Fig. 3-167
(1)
Modulation condition Menu Item and Modulation condition Window
Modulation select
Select HV modulation or OBJ modulation by turning on its radio button (
the Set button.
), and then click
(a) HV modulation:
Use this function for voltage centering through accelerating voltage adjustment.
(b) OBJ modulation:
Use this function for current centering through objective lens current adjustment.
(2)
Frequency Input Box:
Specify a frequency using the spinner button
or through the keyboard. The allowable
frequency range is 1 to 10 Hz. After specifying a frequency, click the Set button.
3 - 100
3.4.14
(3)
Amplitude Input Box:
Specify an amplitude using the spinner button
or through the keyboard. The allowable
amplitude range is 1 to 10 (amplitude-magnification linkage is provided). After specifying
an amplitude, click the Set button.
(4)
ON/OFF Button:
Clicking the
button starts HV modulation or OBJ modulation which has been turned
on in the Modulation select field. To stop the HV/OBJ modulation, click the
button.
Note that the ON/OFF button is operatively associated with the icon
and the MODU
switch on the right operation panel. Instead of using the ON button, you may click the icon
or press the MODU switch to start HV/OBJ modulation.
3.4.14
Wobbler condition
The Wobbler condition function is available for setting up the frequency, amplitude and azimuth
of wobbler operation and the frequency and amplitude of stigmonitor operation.
As shown in Fig. 3-168, click “Wobbler condition” on the Function menu. The Wobbler condition
window will then appear.
Fig. 3-168
(1)
Wobbler condition Menu Item and Wobbler condition Window
Wobbler select
Select Wobbler, Stigmonitor, or Auto Stigmator by turning its radio button (
click the Set button.
3 - 101
), and then
3.4
Function Menu (Hitachi H-7650 control window)
(a) Wobbler:
Use this function for focus adjustment.
(b) Stigmonitor:
Use this function for astigmatism correction at an intermediate/low magnification.
(c) Auto Stigmator:
Use this function for automatic astigmatism correction at an intermediate/low
magnification.
(2)
Frequency Input Box:
Specify a frequency using the spinner button
or through the keyboard. The allowable
frequency range is 1 to 20 Hz. After specifying a frequency, click the Set button.
(3)
Amplitude Input Box:
Specify an amplitude using the spinner button
or through the keyboard. The allowable
amplitude range is 1 to 10. Set up a wobbler amplitude so that the beam will be within the
bore of the objective movable aperture even when the wobbler is active. After specifying
an amplitude, click the Set button.
(4)
Direction Input Box:
Specify an azimuth (direction) using the spinner button
or through the keyboard.
The allowable azimuth range is 0 to 180°. After specifying an azimuth, click the Set button.
Note that azimuth data cannot be set up under the condition that “Stigmonitor” is selected.
3 - 102
3.4.14
(5)
ON/OFF Button:
Clicking the
button starts Wobbler, stigmonitor, or Auto-Stigmator operation that has
been selected in the Wobbler select field. To stop the operation, click the
button.
Note that the ON/OFF button is operatively associated with the icon
and the WOB
switch on the right operation panel. Instead of using the ON button, you may click the icon
or press the WOB switch to start the Wobbler or Stigmonitor operation. In the
Wobbler/Stigmonitor operation, automatic correction is made so as to provide an almost
uniform degree of amplitude on the fluorescent screen at different magnifications.
WOB switch
Fig. 3-169
(6)
Right Operation Panel
Using the Auto Stigmator
(a) In the Wobbler select field, turn on the radio button (
Then click the Set button.
) of Auto Stigmator.
(b) Connect a digital camera to display an image on the monitor.
(c) Click the
button, or press the WOB button on the right operation panel to start
the Auto Stigmator operation.
(d) The following table shows the astigmatism correction range and operating conditions
for the purpose of reference.
Table 3-7
Astigmatism Correction Range and Operating Conditions
Operating magnification
×1k to ×5k
Operating MODE
HC-ZOOM 1
Accelerating voltage
80, 100, 120 kV
Correction range
2 µm or less
Exposure
8 × 10-12 to 2 × 10-11 A/cm2
3 - 103
3.4
Function Menu (Hitachi H-7650 control window)
(e) Before execution of the Auto Stigmator operation, be sure to perform axial alignment.
For voltage centering and objective aperture centering in particular, perform axial
alignment correctly referring to 2.3.2.
(f)
For some kinds of specimens, normal correction may not be made.
use a specimen that can provide clear features in imaging.
For correction,
(g) If adequate correction cannot be made with the Auto Stigmator operation, repeat
correction as may time as required or perform correction by using the OBJ stigma
preset function. For details of the OBJ stigma preset function, refer to 3.4.12.
(h) Note that the buttons and keys on the operation panel are made nonfunctional during
execution of the Auto Stigmator operation.
(i)
Only the standard camera specified for the H-7650 is applicable.
(i)
Enumerated below are the error messages to be issued:
1)
2)
3)
4)
5)
6)
Mode error.
Issued if the Auto Stigmator operation is attempted in a lens mode other than HCZOOM 1.
Check that the lens mode HC-ZOOM 1 is selected.
Magnification error.
Issued if the Auto Stigmator operation is attempted at a magnification of 5.0k or
higher.
Check that a magnification of less than 5.0k is selected.
Acc. voltage error.
Issued if the Auto Stigmator operation is attempted at an accelerating voltage
other than 80, 100 and 120 kV.
Check that an accelerating voltage of 80, 100 or 120 kV is applied.
Can’t execute with a current condition.
Issued if the Auto Stigmator operation is attempted in a state other than 0° image
rotation.
Cancel an image rotation if it is specified.
AS unit: Cannot correct!
Issued if image features are not clear.
For correction, use a specimen that can provide clear features in imaging.
OS data out of range.
Issued if the amount of astigmatism correction calculated exceeds the allowable
range for correction. Carry out axial alignment. For voltage centering and
objective aperture centering in particular, perform axial alignment correctly
referring to 2.3.2.
3 - 104
3.4.15
3.4.15
Digital image shift
The Digital image shift function allows you to determine the critical dimensions and area of a
specimen through the use of the image shift coil. In CD measurement of a specimen, enter
coordinate points to determine a distance between them. In area measurement, triangle-based
approximation is performed.
Note that this function is suitable for measurement at a high magnification of 10k× or more.
For measurement at a low magnification, use the Specimen scale function.
(1)
Set the multi-knobs X and Y to ISF coil.
(2)
As shown in Fig. 3-170, click “Digital image shift” on the Function menu.
image shift window will then appear.
Fig. 3-170
(3)
The Digital
Digital image shift Menu Item and Digital image shift Window
Length Indication Box:
This box indicates a distance from the reference point to the last specified point on the path
of all the coordinate points specified in succession.
(4)
Border Indication Box:
This box indicates a circumferential length of a closed region on the path of all the
coordinate points specified in succession.
(5)
Angle Indication Box:
This box indicates an angle formed by the last three specified points.
3 - 105
3.4
(6)
Function Menu (Hitachi H-7650 control window)
Area Indication Box:
An area value of a closed region on the path of all the coordinate points specified in
succession is calculated through triangle-based approximation, and the result thus attained
is indicated in this box.
(7)
Specified Point Count Indication Box:
This box indicates the number of specified coordinate points.
are specifiable.
(8)
Start Button:
Clicking this button starts measurement.
this button during measurement.
(9)
Up to 999 coordinate points
All the indicated values can be reset by clicking
Set Button:
Clicking this button defines the current coordinate point.
time is indicated in each indication box.
A value measured at that point of
(10) Undo Button:
Clicking this button resets the last specified point and its corresponding value measured.
Thus, you can return to the previous indications.
(11) How to Measure a Specimen
(a) Using the image shift coil, set the start reference point of the specimen concerned
(point “a” indicated below) to the center of the fluorescent screen. Then, click the
Start button.
d
e
Specimen
(Region under measurement)
c
a
b
Fluorescent screen
Center of fluorescent screen
Fig. 3-171
Specimen Setting at the Start of Measurement
3 - 106
3.4.15
(b) Further, using the image shift coil, bring the next visual field position of interest (point
“b” indicated below) to the center of the fluorescent screen. Then, click the Set
button.
• A distance from the reference point is indicated in the Length indication box.
d
e
c
b
a
Fig. 3-172
Specimen Setting at the Second Measurement Point
(c) Further, using the image shift coil, bring the third visual field position (point “c”
indicated below) to the center of the fluorescent screen. Then, click the Set button.
1)
2)
3)
4)
The Length indication box indicates a distance from the reference point “ab+bc”.
The Border indication box indicates a circumferential length “ab+bc+ca”.
The Angle indication box indicates an angle “∠ abc”.
The Area indication box indicates a triangle area “abc”.
d
e
a
Fig. 3-173
c
b
Specimen Setting at the Third Measurement Point
(d) Further, using the image shift coil, bring the fourth visual field position (point “d”
indicated below) to the center of the fluorescent screen. Then, click the Set button.
1)
2)
The Length indication box indicates a distance from the reference point
“ab+bc+cd”.
The Border indication box indicates a circumferential length “ab+bc+ca+da”.
3 - 107
3.4
Function Menu (Hitachi H-7650 control window)
3)
4)
The Angle indication box indicates an angle “∠ bcd”.
The Area indication box indicates a triangle area “abc” plus a triangle area “acd”.
d
Fig. 3-174
e
c
a
b
Specimen Setting at the Fourth Measurement Point
(e) Repeat the above step in the same manner to set up the last visual field position (point
“e” indicated below). Thus, you can carry out specimen measurement.
If it is desired to make measurement with different visual fields, click the Start button to
reset the data being indicated.
d
e
c
a
Fig. 3-175
b
Specimen Setting at the Fifth Measurement Point
3 - 108
3.4.15
(12) Area calculation with this function is performed though triangle-based approximation.
Therefore, measurement is not allowed if polygons are formed by drawing intersecting lines
from coordinate points as in the example shown in Fig. 3-176, in which coordinate points
are specified in the order of “abcd”.
In such a case, specify the coordinate points in the order of “abcdef” as exemplified in Fig.
3-177. Note that measurement is allowed even if “c” and “f” are located at the same
coordinate point.
c
d
e
d
f
a
Fig. 3-176
b
Measurement not
Allowed (example)
c
a
Fig. 3-177
b
Measurement
Allowed (example)
(13) Calib. Button:
Clicking this button opens the Digital image shift calibration window. Thus, the calibration
mode can be set up for adjusting the amount of movement of the image shift coil.
Regarding the X and Y directions of the image shift coil, perform calibration for each lens
system (reduction lens system, magnification lens system). Two calibration methods are
available; in one method, calibration is made in reference to the size of the fluorescent
screen, and in the other method, calibration is made by measuring a specimen having a
known length.
Fig. 3-178
Digital image shift Calibration Window (1)
3 - 109
3.4
Function Menu (Hitachi H-7650 control window)
(a) Calibration in reference to the size of the fluorescent screen
1)
First, calibrate the reduction lens system ISF-X.
a) Select the lens mode HC:ZOOM, and set up a magnification of 10k×.
b) By moving the stage, bring the reference specimen to the center of the
fluorescent screen.
c) Click the Set1 button.
d) By moving the ISF-X only, bring the reference visual field to an edge position
of the fluorescent screen.
e) In the Calibration input box, specify 10.0 µm (the radius of the fluorescent
screen at a magnification of 10k×). Then, click the Set2 button.
This completes the calibration of the reduction lens system ISF-X.
2)
Then, the calibration mode of the reduction lens system ISF-Y is provided.
Fig. 3-179
Digital image shift Calibration Window (2)
a) By moving the stage, bring the reference specimen to the center of the
fluorescent screen.
b) Click the Set1 button.
c) By moving the ISF-Y only, bring the reference visual field to an edge position
of the fluorescent screen.
d) In the Calibration input box, specify 10.0 µm (the radius of the fluorescent
screen at a magnification of 10k×). Then, click the Set2 button.
This completes the calibration of the reduction lens system ISF-Y.
3 - 110
3.4.15
3)
Then, the calibration mode of the magnification lens system ISF-X is provided.
Fig. 3-180
Digital image shift Calibration Window (3)
a) Select the lens mode HC:ZOOM, and set up a magnification of 50k× (film
magnification).
b) By moving the stage, bring the reference specimen to the center of the
fluorescent screen.
c) Click the Set1 button.
d) By moving the ISF-X only, bring the reference visual field to an edge position
of the fluorescent screen.
e) In the Calibration input box, specify 2.0 µm (the radius of the fluorescent
screen at a magnification of 50k×). Then, click the Set2 button.
This completes the calibration of the magnification lens system ISF-X.
4)
Then, the calibration mode of the magnification lens system ISF-Y is provided.
Fig. 3-181
Digital image shift Calibration Window (4)
a) By moving the stage, bring the reference specimen to the center of the
fluorescent screen.
b) Click the Set1 button.
c) By moving the ISF-Y only, bring the reference visual field to an edge position
of the fluorescent screen.
d) In the Calibration input box, specify 2.0 µm (the radius of the fluorescent
screen at a magnification of 50k×). Then, click the Set2 button.
This completes the calibration of the reduction lens system ISF-Y.
3 - 111
3.4
Function Menu (Hitachi H-7650 control window)
5)
Thus, all the calibration steps has been completed.
store the calibration condition data concerned.
Fig. 3-182
Click the Save button to
Digital image shift Calibration Window (5)
(b) Calibration through measurement of a known specimen
Calibration can also be made by measuring a specimen having a known length.
For this calibration, take procedural steps similar to Item (a) - “Calibration in reference
to the size of the fluorescent screen”.
In this calibration, enter the known length of the specimen in the Calibration input box,
and click the Set2 button at the steps 1)-e), 2)-d, 3)-e), and 4)-d).
3.4.16
Specimen scale
The Specimen scale function allows you to determine the critical dimensions and area of a
specimen through use of the specimen stage. In CD measurement of a specimen, enter
coordinate points to determine a distance between them. In area measurement, triangle-based
approximation is performed.
Note that this function is suitable for measurement at a low magnification of 50k× or less.
For measurement at a high magnification, use the Digital image shift function.
As shown in Fig. 3-183, click “Specimen scale” on the Function menu. The Specimen scale
window will then appear.
Fig. 3-183
Specimen scale Menu Item and Specimen scale Window
3 - 112
3.4.16
(1)
Length Indication Box:
This box indicates a distance from the reference point to the last specified point on the path
of all the coordinate points specified in succession.
(2)
Border Indication Box:
This box indicates a circumferential length of a closed region on the path of all the
coordinate points specified in succession.
(3)
Angle Indication Box:
This box indicates an angle formed by the last three specified points.
(4)
Area Indication Box:
An area value of a closed region on the path of all the coordinate points specified in
succession is calculated through triangle-based approximation, and the result thus attained
is indicated in this box.
(5)
Specified Point Count Indication Box
This box indicates the number of specified coordinate points.
are specifiable.
(6)
Start Button:
Clicking this button starts measurement.
this button during measurement.
(7)
All the indicated values can be reset by clicking
Set Button:
Clicking this button defines the current coordinate point.
time is indicated in each indication box.
(8)
Up to 999 coordinate points
A value measured at that point of
Undo Button:
Clicking this button resets the last specified point and its corresponding value measured.
Thus, you can return to the previous indications.
3 - 113
3.4
(9)
Function Menu (Hitachi H-7650 control window)
How to Measure a Specimen
(a) Using the image shift coil, set the start reference point of the specimen concerned
(point “a” indicated below) to the center of the fluorescent screen. Then, click the
Start button.
d
Specimen
(Region under measurement)
c
e
a
b
Fluorescent screen
Center of fluorescent
screen
Fig. 3-184
Specimen Setting at the Start of Measurement
(b) Further, using the image shift coil, bring the next visual field position of interest (point
“b” indicated below) to the center of the fluorescent screen. Then, click the Set
button.
• A distance from the reference point is indicated in the Length indication box.
d
e
a
Fig. 3-185
c
b
Specimen Setting at the Second Measurement Point
3 - 114
3.4.16
(c) Further, using the image shift coil, bring the third visual field position (point “c”
indicated below) to the center of the fluorescent screen. Then, click the Set button.
1)
2)
3)
4)
The Length indication box indicates a distance from the reference point “ab+bc”.
The Border indication box indicates a circumferential length “ab+bc+ca”.
The Angle indication box indicates an angle “∠ abc”.
The Area indication box indicates a triangle area “abc”.
d
c
e
a
Fig. 3-186
b
Specimen Setting at the Third Measurement Point
(d) Further, using the image shift coil, bring the fourth visual field position (point “d”
indicated below) to the center of the fluorescent screen. Then, click the Set button.
1)
2)
3)
4)
The Length indication box indicates a distance from the reference point
“ab+bc+cd”.
The Border indication box indicates a circumferential length “ab+bc+ca+da”.
The Angle indication box indicates an angle “∠ bcd”.
The Area indication box indicates a triangle area “abc” plus a triangle area “acd”.
d
Fig. 3-187
e
c
a
b
Specimen Setting at the Fourth Measurement Point
3 - 115
3.4
Function Menu (Hitachi H-7650 control window)
(e) Repeat the above step in the same manner to set up the last visual field position (point
“e” indicated below). Thus, you can carry out specimen measurement.
If it is desired to make measurement with different visual fields, click the Start button to
reset the data being indicated.
d
Fig. 3-188
e
c
a
b
Specimen Setting at the Fifth Measurement Point
(10) Area calculation with this function is performed though triangle-based approximation.
Therefore, measurement is not allowed if polygons are formed by drawing intersecting lines
from coordinate points as in the example shown in Fig. 3-189, in which coordinate points
are specified in the order of “abcd”.
In such a case, specify the coordinate points in the order of “abcdef” as exemplified in Fig.
3-190. Note that measurement is allowed even if “c” and “f” are located at the same
coordinate point.
c
d
e
d
f
a
Fig. 3-189
b
Measurement not
Allowed (example)
a
Fig. 3-190
3 - 116
c
b
Measurement Allowed
(example)
3.4.17
3.4.17
Tilt/Azim control (Type A : option)
The Tilt/Azim control function allows you to control stage tilting operation.
As shown in Fig. 3-191, click “Tilt/Azim control” on the Function menu. The Tilt/Azim control
window will then appear.
Fig. 3-191
(1)
Tilt/Azim control Menu Item and Tilt/Azim control Window
Precheck before Use
Before using this function, be sure to check the following conditions:
(a) Referring to Section 2 in this instruction manual, carry out routine axial adjustment.
(b) For 60° tilting, only the standard holder is applicable.
(c) In the use of this function, the specimen position should be kept within the range of
±300. For use with some types of holders, the visual field may be eclipsed at the time
of 60° tilting.
(d) At the time of high-angle tilting, the visual field may be eclipsed. Use a specimen
mesh having a hole part of 50 µm or more. Check beforehand that the visual field will
not be eclipsed by manual tilting.
3 - 117
3.4
Function Menu (Hitachi H-7650 control window)
(e) At the time of saving image data, an overwrite is automatically performed on an
identically named file if it is held at the destination of saving. Check the file names
and locations beforehand. Rename a file or relocate it if necessary.
(f)
In image processing, the accuracy of correction is on the order of a few pixels.
Therefore, at a tilt step of 2° or less, the image formed on completion of correction may
deviate from its original position taken at the start of correction. Check the image that
has been taken in.
(g) Table 1-8 shows the relationship between objective aperture diameters and applicable
magnifications. Select an objective aperture diameter according to the purpose of
observation.
(h) Normal operation is not guaranteed in the use of a specimen having a low contrast or
scarce features.
(2)
Description of Tilt/Azim control Window
The components of the Tilt/Azim control window are described in Table 3-8 with reference
to Fig. 3-192.
1-B
1-A
Control select
2-A
2-B
3-A
3-B
4-A
4-B
Start
5-A
Fig. 3-192
Description of Tilt/Azim control Window
3 - 118
3.4.17
Table 3-8
Code
1-A
1-B
2-A
2-B
3-A
3-B
Function
Tilt/Azim
condition
Tilt speed
Control select
Description of Window Components
Designation
Description
Tilt
The Tilt box indicates a tilt angle in the Yaxis direction.
Azim
The Azim box indicates a tilt angle in the Xaxis direction.
Limit
The Limit box indicates a limit value in
tilting in the Y-axis direction.
Fast
A tilt speed in the Y-axis direction is set to
0.5 second per degree of angle.
Slow
A tilt speed in the Y-axis direction is set to
5.0 seconds per degree of angle.
Auto
Select Auto for carrying out automatic
specimen tilting.
Manual
Select Manual for performing manual
specimen tilting.
⎯
⎯
Reset
Pressing this button resets the current
angle of specimen tilting to 0°.
4-A
Auto Tilt control
Step
Specify the amount of tilt per action in
automatic specimen tilting.
U⋅Stop⋅V
Use these button for controlling/stopping
automatic tilting in the Y-axis direction.
Auto capturing
mode
Specify whether or not to carry out
automatic image capturing/saving.
Tilt U⋅Stop⋅V
Use these buttons for controlling/stopping
manual tilting in the Y-axis direction.
Azim U⋅Stop⋅V
Use these button for controlling/stopping
manual tilting in the X-axis direction.
Note that these buttons are not effective
when the automatic tilt image capturing
function is used.
Saved Images
This box indicates the number of images
saved.
Image compare
(%)
This box indicates the degree of matching
in image comparison.
Capturing limit
angle
Specify an angle to be taken at the start of
tilting and an angle to be taken at the end
of tilting.
Save path & name
This box indicates the destination of saving
image data and its file name.
Start counter value
This box indicates a count number at the
start of saving.
Path
Click this button for setting up the
destination of saving image data and its file
name.
ISF condition⋅Get
Click this button for automatic adjustment
of the image shift function.
4-B
5-A
5-C
Manual control
Auto capturing
mode
3 - 119
Remarks
3.4
Function Menu (Hitachi H-7650 control window)
(cont’d)
Code
5-A
5-C
Function
Auto capturing
mode
Designation
Description
Image area size
Specify a limitation for the correction image
area.
Cancel
Click this button to cancel automatic
capturing.
5-A
Start
Click this button to start automatic
capturing at a specified tilt angle.
5-C
Correct
Click this button to perform correction in
automatic tilting and capturing.
(3)
Remarks
Operation of the Automatic Tilt/Image Capture Function
(a) Holder selection
For using the automatic tilt function, it is required to set a specimen tilt angle to 60°.
In the Tilt/Azim control window, check that “Tilt/Azim condition – Limit” is 60. If not,
select Holder – Holder – Option 1:60 in the Stage control window as shown in Fig.
3-193. Thus, you can set up a specimen tilt angle to 60°.
Fig. 3-193
Selection of Option 1:60
(b) Specimen loading
Set a specimen on the standard holder, and load it into the specimen chamber .
3 - 120
3.4.17
(c) Target marker indication
With the target marker turned on, you can easily check a visual field deviation due to
tilting. As shown in Fig. 3-194, select Image – Target marker – White in the Hitachi
H-7650 control window. The white target marker will then appear on the
Transmission image window.
Target marker
Fig. 3-194
Image Menu Items and Target Marker
(d) Tilt speed setting
As shown in Fig. 3-195, select Fast or Slow in the Tilt speed field. Selection of Fast
sets up a tilt speed of 0.5 second per degree of tilt angle, and selection of Slow sets
up a tilt speed of 5.0 seconds per degree of tilt angle. Unless the indication is
dimmed, a changeover of a tilt speed is allowed even during tilting operation.
Fig. 3-195
3 - 121
Tilt speed
3.4
Function Menu (Hitachi H-7650 control window)
(e) Tilt control setting
As shown in Fig. 3-196, select Auto in the Control select field to set up the automatic
tilt control mode. To set up the manual tilt mode, select Manual in this field. Clicking
the Reset button clears the current angle of specimen tilt to 0°.
Fig. 3-196
(f)
Control select
Tilt angle step setting
As shown in Fig. 3-197, specify the amount of tilt per action in automatic tilting in the
Step input box. It is recommended to specify a step angle value of 5.0° or less.
Fig. 3-197
Auto Tilt control
(g) Automatic image capture setting
In the Auto capturing mode field shown in Fig. 3-197, click the ON button to set up the
automatic image capturing mode. Then, the Auto capturing mode field shown in Fig.
3-198 will be effective.
Fig. 3-198
Auto capturing mode
3 - 122
3.4.17
(h) Automatic tilt angle range setting
In the Capture limit angle field shown in Fig. 3-199, specify an angular range of
automatic tilting. Since an automatic tilt action is made from the positive (+) side to
the negative (-) side, make setting so that “Start” (start angle of tilting) is larger than
“End” (end angle of tilting). The allowable maximum range of automatic tilting is ±60°.
Note that an image may not be observed or recorded due to interference with a mesh
or the like if a tilt is made up to the limit of ±60°, depending on the specimen and visual
field.
Fig. 3-199
(i)
Capture limit angle
Image save setting
Specify the destination of saving captured image data and its file name. In the Save
path & name field shown in Fig. 3-200, click the Path button. The Save image
window will then appear as shown in Fig. 3-201.
Fig. 3-200
Fig. 3-201
Save path & name
Save image Window
3 - 123
3.4
Function Menu (Hitachi H-7650 control window)
On the Save image window, determine the destination of saving captured image data,
enter a file name in the File name input box, and click the Save button. Then, in the
Start counter value box shown in Fig. 3-200, specify a start sequence number to be
suffixed to the file name concerned. Then, the destination of saving captured image
data and its file name will be indicated in the Save path & name field. Note that an
automatic overwrite is made if there is an identically named file in the destination of
saving. To avoid this, check the destination of saving image data and its file name
beforehand. If an identically named file is found, relocate it as required.
(j)
Limitation of correction image region
In the Image area size field shown in Fig. 3-202, you can adjust the visual field for
correction of deviation in imaging. In common practice, select “440 × 440”. If a
partially high contrast of imaging is contained in the visual field, an image deviation
may be corrected with respect to the visual field. In such a case, select “256 × 256”
or “128 × 128”. Thus, you can correct a deviation of the visual field at the center
position of imaging.
Fig. 3-202
Image area size
(k) Image shift function adjustment
The angle of X-Y intersection or the amount of step in the use of the ISF (image shift
function) may vary depending on the magnification and objective lens current. In the
ISF condition field shown in Fig. 3-203, click the Get button for automatic adjustment
of the angle of X-Y intersection or the amount of step in the use of the image shift
function. When a change has been made in magnification or objective lens current,
be sure to click the Get button.
Fig. 3-203
ISF condition Get Button
3 - 124
3.4.17
(l)
Start of the automatic tilt/image capture function
In the Auto capturing mode field shown in Fig. 3-204, click the Star button.
The specimen stage will then be automatically tilted to the start angle of image
capturing. At this step, the visual field will deviate as the specimen stage is tilted.
For correction of image deviation, use the STAGE knob on the left/right operation
panel shown in Fig. 3-205.
Fig. 3-204
Auto capturing mode Start Button
STAGE knob
Fig. 3-205
STAGE Knob
(m) Start of automatic tilt image capturing
When the specimen stage is set to the start angle of image capturing, the Start button
in the Auto capturing mode field changes to the Correct button as shown in Fig. 3-206.
Clicking this Correct button starts automatic tilt image capturing.
Fig. 3-206
Auto capturing mode Correct Button
3 - 125
3.4
Function Menu (Hitachi H-7650 control window)
In automatic tilt image capturing, the specimen is tilted while a deviation of the visual
field is corrected by the image shift function and the specimen stage. For each tilt
step specified in (f), the System wait message shown in Fig. 3-207 is presented to
indicate the progress of auto focusing. Then, the System wait message shown in Fig.
3-208 is presented to indicate the progress of image acquisition.
At the same time, automatic counting is performed in the Save images box (the
number of images saved) and the Start counter value (file sequence number) in the
Auto capturing mode field as shown in Fig. 3-209. Further, for each execution of
visual field correction, the degree of image matching is indicated in the Image compare
box.
Fig. 3-207
Fig. 3-208
System wait message – Progress of auto focusing
System wait message – Progress of image acquisition
Fig. 3-209
Auto capturing mode
3 - 126
3.4.17
(n) Occurrence of Comp. Error
If the visual field deviates significantly due to specimen drift or any other cause, it may
become impossible to correct the visual field deviation by the image shift function and
the specimen stage. In this case, the degree of image matching (indicated in the
Image compare box) decreases below the specified limit.
This causes the Comp. Error message to appear. That is, as shown in Fig. 3-210,
the System message is issued, requesting you to stop automatic tilt image capturing.
Clicking the OK button in the System message window makes the Correct button in
the Auto capturing mode field effective as shown in Fig. 3-209. Then, using the
STAGE knob equipped on the left/right operation panel shown in Fig. 3-211, adjust the
visual field to the center, and click the Correct button. In this manner, you can
continue automatic tilt image capturing.
For abortion of automatic tilt image capturing, click the Cancel button.
Fig. 3-210
System message (Comp. Error)
STAGE knob
Fig. 3-211
STAGE Knob
3 - 127
3.4
Function Menu (Hitachi H-7650 control window)
(o) Termination of automatic tilt image capturing
At the end of automatic tilt image capturing, the System message shown in Fig. 3-212
is presented. In this message window, click the OK button to top operation.
Click the Reset button shown in Fig. 3-213 for resetting the tilt angle of the specimen
stage to 0°.
Fig. 3-212
System message – End of automatic tilt image capturing
Fig. 3-213
(4)
Reset Button
Operation of the Automatic Tilt Function
The specimen stage can be tilted automatically in steps of specified degrees of tilting.
In the Auto Tilt control field shown in Fig. 3-214, click the OFF button of the Auto capturing
mode item. Then, the Auto capturing mode will be ineffective as shown in Fig. 3-215.
Table 3-9 shows a list of the buttons for the automatic tilt function. The Tilt/Azim condition
function and the Tilt speed function are the same as those described in (3).
Fig. 3-214
Auto Tilt control
3 - 128
3.4.17
Fig. 3-215
Table 3-9
Auto capturing mode
Automatic Tilt Function Buttons
Indication
Function
Step
Auto capturing
mode
U
Stop
V
(5)
Specify the amount of tilting per action in the use of the automatic tilt
function.
ON
Clicking the ON button sets up the automatic tilt image capturing mode.
(The Auto capturing mode is made effective.)
OFF
Clicking the OFF button resets the automatic tilt image capturing mode.
(The Auto capturing mode is made ineffective.)
The specimen is tilted in the positive (+) direction through an angle specified
in the Step box. On completion of the tilting, it is stopped automatically.
Clicking this button stops specimen tilting.
The specimen is tilted in the negative (-) direction through an angle specified
in the Step box. On completion of the tilting, it is stopped automatically.
Operation of the Manual Tilt Function
The specimen stage can also be tilted manually.
(a) In the Control select field shown in Fig. 3-216, turn on the radio button of Manual.
The Tilt/Azim control window will then be displayed as shown in Fig. 3-217.
Fig. 3-216
Control select
3 - 129
3.4
Function Menu (Hitachi H-7650 control window)
Fig. 3-217
Tilt/Azim control Window (with Manual selected)
(b) Table 3-10 shows a list of buttons for the manual tilt function. The Tilt speed can be
adjusted even during manual tilting operation. Note that the Azim button is dedicated
for double-axis tilt holder setting. In other cases, the Azim button is ineffective as
shown in Fig. 3-271.
Table 3-10
Manual Tilt Function Buttons
Designation
Indication
Function
Tilt/Azim condition
Tilt
This box indicates a tilt angle in the Y-axis direction.
Azim
This box indicates a tilt angle in the X-axis direction.
Limit
This box indicates a limit angular value in tilting in
the Y-axis direction.
Fast
A tilt speed of 0.5 second per degree in the Y-axis
direction is set up.
Slow
A tilt speed of 5.0 seconds per degree in the Y-axis
direction is set up.
Tilt speed
Reset
Manual control
Clicking this button resets specimen tilting to 0°.
Tilt
U
Stop
Azim
The specimen is tilted in the positive (+) direction on
the Y axis.
Specimen tilting in the Y-axis direction is stopped.
V
The specimen is tilted in the negative (-) direction on
the Y axis.
U
The specimen is tilted in the positive (+) direction on
the X axis.
Stop
V
Specimen tilting in the X-axis direction is stopped.
The specimen is tilted in the negative (-) direction on
the X axis.
3 - 130
3.4.17
(6)
Operation for Semi-automatic Tilt Image Capturing (automatic tilting – manual image
capturing)
Using the automatic tilt function and the Freeze and Save button in the CCD control
window, you can conduct semi-automatic tilt image capturing.
(a) As shown in Fig. 3-214, click the OFF button of Auto capturing mode in the Auto Tilt
control field on the Tilt/Azim control window. Thus, the Auto capturing mode
(automatic image capturing) can be made ineffective.
(b) In the Auto Tilt control field shown in Fig. 3-214, specify a tilt angle step for the
specimen stage.
(c) Using the [V] or [U] button, start specimen tilting. The specimen state is
automatically stopped at the tilt angle step specified in (b).
For details of the above items (a) to (c), refer to the foregoing section (4).
(d) Using the Freeze button in the CCD control window, you can freeze the image being
displayed. In this case, correction of visual field deviation and auto focusing are not
carried out automatically. Conduct these adjustments manually as required.
(e) To save the image being displayed, click the Save button in the CCD control window.
For details of the above items (d) to (e), refer to 3.4.1 - (1).
3 - 131
3.4
Function Menu (Hitachi H-7650 control window)
3.4.18
Maintenance
The Maintenance menu item is available for maintenance checkup, e.g., initial setting and
adjustment of each unit of the H-7650.
The commands listed below “TEM adjustment” are password-protected. Unless these
commands are unprotected, they remain ineffective. For details, refer to 4.7.1.
Fig. 3-218
Maintenance Menu
3 - 132
3.5.1
3.5
Image Menu (in the Hitachi H-7650 control window) (Type A only)
Using the Image menu, you can make Transmission window setting and carry out digital camera
control.
Fig. 3-219
3.5.1
Image Menu
Stop (Type A only)
Selecting this menu item stops displaying the dynamic TEM image concerned in the
Transmission image window and turns off the main fluorescent screen display.
3.5.2
Run (Type A only)
Selecting this menu item starts displaying the TEM dynamic image concerned in the
Transmission image window. The main fluorescent screen display is turned on if it has been off.
3.5.3
Freeze (Type A only)
Selecting this menu item stops displaying the TEM dynamic image concerned temporarily and
presents its still picture.
3 - 133
3.5
Image Menu (in the Hitachi H-7650 control window)
3.5.4
Save image (Type A only)
Selecting this menu item allows you to save a TEM image that has been captured by the Freeze
command. The save image window shown in Fig. 3-220 will appear. In this window, specify
the desired folder, file name, and file type, and then click the Save button. One of the following
three file types can be selected; TIFF format (*.tif), Windows Bitmap format (*.bmp), and JPEG
format (*.jpg).
Fig. 3-220
3.5.5
Save image Window
Exposure whole screen (Type A only)
The main fluorescent screen display can be turned off for enabling fluorescent-screen image
observation.
3 - 134
3.5.6
3.5.6
Exposure CCD camera (Type A only)
The main fluorescent screen displayed is turned on to enable digital-camera image observation
and saving.
NOTE: In the Diff mode, protection is provided for the main fluorescent screen to prevent the
scintillator from being damaged by a spot beam. Therefore, even if it is attempted to
turn on the main fluorescent screen display, the System message shown in Fig. 3-221
will be issued to indicate that the main fluorescent screen display cannot be turned on.
Fig. 3-221
3.5.7
System message
Size (Type A only)
The micron marker is always indicated at the bottom of the Transmission image window.
This micron marker changes as the Transmission image window is enlarged or reduced by
clicking the
button in the CCD control field on the Hitachi H-7650 control window.
As shown in Figs. 3-223 and 3-224, the scale bar also changes according to the window size.
Fig. 3-222
(1)
Size Menu Item
Full display
As shown in Fig. 3-225, the Transmission image window is presented in the maximum size.
3 - 135
3.5
(2)
Image Menu (in the Hitachi H-7650 control window)
Half display
As shown in Fig. 3-226, the Transmission image window is presented in the half size.
Fig. 3-223
Fig. 3-224
Transmission image Window in an Enlarged Layout
Transmission image Window in a Reduced Layout
3 - 136
3.5.7
Target marker
(white crossline)
Fig. 3-225
Transmission image Window:
Enlarged
Target marker
(white crossline)
Fig. 3-226
Transmission image Window:
3 - 137
Reduced
3.5
Image Menu (in the Hitachi H-7650 control window)
3.5.8
Target marker (Type A only)
The Target marker function is available for drawing the crossline indicating the center position in
the Transmission image window. As shown in Fig. 3-227, bring the mouse pointer to “Target
marker” on the Image menu. The three optional items will then appear.
Fig. 3-227
(1)
Target marker Menu Item
Off
Selecting this item turns off the Target marker.
(2)
White
Selecting this item displays the Target marker in white as shown in Figs. 3-225 and 3-226.
(3)
Black
Selecting this optional item displays the Target marker in black as shown in Fig. 3-228.
Target marker
(black)
Fig. 3-228
Example of Target Marker Indication (Black)
3 - 138
3.5.9
3.5.9
Auto gray control (Type A only)
The Auto gray control menu item is functionally equivalent to that in the CCD control window.
As shown in Fig. 3-229, bring the mouse pointer to “Auto gray control” on the Image menu.
The two optional items will then appear.
Fig. 3-229
(1)
Auto gray control Menu Item
OFF
Selecting this optional item turns off the Auto gray control function.
(2)
ON
Selecting this optional item turns off the Auto gray control function.
NOTE: In the Diff mode, protection is provided for the main fluorescent screen to prevent the
scintillator from being damaged by a spot beam. Therefore, even if it is attempted to
turn on the main fluorescent screen display, the System message shown in Fig. 3-230
will be issued to indicate that the main fluorescent screen display cannot be turned on.
FIG. 3-230
System message
3 - 139
3.6
Window Menu (in the Hitachi H-7650 control window)
3.6
Window Menu (in the Hitachi H-7650 control window) (Type A only)
Using the Window menu, you can make TEM control setting.
Fig. 3-231
3.6.1
Window Menu
Close all sub window (Type A only)
Clicking this menu item closes all the sub windows except the main window.
3.6.2
Easy operation (Type A only)
Clicking this menu item presents the Easy operation window shown below, which is a limited
control window form for facilitating Transmission image operations. The control area is provided
at the lower part of the Easy operation window. On this area, you can check various information
efficiently.
Fig. 3-232
Easy Operation Window
3 - 140
3.6.3
3.6.3
(1)
--- Align, option (Type A only)
No Alignment
Selecting this item presents the previous display layout in the Easy operation window.
(2)
Left Alignment
Selecting this item presents the left-aligned layout in the Easy operation window as shown
in Fig. 3-233.
Fig. 3-233
Left-aligned Layout
3 - 141
3.6
Window Menu (in the Hitachi H-7650 control window)
(3)
Right Alignment
Selecting this item presents the right-aligned layout in the Easy operation window as shown
in Fig. 3-234.
Fig. 3-234
3.6.4
Right-aligned Layout
Close-up information (Type A only)
Selecting this menu item opens the Close-up information window that indicates operating
conditions in an enlarged form.
Fig. 3-235
Close-up information window
3 - 142
3.6.5
3.6.5
Operation color
Through this menu item, you can assign operation colors in the Hitachi H-7650 control window.
The following four colors are selectable; gray (light), gray, green, and blue.
Fig. 3-236
3.6.6
Operation color Menu Item
Screen color
Through this menu item, you can select a background color on the image area in the
Transmission image window. The following four colors are selectable; gray (light), gray,
gray(dark), and blue.
Fig. 3-237
Screen color Menu Item
3 - 143
3.6
Window Menu (in the Hitachi H-7650 control window)
3.6.7
Color switch
Through this menu item, you can adjust the brightness of the entire screen color. Selecting the
Dark item decreases the brightness, and selecting the Bright item restores the brightness to
normal.
Fig. 3-238
Color switch Menu Item
3 - 144
3.7.1
3.7
3.7.1
About Menu
About H-7650
As shown in Fig. 3-239, click “About H-7650” on the About menu. The version information
window regarding the system program will then appear. This information window contains a list
of the options equipped in the TEM being used. To close this window, just click the OK button.
Version
information
Click.
Option list
Fig. 3-239
About Window
3 - 145
3.8
Information Area (in the Hitachi H-7650 control window)
3.8
Information Area (in the Hitachi H-7650 control window)
The main information regarding the TEM is presented. Figure 3-240 shows a window indicating
the TEM equipped with an optional sheet film camera. In cases where no optional devices are
mounted, the items MAGNIFICATION (camera length), LENS MODE, FOCUS STEP, and ACC.
VOLTAGE are indicated.
Fig. 3-240
3.8.1
MAGNIFICATION Label:
Hitachi H-7650 control Window
Enlarged display of magnification (camera length)
Double-clicking the MAGNIFICATION (camera length) label brings up the magnification enlarged
display window. For details, refer to 3.3.1.
3.8.2
LENS MODE Label:
Selection of observation mode
Double-clicking the LENS MODE label brings up the observation mode selection window.
For details, refer to 3.3.1.
3.8.3
FOCUS STEP Label:
Setting of focus step/defocus indication
Double-clicking the FOCUS STEP label brings up the focus step setting window.
refer to 3.3.1.
3 - 146
For details,
3.8.4
3.8.4
ACC. VOLTAGE Label:
Accelerating voltage manual operation/flashing
Double-clicking the ACC. VOLTAGE label brings up the Acc. voltage control window. In this
window, you can turn on/off the accelerating voltage function, specify a preset accelerating
voltage level, determine an automatic rise time for accelerating voltage, and carry out flashing
operation.
3.8.5
UNEXPOSED FILM/FILM INFORMATION/NUMBERING Label: Film condition
setting (available in cases where an optional sheet film camera is mounted)
Double-clicking the UNEXPOSED FILM/FILM INFORMATION or NUMBER label brings up the
Film information window.
3.8.6
EXPOSURE TIME Label:
is equipped)
(Available in cases where an optional sheet film camera
Double-clicking the EXPOSURE TIME label brings up the Exposure time window.
3 - 147
3.9
Control Area (Hitachi H-7650 control window: Easy operation)
3.9
Control Area (Hitachi H-7650 control window: Easy operation) (Type A only)
The Hitachi H-7650 control window (Easy operation) is provided for presenting limited main
information on the TEM. On the control area in this window, you can check various information
with ease.
Menu bar
Toolbar
Information area
Control area
Fig. 3-241
3.9.1
Hitachi H-7650 control Window (Easy operation) (Type A only)
Filament/Bias control (Type A only)
Fig. 3-242
(1)
Filament/Bias control
The filament voltage and emission current being applied are indicated.
3 - 148
3.9.2
(2)
By clicking the ON/OFF button, you can turn on/off the filament voltage and emission
current.
(3)
Through the Filament/Bias control window, you can make other detailed settings.
This window can also be opened by clicking the
icon on the toolbar.
3.9.2
Film information/Exposure time (Available in cases where an optional sheet film
camera is equipped)
Figure 3-243 shows the Film information/Exposure time window to be presented in cases where
the TEM is equipped with an optional sheet film camera, and Figure 3-244 shows the Film
information/Exposure time window to be presented in cases where the TEM is not equipped with
an optional sheet film camera.
Fig. 3-243
Film information/Exposure
time (Equipped with an
optional sheet film camera)
Fig. 3-244
Film information/Exposure
time (Not equipped with an
optional sheet film camera)
(1)
The number of unexposed film frames, film print information, and exposure time are
indicated.
(2)
For other detailed settings, you can use the Film information window and the Exposure
time window.
To open the Film information window, click the
icon on the toolbar, and to open the
Exposure time window, click the
icon on the toolbar.
3 - 149
3.9
Control Area (Hitachi H-7650 control window: Easy operation)
3.9.3
CCD control (Type A only)
In the CCD control window, you can conduct the basic CCD control functions.
Fig. 3-245
3.9.4
CCD control
Stage control Tab (Type A only)
The current specimen stage information is presented. Figure 3-246 shows the Stage control
window to be displayed for the Type-2 TEM. In the case of the Type-1 TEM, “Tilt” is not
indicated.
Fig. 3-246
Stage control
1 - 150
4.1.1
4.
4.1
MAINTENANCE
Cautions on Use and Maintenance of Electron Microscope
This chapter explains the maintenance to be carried out by the user in routine operation and the
periodic maintenance to be performed by the service engineers (Hitachi). Request Hitachi for
the latter maintenance.
4.1.1
Cautions on Routine Operation
The electron microscope consists mainly of mechanical, electrical, evacuation and electron
optical systems. The functions of each system are combined to enable the instrument to
operate normally as a microscope. As with the human body, a malfunction in even one of the
sections will adversely affect the whole system. A number of cautions required to keep the
entire system operating properly at all times are given here. Suitable maintenance is also
necessary to maintain the microscope in top condition and provide photographs of good quality.
4.1.2
Periodic Maintenance
The H-7650 microscope has a high vacuum structure to minimize contamination. But after long
hours of use, contamination will form in the electron beam path in the column due to the
accumulation of particles of sample and because of outgassing from evacuated sections.
This causes an increase of electron beam chargeup and/or astigmatism, resulting in a drop in
image quality and resolution. Periodic maintenance by the service engineers (Hitachi) is
required to keep each unit of the evacuation system operating correctly so as to maintain the
high vacuum.
4.1.3
Frequency of Maintenance
Although maintenance in general depends on the frequency of use of the microscope, the user
should observe the cautions on routine operation and the periodic maintenance items 2 given in
Table 4-1. Request the service engineer for items 1 and 3 to 5. An overall inspection at least
once a year is recommended for stable operation of the microscope over a long time.
4.1.4
Maintenance Contract
For details on a maintenance contract, consult your nearest Hitachi representative or the dealer
from whom you purchased the instrument.
4-1
4.1
Cautions on Use and Maintenance of Electron Microscope
Table 4-1
Cautions on Routine Operation, and Periodic Maintenance
Cautions on Routine Operation (for user)
Item
Frequency
1. Cleaning at
filament
exchange
At filament
exchange
Periodic Maintenance (for service engineer)
Description
Item
Frequency
Cleaning of
Wehnelt cylinder
1. Maintenance of
oil rotary pump
(RP)
6 months
Description
Change of oil
• Cleaning of
aperture plate
• Greasing of O-ring
2. Caution on
and
maintenance
at specimen
exchange
Daily
• Check and
cleaning of
specimen
retainer
• Greasing of
specimen holder
O-ring
2. Cleaning of
movable aperture
6 months
3. Check and
maintenance
at film
exchange
Daily
• Check of packing
surface
• Setting of film
• Greasing of
packing
• Check of
cassette shape
3. Cleaning of
Penning gauge
6 months
4. Inspection of
air
compressor
Weekly
• Carry out
draining
• Check of
operating
pressure
4. Replacement of
nickel-cadmium
battery
1 year
Useful life is about
1 year
5. Inspection of
rotary pump
Weekly
Check of oil level
5. Maintenance of
digital camera
1 year
Cleaning of lens and
other parts
6. Inspection of
cooling water
Weekly
• Check of water
temperature and
flow
• Flow of oil
diffusion pump
(DP) cooling
water appears on
EVAC window.
Make sure flow
rate is from 1.5 to
2.0 L/min.
7. Mild baking of
column
After shutting down
instrument
for one
week
Baking of column
interior through
use of heat
generated by lens
coil
NOTES:
Cleaning of
electrodes
1. Even if the electron microscope is not used for a long time, it should be evacuated once a
week.
2. If an abnormality is found during the above inspections, contact Hitachi.
3. Request the service engineer for items 1 to 5
4-2
4.2.1
4.2
Prior to Maintenance
Prepare the following items prior to maintenance. These are the minimum requirements for
operating the microscope in good condition at all times.
4.2.1
Tools, Instruments, Consumables
Table 4-2
Item
Tools, Instruments, Consumables
Name
Tools
Accessory tool set for EM
Instruments
Vacuum evaporator
Ultrasonic cleaner
Remarks
Output 100 W or more
Molybdenum board
(for aperture cleaning)
W
L
MO board, 0.05 mm thick
7 mm W × 75 mm L
Beaker (& beaker stand)
1 L & 500 mL, one each
Heater or gas burner
Hair dryer
Stereo-microscope
Approx. 1 kW
For filament setting
Consumables Vacuum grease
Acetone
Absolute ethanol or alcohol
Gauze
Cotton swabs
Bamboo sticks
Gas spray
Metal polisher
Apiezon L
Hi-Gauze
Asahi Kasei product (or equivalent one)
4-3
4.2
Prior to Maintenance
4.2.2
Consumables (1 to 2 years’ supply) for Electron Microscope
Table 4-3
Part Name
Consumables for EM
Part No.
Quantity
Filament
777-0179
Wehnelt assembly
542-0174
1
Condenser lens movable aperture plate
817-2167
1
Objective movable aperture plate
817-1397
1
Film cassette
817-0230
10
O-ring (for specimen holder)
" (for condenser lens/
objective movable aperture)
L456759
L456711
1
1
RP oil (for main unit)
G469023
1
Fluorescent screen
WHOLE
SPOT
817-1170
817-0365
1
1
Scintillator
817-4527
1
Bamboo sticks
Vacuum grease
G743002
G465003
1
1
Oil mist trap
539-1992
2
4-4
2 boxes
Remarks
10 filaments ea.
Spares
4L
Apiezon L
4.3.1
4.3
Maintenance in Routine Operation
Filament exchange, specimen exchange, film exchange, and mild baking of the column are
maintenance items to be carried out by the user, and should be performed while observing the
cautions explained below.
4.3.1
(1)
Filament Exchange
Method of Checking if Filament is Broken
Take the following procedure to check if the filament is broken.
(a) Check if the HV switch lights up normally.
(b) Check if the accelerating voltage agrees with the setting.
(c) Call out the filament/bias setting in the window and check if filament voltage is set at a
suitable value. (Filament voltage setting varies with LaB6 and W filaments.)
<Reference>
W filament
:
LaB6 filament :
18 to 22 V
25 to 30 V (inscribed on LaB6 case)
(d) Reduce the bias voltage, and check if emission current varies on the BEAM METER.
(e) Make sure the EVAC/AIR switch of specimen chamber is not at AIR.
EVAC for emission current to be output.
Fig. 4-1
(f)
It must be at
EVAC/AIR Switch
Turn the POWER switch to COL.OFF once and then make a restart.
If emission current still doesn’t flow after the above checks in (a) to (f), it indicates the
filament is broken and must be replaced.
4-5
4.3
Maintenance in Routine Operation
(2)
Filament Exchange (by the user)
(a) Click the HV switch (for auto application of accelerating voltage) twice to turn OFF the
HV.
(b) Return the POWER switch from COL.ON to EVAC ON.
C960919
Fig. 4-2
POWER Switch
(c) Ignite the filament for a long period, and if the filament is broken, wait 10 to 20 minutes
for the Wehnelt temperature to drop. (Wait 40 to 60 minutes in the case of the
optional LaB6 filament.)
(d) Click EVAC of the GUN EVAC switch to set up the CLOSE status, then click AIR to
airleak the gun.
(e) When the gun reaches atmospheric pressure after vacuum leak, the buzzer sounds
and the gun is lifted automatically and swings to the right.
WARNING
Beware of High Voltage
Electric shock could cause fatal or serious injury. At filament
exchange, be sure to ground the Wehnelt and shield ring with the
supplied grounding rod.
Beware of Pinching Your Fingers
Do not touch the electron gun while it is moving. You may get your
fingers caught and suffer injury.
Beware of High Temperature
The Wehnelt and filament holder are at high temperature and could
cause burns. At filament exchange, wait 10 to 20 minutes for the
Wehnelt temperature to drop, and wear gloves for handling it.
4-6
4.3.1
(f)
Using a cloth or vinyl gloves, turn the shield ring counterclockwise and remove it.
Insulator
Housing
Shield ring
Fig. 4-3
(g) Loosen the Wehnelt setscrew.
down to detach it.
Electron Gun Sectional View
Turn the Wehnelt about 90° counterclockwise and pull
Spring
Wehnelt setscrew
Wehnelt
Wehnelt assy
Shield ring
Fig. 4-4
Wehnelt Assy
(h) Remove the Wehnelt using the Wehnelt height adjusting tool.
948-A-27
Fig. 4-5
Removal of Wehnelt
4-7
4.3
Maintenance in Routine Operation
(i)
Loosen the filament centering screw, and detach the broken filament.
948-A-26
Fig. 4-6
(j)
Removal of Broken Filament
Cleaning of the Wehnelt
Polish the asterisked part (*) of the Wehnelt shown in Fig. 4-7 with metal polishing
agent, then wipe that part several times with gauze moistened with acetone.
After this, dry it with a dryer. If not particularly contaminated, then wipe only the
Wehnelt hole part using acetone and dry it with a dryer.
※ ※
※ ※
Fig. 4-7
※ ※
※ ※ ※ ※ ※
Wehnelt
Clean with particular care the asterisked part that is irradiated with the electron beam.
CAUTION
Inhalation of Harmful Substance
Inhalation of a large amount of organic solvent could result in toxic
symptoms. Be sure to ventilate the room well when using such
substances for cleaning, etc.
Injury due to Spattering of Harmful Substance
Spattering of an organic solvent could cause injury to the eyes.
One should wear protective goggles when using such substances.
4-8
4.3.1
(k) Setting of filament
Note that there is a restriction on the attachment direction of the filament. Align the
filament position with the attachment direction mark on the filament holder. (Fasten it
at nearly the center.)
Filament holder
Filament
Groove
Filament prongs
Fig. 4-8
(l)
Setting Position
After adjusting the height, align the Wehnelt hole center with the filament tip using the
filament centering screw. Use of a stereo-microscope facilitates the centering.
(m) Adjust the height and centering of the Wehnelt in which the filament is attached.
A gap of 0.2 to 0.5 mm is allowed between the Wehnelt bottom face and the filament
tip. Narrowing this gap increases the brightness but shortens the life of the filament.
Conversely, widening the gap reduces the brightness while extending the filament life.
Height should be adjusted in accordance with your purpose.
0.2 to 0.5 mm
Fig. 4-9
Sectional View of Filament
NOTE: Since the optional LaB6 filament is adjusted to the optimum position at the
factory before shipment, height and centering adjustment by the user is
unnecessary.
4-9
4.3
Maintenance in Routine Operation
Filament
Pin
Wehnelt
Filament exchange jig 2
Spring
Centering screw
Pin
Filament holder
Filament exchange jig 1
Fig. 4-10
Filament Position Adjustment
NOTE: When you adjust the height of a filament, for prevention of the biting of a
screw, please remove a foreign substance, metal rubbish, etc. by blower, and
clean the screw part of Wehnelt cap and a Filament holder.
NOTE: Jig 2 has a scale that is equally divided into eight.
of the Wehnelt cap by 0.5 mm.
One turn varies the height
(n) Align the Wehnelt with the electron gun-side guide pins and turn 90° clockwise, then
fasten with the Wehnelt retaining screws. After this, set the shield ring in place.
B960928
Fig. 4-11
Attachment of Wehnelt
(o) Click the AIR switch of GUN EVAC to set the CLOSE status. The electron gun
returns to the column side and evacuation is enabled. When the gun has completely
returned, click the EVAC switch to start evacuation.
WARNING
Beware of Pinching Your Fingers
Do not touch the electron gun while it is moving. You may get your
fingers caught and suffer an injury.
4 - 10
4.3.1
(p) When the GUN EVAC lamp on the bottom right panel changes from flashing to steady
lighting, set the POWER switch to COL.ON.
B960915
Fig. 4-12
POWER Switch
(q) When the EVAC switch of GUN EVAC lights up, high voltage can be applied. But in
consideration of electron gun contamination and filament life, it is recommended to
apply high voltage and ignite the filament after a sufficient evacuation (for at least
30 minutes normally).
NOTE: When using the optional LaB6 filament, evacuate the electron gun to the order
of 10-5 Pa. The LaB6 filament tip incurs considerable vaporization depending
on the vacuum degree and its life may be shortened.
(r)
Call out the filament/bias setting window, and carry out filament voltage setting
according to section 3.3.2 and electron gun axial alignment as in section 4.7.2. If the
kind of filament is not changed, then a value nearly equal to the previous filament
voltage setting may be used.
4 - 11
4.3
Maintenance in Routine Operation
4.3.2
Cautions and Maintenance at Specimen Exchange
Observe the following cautions in the use of the side-entry specimen holder.
NOTES: 1. If the specimen is not held firmly by the grid retainer, it will be susceptible to
vibration and specimen drift may occur. Also, the specimen may drop into the
tilting device.
2. Contamination on the vacuum part of the holder may cause specimen charge-up or
contamination and/or specimen drift.
3. Contamination on the O-ring may cause a drop in vacuum level at specimen
insertion or unsmooth movement of the specimen stage.
4. Contamination or scratch on the sapphire tip of the holder could result in unsmooth
movement of the specimen stage.
(1)
Check at Specimen Exchange
(a) Check of grid retainer
Press lightly at the two bold arrow positions shown in the figure below and make sure
the specimen is held firmly.
(b) Check for O-ring contamination
Check if the O-ring is contaminated.
little vacuum grease to it.
If contaminated, wipe it clean and then apply a
Vacuum part
O-ring
Sapphire
Fig. 4-13
Grid retainer
Specimen Holder
4 - 12
4.3.3
(2)
Maintenance
(a) About once a month, clean especially the vacuum part of the holder tip with gauze that
is moistened with absolute ethanol. After cleaning, dry it completely with a dryer.
CAUTION
Inhalation of Harmful Substance
Inhalation of a large amount of organic solvent could result in toxic
symptoms. Be sure to ventilate the room well when using such
substances for cleaning, etc.
Injury due to Spattering of Harmful Substance
Spattering of an organic solvent could cause injury to the eyes.
One should wear protective goggles when using such substances.
(b) Cleaning and greasing of O-ring
Detach the O-ring carefully so as not to scratch the O-ring itself or its groove, then
clean it and apply a little vacuum grease. If a scratch is found, then replace the Oring with a new one.
4.3.3
(1)
Cautions and Maintenance at Film Exchange (option)
Checks in Routine Operation
(a) Check of cassette magazine and cassette receiver when loading film
Check the packing on the camera chamber front lid and the packing on the film preevacuation chamber. There should be no contamination on the packing surfaces.
If there is contamination, wipe the surfaces and apply a little vacuum grease.
Packing surface
Camera front lid
Fig. 4-14
Camera Front Lid
4 - 13
4.3
Maintenance in Routine Operation
(b) Inspection of cassette
When loading film into the cassette, insert it to the prescribed position whereby the film
doesn’t protrude from the cassette. When the cassette has been used for a long time,
it may become deformed or warped and cannot be fed normally in the camera
chamber. Do not use it any longer if deformed or warped.
B960921
Fig. 4-15
Inspection of Cassette
(c) Caution on evacuation
Before starting evacuation of the camera chamber, make sure the front lid of the
camera is closed. And after evacuation, check that CAMERA EVAC is operating
normally and that the sound of the oil rotary pump (RP) has diminished. If preevacuation with the RP is made for a long time with the camera front lid open, the oil in
the RP will deteriorate rapidly and the normal function will be lost.
(2)
Maintenance
(a) Cleaning and greasing of packings
The packings of the camera chamber front lid and the film pre-evacuation chamber
should be removed about once every two months for cleaning the packing surfaces.
Apply a little vacuum grease to them after cleaning.
(b) Deformation of cassette
Check the cassette once a month for deformation or warp.
or warp, replace it with a new one.
If there is any deformation
WARNING
Beware of Pinching Your Fingers
Be careful not to get your fingers caught in moving parts or you may
be injured. Before putting your hands into the camera chamber, be
sure to turn OFF the POWER switch.
4 - 14
4.3.4
4.3.4
(1)
Inspection and Maintenance of Air Compressor
Carry out inspection of the air compressor according to the table below.
OFF the POWER switch for maintenance.
Be sure to turn
CAUTION
Beware of Drain Spattering
Be sure to open the drain cock gradually when draining the
compressor. The interior of the tank is pressurized, so if the drain
cock were opened abruptly, drain would spatter out and may injure
your eyes.
Table 4-4
Inspection Item (by user)
Air Compressor Inspection & Maintenance
Procedure
Inspection Frequency
Drain accumulation
Turn drain plug of air tank (Fig. 4-16) to
release drain.
Weekly
Operation of control devices
(pressure gauge, pressure
switches, safety valves)
Check if pressure gauge (Fig. 4-16)
indicates a range of 3.5 to 5.0 MPa.
If there is an abnormality, contact the
service engineer.
Daily
Abnormal vibration, sound, etc.
If there is an abnormality, contact the
service engineer.
Daily
NOTES: 1. When not operated for a long time:
When the compressor is not operated for a long time, the lifetime of the grease
used will be shortened due to humidity, so evacuation should be carried out for at
least 30 minutes once a month.
2. The service engineer mentioned in the table refers to your nearest Hitachi
representative.
4 - 15
4.3
(2)
Maintenance in Routine Operation
Troubleshooting of Air Compressor
If a trouble occurs during use, inform the service engineer (Hitachi) of the symptoms, with
reference to the table below. (The service engineer will remedy the problem.)
CAUTION
On Handling
Troubleshooting of the air compressor by the user should be confined
to confirming the symptoms (Table 4-5). Inspection and repair by a
person other than the service engineers may result in loss of a part
related to safety.
Table 4-5
Air Compressor Troubleshooting
Symptom
Compressor
rotates
Probable Cause
Pressure doesn’t rise, or takes
much time to rise.
Drain accumulated, leakage from stop valve
Packing, thread, or seal worn
Leakage from safety valve
Air valve faulty
Clogging of suction filter
Wear of piston ring
Starting unloader faulty
Faulty indication of pressure gauge
Pressure rises above
maximum level.
Pressure switch faulty
Faulty indication of pressure gauge
Abnormal sound produced.
Push solenoid faulty
Contact of piston with air valve
Bearing faulty
Wear of rider ring
Inadequate installation
Motor is overheated.
Seizure of sliding part
Abnormality of motor
Compressor
doesn’t rotate
Motor does not hum.
Pressure switch faulty
Protector has operated
Motor hums.
Voltage drop
Leakage from air valve
Starting unloader faulty
4 - 16
4.3.4
(3)
Names and Functions of Air Compressor Components
Pressure switch:
Starts and stops the compressor
automatically.
Suction filter:
Filters out dust from the intake air.
Safety valve:
Releases compressed air when
pressure rises abnormally.
Push solenoid (single phase only):
Operates at startup of the
compressor.
Stop valve (air outlet):
A hose is connected here.
Pressure gauge:
Indicates pressure inside
the air tank.
Compressor
Motor
Drain port
Air tank
Fig. 4-16
Air Compressor
CAUTION
Heavy Item
The air compressor weighs approximately 26 kg.
unreasonably, or you may be injured.
4 - 17
Don’t try to lift it
4.3
Maintenance in Routine Operation
4.3.5
Inspection and Maintenance of Oil Rotary Pump (RP)
WARNING
High Temperature
The surface temperature of oil rotary pump reaches about 70 °C while
it is operating. Touching it could result in burns.
(1)
Inspection during Routine Operation
(a) Check the oil level once a week by means of the oil level gauge. Replenish oil if it is
low. To replenish, stop the RP and inject oil from the plug (oil inlet). (Oil level gauge
is located above the drain plug.)
Oil mist trap
Oil inlet (plug)
MAX
Oil level
Drain plug
Center of oil level gauge
(appropriate oil level)
MIN
Fig. 4-17
Oil Rotary Pump
NOTES: 1. Insufficient amount of oil could cause a drop in pump performance. And too much
oil could result in the oil spattering out. A suitable amount should thus be provided.
2. The rotary pump has a certain useful lifetime. When five years have elapsed, the
pump should be replaced with a new one.
4 - 18
4.3.5
(2)
Maintenance (by Hitachi)
(a) Oil change
The oil should normally be changed within 6 months, but if water vapor or a gas
harmful to oil has been evacuated, the oil will deteriorate more quickly and cause a
drop in pump performance, in which case the oil should be changed more frequently.
(b) How to change oil
1)
2)
Turn OFF the microscope POWER switch and wait about 15 to 20 minutes for the
RP to stop.
Turn and remove the drain plug to drain oil from the pump interior. The pump
should be tilted so as to drain all the old oil from it.
CAUTION
Heavy Item
The oil rotary pump weighs approximately 30 kg.
unreasonably, or you may be injured.
3)
Don’t try to lift it
When all of the old oil has been drained, fasten the drain plug firmly in place and
inject the prescribed amount of new oil from the oil inlet. Use the following type
of RP oil.
Table 4-6
RP Oil
RP Model
Oil Quantity
Oil Manufacturer
TRIVAC D8C
1.0 to 1.5 L
MR-100 Matsumura Sekiyu
4 - 19
4.3
(3)
Maintenance in Routine Operation
Troubleshooting of RP
Refer to the table below for troubleshooting of the RP.
CAUTION
On Handling
Troubleshooting of the RP by the user should be confined to
confirming the symptoms (Table 4-7). Inspection and repair by a
person other than the service engineers may result in loss of a part
related to safety.
Table 4-7
Troubleshooting of RP
Symptom
Probable Cause
1. Doesn’t rotate
• Power failure
• Motor faulty
• Power cord disconnected, circuit protector OFF
2. Does not start
• Oil viscosity increases at low temperature in winter, etc. (below 9 °C)
whereby starting is difficult.
• Remote switch of motor faulty
• Fault inside pump (abnormal meshing, sleeve bearing worn, etc.)
3. Poor evacuation
performance
(vacuum level doesn’t
rise, evacuation rate
slow)
• Air leak due to faulty evacuation tubing.
• Internal contamination or adsorbed gas due to faulty evacuation tubing.
• Tubing too thin or too long
• Deterioration of oil
• Deterioration of valve spring
• Deformation of valve
• Deformation of oil valve
• Fault inside pump
4. Sound too large
• Gas ballast valve is open
• Oil level too low
• Fault in evacuation system on pump suction side
• Loose screws on motor coupling or pump coupling
• Motor sound is large
5. Oil leakage
• Leakage from oil seal
• Leakage from drain plug
• Leakage from box and suction plate
• Oil spattering from evacuation port
6. Backstreaming of oil
• Valve is not in close contact with cylinder surface
• Backstreaming from oil seal
• Deformation or wear of oil valve
7. Considerable vibration
• Temperature is low (vibration increases when starting at low temperature)
• Off-centering of motor and pump shafts
4 - 20
4.3.6
4.3.6
Cooling Water Inspection & Maintenance of Cooling Water System
Below is a cooling water system diagram for the H-7650 microscope. Two systems of cooling
water (for the lens system and evacuation system) are required. As for the lens system, current
does not flow except when the POWER switch is at COL.ON, and cooling is therefore
unnecessary. So the water cooling valve shown in the diagram or the water supply tap for
INLET (LENS) may be left closed. The water supply tap for INLET (LENS) should be closed
when the evacuation system alone is operated continuously for long hours.
CAUX
C1
C2
OBJ1
OBJ2
Int1
Int2
P1
INLET
P2
Water cooling valve
OUTLET
Heat sink
Water cooling
baffle
Water cooling
baffle
INLET(DP)
DP2
DP1
OUTLET
WFS
Fig. 4-18
Cooling Water System Diagram
4 - 21
4.3
(1)
Maintenance in Routine Operation
Flow Rate and Temperature of Cooling Water
(a) The flow rate and temperature of cooling water are restricted as in the table.
The cautions given below should also be observed.
Table 4-8
Cooled System
Cooling Water Flow Rate & Temperature
Water Temperature
Flow Rate
Lens system
10 to 20 °C
Approx. 1.5 to 2 L/min
Evacuation system (DP)
10 to 20 °C
Approx. 1.5 to 2 L/min
NOTES: 1. Water temperature
If the water temperature differs from the room temperature, condensation
will form on the cooled sections and this will lead to corrosion. If the
difference from room temperature is 5 °C or greater, the optional cooling
water circulator should be utilized.
2. Flow rate
If the cooling water flow exceeds 2 L/minute at the water outlet side of
each system, stress due to the flow velocity, etc. will be applied to the
inner walls of cooling water piping and will thus have an adverse effect on
the instrument.
3. Water quality
If iron, calcium and other elements are included in the water supply, the
lens magnetic circuit or DP cooling pipe may become clogged, or
corrosion may occur to result in a breakdown. If the water flow rate
decreases or the DP or lens magnetic circuit overheats, request the
service engineer for repair at once.
Be sure to use a filter if impurities or sand is mixed in the supplied water.
4. Water leak detection
This instrument is not equipped with a water leak detector. A change in
quality or pressure of cooling water could cause corrosion or cracks in
the flow path and result in water leakage. If the optional cooling water
circulator cannot be employed, be sure to purchase and install an
optional water supply unit.
Besides having reducing and constant flow valves, the water supply unit
has a water leak sensor for preventing a large water leakage.
4 - 22
4.3.7
(2)
Routine Check of Cooling Water
(a) When using tap water
• Check if the water flow at the outlet side is low versus the opening of the water
supply tap, or if the water temperature is abnormally high.
• When a filter is used at the water supply side, check the filter for contamination or
clogging.
(b) When using a cooling water circulator
• Check for cleanliness of the circulated water, and if contaminated, replace it with
distilled water.
• Improper functioning of the temperature control may cause overheating of the DP
as well as contamination or drift. Ask for repair in such case.
NOTE: Two systems, water cooling and air cooling, are available for the optional
cooling water circulator. Note that tap water may be used for the primary
cooling in the water cooling system. In this case, be sure to purchase and
install an optional water supply unit for the purpose of water leak detection.
4.3.7
Column Mild Baking Function
This function utilizes the heat radiated from the lens coil to bake the inside of the column for
outgassing the gas molecules adsorbed on the inner wall. This increases the vacuum level and
reduces contamination. (Refer to section 4.7.3 for details.)
(1)
Click Maintenance - Column baking on the menu bar to call out the related window.
(2)
Change the cooling water path as in steps (a),(b) below to form the path for baking.
The valves shown in Fig. 4-19 are provided on the rear of the main unit.
(a) Open the mild baking valve fully.
(b) Close the LENS INLET valve.
LENS INLET
Fig. 4-19
Mild baking
LENS OUTLET
Water Cooling Valves (main unit rear)
4 - 23
4.3
Maintenance in Routine Operation
(3)
Enter a baking time and click Start to begin baking. (A minimum of about 12 hours is
required for baking in order to obtain a good effect in reduction of contamination.)
(4)
To suspend the baking, click Cancel and then click Quit to return to the normal operation.
But when the cooling time is interrupted, the lens will be heated. So make sure the
cooling is sufficient before changing the cooling water path (step 7) for the next operation.
NOTICE: There is a possibility of damaging the lens coil. So do
not open the LENS INLET valve while the lens is hot.
(5)
Allow a lens cooling time of 4 hours after baking. The entire software function is halted
during this time. Do not open the LENS INLET valve during this period.
(6)
Clicking the Quit button when cooling is finished terminates the mild baking mode.
(7)
Change the cooling water path as in (a),(b) below and the path returns from the one for
baking to the normal one.
(a) Open the LENS INLET valve fully.
(b) Close the mild baking valve.
(8)
The mild baking is thus finished. If you forget to open the LENS INLET valve and then
apply the accelerating voltage, a safety device will work and put the instrument in COL.OFF
status.
4 - 24
4.4.1
4.4
Periodic Maintenance
This section describes the maintenance items to be carried out mainly by the service engineers.
Items for the user to carry out are confined to checking the symptoms with respect to an error
message. Contact the service engineer (Hitachi) for locating the cause of and remedying the
error.
4.4.1
Cleaning of Movable Apertures (Hitachi)
Contamination of the movable apertures will cause the symptoms explained below and result in
image disturbance. Cleaning of the apertures must be done periodically or whenever image
disturbance occurs.
The standard movable apertures in the H-7650 are of O-ring sealed type.
(1)
Contamination of Condenser Lens Movable Aperture
This will disable astigmatism correction of the beam spot when the spot size is reduced or
astigmatism correction of a STEM image.
(2)
Contamination of Objective Movable Aperture
This will increase the intrinsic astigmatism of the objective lens, and may disable
astigmatism correction in the worst case. Image quality will also deteriorate.
(3)
Contamination of Selected Area Aperture (option)
This will cause the edge part of the aperture to appear on a selected area image, or cause
distortion of the diffraction spot.
(4)
How to Remove Each Movable Aperture
(a) Set the knob of the objective lens movable aperture at “1”. Set the knobs of the
condenser lens movable aperture and selected area aperture at “0”.
B960854
Fig. 4-20
Movable Aperture
4 - 25
4.4
Periodic Maintenance
(b) Set the entire column at atmospheric pressure by pressing EVAC/AIR switch of
COLUMN EVAC on the right sub panel. With the column in evacuated status,
pressing EVAC switch of COLUMN EVAC closes the entire column, and then pressing
the AIR switch puts the entire column at atmospheric pressure.
Screw
Aperture retaining plate
Aperture plate
Aperture holder
Fig. 4-21
Condenser Lens Movable Aperture/Selected Area Aperture
Electron beam incident side
< Enlarged view of objective movable aperture hole >
Aperture holder
Fig. 4-22
Objective Movable Aperture
4 - 26
4.4.1
(c) Loosen the column retaining screw M4 × 2, and pull the movable aperture out of the
column.
(d) Remove the aperture screw, then remove the aperture retaining plate and aperture
plate using a tweezers.
(e) Clean the movable aperture according to step.
(f)
(5)
After cleaning, reassemble the aperture into the column.
Cleaning of Each Movable Aperture
Screw
Aperture retaining plate
Aperture plate
Fig. 4-23
Selected Area Movable Apertures (option)
(a) Aperture plate
1)
2)
3)
Attach a molybdenum board inside the vacuum evaporator, set the aperture plate
on the board, and then evacuate.
When the vacuum reaches about 1.33 × 10-3 Pa, gradually apply current until the
molybdenum board is red-heated. Increase the current until the board becomes
incandescent. (The current at that point is about 40 to 50 A.) Let it incandesce
for 5 to 10 seconds, and remove the contamination around the aperture hole.
After stopping the heating, wait for 5 minutes before exposing it to air.
Absolutely avoid touching the aperture plate with bare hands.
4 - 27
4.4
Periodic Maintenance
Electrode
Aperture plate
Molybdenum
board
Fig. 4-24
Cleaning of Aperture Plate
(b) Aperture retaining plate and aperture holder
If contaminated, first polish with metal polishing agent, wipe a few times with gauze
moistened with acetone, and after the cleaning, dry thoroughly with a dryer.
(c) O-ring
Remove the O-ring carefully with a bamboo stick or the like so as not to scratch it,
wipe it with gauze moistened with alcohol, then apply a little vacuum grease to it.
CAUTION
Inhalation of Harmful Substance
Inhalation of a large amount of organic solvent could result in toxic
symptoms. Be sure to ventilate the room well when using such
substances for cleaning, etc.
Injury due to Spattering of Harmful Substance
Spattering of an organic solvent could cause injury to the eyes.
One should wear protective goggles when using such substances.
4 - 28
4.4.2
4.4.2
Maintenance of Penning Gauge (Hitachi)
Since a high voltage of 3000 V is applied to the electrodes of the Penning gauge, the resultant
electric field causes a gradual contamination of the surroundings. The result is that high voltage
may leak, a correct vacuum level may not be read, and/or accelerating voltage may not be
applicable. (The Penning gauge serves to provide vacuum protection for the accelerating
voltage.)
If any of the above symptoms occur, contact your nearest Hitachi service agent.
4.4.3
(1)
Replacement of Backup Battery (Hitachi)
H-7650 Control Unit
Although stored in the RAM area for EVAC, a backup battery provides protection so that
data will not be deleted when power is turned off.
NOTE: Although the battery is an auto recharging type, it has a useful life of about 1 year.
Request the service agent for battery replacement about once a year.
(2)
Backup Battery Replacement
Use the type of battery described below for battery replacement.
Table 4-9
Recommended Backup Battery
Type
GB50H-3X
Manufacturer
Nippon Denchi
Quantity
Two
WARNING
Beware of Explosion
This instrument uses a lithium battery for memory backup.
A mistake in handling the battery could cause it to explode.
Absolutely avoid disassembling the battery or tossing it into a flame.
4 - 29
4.4
Periodic Maintenance
WARNING
The lithium battery must be handled separately from general waste
matter. When lithium battery replacement is required, be sure to
contact the dealer from whom you purchased the instrument or your
nearest Hitachi service agent. Entrust the replacement to a qualified
service engineer. (Replacement will be provided at charge after the
guarantee period of the instrument.)
4.4.4
Maintenance of Digital Camera System (Hitachi)
Remove dust adhering to the surfaces of optical lens, mirror and scintillator of the digital camera
system by using a blower. If fingerprints or the like adhere to the optical lens surface, wipe
them off using a lens cloth.
4 - 30
4.5.1
4.5
Error Messages (for user’s reference)
An error message will appear if an error occurs in the system. The message may appear in the
status bar of the control screen or in the error message window. If an error that hinders the
system operation occurs, a message that requests restart of the system program, for example,
will appear in the error message window. The occurrence of an error that requires an urgent
remedy will cause an error message to appear in the control area.
NOTICE: The user should check only the symptoms with respect to
an error message. Contact the service engineer for
locating the cause of and remedying the error.
4.5.1
Error Messages Requiring an Urgent Remedy
If an error occurs that requires an urgent remedy, the system COL. power and EVAC power will
be turned OFF in about 3 seconds. Note that the buzzer will sound in the case of errors related
to water leakage. To stop the buzzer, turn OFF the DC power supply main breaker or the
switch on the switchboard.
Table 4-10
Message
Error Messages Requiring an Urgent Remedy
Details
Remedy
RP-1 FAILURE
Appears if an abnormality occurs in
oil rotary pump (RP) 1.
Contact our nearest service
agent.
RP-2 FAILURE
Appears if an abnormality occurs in
oil rotary pump (RP) 2.
Contact our nearest service
agent.
WATER LEAKAGE (option)
Appears if the water leak sensor
detects a water leakage.
Contact our nearest service
agent.
WATER LEAKAGE
SENSOR ERROR (option)
Appears if an abnormality occurs in
the water leak sensor.
Contact our nearest service
agent.
4 - 31
4.5
Error messages (for user’s reference)
4.5.2
Error Messages Appearing in Control Area
Table 4-11
Message
Error Messages Appearing in Control Area
Details
Remedy
ABS CANNOT ADJUST
Appears when brightness cannot be
set upon executing the auto
brightness set (ABS) mode.
ABS mode is reset if it cannot be
executed.
Set FULL size for the film.
ABS MODE CANCEL
Appears when the ABS mode is reset
when brightness cannot be changed
with BRIGHT knob in the ABS mode
selected status or at viewing mode
changeover.
Don’t manipulate the
BRIGHT knob during the
ABS operation.
FILM SETTING ERROR
Appears when film could not be set at
the prescribed position.
Since the remaining number
of exposures has reached
“0”, load new film.
SCREEN MOTOR ERROR
Appears when screen could not be
moved to the prescribed position, or
when screen up/down mechanism
malfunctions.
Contact our nearest service
agent.
FILM CASSETTE JAMMED
Appears when film could not be
moved to the photographing position
or the cassette receiver, or when film
feed mechanism malfunctions due to
deformation of film cassette.
Contact our nearest service
agent.
OVER CURRENT
OCCURRED
Appears when overcurrent is
produced due to discharge, etc.
during accelerating voltage
application.
Try re-applying accelerating
voltage at 80 kV or less.
If discharge occurs again,
contact our nearest service
agent.
POOR VACUUM
Appears when accelerating voltage
cannot be applied because of low
vacuum level in the column when
pressing the accelerating voltage
switch.
Wait until electron gun and
column reach a high vacuum
before applying accelerating
voltage.
HV UNIT OVER HEAT
Appears if the HV unit heats up
abnormally.
Contact our nearest service
agent.
HV UNIT POWER
FAILURE
Appears if an abnormality occurs in
the HV unit power system.
Contact our nearest service
agent.
TMP FAILURE
Appears if an abnormality occurs in
the turbo molecular pump (TMP)
(option).
Contact our nearest service
agent.
AIR PRESSURE DOWN
Appears if the pressure in air
compressor drops abnormally.
Contact our nearest service
agent.
WATER PRESSURE
DOWN
Appears if the flow of cooling water
drops.
Contact our nearest service
agent.
4 - 32
4.5.3
(cont’d)
Message
Details
Remedy
DP-1 OVER HEAT
Appears if oil diffusion pump (DP) 1
heats up abnormally.
Contact our nearest service
agent.
DP-2 OVER HEAT
Appears if oil diffusion pump (DP) 2
heats up abnormally.
Contact our nearest service
agent.
DP-1/2 SENSOR ERROR
Appears if an error occurs in DP-1 or
DP-2 thermal sensor.
Contact our nearest service
agent.
WARNING: SERIAL DATA
MISMATCH (a)
Appears if an error occurs in serial
communication data.
Contact our nearest service
agent.
WARNING: SERIAL COM.
ERROR (b)
Appears if an error occurs in serial
communication port (device).
Contact our nearest service
agent.
WARNING: PARALLEL
COM. ERROR (c)
Appears if an error occurs in parallel
communication port (device).
Contact our nearest service
agent.
VALVE I/O ERROR
Appears if a valve did not operate
normally within the prescribed time in
the evacuation sequence.
Contact our nearest service
agent.
4.5.3
Error Messages Appearing in Window
These errors mainly occur when the cable of a unit is disconnected.
Table 4-12
Message
Error Messages Appearing in Window
Details
Remedy
LENS/BD UNIT PORT
ERROR
Appears if an abnormality occurs in
the communication port of lens
system unit.
Contact our nearest service
agent.
CAMERA UNIT PORT
ERROR
Appears if an abnormality occurs in
the communication port of camera
control unit.
Contact our nearest service
agent.
HV UNIT PORT ERROR
Appears if an abnormality occurs in
the communication port of HV control
unit.
Contact our nearest service
agent.
EVAC UNIT PORT ERROR
Appears if an abnormality occurs in
the communication port of evacuation
system control unit.
Contact our nearest service
agent.
WOBBLER UNIT PORT
ERROR
Appears if an abnormality occurs in
the communication port of wobbler
control unit.
Contact our nearest service
agent.
OPTION PORT ERROR
Appears if an abnormality occurs in
the communication port of option unit.
Contact our nearest service
agent.
4 - 33
4.5
Error messages (for user’s reference)
(cont’d)
Message
Details
Remedy
STEM UNIT PORT ERROR
Appears if an abnormality occurs in
the communication port of STEM
control unit.
Contact our nearest service
agent.
STAGE UNIT PORT
ERROR
Appears if an abnormality occurs in
the communication port of stage
control unit.
Contact our nearest service
agent.
PANEL PORT ERROR
Appears if an abnormality occurs in
the communication port of operation
panel control unit.
Contact our nearest service
agent.
Thermo SW working!
Appears if an unforeseen error
occurs in the lens system control unit.
Check the cooling water,
since it is normal for the error
to appear when the thermo
SW operates.
Appears if an unforeseen error
occurs in the camera control unit.
Check the cooling water,
since it is normal for the error
to appear when the thermo
SW operates.
Appears if an unforeseen error
occurs in the HV control unit.
Check the cooling water,
since it is normal for the error
to appear when the thermo
SW operates.
Appears if an unforeseen error
occurs in the evacuation system
control unit.
Check the cooling water,
since it is normal for the error
to appear when the thermo
SW operates.
Appears if an unforeseen error
occurs in the communication control
unit.
Contact our nearest service
agent.
(LENS UNIT RESET)
Thermo SW working!
(CAMERA UNIT RESET)
Thermo SW working!
(HV UNIT RESET)
Thermo SW working!
(EVAC UNIT RESET)
Thermo SW working!
(COMM UNIT RESET)
4 - 34
4.6.1
4.6
4.6.1
Troubleshooting (for user’s reference)
Evacuation Sequence Does Not Proceed
EVAC POWER switch ON
Rotates
RP status?
Stopped
Sounds
Buzzer status?
Doesn’t sound
EVAC switch lamps?
Lit in yellow
All off
A-1
All off
B-1
Turn POWER switch to
COL.ON and call out EVAC
control window.
Pre-evacuation ?
Lit in yellow
EVAC switch lamps?
C-1
D-1
* If PC doesn’t operate despite POWER switch
being set to COL.ON, refer to “4.6.2 System
program doesn’t operate”.
Doesn’t proceed
Proceeds
Main evacuation ?
Doesn’t proceed
Proceeds
Does not reach steady
status ?
YES
NO
H-1
Fig. 4-25
G-1
F-1
Troubleshooting of Evacuation Sequence
Refer to Table 4-13 for the probable causes of the above troubles.
4 - 35
E-1
4.6
Troubleshooting (for user’s reference)
Table 4-13
Symptom
A-1
Causes of and Remedy for Evacuation Sequence Not Proceeding
Probable Cause
Remedy
Fault in RP-1 or RP-2
Inspect DC power supply breaker or power cable for
RP-1, RP-2.
Malfunction of valve
Check for air pipe disconnection or deterioration.
Abnormal drop of pressure in air
compressor
Check air compressor power cable, drain cock, etc.
Faulty connection of DP-1 or DP-2
thermal sensor
Attach sensor securely and connect its cable
correctly.
Overheating of DP-1, DP-2
Check cooling water temperature and level.
Fault in TMP (option)
Refer to section 4.6.9.
Sensor detects water leak
Check the cooling water tubing, etc.
Misconnection or breakdown of
water leak sensor
Attach sensor securely and connect its cable
correctly.
D-1
Cooling water level low
Check if cooling water flow is from 1.5 to 2.0 L/min.
E-1
Gun lift sensor faulty
Attach sensor securely and connect its cable
correctly.
Pirani gauge faulty
Check vacuum degree on Pirani gauge.
broken, replace it.
Vacuum insufficient
Check the vacuum level of each block.
DP heater faulty
If DP temperature does not rise, replace DP heater.
Vacuum insufficient
Check the vacuum level of each block. If raw film is
inserted in camera chamber, much time will be
needed for reaching high vacuum.
Cooling water temperature is high
If cooling water temperature is above 20 °C, DP
cannot be cooled sufficiently and overheat error will
occur, whereby evacuation sequence will stop.
Although self-reset will occur when DP is cooled, the
error will recur.
Penning gauge faulty
Check the vacuum degree of Penning gauge.
If gauge is contaminated, clean or replace it.
Unforeseen error has occurred
Contact your nearest Hitachi service agent and inform
them of the error in detail.
B-1
C-1
F-1
G-1
H-1
4 - 36
If gauge is
4.6.2
4.6.2
System Program Doesn’t Operate
COL.ON switch
PC status ?
Power not ON
Power ON
CRT status ?
No image appearing
Image appears
Windows ?
Not started
Started
Doesn’t proceed
TEM system program ?
Proceeds
Fails to attain steady
status ?
NO
YES
E-2
D-2
C-2
B-2
A-2
Control screen display
* For the error messages that appear after display of the control screen, refer to
section 4.5.
Fig. 4-26
Troubleshooting of System Program
Refer to Table 4-14 for a description on probable causes of the above errors.
4 - 37
4.6
Troubleshooting (for user’s reference)
Table 4-14
Symptom
A-2
B-2
C-2
D-2
Causes of and Remedy for System Program Failing to Operate
Probable Cause
Remedy
Misconnection of PC
power supply
Check PC main unit, CRT power switch, and cable.
Evacuation sequence
faulty
If “RP fails to rotate” error occurs, PC power supply is not ON.
Refer to section 4.6.1.
CRT brightness not
adjusted properly
Readjust the CRT brightness and contrast.
CRT monitor cable
misconnected
Check the monitor cable connecting PC main unit and CRT.
PC not started correctly
Check if key on keyboard or mouse button is kept depressed,
or if FD is left inserted in the drive.
Windows not started
correctly
Windows startup file has been damaged.
Windows program.
PC failure
Follow the instructions of error message appearing on CRT.
If error message doesn’t appear, contact the service engineer.
TEM system program
not started correctly
If icon (execution file) for TEM system program is not registered
in Windows startup folder, reinstall the TEM system program
referring to section 4.7.7.
Reinstall the
TEM system program file If file necessary for TEM system program is damaged or not
faulty
registered, an error message will appear. Reinstall the TEM
system program referring to section 4.7.7.
E-2
Communication failure
between units
Check the communication cable connection with reference to
the faulty unit name indicated on error message window.
Unit failure
Check if cable or connector is disconnected with reference to
the faulty unit name indicated on error message window.
If error message recurs upon restarting the system, contact the
service engineer.
4 - 38
4.6.3
4.6.3
Accelerating Voltage Not Applied
HV switch ON
Turned OFF
Control screen accelerating
voltage value ?
Varies
Accelerating voltage
become OFF ?
Being applied
After application
C-3
Fig. 4-27
B-3
A-3
Troubleshooting of Accelerating Voltage
Refer to Table 4-15 for a description on probable causes of the above errors.
4 - 39
4.6
Troubleshooting (for user’s reference)
Table 4-15
Symptom
A-3
B-3
C-3
Causes of and Remedy for Accelerating Voltage Not Being Applied
Probable Cause
Remedy
Low vacuum status
If error message “POOR VACUUM” appears, wait until column
reaches a high vacuum.
Vacuum status
monitoring cable
misconnected
Check vacuum status and valve status on EVAC control
window, and if error message “POOR VACUUM” appears
despite both statuses being good, check the connection of
vacuum status monitoring cable.
Error in accelerating
voltage presetting
If accelerating voltage is preset at 0 kV in HV preset window,
the accelerating voltage will not be applied.
Control panel
misconnection
Check whether control panel connecting cable is disconnected.
Electric discharge inside
column
Electron gun is contaminated and requires cleaning.
High vacuum not
attained
Lengthen the time for incrementing voltage, which is set on
filament voltage auto increment setting window, just after
reaching the vacuum level at which accelerating voltage may
be applied from the low vacuum status.
Overheat protection
activated
Unit power is turned OFF by protective circuit when HV unit,
lens unit or DC power supply overheats. Check whether
cooling water of lens unit, or heat radiating slit of HV unit or DC
power supply is shut off.
High vacuum not
attained
If accelerating voltage is applied just after reaching the vacuum
level at which it may be applied from the low vacuum status,
the voltage is apt to be turned OFF. Carry out the flashing
operation.
Overcurrent produced
In filament voltage auto increment mode, filament voltage and
bias are set after applying accelerating voltage. If filament
voltage and bias are excessive, the accelerating voltage will be
turned OFF by the overcurrent protective circuit.
Make adjustment on the filament/bias control window.
4 - 40
4.6.4
4.6.4
Electron Beam Not Emitted
HV switch ON
Accelerating voltage ?
OFF
ON
Call out filament/bias control
window
Filament/bias voltage
status ?
Not applied
Applied
C-4
Fig. 4-28
B-4
A-4
Troubleshooting of Electron Beam
Refer to Table 4-16 for a description on probable causes of the above errors.
4 - 41
4.6
Troubleshooting (for user’s reference)
Table 4-16
Symptom
Causes of and Remedy for Electron Beam Not Being Emitted
Probable Cause
Remedy
A-4
Accelerating voltage
inadequate
Refer to section 4.6.3.
B-4
Filament voltage auto
increment mode not
selected
If filament voltage manual increment mode has been selected on
accelerating voltage/filament voltage auto increment time setting
window, it will not be incremented automatically. Refer to
section 3.3.2 for the manual increment mode.
Faulty filament
If filament is broken, then clicking the ON button after setting
filament preset voltage will not set the voltage. Replace the
filament.
Status of specimen
chamber EVAC switch
If specimen chamber EVAC switch is at AIR, bias will be at
maximum voltage and beam will not be emitted. Set the EVAC
switch at EVAC regardless of presence/absence of specimen
holder, for setting the bias preset voltage.
Filament/bias preset
voltage inadequate
If proper filament and bias preset voltages have been set, then
adjustment is required. By increasing bias voltage, beam will
fail to appear. Refer to section 3.3.2.
GV or SV valve is
closed or faulty
• If viewing chamber or camera chamber does not reach high
vacuum status, SV valve is closed. In this case, beam is not
emitted, so wait until high vacuum is reached.
• GV and/or SV valve is faulty. Contact service engineer for
repair.
Axial alignment of
column inadequate
Carry out axial alignment of column as in 4.7.2.
Movable aperture not
adjusted properly
Adjust the position of condenser lens aperture or objective lens
aperture.
Articles dropped or left
behind
Specimen, specimen holder or other object was dropped into
electron beam path and obstructs the beam.
Photographing shutter
faulty
Beam is cut off if photographing shutter is left closed.
the air tube for shutter drive, etc.
C-4
4 - 42
Check
4.6.5
4.6.5
Magnification Not Selected Normally
Check with reference to the following table if magnification cannot be selected normally.
Table 4-17
Causes of and Remedy for Magnification Not Being Selected Normally
Symptom
Magnification doesn’t
change though MAG
knob is turned
4.6.6
Probable Cause
Countermeasure
Lens system CPU has
overrun
Try restarting with the
POWER switch.
Lens system overcurrent
prevention fuse has
blown
Contact your nearest
service agent.
Remedy
Have the service engineer
make repair.
Brightness Doesn’t Change
Table 4-18
Symptom
Causes of and Remedy for Brightness Not Changing
Probable Cause
Countermeasure
Remedy
GT/GH, BT/BH and other DC power supply
deflection systems don’t protective fuse has
operate
blown
Contact your nearest
service agent.
Have the service engineer
make repair.
Only one system doesn’t
operate
Contact your nearest
service agent.
Have the service engineer
make repair (replace coil).
Misadjustment of
Contact your nearest
knob at faulty location service agent.
Have the service engineer
make repair (adjustment).
Drive circuit fuse has
blown
Have the service engineer
make repair (replace fuse).
Coil broken
Contact your nearest
service agent.
4 - 43
4.6
Troubleshooting (for user’s reference)
4.6.7
Focus Not Obtainable
Check according to the following table if focus cannot be obtained.
Table 4-19
Symptom
Causes of and Remedy for Focus Not Being Obtained
Probable Cause
Countermeasure
Focus not changed
even by turning
FOCUS knob
Objective lens control
circuit faulty
Contact your nearest
service agent.
Have the service engineer
make repair.
Fuse has blown
Contact your nearest
service agent.
Have the service engineer
make repair (replace fuse).
Focal position largely
deviates
Objective focusing
current largely
deviates from setting
Press LENS switch
and return to initial
value.
Obtain focus with Z control
knob of tilt device.
4.6.8
Remedy
Photographing Doesn’t Work Normally
PHOTO switch ON
Screen status ?
Doesn’t move UP
Moves UP
Photographing start ?
Start is delayed
Normal
Photographing end ?
End is delayed
Ends
D-5
Fig. 4-29
C-5
B-5
A-5
Troubleshooting of Photographing
Refer to Table 4-20 for a description on probable causes of the above errors.
4 - 44
4.6.8
Table 4-20
Symptom
A-5
Causes of and Remedy for Photographing Not Working Properly
Probable Cause
Remedy
Film feed mechanism
faulty
Film cassette is caught on rails when feeding it toward photo
position, whereby photo sequence is halted. Take out film
cassette and replace deformed part.
Screen up/down
mechanism faulty
Adjust screen up/down mechanism or replace faulty parts.
Failure in registering
remaining films
Photographing will not be made when remaining film number is
0. If unused film number in feed magazine differs from
unused film number that was registered, system will attempt to
feed even if there is no film. Two attempts will be made so as
to prevent misfeeding, but photo sequence will be halted.
Low vacuum status
At low vacuum, separate valve (SV) is closed and
photographing will not be made. Wait until SV is opened.
B-5
Failure in setting photo
standby time
Check if photo standby time is set at other than default value
on normal exposure condition setting window.
C-5
Failure in setting film
feed standby time
Check if film feed standby time is set at other than default value
on normal exposure condition setting window.
Failure in setting
exposure time
Check the time set at MANUAL TIME in EXP.TIME group on
normal exposure condition setting window. If electron beam
density is low with AUTO TIME MODE selected, exposure time
will be extended.
Film feed mechanism
faulty
Film cassette that has finished photographing is caught on rails
when feeding it toward cassette receiver, whereby photo
sequence is halted. Take out film cassette and replace
deformed part.
D-5
4 - 45
4.6
Troubleshooting (for user’s reference)
4.6.9
(1)
Turbomolecular Pump (TMP) Doesn’t Work Properly
If the TMP (option) incurs a fault at startup of operation or during operation, carry out the
troubleshooting indicated in the table below. If a relevant precedent is not found in the
table, contact the service engineer.
Table 4-21
Trouble Example
Troubleshooting
Check Location
POWER ON lamp does not
come on
•
•
•
•
Rotor doesn’t turn
• Check cable connecting TMP and
controller
Connection of power cable
Connection of remote control
Fuses F4 (C16), F1 (C18)
Power voltage (100 V ± 10%)
Remarks
Inspection is required.
• Fuse F4 (C15)
Doesn’t attain rated revolution • Pressure at air intake and exhaust
30 minutes after EVAC ON
• Leak rate
• Fuse F3 (C14)
• Whether power failure occurred after
EVAC ON
Pressure should be 13.3 Pa
(0.1 Torr) or less
Rotor stopped during baking
• Baking temperature
• Cooling unit function
• Whether power failure occurred
Temperature should be
120 °C or less
Rotor stopped during normal
operation
•
•
•
•
•
Pressure should be 13.3 Pa
(0.1 Torr) or less
Rotor dropped during
operation
Check cable connecting TMP and
controller
Pressure at air intake and exhaust
Leak rate
Whether power failure occurred
Whether there is excessive vibration
Noise source
4 - 46
4.6.9
(2)
The following lamps come on when there is an abnormality in the TMP. Turn OFF the
POWER switch to make a status check, and report the details to the service engineer
(Hitachi).
“OVER TEMPERATURE”.................When motor and electromagnet are overheated.
“FAILURE”........................................• Interior of control unit is overheated.
• Motor and electromagnet are overheated.
• Inverter is overloaded.
“EMERGENCY OPERATION”..........• When power failure occurs.
• When vibration or impact is applied successively
because the rotor contacts the protective dry bearing.
• When cable is not connected between TMP and
control unit.
(3)
Restart after Operation of Safety Function
The “FAILURE” and “EMERGENCY OPERATION” signals that are emitted at detection of
excessive vibration and motor overload are continued until the EVAC switch and power
distribution panel switch are turned OFF. After eliminating the cause of the abnormality,
turn ON the power distribution panel and EVAC switches and make a restart. In other
cases, the rotor operation can be restarted by pressing the EVAC switch.
4 - 47
4.7
Software Adjustments
4.7
Software Adjustments
4.7.1
Maintenance Menu on Hitachi H-7650 Control Window
Upon bringing the pointer to Maintenance on the Function menu, the menu shown in Fig. 4-30
appears.
Fig. 4-30
Maintenance menu
Following is an explanation of the windows selected.
4 - 48
4.7.2
4.7.2
Alignment Mode
This is used for axial alignment of the electron microscope. Axial alignment of the column and
electron gun should be carried out at filament exchange or when disassembling the column for
cleaning, etc. Since the column axis may deviate, its alignment must be performed by our
service engineers or trained technicians. And the column axial alignment must be performed at
an accelerating voltage of 100 kV. By clicking Alignment mode on the Maintenance menu as
shown in Fig. 4-31, the Alignment mode window will open.
Fig. 4-31
Alignment mode Menu & Alignment mode Window
Upon selecting the Column alignment or Gun alignment radio button and clicking Start button,
another Alignment mode window will appear. Perform the axial alignment indicated by the step
number.
(1)
Gun Alignment
(a) Clicking Gun alignment and then Start button initiates axial alignment of the electron
gun.
Fig. 4-32
Gun alignment Window
4 - 49
4.7
Software Adjustments
(b) The GH & GT Alignment mode in step 1 begins. The BH and BT multi-knobs now
apply to GH and GT. Bring the beam spot to the center of the fluorescent screen with
GH, and reduce the filament voltage to obtain an unsaturated image of the filament.
Refer to section 3.3.2 for the method of reducing filament voltage.
(c) Adjust the image as shown in A of Fig. 4-33 using GT. If the beam spot deviates from
the fluorescent screen center, bring it back to the center using GH.
A
B
Fig. 4-33
Filament image
(d) Click Next button and the GH & GT Alignment mode in step 4 begins. Adjust the
beam spot to the fluorescent screen center using GH. Click Next button again and
the End window will appear. Either Save or Cancel can be selected here.
Select Save to memorize the axial alignment data. Upon selecting Save, the axial
alignment mode is ended. Carry out the subsequent alignment with BH.
(e) Press the LENS switch on the left control panel and set the magnification to ×2,000.
Insert the condenser lens movable aperture into the column and adjust the aperture
position. Since the BH data will be recorded individually for each spot size, change
over the spot size and adjust the beam to the fluorescent screen center for each spot
size.
After filament exchange, set the filament voltage on the filament/bias setting window
and also realign the voltage/current centers for image observation.
(2)
Column Alignment (for user’s reference)
This procedure is normally unnecessary. It is required when the column has been
disassembled for cleaning or the like. Column alignment must be performed at an
accelerating voltage of 100 kV.
NOTE: Special training is required for conducting axial alignment of the column. Persons who
have not undergone such training must not perform the alignment given in this section.
Contact our nearest service agent (Hitachi) when column alignment is required.
4 - 50
4.7.3
4.7.3
Column Baking (column mild baking function)
(1)
The mild baking function is one with which the column is heated by means of the selfheating action of the lens. This function is effective after introducing air into the column
following cleaning of the column interior or for eliminating contamination. The following
description concerns the software function for baking; refer to 4.3.7 for the actual baking
procedure.
(2)
Click Column baking on the Maintenance menu and the Column baking window will open.
Fig. 4-34
Column baking Window
(3)
Enter in the Baking time input box the baking time set with the scroll bar or keyboard.
A maximum baking time of 50 hours 59 minutes can be set. Click the Set button after
making the setting. In the baking process, the column is heated during the set baking time,
followed by the lens cooling mode and natural cooling of the column. The maximum lens
cooling time is 4 hours.
(4)
Now turn the accelerating voltage OFF as indicated on the window.
input valve and open the baking valve.
(5)
Click the Start button and baking starts. After the start of baking, protection is applied to
the control panels and other items to prevent operation of the TEM.
(6)
When the baking process is all finished, the Column baking window cannot be closed.
Although it can be closed forcibly via the Cancel button in an emergency, don’t open the
lens valve right away. An abrupt temperature difference might damage the lens and other
precision components inside the column.
4 - 51
Then close the lens
4.7
Software Adjustments
4.7.4
LaB6 Outgassing (option)
The LaB6 outgassing function (option) is for outgassing the LaB6 filament after its exchange or
after exposing the electron gun section to air. Outgassing is performed by turning OFF the
accelerating voltage and gradually increasing the LaB6 filament voltage.
(1)
As shown in Fig. 4-35, click LaB6 outgas on the Maintenance menu and the LaB6 outgas
window will open.
Fig. 4-35
LaB6 outgas Menu & LaB6 outgas Window
(2)
Enter in the Heat up voltage input box, using scroll bar or keyboard, the voltage to be set to
the LaB6 filament. The maximum setting allowable is indicated on the case
accommodating the LaB6 filament.
(3)
Enter in the Heat up time input box, using scroll bar or keyboard, the time for reaching the
Heat up voltage. Time is settable in a range from 30 minutes up to 10 hours 59 minutes.
(4)
After setting the Heat up voltage and Heat up time, click the Set button.
(5)
Now click the Start button and outgassing starts. The elapsed time is indicated at Timer
while the output voltage is indicated at Present. When the Heat up time has elapsed and
the Heat up voltage is output, this voltage is retained. To cancel the process, click the
Quit button.
(6)
By double-clicking the control menu box at the top left of the window, the LaB6 outgas
window will close.
NOTE: Set a Heat up time of at least two hours after replacing the LaB6 filament. An abrupt
outgassing may cause a considerable deterioration in the electron gun vacuum level
and/or damage to the LaB6 filament.
4 - 52
4.7.5
4.7.5
Customize Toolbar
This is a command used for setting the toolbar. It allows you to add or delete icon buttons as
you wish. Clicking Customize toolbar on the Maintenance menu opens the Customize toolbar
window.
Fig. 4-36
Customize toolbar Window
(1)
Select an item to be set by using the scroll bar on the window.
the selected item appears in the indication box.
(2)
Validate the check mark at the left of the item, then click Set button and the selected item is
added to the toolbar.
(3)
To delete an item from the toolbar, remove the check mark from the item and click Set
button.
(4)
Selection of Default operation from the pull-down menu sets up the default status (in which
check marks appear at all of the items).
4 - 53
The icon corresponding to
4.7
Software Adjustments
4.7.6
Password Check
By clicking the item indicated below on the Maintenance menu in Fig. 4-30, the Password check
window shown in Fig. 4-37 will open. A password is thus requested, so the user need not
intervene.
Fig. 4-37
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Password check Window
TEM adjustment
Lens data EEPROM set
Lens & BD RAM data set
Lens & BD RAM data backup
Backup ‘Appsys.mdb’ to FD
Backup ‘Appsys.mdb’ to HDD
CCD protection data
Comm control
EVAC monitor
4.7.7
Installation of TEM System Program
Set the POWER switch at COL.ON. Make sure your personal computer (PC) is operating on
the Windows system. If the Windows is not activated, contact your nearest service agent
(Hitachi).
Insert the TEM system program disk into the CD-ROM drive and open the CD-ROM drive from
the Windows Explorer. The drive contains an Installer Setup.EXE for the TEM system program.
Since files stored in the CD-ROM are compressed, use the Installer to decompress them.
Execute the Setup.EXE. This can be done by double-clicking with the mouse. The Installer
automatically sets the operating environment required for the TEM system program and control.
A termination message appears when the installation is finished. Check if the TEM system
program icon is registered in the Windows startup folder. Take the TEM system program disk
out of the CD-ROM drive and terminate the Windows program. Do not turn OFF the power
switch on the PC.
After checking that the Windows is terminated, return the POWER switch to EVAC ON and turn
OFF the COL. power supply. The PC power is turned OFF about one second later.
Turn the POWER switch to COL.ON again and the TEM system program is executed.
To allow configuring the H-7650 control environment in the Windows system, the TEM system
program must not be installed in a PC other than the one mounted in the H-7650.
Avoid installing in another PC.
4 - 54
4.8
4.8
Spare Parts for Electron Microscope
The spare parts listed below are required for normal operation of the electron microscope, and
should be prepared in advance. Please consult with our sales representative if you have any
question concerning cost, etc.
Table 4-22
Spare Parts for H-7650 (for 5 years’ use)
No.
Qty
Part No.
Part Name
1
1
817-1759
Electron gun fixed aperture (1)
2
1
817-1824
Electron gun fixed aperture (2)
3
1
817-1605
Condenser fixed aperture (1)
4
1
817-2088
Condenser fixed aperture (2)
5
1
817-2052
Condenser fixed aperture (C)
6
2
747-1491
Auto-valve (BV-2A)
7
2
747-1761
Electromagnetic valve (3 port)
8
2
747-1760
Electromagnetic valve (4 port)
9
1
817-0495
O-ring set
10
1
L536072
DP heater (700 W)
11
1
K439000
Penning vacuum gauge
12
2
K433004
Pirani vacuum gauge
13
2
817-0246
Shield plate (cassette magazine)
14
5
J853403
Lamp (OL-385-BPC)
15
1
J853101
Pilot lamp E10
16
2
817-2098
DC latch
17
2
817-2924
Rotary pump
4 - 55
4.8
Spare Parts for Electron Microscope
Table 4-23
H-7650 Standard Accessories (P/N 817-2465)
No.
Qty
Part No.
Part Name
2-010
1
817-2466
Accessories (1) *
2-020
1
817-2467
Accessories (2) *
2-030
1
N312014
Single-end wrench 22
2-040
1
817-1968
Single-end wrench 24
2-050
4
747-2388
Cooling water hose (7 m)
2-060
1
F830010
Air tube (blue, 10 m)
2-070
1
747-2386
Specimen holder
2-080
1
817-0274
Special lifter (column)
2-090
1
N315012
Hexagonal wrench key (B=17)
2-100
1
542-3149
Compressor inspection list
(*) These are given in separate list.
4 - 56
4.8
Table 4-24 H-7650 Accessories (1) (P/N 817-2466)
No.
Qty
Part No.
Part Name
3-010
1
J821772
Fuse ST4 1A
3-020
1
J821774
Fuse ST4 2A
3-030
1
J821775
Fuse ST4 3.15A
3-040
1
J821777
Fuse ST4 5A
3-050
1
J821771
Fuse ST4 500MA
3-060
1
J853403
Lamp OL-385-BPC
3-070
1
J853101
Pilot lamp E-10
3-080
1
777-0179
Filament (set of 10)
3-090
2
L456759
O-ring AS568-110 FPM
3-100
2
L456841
O-ring AS568-251 FPM
Table 4-25 H-7650 Accessories (2) (P/N 817-2467)
No.
Qty
Part No.
Part Name
3-010
1
562-1381
Hexagonal wrench key B=6 (spec.)
3-020
1
432-2551
Hexagonal wrench key B=5 (spec.)
3-030
1
542-0199
Filament alignment tool (1)
3-040
1
542-0200
Filament alignment tool (2)
3-050
2
L992000
Suction cup
3-060
1
542-1706
Hexagonal wrench key B=3 (spec.)
3-070
2
432-2660
Magnet yoke removal jig
3-080
2
562-2136
Alignment knob
3-090
1
872-0165
Apiezon grease
3-100
1
F276001
Teflon tape
3-110
4
747-2319
Hose adapter 1
3-120
1
N315000
Hexagonal wrench key B=1.5
4 - 57
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