TS14G Overhung Scraper Maintenance Manual

TS14G Overhung Scraper Maintenance Manual
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TS14G
Overhung Scraper
Maintenance Manual
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MAIN LIBRARY INDEX
PART No. 15501198
SM 2283 Rev 1 12-05
TECHNICAL PUBLICATIONS DEPARTMENT
TEREX EQUIPMENT LIMITED,
MOTHERWELL, SCOTLAND, ML1 5RY
REF. NO. 853
The information contained within this
Alert must not be made available to
third parties not authorised to receive it.
Service
Information
Alert
DATE:
April 1994
MODEL:
General
SUBJECT:
VITON 'O' RINGS AND SEALS (FLUORO-ELASTOMERS) - SAFETY HAZARDS
B168
PURPOSE:
To advise potentially hazardous condition.
DETAIL:
It has been brought to our attention that 'Viton' material used in manufacture of oil seals and 'O' rings, produces
a highly corrosive acid (Hydrofluoric) when subjected to temperatures above 315° C.
The resulting contamination can have extreme consequences on human tissue since it is almost impossible to
remove after contact.
We therefore recommend the following procedure when it is necessary to inspect any equipment that has been
subjected to a high temperature i.e. fire.
a. Visually inspect for any gaskets or seals which have suffered from heat; they will appear black and sticky.
b. If this is affirmed - Do Not Touch
c. Make enquiries to ascertain the material composition. Any Fluoro-elastomer (Viton, Fluorel or Tecmoflon)
should be considered dangerous but natural rubber and nitrile are non-hazardous.
d. If Fluoro-elastomer seals have been used, then the affected area MUST be decontaminated before
undertaking further work.
e. Disposable Heavy Duty Gloves (Neoprene) MUST be worn and the affected area decontaminated by
washing thoroughly with Limewater (Calcium Hydroxide solution).
f. Any cloths, residue and gloves used MUST be safely discarded after use.
Note: Burning of the discarded items is NOT RECOMMENDED, except in an approved incineration process
where the gaseous products are treated by alkaline scrubbing.
TEREX SERVICE DEPARTMENT
TEREX Equipment Limited, Motherwell, Scotland ML1 5RY Tel. (0698) 732121 Tlx. 77141 Fax. (0698) 734046
TEREX Division, Tulsa, Oklahoma, 74107 USA Tel. (918) 446-5581 Fax. (918) 446-9752
THIS PAGE IS INTENTIONALLY LEFT BLANK
IMPORTANT SAFETY NOTICE
Proper service and repair is important to the safe, reliable operation of all motor vehicles. The service
procedures recommended and described in this publication, are effective methods for performing service
operations. Some of these service operations require the use of tools specially designed for the purpose.
The special tools should be used when, and as recommended.
It is important to note that this publication contains various WARNINGS and NOTES which should be
carefully read in order to minimize the risk of personal injury to personnel, or the possibility that improper
service methods will be followed which may damage the vehicle or render it unsafe. It is also important to
understand these WARNINGS and NOTES are not exhaustive. It is not possible to know, evaluate and
advise the service trade of ALL conceivable ways in which service might be carried out, or, of the possible
hazardous consequences of each way. Consequently, no such broad evaluation has been undertaken.
Accordingly, anyone who uses a service procedure, or tool, which is not recommended, must first satisfy
themselves thoroughly that neither their safety, nor vehicle safety, will be jeopardized by the service
method he/she selects.
Two types of heading are used in this manual to attract your attention.
WARNING - This symbol is used when an operating procedure, practice, etc., which, if not correctly
1.
followed could result in personal injury or loss of life. Look for this symbol to point out important safety
precautions. It means - ATTENTION! BECOME ALERT! YOUR SAFETY IS INVOLVED!
2. Note - This is used when an operating procedure, practice, etc., which, if not strictly observed, could result in
damage to or destruction of equipment.
WARNING
Never use parts which are altered, modified, or weakened in operation. This can seriously jeopardize
the integrity of the machine and could result in property damage or serious personal injury.
SM 2285 04-04
THIS PAGE IS INTENTIONALLY LEFT BLANK
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Section No. Description
SM No.
000
0000
0010
GENERAL INFORMATION
TS14G Technical Data
Welding procedure
100
0010
0130
CHASSIS
Chassis, Hood and Fenders - Tractor
Steering Trunnion - Tractor
1885 Rev 1
1695
110
0030
0050
0130
0130
ENGINE
Engine and Mounting
Air Cleaner
Power Takeoff - Tractor
Flywheel Cover Group - Scraper
2274
1692
1693 Rev 1
1694
120
0010
0070
TRANSMISSION
Transmission Mounting
Transmission Electronic Controls
1783 Rev 1
1735
130
0010
DRIVELINE
Drivelines - Front and Rear
1796 Rev 1
140
0030
0040
0060
FRONT AXLE GROUP
Planetary Gearing
Wheel, Rim and Tyre
Differential
160
0020
0040
0050
0080
REAR AXLE GROUP
Differential
Planetary Gearing
Wheel, Rim and Tyre
NoSpin Element
1780
1779 Rev1
1721 Rev 1
1781
165
0031
0060
BRAKE PARTS
Brake Parts - Scraper
Slack Adjuster
1777
1751
190
0000
0270
ELECTRICAL SYSTEM
Circuit Diagrams
Switches and Sensors
2282
2286
200
0040
0051
FUEL SYSTEM
Fuel Tanks, Lines and Mounting
Electronic Foot Pedal
1886 Rev 1
1719
210
0040
0060
COOLING SYSTEM
Radiator and Mounting
Transmission Oil Cooler
2276
1798 Rev 1
220
0000
0010
0090
0120
0130
0160
0190
STEERING SYSTEM - TRACTOR
Steering System Schematic
Steering Lines and Fittings
Steering Valve
Steering Cylinder
Double Relief Valve
Flow Reversing Valve
Steering Linkage
1760
1768 Rev 2
1765
1897
1747
1764
1766
SM 2281 Rev 1 12-05
2275
2172
(Refer to Section 160-0040)
(Refer to Section 160-0050)
1778
1
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Section No. Description
SM No.
235
0000
0010
0020
0030
0035
0040
0050
0060
0070
0120
0160
BOWL HYDRAULIC SYSTEM
Hydraulic System Schematic
Hydraulic Lines and Fittings
Bowl Cylinder
Ejector Cylinder
Apron Cylinder
Hydraulic Tank - Tractor
Triple Pump
Bowl Control Valve
Accumulator
Relief Valve
Servo Control Valve
1893 Rev 1
1894
2280
1895
1896
2279
1739
1887
1791 Rev 1
1776
1775
250
0000
0070
0170
0180
0190
0200
0260
0280
0280
0290
BRAKING SYSTEM
Air Braking System Schematic
Treadle Valve
Air Tanks and Mounting
Quick Release Valve
Park/Emergency Brake Control Valve
Air Drier
Brake Chamber
Relay Emergency Valve
Relay Valve
Pressure Protection Valve
1784 Rev 2
1755 Rev 1
1788 Rev 1
1793
1795
2284
1782
1800 Rev 1
1794
1752 Rev 1
255
0020
AIR SYSTEM
Air Horn
260
0010
0090
0130
OPERATOR'S COMPARTMENT
Cab and Mounting
Driver Seat and Mounting (Air Suspension)
Air Conditioning
1728 Rev 1
1742 Rev 1
1787 Rev 1
280
0010
0020
0030
0040
0040
0050
BOWL - SCRAPER
Bowl and Tail
Pull Yoke
Apron and Ejector
Ejector Lever
Bowl Linkage
Cutting Edges and Side Blades
1799 Rev 2
1888
1890 Rev 1
1892
1891
1726
300
0020
0070
0080
0090
MISCELLANEOUS
Lubrication System
Service Tools
Standard Bolt and Nut Torque Specs
Unit Storage
1889 Rev 2
1802 Rev 1
1238
1239
1797
*
2
*
*
*
SM 2281 Rev 1 12-05
GENERAL INFORMATION - TS14G Technical Data
Section 000-0000
SM - 3151
3 440 (11-3.5) Max. Width
3 060
(10-0.5)
2 260
(7-5)
1 460
(4-9.5)
3 060
(10-0.5)
2 260
1 460 (7-5)
(4-9.5)
3 150 (10-4)
to ground
3 810
(12-6)
3 250
(10-8)
7 040 (23-1)
2 770 (9-1)
2 590 (8-6)
12 400 (40-8)
All vertical dimensions with bowl at 300 mm (12 in) carry position. Unit empty.
Dimensions in mm (ft-in)
Dimensions in mm (ft-in)
Apron opening .................................. 2 100 mm (6 ft 11 in)
Width of Bowl and Cutting Edge ......... 2 910 mm (9 ft 7 in)
Width of cut ....................................... 3 000 mm (9 ft 10 in)
Depth of cut - maximum ......................... 305 mm (1 ft 0 in)
Depth of spread - maximum .................. 685 mm (2 ft 3 in)
Clearance under drive axle .................. 585 mm (1 ft 11 in)
Clearance under bowl - maximum ....... 585 mm (1 ft 11 in)
Overall length with optional Twin Hitch
Bail Raised ...................................... 13 900 mm (45 ft 7 in)
Bail Lowered ................................... 14 340 mm (47 ft 8 in)
Note: All vertical measurements are with bowl at 300 mm
(12 in) carry position. Unit empty.
Fig. 1 - Machine Dimensions
ENGINE
Tractor
Engine Series .................................. Cummins QSB-30
Type ............................. 4 Cycle Diesel, Turbocharged,
Electronic Management
Gross power at 2 200 rev/min ............. 138 kW (185 hp)
Net power at 2 200 rev/min ................. 131 kW (176 hp)
Air cleaner .............................................. Dry, Aspirated
Starting ............................................................ Electric
Maximum Speed (No load) ...................... 2 390 rev/min
Maximum Speed (Full load) ..................... 2 200 rev/min
Idle Speed .................................................. 750 rev/min
Safe Operating Angle ............................ 30°/57% Grade
Note: Gross power rated to SAE J1995 June 90.
Engine emission meets USA EPA/CARB MOH 40
CFR 89 and EU NRMM (non-road mobile
machinery) directive.
Scraper
Engine Series .................................. Cummins QSB-30
Type ............................. 4 Cycle Diesel, Turbocharged,
Electronic Management
Gross power at 2 200 rev/min ............. 125 kW (167 hp)
Net power at 2 200 rev/min ................. 118 kW (158 hp)
Maximum Torque
at 1 600 rev/min ............................. 720 Nm (531 lbf ft)
Number of cylinders/configuration ................... 6, Inline
Bore x Stroke ................. 102 x 120 mm (4.01 x 4.72 in)
Total Displacement ........................... 5.9 litres (360 in³)
Note: Gross power rated to SAE J1995 June 90.
Engine emission meets USA EPA/CARB MOH 40
CFR 89 and EU NRMM (non-road mobile
machinery) directive.
SM 2275 03-04
1
General Information - TS14G Technical Data
Section 000-0000
Maximum Torque
at 1 600 rev/min ............................. 720 Nm (531 lbf ft)
Number of cylinders/configuration .................... 6, Inline
Bore x Stroke ................. 102 x 120 mm (4.01 x 4.72 in)
Total Displacement ........................... 5.9 litres (360 in³)
Air cleaner .............................................. Dry, Aspirated
Starting ............................................................ Electric
Maximum Speed (No load) ...................... 2 390 rev/min
Maximum Speed (Full load) ..................... 2 200 rev/min
Idle Speed .................................................. 750 rev/min
Safe Operating Angle ............................ 30°/57% Grade
TRANSMISSION
Make/Model ............................ Funk DF158 Powershift,
counter-shaft type transmission with integral torque
converter. Seven speeds forward and one reverse.
Automatic lockup in the top six forward gears.
Manual, electric shifting and downshift inhibitor. Rear
transmission is equipped with an alarm to warn the
operator in the event of transmission malfunction.
SPEEDS WITH STANDARD DIFFERENTIAL
Gear
Ratio
km/h
mile/h
Ratio
km/h
mile/h
Forward
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
5.72 4.05 2.90 2.03 1.45 1.03 0.74
5.9 8.3 11.5 16.5 23.1 32.5 45.4
3.6 5.1 7.2 10.2 14.3 20.2 28.2
Reverse
4.05
8.3
5.1
Stall Speed ..................................... 2030-2090 rev/min
Torque Converter Ratio (front and rear) ............. 2.408:1
AXLES
Heavy duty axles with fully-floating axle shafts, single
reduction bevel gear differential and planetary
reduction in each wheel. A NoSpin differential is
standard in the rear axle for improved traction in
difficult conditions. A pedal controlled power-locking
differential is optional in the front axle, operational in
first gear only.
Ratios:
Differential ...................................................... 4.11:1
Planetary ........................................................ 5.33:1
Total Reduction ............................................ 21.91:1
2
BRAKES
Full air operated drum brakes with automatic
application on loss of air pressure. Secondary system
can also be manually applied. Spring-applied parking
brake actuators. Air drier standard.
Braking Lining:
Diameter .............................................. 508 mm (20 in)
Shoe Width ............................................ 152 mm (6 in)
Lining Thickness ................................. 19 mm (0.75 in)
Lining Area - Each Axle ................. 3 355 cm² (520 in²)
Air Compressor Capacity ..... 374 litre/min (13.2 ft³/min)
WHEELS AND TYRES
Wheel Rim Width ................................................. 25 in
Tyres:
Standard ....................................... 29.5 R25** Radial
Optional ....................................... 29.5-25 (28PR) E3
Note: Consult tyre manufacturers for optimum tyre
selection and correct t-km/h (ton-mileh) capacity for
application.
STEERING SYSTEM
Full hydraulic type provided by two interchangeable
single stage, double acting steering cylinders. Steering
cylinders are mounted below the gooseneck to aid
stability.
System Pressure ....................... 135 bar (1 950 lbf/in²)
at 1 500 rev/min
Steering Cylinder:
Bore and Stroke .......... 140 x 445 mm (5.5 x 17.5 in)
Pump:
Type ................................................................. Gear
Drive ......................... In tandem with hydraulic pump
Capacity at 2 200 rev/min ...................... 147 litre/min
(38.7 US gal/min)
Steering Angle to either side ................................... 90°
Vehicle clearance circle (SAE) .................. 10 m (33 ft)
HYDRAULICS AND CONTROLS
Hydraulic system is filtered and has one reservoir
supplying a triple section gear pump for steering and
scraper hydraulics.
Scraper Functions:
Capacity at 2 200 rev/min ...................... 270 litre/min
(71.2 US gal/min)
System Pressure
at 1 500 rev/min ................ 127.5 bar (1 850 lbf/in²)
SM 2275 03-04
General Information - TS14G Technical Data
Section 000-0000
Servo Control Functions:
Capacity at 2 200 rev/min ........................ 43 litre/min
(11.3 US gal/min)
System Pressure
at 1 500 rev/min ........................ 17 bar (250 lbf/in²)
ELECTRICAL SYSTEM
Type ..................................... 24 volt, Negative Ground.
Battery ................................ Two, 12 Volt, 165 Ah each
Accessories ...................................................... 24 Volt
Alternator ......................................................... 70 Amp
Steering Pump ............................ See Steering System
SERVICE CAPACITIES
Tractor
Cooling System ......................... 40 litres (10.6 US gal)
Fuel Tank ................................... 378 litres (100 US gal)
Engine Crankcase
and filters (dry fill) ........................... 15 litres (4 US gal)
Transmission and Converter ..... 48.5 lites (12.8 US gal)
Hydraulic System ......................... 204 litres (54 US gal)
Drive Axle .................................... 17 litres (4.5 US gal)
Three fingertip servo assisted control levers allow
independent operation of the bowl, apron and ejector.
BOWL
High strength alloy steel used in sides and floor for
increased strength and life. Low, wide design aids
loading ability. Bowl employs two single stage, double
acting cylinders to exert positive down pressure on the
cutting edge to help penetrate hard material and load
faster. Cylinders are interchangeable.
Cylinder Bore and Stroke ....................... 203 x 460 mm
(8.00 x 18.12 in)
Maximum Hydraulic Force at Cutting Edge
with Bowl Empty ..... 214 kN (21 822 kgf) (48 000 lbf)
APRON
Power down apron, semi-radial design, operated by
two double acting cylinders with apron arms mounted
outside the bowl.
Scraper
Cooling System ......................... 39 litres (10.3 US gal)
Fuel Tank ..................................... 303 litres (80 US gal)
Engine Crankcase
and filters (dry fill) ........................... 15 litres (4 US gal)
Transmission and Converter ...... 49 litres (12.9 US gal)
Drive Axle .................................... 17 litres (4.5 US gal)
VOLUMES
Struck (SAE) ..................................... 10.7 m³ (14.0 yd³)
Heaped 1:1 (SAE) ............................. 15.3 m³ (20.0 yd³)
Cylinder Bore and Stroke ....................... 160 x 546 mm
(6.29 x 21.5 in)
VEHICLE WEIGHTS
Standard Vehicle
EJECTOR
Positive roll-out type operated by one single stage,
single acting cylinder.
Net Weight Distribution
Cylinder Bore and Stroke ....................... 233 x 635 mm
(9.17 x 25.0 in)
Tractor Axle
Scraper Axle
%
kg
lb
56.6 16 148
43.4 12 393
35 600
27 322
Net Vehicle Weight
28 541
62 922
Rated Payload
21 770
48 000
50.9 25 608
49.1 24 703
56 456
54 461
50 311
110 917
Gross Weight Distribution
CUTTING EDGE
Four section hardened cutting edge with drop centre
capability. All edges are interchangeable and
reversible.
Dimensions (Each) ........................ 25 x 406 x 724 mm
(1.0 x 16.0 x 28.5 in)
*
SM 2275 03-04
*
Tractor Axle
Scraper Axle
Gross Vehicle Weight
*
*
3
GENERAL INFORMATION - Welding Procedure
Section 000-0010
Welding
WARNINGS
Before any welding is done on a machine
equipped with any electronic systems,
disconnect the following (if applicable) in this
order: Battery earth cable, battery supply
cable, alternator earth cables, alternator supply
cables and electrical connections at the engine
ECM, transmission ECU, body control lever,
hydraulics ECU and cab bulkhead to avoid
damage to electrical components. Turn off
battery master switch to isolate the batteries
before disconnecting any components.
After welding connect all of the above in the
reverse order.
Before any welding is done ensure all paint has
been removed from the area to be welded.
Failure to do so may result in hazardous fumes
being given off from the paint.
Note: Always fasten the welding machines ground
cable to the piece/frame being welded if possible.
Electric arc welding is recommended for all welded
frame repairs. Since the nature and extent of damage
to the frame cannot be predetermined, no definite
repair procedure can be established. As a general rule
however, if parts are twisted, bent or pulled apart, or a
frame is bent or out of alignment, no welding should be
done until the parts are straightened or realigned.
Successfully welded repairs will depend to a great
extent upon the use of the proper equipment, materials
and the ability of the welder. The Customer Support
Department can be consulted regarding the feasibility
of welding repairs.
WARNING
Welding and flame cutting cadmium plated
metals produce odourless fumes which are
toxic. Recommended industrial hygiene
practice for protection of the welding operator
from the cadmium fumes and metallic oxides
requires enclosure ventilation specifically
designed for the welding process. A
respiratory protective device such as the
M.S.A. 'Gasfoe' respirator with G.M.A. cartridge
will provide protection against cadmium,
fumes and metallic oxides. The 'Gasfoe'
respirator has been approved by the U.S.
Bureau of Mines: Approval number 23B-10,
and is designed to protect against gases,
vapours, and/or metal fumes.
Note: The current from the welding rod always follows
the path of least resistance. If, for example, the ground
clamp is attached to the rear frame when welding is
performed on the front frame, the current must pass a
frame connection to return to the welding machine.
Since the pivot coupling offers the least resistance but
not a sound electrical connection, small electric arcs
may be set up across the moving parts which may
cause welding blotches on their wearing surfaces and
increase the wear rate of these components.
General Welding Procedure
The following general procedure should be used for
the repair of defects outwith the vicinity of alloy steel
castings.
1. Completely ARC-AIR gouge or grind out the crack
until sound metal is reached. If ARC-AIR method is
employed, pre-heat area to 100° C (212° F), measure
3 - 4" either side of repair prior to gouging. On
completion of gouging grind to remove thin carbon
layer.
2. Apply dye-penetrant check to ensure crack has
been completely removed.
SM 2172 10-02
1
General Information - Welding Procedure
Section 000-0010
3. Pre-heat area to 100° C (212° F), measured 3 - 4"
either side of repair. Avoid local overheating.
3 - 4" either side of repair prior to gouging. On
completion of gouging grind to remove thin carbon
layer.
4. Weld completely using E-7016 electrodes. Care
must be taken to ensure electrodes are protected from
moisture pick-ups at all times.
5. Allow repair weld to cool slowly.
3. Pre-heat area to 200° C (392° F), measured 3 - 4"
either side of repair. Avoid local overheating.
6. Grind and blend repair to original contour. Paint
heat damaged areas.
4. Weld completely using E-7016 electrodes. Care
must be taken to ensure electrodes are protected from
moisture pick-ups at all times.
The following general procedure should be used for
the repair of defects in alloy steel castings and in the
welds joining steel castings.
5. On completion of welding, post-heat repair area to
400° C (752° F), measure 3 - 4" either side of repair.
1. Completely ARC-AIR gouge or grind out the crack
until sound metal is reached. If ARC-AIR method is
employed, pre-heat area to 200° C (392° F), measure
*
2
2. Apply dye-penetrant check to ensure crack has
been completely removed.
6. If welding has to be interrupted for any reason, e.g.
overnight, post-heat immediately as in Step 5.
*
*
*
SM 2172 10-02
CHASSIS - Chassis, Hood and Fenders
Section 100-0010
SM - 3162
4
2
29
1
3
2
27 LH STEP
28 RH STEP
5
6
22
15
13
15
14
26
17
20
18
19
32
31
9
7
10
12
31 21
- Frame Assembly
- Spindle Assembly
- Bushing
- Bushing
- Guard Assembly
- Bolt
- Lockwasher
- Belly Guard
23
24
30
25
16
8
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
21 30 16
11
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
- Bolt
- Washer
- Step Assembly
- Latch
- Bolt
- Nut
- Washer
- Bolt
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
- Locknut
- Step Assembly
- Cover
- Cover Assembly
- Lockwasher
- Bolt
- Washer
- Washer
Fig. 1 - Exploded View of Chassis and Guards
DESCRIPTION
25 - Bolt
26 - Hardened
Washer
27 - Bolt
28 - Bolt
29 - Mirror Bracket
30 - Washer
31 - Nut
32 - Belly guard
REMOVAL
Numbers in parentheses refer to Fig. 1, unless
otherwise stated.
The frame assembly (1) is constructed of heavy boxsection side rails which are held in alignment by
welded steel crossmembers.
An important feature of the frame’s construction is its
integral drive axle banjo housings and spindles (2).
These parts are welded to the box-section side rails.
The banjo housing in this design becomes an
important load-carrying and strengthening member of
the chassis. The upper part of the banjo housing also
serves as the pivot point for the steering assembly.
The engine supports, transmission supports and
various other brackets are welded in position on the
frame.
SM 1885 Rev1 03-04
WARNING
To prevent personal injury and property
damage, be sure wheel chocks, blocking
materials and lifting equipment are properly
secured and of adequate capacity to do the job
safely.
To remove any of the components shown in
Figs. 1, 2, 3 or 4 (or similar components) the following
procedures should be carried out.
1. Position the vehicle in a level work area, apply the
parking brake and switch off the engine. Operate the
steering in both directions several times to relieve any
pressure in the steering system.
1
Chassis - Chassis, Hood and Fenders
Section 100-0010
2. Block all road wheels and place battery master
switch in the 'Off' position.
SM - 3163
3. Attach a suitable lifting device to the component and
remove mounting hardware. Remove the component
from the vehicle.
1
11
9
10
7
8
INSTALLATION
Note: Tighten all fasteners to standard torques listed
in Section 300-0080, STANDARD BOLT AND NUT
TORQUE SPECIFICATIONS.
WARNING
To prevent personal injury and property
damage, be sure wheel chocks, blocking
materials and lifting equipment are properly
secured and of adequate capacity to do the job
safely.
Using a suitable lifting device, align the component to
be installed in position on the chassis. Secure the
component securely to the chassis with mounting
hardware removed during removal.
REPLACEMENT OF SPINDLE
Damaged spindles (2, Fig. 1), oil transfer tubes and
banjo outer plates can be removed and new ones
installed by following the procedures described in this
section.
1 12
2
4
3
5 6
RH FRAME RAIL
LH FRAME RAIL
1
2
3
4
5
6
- Hood Assembly
- Support Assembly
- Nut
- Bolt
- Washer
- Lockwasher
7
8
9
10
11
12
- Bolt
- Washer
- Lockwasher
- Washer
- Bolt
- Seal
Fig. 2 - Exploded View of Hood and Mounting
WARNING
To prevent personal injury and property
damage, be sure wheel chocks, blocking
materials and lifting equipment are properly
secured and of adequate capacity to do the job
safely.
1. Position the vehicle in a level work area, apply the
parking brake and switch off the engine. Operate the
steering in both directions several times to relieve any
pressure in the steering system.
2. Block all road wheels and place battery master
switch in the 'Off' position.
2
3. Remove all components from the spindle to be
replaced. Attach a suitable lifting device to the
component and remove mounting hardware. Remove
the component from the vehicle. Refer to
Section 160-0050, WHEEL RIM AND TYRE, for tyre
and wheel removal; Section 160-0040, PLANETARY
GEARING, for axle and planetary removal; and
Section 165-0031, BRAKE PARTS, for brake removal.
4. Remove sun pinion and axle shaft from the opposite
side of the machine. Refer to Section 160-0040,
PLANETARY GEARING, for procedure.
5. Remove differential from the banjo. Refer to
Section 160-0020, DIFFERENTIAL.
SM 1885 Rev1 03-04
Chassis - Chassis, Hood and Fenders
Section 100-0010
SM - 2093
11
15
12 13
54
10
4
14
3
15
1
12
13
98
6
2
7 98 6
7
STEP
BRACKET
1
2
3
4
5
-
LH Fender Assembly
Step Assembly
Bolt
Washer
Locknut
6
7
8
9
10
- Retainer
- Screw
- Lockwasher
- Nut
- RH Fender Assembly
11
12
13
14
15
- Bolt
- Lockwasher
- Nut
- Bolt
- Hardened Washer
Fig. 3 - Exploded View of Fenders and Mounting
SM - 2372
2
2
2
2
1
4 5
2
9
6
7
5
8
3
6
5
7
1 - Radiator Guard
2 - Seal
3 - Grille
4 - Bolt
5 - Lockwasher
6 - Bolt
7 - Washer
8 - Nut
9 - Handle
Fig. 4 - Radiator Guard and Mounting
SM 1885 Rev1 03-04
3
Chassis - Chassis, Hood and Fenders
Section 100-0010
Oil Transfer Tube
1. Burn off weld that fastens oil transfer tube to
spindle.
9. Pre-heat the weld joint to 149 - 205° C
(360 - 400° F) and maintain the heat during the
welding process.
2. Reaching into the banjo, burn off the weld that holds
the oil transfer tube to the banjo housing.
10. Weld spindle to the banjo outer plate as shown in
Fig. 5, using E-70 low hydrogen electrode.
3. Remove and discard oil transfer tube from the
spindle.
11. If removed, install new bushings in spindle.
4. Using a grinder, remove all burrs and slag from the
spindle end and inside the banjo weld joint areas.
5. Thoroughly clean the spindle and banjo cavities to
remove all metal chips.
6. Install new oil transfer tube in the spindle.
7. Weld all round the oil transfer tube at the spindle
end and banjo end. Use E-70 low hydrogen weld rod
and make a 1/1 6 in (1.6 mm) oil tight fillet weld all
around the tube.
8. Install brakes, wheel, planetary and tyre assemblies
on the spindle. Refer to Section 165-0031, BRAKE
PARTS, for brake installation, Section 160-0040,
PLANETARY GEARING, for planetary installation and
Section 160-0050, WHEEL RIM AND TYRE, for tyre
and wheel installation.
Spindle
1. Remove oil transfer tube as described under
heading 'Oil Transfer Tube'.
12. To install oil seal bushing, if removed, on spindle,
heat the new bushing to 177 - 205° C (350 - 400° F) in
oil to expand it for installation. If oil heating equipment
is not available, heat the bushing evenly to 205° C
(400° F). This takes about one minute using a torch
with a heating tip. Use a templistik or other
temperature gauge to make sure the bushing is hot
enough. Slide heated bushing on spindle and tap
lightly with a hammer to seat it.
Note: Do not apply flame directly to bushing. Place
bushing on steel plate and direct flame to centre of
plate to evenly distribute heat.
13. Install oil transfer tube in the spindle and banjo as
described under the heading ‘Oil Transfer Tube.’
Banjo Outer Plate
1. Remove oil transfer tube as described under the
heading ‘Oil Transfer Tube'.
2. Remove spindle as described under heading
‘Spindle'.
2. Attach a suitable lifting device to the spindle.
3. Burn off the weld that secures banjo outer plate to
the banjo.
3. Burn off weld that fastens the spindle to the banjo
outer plate and remove spindle.
4. Using a grinder, grind off all burrs and slag from the
end of the banjo.
4. If the spindle is to be reused, clean up the spindle
as shown in Fig. 5.
5. Using a suitable solvent, clean the banjo thoroughly
to remove all chips and metal dust.
5. With a grinder, clean up the weld area on the banjo
outer plate.
6. Install a new banjo outer plate and seat firmly
against the inner reinforcing plates.
6. Clean the spindle and banjo with a suitable solvent
to remove chips and metal dust.
7. Weld the banjo outer plate to the banjo as shown on
Fig. 5, using E-70 low hydrogen welding rod.
7. With a suitable lifting device, position the spindle on
the banjo outer plate.
8. Install the spindle to the banjo as described under
heading ‘Spindle'.
8. Install spindle alignment tool, which can be
fabricated as shown in Fig. 6, through the spindles and
banjo. Align the spindle to the dimensions shown in
Fig. 5 and tighten alignment tool.
9. Install the oil transfer tube as described under the
heading ‘Oil Transfer Tube'.
4
SM 1885 Rev1 03-04
Chassis - Chassis, Hood and Fenders
Section 100-0010
1 - Spindle
2 - Banjo Outer Plate
3 - Banjo
4 - Nut
189.0
298.37
298.45
305.0
808.0
7.44
11.747
11.750
12.00
31.81
82.6
84.8
3.25
3.34
107.0
165.0
15.8
25.4
0.62
1.00
5 - Washer
6 - Pilot
4.21
6.50
mm
12.7
INCHES
0.50
SM - 2209
7 - Shaft
8 - Sleeve
9 - Fixture
Fig. 5 - Tractor Spindle Installation
SM 1885 Rev1 03-04
5
Fig. 6 - Spindle Alignment Tool
0.002
0.153
0.05
3.89
0.213
0.50
5.41
12.7
0.656
0.75
16.66
19.05
1.50
1.625
3.81
41.28
1.81
1.88
46.0
47.8
1.994
2.0
50.65
50.8
2.001
2.003
50.83
50.88
2.249
2.251
57.12
57.18
2.252
2.256
57.20
57.30
2.75
3.00
69.9
7.60
3.182
3.192
80.82
81.08
3.50
4.00
88.9
101.6
4.1965
4.1985
106.59
106.64
5.00
16.25
127.0
412.8
17.75
119.75
450.9
3 041.7
120.25
3 054.4
SM - 2210
SM 1885 Rev1 03-04
mm
0.010
Chassis - Chassis, Hood and Fenders
Section 100-0010
6
INCHES
0.0004
Chassis - Chassis, Hood and Fenders
Section 100-0010
MAINTENANCE
Inspection
Inspect the frame and attached parts at intervals not
exceeding 250 hours for cracked or broken welds and
bending/twisting of the frame. Any defects found
should be repaired before they progress into major
failures. Contact your dealer for recommended weld
and repair instructions.
Straightening
Hydraulic straightening or aligning equipment should
be used to straighten bent or twisted frames whenever
possible. However, if heat must be applied, never heat
the metal beyond a dull cherry red colour, as too much
heat will weaken the metal. When it is necessary to
heat the metal, apply heat uniformly over the area to
be straightened and protect the heated surface from
sudden cooling. Frame parts, that cannot be
straightened should be replaced.
Welding
WARNINGS
Before any welding is done on a machine
equipped with the HEUI electronic
management system, disconnect the following
in this order: Battery earth cable, battery
supply cable, alternator earth cables, alternator
supply cables, front & rear transmission ECU
connectors (located behind access door below
cab door) and front & rear engine ECU
connectors (located on LH side of engine).
Turn off battery master switch before
disconnecting any components. After welding
connect all of the above in the reverse order.
Welding and flame cutting cadmium plated
metals produce odourless fumes which are
toxic. Recommended industrial hygiene
practice for protection of the welding operator
from the cadmium fumes and metallic oxides
requires enclosure ventilation specifically
designed for the welding process. A
respiratory protective device such as the
M.S.A. 'Gasfoe' respirator with G.M.A. cartridge
will provide protection against cadmium,
fumes and metallic oxides. The 'Gasfoe'
respirator has been approved by the U.S.
Bureau of Mines: Approval number 23B-10,
and is designed to protect against gases,
vapours, and/or metal fumes.
SM 1885 Rev1 03-04
Note: Prior to welding, switch off/disconnect the
following in the order given. Failure to do so may
seriously damage the machines electrical
components.
abcdefgh-
Turn ignition keyswitch off
Turn battery master switch off
Battery earth cables
Battery supply cables
Alternator earth cables
Alternator supply cables
Transmission ECU connectors (front & rear)
Engine ECU connectors (front & rear)
After welding, connect all of the above in the reverse
order.
Note: Always fasten the welding machines ground
cable to the piece/frame being welded if possible.
Electric arc welding is recommended for all welded
frame repairs. Since the nature and extent of damage
to the frame cannot be predetermined, no definite
repair procedure can be established. As a general rule
however, if parts are twisted, bent or pulled apart, or a
frame is bent or out of alignment, no welding should be
done until the parts are straightened or realigned.
Successfully welded repairs will depend to a great
extent upon the use of the proper equipment, materials
and the ability of the welder. The Service Department
can be consulted regarding the feasibility of welding
repairs.
Reinforcement
Frame reinforcement can be made with channel,
angle, or flat structural stock. Whenever possible, the
reinforcement should extend well beyond the bent,
broken, or cracked area. The reinforcement stock
thickness should not exceed that of the frame stock
and the material should be of the same tensile
strength.
7
Chassis - Chassis, Hood and Fenders
Section 100-0010
Painting
If painting of the actual frame of the unit is required,
thoroughly clean the areas to be painted. Apply a
primer coat of red oxide and then a finish coat of
polyurethane enamel.
A check of the condition of the paint should be made
approximately twice a year and chassis repainted if
necessary.
To keep rust and corrosion to a minimum, periodic
painting of abrasions and other exposed metal areas
on the frame is highly recommended.
WARNING
Welding, burning, heating or dressing surfaces
previously painted using polyurethane paint
produces fumes which are toxic. Surfaces
must be prepared using paint stripper prior to
area being reworked. Recommended Industrial
Hygiene and Safety Rules should be followed
for protection of the welding operator from
fumes.
*
8
*
*
*
SM 1885 Rev1 03-04
CHASSIS - Steering Trunnion
Section 100-0130
SM - 2256
16 15
14
1
13
11
7
12
4
9
8
3
2
6
7
10
5
5
1
2
3
4
- Steering Trunnion
- Bushing
- Washer
- Washer
5
6
7
8
- Washer
- Pin
- Lube Fitting
- Nut
9
10
11
12
-
Lockwasher
Bolt
Stop Block
Bushing
13
14
15
16
- Pin
- Bolt
- Lockwasher
- Nut
Fig. 1 - Exploded View of Steering Trunnion
DESCRIPTION AND OPERATION
REMOVAL AND DISASSEMBLY
Numbers in parentheses refer to Fig. 1.
Numbers in parentheses refer to Fig. 1.
The steering trunnion (1) is a heavy steel casting
mounted on the main frame banjo housing with two
trunnion mounting pins (6).
Upper and lower king pins mounted in the trunnion,
connect scraper pull yoke to the tractor. Refer to
Section 280-0020, PULL YOKE.
WARNING
To prevent personal injury and property
damage, be sure wheel chocks, blocking
materials and lifting equipment are properly
secured and of adequate capacity to do the job
safely.
Steering cylinders are mounted to the trunnion by pins
(13). Base assembly at rear of trunnion serves as a
mount for flow reversing valve. Refer to
Section 220-0010, STEERING LINES AND FITTINGS.
1. Position the vehicle in a level work area, apply the
parking brake and switch off the engine. Operate the
steering in both directions several times to relieve any
pressure in the steering system.
Stop block assemblies (11), prevent steering cylinder
pistons from bottoming when cylinder rods are
extended to their maximum strokes. Refer to Section
220-0010, STEERING LINES AND FITTINGS.
2. Operate the treadle valve continuously relieve any
pressure in the braking system.
SM 1695 2-99
3. Block all road wheels and place battery master
switch in the 'Off' position.
1
Chassis - Steering Trunnion
Section 100-0130
4. Separate scraper from tractor. Refer to
Section 280-0020, PULL YOKE.
5. Remove steering cylinders. Refer to
Section 220-0120, STEERING CYLINDER.
6. Attach suitable lifting equipment to steering trunnion
(1) before removing it from tractor frame.
7. Remove bolts (10), lockwashers (9) and nuts (8)
from steering trunnion (1).
1. If removed, install bushing (2) in steering trunnion (1).
2. If removed, position washer (3) on steering trunnion
(1) and weld as shown in Fig. 2.
3. Attach suitable lifting equipment to steering trunnion
(1) and position it on tractor frame.
4. While installing steering trunnion (1), guide hydraulic
lines, and hose containing air lines and wiring through
the opening in the steering trunnion (1). Be careful not
to damage lines and wiring during installation.
8. Slide pins (6) out of the steering trunnion (1) bores.
9. When pins (6) are released, washers (5) will be free
for removal.
10. Remove steering trunnion (1) from the tractor
frame.
11. While removing steering trunnion (1), be careful
not to damage hydraulic lines, air lines and wiring.
WARNING
Make sure to use a soft drift and drive when
removing bushing, to prevent presonal injury
from flying chips.
12. If necessary, drive bushing (2) from steering
trunnion (1) with a soft drift and drive.
13. If necessary, remove lube fittings (7) from
mounting pins (6).
5. Install thrust washers (5) and mounting pins (6),
attaching steering trunnion (1) to tractor frame.
6. Check clearance at thrust washers (5) by forcing
the trunnion (1) rearward against the forward thrust
washer on each mounting pin (6). With the rear
washer on each pin positioned forward against the
tractor frame mount, measure the gap between the
rear washers and the trunnion. The gap should be
0.25 - 1.02 mm (0.010 - 0.040 inch). The standard
thrust washers used are 13.59 - 13.72 mm
(0.535 - 0.540 inch) thick. If the gap is more than
specified above when using standard thrust washers,
oversize thrust washers should be installed to obtain
the specified clearance. Oversize thrust washers,
14.48 - 14.73 mm (0.570 - 0.580 inch) and
16.00 -16.26 mm (0.630 - 0.640 inch) are available.
7. Secure mounting pins (6) with bolts (10),
lockwashers (9) and nuts (8).
8. If removed, install lube fittings (7) in mounting pins (6).
14. If necessary, remove washer (3) by breaking weld.
INSTALLATION AND ASSEMBLY
Numbers in parentheses refer to Fig. 1.
WARNING
To prevent personal injury and property
damage, be sure wheel chocks, blocking
materials and lifting equipment are properly
secured and of adequate capacity to do the job
safely.
9. Connect scraper to tractor. Refer to
Section 280-0020, PULL YOKE.
10. Install steering cylinders. Refer to
Section 220-0120, STEERING CYLINDER.
SPECIAL TOOLS
There are no special tools required for procedures
outlined in this section. Refer to Section 300-0070,
SERVICE TOOLS, for part numbers of the general
service tools required. These tools are available from
your dealer.
Note: Tighten all fasteners, without special torques
specified, to standard torques listed in
Section 300-0080, STANDARD BOLT AND NUT
TORQUE SPECIFICATIONS.
2
SM 1695 2-99
Chassis - Steering Trunnion
Section 100-0130
SM - 2201
WASHER REF. 3 FIG. 1
.25
1.30-60˚
BUSHING
REF. 2 FIG. 1
STEERING TRUNNION
REF. 1 FIG. 1
Fig. 2 - Washer and Bushing Installation
*
SM 1695 2-99
*
*
*
3
Engine - Engine and Mounting
Section 110-0030
SM - 3150
22
25
20 21
22
19
20
21
3
REMOTE MOUNTED
FUEL FILTER
1
4
23
14
LUBE
5
18
24
15,17
10
12
7 LH
18 8 RH
2
15 RH
16 LH
6
9
11
13
10
11
9
12
13
1
2
3
4
5
6
- Engine
- Oil Filter
- Fuel Filter
- 'V' Belt
- Fan
- Front Mount
7
8
9
10
11
12
- Rear LH Mount
- Rear RH Mount
- Isolation Mount
- Bolt
- Spacer
- Washer
13
14
15
16
17
18
- Locknut
- Bolt
- Bolt
- Bolt
- Bolt
- Lockwasher
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
- Bracket
- Lockwasher
- Locknut
- Bolt
- Bolt
- Coupling
- Alternator Guard
Fig. 1 - Engine and Mounting
DESCRIPTION
Numbers in parentheses refer to Fig. 1.
For engine make, model and specification, refer to
Section 000-0000, GENERAL INFORMATION. For
engine servicing and repair data refer to the engine
manufacturers service manual.
The spin-on type fuel filter (3) is remotely mounted on
the right hand side of the frame in a downward position
(1). REFER to section 200-0040 for remote fuel filter
details. There is also an 'in-line' fuel filter mounted on
the left hand side of the frame (see fig 2.). The remote
filter acts as a strainer / water separator and should be
checked daily. REFER to fig. 2 for hose / line
connections for the filters.
The engine is mounted to the tractor frame at three
points by a mounting bracket (6) at the front of engine
(1) and two rear mounts (7 & 8). Rubber isolation
mounts (9) through engine mounts provide sufficient
flexibility to absorb varying engine vibration and
torsional loads.
SM 2274 03-04
1
Engine - Engine and Mounting
Section 110-0030
SM - 3152
IN-LINE
FILTER
S.W.E.
FILTER AND
FILTER LINES
S.W.E.
Fig. 2 - Remote & in-line Fuel filter connection lines.
QUANTUM ELECTRONIC FUEL SYSTEM
Description
Refer to Fig. 3.
WARNING
Before any welding is done on a machine
equipped with the Quantum Electronic Fuel
System, disconnect the following in this order:
Battery earth cable, battery supply cable,
alternator earth cables, alternator supply
cables, front & rear electrical connections at the
engine ECM connectors (located behind access
door below cab door) and front & rear
transmission ECU connectors (located on LH
side of engine). Turn off battery master switch
before disconnecting any components.
After welding connect all of the above in the
reverse order.
The engine is equipped with Quantum Electronic Fuel
System which controls the timing and amount of fuel
injection by the electronic fuel system injectors. The
system also monitors several engine functions using
electrical sensors which send electrical signals to the
electronic control module (ECM). The ECM then
computes the incoming data and determines the
2
correct fuel output and timing for optimum power, fuel
economy and emissions.
The Quantum Electronic Fuel System also takes
action to prevent damage to the engine and, provides
the serviceman with diagnostic capabilities so that
problems can be corrected quickly and easily.
1. Electronic Control Module (ECM) - Receives
electronic inputs from the driver as well as from
mounted sensors that provide information
electronically, such as oil pressure and temperature
and intake manifold pressure. This information is used
to control both the quantity of fuel injected and injection
timing.
2. Programmable Read Only Memory (PROM) Located in the ECM and encoded with the operating
software. Additional information is programmed into the
EEPROM. This information controls the horsepower
rating, torque curve, maximum engine speed and
engine protection devices. The ECM processes this
information and sends electronic signals to the
Electronic Fuel System Injectors where the precise
amount of fuel is injected into the engine.
3. Electronic Fuel System Injectors - The injector is
a lightweight, compact unit that injects diesel fuel
directly into the combustion chamber. The amount of
fuel injected and the beginning of injection timing is
SM 2274 03-04
Engine - Engine and Mounting
Section 110-0030
SM - 3149
7
6
STOP
3
11
11
1,2
8
9
10
4
5
1
2
3
4
5
-
Electronic Control Module (ECM)
Programmable Read Only Memory PROM)
Electronic Fuel System Injectors
Batteries
Electronic Foot Pedals
6 - Stop Engine Light
7 - Check Engine Light
8 - Diagnostic Switch
9 - Diagnostic Request Switch
10 - Diagnostic Test Point
11 - Maintenance Light
Fig. 3 - Quantum Electronic Fuel System Components
determined by the ECM. The ECM sends a command
pulse which activates the injector solenoid.
provides an electrical signal to the engine's fuel control
system in proportion to the degree of pedal actuation.
The injector performs four functions:
Note: The engine MUST be started with foot 'OFF' the
electronic foot pedal.
a - Creates the high fuel pressure required for efficient
injection.
b - Meters and injects the exact amount of fuel required
to handle the load.
c - Atomizes the fuel for mixing with the air in the
combustion chamber.
d - Permits continuous fuel flow for component cooling.
Electronic fuel system injectors are self compensating
and virtually eliminate engine tune-ups.
Note: Never apply 12 V directly to terminals on the
injector as it will burn out. Before removing injectors,
the fuel passages must be blown out to prevent fuel
flow from entering the cylinder head.
4. Batteries - Two 12 volt maintenance free batteries
supply the machine with electrical power to operate all
electrical components.
5. Electronic Foot Pedal - The electronic foot pedal
SM 2274 03-04
Do not place engine under FULL LOAD at FULL
SPEED IMMEDIATELY after starting. ALWAYS allow
the engine to fully circulate lubricant and warm up
gradually before operating at full speed and full load.
Operate engine at top rated speed when maximum
power is needed for the load. Operation of the engine
below top rated speed can occur during gear shifting
due to the difference of ratios between transmission
gears, but engine operation MUST NOT be sustained
more than 30 seconds at full throttle below top rated
speed.
Under normal operating conditions, both engines should
be accelerated equally to apply equal power to both the
tractor and scraper wheels by depressing both engine
accelerators at the same time. In a sharp turn however,
use only front engine power, because the scraper
wheels tend to push the tractor sideways.
NEVER idle the engine more than 5 minutes at a time;
shut it off.
3
Engine - Engine and Mounting
Section 110-0030
If any gauge operates outwith its normal operating
range or a warning light illuminates, shut engine down
immediately and report to service or maintenance
personnel.
6. Stop Engine Light - When the 'Stop Engine' light
comes on, the computer has detected a major
malfunction in the engine that requires immediate
attention. It is the operators responsibility to shut down
the engine to avoid serious damage.
7. Check Engine Light - When the 'Check Engine' light
comes on, the computer has detected a fault in the
engine. The fault should be diagnosed and corrected at
the earliest opportunity.
8. Engine Diagnostic switches - To check for active
fault codes:
a. - The igniton key switch to the ('1') position.
b. - Press the diagnostic switch to the 'ON' position.
If no active codes are recorded the 'Stop' and 'Check'
lights will come on and stay on. The amber 'Check' and
red 'Stop' lights will begin to flash the code of the
recorded fault. Refer to pages 26-28 for details of the
fault codes.
Note: To access the rear scraper engine diagnostic
code, ensure that the rear engine ignition switch is
actuated.
Note: If the switch is pressed 'ON' during normal
operation, the stop light will illuminate, however , this
does not indicate an engine malfunction and the light
will go out when the switch is pressed 'OFF'.
9. Engine diagnostic request switches - When the
engine is in diagnostic mode, this switch is used to
search through a list of fault codes, i.e. pressing the
top of the switch momentarily will advance to the next
active fault code , pressing the bottom of the switch
will go back to the previous code.
10. Diagnostic Test Point - Plug in connector for
diagnostic data reader (DDR).
11. Maintenance Light - The maintenance light will
illuminate when it is time to change the engine oil. The
maintenance monitor continuously monitors the time
the engine has been operating and the amount of fuel
burned to determine when it is time to change oil.
Note: Whenever an electrical fault has occurred, the
maintenance monitor data can be inaccurate.
4
Operation
When the 'Stop' light on the dash panel illuminates, the
computer has detected a major malfunction in the
engine that requires immediate attention. It is the
operators responsibility to shut down the engine to
avoid serious damage.
The machine is equipped with an engine protection
derate system, which records fault codes and
illuminates appropriate warning lights when an out-ofrange condition associated with any of the following
sensors is found:
• Coolant temperature
• Coolant level
• Intake manifold temperature
• Oil pressure
• Oil temperature
The engine power and speed will be gradually reduced
depending on the level of severity of the out-of-range
condition. The operator MUST shut down the engine to
avoid serious damage.
The engine should not be restarted after it has been
shut down after activation of the engine protection
derate system unless the problem has been diagnosed
and corrected.
Whenever the 'Stop' or 'Check' light comes on, the
Electronic Fuel System computer will determine where
the problem is and will store this information in its
memory. If the malfunction is intermittent, the lights
will come on and go off as the computer senses the
changing engine condition.
A special diagnostic data reader (INSITE) is available
that can be plugged into the engine computer memory
to extract information related to the cause of the
problem. Once the malfunction has been corrected, the
Electronic Fuel System will return the engine to normal
operation. The data reader can now distinguish
between active codes and those stored in the historic
code memory (inactive codes). Inactive codes can only
be viewed using the data reader. The fault code
recorded in the ECM memory will remain until it is
erased by a technician.
The operator can check for active faults on the front
Tractor unit by turning the ignition key switch to the
'OFF' position, switching the diagnostic switch 'ON' and
then turning the ignition key switch to position '1'.
The procedure for the rear Scraper unit is the same,
with the additional step of also pressing the Engine
ignition switch (Scraper) on the right hand side of the
main switch bank.
SM 2274 03-04
Engine - Engine and Mounting
Section 110-0030
If no active fault codes are recorded, both ('Stop' &
'Check') lights will come on and stay on. If active
codes are recorded, both lights will come on
momentarily. The amber ('Check') and red ('Stop') lights
will begin to flash the code of the recorded fault. The
fault codes flash in the following sequence: the amber
light flashes once, then there is a pause where both
lights are off. Then the numbers of the recorded fault
code flash in red. There is a pause between each
number. When the code is flashed, the amber light
flashes again. e.g. amber flashes once - pause - red
flashes twice - pause - red flashes three times - pause
- red flashes five times - pause - amber flashes once,
indicates fault code 235. The number will repeat in the
same sequence until the system is advanced to the
next active fault code or the diagnostic switch is
switched to the 'OFF' position. To go to the next fault
code, press top of diagnostic engine request switch. To
step back to the previous code, press bottom of
diagnostic engine request switch. If only one code is
active, the system will continously display the same
fault code. Refer to 'Electronic Fuel System Diagnostic
Codes' table (pages 24-26) for fault code descriptions.
WARNINGS
The operator of a Quantum - equipped vehicle
must not attempt to use or read a DDR (INSITE)
of any kind while the vehicle is operating.
Doing so can result in loss of control, which
may cause vehicle damage and may result in
personal injury.
When engine or electronics system
diagnosis is required on a Quantum - equipped
vehicle, this must be done by a person other
than the operator. The operator must maintain
control of the moving vehicle while the
assistant performs the diagnosis.
SM 2274 03-04
5
Engine - Engine and Mounting
Section 110-0030
ELECTRONIC FUEL SYSTEM DIAGNOSTIC CODES
Error Code
111
115
122
123
131
132
135
141
143
144
145
147
148
151
153
154
155
234
235
241
242
243
245
261
264
278
283
288
296
297
298
319
349
352
361
362
363
364
365
366
367
368
369
372
373
374
375
376
377
378
379
381
382
385
386
387
415
418
6
Description
ECM Hardware Internal Failure - Mission Disabling
Engine Speed Sensor- Both signals lost
Boost Pressure Sensor- Component shorted high
Boost Pressure Sensor - Component shorted low
Throttle Position Sensor- Component shorted high
Throttle Position Sensor - Component shorted low
Oil Pressure Sensor - Component shorted high
oil Pressure Sensor - Component shorted low
Oil Pressure Sensor - Data below normal range
Engine Coolant Temperature Sensor - Component shorted high
Engine Coolant Temperature Sensor - Component shorted low
Throttle Position Sensor - Circuit low frequency
Throttle Position Sensor - Circuit high frequency
Engine Coolant Temperature Sensor - Data above normal range
Intake Manifold Temperature Sensor - Component shorted high
Intake Manifold Temperature Sensor - Component shorted low
Intake Manifold Temperature Sensor - Data above normal range
Engine speed - Data above normal range
Engine Coolant Level - Data below normal range
Vehicle Speed Sensor Circuit - Data incorrect
Vehicle Speed Sensor Circuit - Tampering has been detected
Engine Brake - Circuit shorted low
Fan Clutch - Circuit shorted low
Fuel Temperature High - Warning
Fuel Temperature Sensor - Data out of range
Fuel Priming Pump Control Circuit - Shorted high / low
Engine Speed / Position Sensor ,Voltage Circuit - Shorted high
SAE J1939 Multiplexing Remote Throttle - Data error
Engine Auxiliary Pressure Sensor - Critical range
Auxiliary Pressure Sensor Input #2 - Circuit shorted high
Auxiliary Pressure Sensor Input #2 - Circuit shoretd low
Real Time Clock - Power interrupt
Transmission Output Shaft Speed High - Warning
Sensor Supply Voltage #1 - Circuit shorted low
Fuel Pump Control Modlue , Control Valve Circuit - Shorted high
Fuel Pump Control Module , Control Valve Circuit - Shorted low
Fuel Pump Control Module , Control Valve Circuit - Mechanically stuck
Fuel Pump Control Module , CAN Communication Error - Abnormal update rate
Fuel Pump Control Module , Supply Voltage Circuit - shorted low
Fuel Pump Control Module , Supply Voltage Circuit - Data incorrect
Fuel Pump Control Module - Increment angle time sensor error
Fuel Pump Control Module - Timing error
Fuel Pump Control Module - Engine synchronization error
Fuel Pump Control Module - Idle validation error
Fuel Pump Control Module - Fuel shut-off error
Fuel Pump Control Module - Self test error
Fuel Pump Control Module - Electronic calibration error
Fuel Pump Control Module - Fueling or Engine speed mismatch
Fuel Pump Control Module - Stuck Relay error
Fueling Actuator Circuit #1 - Open circuit
Fueling Actuator Circuit #1 - Grounded circuit
Intake Air Heater #1 (Relay enabled) - Circuit data incorrect
Intake Air Heater #2 (Relay enabled) - Circuit data incorrect
OEM Supply Voltage Sensor - Circuit shorted high
Sensor Supply Volatge #1 - Circuit shorted high
Accelerator Pedal Position Sensor Supply Voltage - Circuit shorted high
Oil Pressure Sensor - Data indicates very low oil pressure
Water In Fuel Indicator High
Fault Lamp
Red
Red
Amber
Amber
Red
Red
Amber
Amber
Amber
Amber
Amber
Red
Red
Amber
Amber
Amber
Amber
Red
Amber
Amber
Amber
Amber
Amber
Amber
Amber
Amber
Amber
Red
Red
Amber
Amber
Maint
Amber
Amber
Red
Amber
Amber
Amber
Amber
Amber
Amber
Amber
Amber
Amber
Red
Amber
Amber
Amber
Amber
Amber
Amber
Amber
Amber
Amber
Amber
Amber
Red
Maint
SM 2274 03-04
Engine - Engine and Mounting
Section 110-0030
ELECTRONIC FUEL SYSTEM DIAGNOSTIC CODES
Error Code Description
422
Engine coolant Level Sensor Singals - Data invlaid
429
Water In Fuel Sensor - Circuit shorted low
431
Accelerator Pedal Idle Validation Circuit - Data uncorrect
432
Accelerator Pedal Idle Validation Circuit - Out of calibration
433
Intake manifold Pressure Sensor - Circuit data incorrect
434
Power Lost Without Ignition Off
441
Battery Voltage Low - Warning
442
Battery Voltage High - Warning
443
Accelerator Pedal Position Sensor Supply Voltage - Circuit shorted low
444
OEM Sensor Supply Voltage Low - Warning
488
Intake Manifold Temperature High - Warning
489
Transmission Output Shaft Speed Low - Warning
497
Multiple Unit Synchronization Switch Circuit - Data incorrect
515
Accelerator Pedal Frequency Position ; Sensor Supply Circuit - Shorted high
516
Accelerator Pedal Frequency Position ; Sensor Supply Circuit - Shorted low
517
Fuel Mating Solenoid - Bad device
524
OEM Alternate Droop Switch- Validation data incorrect
527
Auxiliary Input / Output #2 - Circuit shorted high
528
OEM Alternate Torque Validation Switch - Data incorrect
529
Auxiliary Input / Output #3 - Circuit shorted high
551
Accelerator Pedal Idle Validation - Circuit shorted low
599
OEM Commanded Dual Output Shutdown
611
Engine Hot Shutdown
768
Output Device Driver (VGT or Transmission PWM Signal)
779
Auxiliary Equipment Sensor Input #3 (OEM Switch)
2194
Auxiliary Equipment Sensor Input #2 (OEM Pressure Sensor ) Engine Protection 2195
Auxiliary Equipment Sensor Enput #3 (OEM Switch) Engine Protection- Critical
SM 2274 03-04
Fault Lamp
Amber
Amber
Amber
Red
Amber
Amber
Amber
Amber
Amber
Amber
Amber
Amber
Amber
Amber
Amber
Amber
Amber
Amber
Amber
Amber
Amber
Red
None
Amber
Amber
Warning
Amber
Red
7
Engine - Engine and Mounting
Section 110-0030
REMOVAL
Tractor
Numbers in parentheses refer to Fig. 1.
Note: Tag all cables, harnesses, lines and pipes
disconnected during removal to aid in installation.
WARNINGS
To prevent personal injury and property
damage, be sure wheel blocks, blocking
materials and lifting equipment are properly
secured and of adequate capacity to do the job
safely.
High electrical current can cause sparks
and personal injury from burns. Turn battery
master switch to the 'Off' position before
removing any components. Remove battery
ground cable first, and reconnect last, to avoid
damaging electrical components.
1. Position the vehicle in a level work area, apply the
parking brake and switch off the engine. Operate the
steering in both directions several times to relieve any
pressure in the steering circuit.
2. Block all road wheels and place the battery master
switch in the 'Off' position.
3. Disconnect battery cables from terminal posts (earth
cable first).
4. Remove hood assembly, and on tractors, the side panel
on the operator's side. Refer to Section 100-0010,
CHASSIS, HOOD AND FENDERS.
5. Disconnect electrical cables from headlights and
reverse alarm. Remove mounting hardware and radiator
guard from machine. Refer to
Section 100-0010, CHASSIS, HOOD AND FENDERS.
WARNING
Hot metal parts. Make sure muffler and
components have cooled before removing.
Serious burns can result from handling a hot
muffler.
clamp at air cleaner intake pipe and draw air cleaner,
complete with rubber hose, away from intake pipe.
Disconnect air cleaner intake pipe and remove from the
engine. Cover open ends to prevent entry of dirt.
WARNING
Before disconnecting any air conditioner lines,
refer to Section 260-0130, AIR CONDITIONING.
Refrigerant will rapidly freeze all objects with
which it comes into contact. It can cause
serious and permanent damage to the eyes
and skin.
8. If the machine is equipped with an air conditioning
system, evacuate refrigerant from the system and
disconnect air conditioner lines at the engine
compressor. Refer to Section 260-0130, AIR
CONDITIONING.
9. With a suitable container in position, open drain
cock on the radiator assembly and drain the coolant.
10. Remove the radiator assembly from the vehicle.
Refer to Section 210-0040, RADIATOR AND
MOUNTING.
11. Support guard plate under the engine with suitable
blocking and remove mounting hardware securing
guard plate to the frame. Remove guard plate from the
frame.
12. Place a suitable container under the engine drain
port, remove drain plug and drain the oil. After
draining, reinstall drain plug in engine sump and
tighten securely.
13. Identify hydraulic hoses (3, Fig. 2) for ease of
installation and disconnect from the engine. Cover
engine inlet ports to prevent entry of dirt.
14. Identify heater lines for ease of installation and with a
suitable container in position, disconnect heater lines
from the engine. Cap open line ends and fittings.
15. Identify fuel lines for ease of installation and with a
suitable container in position, disconnect fuel lines
from the engine. Cap open line ends and fittings.
6. Remove muffler and exhaust system from the engine.
16. Identify all electrical harnesses and cables for ease
of installation and disconnect from the engine.
7. Remove mounting hardware securing air cleaner
assembly to right hand fender. Slacken mounting
17. Disconnect clips securing items to the engine that
cannot be removed with the engine.
8
SM 2274 03-04
Engine - Engine and Mounting
Section 110-0030
18. Disconnect driveline from the engine coupling and
secure clear of the engine. Refer to Section 130-0010,
DRIVELINE.
5. Remove mounting hardware securing dipstick
assembly to engine (1). Remove dipstick assembly
from engine (1).
19. Support hydraulic pump with suitable lifting
equipment and remove mounting hardware securing
pump to the power takeoff assembly. Refer to Section
235-0050, TRIPLE PUMP. Pump can remain attached
to hoses, if laid carefully aside.
6. Remove mounting hardware securing oil filler
assembly to engine (1). Remove oil filler assembly
from engine (1).
20. Attach suitable lifting equipment to the lifting
brackets on the engine and raise lifting equipment to
take up the slack.
21. Remove locknuts (13), washers (12), spacers (11)
and bolts (10) securing engine (1) to the frame through
front mounting.
22. Remove locknuts (13), washers (12), spacers (11)
and bolts (10) securing engine (1) to the frame through
rear mounting brackets (7 & 8).
23.
Check to make certain that all necessary line
and electrical disconnections have been made before
lifting engine (1).
24. Carefully lift engine (1) clear of the frame, remove
to a suitable work area and mount securely on a work
stand.
Scraper
Use the same procedure to remove the scraper engine
as described under tractor engine, except omit steps
8, 14 & 19.
DISASSEMBLY
Numbers in parentheses refer to Fig. 1.
1. Identify rear mounts (7 & 8) to aid in assembly then
remove bolts (15 & 16) and lockwashers (18) securing rear
mounts to engine (1). Remove mounts (7 & 8).
7. Remove filter (2) from engine (1) and fuel filter (3)
from remote mounting on frame as described in
'Maintenance'. Discard filters. Cover engine inlet ports
to prevent entry of dirt.
8. Refer to 'Engine Manufacturers Service Manual' if
engine service or repair is required.
Note : Remove engine coupling at this stage for
checking, by removing required bolts.
INSPECTION
Numbers in parentheses refer to Fig. 1.
1. Inspect rubber isolation mounts (9) for damage and
replace if required.
2. Check rear mounts (7 & 8), front mounting bracket
on engine (1) and mounting brackets on the frame for
cracks and/or damage. Repair or replace as necessary.
3. Inspect engine coupling for damage and repair or
replace as required.
ASSEMBLY
Numbers in parentheses refer to Fig. 1.
Note: Tighten all fasteners without special torques
specified to standard torques listed in Section
300-0080, STANDARD BOLT AND NUT TORQUE
SPECIFICATIONS.
1. Remove covers from engine filter ports and install
new lube oil filter (2) on engine (1) and fuel filter (3) to
remote mounting, as described in 'Maintenance'.
2. If required, remove rubber isolation mounts (9) from
rear mounts (7 & 8) and front mounting bracket (6) on
engine (1).
2. Install oil filler assembly on engine (1) and secure
with mounting hardware as removed at Disassembly.
3. Remove bolts (14) securing fan (5) to engine (1)
then remove fan (5).
3. Install dipstick assembly on engine (1) and secure
with mounting hardware as removed at Disassembly.
4. Remove mounting hardware securing power takeoff
from tractor engine, or flywheel cover from scraper
engine, whichever applies. Refer to Section 110-0130,
POWER TAKEOFF - TRACTOR or Section 110-0130,
FLYWHEEL COVER GROUP - SCRAPER.
4. If removed, install coupling (8) to engine with bolts
(23) as follows:
SM 2274 03-04
a. Clean and degrease mating faces of engine
9
Engine - Engine and Mounting
Section 110-0030
flywheel and coupling. Apply Loctite retaining
compound to coupling face.
b. Screw two locating pins, which can be fabricated
as shown in Fig. 3, to engine flywheel housing
and locate coupling (24).
c. Clean bolts (23) and tapped holes with Loctite
Primer 'T' and apply Loctite Retaining Compound to
the bolt (23) threads.
d. Secure coupling (24) to engine using six bolts
(23). Torque tighten bolts (22) to 57 Nm (42 lbf ft),
working in a diagonal pattern.
e. Remove locating pins and secure remaining two
bolts following procedures c and d.
Note: If coupling (24) needs to be removed, the
flywheel requires to be heated to a temperature of 160°
C in order to break the Loctite bond.
5. If removed, assemble power take-off assembly on
tractor engine, or flywheel cover on scraper engine,
whichever applies. Refer to Section 110-0130,
POWER TAKEOFF - TRACTOR or Section 110-0130,
FLYWHEEL COVER GROUP - SCRAPER.
6. Position fan (5) to fan pulley on engine (1) and
secure with bolts (14). Tighten bolts in a star shaped
pattern to a torque of 34 Nm
(25 lbf ft).
7. If removed, install rubber isolation mounts (9) to
front mounting bracket on engine (1).
8. If removed, install rubber isolation mounts (9) in rear
mounts (7 & 8). Secure rear mounts (7 & 8) to engine
(1) with bolts (15 & 16) and lockwashers (18).
INSTALLATION
2. Secure engine (1) assembly to frame mounting
brackets with bolts (10 & 14), snubbing washers (11)
washers (12) and locknuts (13) as shown in Fig. 1.
Torque tighten front mounting bolts (6) to
149 Nm (110 lbf ft). Torque tighten rear mounting bolts
(23) to 176 Nm (130 lbf ft).
3. Connect driveline to engine (1) assembly. Refer to
Section 130-0010, DRIVELINE.
4. Install hydraulic pump on power takeoff assembly.
Refer to Section 235-0050, TRIPLE PUMP.
5. Remove caps from heater lines and fittings and
connect heater lines to engine (1) as identified at
removal.
6. Remove caps from fuel lines and fittings and
connect fuel lines to engine (1) as identified at removal.
7. Remove caps from hydraulic hoses (3, Fig. 2) and
fittings and ports on engine (1) as identified at removal.
8. Connect all electrical harnesses and cables to
engine (1) (with the exception of battery connections)
as identified at removal.
9. Install radiator assembly on the vehicle. Refer to
Section 210-0040, RADIATOR AND MOUNTING.
10. Ensure all cooling lines to radiator assembly,
engine (1) are correctly connected. Refer to
Section 210-0040, RADIATOR AND MOUNTING.
11. Connect air conditioner lines at the compressor as
identified at removal. On completion of engine
installation the air conditioning system will require to be
charged. Refer to Section 260-0130, AIR
CONDITIONING.
Numbers in parentheses refer to Fig. 1.
12. Install muffler and exhaust system to the engine.
Note: Tighten all fasteners without special torques
specified to standard torques listed in Section
300-0080, STANDARD BOLT AND NUT TORQUE
SPECIFICATIONS.
WARNING
To prevent personal injury and property
damage, be sure lifting device is properly
secured and of adequate capacity to do the job
safely.
1. Attach suitable lifting equipment to engine (1) lifting
brackets and carefully position engine (1) assembly in
the tractor frame.
10
13. Remove covers from air cleaner intake pipe and
rubber hose on the air cleaner inlet then locate the
rubber hose on air cleaner assembly to the inlet pipe.
Install air cleaner intake pipe to engine.
14. Secure air cleaner assembly to the right hand
fender and rubber hose to the inlet pipe with mounting
hardware removed during removal.
15. Connect battery positive connections to battery
terminals. Connect battery earth connections to battery
terminals.
SM 2274 03-04
Engine - Engine and Mounting
Section 110-0030
16. Ensure all lines, harnesses and cables are secured
with clips and clamps as removed during removal.
Ensure no lines are chaffing on sharp edges or resting
against areas where heat will be evident.
17. Ensure drain cock at the bottom of the radiator
assembly and drain cocks on engine (1) water jacket
are securely closed.
Engine (1) Oil Level Check - Position the vehicle on a
level work area, apply the parking brake, shut off the
engine and wait at least five minutes (to allow oil to
drain to the oil pan) before checking the oil level. The
oil level should be between the low (L) and high (H)
marks on the dipstick. Add oil if low. Refer to Section
300-0020, LUBRICATION SYSTEM for oil
specification.
18. Fill the cooling system with coolant. Refer to
Section 300-0020, LUBRICATION SYSTEM .
Note: Never operate the engine with oil level below the
low (L) or above the high (H) mark on the dipstick.
19. Fill the engine with lubricant through oil filler to the
top mark on dipstick. Refer to Section 300-0020,
LUBRICATION SYSTEM for oil specification.
Fuel Filter/Water Separator (4) - Drain the water and
sediment from the separator daily. Position the vehicle
on a level work area, apply the parking brake, shut off
the engine and, with a suitable container below the
drain valve to catch spillage, open the drain valve by
hand. Turn the valve anticlockwise approximately
1.5 - 2 turns until draining occurs. Drain the filter sump
until clear fuel is visible. Turn the valve clockwise to
close the drain valve.
20. Check all line and pipe connections for leaks prior
to starting the vehicle. Tighten as required.
21. Switch the battery master switch to the 'On'
position, start up the engine and check for leaks.
Tighten lines, pipes and fittings and top up all systems
as required.
22. Install hood assembly and side panel on the
vehicle. Refer to Section 100-0010, CHASSIS, HOOD
AND FENDERS.
23. Using suitable lifting equipment position engine
guard under the engine and secure to the frame with
mounting hardware removed during removal.
24. Remove wheel blocks from all road wheels.
Note: Do not overtighten the drain valve as
overtightening can damage the threads.
Cooling System - Check coolant level add if low - Add
coolant to the top of the filler neck.
Drive Belts - Visually inspect all drive belts daily.
Replace belts that are cracked or frayed and adjust
belts that have a glazed or shiny surface which
indicates belt slippage. Correctly installed and
tensioned belts will show even pulley and belt wear.
Every 500 Hours
Scraper
Use the same procedure to install the scraper engine
as described under tractor engine, except omit steps
4, 5 & 11.
MAINTENANCE
Engine (1): Drain engine oil and refill. Refer to Section
300-0020, LUBRICATION SYSTEM for oil
specification.
Engine Water Pump: Inspect water pump drain hole
and clean if required.
Numbers in parentheses refer to Fig. 1.
Engine Oil Filter (2): Replace oil filter as follows:
Note: Carry out the following maintenance procedures
in conjunction with additional procedures listed in
Section 300-0020, LUBRICATION SYSTEM.
1. Using filter wrench, remove and discard oil filter (2)
from engine (1). Inspect the sealing surface of the filter
to ensure that the seal ring stayed with the filter. If not,
remove it from the filter adaptor.
Every 10 Hours (Daily)
Engine (1): Visually check engine for damage, loose or
frayed belts and listen for any unusual noises. Check
the turbocharger for leaks.
SM 2274 03-04
2. Clean the filter adaptor with a clean, lint free cloth.
3. Lightly coat new oil filter (2) seal with clean engine
oil as specified in Section 300-0020, LUBRICATION
SYSTEM.
11
Engine - Engine and Mounting
Section 110-0030
4. Start a new oil filter (2) on the filter adaptor and
tighten it by hand until the seal touches the adaptor
filter head. Tighten an additional 2/3 of a turn after
contact.
1. Close shut off valves at coolant filter (3) inlet and
outlet lines and, using filter wrench, remove and
discard coolant filter (3) from engine (1).
2. Clean the filter adaptor with a clean, lint free cloth.
Note: Mechanical tightening of oil filter (2) is not
necessary and will distort or crack the adaptor. Tighten
oil filters by hand only.
5. Start and run the engine for a short period and check
for oil leaks. If any leaks are noted, have them
corrected.
6. After the engine has been stopped long enough
(approximately 20 minutes) for the oil from various
parts of engine (1) to drain back to the crankcase,
check oil level and add oil to bring it to the proper level
on the dipstick. Refer to Section 300-0020,
LUBRICATION SYSTEM for oil specification.
3. Lightly coat new coolant filter (3) seal with clean
engine oil as specified in Section 300-0020,
LUBRICATION SYSTEM.
4. Start coolant filter (3) on the filter adaptor and tighten
it by hand until the seal touches the adaptor filter head.
Tighten an additional 2/3 of a turn after contact.
Note: Mechanical tightening of coolant filter (3) is not
necessary and will distort or crack the adaptor. Tighten
oil filters by hand only.
5. Open shut off valves at coolant filter (3) inlet and
outlet lines.
Fuel Filter (4): Replace fuel filter (4) as follows:
Note: There is a fuel system shut off valve on the
discharge side of fuel filter (4). Closing this valve will
prevent loss of fuel prime at time of filter replacement.
6. Start the engine and check for leaks. If any leaks are
noted, have them corrected. Add coolant as required.
Refer to Section 300-0020, LUBRICATION SYSTEM .
1. Close shut off valve at fuel filter (4) and, using filter
wrench, remove and discard fuel filter (4) from engine
(1).
2. Fill the replacement filter and coat the gasket
slightly with clean fuel oil as specified in
Section 300-0020, LUBRICATION SYSTEM.
3. Start new fuel filter (4) on the filter adaptor and
tighten it by hand until the gasket contacts the adaptor
fully with no side movement of the filter evident.
Tighten an additional 1/2 of a turn.
Note: Mechanical tightening of fuel filters (4) is not
recommended, and may result in seal and/or cartridge
damage. Tighten fuel filter by hand only.
4. Start the engine and check for leaks. If any leaks
are noted, have them corrected.
Coolant Filter (3): Check condition of coolant inhibitor
as described in Engine 'Operation and Maintenance
Manual'. Replace coolant filter (3) as follows:
Note: There is a shut off valve at the coolant inlet and
outlet lines of coolant filter (3). Closing these valves
will enable coolant filter (3) to be replaced without an
excessive loss of coolant.
12
SM 2274 03-04
Engine - Engine and Mounting
Section 110-0030
SPECIAL TOOLS
SM - 2055
Refer to Section 300-0070, SERVICE TOOLS, for part
numbers of service tools which should be used in
conjunction with procedures outlined in the engine
manufacturers service manual, and, general service
tools required. These tools are available from your
dealer. The locating pins used in the installation of the
engine damper can be fabricated as shown in Fig. 4.
0.10
0.05
ø 3/8 x 16
UNC THD.
+ 0.000
0.002
ø 0.403 -
0.10
0.50
1.12
Material:
Make from 13017, 13040 or 13083
Fig. 4 - Flywheel Damper Locating Pin
SPECIAL TORQUE SPECIFICATIONS
TORQUE
FIG. NO.
1
1
1
-
ITEM NO.
6
23
22
-
ITEM NAME
Bolt
Bolt
Bolt
Fan Hub Mounting Bolts
*
SM 2274 03-04
*
*
Nm
149
176
57
34
lbf ft
110
130
42
25
*
13
ENGINE - Air Cleaner
Section 110-0050
SM - 1532
1
4
2
5
1
2
3
4
5
6
- Air Cleaner Body
- Primary Element
- Safety Element
- Cover Assembly
- Latch
- Vacuator Valve
3
6
Fig. 1 - Exploded View of Air Cleaner
DESCRIPTION
Numbers in parentheses refer to Fig. 1, unless
otherwise specified.
There are two dual dry element type air cleaner
assemblies fitted to the machine, one for the tractor
engine and one for the scraper engine. The tractor air
cleaner is mounted off the platform to the right hand
side of the machine, the scraper air cleaner is
mounted under the hood adjacent to the rear right
hand fender. The air cleaner prolongs engine life by
removing grit, dust and water from the air as it enters
the engine. Grit and dust combined with engine oil,
forms a highly abrasive compound which can destroy
the engine in a comparatively short period of time.
A rubber vacuator valve (6) attached to cover
assembly (4) in a downward position, ejects grit, dust
and water while the engine is running. Vacuator valve
(6) minimizes the need for daily servicing. Even
though vacuator valve (6) is normally under a slight
vacuum when the engine is running, pulsing of the
vacuum opens and closes vacuator valve (6) expelling
grit, dust and water as they collect. When the engine is
stopped, vacuator valve (6) opens and expels any
accumulated grit, dust or water.
SM 1692 2-99
A mechanical air restriction gauge (12, Fig. 2) is
mounted externally and indicates when the system air
flow is being restricted. A red band gradually rises in
the gauge window as air restriction increases. The red
band is locked when maximum allowable restriction
level is reached. When the red band locks at the top of
the gauge window, primary element (2) should be
serviced. Air restriction gauge (12, Fig. 2) should be
reset by pushing the button on the gauge, holding it for
several seconds and then releasing it.
While the air restriction gauge (12, Fig. 2) indicates the
need for servicing, it does not give as precise a
measurement as a water manometer or vacuum
gauge. Refer to 'Measuring Air Restriction'.
Safety element (3) is installed in the air cleaner
assembly inside of primary element (2). This element
increases the reliability of the air cleaner’s protection
of the engine from airborne dirt. It protects the engine
from dirt admitted by a damaged primary element (2),
or dirt that might be dropped into the air cleaner
assembly while servicing primary element (2).
1
Engine - Air Cleaner
Section 110-0050
SM - 2097
16
15
10
20
19
9
911
7
18
8
17
11
13
1
14
9
9
10
2
12
4
3
5
4
7
6
4
1
2
3
4
5
- Bracket Assembly
- Elbow
- Elbow
- Clamp
- Hump Hose
6
7
8
9
10
- Clamp
- Mounting Band
- Rod
- Nut
- Washer
11
12
13
14
15
-
Lockwasher
Air Restriction Gauge
Cap Assembly
Bolt
Lockwasher
16
17
18
19
20
- Nut
- Bolt
- Washer
- Lockwasher
- Nut
Fig. 3 - Exploded View of Air Cleaner Mounting - Tractor
MAINTENANCE
Numbers in parentheses refer to Fig. 1, unless
otherwise specified.
WARNING
Always shutdown the engine before servicing
air cleaner.
Check air restriction gauge (12, Fig. 2) daily. The air
cleaner elements should be serviced only when the
maximum allowable restriction has been reached, as
indicated by air cleaner restriction gauge (12, Fig. 2).
The elements should not be serviced on the basis of
visual observation as this would lead to over service.
When restriction readings finally indicate a change,
remove primary element (2) carefully and clean/
replace as required. Refer to 'Primary Element'.
Never attempt to clean safety element (3). Change
safety element (3) after every third primary element (2)
service.
Make sure vacuator valve (6) is not damaged or
plugged and that the joint with cover assembly (4) is
not broken. If vacuator valve (6) is lost or damaged,
replace it to maintain pre-cleaner efficiency and normal
filter element service life.
Check condition of clamps (7, Fig. 2), hump hose
(5, Fig. 2) and elbows (2 & 3, Fig. 2). Tighten/replace
as necessary.
Air Cleaner Assembly
Numbers in parentheses refer to Fig. 1, unless
otherwise specified.
Note: Air cleaner body (1) should be thoroughly
cleaned twice a year. Do not apply heat in any form to
air cleaner body (1).
1. Release latches (5) on cover assembly (4) and
remove cover assembly from air cleaner body (1).
2. Remove primary element (2) and safety element (3)
from air cleaner body (1).
2
SM 1692 2-99
Engine - Air Cleaner
Section 110-0050
3. Slacken clamp (6, Fig. 2) and disconnect elbow
(3, Fig. 2) from air cleaner body (1).
4. Remove nuts (16, Fig. 2), lockwashers (15, Fig. 2)
and bolts (14, Fig. 2) securing the air cleaner
assembly to mounting bracket (1, Fig. 2).
5. Remove the air cleaner assembly from the machine
for cleaning.
6. Open clamps (6) and remove from air cleaner
body (1). Open clamp on cap assembly (7) and
remove cap assembly from air cleaner body (1).
7. Blank off air cleaner body (1) outlets with tape or
cardboard. Reach inside body with a compressed air
nozzle or brush and remove dust from the body.
8. Remove all loose dust from air cleaner body (1) and
remove tape or cardboard from body outlets.
Note: Assembly and installation of the air cleaner
assembly is the reverse of disassembly and removal.
Primary Element
4. If the major contaminant on primary element (2) is
light dust, direct a jet of compressed air, not exceeding
6.9 bar (100 lbf/in2), against the pleats of the element.
The air jet should be directed in the opposite direction
of normal operating air flow. Move the air jet up and
down the pleats, holding the air nozzle 25 mm (1.0 in)
away from the pleats, to prevent rupturing the element
with either the nozzle or air jet.
5. In cases where the dust cake on primary element
(2) contains oil or carbon, air will not clean effectively.
Using manufacturers recommended solution and
warm water, not exceeding 48° C (120° F), soak
primary element (2) for fifteen minutes. Element
should be gently agitated to assist cleaning process.
Note: It is possible to modify an old agitator type
washing machine for primary element (2) cleaning. Do
not soak or agitate primary element (2) in the solution
for more than fifteen minutes. Prolonged exposure
softens vertical seams in the element.
6. Rinse washed element thoroughly with a low
pressure stream of water, not exceeding 0.7 bar
(10 lbf/in2), opposite from the normal air flow, until
rinse water runs clear.
Numbers in parentheses refer to Fig. 1.
Although a paper primary element (2) is used, it is
possible to clean it so that it can be reused. The
number of times one element can be reused depends
on the type of dirt on the element and the care
exercised in cleaning.
The life of a properly cleaned element will be
approximately as long as that of a new element for the
first one or two cleanings. After that, the life of the
element will gradually decrease with each cleaning;
however, it should perform satisfactorily through
approximately six cleanings, providing it does not rupture.
Visually determine the condition of primary element (2)
and choose either the compressed air or washing
method.
1. Release latches (5) on cover assembly (4) and
remove cover assembly from air cleaner body (1).
7. Air dry primary element (2) thoroughly before
returning it to service. Drying is a slow process which
may be hastened by exposing element to slowly
circulating heated air. Heated air temperature should
not exceed 46o C (115o F). Drying time can be reduced
to about three hours with heated air. DO NOT use a
light bulb for drying. DO NOT use compressed air on a
wet element.
Note: Replace paper elements after six cleanings or
two years in service, whichever comes first. Mark each
cleaned element to show total cleanings to date.
8. After primary element (2) is thoroughly dried,
inspect for damage or ruptures, especially close to the
end caps. To detect paper ruptures, place a bright light
bulb inside the element and rotate element slowly.
Inspection of element on the outside will disclose any
holes where concentrated light shines through. Even
the smallest hole will pass dust to the engine and may
result in costly engine repairs.
2. Remove primary element (2) from air cleaner body (1).
9. Install primary element (2) in air cleaner body (1).
3. Using a damp cloth and a suitable solvent, wipe out
all excess dust from air cleaner body (1) and allow to
dry.
SM 1692 2-99
10. Install cover assembly (4) on air cleaner body (1)
and secure with latches (5).
3
Engine - Air Cleaner
Section 110-0050
Secondary Element
The recommended maximum allowable intake
restrictions at rated speed and load are as follows:
Numbers in parentheses refer to Fig. 1.
Since safety element (3) is protected from
contamination by primary element (2), it needs no
periodic cleaning and should be replaced only after
every third primary element (2) service.
a. 380 mm-H2O (15 in-H2O) with clean filter elements.
b. 635 mm-H2O (25 in-H2O) with dirty filter elements.
While the air restriction gauge sends a signal to
indicate the need for servicing, it does not give as
precise a measurement as a water manometer or
vacuum gauge.
1. With primary element (2) removed from air cleaner
body (1), remove safety element (3).
2. Remove any dust dislodged into air cleaner body (1)
outlet and, using a damp cloth and a suitable solvent,
wipe out all excess dust from air cleaner body (1) and
allow to dry.
Water Manometer
a. Remove air restriction gauge (12) from port in air
cleaner assembly.
b. Hold water manometer vertically and fill both legs
approximately half full of water. Connect one of the
upper ends to port by means of a flexible hose.
3. Install new safety element (3) followed by primary
element (2) in air cleaner body (1)
4. Install cover assembly (4) on air cleaner body (1)
and secure with latches (5).
c. With the manometer held vertically and the engine
drawing maximum air, the difference in height of the
water columns in the two legs is measured as the air
cleaner restriction.
Recommendations
Numbers in parentheses refer to Fig. 2.
d. If the restriction exceeds the levels indicated,
engine performance will be affected. Primary filter
element should be cleaned or replaced.
1. Under no condition should the vehicle be operated
without both filter elements in each air cleaner
assembly.
2. It is very important that hump hose (5) and elbows
(2 & 3) from the air cleaner assembly to the engine be
airtight or the purpose of the air cleaner will be
completely defeated. All clamps (4 & 6) should be
checked frequently and tightened to prevent leaks.
Vacuum Gauge
a. Remove air restriction gauge (12) from port in air
cleaner assembly.
b. Connect the hose from the vacuum gauge to
port and, with the engine drawing maximum air, take a
note of the reading on the gauge.
3. Keep new or cleaned filter elements on hand for
replacement to prevent unnecessary downtime of the
vehicle.
c. If the restriction exceeds the levels indicated, engine
performance will be affected. Primary filter element
should be cleaned or replaced.
MEASURING AIR RESTRICTION
SERVICE TOOLS
Numbers in parentheses refer to Fig. 2.
Refer to Section 300-0070, SERVICE TOOLS for part
numbers of service tools referenced in this section and
general service tools required. These tools are
available from your dealer.
As a dry air cleaner element becomes loaded with
dust, the vacuum on the engine side of the air cleaner
(air cleaner outlet) increases. This vacuum is generally
measured as 'restriction in mm (inches) of water'.
*
4
*
*
*
SM 1692 2-99
ENGINE - Power Takeoff - Tractor
Section 110-0130
SM - 3164
11 12
13
16
14
5
21
15
17
9
18
38
34
35
22
2
3
20
6
5
20
19
21
23
31
8,24
30
10
25
26
32
27
4
29
28
1
1
36
37
33
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
- Oil Seal
- Flywheel Cover Case
- Bolt
- Bearing
- Drive Gear
- Driveshaft
- Bearing
- Bolt
- Drain Cock
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
-
PTO Cover
Breather Cap
Coupling
Breather
Elbow
Cotter Pin
Locknut
Hardened Washer
Flange
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
- Oil Seal
- Spacer
- Snap Ring
- Lockwasher
- Plug
- Bolt
- Dowel Pin
- Gasket
- Bearing
- Driven Gear
29
30
31
32
33
34
35
36
37
38
- Bearing
- Plug
- Spacer
- Damper assembly
- Bolt
- Lockwasher
- Bolt
- Lockwasher
- Bolt
- Plug
Fig. 1 - Exploded View of Power Takeoff Assembly
DESCRIPTION AND OPERATION
REMOVAL
Numbers in parentheses refer to Fig. 1.
Numbers in parentheses refer to Fig. 1.
The function of the power takeoff (PTO), as the name
implies, is to provide the means of mounting and
driving an auxiliary component. The triple pump for the
bowl hydraulic system and steering system is mounted
to PTO cover (10) and its input shaft is meshed with
the internal splines in the hub of driven gear (28). Refer
to Section 235-0050, TRIPLE PUMP.
The major components of the PTO assembly are;
flywheel cover case (2), PTO cover (10), driveshaft (6),
drive gear (5) and driven gear (28).
As driveshaft (6) is driven by the engine crankcase,
drive gear (5) turns the driven gear (28). The triple
pump driveshaft, meshed in the hub of driven gear (12),
turns with driven gear (12) to operate the triple pump
which, in turn, supplies hydraulic oil to the steering
system and bowl hydraulic system. Refer to
Section 235-0050, TRIPLE PUMP.
SM 1693 Rev1 03-04
WARNING
To prevent personal injury and property damage,
be sure wheel blocks, blocking materials and
lifting equipment are properly secured and of
adequate capacity to do the job safely.
1. Position the vehicle in a level work area, apply the
parking brake and switch off the engine. Turn steering
wheel several times to relieve any pressure in the
steering circuit.
2. Block all road wheels and place the battery master
switch in the 'Off' position.
3. Disconnect driveline from flange (18) at the PTO
assembly. Refer to Section 130-0010, DRIVELINE.
4. Drain oil from power takeoff housing by removing
1
Engine - Power Takeoff - Tractor
Section 110-0130
drain plug (30) from PTO cover (10). Reinstall drain
plug (30) securely.
5. Match mark triple pump mounting flange and PTO
cover (10) so that the pump can be installed in the
same position at installation.
8. If necessary, note locations and remove dowel pins
(25) from flywheel cover case (2) and breather
assembly (11, 12, 13 & 14) from PTO cover (10).
INSPECTION
Numbers in parentheses refer to Fig. 1.
6. With suitable blocking or lifting equipment, support
the pump before loosening attaching nuts. Remove
nuts and lockwashers from pump mounting studs and
secure pump clear of the PTO assembly.
1. Wash all parts thoroughly in a suitable solvent and
dry all but bearings (4, 7, 27 & 29) with compressed air.
Dry bearings (4, 7, 27 & 29) with a clean lint free cloth.
7. Match mark engine flywheel housing and flywheel
cover case (2) so that the PTO assembly can be
installed in the same position at 'Installation'.
2. Check the condition of splines and teeth on gears
(5 & 28), driveshaft (6), flange (18) and Damper (33) for
burrs or signs of wear.
8. Attach a suitable lifting device to the PTO assembly
and remove bolts (3 & 37) and lockwashers (22 & 26)
securing PTO assembly to the engine flywheel
housing. Carefully lower PTO assembly and spacer
(31) from the flywheel housing and move to a clean
work area for disassembly.
3. Lubricate bearings (4, 7, 27 & 29) with oil and check
operation by spinning bearings by hand. DO NOT spin
bearings with compressed air. Inspect bearing bores for
out of roundness or irregular wear patterns. Replace
bearings, if required.
9. Remove spacer (31) and Damper assembly (32 &
33) from the PTO assembly.
DISASSEMBLY
Numbers in parentheses refer to Fig. 1.
1. Remove cotter pin (15), locknut (16) and hardened
washer (17) from driveshaft (6). Pull flange (18) from
driveshaft (6).
4. Inspect flywheel cover case (2) and PTO cover (10)
for cracks. If either flywheel cover case (2) or PTO
cover (10) are damaged, both parts must be replaced
as an assembly.
5. Visually check oil seal lip contact surfaces on
driveshaft (6) and flange (18) for nicks, dents,
scratches, wear, or corrosion. Replace as necessary.
ASSEMBLY
Numbers in parentheses refer to Fig. 1.
2. Remove bolts (8 & 24) from PTO cover (10). Pull
PTO cover (10) and gasket (26) from flywheel cover
case (2). Discard gasket (26).
3. Place PTO cover (10) flange side up on a work
bench. Pry oil seal (19) from PTO cover (10) and
discard.
4. Remove snap rings (21) from pump and driveshaft
bores. Drive bearings (7 & 27) from PTO cover (10)
with a sleeve or soft steel drift. Drive on the outer race
of bearings (7 & 27) taking care not to damage the
bearings.
5. Slide drive gear (5) from driveshaft (6) and pull
driven gear (28) from flywheel cover case (2).
6. Pull driveshaft (6) from flywheel cover case (2). Pry
oil seal (1) from flywheel cover case (2).
Note: Prior to assembly, lubricate all seal lips and
surfaces with lubricant specified in Section 300-0020,
LUBRICATION SYSTEM.
Note: Tighten all fasteners without special torques
specified to standard torques listed in
Section 300-0080, STANDARD BOLT AND NUT
TORQUE SPECIFICATIONS.
WARNING
To prevent personal injury and property
damage, be sure lifting device is properly
secured and of adequate capacity to do the job
safely.
1. If removed, install dowel pins (25) in flywheel cover
case (2) and breather assembly (11, 12, 13 & 14) in
PTO cover (10), as noted at disassembly.
7. Pull bearings (4 & 29) from flywheel cover case (2)
with a suitable bearing puller.
2
SM 1693 Rev1 03-04
Engine - Power Takeoff - Tractor
Section 110-0130
2. Install new oil seal (1) in centre bore of flywheel
cover case (2) so that it is flush with flywheel cover
case (2) face.
2. Using suitable lifting equipment, position triple pump
over its mounting studs and secure with nuts and
lockwashers removed during removal.
Note: When installing new oil seals, install them with
the oil lip (larger of the two lips with the spring behind
it) facing inward. Care should be taken to prevent
damage to seal lips during assembly.
3. Reconnect driveline to flange (18). Refer to
Section 130-0010, DRIVELINE.
3. Press bearings (4 & 29) into their bores in flywheel
cover case (2).
4. Press bearings (7 & 27) into their respective bores in
PTO cover (10). Turn PTO cover (10) over and install
snap rings (21).
5. Install new oil seal (19) into centre bore in PTO
cover (10) so that it is flush with PTO cover (10) face.
6. Install driven gear (28) and driveshaft (6) into
flywheel cover case (2). Slide drive gear (5) over
driveshaft (6) to its proper location.
7. Install new gasket (26) on PTO cover (10) and
assemble PTO cover (10) to flywheel cover case (2).
Secure PTO cover (10) to flywheel cover case (2) with
bolts (8 & 24).
8. Install flange (18), hardened washer (17) and locknut
(16) on driveshaft (6) end. Tighten locknut (16) to a
torque of 950 - 1 085 Nm (700 - 800 lbf ft), lubricated
and install cotter pin (15).
4. Remove oil level plug from PTO cover (10) and fill
PTO assembly with lubricant specified in
Section 300-0020, LUBRICATION SYSTEM, until oil
flows from the oil level port. Install oil level plug in PTO
cover (10) and tighten securely.
5. Place the battery master switch in the 'On' position,
start the engine and bring oil to correct operating
temperature. Check for leaks and correct as necessary.
6. Remove wheel blocks from all road wheels.
MAINTENANCE
Numbers in parentheses refer to Fig. 1.
Note: Refer to Section 300-0020, LUBRICATION
SYSTEM for recommended check and drain intervals
and lubricant specifications.
Oil Level Check
Remove oil level plug from the PTO cover (10) and, if
oil level is below the bottom of the filler hole, add
lubricant until it flows from the filler hole. Reinstall oil
level plug and tighten securely.
INSTALLATION
Numbers in parentheses refer to Fig. 1.
Note: When reassembling PTO assembly to engine
flywheel housing, and triple pump to PTO assembly, be
sure to align match marks inscribed during
disassembly.
Note: Tighten all fasteners without special torques
specified to standard torques listed in
Section 300-0080, STANDARD BOLT AND NUT
TORQUE SPECIFICATIONS.
1. Install spacer (31) on PTO assembly and, using
suitable lifting equipment, position PTO assembly on
engine flywheel housing. Secure the PTO assembly
and spacer (31) to the engine flywheel housing with
bolts (3) and lockwashers (22). Tighten bolts (3) to a
torque of 54 - 60 Nm (40 - 44 lbf ft), lubricated.
SM 1693 Rev1 03-04
Drain and Refill
To drain: Remove drain plug (30) from PTO cover (10)
and drain oil into a suitable container. Reinstall drain
plug (30) securely when draining is complete.
To refill: Remove oil level plug from the PTO cover
(10) and fill PTO assembly with lubricant specified in
Section 300-0020, LUBRICATION SYSTEM, until oil
flows from the oil level port. Install oil level plug in PTO
cover (10) and tighten securely.
SPECIAL TOOLS
There are no special tools required for procedures
outlined in this section. Refer to Section 300-0070,
SERVICE TOOLS, for part numbers of general service
tools required. These tools are available from your
dealer.
3
Engine - Power Takeoff - Tractor
Section 110-0130
SPECIAL TORQUE SPECIFICATIONS
TORQUE
FIG. NO.
ITEM NO.
ITEM NAME
Nm
lbf ft
1
3
Bolt
54 - 60
40 - 44
1
16
Locknut
950 - 1 085
700 - 800
*
4
*
*
*
SM 1693 Rev1 03-04
ENGINE - Flywheel Cover Group - Scraper
Section 110-0130
SM - 2203
2
17
20
1
13
12
10
9
16
15
8
14
18
7
19
4
6
5
3
11
1
2
3
4
5
- Spacer
- Flywheel Cover Case
- Driveshaft
- Yoke
- Oil Seal
6
7
8
9
10
- Snap Ring
- Snap Ring
- Bearing
- Spacer
- Cover
11
12
13
14
15
- Oil Seal
- Lockwasher
- Bolt
- Washer
- Slotted Nut
16
17
18
19
20
- Cotter Pin
- Grease Fitting
- Bolt
- Lockwasher
- Bearing
Fig. 1 - Exploded View of Flywheel Cover and Driveshaft
REMOVAL
assembly. Refer to Section 130-0010, DRIVELINE.
Numbers in parentheses refer to Fig. 1.
WARNING
To prevent personal injury and property damage,
be sure wheel blocks, blocking materials and
lifting equipment are properly secured and of
adequate capacity to do the job safely.
1. Position the vehicle in a level work area, apply the
parking brake and switch off the engine. Turn steering
wheel several times to relieve any pressure in the
steering circuit.
2. Block all road wheels and place the battery master
switch in the 'Off' position.
3. Disconnect driveline from yoke (4) at the flywheel
SM 1694 2-99
4. Match mark flywheel cover case (2) and engine
flywheel housing so that the flywheel cover case (2)
can be installed in the same position at 'Installation'.
5. Attach a suitable lifting device to the flywheel cover
case (2) assembly and remove bolts (18) and
lockwashers (19) securing assembly and spacer (1) to
the engine flywheel housing. If necessary pry flywheel
cover case (2) and spacer (1) assembly away from
engine flywheel housing.
6. Carefully lower flywheel cover case (2) and spacer
(1) assembly from the flywheel housing and move to a
clean work area for disassembly.
7. Remove spacer (1) from the flywheel cover case (2)
assembly.
1
Engine - Flywheel Cover Group - Scraper
Section 110-0130
DISASSEMBLY
ASSEMBLY
Numbers in parentheses refer to Fig. 1.
Numbers in parentheses refer to Fig. 1.
1. Remove cotter pin (16), slotted nut (15) and washer
(14) from driveshaft (3). Pull yoke (4) from driveshaft
(3).
Note: Prior to assembly, lubricate all seal lips and
surfaces with lubricant specified in Section 300-0020,
LUBRICATION SYSTEM.
2. Remove bolts (13) and lockwashers (12) from cover
(10). To remove the cover (10) from the flywheel cover
case (2), tap it with a soft hammer. Oil seal (11) is
removed with the cover. Remove oil seal (11) with a
soft drift and hammer.
Note: Tighten all fasteners without special torques
specified to standard torques listed in
Section 300-0080, STANDARD BOLT AND NUT
TORQUE SPECIFICATIONS.
3. Slide spacer (9) from driveshaft (3).
4. Install a thread protector onto the threaded end of
driveshaft (3). Drive the shaft through flywheel cover
(2) assembly. The oil seal (5) and bearing (8) are
removed in the process.
WARNING
To prevent personal injury and property
damage, be sure lifting device is properly
secured and of adequate capacity to do the job
safely.
5. Remove snap rings (6 & 7) and press bearing (8) off
of driveshaft (3).
1. Install new oil seal (5) in bore of flywheel cover case
(2). Be sure the seal is seated against the shoulder in
the flywheel cover (2) face, then install snap ring (6).
6. With a soft drift and hammer, tap bearing (20) out of
flywheel cover case (2).
2. Press bearing (8) on driveshaft (3), then install snap
ring (7).
INSPECTION
3. Install assembled driveshaft (3) and bearing (8) in
flywheel cover case (2).
Numbers in parentheses refer to Fig. 1.
1. Wash all parts thoroughly in a suitable solvent and
dry all but bearings (8 & 20) with compressed air. Dry
bearings (8 & 20) with a clean lint free cloth.
2. Check the condition of splines on driveshaft (3) and
yoke (4) for burrs or signs of wear.
3. Lubricate bearings (8 & 20) with oil and check
operation by spinning bearings by hand. DO NOT spin
bearings with compressed air. Inspect bearing bores
for out of roundness. Replace bearings, if required.
4. Inspect flywheel cover case (2) for cracks. If
damaged, flywheel cover case (2) must be replaced.
5. Visually check oil seal lip contact surfaces on
driveshaft (3) and yoke (4) for nicks, dents, scratches,
wear, or corrosion. Replace as necessary.
2
4. Press bearing (20) over driveshaft (3) and into bore
in flywheel cover case (2). Be sure the bearing snap
ring is seated against cover.
5. Slide spacer (9) onto driveshaft (3) with chamfered
side towards the bearing (20).
6. Press seal (11) into bore in cover (10), with the seal
lip facing towards yoke (4). Be sure seal (11) is seated
against the shoulder in the cover (10).
7. Install assembled cover (10) to flywheel cover case
(2). Secure with bolts (13) and lockwashers (12)
torqued to 8 - 11 Nm (6 - 8 lbf ft) lubricated.
8. Install yoke (4), washer (14) and slotted nut (15) on
driveshaft (3) end. Tighten nut (15) to a torque of
970 - 1 243 Nm (715 - 917 lbf ft) lubricated and install
cotter pin (16).
SM 1694 2-99
Engine - Flywheel Cover Group - Scraper
Section 110-0130
INSTALLATION
Numbers in parentheses refer to Fig. 1.
in Section 300-0020, LUBRICATION SYSTEM. Do
NOT overgrease.
Note: When reassembling flywheel cover assembly to
engine flywheel housing, be sure to align match marks
inscribed during disassembly.
4. Place the battery master switch in the 'On' position,
start the engine and bring oil to correct operating
temperature. Check for leaks and correct as necessary.
Note: Tighten all fasteners without special torques
specified to standard torques listed in
Section 300-0080, STANDARD BOLT AND NUT
TORQUE SPECIFICATIONS.
5. Remove wheel blocks from all road wheels.
MAINTENANCE
Numbers in parentheses refer to Fig. 1.
1. Install spacer (1) on flywheel assembly and, using
suitable lifting equipment, position flywheel assembly
on engine flywheel housing. Secure the flywheel
assembly and spacer (1) to the engine flywheel
housing with bolts (18) and lockwashers (19) torqued
to 57 - 75 Nm (42 - 55 lbf ft) lubricated.
Note: Refer to Section 300-0020, LUBRICATION
SYSTEM for recommended check and drain intervals
and lubricant specifications.
SPECIAL TOOLS
There are no special tools required for procedures
outlined in this section. Refer to Section 300-0070,
SERVICE TOOLS, for part numbers of general service
tools required. These tools are available from your
dealer.
2. Reconnect driveline to yoke (4). Refer to
Section 130-0010, DRIVELINE.
3. Lubricate grease fitting (17) with lubricant specified
SPECIAL TORQUE SPECIFICATIONS
TORQUE
FIG. NO.
ITEM NO.
ITEM NAME
Nm
lbf ft
1
13
Bolt
8 - 11
6-8
1
15
Nut
970 - 1 243
715 - 917
1
18
Bolt
57 - 75
42 - 55
*
SM 1694 2-99
*
*
*
3
TRANSMISSION - Transmission and Mounting
Section 120-0010
SM - 2199
2
3 4
1
4
5
9
10
7
8
8
11
1
2
3
4
-
LH Bracket Assembly
RH Bracket Assembly
Bolt
Lockwasher
5
6
7
8
- Bolt
- Isolation Mount
- Spacer
- Snubbing Washer
9 - Bolt
10 - Hardened Washer
11 - Locknut
Fig. 1 - Exploded View of Transmission and Mounting
DESCRIPTION
Numbers in parentheses refer to Fig. 1.
For transmission make, model and specification, refer
to Section 000-0000, GENERAL INFORMATION. For
transmission servicing and repair data refer to
transmission manufacturers service manual.
The transmission is supported by left hand mounting
bracket (1) and right hand mounting bracket (2) which
are bolted to the transmission and attached to front
frame mounting brackets through isolation mounts (6).
Isolation mounts (6) provide sufficient flexibility to
absorb varying transmission vibration and torsional
loads.
SM 1783 Rev1 03-04
The transmission assembly, used in both the tractor
and scraper, is a countershaft-type gearbox with
integral torque converter. Signalled by electric shift
control the transmission has seven forward speeds and
one reverse. Automatic converter lockup in the top six
forward gears. The rear transmission is equipped with
an alarm to warn the operator in event of a malfunction.
Refer to Section 120-0070, TRANSMISSION
ELECTRONIC CONTROLS.
1
Transmission - Transmission and Mounting
Section 120-0010
REMOVAL
Numbers in parentheses refer to Fig. 1.
Note: Tag all lines, cables and linkages disconnected
during removal to aid in installation.
WARNINGS
To prevent personal injury and property damage,
be sure wheel blocks, blocking materials and
lifting equipment are properly secured and of
adequate capacity to do the job safely.
High electrical current can cause sparks
and personal injury from burns. Turn battery
master switch to the 'Off' position before
disconnecting any components.
1. Position the vehicle in a level work area, apply the
parking brake and switch off the engine. Operate
steering in both directions several times to relieve any
pressure in the steering system.
2. Block all road wheels and the battery master switch
in the 'Off' position.
3. Disconnect the following cables and connectors in
the order given, to prevent serious damage to the
vehicles electrical components.
abcde-
Battery earth cables
Battery supply cables
Alternator earth cables
Alternator supply cables
Transmission ECU connector
4. Place a suitable container under the transmission
drain port, remove drain plug and drain oil. After
draining, reinstall plug and tighten securely.
Note: If anti-spill drain plug is fitted, remove cap from
connection, install drain tube connection and drain oil
into a suitable container. Remove drain tube
connection and reinstall cap.
5. Open drain cocks on air tanks and drain all air from
the system. Close drain cocks securely after draining.
7. Remove air tanks and mounting bracket from the
machine. Refer to Section 250-0170, AIR TANKS AND
MOUNTING.
8. Disconnect driveline connected to the transmission
and secure clear of the transmission. Refer to Section
130-0010, DRIVELINE.
9. Identify, tag and disconnect all electrical harnesses
and connections from the transmission.
10. Identify and tag oil cooler lines (3 & 4, Fig. 2) to aid
installation. Disconnect oil cooler lines (3 & 4, Fig. 2)
and cap open ends and tee pieces (10 & 12, Fig. 2) to
prevent entry of dirt.
11. Identify and tag oil filter hose assemblies (1, 2 & 5,
Fig. 2) to aid installation. Disconnect hose assemblies
(1, 2 & 5, Fig. 2) and cap open ends and tee piece
(12, Fig. 2) and adaptors (6 & 8, Fig. 2) to prevent entry
of dirt.
12. Disconnect air lines at transmission differential lock
cylinder. Cap lines and ports to prevent entry of dirt.
13. Identify, tag and disconnect all remaining lines and
fixtures necessary to allow removal of the transmission
from the vehicle.
14. Attach suitable lifting equipment to the lifting points
on transmission and raise lifting equipment to take up
the slack.
15. Remove bolts (3) and lockwashers (4) securing LH
bracket (1) to transmission.
16. Remove bolts (5) and lockwashers (4) securing RH
bracket (2) to transmission.
17. Check to make certain that all necessary line and
cable disconnections have been made before lifting the
transmission.
18. Carefully raise the transmission ensuring that no
lines, cables or components foul during removal. When
the transmission is clear of the frame assembly, move
to a suitable work area and mount securely on a work
stand.
6. With a suitable container in position under the
hydraulic tank drain port, remove drain plug and drain
oil. After draining, reinstall plug and tighten securely.
2
SM 1783 Rev1 03-04
Transmission - Transmission and Mounting
Section 120-0010
SM - 2200
13
6
1
8
7
7
2
8
14
4
12
9
8
11
10
5
11
TRANSMISSION
3
OIL COOLER
1
2
3
4
5
-
Hose
Hose
Hose
Hose
Hose
Assembly
Assembly
Assembly
Assembly
Assembly
6
7
8
9
10
- Adaptor
- Elbow - 90°
- Adaptor
- Elbow - 45°
- Tee Piece
11
12
13
14
- Elbow - 90°
- Tee Piece
- Oil Filter Head
- Filter Cartridge
Fig. 2- Transmission Oil Lines
DISASSEMBLY
Numbers in parentheses refer to Fig. 1, unless
otherwise specified.
1. Remove bolts (9), washers (10), spacers (7),
snubbing washers (8), locknuts (11) and LH bracket
assembly (1) from the frame mounts. Remove isolation
mounts (6) from frame mount and replace if required.
4. If required, identify and tag all electrical connections,
sensors and senders and remove from the
transmission.
5. Refer to transmission manufacturers service manual
if transmission service or repair is required.
2. Remove bolts (9), washers (10), spacers (7),
snubbing washers (8), locknuts (11) and RH bracket
assembly (2) from the frame mounts. Remove isolation
mounts (6) from frame mount and replace if required.
3. If required, remove mounting hardware securing
dipstick tube assembly to transmission. Remove
dipstick tube assembly and gasket from the
transmission.
SM 1783 Rev1 03-04
3
Transmission - Transmission and Mounting
Section 120-0010
INSPECTION
Numbers in parentheses refer to Fig. 1.
1. Check LH bracket assembly (1), RH bracket
assembly (2) and frame mounting brackets for cracks
and damage. Repair or replace as required.
2. Check general condition of transmission assembly
for wear and damage. Check for worn or damaged
driveline flanges and excessive wear on mounting
holes.
3. Check condition of all electrical harnesses and
connections and repair/replace as required. Check
condition of all hydraulic lines on the transmission and
replace if damaged.
ASSEMBLY
Numbers in parentheses refer to Fig. 1, unless
otherwise specified.
Note: Tighten all fasteners without special torques
specified to standard torques listed in
Section 300-0080, STANDARD BOLT AND NUT
TORQUE SPECIFICATIONS.
1. Install new gasket on dipstick tube assembly and
secure assembly to the transmission with mounting
hardware as removed at Disassembly.
2. If removed, install all senders and sensors in the
transmission. Tighten all electrical connections
securely.
3. Secure LH bracket assembly (1) to the transmission
with bolts (3) and lockwashers (4).
4. Secure RH bracket assembly (2) to the transmission
with bolts (5) and lockwashers (4).
INSTALLATION
Numbers in parentheses refer to Fig. 1, unless
otherwise specified.
Note: Tighten all fasteners without special torques
specified to standard torques listed in
Section 300-0080, STANDARD BOLT AND NUT
TORQUE SPECIFICATIONS.
Note: Tighten all hydraulic lines fitted with ORFS
connections, as described in Section 220-0000,
STEERING SYSTEM SCHEMATIC. Renew all 'O' rings
where used.
WARNING
To prevent personal injury and property
damage, be sure wheel blocks, blocking
materials and lifting equipment are properly
secured and of adequate capacity to do the job
safely.
Note: Isolation mounts (6) are colour coded to aid in
installation. Front isolation mounts are green and white
whereas rear isolation mounts are blue and white.
1. Lubricate isolation mounts (6) with water or a
suitable rubber lubricant and install in frame mounts,
with spigots to the underside of the mounts.
2. Attach suitable lifting equipment to transmission
lifting points and carefully position the transmission
assembly in the frame. Take care to avoid snagging
any lines, harnesses or components attached to the
transmission.
3. Secure LH bracket assembly (1) to frame
mounts with bolts (9), washers (10), spacers (7),
snubbing washers (8) and locknuts (11), as shown in
Fig. 1. Tighten bolts (9) to a torque of 271 Nm
(200 lbf ft).
4. Secure RH bracket assembly (2) to frame
mounts with bolts (9), washers (10), spacers (7),
snubbing washers (8) and locknuts (11), as shown in
Fig. 1. Tighten bolts (9) to a torque of 271 Nm
(200 lbf ft).
5. Remove lifting equipment from lifting points on
transmission .
6. Remove blanking caps from hose assemblies
(3 & 4, Fig. 2) and tee pieces (10 & 12, Fig. 3) and
connect hose assembly to the tee pieces as identified
at Removal.
7. Remove blanking caps from hose assemblies
(7 & 12, Fig. 2), tee piece (12, Fig. 2) and adaptors
(6 & 8, Fig. 2). Connect hose assemblies to the tee
piece and adaptors as identified at Removal.
8. Connect all electrical cables, harnesses and
connections to the transmission, as identified at
removal.
4
SM 1783 Rev1 03-04
Transmission - Transmission and Mounting
Section 120-0010
9. Connect driveline to the transmission and secure
with mounting hardware removed during removal. Refer
to Section 130-0010, DRIVELINE.
10. Install air tanks and mounting bracket to the
machine. Refer to Section 250-0170, AIR TANKS AND
MOUNTING.
11. Fill hydraulic tank with hydraulic oil specified in
Section 300-0020, LUBRICATION SYSTEM. Refer to
Section 230-0040, HYDRAULIC TANK for fill level and
procedure.
12. Fill transmission with engine oil specified in Section
300-0020, LUBRICATION SYSTEM. Check the oil
level as described under 'Oil Level Check'.
13. Connect the following cables and connectors in the
order given to prevent serious damage to the engines
electrical components.
abcde-
Transmission ECU connector
Alternator supply cables
Alternator earth cables
Battery supply cables
Battery earth cables
14. Turn the battery master switch to the 'On' position,
start the engine and make an operational check of all
lines and electrical connections disconnected during
removal. Check for leaks and tighten lines and fittings
as required. Allow transmission to warm up and
recheck all connections for leaks.
15. Ensure parking brake is applied and remove wheel
blocks from all road wheels.
16. Check for correct operation of the transmission,
shift selector and warning lights.
MAINTENANCE
Periodic Inspections
For easier inspection, the transmission should be kept
clean. Make periodic checks for loose mounting bolts
and leaking air and oil lines. Check the condition of
electrical harnesses and connections regularly.
Transmission breather should be checked on a regular
basis, and as frequently as necessary, depending on
operating conditions. A badly corroded or plugged
breather restricts proper breathing and causes a
buildup of condensation and subsequent oil
deterioration.
SM 1783 Rev1 03-04
Oil Level Check
WARNING
When checking the oil level, be sure that the
parking brake is applied and all road wheels are
securely blocked.
Check the transmission oil level and add oil if low,
every 10 hours/daily. Use only oil specified in
Section 300-0020, LUBRICATION SYSTEM.
Because the transmission oil cools, lubricates and
transmits hydraulic power it is important that the proper
oil level be maintained at all times. If the oil level is too
low, the converter and clutches will not receive an
adequate supply of oil. If the oil level is too high, the oil
will aerate and the transmission will overheat. It is
absolutely necessary that the oil put into the
transmission is clean.
Cold Oil Level Check
This check is made only to determine if the transmission
contains sufficient oil for safe starting. Make sure there is
some oil showing on dipstick. Add oil if low.
Hot Oil Level Check
1. Position the vehicle on a level work area, apply the
parking brake and block all road wheels securely.
2. With the transmission in neutral and the engine
running, allow the machine to idle for approximately
20 seconds (until normal operating temperature of
80° C (176° F) is achieved).
3. With parking brake applied, foot on service brake,
engine idling and transmission operating at normal
temperature, select each gear position in turn. Allow
the transmission to remain in each gear for 5 - 10
seconds.
4. Return gear selector to neutral and, with the engine
idling, check the oil level on dipstick. Oil level should
be up to, but not over, the upper mark on the dipstick.
Add oil if low.
Oil and Filter Change
After the first 50 hours of operating a new or rebuilt
transmission, the transmission oil and filter cartridges
(14, Fig. 2) should be changed. Internal filter and finger
magnet at the lower front left hand of the sump should
be removed and cleaned.
The transmission oil and filter cartridges should be
5
Transmission - Transmission and Mounting
Section 120-0010
changed every 1 000 hours, or sooner, depending on
operating conditions. Clean oil filter head (13, Fig. 2)
when changing filter cartridges (14, Fig. 2). Also, the oil
must be changed whenever there are traces of dirt or
evidence of high temperature indicated by discoloration
or strong odour.
The internal filter and finger magnet at the lower front
left hand of the sump should be removed and cleaned
with mineral spirits at each oil and filter change. Metal
particles in the oil (except for the minute particles
normally trapped in the oil filters) indicate damage has
occurred in the transmission. When these particles are
found in the filters, the cause must be established and
rectified immediately to prevent damage to the
transmission.
At each oil change, examine the used oil for evidence
of dirt or water. A normal amount of condensation will
emulsify in the oil during transmission operation.
However, if there is evidence of water or engine coolant
in the oil, the cause must be established and rectified
immediately to prevent damage to the transmission.
SERVICE TOOLS
There are no special tools required for the procedures
outlined in this section. Refer to Section 300-0070,
SERVICE TOOLS, for part numbers of service tools
which should be used in conjunction with procedures
outlined in the transmission manufacturers service
manual, and, general service tools required. These
tools are available from your dealer.
SPECIAL TORQUE SPECIFICATIONS
TORQUE
FIG. NO.
1
ITEM NO.
9
ITEM NAME
Bolt
*
6
*
*
Nm
271
lbf ft
200
*
SM 1783 Rev1 03-04
TRANSMISSION - Transmission Electronic Controls
Section 120-0070
DESCRIPTION
This machine is fitted with a Funk DF158 Powershift
transmission equipped with the Funk DF158 Electronic
Control Unit (ECU), to operate the transmission.
Upshifting, downshifting and control of the disconnect
are the main functions of the ECU. Another function of
the ECU is the capability to communicate with a panel
mounted gear/diagnostic display unit.
WARNING
Before any welding is done on the machine,
disconnect battery cables from terminal posts
(ground cables first) and electrical connections
at the ECU to avoid damage to electrical
components. Turn off the battery master switch
before disconnecting any components.
The transmission uses electrohydraulic valves to
control the operation of the transmission. The
solenoids controlling the transmission clutches
(solenoids A through D and 1 through 4) are driven by
a pulse width modulated (PWM) signal that produces
proportional pressure/flow changes. This is achieved
by pulsing the solenoid at a constant frequency and
varying the 'on time' of each cycle. The ratio of 'on time'
to cycle time is called duty cycle. These transmission
solenoids are driven with a maximum duty cycle
considerably less than this and ramped up to full on.
The initial duty cycle is dependant upon several factors
and is not a preset value. The process of modulating
these clutches greatly enhances shift quality.
SYSTEM COMPONENTS
Description and Operation
General Theory of Operation
The transmissions performance is determined by the
various inputs to the ECU. Based upon these inputs
the ECU commands the transmission so that maximum
performance can be achieved under the present
operating conditions. All functions of the ECU are
under software control.
Switching the vehicle's ignition to the 'On' position
supplies power to the ECU and related system
components from the batteries, through the transient
voltage protection (TVP) module. At this point the ECU
begins to monitor all inputs and outputs. If a known
conflict in inputs or a fault condition is detected, the
ECU will command the transmission to stay in Neutral
regardless of the shift lever position. A flashing error
code will be displayed on the gear/diagnostic display
unit, and will remain displayed until the error has been
corrected and the shift lever cycled back through the
Neutral position.
If no error conditions are detected, the ECU will
calculate a speed ratio between the engine speed
(derived from the engine speed MPU signal) and the
transmission output speed (derived from the
transmission output speed MPU).
Based upon this speed ratio and the combination of
inputs from the shift lever and any other applicable
inputs, the ECU will select the proper transmission
gear and command the transmission to shift to this
gear. The gear/diagnostic display unit will show the
actual gear selected.
SM 1735 2-99
1. Electronic Control Unit (ECU) - There are two
electronic control units located beneath the cab. The
ECU is the brain of the system. It is responsible for the
logic, computation, and decision making processes
and the control of the transmission based on these
calculations. How the ECU performs is determined by
software programmed into the ECU's memory. The
ECU's application is specific, therefore ECU's from
different vehicles are not interchangeable.
2. Transient Voltage Protection (TVP) Module - The
TVP module is responsible for supplying electrical
power to the system and protecting the systems
electrical components. It provides 40 volt limiting during
an electrical load dump malfunction and protection
from reverse battery connection. Protection is provided
only while the ignition is switched on, thus energizing
an internal relay which provides an electrical
connection between vehicle power and the protection
device inside the module.
3. Engine Speed Magnetic Pickup (MPU) - The
engine speed MPU is located in the input housing of
the transmission. The MPU provides a signal to the
ECU which represents engine speed. This signal is of
a sinusoidal nature, varying in amplitude and frequency
relative to engine speed. The ECU conditions this
signal and converts it into pulses. It then measures the
width of these pulses in microseconds, and based on a
preprogrammed value in the ECU which represents the
number of pulses per revolution of the engine,
calculates the engine speed.
1
Transmission - Transmission Electronic Controls
Section 120-0070
4. Transmission Output Speed MPU - The
transmission output speed MPU is located in the rear
housing of the transmission and provides a signal to
the ECU which represents transmission output speed.
This signal is of a sinusoidal nature, varying in
amplitude and frequency relative to output speed. The
ECU conditions this signal and converts it into pulses.
It then measures the width of these pulses in
microseconds, and based on a preprogrammed value
in the ECU which represents the number of pulses per
revolution of the transmission output, calculates output
speed.
5. Gear Shift Lever - The transmission provides
seven forward ranges, one reverse gear and a neutral
position. The lever is detented in the Forward, Neutral
and Reverse positions with a positive lock only in the
Neutral position.
The gear shift lever is spring loaded to the centre
position. 'Bumping' the shift lever to the upshift or
downshift direction sends a corresponding signal to
the ECU.
WARNING
Do not allow the vehicle to coast in Neutral.
This practice can result in severe transmission
damage.
When Reverse is selected an audible alarm sounds.
This feature warns personnel to the immediate rear of
the machine that the operator has shifted the
transmission to Reverse.
WARNING
Always select Neutral and apply the parking
brake before leaving the operator’s seat.
6. Wiring Harness - The wiring harness consists of
the various wires needed to provide electrical
connections between the components of the system.
All connectors in the system are sealed to protect the
connections from the environment and to prevent
corrosion of the contacts, which would eventually
result in a failure.
2
7. Gear/Diagnostic Display Unit - A dash mounted
gear/diagnostic display unit provides the operator with
information about the system. Under normal operating
conditions the display shows the actual forward or
reverse transmission gear and the state of the
disconnect.
When an error has occurred, the display will flash an
error code indicating that a problem has been detected
in the system. This error code will continue to flash
until the shift lever has been placed in Neutral. Once
the ECU has detected a legal Neutral condition, the
error will clear and 'NEU' will be displayed. Once the
shift lever is moved out of Neutral the error will once
more begin to flash. This condition will continue until
the error has been corrected and the shift lever cycled
through Neutral again. If the error is related to the
Neutral signal making it impossible for the ECU to see
a legal Neutral signal, the error will continue to flash
even in the Neutral position until it is resolved.
8. Diagnostic Test Points - There are two diagnostic
test points located at the front of the fuse box, under
the dash panel, one for the tractor transmission and
the other for the scraper transmission.
GENERAL TRANSMISSION OPERATION
Watch for wide deviations from normal readings on the
transmission oil temperature gauge during machine
operation. If the transmission oil temperature gauge
shows oil temperature consistently rising above the
green zone under normal operating conditions; check
for external causes. If none are evident shift to Neutral
(N) and operate the engine at 1 200 - 1 500 rev/min. If
the transmission oil temperature does not decrease
into the green zone within 2 or 3 minutes, the cause of
the overheating should be corrected before the
machine is operated further. Watch the oil temperature
gauge when operating on upgrades, also. If the oil
temperature goes into the yellow zone, select the
range which will limit upshifts to the highest range in
which the transmission will operate within the normal
temperature range (green zone). If upshifting must be
consistently limited to ranges lower than normal for the
loads and the grades encountered to prevent
overheating the transmission oil, the causes should be
determined and corrected.
SM 1735 2-99
Transmission - Transmission Electronic Controls
Section 120-0070
POWERSHIFT TROUBLESHOOTING
Symptom
Problem
Solution
Erratic oil pressure.
Low oil level.
Add oil to proper level.
Suction tube fitting.
Replace 'O' ring fitting.
Suction manifold 'O' ring not sealing.
Replace 'O' ring.
Foreign object in suction port.
Remove object and check
for other contamination.
Sticking main regulator valve.
Replace main regulator valve.
Faulty spring.
Replace main regulator.
Sticking main regulator valve.
Replace main regulator valve.
Control valve body gasket leaking.
Replace gaskets.
Charge pump defective.
Replace pump.
Internal disconnect seal damage or
installed incorrectly.
Replace seal and install correctly.
Faulty main regulator valve.
Replace main regulator valve.
Control valve body cracked.
Replace control valve body.
Contaminated proportional solenoid.
Replace proportional solenoid.
*Check suction screen for
contamination.
Broken wire to one solenoid, or
dirty connection.
Repair wire.
Broken seal ring on input end of
clutch assembly.
Replace seal ring.
Bore sleeve worn.
Replace bore sleeves.
Outer or inner piston seal leaking.
Replace seals.
Voltage to wrong solenoids on
control valve. (See schematic.)
Check wiring and connecters.
Converter damage.
Rebuild converter.
No voltage to all solenoids.
Check wiring, controller and
connecters.
Voltage to more than two solenoids.
Check wiring and controller.
Proportional solenoid stuck.
Replace solenoid.
Excessive oil pressure.
Low oil pressure in all gears.
Low pressure in one gear but
all right in other gears.
Vehicle will not move.
SM 1735 2-99
3
Transmission - Transmission Electronic Controls
Section 120-0070
POWERSHIFT TROUBLESHOOTING - Continued
Symptom
Problem
Solution
Low or no converter pressure
(Converter in pressure).
Converter bypass valve defective.
Replace converter bypass valve.
Converter hub seal ring not sealing.
Replace seal ring.
Check converter offset dimension.
Correct offset dimension.
Hose bends too sharp.
Reroute hoses.
Defective hose.
Replace hose.
Main regulator valve faulty.
Change valve and change filter
and oil.
System plumbing incorrect.
Correct plumbing.
Filter 'O' ring faulty.
Replace filter.
Charge pump defective.
Replace pump.
Excessive backlash in gear train.
Replace bearings and inspect for
defective gears.
Auxiliary driven pump bad.
Remove pump and check for
noise.
Transmission over filled with oil.
Establish proper oil level. Check
front seal on auxiliary driven
hydraulic pump if equipped.
Converter seal ring damaged.
Remove transmission and install
new seal ring on converter hub.
Converter stalling.
Shift to lower gear.
Oil level too high.
Establish proper oil level. Check
front seal on auxiliary driven
hydraulic pump if equipped.
Engine overheating.
Check engine coolant.
Filter or filter oil lines blow
out.
Excessive noise.
Blows oil out of breather or
dipstick tube.
Transmission overheating.
Water lines defective on heat exchanger. Replace lines.
4
Heat exchanger dirty.
Clean heat exchanger.
Clutch slipping.
Check clutch pressure.
SM 1735 2-99
Transmission - Transmission Electronic Controls
Section 120-0070
POWERSHIFT TROUBLESHOOTING - Continued
Symptom
Problem
Solution
Low or no converter pressure. Converter bypass valve defective.
Replace converter bypass valve.
Transmission pressure checks Converter sprag clutch damaged or
okay, but has no power and
installed wrong.
possibly overheating.
Converter relief valve broken.
Disassemble and inspect converter.
Oil leaking from engine
flywheel and/or weep hole in
transmission bell housing.
Converter front cover seal leaking.
Replace relief valve.
Replace seal.
Converter hub seal or 'O' ring damaged. Replace seal.
Converter not properly positioned within Check engine flywheel offset
bell housing, causing converter and seal dimensions and converter pilot
to leak.
bushing length against vehicle
manufacture standards.
ELECTRONIC CONTROL UNIT
Troubleshooting Introduction
This introduction is written to initiate an understanding
of a strategy which can be used toward solving
problems in the driveline system. The preferred
technique used in solving problems is to exchange
components. However, a very important element
necessary to the timely and successful conclusion of
this activity is the selection of the malfunctioning
component. An understanding of the total system and
an elimination process leading to the component is
absolutely necessary before starting the exchange
activity.
The DF transmission system as installed consists of
various components linked together to form a
functioning system.
Gear shift control
Wiring harnesses
Electronic control units
Transmission control valve.
Transmission hydraulic system (pump, relief valves,
lines, etc.)
Transmission mechanical system (clutches, gears,
shafts, seals, etc.)
The most desirable strategy in a trouble shooting plan
is to reduce the random exchange of components by
carefully analysing the symptoms and then conducting
tests which will help determine which of the elements
SM 1735 2-99
in the system is likely to be the problem. The
technician should use the above list as a guide in
locating the problem.
As a result of being a new component and unfamiliar
to most people, the ECU is usually the first component
which is targeted for exchange. However, the
malfunction of an ECU is extremely rare and therefore,
it should be the last component considered for
replacement. In fact the ECU has an internal ability to
diagnose itself and the connections which are
attached to it. This information can be very helpful in
indicating the problem area. Therefore, if the ECU is
responding to commands and not giving diagnostics
which indicate an internal problem, the likelihood of the
problem being internal to the ECU is very remote.
ANALOG ERROR CODES
Note: The following is a list of the errors that are
detectable;
Diagnostic code: 20
Error type: Driver 1 cannot get up to requested
current.
Error: Open or short ground in Solenoid 1 circuit from
output pin J3-A3 to return pin J3-B1.
Diagnostic code: 21
Error type: Driver 2 cannot get up to requested
current.
Error: Open or short ground in Solenoid 2 circuit from
output pin J3-B2 to return pin J3-B3.
5
Transmission - Transmission Electronic Controls
SM - 1777
Section 120-0070
C B A
A
B
4
4
19
19
19
J3-D2
SOLENOID A
10
10
10
J3-D3
SOLENOID A GND
17
17
17
12
11
12
SOLENOID B GND
11
12
11
SOLENOID C
23
23
23
SOLENOID C GND
22
22
22
SOLENOID D
8
8
8
7
7
14
14
27
27
29
29
28
28
28
20
18
20
20
J3-D2
18
18
J3-D3
30
30
30
21
21
21
9
9
9
16
16
16
31
31
31
24
24
24
25
25
25
Output MPU GND
MPU Shield
Cylinder MPU Signal
Cylinder MPU GND
MPU Shield
J1-C3
J1-D1
Temp. Sensor Signal
Temp. Sensor GND
NOT PARK
PARK
+24V Out
J3-E1
J1-K1
J2-B3 J3-E2
J3-E3
AUTO INPUT
+24V Out
J3-F3
J2-C1
J3-G3
A
J3-H1
17
HARNESS
JUMPER
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
CALIBRATE FRONT
AUTO INPUT
NOT PARK
PARK
CCD BUS CCD BUS +
FORWARD
REVERSE
UPSHIFT
DOWNSHIFT
NEUTRAL (NO)
Slave Front
GND
START
MAIN POWER
ECU POWER
Front TCLU Signal
J2-C2 J1-C2
J1-A3
J3-H2 J1-B2
4
SOLENOID 3 GND
19
SOLENOID A
10
SOLENOID A GND
J1-D1
12
SOLENOID B GND
11
SOLENOID C
23
SOLENOID C GND
22
SOLENOID D
8
SOLENOID D GND
7
TORQUE CONVERTER LU
14
TORQUE CONVERTER LU GND
Engine MPU Signal
Engine MPU GND
Output MPU Signal
Output MPU GND
Cylinder MPU Signal
Cylinder MPU GND
Temp. Sensor Signal
Temp. Sensor GND
27
29
28
18
30
9
16
31
24
25
J2-C3
CALIBRATE REAR
F
6
17
SOLENOID B
MPU Shield
J1-C3
15
SOLENOID 3
E
J1-A2
J2-B2
J3-A1
J1-A1
J3-A2
J2-B1
J5A HARNESS JUMPER
J2-C1
J1-K1
J2-B3
J2-E3
J2-E2
J1-J1
J1-J2
J1-H2
J1-H3
J2-A1
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
J5 HARNESS JUMPER
J1-B1
Cal Front
AUTO INPUT
NOT PARK
PARK
CCD BUS CCD BUS +
FORWARD
REVERSE
UPSHIFT
DOWNSHIFT
NEUTRAL (NO)
Slave Front
GND
START
MAIN POWER
ECU POWER
C B A
J4
GEAR SELECT
S3
REV
J3-F1
J3-F2
3
SOLENOID 2 GND
J6A
TRANSMISSION
J1-B2
Fig. 1 - Electrical Circuit Diagram
Output MPU Signal
1
SOLENOID 2
CALIBRATE FRONT
A
J1-A3
J2-E3
J2-E2 J3-C1
J3-C2
2
SOLENOID 1 GND
B
MPU Shield
J3-B3
SOLENOID 1
C
Engine MPU GND
A B C D
29
CCD BUS CCD BUS +
GND
+24V Out
A B C
Engine MPU Signal
27
J3-B2
T9
PARK
TORQUE CONVERTER LU GND
J3-B1
T12
A/M
J1-C2
14
J3-A3
REVERSE ALARM
A B C
J1-B1
TORQUE CONVERTER LU
GND
RS232 RxD
RS232 TxD
+24V Out
S5
CCD DISP
J3-H1
7
J1-D1
J1-D2
J1-H2
J1-H3
J2-A1
S6a
Diag
J3-F3
J3-G3
SOLENOID D GND
NEUTRAL START
GND
FORWARD
REVERSE
UPSHIFT
DOWNSHIFT
NEUTRAL (NO)
A B C
J3-F1
J3-F2
SOLENOID B
J7 EXTENSION
4
SOLENOID 3 GND
J8 EXTENSION
SOLENOID 3
J3-C2
J6A
TRANSMISSION
J3-C1
J3-E3
C
T8
Inching Jumper
+24 Out
Brake Cutoff Jumper
+24 Out
D
15
T16
Cal
15
E
3
15
SOLENOID 2 GND
F
1
3
85
A
1
3
J2-B2
J3-A1
J1-A1
J3-A2
B
1
MAIN GND
START
MAIN POWER
ECU POWER
MAIN GND
C
2
D
2
86
T16
Cal
SOLENOID 2
2
STARTER
SOLENOID
CONTACTS
30
87
FRONT
J1-A2 ECU
J3-B3
J3-E2
Key
Switch
A
T1
NEU
A
SOLENOID 1 GND
-
F2
F3
F4
F5
F6
ST Ign
S1
NEU
S6a
Diag
J3-B1
+
F1
RUN Bat
A B C
SOLENOID 1
J3-E1
D
E
F
A
B
C
D
A
B
C
D
T16
Cal
T7
TVP
E
F
F
F
E
E
E
D
D
S8
C
C
F
F
B
B
E
+24 OUT
START/RUN
GND
+24
+24
R/S RETURN
RUN / START
START
GND
A
A
D
TVP
MODULE
+24 IN
+24 IN
+24 OUT
Brake Cutoff Jumper
Inching Jumper
J3-A3
J3-B2
C
J2-A3
J1-K2
J2-F3
GND
RS232 RxD
RS232 TxD
S16A
Cal
J2-F1
J2-E1
J2-D3
Slave Rear
Calibrate Rear
Slave Front
Calibrate Front
B
J2-C3
J2-C2
BATTERY
+ 24V
Fuses 15 Amp
+24 Out
A
REAR
ECU J2-F2
SM 1735 2-99
Transmission - Transmission Electronic Controls
Section 120-0070
SM - 1779
S6
S5 T9
S1 S3
SM - 1780
S16
J4 T12
J3
S6A
J2
S16A
J1
J3A
TRANSMISSION EXTENSION
J6
J8
J7
J2A
J1A
J6A
J5
S8
T7
J4 - To Gear Shift Selector
J5 - Jumper to Scraper
ECU Harness (J5A)
J6 - To Tractor Transmission
S1 - To Starter Relay
S2 - To Reverse Alarm
S5
S6
S8
S16
T2
T7
T9
- To Digital Display
- Diagnostic Connector
- To Vehicle Electronics
- Calibration Connector
- To Mode Select
- To TVP Module
- To Park Switch
J5A
J5A - Jumper to Tractor
ECU Harness (J5)
J6A - To Extension Harness J7
J8 - Scraper Transmission
S6A - Diagnostic Connector
S16A - Calibration Connector
Fig. 2 - Tractor Transmission ECU
Fig. 3 - Scraper Transmission ECU
Diagnostic code: 22
Error type: Driver 3 cannot get up to requested
current.
Error: Open or short ground in Solenoid 3 circuit from
output pin J3-C1 to return pin J3-C2.
Diagnostic code: 27
Error type: Driver 8 cannot get up to requested
current.
Error: Open or short ground in Solenoid D circuit from
output pin J3-F2 to return pin J3-F3.
Diagnostic code: 23
Error type: Driver 4 cannot get up to requested
current.
Error: Open or short ground in Solenoid 4 circuit from
output pin J3-C3 to return pin J3-D1.
Diagnostic code: 28
Error type: Driver 9 cannot get up to requested
current.
Error: Open or short ground in Solenoid 1 circuit from
output pin J3-G1 to return pin J3-G2.
Diagnostic code: 24
Error type: Driver 5 cannot get up to requested
current.
Error: Open or short ground in Solenoid A circuit from
output pin J3-D2 to return pin J3-D3.
Diagnostic code: 29
Error type: Driver 10 cannot get up to requested
current.
Error: Open or short ground in Torque Converter Lock
Up circuit from output pin J3-G3 to return pin J3-H1.
Diagnostic code: 25
Error type: Driver 6 cannot get up to requested
current.
Error: Open or short ground in Solenoid B circuit from
output pin J3-E1 to return pin J3-E2.
Diagnostic code: 30
Error type: Driver 1 cannot get down to requested
current.
Error: Short or positive in Solenoid 1 circuit from
output pin J3-A3 to return pin J3-B1.
Diagnostic code: 26
Error type: Driver 7 cannot get up to requested
current.
Error: Open or short ground in Solenoid C circuit from
output pin J3-E3 to return pin J3-F1.
Diagnostic code: 31
Error type: Driver 2 cannot get down to requested
current.
Error: Short or positive in Solenoid 2 circuit from
output pin J3-B2 to return pin J3-B3.
SM 1735 2-99
7
Transmission - Transmission Electronic Controls
Section 120-0070
Diagnostic code: 32
Error type: Driver 3 cannot get down to requested
current.
Error: Short or positive in Solenoid 3 circuit from
output pin J3-C1 to return pin J3-C2.
Diagnostic code: 42
Error type: Bottom of Clutch input on J1-K2 is
passive.
Error: Application does not utilize inching. Input at
J1-K2 must be connected to system voltage.
Diagnostic code: 33
Error type: Driver 4 cannot get down to requested
current.
Error: Short or positive in Solenoid 4 circuit from
output pin J3-C3 to return pin J3-D1.
Diagnostic code: 43
Error: NOT PARK (input pin J1-K1) and PARK (input
pin J2-B3) are both passive at ECU.
Legal conditions are: 1 NOT PARK active and PARK
passive.
Legal conditions are: 2 NOT PARK passive and
PARK active.
Diagnostic code: 34
Error type: Driver 5 cannot get down to requested
current.
Error: Short or positive in Solenoid A circuit from
output pin J3-D2 to return pin J3-D3.
Diagnostic code: 35
Error type: Driver 6 cannot get down to requested
current.
Error: Short or positive in Solenoid B circuit from
output pin J3-E1 to return pin J3-E2.
Diagnostic code: 36
Error type: Driver 7 cannot get down to requested
current.
Error: Short or positive in Solenoid C circuit from
output pin J3-E3 to return pin J3-F1.
Diagnostic code: 37
Error type: Driver 8 cannot get down to requested
current.
Error: Short or positive in Solenoid D circuit from
output pin J3-F2 to return pin J3-F3.
Diagnostic code: 38
Error type: Driver 9 cannot get down to requested
current.
Error: Short or positive in circuit from output pin J3-G1
to return pin J3-G2.
Diagnostic code: 39
Error type: Driver 10 cannot get down to requested
current.
Error: Short or positive in Torque Convertoe Lock Up
circuit from output pin J3-G3 to return pin J3-H1.
Diagnostic code: 40
Error: Request for an undefined shift being made.
Diagnostic code: 41
Error: ECU has not seen a legal Neutral (input pin
J2-A1) since initial power up of system.
8
Diagnostic code: 44
Error: NOT PARK (input pin J1-K1) and NEUTRAL
(input pin J2-A1) are both passive at ECU.
Legal conditions are: 1 NOT PARK active and
NEUTRAL passive.
Legal conditions are: 2 NOT PARK passive and
NEUTRAL active.
Diagnostic code: 45
Error: PARK (input pin J2-B3) is active but NEUTRAL
(input pin J2-A1) is passive at ECU.
Diagnostic code: 46
Error: NOT PARK (input pin J1-K1) passive and
FORWARD (input pin J1-J1) active at ECU.
Legal conditions are: 1 NOT PARK and FORWARD
both active.
Legal conditions are: 2 NOT PARK and FORWARD
both passive.
Diagnostic code: 47
Error: NOT PARK (input pin J1-K1) passive and
REVERSE (input pin J1-J2) active at ECU.
Legal conditions are: 1 NOT PARK and REVERSE
both active.
Legal conditions are: 2 NOT PARK and REVERSE
both passive.
Diagnostic code: 48
Error: NOT PARK (input pin J1-K1) and PARK (input
pin J2-B3) are both active at ECU.
Legal conditions are: 1 NOT PARK active and PARK
passive.
Legal conditions are: 2 NOT PARK passive and
PARK active.
Diagnostic code: 49
Error: Handle signal is park but PARK PRESSURE
(input pin J2-B3) is passive at ECU.
SM 1735 2-99
Transmission - Transmission Electronic Controls
Section 120-0070
Diagnostic code: 50
Error: UPSHIFT (input pin J1-H2) and DOWNSHIFT
(input pin J1-H3) are both active at ECU.
Diagnostic code: 51
Error: FORWARD (input pin J1-J1) and REVERSE
(input pin J1-J2) are both active at ECU.
Diagnostic code: 52
Error: FORWARD (input pin J1-J1) and NEUTRAL
(input pin J2-A1) and REVERSE (input pin J1-J2) are
all passive at ECU.
Diagnostic code: 54
Error: Program variable REQUIRED GEAR has taken
on an invalid value.
Diagnostic code: 56
Error: NEUTRAL (input pin J2-A1) and FORWARD
(input pin J1-J1) are both active at ECU.
Legal conditions are: 1 NEUTRAL active and
FORWARD passive.
Legal conditions are: 2 NEUTRAL passive and
FORWARD active.
Diagnostic code: 57
Error: NEUTRAL (input pin J2-A1) and REVERSE
(input pin J1-J2) are both active at ECU.
Legal conditions are: 1 NEUTRAL active and
REVERSE passive.
Legal conditions are: 2 NEUTRAL passive and
REVERSE active.
Diagnostic code: 58
Error: START (input pin J2-B2) went active at ECU
disabling internal solenoid power.
Diagnostic code: 59
Error: Invalid 5 bit selector code.
Diagnostic code: 60
Error type: Valve driver supply voltage (ECU pin
J3-A1) too low.
Error: Must be above 8 volts on a 12 volt system or
above 17 volts on a 24 volt system.
Diagnostic code: 80
Error: Engine MPU (input pin J1-B1) missing or
frequency is too low.
Diagnostic code: 82
Error: Output MPU (input pin J1-A3) signal missing or
frequency is too low.
SM 1735 2-99
Diagnostic code: 84
Error: Illegal or undefined vehicle mode code.
Diagnostic code: 85
Error: PARK (input pin J2-B3) is active but NEUTRAL
(input pin J2-A1) is passive at ECU.
Diagnostic code: 86
Error: Inching pedal TOP OF CLUTCH signal (input
pin J1-K3) is closed but BOTTOM OF CLUTCH (input
pin J1-K2) is open.
Diagnostic code: 87
Error: PARK (input pin J2-B3) and FORWARD (input
pin J1-J1) are both active at ECU.
Diagnostic code: 88
Error: PARK (input pin J2-B3) and REVERSE (input
pin J1-J2) are both active at ECU.
Diagnostic code: 89
Error: PARK (input pin J2-B3) and NOT PARK (input
pin J1-K1) are both passive at ECU.
Diagnostic code: 90
Error: PARK (input pin J2-B3) and NOT PARK (input
pin J1-K1) are both active at ECU.
Diagnostic code: 91
Error: Seat switch (input pin J2-C3) and NEUTRAL
(input pin J2-A1) are both passive at ECU.
Diagnostic code: 92
Error: Engine speed is at or near manufacturers
warranty void level.
Diagnostic code: 93
Error: CARRIER CAB and UPPER CAB inputs are
both active at ECU.
Diagnostic code: 94
Error: CARRIER CAB and UPPER CAB inputs are
both passive at ECU.
Diagnostic code: 95
Error code: Handle code not neutral.
Error: NEUTRAL (input pin J2-A1) is passive while
switching cab modes.
Diagnostic code: 96
Error: Upper cab mode selected but transmission
gear is not a legal gear range for upper cab mode.
9
Transmission - Transmission Electronic Controls
Section 120-0070
Diagnostic code: 97
Error: Upper cab mode selected but FORWARD,
NEUTRAL and REVERSE inputs are all passive at
ECU.
Diagnostic code: 98
Error: WHEELS-UP (input pin J1-H1) and WHEELSDOWN (input pin J1-H2) are both active.
Diagnostic code: 99
Error: Attemp to change wheels-up wheels-down
mode while in an out-of-neutral condition.
Diagnostic code: 100
Error: Sump temperature (input J1-C3) is too low for
calibration.
Diagnostic code: 101
Error: Engine speed is too high for calibration.
Diagnostic code: 102
Error: Engine speed is too low for calibration.
Diagnostic code: 103
Error: Output speed detected during calibration.
Diagnostic code: 104
Error: No cylinder speed detected during calibration.
Diagnostic code: 112
Error: Clutch 4 fast fill time exceeds 300 ms.
Diagnostic code: 113
Error: Clutch A fast fill time exceeds 300 ms.
Diagnostic code: 114
Error: Clutch B fast fill time exceeds 300 ms.
Diagnostic code: 115
Error: Clutch C fast fill time exceeds 300 ms.
Diagnostic code: 116
Error: Clutch D fast fill time exceeds 300 ms.
Diagnostic code: 117
Error: Clutch hold pressure is above 90 psi.
Diagnostic code: 118
Error: Clutch R fast fill time exceeds 300 ms.
Diagnostic code: 119
Error: Clutch L fast fill time exceeds 300 ms.
Diagnostic code: 120
Error: Clutch M fast fill time exceeds 300 ms.
Diagnostic code: 121
Error: Clutch H fast fill time exceeds 300 ms.
Diagnostic code: 105
Error: Incorrect forward cylinder speed ratio during
calibration.
Diagnostic code: 126
Error: Cylinder deceleration time is inconsistent.
Diagnostic code: 106
Error: Incorrect reverse cylinder speed ratio during
calibration.
Diagnostic code: 127
Error: Attempt to calibrate withPARK (input pin J2-B3)
input passive at ECU.
Diagnostic code: 107
Error: Cylinder speed will not drop below the start
count speed.
Diagnostic code: 144
Error: Low air pressure.
Diagnostic code: 108
Error: Holding clutch pressure exceeds 90 psi.
Diagnostic code: 145
Error: Analog inching voltage is too low.
Diagnostic code: 109
Error: Clutch 1 fast fill time exceeds 300 ms.
Diagnostic code: 146
Error: Temperature sensor circuit (J1-C3) SENSE or
(J1-D1) GROUND shorted or open.
Diagnostic code: 110
Error: Clutch 2 fast fill time exceeds 300 ms.
Diagnostic code: 147
Error: Analog input (J1-D3) shorted or open.
Diagnostic code: 111
Error: Clutch 3 fast fill time exceeds 300 ms.
Diagnostic code: 148
Error: Analog inching voltage (J1-F3) is too high.
10
SM 1735 2-99
Transmission - Transmission Electronic Controls
Section 120-0070
Diagnostic code: 149
Error: Vehicle system voltage (J3-A1) is too high.
Diagnostic code: 173
Error: Group three enable high should be low.
Diagnostic code: 150
Error: Transmission temperature (J1-C3) is too high.
Diagnostic code: 174
Error: EEprom check sum error.
Diagnostic code: 154
Error: Engine MPU circuit (J1-B1) open.
Diagnostic code: 175
Error code: Driver 11 cannot get up to requested
current.
Error: Open or short to ground in circuit from output
pin J3-H2 to return pin J3-H3.
Diagnostic code: 155
Error: Output MPU circuit (J1-A3) open.
Diagnostic code: 160
Error: Cannot get shift constants from eeprom.
Diagnostic code: 161
Error: Group one enable low should be high.
Diagnostic code: 162
Error: Group two enable low should be high.
Diagnostic code: 163
Error: Group three enable low should be high.
Diagnostic code: 164
Error: Pointer in capcom20 gets too big.
Diagnostic code: 165
Error: Safety FET A failed OFF.
Diagnostic code: 166
Error: Safety FET A failed ON.
Diagnostic code: 167
Error: Safety FET B failed OFF.
Diagnostic code: 168
Error: Safety FET B failed ON.
Diagnostic code: 169
Error: Safety FET C failed OFF.
Diagnostic code: 170
Error: Safety FET C failed ON.
Diagnostic code: 171
Error: Group one enable high should be low.
Diagnostic code: 172
Error: Group two enable high should be low.
SM 1735 2-99
Diagnostic code: 176
Error code: Driver 12 cannot get up to requested
current.
Error: Open or short to ground in circuit from output
pin J3-J1 to return pin J3-J2.
Diagnostic code: 177
Error code: Driver 13 cannot get up to requested
current.
Error: Open or short to ground in circuit from output
pin J3-J3 to return pin J3-K1.
Diagnostic code: 178
Error code: Driver 11 cannot get down to requested
current.
Error: Short to positive in circuit from output pin J3-H2
to return pin J3-H3.
Diagnostic code: 179
Error code: Driver 12 cannot get down to requested
current.
Error: Short to positive in circuit from output pin J3-J1
to return pin J3-K1.
Diagnostic code: 180
Error code: Driver 13 cannot get down to requested
current.
Error: Short to positive in circuit from output pin J3-J3
to return pin J3-K1.
Diagnostic code 198
Error: CCD communications link failure between
master ECU and slave ECU on (CCD BUS- (J2-E3))
and (CCD BUS+ (J2-B2)).
Diagnostic code 199
Error: This is a non-functional base ECU. No
application specific software has been programmed
into it.
11
Transmission - Transmission Electronic Controls
Section 120-0070
GLOSSARY
Analog: A signal which has a continuous range of
possible voltages.
Active: The high voltage (+12V / +24V) state of a
digital input. Dependant upon vehicle system voltage.
Actual Gear: The actual physical gear of the
transmission, regardless of shift lever position or
controller operation.
Bus: Serial communications link which interconnects
intelligent electronic modules.
Come-Home: A hardware function which allows
limited vehicle motion in the event of failure of certain
components.
Commanded Gear: The gear selected by the
combination of the shift lever position and the state of
the Forward, Reverse, Neutral, and Not Neutral inputs.
The ‘destination’ gear.
Current Gear: The gear the controller is currently
attempting to drive the transmission into by the
application of commands to the valves.
Digital: A signal which consists of only two voltage
levels - usually 0 volts and +5 volts. On/Off type
signals are also considered to be digital.
Downshift Inhibit: The prohibiting of downshifting, by
the ECU, to prevent harsh and abrupt shifts or
possible over speed conditions of the engine. The
downshift will be inhibited until the current speed ratio
will permit the shift to take place.
Fault: An abnormal condition which results in a
perceived performance change or in a loss of function
which may result in performance loss or system
damage.
12
lntershift Pause Time: The minimum time delay
between shifts. A value preprogrammed into the ECU.
Neutral Recoverable: The process where a detected
fault is maintained and displayed by the ECU until the
shift lever is cycled to neutral and the ECU detects the
proper combination of inputs for a legal neutral
condition, at which time the displayed fault will be
cleared. The fault code will still be maintained in ECU
memory for future recall.
Next Gear: The next gear the controller plans to enter.
The next gear will become the current gear if no faults
are detected and all conditions for entering the next
gear are met.
Nonvolatile Memory: Memory that retains its data
even though power to the system has been removed.
Passive: The low voltage (0V) state of a digital input.
Previous Direction: The direction of vehicle motion
before a shuttle shift is initiated.
Previous Gear: The previous current gear.
Sequence Shift: The type of shift which consists of
shifting from a gear to an adjacent gear.
Sequential Shifting: Multiple sequence shifts with no
delay between shifts other than the programmed
intershift pause time.
Shuttle Shift: A shift to a gear in the opposite
direction of vehicle travel made by moving the shift
lever between the Forward and Reverse positions
without hesitation in the Neutral position long enough
for the controller to obtain a legal neutral condition.
SM 1735 2-99
Transmission - Transmission Electronic Controls
Section 120-0070
ABBREVIATIONS USED IN ECU GROUP
DC: Direct Current
ECU: Electronic Control Unit
TOC: Top of Clutch
PMW: Pulse Width Modulated
BOC: Bottom of Clutch
MPU: Magnetic Pickup Sensor
V: Volt
GND: Ground
CYL: Cylinder
RPM: Revolutions Per Minute
ENG: Engine
REV: Reverse
TEMP: Temperature
FOR: Forward
CAN: Control Area Network
NEU: Neutral
SOL: Solenoid
P: Park
POT: Potentiometer
*
SM 1735 2-99
*
*
*
13
DRIVELINES - Front and Rear Drivelines
Section 130-0010
SM- 3167
12
13
14
11
10
9
2
3
4
ENGINE
4
3
1
2
7
FRONT
AXLE
7
8
6
1
2
3
4
5
- Front Driveline Assembly
- Universal Joint
- Bolt
- Bolt
- Rear Driveline Assembly
8
6- Universal Joint
7 - Bolt
8 - Bolt
9 - Transmission
5
6
10 - Guard
11 - Guard
12 - Bolt
13 - Lockwasher
14 - Washer
Fig. 1 - Driveline installation.
DESCRIPTION
Numbers in parentheses refer to Fig. 1, unless
otherwise specified.
The function of the driveline is to transmit rotating
power from one point to another in a smooth and
continuous action while allowing a degree of
movement or misalignment of the components it
connects.
The drivelines must operate through constantly
changing relative angles between the components
they are mounted to and must also be capable of
changing length while transmitting torque.
A typical driveline consists of universal joints which
allow some misalignment and permit the driveline to
pivot in any direction, and, a light rigid hollow slip
yoke and splined shaft assembly forming a slip joint.
The slip joint accommodates length variations
generated during operation, preventing tension or
SM 1796 Rev1 03-04
compression loads from causing serious damage to the
components.
Note: Extra care should be taken when handling the
drivelines since chips, dents, burrs or deformity on
any rotating mass creates vibration and excessive
wear during any operation.
Numbers in parentheses refer to Fig. 1, unless
otherwise stated.
There are two driveline assemblies installed between
various components in the Tractor and Scraper units.
In each unit, the component installation is the same.
Driveline assembly (1) is connected between the
Tractor/ Scraper engine drive and transmission input
drive.
Driveline assembly (5) is connected between the
Tractor/ Scraper Front axle drive flange and
transmission final drive .
1
Drivelines - Front and Rear Drivelines
Section 130-0010
SM - 3165
3
3
2
2
1
RH
6
4
4
LH
5
1 - Driveline Assembly
2 - Universal Joint
3 - Bolt
9
8
7
7 - Bolt
8 - Lockwasher
9 - Washer
4 - Bolt
5 - Guard
6 - Guard
Fig. 2 - Front Driveline Detail.
For details of Front Driveline assembly refer to Fig. 2,
for details of Rear Driveline assembly refer to Fig. 4.
Again note as shown in Fig. 3, the Scraper unit is
orientated the opposite way round from the Tractor unit,
when in position.
To prevent serious injury or death, DO NOT go
under the vehicle when the engine is running.
Rotating shafts can be dangerous. You can
snag clothes, skin, hair, hands, etc..
Sm- 3168
REMOVAL
Note: Extra care should be taken when handling
drivelines since carelessness can result in premature
failure of the components. Chips, dents, burrs, or any
other deformity of universal joints will prevent accurate
mating. This will cause misalignment which is
accompanied by vibration and excessive wear.
WARNINGS
To prevent personal injury and property
damage, be sure wheel blocks, blocking
materials and lifting equipment are properly
secured and of adequate capacity to do the job
safely.
REAR
DRIVELINE
ENGINE
TRANSMISSION
FRONT
DRIVELINE
Fig. 3 - Orientation of Scraper Drivelines
2
SM 1796 Rev1 03-04
Drivelines - Front and Rear Drivelines
Section 130-0010
2
2
AXLE
TRANSMISSION
1
3
3
4
5
1 - Driveline Assembly
2 - Universal Joint
3 - Bolt
4 - Bolt
5 - Bolt
Fig. 4 - Rear Driveline Detail.
1. Position the vehicle in a level work area, apply the
parking brake and switch off the engine.
2. Block all road wheels and place the battery master
switch in the 'Off' position.
Note: Access to remove driveline assembly (1) can be
obtained by tilting the cab. Refer to Section 260-0010,
CAB AND MOUNTING.
Note : The following procedure for removal of the Front
and Rear drivelines is the same for both the Tractor
and Scraper units.
Numbers in parentheses refer to Fig. 2, unless
otherwise stated.
3. For removal of the Front Driveline assembly (1), it is
necessary to remove the anti flail guards (5 & 6) first.
4. Remove the bolts (7), Lockwashers (8), and washers
(9) securing anti-flail guards (5 & 6) to the frame .
Remove anti-flail guard (5 & 6).
6. Support the Front driveline assembly (1) with
suitable lifting equipment and remove bolts (4) securing
universal joints (2) to their mating components.
Remove driveline assembly (1). If necessary tap
driveline assembly (1) from its mating components with
a soft faced hammer.
Note: Access to the Rear driveline assemblies can be
obtained from underneath the vehicle.
Numbers in parentheses refer to Fig. 4, unless
otherwise stated.
7. Match mark universal joints (2) and their mating
surfaces to ensure correct mating alignment when
installing Rear driveline assemblies (1).
8. Remove Bolts (4 & 5) securing universal joints (2) to
their mating components and remove Rear driveline
assembly (1). If necessary tap Rear driveline assembly
(1) from its mating components with a soft faced
hammer.
5. Match mark universal joints (2) and their mating
surfaces to ensure correct mating alignment when
installing the Driveline assembly (1).
SM 1796 Rev1 03-04
3
Drivelines - Front and Rear Drivelines
Section 130-0010
DISASSEMBLY
2. Install universal joint (2) to yoke end of Front
driveline assembly (1) and secure with Bolts (3).
Universal Joint
Numbers in parentheses refer to Fig. 1, unless stated
otherwise.
Note: The procedure for removal of Universal joints is
the same for both Tractor and Scraper units.
1. Place the yoke end of Front driveline assembly (1)
in a soft jawed vice, clamping on the tube of shaft.
3. Place the shaft end of Front driveline assembly (1)
in a soft jawed vice.
4. Install universal joint (2) to shaft end of driveline
assembly (1) and secure with bolts (3).
Numbers in parentheses refer to Fig. 4, unless stated
otherwise.
Note: Do not distort the tube with excessive grip.
1. Place yoke end of Rear drivelines (1) in a soft jawed
vice, clamping on the tube of the shaft.
2. Remove bolts (3) and universal joint (2) from Front
driveline assembly (1).
Note : Do not distort the tube with excessive grip.
3. Place the shaft end of driveline assembly (1) in a
soft jawed vice.
2. Install universal joint (2) to yoke end of Rear
driveline assembly (1) and secure with bolts (4).
4. Remove bolts (3) and universal joint (2) from Front
driveline assembly (1).
3. Place shaft end of Rear driveline assembly (1) in a
soft jawed vice.
5. Repeat steps 1 to 4 for Rear drivelines (5) by
removing bolts (7) and universal joints (6) from both
ends of the rear driveline.
4. Install universal joint (2) to shaft end of Rear
driveline and secure woith bolts (5).
of the Tractor and Scraper unit.
INSPECTION
INSTALLATION
1. Clean all metal parts in a suitable solvent, and dry
all parts with compressed air.
Numbers in parentheses refer to Fig. 1, unless
otherwise specified.
2. Inspect splines of shaft and yoke for nicks, burrs
and excessive wear. Replace if wear is excessive or
splines are nicked. Burrs may be removed with a fine
file or medium India stone.
3. Check the surfaces of the components that universal
joints mate against for parallelism. Refer to Fig. 5.
4. Check condition of mounting Bolts and replace if
required.
Note: Tighten all fasteners without special torques
specified to standard torques listed in Section
300-0080, STANDARD BOLT AND NUT TORQUE
SPECIFICATIONS.
Note: Extra care should be taken when handling
drivelines since carelessness can result in premature
failure of the components. Chips, dents, burrs, or any
other deformity of wing bearings will prevent accurate
mating. This will cause misalignment which is
accompanied by vibration and excessive wear.
ASSEMBLY
Universal Joint
Numbers in parentheses refer to Fig. 2, unless stated
otherwise.
1. Place the yoke end of the Front driveline assembly
(1) in a soft jawed vice, clamping on the tube of shaft.
Note: Do not distort the tube with excessive grip.
4
WARNINGS
To prevent personal injury and property
damage, be sure wheel blocks, blocking
materials and lifting equipment are properly
secured and of adequate capacity to do the job
safely.
To prevent serious injury or death, DO
NOT go under the vehicle when the engine is
running. Rotating shafts can be dangerous. You
can snag clothes, skin, hair, hands, etc..
SM 1796 Rev1 03-04
Drivelines - Front and Rear Drivelines
Section 130-0010
Periodic Inspection
1. Position Front driveline assembly (1) on the engine
end as shown and align match marks on universal
joints (2) with those on its mating surfaces.
2. Apply Loctite 648 to the threads of bolts (4) and
secure universal joints (2) to its mating surfaces with
bolts (4). Tighten bolts (4) to a torque of 153 Nm (113
lbf ft).
3. Position Front driveline assembly (1) on the
Transmission end as shown and align match marks on
universal joint (2) with those on its mating surface.
4. Apply Loctite 648 to the threads of bolts (4) and
secure universal joints (2) to its mating surfaces with
bolts (4). Tighten bolts (4) to a torque of 153 Nm (113
lbf ft).
Use a small pry bar to check the companion flange
yokes for looseness. If loose, drop one end of the
driveline and twist the yoke to check the backlash
between the splines and yokes. Replace any yoke that
does not fit snugly.
With the pry bar, check the universal joints for play. If
loose, replace the universal joints. Check the splines at
the slip joint and replace the yoke if excessively worn.
SM - 088
APPLY PRESSURE
HERE BY HAND
MAXIMUM PERMISSIBLE
GAP IS 0.2 mm (0.008 in)
STRAIGHT EDGE
5. Position rear driveline assembly (5) on the axle end
as shown and align match marks on universal joint (6)
with those on its mating surfaces.
6. Apply Loctite 648 to the threads of bolts (4) and
secure universal joints (6) to its mating surfaces with
bolts (4). Tighten bolts (4) to a torque of 153 Nm (113
lbf ft).
7. Position rear driveline assembly (5) on the
transmission end and align match marks on universal
joint (6) with those of its mating surface.
8. Apply loctite 648 to the threads of bolts (8) and
secure universal joint (6) to its mating surfaces with the
bolts (8). Tighten bolts (8) to a torque of 153 Nm (113
Ibf ft).
REMOVE ALL
BURRS AND
PAINT FROM
THESE SURFACES
Fig. 5 - Checking Parallelism
SERVICE TOOLS
There are no special tools required for the procedures
outlined in this section. Refer to Section 300-0070,
SERVICE TOOLS, for part numbers of general service
tools and adhesives required. These tools and
adhesives are available from your dealer.
13. Lower the cab, place the battery master switch in
the 'On' position, ensure the parking brake is applied
and start the engines by following the correct
procedure, REFER to Operators Handbook for the
correct starting procedure. Remove wheel blocks from
all road wheels.
MAINTENANCE
Every 500 hours, check the universal joints for wear
and replace if required.
Every 2 000 hours, check drivelines for leaks and
damage, and replace if required.
SM 1796 Rev1 03-04
5
Drivelines - Front and Rear Drivelines
Section 130-0010
DRIVELINE DIAGNOSIS CHART
CONDITION
Vibration or noise
REASON
Driveline bent or out of balance
Driveline loose at yoke/flange
Worn or dry bearings
Excessive wear of
universal joints
Lack of lubrication
Poor yoke/flange alignment
and/or run-out
Driveline imbalance
REMEDY
Clean driveline in a suitable solvent. Inspect for
contact with adjacent parts. If driveline is
distorted or sprung, replace. If driveline does
not run smoothly, and vibration is felt, remove
driveline and dynamically balance the assembly.
Check driveline mounting capscrews for
tightness. If loose, replace capscrews and
torque tighten to the proper specification.
Test driveline by hand. If crosses are loose,
replace cross and bearings as an assembly.
Also, see below.
Replace cross and bearings as an assembly.
Lubricate cross assembly so that lubricant
appears at ALL bearing and cross seals.
Check yoke/flange for alignment, run-out and
balance. Repair or replace as required.
Check to see if balance weights are missing or
if driveline is distorted. If driveline is distorted,
replace; if weights are missing, check balance
of driveline dynamically and rebalance.
SPECIAL TORQUE SPECIFICATIONS
TORQUE
FIG. NO.
ITEM NO.
ITEM NAME
Nm
lbf ft
1
1
4
8
Bolt
Bolt
153
153
113
113
2
3
Bolt
153
113
2
4
Bolt
153
113
4
3
Bolt
153
113
4
4
Bolt
153
113
4
5
Bolt
153
113
*
6
*
*
*
SM 1796 Rev1 03-04
FRONT AXLE - Differential
Section 140-0060
SM - 2175
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
- RH Adjuster
- Bearing Cup
- Bearing Cone
- Plain Case
- Washer
- Side Gear
- Washer
- Spider Pinion Gear
- Spider
- Side Gear
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
- Washer
- Bolt
- Ring Gear
- Flanged Case
- Nut
- Lockwire
- Screw
- Washer
- Bearing Cap
- Cotter Pin
- Adjuster Locks
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
- Bushing
- LH Adjuster
- Bearing Cup
- Bearing Cone
- Carrier Housing
- Bearing
- Pinion Gear
- Inner Cone
- Inner Cup
- Washer
- Nut
33
34
35
36
37
38
39
40
41
42
43
- Yoke Flange
- Seal
- Outer Cone
- Outer Cup
- Bolt
- Lockwasher
- Bearing Cage
- Shim
- Lockwire
- Bolt
- Lockwire
Fig. 1 - Exploded View of Typical Differential Assembly
DESCRIPTION AND OPERATION
Numbers in parentheses refer to Fig. 1.
The differential performs three functions; it multiplies
torque delivered by the driveline; it transmits this
torque to the axle shafts; and it allows the drive
wheels to rotate at different speeds.
When the vehicle is making a turn, one drive wheel
must travel a greater distance than the other. If the
wheels were connected by a single axle shaft, the
SM 1778 3-99
wheel turning the larger radius of the turn circle would
have to override the wheel making the shorter turn.
Thus, one wheel would have to skip or hop causing
tyre scuffing and strain on the power train.
The differential eliminates wheel skip by allowing
separate axle shafts inserted into side gears (6 & 10)
to rotate at different speeds as the drive wheels
rotate. Spider (9) and spider pinion gears (8) are
meshed with side gears (6 & 10). This assembly is
enclosed in plain case (4) and flanged case (14)
1
Front Axle - Differential
Section 140-0060
which are bolted to ring gear (13). Thus, ring gear
(13), plain case (4) and flanged case (14) rotate as
an assembly when driven by input pinion gear (28).
However, side gears (6 & 10), into which each axle
shaft is inserted, are free to rotate independently
about spider pinion gears (8) with which they are
meshed. Therefore, as each drive wheel travels
through a different arc as the truck makes a turn,
side gears (6 & 10) rotate about spider pinion gears
(8) to provide the required differential action.
SM - 2176
REMOVAL
WARNINGS
To prevent personal injury and property
damage, be sure wheel chocks, blocking
materials and lifting equipment are properly
secured and of adequate capacity to do the job
safely.
A come-a-long or chain fall with a
minimum capacity of one ton is required for
removal and installation of a differential
assembly.
1. Position the vehicle in a level work area, apply the
parking brake and switch off the engine. Operate the
steering in both directions several times to relieve
any pressure in the steering system.
Fig. 2 - Typical Axle Shaft Removal
5. Remove the driving flange cover from each wheel.
Refer to Section 160-0040, PLANETARY GEARING.
6. Pull the axle shaft and sun pinion gear assembly of
each driving wheel at least 305 mm (12 in) out of the
wheel housing so that the inner axle shaft splines will
be disengaged from the splines of the differential side
gears (6 & 10). See Fig. 2.
2. Block all road wheels and place the battery master
switch in the 'Off' position.
7. Identify the relationship of the differential pinion
yoke flange (33) with that of the driveline companion
flange using punch marks.
3. Drain the lubricant from the differential banjo
housing and planetary assemblies.
8. Uncouple driveline at differential yoke flange (33),
then lower the driveline.
Note: When the differential is removed from the rear
drive axle housing, it may be necessary to raise the
frame above the drive axle housing to ensure proper
clearance between the differential carrier housing and
the frame crossmember. When the differential is
removed from the front axle housing, it will be
necessary to remove the main hydraulic valve
mounting bolts and raise the control valve (with
hoses connected) out of the way.
9. Install a suitable chain fall or come-a-long to the
differential assembly.
4. If required, use suitable lifting equipment to lift the
frame off the drive axle housing far enough to
facilitate removal of the differential without
interference, and block the frame securely in this
position.
12. Pull the differential assembly away from the banjo
until it clears the studs of the axle banjo housing, then
carefully lower the differential assembly.
2
10. Support the weight of the differential assembly
with suitable lifting device.
11. Remove mounting hardware which secures the
differential carrier housing (26) to the axle banjo
housing.
SM 1778 3-99
Front Axle - Differential
Section 140-0060
SM - 2177
Fig. 3 - Removing Differential Assembly from Housing
SM - 096
Fig. 4 - Driving Out Pinion Bearing Cage
DISASSEMBLY
Pinion Cage Group
Numbers in parentheses refer to Fig. 1.
Note: Before disassembling, punch identifying marks
on pinion bearing cage (39) and carrier housing (26)
for assembly purposes.
WARNING
To prevent personal injury and property
damage, be sure lifting equipment is properly
secured and of adequate capacity to do the job
safely.
1. Make identifying punch marks on bearing caps
(19) and plain and flanged cases (4 & 14), so that the
bearing caps can be returned to their original position
in assembly.
2. Scribe an identifying line on the bearing adjusters
(1 & 23) and carrier housing (26) bores for correct
location of adjuster locks (21) during assembly.
3. Remove cotter pins (20) and locks (21) from
bearing caps (19). Remove lockwire (16), screws
(17) and washers (18) from bearing caps (19).
Remove bearing caps (19) and bearing adjusters
(1 & 23) from carrier housing (26).
4. Place a suitable rod through differential assembly
and attach suitable lifting equipment to the rod. Tilt
ring gear (13) away from pinion gear (28) and lift the
differential assembly out of carrier housing (26).
Refer to Fig. 3.
SM 1778 3-99
1. Remove bolts (37) and lockwashers (38) securing
pinion bearing cage (39) and shims (40) to carrier
housing (26).
2. With carrier housing (26) as shown in Fig. 4, drive
cage (39) assembly out of the housing. During this
operation, be careful not to let cage assembly fall on
yoke flange (33). Wire shims (40) together to aid in
'Assembly'.
3. Clamp yoke flange (33) in a soft-jawed vice with
bearing cage (39) assembly attached and remove nut
(32) from pinion gear (28) shaft. Drive the pinion gear
shaft out of the yoke.
4. Hold the pinion gear and cage assembly in both
hands with pinion gear (28) facing upward. Bump the
splined end of the pinion gear shaft against a block of
wood until bearing cage (39), containing outer cone
(35), outer cup (36), inner cup (30) and seal (34) fall
free of the pinion gear shaft.
5. Using a soft-jawed vice with the jaws opened
slightly wider than bearing cage (39) OD, place
bearing cage (39) in the vice so that the flange is
resting on top of the jaws with seal (34) facing
downward. Tap out outer bearing cup (36), outer
bearing cone (35) and seal (34) with a soft-faced
3
Front Axle - Differential
Section 140-0060
hammer. Be careful not to damage the inside
machined surface of bearing cage (39) when
removing these components.
SM - 097
6. Invert bearing cage (39) in the vice and tap out
inner bearing cup (30).
Note: If the bearing races are still serviceable, wire
the cups and corresponding cones together for proper
mating in assembly. Bearing assembly is replaceable
as a unit only. If any component is defective, the
complete assembly must be replaced.
7. Remove washers (31) from pinion gear (28).
8. Using a bearing puller similar to that shown in
Fig. 5, remove pinion inner cone (29) from the splined
end of pinion gear (28) shaft.
Fig. 5 - Removing End Bearing
9. Remove the staked area on the end of pinion gear
(28) shaft, then with the aid of a bearing puller, see
Fig. 5, remove end bearing (27) from the stub end of
pinion gear (28) shaft.
SM - 2178
Differential and Ring Gear
1. Remove and tag bearing cups (2 & 24) from the
differential assembly.
2. Before separating, make identifying punch marks
on plain case (4) flanged case (14) and ring gear (13)
to show their relationship for assembly purposes.
3. Place the differential assembly on a bench so that
plain case (4) is facing upwards. Cut lockwire (41)
and remove bolts (42) from plain case (4). Lift plain
case (4) off flanged case (14). Refer to Fig. 6.
Fig. 6 - Removing Plain Case
4. Remove thrust washer (5) and side gear (6), then
lift spider (9), spider pinion gears (8) and thrust
washers (7) out of flanged case (14).
assembly over on a block of wood approximately
50 mm (2 in) thick.
5. Remove four thrust washers (7) from the spider
journals then separate the four spider pinion gears (8)
from spider (9).
Note: Make sure that identifying marks are stamped
on the side of ring gear (13) and flanged case (14) for
assembly purposes.
6. Remove remaining side gear (10) and thrust
washer (11) from flanged case (14).
9. Separate flanged case (14) from ring gear (13) by
tapping the edge of ring gear (13) with a soft-faced
hammer. See Fig. 7.
7. Remove bolts (12) and nuts (15) from ring gear
(13) and flanged case (14).
8. Turn flanged case (14) and ring gear (13)
4
10. Using a bearing puller, remove cone (3) from
plain case (4) and cone (25) from flanged case (14).
Match up cones with cups (2 & 24) previously
removed.
SM 1778 3-99
Front Axle - Differential
Section 140-0060
SM - 095
advisable to replace side gears (6 & 10) or spider
pinion gears (8) in matched sets only, because a
newer gear installed to operate in conjunction with an
older, worn gear tends to carry an uneven portion of
the load. This creates an excessive amount of stress
on the new gear.
7. Check for pitted, scored or worn thrust surfaces of
differential case halves, spider trunnions and thrust
washers. It is also advisable to replace thrust
washers in sets, as the use of a combination of old
and new washers may cause premature failure.
Fig. 7 - Removing Ring Gear
8. Inspect all housings (4, 14 & 26) and bearing cage
(39) for bore damage, cracks and wear. Replace as
necessary.
INSPECTION
Numbers in parentheses refer to Fig. 1.
The importance of careful and thorough inspection
cannot be stressed enough. Thorough inspection and
necessary replacement of parts now, may eliminate
costly and avoidable trouble later.
1. Clean all parts in a suitable solvent.
2. Immediately after cleaning, dry all parts, except
bearings, with compressed air, or lint-free cloth.
Bearings are better left to air dry, then inspected and
oiled thoroughly with gear lubricant for protection
from corrosion.
3. With the parts cleaned, coat parts immediately
with light oil to prevent corrosion. If parts are not to
be assembled immediately, treat them with a good
rust preventative and wrap them with treated paper or
other suitable material designed to prevent corrosion.
4. Replace all gaskets, 'O' rings and seals with new
parts.
5. Before installing the differential assembly to the
banjo, clean the inside and outside of the banjo
housing to remove any foreign material.
6. Inspect all gears, pinions and splines for cracked
or broken teeth, excessive wear, and pitted or scored
surfaces. Repair or replace as necessary.
Note: If either ring gear (13) or pinion gear (28) is
defective, both gears must be replaced, because they
are serviced only as a matched set. This set is
identified by a serial number on the OD of the ring
gear and outer face of the pinion gear. It is also
SM 1778 3-99
9. Check the amount of run-out on the machined
surfaces of bearing cage (39). The outer machined
surface on the hub of the bearing cage must be
concentric with the bearing cup bore within 0.05 mm
(0.002 in) total indicator reading (T.I.R.).
10. The machined mating surfaces of plain case (4)
and flanged case (14) must be square with the axis of
the cases within 0.05 mm (0.002 in) T.I.R.. The mating
diameters of the cases must also be concentric within
0.08 mm (0.003 in) T.I.R..
11. Check the depth that the bearing rollers have worn
into the wear surfaces. If the thrust face at the large
end of the roller, which is ground and polished, is
chipped or worn down to the centre area, or if the
separator has become worn enough to drag on the
cone, discard the bearing.
ASSEMBLY
Numbers in parentheses refer to Fig. 1.
WARNING
To prevent personal injury and property
damage, be sure lifting equipment is properly
secured and of adequate capacity to do the job
safely.
Assembly of Differential and Ring Gear
1. Align identification marks that were made during
'Disassembly' on ring gear (13) and flanged case (14).
2. Install bolts (1) through ring gear (13) and flanged
case (14) and secure with nuts (15). Torque tighten to
260 - 270 Nm (190 - 200 lbf ft), lubricated.
5
Front Axle - Differential
Section 140-0060
3. Press cone (3) on plain case (4) and press cone
(25) on flanged case (14).
4. Lubricate inner walls of flanged case (14), plain
case (4) and all component parts with gear lubricant.
Refer to Section 300-0020, LUBRICATION SYSTEM,
for proper lubricant.
5. Position thrust washer (11) in bore of flanged case
(14).
6. Install side gear (10) into thrust washer (11) and
flanged case (14).
7. Install pinions (8) and thrust washers (7) over
spider (9).
8. Lay complete spider assembly (7, 8 & 9) in pinion
grooves in face of flanged case (4).
9. Install side gear (6) and thrust washer (5) on
spider assembly (7, 8 & 9).
10. Assemble plain case (4) to ring gear (13) and
flanged case (14) assembly. Turn plain case (4) until
the mating mark made during disassembly lines up
with the mark made on flanged case (14) and tap into
place using a soft faced mallet.
11. Install four bolts (42), equally spaced to secure
plain case (4) to flanged case (14).
12. Check assembly for free gear rotation and correct
if necessary. Install remaining bolts (42). Torque
tighten bolts (42) to 185 - 210 Nm (135 - 155 lbf ft).
Install lockwire (41) in bolts (42) and secure lockwire.
Assembly of Cage and Pinion
Note: During assembly and installation, make sure
that mated, punch-marked or otherwise identified
parts are returned to their original positions, if still
serviceable.
Note: The bore of the inner race of the end bearing
(27) has a radius on one side and a chamfer on the
other. The bearing must be installed with the radius
toward the pinion gear teeth.
1. Press end bearing inner race (27) firmly against
pinion gear (28) stub shaft shoulder with a suitable
sleeve that will bear only on the inner bearing race.
Stake stub shaft in six places 0.15 mm (0.06 in) from
ID of inner race to hold the race securely in place, as
shown in Fig. 8.
6
SM - 661
TAIL BEARING INNER RACE
BEVEL
PINION
SHAFT
INSTALL TAIL BEARING INNER RACE AND STAKE
3 mm (0.12 in) DIA. INDENT, AS SHOWN
Fig. 8 - Staking Pinion Gear Tailshaft
2. Press inner cone (29) of pinion bearing assembly
against shoulder of the splined end of pinion gear
(28).
3. Install spacer (31) and two washers (32) on the
splined end of pinion gear (28), spacer first.
4. Press outer cup (36) into bearing cage (39). Invert
bearing cage and press inner cup (30) into bearing
cage, making certain that both cups are fully seated
in the bearing cage.
5. Lubricate cups (30 & 36) and cone (29) with gear
lubricant as specified in Section 300-0020,
LUBRICATION SYSTEM.
6. Install pinion gear (28) shaft into bearing cage (39)
until inner cone (29) on the pinion shaft, is seated in
the inner cup (30) in the bearing cage.
7. Lubricate outer cone (35) with gear lubricant.
Press outer cone (35) onto the splined end of pinion
gear (28) shaft until it seats into outer cup (36). DO
NOT install seal (34) at this time.
8. Position pinion gear (28) in a soft-jawed vice with
the splines upwards. Install yoke flange (33) on the
splines of pinion gear (28) shaft. Install nut (32) on
pinion shaft and torque tighten to 1 140 - 1 380 Nm
(840 - 1 020 lbf ft). Tighten nut while rotating bearing
cage in both directions to ensure normal bearing
contact. Refer to Fig. 9.
9. If inner and outer cones (29 & 35) should start to
seize as nut (32) is being tightened, the assembly
must be taken apart enough to permit removal of
washers (31) and new washers which have a greater
total thickness, installed and reassembled as
described in Step 8.
10. With the bearings lightly oiled, there should be a
SM 1778 3-99
Front Axle - Differential
Section 140-0060
SM - 2180
SM - 2179
Fig. 9 - Installing Yoke
noticable drag or preload on the pinion bearings when
yoke nut (32) is tightened to the torque specified.
Note: The preload should be held within a torque
range of 2 -4 Nm (15 - 35 lbf in), lubricated.
11. To check pre-load torque, place pinion gear (28)
in a soft-jawed vice, yoke (33) up. Wrap several
turns of soft wire around body of cage (39) and form
a small loop at the free end. Insert the hook of a
suitable spring scale into the wire loop and pull on a
line tangent to the outer flange face. Refer to Fig. 10.
The scale reading should be taken while cage (39) is
being rotated. The starting torque may be higher and
therefore misleading, depending upon the tightness of
the bearings.
Fig. 10 - Checking Bearing Preload
If the preload is too much, use a combination of two
washers (31) that is thicker. If the preload is not
enough, use a combination of two washers that is
thinner.
Continue checking the preload and changing washers
as required until the proper fit of 2 - 4 Nm (15 - 35 lbf
in) is obtained, with the bearings and washers under
the full torque specified for nut (32).
12. Remove nut (32) and remove yoke (33) from
pinion gear (28). If any difficulty is experienced
removing the yoke use a suitable puller, DO NOT
hammer the yoke.
13. Install seal (34) into bearing cage (39).
14. Install yoke (33) on pinion gear (28) shaft.
The pull in Newtons (lbf) as indicated by the scale,
multiplied by the cage body radius in metres (inches)
(measured at the point where wire was wrapped)
equals the Newton metres - Nm (lbf in) of torque.
For example: if the cage body radius is 0.103 18 m
(4.0625 in) and the scale pull registered 40.03 N
(9 lbf), then 0.103 18 x 40.03 = 4.13 Nm
(4.0625 x 9 = 36.5625 lbf in) torque. This is 0.18 Nm
(1.56 lbf in) over the high limit. The bearing preload
would be too great.
SM 1778 3-99
15. Install nut (32) on pinion gear (28) and torque
tighten nut to 1 140 - 1 380 Nm (840 - 1 020 lbf ft).
16. Remove wire from shim (40) pack and set shims
in place against flange of bearing cage (39).
17. Position bearing cage (39) and pinion gear (28)
assembly to carrier housing (26) assembly and
secure with bolts (37) and lockwashers (38). Torque
tighten to 230 - 260 Nm (170 - 190 lbf ft).
7
Front Axle - Differential
Section 140-0060
Ring Gear Assembly to Carrier Housing
Bearing adjusters (1 & 23) have two basic functions:
pre-loading bearings (2, 3 & 24, 25); and positioning
ring gear (13) to obtain the correct backlash between
the ring gear and pinion gear (28). See Fig. 11.
Bearing adjuster (23) located on the same side of
pinion gear (28) as ring gear (13), pushes the ring
gear toward the pinion gear. Bearing adjuster (1),
located on the opposite side of the drive pinion than
the ring gear, pushes the ring gear away from the
drive pinion. The ring gear assembly must be
installed onto carrier housing (26) so that side
bearings (2, 3 & 24, 25) are properly pre-loaded;
correct backlash exists between ring gear (13) and
pinion gear (28); and satisfactory tooth pattern is
established between ring gear and pinion gear.
These conditions can be obtained by using the
following procedures:
SM - 101
Fig. 11 - Turning Bearing Adjuster to Set Backlash
bearing adjuster (1) until bearing cup (2) is contacted.
Seat cup (2) by tightening and loosening adjuster (1)
two notches each way.
1. Install cups (2 & 24) on their respective cones
(3 & 25) and install ring gear (13) and differential
assembly on carrier housing (26). Make sure that
side bearing cups (2 & 24) are properly positioned on
side bearing cones (3 & 25). Install bearing caps (19)
over cups (2 & 24) then secure bearing caps to
differential housing with washers (18) and bolts (17).
Secure bolts snugly, but do not tighten them to torque
specifications at this time.
8. When bearing cup (2) is seated, locate the point
where adjuster (1) just contacts cup (2). From this
point continue to tighten adjuster (1) two or three
notches. Ring gear (13) should be positioned within
the specified 0.15 - 0.41 mm (0.006 - 0.016 in)
backlash.
Note: Each bearing cap (19) is mated to carrier
housing (26), therefore, they must be returned to their
original positions by aligning the identification marks
made during 'Disassembly'.
10. Torque tighten bearing cap bolts (17) to
440 - 520 Nm (320 - 380 lbf ft), lubricated, and again
measure the ring gear backlash to make sure it is
still within the specified limits.
2. Install bearing adjusters (1 & 23) in their
respective bearing caps (19).
11. When a satisfactory backlash tolerance has been
established, check the gear tooth pattern as
described under the heading 'Adjustments'.
3. Install a dial indicator on the assembly fixture as
shown in Fig. 11.
4. Loosen bearing adjuster (1) until one thread is
exposed. This is the adjuster on the same side as
ring gear (13) teeth.
5. Tighten bearing adjuster (23) until there is a zero
backlash on the dial indicator.
6. Rotate ring gear (13), checking backlash
clearances at various tooth sections. This will
determine any run-out or binding point that may exist
and also help seat the bearings. If a run-out condition
exists, the backlash must be adjusted from this point.
7. Loosen bearing adjuster (23) one notch and tighten
8
9. When the proper backlash adjustment is reached,
the correct side bearing preload will be established.
12. If gear tooth pattern is not correct, some
correction can be made by systematically loosening
and tightening bearing adjusters (1 & 23), as
previously described, but in every instance re-check
the backlash tolerance. If a favourable gear tooth
pattern cannot be established within the backlash
tolerance, it will be necessary to alter, add or
remove, shims (40) between pinion cage assembly
(39) and carrier housing (26).
13. The procedures for keeping differential side
bearing pre-load, backlash and favourable gear tooth
pattern within specifications is strictly a 'try, check,
and try again' method.
14. After a satisfactory pre-load, backlash and gear
SM 1778 3-99
Front Axle - Differential
Section 140-0060
tooth pattern is obtained, make certain that pinion
bearing cage bolts (37) are torque tightened to
230 - 260 Nm (170 - 190 lbf ft). Again check backlash
tolerance and gear tooth pattern.
SM - 105
15. Install adjuster locks (21) and secure with cotter
pins (20).
16. Install lockwire (16) in bearing cap bolts (17).
Each pair of bolts must be tied with lockwire (16).
The lockwire passes over the top of bearing cap (19)
and through the 'V' groove in adjuster locks (21).
ADJUSTMENTS
When adjusting a noisy differential that has been in
service for some time, more harm than good can
result. Changes in adjustment will frequently
concentrate the bearing area on a small portion of the
teeth which often results in failure. Therefore, it is
advisable to know exactly what the end result will be
before adjustments are made in an old differential.
Fig. 12 - Proper Tooth Contact
SM - 106
Note: A rebuilt differential or one that has not worn
excessively may be adjusted as previously
described.
The following suggestions are offered to make gear
tooth pattern analysis and identification easier.
1. Paint twelve ring gear teeth with Prussian Blue,
oiled red lead, or some other easily removed paint or
dye. When the pinion is rotated, the paint is squeezed
away by the contact of the teeth, leaving bare areas
the exact size, shape and location of the contacts.
2. Make this check by rotating the ring gear
clockwise and counter-clockwise several times.
Fig. 13 - Insufficient Backlash
SM - 107
3. Gear tooth patterns can be interpreted by referring
to Figs. 12 thru 18.
A. If a contact pattern similar to that shown in Fig. 12
is obtained, the adjustment is correct.
B. If the contact area is on the inner side of the ring
gear teeth, see Fig. 13, move ring gear away from
pinion by turning bearing adjusters equal amounts
until the proper bearing pattern is obtained.
C. If the contact area is on the outer part of the ring
gear teeth, see Fig. 14, move ring gear toward pinion
by turning bearing adjusters equal amounts.
D. If the contact area is along the root of the ring gear
SM 1778 3-99
Fig. 14 - Excessive Backlash
9
Front Axle - Differential
Section 140-0060
teeth, see Fig. 15, move the pinion out by adding
shims.
SM - 108
E. If the contact area is along the top edge of the ring
gear teeth, see Fig. 16, move the pinion in by
removing shims.
INSTALLATION
WARNINGS
To prevent personal injury and property
damage, be sure wheel chocks, blocking
materials and lifting equipment are properly
secured and of adequate capacity to do the job
safely.
Fig. 15 - Pinion In Too Far - Add Shims
A come-a-long or chain fall with a
minimum capacity of one ton is required for
removal and installation of a differential
assembly.
SM - 109
Note: Tighten all fasteners without special torques
specified, to standard torques listed in
Section 300-0080, STANDARD BOLT AND NUT
TORQUE SPECIFICATIONS.
3. Install chain fall or come-a-long to a suitable lifting
device and lift the differential assembly and carefully
position it on the studs of the banjo housing.
4. Install the lockwashers, stud nuts and bolts on
differential assembly and torque tighten to
300 - 320 Nm (220 - 240 lbf ft).
5. Recouple the driveline to yoke (33), aligning marks
made at 'Removal'. Refer to Section 130-0010,
DRIVELINE.
SM - 110
MOVE GEAR IN THIS DIRECTION
FOR CORRECTION IN FIG. 13
MOVE GEAR IN THIS DIRECTION
FOR CORRECTION IN FIG. 15
2. Position the differential assembly under the vehicle
in front of the banjo housing.
Fig. 16 - Pinion Out Too Far - Remove Shims
MOVE GEAR IN THIS DIRECTION
FOR CORRECTION IN FIG. 16
1. Clean mating surfaces of the banjo and differential
assembly with a hydrocarbon solvent to remove dirt,
oil, grease, or other foreign matter. Wipe cleaned
surfaces dry. Apply a pliable non-hardening seal
material to the mounting surface of the banjo for a
leakproof seal. The seal is installed by pressing it in
place around the bolt circle on the banjo. The two
beads of the seal should be separated at each stud
and the seal slipped over the studs to make an
effective seal when the differential assembly is
bolted in place on the banjo.
MOVE GEAR IN THIS DIRECTION
FOR CORRECTION IN FIG. 14.
Fig. 17 - Correct Movement for Adjustment
10
SM 1778 3-99
Front Axle - Differential
Section 140-0060
7. Install the axle shafts, then install and secure the
driving flange cover to the wheels. Refer to
Section 160-0040, PLANETARY GEARING.
8. If removed, lower frame onto the drive axle
housing and install bolts and nuts securing the drive
axle to the frame.
9. Fill the drive axle, planetary reservoirs, and
differential with the proper grade and quantity of
lubricant specified in Section 300-0020,
LUBRICATION SYSTEM.
MAINTENANCE
Periodic Inspection
Inspect regularly the flange yoke mounting bolts,
pinion shaft nut, pinion cage and seal retainer bolts,
and differential stud nuts for tightness. Tighten the
stud nuts and flange bolts weekly until they 'set' or
show that they no longer need tightening. Keep the
nuts tight to reduce the possibility of differential or
driveline failure due to excessive vibration or wear.
Replace any mounting studs which have become
stripped or broken.
Jack up the drive axle to 'test run' the differential and
listen for noises which may indicate the need for
adjustment or replacement of worn parts. When doing
this, lift BOTH wheels off the ground. Both wheel
brakes should be free to allow both wheels to rotate
at approximately the same speed.
Note: Do not operate with only one wheel jacked up.
Excessive operation in this manner will overheat the
differential spider and cause galling or shearing of the
spider trunnions and bearings.
If differential is excessively noisy, it should be
removed from the banjo and disassembled for
inspection.
Lubrication
The differential is splash-lubricated with an extreme
pressure lubricant. The fill-level plug is located on the
rear of the banjo housing.
The differential should be checked and periodically
drained and filled to the bottom of the fill-level hole, or
SM 1778 3-99
to no more than 13 mm (1/2 in) below the fill level,
with new lubricant as recommended. Refer to
Section 300-0020, LUBRICATION SYSTEM. When
the lubricant is drained, remove any chips of steel
particles that may be attached to the magnetic drain
plug located in the bottom of the banjo housing.
After draining and refilling an axle, the planetary
gearing should be checked after 10 hours of
operation.
1. Check the level in planetaries at oil level plug. If
the oil level is low, add oil. This check point is a
minimum check point only. If the oil level is above the
check point, do not drain off oil.
2. Add oil if needed. The oil level is correct when oil
flows from the lube level check plug in the banjo.
These checks should be made every 10 hours until
oil level in the differential is maintained.
DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS
Noises and vibrations originating in the tyres,
transmission, planetaries and drivelines are easily
transmitted and may be erroneously attributed to the
differential. Therefore all possible sources of noise
should be investigated before the differential is taken
apart.
Differential noises may be located by jacking up both
drive axles of the machine so that the tyres are clear
of the ground, then run the power train in a high gear
at a moderate engine speed. Be sure to jack up all
wheels of the drive axles to prevent damage to the
differentials.
Whenever noises such as grating or rattle are heard
coming from the differential, stop the machine
immediately. One tooth from a gear can cause
damage to all gears and bearings. When the
differential is definitely at fault, pull the drive axles
before moving the machine. Refer to
Section 160-0040, PLANETARY GEARING.
SPECIAL TOOLS
Refer to Section 300-0070, SERVICE TOOLS, for
part numbers of special tools outlined in this section
and general service tools required. These tools are
available from your dealer.
11
Front Axle - Differential
Section 140-0060
DIAGNOSIS CHART
CONDITION
REASON
REMEDY
Vibration
Broken gear teeth
Excessive run-out of pinion or
flanged case
Bearing worn
Gears damaged or worn
Ring and pinion gear adjustment tight
Bearing damaged
Loose ring and pinion gear adjustment
Excessive pinion gear end play
Worn spider gears or side gears
Worn or damaged spider bushings
Oil seals worn
Loose nuts
Cracked housing
Replace damaged gear
Disassemble, correct or replace faulty part
Continual noise
Noise on drive
Noise on coast
Noise on turns
Loss of lubricant
Replace worn parts
Replace gears
Adjust
Replace bearings
Adjust gears
Adjust
Replace gears
Replace bushings
Replace seal
Tighten nuts to correct torque
Repair or replace housing
SPECIAL TORQUE SPECIFICATIONS
TORQUE
FIG. NO.
ITEM NO.
PART NAME
Nm
lbf ft
1
15
Nut
260 - 270
190 - 200
1
17
Screw
440 - 520
320 - 380
1
32
Locknut
1 140 - 1 380
840 - 1 020
1
37
Bolt
230 - 260
170 - 190
1
42
Bolt
185 - 210
135 - 155
-
-
Differential-to-Banjo Nuts
300 - 320
220 - 240
*
12
*
*
*
SM 1778 3-99
REAR AXLE - Differential
Section 160-0020
SM - 2230
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
- RH Adjuster
- Bearing Cup
- Bearing Cone
- Plain Case
- Washer
- Side Gear
- Washer
- Spider Pinion Gear
- Spider
- Side Gear
- Washer
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
- Bolt
- Ring Gear
- Flanged Case
- Nut
- Lockwire
- Screw
- Washer
- Bearing Cap
- Cotter Pin
- Adjuster Locks
- Bushing
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
33
- LH Adjuster
- Bearing Cup
- Bearing Cone
- Carrier Housing
- Bearing
- Pinion Gear
- Inner Cone
- Inner Cup
- Washer
- Nut
- Yoke Flange
34
35
36
37
38
39
40
41
42
43
44
- Seal
- Outer Cone
- Outer Cup
- Bolt
- Lockwasher
- Bearing Cage
- Shim
- Lockwire
- Bolt
- Lockwire
- NoSPIN® Element
Fig. 1 - Exploded View of Typical Differential Assembly
DESCRIPTION AND OPERATION
Numbers in parentheses refer to Fig. 1.
The differential performs three functions; it multiplies
torque delivered by the driveline; it transmits this
torque to the axle shafts; and it allows the drive
wheels to rotate at different speeds.
When the vehicle is making a turn, one drive wheel
must travel a greater distance than the other. If the
wheels were connected by a single axle shaft, the
SM 1780 4-99
wheel turning the larger radius of the turn circle would
have to override the wheel making the shorter turn.
Thus, one wheel would have to skip or hop causing
tyre scuffing and strain on the power train.
The differential eliminates wheel skip by allowing
separate axle shafts inserted into side gears (6 & 10)
to rotate at different speeds as the drive wheels
rotate. Spider (9) and spider pinion gears (8) are
meshed with side gears (6 & 10). This assembly is
enclosed in plain case (4) and flanged case (14)
1
Rear Axle - Differential
Section 160-0020
which are bolted to ring gear (13). Thus, ring gear
(13), plain case (4) and flanged case (14) rotate as
an assembly when driven by input pinion gear (28).
However, side gears (6 & 10), into which each axle
shaft is inserted, are free to rotate independently
about spider pinion gears (8) with which they are
meshed. Therefore, as each drive wheel travels
through a different arc as the truck makes a turn,
side gears (6 & 10) rotate about spider pinion gears
(8) to provide the required differential action.
SM - 2176
REMOVAL
WARNINGS
To prevent personal injury and property
damage, be sure wheel chocks, blocking
materials and lifting equipment are properly
secured and of adequate capacity to do the job
safely.
A come-a-long or chain fall with a
minimum capacity of one ton is required for
removal and installation of a differential
assembly.
1. Position the vehicle in a level work area, apply the
parking brake and switch off the engine. Operate the
steering in both directions several times to relieve
any pressure in the steering system.
Fig. 2 - Typical Axle Shaft Removal
5. Remove the driving flange cover from each wheel.
Refer to Section 160-0040, PLANETARY GEARING.
6. Pull the axle shaft and sun pinion gear assembly of
each driving wheel at least 305 mm (12 in) out of the
wheel housing so that the inner axle shaft splines will
be disengaged from the splines of the differential side
gears (6 & 10). See Fig. 2.
2. Block all road wheels and place the battery master
switch in the 'Off' position.
7. Identify the relationship of the differential pinion
yoke flange (33) with that of the driveline companion
flange using punch marks.
3. Drain the lubricant from the differential banjo
housing and planetary assemblies.
8. Uncouple driveline at differential yoke flange (33),
then lower the driveline.
Note: When the differential is removed from the rear
drive axle housing, it may be necessary to raise the
frame above the drive axle housing to ensure proper
clearance between the differential carrier housing and
the frame crossmember. When the differential is
removed from the front axle housing, it will be
necessary to remove the main hydraulic valve
mounting bolts and raise the control valve (with
hoses connected) out of the way.
9. Install a suitable chain fall or come-a-long to the
differential assembly.
4. If required, use suitable lifting equipment to lift the
frame off the drive axle housing far enough to
facilitate removal of the differential without
interference, and block the frame securely in this
position.
12. Pull the differential assembly away from the banjo
until it clears the studs of the axle banjo housing, then
carefully lower the differential assembly.
2
10. Support the weight of the differential assembly
with suitable lifting device.
11. Remove mounting hardware which secures the
differential carrier housing (26) to the axle banjo
housing.
SM 1780 4-99
Rear Axle - Differential
Section 160-0020
SM - 2177
Fig. 3 - Removing Differential Assembly from Housing
SM - 096
Fig. 4 - Driving Out Pinion Bearing Cage
DISASSEMBLY
Pinion Cage Group
Numbers in parentheses refer to Fig. 1.
Note: Before disassembling, punch identifying marks
on pinion bearing cage (39) and carrier housing (26)
for assembly purposes.
WARNING
To prevent personal injury and property
damage, be sure lifting equipment is properly
secured and of adequate capacity to do the job
safely.
1. Make identifying punch marks on bearing caps
(19) and plain and flanged cases (4 & 14), so that the
bearing caps can be returned to their original position
in assembly.
2. Scribe an identifying line on the bearing adjusters
(1 & 23) and carrier housing (26) bores for correct
location of adjuster locks (21) during assembly.
3. Remove cotter pins (20) and locks (21) from
bearing caps (19). Remove lockwire (16), screws
(17) and washers (18) from bearing caps (19).
Remove bearing caps (19) and bearing adjusters
(1 & 23) from carrier housing (26).
4. Place a suitable rod through differential assembly
and attach suitable lifting equipment to the rod. Tilt
ring gear (13) away from pinion gear (28) and lift the
differential assembly out of carrier housing (26).
Refer to Fig. 3.
SM 1780 4-99
1. Remove bolts (37) and lockwashers (38) securing
pinion bearing cage (39) and shims (40) to carrier
housing (26).
2. With carrier housing (26) as shown in Fig. 4, drive
cage (39) assembly out of the housing. During this
operation, be careful not to let cage assembly fall on
yoke flange (33). Wire shims (40) together to aid in
'Assembly'.
3. Clamp yoke flange (33) in a soft-jawed vice with
bearing cage (39) assembly attached and remove nut
(32) from pinion gear (28) shaft. Drive the pinion gear
shaft out of the yoke.
4. Hold the pinion gear and cage assembly in both
hands with pinion gear (28) facing upward. Bump the
splined end of the pinion gear shaft against a block of
wood until bearing cage (39), containing outer cone
(35), outer cup (36), inner cup (30) and seal (34) fall
free of the pinion gear shaft.
5. Using a soft-jawed vice with the jaws opened
slightly wider than bearing cage (39) OD, place
bearing cage (39) in the vice so that the flange is
resting on top of the jaws with seal (34) facing
downward. Tap out outer bearing cup (36), outer
bearing cone (35) and seal (34) with a soft-faced
3
Rear Axle - Differential
Section 160-0020
hammer. Be careful not to damage the inside
machined surface of bearing cage (39) when
removing these components.
SM - 097
6. Invert bearing cage (39) in the vice and tap out
inner bearing cup (30).
Note: If the bearing races are still serviceable, wire
the cups and corresponding cones together for proper
mating in assembly. Bearing assembly is replaceable
as a unit only. If any component is defective, the
complete assembly must be replaced.
7. Remove washers (31) from pinion gear (28).
8. Using a bearing puller similar to that shown in
Fig. 5, remove pinion inner cone (29) from the splined
end of pinion gear (28) shaft.
Fig. 5 - Removing End Bearing
9. Remove the staked area on the end of pinion gear
(28) shaft, then with the aid of a bearing puller, see
Fig. 5, remove end bearing (27) from the stub end of
pinion gear (28) shaft.
SM - 2178
Differential and Ring Gear
1. Remove and tag bearing cups (2 & 24) from the
differential assembly.
2. Before separating, make identifying punch marks
on plain case (4) flanged case (14) and ring gear (13)
to show their relationship for assembly purposes.
Note: If the differential is equipped with the NoSPIN®
element (44), disregard Steps 3 thru 6 and remove
the NoSPIN® element (44) as described in
Section 160-0080, NOSPIN ELEMENT.
Fig. 6 - Removing Plain Case
3. Place the differential assembly on a bench so that
plain case (4) is facing upwards. Cut lockwire (41)
and remove bolts (42) from plain case (4). Lift plain
case (4) off flanged case (14). Refer to Fig. 6.
4. Remove thrust washer (5) and side gear (6), then
lift spider (9), spider pinion gears (8) and thrust
washers (7) out of flanged case (14).
5. Remove four thrust washers (7) from the spider
journals then separate the four spider pinion gears (8)
from spider (9).
6. Remove remaining side gear (10) and thrust
washer (11) from flanged case (14).
4
7. Remove bolts (12) and nuts (15) from ring gear
(13) and flanged case (14).
8. Turn flanged case (14) and ring gear (13)
assembly over on a block of wood approximately
50 mm (2 in) thick.
Note: Make sure that identifying marks are stamped
on the side of ring gear (13) and flanged case (14) for
assembly purposes.
9. Separate flanged case (14) from ring gear (13) by
tapping the edge of ring gear (13) with a soft-faced
hammer. See Fig. 7.
SM 1780 4-99
Rear Axle - Differential
Section 160-0020
SM - 095
Fig. 7 - Removing Ring Gear
10. Using a bearing puller, remove cone (3) from
plain case (4) and cone (25) from flanged case (14).
Match up cones with cups (2 & 24) previously
removed.
INSPECTION
Numbers in parentheses refer to Fig. 1.
The importance of careful and thorough inspection
cannot be stressed enough. Thorough inspection and
necessary replacement of parts now, may eliminate
costly and avoidable trouble later.
Note: If the differential is equipped with the NoSPIN®
element (44), refer to Section 160-0080, NOSPIN
ELEMENT for inspection of the NoSPIN®
components.
1. Clean all parts in a suitable solvent.
2. Immediately after cleaning, dry all parts, except
bearings, with compressed air, or lint-free cloth.
Bearings are better left to air dry, then inspected and
oiled thoroughly with gear lubricant for protection
from corrosion.
3. With the parts cleaned, coat parts immediately
with light oil to prevent corrosion. If parts are not to
be assembled immediately, treat them with a good
rust preventative and wrap them with treated paper or
other suitable material designed to prevent corrosion.
4. Replace all gaskets, 'O' rings and seals with new
parts.
5. Before installing the differential assembly to the
banjo, clean the inside and outside of the banjo
housing to remove any foreign material.
SM 1780 4-99
6. Inspect all gears, pinions and splines for cracked or
broken teeth, excessive wear, and pitted or scored
surfaces. Repair or replace as necessary.
Note: If either ring gear (13) or pinion gear (28) is
defective, both gears must be replaced, because they
are serviced only as a matched set. This set is
identified by a serial number on the OD of the ring
gear and outer face of the pinion gear. It is also
advisable to replace side gears (6 & 10) or spider
pinion gears (8) in matched sets only, because a
newer gear installed to operate in conjunction with an
older, worn gear tends to carry an uneven portion of
the load. This creates an excessive amount of stress
on the new gear.
7. Check for pitted, scored or worn thrust surfaces of
differential case halves, spider trunnions and thrust
washers. It is also advisable to replace thrust
washers in sets, as the use of a combination of old
and new washers may cause premature failure.
8. Inspect all housings (4, 14 & 26) and bearing cage
(39) for bore damage, cracks and wear. Replace as
necessary.
9. Check the amount of run-out on the machined
surfaces of bearing cage (39). The outer machined
surface on the hub of the bearing cage must be
concentric with the bearing cup bore within 0.05 mm
(0.002 in) total indicator reading (T.I.R.).
10. The machined mating surfaces of plain case (4)
and flanged case (14) must be square with the axis of
the cases within 0.05 mm (0.002 in) T.I.R.. The mating
diameters of the cases must also be concentric within
0.08 mm (0.003 in) T.I.R..
11. Check the depth that the bearing rollers have worn
into the wear surfaces. If the thrust face at the large
end of the roller, which is ground and polished, is
chipped or worn down to the centre area, or if the
separator has become worn enough to drag on the
cone, discard the bearing.
ASSEMBLY
Numbers in parentheses refer to Fig. 1.
WARNING
To prevent personal injury and property
damage, be sure lifting equipment is properly
secured and of adequate capacity to do the job
safely.
5
Rear Axle - Differential
Section 160-0020
Assembly of Differential and Ring Gear
1. Align identification marks that were made during
'Disassembly' on ring gear (13) and flanged case (14).
2. Install bolts (1) through ring gear (13) and flanged
case (14) and secure with nuts (15). Torque tighten
to 260 - 270 Nm (190 - 200 lbf ft), lubricated.
3. Press cone (3) on plain case (4) and press cone
(25) on flanged case (14).
4. Lubricate inner walls of flanged case (14), plain
case (4) and all component parts with gear lubricant.
Refer to Section 300-0020, LUBRICATION SYSTEM,
for proper lubricant.
Note: If the differential is equipped with the NoSPIN®
element (44), disregard Steps 5 thru 10 and install
the NoSPIN® element (44) as described in
Section 160-0080, NOSPIN ELEMENT.
5. Position thrust washer (11) in bore of flanged case
(14).
6. Install side gear (10) into thrust washer (11) and
flanged case (14).
7. Install pinions (8) and thrust washers (7) over
spider (9).
8. Lay complete spider assembly (7, 8 & 9) in pinion
grooves in face of flanged case (4).
9. Install side gear (6) and thrust washer (5) on
spider assembly (7, 8 & 9).
10. Assemble plain case (4) to ring gear (13) and
flanged case (14) assembly. Turn plain case (4) until
the mating mark made during disassembly lines up
with the mark made on flanged case (14) and tap into
place using a soft faced mallet.
SM - 661
TAIL BEARING INNER RACE
BEVEL
PINION
SHAFT
INSTALL TAIL BEARING INNER RACE AND STAKE
3 mm (0.12 in) DIA. INDENT, AS SHOWN
Fig. 8 - Staking Pinion Gear Tailshaft
Note: The bore of the inner race of the end bearing
(27) has a radius on one side and a chamfer on the
other. The bearing must be installed with the radius
toward the pinion gear teeth.
1. Press end bearing inner race (27) firmly against
pinion gear (28) stub shaft shoulder with a suitable
sleeve that will bear only on the inner bearing race.
Stake stub shaft in six places 0.15 mm (0.06 in) from
ID of inner race to hold the race securely in place, as
shown in Fig. 8.
2. Press inner cone (29) of pinion bearing assembly
against shoulder of the splined end of pinion gear
(28).
3. Install spacer (31) and two washers (32) on the
splined end of pinion gear (28), spacer first.
4. Press outer cup (36) into bearing cage (39). Invert
bearing cage and press inner cup (30) into bearing
cage, making certain that both cups are fully seated
in the bearing cage.
5. Lubricate cups (30 & 36) and cone (29) with gear
lubricant as specified in Section 300-0020,
LUBRICATION SYSTEM.
11. Install four bolts (42), equally spaced to secure
plain case (4) to flanged case (14).
6. Install pinion gear (28) shaft into bearing cage (39)
until inner cone (29) on the pinion shaft, is seated in
the inner cup (30) in the bearing cage.
12. Check assembly for free gear rotation and correct
if necessary. Install remaining bolts (42). Torque
tighten bolts (42) to 185 - 210 Nm (135 - 155 lbf ft).
Install lockwire (41) in bolts (42) and secure lockwire.
7. Lubricate outer cone (35) with gear lubricant.
Press outer cone (35) onto the splined end of pinion
gear (28) shaft until it seats into outer cup (36). DO
NOT install seal (34) at this time.
Assembly of Cage and Pinion
8. Position pinion gear (28) in a soft-jawed vice with
the splines upwards. Install yoke flange (33) on the
splines of pinion gear (28) shaft. Install nut (32) on
pinion shaft and torque tighten to 1 140 - 1 380 Nm
Note: During assembly and installation, make sure
that mated, punch-marked or otherwise identified
parts are returned to their original positions, if still
serviceable.
6
SM 1780 4-99
Rear Axle - Differential
Section 160-0020
SM - 2180
SM - 2179
Fig. 9 - Installing Yoke
(840 - 1 020 lbf ft). Tighten nut while rotating bearing
cage in both directions to ensure normal bearing
contact. Refer to Fig. 9.
9. If inner and outer cones (29 & 35) should start to
seize as nut (32) is being tightened, the assembly
must be taken apart enough to permit removal of
washers (31) and new washers which have a greater
total thickness, installed and reassembled as
described in Step 8.
10. With the bearings lightly oiled, there should be a
noticable drag or preload on the pinion bearings when
yoke nut (32) is tightened to the torque specified.
Note: The preload should be held within a torque
range of 2 -4 Nm (15 - 35 lbf in), lubricated.
11. To check pre-load torque, place pinion gear (28)
in a soft-jawed vice, yoke (33) up. Wrap several
turns of soft wire around body of cage (39) and form
a small loop at the free end. Insert the hook of a
suitable spring scale into the wire loop and pull on a
line tangent to the outer flange face. Refer to Fig. 10.
The scale reading should be taken while cage (39) is
being rotated. The starting torque may be higher and
therefore misleading, depending upon the tightness of
the bearings.
Fig. 10 - Checking Bearing Preload
The pull in Newtons (lbf) as indicated by the scale,
multiplied by the cage body radius in metres (inches)
(measured at the point where wire was wrapped)
equals the Newton metres - Nm (lbf in) of torque.
For example: if the cage body radius is 0.103 18 m
(4.0625 in) and the scale pull registered 40.03 N
(9 lbf), then 0.103 18 x 40.03 = 4.13 Nm
(4.0625 x 9 = 36.5625 lbf in) torque. This is 0.18 Nm
(1.56 lbf in) over the high limit. The bearing preload
would be too great.
If the preload is too much, use a combination of two
washers (31) that is thicker. If the preload is not
enough, use a combination of two washers that is
thinner.
Continue checking the preload and changing washers
as required until the proper fit of 2 - 4 Nm
(15 - 35 lbf in) is obtained, with the bearings and
washers under the full torque specified for nut (32).
12. Remove nut (32) and remove yoke (33) from
pinion gear (28). If any difficulty is experienced
removing the yoke use a suitable puller, DO NOT
hammer the yoke.
13. Install seal (34) into bearing cage (39).
14. Install yoke (33) on pinion gear (28) shaft.
SM 1780 4-99
7
Rear Axle - Differential
Section 160-0020
15. Install nut (32) on pinion gear (28) and torque
tighten nut to 1 140 - 1 380 Nm (840 - 1 020 lbf ft).
SM - 101
16. Remove wire from shim (40) pack and set shims
in place against flange of bearing cage (39).
17. Position bearing cage (39) and pinion gear (28)
assembly to carrier housing (26) assembly and
secure with bolts (37) and lockwashers (38). Torque
tighten to 230 - 260 Nm (170 - 190 lbf ft).
Ring Gear Assembly to Carrier Housing
Bearing adjusters (1 & 23) have two basic functions:
pre-loading bearings (2, 3 & 24, 25); and positioning
ring gear (13) to obtain the correct backlash between
the ring gear and pinion gear (28). See Fig. 11.
Bearing adjuster (23) located on the same side of
pinion gear (28) as ring gear (13), pushes the ring
gear toward the pinion gear. Bearing adjuster (1),
located on the opposite side of the drive pinion than
the ring gear, pushes the ring gear away from the
drive pinion. The ring gear assembly must be
installed onto carrier housing (26) so that side
bearings (2, 3 & 24, 25) are properly pre-loaded;
correct backlash exists between ring gear (13) and
pinion gear (28); and satisfactory tooth pattern is
established between ring gear and pinion gear.
These conditions can be obtained by using the
following procedures:
1. Install cups (2 & 24) on their respective cones
(3 & 25) and install ring gear (13) and differential
assembly on carrier housing (26). Make sure that
side bearing cups (2 & 24) are properly positioned on
side bearing cones (3 & 25). Install bearing caps (19)
over cups (2 & 24) then secure bearing caps to
differential housing with washers (18) and bolts (17).
Secure bolts snugly, but do not tighten them to torque
specifications at this time.
Note: Each bearing cap (19) is mated to carrier
housing (26), therefore, they must be returned to their
original positions by aligning the identification marks
made during 'Disassembly'.
2. Install bearing adjusters (1 & 23) in their
respective bearing caps (19).
3. Install a dial indicator on the assembly fixture as
shown in Fig. 11.
4. Loosen bearing adjuster (1) until one thread is
exposed. This is the adjuster on the same side as
ring gear (13) teeth.
8
Fig. 11 - Turning Bearing Adjuster to Set Backlash
5. Tighten bearing adjuster (23) until there is a zero
backlash on the dial indicator.
6. Rotate ring gear (13), checking backlash
clearances at various tooth sections. This will
determine any run-out or binding point that may exist
and also help seat the bearings. If a run-out condition
exists, the backlash must be adjusted from this point.
7. Loosen bearing adjuster (23) one notch and tighten
bearing adjuster (1) until bearing cup (2) is contacted.
Seat cup (2) by tightening and loosening adjuster (1)
two notches each way.
8. When bearing cup (2) is seated, locate the point
where adjuster (1) just contacts cup (2). From this
point continue to tighten adjuster (1) two or three
notches. Ring gear (13) should be positioned within
the specified 0.15 - 0.41 mm (0.006 - 0.016 in)
backlash.
9. When the proper backlash adjustment is reached,
the correct side bearing preload will be established.
10. Torque tighten bearing cap bolts (17) to
440 - 520 Nm (320 - 380 lbf ft), lubricated, and again
measure the ring gear backlash to make sure it is
still within the specified limits.
11. When a satisfactory backlash tolerance has been
established, check the gear tooth pattern as
described under the heading 'Adjustments'.
12. If gear tooth pattern is not correct, some
correction can be made by systematically loosening
and tightening bearing adjusters (1 & 23), as
previously described, but in every instance re-check
the backlash tolerance. If a favourable gear tooth
pattern cannot be established within the backlash
SM 1780 4-99
Rear Axle - Differential
Section 160-0020
tolerance, it will be necessary to alter, add or
remove, shims (40) between pinion cage assembly
(39) and carrier housing (26).
SM - 105
13. The procedures for keeping differential side
bearing pre-load, backlash and favourable gear tooth
pattern within specifications is strictly a 'try, check,
and try again' method.
14. After a satisfactory pre-load, backlash and gear
tooth pattern is obtained, make certain that pinion
bearing cage bolts (37) are torque tightened to
230 - 260 Nm (170 - 190 lbf ft). Again check backlash
tolerance and gear tooth pattern.
15. Install adjuster locks (21) and secure with cotter
pins (20).
Fig. 12 - Proper Tooth Contact
16. Install lockwire (16) in bearing cap bolts (17).
Each pair of bolts must be tied with lockwire (16).
The lockwire passes over the top of bearing cap (19)
and through the 'V' groove in adjuster locks (21).
SM - 106
ADJUSTMENTS
When adjusting a noisy differential that has been in
service for some time, more harm than good can
result. Changes in adjustment will frequently
concentrate the bearing area on a small portion of the
teeth which often results in failure. Therefore, it is
advisable to know exactly what the end result will be
before adjustments are made in an old differential.
Note: A rebuilt differential or one that has not worn
excessively may be adjusted as previously
described.
Fig. 13 - Insufficient Backlash
The following suggestions are offered to make gear
tooth pattern analysis and identification easier.
SM - 107
1. Paint twelve ring gear teeth with Prussian Blue,
oiled red lead, or some other easily removed paint or
dye. When the pinion is rotated, the paint is squeezed
away by the contact of the teeth, leaving bare areas
the exact size, shape and location of the contacts.
2. Make this check by rotating the ring gear
clockwise and counter-clockwise several times.
3. Gear tooth patterns can be interpreted by referring
to Figs. 12 thru 18.
A. If a contact pattern similar to that shown in Fig. 12
is obtained, the adjustment is correct.
B. If the contact area is on the inner side of the ring
SM 1780 4-99
Fig. 14 - Excessive Backlash
9
Rear Axle - Differential
Section 160-0020
gear teeth, see Fig. 13, move ring gear away from
pinion by turning bearing adjusters equal amounts
until the proper bearing pattern is obtained.
SM - 108
C. If the contact area is on the outer part of the ring
gear teeth, see Fig. 14, move ring gear toward pinion
by turning bearing adjusters equal amounts.
D. If the contact area is along the root of the ring gear
teeth, see Fig. 15, move the pinion out by adding
shims.
E. If the contact area is along the top edge of the ring
gear teeth, see Fig. 16, move the pinion in by
removing shims.
INSTALLATION
Fig. 15 - Pinion In Too Far - Add Shims
SM - 109
WARNINGS
To prevent personal injury and property
damage, be sure wheel chocks, blocking
materials and lifting equipment are properly
secured and of adequate capacity to do the job
safely.
A come-a-long or chain fall with a
minimum capacity of one ton is required for
removal and installation of a differential
assembly.
2. Position the differential assembly under the vehicle
in front of the banjo housing.
3. Install chain fall or come-a-long to a suitable lifting
device and lift the differential assembly and carefully
position it on the studs of the banjo housing.
10
SM - 110
MOVE GEAR IN THIS DIRECTION
FOR CORRECTION IN FIG. 13
MOVE GEAR IN THIS DIRECTION
FOR CORRECTION IN FIG. 15
1. Clean mating surfaces of the banjo and differential
assembly with a hydrocarbon solvent to remove dirt,
oil, grease, or other foreign matter. Wipe cleaned
surfaces dry. Apply a pliable non-hardening seal
material to the mounting surface of the banjo for a
leakproof seal. The seal is installed by pressing it in
place around the bolt circle on the banjo. The two
beads of the seal should be separated at each stud
and the seal slipped over the studs to make an
effective seal when the differential assembly is
bolted in place on the banjo.
Fig. 16 - Pinion Out Too Far - Remove Shims
MOVE GEAR IN THIS DIRECTION
FOR CORRECTION IN FIG. 16
Note: Tighten all fasteners without special torques
specified, to standard torques listed in
Section 300-0080, STANDARD BOLT AND NUT
TORQUE SPECIFICATIONS.
MOVE GEAR IN THIS DIRECTION
FOR CORRECTION IN FIG. 14.
Fig. 17 - Correct Movement for Adjustment
SM 1780 4-99
Rear Axle - Differential
Section 160-0020
4. Install the lockwashers, stud nuts and bolts on
differential assembly and torque tighten to
300 - 320 Nm (220 - 240 lbf ft).
5. Recouple the driveline to yoke (33), aligning marks
made at 'Removal'. Refer to Section 130-0010,
DRIVELINE.
7. Install the axle shafts, then install and secure the
driving flange cover to the wheels. Refer to
Section 160-0040, PLANETARY GEARING.
8. If removed, lower frame onto the drive axle
housing and install bolts and nuts securing the drive
axle to the frame.
9. Fill the drive axle, planetary reservoirs, and
differential with the proper grade and quantity of
lubricant specified in Section 300-0020,
LUBRICATION SYSTEM.
MAINTENANCE
Periodic Inspection
Inspect regularly the flange yoke mounting bolts,
pinion shaft nut, pinion cage and seal retainer bolts,
and differential stud nuts for tightness. Tighten the
stud nuts and flange bolts weekly until they 'set' or
show that they no longer need tightening. Keep the
nuts tight to reduce the possibility of differential or
driveline failure due to excessive vibration or wear.
Replace any mounting studs which have become
stripped or broken.
Jack up the drive axle to 'test run' the differential and
listen for noises which may indicate the need for
adjustment or replacement of worn parts. When doing
this, lift BOTH wheels off the ground. Both wheel
brakes should be free to allow both wheels to rotate
at approximately the same speed.
Note: Do not operate with only one wheel jacked up.
Excessive operation in this manner will overheat the
differential spider and cause galling or shearing of the
spider trunnions and bearings.
If differential is excessively noisy, it should be
removed from the banjo and disassembled for
inspection.
Lubrication
The differential is splash-lubricated with an extreme
pressure lubricant. The fill-level plug is located on the
rear of the banjo housing.
The differential should be checked and periodically
drained and filled to the bottom of the fill-level hole, or
to no more than 13 mm (1/2 in) below the fill level,
with new lubricant as recommended. Refer to
Section 300-0020, LUBRICATION SYSTEM. When
the lubricant is drained, remove any chips of steel
particles that may be attached to the magnetic drain
plug located in the bottom of the banjo housing.
After draining and refilling an axle, the planetary
gearing should be checked after 10 hours of
operation.
1. Check the level in planetaries at oil level plug. If
the oil level is low, add oil. This check point is a
minimum check point only. If the oil level is above the
check point, do not drain off oil.
2. Add oil if needed. The oil level is correct when oil
flows from the lube level check plug in the banjo.
These checks should be made every 10 hours until
oil level in the differential is maintained.
DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS
Noises and vibrations originating in the tyres,
transmission, planetaries and drivelines are easily
transmitted and may be erroneously attributed to the
differential. Therefore all possible sources of noise
should be investigated before the differential is taken
apart.
Differential noises may be located by jacking up both
drive axles of the machine so that the tyres are clear
of the ground, then run the power train in a high gear
at a moderate engine speed. Be sure to jack up all
wheels of the drive axles to prevent damage to the
differentials.
Whenever noises such as grating or rattle are heard
coming from the differential, stop the machine
immediately. One tooth from a gear can cause
damage to all gears and bearings. When the
differential is definitely at fault, pull the drive axles
before moving the machine. Refer to
Section 160-0040, PLANETARY GEARING.
Note: If the differential is equipped with the NoSPIN®
element (44) in place of the spider, spider gears and
side gears, refer to Section 160-0080, NOSPIN
ELEMENT for diagnosis of the NoSPIN® element.
SM 1780 4-99
11
Rear Axle - Differential
Section 160-0020
SPECIAL TOOLS
and general service tools required. These tools are
available from your dealer.
Refer to Section 300-0070, SERVICE TOOLS, for
part numbers of special tools outlined in this section
DIAGNOSIS CHART
CONDITION
REASON
REMEDY
Vibration
Broken gear teeth
Excessive run-out of pinion or
flanged case
Bearing worn
Gears damaged or worn
Ring and pinion gear adjustment tight
Bearing damaged
Loose ring and pinion gear adjustment
Excessive pinion gear end play
Worn spider gears or side gears
Worn or damaged spider bushings
Oil seals worn
Loose nuts
Cracked housing
Replace damaged gear
Disassemble, correct or replace faulty part
Continual noise
Noise on drive
Noise on coast
Noise on turns
Loss of lubricant
Replace worn parts
Replace gears
Adjust
Replace bearings
Adjust gears
Adjust
Replace gears
Replace bushings
Replace seal
Tighten nuts to correct torque
Repair or replace housing
SPECIAL TORQUE SPECIFICATIONS
TORQUE
FIG. NO.
ITEM NO.
PART NAME
Nm
lbf ft
1
15
Nut
260 - 270
190 - 200
1
17
Screw
440 - 520
320 - 380
1
32
Locknut
1 140 - 1 380
840 - 1 020
1
37
Bolt
230 - 260
170 - 190
1
42
Bolt
185 - 210
135 - 155
-
-
Differential-to-Banjo Nuts
300 - 320
220 - 240
*
12
*
*
*
SM 1780 4-99
REAR AXLE - Axle Planetary Gearing
Section 160-0040
SM- 3177
4
6 10
3
9
10
5
12
6
11
13
16
OIL
L
LEVE
17
7
2
8
9
1
9
15
14
18
1
2
3
4
5
- Internal Ring Gear
- Thrust Washer
- Lockwire
- Bolt
- Retainer
6
7
8
9
10
-
21
20
19
Washer
Snap Ring
Sun Gear
Planet Gears
Pinion Bearings
11
12
13
14
15
- Pin
- 'O' Ring
- Driving Flange & Planetary Carrier
- Plug
- Bolt
16 - Gasket
17 - Cover
18 - Shaft
19 - Snap Ring
20 - Bolt
21 - Hardened washer
Fig. 1 - Exploded View of Typical Planetary Assembly
DESCRIPTION
The planetary assemblies are located in the outer
portion of the wheels to provide final torque
multiplication at the wheels. This allows greater portion
of engine power to be transferred to the wheel to move
larger payloads. The planetary assembly consists of an
axle shaft, sun gear, planet pinions, ring gear and
planetary carrier.
To determine the amount of torque multiplication
provided by this type of gear set, divide the number of
teeth in the ring gear by the number of teeth in the sun
gear and add 1. For example, a ring gear of 30 teeth
and a sun gear of 10 teeth should produce a torque
multiplication of 4.
PLANETARY GEARING
OPERATION
Towing
Numbers in parentheses refer to Fig. 2, unless
otherwise stated.
Numbers in parentheses refer to Fig. 1.
Power from the differential is transmitted through full
floating axle shaft (1) to sun gear (2) which is splined to
the axle shaft. As sun gear (2) rotates in a clockwise
direction, the planet pinions (3) meshed with the sun
gear, rotate in a counterclockwise direction on pins (11,
Fig. 1). Ring gear (4) is splined to the spindle and does
not rotate but causes planet pinions (3) which are
meshed wish the ring gear, to move around ling gear
(4) in the direction of arrow (A). Driving flange (5)
assembly contains the planet pinions and is bolted to
the wheel. Movement of the planet pinions (3) in the
direction of arrow (A) causes the driving flange and
wheel to rotate in a clockwise direction. This causes
the machine to move in the direction shown by arrow
(B) in Fig. 2.
SM 1779 Rev1 04-04
If the machine is to be towed, as in the case of a
breakdown, axle shaft (18) and sun gear (8) should be
removed from the planetary assemblies.
Removal will prevent possible damage to the power
train components during towing.
The axle shafts and sun gears can be removed easily
by taking off driving flange cover (17) and simply
sliding the axle shaft, together with the sun gear, out of
each planetary assembly by hand. Be certain the
driving flange covers are installed to protect the
planetary assemblies from road dust and dirt while
towing is in progress.
1
Rear Axle - Axle Planetary Gearing
Section 160-0040
SM - 2182
Removal and Disassembly
Numbers in parentheses refer to Fig. 1.
WARNING
Heavy assembly. To prevent personal injury
and property damage, be sure lifting device is
of sufficient capacity and properly secured to
do the job safely.
1. Position the vehicle in a level work area, apply the
parking brake and switch off the engine.
2. Turn the steering wheel in both directions several
times to relieve pressure in the steering system. Place
the battery master switch in the 'Off' position.
3. Using suitable equipment, jack or lift the machine
until the weight is no longer resting on the tyres and
block machine in this position.
1 - Axle Shaft
2 - Sun Gear
3 - Planet Pinion
4 - Ring Gear
5 - Driving flange
Note: It is not necessary to remove the tyre assembly
of this machine to safely remove the driving flange.
4. Drain lubricant from planetary gear reservoir by
turning wheel until drain plug (14) is in lowest point of
travel and remove plug.
Fig. 2 - Typical Planetary Operation
SM - 2176
5. Remove bolts (15), cover (17) and gasket (16) from
planetary assembly. Discard gasket (16).
6. Pull out sun gear (8) and axle shaft (18). Remove
sun gear from axle shaft by removing snap ring (19)
and sliding off gear. Remove thrust washer (2) from
axle shaft. Ring gear (1) may be removed, if
necessary, by removing snap ring (7), after removing
planetary carrier (13).
7. The driving flange and planetary gear assembly (13)
can now be pulled from the wheel by removing thread
protectors and threading bolts into exposed holes. A
hoist should be used, as shown in Fig. 4, to support
the assembly during removal. Remove bolts (20) and
hardened washers (21) and remove the planetary
assembly.
Fig. 3 - Removing Typical Sun Gear and Axle Shaft
2
8. Remove and discard 'O' ring (12) and place planetary
assembly on a clean work surface with gear side up.
Remove lockwire (3) and bolts (4) from pinion pin
retainers (5). Remove pin retainers (5). The planet pins
(11) may be removed by threading bolts into their end
holes and lifting out. Recover the washers (6), planet
gears (9) and bearings (10) as the pins are removed.
SM 1779 Rev1 04-04
Rear Axle - Axle Planetary Gearing
Section 160-0040
SM - 237
Fig. 4 - Removing Planetary Assembly
SM - 238
Fig. 5 - Measuring Dimension 'A'
Inspection
SM - 239
Numbers in parentheses refer to Fig. 1.
Thoroughly clean all the parts with suitable solvent and
air dry. Inspect all parts for damage or excessive wear.
In addition, check pinion bearings (10) for free fit in
gears (9) and on planet pins (11). Replace any parts
which are in questionable condition.
The planet pinion wear washers (6) also should be
inspected to see that they are free of burrs, and
absolutely flat. These washers must rest solidly
against the spot-faced surfaces of the driving flange
and planetary carrier.
Assembly and Installation
Numbers in parentheses refer to Fig. 1.
WARNING
Heavy assembly. To prevent personal injury
and property damage, be sure lifting device is
of sufficient capacity and properly secured to
do the job safely.
Note: Tighten all fasteners without special torques
specified, to standard torques listed in
Section 300-0080, STANDARD BOLT AND NUT
TORQUE SPECIFICATIONS.
1. Build up the driving flange assembly in the following
manner. Lay driving flange (13) gear side up, on a
clean surface. Thoroughly oil bearings (10) and slide
bearings planet gears (9). Place a washer (6), planet
gear (9) and another washer (6) in line with each pinion
SM 1779 Rev1 04-04
Fig. 6 - Measuring Dimension 'B'
bore. Oil pins (11) with light oil and slide into their
respective bores. Make sure they are firmly seated.
Secure pins (11) in place with retainers (5) and bolts
(4), then lockwire (3) bolts (4). Check the pinion gears
for free rotation. If these gears bind, look for dirt or
metal chips between the washer of driving flange and
carrier.
2. Install ring gear (1), if removed, and secure with
snap ring (7). Position thrust washer (2) in bore at end
of spindle and tap in place.
3. Install new 'O' ring (12) in its groove in driving flange
(13); then place the planetary assembly in position on
the wheel. Mesh planet gears (9) with ring gear (1) and
push the planetary assembly into place. Install bolts
(20) and hardened washers (21).
4. If sun gear (8) was removed during 'Disassembly',
slide sun gear over splines of axle shaft (18) and install
snap ring (19). Insert axle shaft into the spindle and
3
Rear Axle - Axle Planetary Gearing
Section 160-0040
sure to reinstall any thread protectors (14) which have
been removed.
banjo housing, pushing the shaft part way into the
differential side gear. Mesh the sun gear with ring gear
and pinions.
MAINTENANCE
5. Push axle shaft (18) and sun gear (8) inward as far
as they will go. With a steel rule and straight edge,
measure from cover (17) mounting surface on driving
flange (13) to axle shaft (18). Note as dimension 'A'.
See Fig. 5.
Proper lubrication of the axle group is essential if axles
are to deliver the service intended. Section
300-0020, LUBRICATION SYSTEM gives full
information on the proper lubrication intervals and the
lubricant which should be used.
6. Next, lay the driving flange cover (17) on flat surface
and again use a straight edge and steel rule to
measure the height of the inside raised surface of the
cover (17). Note as dimension 'B'. See Fig. 6.
Subtract dimension 'B' from dimension 'A' the clearance
should be within 3.58 - 5.11 mm (0.141 - 0.201 in).
Note: If the end play is too small, the axle shaft is not
pushed completely into the differential side gear. If the
end play is greater then the allowable maximum, either
the axle shaft end or the driving flange thrust cover, or
both are excessively worn. To correct this, replace the
cover first. If the end play is still too great, a new axle
shaft must be installed.
7. Reinstall drain plug (14) and fill the planetary
reservoir with lubricant specified in Section 300-0020,
LUBRICATION SYSTEM, through the driving flange
opening until the correct level is reached. Spread
sealing compound on surface of cover (17) which
contacts driving flange (13). Position new gasket (16)
and install cover on driving flange using bolts (15). Be
AXLE DIAGNOSIS
Noises originating in the tyres, transmission or driveline
might be attributed by mistake to the axle. Therefore,
all possible sources of noise should be investigated
before deciding the axle is at fault.
True axle noises may be located by lifting or jacking
machine until all tyres of drive wheels are clear of the
floor or ground. Securely block machine in this
position. Run power train at moderate speed. Be
certain all drive wheel tyres are off the ground and to
prevent damage to the differential, see that neither rear
brake drags.
SPECIAL TOOLS
Refer to Section 300-0070, SERVICE TOOLS, for part
numbers of special tools outlined in this section and
general service tools required. These tools are
available from your dealer.
AXLE DIAGNOSIS
TABLE189
CONDITION
REASON
REMEDY
Noise
Insufficient or incorrect lubricant
Check level; fill with proper type and
grade lubricant
Wheel bearings scored or rough
Replace bearings
Gear teeth in planetary chipped
Replace gear
Lubricant level too high
Drain and fill to proper level
Lubricant foams excessively
Drain and fill with correct type and
grade lubricant
Worn or broken oil seal
Replace oil seal
Restricted breather vent
Clean vents
Loose nuts or bolts
Tighten nuts or bolts
Gain of lubricant
Restricted differential housing vent
Clean vent
Planetaries running hot
Insufficient or incorrect lubricant
Check level; fill with proper type and
grade of lubricant
Pinion bearings seized
Replace bearings
Loss of lubricant
*
4
*
*
*
SM 1779 Rev1 04-04
REAR AXLE GROUP - Wheel Rim and Tyre
Section 160-0050
SM - 2168
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
- Snap Ring
- Seal
- Washer
- Bearing Cone
- Bearing Cup
- Wheel
- Hardened Washer
- Bolt
- Bearing Cone
- Spindle Nut
- Capscrew
- Valve Assembly
13
14
15
16
17
18
- Core
- Valve Cap
- Flange
- 'O' Ring
- Bead Seat Band
- Lock Ring
Fig. 1 - Exploded View of Wheel and Rim Assembly
DESCRIPTION AND OPERATION
The wheel and rim is of welded construction and
consists of a hub assembly, inner and outer flange,
'O' ring, bead seat band and lock ring. The wheel is
mounted on the axle spindle with two tapered roller
bearings mounted in the hub.
The tyre and rim may be removed from the machine
as an assembly and transported to a more suitable
location for removing the tyre from the rim.
Procedures for removing tyre and rim assembly from
machine, and dismounting tyre from rim, the use of
hand, hydraulic, and special tools, are described in this
section.
When dismounting a tyre and rim assembly from the
machine, special equipment and careful handling are
required because of the size and weight of the tyres.
SM 1721 Rev1 03-05
One of the following pieces of hoisting equipment
should be used to lift the tyre and rim: chain block and
tackle, overhead crane, fork lift truck, boom truck, or
tripod tyre changing tool.
PREPARATION FOR SERVICING
WARNING
Before performing any service on the tyres or
rim components, to prevent personal injury and
property damage, completely deflate the tyre by
removing the valve cap and core. Insert a thin
wire through valve to be sure valve is not
plugged. Even a flat tyre, in some cases, will
retain sufficient air pressure to blow off a rim
component with enough force to cause bodily
injury or death.
1
Rear Axle Group - Wheel Rim and Tyre
Section 160-0050
DISMOUNTING TYRE FROM RIM
Numbers in parentheses refer to Fig. 1, unless
otherwise specified.
9. Move the first pry bar around wheel rim, twisting and
following with the second pry bar, until the outer tyre
bead is loose.
Note: The following instructions apply to use of hand
tools. For procedures and tooling required to dismount
the tyre from the rim using hydraulic tools, contact the
relevant tyre manufacturer.
10. Pry bead seat band (17) away from lock ring (18)
by placing hooked end of pry bar in the groove of
wheel (6), between ends of lock ring (18), and prying
up with the pry bar. Using two pry bars, as in Step 8,
work completely around wheel (6).
WARNINGS
To prevent personal injury and property
damage, be sure wheel blocks, blocking
materials and lifting equipment are properly
secured and of adequate capacity to do the job
safely.
11. Pry lock ring (18) out in the same manner by
starting at prying notch in wheel (6) assembly, and
work all the way around wheel (6) with two pry bars.
When lifting tyre from the rim, be sure the
equipment is of sufficient capacity and
properly secured to do the job safely.
1. Position the vehicle in a level work area, apply the
parking brake and shutdown the engine. Operate the
steering in both directions several times to relieve any
pressure in the steering system.
2. Block all road wheels, except the one to be raised,
and place the battery master switch in the 'Off'
position.
12. Remove and discard 'O' ring (16).
13. Remove lock ring (18) then pry out and remove
bead seat band (17). Outer fange (15) may now be
removed.
14. Breaking slots are provided inside the rims. The
inner bead may be broken as described in Steps 4
through 8. If the tyre and rim assembly is on the
vehicle, the following procedure may be used for
breaking the inner bead.
15. Place jack between inner flange (15) and vehicle
SM - 205
3. For tyre to be removed, set up jack to support
machine weight, but do not raise machine.
4. Completely deflate tyre by removing valve cap and
valve core and leave valve open to prevent trapping of
air in tyre. Check valve stem by running a piece of wire
through the stem to make sure it is not plugged. See
warning under 'Preparation For Servicing'. Tape valve
threads for protection.
Fig. 2 - Pry Bar
SM - 206
5. Break outer tyre bead loose with pry bar shown in
Fig. 2.
6. Insert flat hooked end of pry bar into breaking slots
between bead seat band (17) and outer flange (15).
See Fig. 3. A pipe over the straight end of the pry bar
will increase leverage.
7. Twist pry bar toward tyre to break bead.
8. A second pry bar may be inserted in the space
between bead seat band (17) and outer flange (15).
Twist the second pry bar to maintain the space gained
by the first pry bar.
2
Fig. 3 - Breaking Typical Tyre Bead
SM 1721 Rev1 03-05
Rear Axle Group - Wheel Rim and Tyre
Section 160-0050
frame. Extend jack until tyre bead is broken. Continue
around the rim until tyre bead is broken at all points.
16. Using suitable lifting equipment, remove tyre from
rim. This completes the removal of the tubeless tyre.
17. If necessary, remove inner flange (15).
Note: If tyre rim is on the vehicle, and no tyre lifting
equipment is available, 'walk' the tyre off the rim as
follows:
Force bottom of tyre outward as far as possible; lower
jack enough to allow weight of tyre to rest on ground;
force top of tyre out as far as possible; raise jack to
original height and repeat the above until the tyre is off
the rim.
INSPECTION
Tyre
Check the interior surface of the tyre to determine its
condition. Inspect for cuts or fabric breaks that have
penetrated the tyre body. The casing should be
inspected closely for any sharp , pointed object that
may have penetrated the tyre body but is invisible from
the outside. All dust, dirt, water or other foreign matter
should be cleaned from the inside of tyre.
Wheel Assembly
Overloading, improper tyre inflation, rough terrain, high
speed, accidents, dirt accumulation, and corrosion all
tend to reduce the service life of rims and rim
components. It is recommended that rims be
inspected, as below, not less often than at every tyre
change and that, as the warranty limit approaches,
consideration be given to periodic replacement.
The wheel and its components are designed with builtin safety factors, to prevent the components from
flying off with killing force during inflation. Check
components for cracks, bends, distortion, or other
damage. If damage is found, the component must be
replaced.
WARNING
Never mix components of one manufacturer's
rims with those of another. Using the rim base
of one manufacturer with the lock ring of
another or vice versa is dangerous. The lock
ring of one may not fully engage with the lock
ring groove of the other. Always consult the
rim manufacturer for proper matching and
assembly instructions. Also, use and servicing
of damaged, worn out, or improperly
assembled rim assemblies is a very dangerous
practice. Failure to comply with the above
warnings could result in explosions from tyre
pressure causing serious personal injury and
property damage.
Clean all rust and dirt from the wheel parts and wheel
and apply a coat of good grade primer paint. Allow the
paint to dry thoroughly before remounting tyre.
The rim parts used with tubeless tyres form an
important part of the air chamber. Therefore, they
should be carefully checked for distortion or mutilation
that would prevent an effective air seal when the tyre
and rim are reassembled.
Rubber 'O' rings are air seals for tubeless tyre and rim
assemblies and therefore should be carefully handled
to provide an airtight seal when the tyre is remounted
on the rim. Always use new 'O' rings when mounting a
tubeless tyre.
Note: Handle 'O' rings carefully, as damage will prevent
an airtight seal for tyre inflation.
MOUNTING TYRE ON RIM
Numbers in parentheses refer to Fig. 1, unless
otherwise specified.
For mounting a tyre with rim on or off machine, the
procedure is basically the same.
WARNING
When lifting tyre onto the rim, be sure the
equipment is of sufficient capacity and properly
secured to do the job safely.
1. For off-machine installation, lay wheel (6) on blocks
or mounting stand with 'O' ring groove up. Wheel (6)
should be off the floor enough to allow tyre to rest on
rim and not the floor. Blocks are not to extend more
than 13 mm (0.50 in) beyond rim base.
SM 1721 Rev1 03-05
3
Rear Axle Group - Wheel Rim and Tyre
Section 160-0050
2. If removed, install inner flange (15) over wheel (6).
SM - 207
3. Lubricate tyre beads and new 'O' ring (16), with a
thin solution of vegetable base soap and water.
4. Using suitable lifting equipment, lower tyre onto
wheel (6). Seat tyre firmly against inner flange (15).
5. Install outer flange (15) on wheel (6).
6. Align lock ring driver notch in bead seat band (17)
with notch in wheel (6) rim, and install bead seat band
on rim.
7. Install lock ring (18) in groove of wheel (6) rim so
that lock ring lug engages both notches. Notches and
lock ring lug must line up correctly. If necessary, use
only a soft hammer to rotate the lug. Use pry bar for
installing lock ring (18), as shown in Fig. 4.
1 - Lock Ring
2 - Drive Lug
Fig. 4 - Installing Typical Lock Ring
8. Force bead seat band (17) past 'O' ring groove in
wheel (6) rim by prying, or with lift truck forks. Use
blocking between the forks and tyre to prevent
damage. Insert a new 'O' ring (16) in groove of the rim
behind lock ring (18). Lubricate area of front taper of
bead seat band (17) adjacent to 'O' ring (16), with a
thin solution of soap and water or another approved
lubricant which is not harmful to rubber. Avoid using an
excessive amount of lubricant.
WARNING
To prevent personal injury and property
damage, completely deflate tyre by removing
the valve cap and core. Insert a thin wire
through valve to be sure valve is not plugged.
Even a flat tyre, in some cases, will retain
sufficient air pressure to blow off a rim
component with enough force to cause injury
or death.
9. Lift the tyre upwards to effect a seal between bead
seat band (17) and 'O' ring (16). In some cases the
tyre will automatically spring out, making this step
unnecessary. When mounting tyre on wheels installed
on machine, use a length of cable around tyre and a
'come-a-long' to seal tyre to the bead seat band (17).
1. Position the vehicle in a level work area, apply the
parking brake and switch off the engine. Operate the
steering in both directions several times to relieve any
pressure in the steering system.
10. Install the valve core (13) in the valve assembly
(12). Refer to heading, 'Tyre Inflation' in this section for
the proper procedure for inflating the tyre.
WHEEL
Removal and Disassembly
Numbers in parentheses refer to Fig. 1.
WARNING
To prevent personal injury and property
damage, be sure wheel blocks, blocking
materials and lifting equipment are properly
secured and of sufficient capacity to do the job
safely.
4
2. Place battery master switch in the 'Off' position and
block all road wheels, except the one to be raised.
3. Release parking brake.
4. Deflate tyre completely, and remove the tyre and
rim assembly from the wheel. Follow instructions
under 'Dismounting Tyre from Rim'.
5. Drain differential and planetary gear lubricant and
remove planetary gear assembly from the wheel.
Refer to Section 160-0040, PLANETARY GEARING.
6. Remove locking capscrews (11) from spindle nut
(10). Attach fishtail assembly (See Special Tools) to
wheel assembly (6) with a bolt removed from the
planetary assembly.
7. Install a tool, which can be fabricated as shown in
Fig. 5, across wheel assembly and secure to wheel (6)
SM 1721 Rev1 03-05
Rear Axle Group - Wheel Rim and Tyre
Section 160-0050
SM - 2169
2. Clean bearings in volatile mineral spirits and wipe
dry with a lint free cloth. Lubricate lightly with light oil
and spin by hand, to check for wear and roughness.
Replace with new bearings if excessively worn, or if
operation is rough or noisy.
3. Inspect all machined surfaces of all parts for
scoring, pitting, corrosion and burring. Resurface or
replace with new parts as necessary.
4. Inspect all threaded components, and repair or
replace as necessary.
5. Discard seal (2) and replace with a new one.
Fig. 5 - Typical Fabricated Wheel Tool
with a bolt removed from the planetary assembly.
8. Apply a suitable wrench to the fabricated tool and
rotate wheel assembly (6) to back off spindle nut (10).
9. With suitable lifting equipment, pull wheel assembly
(6) off of spindle, taking care to prevent damage to
spindle threads. Remove outer bearing cone (9) from
wheel assembly (6) to prevent it from dropping as the
wheel is drawn from the spindle.
Note: Brake drum is bolted to the inner face of wheel
assembly (6). When wheel assembly (6) is removed,
the brake drum will also be removed.
10. If brake drum is to be separated from wheel (6),
remove mounting hardware and drum to separate
these parts.
11. Remove snap ring (1) from wheel (6). Remove
seal (2), washer (3) and bearing cone (4) from wheel
(6).
12. If required, drive out inner and outer bearing cups
(5) from wheel (6), using a soft drift and drive.
Note: Bearing cups and cones must always be
replaced as a matched set, never separately.
Inspection
1. Thoroughly clean all metal components, except
bearing cones, in a suitable solvent. Dry with
compressed air and coat all threaded components with
light oil to facilitate assembly.
SM 1721 Rev1 03-05
6. Oil seal (2) rides on a special bushing which is
shrunk on the axle spindle to provide a smooth contact
surface for the seal. If after removal of the wheel the
bushing is found to be rough or worn, remove it by
splitting with a chisel and install a new bushing. Heat
the new bushing to 177° C (350° F) in oil to expand it
for installation. If oil heating equipment is not available,
heat the bushing evenly to 177° C (350° F). Use a
Templistik or other temperature gauge to make sure
the bushing is hot enough. Slide heated bushing on
spindle and tap lightly with a hammer to seat it.
Assembly and Installation
Numbers in parentheses refer to Fig. 1.
Note: Tighten all fasteners without special torques
specified, to standard torques listed in
Section 300-0080, STANDARD BOLT AND NUT
TORQUE SPECIFICATIONS.
WARNINGS
To prevent personal injury and property
damage, be sure wheel blocks, blocking
materials and lifting equipment are properly
secured and of sufficient capacity to do the job
safely.
Be sure to use a soft drift and take care
when driving in bearing cups with a drift, to
avoid personal injury from chips or fragments.
1. If removed, install bearing cups (5) in their
respective wheel bearing bores with care to avoid
damaging their raceways. Installation by press fit at
ambient temperature is best. Note that the cups must
seat fully against the shoulders of the cup bores in the
wheel hub to assure retention of bearing adjustment. If
5
Rear Axle Group - Wheel Rim and Tyre
Section 160-0050
carbon dioxide, or dry ice, freezing of the cup is used,
remember to permit the cup and hub to warm to
ambient temperature after insertion and then to tap
them with a soft steel drift and hammer to seat.
2. Lubricate inner bearing cone (4) with lubricant
specified in Section 300-0020, LUBRICATION
SYSTEM and install in wheel (6). Place washer (3) on
bearing, drive or press new seal (2) into position, and
install snap ring (1). Install seal with lip towards
bearing. Apply a light coat of gear oil to seal lips and
special seal bushing on spindle.
Note: If new 'Buna' seal is used, be sure it is installed
in thewheel bore with the dirt seal (square lip) toward
the machine frame. Pack seal valley with EP grease.
Install snap ring (1).
3. If removed, install brake drum on wheel (6) and
secure with mounting hardware as removed at
'Removal'. Make sure brake drum and wheel (6) are
clean where they contact each other, so that the drum
will run true.
10. Start the wheel rotating and torque tighten spindle
nut (10) to 740 Nm (550 lbf ft).
Note: Always rotate wheel when tightening spindle nut
(4), see Section 160-0050, WHEEL, RIM AND TYRE,
'Bearing Adjustment', for explanation.
11. Secure spindle nut (10) with screws (11).
12. Install planetary gear assembly and fill planetary
and differential assemblies with lubricant specified in
Section 300-0020, LUBRICATION SYSTEM. Refer to
Section 160-0040, PLANETARY GEARING.
13. Install tyre on wheel as described under 'Mounting
Tyre on Wheel'.
TYRE INFLATION
4. Wrap spindle threads carefully with masking tape to
protect the seal and threads. With suitable lifting
equipment slide wheel (6) and drum assembly onto the
spindle carefully to avoid damaging spindle threads.
Remove protective tape from spindle threads.
WARNING
To prevent personal injury and property
damage, the tyre and rim assembly should be
placed in a safety cage before inflating. If no
safety cage is available or tyre is on the
machine, the tyre and rim assembly should be
wrapped with safety chains or with lash cables
before inflating.
5. Lubricate outer bearing cone (9) with lubricant
specified in Section 300-0020, LUBRICATION
SYSTEM. Install outer bearing cone (9) on spindle and
seat in outer bearing cup (5).
Even with these precautions remember that
air-blast is a potential hazard. Tyre inflation
should be carried out away from busy working
areas.
6. Apply a smear of oil or grease to the threads of
spindle and install spindle nut (10) on spindle. Make
sure nut turns freely for full thread length. If nut binds,
either replace with new nut or chase the threads so
nut will turn freely.
WARNING
To avoid personal injury and property damage,
never stand or sit in front of a mounted tyre
during tyre inflation. Use a clip-on air chuck
with a long hose and stand to one side while
the tyre is being inflated.
7. Attach fishtail assembly (See Special Tools) to
wheel (6) assembly and fabricated tool assembly
across wheel (6) assembly, as described during
disassembly.
8. Rotate wheel (6) assembly and tighten spindle nut
(10) to a seating torque of 1 360 Nm (1 000 lbf ft), or
until wheel starts to bind, while rotating and bumping
wheel (6) assembly to ensure adequate seating of the
wheel bearings.
9. Back off spindle nut (10) until the wheel turns freely
(approximately 1/2 turn).
6
WARNING
To prevent personal injury and property
damage, always prevent flammable vapours
that could produce tyre explosions, from being
pumped into tyres during inflation, by
observing the following precautions:
A.
Use an air compressor and reservoir located
inside a heated building, when available, so
that alcohol, methanol, or other flammable
antifreeze liquids are not needed in the air
tanks to prevent moisture freezing in the tank
and lines in subfreezing outside temperatures.
SM 1721 Rev1 03-05
Rear Axle Group - Wheel Rim and Tyre
Section 160-0050
SM - 208
B.
Make sure that paints, lacquers, paint thinners,
or similar materials that produce volatile,
flammable vapours are not used or stored near
the air intake of the compressor that supplies
the air for inflating tyres. The compressor
should be isolated from all such sources of
flammable vapours.
C.
Be sure to thoroughly flush and blow off all
flammable solvents used for cleaning the air
compressor inlet screen before using the
compressor for tyre inflation, or any other
purpose.
D.
Do not charge batteries, either in or out of a
machine, near the air inlet of a compressor
used for inflating tyres. Charging batteries
produces highly explosive hydrogen gas
which can be readily drawn into a nearby
compressor inlet and pumped into the tyre.
E.
Never exceed the specified concentration of
alcohol when adjusting the alcohol vaporizer,
or adding alcohol to the auxiliary air tank, used
on machine air systems to prevent freezing or
moisture condensate in below-freezing
temperatures. Excessive alcohol, added to the
machines air tanks in this manner can produce
flammable vapours that will be pumped into a
tyre when this air supply is used for tyre
inflation if the tyre inflation kit is not equipped
with a moisture filter. Alcohol added to
machine air systems in recommended
concentration to prevent condensate freezing
are below hazardous levels for tyre inflation.
F.
Another source of hazardous flammable
vapours in tyres is the tyre bead lubricant.
Always use bead lubricants that do not
introduce flammable vapours into the tyre.
Inflation
Note: Always use tyre inflation equipment with an air
filter that removes moisture from the air supply, when
available, to prevent moisture corrosion of internal rim
parts.
1. Inflate tyre to 1 bar (15 lbf/in²) initially to seat
components and tap lock ring lightly to ensure correct
SM 1721 Rev1 03-05
Fig. 6 - Typical Safety Cage
seating. Visually check that all components are in
place, then continue inflation observing all safety
precautions. (See Step 2).
2. If the tyre is off the machine, place it in a safety
cage after initially inflating to 1 bar (15 lbf/in²) to seat
components. See Fig. 6.
3. Inflate tyres to 5.2 bar (75 lbf/in²) to seat beads and
seal the 'O' ring, then adjust to the recommended
inflation pressure.
4. For recommended operating air pressure, refer to
chart under the heading, 'Tyre Inflation Pressures'.
NITROGEN TYRE INFLATION
Note: All Warnings and procedures under 'Tyre
Inflation' will apply, except for differences covered by
this passage.
In certain environments it is recommended that tyres
be inflated with dry nitrogen gas, and that the resulting
oxygen content of the inflation does not exceed 5%. All
machines whose tyres are factory inflated with dry
nitrogen gas will be identified by a decal on the body
or frame.
Nitrogen gas improves tyre pressure retention,
increases tyre life by reducing carcass oxidation from
within, minimizes rim rust and has no detrimental
effects on the tyre. It also reduces the potential of a
7
Rear Axle Group - Wheel Rim and Tyre
Section 160-0050
tyre explosion because it is an inert gas and will not
support combustion inside the tyre.
SM - 1040
The same tyre inflation pressure used for air inflation
should be used for nitrogen inflation. Tyre valves
formerly used with air inflation are entirely satisfactory
for use with nitrogen gas.
Nitrogen Tyre Inflation Kit
WARNINGS
DO NOT USE charging assembly, Part No.
9359489, for tyre inflation because this
assembly does not include a pressure
regulator, safety relief valve, and adequate
pressure gauging which is mandatory for tyre
inflation purposes. Tyre volume is as much as
90 times greater than the average accumulator
volume and hence it takes very much longer to
inflate a tyre - up to 40 minutes or more for
very large tyres.
Nitrogen gas cylinders used to inflate
tyres are generally charged to approximately
152 bar (2 200 lbf/in2). A tyre blowout and/or
rim failure could occur if inflation equipment is
not properly used. Proper nitrogen charging
equipment and personnel training for its use is
a must to avoid over inflation.
1. A nitrogen tyre inflation kit is available from your
dealer and consists of the following. Refer to Fig. 7.
a. Pressure regulator, 0 - 13 bar (0 - 200 lbf/in2), with
two dual pressure gauges.
b. Safety relief valve, 8.6 bar (125 lbf/in²), that will
assure an upper limit to the pressure available for tyre
inflation.
c. A 15.2 m (50 ft) length of flexible hose with
interconnecting fittings. On the tyre end of the hose is
a large bore quick connect/disconnect clip-on chuck.
2. The pressure regulator is connected to a nitrogen
compressed gas cylinder available from local suppliers.
3. The usual procedure for using this type of
equipment is as follows:
a. Connect nitrogen tyre inflation kit to nitrogen
compressed gas supply. DO NOT connect clip-on
chuck to the tyre valve at this time.
8
Fig. 7 - Nitrogen Tyre Inflation Kit
b. Open valve on nitrogen supply.
c. With flexible hose and clip-on chuck connected to
nitrogen tyre inflation kit assembly but not connected
to the tyre, adjust pressure regulator so that its output
pressure is not more than 1.4 bar (20 lbf/in²) higher
than the desired tyre inflation pressure.
d. Connect clip-on chuck to the tyre valve. The tyre will
now inflate. Tyre pressure can be monitored by
observing the gauge at the pressure regulator. STAY
AWAY FROM THE TYRE.
e. When desired inflation pressure has been achieved,
back off the regulator or close the valve on the
compressed gas cylinder.
f. Remove the clip-on chuck and adjust the tyre
pressure with the tyre gauge in the usual manner.
Re-inflation of a Mounted Tyre
To re-inflate a tyre with dry nitrogen gas which is now
inflated with air, proceed as follows:
1. Exhaust the tyre until only air at atmospheric
pressure remains in the tyre.
SM 1721 Rev1 03-05
Rear Axle Group - Wheel Rim and Tyre
Section 160-0050
2. Re-inflate the tyre using only dry nitrogen gas to
4.15 bar (60 lbf/in²) gauge as a minimum, or to beadseating pressure as a maximum.
SM - 214
3. Adjust to the service inflation pressure required:
a. If the required service inflation pressure is LESS
than 4.1 bar (60 lbf/in²), remove the clip-on chuck and
adjust the pressure with the tyre gauge in the usual
manner.
b. If the required service inflation pressure is greater
than 4.1 bar (60 lbf/in²), further inflate, with dry
nitrogen gas only, to the pressure level required. Then
remove the clip-on chuck and adjust the pressure with
the tyre gauge in the usual manner.
New Tyre Mounts and Remounts
To newly mount or remount a tyre to its rim, use only
dry nitrogen gas; this includes the pressure required to
seat the beads. After seating the tyre beads, remove
the clip-on chuck and adjust the pressure with the tyre
gauge in the usual manner.
Note: Although a little more nitrogen gas is used to
seat beads than that used for re-inflation of a mounted
tyre, refer to 'Re-inflation of a Mounted Tyre', its cost is
generally negligible in comparison to the time and
labour saving and, longer tyre life achievable with the
reduced oxygen content which results.
HYDRAULIC BEAD BREAKING TOOL
The hydraulic bead breaking tool illustrated in Fig. 8 is
specifically designed to break tyre beads on rusted
rims, and is available from your dealer. Refer to
Special Tools. It can be used on rims having pry bar
slots. The recommended procedure for using this tool
is described below.
1. Prepare the vehicle for dismounting the tyre by
following the necessary steps outlined under the
headings 'Preparation for Servicing' and 'Dismounting
Tyre from Rim'.
2. Before using the tool, make sure the tyre has been
completely deflated by removing the valve core. Refer
to the Warning under 'Preparation for Servicing'. Tape
valve threads to protect from damage, leaving valve
end open to avoid the possibility of trapping air inside
the tyre.
SM 1721 Rev1 03-05
Fig. 8 - Typical Hydraulic Bead Breaking Tool
3. Place the lip of the hydraulic tool in one of four
breaking slots between the bead seat band and the
rim flange.
4. Adjust the locking screw to a position which will hold
the tool in a line perpendicular to the face of the rim.
5. Close valve on the hydraulic pump and apply
pressure to take up the slack in the tool and rim parts.
This will cause the tool to tilt slightly downward.
Release pressure and adjust the screw again so that
the tool will be perpendicular to the rim when under
pressure.
6. Apply enough pressure to move the flange back
approximately 13 mm (0.5 in) and hold this distance by
dropping a nut, or similar object, in the space between
the flange and bead seat band.
7. Release pressure and move the tool about 300 mm
(12 in) around the rim in either direction. Insert lip of
tool between bead seat band and flange. Repeat cycle
until 3/4 of the rim circumference has been covered.
Apply pressure at this point until bead breaks loose.
8. Remove lock ring, bead seat band and rim flange as
described previously in this section under
'Dismounting Tyre from Rim'.
9. After lock ring, bead seat band and rim flange have
been removed, inner bead must be broken loose by
following the procedure outlined for the outer bead,
(steps 3 through 7).
9
Rear Axle Group - Wheel Rim and Tyre
Section 160-0050
TYRE EXPLOSION HAZARD
WARNING
Whenever a machines tyre(s) is (are) exposed
to excessive heat such as a machine fire or
extremely hot brakes the hazard of a
subsequent violent tyre explosion must be
recognized. All persons must avoid
approaching the machine so as not to be
physically endangered in the event of an
explosion of the tyre and rim parts.
The machine should be moved to a
remote area, but only when this can be done
with complete safety to the operator operating
or towing the machine. All other persons
should stay clear of the machine. The fire or
overheated brakes, wheel, etc. should be
extinguished or cooled from a safe distance.
Do not attempt to extinguish the fire or cool
the machine by use of hand-held fire
extinguishers.
If it is absolutely necessary to approach a
machine with a suspect tyre, approach only
from the front or the back. Stay at least 15 m
(50 ft) from the tread area. Keep observers out
of the area and at least 460 m (1 500 ft) from
the tyre sidewall. Refer to Fig. 8. The tyre(s)
should be allowed at least eight (8) hours
cooling time after the machine is shut down or
the fire extinguished before approaching
closer.
There is always a possibility of a tyre
explosion whenever the smell of burning
rubber or excessively hot brakes is detected.
The danger is also present when a fire on the
machine reaches the tyre and wheel area.
Under such conditions, all personnel must
avoid approaching the machine in a manner
that could result in injury should an explosion
actually occur. Move the machine to a remote
area only if it can be done without endangering
the operator or other personnel in the area.
10
SM - 218
AT LEAST
15 m (50 ft)
AT LEAST
460 m (1 500 lbf ft)
Fig. 9 - APPROACH AREA.
Do Not Approach Tyre in Shaded Area
WARNING (cont.)
DO NOT WELD ON OR HEAT RIM
COMPONENTS. For several years the company
and tyre and rim manufacturers have warned
users never to weld rim components with the
tyre mounted on the rim. The gases that build
up inside the tyre during arc welding or
heating on rim components can ignite,
resulting in one of these explosive-like failures
of the tyre and rim. This warning also applies
to nitrogen inflated tyres. Ignition will not
occur in the nitrogen atmosphere, but the
pressure buildup from the heat of welding may
be sufficient to cause a blowout severe enough
to injure or kill. It is recommended to scrap the
part if heat is necessary to repair any rim
component.
TYRE AND WHEEL MAINTENANCE
Tyre Repairs
Prompt repair of tyre injuries will prevent small injuries
from enlarging and causing tyre failure. Use the best
tyre facilities available. If good repair facilities are not
available, have the nearest dealer make the necessary
repairs.
Minor cuts, snags, or punctures should be repaired
upon discovery. Skive with a sharp pointed knife
around any cut in the tyre tread area that is of
sufficient depth or shape to hold pebbles or dirt. The
SM 1721 Rev1 03-05
Rear Axle Group - Wheel Rim and Tyre
Section 160-0050
angle of the skive should be no more than sufficient to
expel all foreign material and should extend no deeper
than the breaker. The skive should go to the bottom of
the hole. Tyres with shallow cuts, if treated promptly,
may be allowed to continue in service. If the cut
extends deeper into the tyre carcass, the tyre should
be removed for repair.
The tyre must be removed from the rim to repair larger
punctures or cuts. Irregular shaped punctures or cuts
less than 13 mm (0.50 in) in size can be repaired with
a plug and hot patch. Insert a repair plug into the hole
to keep out moisture and to back up the hot patch.
Trim the plug off flush with the inside of the casing,
buff, and apply the hot patch according to the
instructions supplied with the hot patch equipment.
Punctures 13 mm (0.50 in) or larger, large cuts, or
bruise breaks require sectional or reinforced
vulcanized repair. Cover the repair patch with a layer
of cushion gum after application to the tubeless tyre to
ensure an airtight repair. Any cords of the inside ply
that are exposed in buffing and are not covered with
repair patch must be coated with cushion gum to
prevent air leakage into the carcass plies on tubeless
tyres.
Recapping and Retreading
There are two general methods employed in restoring
the tread surface of off-the-highway tyres: recapping
and retreading.
A recapped tyre has a new tread cured right over the
old tread surface.
A retreaded tyre has the old tread removed entirely
and a new tread cured directly onto the body of the
tyre. A tyre can be recapped or retreaded if the cord
body is free of cuts, bruises and separation, and is
thoroughly sound, including previous repairs.
The valve cores should be checked for leaks. Keep in
mind that valve cores are delicate mechanisms that
wear out in service; therefore, they should be replaced
with new ones when they become worn. Each tyre
should be equipped with a valve cap to prevent dirt
from damaging the valve core and causing air leakage.
Maintain Good Haul Roads
Because haul roads are considered temporary roads
they are frequently neglected. The better the haul
road, the longer the tyre and machine life of offhighway machines.
Although it takes time and effort to maintain good haul
roads, the delay and cost of tyres and machine
breakdowns caused by poor haul roads is many times
greater.
Inspect Tyres Regularly
A systematic plan for tyre inspection will more than
pay for itself in lowered tyre costs per hour of
operation. All tyres should be checked regularly for
cuts, bruises, ply material breaks, excessive or
uneven wear, embedded foreign matter, and any other
damage which can be repaired. A considerable
increase in tyre service can be realized if tyre
injuries are repaired before they have progressed to
the irreparable stage.
The rim mounting nuts should also be checked
periodically and tightened to the torque specified.
Prevent Overloading
Off-highway machines are designed to carry a
maximum allowable payload. Excessive loading will
overstress both the machine and tyres and shorten
the life of both.
Prevent Contact with Oil
TYRE CARE
To obtain maximum service from off-highway tyres,
the following common-sense precautions should be
followed.
Maintain Correct Inflation
The most common cause of tyre damage is improper
inflation. Both over-inflation and under-inflation are
detrimental to tyre life. Tyre pressure should be
checked daily, preferably before the machine is placed
in operation. Refer to 'Tyre Inflation Pressures' table.
SM 1721 Rev1 03-05
Prevent tyre contact with petroleum products. Rubber
that is exposed to oil, gasoline, or grease becomes
soft and spongy and deteriorates rapidly. Always
avoid driving machine through a puddle of gasoline,
fuel oil, lubricating oil, or grease. Never let a tyre stand
in an oil or grease spot overnight.
Store Tyres Properly
The best of care given to tyres in service by operators
and maintenance personnel can be completely
nullified by careless storage. Time is not the only
11
Rear Axle Group - Wheel Rim and Tyre
Section 160-0050
contributing factor to the deterioration of rubber
products. Therefore, tyres that are to be stored must
be protected from light, heat, oils, dirt, moisture, and
ozone. Stored tyres should be carefully covered with a
tarpaulin or some other suitable material, such as
opaque plastic sheeting, to prevent contact with the
contaminants listed above.
Proper Handling of Tyres and Wheel Rim
Parts
Tyres should be stored vertically. Horizontal stacking
may compress the tyre walls, making inflation difficult.
If tyres are stored in racks, the lower supporting members
should provide as broad a surface as possible to the tyre
tread to avoid a concentration of load.
The beads of tubeless tyres must be protected from
damage or a faulty air seal will result. Do not use
hooks, cables, or chains in contact with the tyre beads
when lifting these tyres. If forklift trucks are used for
handling, they should be equipped with broad, wellrounded arms to distribute the load and prevent
damage to the tyre bead. When handling tyres with the
fork truck do not scrape the fork across the bead.
Tubeless tyre rims perform an important function as
part of the assembly air seal. Proper care, therefore,
must be taken not to distort or mutilate the rim parts
because they must mate properly to form part of the
basic air chamber. Since the rim base and bead seat
band are mating surfaces, distortion may prevent easy
assembly as well as possibly resulting in no seal.
Never drop, tumble, or roll rim parts.
If rim parts are stored outdoors, they should be given a
protective coat of a good commercial primer.
Similar parts should be stacked neatly to prevent distortion.
Babbit or lead hammers, not sledge hammers, should
be used in assembling rim parts.
'O' rings are seals and should be carefully stored in a
cool, dry place where they will not be injured or
damaged.
Valve cores should also be stored in a cool, dry and
clean place.
TYRE INFLATION PRESSURES
The inflation pressures listed should be regarded as
nominal only. Specific job conditions, terrain, haul road
maintenance and length, maximum and workday
average speed, job t-km/h (ton-mile/h) required and
tyre t-km/h (ton-mile/h) capacity, etc., may require an
increase in inflation pressure. It is recommended that
for tyres both listed and unlisted the user consult the
tyre manufacturer and evaluate all job conditions in
order to make the proper selection.
SERVICE TOOLS
Refer to Section 300-0070, SERVICE TOOLS, for part
numbers of special tools outlined in this section and
general service tools required. These tools are
available from your dealer.
TYRE INFLATION PRESSURES (BRIDGESTONE)
FRONT
12
REAR
2
TYRE SIZE
bar
lbf/in
bar
lbf/in2
Bridgestone 29.5 R 25**
4.8
70
4.35
63
Michelin 29.5R25**
4.2
61
3.8
55
SM 1721 Rev1 03-05
Rear Axle Group - Wheel Rim and Tyre
Section 160-0050
TUBELESS TYRE LEAK DIAGNOSIS
Occasionally a tubeless off highway tyre/rim assembly may leak in field service. To determine cause of leakage,
the entire assembly including valve hardware, multi-piece rim assembly, 'O' ring and tyre should be checked
using a soap solution.
This table lists various causes of air loss and possible remedy.
CAUSE
REMEDY
Defective valve
Tighten parts. Replace defective parts. Use valve caps.
Cracked rim or weld
Replace defective part
WARNING
Do not attempt repair of wheel components.
Twisted or damaged 'O' ring
Replace 'O' ring (lubricate)
Tyre cuts and snags
Repair tyre damage
Bead area awl holes
Repair inner liner (preferred)
Leakage between tyre bead trim
With tyre removed from rim:
Clean tyre beads in rim contact area
Clean rim with wire brush
Inspect 5 degree tapered bead seat band and the rim base in the bead
seating area to determine if the transverse weld trims are flat or concave.
Replace defective part(s).
Note: Weld trim should follow rim contour.
Mount tyre using a lubricant such as Murphy's Tyre and tube Mounting
Compound, or equivalent, on tyre beads and rim bead seat area.
*
SM 1721 Rev1 03-05
*
*
*
13
REAR AXLE - No SPIN® Element
Section 160-0080
SM - 2233
1
1
2
2
2
3
2
4
3
4
4
5
5
EXTERNAL SPRING
1 - Spider & Centre
Cam Assembly
2 - Driven Clutches &
‘Holdout’ Rings
4
3
3
5
5
INTERNAL SPRING
3 - Spring
4 - Spring Retainer
5 - Side Gear
Fig. 1 - Cutaway View of Silent- Type NoSPIN® Element
DESCRIPTION
The NoSPIN® element is an automatic locking device
which provides positive drive to both wheels. It
eliminates individual wheel spinning that is common
in conventional gear type differentials, while it allows
each drive wheel to revolve at a different speed when
the machine negotiates a turn, or is manoeuvred over
different road conditions.
This section covers the silent-type NoSPIN®
differential, which differs from the standard-type only
in the fact that either of the driven clutch and ‘holdout’
ring assemblies may overrun continuously when
required and then automatically return to full locked
engagement. The continuous over-running feature is
made possible by using ‘holdout’ rings as part of the
driven clutch assembly. During overrun operation of
the standard type NoSPIN® element, the driven
clutch will slide away from the spider and then back
into engagement after each tooth, causing a slight
indexing noise. As shown in Fig. 1 & 2, the NoSPIN®
element may use an external spring or an internal
spring, however, operation is the same.
OPERATION
Numbers in parentheses refer to Figs. 1 & 2.
Straight Forward
When the machine is driven in a straight forward
direction, the clutch teeth of both driven clutch and
‘holdout’ ring (2) assemblies are fully engaged with
SM 1781 4-99
the clutch teeth and cams of the spider and cam
assembly (1). Full engagement is assured by the
pressure of springs (3). When the spider is rotated
forward by the action of the ring gear, the clutch teeth
of the spider, now meshed with the clutch teeth of the
driven clutches, are held in a positive locked position
by the mating undercuts on the driving faces of all
clutch teeth. The assembly then rotates as a unit,
and each output shaft must turn at ring gear speed.
Refer to Fig. 3.
When the machine is driven in a straight rearward
direction, engagement of the clutch teeth is the same,
except the spider rotates in the reverse direction and
shifts and driving force to the opposite side of all
driving clutch teeth.
Right Hand Turn
When making a right-hand turn in a forward direction
under power, the driven clutch of the right-hand
clutch and ‘holdout’ ring assembly (2) remains fully
engaged with the spider clutch teeth and cams of the
centre cam. When the left-hand driven clutch and
‘holdout’ ring assembly (2) is required to rotate faster
to make the right turn through the over-running action
of the left wheel, it is free to ride up and over the
cams of the centre cam. Refer to Fig. 4. As the
‘holdout’ ring begins to rotate forward, the end of the
‘holdout’ ring slot engages the spider key, refer to
Figs. 5 & 6. On those NoSPIN® units using a
‘holdout’ ring with cams (see Fig. 5), this action sets
1
Rear Axle - No SPIN® Element
Section 160-0080
SM - 2183
5
4
3
2
1
2
3
4
5
EXTERNAL SPRING
5
3
4
2
1
2
4
3
5
INTERNAL SPRING
1 - Spider & Centre
Cam Assembly
2 - Driven Clutches &
‘Holdout’ Rings
3 - Spring
4 - Spring Retainer
5 - Side Gear
Fig. 2 - Exploded View of Silent Type NoSPIN® Element
the cams of the ‘holdout’ ring between the cams of
the driven clutch, thus preventing the driven clutch
from returning to engagement so long as it rotates
faster than the spider and centre cam assembly. On
those units using a “holdout” ring with lugs,
movement of the ‘holdout’ ring moves the lugs ahead
of the slots in the centre cam, which prevents the
driven clutch from returning to engagement as long
as it rotates faster than the spider and centre cam is
being driven. Refer to Figs. 6, 7 & 8.
When the over-running movement ceases and the
relative speed of the spider and over-running driven
clutch become the same there is a slight reversal of
rotation so that the left ‘holdout’ ring rotates back
away from the spider key. When this happens, the
2
cams or lugs of the ‘holdout’ ring, whichever type is
used, become realigned with the centre cam,
permitting the left driven clutch and ‘holdout’ ring to
return to full engagement with the spider and centre
cam.
Left-Hand Turn
When making a left-hand turn, in a forward direction
under power, the left-hand driven clutch, of driven
clutch and ‘holdout’ ring (2), remains fully engaged
with the spider clutch teeth and the right-hand wheel
then turns faster than ring gear speed. The cam
action is the same as for right-hand turn except, the
cam action is on the opposite side of the NoSPIN®
element.
SM 1781 4-99
Rear Axle - No SPIN® Element
Section 160-0080
SM - 2184
DRIVEN CLUTCH
DRIVEN CLUTCH
SPRING
SPRING
SPRING RETAINER
SPRING RETAINER
SIDE GEAR
SIDE GEAR
SPIDER CLUTCH TEETH
BOTH DRIVEN CLUTCHES
AND SPIDER
TRAVEL AT SAME SPEED
SPIDER
Fig. 3 - Straight Forward Driving
SM - 2185
DRIVEN CLUTCH
DRIVEN CLUTCH
SPRING
SPRING
SPRING RETAINER
SPRING RETAINER
SIDE GEAR
SIDE GEAR
DRIVEN CLUTCH AND SPIDER
REMAIN LOCKED
DRIVEN CLUTCH
ELEVATED BY CENTRE CAM RAMPS,
FROM SPIDER CLUTCH TEETH AND
TRAVELS AT FASTER SPEED
SPIDER CLUTCH TEETH
SPIDER
Fig. 4 - Right-Hand Turn Forward
Rough, Uneven or Choppy Road
Conditions
When the machine is travelling at moderate speed
over a rough road, it will be found that constant
differentiation will be required of the NoSPIN®
differential. In other words, the NoSPIN® differential
will go through its complete unlocking and locking
SM 1781 4-99
cycle in rapid succession as required by such road
conditions.
Should one driving wheel, however, encounter soft
and slippery road conditions, both driving wheels will
remain locked and revolve at ring gear speed, thus
preventing wheel spin and undue scuffing of the tyre.
3
Rear Axle - No SPIN® Element
Section 160-0080
SM - 2186
PROTRUDING TOOTH
OR KEY
HOLDOUT RING
GAP
DRIVEN CLUTCH
SPIDER AND
CENTRE CAM
ASSEMBLY
Fig. 5 - 'Holdout’ Ring (with cams) Disassembled from Clutch
REMOVAL
WARNINGS
To prevent personal injury and property
damage, be sure wheel chocks, blocking
materials and lifting equipment are properly
secured and of adequate capacity to do the job
safely.
4. Do not remove the ring gear from differential
carrier case unless the ring gear or case are to be
replaced or it is necessary for separation of the inner
and outer flanged case halves.
5. Mark the plain case and flanged case with a centre
punch so they can be reassembled in the original
position when repairs or inspection is completed.
SM - 2187
A come-a-long or chain fall with a
minimum capacity of one ton is required for
removal and installation of a differential
assembly.
KEY
1. Position the vehicle in a level work area, apply the
parking brake and switch off the engine. Turn the
steering wheel in both directions several times to
relieve pressure in the steering system.
2. Block all road wheels and place the battery master
switch in the 'Off' position.
3. Remove the differential carrier from the drive axle.
If an axle shaft has failed, be sure all fragments of
the shaft are removed to avoid serious damage of the
pinion and ring gear, or NoSPIN® element. Refer to
Section 160-0020, DIFFERENTIAL, for removal of
differential carrier.
SLOTS
Fig. 6 - Spider and Centre Cam Assembly
4
SM 1781 4-99
Rear Axle - No SPIN® Element
Section 160-0080
SM - 2190
SM - 2188
DIFFERENTIAL
PLAIN CASE
NoSPIN ®
ASSEMBLY
WING NUT
A
B
RETAINING
BOLT
RETAINING
WASHER
RETAINING
WASHER
Fig. 9 - Retaining NoSPIN® Element
6. A retaining bolt and washers should be used to
keep the NoSPIN® assembly intact when removing h
from differential case. Refer to Fig. 9. Insert bolt with
washer and install other washer and nut or wing nut.
Turn nut or wing nut tight. Note that washers should
be small enough to pass through the case ends
(Dim. A), yet large enough to restrain the side gears
(Dim. B.)
LUGS
Fig. 7 - Driven Clutch and ‘Holdout’ Ring
(not assembled)
SM - 2189
LUGS
7. Remove the NoSPIN® element, from the differential
as described in Section 160-0020, DIFFERENTIAL.
DISASSEMBLY
Numbers in parentheses refer to Figs. 1 & 2,
unless otherwise stated.
WARNING
To prevent personal injury and property
damage, be careful when disassembling the
NoSPIN® element, because spring (3) tension
can cause parts to fly apart.
1. Release the retaining wing nut, bolt and washer
assembly, holding the NoSPIN® assembly firmly to
absorb the sudden release of spring (3) pressure.
2. Separate side gears (5), springs (3), spring
retainers (4), driven clutches and ‘holdout’ rings (2)
and spider and cam assembly (1).
Fig. 8 - Driven Clutch and ‘Holdout’ Ring
(assembled)
SM 1781 4-99
3. Using a suitable pair of snap ring expanders,
expand the ‘holdout’ rings slightly and remove from
driven clutches (2).
5
Rear Axle - No SPIN® Element
Section 160-0080
INSPECTION
SM - 2191
Numbers in parentheses refer to Figs. 1 & 2, unless
otherwise stated.
RETAINER BOLT
AND WASHER
1. Inspect the splines on the side gears (5) and
clutches, of the driven clutches and ‘holdout’ rings
(2). Remove any burrs or small chipped edges with
an abrasive stone or electric burr grinder. If the
spline is broken or twisted, replace the part. Check
side gear (5) hubs for fractures.
2. Be sure the ‘holdout’ ring rotates on the clutch with
only a little resistance. Check ring for fractures and
chipping, or excessive wear of teeth.
3. Check the centre cam for free movement. It must
be free to rotate within the limits of the key in the
spider. If either the spider or cam is excessively
worn or damaged, replace the complete spider and
cam assembly (1).
4. Teeth on the centre cams or driven clutches must
not be excessively chipped. A smooth wear pattern
up to 50% of the tooth face width is acceptable.
5. Inspect the clutch teeth on the spider. Slight chips
can be touched up with an abrasive stone. If
excessively chipped or rounded, the part should be
replaced.
Note: If a part is replaced due to the chipped teeth,
always replace the mating part as it may have
invisible fractures.
6. Check the spring (3) operating height at the
applicable load. Replace spring if it does not meet
specifications. Refer to following table for spring, load
requirements.
OPERATING HEIGHT
mm
in.
26.4
1.04
SIDE GEAR
SPRING RETAINER
Fig. 10 - Assembly of Spring and Spring Retainer
to Side Gear (External Spring)
Note: Lightly lubricate all parts before assembly.
1. Using the same retaining bolt and washers as used
during disassembly, place the ground hub of side
gear (5) over the retaining bolt. Refer to Fig. 10.
2. If the NoSPIN® element uses an external spring
(3), assemble spring retainer (4) over side gear (5)
splines, with the side gear flange firmly seated into
the cupped section of the spring retainer. If an
internal spring (3) is used, assemble spring (3)over
side gear (5) inner hub.
3. If an external spring (3) is used, place spring over
side gear (5) inner hub against spring retainer (4). If
spring (3) is an internal spring, seat spring retainer
(4) on spring. Refer to Fig. 1.
LOAD
N
556 ± 55.6
lbf
125 ± 12.5
ASSEMBLY
Numbers in parentheses refer to Figs. 1 & 2,
unless otherwise stated.
WARNING
To prevent personal injury and property
damage, be sure lifting equipment is properly
secured and of adequate capacity to do the job
safely.
6
SPRING
WARNING
Incorrect assembly of the spring retainer can
limit the spring movement and prevent proper
NoSPIN® operation.
4. If removed, install ‘holdout’ rings in driven clutches
with cams or lugs facing out.
5. Assemble clutch and ‘holdout’ ring assembly (2)
over spring (3) or spring retainer (4), whichever
applies, with clutch teeth up. Check to see if the
spring is functioning freely by compressing the clutch
over the side gear (5) splines. Be sure spring is not
binding and coils do not overlap and there is good
SM 1781 4-99
Rear Axle - No SPIN® Element
Section 160-0080
SM - 2192
side gear (5), cup side up. Assemble spring retainer
and side gear assembly over spring (3). Install
retaining washer and wing nut on retaining bolt and
tighten to keep the NoSPIN® assembly intact. If an
internal spring (3) is used, position spring over hub of
side gear (5) and assemble spring and side gear as
an assembly in driven clutch and ‘holdout’ ring (2),
and spring retainer (4). Install retaining washer and
wing nut on retaining bolt and tighten to keep the
NoSPIN® assembly intact.
INSTALLATION
Fig. 11 - Checking Spring Coils, for Possible Overlap
(External Spring)
contact between the end coil and the spring retainer
when the clutch and side gear splines are fully
engaged. Refer to Fig. 11.
6. Place spider and centre cam assembly (1) on the
driven clutch and ‘holdout’ ring assembly (2),
carefully mating clutch teeth and spider cams.
Note: Be sure the gap in the ‘holdout’ ring mates with
spider key. Refer to Figs. 5 & 6.
Note: On some NoSPIN® assemblies it is necessary
to mate lugs of ‘holdout’ rings with slots in centre
cam.
7. Install remaining driven clutch and ‘holdout’ ring
assembly (2) on spider and cam assembly (1),
properly mating clutch teeth and spider cams.
8. If the NoSPIN® element uses an external spring
(3), position remaining spring (3) over driven clutch
and ‘holdout’ ring assembly (2) with larger end of the
spring over the clutch. If an internal spring (3) is
used, install spring retainer (4) in driven clutch and
‘holdout’ ring assembly (2).
9. If the NoSPIN® element uses an external spring
(3), position remaining spring (3) over driven clutch
and ‘holdout’ ring assembly (2) with larger end of the
spring over the clutch. If an internal spring (3) is
used, install spring retainer (4) in driven clutch and
‘holdout’ ring assembly (2).
10. If the NoSPIN® element uses an external spring
(3), install remaining spring retainer (4) on remaining
SM 1781 4-99
WARNINGS
To prevent personal injury and property
damage, be sure wheel chocks, blocking
materials and lifting equipment are properly
secured and of adequate capacity to do the job
safely.
A come-a-long or chain fall with a
minimum capacity of one ton is required for
removal and installation of a differential
assembly.
Note: Tighten all fasteners without special torques
specified, to standard torques listed in
Section 300-0080, STANDARD BOLT AND NUT
TORQUE SPECIFICATIONS.
1. Install NoSPIN® element in differential carrier, and
differential carrier in banjo housing as described in
Section 160-0020, DIFFERENTIAL.
TESTING NOSPIN® DIFFERENTIAL
OPERATION
WARNING
To prevent personal injury and property
damage, be sure wheel chocks, blocking
materials and lifting equipment are properly
secured and of adequate capacity to do the job
safely.
A simple test for proper operation of a NoSPIN® unit
in the differential assembly will help determine if the
NoSPIN® is assembled and installed correctly. This
test checks for proper meshing of the NoSPIN® to
allow one wheel to rotate while the opposite wheel
remains locked to the differential ring gear. It can be
7
Rear Axle - No SPIN® Element
Section 160-0080
easily performed by following the steps illustrated
below:
4. Rotate both wheels rearward as far as possible
(they should stop after only a few inches movement).
WARNING
To prevent personal injury and property
damage, make sure both wheels are off
ground. Both wheels are driving wheels even
if one is off ground.
5. Hold the left wheel firmly against the stop in the
rearward position and rotate the light wheel in the
forward direction. Listen for the clicking that indicates
meshing of the NoSPIN® during wheel rotation. The
left wheel must be firmly against the stop or the right
wheel will not rotate freely.
1. Raise the axle to be tested so that both tyres are
free to rotate. Block up the axle securely.
6. Repeat Steps 2 thru 5, while holding the right
wheel and testing the left wheel for rotation in the
forward and reverse directions.
2. With the aid of an assistant, rotate both wheels
forward as far as possible (they should stop after
only a 25 - 75 mm (1 - 3 inches) movement). If
differential gearing and transmission gearing
resistance do not stop wheel rotation after a few
inches of movement, insert a suitable soft bar into a
driveline universal joint so that it will rest against a
chassis rail, etc., to prevent wheel rotation.
If the NoSPIN® unit is properly assembled and
installed in the differential, free rotation of each wheel
will produce very faint clicking sounds as the unit
meshes. If either wheel does not rotate or cam freely
in both directions, check for dragging brake shoes on
both service and parking brakes, and for faulty
NoSPIN® assembly and installation.
3. Hold the left wheel securely in the forward position
and rotate the right wheel in the reverse direction,
while listening for regular clicking or meshing of the
NoSPIN® unit. The clicking will be very faint - almost
inaudible. The left wheel must be held firmly forward
against the stop or the right wheel will not disengage
freely.
SPECIAL TOOLS
There are no special tools required for procedures
outlined in this section. Refer to Section 300-0070,
SERVICE TOOLS, for part numbers of general
service tools and adhesives required. These tools are
available from your dealer.
DIAGNOSIS CHART
CONDITION
REASON
REMEDY
Loss of drive to wheel
Both sides gears jammed, preventing
differential action
One axle always cammed out and will
not drive. The axle splined to the
jammed side will always drive
Worn clutch teeth
Remove differential and repair NoSPIN®
element
Remove differential and repair NoSPIN®
element
Loud snap and severe
jerk under heavy torque
loads
Loss on differential
Locked NoSPIN® element
action or wheel
scuffing
Continuous indexing or Unequal radii of tyres or defective
clicking sound on
NoSPIN®
straight forward
driving
*
8
*
*
Replace worn NoSPIN® components
Disassemble and replace damaged
components
Use tyres with same radii or repair
NoSPIN®
*
SM 1781 4-99
BRAKE PARTS - Brake Parts - Scraper
Section 165-0031
SM - 2172
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
- Snap Ring
- Camshaft
- Clevis Pin & Cotter Pin
- Nut & Lockwasher
- Brake Shoe Assembly
- Brake Pin
- Lube Fitting
- Nut & Lockwasher
- Lockwire
- Bolt
- Roller
- Return Spring
- Anchor Pin Link
- Snap Ring
- Brake Drum
- Brake Lining
- Plug, Screw, Nut &
Lockwasher
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
- Brake Shoe
- Bushing
- Anchor Pin
- Bolt
- Lockwasher
- Washer
- Bar
- Guard
Fig. 1 - Exploded View of Brake Assembly
DESCRIPTION AND OPERATION
Numbers in parentheses refer to Fig. 1.
The brakes are air actuated to slow or stop wheel
rotation. When the brake treadle in the operator's
compartment is depressed air pressure is applied to
the brake chamber which forces the slack adjuster to
rotate camshaft (2). The camshaft cam then forces
brake shoes (5 & 19) outward against brake drum (15)
through rollers (11) which are pinned to the brake
shoes. The wedging action of the brake shoes, which
SM 1777 3-99
are pinned to the spindle at the opposite ends, against
the brake drum slow or stop wheel rotation. The force
applied by brake shoes (5 & 19) against brake drum
(15) is directly proportional to the degree to which the
brake treadle is depressed. As pressure is relaxed, the
brake shoes are returned to their released position by
return spring (12). Refer to Section 250-0000, AIR
BRAKING SYSTEM SCHEMATIC, for operation of the
air system and Section 165-0060, SLACK ADJUSTER
for operation of the slack adjuster.
1
Brake Parts - Brake Parts - Scraper
Section 165-0031
REMOVAL AND DISASSEMBLY
SM - 2173
Numbers in parentheses refer to Figure 1.
WARNINGS
When servicing wheel brake parts do not
create dust by grinding or sanding brake
linings or by cleaning wheel brake parts with a
dry brush or with compressed air. A water
dampened cloth should be used. Many wheel
brake parts contain asbestos fibres which can
become airborne if dust is created during
servicing. Breathing dust containing asbestos
fibres may cause serious bodily harm.
Use extreme caution to prevent personal
injury when removing wheels, The exact
procedure must be followed as described in
Section 160-0050, WHEEL, RIM AND TYRE.
To prevent personal injury and property
damage, be sure wheel blocks, blocking
materials and lifting equipment are properly
secured and of sufficient capacity to do the job
safely.
1. Position the vehicle in a level work area, apply the
parking brake and switch off the engine. Operate the
steering in both directions several times to relieve any
pressure in the steering system.
Fig. 2 - Brake Drum Wear Conditions
Note: After removing the brake drum, visually check
the drum and lining for wear conditions shown in
Fig. 2.
8. Remove bolts (21), lockwashers (22), washer (23),
bar (24) and guards (25) from spindle.
9. Remove brake return springs (12) from brake shoes
(5 & 18).
10. Remove snap rings (14) and anchor pin link (13).
Pull off brake shoes (5 & 18).
2. Place battery master switch in the 'Off' position and
block all road wheels, except the one to be raised.
11. Remove brake linings (16) by removing nuts,
lockwashers, screws and plugs (17).
3. Open air tank drain cocks and drain air tanks
completely.
12. Crack weld and remove pins (6) and rollers (11) if
rollers are worn. Rollers should be replaced in pairs to
make sure both shoes will be expanded an equal
amount.
4. Back off brake slack adjuster to remove all tension
on the brake chamber push rod. Refer to
Section 165-0060, SLACK ADJUSTER.
5. Drain differential and planetary gear lubricant and
remove planetary gear assembly from the wheel.
Refer to Section 160-0040, PLANETARY GEARING.
13. To remove the slack adjuster, remove snap ring
(1) from camshaft (2). Disconnect slack adjuster from
brake chamber by removing cotter pin and clevis pin
(3) from brake chamber clevis. Pull the slack adjuster
off the camshaft.
6. Remove wheel and brake drum as described in
Section 160-0050, WHEEL, RIM AND TYRE.
11. Remove camshaft (2) from spindle by pulling the
camshaft from the outboard side.
7. Lay wheel down with brake drum (15) up. Using
suitable lifting equipment attached to drum (15)
remove mounting hardware and lift drum from wheel.
12. To remove pins (20) from spindle, remove lube
fittings (7), nuts and lockwashers (8) from pins (20).
Drive pins (20) from spindle with a soft drift.
2
SM 1777 3-99
Brake Parts - Brake Parts - Scraper
Section 165-0031
INSPECTION
Numbers in parentheses refer to Fig. 1.
WARNING
Do not allow solvents to come in contact with
brake shoe linings. If brake shoe linings are
soaked with solvents, they must be replaced.
1. Thoroughly clean all parts, except linings, in a
suitable solvent. Dry with compressed air or wipe dry
with a lint free cloth.
2. Ensure lube passages in pins (20) are open.
3. Check camshafts (2) for flat spots. Flat spots on
cams can cause serious pulling, especially in the
tractor drive brakes.
4. Check for bent camshafts (2). Bent camshafts will
tend to bind in the bushings, push the shoes open at
an angle, tending to bend the anchor pins (20) or
cause a taper wear pattern of the brake lining.
8. Clean all rust off face of brake shoes and smooth
down bolt or rivet holes so lining will fit snugly.
9. When installing linings, always replace all linings on
an axle to equalise wear and prevent the brakes from
pulling.
ASSEMBLY AND INSTALLATION
Numbers in parentheses refer to Fig. 1.
Note: Tighten all fasteners without special torques
specified, to standard torques listed in
Section 300-0080, STANDARD BOLT AND NUT
TORQUE SPECIFICATIONS.
WARNINGS
To prevent personal injury and property
damage, be sure wheel blocks, blocking
materials and lifting equipment are properly
secured and of sufficient capacity to do the job
safely.
5. Check camshaft bushings in spindle and anchor pin
bushings (19) in brake shoes for excessive wear and
replace if worn.
1. If camshaft bushings in spindle were removed,
install new bushings in spindle bore. Refer to
Section 100-0010, CHASSIS, HOOD AND FENDERS.
6. Check brake drums for cracks, distortion and
scored surfaces. Severely scored brake drums may
be salvaged by reboring. The maximum the drums can
be rebored is 5 mm (3/16 inch). Drums should be
bolted to the hub of wheel when being rebored. With
rebored drums, an oversized lining should be used.
When using oversized linings, each shoe must have
added to the original thickness ONE HALF the amount
removed from the drum.
2. Install camshaft (2) in spindle. Install slack adjuster
and snap ring (1) on camshaft (2). Connect brake
chamber to slack adjuster by replacing clevis pin and
cotter pin (3).
7. Check brake shoe rollers (11) for binding. If they
bind, clean and oil; if they still bind the rollers and pins
(6) should be checked for excessive wear. If
necessary, break the weld on pins (6) and replace with
new pins and rollers.
SM 1777 3-99
3. If pins (20) were removed, install pins in spindle.
Secure pins (20) to spindle with nuts and lockwashers
(8). Install lube fittings (7) in pins, if removed.
4. Install rollers (11) and pins (6) in brake shoes (5 &
18). Re-weld both ends of pin to the shoe to prevent it
from working out.
5. Install linings (16) on brake shoes (5 & 18) and
secure with screws, lockwashers and nuts (17).
Torque tighten nuts to 20 - 27 Nm (15 - 20 lbf ft).
3
Brake Parts - Brake Parts - Scraper
Section 165-0031
SM - 2174
Fig. 3 - Combination Brake Lining
Install plugs (18) in linings over screw heads, and
grind plugs flush with linings.
BRAKE BALANCING
Note: Install blue edge linings on leading brake shoe
(5) and yellow edge linings on trailing brake shoe (18),
refer to Fig. 3.
The brakes should be balanced prior to final
reassembly of the relined brake shoes. Brake
balancing is checking to see that all brake shoe linings
are contacting the drums at the same time and each
brake assembly is performing its share of the work.
6. Install brake shoes (5 & 19). Install anchor pin link
(13) and snap rings (14) on anchor pins (21).
There are two steps involved in checking the brake
balance.
7. Install brake return springs (12) in holes in brake
shoes (5 & 19).
1. Install a low pressure air gauge into the air line
leading into each wheel. Depress the treadle valve to
allow enough air into the lines to just start a movement
of the cams. The difference should be not more than
0.5 lbf/in2 between wheels. Also there should be not
more than a 3 lbf/in2 difference between axles.
8. Using suitable lifting equipment, position brake drum
(16) into wheel assembly and secure using mounting
hardware as removed at Removal.
9. Position guards (25) on spindle and secure with bar
(24), washer (23), lockwashers (22) and bolts (21).
Use extreme caution to prevent personal
injury when installing wheels, The exact
procedure must be followed as described in
Section 160-0050, WHEEL, RIM AND TYRE.
10. Install wheel assembly on vehicle as described in
Section 160-0050, WHEEL, RIM AND TYRE.
2. The next step is to measure the amount of air
necessary to move each brake chamber push rod
25 mm (one inch). The air pressure difference should
be the same as in Step 1 , although the pressure
necessary to move the push rods will be slightly
higher. A large difference in air pressure between the
wheels or axles indicates bad springs in the brake
chambers or an obstructed air line. Make a thorough
inspection of the entire braking system if the brake
chambers prove to be satisfactory.
11. Install planetary gear assembly and fill planetary
and differential assemblies with lubricant specified in
Section 300-0020, LUBRICATION SYSTEM. Refer to
Section 160-0040, PLANETARY GEARING.
4
SM 1777 3-99
Brake Parts - Brake Parts - Scraper
Section 165-0031
ADJUSTMENT
SM - 2171
Push Rod and Slack Adjuster Angle
Numbers in parentheses refer to Fig. 4.
Adjustment must be such as to keep brake chamber
push rod travel at a minimum while still maintaining the
necessary clearance between the brake shoes and
brake drum. Also brake chamber push rod (1) and
slack adjuster (2) must form an angle of slightly more
than 90°, with brakes applied. If the angle is less than
90°, depress the locking sleeve (5) and turn adjusting
screw (4) and worm gear (3) until brake shoe linings
contact brake drum. Back out adjusting screw two flats
(1/3 turn). If the angle is still less than 90°, further
adjustment must be made at the brake chamber push
rod and clevis. If push rod and clevis need adjustment,
release brakes and disconnect brake chamber push
rod (1) clevis from slack adjuster. Back off jam nut on
push rod and adjust clevis by turning. If adjustment of
slack adjuster is also necessary, depress locking
sleeve (5) and turn adjusting screw (4) and worm gear
(3) until proper angle is established. After proper angle
has been established, make sure locking sleeve
returns to the locked position and that the brake shoes
are not dragging. Tighten jam nut on push rod against
clevis. Connect push rod clevis to slack adjuster.
Apply brake and check angle between push rod and
stack adjuster.
1 - Push Rod
2 - Slack Adjuster
3 - Worm Gear
4 - Adjusting Screw
5 - Locking Sleeve
Fig. 4 - Push Rod and Typical Slack Adjuster
Brake Shoe Clearance
To adjust brake shoe clearance, refer to
Section 165-0060, SLACK ADJUSTER.
SERVICE TOOLS
Refer to Section 300-0070, SERVICE TOOLS, for part
numbers of special tools outlined in this section and
general service tools required. These tools are
available from your dealer.
SPECIAL TORQUE SPECIFICATIONS
TORQUE
FIG. NO.
ITEM NO.
ITEM NAME
Nm
lbf ft
1
17
Nut
20 - 27
15 - 20
*
SM 1777 3-99
*
*
*
5
BRAKE PARTS - Slack Adjuster
Section 165-0060
SM - 2170
1
2
3
4
- Slack Adjuster
- Bearing
- Cover
- Pin
5
6
7
8
- Spring
- Lock
- Adjusting Shaft
- Plug
9
10
11
12
- Worm Gear
- Rivet
- Worm
- Plug
Fig. 1 - Exploded View of Slack Adjuster
DESCRIPTION AND OPERATION
SM - 2171
Numbers in parentheses refer to Fig. 1.
The slack adjuster connects the air brake chamber
push rod to the brake assembly camshaft to rotate
the cam. The slack adjuster consists of worm (11)
and adjusting shaft (7) which engages worm gear (9)
that is splined to the brake camshaft. Turning
adjusting shaft (7) rotates worm gear (9) and the
camshaft. This movement changes the clearance
between the brake lining and brake drum.
A locking sleeve (6) and spring (5) is used to lock
adjusting shaft (7) in place.
ADJUSTMENT
1
2
3
4
5
- Push Rod
- Slack Adjuster
- Worm Gear
- Adjusting Shaft
- Locking Sleeve
Brake Shoe Clearance
Numbers in parentheses refer to Fig. 2.
Before brake shoe clearance can be adjusted brake
chamber push rod (1) and slack adjuster (2) must
SM 1751 3-99
Fig. 2 - Push Rod and Slack Adjuster
form an angle of slightly more than 90°, with brakes
applied. Make certain the angle is identical on all
1
Brake Parts - Slack Adjuster
Section 165-0060
wheels to obtain even braking on all wheels. If
adjustment is necessary, refer to Section 165-0031,
BRAKE PARTS for adjustment procedure.
To adjust brake shoe clearance, release brakes and
depress locking sleeve (5) enough to allow adjusting
shaft (4) and worm gear (3) to be turned. Turn the
adjusting shaft and worm gear in the direction that
causes slack adjuster to turn cam shaft toward brake
*
2
*
apply position. Turn until tight, then back off one third
of a turn (two flats). If new shoes have been installed,
back off one half turn (three flats). Make sure locking
sleeve (5), returns to the locked position and that the
brake shoes are not dragging.
LUBRICATION
The slack adjuster is permanently lubricated,
eliminating the need periodic lubrication.
*
*
SM 1751 3-99
Electrical System - Circuit Diagrams
Section 190-0000
COMPONENT DESIGNATIONS
A4 - Radio/Cassette
A5 - Radio/Cassette Speaker
B7
B9
B13
B15
B19
B21
B33
B34
- Coolant Level Sender
- Air Pressure Sender
- Rotational Speed Sensor
- Air Temp Sender
- Throttle Position Sender
- Trans Oil Temp Sender
- Air Cond Temp Sender
- Barometric Air Press Sender
E3
E7
E11
E12
E13
E14
E15
E16
E21
E23
E26
E27
E36
- Interior Light
- Instrument Panel Lights
- Side Marker Light, L
- Taillight, L
- Side Marker Light, R
- Taillight, R
- High/Low Beam H'lamp, L
- High/Low Beam H'lamp, R
- Rotating Beacon
- Work Light
- High Beam H'lamp, L
- High Beam H'lamp, R
- Cutting Edge Light Switch
G1 - Generator
G2 - Battery
H2
H5
H6
H7
H8
H9
H10
H11
H12
H23
H24
H28
H30
H31
- Warning Light
- Direction Indicator w/l
- Direction Indicator; F, L
- Direction Indicator; B, L
- Direction Indicator; F, R
- Direction Indicator; B, R
- Brake Light, L
- Brake Light, R
- High Beam w/l
- Engine Check w/l
- Engine Stop w/l
- Service Engine w/l
- Water in Fuel w/l
- Wait To Start w/l
SM 2282 Rev1 04-04
K1
K4
K5
K14
K15
K17
K21
K22
K23
K23
K23
K34
K43
K44
K45
K46
K47
K53
L3
L4
L5
- Starter Relay
- Dir Ind Flasher Unit
- Air Cond Clutch
- Start Interlock Relay
- Headlamp Relay
- Reverse Relay
- Trans Shift Clutch
- Lockup Clutch
- Ignition Air Cond
- Ignition Wipers
- Ignition Engine
- Horn Relay
- Radio/Cassette Relay
- Trans Start Relay
- Engine Alarm Relay
- Rear Starter Inhibit
- Intermittent Wipe Relay
- Grid Heater Power Relay
- Reverse Alarm
- Buzzer
- Horn Solenoid
M1
M3
M4
M5
M6
M7
M10
- Starter Motor
- Cab Vent Blower Motor
- Washer Motor, F
- Wiper Motor, F
- Wiper Motor, B
- Washer Motor, B
- Cab Fan Motor
N3 - Voltage Convertor 12V
P2 - Tachometer/Hourmeter
P6 - Air Press Gauge
P8 - Trans Temp Gauge
R7 - Cigar Lighter
S1
S2
S3
S4
- Battery Master Switch
- Starter Keyswitch
- Rear Engine Start Switch
- W/L Test Switch
S6
S8
S9
S10
S11
S13
S14
S15
S16
S18
S19
S20
S27
S31
S34
S36
S40
S41
S43
S68
S69
S75
S85
S86
S87
S94
S95
- Trans Oil Press Switch
- Blower Switch
- Washer Switch, F
- Wiper Switch, F
- Rear Wash/Wipe Switch
- Horn Button
- Hazard w/l Switch
- Direction Ind Switch
- Stoplight Switch
- Lights Switch
- Dipswitch
- Headlamp Flash Switch
- Low Air Press w/l Switch
- Park Brake Switch
- Rear Trans Temp Switch
- Trans Filter Press Switch
- Gear Shift Selector
- Auxiliary Lights Switch
- Air Cond Press Switch
- Diagnostic Request Switch
- Accel Idle Validation Switch
- Cutting Edge Light Switch
- Bowl Suspension Switch
- Convertor Press Switch
- Bowl Drop Switch
- Water in Fuel Switch
- Rear Ignition Enable
Switch
X1 - Handlamp Socket
Y30 - Bowl Suspension Solenoid
Y31 - Bowl Drop Solenoid
Y32 - Valve =Detent Solenoid
Wire Colours
B - Black
N - Brown
U - Blue
R - Red
G - Green
L - Light Green
O - Orange
Y - Yellow
P - Purple
W - White
S - Slate
K - Pink
1
Electrical System - Circuit Diagrams
Section 190-0000
TERMINAL DESIGNATIONS IN ACCORDANCE WITH DIN 72 552
L - LEFT, R - RIGHT, F - FRONT, B - BACK
CABLES TWISTED
30 TURNS / metre
DIODE
FUSE
TRAILER
CONNECTION
INDICATOR LIGHT
RESISTOR
SCREENED
CABLES
NOTES:
1. ENGINE MANAGEMENT WIRE NUMBERS ARE IN ( ).
2. SOME ENGINE MANAGEMENT HARNESSES ARE SHEILDED FROM ELECTRO MAGNETIC
INDUCTION WHERE THEY RUN CLOSE TO OTHER VEHICLE SYSTEMS.
3. CABLES R/B (916B), U (417), B (952B) & Y (542) TWISTED 32 TURNS/METRE.
4. CABLES R/B (916B (A)), U (417 (A)), B (952B (A)) & Y (542 (A)) TWISTED 32 TURNS/METRE.
CALIBRATION PLUGS FOR FRONT AND REAR TRANSMISSIONS
2
SM 2282 04-04
Electrical System - Circuit Diagrams
Section 190-0000
FUSES
Location
Main
Control
Box
Radio Harness
Front Frame
Fuse Box
Rr Frame Fuse Box
SM 2282 Rev1 04-04
Fuse No.
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
33
34
35
36
38
39
43
44
45
46
47
48
49
50
51
55
56
57
58
59
Circuit
Ignition Sensed Relay Wipers
Keyswitch
Spare
Rear Wash/Wipe
Horn, Front Wash/Wipe
Spare
Lights Switch
Main Beam
Wiper Park Front and Rear
Hazards
Rear Starter Solenoid
Reverse System, Cutting Edge Light
Brake Lights
Interior Light, Handlamp, Cigar Lighter
Direction Indicators/Rocker Switch Lights
Alarm Engines/Transmissions
Warning Lights
Bowl Drop
Gauges/Ignition Sensed Relay Coils
Spare
Front Starter Solenoid
Washers, Front
Washers, Rear
Horn
Ignition Sensed Relay Contacts (Air Cond, TVP, Opt.)
Air Conditioning System
Transmission Ignition Supply
Ignition Auxilary Supply Option
Work Lights
Rotating Beacon
Cab Fan
Spare
Bowl Suspension
Alternator Drive Signal
Spare
Spare
Radio/Cassette Supply (Glass Fuse)
Radio/Cassette Supply (Glass Fuse)
Front ECM Battery Supply
Front ECM Battery Supply
Front ECM Battery Supply
Front ECM Battery Supply
Front ECM Battery Supply
Front ECM Ignition Supply
Transmission Start Relay
Transmission TVP Battery Supply
Transmission TVP Battery Supply
Rear Engine Battery Supply
Rear Engine Battery Supply
Rear Engine Battery Supply
Rear Engine Battery Supply
Rear Engine Battery Supply
Current Rating
30A
15A
10A
10A
10A
10A
7.5A
7.5A
3A
7.5A
5A
5A
5A
3A
3A
3A
3A
3A
3A
3A
3A
30A
15A
15A
10A
15A
5A
3A
3A
3A
7A
1A
10A
10A
7.5A
7.5A
7.5A
5A
15A
15A
15A
10A
10A
7.5A
7.5A
7.5A
3
Electrical System - Circuit Diagrams
Section 190-0000
FUSES
Location
Fuse No.
Circuit
Current Rating
Rr Frame Fuse Box
60
Rear Engine Ignition Supply
L.H rail Power Box
61
62
Vehicle System supply
Alternator Charge System Supply
100A
100A
Front Engine Bay
63
Front Grid Heater Supply
125A
Rear Engine Bay
64
Rear Grid Heater Supply
125A
4
5A
SM 2282 04-04
Electrical System - Circuit Diagrams
SM - 3178
Section 190-0000
SM 2282 Rev1 04-04
5
Electrical System - Circuit Diagrams
SM - 3178A
Section 190-0000
6
SM 2282 04-04
Electrical System - Circuit Diagrams
SM - 3178B
Section 190-0000
SM 2282 Rev1 04-04
7
Electrical System - Circuit Diagrams
SM - 3178C
Section 190-0000
8
SM 2282 04-04
Electrical System - Circuit Diagrams
SM - 3178D
Section 190-0000
SM 2282 Rev1 04-04
9
Electrical System - Circuit Diagrams
SM - 3178E
Section 190-0000
10
SM 2282 04-04
Electrical System - Circuit Diagrams
SM- 3178F
Section 190-0000
SM 2282 Rev1 04-04
11
Electrical System - Circuit Diagrams
SM - 3178G
Section 190-0000
12
SM 2282 04-04
Electrical System - Circuit Diagrams
SM- 3178H
Section 190-0000
SM 2282 Rev1 04-04
13
Electrical System - Circuit Diagrams
SM - 3178I
Section 190-0000
14
SM 2282 04-04
Electrical System - Circuit Diagrams
SM - 3178J
Section 190-0000
SM 2282 Rev1 04-04
15
Electrical System - Circuit Diagrams
SM - 3178K
Section 190-0000
16
SM 2282 04-04
Electrical System - Circuit Diagrams
SM - 3178L
Section 190-0000
SM 2282 Rev1 04-04
17
Electrical System - Circuit Diagrams
SM - 3178M
Section 190-0000
18
SM 2282 04-04
Electrical System - Circuit Diagrams
SM - 3178N
Section 190-0000
*
SM 2282 Rev1 04-04
*
*
*
19
ELECTRICAL SYSTEM - Switches and Sensors
Section 190-0270
SM - 3175
10
9
COOLANT
SENDER
12
LOW AIR PRESS SW.
11
PRESS.SW.
13
TRANS PARK BRAKE
PRESS SW.
RADIATOR
ENGINE
TRANS
TRANS
PRESS SW.
14
PRESS
SENDER
SW.
8
STOP LIGHT
PRESS SW.
2
1
1
2
3
4
5
-
5
3
LOW
PRESS
SW.
6
7
4
TREADLE VALVE
START SOLENOID
Front Brake Low Air Pressure Sw
Rear Brake Low Air Pressure Sw
Front Brake Stop Light Pressure Sw
Rear Brake Stop Light Pressure Sw
Starter Solenoid
6
7
8
9
10
-
TRANS
TEMP SW.
GRID HEATER
POWER RELAY
Grid Heater Relay
Transmission Oil Temperature Sender
Transmission Oil Pressure Switch
Engine Coolant Level Sender
Parking Brake Low Air Pressure Sw
PRESS PROTECTION VALVE
11
12
13
14
-
Trans. Parking Brake Pressure Sw
Air Cleaner Restriction Indicator
Convertor Drive Pressure Switch
Air Pressure Sender
Fig. 1 - Layout View of Switches and Sensors - Tractor
DESCRIPTION
Engine
Numbers in parentheses refer to Fig. 1 & 2, unless
otherwise specified.
The Quantum Electronic fuel system monitors the
engines at all times and sends a signal to the engine
check lights (5 & 19, Fig. 3) and engine stop lights
(6 & 20, Fig. 3) on the dash panel to alert the operator
of a fault in the engine circuit. An audible alarm also
sounds when the engine stop lights illuminate. Refer to
Section 110-0030, ENGINE AND MOUNTING.
This section describes the location and function of
various switches and sensors fitted to the vehicle to
monitor all major components and systems. Gauges
and warning lights located in the dash panel, relay this
information to the operator.
Note: Always make sure all gauges, warning lights
and controls are working properly before operating the
vehicle.
SM 2286 04-04
Starter Solenoid (5) - The starter solenoid powers up
the starter motor when the key switch is turned.
Grid Heaters Relay (6) - The relay powers up the grid
heaters in both the Tractor and Scraper engine units.
1
Electrical System - Switches and Sensors
Section 190-0270
SM - 3174
9
12
COOLANT
SENDER
ENGINE
TRANS
8
TRANS.
PRESS.
SWT.
7
TRANS. TEMP.
SWITCH/SENDER
7 - Transmission Oil Temperature Sender/Switch
8 - Transmission Oil Pressure Switch
RADIATOR
9 - Engine Coolant Level Sender
12 - Air Cleaner Restriction Indicator
Fig. 2 - Layout View of Switches and Sensors - Scraper
Engine Coolant Level Senders (9) - Located in the
radiator top tank, the sender sends a signal to engine
stop light (6 or 20, Fig. 3) indicating that the engine
coolant level is low.
Tachometer/Hourmeter (1, Fig. 3) - Driven from the
alternator, the tachometer indicates the number of
engine crankshaft revolutions per minute (rev/min).
Never accelerate the engine to speeds indicated by the
red zone on the dial face. A digital hourmeter is
incorporated in the tachometer to record total hours of
engine operation.
Transmission
The FUNK DF 158 transmission management system
monitors the transmissions at all times and sends a
signal to the display unit on the dash panel to alert the
operator of a fault in the transmission circuit.
Converter Drive Pressure Switch (13) - Located on
the top rear of the transmission, sends a signal to
illuminate transmission converter indicator light
2
(9, Fig. 3) to indicate when the transmission is in
torque converter drive.
Transmission Oil Pressure Switch (8) - Located in a
tee at the front of the transmission, sends a signal to
illuminate transmission oil pressure warning light (8 &
18, Fig. 3) to indicate when the transmission oil
pressure is low.
Transmission Oil Temperature Sender (7, Fig. 1) &
Transmission Oil Temperature Sender/Switch
(7, Fig. 2) - The temperature switch (only on scraper)
sends a signal to illuminate transmission oil
temperature warning light (17, Fig. 3) when the scraper
transmission oil temperature rises above the safe
operating temperature.
The temperature senders sends a signal to the
Transmission Oil Temperature Gauge (2 & 4, Fig. 2) to
indicate converter-out oil temperature. The gauge
should read in the green zone during normal operation.
Watch for wide deviations from normal readings on the
SM 2286 04-04
Electrical System - Switches and Sensors
Section 190-0270
SM - 3173
1
15
10
RPM x100
26
120
24 23
30
2
30
50
TRANS
OIL
7
29
25
25
5
28
20
5
0
27
4
31
120
140
50
150
TRANS
OIL
TEMP
9
140
150
21 22
TEMP
15
11
17
13
AIR
SERVICE
PRESS
STOP
STOP
12
6
1 - Tachometer/Hourmeter
2 - Transmission Oil Temperature
Gauge (Tractor)
3 - Air Pressure Gauge
4 - Transmission Oil Temperature
Gauge (Scraper)
5 - Engine Check W/L (Tractor)
6 - Engine Stop W/L (Tractor)
7 - Engine Service Ind/L
8 - Transmission Oil Pressure W/L
(Tractor)
9 - Converter Ind/L
10 - Transmission Oil Filter Restriction
W/L (Tractor)
8
19
3
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
14
- Headlight Main Beam Ind/L
- Alternator Charging W/L
- Bowl Suspension Ind/L
- Direction Indicators Ind/L
- Low Air Pressure W/L
- Transmission Oil Filter Restriction
W/L (Scraper)
- Transmission Oil Temperature
W/L (Scraper)
- Transmission Oil Pressure W/L
(Scraper)
- Engine Check W/L (Scraper)
- Engine Stop W/L (Scraper)
16
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
18
20
- Engine Diagnostic Switch (Scraper)
- Engine Diagnostic Request Switch (Scraper)
- Engine Diagnostic Request Switch (Tractor)
- Engine Diagnostic Switch (Tractor)
- Wait to start light (Tractor)
- Maintenance light (Tractor)
- Water in fuel warning light (Tractor)
- Water in fuel warning light (Scraper)
- Maintenance light (Scraper)
- Wait to Start Light (Scraper)
- Gear / Diagnostic Display unit
Fig. 3 - Layout View of Instruments and Indicator/Warning Lights
transmission oil temperature gauge during machine
operation. If the gauge shows oil temperature
consistently rising above the green zone under normal
operating conditions; check for external causes. If
none are evident shift to Neutral 'N' and operate the
engine at 1 200 - 1 500 rev/min. If the transmission oil
temperature does not decrease into the green zone
within 2 or 3 minutes, the cause of the overheating
should be corrected before the machine is operated
further.
Watch the gauge when operating on upgrades, also. If
the oil temperature goes into the yellow zone, select
the range which will limit upshifts to the highest range
in which the transmission will operate closest to the
normal temperature range (green zone). If upshifting
must be consistently limited to ranges lower than
normal for the loads and the grades encountered to
prevent overheating the transmission oil, the causes
should be determined and corrected.
Transmission Oil Filter Pressure Switches - Located
in the transmission oil filter head. Sends a signal to
transmission oil filter restriction indicator light (10 or 16,
Fig. 3) to indicate that the filter is restricted and that
the element requires to be changed.
SM 2286 04-04
Braking System
Transmission Parking Brake Pressure Switch (11) The pressure switch is located in a tee from the
parking/emergency brake control valve. The pressure
switch sends a signal to transmission indicating that
the parking brake is applied.
Stop Light Pressure Switches (3 & 4) - There are two
normally open (NO) pressure switches, one for the front
brake circuit and one for the rear brake circuit. These
are connected in parallel and are located in the treadle
valve. As brake apply pressure increases to 0.28 bar (4
lbf/in2) and above, the circuit closes and sends a signal
to illuminate the brake lights at the rear of the vehicle.
As pressure drops below 0.28 bar
(4 lbf/in2) the circuit opens and the brake lights go out.
Air Pressure Sender (14) - Located in a tee in port '23'
of the pressure protection valve, the air pressure
sender sends a signal indicating air reservoir pressure
on air pressure gauge (3, Fig. 3).
3
Electrical System - Switches and Sensors
Section 190-0270
Air Pressure Gauge (3, Fig. 3) - Indicates air reservoir
pressure. During normal operation, the needle in this
gauge should be showing in or approaching the centre
of the green zone. Do not operate the vehicle if the
needle remains in the red zone.
Switch (2) - Rear service circuit air pressure falls below
4.1 bar (60 lbf/in²).
If the warning light illuminates, stop the machine, apply
the parking brake and investigate the cause.
Air Cleaner
WARNING
Never release the parking brake or move the
vehicle until the needle is at least approaching
the centre of the green zone.
Low Air Pressure Switch (1, 2 & 10) - There are 3
normally open (NO) pressure switches located in air
system. One located in port '4' of the manifold plate
and two in the treadle valve. The switches send a
signal to illuminate low brake air pressure warning light
(15, Fig. 3) if there is a loss of air pressure in the
following circuits:
Air Cleaner Restriction Gauge (14) - Mounted
externally on the air cleaner pipes, the restriction
gauge indicates the degree of air cleaner element
restriction as the red band rises in the gauge window.
The filter elements should be replaced if the red band
locks in place when the engine is shut down. Reset
the gauge by pressing the button on the gauge with
the engine running.
Switch (10) - Park/emergency brake circuit air pressure
falls below 5.5 bar (80 lbf/in²).
Switch (1) - Front service circuit air pressure falls
below 4.1 bar (60 lbf/in²).
*
4
*
*
*
SM 2286 04-04
FUEL SYSTEM - Fuel Tanks, Lines and Mounting
Section 200-0040
SM - 3159
3
2
8
1
4
10
5
20
6
7
12
21
22
14
23
15
16
17
9
18
19
13
11
1
2
3
4
5
6
- Fuel Tank
- Filler Cap
- Bolt
- Filter - Wool
- Cover Plate
- Nut
7
8
9
10
11
12
- Gasket
- Latch Assembly
- Drain Plug
- Key
- Locknut
- Fuel Strainer
13
14
15
16
17
18
- Lockwasher
- Bolt
- Washer
- Lockwasher
- Locknut
- Bolt
19 - Washer
20 - Padlock
21 - Washer (Hardened)
22 - Lockwasher
23 - Bolt
Fig. 1 - Fuel Tank and Mounting - Tractor
DESCRIPTION
Numbers in parentheses refer to Fig. 1 & 2, unless
otherwise stated.
The tractor fuel tank is mounted on the chassis at the
front of the cab assembly. The scraper fuel tank is
mounted on the scraper chassis at the rear of the bowl
assembly. Both fuel tanks are secured with bolts
(14 & 18), washers (15 & 19), lockwashers (13 & 16)
and locknuts (11 & 17).
Both fuel tanks have an integral fuel strainer (12) which
helps prevent foreign particles from entering the fuel
tank during filling.
SM 1886 Rev1 03-04
Note: Refer to Section 300-0020, LUBRICATION
SYSTEM for fuel tank capacity and fuel specifications.
OPERATION
Numbers in parentheses refer to Fig. 3 & 4, unless
otherwise specified.
Fuel is drawn from fuel tank through fuel line (4 & 21),
inline filters and fuel filters (35 & 36) by fuel pump.
Leaving fuel pump under pressure, the fuel flows to
the fuel injectors in the cylinder head through passages
integral with the cylinder head. Surplus fuel exits from
the cylinder head, just above the fuel inlet, and returns
1
Fuel System - Fuel Tanks, Lines and Mounting
Section 200-0040
SM - 2218
5
7
12
2
20
1
8
21
18
19
13
11
16
17
9
15
14
1
2
5
7
- Fuel Tank
- Filler Cap
- Cover Plate
- Gasket
8
9
11
12
- Latch Assembly
- Drain Plug
- Locknut
- Fuel Strainer
13
14
15
16
-
Lockwasher
Bolt
Washer
Lockwasher
17
18
19
20
21
-
Locknut
Bolt
Washer
Padlock
Key
Fig. 2 - Fuel Tank and Mounting - Scraper
to fuel tank through fuel line (5 & 30).
A fuel tank breather/filter assembly (4, Fig. 1) is
incorporated into the fuel filler cap (2, Fig. 1), allowing
fuel tank (1, Fig. 1) to vent to atmosphere, preventing
pressure from building up within fuel tank (1, Fig.1)
assembly.
REMOVAL
Numbers in parentheses refer to Fig. 1 & 2, unless
otherwise specified.
WARNING
To prevent personal injury and property
damage, be sure wheel blocks, blocking
materials and lifting equipment are properly
secured and of adequate capacity to do the job
safely.
1. Position the vehicle in a level work area, apply the
parking brake and switch off the engine. Operate the
steering in both directions several times to relieve any
pressure in the steering system.
2. Block all road wheels and place the battery master
2
SM 1886 Rev1 03-04
Fuel System - Fuel Tanks, Lines and Mounting
Section 200-0040
SM - 3160
11
12
1
10
1 - Elbow - 90°
2 - Connector
3 - Clamp
4 - Fuel Line
5 - Fuel Line
6 - Drain Cock
7 - Nipple
8 - Bushing - reducer
9 - Elbow - 90°
10 - Bracket
11 - Bolt
12 - Lockwasher
13 - Clamp
14 - Bushing - Split
15 - Nut
16 - Bolt
17 - Bushing - reducer
2
3
5
13,14,15,16
4
3
3
3
2
17
IN-LINE FILTER
SWE
6
FILTER AND
FILTER LINES
S.W.E.
ENGINE
LHS
7
8
9
4
3
FUEL TANK
3
Fig. 3 - Fuel Lines - Tractor
SM - 3161
18
19
18 - Elbow
19 - Connector
20 - Clamp
21 - Fuel Line
22 - Bushing
23 - Drain Cock
24 - Nipple
25 - Bushing reducer
26 - Clamp
27 - Bushing - split
28 - Nut
29 - Bolt
30 - Fuel Line
31 - Bolt
32 - Lockwasher
33 - Bracket
20
21
22
20
19
FILTER AND
FILTER LINES
S.W.E.
23
25
FUEL TANK
24
33
20
31
20
32
30
20
IN-LINE
FILTER
S.W.E.
20
26,27,28,29
Fig. 4 - Fuel Lines - Scraper
switch in the 'Off' position.
3. Remove padlock (20) and remove filler cap (2)
assembly from fuel tank (1).
4. Remove fuel strainer (12) from fuel tank (1) and
clean with clean diesel fuel.
5. With a suitable container in position, remove drain
plug (9) from the underside of fuel tank (1) and drain
fuel from fuel tank (1). Reinstall drain plug (9) and
tighten securely when fuel tank (1) is completely
drained.
SM 1886 Rev1 03-04
6. Identify and tag fuel lines (4, 5, 21 & 30, Figs. 3 & 4)
and, with a suitable container available to catch
leakage, disconnect fuel lines (4, 5, 21 & 30, Figs. 3 &
4). Cap open line ends, connectors (2 &19 Figs. 3 & 4)
and elbows (1 & 18, Figs. 3 & 4) to prevent entry of
dirt.
7. Remove locknuts (11 & 17), bolts (14 & 18),
lockwashers (13 & 16) and washers (15 & 19)
securing fuel tank (1) assembly to the frame. Using a
suitable lifting device, remove fuel tank (1) assembly
from the vehicle.
3
Fuel System - Fuel Tanks, Lines and Mounting
Section 200-0040
INSTALLATION
General
Numbers in parentheses refer to Fig. 1 & 2, unless
otherwise specified.
Refill fuel tank (1) at the end of each day's operation to
prevent condensation from contaminating the fuel.
Ensure vent hole in filler cap (2) is clear to prevent a
vacuum from building up in fuel tank (1).
WARNING
To prevent personal injury and property
damage, be sure lifting equipment is properly
secured and of adequate capacity to do the job
safely.
When filling fuel tank (1), check that there is no buildup
of dirt and sludge at fuel strainer (12) and filler cap (2).
Remove and clean fuel strainer (12) and filler cap (2)
as required.
1. Using suitable lifting equipment, position fuel tank
(1) assembly on the frame.
Every 10 Hours/Daily
2. Secure the fuel tank (1) assembly to the frame with
bolts (14 & 18), washers (15 & 19), lockwashers
(13 & 16) and locknuts (11 & 17), as shown.
3. Remove blanking caps and secure fuel lines
(4, 5, 21 & 30 Figs. 3 & 4) to connectors (2, 19 Figs. 3
& 4) and elbows (1 & 18 Figs. 3 & 4), as identified at
removal.
Every 500 Hours
Remove drain plug (9) from the underside of fuel tank
(1) and drain off any water or sediment which has
gathered. Check condition of filler cap (2) and clean
fuel strainer (12) and filler cap (2) with clean fuel.
Check the condition of all fuel lines and replace if
required.
4. Install fuel strainer (12) in fuel tank (1).
5. Fill fuel tank (1) assembly with clean diesel fuel
specified in Section 300-0020, LUBRICATION
SYSTEM.
6. Install filler cap (2) assembly on fuel tank filler neck.
Tighten filler cap (2) securely and secure in place with
padlock (20).
7. Place the battery master switch in the 'On' position,
start the engine and run for a few minutes to ensure
fuel is being supplied to the engine. Check for leaks at
fuel lines (4, 5, 21 & 30, Fig. 3 & 4) and tighten if
required.
8. Remove wheel blocks from all road wheels.
MAINTENANCE
Numbers in parentheses refer to Fig. 1 & 2, unless
otherwise specified.
*
Diesel Fuel Oil
The sulphur content of diesel fuel oil should be as low
as possible to avoid premature wear of piston rings
and line, excessive deposit formation, and minimise
sulphur dioxide exhausted into the atmosphere.
Limited amounts can be tolerated, but the amount of
sulphur in the fuel and engine operating conditions can
influence corrosion and deposit formation tendencies.
The use of diesel fuel oil with a MAXIMUM sulphur
content of 0.5% is recommended for use. Refer to
Section 300-0020, LUBRICATION SYSTEM.
SERVICE TOOLS
There are no special tools required for procedures
outlined in this section. Refer to Section 300-0070,
SERVICE TOOLS, for part numbers of general service
tools required. These tools are available from your
dealer.
WARNING
To prevent personal injury and property
damage, be sure wheel blocks and blocking
materials are properly secured and of adequate
capacity to do the job safely.
4
Make a visual check for fuel leaks at all fuel lines and
connections. Make sure that fuel lines (4, 9, 18 & 25,
Figs. 3 & 4) are not resting on or touching rotating
components, heated surfaces including exhaust
manifolds, or sharp edges. If fittings have loosened or
cracked, or if lines have ruptured or worn through, take
corrective action immediately.
*
*
*
SM 1886 Rev1 03-04
FUEL SYSTEM - Electronic Foot Pedal
Section 200-0051
SM - 2099
FRONT ENGINE
REAR ENGINE
1
28
27
26
25
9
10
8
24
3
23
4
16
22
21
20
19
15
7
14
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
31
32
33
5
27
ENGINE
17
11
18
13 12
- Pedal Assembly
- Harness
- Bushing
- Pin
- Snap Ring
- Bushing
- Spring
- Bolt
- Lockwasher
6
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
- Linking Bar
- Plate
- Pin
- Snap Ring
- Roller
- Lever
- Bushing
- Bolt
- Lockwasher
34
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
- Bushing
- Shaft
- Thrust Washer
- Spring
- Bearing
- Pin
- Thrust Washer
- Cover
29,30
2
27
28
29
30
31
32
33
34
- Potentiometer
- Screw
- Screw
- Clamp
- Bolt
- Nut
- Lockwasher
- Spacer
Fig. 1 - Electronic Foot Pedal Assemblies
DESCRIPTION
Numbers in parentheses refer to Fig. 1.
There are two electronic foot pedals mounted on the
cab floor. The electronic foot pedals provide an
electrical signal to the engine's fuel control system in
proportion to the degree of pedal actuation. The right
hand pedal operates the tractor engine and the left
hand pedal operates the scraper engine. The right
hand (tractor) accelerator pedal can be operated
individually when only the tractor engine is running,
SM 1719 2-99
however, when both engines are running, it is
recommended that both pedals are depressed at the
same time to provide equal power to both engines.
This action is obtained by depressing the left hand
accelerator pedal which, by means of linking bar (10),
also depresses the right hand pedal.
Note: The electronic controlled engine will override
the electronic foot pedal position until the engine is
warmed up to the correct operating temperature. The
engine MUST be started with the foot 'OFF' the
electronic foot pedal.
1
Fuel System - Electronic Foot Pedal
Section 200-0051
REMOVAL
INSTALLATION
Numbers in parentheses refer to Fig. 1.
Numbers in parentheses refer to Fig. 1.
Note: Tighten all fasteners to standard torques listed
in Section 300-0080, STANDARD BOLT AND NUT
TORQUE SPECIFICATIONS.
WARNING
To prevent personal injury and property
damage, be sure wheel blocks are properly
secured and of adequate capacity to do the job
safely.
1. Position pedal assemblies (1) on cab floor and
secure with mounting bolts (17) and lockwashers (18)
removed during removal.
1. Position the vehicle in a level work area, apply the
parking brake and switch off the engine. Turn
steering wheel several times to relieve any pressure
in the steering circuit.
2. Connect electrical harnesses (2) to the mating
engine harnesses.
2. Block all road wheels and place the battery master
switch in the 'Off' position.
3. Position floor mat on cab floor and ensure that
pedal assemblies (1) are free to operate.
3. Disconnect electrical harnesses (2) from the
mating engine harnesses.
4. Switch the battery master switch to the 'On'
position and start the engine. Ensure that pedal
assemblies (1) operate correctly.
4. Move cab floor mat back and clear from pedal
assemblies (1) and mounting plates.
Note: The engine MUST be started with the foot
'OFF' pedal assemblies (1).
5. Remove mounting bolts (17) and lockwashers (18)
securing pedal assemblies (1) to cab floor plate.
Remove pedal assemblies (1).
5. Remove wheel blocks.
MAINTENANCE
Limited repair of the electronic foot pedal assembly is
by replacement of parts only. Refer to vehicle Parts
Book for part numbers of overhaul kits.
*
2
*
*
*
SM 1719 2-99
COOLING SYSTEM - Radiator and Mounting
Section 210-0040
11
12
15
SM - 3154
18
19
6
17
16
10
14
13
4
20
7
3
2
21
22
1
27
5
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
- Fan Guard
- Drain Plug
- Bolt
- Washer
- Plate
- Gasket
- Clip
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
8
9
23
24
25
4
26
- Bolt
- Lockwasher
- Bracket
- Bolt
- Lockwasher
- Stop-door
- Washer
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
- Washer
- Tubing
- Fill Neck Assembly
- Cap
- Bolt
- Radiator Shroud
- Pad
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
- Stud
- Spring
- Washer
- Nut
- Bolt
- Washer
- Radiator Assembly
Fig. 1 - Exploded View of Radiator and Mounting -Tractor
REMOVAL
Numbers in parentheses refer to Fig. 1, unless
otherwise specified.
1. Position the vehicle in a level work area, apply the
parking brake and switch off the engine. Operate
steering right and left several times to relieve
pressure in the steering system.
WARNING
Do not remove radiator filler cap or drain the
coolant until the engine has cooled to below
50° C (120° F). When removing filler cap,
always release pressure from the system by
depressing the pressure relief button on the
filler cap. Remove filler cap slowly, as the
sudden release of pressure from a heated
cooling system can result in a loss of coolant
and possible personal injury.
2. Block all road wheels and place the battery master
switch in the 'Off' position.
To prevent personal injury and property
damage, be sure lifting equipment is properly
secured and of adequate capacity to do the job
safely.
5. With a suitable container in position, remove drain
plug (2) at the bottom of radiator assembly (28) and
drain the cooling system. Reinstall drain plug (2) and
tighten securely when coolant is completely drained.
SM 2276 03-04
3. Remove mounting hardware securing hood
assembly to the machine and, using suitable lifting
equipment, remove hood assembly. Refer to
Section 100-0010, CHASSIS, HOOD AND FENDERS.
4. Depress pressure relief button on filler cap (18) and
remove the filler cap (18) from filler neck (17).
1
Cooling System - Radiator and Mounting
Section 210-0040
SM - 3153
3
5
5
1
8
9
16
17
14
19
20
15
TO ENGINE
10
18
TO ENGINE
5
TO ENGINE
12
6
7
5
14
3
5
5
11
5
4
5
2
5
13
5
TO TRANS OIL
COOLER
TO TRANS OIL
COOLER
1
2
3
4
5
-
Tube Assembly
Tube Assembly
Silicon Hose
Silicon Hose
Clamp
6
7
8
9
-
Reducer Hose
Clamp
Adaptor
Deaeration Line
10
11
12
13
14
-
Adaptor
Tube Assembly
Reducer Hose
Silicon Hose
Clamp
15 - Hose Assembly
16 - Adaptor
17 - Elbow
18 - Adaptor
19 - Coupling
20 - Coupling
Fig. 2 - Radiator Piping
6. Remove bolts (3) and washers (4) securing fan guard
(1) to radiator shroud (20). Remove fan guard (1) from
the machine.
7. Slacken clamps (5, Fig. 2) and slide silicon hose
(3, Fig. 2) away from the radiator top tank connection.
Cap open ends to prevent entry of dirt.
10. Ensure all coolant lines have been disconnected
from radiator assembly (28).
11. Remove bolts (11), lockwashers (12), washers (15)
and bracket (10) from radiator assembly (28).
8. Disconnect deaeration line (9, Fig. 2) from adaptor
(8, Fig. 2) in radiator top tank and cap open ends to
prevent entry of dirt.
12. Attach suitable lifting equipment to radiator
assembly (28) and remove nuts (25), washers (24),
springs (23) securing radiator assembly (1) to the
machine. Remove radiator assembly (1), studs (22)
and pads (21) from the machine.
9. Slacken clamps (5, Fig. 2) and slide silicon hose
(4, Fig. 2) away from the radiator bottom tank
connection. Cap open ends to prevent entry of dirt.
Note: The thin fins and tubes of the radiator core are
easily damaged, therefore, handle radiator assembly
(28) with care.
2
SM 2276 03-04
Cooling System - Radiator and Mounting
Section 210-0040
SM - 3155
1
6
7
11,12
3
5
4
8,9,10
6
2
7
11,12
1 - Top Tank
2 - Bottom Tank
3 - Side Column - LH
4 - Side Column - RH
5 - Core Assembly
6 - Gasket
7 - Nut
8 - Stud
9 - Damper
10 - Nut
11 - Bolt
12 - Lockwasher
Fig. 3 - Component Parts of Radiator Assembly
DISASSEMBLY
Numbers in parentheses refer to Fig. 3, unless
otherwise specified.
4. Remove nuts (7), washers (12) and bolts (11)
securing top tank (1) to core assembly (5).
Note: Position radiator assembly on wooden blocks
with radiator shroud (20, Fig. 1) up to protect radiator
core during 'Disassembly'.
5. Remove top tank (1) from core assembly (5) and
discard gasket (6).
1. Remove bolts (8, Fig. 1), lockwashers (9, Fig. 1) and
washers (4, Fig. 1) securing radiator shroud
(20, Fig. 1) to radiator assembly (28, Fig. 1). Remove
radiator shroud from radiator assembly.
2. Remove mounting hardware, clip (7, Fig. 1) and
overflow tube (16, Fig. 1) from filler neck (17, Fig. 1) on
radiator top tank (1).
3. Remove bolts (11), Lockwashers (12) and nuts (7)
securing side columns (3 & 4) to top tank (1) and
bottom tank (2). Remove side columns (3 & 4).
SM 2276 03-04
6. Remove bolts (19, Fig. 1) securing filler neck
(17, Fig. 1) to radiator top tank (1). Remove filler neck
(17, Fig. 1) and discard gasket (6, Fig. 1).
7. Remove nuts (7), washers (12) and bolts (11)
securing bottom tank (2) to core assembly (5).
8. Remove bottom tank (2) from core assembly (5).
Discard gasket (6).
9. If required, remove drain plug (2, Fig. 1) and studs
(22, Fig. 1) from bottom tank (2).
3
Cooling System - Radiator and Mounting
Section 210-0040
INSPECTION
lockwashers (9, Fig. 1) and washers (4, Fig. 1).
Numbers in parentheses refer to Fig. 3.
1. Steam clean all parts thoroughly.
2. Examine core assembly (5) carefully for possible
damage. Repair any damage discovered, if equipped
to do so, or have repairs made at a reputable radiator
repair shop.
3. Clean top tank (1) and bottom tank (2) of all traces
of corrosion, scale and old gasket material.
ASSEMBLY
Numbers in parentheses refer to Fig. 3, unless
otherwise specified.
Note: Tighten all fasteners to standard torques listed
in Section 300-0080, STANDARD BOLT AND NUT
TORQUE.
Note: Use a gasket sealer such as Permatex No. 2,
or equivalent, during assembly to ensure leakproof
joints.
1. If removed, install drain plug (2, Fig. 1) and studs
(22, Fig. 1) in bottom tank (2).
2. Install new gasket (6, Fig. 1), coated with sealer,
and filler neck (17, Fig. 1) on top tank (1). Secure filler
neck to top tank with bolts (19, Fig. 1).
3. Install new gasket (6), coated with sealer, to top tank
(1). Position side columns (3 & 4) to core assembly (5)
and attach top tank (1) to core assembly (5) and side
columns (3 & 4) with bolts (11), washers (12) and nuts
(7).
5. Install new gasket (6), coated with sealer, to
bottom tank (2). Position side columns (3 & 4) to core
assembly (5) and attach bottom tank (2) to core
assembly (5) and side columns (3 & 4) with bolts
(11), washers (12) and nuts (7).
Note: Tighten top tank (1) and bottom tank (2) to core
assembly (5) from the centre out to ensure an evenly
spread load.
6. Install overflow tube (16, Fig. 1) to filler neck (17,
Fig. 1) on radiator top tank (1). Secure tube with clips
(7, Fig. 1) and mounting hardware as removed at
Disassembly.
7. Install radiator shroud (20, Fig. 1) to radiator
assembly (1, Fig. 1) and secure with bolts (8, Fig. 1),
4
INSTALLATION
Numbers in parentheses refer to Fig. 1.
Note: Tighten all fasteners, without special torques
specified, to standard torques listed in
Section 300-0080, STANDARD BOLT AND NUT
TORQUE.
To prevent personal injury and property
damage, be sure lifting equipment is properly
secured and of adequate capacity to do the job
safely.
1. Using suitable lifting equipment, position radiator
assembly (28) on mounting brackets with pads (21).
Install a spring (23), washer (24) and nut (25) to each
mounting stud (22). Preload spring by tightening nut
until spring is compressed to a length of 42.9 mm (1.69
inch). Refer to Fig. 4, Dimension 'A'.
Note: The thin fins and tubes of the radiator core are
easily damaged, therefore, handle radiator assembly
(1) with care.
2. Remove blanking cap from deaeration line (9, Fig.2)
and tighten securely to adaptor (8, Fig. 2).
3. Remove blanking cap and slide silicon hose
(3, Fig. 2) over radiator top tank connection and secure
with clamp (5, Fig. 2).
4. Remove blanking cap and slide silicon hose
SM - 2207
BOTTOM
TANK
PAD
FRAME RAIL
(OR MOUNTING
PLATE)
A
SPRING
WASHER
ELASTIC
STOP NUT
STUD
SPRING COMPRESSED
HEIGHT FOR PROPER PRELOAD
Fig. 4 - Pad and Stud Type Mount
SM 2276 03-04
Cooling System - Radiator and Mounting
Section 210-0040
(3, Fig. 2) over radiator bottom tank connection and
secure with clamp (5, Fig. 2).
5. Install fan guard (1) to radiator shroud (20) and
secure with bolts (3), washers (4).
6. Using a suitable lifting device, install hood assembly
and radiator guard on the machine and secure with
mounting hardware, as removed at 'Removal'. Refer to
Section 100-0010, CHASSIS, HOOD AND FENDERS.
7. Connect all electrical connections to lights in
radiator guard assembly.
Note: Do not secure hood assembly on the vehicle
until vehicle has been started and checked for leaks.
Refer to 'Initial Fill and Start-up'.
Initial Fill and Start-up
Numbers in parentheses refer to Fig. 1.
1. Refer to Engine 'Operation and Maintenance
Manual' for correct selection of heavy duty coolant.
2. Ensure drain plug (2) is tightened securely and fill
the cooling system through filler neck (17). Fill with
coolant until coolant reaches the bottom of filler neck
(17) and holds at that level.
3. Check all line connections for leaks prior to
starting the vehicle. Tighten as required.
4. Place the battery master switch 'On', start the engine
and check for leaks. Tighten lines and fittings and top up
coolant level as required. Fit filler cap (18).
5. Using suitable lifting equipment, position hood
assembly on the vehicle and secure with mounting
hardware, as removed at 'Removal'. Refer to
Section 100-0010, CHASSIS, HOOD AND FENDERS.
6. Remove all wheel blocks.
MAINTENANCE
equivalent. This material is a free-flowing powder,
inhibited to prevent attack on the cooling system
materials.
WARNING
Take care to avoid contact of skin or eyes with
the solvent. If contact is made it should be
washed off immediately with clean water and
medical advice should be taken.
For general cleaning use it is recommended to use a
concentration of 50 - 100 kg/m³ of water at a
temperature of up to 60° C. Rapid circulation or
agitation with compressed air will reduce the time for
cleaning.
Note: If scale deposits within the radiator are
exceptionally heavy, concentrations up to 200 kg/m³
may be used.
The most convenient method of use is to prepare a
concentrated solution by mixing the powder in hot
water in a tank and then adding the concentrated
solution to water contained in the radiator.
Note: The solvent must always be added carefully to
water, not water to solvent.
External Cleaning
Note: If a build up of dirt is apparent during routine
inspection, the following cleaning procedure should
be adopted.
1. Direct a steam jet at 100 - 300 kN/m², or
compressed air at 500 - 700 kN/m² on to the faces of
the radiator core.
2. Liberally brush a liquid detergent on to those
surfaces which were not satisfactorily cleaned at
step 1. Leave to soak for at least 1 hour.
3. Apply a high pressure steam jet at 100 - 300 kN/m²
on to the treated surfaces, forcing the fouling material
out from the radiator core.
Refer to Section 210-0000, COOLING SYSTEM, for
recommended preventive maintenance procedures and
coolant specifications.
4. Leave radiator core to dry before re-installing the
cooling equipment.
Internal Cleaning - Water Tubes
Note: In the case of grossly fouled surfaces which
are not cleaned adequately in steps 1 through 4, the
following procedure may be used.
If scale deposits are present inside the water tubes of
the radiator, it is necessary to use a suitable scale
remover such as 'Powdered Scale Solvent', or
SM 2276 03-04
5. Ensure that the radiator core is dry.
5
Cooling System - Radiator and Mounting
Section 210-0040
6. Liberally brush on to both sides of the radiator core
an emulsifying cleaner such as 'Gunk', or equivalent,
and leave to soak for at least 1 hour.
SPECIAL TOOLS
7. Apply a high pressure steam jet at 100 - 300 kN/m²
on to the treated surfaces, from several different
angles, forcing the fouling material out from the radiator
core.
There are no special tools required for procedures
outlined in this section. Refer to Section 300-0070,
SERVICE TOOLS, for part numbers of general
service tools required. These tools are available from
your dealer.
8. For surfaces with stubborn deposits, it may be
necessary to repeat steps 5 through 7, brushing the
surfaces between stages using a stiff bristle brush.
9. Leave radiator core to dry before re-installing the
cooling equipment.
*
6
*
*
*
SM 2276 03-04
COOLING SYSTEM - Transmission Oil Cooler
Section 210-0060
SM - 3156
20
10
21
TO ENGINE
WATER PUMP
22
11
23
12
FROM RADIATOR
BOTTOM TANK
TO ENGINE
16
17
8
13
FROM & TO
TRANSMISSION
10
8
6
5
14
15
7
8
7
12
9
A
9
B
8
2
TO COOLER
3
12
C
3
4
D
1
2
19
18
4
1
2
3
4
5
6
- Heat Exchanger
- Cooler Flange
- Viton Seal
- Bolt
- Coolant Inlet Pipe
- Coolant Outlet Pipe
24
7
8
9
10
11
12
-
Elbow
Clamp
Sleeve
Clamp
Hose
Clamp
13
14
15
16
17
18
- Sleeve
- Oil Inlet Line
- Oil Return Line
- Reducer Sleeve
- Clamp
- Bolt
19 - Lockwasher
20 - Connector
21 - Elbow
22 - Coupling
23 - Coupling
24 -Washer
Fig. 1 - Exploded View of Transmission Oil Cooler
DESCRIPTION AND OPERATION
Numbers and letters in parentheses refer to Fig. 1.
The transmission oil cooler is connected in the cooling
and transmission oil circuits, between the radiator and
transmission. The purpose of the transmission oil
cooler is to maintain transmission oil within its required
operating temperature range. Refer to
Section 120-0010, TRANSMISSION AND MOUNTING
and Section 210-0000, COOLING SYSTEM.
Coolant is drawn from port 'D', through coolant outlet
pipe (6) by the engine water pump. It then circulates
through the engine water jacket and, when
thermostats are open, returns through coolant inlet
pipe (5) at port 'A'. Coolant circulates through cooler
tubes in heat exchanger (1), cooling transmission oil
around the tubes, and exits at port 'D'.
SM 1798 Rev1 03-04
Transmission oil to be cooled enters heat exchanger
(1), through oil inlet line (14) at port 'C', circulates
around cooler tubes, exits at port 'B' through oil return
line (15) to the transmission.
Note: Oil flow must always flow in the opposite
direction to coolant flow through transmission oil cooler.
REMOVAL
Numbers in parentheses refer to Fig. 1.
WARNING
To prevent personal injury and property
damage, be sure wheel blocks and lifting
equipment are properly secured and of
adequate capacity to do the job safely.
1
Cooling System - Transmission Oil Cooler
Section 210-0060
1. Position the vehicle in a level work area, apply the
parking brake and switch off the engine. Operate the
steering in both directions several times to relieve any
pressure in the steering system.
2. Block all road wheels and place the battery master
switch in the 'Off' position.
3. Remove mounting hardware securing hood
assembly to the machine and, using suitable lifting
equipment, remove hood assembly. Refer to
Section 100-0010, CHASSIS, HOOD AND FENDERS.
4. Open drain cock on the underside of the radiator
and drain the coolant into a suitable container. Refer to
Section 210-0000, COOLING SYSTEM.
5. Remove drain plug from underside of the
transmission and drain the transmission oil into a
suitable container. Refer to Section 120-0010,
TRANSMISSION AND MOUNTING.
6. Loosen clamps (8) and slide coolant inlet pipe (5)
from connection at port 'A'. Drain coolant from coolant
inlet pipe (5) and cooler flange (2) into a suitable
container.
7. Loosen clamps (12) and slide coolant outlet pipe (6)
from connection at port 'D'. Drain coolant from coolant
outlet pipe (6) and cooler flange (2) into a suitable
container.
8. Remove drain plug from underside of heat
exchanger (1) and drain oil into a suitable container.
Reinstall drain plug in heat exchanger (1).
9. Remove oil inlet line (14) from elbow (24) at port 'C'
on heat exchanger (1). Drain any oil in the line into a
suitable container.
10. Remove oil return line (15) from elbow (7) at port
'B' on heat exchanger (1). Drain any oil in the line into
a suitable container.
11. Support transmission oil cooler assembly with a
suitable lifting device and remove bolts (18), washers
(26) and lockwashers (19). Remove transmission oil
cooler assembly from the frame mounts.
2
CLEANING AND DISASSEMBLY
Numbers in parentheses refer to Fig. 1.
Note: In the event of a major mechanical failure, the
transmission oil cooler assembly should be cleaned
thoroughly or replaced. Do not attempt to clean cooler
cores after a transmission failure in which metal
particles from worn or broken parts are released into
the oil. Replace the cooler cores.
In many areas, raw water is extremely corrosive or
scale forming and should be treated to prevent
damage to the transmission oil cooler. A properly
maintained cooling system will significantly reduce
cleaning intervals. Refer to Section 210-0000,
COOLING SYSTEM.
Cleaning Oil Side
WARNING
Dangerous fumes. To prevent personal injury,
use trichloroethane only in the open or in a
well ventilated room.
1. Clean transmission oil cooler before sludge
hardens. After transmission oil cooler is completely
drained, circulate a solution of trichloroethane through
the passages surrounding the cooler tubes in heat
exchanger (1) to remove sludge.
2. If cooler tubes are badly clogged, circulate an oakite
or alkaline solution through heat exchanger (1).
Solution should be circulated through heat exchanger
(1), in the reverse direction to normal flow, for
approximately 15 minutes, after soaking for 10
minutes. The duration of circulation depends on how
badly clogged the cooler tubes are. Flush thoroughly
with clean hot water.
Cleaning Water Side
1. Match mark cooler flanges (2) and heat exchanger
(1) to aid in assembly.
2. Remove bolts (4) securing cooler flanges (2) to heat
exchanger (1). Remove cooler flanges (2) from heat
exchanger (1) and discard viton seals (3).
SM 1798 Rev1 03-04
Cooling System - Transmission Oil Cooler
Section 210-0060
3. Make up a solution composed of 1/3 muriatic acid
and 2/3 water. To each 9.5 litres (2.5 gal) of solution,
add 227 g (0.5 lb) of oxalic acid.
4. Immerse heat exchanger (1) in the cleaning
solution. Cleaning action is noticeable by bubbling and
foaming. The process must be carefully observed and
when bubbling stops, usually between 30 - 60 sec.,
remove heat exchanger (1) from cleaning solution and
flush thoroughly with clean, hot water. After cleaning,
dip heat exchanger (1) in light oil.
Note: Severely fouled cooler tubes can be cleaned by
use of a rotary brush if normal cleaning is not
sufficient.
WARNING
To prevent personal injury and property
damage, be sure wheel blocks and lifting
equipment are properly secured and of
adequate capacity to do the job safely.
1. Using suitable lifting equipment, position
transmission oil cooler assembly on frame mounting
brackets and secure with bolts (18), washers (24) and
lockwashers (19).
2. If removed, install elbow (7) in port 'B' and install
elbow (7) in port 'C' on heat exchanger (1). Install oil
inlet line (14) on elbow (7) in port 'C', and oil outlet line
(15) on elbow (7) in port 'B'.
ASSEMBLY
Numbers in parentheses refer to Fig. 1.
3. Install coolant outlet pipe (6) on connection at port
'D' and secure with sleeve (9) and clamps (12).
Note: Tighten all fasteners to standard torques listed
in Section 300-0080, STANDARD BOLT AND NUT
TORQUE SPECIFICATIONS.
4. Install coolant inlet pipe (5) on connection at port 'A'
and secure with sleeve (9) and clamps (8).
1. Install new viton seals (3) to cooler flanges (2) and
align cooler flanges to heat exchanger (1), as match
marked at disassembly.
5. If removed, install drain plug in underside of
transmission and fill transmission with lubricant, as
specified in Section 300-0020, LUBRICATION
SYSTEM.
2. Secure cooler flanges (2) to heat exchanger (1) with
bolts (4). Tighten bolts (4) alternately to give an even
seal around cooler flange area.
INSTALLATION
6. Ensure drain cock on underside of radiator is closed
and fill radiator with coolant specified in
Section 210-0000, COOLING SYSTEM.
7. Place the battery master switch in the 'On' position,
start the engine and check for leaks. Tighten lines and
fittings as required.
Numbers and letters in parentheses refer to Fig. 1.
Note: Tighten all fasteners to standard torques listed
in Section 300-0080, STANDARD BOLT AND NUT
TORQUE SPECIFICATIONS.
8. Using a suitable lifting device, install hood assembly
on the machine and secure with mounting hardware,
as removed at 'Removal'. Refer to Section 100-0010,
CHASSIS, HOOD AND FENDERS.
Note: Tighten all hydraulic lines fitted with ORFS
connections, as described in Section 220-0000,
STEERING SYSTEM SCHEMATIC. Renew all
'O' rings where used.
9. Remove wheel blocks from all road wheels.
SERVICE TOOLS
There are no special service tools required for the
procedures outlined in this Section. Refer to
Section 300-0070, SERVICE TOOLS, for part
numbers of general service tools required. These tools
are available from your dealer.
*
SM 1798 Rev1 03-04
*
*
*
3
STEERING SYSTEM - Steering Schematic
Section 220-0000
DESCRIPTION
Numbers in parentheses refer to Fig. 1.
The operation of the steering system is hydrostatic.
That is to say, there is no mechanical connection
between the steering column and the steered wheels.
Instead there are hydraulic pipes and lines between
the steering components and the steering cylinders.
Actuating pressure for steering operation is supplied
by triple pump (2).
When the steering wheel is turned, steering valve (3)
meters an oil volume proportional to the amount of
turn. This volume of oil flows to the appropriate side
of steering cylinders (6). Steering valve (3) returns
automatically to its neutral position when turning is
completed.
A brief description of the individual components
shown in the steering system are listed below.
Detailed service and operating instructions for the
individual components can be found in their relative
component sections in this manual.
Hydraulic Tank (1)
One section of the pump draws hydraulic oil from the
hydraulic tank (1) then pumps the oil to the steering
valve (3) where, depending on the spool position, oil
is directed to the right or left hand steering cylinders
(6) via the double relief valve (4) and flow reversing
valve (5).
The remaining two pump sections draw hydraulic oil
from the hydraulic tank (1) then pumps the oil to the
bowl hydraulic circuit.
The triple pump operates in the one direction only (it
is assembled for right hand (clockwise) rotation, as
viewed from the driveshaft end).
Note: Never drive a pump in the wrong direction of
rotation, as pump seizure may result.
Steering Valve (3)
Refer to Section 220-0090, STEERING VALVE.
Mounted off the underside of the cab floor, the
steering valve is connected to the steering column
via the steering gear and linkage and controls
hydraulic oil flow to the steering cylinders.
Refer to Section 235-0040, HYDRAULIC TANK.
The hydraulic tank is the common oil reservoir for the
steering and bowl hydraulic systems.
Integral with the tank assembly is a suction screen,
filter element, relief valve, adaptor plate, access
covers and filler neck assembly. Two sight gauges
on the side of the tank assembly indicate hydraulic oil
level. Located on top of the tank assembly is a
breather assembly.
Triple Pump (2)
Refer to Section 235-0050, TRIPLE PUMP.
The triple pump supplies hydraulic oil for operating
the steering and bowl hydraulic systems.
The triple pump is a multiple gear type pump
consisting of three separate sections connected
together as one assembly.
SM 1760 3-99
The steering valve is equipped with an integral relief
valve, a check valve and a flow control valve. The
relief valve prevents excessive pressure build up and
the check valve prevents a reverse flow of oil from
the cylinders back to the pump. The integral flow
control valve modulates the pressure applied to the
steering cylinders, maintaining smooth steering
action.
The relief valve pressure setting is 134 bar
(1 950 lbf/in²).
There are four ports on the steering valve housing as
follows:
Port
Port
Port
Port
'P' - Supply from pump
'T' - Return to tank
'A' - Cylinder supply
'B' - Cylinder supply
1
Steering System - Steering Schematic
Section 220-0000
SM - 2145
6
6
5
4
2100
PSI
2100
PSI
A
B
3
1950
PSI
T
P
RETURN FROM SERVO CONTROL
& BOWL DROP VALVES
RETURN FROM PILOT VALVE
2
TO TANK BREATHER
1
25
PSI
1 - Hydraulic Tank
2 - Triple Pump
3 - Steering Valve
4 - Double Relief Valve
5 - Flow Reversing Valve
6 - Steering Cylinders
Fig. 1 - Steering System Schematic Diagram
2
SM 1760 3-99
Steering System - Steering Schematic
Section 220-0000
Double Relief Valve (4)
Diagnostic Test Point
Refer to Section 220-0130, DOUBLE RELIEF VALVE.
The steering system has one diagnostic test point
which enables the service engineer to obtain an
accurate steering system pressure reading.
The double relief valve is mounted to the top face of
the flow reversing valve (5). The valve is installed in
the lines between the steering valve (4) and steering
cylinders (6). The purpose of the double relief valve
is to relieve shock loads on the steering cylinders by
transferring the excessive pressure applied to the oil
by the road shock, to the opposite end of the
cylinders. This shock, if left unchecked, might
damage steering linkage components.
The double relief valve pressure setting is 145 bar
(2 100 lbf/in²).
'O' RING FACE SEALS (ORFS)
Where hydraulic lines are fitted with ORFS
connections, the following procedure should be
carried out during 'Installation'. Refer to Fig. 2.
SM - 1335
FITTING
NUT
TUBE
Flow Reversing Valve (5)
Refer to Section 220-0160, FLOW REVERSING
VALVE.
Mounted on the rear of the steering frame between
the two steering cylinders, the flow reversing valve
distributes the oil to the steering cylinders and also
reverses the flow of oil to the cylinders, when one of
the pistons is pushed into the housing.
Steering Cylinders (6)
Refer to Section 220-0120, STEERING CYLINDER.
There are two single stage, double acting steering
cylinders on the machine. The cylinder base end is
connected to the steering trunnion, and, the piston
rod end is connected to the pull yoke. Single stage
double acting means that the piston rod can have oil
applied to either side, extending or retracting the
piston rod.
Cylinder mounting is by pins, secured with bolts,
lockwashers and nuts. Bushings permit a limited
amount of cylinder misalignment when travelling over
rough terrain.
SM 1760 3-99
'O' RING
'O' RING
SLEEVE
Fig. 2 - Assembly of Typical ORFS Connector
a. Ensure 'O' ring/seal is in place and that the joining
surfaces are clean. If necessary, retain 'O' ring/seal
in place with a light coating of grease or vaseline.
b. Initially, the nuts should be tightened by hand.
c. Where a hose is fitted, ensure that it is not twisted
or kinked when the nuts are tightened so that it is
allowed to adopt a natural position.
d. Where a tube is fitted, ensure that the connection
is aligned correctly.
e. Tighten the nut a further 1/4 to 1/2 a turn using the
correct size spanner (wrench).
f. Check that a satisfactory hose or tube routing has
been achieved.
3
Steering System - Steering Schematic
Section 220-0000
FILLING AND BLEEDING THE STEERING
SYSTEM
MAINTENANCE
Maintenance instructions, intervals and warnings, in
the individual steering and body hydraulic component
sections of this manual, should be adhered to at all
times.
1. Fill hydraulic tank to maximum level. Be ready to
add oil when the engine is started. Do not let oil drop
below the pump suction line to prevent air entering
the system.
2. Start engine and let it idle. Immediately add oil to
the tank as required. When no more oil can be added
and oil is clear, proceed as follows:
Relieving Pressure In Steering System
WARNING
Dangerous pressure. Turn steering wheel
several times in each direction to relieve
pressure in the system. Failure to relieve
pressure as stated can result in personal
injury and property damage.
a. Turn the steering wheel from lock to lock to bleed
the air in the steering cylinders and lines.
Note: Immediately upon valve spool actuation oil
must be added to the hydraulic tank to replenish the
oil moving into the circuit.
SERVICE TOOLS
It is recommended that the following service tools are
used when carrying out pressure and temperature
checks during maintenance procedures. These tools,
along with other general service tools, are available
from your dealer. Refer to Section 300-0070,
SERVICE TOOLS, for part numbers of these tools.
WARNING
Do not operate the machine until all air is bled
from the oil.
b. When the oil in the tank is clear (not cloudy or
creamy), the system is free of air.
Note: Slight creep or drift of the steering wheel is
normal.
Multi-Gauge
c. Fill hydraulic tank to the recommended level and
install the filler cap.
The multi-gauge is basically four pressure gauges in
one. Continuous system pressure readings are
indicated on one of three simultaneously reading
gauges through a pressure range of 30 in of vacuum
to 5 000 lbf/in².
Hydraulic Oil
The steering system should be kept filled with
hydraulic oil as listed in Section 300-0020,
LUBRICATION SYSTEM.
Non-contact Infrared Thermometer
The infrared thermometer can be used to spot heat
problems early in electrical, mechanical and
hydraulic systems. Hand held and easy to use, you
simply aim, pull the trigger, and read the temperature.
Since there is no need to touch what you are
measuring, temperatures of hard-to-reach or moving
components can be taken without getting burned or
shocked.
*
4
*
*
*
SM 1760 3-99
STEERING SYSTEM - Steering Lines & Fittings
Section 220-0010
SM - 3180
3
G
H
2
C
A
D
4
E
5
F
B
L
J
K
D
C
6
1
7
1 - Steering Valve
2 - Pump
3 - Right Steering Cylinder
4 - Double Relief Valve
5 - Flow Reversing Valve
6 - Left Steering Cylinder
7 - Hydraulic Tank
Fig. 1 - Layout View of Steering System
DESCRIPTION
Numbers in parentheses refer to Fig. 1.
The steering valve (1) is equipped with an integral
relief valve and a check valve. The relief valve
prevents excessive pressure build-ups and the check
valve prevents a reverse flow of oil from the cylinders
back to the pump.
Bolted to the top face of the flow reversing valve (5) is
the double relief valve (4). Its primary purpose is to
bypass oil from one steering cylinder to the other
cylinder when a shock load is placed on the piston rod.
SM 1768 Rev 2 04-04
The cored passages of both valves form a direct
connection when they are bolted together.
Adding the flow reversing valve (5) and reversing
mechanism into the steering system permits the
machine to make a 90° turn in either direction.
Oil flow through the steering valve (1) to the cylinders
is controlled by the movement of the steering valve
spool, ‘in’ or ‘out’ of the housing.
Detailed service and operating instructions for the
individual components can be found in their relative
component sections in this manual.
1
Steering System - Steering Lines & Fittings
Section 220-0010
SM - 2154
2
3
1
4
A
B
7
9
5
6
8
C
1 - Tractor Steering Trunnion
2 - Scraper Pull Yoke
3 - Right Steering Cylinder
4 - Right Cam
5 - Flow Reversing Valve
6 - Double Relief Valve
7 - Reversing Mechanism
8 - Left Steering Cylinder
9 - Left Cam
Fig. 2 - Reversing Mechanism in Right Turn
OPERATION AND FLOW
Numbers in parentheses refer to Fig. 1, unless
otherwise specified.
Oil is drawn from the oil tank (7) through line (B) into
the suction side of the steering pump (2). Pressurized
oil leaves the pump and flows through line (A) to the
inlet port of the steering valve (1). Should the pressure
exceed 135 bar (1 950 lbf/in²) at the steering valve, the
inlet oil will be diverted back to tank (7) by way of the
integral relief valve and tank return line (L).
Neutral
In a neutral position, both ports leading from the
steering valve (1) to the flow reversing valve (5) and
double relief valve (4) are closed and the steering
2
cylinders (3 & 6) hold their positions. The oil flows
through the steering valve and is directed back to tank
(7) through return line (L).
With the steering valve spool in this position any oil in
the cylinders is retained there by the closing of the
ports in the steering valve. If a road shock is sustained
by a wheel, when the machine is not being steered,
the oil in the base or rod end of the steering cylinders
(3 & 6) is pressurized as is the oil in the lines to that
end from the flow reversing valve and from the double
relief valve to the steering valve. If pressure exceeds
145 bar (2 100 lbf/in²) the double relief valve opens
and allows a small amount of oil to pass to the
opposite ends of the steering cylinders to relieve the
excessive pressure.
SM 1768 Rev 2 04-04
Steering System - Steering Lines & Fittings
Section 220-0010
SM - 2155
C
8
6
5
9
B
7
A
1
4
3
2
1 - Tractor Steering Trunnion
2 - Scraper Pull Yoke
3 - Left Steering Cylinder
4 - Left Cam
5 - Flow Reversing Valve
6 - Double Relief Valve
7 - Reversing Mechanism
8 - Right Steering Cylinder
9 - Right Cam
Fig. 3 - Reversing Mechanism in Left Turn
Right Turn
In a right turn, the steering valve spool is pulled
outward by the steering gear linkage. This allows oil to
flow from the lower rear cylinder port (both cylinder
ports are located on the outboard bottom surface of
the valve housing) into line (D) which connects the left
top ports of the double relief valve (4). This port is
connected to cored passages in the flow reversing
valve (5) which in turn, connect the base end of the
right cylinder (3) and the rod end of the left cylinder (6)
together.
Oil flows through the valves (4 & 5) and is
simultaneously directed to the base end of the right
cylinder (3) through line (H) and to the rod end of the
left cylinder (6) through line (J). Oil pressure extends
SM 1768 Rev 2 04-04
the right cylinder (3) and retracts the left-cylinder (6)
pivoting the machine to the right.
Return oil from the cylinders (3 & 6) flows through lines
(G & K), reversing valve (5), double relief valve (4),
into line (C) to the steering valve (1) through the lower
forward cylinder port. The oil then returns to tank (7)
by way of the tank return line (L).
When the left cylinder (8, Fig. 2) reaches its minimum
retracted length or when points A, B, and C (Fig. 2) are
in line, the flow of oil to left cylinder (8, Fig. 2) is
reversed. This is accomplished by the roller of the left
reversing mechanism (7, Fig. 2) riding over the cam
(9, Fig. 2) of the left cylinder (8, Fig. 2). Cam action
pushes the spool into the valve housing, aligning cored
3
Steering System - Steering Lines & Fittings
Section 220-0010
passages which reverse the flow of oil. The reversed
flow of oil to the left cylinder is as follows: Oil flows into
the base of the cylinder (8, Fig. 2) through line (K),
extending the cylinder. Oil returns to the reversing
valve (5) through line (J) and returns to the tank (7) as
described previously.
Line (E, Fig. 1) is a bleed line for the double relief
valve (6), and the flow reversing valve (5) is vented to
the tank (7, Fig. 1) through line (F, Fig. 1).
Double Relief Valve
Numbers in parentheses refer to Fig. 1.
With both cylinders extending, the necessary hydraulic
force is exerted on the steering frame, enabling the
machine to make a 90° right turn.
Left Turn
Numbers and letters in parentheses refer to Fig. 3
unless otherwise specified.
In a left turn the steering valve spool is pushed inward
by the steering gear linkage. This allows pressurized
oil to flow from the lower forward cylinder port through
line (C, Fig. 1) to the right side port of the double relief
valve (6). This port is connected to cored passages in
the flow reversing valve (5) which, in turn, connect the
base end of the left steering cylinder (3) and to the rod
end of the right cylinder (8).
Oil flows through the valves (5 & 6) and is
simultaneously directed to the base end of left cylinder
(3) through line (K, Fig. 1) and to the rod end of right
cylinder (8) through line (G, Fig. 1). Oil pressure
extends the left cylinder (3) and retracts the right
cylinder (8), pivoting the machine to the left.
Return oil from cylinders (3 & 8) flows through lines
(H & J, Fig. 1), reversing valve (5), double relief valve
(6), into line (D, Fig. 1) and into the steering valve
through the lower rear cylinder port. The oil then
returns to tank (7, Fig. 1) by way of the tank return line
(L, Fig. 1).
The flow of oil to the right cylinder is reversed when
the cylinder reaches its minimum retracted position or
when points A, B and C (Fig. 3) are in line. This is
accomplished by the roller of the right reversing
mechanism (7) riding over the cam (9) on the right
cylinder (8). The cam action pushes the spool into the
valve housing, which aligns cored passages, reversing
the oil flow. The reversed flow of oil to the right
cylinder is as follows: Oil flows into the base end of the
cylinder (8) through line (H, Fig. 1). Return oil flows
into the reversing valve (5) through line (G, Fig. 1) and
back into the tank (7, Fig. 1) as described previously.
With both cylinders extending, the necessary hydraulic
force is exerted on the steering frame, enabling the
machine to make a 90° left turn.
4
The double relief valve (4) goes into operation when a
shock load is placed on either of the steering cylinder
piston rods. In some instances the shock load can be
caused by striking a boulder or a hole. When this
occurs the oil that is displaced flows through the cored
passages of the flow reversing valve (5) and into the
double relief valve (4). The excessive pressure
activates a piston in the valve (4) which aligns certain
cored passages and allows the oil to flow into the other
cylinder or flow back to the tank. This relieves the high
pressure caused by the shock load. The relief valve
cartridges are preset by the vendor at 145 bar
(2 100 lbf/in²) and are lockwired, so no adjustments
are necessary.
To check the pressure setting, remove the pipe plug
which is located near the main inlet port on the
steering valve and install a pressure gauge. Remove
the set screw cap and loosen the locknut on the relief
valve in the steering valve. Operate the steering
system by turning the steering wheel all the way in
either direction. Keep the wheel turned all the way and
quickly turn relief valve adjusting screw in to increase
pressure above the rated setting of the double relief
valve. Raise the pressure until the valve relieves.
DO NOT APPLY EXCESSIVE PRESSURE TO THE
VALVE TOO LONG; the shock load on the double
relief valve in actual service, is instantaneous, so the
pressure check should be made the same way.
CAUTION
Be sure to adjust the regular relief valve
pressure back to the proper setting after
checking the double relief valve.
Steering Cams
1. Steer the machine until the retracting cylinder
reaches a position where points A, B & C of Fig. 2 or 3
are in line.
2. With the retracting cylinder in this position, the
reversing valve roller is just contacting the steering
cam and the reversing valve spool is pushed 10.3 mm
(0.406 in) (half of the piston stroke) into the valve
SM 1768 Rev 2 04-04
Steering System - Steering Lines & Fittings
Section 220-0010
SM - 2156
- STOP BLOCK USE WELD ROD E-70
PREHEAT
200˚ TO 300˚F
. “A”
0.25 INCH
AS REQUIRED
DIM
STEERING FRAME
KING PIN SECTION
0.50
MEASURE WEAR GAP HERE
˚F
200˚ TO 300˚
˚C
95˚ TO 150˚
IN.
0.25
0.50
mm
6.4
12.7
Fig. 4 - Steering Stop Block Installation
housing. Total piston travel is 20.6 mm (0.812 in). One
way of checking spool travel is to mark the spool in its
normal position and then mark is again when the
above conditions are met. Then measure the distance
between the two marks; it should be 10.3 mm
(0.406 in).
3. To make this adjustment, either install shims behind
the steering cam or change the length of the link
assembly.
4. Repeat the above procedure when adjusting the
other steering cam.
5. Check the steering operation after adjusting the
steering cam. Machine must steer 90° in each
direction and the flow reversing valve pistons must
travel 20.6 mm (0.812 in) into the valve housing from
neutral.
Steering stop blocks are welded to the steering frame
to prevent the steering cylinder pistons from bottoming
when the steering cylinders are extended to their
maximum strokes (Fig. 4). When these stop blocks
become worn, the cylinders may be damaged when
SM 1768 Rev 2 04-04
1. Turn the tractor until one cylinder is extended to
within 3.2 mm (0.125 in) of the maximum eye-to-eye
dimension of 1 274.1 mm (50.16 in), which is
dimension ‘A’ shown in Fig. 4.
2. If there is a gap, due to wear, between the king pin
section and the steering frame stop block, measure
the distance between the king pin section and the
steering frame. Refer to Fig. 4.
3. Burn off the weld and remove the worn stop block.
Weld a new stop block to the steering frame according
to the welding direction given in Fig. 4. The new
blocks, which range in thickness from 6.4 to 19.1 mm
(0.25 to 0.75 in) in 3.2 mm (0.125 in) increments,
should be slightly thicker than the measured gap.
Steering Stop Blocks
*
the scraper is turned a full 90°, so the maximum
strokes of the steering cylinders should be adjusted as
follows:
*
4. Swing the tractor 180° in the opposite direction and
repeat steps 1, 2 and 3.
Note: A minimum block thickness of 6.4 mm (0.25 in)
is required, regardless of the maximum eye-to-eye
dimension.
*
*
5
STEERING SYSTEM - Steering Valve
Section 220-0090
SM - 2149
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
- Seat
- 'O' Ring
- 'O' Ring
- Cross-over Relief Valve
- Spring
- Valve Body
- 'O' Ring
- Plug
- Cover
- Cap
- 'O' Ring
- Retaining Ring
- 'O' Ring
- Plug
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
- Spring
- Lockwasher
- Poppet
- Lock Plunger
- Cap
- Nut
- Jam Nut
- Washer
- Screw
- Cap
- 'O' Ring
- Spring
- Poppet
- Seat
29
30
31
32
33
34
35
36
37
38
39
40
41
42
- 'O' Ring
- Spring
- Check
- Seat
- Check
- Spring
- 'O' Ring
- Cap
- Shims
- Nut
- Washer
- Washer
- Spacer
- Spring
43
44
45
46
47
48
49
50
51
52
53
*54
- Plate
- Shims
- Washer
- Seal
- Spool
- Wiper
- Plate
- Lockwasher
- Bolt
- Plug
- Capscrew
- Poppet
* - Shown on Fig. 2
Fig. 1 - Exploded View of Steering Valve
DESCRIPTION
NEUTRAL POSITION
Numbers in parentheses refer to Figs. 1 & 2.
Numbers in parentheses refer to Fig. 2.
The steering valve consists of spool (47), lock plunger
(18) with poppets (17), cross-over relief valve
assemblies (4) and main relief valve assembly
(20 thru 36). Shifting spool (47) allows oil to flow to
one steering cylinder to extend it while allowing oil to
return to the hydraulic oil tank from the opposite
cylinder which is contracting. Cross-over relief valve
assemblies (4) allow steering cylinders to compensate
for road shocks and main relief valve assembly
(20 thru 36) relieves oil pressure in excess of
134 bar (1 950 Ibf/in2) in the steering valve.
Oil enters the steering valve at the inlet port, flows
through spool (47) bore and back out of the valve
through return-to-tank passages and the return-to-tank
port. Oil pressure in the valve is not enough to cause
poppets (17) to shift, therefore, ports ‘A’ and ‘B’ remain
closed.
SM 1765 2-99
1
Steering System - Steering Valve
Section 220-0090
SM - 2150
3
5
4
6
2
3
1
4
2
1
5
54
20 21 22
35
36
34
22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29
30
31
33
32
SECTIONAL VIEW OF CROSS-OVER RELIEF VALVES AND MAIN RELIEF VALVE ASSEMBLIES
PORT A
11
17
18
17
PORT B
7
8
15
11
15 14
13
14
13
12
19
10
PASSAGE B
41 42 40 39 38
PASSAGE A
9
52
47
40
37
43
44
48 49
6
46 45
INLET PORT
RETURN TO TANK
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
- Seat
- 'O' Ring
- 'O' Ring
- Cross-over Relief Valve
- Spring
- Valve Body
- 'O' Ring
- Plug
- Cover
- Cap
- 'O' Ring
- Retaining Ring
- 'O' Ring
- Plug
15
*16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
- Spring
- Lockwasher
- Poppet
- Lock Plunger
- Cap
- Nut
- Jam Nut
- Washer
- Screw
- Cap
- 'O' Ring
- Spring
- Poppet
- Seat
29
30
31
32
33
34
35
36
37
38
39
40
41
42
- 'O' Ring
- Spring
- Check
- Seat
- Check
- Spring
- 'O' Ring
- Cap
- Shims
- Nut
- Washer
- Washer
- Spacer
- Spring
43
44
45
46
47
48
49
*50
51
52
*53
54
- Plate
- Shims
- Washer
- Seal
- Spool
- Wiper
- Plate
- Lockwasher
- Bolt
- Plug
- Capscrew
- Poppet
* - Shown on Fig. 1
Fig. 2 - Cutaway View of Typical Steering Valve
2
SM 1765 2-99
Steering System - Steering Valve
Section 220-0090
SPOOL IN POSITION
Numbers in parentheses refer to Fig. 2.
Movement of spool (47) inward in the control valve
causes pressure to increase in the control valve. Oil
travels through the centre passage and enters lock
plunger (18) where it forces poppets (17) outward in
the lock plunger. Oil flows through passage (A), lock
plunger (18), around poppet (17) and back out the lock
plunger to port ‘A'. The oil then flows to the flow
reversing valve and the steering cylinder. As the
cylinder piston is forced outward, oil in the opposite
steering cylinder is forced out of the cylinder. Oil from
the steering cylinder enters the steering valve at port
‘B', enters lock plunger (18), flows around poppet (17)
and enters passage (B). Oil flows around spool (47)
and into the return-to-tank passage where it returns to
the tank through return-to-tank port. Centering spring
(42) returns the spool (47) to ‘Neutral’ position when
the steering wheel is straightened out.
SPOOL OUT POSITION
Numbers in parentheses refer to Fig. 2.
When spool (47) is moved outward in the steering
valve, oil pressure builds up and the pressure in the
centre passages causes poppets (17) to move
outward in lock plunger (18). Oil flows through
passage (B) into lock plunger (18), around poppet (17)
and out port ‘B’ to the flow reversing valve then to the
steering cylinder. As the cylinder piston is forced
outward, the oil in the opposite cylinder is forced out of
the cylinder by the inward movement of the piston rod.
This oil enters port ‘A', travels around poppet (17) in
lock plunger (18) and enters the return-to-tank
passage. The oil exits the steering valve at the returnto-tank port, then returns to the hydraulic oil tank.
Returning the steering wheel to straight ahead
position, allows centering spring (42) to bring spool
(47) to the ‘Neutral’ position.
CROSS-OVER RELIEF VALVE
ASSEMBLIES
Numbers in parentheses refer to Fig. 2.
Rough steering due to road shocks is prevented by
cross-over relief valve (4) assemblies. A wheel hitting
SM 1765 2-99
an obstruction or chuck hole will cause one piston rod
in a steering cylinder to move outward and the piston
rod in the other steering cylinder to move inward. The
piston rod moving outward creates a void in the
steering cylinder and the piston rod moving inward
creates a high pressure on the oil in the cylinder. To
relieve this situation the cross-over relief valve
assemblies add to oil in a steering cylinder or relieve
excess pressure in the cylinder.
If the steering cylinder connected to port ‘B’ receives a
road shock, oil is forced out of the cylinder and
pressure builds up at port ‘B'. Oil travels from port ‘B’
to the cross-over relief valve where excess oil
pressure forces poppet (54) off its seat, allowing oil to
flow through the cross-over relief valve and into
passage (B) where the oil joins with the other oil and
returns to the hydraulic oil tank through return-to-tank
port. The steering cylinder connected to port ‘A’ begins
to cavitate because the piston rod is being forced
outward in the cylinder. This drop in pressure behind
poppet (17) allows oil pressure in passage (A) to push
poppet (17) back. Oil flows from passage (A) past
poppet (17) to port ‘A'. The oil flows out of port ‘A’ and
into the steering cylinder to fill the cavity left by the
steering cylinder piston rod moving outward in the
cylinder.
Should the other steering cylinder receive the shock,
the above actions would take place but in reverse.
MAIN RELIEF VALVE
Numbers in parentheses refer to Fig. 2.
Oil pressure in the steering valve is normally 134 bar
(1 950 Ibf/in2). When oil pressure rises above the
setting, oil in the centre passage forces check (31) off
its seat. Movement of check (31) compresses oil
behind the check, causing poppet (27) to be unseated
and allow excess oil behind the check to flow into the
return-to-tank passage and then to the hydraulic oil
tank through return-to-tank port. Unseating check (31)
allows excess oil to flow through seat (32) and unseat
check (33). Excess oil flows around check (33) and
back to the hydraulic oil tank through return-to-tank
passage and return-to-tank port. As pressure returns
to normal, the springs behind checks (31 & 33) seat
the checks and a spring behind poppet (27) returns
the poppet to its seated position.
3
Steering System - Steering Valve
Section 220-0090
REMOVAL
DISASSEMBLY
Numbers in parentheses refer to Fig. 1.
Numbers in parentheses refer to Fig. 1 & 2.
WARNINGS
Hydraulic fluid pressure will remain within the
system after engine shutdown. To prevent
personal injury and property damage, turn
steering wheel several times in each direction
to relieve pressure in the system.
To prevent personal injury and property
damage, be sure wheel blocks are properly
secured and of adequate capacity to do the job
safely.
1. Position the vehicle in a level work area, ensure
bowl and apron are fully lowered. Apply the parking
brake and switch off the engine. Operate the steering
in both directions several times to relieve any pressure
in the steering system.
2. Place the battery master switch in the 'Off' position
and block all road wheels.
3. Thoroughly clean the exterior of the steering valve
and its surrounding area to prevent dirt from entering
the valve ports or hydraulic lines during removal.
Note: If steering valve is being serviced to correct a
suspected spool seal leak, the condition of nut (20)
and washer (22) should be inspected before removing
the steering valve. Replace nut (20) and washer (22),
if defective. Nut (20) should be torque tightened to
50 Nm (35 lbf ft), lubricated. If valve continues to leak,
further servicing is indicated.
1. If required, remove fittings from steering valve and
identify to aid in assembly.
2. Remove seat (1) and ‘O’ rings (2 & 3) from valve
body (6). Shake out cross-over relief valve (4)
assembly and spring (5) being careful not to damage
valve. Discard ‘O’ rings (2 & 3). Repeat process for
other cross-over relief valve (4) assembly.
Note: Do not disassemble cross-over relief valve (4)
assemblies. Valves are pressure set at 145 bar
(2 100 lbf/in²) at assembly. If cross-over relief valve (4)
is defective it must be replaced with a new assembly.
3. Remove cap (19) and ‘O’ ring (11) from valve body
(6). Discard ‘O’ ring (11).
WARNINGS
Use a soft drift and drive when removing lock
plunger to prevent property damage to lock
plunger and personal injury due to flying
chips.
4. Remove plunger cap (10) and ‘O’ ring (11) from
opposite side of valve body (6). Discard ‘O’ ring (11).
Tap lock plunger (18) assembly out cap (10) side,
using a soft drift and drive.
5. Remove cap screws (53) and lockwashers (16) and
lift off cover (9). Remove and discard breather plug
(52) from the cover.
5. Disconnect the link bar and rod end from steering
valve spool (47).
6. Hold the link bar end of the control spool (47)
securely across the flats and loosen nut (38) on the
opposite end. Back the nut off slowly to release the
compression of spring (42). Remove nut (38), washer
(39), first washer (40), spacer (41), spring (42) and
second washer (40). Lift off shims (37 & 44) and plate
(43). Discard the shims (37 & 44) if they are damaged.
Remove washer (45) and seal (46) from valve body (6)
bore. Discard seal (46).
6. Remove mounting hardware from steering valve
and transfer steering valve to a clean area for
disassembly.
7. Remove bolts (51) and lockwashers (50). Remove
plate (49) and wiper (48). Discard wiper (48), if
damaged.
4. Identify and tag all hydraulic oil lines, to aid in
installation. With a suitable container available to catch
spillage, disconnect hydraulic lines from steering
valve. Cap all lines and plug all ports of the steering
valve to prevent ingress of dirt.
8. Pull spool (47) out of valve body (6) being careful
not to nick or scratch the surface of the spool. Remove
and discard seal (46) from groove in valve body (6)
bore.
4
SM 1765 2-99
Steering System - Steering Valve
Section 220-0090
9. Remove plug (8) and ‘O’ ring (7) from valve body
(6). Discard ‘O’ ring (7).
ASSEMBLY
Numbers in parentheses refer to Fig. 1 & 2.
10. Remove nut (20) and one washer (22). Loosen
jam nut (21) and back off adjusting screw (23) to
release compression of spring (26), then remove
adjusting screw (23), jam nut (21), second washer (22)
and cap (24). Remove poppet spring (26) and poppet
(27) from valve body (6). Remove and discard ‘O’ ring
(25) from cap (24).
Note: Lubricate the bore of steering valve body (6)
and all parts with hydraulic oil to facilitate assembly.
Refer to Section 300-0020, LUBRICATION SYSTEM
for oil specification.
11. Remove cap (36), spring (34) and check (33) from
valve body (6). Remove and discard ‘O’ ring (35) from
cap (36).
2. Install poppet (17) and spring (15) in retaining
groove end of lock plunger (18). Install new ‘O’ ring
(13) on plug (14). Position plug (14) over spring (15)
and install into lock plunger (18). Install retaining ring
(12) in lock plunger. Repeat for opposite end of lock
plunger (18).
12. Insert a soft metal rod, with a diameter of 6.4 mm
(0.25 inches) into valve body (6) from cap (36) side,
through bore in seat (32) and push out check (31),
spring (30) and seat (28). Remove and discard ‘O’ ring
(29) from seat (28). Insert rod through cap (24) side of
valve body (6) and push out plunger seat (32).
13. Clamp lock plunger (18) in a soft-jawed vice and
remove retaining ring (12), plugs (14), springs (15) and
poppets (17) from ends of lock plunger. Remove and
discard ‘O’ rings (13) from plugs (14).
INSPECTION
1. Clamp lock plunger (18) horizontally in a soft-jawed
vice.
3. Coat lock plunger (18) with hydraulic oil and install
in valve body (6).
4. Install new ‘O’ ring (11) on cap (10) and thread cap
(10) into valve body (6). Tighten cap (10) until it
bottoms against the housing.
5. Install new ‘O’ ring (11) on cap (19) and thread cap
(19) into valve body (6). Make sure that plug (14)
seats properly in lock plunger (18). Tighten cap (19)
until it bottoms against the housing.
Numbers in parentheses refer to Figs. 1 & 2.
1. Clean all parts with a suitable solvent and dry with a
clean lint free cloth or compressed air.
2. Inspect valve and poppet seat for scoring, eroding,
or out-of-round. The seat must have sharp edges.
Check the seating surfaces on valves and poppets for
defects that may cause leakage. Replace if the
surfaces are eroded or show excessive wear and
prevent proper seating.
3. Inspect the valve body (6) bores, spool (47) and
lock plunger (18) for grooves, deep scoring, or wear.
Check the spool and plunger for flaking of the chrome
plating. For inspection purposes, coat them with clean
hydraulic oil and install them in their respective bores
in the valve body (6). While rotating them, work the
spool and plunger in and out as in actual operation to
determine the extent of wear and to see if they fit
without binding. If the fit is too loose or if there is
damage, valve body and plungers MUST be replaced
as an assembly.
SM 1765 2-99
6. Clamp spool (47) in a soft-jawed vice with the link
bar end down.
7. Position one washer (40), spring (42), spacer (41),
second washer (40) and washer (39) over end of spool
(47). Clean threads of spool and nut (38) making sure
the threads are free of oil and apply Loctite, or suitable
equivalent to the threads. Install nut (38) on spool (47)
and torque tighten to 70 - 80 Nm (50 - 60 lbf ft),
lubricated.
8. Install new seal (46) and washer (45) in groove on
cover (9) side of valve body (6) and new seal (46) on
wiper (48) side of valve body (6).
9. Remove spool (47) from vice and coat with
hydraulic oil. Slide plate (43) and shims (37 & 44) over
link bar end of spool (47) until they contact washer
(40). Carefully slide spool (47), link bar end first,
through bore in valve body (6) making sure seal (46)
and washer (45) are not dislodged from their grooves.
5
Steering System - Steering Valve
Section 220-0090
SM - 2151
SPACER
A
B
SPRING
COVER
13. Check the dimension shown in Fig. 3 with spool in
‘Neutral and Hold’ position. If the 25.4 mm (1.00 inch)
dimension is not obtained, re-check dimensions A and
B, Fig. 3, and adjust as required.
14. Install wiper (48) over link bar end of spool (47)
and into groove in valve body (6). Secure wiper with
plate (49) and two bolts (51) and lockwashers (50).
15. Place new ‘O’ ring (7) on plug (8) and thread plug
into valve body (6) until it bottoms.
NUT
WASHERS
SHIM A
PLATE
SHIM B
A 0.75” (19.1mm)
NEUTRAL & HOLD - 1.00” (25.4mm)
B 1.25” (31.8mm)
16. Install new ‘O’ rings (2 & 3) on seat (1).
17. Place one spring (5) in bore on side of valve body
(6), followed by cross-over relief valve (4) assembly
and seat (1). Screw seat (1) into valve body (6) until it
bottoms against housing. Repeat this step for other
cross-over relief valve (4) assembly in opposite side of
valve body (6).
Fig. 3 - Adjusting Spool Travel
10. Fully depress spool (47) at nut end, until it
bottoms, check dimension B as shown in Fig. 3. If
dimension B is 31.2 mm (1.23 inch), for example, the
thickness taken by shims B, Fig. 3, must be reduced
by 0.51 mm (0.020 inch) to obtain the correct 31.8 mm
(1.25 inch) dimension. If dimension B exceeds
31.8 mm (1.25 inch), the thickness taken by shims B
must be increased. Shims B, Fig. 3, are available in
0.050, 0.13, 0.25, 0.50 and 0.64 mm (0.002, 0.0051,
0.0101, 0.020 and 0.025 inch) sizes. Do not use a
shim A in place of a shim B.
11. Line up the cap screw holes in shims, plate and
valve body (6). Install new plug (52) into cover (9) over
end of spool (47) and secure to valve body (6) with
four cap screws (53) and lockwashers (16). Torque
tighten cap screws (53) to 40 - 50 Nm (30 - 40 lbf ft),
lubricated.
12. Fully depress spool (47) into cover (9) and check
dimension A as shown in Fig. 3. If, for example,
dimension A is 19.6 mm (0.77 inch), the thickness
taken by shims A, Fig. 3, must be increased by
0.50 mm (0.02 inch) to obtain the correct 19.1 mm
(0.75 inch) dimension. If dimension A is less than
19.1 mm (0.75 inch), the thickness taken by shims A
must be reduced. Shims A, Fig. 3, are available in
0.05, 0.13 and 0.25 mm (0.002, 0.005 and 0.010 inch)
sizes. Do not use a shim B in place of a shim A.
6
18. Using a soft metal rod with a diameter of 12.7 mm
(0.50 inch), press or tap seat (32) into bore of valve
body (6).
19. Install new ‘O’ ring (35) on cap (36). Position
spring (34) in opening of cap (36) and check (33) in
spring (34) and into cap (36). Install check and cap
assembly into valve body (6). Make sure check is in
proper position on seat (32) and secure cap to valve
body (6).
20. Insert check (31) into opposite side of valve body
(6) and against seat (32) in housing. Install spring (30)
in open end of check (31) in valve body (6).
21. Install new ‘O’ ring (29) on seat (28). Insert seat
into valve body (6) against spring (30). Make sure
spring is positioned in embossment on inner face of
seat.
22. Install new ‘O’ ring (25) on cap (24). Thread
adjusting screw (23) through cap (24). Position spring
(26) and poppet (27) on boss end of adjusting screw
and install cap (24) in valve body (6). Make sure
poppet (27) is guided into seating surface of seat (28).
Thread cap into valve body (6) until it bottoms on
housing.
23. Install one washer (22), jam nut (21), second
washer (22) and nut (20) on adjusting screw (23). Do
not tighten nut (20) until relief valve adjustment is set.
SM 1765 2-99
Steering System - Steering Valve
Section 220-0090
INSTALLATION
ADJUSTING RELIEF VALVE
Note: Tighten all fasteners to standard torques listed
in Section 300-0080, STANDARD BOLT AND NUT
TORQUE SPECIFICATIONS.
Numbers in parentheses refer to Figures 2 and 8.
Remove plug from gauge port of steering valve and fit
a 0 - 207 bar (0 - 3 000 lbf/in2) pressure gauge.
Note: Tighten all hydraulic lines fitted with ORFS
connections, as described in Section 220-0000,
STEERING SYSTEM SCHEMATIC.
1. Make certain, area of installation is clean. Position
steering valve onto mounting bracket on frame and
secure in place with mounting hardware as removed at
Removal. Tighten bolts equally so that the valve body
is not distorted.
2. Remove blanking caps from hydraulic lines and
install lines to steering valve as identified during
removal.
Start engine and allow hydraulic oil to warm up to
normal operating temperature. Steer the machine a full
90° and lock brakes. With steering cylinder at end of
stroke, keep steering wheel turned. This will keep
steering valve control spool in an operating position
and allow pressure to build up.
With machine operating at 1 500 rpm, the relief valve
should open at 134 bar (1 950 lbf/in2).
If pressure is above or below recommended pressure
setting, adjust the relief valve as follows:
3. Attach the end rod and link bar to the steering valve
spool. Refer to Section 220-0180, STEERING GEAR
AND LINKAGE, for attachment of link bar.
1. Remove nut (20) and washer (22).
4. Check oil level in the hydraulic tank and add oil if
required. Refer to Section 235-0040, HYDRAULIC
TANK for correct fill level, and, Section 300-0020,
LUBRICATION SYSTEM for oil specification.
3. Turn adjusting screw (23) in to increase pressure or
out to decrease pressure.
5. Place the battery master switch in the 'On' position,
start the engine and bring hydraulic oil to operating
temperature.
5. Reinstall washer (22) and nut (20). Torque tighten
nut to 50 Nm (35 lbf ft), lubricated.
2. Loosen jam nut (21).
4. Tighten jam nut (21) after completing adjustments.
6. Turn steering wheel lock to lock several times and
check steering valve and hydraulic line connections for
leaks and tighten as required.
7. Stop the engine and turn the steering wheel several
times to bleed oil pressure. Check the hydraulic oil
tank level. Replenish if required.
6. Shut off engine and release oil pressure in the
system by turning the steering wheel back and forth.
Remove pressure gauge and reinstall plug in steering
valve.
SPECIAL TOOLS
There are no special tools required for procedures
outlined in this section. Refer to Section 300-0070,
SERVICE TOOLS, for part numbers of general service
tools required. These tools are available from your
dealer.
8. Remove wheel blocks.
SPECIAL TORQUE SPECIFICATIONS
TORQUE
FIG NO
1&2
1&2
1
ITEM NO
20
38
53
DESCRIPTION
Nut
Nut
Capscrew
*
SM 1765 2-99
*
*
Nm
50
70 - 80
40 - 50
lbf ft
35
50 - 60
30 - 40
*
7
STEERING SYSTEM - Steering Cylinder
Section 220-0120
SM - 2385
5
17 18 16
2
21 14 15
1
20
10 11
1
2
3
4
5
6
- Cylinder Tube
- End Cap
- Piston
- Locking Screw
- Bushing
- Steering Cam
19 3 13 12
6
7
8
9
10
11
- Screw
- Washer
- Nut
- Bolt
- Washer
4
8 9 7
12
13
14
15
16
- Wear Ring
- Piston Seal
- 'O' Ring
- Backup Ring
- Rod Seal
17
18
19
20
21
- Wiper
- Nylon Ring
- 'O' Ring
- Piston Rod
- Wear Ring
Fig. 1 - Exploded View of Steering Cylinder
DESCRIPTION
OPERATION
Numbers in parentheses refer to Fig. 1.
When the operator turns the steering wheel for a
steering operation, movement of the piston rod
generates force required to pivot the tractor frame.
There are two single stage, double acting steering
cylinders on the machine. The cylinder base end is
connected to the steering trunnion, and, piston rod
(20) end is connected to the pull yoke. Single stage
double acting means that piston rod (20) can have oil
applied to either side, extending or retracting the
piston rod.
Cylinder mounting is by pins, secured with bolts,
lockwashers and nuts. Bushings (5) permit a limited
amount of cylinder misalignment when travelling over
rough terrain.
SM 1897 1-00
In the neutral position, with the steering valve
centralized, oil movement between the steering
cylinders and the steering valve is stopped. Trapped
oil in the system locks both steering cylinders and the
angle of steering set by the operator is maintained.
Refer to Section 220-0090, STEERING VALVE, for
operation of the steering valve.
1
Steering System - Steering Cylinder
Section 220-0120
REMOVAL
DISASSEMBLY
Numbers in parentheses refer to Fig. 1.
Numbers in parentheses refer to Fig. 1.
WARNINGS
Turn steering wheel several times in each
direction to relieve any pressure in the
system. Failure to release pressure as stated
can result in personal injury and property
damage.
To prevent personal injury and property
damage, be sure wheel blocks, blocking
materials and lifting equipment are properly
secured and of adequate capacity to do the job
safely.
1. Position the vehicle in a level work area, apply the
parking brake and switch off the engine. Operate
steering right and left several times to relieve
pressure in the steering system.
2. Block all road wheels and place the battery master
switch in the 'Off' position.
3. Identify and tag all hydraulic lines on one steering
cylinder. With a suitable container available to catch
spillage, disconnect hydraulic lines. Cap all lines and
fittings to prevent ingress of dirt.
4. Support steering cylinder with a suitable lifting
device.
5. Remove bolt, lockwasher and nut securing pin at
piston rod (20) end of the cylinder. Remove pin
securing piston rod (20) end to the pull yoke.
6. Remove bolt, lockwasher and nut securing pin at
base end of the cylinder tube (1). Remove pin
securing base end to the steering trunnion.
WARNING
To prevent personal injury and property
damage, be sure lifting equipment is properly
secured and of adequate capacity to do the job
safely.
1. Ensure clean working conditions, remove any port
plugs thus allowing easy entry of air into the cylinder,
preventing a vacuum when parts are withdrawn from
cylinder tube (1).
2. Match mark end cap (2) and cylinder tube (1) for
correct alignment during assembly. Remove bolts
(10) and washers (11) securing end cap (2) to
cylinder tube (1).
3. Pull end cap (2), piston rod (20) and piston (3) out
of cylinder tube (1) as an assembly.
4. Position eye end of piston rod (20) in a soft-jawed
vice and remove locking screw (4).
5. Pull piston (3) assembly off piston rod (20) and
remove and discard piston seal (13), wear ring (12)
and 'O' ring (19) from piston (3).
6. Pull end cap (2) assembly off piston rod (1).
Remove and discard backup ring (15) and 'O' ring
(14) from outer groove of end cap (2). Remove and
discard wear rings (21), rod seal (16), nylon ring (18)
and wiper (17) from inner grooves of end cap (2).
7. If the piston rod bushing (5) is damaged, drive it
out of the rod eye and discard it. Do not remove
steering cam (6) unless it is damaged and has to be
replaced.
7. Remove cylinder assembly from the machine.
8. Remove cylinder assembly to a clean area for
disassembly. Drain oil from cylinder assembly into a
suitable container.
9. Repeat steps 3 through 8 for opposite steering
cylinder assembly.
2
SM 1897 1-00
Steering System - Steering Cylinder
Section 220-0120
INSPECTION
5. Guide end cap (2) assembly onto piston rod (20).
Numbers in parentheses refer to Fig. 1
1. Clean all parts of the cylinder with a suitable
solvent and dry with clean, lint-free cloths. Clean all
grooves carefully to remove any foreign material.
2. Check cylinder tube (1) bore, outer diameter of
piston (3) and piston grooves for scratches, cracks
or other signs of damage. Remove ridges, nicks and
scratches with a fine stone and re-clean. Replace
any components which cannot be repaired.
3. Inspect piston rod (20) for distortion, cracks or
other defects. Replace piston rod (20) if defective
area is irreparable.
4. Check bushings (5) for wear and replace if
necessary.
ASSEMBLY
Numbers in parentheses refer to Fig. 1.
Note: Tighten all fasteners to standard torques listed
in Section 300-0080, STANDARD BOLT AND NUT
TORQUE SPECIFICATIONS.
Note: To facilitate assembly, lubricate all internal
sliding or wearing surfaces prior to assembly with the
same hydraulic oil that is used in the system.
WARNING
To prevent personal injury and property
damage, be sure lifting equipment is properly
secured and of adequate capacity to do the job
safely.
1. If necessary, press new bushing (5) into eye end
of piston rod (20).
2. Install new rod seal (16) in bore of end cap (2) with
the lip pointing towards the internal face of the end
cap (2). Install new nylon ring (18) behind rod seal
(16) in groove.
3. Install new wiper (17) and new wear rings (21) into
bore of end cap (2).
4. Install new backup ring (15) and new 'O' ring (14)
on outer groove on end cap (2).
SM 1897 1-00
6. Install piston seal (13) and wear ring (12) into
piston (3) external grooves. Install 'O' ring (19) into
internal groove of piston (3).
7. Install piston (3) on piston rod (20) and tighten to a
torque of 1 355 Nm (1 000 lbf ft).
8. Install new locking screw (4) into piston (10) and
tighten to a torque of 48 Nm (36 lbf ft).
9. Ensure bore of cylinder tube (14) is well lubricated
with hydraulic oil. Carefully insert piston rod (20),
piston (3) and end cap (2) assembly into the cylinder
tube (1), making certain that piston seal (13) is
compressed correctly, and backup ring (15) and 'O'
ring (14) are in place on the end cap (2).
10. Align end cap (2) and cylinder tube (1) as marked
during Disassembly. Install bolts (10) and washers
(11) and secure end cap (2) to cylinder body (1).
Tighten bolts (10) to a torque of 260 - 280 Nm
(190 - 210 lbf ft). Use feeler gauge to check the gap
variation between the cap and cylinder which must
not exceed 0.38 mm (0.015 inch) when measured at
four equally spaced points on the circumference.
INSTALLATION
Numbers in parentheses refer to Fig. 1.
Note: Tighten all fasteners to standard torques listed
in Section 300-0080, STANDARD BOLT AND NUT
TORQUE SPECIFICATIONS.
Note: Tighten all hydraulic lines fitted with ORFS
connections, as described in Section 220-0000,
STEERING SYSTEM SCHEMATIC. Renew all
'O' rings where used.
WARNING
To prevent personal injury and property
damage, be sure lifting equipment is properly
secured and of adequate capacity to do the job
safely.
1. Install a suitable strap, or other lifting device, around
one cylinder assembly and position cylinder assembly
on the vehicle, with base end of cylinder ready for
mounting.
3
Steering System - Steering Cylinder
Section 220-0120
8. Place the battery master switch in the 'On'
position, start the engine and operate the steering,
from lock to lock several times, to purge air out of the
hydraulic lines. Check hydraulic lines and fittings for
leaks. Tighten lines and fittings as required.
2. Install pin through base end of cylinder tube (1)
and steering trunnion. Secure pin with bolt,
lockwasher and nut as removed at Removal.
3. Install pin through pull yoke and piston rod (20)
end of the cylinder. Secure pin with bolt, lockwasher
and nut as removed at Removal.
MAINTENANCE
4. Connect hydraulic lines to steering cylinder ports, as
tagged during Removal.
5. Repeat steps 1 through 4 for installation of
opposite steering cylinder.
Inspect steering cylinders regularly for leaks or
damage, repair as required. Lubricate cylinder pins
every 50 hours, as specified in Section 300-0020,
LUBRICATION SYSTEM.
SPECIAL TOOLS
6. Check oil level in hydraulic tank and add oil if low.
Refer to Section 230-0040, HYDRAULIC TANK, for
correct fill level. Refer to Section 300-0020,
LUBRICATION SYSTEM, for the type of oil used.
There are no special tools required for procedures
outlined in this section. Refer to Section 300-0070,
SERVICE TOOLS, for part numbers of general
service tools and adhesives required. These tools
and adhesives are available from your dealer.
7. Remove wheel blocks.
SPECIAL TORQUE SPECIFICATIONS
TORQUE
FIG. NO.
1
1
1
ITEM NO.
3
4
10
ITEM NAME
Piston
Locking Screw
Bolt
*
4
*
*
Nm
1 355
48
260 - 280
lbf ft
1 000
36
190 - 210
*
SM 1897 1-00
STEERING SYSTEM - Double Relief Valve
Section 220-0130
SM - 2137
1 - Valve Body
2 - Cartridge Assembly
3 - 'O' Ring
4 - 'O' Ring
5 - Poppet Plug
6 - Spring
7
8
9
10
- Poppet
- 'O' Ring
- 'O' Ring
- Plug
Fig. 1 - Exploded View of Double Relief Valve
DESCRIPTION AND OPERATION
Numbers in parentheses refer to Fig. 1.
The double relief valve is an oil by-passing device with
two spring loaded pistons which are set and sealed in
the relief valve cartridges.
striking a boulder, hole or other similar object. When
this occurs, the oil that is displaced, flows through the
cored passage of the flow reversing valve and into the
double relief valve. The excessive pressure unseats
the cartridge piston and feeds the pressurized oil to
the opposite steering cylinder which stabilizes the
steering.
The double relief valve is used to relieve shock loads
transmitted to the steering cylinders by the machine
SM 1747 2-99
1
Steering System - Double Relief Valve
Section 220-0130
Normal Oil Flow
SM - 2138
Normally, oil flows from the steering valve through one
of the ports and into the double relief valve. It then
flows through the valve and directly into the flow
reversing valve. Displaced oil from the steering
cylinder and flow reversing valve flows through the
double relief valve and then continues on to the
steering valve.
For information concerning the oil flow through the flow
reversing valve, refer to Section 220-0160, FLOW
REVERSING VALVE.
By-Passing Oil Flow
Numbers in parentheses refer to Fig. 1.
This by-passing operation is the same regardless of
which cylinder by-passes the oil.
When shock impact creates excessive pressure
against the steering cylinder, the pressurized oil will
enter the double relief valve at ‘P-1’ port. The oil will
flow behind the poppet (7) and around the exposed
end of the spring loaded piston in the cartridge
assembly (2). If the pressure exceeds the rated bar
(Ibf/in2) setting of the cartridge assembly (2), the piston
will be forced off its seat and allow oil to enter the
passageway between the cartridge assembly (2) and
the poppet (7). Pressure against the face of the poppet
and the cavitation action on the poppet from the other
cylinder will unseat the poppet and allow oil to flow out
‘P-2’ port to the opposite cylinder. When excessive
pressure is dissipated, spring pressure overcomes the
hydraulic pressure and returns the cartridge piston and
poppet to their normal closed positions. The surplus oil
flows out of the ‘Return Port’ and returns to the
hydraulic tank.
REMOVAL
Numbers in parentheses refer to Fig. 2.
WARNINGS
Hydraulic fluid pressure will remain within the
system after engine shutdown. To prevent
personal injury and property damage, turn
steering wheel several times in each direction
to relieve pressure in the system.
To prevent personal injury and property
damage, be sure wheel blocks are properly
secured and of adequate capacity to do the job
safely.
2
1 - Bolts & Lockwashers
2 - Double Relief Valve
3 - 'O' Ring
4 - Bolts & Lockwashers
5 - Flow Reversing Valve
Fig. 2 - Double Relief Valve Installation
1. Position the vehicle in a level work area, apply the
parking brake and switch off the engine. Operate the
steering in both directions several times to relieve any
pressure the steering system.
2. Place the battery master switch in the 'Off' position
and block all road wheels.
3. Before removal of double relief valve (2) from the
machine, clean exterior of the valve and hydraulic oil
lines to prevent ingress of dirt.
4. Identify and tag all hydraulic oil lines, to aid in
installation. With a suitable container available to catch
spillage, disconnect hydraulic lines from double relief
valve (2). Cap all lines and plug all ports of the double
relief valve (2) to prevent ingress of dirt.
5. Index mark the double relief valve (2) and flow
reversing valve (5) to aid installation. Remove bolts
and lockwashers (1) securing double relief valve (2) to
the flow reversing valve (5). Lift off double relief valve
(2) and transfer to a clean area for disassembly.
Remove and discard 'O' rings (3) from flow reversing
valve (5).
SM 1747 2-99
Steering System - Double Relief Valve
Section 220-0130
DISASSEMBLY
Numbers in parentheses refer to Fig. 1.
1. If required, remove elbows from double relief valve
and identify to aid in assembly.
2. Carefully remove cartridge assemblies (2) from
valve body (1). Remove and discard 'O' rings (3 & 4).
WARNING
Do NOT disassemble valve cartridges; they are
pressure set and sealed at assembly. If
cartridge is defective, it must be replaced with
a new cartridge.
3. Carefully remove poppet plugs (5) from valve body
(1). Remove 'O' rings (8), springs (6) and poppets (7)
from valve body (1). Discard 'O' rings (8).
Note: To remove spring (6) and poppet (7) from valve
body (1), it is necessary to turn valve body on its end
and tap down on a work bench, or other suitable area,
to release the parts.
5. Check condition of valve cartridges (2). Insert a
blunt nose drift or punch in cartridge end and depress
piston.
Note: If piston does not move freely or hangs up,
replace cartridge. Cartridge should also be replaced if
lead seal has been removed and cartridge adjustment
has been tampered with.
ASSEMBLY
Numbers in parentheses refer to Fig. 1.
1. If removed, install plugs (10) in valve body (1).
2. Install springs (6) in end of poppet plugs (5) and
insert in poppets (7). Install new 'O' rings (8) on poppet
plugs (5) and install plug assemblies in valve body (1).
3. Install new 'O' rings (3 & 4) on valve cartridges (2).
Lubricate threaded end of cartridge (2) and install in
valve body (1).
4. If removed, install elbows on double relief valve as
tagged at disassembly.
4. If necessary, remove plugs (10) from valve body (1).
INSTALLATION
INSPECTION
Numbers in parentheses refer to Fig. 2.
Numbers in parentheses refer to Fig. 1.
Note: There is a seal kit available to replace all of the
seals in the valve. Refer to the Parts Book for part
number of the seal kit.
1. Clean all parts with a suitable solvent and dry with
compressed air.
2. Inspect all threaded parts for stripped or damaged
threads.
3. Inspect valve body (1) bores and poppets (7) for
excessive wear, scratches or deep grooves. If either
valve body (1) or poppets (7) are damaged beyond
repair, the complete valve assembly must be replaced.
4. Inspect springs (6) for breaks, lack of tension or
other damage. Replace if required.
SM 1747 2-99
Note: Tighten all fasteners to standard torques listed
in Section 300-0080, STANDARD BOLT AND NUT
TORQUE SPECIFICATIONS.
Note: Tighten all hydraulic lines fitted with ORFS
connections, as described in Section 220-0000,
STEERING SYSTEM SCHEMATIC.
1. Make certain, area of installation is clean. Position
new 'O' rings (3) and double relief valve (2) onto flow
reversing valve (5), as per index marks and secure in
place with bolts and lockwashers (1). Tighten bolts (1)
to a torque of 80 Nm (58 lbf ft), lubricated.
Note: If a new double relief valve (2) is being installed,
be sure to line up the ports in the bottom face of the
double relief valve (2) housing with the ports of the
flow reversing valve (5).
3
Steering System - Double Relief Valve
Section 220-0130
2. Remove blanking caps from hydraulic lines and
install lines to double relief valve as identified during
removal.
5. Check double relief valve and hydraulic line
connections for leaks and tighten as required.
6. Remove wheel blocks.
3. Check oil level in the hydraulic tank and add oil if
required. Refer to Section 235-0040, HYDRAULIC
TANK for correct fill level, and, Section 300-0020,
LUBRICATION SYSTEM for oil specification.
SPECIAL TOOLS
There are no special tools required for procedures
outlined in this section. Refer to Section 300-0070,
SERVICE TOOLS, for part numbers of general service
tools required. These tools are available from your
dealer.
4. Place the battery master switch in the 'On' position,
start the engine and bring hydraulic oil to operating
temperature.
SPECIAL TORQUE SPECIFICATIONS
TORQUE
FIG NO
2
ITEM NO
1
DESCRIPTION
Bolt
*
4
*
*
Nm
80
lbf ft
58
*
SM 1747 2-99
STEERING SYSTEM - Flow Reversing Valve
Section 220-0160
SM - 2139
TO ROD END OF RIGHT CYLINDER
TO BASE OF RIGHT CYLINDER
RIGHT
SPOOL
D
B
A
C
LEFT
SPOOL
E
E
TO ROD END OF LEFT CYLINDER
TO BASE OF LEFT CYLINDER
Fig. 1 - Cutaway View of Typical Flow Reversing Valve
DESCRIPTION AND OPERATION
Letters in parentheses refer to Fig. 1.
The flow reversing valve distributes the oil to the
steering cylinders and also reverses the flow of oil to
the cylinders, when one of the pistons is pushed into
the housing. The valve is mounted on the rear of the
steering frame between the two cylinders.
In Fig. 1, channel ‘A’ is connected to ‘C’ by the cored
passage ‘B’. Channel ‘C’ is connected to the base of
the right steering cylinder and the rod end of the left
steering cylinder. Channel ‘D’ is connected to the base
of the left steering cylinder and the rod end of the right
steering cylinder.
Channels ‘E’ are connected together by a horizontally
drilled passage, not shown in the illustration. They act
as vent passages for high pressure oil to protect the
seals.
SM 1764 2-99
OIL FLOW
Right Turn
Letters in parentheses refer to Fig. 1.
Oil flows into the valve housing through the top left
port (not shown) into channel ‘A'. Oil flows around the
land of the left plunger through channel ‘B’ and into
channel ‘C'. From ‘C’ the oil flow simultaneously into
the base of the right cylinder and into the rod end of
the left cylinder.
In an extremely sharp right turn, the oil flow to the left
steering cylinder is reversed by the left plunger being
pushed 20.638 mm (0.8125 inch) into the valve
housing. Refer to Section 220-0010, STEERING
LINES AND FITTINGS. The lower part of the channel
‘C’ is blocked by the large land of the left plunger.
Channel ‘A’ and the lower part of channel ‘D’ are now
connected, allowing oil to flow into the base of the left
steering cylinder.
1
Steering System - Flow Reversing Valve
Section 220-0160
SM - 2140
1 - Valve Body
2 - Plunger
3 - 'Seal
4 - Plunger Stop Plug
5 - 'O' Ring
6 - Plunger Stop Plug
7 - Plug
8 - Plug
Fig. 2 - Exploded View of Flow Reversing Valve
Left Turn
REMOVAL
Letters in parentheses refer to Fig. 1.
Numbers in parentheses refer to Fig. 3.
Oil enters the valve housing through the top right port
(not shown) and flows into channel ‘D'. The oil flows
through channel ‘D’ and into the base of the left
steering cylinder and the rod end of the right steering
cylinder.
In an extremely sharp left turn, the oil flow to the right
steering cylinder is reversed by the right plunger being
pushed 20.638 mm (0.8125 inch) into the valve
housing. Refer to Section 220-0010, STEERING
LINES AND FITTINGS. The small middle land of the
right plunger blocks the passage to the rod end of the
right cylinder. Channel ‘D’ is now connected to the
upper part of channel ‘C'. This allows oil to flow into
the base end of the right steering cylinder.
2
WARNINGS
Hydraulic fluid pressure will remain within the
system after engine shutdown. To prevent
personal injury and property damage, turn
steering wheel several times in each direction
to relieve pressure in the system.
To prevent personal injury and property
damage, be sure wheel blocks are properly
secured and of adequate capacity to do the job
safely.
1. Position the vehicle in a level work area, apply the
parking brake and switch off the engine. Operate the
steering in both directions several times to relieve any
pressure in the steering system.
SM 1764 2-99
Steering System - Flow Reversing Valve
Section 220-0160
2. Place the battery master switch in the 'Off' position
and block all road wheels.
SM - 2138
3. Remove double relief valve (2) from the machine.
Refer to Section 220-0130, DOUBLE RELIEF VALVE.
4. Before removal of flow reversing valve (5) from the
machine, clean exterior of the valve and hydraulic oil
lines to prevent ingress of dirt.
5. Disconnect the reversing linkage from the eye of the
plungers.
6. Identify and tag all hydraulic oil lines, to aid in
installation. With a suitable container available to catch
spillage, disconnect hydraulic lines from flow reversing
valve (5). Cap all lines and plug all ports of the flow
reversing valve (5) to prevent ingress of dirt.
7. Remove bolts and lockwashers (4) securing flow
reversing valve (5) to the steering trunnion. Remove
low reversing valve (5) and transfer to a clean area for
disassembly. Remove and discard 'O' rings (3).
DISASSEMBLY
Numbers in parentheses refer to Fig. 2.
1. If required, remove fittings from flow reversing valve
and identify to aid in assembly.
1 - Bolts & Lockwashers
2 - Double Relief Valve
3 - 'O' Ring
4 - Bolts & Lockwashers
5 - Flow Reversing Valve
Fig. 3 - Flow Reversing Valve Installation
2. Remove plunger stop plugs (4 & 6) from valve body
(1). Remove and discard 'O' rings (5).
2. Inspect all threaded parts for stripped or damaged
threads.
3. Match mark plungers (2) to their respective bores in
valve body (1). Pull both plungers (2) out from valve
body (1).
3. Inspect valve body (1) bores and plungers (2) for
excessive wear, scratches or deep grooves. If either
valve body (1) or plungers (7) are damaged, they must
be replaced.
4. Pry seals (3) out of plunger stop plugs (4). Discard
seals (3).
ASSEMBLY
5. If required, remove plugs (7 & 8) from valve body (1).
Numbers in parentheses refer to Fig. 2.
INSPECTION
1. If removed, install plugs (7 & 8) in valve body (1).
Numbers in parentheses refer to Fig. 1.
2. Install new seal (3) in plunger stop plug (4) with lip
facing in. When assembled, the seal should be
recessed approximately 3.0 mm ( 0.12 inch) from the
face of the plunger stop plug (4).
Note: There is a seal kit available to replace all of the
seals in the valve. Refer to the Parts Book for part
number of the seal kit.
1. Clean all parts with a suitable solvent and dry with
compressed air.
SM 1764 2-99
3. Install new 'O' rings (5) on plunger stop plugs (6).
Install plunger stop plugs (6) in valve body (1).
3
Steering System - Flow Reversing Valve
Section 220-0160
4. Insert plungers (2) into valve body (1), as marked at
Disassembly.
3. Connect the reversing linkage to the eye of the
plungers.
Note: If the same plungers that were removed from
the valve are being installed, be sure the plungers are
replaced in the same bore from which they were
removed.
4. Position new 'O' rings (3) onto flow reversing valve
(5) and install double relief valve (2) onto flow
reversing valve (5). Refer to Section 220-0130,
DOUBLE RELIEF VALVE.
5. Carefully position plunger stop plugs (4) over
plungers (2), taking care not to damage oil seals (3).
Tighten plunger stop plugs (4) securely.
5. Check oil level in the hydraulic tank and add oil if
required. Refer to Section 235-0040, HYDRAULIC
TANK for correct fill level, and, Section 300-0020,
LUBRICATION SYSTEM for oil specification.
INSTALLATION
6. Place the battery master switch in the 'On' position,
start the engine and bring hydraulic oil to operating
temperature.
Numbers in parentheses refer to Fig. 3.
Note: Tighten all fasteners to standard torques listed
in Section 300-0080, STANDARD BOLT AND NUT
TORQUE SPECIFICATIONS.
7. Check flow reversing valve (5) and hydraulic line
connections for leaks and tighten as required.
Note: Tighten all hydraulic lines fitted with ORFS
connections, as described in Section 220-0000,
STEERING SYSTEM SCHEMATIC.
8. Remove wheel blocks.
SPECIAL TOOLS
There are no special tools required for procedures
outlined in this section. Refer to Section 300-0070,
SERVICE TOOLS, for part numbers of general
service tools required. These tools are available from
your dealer.
1. Make certain, area of installation is clean. Position
flow reversing valve (5) onto steering frame and
secure in place with bolts and lockwashers (4).
2. Remove blanking caps from hydraulic lines and
install lines to flow reversing valve as identified during
removal.
*
4
*
*
*
SM 1764 2-99
STEERING SYSTEM - Steering Linkage
Section 220-0190
SM - 2152
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
- Bellcrank
- Bushing
- Cotter Pin
- Clevis Pin
- Bolt
- Nut
- Clevis
- Spring Guides
- Compression Spring
- Clevis
- Cotter Pin
- Clevis Pin
13
14
15
16
17
18
- Link Bolt
- Compression Spring
- Grease Fitting
- Roller Assembly
- Nut
- Star Washer
Fig. 1 - Exploded View of Steering Linkage
DESCRIPTION AND OPERATION
Numbers in parentheses refer to Fig. 1.
The steering linkage consists of a bell crank (1), link
assembly (7 thru 13), compression spring (14) and
roller assembly (16). The bell crank is bolted to the
steering frame and the link assembly is connected to
the eye end of the flow reversing valve spool and to
SM 1766 2-99
the bell crank. A grease fitting (15) is installed in each
bell crank (1) to lubricate the roller shaft.
The function of the steering linkage is to push the flow
reversing valve spool into the valve housing at the
appropriate time, reversing the flow of oil to the
steering cylinder. Refer to Section 220-0010,
STEERING LINES AND FITTINGS, for detailed oil
flow operation.
1
Steering System - Steering Linkage
Section 220-0190
REMOVAL AND DISASSEMBLY
INSPECTION
Numbers in parentheses refer to Fig. 1.
Numbers in parentheses refer to Fig. 1.
1. Clean all parts with a suitable solvent and dry with
compressed air.
WARNING
To prevent personal injury and property
damage, be sure wheel blocks are properly
secured and of adequate capacity to do the job
safely.
2. Inspect roller assembly (16), springs (9 & 14),
bushing (2) and clevis pins (4 & 12) for wear or
damage. Replace worn parts if necessary.
1. Position the vehicle in a level work area, apply the
parking brake and switch off the engine. Operate
steering in both directions several times to relieve any
pressure in steering system.
3. Inspect all threaded parts for worn or damaged
threads. Replace all damaged parts.
2. Turn tractor wheels to the straight forward position
equalising compression on springs (9 & 14).
Numbers in parentheses refer to Fig. 1.
ASSEMBLY AND INSTALLATION
Note: Tighten all fasteners to standard torques listed
in Section 300-0080, STANDARD BOLT AND NUT
TORQUE SPECIFICATIONS.
3. Place the battery master switch in the 'Off' position
and block all road wheels.
4. Hold steering linkage securely and remove cotter
pin (11) from clevis pin (12). Remove clevis (10) from
flow reversing valve. Slowly release compression
spring (14).
1. If removed, install grease fitting (15) in bell crank (1).
5. Remove spring (14) from steering trunnion.
3. Assemble link bolt (13), clevis (10), spring guides
(8), spring (9) and clevis (7). Install bushing (2) in bell
crank (1). Install clevis pin (4) in bell crank (1) and
clevis (7) and secure with cotter pin (3).
2. Install roller assembly (16) on bell crank (1) with star
washer (18) and nut (6).
6. Remove stop nut (17), bolt (5) and bell crank (1)
from steering trunnion.
4. Attach bell crank (1) assembly onto steering
trunnion with bolt (5) and stop nut (17).
7. Remove steering linkage from machine.
8. Remove cotter pin (3) from clevis pin (4). Remove
bushing (2) and clevis (7) from bell crank (1).
5. Install compression spring (14) between bell crank
(1) retainer and retainer on steering trunnion.
9. Remove clevis (7), spring guides (8) and clevis (10)
from bolt (13).
6. Install steering linkage onto flow reversing valve
with clevis pin (12) and cotter pin (11).
10. Remove nut (6) and star washer (18) from roller
assembly (16). Remove roller assembly (16) from bell
crank (1).
7. Place the battery master switch in the 'On' position
and remove wheel blocks.
11. If required, remove grease fitting (15) from bell
crank (1).
SPECIAL TOOLS
There are no special tools required for procedures
outlined in this section. Refer to Section 300-0070,
SERVICE TOOLS, for part numbers of general service
tools required. These tools are available from your
dealer.
*
2
*
*
*
SM 1766 2-99
BOWL HYDRAULIC SYSTEM - Hydraulic System Schematic
Section 235-0000
DESCRIPTION
Relief Valve (7)
Numbers in parentheses refer to Fig. 1.
Refer to Section 235-0120, RELIEF VALVE.
The bowl hydraulic, servo control and steering
hydraulic systems are operated by a triple pump. The
systems use the same oil supply tank and pump but
are operated independently of each other.
The direct acting relief valve is mounted at the right
hand side of the cab below the bowl drop valve (10).
The valve is installed in the lines between the triple
pump (2) and servo control valve (8).
A brief description of the individual components shown
in the bowl hydraulic and servo control systems are
listed below. Detailed service and operating
instructions for the individual components can be
found in their relative component sections in this
manual.
The relief valve pressure setting is 17 bar (250 lbf/in²).
Hydraulic Tank (1)
Refer to Section 235-0040, HYDRAULIC TANK.
The hydraulic tank is the common oil reservoir for the
bowl hydraulic and steering systems.
Integral with the tank assembly is a suction screen,
filter element, relief valve, adaptor plate, access
covers and filler neck assembly. Two sight gauges on
the side of the tank assembly indicate hydraulic oil
level. Located on top of the tank assembly is a
breather assembly.
Triple Pump (2)
Refer to Section 235-0050, TRIPLE PUMP.
The triple pump supplies hydraulic oil for operating the
bowl hydraulic and steering systems.
The triple pump is a multiple gear type pump
consisting of three separate sections connected
together as one assembly.
Two of the pump sections draw hydraulic oil from the
hydraulic tank (1) then pump the oil to the servo
control valve (8) and the bowl control valve (9).
The remaining section of the pump draws hydraulic oil
from the hydraulic tank (1) then pumps the oil to the
steering system.
The triple pump operates in the one direction only (it is
assembled for right hand (clockwise) rotation, as
viewed from the driveshaft end).
Note: Never drive a pump in the wrong direction of
rotation, as pump seizure may result.
SM 1893 Rev1 04-04
Servo Control Valve (8)
Refer to Section 235-0160, SERVO CONTROL
VALVE.
The servo control valve (8), located on the right hand
dash panel, is a mechanically actuated spool type
valve controlling and directing signal oil pressure
supplied by the main control valve (9). The valve
spools are operated by levers connected to the spool
ends. Operation of control levers moves the spools to
open and close the inlet port to the signal ports to
control movement of the valve spools.
Good control of the main hydraulic valve spools is
attained by matching the pressure gain through the
servo valve to the resistance of the main hydraulic
control valve spool centering springs. As the servo
valve spool is shifted from neutral, some signal oil is
directed to the appropriate main hydraulic control valve
spool, and some oil is directed back to the tank from
the other side of the spool. As the servo valve spool is
shifted farther through its stroke, so more oil is
directed to the main hydraulic control valve spool,
moving it farther through its stroke in direct proportion
to the servo valve spool movement.
The ejector and apron spools have a mechanical
detent in the lower position.
Bowl Control Valve (9)
Refer to Section 235-0060, BOWL CONTROL
VALVE.
The bowl control valve (9) is used to direct hydraulic oil
to the cylinders (14, 15 or 16) for raising or lowering the
apron, ejector or bowl depending on the position of the
control spools within the valve. The position of control
spools is controlled by the servo control valve (8).
The main components of the bowl control valve
assembly are three control spools, main pressure
relief valve and three check valve assemblies.
1
Bowl Hydraulic System - Hydraulic System Schematic
Section 235-0000
SM - 3181
10
12
T
11
B3
B
A
A1
UP
P3B
DOWN
P3A
B2
A2
P2B
UP
DOWN
P1B
EJECT
RETURN
P2A
B1
P1A
14
14
15
15
1850
PSI
9
P
A
13
P
X3
W3
EJECT
RETURN
17
W2
X2
RAISE
760
PSI
LOWER
W1
X1
RAISE
LOWER
16
8
T
250
PSI
7
STEERING
SYSTEM
RETURN FROM STEERING VALVE
RETURN FROM DOUBLE RELIEF VALVE
RETURN FROM FLOW REVERSING VALVE
2
TANK BREATHER
1
25
PSI
1
2
7
8
-
Hydraulic Tank
Triple Pump
Relief Valve
Servo Control Valve
9 - Bowl Control Valve
10 - Bowl Drop Valve
11 - Solenoid Valve
12 - Accumulator
13 - Solenoid Valve
14 - Bowl Cylinder
15 - Apron Cylinder
16 - Ejector Cylinder
17 - Pressure Reducing Valve
Fig. 1 - Bowl Hydraulic System Schematic
2
SM 1893 Rev1 04-04
Bowl Hydraulic System - Hydraulic System Schematic
Section 235-0000
The main pressure relief valve permits by-passing
hydraulic oil back to the tank (1), should oil pressure
exceed 127.5 bar (1 850 lbf/in2). Check valves in the
spools prevent return oil flow from cylinders until
supply oil pressure at the spools is sufficient to move
the loads. Thus they prevent unexpected movement
(dropping) of a load until oil pressure is sufficient to
hold or raise it.
Note: The bowl spool in the control valve used with a
power down bowl is a double acting type and contains
two load check valves and springs. The apron spool
in the control valve used with a power apron is a
double acting type and contains two load check
valves and springs. The ejector spool is a single
acting type containing one check valve and spring.
Bowl Drop Valve (10)
The bowl drop valve (10) is mounted at the right hand
side of the cab adjacent to the servo control valve
(8). When the solenoid is energised, by operating the
bowl drop switch inside the cab, the valve cartridge
moves across allowing oil to return to tank. This
allows the bowl to be lowered to ground under its own
weight when the engine is switched 'Off'.
piston. The charging valve is equipped with a locking
feature which, when opened, will allow the precharge
to be checked or the accumulator charged. The
piston acts as a separator dividing the cylinder into
two sections. The section nearest the charging valve
contains the nitrogen precharge. The other section
receives the hydraulic oil from the pump, via the bowl
control valve (9).
Bowl Cylinders (14)
Refer to Section 235-0020, BOWL CYLINDER.
There are two single stage, double acting bowl
cylinders (14) on the machine, mounted between the
bowl and pull yoke. Single stage double acting means
that the piston rod can have oil applied to either side,
extending or retracting the piston rod.
Cylinder mounting is by pins, secured with bolts and
lockwashers. Bushings permit a limited amount of
cylinder misalignment when travelling over rough
terrain.
Apron Cylinders (15)
Refer to Section 235-0035, APRON CYLINDER.
Solenoid Valves (11 & 13)
There are two solenoid valves installed in the bowl
hydraulic system, one (11) between the accumulator
(12) and the base end of the bowl cylinders (14), the
other (13) between the bowl control valve (9) and the
rod end of the bowl cylinders (14). When the solenoids
are energised, by operating the bowl suspension
switch inside the cab, the valve cartridges move
across allowing oil from the rod end of the bowl
cylinders (14) to return to tank through solenoid valve
(13). Oil from the accumulator (12) is allowed to flow to
the base end of the bowl cylinders (14) through
solenoid valve (11). This allows the bowl cylinder (14)
rods movement in both directions, creating a
cushioned suspension effect and providing the
operator with a smoother ride when travelling.
Accumulator (12)
Refer to Section 235-0070, ACCUMULATOR.
The accumulator (12) is mounted off the hood
mounting bracket inboard of the right hand fender. The
accumulator is of the piston type and is precharged
with nitrogen to 27.5 bar (400 lbf/in²). It consists of a
charging valve assembly, cylinder assembly and a
SM 1893 Rev1 04-04
There are two single stage, double acting apron
cylinders (15) on the machine, mounted vertically
between the pull yoke and lever. Single stage double
acting means that the piston rod has oil applied to
either side, extending or retracting the piston rod.
Cylinder mounting is by pins, secured with bolts,
lockwashers and nuts. Bushings permit a limited
amount of cylinder misalignment when travelling over
rough terrain.
Ejector Cylinder (16)
Refer to Section 235-0030, EJECTOR CYLINDER.
There is one single stage, single acting ejector cylinder
(16) on the machine, mounted horizontally between
the tail frame and ejector lever. Single stage single
acting means that the piston rod has oil applied to
one side, extending the piston rod and it retracts by
gravity under its own weight.
Cylinder mounting is by pins, secured with bolts,
lockwashers and nuts. Bushings permit a limited
amount of cylinder misalignment when travelling over
rough terrain.
3
Bowl Hydraulic System - Hydraulic System Schematic
Section 235-0000
Diagnostic Test Point
MAINTENANCE
The hydraulic system has one diagnostic test point (A)
which enables the service engineer to obtain an
accurate system pressure reading.
Maintenance instructions, intervals and warnings, in
the individual component sections of this manual,
should be adhered to.
'O' RING FACE SEALS (ORFS)
Hydraulic Oil
Where hydraulic lines are fitted with ORFS
connections, the following procedure should be carried
out during 'Installation'. Refer to Fig. 2.
The hydraulic tank should be kept filled with hydraulic
oil as specified in Section 300-0020, LUBRICATION
SYSTEM. Refer to Section 235-0040, HYDRAULIC
TANK for correct fill level and procedure.
SM - 1335
FITTING
SERVICE TOOLS
NUT
It is recommended that the following service tools are
used when carrying out pressure and temperature
checks during maintenance procedures. These tools,
along with other general service tools, are available
from your dealer. Refer to Section 300-0070,
SERVICE TOOLS, for part numbers of these tools.
TUBE
'O' RING
'O' RING
SLEEVE
Multi-Gauge
The multi-gauge is basically four pressure gauges in
one. Continuous system pressure readings are
indicated on one of three simultaneously reading
gauges through a pressure range of 30 in of vacuum
to 5 000 lbf/in².
Fig. 2 - Assembly of Typical ORFS Connector
a. Ensure 'O' ring/seal is in place and that the joining
surfaces are clean. If necessary, retain 'O' ring/seal in
place with a light coating of grease or vaseline.
Non-contact Infrared Thermometer
b. Initially, the nuts should be tightened by hand.
c. Where a hose is fitted, ensure that it is not twisted or
kinked when the nuts are tightened so that it is allowed
to adopt a natural position.
d. Where a tube is fitted, ensure that the connection is
aligned correctly.
The infrared thermometer can be used to spot heat
problems early in electrical, mechanical and
hydraulic systems. Hand held and easy to use, you
simply aim, pull the trigger, and read the temperature.
Since there is no need to touch what you are
measuring, temperatures of hard-to-reach or moving
components can be taken without getting burned or
shocked.
e. Tighten the nut a further 1/4 to 1/2 a turn using the
correct size spanner (wrench).
f. Check that a satisfactory hose or tube routing has
been achieved.
*
4
*
*
*
SM 1893 Rev1 04-04
BOWL HYDRAULIC SYSTEM - Hydraulic Lines and Fittings
Section 235-0010
DESCRIPTION
SM - 2382
Refer to Section 235-0000, HYDRAULIC SYSTEM
SCHEMATIC for details of hydraulic schematic and a
brief description of the individual components shown in
the bowl hydraulic and servo control systems.
1
1
2
3
The hydraulic, servo control and steering hydraulic
systems are operated by a triple pump. The systems
use the same oil supply tank and pump but are
operated independently of each other.
2
3
This section refers to the hydraulic system with servo
controls which operate the scraper bowl, apron and
ejector.
Refer to Section 220-0010, STEERING LINES AND
FITTINGS for details of the steering hydraulic system.
OPERATION
1 - Bowl Lever
2 - Bowl Cylinder
Neutral (Hold) Position
When the control levers (servo control valve) are in a
neutral position, oil is drawn from the tank by the
pump. From the pump the oil flows through the central
passage in the control valve and back to the tank. Oil
is also pumped through the servo valve and servo
relief valve. If the pressure exceeds 17 bar
(250 lbf/in2) the servo relief valve diverts oil back to
the tank.
Bowl
Numbers in parentheses refer to Fig. 1.
The scraper bowl is operated by two single stage,
double acting cylinders (2). The cylinder base ends
are attached to the pull yoke and the piston rods are
attached to the two bowl lift levers (1). The bowl lift
levers (1) are hinged at the forward end and the other
ends are connected to the two lift rods (3) which are,
in turn, connected to the scraper bowl.
To describe the operation of the scraper, it is assumed
that the bowl control lever is in the 'NEUTRAL' position
and the bowl cutting edge is touching the ground.
When the servo control bowl lever is pushed into the
'LOWER' position, a passage in the control valve is
opened and oil flows from the pump into the control
valve. Oil from the control valve flows into the bowl
cylinder rod ends. The oil pressure in the cylinder rod
ends, forces the piston rods to retract. As the piston
rods retract, the levers are pulled down causing the
bowl to lower, forcing the cutting edge into the ground.
As the bowl cylinders are retracting, any oil trapped
SM 1894 1-00
3 - Bowl Lift Rod
Fig. 1 - Operational View of Levers & Cylinders
in the base ends is forced out through the control
valve and back into the tank.
Oil also flows into the bowl drop valve where it is
dead headed.
The bowl can be lowered with the engine stopped by
pressing the bowl drop switch, located on the switch
panel on the dash. Hold the switch until the bowl is
completely lowered. This opens the bowl drop valve,
which allows oil in the base of the bowl cylinders to
flow through the drop valve back into the tank. The
bowl cylinders retract which lowers the bowl.
To raise the bowl, the servo control bowl lever is pulled
into the 'RAISE' position. This shifts the control valve
bowl spool into the raise position. Oil leaves the
control valve and flows into the bowl cylinder base
ends. Oil pressure extends the cylinders which raises
the bowl. Any oil trapped in the cylinder rod ends is
forced through the control valve and back to the tank.
Apron
The scraper apron is operated by two single stage,
double acting cylinders mounted on the outside of the
scraper bowl. The cylinder base ends are attached to
the bowl assembly and the piston rods are attached
to the two apron arms.
1
Bowl Hydraulic System - Hydraulic Lines and Fittings
Section 235-0010
The apron cylinders are actuated by the apron control
lever on the servo valve. Oil flows into and out of the
apron cylinders to raise or lower the apron.
When the servo control apron lever is pushed into the
'LOWER' position, a passage in the control valve is
opened and oil flows from the pump into the control
valve. Oil from the control valve flows into the apron
cylinder rod ends. The oil pressure in the cylinder rod
ends, forces the piston rods to retract. As the piston
rods retract, the apron arms are pulled back causing
the apron to power down. As the apron cylinders are
retracting, any oil trapped in the base ends is forced
out through the control valve and back into the tank.
To raise the apron, the servo control bowl lever is
pulled into the 'RAISE' position. This shifts the control
valve apron spool into the raise position. Oil leaves
the control valve and flows into the apron cylinder
base ends. Oil pressure extends the cylinders which
raises the apron. Any oil trapped in the cylinder rod
ends is forced through the control valve and back to
the tank.
Ejector
The scraper ejector is operated by the ejector
cylinder which is mounted to the tail assembly of the
scraper and to a lever that is hinged at one end to the
upper cross member of the bowl. The lower end of
this lever has a roller which rolls on a wear plate
welded to the ejector.
The oil which flows into and out of the ejector cylinder
is the same as that for the apron and bowl cylinders.
The ejector cylinder is actuated by the ejector control
lever on the servo valve. As the cylinder is extended, a
force is transmitted to the ejector through the lever and
roller which causes the ejector to pivot forward. The
ejector is returned to the 'LOWER' position by the
force of its weight creating an opposite action on the
lever and cylinder. A detent mechanism in the servo
valve holds the ejector control spool in the 'LOWER'
position, allowing the ejector to 'FLOAT' down to the
loading position, after the material is dumped from
the bowl, without further attention from the operator.
The control lever will remain in the 'LOWER' position
until manually moved to the 'NEUTRAL' position.
2
TIMING TEST
As a general field test, the correct operation of the
hydraulic system can be checked by timing the lift of
the scraper bowl. If the scraper bowl can be lifted in
the correct time, it can be assumed that the ejector
and apron are operating at peak efficiency.
The test should be performed with the scraper bowl
empty and blades resting on the ground, the engine
and hydraulic oil heated to normal operating
temperatures, and the engine running at top rev/min.
With these conditions, the scraper bowl should be
raised to its fully raised position in 5.8 seconds.
If the timing test is in excess of 5.8 seconds, check
the following items in sequence:
1. Check oil level in the tank.
2. Visually check for apparent leaks, faulty pump,
cylinders or control valves.
3. Check pivot mechanism for binding.
4. Check hydraulic oil pressure/relief valve
adjustment (see below).
CHECKING AND ADJUSTING RELIEF
VALVE PRESSURE
The relief valve, incorporated in the control valve, is
set at the factory for a maximum oil pressure of
127.5 bar (1 850 lbf/in2). Do not adjust the valve
setting unless it has been determined that the
maximum pressure is above or below 127.5 bar
(1 850 lbf/in2).
Note: Do not change the setting to increase pressure
above 127.5 bar (1 850 lbf/in2) to compensate for
over loading the scraper with extra heavy materials.
To check the relief valve adjustment, the bowl must
be empty, hydraulic oil and engine at normal
operating temperatures. Remove cap from connector
or plug in the face of the control valve and install a
207 bar (3 000 lbf/in2) capacity pressure gauge.
Operate the engine at 1 500 rev/min and raise the
bowl until the related cylinders are fully extended.
Hold the bowl control lever in the raise position and
keep the engine accelerated at 1 500 rev/min while
SM 1894 1-00
Bowl Hydraulic System - Hydraulic Lines and Fittings
Section 235-0010
watching the pressure gauge. The maximum reading
on the gauge will indicate the pressure at which the
valve is opening. If the reading is above or below
127.5 bar (1 850 lbf/in2), adjust the relief valve as
follows:
3. Remove the acorn nut and one seal washer.
Loosen the jam nut. Turn the adjusting screw
clockwise to raise the pressure or counter clockwise to
decrease the pressure. Turn the adjusting screw in
small increments.
1. Remove acorn nut and loosen adjusting screw jam
nut.
4. When the correct pressure setting is obtained, hold
the adjusting screw with a screwdriver and tighten
the jam nut securely.
2. Adjust valve by turning adjusting screw clockwise
to increase pressure or counter-clockwise to
decrease pressure.
5. Re-check the pressure and, if it is correct, install the
outer seal washer and acorn nut and tighten.
Note: This is a pilot operated relief valve which is
sensitive to adjustment. One complete turn of the
adjusting screw will change the pressure setting
approximately 55 - 69 bar (800 - 1 000 lbf/in2).
6. Remove the pressure gauge from the relief valve
housing and replace the plug and seal washer.
3. After the adjustment is completed, tighten jam nut
and replace acorn nut.
Maintenance instructions, intervals and warnings, in
the individual hydraulic component sections of this
manual, should be adhered to at all times.
4. Re-check the system pressure to make certain
that it did not change when tightening the jam nut. If
the pressure setting is correct, remove the pressure
gauge and replace the cap or plug.
CHECKING AND ADJUSTING SERVO
SYSTEM RELIEF VALVE PRESSURE
1. Install a 345 bar (5 000 lbf/in2) capacity pressure
gauge at the pressure check port located in the servo
relief valve housing.
2. Start the engine and observe the pressure gauge.
It should read 17 bar (250 lbf/in2) when the servo
relief valve opens. Adjust the relief valve if the
pressure is not correct.
SM 1894 1-00
MAINTENANCE
SERVICE TOOLS
It is recommended that the following service tool is
used when carrying out pressure checks during
maintenance procedures. This tool, along with other
general service tools, are available from your dealer.
Refer to Section 300-0070, SERVICE TOOLS, for part
numbers of these tools.
Multi-Gauge
The multi-gauge is basically four pressure gauges in
one. Continuous system pressure readings are
indicated on one of three simultaneously reading
gauges through a pressure range of 30 in of vacuum
to 5 000 lbf/in².
3
Bowl Hydraulic System - Hydraulic Lines and Fittings
Section 235-0010
HYDRAULIC SYSTEM DIAGNOSIS
CONDITION
Scraper Bowl, Apron
or Ejector inoperative
or operates too
slowly.
REASON
Insufficient oil pressure.
Pump is not being driven or receiving.
Faulty control valve operation.
REMEDY
Check pressures as described earlier.
Check pump drive or intake line.
Check valve plunger travel and relief valve
adjustment.
Faulty cylinder operation.
Check for leaks in cylinder.
Check oil pressure at cylinder. If pressure is
low, check for restrictions in lines and check
pressure at control valve.
Bowl, Apron or
Bent piston tube or jammed cylinder. Replace faulty parts.
Ejector will not lower. Obstruction or bind on ejector.
Remove obstruction or repair bound part.
Ejector will not return Bent cylinder.
Replace damaged parts.
over its centre.
Apron and Ejector
Weak or broken detent springs.
Replace detent springs.
plungers do not stay
in Pushed In position.
Oil leaks on either
Defective 'O' ring in valve body.
Replace 'O' ring.
end of plunger.
Plungers do not
Broken return springs.
Replace springs.
return to neutral.
*
4
*
*
*
SM 1894 1-00
BOWL HYDRAULIC SYSTEM - Bowl Cylinder
Section 235-0020
SM - 3182
PORT A
9 12
14
1
2
3
4
5
-
10
5 13 8
1
2
6
7
8
9
10
Cylinder Assembly
Retainer
Piston Rod
Piston
'O'-Ring
3
11
- Grub Screw
- Wear Ring
- 'O'-Ring
- Seal
- Lock Ring
15
4
11
12
13
14
15
7
6
14
PORT B
- 'O'-Ring
- Seal
- Backup Ring
- Bush
- Seal
Fig. 1 - Cutaway View of Bowl Cylinder
DESCRIPTION
Numbers in parentheses refer to Figs. 1 & 2.
seal (12) on the rod-eye end of Cylinder assembly (1).
Seal (15) and 'O' ring (11) prevent oil in the base end
of tube from flowing around piston (4).
There are two single stage, double acting bowl
cylinders on the machine, mounted between the bowl
and pull yoke. Single stage double acting means that
piston rod (3) can have oil applied to either side,
extending or retracting the piston rod.
OPERATION
Cylinder mounting is by pins, secured with bolts and
lockwashers. Bushings (14) permit a limited amount of
cylinder misalignment when travelling over rough
terrain.
Main components of the cylinder include the piston
rod (3) and piston (4) which slides within Cylinder
assembly (1). Pressure oil in the tube is retained by
SM 2280 04-04
Numbers in parentheses refer to Figs. 1 & 2.
Raise Position
In the raise position, oil from the scraper control valve
flows into Port B at the cylinder base end. Oil pressure
acting on the piston (4) and the Cylinder assembly (1),
forces the tube to extend causing the lift levers to raise
the bowl.
Any oil on the other side of the piston (4) is forced
out of Port A and returns to the tank by way of the
scraper control valve.
1
Bowl Hydraulic System - Bowl Cylinder
Section 235-0020
SM - 3182
6
15
4
7
1
11
14
9
12
13
10
14
8
2
3
1
2
3
4
5
-
Cylinder Assembly/Body
Retainer
Piston Rod
Piston
'O'-Ring
6
7
8
9
10
5
- Grub Screw
- Wear Ring
- 'O'-Ring
- Seal
- Lock Ring
11
12
13
14
15
- 'O'-Ring
- Seal
- Backup Ring
- Bush
- Seal
Fig. 2 - Exploded View of Bowl Cylinder
Raise Position
REMOVAL
In the lower position, oil from the scraper control valve
flows into Port A at the cylinder rod end. Oil pressure
acting on the piston (4) and rod (3) forces the rod into
the Cylinder assembly (1). Also the lift levers are pulled
down which in turn lowers the bowl and forces the
cutting edge into the ground.
Numbers in parentheses refer to Figs. 1 & 2.
Any oil in the base end is forced out Port B flows
through the scraper control valve and back into the
tank.
WARNING
To prevent personal injury and property
damage, be sure wheel blocks, blocking
materials and lifting equipment are properly
secured and of adequate capacity to do the job
safely.
1. Position the vehicle in a level work area and
ensure bowl, apron and ejector are completely
lowered. Apply the parking brake and switch off the
engine.
2
SM 2280 04-04
Bowl Hydraulic System - Bowl Cylinder
Section 235-0020
2. Operate steering right and left several times to
relieve pressure in the steering system. Block all
road wheels and place the battery master switch in
the 'Off' position.
3. Identify and tag all hydraulic lines on one bowl
cylinder. With a suitable container available to catch
spillage, disconnect hydraulic lines. Cap all lines and
fittings to prevent ingress of dirt.
4. Support bowl cylinder with a suitable lifting device.
5. Remove bolt and lockwasher securing mounting
pin at piston rod (3) end of the cylinder. Remove pin
from piston rod (3) end of the cylinder.
6. Remove bolt and lockwasher securing mounting
pin at base end of the cylinder. Remove pin from
base end of the cylinder.
7. Remove cylinder assembly from the machine.
8. Transfer cylinder assembly to a clean area for
disassembly. Drain oil from cylinder assembly into a
suitable container.
9. Repeat steps 3 through 8 for opposite bowl
cylinder assembly.
DISASSEMBLY
Numbers in parentheses refer to Figs. 1 & 2.
Remove piston (4) from piston rod (3) by unscrewing
grub screw (6) from the piston (4).
6. Now slide the Retainer (2) off Piston rod (3) and
remove Seal (9), 'O'-Ring (5), Seal (12), 'O'-Ring (8) and
Back up ring (13) from the Retainer (2).
7.Remove bushing (14) from Piston rod (3) and
Cylinder assembly (1) if they are worn or damaged.
INSPECTION
Numbers in parentheses refer to Figs. 1 & 2.
1. Clean all parts of the cylinder with a suitable
solvent and dry with clean, lint-free cloths. Clean all
grooves carefully to remove any foreign material.
2. Check Cylinder assembly (1) bore and outer
diameter of Piston (4) for scratches, cracks or other
signs of damage. Remove ridges, nicks and scratches
with a fine stone and re-clean. Replace any
components which cannot be repaired.
3. Inspect Piston rod (3) for distortion, cracks or other
defects. Replace piston rod (3) if defective area is
irreparable.
4. Check bushings (14) for wear and replace if
necessary.
ASSEMBLY
Numbers in parentheses refer to Figs. 1 & 2.
WARNING
To prevent personal injury and property
damage, be sure lifting equipment is properly
secured and of adequate capacity to do the job
safely.
1. Ensure clean working conditions, remove any port
plugs thus allowing easy entry of air into the cylinder,
preventing a vacuum when parts are withdrawn from
cylinder body (1).
2. Taking a suitable 'C' spanner unscrew Retainer (2)
and carefully remove Piston rod (3), 'O'-Ring (10) and
Retainer(2) from the Cylinder assembly (1). The Piston
(4) will also be removed at this time as it is attached to
the Piston Rod (3).
3. Place the above items on a suitable surface and
remove the constituent parts as follows.
4. Remove 'O'-ring (11), Seal (15) and Wear ring (7)
from the Piston (4).
SM 2280 04-04
Note: Tighten all fasteners to standard torques listed
in Section 300-0080, STANDARD BOLT AND NUT
TORQUE SPECIFICATIONS.
Note: To facilitate assembly, lubricate all internal
sliding or wearing surfaces prior to assembly with the
same hydraulic oil that is used in the system.
WARNING
To prevent personal injury and property
damage, be sure lifting equipment is properly
secured and of adequate capacity to do the job
safely.
1. If necessary, press Bushing (14) into eye end of
Piston rod (3) and Cylinder assembly (1).
2. Install Seals (9 & 12), 'O'-Ring (5), Backup ring (13)
and 'O'-Ring (8) into Retainer (2) and carefully slide
Piston rod (3) into the bore of Retainer (2).
3
Bowl Hydraulic System - Bowl Cylinder
Section 235-0020
3. Apply Loctite 243 to first two threads of piston (4).
Screw piston (4) onto the mating end of Piston rod (3)
and tighten to a torque of 1 356 Nm (1000 Ibf ft).
Note: Tighten all hydraulic lines fitted with ORFS
connections, as described in Section 235-0000,
HYDRAULIC SYSTEM SCHEMATIC.
4. Insert grub screw through wear ring (7) groove in
piston (4) and into groove machined on piston rod (3).
Tighten grub screw to a torque of 49 Nm (36 Ibf ft).
Ensure top face of grub screw is below the level of the
wear ring groove (7).
WARNING
To prevent personal injury and property
damage, be sure lifting equipment is properly
secured and of adequate capacity to do the job
safely.
5. Install Seal (15) and Wear ring (7) on outer grooves
of Piston (4) as shown.
1. Install a suitable strap, or other lifting device, around
one cylinder assembly and position cylinder assembly
between the bowl and pull yoke, with base end of
cylinder ready for mounting.
6. Now move 'O'-Ring (11) into position on recess
between Piston (4) and Piston rod (3).
7. Ensure bore of Cylinder assembly (1) is well
lubricated with hydraulic oil. Sling the assembled
piston rod (3) and carefully offer it into the bore of
Cylinder assembly (1) with Piston (4) end face inserted
first. Take care not to damage seal (15) on cylinder
assembly (1) threads.
8. After piston (4) is inserted into cylinder assembly (1)
push the piston rod assembly into the bore, mating
coincidental centre lines of piston rod and cylinder
body.
9. Before piston rod (3) is fully home and with slings
taking some of the piston rod (3) weight, engage the
male threads of the retainer (2) with female thread form
of the cylinder assembly (1) and screw home. Take
care not to damage 'O'-Rings (5 & 8) and backup ring
(13) .
10. Push piston rod (3) to fully retracted position and
tighten retainer to a torque of 237 Nm (175 Ibf ft).
2. Install pin through base end of Cylinder assembly
(1) and secure pin with bolt and lockwasher as
removed at Removal.
3. Install pin through piston rod (3) end of the cylinder.
Secure pin with bolt and lockwasher as removed at
Removal.
4. Remove caps and connect hydraulic lines to
steering cylinder ports, as tagged during Removal.
5. Repeat steps 1 through 4 for installation of
opposite bowl cylinder.
6. Check oil level in hydraulic tank and add oil if low.
Refer to Section 235-0040, HYDRAULIC TANK, for
correct fill level. Refer to Section 300-0020,
LUBRICATION SYSTEM, for the type of oil used.
7. Place the battery master switch in the 'On'
position, start the engine and operate the bowl.
Check hydraulic lines and fittings for leaks. Tighten
lines and fittings as required.
INSTALLATION
Numbers in parentheses refer to Figs. 1 & 2.
8. Remove wheel blocks.
Note: Tighten all fasteners to standard torques listed in
Section 300-0080, STANDARD BOLT AND NUT
TORQUE SPECIFICATIONS.
MAINTENANCE
*
4
*
Inspect bowl cylinders regularly for leaks or damage,
repair as required. Lubricate cylinder pins every
50 hours, as specified in Section 300-0020,
LUBRICATION SYSTEM.
*
*
SM 2280 04-04
BOWL HYDRAULIC SYSTEM - Ejector Cylinder
Section 235-0030
SM - 2383
4
5
1
2
9
6 13 6 10 12 7 11 8 3
4
PORT A
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
- Outer Cylinder
- Piston Tube
- Retainer
- Bushing
- Wear Ring
- Wear Ring Retainer
- Rod Seal
- Wiper Seal
9
10
11
12
13
- 'O' Ring
- 'O' Ring
- Nylon Ring
- Lock Ring
- End Cap
Fig. 1 - Cutaway View of Ejector Cylinder
REMOVAL
Numbers in parentheses refer to Fig. 1.
WARNING
To prevent personal injury and property
damage, be sure wheel blocks, blocking
materials and lifting equipment are properly
secured and of adequate capacity to do the job
safely.
1. Position the vehicle in a level work area and
ensure ejector is completely lowered. Apply the
parking brake and switch off the engine.
spillage, disconnect hydraulic line from base end of
cylinder. Cap hose and port to prevent ingress of dirt.
4. Support ejector cylinder with a suitable lifting
device. Remove nut, lockwasher and bolt securing
mounting pin to base end of cylinder and mounting
bracket on tail frame. Using a soft drift, drive and
remove the mounting pin.
5. Remove nut, lockwasher and bolt securing
mounting pin to piston tube end of cylinder and
ejector lever. Using a soft drift, drive and remove
mounting pin from the cylinder rod end and ejector
lever.
2. Operate steering right and left several times to
relieve pressure in the steering system. Block all
road wheels and place the battery master switch in
the 'Off' position.
6. Lower cylinder until eye ends of rod and outer
cylinder clear mounting brackets and remove
cylinder.
3. With a suitable container available to catch
7. Remove cylinder assembly from the machine and
transfer to a clean area for disassembly.
SM 1895 1-00
1
Bowl Hydraulic System - Ejector Cylinder
Section 235-0030
DISASSEMBLY
Numbers in parentheses refer to Fig. 1.
WARNING
To prevent personal injury and property
damage, be sure lifting equipment is properly
secured and of adequate capacity to do the job
safely.
1. Ensure clean working conditions, remove plug
from port at the base of cylinder and drain oil from
cylinder assembly into a suitable container.
2. Place cylinder assembly in an upright position,
with piston tube (2) facing up and clamp securely.
3. Remove lock ring (12) from between outer cylinder
(1) and end cap (13).
4. Unscrew end cap (13) and pull end cap (13) and
piston tube (2) out of cylinder body (1) as an
assembly.
5. Position piston tube (2) in a soft-jawed vice and
remove and discard wear ring (5).
Note: Provide adequate protection to chrome surface
to prevent any damage.
6. Remove retainer (3) and pull end cap (13)
assembly off piston tube (2). Remove and discard
backup ring and 'O' rings (9 & 10) from outer grooves
of end cap (13). Remove and discard wear rings (6),
rod seal (7), nylon ring (11) and wiper seal (8) from
inner grooves of end cap (13).
3. Inspect piston tube (2) for distortion, cracks or
other defects. Replace piston tube (2) if defective
area is irreparable.
4. Discard all scored, deeply scratched or
excessively worn parts and replace with new ones.
5. Replace bushings (4) if worn or damaged.
ASSEMBLY
Numbers in parentheses refer to Fig. 1.
Note: Tighten all fasteners to standard torques listed
in Section 300-0080, STANDARD BOLT AND NUT
TORQUE SPECIFICATIONS.
Note: To facilitate assembly, lubricate all internal
sliding or wearing surfaces prior to assembly with the
same hydraulic oil that is used in the system.
WARNING
To prevent personal injury and property
damage, be sure lifting equipment is properly
secured and of adequate capacity to do the job
safely.
1. If necessary, press bushing (4) into eye end of
piston tube (2) and outer cylinder (1).
2. Replace guide ring (3) on piston tube (2) and install
piston tube in outer cylinder (4).
7. Remove bushing (4) from piston tube (2) and outer
cylinder (1) if they are worn or damaged.
3. Install rod seal (7) into bore of end cap (13) with
the lip pointing towards the internal face of end cap
(13). Install nylon ring (11) behind rod seal (7) in
groove. Install wiper seal (8) and wear rings (6) into
bore of end cap (13).
INSPECTION
4. Install back up ring and 'O' rings (9 & 10) in outer
grooves of end cap (13).
Numbers in parentheses refer to Fig. 1.
1. Clean all parts of the cylinder with a suitable
solvent and dry with clean, lint-free cloths. Clean all
grooves carefully to remove any foreign material.
2. Check outer cylinder (1) bore and outer diameter
of piston tube (2) for scratches, cracks or other signs
of damage. Remove ridges, nicks and scratches with
a fine stone and re-clean. Replace any components
which cannot be repaired.
2
5. With the piston tube (2) in a vertical position, guide
end cap (13) assembly onto piston tube (2). Ensure
leading chamfer on plunger is clean and free from
nicks or rust.
6. Install piston wear ring (5).
7. Ensure bore of outer cylinder (1) is well lubricated
with hydraulic oil. Carefully insert piston tube (2) and
end cap (13) assembly into outer cylinder (1).
SM 1895 1-00
Bowl Hydraulic System - Ejector Cylinder
Section 235-0030
8. Engage end cap (13) and outer cylinder (1) thread
and screw up fully. Tighten end cap (13) to a torque
of 338 - 407 Nm (250 - 300 lbf ft).
3. Remove caps from cylinder port and hose end and
install new 'O' ring on hose. Install hose to cylinder
inlet port.
9. Re-drill location hole for lock ring (12), diameter
3.175 mm (0.125 in) x 10 mm (0.394 in) maximum
depth. Install lock ring (12).
4. Lubricate mounting pins at lube fittings. Refer to
Section 300-0020, LUBRICATION SYSTEM.
5. Check oil level in hydraulic tank and add oil if low.
Refer to Section 235-0040, HYDRAULIC TANK, for
correct fill level. Refer to Section 300-0020,
LUBRICATION SYSTEM, for the type of oil used.
INSTALLATION
Ejector Cylinder
Note: Tighten all fasteners to standard torques listed
in Section 300-0080, STANDARD BOLT AND NUT
TORQUE SPECIFICATIONS.
Note: Tighten all hydraulic lines fitted with ORFS
connections, as described in Section 235-0000,
HYDRAULIC SYSTEM SCHEMATIC.
6. Place the battery master switch in the 'On'
position, start the engine and operate the ejector
controls. Check hydraulic lines and fittings for leaks.
Tighten lines and fittings as required.
7. Remove wheel blocks.
MAINTENANCE
WARNING
To prevent personal injury and property
damage, be sure lifting equipment is properly
secured and of adequate capacity to do the job
safely.
Inspect ejector cylinder regularly for leaks or
damage, repair as required. Lubricate cylinder pins
every 50 hours, as specified in Section 300-0020,
LUBRICATION SYSTEM.
1. Install a suitable strap, or other lifting device,
around cylinder assembly and position cylinder in tail
assembly, ready for mounting.
Note: Oil inlet port must be towards the ground.
SPECIAL TOOLS
There are no special tools required for procedures
outlined in this section. Refer to Section 300-0070,
SERVICE TOOLS, for part numbers of general
service tools and adhesives required. These tools
and adhesives are available from your dealer.
2. Secure piston tube end of cylinder to the ejector
lever and the base end of cylinder to the bracket on
the tail frame with mounting pins and secure with
bolts, lockwashers and nuts.
SPECIAL TORQUE SPECIFICATIONS
TORQUE
FIG. NO.
1
ITEM NO.
13
ITEM NAME
End Cap
*
SM 1895 1-00
*
*
Nm
338 - 407
lbf ft
250 - 300
*
3
BOWL HYDRAULIC SYSTEM - Apron Cylinder
Section 235-0035
SM - 2384
16 11 14 15 13
12
3
4
9
6 9 9 2 78
10
GROOVE THIS SIDE
18
5
1
2
3
4
5
6
1
- Cylinder Body
- Piston
- Piston Rod
- Retainer
- Cushion Sleeve
- Cushion Sleeve
17
7
8
9
10
11
12
- Piston Seal
- Wear Ring
- 'O' Ring
- Locking Screw
- Rod Seal
- 'O' Ring
13
14
15
16
17
18
- 'O' Ring
- Lock Ring
- Back Up Ring
- Wiper Seal
- Circlip
- End Cap
Fig. 1 - Cutaway View of Apron Cylinder
REMOVAL
Numbers in parentheses refer to Fig. 1.
WARNING
To prevent personal injury and property
damage, be sure wheel blocks, blocking
materials and lifting equipment are properly
secured and of adequate capacity to do the job
safely.
1. Position the vehicle in a level work area and
ensure apron and bowl are completely lowered. Apply
the parking brake and switch off the engine.
2. Operate steering right and left several times to
relieve pressure in the steering system. Block all
road wheels and place the battery master switch in
the 'Off' position.
spillage, disconnect hydraulic lines. Cap all lines and
ports to prevent ingress of dirt.
4. Support apron cylinder with a suitable lifting
device.
5. Remove bolt and lockwasher securing mounting
pin at piston rod (3) end of the cylinder. Remove
mounting pin from piston rod (3) end of the cylinder.
6. Remove bolt and lockwasher securing mounting
pin at base end of the cylinder. Remove mounting pin
from base end of the cylinder.
7. Remove cylinder assembly from the machine and
transfer to a clean area for disassembly. Drain oil
from cylinder assembly into a suitable container.
8. Repeat steps 3 through 7 for opposite apron
cylinder.
3. Identify and tag all hydraulic lines on one apron
cylinder. With a suitable container available to catch
SM 1896 1-00
1
Bowl Hydraulic System - Apron Cylinder
Section 235-0035
DISASSEMBLY
Numbers in parentheses refer to Figs. 1 & 2.
WARNING
To prevent personal injury and property
damage, be sure lifting equipment is properly
secured and of adequate capacity to do the job
safely.
1. Ensure clean working conditions, remove any port
plugs thus allowing easy entry of air into the cylinder,
preventing a vacuum when parts are withdrawn from
cylinder body (1).
2. Place cylinder assembly in an upright position,
with piston rod (3) facing up and clamp securely.
3. Remove lock ring (14) from between cylinder body
(1) and end cap (18).
4. Unscrew end cap (18) and pull end cap (18), piston
rod (3) and piston (2) out of cylinder body (1) as an
assembly.
other signs of damage. Remove ridges, nicks and
scratches with a fine stone and re-clean. Replace
any components which cannot be repaired.
3. Inspect piston rod (3) for distortion, cracks or
other defects. Replace piston rod (3) if defective area
is irreparable.
4. Use new oil seals and 'O' rings whenever the
cylinder is disassembled.
5. Discard all scored, deeply scratched or
excessively worn parts and replace with new ones.
ASSEMBLY
Numbers in parentheses refer to Figs. 1.
Note: Tighten all fasteners to standard torques listed
in Section 300-0080, STANDARD BOLT AND NUT
TORQUE SPECIFICATIONS.
Note: To facilitate assembly, lubricate all internal
sliding or wearing surfaces prior to assembly with the
same hydraulic oil that is used in the system.
5. Position eye end of piston rod (3) in a soft-jawed
vice and remove locking screw (10).
6. Pull piston (2) assembly off piston rod (3) and
remove and discard piston seal (7) and wear ring (8)
from piston (2).
7. Remove and retain cushion sleeve (6) from piston
rod (3). Remove and discard three 'O' rings (9) from
piston rod (3).
8. Pull end cap (18) assembly off piston rod (3).
Remove and discard backup ring (15), retainer (4)
and 'O' rings (12 & 13) from outer grooves of end cap
(18). Remove and retain circlip (17) and cushion
sleeve (5) from end cap (18). Remove and discard
rod seal (11) and wiper seal (16) from inner grooves
of end cap (18).
INSPECTION
Numbers in parentheses refer to Figs. 1.
1. Clean all parts of the cylinder with a suitable
solvent and dry with clean, lint-free cloths. Clean all
grooves carefully to remove any foreign material.
2. Check cylinder body (1) bore, outer diameter of
piston (2) and end cap (18) for scratches, cracks or
2
WARNING
To prevent personal injury and property
damage, be sure lifting equipment is properly
secured and of adequate capacity to do the job
safely.
1. Install new rod seal (11) in bore of end cap (18)
with the lip pointing towards the internal face of the
end cap (18). Install new wiper seal (16) into bore of
end cap (18).
2. Install cushion sleeve (5) and circlip (17) into bore
of end cap (18). See Fig. 1 for proper installation.
3. Install new backup ring (15), new 'O' rings (12 &
13) and retainer (4) on outer groove on end cap (18).
4. Guide end cap (18) assembly onto piston rod (3).
5. Install three new 'O' rings (9) in the external
grooves on piston rod (3). Install cushion sleeve (6)
onto piston rod (3).
6. Install piston seal (7) into external groove on
piston (2).
7. Install piston (2) on piston rod (3) and tighten to a
torque of 1 355 Nm (1 000 lbf ft).
SM 1896 1-00
Bowl Hydraulic System - Apron Cylinder
Section 235-0035
8. Install locking screw (10) into piston (2) and
tighten to a torque of 48 Nm (36 lbf ft). Install wear
ring (8) into external groove on piston (2).
2. Attach cylinder base end to bowl assembly with
mounting pin. Secure mounting pin with bolt and
lockwasher as removed at Removal.
9. Ensure bore of cylinder tube (14) is well lubricated
with hydraulic oil. Carefully insert piston rod (3),
piston (2) and end cap (18) assembly into the
cylinder body (1).
3. Attach piston rod (3) end to apron arm with
mounting pin. Secure mounting pin with bolt and
lockwasher as removed at Removal.
10. Engage end cap (18) and cylinder body (1) thread
and screw up fully. Tighten end cap (18) to a torque
of 203 - 270 Nm (150 - 200 lbf ft).
11. Re-drill location hole for lock ring (14), diameter
3.175 mm (0.125 in) x 10 mm (0.394 in) maximum
depth. Install lock ring (14).
4. Remove caps and connect hydraulic lines to apron
cylinder ports, as tagged during Removal.
5. Repeat steps 1 through 4 for installation of
opposite apron cylinder.
6. Lubricate mounting pins at lube fittings. Refer to
Section 300-0020, LUBRICATION SYSTEM.
7. Check oil level in hydraulic tank and add oil if low.
Refer to Section 235-0040, HYDRAULIC TANK, for
correct fill level. Refer to Section 300-0020,
LUBRICATION SYSTEM, for the type of oil used.
INSTALLATION
Numbers in parentheses refer to Figs. 1 & 2.
Note: Tighten all fasteners to standard torques listed
in Section 300-0080, STANDARD BOLT AND NUT
TORQUE SPECIFICATIONS.
Note: Tighten all hydraulic lines fitted with ORFS
connections, as described in Section 235-0000,
HYDRAULIC SYSTEM SCHEMATIC.
8. Place the battery master switch in the 'On'
position, start the engine and operate the apron
controls. Check hydraulic lines and fittings for leaks.
Tighten lines and fittings as required.
9. Remove wheel blocks.
MAINTENANCE
WARNING
To prevent personal injury and property
damage, be sure lifting equipment is properly
secured and of adequate capacity to do the job
safely.
Inspect apron cylinders regularly for leaks or
damage, repair as required. Lubricate cylinder pins
every 50 hours, as specified in Section 300-0020,
LUBRICATION SYSTEM.
1. Ensure apron is held in raised position by suitable
lifting equipment. Install a suitable strap, or other
lifting device, around one cylinder assembly and
position cylinder assembly on vehicle, ready for
mounting.
SPECIAL TOOLS
There are no special tools required for procedures
outlined in this section. Refer to Section 300-0070,
SERVICE TOOLS, for part numbers of general
service tools and adhesives required. These tools
and adhesives are available from your dealer.
SPECIAL TORQUE SPECIFICATIONS
TORQUE
FIG. NO.
1
1
1
ITEM NO.
2
10
18
ITEM NAME
Piston
Locking Screw
End Cap
*
SM 1896 1-00
*
*
Nm
1 355
48
203 - 270
lbf ft
1 000
36
150 - 200
*
3
BOWL HYDRAULIC SYSTEM - Hydraulic Tank
Section 235-0040
SM - 2100
10
16
13
11
8
20
7
15
2
3
19
14
4
24
21
18
25
22
26
27
11
9
1
12
24
6
25
5
25
26
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
- Tank Assembly
- Filler Cap
- Gasket
- Latch Assembly
- Gasket
- Access Cover
- Gasket
17
23
27
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
- Access Cover
- Bolt
- Bolt
- Lockwasher
- Plug
- Plug
- Filter Assembly
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
- Tie Rod
- Wing Nut
- Suction Screen
- Gasket
- Plug
- Sight Gauge
- Air Filter / Breather
22
23
24
25
26
27
- Adaptor
- Plug
- Bolt
- Washer
- Lockwasher
- Nut
Fig. 1 - Exploded View of Hydraulic Tank and Mounting
DESCRIPTION
MAINTENANCE
Numbers in parentheses refer to Fig. 1.
Numbers in parentheses refer to Fig. 1.
The hydraulic tank is the common oil reservoir for the
steering and bowl hydraulic systems. It is mounted to
the tractor frame, at the rear of the cab and is
secured with bolts (24), washers (25), lockwashers (26)
and nuts (27).
Note: Tighten all fasteners to standard torques listed
in Section 300-0080, STANDARD BOLT AND NUT
TORQUE SPECIFICATIONS.
Integral with tank assembly (1) are filter assembly (14)
with in built relief valve assembly, suction screen (17),
access covers (6 & 8) and filler neck assembly. Two sight
gauges (20) on the side of tank assembly (1) indicate
hydraulic oil level. Breather (21) is mounted off the top of
the hydraulic tank (1) via adaptor (22) and allows any air
entering the tank to be released to atmosphere, preventing
a pressure build up in the tank assembly (1).
SM 2279 04-04
WARNING
To prevent personal injury and property
damage, be sure wheel blocks, blocking
materials and lifting equipment are properly
secured and of sufficient capacity to do the
job safely.
1
Bowl Hydraulic System - Hydraulic Tank
Section 235-0040
Checking Oil Level
1. Operate the bowl hydraulic and steering systems
several times to bring the oil to correct operating
temperature.
2. Position the vehicle in a level work area, apply the
parking brake and switch off the engine. Operate
steering right and left several times to relieve
pressure in the steering system.
3. Check oil level and add oil if low. Oil should show
in the bottom of top sight gauge (20). If oil is required,
remove filler cap (2) and fill tank assembly (1) with
hydraulic oil as specified in Section 300-0020,
LUBRICATION SYSTEM. Install filler cap (2) on filler
neck assembly.
Replacing Hydraulic Oil
The hydraulic tank should be drained, cleaned and
hydraulic oil changed every 1 800 hours. Refer to
Section 300-0020, LUBRICATION SYSTEM, for
hydraulic oil used in the system.
Replacing Filter Element
Clean filter housing and install new filter assembly
element (14) when hydraulic oil filter warning light
illuminates, or after every 1 800 hours of operation,
whichever comes first.
Note: When hydraulic oil in tank assembly (1) is
being replaced due to a hydraulic failure, or at
recommended change interval, filter element (14)
should be replaced.
1. Position the vehicle in a level work area, apply the
parking brake and switch off the engine. Operate the
steering in both directions several times to relieve
any pressure in the steering system.
2. Block all road wheels and place the battery master
switch in the 'Off' position.
3. With a suitable container in position, remove drain
plug (23), and drain hydraulic oil to below the level of
filter assembly (14). Reinstall drain plug (23).
4. Remove bolts (10) and lockwashers (11) securing
access cover (8) to tank (1). Remove and discard
gasket (7) from tank (1).
5. Remove wing nuts (16) from rods (15). Slide Filter
element (14) assembly and gasket (18) over rods (15)
and remove from tank assembly (1). Discard filter
element (14) and gaskets (18).
2
WARNING
Splashing liquid. Wear a suitable face shield
when using compressed air to dry hydraulic
tank and components.
6. Clean out filter element (14) compartment in tank
assembly (1) with a suitable solvent and dry with
compressed air.
7. If damaged, remove and replace rods (15) from tank
assembly (1).
8. Install new gasket (18), new filter element (14) and
relief valve assembly, over rods (15) and into filter
element compartment in tank assembly (1). Secure
Filter element assembly (14) in position with wing nuts
(16).
9. Install new gaskets (7) on access cover (8)
mounting flange. Secure access cover (8) to tank
assembly (1) with bolts (10) and lockwashers (11).
10. Refill tank assembly (1) with hydraulic oil, as
specified in Section 300-0020, LUBRICATION SYSTEM.
Install filler cap (2) and gasket (3) on filler neck assembly.
11. Place the battery master switch in the 'On'
position, remove wheel blocks, start the engine and
operate steering and bowl hydraulic systems to
circulate the hydraulic oil.
12. Switch off the engine and check for leaks. Tighten
lines and fittings as required. Check hydraulic oil tank
level as described under 'Checking Oil Level'.
Replacing or Cleaning Suction Screens
Suction screens (17) should be cleaned every time
tank assembly (1) is fully drained for any reason. Refer
to 'Replacing Hydraulic Oil' for oil change interval.
1. Position the vehicle in a level work area, apply the
parking brake and switch off the engine. Operate the
steering in both directions several times to relieve
any pressure in the steering system.
2. Block all road wheels and place the battery master
switch in the 'Off' position.
3. Remove bolts (9) and lockwashers (11) securing
access cover (6) to tank assembly (1). Remove and
discard gasket (5) from tank assembly (1).
SM 2279 04-04
Bowl Hydraulic System - Hydraulic Tank
Section 235-0040
4. With a suitable container in position, remove drain
plug (23), and drain hydraulic oil to below the level of
suction screens (17). Reinstall drain plug (23).
5. Remove suction screen (17) from the interior of tank
assembly (1).
WARNING
Splashing liquid. Wear a suitable face shield
when using compressed air to dry hydraulic
tank and components.
2. Block all road wheels and place the battery master
switch in the 'Off' position.
3. With a suitable container in position, remove drain
plug (23), and drain hydraulic oil from tank. Reinstall
drain plug (23).
4. Tag and disconnect all lines and fittings attached
to tank assembly (1), to aid in 'Installation'. Cap all
lines and fittings to prevent ingress of dirt.
6. Clean Suction screen (17) in a suitable solvent and
dry with compressed air.
5. Secure a suitable lifting device on tank assembly
(1) and remove bolts (24), washers (25), lockwashers
(26) and nuts (27) securing tank assembly (1) to tank
mountings.
7. Inspect suction screen (17) for damage and replace
if required.
6. Carefully remove tank assembly (1) from the
vehicle to a clean area for disassembly.
8. Install suction screen (17) and secure.
9. Install new gasket (5) on access cover (6) mounting
flange. Secure access cover (6) to tank (1) assembly
with bolts (9) and lockwashers (11).
Disassembly
1. Remove internal components from tank assembly (1)
as previously described under 'Maintenance'.
2. Remove breather (21) from top of tank assembly (1).
10. Refill tank assembly (1) with hydraulic oil, as
specified in Section 300-0020, LUBRICATION SYSTEM.
Install filler cap (2) filler neck assembly.
11. Place the battery master switch in the 'On'
position, remove wheel blocks, start the engine and
operate steering and bowl hydraulic systems to
circulate the hydraulic oil.
12. Switch off the engine and check for leaks. Tighten
lines and fittings as required. Check hydraulic oil tank
level as described under 'Checking Oil Level'.
TANK ASSEMBLY
Numbers in parentheses refer to Fig. 1.
Removal
WARNING
To prevent personal injury and property
damage, be sure wheel blocks, blocking
materials and lifting equipment are properly
secured and of sufficient capacity to do the
job safely.
1. Position the vehicle in a level work area, apply the
parking brake and switch off the engine. Operate the
steering in both directions several times to relieve any
pressure in the steering system.
SM 2279 04-04
3. Remove sight gauges (20) from tank assembly (1).
Inspection
WARNING
Splashing liquid. Wear a suitable face shield
when using compressed air to dry hydraulic
tank and components.
1. Clean tank assembly (1) and components with a
suitable solvent and dry with compressed air.
2. Inspect tank assembly (1) for weld cracks and
security of internal pipes and weld fitments.
3. Inspect filter element (14) assembly, suction screen
(17) and breather (21) for damage. Replace if required.
Assembly
1. Renew all gaskets and install all internal
components in tank assembly (1), as previously
described under 'Maintenance'.
2. Install breather (21) on top of tank assembly (1).
3. Install sight gauges (20) on tank assembly (1).
3
Bowl Hydraulic System - Hydraulic Tank
Section 235-0040
Installation
filler cap (2) on filler neck assembly.
Note: Tighten all fasteners to standard torques listed in
Section 300-0080, STANDARD BOLT AND NUT
TORQUE SPECIFICATIONS.
Note: Tighten all hydraulic lines fitted with ORFS
connections, as described in Section 235-0000,
HYDRAULIC SYSTEM SCHEMATIC.
5. Place the battery master switch in the 'On'
position, remove wheel blocks, start the engine and
operate steering and bowl hydraulic systems to
circulate the hydraulic oil.
6. Switch off the engine and check for leaks. Tighten
lines and fittings as required. Check hydraulic oil tank
level as described under 'Checking Oil Level'.
WARNING
To prevent personal injury and property
damage, be sure lifting equipment is properly
secured and of adequate capacity to do the job
safely.
SERVICE TOOLS
There are no special tools required for the
procedures outlined in this section. Refer to Section
300-0070, SERVICE TOOLS, for part numbers of
general service tools required. These tools are
available from your dealer.
1. Using a suitable lifting device, position tank
assembly (1) carefully in position on the vehicle.
2. Secure tank assembly (1) to tank mounting brackets
with bolts (24), washers (25), lockwashers (26) and
nuts (27).
3. Install all lines and fittings to tank assembly (1) as
tagged at 'Removal'.
4. Remove filler cap (2) from filler neck assembly and
refill tank assembly (1) with hydraulic oil, as specified
in Section 300-0020, LUBRICATION SYSTEM. Install
*
4
*
*
*
SM 2279 04-04
BOWL HYDRAULIC SYSTEM - Triple Pump
Section 235-0050
SM - 2128
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
- Snap Ring
- Spacer
- Seal Retainer
- ‘O’ Ring *
- Seal *
- Shaft End Cover
- Plug *
- Ring Seals
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
- Bearings
- Pocket Seals
- Thrust Plates
- Driveshaft & Gear
- Driven Gear
- Seals
- Gear Housing
- Seals
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
- Connecting Shaft
- Bearing Carrier
- Plug *
- Drive Gear
- Driven Gear
- Gear Housing
- Connecting Shaft
- Bearing Carrier
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
- Drive Gear
- Driven Gear
- Gear Housing
- End Cover
- Washers *
- Studs *
- Nuts
- Pins (if used) *
* Shown on Fig. 6.
Fig. 1 - Cutaway View of Triple Pump
DESCRIPTION
OPERATION
Numbers in parentheses refer to Fig. 1.
Numbers in parentheses refer to Fig. 1. Refer to
Fig. 2 for the operation of a typical gear type
hydraulic pump. Refer to Fig. 3 for hydraulic
schematic of the triple pump operation.
The triple pump supplies hydraulic oil for operating
the bowl hydraulic and steering systems.
This is a multiple gear type pump consisting of three
separate pumping units connected together as one
assembly. The first pump unit consists of driveshaft
& gear (12), driven gear (13) and gear housing (15).
Drive gear (20), driven gear (21) and gear housing
(22) make up the second pump unit. Drive gear (25),
driven gear (26) and gear housing (27) make up the
third pump unit. Connecting shafts (17 & 23) connect
the second and third pump units to driveshaft and
gear (12).
SM 1739 2-99
One pump unit supplies hydraulic oil to the steering
system. The remaining two pump units supply
hydraulic oil to the bowl hydraulic system.
As the drive gear rotates, the driven gear rotates in
the opposite direction. The pockets between the gear
teeth carry oil from the inlet port around the gear
housing ID to the pump outlet port. As the gear teeth
re-mesh, this oil is forced out of the outlet port of the
gear housing. The maximum oil delivery rate of each
section of the triple pump is fixed by the width of its
respective gear set and the speed at which driveshaft
(12) is turned.
1
Bowl Hydraulic System - Triple Pump
Section 235-0050
DRIVE GEAR
SM - 338
TO BOWL
HYDRAULIC
CIRCUIT
TO
STEERING
CIRCUIT
OUTLET
INLET
DRIVEN GEAR
Fig. 2 - Typical Pump Operation
SM - 576
TO BOWL
HYDRAULIC
CIRCUIT
FROM
TANK
FROM
TANK
FROM
TANK
Fig. 3 - Hydraulic Schematic of Triple Pump Operation
REMOVAL
SM - 339
WARNING
To prevent personal injury and property
damage, be sure wheel blocks, blocking
materials and lifting equipment are properly
secured and of adequate capacity to do the job
safely.
1. Position the vehicle in a level work area, apply the
parking brake and switch off the engine. Operate the
steering in both directions several times to relieve any
pressure in accumulator and steering system.
Fig. 4 - Marking Pump Sections
SM - 340
2. Block all road wheels and place the battery master
switch in the 'Off' position.
3. With a suitable container in position, remove the
drain plug from the hydraulic tank and drain the oil.
Reinstall the drain plug in the hydraulic tank and
tighten securely.
4. Clean pump housing and tag and disconnect inlet
and outlet lines from pump. Make sure pump is
supported when removing line flange bolts which also
secure pump support bracket. When flange bolts are
removed, pump support bracket will also be
disconnected at the pump. Drain oil in lines into a
suitable container. Cap lines and pump ports to
prevent ingress of dirt.
5. With suitable blocking or lifting equipment, support
pump before loosening attaching nuts. Remove nuts
and lockwashers from pump mounting studs. Move
pump to a suitable work area for disassembly.
Fig. 5 - Removing Nuts
DISASSEMBLY
Numbers in parentheses refer to Fig. 6.
1. Place pump in a soft-jawed vice, driveshaft (12)
down. Match mark all pump sections with a punch to
aid assembly. See Fig. 4.
Note: Do not clamp vice on pump machined surfaces
at any time.
2. Remove nuts (31) and washers (29) from studs (30).
See Fig. 5. Remove studs (30) from pump assembly.
2
SM 1739 2-99
Bowl Hydraulic System - Triple Pump
Section 235-0050
SM - 2129
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
- Snap Ring
- Spacer
- Seal Retainer
- ‘O’ Ring
- Seal
- Shaft End Cover
- Plug
- Ring Seals
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
- Bearings
- Pocket Seals
- Thrust Plates
- Driveshaft & Gear
- Driven Gear
- Seals
- Gear Housing
- Seals
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
- Connecting Shaft
- Bearing Carrier
- Plug
- Drive Gear
- Driven Gear
- Gear Housing
- Connecting Shaft
- Bearing Carrier
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
- Drive Gear
- Driven Gear
- Gear Housing
- End Cover
- Washers
- Studs
- Nuts
- Pins (if used)
Fig. 6 - Exploded View Of Triple Pump
SM 1739 2-99
3
Bowl Hydraulic System - Triple Pump
Section 235-0050
3. Tap end cover (28) with a soft hammer and
separate from gear housing (27). If end cover (28)
must be pried off, use care to avoid damaging
machined surfaces of the cover and housing. See
Fig. 7. If thrust plate (11) stays with gear housing
(27), it can be tapped out later. Do not damage or
distort thrust plate (11).
4. Separate gear housing (27) from bearing carrier
(24) and lift off. See Fig. 8. If it must be pried loose,
use care to prevent damage to machined surfaces.
Tap or pry out thrust plate (11) carefully, if it
remained with gear housing (27).
SM - 344
Fig. 9 - Removing Gears
5. Mark three meshed gear teeth with a dab of
Prussian blue, or similar dye, and lift out matched
gears (25 & 26). See Fig. 9. Keep these gears
together. Do not interchange with other gear sets.
SM - 345
6. Loosen bearing carrier (24) with a plastic hammer
and lift or pry off with care to avoid damaging
machined surfaces. Separate thrust plate (11) from
bearing carrier (24) carefully to avoid distortion. See
Fig. 10.
7. Remove connecting shaft (23) from drive gear
(20). See Fig. 11.
Fig. 10 - Removing Bearing Carrier
SM - 341
Fig. 7 - Removing End Cover
SM - 346
Fig. 11 - Removing Connecting Shaft
SM - 342
Fig. 8 - Removing Gear Housing
4
SM - 347
Fig. 12 - Removing Gear Housing
SM 1739 2-99
Bowl Hydraulic System - Triple Pump
Section 235-0050
SM - 348
8. Repeat Steps 4 through 7 to remove gear housing
(22), matched gear set (20 & 21), bearing carrier (18)
and connecting shaft (17).
9. Separate and lift off gear housing (15) with care.
See Fig. 12. Remove thrust plate (11) as in Step 4.
10. Mark three meshed gear teeth with a dab of Prussian
blue, or similar dye, and remove matched driveshaft and
gear (12) and driven gear (13) set. See Fig. 13.
11. Pry thrust plate (11) from shaft end cover (6)
carefully to avoid distortion. See Fig. 14.
Fig. 13 - Removing Driveshaft
SM - 349
12. Clamp shaft end cover (6) in vice, mounting face up.
Remove snap ring (1) with snap ring pliers. See Fig. 15.
13. Pull spacer (2) from shaft end cover (6) with a
bearing puller. See Fig. 16.
14. Remove seal retainer (3) and seal (5) from shaft
end cover (6). See Fig. 17. The seal retainer removal
tool can be fabricated as shown in Fig. 37. Remove
and discard 'O' ring (4).
15. Tap seal (5) from seal retainer (3). See Fig. 18.
The tool shown in Fig. 37 can be fabricated to
separate these parts.
Fig. 14 - Removing Thrust Plate
SM - 350
Fig. 15 - Removing Snap Ring
SM - 352
Fig. 17 - Removing Seal Retainer
SM - 353
SM - 351
Fig. 16 - Removing Spacer
SM 1739 2-99
Fig. 18 - Removing Seal From Retainer
5
Bowl Hydraulic System - Triple Pump
Section 235-0050
SM - 354
Fig. 19 - Removing Bearings
SM - 355
Fig. 20 - Removing and Installing Seals
16. If necessary, remove bearings (9) and ring
seals (8) from shaft end cover (6), bearing carriers
(18 & 24), gear housings (15 & 22) and end cover (28).
See Figs. 19 & 20.
17. Remove and discard all pocket seals (10) from
thrust plates (11), and, seals (14 & 16) from gear
housings (15, 22 & 27).
18. Remove plug (7) only if damaged.
INSPECTION
Numbers in parentheses refer to Fig. 6.
1. Clean all parts in suitable solvent and dry all but
bearings with compressed air.
2. Dry bearings with a clean, lint-free cloth.
3. Examine all bearings (9) carefully for scoring,
spalling or pitting. Lightly oil the bearings and spin by
hand to check for roughness of operation. Replace
bearings if necessary.
and gear hubs wear, the housing gear bores wear.
Excessive bore cutout, particularly in a short period,
indicates excessive pump loading or dirty oil. Place a
straight edge across the cutout area of the gear bore.
If a 0.13 mm (0.005 in) feeler gauge can be slipped
between the straight edge and the worn area of the
gear bore, replace the gear housing.
6. Check gears carefully for wear. Scoring, grooving
or burring of the gear teeth OD requires gear
replacement. Nicked, grooved or fretted gear tooth
mating surfaces also require gear replacement. Any
wear of gear hubs in excess of 0.05 mm (0.002 in), or
detectable by touch, requires gear replacement.
Since both drive and driven gears of a set are
matched, both gears must be replaced if one is worn
or damaged.
7. Check the centre of thrust plates (11) at the point of
meshing of gears (12 & 13), (20 & 21) and (25 & 26).
Erosion indicates contaminated oil. Pitted thrust plates
indicate cavitation or aeration of the oil supply. Discoloured
thrust plates are a sign of pump overheating.
Thrust plate side wear permits oil to bypass gears
and allows internal oil slippage and reduced pump
efficiency. Check thrust plate surface wear against
the size of new thrust plates. If worn more than
0.05 mm (0.002 in), replace the thrust plates.
8. Bearings (9) should fit into their bores with a light
press fit. A tight hand fit is allowable. If the bearings
can fall out of their bores, the bores might be
distorted or oversize. When gears are replaced, their
bearings must also be replaced.
9. Check driveshaft and gear (12) for wear or damage
to splines, and seal areas. Replace the driveshaft
and driven gear matched set if wear is detectable by
touch or measures in excess of 0.05 mm (0.002 in) at
the seal or drive areas. Excessive spline wear
requires driveshaft and matching gear replacement.
10. Smooth all machined surfaces with a medium-grit
stone. See Fig. 21. Deburr all bearing bores if required.
SM - 356
4. Check ring seals (8) for wear or damage and
replace if necessary.
5. Check gear housings (15, 22 & 27) carefully for
wear. Hydraulic pressure forces the gears against
the low pressure side of the housing. As the bearings
Fig. 21 Cleaning Gear Housing
6
SM 1739 2-99
Bowl Hydraulic System - Triple Pump
Section 235-0050
SM - 357
11. Clean parts in a suitable solvent and dry with
compressed air after smoothing surfaces.
ASSEMBLY
Numbers in parentheses refer to Fig. 6.
Note: Tighten all fasteners without special torques
specified to standard torques listed in
Section 300-0080, STANDARD BOLT AND NUT
TORQUE SPECIFICATIONS.
Fig. 22 - Installing Bearings
SM - 358
1. If removed, install new plug (7) in shaft end cover
(6). Be sure to install plug in the outlet side of shaft
end cover (6). The unplugged drain hole must be on
the inlet side of shaft end cover (6). Turn plug (7) in
until one thread of the hole is visible. Secure plug (7)
by staking around the hole with a punch.
2. If removed, install ring seals (8) into the bearing
bores in shaft end cover (6), bearing carriers (18 &
24) and end cover (28). The notch in the ring seal
must be visible. See Fig. 20.
3. If removed, press new bearings (9) into the bearing
bores of shaft end cover (6), bearing carriers (18 & 24)
and end cover (28) with an arbor press. See Fig. 22.
Fig. 23 - Installing Centre Pocket Seals
SM - 359
4. For each thrust plate (11) using pocket seals (10),
cut two pocket seals 9 mm (0.34 in) long from a new
seal strip. Coat with grease and insert seals into the
centre slots of thrust plates (11). See Fig. 23.
5. Place thrust plate (11) over bearings (9) in shaft
end cover (6), bearing carriers (18 & 24) and end
cover (28). With seals facing bearings, tap thrust
plate with a soft hammer to about 0.8 mm (0.031 in)
from machined surface. See Fig. 24.
Fig. 24 - Seating Thrust Plate
SM - 360
6. For each thrust plate (11) using pocket seals (10),
cut four pocket seals 11 mm (0.44 in) long from a
new seal strip. Insert one pocket seal into each of the
outer slots in the thrust plates. Push each seal into
the thrust plate slot so that it touches bearing (9).
Tap thrust plate (11) down against the machined
surface with a soft hammer. Trim the exposed ends
of pocket seals (10) square and flush with thrust
plate (11) using a razor blade or sharp knife. See
Fig. 25.
7. With shaft end cover (6) clamped in a soft-jawed
vice, insert driveshaft and gear (12) into the shaft end
cover bore and push down until the gear is snug
Fig. 25 - Trimming Pocket Seals
SM 1739 2-99
7
Bowl Hydraulic System - Triple Pump
Section 235-0050
against thrust plate (11). Install matched driven gear
(13) hub into its bearing (9) so that the three teeth
marked at 'Disassembly' will mesh. See Fig. 26.
SM - 362
8. Coat new seals (14 & 16) with grease and insert
them into their grooves in both sides of gear housings
(15, 22 & 27). See Fig. 27.
9. Slide gear housing (15) over gears (12 & 13) and,
with match marks made at 'Disassembly' aligned, tap
gear housing (15) with a soft hammer until it rests
snugly against shaft end cover (6). See Fig. 28. If a
new gear housing is used, make sure the large oil
port will be toward the inlet, and the small port toward
the outlet side of the pump assembly. Be sure seal
(14) is not pinched or dislodged. Coat gears (12 & 13)
with hydraulic fluid for initial lubrication when the
pump is started.
Fig. 27 - Installing Seals
SM - 363
10. With match marks aligned, position bearing
carrier (18) on gear housing (15) so that bearings (9)
will receive the journals of the drive and driven gears
(12 & 13). Tap bearing carrier (18) down tight with a
soft hammer. See Fig. 29.
Note: The drain hole plug (19) must be on the inlet
side of the pump.
Fig. 28 - Installing Gear Housing
11. Insert connecting shaft (17) into the spline of
driveshaft and gear (12). See Fig. 30.
SM - 364
12. Insert the matched set of drive and driven gears
(20 & 21) into their respective bores of bearings (9) in
bearing carrier (18) so that the three teeth marked at
'Disassembly' will mesh. See Fig. 31. Push the gears
down tightly against thrust plate (11).
13. Repeat Steps 9 through 12 to assemble gear
housing (22), bearing carrier (24), connecting shaft
(23), drive gear (25) and driven gear (26).
14. Slide gear housing (27) over gears (25 & 26) and,
Fig. 29 - Installing Bearing Carrier
SM - 361
Fig. 26 - Installing Driveshaft and Gear
8
SM - 365
Fig. 30 - Installing Connecting Shaft
SM 1739 2-99
Bowl Hydraulic System - Triple Pump
Section 235-0050
SM - 366
with match marks made at 'Disassembly' aligned, tap
gear housing (27) with a soft hammer until it rests
snugly against bearing carrier (24). Refer to Fig. 28.
If a new housing is used, make sure the large oil port
will be toward the inlet, and the small port toward the
outlet side of the pump assembly. Be sure seal (14)
is not pinched or dislodged. Coat gears (25 & 26) with
hydraulic fluid for initial lubrication when pump is started.
15. With match marks aligned, position end cover
(28) over gear (25 & 26) journals. Tap end cover (28)
lightly with a soft hammer to seat on gear housing
(27). See Fig. 32. Be careful not to pinch seal (16).
Fig. 31 - Installing Gears
SM - 367
Fig. 32 - Installing End Cover
SM - 368
16. Insert eight studs (30) through the pump assembly
and thread into shaft end cover (6). Install washers (29)
and nuts (31). Tighten opposite nuts alternately until
snug. See Fig. 33. Rotate driveshaft (12) with a 150 mm
(6 in) wrench and check carefully for pump binding. If the
pump rotates freely, torque tighten alternate nuts (31) to
271 Nm (200 lbf ft). If the pump binds, the cause should
be determined and corrected before completing the
assembly. Check for burrs on shafts, housings,
bearings, etc., or similar causes.
17. Coat the OD of seal (5) with Loctite Seal retainer
or equivalent. Press seal (5), metal side down, into
seal retainer (3) on an arbor press using a 70 mm
(2.75 in) diameter bar. See Fig. 34. Be careful not to
damage the lip of seal (5).
18. Clamp pump assembly in a soft-jawed vice,
driveshaft (12) up.
19. Coat a new 'O' ring (4) with grease and install on
seal retainer (3). Oil a suitable seal installation sleeve
and twist into the seal ID carefully. Slide the sleeve
and seal over driveshaft (12) and seat seal (5) and
seal retainer (3) assembly firmly in shaft end cover (6)
bore. Remove seal installation sleeve. See Fig. 35.
Fig. 33 - Installing Stud Nuts
20. Insert spacer (2) over driveshaft (12) and install into
SM - 370
SM - 369
Fig. 34 - Installing Seal In Retainer
SM 1739 2-99
Fig. 35 - Installing Seal Retainer
9
Bowl Hydraulic System - Triple Pump
Section 235-0050
4. Fill hydraulic tank to the proper level. Refer to
Section 235-0040, HYDRAULIC TANK for correct oil
level and, Section 300-0020, LUBRICATION SYSTEM
for oil specification.
SM - 371
5. Operate the pump at least two minutes at zero
pressure at engine idle speed. During this break-in
period, it should run free and not develop excessive
heat. If the pump becomes hot to touch, it is binding
and might seize. The pump will then have to be
rebuilt with extra care to avoid binding. If the pump
runs properly, speed and pressure can be increased
to normal operating values.
Fig. 36 - Installing Spacer In Retainer
shaft end cover (6) against seal retainer (3). See Fig. 36.
6. Check pump mounting and line connections for leaks.
Remove wheel blocks.
21. Install snap ring (1) in shaft end cover (6) snap
ring groove.
LUBRICATION
INSTALLATION AND RUN-IN
All pump parts are lubricated by the hydraulic oil. The
oil, therefore, must be kept clean to minimize pump
wear. Whenever there is a hydraulic system failure,
the oil should be drained, the entire system flushed,
oil filters replaced, oil screens thoroughly cleaned
and fresh hydraulic oil installed to eliminate all metal
particles or foreign matter.
Note: Tighten all fasteners without special torques
specified to standard torques listed in
Section 300-0080, STANDARD BOLT AND NUT
TORQUE SPECIFICATIONS.
Note: Tighten all hydraulic lines fitted with ORFS
connections, as described in Section 235-0000,
HYDRAULIC SYSTEM SCHEMATIC.
Refer to Section 300-0020, LUBRICATION SYSTEM,
for recommended periodic oil drain periods and oil
specifications.
WARNING
To prevent personal injury and property
damage, be sure blocking materials and lifting
equipment are properly secured and of
adequate capacity to do the job safely.
SPECIAL TOOLS
The special tools shown in use in Figs. 17 & 18 can
be fabricated as shown in Fig. 37. Refer to Section
300-0070, SERVICE TOOLS, for part numbers of
general service tools and adhesives required. These
tools and adhesives are available from your dealer.
1. Coat the pump driveshaft spline with high grade
plating-type molybdenum disulphide grease 15%
minimum (typical).
SM - 372
2. With suitable lifting equipment position pump on
mounting studs. Secure with lockwashers and nuts.
3. Fill all pump ports with clean hydraulic oil and
connect lines to pump, as tagged during removal. Be
sure pump support bracket is installed on pump at
same location from which it was removed. Use the
two longer flange bolts at this location.
Fig. 37 - Special Tool
SPECIAL TORQUE SPECIFICATIONS
TORQUE
FIG. NO.
ITEM NO.
ITEM NAME
Nm
lbf ft
1&6
31
Nut
271
200
*
10
*
*
*
SM 1739 2-99
BOWL HYDRAULIC SYSTEM - Bowl Control Valve
Section 235-0060
SM - 2374
67
68
69
1
3
2
20 21
4
5
70
6
22
23 24
25
8
7
9
10
26
27 28
48 47
46
60
45
17
44
43
11 12
13 14
42
41
40
61
15
16
18
EJECTOR
29 30
19
31
62
65 66
64
32 33
34
35
36
59 58
57
63
56 55
54
- Plug
- Seal Ring
- Valve Housing
- Seal Ring
- Relief Valve Cartridge
- Poppet
- Spring
- Seal Ring
- Adjusting Cap
- Adjusting Screw
- Seal Washer
- Jam Nut
- Seal Washer
- Acorn Nut
- Screw
- Washer
- End Cover
- Spring Cap
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
33
34
35
36
- Seal Ring
- Spring Retainer
- Spacer
- Spring
- Spring Retainer
- Seal Ring
- Seal Ring Retainer
- Seal Ring
- Spring
- Check Valve
- Check Valve
- Spring
- Seal Ring
- Seal Ring Retainer
- Seal Ring
- Spring Retainer
- Spring
- Spacer
37
38
39
40
41
42
43
44
45
46
47
48
49
50
51
52
53
38
39
APRON
49
BOWL
53
52
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
37
- Spring Retainer
- Spring Cap
- End Cover
- End Cover
- Spring Cap
- Spring Retainer
- Spacer
- Spring
- Spring Retainer
- Seal Ring
- Seal Ring Retainer
- Seal Ring
- End Cover
- Spring Cap
- Spring Retainer
- Spacer
- Spring
51
54
55
56
57
58
59
60
61
62
63
64
65
66
67
68
69
70
50
- Spring Retainer
- Seal Ring
- Seal Ring Retainer
- Seal Ring
- Spring
- Check Valve
- Ejector Spool
- Apron Spool
- Bowl Spool
- Plug
- 'O' Ring
- Plug
- 'O' Ring
- Plug
- 'O' Ring
- Adaptor
- 'O' Ring
Fig. 1 - Exploded View of Control Valve
DESCRIPTION
Numbers in parentheses refer to Fig. 1.
The control valve is used to direct hydraulic oil to the
cylinders for raising or lowering the apron, ejector or
bowl depending on the position of the control spools
(60, 61 & 62). The position of control spools (60, 61 &
SM 1887 1-00
62) is controlled by the servo control valve, located
on the right hand dash panel, by means of hydraulic
oil pressure and springs. Refer to Section 235-0160,
SERVO CONTROL VALVE.
The main components of the control valve assembly
are three control spools (60, 61 & 62), main pressure
1
Bowl Hydraulic System - Bowl Control Valve
Section 235-0060
relief valve (5), three check valve assemblies
(18 to 28) and valve housing (3).
The main pressure relief valve permits bypassing
hydraulic oil back to the tank, should oil pressure
exceed 127.5 bar (1 850 lbf/in2). Check valves in the
spools prevent return oil flow from cylinders until
supply oil pressure at the spools is sufficient to move
the loads. Thus they prevent unexpected movement
(dropping) of a load until oil pressure is sufficient to
hold or raise it.
cylinders which raises the apron. Oil forced out of the
apron cylinder rod ends flows into the control valve
housing and back into the tank. The purpose of the
load check valves inside the apron spool is to
prevent the apron cylinders from moving when the
apron spool is shifted from neutral to raise.
Power Down Bowl - Raise
Note: The bowl spool in the control valve used with a
power down bowl is a double acting type and contains
two load check valves and springs. The apron spool
in the control valve used with a power apron is a
double acting type and contains two load check
valves and springs. The ejector spool is a single
acting type containing one check valve and spring.
When signal pressure is applied to the end of the
bowl spool, it shifts into the raise position. Oil flows
out of the housing bowl port and enters the bowl
cylinder base end ports. This extends the bowl
cylinders which raises the bowl. Oil forced out of the
bowl cylinder rod ends flows into the control valve
housing and back into the tank. The purpose of the
load check valves inside the bowl spool is to prevent
the bowl cylinders from moving when the bowl spool
is shifted from neutral to raise.
OPERATION
Ejector - Lower
Neutral
With no signal oil pressure applied, the spools are
held in their neutral positions by centering springs at
either end. Oil supply through the inlet port flows
through the central passage around spool grooves to
the outlet port, and through the oil return hose to
tank. Since valve oil ports connected to the cylinder
supply hoses are blocked by the spools, no oil can
flow to or from the cylinders. The cylinders are
therefore held in their position by oil trapped on their
pistons.
Ejector - Raise
When signal oil pressure is applied to the end of the
spool, the spool shifts. This action aligns the spool
lands to block the supply oil flow from the valve inlet
channel to the outlet port.
Supply is now directed through the spool holes and
bore to unseat the spool check valve and then flow to
the cylinder forcing it to extend.
Power Apron - Raise
When signal pressure is applied to the end of the
apron spool, it shifts into the raise position. Oil flows
out of the housing apron port and enters the apron
cylinder base end ports. This extends the apron
2
When signal oil pressure is applied to the end of the
spool, the spool shifts. This action aligns ports in the
spool with ports in the valve so that oil can return
through the same port that it left and then unseat the
check valve and return through an outer channel in
the valve and back to tank. Main oil pressure is still
allowed to flow through the centre of the valve since
the spool does not totally block its flow.
Power Apron - Lower
When signal oil pressure is applied to the opposite
end of the apron spool, it is shifted in the opposite
direction into the lower position. Oil flows out the
opposite housing port and flows into the apron
cylinder rod ends. This retracts the apron cylinders
which lowers the apron. Oil from the cylinder base
ends returns to the valve housing return port and
back into the tank.
Power Down Bowl - Lower
When signal oil pressure is applied to the opposite
end of the bowl spool, it is shifted in the opposite
direction into the lower position. Oil flows out the
opposite housing port and flows into the bowl cylinder
rod ends. This retracts the bowl cylinders which
lowers the bowl and cutting edge into the ground. Oil
from the cylinder base ends returns to the valve
housing return port and back into the tank.
SM 1887 1-00
Bowl Hydraulic System - Bowl Control Valve
Section 235-0060
REMOVAL
Control Spool
Numbers in parentheses refer to Fig. 1.
1. Clean the entire control valve assembly with a
suitable solvent and dry thoroughly. Remove caps
from valve housing (3) ports.
WARNING
To prevent personal injury and property
damage, be sure wheel blocks, blocking
materials and lifting equipment are properly
secured and of adequate capacity to do the job
safely.
1. Position the vehicle in a level work area, apply the
parking brake and switch off the engine. Operate the
steering in both directions several times to relieve
any pressure in the steering system.
2. Place the battery master switch in the 'Off' position
and block all road wheels.
3. With suitable containers available to catch
spillage, open drain cock at the bottom of the
hydraulic tank and drain hydraulic oil. Close drain
cock.
4. Clean control valve housing (3) and surrounding
area with a suitable solvent. Identify and tag all
hydraulic and servo control lines connected to control
valve, to aid in 'Installation'.
5. With suitable containers available to catch
spillage, disconnect hydraulic and servo control lines
from control valve. Drain the oil from the lines into
the container and discard all 'O' rings. Cap hydraulic
lines and control valve ports to prevent ingress of
dirt.
6. Support control valve and remove mounting bolts
and lockwashers securing control valve to its
mounting bracket. Remove control valve to a clean
area for disassembly.
2. If required, clamp control valve assembly in a soft
jawed vice. Take care to avoid damaging valve
housing (3) machined surfaces.
Note: When removing spring cap (18) and spring
assemblies, remove the light spring assemblies first,
i.e. the caps fitted on the same side as the plug (1).
The heavy spring assemblies should only be
removed with the spool secured in a spool clamp.
3. Remove screws (15), lockwashers (16) and end
cover (17) from valve housing (3).
4. Using an Allen key in the spring cap (18), sharply
tap the key to break the grip of the Loctite. Unscrew
cap (18) and remove spring (22), spacer (21), spring
retainer (20 & 23), seal retainer (25) and seal rings
(24 & 26). Remove spring (27) and check valve (28)
from the apron spool (61).
5. Carefully remove screws (15), lockwashers (16)
and end cover (39) from valve housing (3) and
withdraw spool assembly (29 to 38) from valve
housing (3). Note the direction of withdrawal and label
the spool to facilitate reassembly.
6. Secure the spool assembly (29 to 38 & 61) in a
spool clamp. Using an Allen key in the spring cap
(38), sharply tap the key to break the grip of the
Loctite. Unscrew cap (38) and remove spring (35),
spacer (36), spring retainer (34 & 37), seal retainer
(32) and seal rings (31 & 33). Remove spring (30)
and check valve (29) from the apron spool (61).
7. Repeat steps 3, 4, 5 and 6 for the remaining
spools.
DISASSEMBLY
Numbers and letters in parentheses refer to Fig. 1.
WARNING
Spring loaded parts. Use care when removing
end cap, retainers and plugs to prevent
sudden release of spring tension behind these
parts. Personal injury or property damage
could result if care is not taken.
Note: Clean entire control valve assembly with a
suitable solvent and dry thoroughly prior to
disassembly.
SM 1887 1-00
Relief Valve
1. Clean the entire control valve assembly with a
suitable solvent and dry thoroughly. Remove caps
from valve housing (3) ports.
2. If desired, clamp control valve assembly in a soft
jawed vice. Take care to avoid damaging valve
housing (3) machined surfaces.
3. Remove acorn nut (14), jam nut (12) and seal
washers (11 & 13).
4. Slacken adjusting screw (10) until loose. Remove
3
Bowl Hydraulic System - Bowl Control Valve
Section 235-0060
adjusting cap (9) and seal ring (8), poppet spring (7)
and poppet (6).
5. Remove plug (1) and seal ring (2) from the opposite
end of valve housing (3). Discard seal ring (2).
6. Using a suitable piloted bronze or brass drift, drive
or press out relief valve (5) assembly and seal ring
(4) from bore in valve housing (3). Discard seal ring
(4).
Valve Body
1. If required, remove plugs (63 & 65) and 'O' rings
(64 & 66) from valve housing (3). Discard 'O' rings
(64 & 66).
2. If required, remove adaptor (69) and 'O' ring (70)
from valve housing (3). Discard 'O' ring (70). If
required, remove plug (67) and 'O' ring (68) from
adaptor (69). Discard 'O' ring (68).
INSPECTION
Numbers in parentheses refer to Fig. 1.
1. Remove and discard all 'O' rings and seals. Clean
all parts thoroughly in a suitable solvent and examine
for wear and/or damage.
2. Examine the poppet and relief valve cartridge
poppet seat for signs of wear or damage. If either unit
is faulty, both components should be replaced. The
relief valve assembly can only be serviced as a
complete unit. The relief valve adjusting screw (10)
and its mating threads in the adjusting cap (9) must
be in good condition to ensure accurate pressure
relief adjustment.
3. Examine valve housing (3) bores and seal
recesses, and if they are badly scored or damaged,
the complete valve assembly should be replaced.
4. Examine the spool check valves (28, 29 & 59),
springs (27, 30 & 58) and spring caps (18, 38, 41 &
50) for wear or damage. Fit replacement items as
required.
ASSEMBLY
Note: Tighten all fasteners to standard torques listed
in Section 300-0080, STANDARD BOLT AND NUT
TORQUE SPECIFICATIONS.
Valve Body
1. If removed, install new 'O' rings (64 & 66) on plugs
(63 & 65) and install in valve housing (3).
3. If removed, install new 'O' ring (68) on plug (67)
and install in adaptor (69). Install new 'O' ring (70) on
adaptor (69) and install in valve housing (3).
Relief Valve
1. Install relief valve (5) assembly with seal ring (4)
into relief valve bore in valve housing (3).
Note: Drive relief valve (5) assembly with a brass or
bronze drift until the snap ring on the outer sleeve
locates in the recess in the relief valve bore.
2. Install plug (1) and seal ring (2) in valve housing (3).
3. Lightly oil the poppet (6) and spring (7) and
assemble these items with the adjusting cap (9) and
seal (8). Install assembly in valve housing (3).
Note: Do not grind or lap poppet (6) to its seat as
both components have a ground finish.
4. Install adjusting screw (10) in adjusting cap (9).
Loosely fit the seal washers (11 & 13), nut (12) and
acorn nut (14).
5. Leave adjusting screw loose prior to pressure
setting. Refer to 'Adjustments' for correct pressure
setting.
Control Spool
1. Secure spool (61) in a spool clamp and install the
check valve (29) and spring (30) in the heavy spring
end.
2. Install seal rings (31 & 33) to seal retainer (32) and
fit the seal retainer to spool (61).
3. Install spring retainer (34), spring (35), spacer (36)
and spring retainer (37) to spool (61).
Numbers and letters in parentheses refer to Fig. 1.
Note: Lightly lubricate all components with hydraulic
oil. Refer to Section 300-0020, LUBRICATION
SYSTEM, for recommended oil specifications.
4
4. Fit new seal to the spring cap (38) and apply
Loctite to the threads. Install spring cap (38) in spool
(61).
SM 1887 1-00
Bowl Hydraulic System - Bowl Control Valve
Section 235-0060
5. Install spool (61) assembly in valve housing (3)
bore.
ADJUSTMENTS
6. Repeat steps 1 to 5 for the opposite end of spool
(61).
Relief Valve Adjustment
7. Secure end covers (17 & 39) to valve housing (3)
using screws (15) and lockwashers (16).
8. Repeat steps 1 to 7 for spools (60 & 62).
INSTALLATION
Numbers in parentheses refer to Fig. 1.
Note: Tighten all fasteners to standard torques listed
in Section 300-0080, STANDARD BOLT AND NUT
TORQUE SPECIFICATIONS.
Note: Tighten all hydraulic lines fitted with ORFS
connections, as described in Section 235-0000,
HYDRAULIC SYSTEM SCHEMATIC.
WARNING
To prevent personal injury and property
damage, be sure wheel blocks, blocking
materials and lifting equipment are properly
secured and of adequate capacity to do the job
safely.
1. Using a suitable lifting device, position control
valve in place on the machine. Secure control valve
in place with mounting bolts and lockwashers as
removed at 'Removal'.
2. Reconnect all servo control and hydraulic lines to
control valve, as tagged at 'Removal'.
Note: Be sure to use new 'O' rings with the fittings.
3. Fill hydraulic oil tank with hydraulic oil as specified
in Section 300-0020, LUBRICATION SYSTEM. Refer
to Section 235-0040, HYDRAULIC TANK, for
hydraulic oil levels.
5. Adjust the system relief valve according to the
instructions in 'Adjustments'.
SM 1887 1-00
Numbers in parentheses refer to Fig. 1.
The relief valve, incorporated in the control valve, is
set at the factory for a maximum oil pressure of
127.5 bar (1 850 lbf/in2). Do not adjust the valve
setting unless it has been determined that the
maximum pressure is above or below 127.5 bar
(1 850 lbf/in2).
Note: Do not adjust the setting to increase pressure
above 127.5 bar (1 850 lbf/in²) to compensate for
over loading the scraper with extra heavy materials.
Note: If adjustment only is to be carried out, the
procedure for blocking the machine as described in
'Removal, must be strictly adhered to, ensuring the
bowl is completely empty.
WARNING
To prevent personal injury and property
damage, be sure wheel blocks, blocking
materials and lifting equipment are properly
secured and of adequate capacity to do the job
safely.
1. Remove plug (67) from adaptor (69) and connect a
hydraulic gauge, capable of recording a pressure of
0 - 207 bar (0 - 3 000 lbf/in²), to diagnostic pressure
point.
2. Start engine, operate at 1 500 rev/min and the bowl
until the related cylinders are fully extended.
3. Hold the bowl control lever in the raise position and
keep the engine accelerated at 1500 rev/min while
watching the pressure gauge. The maximum reading
on the gauge will indicate the pressure at which the
valve is opening. If the reading is above or below
127.5 bar (1 850 lbf/in2), the relief valve requires
adjustment.
4. Remove acorn nut (14) and loosen adjusting screw
jam nut (12).
5. Adjust valve by turning adjusting screw (10)
clockwise to increase pressure or counter-clockwise
to decrease pressure.
5
Bowl Hydraulic System - Bowl Control Valve
Section 235-0060
MAINTENANCE
Note: This is a pilot operated relief valve which is
sensitive to adjustment. One complete turn of the
adjusting screw will change the pressure setting
approximately 55 - 69 bar (800 - 1 000 lbf/in2).
Relief valve pressure should be checked on a regular
basis to ensure correct operating pressures are being
maintained. Limited repair of the control valve is with
replacement of parts only.
6. After the adjustment is completed, tighten jam nut
(12) and replace acorn nut (14).
SERVICE TOOLS
There are no special tools required for the
procedures outlined in this section. Refer to Section
300-0070, SERVICE TOOLS, for part numbers of
general service tools and adhesives. These tools and
adhesives are available from your dealer.
7. Re-check the pressure to make certain that it did
not change when tightening the jam nut. If the
pressure setting is correct, remove the pressure
gauge and replace plug (67).
8. Check control valve assembly and hydraulic lines
for leaks. Tighten as required.
9. Remove all blocking from road wheels.
*
6
*
*
*
SM 1887 1-00
BOWL HYDRAULIC SYSTEM - Accumulator
Section 235-0070
SM - 277
1
1A
1B
1C
1D
- Charging Valve
- Cap
- Core
- 'O' Ring
- Locknut
1E
1F
2
3
- Body
- 'O' Ring
- Screw
- Lockwasher
4
5
6
7
-
Protector
Piston
Backup Rings
'V' Section Ring
8
9
10
11
12
- Wear Rings
- 'O' Ring
- End Cap
- Pad
- Cylinder
Fig. 1 - Exploded View of Accumulator
DESCRIPTION
TESTING
Numbers in parentheses refer to Fig. 1.
The bowl hydraulic accumulator can be identified as
item 12 in Section 235-0000, BOWL HYDRAULIC
SYSTEM SCHEMATIC.
The accumulator is mounted off the hood mounting
bracket inboard of the right hand fender. The
accumulator is of the piston type and is precharged
with nitrogen to 27.5 bar (400 lbf/in2). It consists of
charging valve (1), end cap (10), cylinder (12) and
piston (5). Charging valve (1) is equipped with a locking
feature. Loosening locknut (1D) will open the valve so
that the precharge can be checked or the accumulator
charged.
OPERATION
Numbers in parentheses refer to Fig. 1.
Piston (5) acts as a separator dividing cylinder (12)
into two sections. The section nearest charging valve (1)
contains the nitrogen pre-charge. Hydraulic oil from
the triple pump flows through the bowl control valve
and into the lower section of the accumulator via
solenoid valve.
SM 1791 Rev1 04-04
WARNING
Accumulator is charged with Nitrogen. The
service pressure is 27.5 bar (400 lbf/in2) at
21o C (70o F). Do not attempt to remove any
valves or fittings until all nitrogen pressure is
completely relieved to prevent personal injury
and property damage.
Testing Charging Valve For Leakage
Numbers in parentheses refer to Fig. 1.
1. Remove screws (2), lockwashers (3), protector (4)
and pads (11) from accumulator.
2. Remove valve cap (1A) from charging valve (1) and
loosen locknut (1D). Coat open end of charging valve
with soapy water. Bubbles indicate leaky valve core
(1B). Attempt to reseat the valve core by depressing
and releasing it quickly once or twice. Recheck for
leakage, if leakage continues then discharge the
accumulator as described under 'Discharging Nitrogen'
in this section, then replace the valve core. Torque
tighten locknut (1D) to 11 Nm (100 lbf in) and replace
valve cap (1A) finger tight.
1
Bowl Hydraulic System - Accumulator
Section 235-0070
Testing Pre-charge Pressure
SM - 1273
Numbers in parentheses refer to Fig. 2, unless
otherwise specified.
Note: The nitrogen pressure in an accumulator is
directly affected by changes in nitrogen temperature.
The cylinder pressure will increase or decrease
proportionally with temperature changes. An
accumulator pressure reading can vary about 4.3 bar
(62 lbf/in2) with 22o C (72o F) temperature change.
Such temperature changes could easily occur
between noon and midnight of the same day. Refer to
the table at the end of this section for Nitrogen pressures
at ambient temperatures of other than 21o C (70oF).
To test accumulator pre-charge pressure or to charge
the accumulator, a charging assembly tool can be
used. See Fig. 2.
1. Position the vehicle in a level work area, apply the
parking brake and switch off the engine.
2. Operate the bowl hydraulic controls continuously to
discharge the bowl hydraulic accumulator. Block all
road wheels and place the battery master switch in the
'Off' position.
3. Check accumulator mounting to be sure the
accumulator is held tightly in position.
4. Remove cap (1A, Fig. 1) from accumulator charging
valve (1, Fig. 1). Attach charging line (1) to charging
valve by rotating 'T' handle of valve chuck (2)
anticlockwise until it stops. Screw the swivel nut down
on the valve until it seats. Loosen charging valve
locknut (1D, Fig. 1) by turning anticlockwise one to two
turns.
5. Turn 'T' handle clockwise until charging valve core
is depressed. Be sure bleeder valve (10) is tight and
does not leak, and valves (4 & 6) are closed.
6. To read accumulator precharge pressure, slowly
open accumulator valve (4). Pressure gauge (5) will
register pre-charge pressure, it should be 27.5 bar
(400 lbf/in2) at 21o C (70o F) ambient temperature. Refer
to the table at the end of this section for Nitrogen
pressures at ambient temperatures of other than 21o C
(70o F).
2
1
2
3
4
5
- Line
- Valve Chuck
- Valve Extension
- Accumulator Valve
- Pressure Gauge
6
7
8
9
10
- Tank Valve
- Gland Fitting
- Gland Nut
- Cylinder Adaptor
- Bleeder Valve
Fig. 2 - Charging Assembly
7. Close accumulator valve (4) and open bleeder valve
(10) to dissipate gauge pressure. Close bleeder valve
(10) after pressure is relieved. If accumulator needs
charged, leave line and chuck attached to charging
valve and charge the accumulator as described under
'Charging The Accumulator'.
8. If precharge is 27.5 bar (400 lbf/in2) at 21o C (70o F),
rotate 'T' handle anticlockwise until it stops, then
torque tighten locknut (1D, Fig. 1) on charging valve
(1, Fig. 1) to 11 Nm (100 lbf in). Loosen the swivel nut
and remove the gauging head.
9. Install valve cap (1A, Fig. 1) on charging valve
(1, Fig. 1) and tighten finger tight.
CHARGING THE ACCUMULATOR
Numbers in parentheses refer to Fig. 2, unless
otherwise specified.
Either oil or water pumped nitrogen can be used to
charge the accumulator. Both types are readily
available from a local compressed gas dealer.
SM 1791 Rev1 04-04
Bowl Hydraulic System - Accumulator
Section 235-0070
DISCHARGING NITROGEN
WARNINGS
Do not use Oxygen or any gas other than
Nitrogen to charge an accumulator. Oxygen
under pressure coming into contact with oil or
grease will cause a violent explosion. Always
double check to make sure you are using
Nitrogen to prevent personal injury and
property damage.
Numbers in parentheses refer to Fig. 1, unless
otherwise specified.
A high pressure nitrogen pressure
regulator must be used with the charging
assembly. Failure to use pressure regulator
could cause property damage, personal injury
or death.
DO NOT remove charging valve (1) until all the gas
has been completely evacuated.
1. Attach line (1) and the swivel nut to charging valve
(1, Fig. 1) as described in Steps 1 through 4 under the
heading 'Testing Pre-charge Pressure'. Be sure valves
(4 & 6) are closed.
Make sure charging valve (1) is closed internally by
turning locknut (1D) clockwise. Remove valve cap
(1A) and valve core (1B) from charging valve
assembly (1). Slowly turn the locknut (1D)
anticlockwise to open the charging valve assembly (1).
WARNING
Do not try to discharge the accumulator by
depressing the charging valve core (1B, Fig. 1).
REMOVAL
Numbers in parentheses refer to Fig. 3.
2. Attach gauging head to nitrogen bottle by screwing
down on gland nut (8).
3. Open tank valve (6) slowly; pressure shown on
gauge (5) is tank pressure.
4. Open accumulator valve (4) slowly and charge
accumulator to 27.5 bar (400 lbf/in2) at 21o C (70o F)
ambient temperature, closing valve occasionally. Refer
to the table at the end of this section for the Nitrogen
pressures at ambient temperatures of other than 21o C
(70o F).
5. To check accumulator charge, close tank valve (6),
relieve pressure between tank and gauge by opening
bleeder valve (10) momentarily. This will allow gauge
needle to settle, thus giving correct pressure reading
of accumulator charge.
6. When the correct pressure for the ambient
temperature has been reached, close valves (4 & 6)
tightly. Bleed pressure off pressure gauge (5) by
opening bleeder valve (10). Close bleeder valve when
all pressure is bled off the gauge.
WARNINGS
Make sure that lifting equipment, blocking
materials and wheel blocks are properly
secured and of adequate capacity to prevent
personal injury and property damage.
Accumulator is charged with Nitrogen.
The service pressure is 27.5 bar (400 lbf/in²) at
21o C (70o F). Be sure all Nitrogen pressure has
been relieved before removing accumulator
from the vehicle. Sudden release of pressure
may cause personal injury.
1. Position the vehicle in a level work area, apply the
parking brake and switch off the engine.
2. Operate the bowl hydraulic controls continuously to
discharge the bowl hydraulic accumulator. Block all road
wheels and place the battery master switch in the 'Off'
position.
3. Remove screws (2, Fig. 1), lockwashers (3, Fig. 1)
and protector (4, Fig. 1).
7. Unscrew gland nut (8) from nitrogen bottle.
8. Rotate 'T' handle of valve chuck (2) anticlockwise
until it stops, torque tighten charging valve locknut (1D,
Fig. 1) to 11 Nm (100 lbf in), loosen the swivel nut and
remove gauging head.
9. Check accumulator charging valve (1, Fig. 1) for
leakage using soapy water. Reinstall valve cap (1A,
Fig. 1) and tighten finger tight.
SM 1791 Rev1 04-04
4. Discharge nitrogen from accumulator. Refer to
previous section on 'Discharging Nitrogen' for correct
procedure.
5. Disconnect hydraulic line from solenoid valve at
bottom of accumulator. Drain oil and cap the line and
solenoid valve port to prevent ingress of dirt.
3
Bowl Hydraulic System - Accumulator
Section 235-0070
6. Support the accumulator using an adequate sling
and lifting device. Remove nuts (7) and lockwashers
(6) securing clamps (2) to mounting positions. Remove
accumulator and clamp assemblies (2).
SM - 2241
1
DISASSEMBLY
Numbers in parentheses refer to Fig. 1.
WARNING
Accumulator is charged with Nitrogen. The
service pressure is 27.5 bar (400 lbf/in2) at
21o C (70o F). Do not attempt to remove any
valves or fittings until all nitrogen pressure is
completely relieved to prevent personal injury
and property damage.
6,7
2
2
3. Remove solenoid valve and connectors, if required,
from bottom port on accumulator.
4. Remove charging valve (1) from end cap (10).
5. With accumulator lying horizontal, hold accumulator
cylinder (12) with a strap wrench.
6. Install pins in three equally spaced holes in end cap
(10), then use a long bar working against the pins to
remove end cap from cylinder (12). Remove and
discard 'O' ring (9).
7. Grip cast web of piston (5) with pliers and while
rotating, pull piston from cylinder (12). Remove and
discard wear rings (8), backup rings (6) and 'V' section
ring (7).
INSPECTION
Numbers in parentheses refer to Fig. 1.
1. Wash metal components with a suitable solvent and
thoroughly air dry.
2. Inspect piston (5) for cracks or burrs. Replace
piston (5) if excessively scored or worn.
3. Use an inspection lamp to check the bore of
4
3,4,5
6,7
1. Make sure all nitrogen gas has been released
before starting to disassemble the accumulator. Refer
to section on 'Discharging Nitrogen'.
2. If required, remove bolts (3, Fig. 3), washers
(4, Fig. 3), locknuts (5, Fig. 3) and clamps (2, Fig. 3)
from accumulator.
3,4,5
1 - Accumulator
2 - Clamp
3 - Bolt
4
5
6
7
- Washer
- Locknut
- Lockwasher
- Nut
Fig. 3 - Accumulator Installation
accumulator cylinder (12) for scratches or scoring.
Minor nicks, scratches or light scoring of the bore can
be removed by using crocus cloth. Dress the bore until
all apparent imperfections have been removed.
Replace complete accumulator assembly if the inside
of cylinder (12) is excessively scored or worn.
4. Inspect threads in end cap (10) and threads in
cylinder (12) for damage. Replace all parts worn or
damaged beyond repair.
ASSEMBLY
Numbers in parentheses refer to Fig. 1.
1. Lubricate ‘O’ ring (9), wear rings (8), backup rings
(6), 'V' section ring (7) and inside of cylinder (12) with
hydraulic oil prior to assembly.
2. Install new 'V' section ring (7), backup rings (6) and
wear rings (8) on piston (5).
3. Insert piston (5) into cylinder (12) with cupped end
facing the open end of the cylinder. Do not let
'V' section ring (7) drag on cylinder threads. Use a
hammer and wood block to tap piston into place until
all of piston is 50 mm (2.0 in) below beginning of
honed bore. Keep pressure against piston while
tapping 'V' section ring (7) through the bore chamfer,
SM 1791 Rev1 04-04
Bowl Hydraulic System - Accumulator
Section 235-0070
oil inlet port downward.
otherwise piston will bounce back, damaging the
'V' section ring.
4. Install new 'O' ring (9) on end cap (10) and install
end cap (10) in cylinder (12). Tighten cap so that it is
flush with the end of cylinder (12) within 1.6 - 2.4 mm
(0.062 - 0.094 in) above or below.
5. Install charging valve (1). Torque tighten locknut
(1D) clockwise to 11 Nm (100 lbf in) to close charging
valve, insert valve core (1B), replace valve cap (1A)
and tighten finger tight.
6. If removed, install connectors and solenoid valve to
bottom port on accumulator.
7. If removed, install clamps (2, Fig. 3) on accumulator
and secure with bolts (3, Fig. 3), washers (4, Fig. 3)
and locknuts (5, Fig. 3).
8. Test accumulator hydraulically for leakage or failure
at 255 - 276 bar (3 700 - 4 000 lbf/in2). Discharge after
testing.
INSTALLATION
2. Attach clamps (2) securely with lockwashers (6) and
nuts (7).
3. Remove caps installed at 'Removal' to prevent dirt
entering the hydraulic line and accumulator port.
4. Install hydraulic line securely to the oil inlet port on
solenoid valve fitted at the bottom of the accumulator.
5. Charge the accumulator with Nitrogen gas as
described under the heading 'Charging the
Accumulator' in this section.
6. Check oil level in hydraulic tank and add oil if
required. Refer to Section 235-0040, HYDRAULIC
TANK for correct fill level, and, use only oil as
specified in Section 300-0020, LUBRICATION
SYSTEM.
7. Place the battery master switch in the 'On' position
and remove the wheel blocks. Start the engine and
bring hydraulic oil to operating temperature.
8. Check for oil leaks as the oil pressure increases.
Tighten line connections and fittings as necessary.
Numbers in parentheses refer to Fig. 3.
Note: Tighten all fasteners to standard torques listed
in Section 300-0080, STANDARD BOLT AND NUT
TORQUE SPECIFICATIONS.
Note: Tighten all hydraulic lines fitted with ORFS
connections, as described in Section 235-0000, BOWL
HYDRAULIC SYSTEM SCHEMATIC. Renew all 'O'
rings where used.
WARNING
Make sure that lifting equipment, blocking
materials and wheel chocks are properly
secured and of adequate capacity to prevent
personal injury and property damage.
MAINTENANCE
Inspect the accumulator regularly for any signs of
leakage or damage.
Every 500 hours
Check the Nitrogen precharge pressure at the
accumulator, prior to checking bowl hydraulic system
pressure. Refer to 'Testing Pre-charge Pressure', in
this section.
SPECIAL TOOLS
1. Position accumulator on mounting bracket with the
Refer to Section 300-0070, SERVICE TOOLS, for part
numbers of special tools referenced in this section and
general service tools required. These tools are
available from your dealer.
SPECIAL TORQUE SPECIFICATIONS
TORQUE
FIG. NO.
ITEM NO.
ITEM NAME
Nm
lbf in
1
1D
Locknut
11
100
SM 1791 Rev1 04-04
5
Bowl Hydraulic System - Accumulator
Section 235-0070
AMBIENT TEMPERATURE - NITROGEN PRE-CHARGE PRESSURE
AMBIENT TEMPERATURE
NITROGEN PRE-CHARGE PRESSURE
°C
°F
bar
lbf/in²
-18
0
23.7
344
-12
10
24.2
351
-7
20
24.8
360
-1
30
25.3
367
5
40
25.9
376
10
50
26.4
383
16
60
27
392
21
70
27.5
400
27
80
28.1
408
32
90
28.6
415
38
100
29.2
423
43
110
29.7
431
49
120
30
435
54
130
30.5
442
WARNING
This vehicle is equipped with a precharged nitrogen gas cylinder of more than 2.8 bar (40 lbf/in2).
Special permits may be required when transporting the vehicle or cylinder by any method while
cylinder is charged. For shipment, contact the appropriate agency in the country involved. Consult
your dealer for further permit information.
*
6
*
*
*
SM 1791 Rev1 04-04
BOWL HYDRAULIC SYSTEM - Relief Valve
Section 235-0120
SM - 2167
2
4
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
- Acorn Nut
- Seal Washer
- Jam Nut
- Adjusting Screw
- Cap
- Seal Ring
- Spring Guide
- Spring
- Plunger
- Seat
11
12
13
14
15
16
- Setscrew
- Seal Washer
- Blanking Screw
- Seal Ring
- Plug
- Valve Housing
Fig. 1 - Exploded View of Relief Valve
DESCRIPTION
REMOVAL
Numbers in parentheses refer to Fig. 1.
Numbers in parentheses refer to Fig. 1.
The direct acting relief valve is located in the hydraulic
lines between the triple pump and servo control valve.
Relief valve pressure setting is
17 bar (250 lbf/in²).
WARNING
To prevent personal injury and property
damage, be sure wheel blocks, blocking
materials and lifting equipment are properly
secured and of adequate capacity to do the job
safely.
1. Position the vehicle in a level work area, apply the
parking brake and switch off the engine. Operate the
steering in both directions several times to relieve any
pressure in the steering system.
SM 1776 3-99
1
Bowl Hydraulic System - Relief Valve
Section 235-0120
2. Place the battery master switch in the 'Off' position
and block all road wheels.
7. Remove plug (15) and seal ring (14) from valve
housing (16). Discard seal ring (14).
3. With suitable containers available to catch spillage,
open drain cock at the bottom of the hydraulic tank
and drain hydraulic oil. Close drain cock.
8. Remove blanking screw (13) and seal washer (12).
Using an Allen key, unscrew set screw (11) until seat
(10) is free. Push or tap seat (10) from bore in valve
housing (16).
4. Clean relief valve housing (16) and surrounding
area with a suitable solvent. Identify and tag hydraulic
lines connected to relief valve, to aid in 'Installation'.
INSPECTION
Numbers in parentheses refer to Fig. 1.
5. With suitable containers available to catch spillage,
disconnect hydraulic lines from relief valve. Drain the
oil from the lines into the container and discard all 'O'
rings. Cap hydraulic lines and relief valve ports to
prevent ingress of dirt.
6. Support relief valve and remove bolts (17), washers
(18), lockwashers (20) and nuts (21) securing relief
valve to its mounting. Remove relief valve to a clean
area for disassembly.
DISASSEMBLY
Numbers and letters in parentheses refer to Fig. 1.
WARNING
Spring loaded parts. Use care when removing
end cap, retainers and plugs to prevent sudden
release of spring tension behind these parts.
Personal injury or property damage could
result if care is not taken.
1. Clean the entire relief valve assembly with a
suitable solvent and dry thoroughly. Remove caps
from valve housing (16) ports.
2. If required, clamp relief valve assembly in a soft
jawed vice. Take care to avoid damaging valve
housing (16) machined surfaces.
3. Remove acorn nut (1) and seal washer (2) from
adjusting screw (4).
4. Hold adjusting screw (4) with a screwdriver and
slacken jam nut (3). Remove jam nut (3), inner seal
washer (2) and adjusting screw (4) from relief valve.
5. Remove relief valve cap (5) and seal ring (6).
Discard seal ring (6).
6. Withdraw spring (8), spring guide (7) and relief valve
plunger (9) from bore in valve housing (16).
2
1. Clean all parts thoroughly in a suitable solvent and
examine for wear and/or damage.
2. Inspect all parts for signs of wear, corrosion,
distortion or damage. Remove any burrs from plunger
(9) with a fine stone.
3. Inspect mating faces of plunger (9) and seat (10). If
they are damaged, both parts should be replaced with
new or reconditioned parts. DO NOT grind or lap parts
to renew the seating.
4. Remove and discard all 'O' rings and seals.
5. Check condition of rubber mounts (19) and replaced
if necessary.
ASSEMBLY
Numbers and letters in parentheses refer to Fig. 1.
Note: Lightly lubricate all components with hydraulic
oil. Refer to Section 300-0020, LUBRICATION
SYSTEM, for recommended oil specifications.
Note: Tighten all fasteners to standard torques listed
in Section 300-0080, STANDARD BOLT AND NUT
TORQUE SPECIFICATIONS.
1. Insert valve seat (10), closed end first. Push or tap it
into position ensuring that it is fully located in the bore.
2. Using an Allen key, turn setscrew (11) in a
clockwise direction until it beds firmly onto seat (10).
DO NOT over-tighten the setscrew.
3. Place seal washer (12) on blanking screw (13) and
install screw (13) in the valve housing (16).
4. Grip valve housing (16) in a soft-jawed vice with
open end uppermost. Insert plunger (9) full end
foremost, into seat (10). Install spring (8) and spring
guide (7).
SM 1776 3-99
Bowl Hydraulic System - Relief Valve
Section 235-0120
5. Install a new seal ring (6) on cap (5) install cap in
valve housing (16) and tighten.
ADJUSTMENTS
6. Fit adjusting screw (4) and screw in until spring (8)
is under light compression.
Relief Valve Adjustment
7. Install seal washer (2) with jam nut (3). Tighten nut
only sufficiently to secure until correct pressure setting
is made. Refer to 'Adjustments' for correct pressure
setting.
8. Fit new seal ring (14) to plug (15) and install in valve
housing (16).
INSTALLATION
Numbers in parentheses refer to Fig. 1.
Note: Tighten all fasteners to standard torques listed
in Section 300-0080, STANDARD BOLT AND NUT
TORQUE SPECIFICATIONS.
Note: Tighten all hydraulic lines fitted with ORFS
connections, as described in Section 235-0000,
HYDRAULIC SYSTEM SCHEMATIC.
WARNING
To prevent personal injury and property
damage, be sure wheel blocks, blocking
materials and lifting equipment are properly
secured and of adequate capacity to do the job
safely.
1. If removed, install rubber mounts (19) to mounting
bracket. Secure relief valve in place with bolts (17),
washers (18), lockwashers (20) and nuts (21).
2. Reconnect hydraulic lines to relief valve, as tagged
at 'Removal'.
Note: Be sure to use new 'O' rings with the fittings.
3. Fill hydraulic oil tank with hydraulic oil as specified
in Section 300-0020, LUBRICATION SYSTEM. Refer
to Section 235-0040, HYDRAULIC TANK, for hydraulic
oil levels.
5. Adjust the system relief valve according to the
instructions in 'Adjustments'.
Numbers in parentheses refer to Fig. 1.
This type of relief valve is very sensitive to adjustment.
Relief valve setting and adjustment can be carried out
as follows:
Note: If adjustment only is to be carried out, the
procedure for blocking the machine as described in
'Removal, must be strictly adhered to.
WARNING
To prevent personal injury and property
damage, be sure wheel blocks, blocking
materials and lifting equipment are properly
secured and of adequate capacity to do the job
safely.
1. Remove plug and connect a hydraulic gauge,
capable of recording a pressure of 0 - 207 bar
(0 - 3 000 lbf/in²), to the pressure check port in relief
valve housing.
2. Start the engine and watch the presure gauge. It
should read 17 bar (250 lbf/in2) when the relief valve
opens. Adjust the relief valve if the pressure is not
correct.
3. Remove acorn nut (1) and seal washer (2). Loosen
adjusting screw jam nut (3).
4. Adjust valve by turning adjusting screw (4),
clockwise to increase pressure or counter-clockwise to
decrease pressure. Turn the adjusting screw in small
increments.
5. After the adjustment is completed, hold adjusting
screw (4) with a screwdriver and tighten jam nut (3)
securely.
7. Re-check the pressure to make certain that it did
not change when tightening the jam nut. If the
pressure setting is correct, install the outer seal
washer (2) and acorn nut (1) and tighten.
7. Remove the pressure gauge from the relief valve
housing and replace the plug.
8. Check relief valve assembly and hydraulic lines for
leaks. Tighten as required.
9. Remove all blocking from road wheels.
SM 1776 3-99
3
Bowl Hydraulic System - Relief Valve
Section 235-0120
MAINTENANCE
SERVICE TOOLS
Relief valve pressure should be checked on a regular
basis to ensure correct operating pressures are being
maintained. Limited repair of the control valve is with
replacement of parts only.
There are no special tools required for the procedures
outlined in this section. Refer to Section 300-0070,
SERVICE TOOLS, for part numbers of general service
tools and adhesives. These tools and adhesives are
available from your dealer.
*
4
*
*
*
SM 1776 3-99
BOWL HYDRAULIC SYSTEM - Servo Control Valve
Section 235-0160
SM - 2165
1
3
2
6
7
8
22
10
5
13
14
16
18
17
32
19
20
48
20
21
23
33,34
31
35
36,47
37
38,39
40
28
29
24
25
27
42
41
26 30
43
44
46
45
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
- Knob
- Flexible Cover
- Lever
- Spool Actuator
- Strap
- Bolt
- Washer
- Pivot Block
- Pin
- Pin
- Screw
- Dowel Pin
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
- Lever Plate
- Mounting Flange
- Screw
- Wiper Seal
- Retainer
- Seal
- Valve Housing
- Seal
- Retainer
- Spool
- Spring Retainer
- Spring
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
33
34
35
36
- Spring Retainer
- Spool End
- End Cover
- Washer
- Screw
- Dust Cover
- Spacer
- Spool
- Spring Retainer
- Spacer
- Spring
- Spacer
37
38
39
40
41
42
43
44
45
46
47
48
- Spool End
- Ball Housing
- Ball
- Detent Cover
- Detent Slide
- Spacer
- Adjustment Housing
- Spring
- Adjustment Screw
- Snap Ring
- Spring Retainer
- Retainer
Fig. 1 - Cutaway View of Servo Control Valve
SM 1775 3-99
1
Bowl Hydraulic System - Servo Control Valve
Section 235-0160
DESCRIPTION
The servo control valve is mechanically actuated
spool type valve controlling and directing signal oil
pressure supplied by the main control valve. The
valve spools are operated by levers connected to the
spool ends. Operation of control levers moves the
spools to open and close the inlet port to the signal
ports to control movement of the valve spools.
Good control of the main hydraulic valve spools is
attained by matching the pressure gain through the
servo valve to the resistance of the main hydraulic
control valve spool centering springs. As the servo
valve spool is shifted from neutral, some signal oil is
directed to the appropriate main hydraulic control
valve spool, and some oil is directed back to the tank
from the other side of the spool. As the servo valve
spool is shifted farther through its stroke, so more oil
is directed to the main hydraulic control valve spool,
moving it farther through its stroke in direct
proportion to the servo valve spool movement.
The ejector and apron spools have a mechanical
detent in the lower position.
OPERATION
Neutral
When the levers are in the neutral position, the
spools are held in the centered positions by centering
springs. The lands on the valve spools block ports A,
B, C, D, E and F from the oil inlet, and since this
valve is a closed centre component, excess oil
pressure goes over the relief valve, and back to the
tank.
REMOVAL
WARNING
To prevent personal injury and property
damage, be sure wheel blocks, blocking
materials and lifting equipment are properly
secured and of adequate capacity to do the job
safely.
1. Position the vehicle in a level work area, apply the
parking brake and switch off the engine. Operate the
steering in both directions several times to relieve
any pressure in the steering system.
2. Place the battery master switch in the 'Off' position
and block all road wheels.
3. Remove screws and washers securing cover to
right hand side dash panel.
4. Identify and tag all nylon control lines connected to
servo control valve, to aid in 'Installation'.
5. With suitable container available to catch spillage,
disconnect nylon control lines from servo control
valve. Drain the oil from the lines into the container.
Cap lines and valve ports to prevent ingress of dirt.
6. Remove mounting hardware securing servo control
valve to its mounting on right hand dash panel. Lift
valve out from dash panel and remove to a clean
area for disassembly.
DISASSEMBLY
Numbers in parentheses refer to Figs. 1 & 2.
Raising and Lowering
When any lever is moved to the raise position, the
attached valve spool is moved downwards and oil will
flow through ports B, D and F to stroke the respective
main hydraulic control valve spool. Oil on the other
side of the main hydraulic control valve is displaced
through nylon tubing back to the servo valve and
through ports A, C and E back to tank.
In the lower position, oil will flow through ports B, D
or F when the attached spool is moved upwards. This
action will stroke the respective spool to give a lower
condition.
WARNING
Spring loaded parts. Use care when removing
end cap, retainers and plugs to prevent
sudden release of spring tension behind these
parts. Personal injury or property damage
could result if care is not taken.
Note: Clean entire servo control valve assembly with
a suitable solvent and dry thoroughly prior to
disassembly.
1. Remove caps from valve housing (19) ports.
2. If required, clamp servo control valve assembly in
a soft jawed vice. Take care to avoid damaging valve
housing (19) machined surfaces.
2
SM 1775 3-99
Bowl Hydraulic System - Servo Control Valve
Section 235-0160
SM - 2166
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
- Knob
- Flexible Cover
- Lever
- Spool Actuator
- Strap
- Bolt
- Washer
- Pivot Block
- Pin
- Pin
- Screw
- Dowel Pin
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
- Lever Plate
- Mounting Flange
- Screw
- Wiper Seal
- Retainer
- Seal
- Valve Housing
- Seal
- Retainer
- Spool
- Spring Retainer
- Spring
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
33
34
35
36
- Spring Retainer
- Spool End
- End Cover
- Washer
- Screw
- Dust Cover
- Spacer
- Spool
- Spring Retainer
- Spacer
- Spring
- Spacer
37
38
39
40
41
42
43
44
45
46
47
48
- Spool End
- Ball Housing
- Ball
- Detent Cover
- Detent Slide
- Spacer
- Adjustment Housing
- Spring
- Adjustment Screw
- Snap Ring
- Spring Retainer
- Retainer
Fig. 2 - Exploded View of Servo Control Valve
3. Unscrew knobs (1) and remove from levers (3).
Remove strap (5) and slide fexible cover (2) off of
levers (3).
4. Identify and tag each lever (3). Make reference
marks on lever plate (13), mounting flange (14) and
valve housing (19) to ensure correct location when
reassembling.
SM 1775 3-99
5. Remove bolts (6) and lockwashers (7) from blocks
(8). Separate levers (3) from blocks (8) and spools
(22 & 32). Pull pins (9 & 10) from blocks. The dowel
pins (12) need not be withdrawn if undamaged.
6. Remove screws (11) from lever plate (13).
Remove lever plate (13) from valve housing (19).
3
Bowl Hydraulic System - Servo Control Valve
Section 235-0160
7. Remove screws (15) from mounting flange (14).
Remove mounting flange (14) from valve housing (19).
8. Remove wiper seals (16), retainers (17) and seals
(18) from valve housing (19).
9. From the other side of valve housing (19), remove
snap ring (46) and detent components (41 thru 45).
10. Remove detent cover (40) and ball housing (38)
taking care not to lose ball (39).
11. Remove spacer (31), seal (20) and retainer (21)
from valve housing (19).
12. Remove screws (29), washers (28) and end
cover (27) from valve housing (19).
13. Remove seal (20) and retainer (48) from valve
housing (19).
14. Match mark spool assembly and bore in valve
hosing (19).
15. Secure spool assembly in a suitable spool clamp
and withdraw from bore in valve hosing (19). DO
NOT interchange spools with bores.
ASSEMBLY
Numbers in parentheses refer to Fig. 1 & 2.
Note: Lightly lubricate all components with hydraulic
oil. Refer to Section 300-0020, LUBRICATION
SYSTEM, for recommended oil specifications.
Note: Tighten all fasteners to standard torques listed
in Section 300-0080, STANDARD BOLT AND NUT
TORQUE SPECIFICATIONS.
1. Assemble springs (24 & 35), retainers (23, 25, 33
& 47) and spacers (34 & 36) to spools (22 & 32), as
shown in Fig. 2. With spool held in a spool clamp,
secure these components with spool ends (26 & 37).
2. Clamp servo control valve assembly in a soft
jawed vice. Install seals (20) and retainers (21) in
valve housing (19).
3. Install detent spool assemblies (32) in valve
housing (19). Fit spacer (31) in position. Use a small
amount of grease or vaseline to retain balls (39) in
housing (38) and fit over spool end (37). Fit detent
covers (40), and carefully assemble parts (41 to 46),
taking care not to dislodge balls (39) from their
housing (38).
Note: DO NOT interchange spools with bores.
4. Install spool assembly (22) in valve housing (19).
Fit end cover (27) complete with dust cover (30) and
secure with screws (29) and washers (28).
INSPECTION
5. On the other side of valve housing (19), fit seals
(18), retainers (17) and wiper seals (16).
16. Repeat steps 14 and 15 for the remaining spools.
Numbers in parentheses refer to Fig. 1 & 2.
1. Remove and discard all non-metallic seals. Clean
all parts thoroughly in a suitable solvent and examine
for wear and/or damage.
6. Secure mounting flange (14) to valve housing (19)
with screws (15). Secure lever plate (13) to mounting
flange (14) with screws (11).
7. If removed, refit dowel pins (12) to lever plate (13).
2. Inspect spools and spool bores for wear or
damage. Polish any small nicks or burrs. Excessive
wear of components will necessitate valve
replacement.
3. Check condition of detent diameter on spool end
(37). If badly rounded it should be replaced. Replace
detent balls (39). Replace ball housing (38) if the
holes are elongated. Replace detent slide (41) if taper
edge is badly worn.
8. Assemble levers (3) and spool actuators (4) to
pivot blocks (8) with pins (9 & 10). Make sure spool
actuators (4) slip over ball ends of spools and pivot
blocks (8) fit on to dowels (12). Secure pivot blocks
(8) with bolts (6) and washers (7).
9. Slide flexible cover (2) over lever (3) and secure in
place with strap (5). Screw knobs (1) onto levers (3).
10. Check for smooth operation of levers and for
good detent action on the apron and ejector spools.
4
SM 1775 3-99
Bowl Hydraulic System - Servo Control Valve
Section 235-0160
INSTALLATION
Numbers in parentheses refer to Figs. 1 & 2.
Note: Tighten all fasteners to standard torques listed
in Section 300-0080, STANDARD BOLT AND NUT
TORQUE SPECIFICATIONS.
Note: Tighten all hydraulic lines fitted with ORFS
connections, as described in Section 235-0000,
HYDRAULIC SYSTEM SCHEMATIC.
3. Fill hydraulic oil tank with hydraulic oil as specified
in Section 300-0020, LUBRICATION SYSTEM. Refer
to Section 235-0040, HYDRAULIC TANK, for
hydraulic oil levels.
4. Place battery master switch in the 'On' position,
start the engine and check servo control valve
operation. Check servo control valve and hydraulic
lines for leaks. Tighten as required.
5. Secure cover to right hand dash panel using
mounting hardware as removed at 'Removal'.
WARNING
To prevent personal injury and property
damage, be sure wheel blocks, blocking
materials and lifting equipment are properly
secured and of adequate capacity to do the job
safely.
6. Remove all blocking from road wheels.
MAINTENANCE
Limited repair of the servo control valve is with
replacement of parts only. Refer to vehicle parts
book for list of kits available.
1. Using a suitable lifting device, position control
valve in place on the machine. Secure control valve
in place with mounting bolts and lockwashers as
removed at 'Removal'.
SERVICE TOOLS
There are no special tools required for the
procedures outlined in this section. Refer to
Section 300-0070, SERVICE TOOLS, for part
numbers of general service tools required. These
tools are available from your dealer.
2. Reconnect all nylon control lines to servo control
valve, as tagged at 'Removal'.
*
SM 1775 3-99
*
*
*
5
BRAKING SYSTEM - Air Braking System Schematic
Section 250-0000
DESCRIPTION
air horn (13) via the air horn solenoid (12).
The air brake system is used to supply air pressure for
operating the front and rear brake chambers which in
turn, actuate the slack adjusters applying the front and
rear brakes. The air system also supplies pressure for
operating air actuated accessories such as the air
suspension seat and the air horn.
Air compression is controlled by unloader valve on air
drier (2) stopping and starting delivery of air from air
compressor (1), when maximum 8.4 bar (122 lbf/in²)
and minimum 6.5 bar (95 lbf/in²) pressures are
reached.
The safety air brake system on the machine has the
following features:
1. Low air pressure warning light which illuminates
when air pressure drops below a predetermined level.
The pressure in the system should not exceed
8.4 bar (122 lbf/in²) if the system is operating normally.
However, if unloader valve malfunctions and the
pressure continues to rise, safety valve on air drier (2)
will open to protect the air system by relieving the
pressure at 13 bar (190 lbf/in²).
2. Separate front and rear braking circuits.
3. Air released - spring applied parking brake
controlled by the park/emergency control valve.
Parking brake is applied when the control valve lever
is in the 'PARK' position.
AIR SYSTEM AUXILIARY COMPONENTS
Numbers in parentheses refer to Fig. 1.
The following is a list of auxiliary components used in
the air system, with a brief description of each:
Pressure Protection Valve (6) - Supplies air to all air
tanks for the service brakes, secondary braking and
accessory devices. Refer to Section 250-0290,
PRESSURE PROTECTION VALVE, for detailed
operating and servicing procedures.
Air Horn Solenoid (12) - Electric solenoid valve is
activated by the horn button, allowing air pressure to
the air horn.
Air Horn (13) - Provides effective warning signal.
Air Pressure Gauge - Located on the instrument
panel it indicates system air pressure.
OPERATION
Numbers in parentheses refer to Figs. 1.
Air from the engine driven air compressor (1) travels
through air drier kit (2) and into primary tank (3).
When pressure in primary tank (3) reaches 6.2 bar
(90 lbf/in²), pressure protection valve (6) opens. The
valve allows air to flow to the air suspension seat and
SM 1784 Rev 2 04-04
AIR BRAKING SYSTEM COMPONENTS
Numbers in parentheses refer to Fig. 1.
The following is a list of air control devices in the air
safety brake system, with a brief description of each:
Air Compressor (1) - Delivers air, through the air drier
kit, to the air tanks to operate brake and air operated
accessories. The air compressor is mounted on the
engine.
Air Drier Kit (2) - Filters the air from the compressor
to remove any oil and moisture in the air system. The
integral unloader valve controls supply of air to the
system, by stopping and starting delivery of air by the
compressor when maximum and minimum pressures
are reached. The purge reservoir stores dried air to
purge the air drier desiccant bed as part of a
regeneration process. Refer to Section 250-0200, AIR
DRIER, for detailed operating and servicing
procedures.
Air Tanks (3, 4, 17 & 18) - Store compressed air until it
is needed for brake or accessory operation. Secondary
tanks maintain an air supply for normal brake
application or for automatic safety brake application, if
pressure drops in the primary tanks. Air pressure in the
tanks is indicated on the air system pressure gauge on
the instrument panel in the operators compartment.
Refer to Section 250-0170, AIR TANKS AND
MOUNTING, for detailed operating and servicing
procedures.
Relay Emergency Valves (7 & 20) - Speeds the
application and release of air pressure to and from
tractor and scraper brake chambers. Refer to Section
250-0280, RELAY EMERGENCY VALVE, for detailed
operating and servicing procedures.
1
Braking System - Air Braking System Schematic
Section 250-0000
2
AUX
5
14
TO
GOOSENECK
14
TO GOOSENECK
16
14
LOW
PRESS.
SWITCH
Air Compressor
Air Drier Kit
Front Primary Tank
Front Secondary Tank
Drain Cock
LH
11
6
7
8
9
10
-
Pressure Protection Valve
Relay Emergency Valve
Park/Emergency Control Valve
Treadle Valve
Brake Chamber
TO
GOOSENECK
15
-
14
14
1
2
3
4
5
15
10
10
RH
STOP LIGHT
SWITCH
9
LOW PRESSURE SWITCH
40
14
8
13
TRANS. PARK
BRAKE SWITCH
12
TO
AIR SEAT
TO
GOOSENECK
1
S
E
C
O
N
D
A
R
Y
PRIMARY
5
4
7
3
6
REAR
SERVICE
2
1
PARK
30
35
FRONT
SERVICE
SM - 3183
11
12
13
14
15
16
- Quick Release Valve
- Air Horn Solenoid
- Air Horn
- Manifold
- Test Point
- Tilt Drain valve
Fig. 1 - Air Braking System Schematic - Tractor
2
SM 1784 Rev 2 04-04
Braking System - Air Braking System Schematic
Section 250-0000
SM - 2227
17
22
SECONDARY
21
-
Rear Primary Tank
Rear Secondary Tank
Relay Valve
Relay Emergency Valve
21
22
23
24
LH
RH
23
20
20
A
B
18
23
TO
GOOSENECK
19
C
D
16
PRIMARY
17
18
19
20
-
Brake Chamber
Quick Release Valve
Drain Cock
Test Point
Fig. 1 - Air Braking System Schematic
SM 1784 Rev 2 04-04
3
Braking System - Air Braking System Schematic
Section 250-0000
Park/Emergency Control Valve (8) - Controls air
pressure delivery to the relay emergency valve for
actuation of brake chambers to apply the brakes. In
the 'PARK' position it exhausts the air from the spring
applied brake chambers, to apply the parking brake.
Refer to Section 250-0190, PARK/EMERGENCY
CONTROL VALVE, for detailed operating and
servicing procedures.
c. Park/emergency brake circuit air pressure falls
below 5.5 bar (80 lbf/in2).
If light illuminates while operating, stop the machine,
apply the parking brake and do not operate until the
fault has been corrected.
OPERATION
Treadle Valve (9) - Directs and controls air to the front
and rear relay emergency valves which control air
delivery to the brake chambers. Refer to
Section 250-0070, TREADLE VALVE, for detailed
operating and servicing procedures.
Numbers in parentheses refer to Fig. 1.
Brake Chambers (10 & 21) - Actuate slack adjusters
to apply front and rear brakes during service brake
system operation: or automatically in case of an
extreme loss of air pressure or for emergency
applications. Also mechanically locks brakes on in
parking mode. Refer to Section 250-0260, BRAKE
CHAMBERS, for detailed operating and servicing
procedures.
Air flows to the front primary tank (3) and service
brakes via port '21' of the pressure protection valve
(6). Air is supplied to the rear primary tank (16) and
service brakes via port '22' of the pressure protection
valve (6). Air is supplied to the front and rear
secondary tanks (5 & 18) and park/emergency brake
valve (8) via port '23' of the pressure protection valve
(6). Air is supplied to the auxiliary components via port
'24' of the pressure protection valve (6).
Quick Release Valves (11 & 22) - Installed adjacent to
brake chambers to hasten the exhaust of air from the
brake chambers when the applied air pressure is
released. Refer to Section 250-0180, QUICK
RELEASE VALVE, for detailed operating and servicing
procedures.
Relay Valve (19) - Speeds the application and release
of air pressure to and from tractor and scraper brake
chambers. Refer to Section 250-0280, RELAY VALVE,
for detailed operating and servicing procedures.
Brake Light Switch - Turns on the brake lights when
the brakes are applied.
Air from the engine driven air compressor (1) travels
through air drier kit (2) via pressure protection valve
(6) and into all four air tanks (3, 4, 17 & 18).
Air compression is controlled by unloader valve on air
drier (2) stopping and starting delivery of air from air
compressor (1) when maximum 8.4 bar (122 lbf/in²)
and minimum 6.5 bar (95 lbf/in2) pressures are
reached.
The pressure in the system should not exceed
8.4 bar (122 lbf/in²) if the system is operating normally.
However, if unloader valve malfunctions and the
pressure continues to rise, safety valve on air drier (2)
will open to protect the air system by relieving the
pressure at 13 bar (190 lbf/in²).
Service Brake
Warning Light (Air System)
The following warning light is controlled by pressure
switches and is located on the right hand warning light
panel in the operators compartment:
Note: Refer to operators handbook for location and
identification of warning light.
Low Air Pressure (Red) - Illuminates when there is a
loss of air pressure in the following circuits:
a. Front service circuit air pressure falls below 4.1 bar
(60 lbf/in2).
b. Rear service circuit air pressure falls below 4.1 bar
(60 lbf/in2).
4
Depressing treadle valve (9) allows air to flow directly
to the service ports of the front brake chambers (10)
via the front primary tank (3). Air is also directed to the
rear brake chambers (21) via relay valve (19) to apply
the service brakes.
The amount of air that flows to brake chambers
(10 & 21) depends on how far treadle valve (9) pedal is
depressed. The farther the pedal is depressed the
greater the air pressure in the brake chambers
(10 & 21) and the greater the braking force.
The brakes are released when the treadle pedal is
released. Air pressure is exhausted through treadle
valve (9) exhaust port.
SM 1784 Rev 2 04-04
Braking System - Air Braking System Schematic
Section 250-0000
Park/Emergency Brake Control Valve
Air line from port '23' of pressure protection valve (6)
directs a constant supply of air to park/emergency
control brake valve (8).
With park/emergency brake control valve (8) lever in
the 'RELEASE' position, the inlet and exhaust ports in
the valve are closed. As a result, air pressure flows to
the brake chambers (10 & 21) via the relay emergency
valves (7 & 20), preventing the spring in the actuator
from applying the parking brake. The park/emergency
brake control lever should always be in the 'RELEASE'
position when driving the machine.
With the park/emergency control valve (8) lever in the
'PARK' position, air pressure is vented through the
exhaust ports in the quick release valves (11 & 22),
allowing the spring brake chambers (10 & 21) to apply
the parking brake.
procedures. Some components contain powerful
springs and injury can result if not properly
disassembled. Use only proper tools and observe all
safety precautions pertaining to use of those tools.
7. Use only genuine factory replacement parts and
components.
a) Only components, devices and mounting and
attaching, specifically designed for use in hydraulic
brake systems, should be used.
b) Replacement hardware, tubes, lines, fittings, etc.
should be of equivalent size, type and strength as the
original equipment.
8. Devices with stripped threads or damaged parts
should be replaced. Repairs requiring machining
should not be attempted.
BRAKE FUNCTION CHECKS
BRAKE SYSTEM SAFETY PRECAUTIONS
When working on or around brake systems and
components, the following precautions, should be
observed:
1. Always block vehicle wheels. Stop engine when
working under a vehicle. Keep hands away from
actuator push rods and slack adjusters; they may
apply as air system pressure drops.
2. Always carry out ALL servicing operations in
conjunction with WARNINGS and procedures outlined
in the individual component sections.
3. Always ensure there is no pressure in the air
system before attempting to replace brake pads or
shoes; the brakes will automatically apply as air
pressure drops.
4. Never connect or disconnect a pipe or line
containing pressure; it may whip. Never remove a
component or pipe plug unless you are certain all
system pressure has been released.
5. Never exceed recommended pressure and always
wear safety glasses when working.
6. Never attempt to disassemble a component until
you have read and understood recommended
SM 1784 Rev 2 04-04
WARNING
Make sure the area around the machine is clear
of personnel and obstructions before carrying
out these checks.
Note: The following checks are not intended to
measure maximum brake holding ability. If NEW brake
pads are fitted, they MUST be burnished as per the
manufacturers recommendations before carrying out
the checks.
Service Brake Holding Ability
1. With the bowl in the 'Fully Raised' position, depress
service brake treadle pedal and move transmission
gear shift selector to 1st gear.
2. Move park/emergency control lever to the
'RELEASE' position.
3. Depress front engine accelerator control and
accelerate engine to 1 350 rev/min. The machine
should not move.
4. Decelerate engine, shift transmission to 'NEUTRAL'
and apply the park/emergency brake before releasing
the service brake.
5
Braking System - Air Braking System Schematic
Section 250-0000
Park/Emergency Brake Holding Ability
WARNING
If the machine moves during the above checks,
stop the machine, apply the parking brake and
do not operate until the fault has been
corrected.
1. With the bowl in the 'Fully Raised' position, move
park/emergency control lever to 'PARK' position and
move transmission gear shift selector to 1st gear.
2. Depress front engine accelerator control and
accelerate engine to 1 350 rev/min. The machine
should not move.
MAINTENANCE
3. Decelerate engine, shift transmission to 'NEUTRAL'
and apply the park/emergency brake.
General
General
Perform all maintenance as outlined in individual air
component sections, at the service intervals specified
in those sections.
Note: Brake holding effort required to hold a machine
stationary at a specific rev/min can vary from machine
to machine due to differences in engine performance,
powertrain efficiency, etc., as well as differences in
brake holding ability.
Note: As an indication of system deterioration, the
engine rev/min at which point the machine moved, with
the service or park/emergency brakes applied, can be
compared against the engine rev/min your specific
machine was able to hold to on a previous check.
Every Year
Check accuracy of air pressure gauge on the
instrument panel with a test gauge. Replace if
difference is more than 0.3 bar (5 lbf/in²).
Every 2 000 hours/12 months replace air drier
desiccant cartridge.
BRAKING SYSTEM DIAGNOSIS
CONDITION
Inadequate braking
REASON
Low air pressure in brake system
only
Treadle valve delivery pressure
below normal
Brakes do not apply
with normal treadle
valve application
Brake pads need replaced
No air pressure in brake system
Restricted or broken tubing or hose
line
6
REMEDY
Trace brake lines by referring to Fig. 1.
Install a test gauge at various points in the
system to determine location of trouble. Test
operation of faulty components as outlined in
air brake control component sections. Repair
or replace, as recommended. Check brake air
lines for leaks.
Check operation of air compressor, air drier,
unloader and safety valve. Check air lines for
leaks.
Refer to Section 165-0031, BRAKE PARTS.
Trace brake lines by referring to Fig. 1. Install
a test gauge at various points in the system to
to determine location of trouble. Test operation
of faulty component as outlined in air brake
control component sections. Check brake air
lines for leaks.
Replace tubing or hose line.
SM 1784 Rev 2 04-04
Braking System - Air Braking System Schematic
Section 250-0000
BRAKING SYSTEM DIAGNOSIS (Continued)
CONDITION
REASON
Brakes do not apply Defective treadle valve
with normal treadle
valve application
Defective relay emergency valve
Brakes apply too
slowly
Brakes do not
release
Brakes grab or pull
Air pressure too
high
SM 1784 Rev 2 04-04
REMEDY
Repair or replace faulty component as
recommended in Section 250-0070, TREADLE
VALVE.
Repair or replace faulty component as
recommended in Section 250-0280, RELAY
EMERGENCY VALVE.
Low air pressure in the brake system Trace brake lines by referring to Fig. 1. Install
a test gauge at various points in the system to
determine location of trouble. Test operation
of faulty component as outlined in air brake
control component sections. Repair or replace,
as recommended. Check brake air lines for
leaks.
Treadle valve delivery pressure
Check operation of air compressor, air drier
below normal
unloader valve and safety valve. Check air lines
for leaks.
Excessive leakage with brakes
Trace brake lines by referring to Fig. 1. Install a
applied
test gauge at various points in the system to
determine location of trouble. Test operation of
faulty component as outlined in air brake control
component sections. Repair or replace, as
recommended. Check brake air lines for leaks.
Restriction in tubing or hose line
Replace tubing or hose lines.
Defective brake chambers
Repair or replace faulty component as
recommended in Section 250-0260, BRAKE
CHAMBER.
Defective quick release valves
Repair or replace faulty component as
recommended in Section 250-0180, QUICK
RELEASE VALVE.
Treadle valve not in fully released
Repair or replace faulty component as
position
recommended in Section 250-0070, TREADLE
VALVE.
Restriction in tubing or hose line
Replace tubing or hose lines.
Faulty operation of one or more
Trace brake lines by referring to Fig. 1. Install a
brake air control components
test gauge at various points in the system to
determine location of trouble. Test operation of
faulty component as outline in air control
component sections. Repair or replace, as
recommended. Check brake air lines for leaks.
Calliper pistons binding
Check calliper operation as described in
Section 165-0031, BRAKE PARTS.
Pressure gauge registering
Replace gauge and/or gauge sender unit.
incorrectly
Faulty air drier, unloader valve
Repair of replace faulty component. Refer to
Section 250-0200, AIR DRIER.
7
Braking System - Air Braking System Schematic
Section 250-0000
BRAKING SYSTEM DIAGNOSIS (Continued)
CONDITION
Air pressure too low
REASON
Pressure gauge registering
incorrectly
Defective compressor
REMEDY
Replace gauge and/or gauge sender unit.
Repair or replace air compressor. Refer to
ENGINE MAINTENANCE MANUAL.
Excessive leakage.
Trace brake lines by referring to Fig. 1. Install
test gauge at various points in the system to
determine location of trouble. Test operation of
faulty component as outlined in air brake control
component sections. Repair or replace, as
recommended. Check brake air lines for leaks.
Air tank drain cock open or leaking
Tighten or install new drain cock.
Faulty air drier unloader valve
Repair or replace air drier unloader valve. Refer
to Section 250-0200, AIR DRIER.
Compressor knocks Excessive backlash in drive gears or Correct backlash. Refer to ENGINE
continuously or
drive coupling
MAINTENANCE MANUAL.
intermittently
Worn or burnt out bearings
Replace faulty components or compressor.
refer to ENGINE MAINTENANCE MANUAL.
Excessive carbon deposits in
Remove the compressor head and clean. Refer
compressor cylinder head
to ENGINE MAINTENANCE MANUAL.
Brakes release too
Defective brake chamber
Repair or replace faulty component as
slowly
recommended in Section 250-0260, BRAKE
CHAMBER.
Treadle valve not returning to fully
Repair or replace faulty component as
released position
recommended in Section 250-0070, TREADLE
VALVE.
Exhaust port of treadle valve or relay Repair or replace faulty component as
valve restricted or plugged
recommended in Section 250-0070, TREADLE
VALVE and 250-0280, RELAY EMERGENCY
VALVE.
Air pressure drops
One or more faulty air control
Trace brake lines by referring to Fig. 1. Install a
quickly with engine
components in brake air line, or
test gauge at various points in the system to
stopped and brakes leak in lines
determine location of trouble. Test operation of
released
faulty component as outlined in air brake control
component sections. Repair or replace, as
recommended. Check brake air lines for leaks.
Air pressure rises to Excessive leakage
Trace brake lines by referring to Fig. 1. Install a
normal reading too
test gauge at various points in the system to
slowly
determine location of trouble. Test operation of
faulty component as outlined in air brake control
component sections. Repair or replace, as
recommended. Check brake air lines for leaks.
Engine speed too slow
Correct condition. Refer to ENGINE
MAINTENANCE MANUAL.
8
SM 1784 Rev 2 04-04
Braking System - Air Braking System Schematic
Section 250-0000
BRAKING SYSTEM DIAGNOSIS (Continued)
CONDITION
REASON
Air pressure rises to Worn compressor
normal reading too
slowly
Excessive carbon in compressor
cylinder head or discharge line.
Safety valve 'blows Safety valve out of adjustment
off'
Air pressure in system above normal
Excessive oil or
water in the system
Air tanks not being drained often
enough
Compressor passing excessive oil
Service compressor as recommended in
ENGINE MAINTENANCE MANUAL.
Check desiccant cartridge, replace if required
Refer to Section 250-0200, AIR DRIER.
Trace brake lines by referring to Fig. 1. Install
test gauge at various points in the system to
determine location of trouble. Test operation of
faulty component as outlined in air control
component sections. Repair or replace, as
recommended. Check brake air lines for leaks.
Air drier not performing adequately
Air pressure drops
quickly with engine
stopped and brakes
fully applied
One or more faulty air control
components in brake air lines, or
leak in lines
*
SM 1784 Rev 2 04-04
*
*
REMEDY
Repair or replace. Refer to ENGINE
MAINTENANCE MANUAL.
Clean the head and lines. Refer to ENGINE
MAINTENANCE MANUAL.
Adjust as recommended in Section 250-0200,
AIR DRIER.
Check air drier unloader valve, adjust as
recommended. Refer to Section 250-0200, AIR
DRIER.
Drain all air tanks every 10 hours.
*
9
BRAKING SYSTEM - Treadle Valve
Section 250-0070
SM - 3185
1
20
22,24
A
B
17
D
E
C
F
G
J
23
2
H
18
33
16
19
21
13
3
4
No. 1
DELIVERY PORT
No. 2
DELIVERY PORT
6
5
12
No. 1
SUPPLY PORT
7
31
9
30
32
8
15
11
28
27
29
30
No. 2
SUPPLY PORT
10
14
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
-
Treadle
Spring Seat
Primary Piston
Piston Seat
Valve
Valve Seat
Hole (Air passage)
Piston
Spring
Valve
Inlet Seat
25
26
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
EXHAUST
- Spring
- Spring
- Spring
- Piston Seat
- Valve Body
- Mounting Plate
- Rubber Spring
- Vent
- Pin & Roller
- Air Filter
- Boot
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
33
- Fulcrum Pin
- Plunger
- Rubber exhaust flap
- Valve body
- Sealing ring
- Screw
- Passage
- Seal
- Valve body
- Exhaust passage
- Vavle stem
Fig. 1 - Cutaway View of Treadle Valve
DESCRIPTION
The treadle valve is mounted alongside the accelerator
pedals and bolted to the cab floor. The treadle valve is
the left hand pedal.
The treadle valve directs and controls air to the front
brake chambers and rear relay valve which controls air
delivery to the rear brake chamber.
There are 9 ports on the treadle valve as follows:
Port 'A' - Supply line from rear primary tank service
circuit
Port 'B' - Delivery to rear service brakes
Port 'C' - Low pressure switch - rear
SM 1755 Rev1 04-04
Port 'D' - Stop light switch - rear
Port 'E' - Supply line from front primary tank service
circuit
Port 'F' - Delivery to front service brakes
Port 'G' - Low pressure switch - front
Port 'H' - Stop light switch - front
Port 'J' - Exhaust port
OPERATION
Numbers in parentheses refer to Fig. 1.
When treadle (1) is depressed, the brake force is
transmitted through plunger (24) and spring via the
1
Braking System - Treadle Valve
Section 250-0070
spring seat (2) to the piston (3). Piston (3) moves down
its stem, which in turn moves its exhaust seat (4),
closing the exhaust passage through exhaust valve (5).
Continued movement of piston (3) contacts valve (5)
and moves valve (5) off inlet valve seat (6). Air
pressure from the rear primary reservoir enters supply
port 1, by inlet valve (5) and out of delivery port 1 to
the rear brake chambers via the rear relay valve.
As air flows to delivery port 1 , it also channels through
the transfer holes (7) to the piston (8). Prior to this, the
mechanical force exerted on the piston (8) by the
spring (9) will already have closed off the exhaust
passage in valve (10).
Thus air pressure through holes (7) moves piston (8)
further downward, contacting the valve (10) and moving
it down also, creating a passage between inlet valve
seat (11) and valve (10). Air pressure from the front
primary reservoir enters supply port 2 by inlet valve
(10) and out of delivery port 2 to the front brake
chambers.
Due to the small volume of air needed to pass through
holes (7) to move the piston (8), the action of the air
entering supply port 2 and out to the front brake
chambers can be thought of as instantaneous at the
same time as the air is directed to the Rear brake
chambers. The front brake circuit leads the rear circuit
with a maximum pressure differential of 0.2bar, at a
delivery pressure of 1bar. The differential diminishes
until perfect balance is achieved at about 5bar delivery
pressure.
Air continues to enter supply port 1 from the Rear
primary tanks, until the air pressure under piston (3)
combined with the upward forces of springs (12 & 13)
is greater than the brake application force exerted on
piston (3) which will cause the piston (3) to rise upward
allowing inlet valve (5) to close onto piston seat (4) ,
thus cutting off the air entering supply port 1 and
without letting piston seat (4) uncover the exhaust
passage (32).
This means that the upper circuit is 'Lapped' with both
inlet valve (5) and the exhaust passage (32) is closed.
In the lower circuit the air continues to enter until the
increased air pressure under piston (8) and the upward
force of spring (14) combine to overcome the downward
forces of Spring (9) and air pressure above piston (8).
This causes the piston (8) to rise allowing valve (10) to
close on the inlet seat (11), cutting off the supply of air
from supply port 1, without letting valve seat (15)
uncover the exhaust passage. Similarly to the upper
2
circuit, the system is 'Lapped' with inlet valve (10) and
exhaust passage (32) closed.
This balance is maintained until the Treadle (1) is
depressed further or released.
When the operator releases the treadle, to reduce the
application of braking force. This causes piston (3) to
rise. With the valve (5) closed, the piston seat (4) will
open exhaust passage (32) causing the air in supply
port 1 to be exhausted till the pressure falls sufficiently
to balance the force on the piston (3).
At which time the piston (3) and its seat (4) will move
down, closing the exhaust passage (32). As the
pressure within the upper circuit falls, piston (8) will
rise. With valve (10) remaining closed and piston seat
(15) rising to uncover the exhaust passage (32) air
pressure from supply port 2 will fall to balance the
forces on the piston (8). At which time piston (8) and
its seat (15) will move down closing the exhaust
passage (32) once again.
The pressures within the upper and lower circuits are
thus maintained at levels proportionate to the degree of
mechanical force exerted by the driver on the treadle.
The self lapping action takes place whenever the brake
application force is increased or decreased.
adjust stop adjustment bolt to the correct setting.
3. Depress treadle (1) to several positions between
fully released position and fully depressed position and
check to be sure the delivered air pressure registered
by the test gauge varies in accordance with the
position in which the treadle (1) is held. The treadle
valve must control all delivery pressures between 0.34
bar (5 lbf/in2) and upper limit of the air system.
4. With treadle (1) fully released, coat exhaust port 'J'
with soap suds to check for leakage. Leakage in
excess of a 25 mm (1 in) soap bubble in one second is
not permissible in either of these tests. If excessive
leakage is found, the treadle valve must be repaired or
replaced.
REMOVAL AND DISASSEMBLY
Numbers in parentheses refer to Fig. 1.
WARNING
To prevent personal injury and property
damage, be sure wheel blocks are properly
secured and of adequate capacity to do the job
safely.
SM 1755 Rev1 04-04
Braking System - Treadle Valve
Section 250-0070
1. Position the vehicle in a level work area, apply the
parking brake and switch off the engine.
6. Remove wheel blocks from all road wheels.
2. Operate the steering in both directions several times
to relieve any pressure in the steering system. Block
all road wheels.
ADJUSTMENTS
3. Open drain cocks on air tanks and drain air from four
main tanks and auxiliary air tank. Close drain cocks on
air tanks when air is exhausted.
4. Ensure all air lines connected to the treadle valve
are identified for ease of installation and disconnect air
lines from the treadle valve assembly.
5. Remove electrical connection to stop light pressure
switch.
6. Release and remove mounting hardware securing
treadle valve assembly to the cab floor.
Numbers in parentheses refer to Fig. 1.
If the treadle valve does not release promptly or does
not fully release, it indicates that exhaust valve is not
opening sufficiently. This can be caused by:
1. Lack of lubrication in valve body causing piston and
spring assembly to bind.
2. Dirt or other foreign matter between the heel of
treadle (1) and mounting plate (17).
If the treadle valve does not apply promptly, or does
not apply fully, it indicates that inlet valve (5) is
not opening sufficiently. Check for correct operation
and replace valve assembly, if required.
7. Remove treadle valve assembly from the vehicle.
8. If required, separate valve body (26 & 31) assembly
and treadle (1) assembly.
Note: The treadle valve assembly should not be
disassembled further as replacement of parts is by
treadle (1) assembly and/or valve body (26 & 31)
assembly only. Refer to 'Maintenance' procedures.
ASSEMBLY AND INSTALLATION
Numbers in parentheses refer to Fig. 1.
Note: Tighten all fasteners to standard torques listed in
Section 300-0080, STANDARD BOLT AND NUT
TORQUE SPECIFICATIONS.
1. If removed, install treadle (1) assembly on valve
body (26 & 31) assembly.
2. Secure treadle valve assembly to the cab floor with
mounting hardware, as removed at 'Removal and
Disassembly'.
3. Install all air lines to the treadle valve assembly, as
tagged at removal.
4. Connect electrical connection to stop light pressure
switch.
5. Start the engine and allow air pressure in the tanks
to build up to correct operating pressure. Check for
leaks at air lines and tighten as required.
SM 1755 Rev1 04-04
3
BRAKING SYSTEM - Air Tanks and Mounting
Section 250-0170
21
SM - 3184
22
2
15
1
5
22
2
6
2
21
7
6
AIR
DRIER
9
5
1
16
20
5
6
4
20
7
10
11
11
12
7
2
18
19
14 13
3
17
9
8
1
2
3
4
5
6
- Air Tank
- Clamp Assembly
- Bracket Assembly
- Plate Assembly
- Bolt
- Washer
7
8
9
10
11
12
- Locknut
- Bolt
- Lockwasher
- Bolt
- Washer
- Locknut
13
14
15
16
17
18
- Bolt
- Washer
- Bracket Assembly
- Bolt
- Rubber Plate
- Bolt
19
20
21
22
- Washer
- Tilt Drain Valve
- Nut
- Bolt
Fig. 1 - Air Tanks and Mounting - Tractor
DESCRIPTION AND OPERATION
There are four air tanks in the air system; tractor
primary tank, tractor secondary tank and scraper
primary tank, scraper secondary tank. The tractor air
tanks are located on the rear left hand side and right
hand side of the frame respectively. The scraper air
tanks are located on the left hand side of the trailer
frame, forward of the frame cross channel.
steering in both directions several times to relieve any
pressure in the steering system.
2. Block all road wheels and place the battery master
switch in the 'Off' position.
3. Open drain cocks and drain air from all four air
tanks.
Air tanks store compressed air from the engine
compressor until it is required for brake or accessory
operation. Brake tanks maintain an air supply for
normal brake application or for automatic safety brake
application, if pressure drops in the primary tank.
4. Tag all air lines attached to air tanks for easy
identification at 'Installation'. Remove all air lines from
air tanks.
Air pressure in the tanks is indicated on the air system
pressure gauge located on the instrument panel in the
operators compartment.
5. Horizontally mounted air tank (1)- Remove bolts (22)
and nuts (21) securing air tank (1) to clamp assembly
(2). Using suitable lifting aid, remove air tank (1) from
assembly.
REMOVAL
Numbers in parentheses refer to Fig. 1.
6. Remove bolts (5), washers (6) and nuts (7) securing
clamp assemblies (2) to bracket assembly (3) and
plate assembly (4). Remove clamp assemblies (2).
1. Position the vehicle in a level work area, apply the
parking brake and shutdown the engine. Operate the
7. Support air drier assembly and remove bolts (13)
SM 1788 Rev1 04-04
Tractor:
1
Braking System - Air Tanks and Mounting
Section 250-0170
SM - 2232
2
2
1
7
9
8
3
5
4
6
1 - Air Tank
2 - Clamp Assembly
3 - Bolt
4 - Nut
5 - Washer
6 - Bracket Assembly
7 - Bolt
8 - Locknut
9 - Washer
Fig. 2 - Air Tanks and Mounting - Scraper
and lockwashers (14) securing air drier assembly to the
plate assembly (4). Secure air drier clear from plate
assembly (4).
bracket assembly (15) to frame assembly. Using
suitable lifting equipment remove bracket assembly
(15).
8. Using suitable lifting equipment, support Bracket
assembly (3) and remove bolts (8) and lockwashers (9)
securing bracket assembly (3) to frame assembly.
Remove bracket assembly (3) from the machine.
Scraper : Numbers in parentheses refer to Fig. 2
9. Using suitable lifting equipment, support Plate
assembly (4) and remove bolts (10), washers (11) and
nuts (12) securing plate assembly (4) to the frame
assembly. Remove plate assembly from the machine.
10. Vertically orientated tank- Remove bolts (22) and
nuts (21) securing air tank tot clamp assembly (2).
Using suitable lifting aid remove air tank (1) from
assembly.
11. Remove bolts (5), washers (6) and nuts (7)
securing clamp assemblies (2) to bracket assembly
(15). Remove clamp assemblies.
12. Remove bolts (16) and lockwashers (9) securing
2
10. Support air tanks (1) and remove nuts and U bands
from clamp assemblies (2). Remove air tanks (1) from
the machine.
11. Remove bolts (3), washers (5), and nuts (4)
securing clamp assemblies (2) to mounting bracket (6).
Remove clamp assemblies (2).
12 .Using suitable lifting equipment, support mounting
brackets (6) and remove bolts (7), washers (9) and nuts
(8) securing mounting bracket (6) to frame assembly.
Remove mounting bracket from the machine.
INSTALLATION
Numbers in parentheses refer to Fig. 1 & 2.
Note: Tighten all fasteners to standard torques listed in
SM 1788 Rev1 04-04
Section 250-0170
using bolts (8) and lockwashers (9).
8. Using suitable lifting equipment, install air tank (1) in
place on bracket / plate assemblies (3 & 4) and secure
to clamp assemblies (2) using bolts (22) and nuts (21).
Section 300-0020, STANDARD BOLT AND NUT
TORQUE SPECIFICATIONS.
Tractor :
1. Vertically orientated tank- Install clamp assemblies
(2) onto bracket assembly (15) using bolts (5), washers
(6) and nuts (7).
2. Using suitable lifting equipment, position bracket
assembly (15) on frame assembly. Secure to frame
using bolts (16) and lockwashers (9).
3. Install air tank (1) in place on bracket assembly (15)
and secure with bolts (22) and nuts (21).
Scraper :
9. Using suitable lifting equipment, position mounting
bracket (6) on frame assembly and secure in place with
bolts (7), washers (9) and nuts (8).
10. Install air tanks (1) in place on mounting bracket (6)
and secure using clamp assemblies (2)
5. Install all air lines to air tanks (1), as tagged at
'Removal'.
11. Now that all four air tanks are installed- Place
battery master switch in the 'On' position, start the
engine and allow air pressure in the tanks to build up to
correct operating pressure. Check for leaks at air lines
and tighten as required.
4. Horizontal mounted tank- Install clamp assemblies
(2) to plate assembly (4) and bracket assembly (3)
using bolts (5), washers (6) and nuts (7).
5. Using suitable lifting equipment, position plate
assembly on frame assembly and secure in place
using bolts (10), washers (11) and nuts (12).
7. Remove all wheel blocks.
6. Using suitable lifting equipment, position air drier on
plate assembly (4) and secure in position using bolts
(13), and lockwashers (14).
MAINTENANCE
Before starting the shift make sure that drain cocks are
tightly closed.
7. Using suitable lifting equipment, position bracket
assembly (3) on frame assembly and secure in place
*
SM 1788 Rev1 04-04
*
*
*
3
BRAKING SYSTEM - Quick Release Valve
Section 250-0180
DESCRIPTION
SM - 2234
There are two quick release valves fitted to the vehicle,
one in the tractor lines and the other in the scraper
lines. The quick release valves can be identified as
items 11 and 21 in Section 250-0000, AIR BRAKING
SYSTEM SCHEMATIC.
6
1
The front quick release valve is mounted off the rear
left hand side of the tractor frame, adjacent to the
pressure protection valve. The rear quick release valve
is mounted off the rear fuel tank left hand side
mounting bracket.
The quick release valves are installed in the air braking
system adjacent to the brake chambers to hasten the
exhaust of the air from the chambers when the applied
pressure is released, thus speeding up the application
of the brakes.
OPERATION
Refer to Fig. 3
When air is supplied to the supply port at A, the
diaphragm (2) is pushed away from the seat (1) and
against the exhaust seat (3) sealing the exit to port C.
The air now flows around the edge of the circular
flexible diaphragm (2) and passes out of the delivery
ports B and D, to the brake chambers. Refer to Fig. 3.
Refer to Fig. 4
As the applied pressure at A is reduced, the pressure
present in the brake chambers and therefore under the
diaphragm (2) will be greater. The diaphragm (2) lifts
away from seat (3), allowing the air in the brake
chambers to exhaust completely and quickly to
atmosphere through port C. Refer to Fig. 4.
4
5
2
3
5
1 - Quick Release Valve
2 - Bolt
3 - Washer
4 - Locknut
5 - Adaptor
6 - Elbow - 90°
Fig. 1 - Quick Release Valve Installation - Tractor
SM - 2235
6
1
5
REMOVAL/INSTALLATION
Numbers in parentheses refer to Figs. 1 and 2, unless
otherwise specified.
Note: Tighten all fasteners to standard torques listed in
Section 300-0080, STANDARD BOLT AND NUT
TORQUE SPECIFICATIONS.
2
3
1 - Quick Release Valve
2 - Bolt
3 - Washer
4
4 - Reducer
5 - Adaptor
6 - Elbow - 90°
Fig. 2 - Quick Release Valve Installation - Scraper
WARNING
To prevent personal injury and property
damage, be sure wheel chocks, blocking
materials and lifting equipment are properly
secured and of adequate capacity to do the job
safely.
SM 1793 4-99
1. Position the vehicle in a level work area, apply the
parking brake and switch off the engine. Operate the
steering in both directions several times to relieve any
pressure in the steering system.
2. Block all road wheels and place the battery master
switch in the 'Off' position. Open drain cocks on air
tanks and drain air from all four air tanks. Close drain
1
Braking System - Quick Release Valve
Section 250-0180
SM - 2236
SM - 2237
A
A
1
1
D
D
B
B
C
2
1 - Valve Seat
2 - Diaphragm
2
C
3
3
1 - Valve Seat
2 - Diaphragm
3 - Exhaust Seat
Fig. 3 - Quick Release Valve Operation - Supply
3 - Exhaust Seat
Fig. 4 - Quick Release Valve Operation - Exhaust
cocks on air tanks when air is exhausted.
MAINTENANCE
Inspect the quick release valve regularly for any signs
of leakage or damage and repair/replace as required.
3. Clean quick release valve (1) and surrounding area
with a suitable solvent. Ensure all lines connected to
quick release valve (1) are identified for ease of
installation and disconnect lines. Fit blanking caps to
all open lines and ports.
Note: Limited repair of the quick release valve is by
replacement of parts only. Refer to vehicle Parts Book
for part numbers of kits.
4. Remove bolts (2), washers (3) and locknuts
(4, Fig. 1 only) and quick release valve (1) from
mounting bracket.
Leak Checking
5. Note location of adaptors (5), elbow (6) and reducer
(4, Fig. 2 only) and remove from quick release valve (1)
for use on the new valve.
6. Install adaptors (5), elbow (6) and reducer (4, Fig. 2
only) in new quick release valve (1) ports as removed
from the old valve.
Block all road wheels, ensure air tanks are fully
charged and apply the parking brake. Apply a soap
solution to the exhaust port and valve housing and
check for leakage. No leakage is permitted from the
valve housing and any leakage from the exhaust port
must not exceed a 25 mm (1.0 in) diameter soap
bubble in 1 second.
SPECIAL TOOLS
7. Secure quick release valve (1) to mounting bracket with
bolts (2), washers (3) and locknuts (4, Fig. 1 only).
8. Remove blanking caps from air lines and
install lines to quick release valve (1) as identified
during removal.
There are no special tools required for procedures
outlined in this section. Refer to Section 300-0070,
SERVICE TOOLS, for part numbers of general service
tools required. These tools are available from your
dealer.
9. Place master switch in the 'On' position, start the
engine and allow air pressure in the tanks to build up to
correct operating pressure. Check for leaks at air lines
and tighten as required.
10. Remove wheel blocks.
*
2
*
*
*
SM 1793 4-99
BRAKING SYSTEM - Park/Emergency Control Valve
Section 250-0190
SM - 2240
27
24 25
26
23
22
21
20
19
18
17
16
15
14
13
12
DELIVERY AIR PORT
11
10
6 9
8
7
SUPPLY AIR PORT
EXHAUST PORT
5
1
4
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
- Valve Body
- Adjuster Screw Plate
- Adjuster Screw
- Spring Cup
- Graduating Spring
- Piston Assembly
- Lower Half Piston
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
3
- Exhaust Valve
- Exhaust Passage
- Valve Spring
- Lower Half Piston
- Annular Chamber
- Air Transfer Hole
- Chamber
2
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
- Valve Seat
- Valve Plunger
- Spring
- Chamber
- Cam Follower
- Bracket/Spacer
- Nylon Cam
22
23
24
25
26
27
- Valve Cover
- Screw
- Torsion Spring
- Cam Pivot
- Pin
- Control Lever
Fig. 1 - Sectional View of TypicalPark/Emergency Control Valve - Lever in Brake 'Release' Position
DESCRIPTION
OPERATION
The park/emergency brake control valve can be
identified as item 8 in Section 250-0000, AIR
BRAKING SYSTEM SCHEMATIC.
Numbers in parentheses refer to Fig. 1.
The park/emergency brake control valve is mounted
on the right hand side dash panel in the operators
compartment.
The valve controls air pressure delivery to the relay
emergency valve for actuation of brake chambers to
apply the brakes. In the 'PARK' position it exhausts the
air from the spring applied brake chambers, to apply
the parking brake.
SM 1795 4-99
When control lever (27) is in the 'Release' position, the
vehicle spring brakes are held off by the maintenance
of air pressure in the brake chambers.
Cam (21) has pushed down cam follower (19) and
plunger (16) against spring (17) to close exhaust
passage (9). The existing delivery pressure in
chamber (18) has pushed down piston assembly (6)
against graduating spring (5) to close inlet valve seat
(15) on inlet/exhaust valve (8). The valve is now
'lapped', ie. both the inlet and exhaust valves are
1
Braking System - Park/Emergency Control Valve
Section 250-0190
closed. A constant pressure is being maintained in
chamber (18) and in the spring brake chambers.
When the control lever (27) is moved against torsion
spring (24) towards the vehicle 'Park' position, the
diminishing profile of nylon cam (21) allows spring (17)
to lift valve plunger (16), thus uncovering exhaust
passage (9). Since exhaust valve (8) remains seated
on valve seat (15), the air pressure in the spring brake
chambers and in chamber (18) commences to exhaust
to atmosphere through exhaust passage (9).
If the control lever (27) movement is halted between
brakes 'Release' and vehicle 'Park', the falling
pressure in chamber (18) allows graduating spring (5)
to lift piston assembly (6) until valve plunger (16)
closes exhaust passage (9). Since exhaust valve (8)
remains seated on valve seat (15), the valve is again
lapped, although with a lower air pressure in chamber
(18) and in the spring brake chambers.
In the vehicle 'Park' position, valve plunger (16) has
made a full upstroke so that air pressure in the spring
brake chambers and chamber (18) is completely
exhausted through exhaust passage (9). This allows
graduating spring (5) to lift piston assembly (6) to the
top of it's stroke. However, exhaust passage (9)
remains open and as inlet/exhaust valve (8) is still
seated on valve seat (15), no supply air can enter
chamber (18) and the vehicle brakes are now held on
by the springs in the brake chambers.
When the control lever (27) is moved from vehicle
'Park' towards brakes 'Release', the increasing profile
of nylon cam (21) depresses cam follower (19) and
valve plunger (16) until exhaust passage (9) is closed
and inlet/exhaust valve (8) is unseated from valve
seat (15). An increasing air pressure is then admitted
to chamber(18) and the spring brake chambers to
release the vehicle brakes. The maximum delivered
pressure is limited by the setting of graduating spring
(5).
REMOVAL
Numbers in parentheses refer to Fig. 1.
WARNING
To prevent personal injury and property
damage, be sure wheel blocks are properly
secured and of adequate capacity to do the job
safely.
1. Position the vehicle in a level work area, move
control lever (1) to the 'Park' position and switch off the
engine.
2. Block all road wheels and place the battery master
switch in the 'Off' position. Open drain cocks on air
tanks and drain air from all four air tanks. Close drain
cocks on air tanks when air is exhausted.
3. Clean valve (1) and surrounding area with a suitable
solvent. Support valve body and remove mounting
hardware securing valve body to dash panel.
4. Ease valve body up from the dash panel. Tag and
disconnect air lines and electrical connection from
valve body, to aid in installation. Fit blanking caps to all
open lines and ports.
5. Remove valve body from the dash panel.
INSTALLATION
Numbers in parentheses refer to Fig. 1.
Note: Tighten all fasteners to standard torques listed
in Section 300-0080, STANDARD BOLT AND NUT
TORQUE SPECIFICATION.
1. Position valve on dash panel and install air lines and
electrical connection to valve body, as tagged at
'Removal'.
2. Secure valve body to dash panel using mounting
hardware as removed at 'Removal'.
3. Start engine and allow air pressure in the tanks to
build up to correct operating pressure. Check for leaks
at air lines and tighten as required.
4. Check operation of park/emergency control valve
for correct operation in both positions.
2
SM 1795 4-99
Braking System - Park/Emergency Control Valve
Section 250-0190
TESTING
exhaust port when the control lever is in the 'Release'
position or 'Park' position.
Numbers in parentheses refer to Fig. 1.
If the valve is found to be leaking, it must be replaced.
Block all road wheels and ensure air tanks are fully
charged. With control lever (27) in the 'Park' position,
there should be no pressure at the delivery ports.
When control lever (27) is moved to the 'Release'
position, the delivered air pressure rises in proportion
to the amount of handle movement. At the 'Release'
position, the delivered air pressure should be at the
specified maximum setting.
MAINTENANCE
The park/emergency control valve is a non-serviceable
item and should be replaced completely if damaged.
SPECIAL TOOLS
When testing for air leaks, apply a soap solution to the
exhaust port and valve housing and check for leakage.
No leakage is permitted from the valve housing or
*
SM 1795 4-99
*
There are no special tools required for procedures
outlined in this section. Refer to Section 300-0020,
SERVICE TOOLS, for part numbers of general service
tools required. These tools are available from your
dealer.
*
*
3
BRAKING SYSTEM - Air Drier
Section 250-0200
SM - 2636
5
8
7
PORT 4
PORT 22
3
4
6
1
PORT 1
PORT 21
PORT 3
2
1 - Air Drier
2 - Air Compressor
3 - Safety Valve
4 - Unloader Valve
5 - Desiccant Cartridge
6 - Check Valve
7 - Orifice
8 - Purge Tank
Fig. 1 - Air Drier Schematic
DESCRIPTION
Numbers in parentheses refer to Fig. 1.
The air drier is mounted off the air tank mounting
bracket at the rear left hand side of the tractor frame,
with the purge tank located inboard of the left hand
frame rail.
The purpose of the air drier is to filter the air from the
compressor to remove any oil and moisture before it
enters the primary air tank.
Note: An air system maintained to proper specification
can lead to prolonged component life. It is important
therefore to follow the servicing procedures contained
in this section.
The external components of the air drier system are
air compressor (2), purge tank (8) and air drier (1).
Contained in air drier (1) body is a safety valve (3),
unloader valve (4), desiccant cartridge (5) and orificed
check valve (6 & 7).
Safety valve (3) limits the maximum system pressure
to 13 bar (191 lbf/in2).
SM 2284 04-04
Air drier unloader valve (4) controls the supply of air to
the system by stopping and starting delivery of air by
the compressor (2), when maximum and minimum
system pressures are reached.
Orificed check valve (6 & 7) meters compressed air
flowing into purge tank (8) and traps air in the primary
air tank during the purging cycle.
OPERATION
Delivery Air Flow
Numbers in parentheses refer to Fig. 1.
Air from air compressor (2) enters air drier (1) inlet port
1, flows past safety valve (3), through desiccant
cartridge (5), orificed check valve (6 & 7) through port
22 into purge tank (8) and air tank reservoirs via the
pressure protection valve.
Humid air from the compressor passes up and down
the air drier cartridge. The dirt in the air is collected in
the filter and water molecules adhere to the desiccant.
Air flows through the desiccant and out of air drier (1)
which results in clean dry air flowing into purge tank
(8) and the air reservoirs.
1
Braking System - Air Drier
Section 250-0200
SM - 2280
2
1
3
A
B
D
1 - Purge Tank
2 - Desiccant
3 - Oil Filter
4 - Unloader Valve
5 - Check Valve
6 - Purge Choke
7 - Purge Valve
E
7
5
4
6
C
A - Supply from Compressor
B - Delivery to Press. Protection Valve
C - Exhaust
D - Output to Compressor Unloading Device
E - Delivery to Purge Tank
Fig. 2 - Typical Purging Air Flow
Purging Air Flow
SM - 2637
Numbers in parentheses refer to Fig. 1.
When system pressure reaches 8.4 bar (122 lbf/in²),
the air pressure overcomes spring tension in purge
valve which forces the spool down. This unloads air
compressor (2) by opening unloader valve (4) and
allowing the air to flow out of purge tank (8), through
orifice (7), unloader valve (4) and air drier (1) drain to
atmosphere.
Numbers in parentheses refer to Fig. 2.
When air pressure reaches 8.4 bar (122 lbf/in²), air
enters unloader valve (4) moving the piston allowing air
through to purge valve (7). Once the purge valve (7) is
open, the air compressor now pumps air at low
pressure directly to atmosphere. Dirt and water
collected around unloader valve (4) flows out of
exhaust port (C) to atmosphere.
Dry air from purge tank (1) flows through the purge
choke (6) and desiccant (2) carrying the water
molecules out of exhaust port (C) to atmosphere.
This purging process continues until purge tank (1)
pressure is zero or until unloader valve (4) closes at
2
UNLOADER
VALVE
1
2
OUTLET TO
AIR TANK
HEATER
PLUG
3
AIR INLET
FROM COMPRESSOR
PURGE
VOLUME PORT
EXHAUST PORT
Fig. 3 - Port and Valve Identification
7.5 bar (109 lbf/in2) and once again compressed air
passes through the desiccant cartridge.
SM 2284 04-04
Braking System - Air Drier
Section 250-0200
REMOVAL
Operation
Numbers in parentheses refer to Fig. 1.
WARNING
To prevent personal injury and property
damage, be sure wheel blocks are properly
secured and of adequate capacity to do the job
safely.
1. Position the vehicle in a level work area, apply the
parking brake and switch off the engine. Operate the
steering in both directions several times to relieve any
pressure in the steering system.
When primary tank air pressure under valve (3)
exceeds the maximum valve setting of 13 bar
(191 lbf/in²), the valve is forced off its seat, permitting
air to escape through exhaust port '3' to atmosphere.
Testing
Operating Test - The valve must open (exhaust) when
the pressure applied at the supply port 'P-1' is above
13 bar (191 lbf/in²). The valve should exhaust sharply,
with a 'pop' action.
2. Place the battery master switch in the 'Off' position,
block all road wheels, open drain valves on air tanks
and drain air from all four air tanks. Close drain valves
on air tanks when air is exhausted. Carefully loosen the
union nut at purge port (22, Fig. 3) and delivery port 1
on air drier to relieve any trapped air.
Leakage Test - With the air system at operating
pressure, test for leakage by applying soap suds to
valve body and exhaust port. If leakage exceeds a
25 mm soap bubble in 5 seconds, replace the valve
assembly.
3. Tag and carefully disconnect all air lines from the air
drier body ports.
ASSEMBLY/INSTALLATION
Numbers in parentheses refer to Fig. 2.
Note: All ports on air drier have numbers cast into
housing for identification purposes.
4. Remove mounting hardware attaching the air drier to
the air tank mounting bracket. Move the air drier
assembly to a clean work area for 'Disassembly'.
Note: Tighten all fasteners to standard torques listed
in Section 300-0080, STANDARD BOLT AND NUT
TORQUE SPECIFICATION.
1. Install new 'O' ring on desiccant cartridge (2).
5. Remove desiccant cartridge and 'O' ring from air
drier body. Discard 'O' ring.
2. Install desiccant cartridge (2) assembly on drier
body- Tighten by hand to approx 15 Nm (11 Ibf ft).
UNLOADER VALVE
Note: The new desiccant cartridge (2) must be kept in
its plastic bag until it is installed. If not the desiccant
will absorb moisture and lose its efficiency.
Disassembly / Assembly
Unloader valve components should be replaced as a
complete assembly when removed from air drier
assembly. Do not reassemble using old components.
3. Position air drier assembly on air tank mounting
bracket and secure in place with mounting hardware
as removed at 'Removal'.
The entire body assembly should be cleaned using a
suitable cleaning fluid and thoroughly dried.
4. Connect all air lines to the air drier body, as tagged
at 'Removal'.
SAFETY VALVE
Description
The safety valve protects the air brake system against
excessive air pressure build up. It is a spring loaded
valve subjected to reservoir pressure which will permit
air to exhaust reservoir pressure to atmosphere if
reservoir pressure rises above the valves' pressure
setting. The safety valve is set to open at a pressure
of 13 bar (191 lbf/in²).
SM 2284 04-04
5. Start the engine and allow the air pressure in the air
tanks to build up to correct operating pressure. Refer
to Section 250-0000, AIR BRAKING SYSTEM
SCHEMATIC. Check for leaks at air lines and tighten
as required.
CHECKING AIR DRIER OPERATION
1. Charge the air system until the unloader valve cutout
pressure is reached. Refer to Section 250-0000, AIR
BRAKING SYSTEM SCHEMATIC. At this point the air
3
Braking System - Air Drier
Section 250-0200
drier unloader valve opens allowing air compressor
output, purge tank air and collected water, dirt and oil
to flow out of the drain at the bottom of the air drier. If
this does not happen, then check for a plugged drain,
unloader valve pressure setting.
4. If water is present, the desiccant cartridge must be
replaced and the components in the air drier body
checked for proper operation.
2. The unloading phase continues until the unloader
valve cut-in pressure is reached. Refer to
Section 250-0000, AIR BRAKING SYSTEM
SCHEMATIC. This closes the unloader valve and the
compressor starts charging the air system again. At
this point air flow coming out of the air drier drain
stops. If air flow does not stop, check for a partially
open unloader valve or check cut-in pressure setting.
The following table lists some of the conditions which
could prove responsible for air drier malfunctioning.
The reasons and remedies to correct these conditions
are listed opposite each condition.
AIR DRIER DIAGNOSIS
WARNING
Always shut off the engine, completely drain
the air system, and make sure the air drier is
completely purged of all air pressure before
loosening air lines or fittings to prevent
personal injury.
3. Every 2 000 hours/12 months replace the desiccant
cartridge. The desiccant cartridge service life is
determined by the air quality delivered by the air
compressor and the compressor charging time.
Polluted air and long charging times reduce desiccant
cartridge service life.
AIR DRIER DIAGNOSIS CHART
CONDITION
Air continually blows out of drain
port while compressor is pumping
Leakage occurs while air
compressor is unloaded:
A - Continuous leakage
B - Pulsating leakage
Continuous on-off purge cycle
Air drier not purging or cycling
Large amount of water in primary
tank
REASON
Unloader valve held open by foreign
particles on the valve seat
Faulty unloader valve
REMEDY
Disassemble and clean unloader
valve assembly.
Disconnect pilot line from the
unloader valve. If leak stops and air
is being expelled from the unloader
valve line, unloader valve is the
problem. Repair or replace unloader
valve.
Faulty check valve at air drier
Faulty unloader valve
valve.
No/Faulty check valve at air drier
Primary tank drain valve open
Unloader valve malfunction
Replace air drier.
Clean, rebuild or replace unloader
Signal line hooked up to wrong
unloader valve port or at air drier
Signal line plugged
blockage.
Desiccant cartridge plugged
Desiccant saturated with water
*
4
*
*
Install or replace air drier.
Close drain cock
If cycling occurred when air
compressor was unloaded, check
unloader valve for by-pass leakage.
Check unloader valve high-low
limits.
Check lines. Line must go from air
drier to unloader valve unloaded
port.
Remove signal line and check for
Replace desiccant cartridge.
Not enough cooling of air. Check for
air line too near engine exhaust, etc.
*
SM 2284 04-04
BRAKING SYSTEM - Brake Chamber
Section 250-0260
SM - 2198
25
23
24
22
22
1
21
20
2
3
4
5
1
2
3
4
- Mounting Stud
- Push Rod
- Wiper
- Service Brake Chamber
(Non-pressure)
5 - Non-pressure Plate
6 - Return Spring
6
7
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
8
9
10
11
12 13 14
- Service Brake Diaphragm
- Clamp Ring
- Housing
- Service Brake Chamber
- Power Spring Chamber
- Push Pad
- Piston Tube
14
15
16
17
18
19
15 16 17
18
- Collar
- Piston
- Shoulder
- Snap Ring
- Power Spring
- Aluminium Head
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
- Release Bolt
- Snap-on Cap
- Rubber Elbow
- Breather Tube
- Lug
- Seal
Fig. 1 - Cutaway View of Brake Chamber (Spring Brake Held off)
DESCRIPTION
Numbers in parentheses refer to Fig. 1.
The spring brake actuator combines the functions of
normal service braking with those of a parking and
secondary brake. Parking and secondary braking is
effected by the park/emergency brake valve which
releases compressed air from the power spring
chamber (11) portion of the actuator. This allows the
power spring (18) to expand and transmit its force to
the vehicle brakes through the service brake push
rod (2).
SM 1782 4-99
To release the vehicle brake, the park/emergency
brake valve is operated to readmit compressed air to
the power spring chamber (11). The spring (18) is
then 'held off' by the maintenance of air pressure in
the chamber. If the vehicle needs to be moved when
air pressure is unavailable, the power spring (18)
force on the brake push rod (2) can be relieved by
unscrewing the release bolt (20) in the end of the
actuator.
1
Braking System - Brake Chamber
Section 250-0260
OPERATION
Parking Brake
Normal Driving
In its 'OFF' position, the park/emergency brake valve
maintains a constant air pressure on the spring brake
piston. The resulting compression of the power spring
holds off the vehicle brake. This system ensures that
the vehicle cannot be moved until sufficient air
pressure is available to hold off the power spring.
Refer to Fig. 2.
Moving the park/emergency brake valve from the
'OFF' position towards the 'PARK' position gradually
releases the air pressure from the spring brake
chamber and allows the power spring to extend.
Progressive secondary braking is provided by the
increasing spring pressure on the service brake push
rod. At 'PARK' the air pressure has been fully
exhausted and the vehicle brake is held on by the
force of the power spring alone. Refer to Fig. 4.
SM - 2193
Fig. 2 - Normal Driving
SM - 2195
Fig. 4 - Parking Brake
Service Brake
Manual Release
The service brake chamber is of the conventional
diaphragm type. The vehicle service braking effort is
controlled by the foot operated treadle brake valve.
The valve supplies a graduable air pressure to the
service brake chamber while the spring brake
continues to be held off by air pressure from the
park/emergency brake valve. Refer to Fig. 3.
The readily accessible brake spring release bolt
allows the vehicle to be moved in the absence of air
pressure and permits the safe and speedy servicing
of the actuator and foundation brake. Refer to Fig. 5.
SM - 2196
SM - 2194
Fig. 5 - Manual Release
Fig. 3 - Service Brake
2
SM 1782 4-99
Braking System - Brake Chamber
Section 250-0260
REMOVAL
Numbers in parentheses refer to Fig. 1.
WARNING
To prevent personal injury and property
damage, be sure wheel chocks, blocking
materials and lifting equipment are properly
secured and of adequate capacity to do the job
safely.
1. Position the vehicle in a level work area, apply the
parking brake and switch off the engine. Operate the
steering in both directions several times to relieve
any pressure in the steering system.
2. Block all road wheels and place the battery master
switch in the 'Off' position.
3. Open drain cocks on air tanks and drain air from
all four air tanks. Close drain cocks on air tanks
when air is exhausted.
1. Install brake chamber on mounting bracket and
secure using mounting hardware as removed at
'Removal'.
2. Connect clevis assembly to slack adjuster with pin
and cotter pin as removed at 'Removal'.
3. Remove plugs from air lines and connect to brake
chamber as tagged at 'Removal'.
4. Tighten release bolt (20) and install snap-on cap
(21).
5. Start engine and allow air pressure in the tanks to
build up to correct operating pressure. Check for
leaks at air lines and tighten as required.
6. Check operation of brake chamber for correct
operation in both positions.
SERVICING
Numbers in parentheses refer to Fig. 1.
4. Release spring pressure on brake chambers by
removing snap-on cap (21) and loosening release bolt
(20). Refer to Fig. 5.
5. Remove cotter pin and clevis pin from clevis and
slack adjuster.
6. Ensure air lines are identified for ease of
installation and disconnect air lines from brake
chamber. Fit blanking caps to all open lines and
ports.
7. Support brake chamber and remove nuts and
lockwashers from mounting studs (1). Remove brake
chamber from mounting bracket.
INSTALLATION
Numbers in parentheses refer to Fig. 1.
WARNING
To prevent personal injury and property
damage, be sure wheel chocks, blocking
materials and lifting equipment are properly
secured and of adequate capacity to do the job
safely.
Note: Tighten all fasteners without special torques
specified, to standard torques listed in
Section 300-0080, STANDARD BOLT AND NUT
TORQUE SPECIFICATIONS.
SM 1782 4-99
EVERY 300 HOURS brakes should be adjusted at the
slack adjuster. Push-rod travel should be as short as
possible without brakes dragging. Excessive travel
not only shortens the normal service life of the
diaphragm but gives slow braking response and
wastes air. Push rod to slack adjuster alignment
should be checked in both the applied and released
position. The rod should move out and return
promptly without binding. Check the angle formed by
the slack adjuster arm and push rod. It should be 90°
or greater when the actuator is in the applied position
when brakes are properly adjusted.
TESTING
Numbers in parentheses refer to Fig. 1.
1. Position the vehicle in a level work area and block
all road wheels.
2. With brakes in released position, make several
service brake applications. Push rod (2) should
extend and retract freely.
3. Actuate park/emergency brake control lever and
check to see if push rod (2) extends. Drain air
reservoirs, and check to see that push rod remains
extended. Close air reservoir drain, and fully charge
air system. Make a full service brake application by
depressing treadle valve, and hold about 5 seconds.
Push rod should retract freely when treadle valve is
released.
3
Braking System - Brake Chamber
Section 250-0260
Leak Checking
MAINTENANCE
Ensure all road wheels are chocked. Detach tube
(23) from elbow (22) at the head (19). Apply a soap
solution liberally to the service chamber vents, push
rod opening, the open end of tube (23), clamp ring (8)
and open elbow (22).
Inspect the brake chambers regularly for any signs of
leakage or damage and repair/replace as required.
Apply full air pressure in turn to the service and
spring brake chambers. Watch closely for any soap
bubbles indicating air leakage. With service chamber
air applied no leakage is permitted at the service
chamber vents, push rod opening or tube end. Only
slight frothing is permitted at the clamp ring. With
spring chamber air applied, any leakage at the open
elbow (22) must not exceed a 25 mm (1 inch)
diameter soap bubble in 10 seconds.
*
4
*
Note: Limited repair of the brake chambers is by
replacement of parts only. Refer to vehicle Parts
Book for part numbers of kits.
SPECIAL TOOLS
There are no special tools required for procedures
outlined in this section. Refer to Section 300-0070,
SERVICE TOOLS, for part numbers of general
service tools required. These tools are available from
your dealer.
*
*
SM 1782 4-99
BRAKING SYSTEM - Relay Emergency Valve
Section 250-0280
SM - 2258
1
2
24
23
3
4
17
18
5
19
6
7
8
9
10
11
22
12
21
20
13
14
15
1
2
3
4
5
6
- Valve Body - Upper
- 'O' Ring
- Piston - Upper
- 'O' Ring
- Distance Piece
- Piston - Lower
7
8
9
10
11
12
16
- Inlet/Exhaust Valve
- 'O' Ring
- Valve Body - Lower
- Spring Seat
- Spring
- 'O' Ring
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
- 'O' Ring
- Circlip
- Valve Guide
- Exhaust Check Valve
- Circlip
- Valve Ring
- Valve Rubber
- Rivet
- Part Number Label
- Bolt
- Lockwasher
- Nut
Fig. 1 - Cutaway View of Relay Emergency Valve
DESCRIPTION
There are two relay emergency (anti-compounding)
valves fitted to the vehicle, one in the tractor lines and
the other in the scraper lines. The relay emergency
valves can be identified as items 7 and 19 in Section
250-0000, AIR BRAKING SYSTEM SCHEMATIC.
SM - 2259
42
41
9
c
1
8
b
The front relay emergency valve is mounted off the
rear left hand side of the tractor frame, in front of the
air tanks. The rear relay emergency valve is mounted
off the left hand side of the bowl and tail frame,
adjacent to the fuel tank.
2
a
3
The relay emergency valves speed the application and
release of air pressure to and from tractor and scraper
brake chambers. The relay emergency valves are also
used as a means of preventing the force from the
spring brake and service diaphragm being applied to
the foundation brake at the same time.
1
2
3
7
1
2
3
4
6
- Piston
- Piston
- Chamber A
- Inlet/Exhaust Valve
5
5
6
7
8
9
4
- Spring
- Inlet Seat
- Exhaust Seat
- Chamber B
- Chamber C
Fig. 2 - Operational View of Relay Emergency Valve
SM 1800 Rev1 04-04
1
Braking System - Relay Emergency Valve
Section 250-0280
SM - 2251
SM - 2252
2
2
3
3
4
4
41
41
42
4
42
2
2
4
4
3
1
1
6
5
1 - Relay Emergency Valve
2 - Locknut
3 - Washer
3
1
1
6
5
4 - Adaptor
5 - Elbow - 90°
6 - Plug
Fig. 3 - Relay Emergency Valve Installation - Tractor
OPERATION
Numbers in parentheses refer to Fig. 2.
Pressure from the park/emergency control valve is
supplied via port 42 to chamber C where it acts upon
piston (1). Under the action of the pressure in chamber
C, piston (1) moves down and contacts the back of
piston (2); they then move down together and close
the exhaust seat (7). The application of further
pressure causes pistons (1 & 2) to move the inlet/
exhaust valve (4) down again and open the inlet seat
(6) thereby permitting air to flow from the supply port 1
into chamber A and out through delivery port 2 to the
spring brake chambers. The pressure in chamber A
acts on the underside of piston (2) and forces the
pistons up until the inlet/exhaust valve (4), under the
action of spring (5), is in a lapped condition (both the
inlet (6) and exhaust (7) seats closed).
When the pressure from the park/emergency control
valve is reduced the pressure in chamber C falls and
the pressure in chamber A forces pistons (1 & 2) up
and the exhaust seat (7) is opened allowing air from
the delivery port and the spring brake chambers to
2
4
1 - Relay Emergency Valve
2 - Locknut
3 - Washer
4 - Adaptor
5 - Elbow - 90°
6 - Plug
Fig. 4 - Relay Emergency Valve Installation - Scraper
flow out of the exhaust port 3. The pressure in
chamber A continues to fall until the pressure in
chamber C is sufficient to close the exhaust seat (7).
When the vehicle is running the power spring in the
spring brake chamber is held compressed by air
pressure from the relay emergency valve and, when
the vehicle is required to be parked, the park/
emergency control valve delivery is vented and
pressure in the spring brake is exhausted through the
relay emergency valves allowing the force from the
power spring to apply the vehicle foundation brakes.
Should the service brake be applied in this condition
then air pressure is supplied from the treadle valve to
both the service diaphragm of the spring brake
chamber and to chamber B of relay emergency valve
via port 41. This forces piston (2) down to close
exhaust seat (7) and open inlet seat (6) thereby
reinstating air pressure to the spring brake chambers
to compress the power spring and prevent its force
compounding that from the service brake diaphragm. If
the service brake pressure from the treadle valve is
released then the pressure in the spring brake will be
exhausted through the relay valves and the parking
brake will be reapplied.
SM 1800 Rev1 04-04
Braking System - Relay Emergency Valve
Section 250-0280
REMOVAL/INSTALLATION
emergency valve (1) ports as removed from the old
valve.
Numbers in parentheses refer to Figs. 3 & 4.
7. Secure relay emergency valve (1) to mounting
bracket using nuts (3) and lockwashers (2).
Note: Tighten all fasteners to standard torques listed
in Section 300-0080, STANDARD BOLT AND NUT
TORQUE SPECIFICATIONS.
8. Remove blanking caps from air lines and
install lines to relay emergency valve (1) as identified
during removal.
WARNING
To prevent personal injury and property
damage, be sure wheel chocks, blocking
materials and lifting equipment are properly
secured and of adequate capacity to do the job
safely.
9. Place master switch in the 'On' position, start the
engine and allow air pressure in the tanks to build up
to correct operating pressure. Check for leaks at air
lines and tighten as required.
1. Position the vehicle in a level work area, apply the
parking brake and switch off the engine. Operate the
steering in both directions several times to relieve any
pressure in the steering system.
10. Remove wheel blocks.
MAINTENANCE
Inspect the relay emergency valve regularly for any
signs of leakage or damage and repair/replace as
required.
2. Block all road wheels and place the battery master
switch in the 'Off' position. Open drain cocks on air
tanks and drain air from all four air tanks. Close drain
cocks on air tanks when air is exhausted.
3. Clean relay emergency valve (1) and surrounding
area with a suitable solvent. Ensure all lines connected
to relay emergency valve (1) are identified for ease of
installation and disconnect lines. Fit blanking caps to
all open lines and ports.
4. Support valve body and remove nuts (3) and
lockwashers (2) securing relay emergency valve (1) to
its mounting. Remove relay emergency valve (1) from
vehicle.
Block all road wheels, ensure air tanks are fully
charged and apply the parking brake. Apply a soap
solution to the valve housing and pipe joints and check
for leakage. No leakage is permitted from the valve
housing or joints.
There are no special tools required for procedures
outlined in this section. Refer to Section 300-0070,
SERVICE TOOLS, for part numbers of general service
tools required. These tools are available from your
dealer.
6. Replace all 'O' rings and install adaptor (4), elbow
(5), reducer (6) and tee piece (7) in new relay
SM 1800 Rev1 04-04
Leak Checking
SPECIAL TOOLS
5. Note location of adaptor (4), elbow (5), reducer (6)
and tee piece (7) and remove from relay emergency
valve (1) for use on the new valve.
*
Note: Limited repair of the relay emergency valve is
by replacement of parts only. Refer to vehicle Parts
Book for part numbers of kits.
*
*
*
3
BRAKING SYSTEM - Relay Valve
Section 250-0280
DESCRIPTION
SM - 2238
The relay valve can be identified as item 18 in
Section 250-0000, AIR BRAKING SYSTEM
SCHEMATIC.
1
Mounted off the rear fuel tank right hand mounting
bracket, the relay valve is located in the air lines
between the treadle valve and rear brake chambers.
The relay valve speeds the application and release of
air pressure to and from tractor and scraper brake
chambers.
6
7
OPERATION
4
Numbers in parenthesis refer to Fig. 2.
5
When a signal pressure is applied to port D air flows
into chamber C between the cover A and the top of the
piston B. A relatively small applied pressure reacts
quickly over the large area of piston B, which is forced
down. This movement of the piston closes the exhaust
passage as the valve seat N seals against the inlet/
exhaust valve G, which is also moved down against
the return spring K and opens the inlet at L. Air now
flows from the reservoir port F past the open valve
chamber M, and from there it passes out of one of the
delivery ports. This flow continues until the combined
forces of the piston and valve return springs and the
air pressure beneath the piston balance the force of
the applied air pressure above the piston. The piston
now lifts sufficiently to allow the valve to rise and close
the inlet at L. The valve is now in the 'lapped' condition
with both the inlet and the exhaust closed.
3
2
4
5
6
7
1 - Relay Valve
2 - Bolt
3 - Lockwasher
- Adaptor
- Elbow - 90°
- Reducer
- Tee Piece
Fig. 1 - Relay Valve Installation
SM - 2239
M
N
A
B
C
D
L
If the signal pressure is reduced at D, the forces below
the piston are now greater and the piston rises until
the valve seat N is lifted clear of the valve, allowing air
to exhaust through the hollow in the piston at J, and
out to atmosphere past the rubber flap at H.
F
K
The exhaustion continues until the force below the
piston is reduced to balance that above the piston and
the exhaust closes again, lapping the valve.
These procedures are repeated instantly the applied
pressure at port D is varied, either up or down, the
valve being self-lapping under all conditions.
SM 1794 4-99
J
H
G
Fig. 2 - Cutaway View of Relay Valve
1
Braking System - Relay Valve
Section 250-0280
REMOVAL/INSTALLATION
(5), reducer (6) and tee piece (7) in new relay valve (1)
ports as removed from the old valve.
Numbers in parentheses refer to Fig. 1.
Note: Tighten all fasteners to standard torques listed
in Section 300-0080, STANDARD BOLT AND NUT
TORQUE SPECIFICATIONS.
7. Secure relay valve (1) to mounting bracket using
bolts (2) and lockwashers (3).
8. Remove blanking caps from air lines and
install lines to relay valve (1) as identified during
removal.
WARNING
To prevent personal injury and property
damage, be sure wheel chocks, blocking
materials and lifting equipment are properly
secured and of adequate capacity to do the job
safely.
9. Place master switch in the 'On' position, start the
engine and allow air pressure in the tanks to build up
to correct operating pressure. Check for leaks at air
lines and tighten as required.
1. Position the vehicle in a level work area, apply the
parking brake and switch off the engine. Operate the
steering in both directions several times to relieve any
pressure in the steering system.
10. Remove wheel blocks.
MAINTENANCE
Inspect the relay valve regularly for any signs of
leakage or damage and repair/replace as required.
2. Block all road wheels and place the battery master
switch in the 'Off' position. Open drain cocks on air
tanks and drain air from all four air tanks. Close drain
cocks on air tanks when air is exhausted.
Note: Limited repair of the relay valve is by
replacement of parts only. Refer to vehicle Parts Book
for part numbers of kits.
3. Clean relay valve (1) and surrounding area with a
suitable solvent. Ensure all lines connected to relay
valve (1) are identified for ease of installation and
disconnect lines. Fit blanking caps to all open lines
and ports.
Leak Checking
Block all road wheels, ensure air tanks are fully
charged and apply the parking brake. Apply a soap
solution to the valve housing and pipe joints and check
for leakage. No leakage is permitted from the valve
housing or joints.
4. Support valve body and remove bolts (2) and
lockwashers (3) securing relay valve (1) to it's
mounting. Remove relay valve (1) from vehicle.
SPECIAL TOOLS
5. Note location of adaptor (4), elbow (5), reducer (6)
and tee piece (7) and remove from relay valve (1) for
use on the new valve.
There are no special tools required for procedures
outlined in this section. Refer to Section 300-0070,
SERVICE TOOLS, for part numbers of general service
tools required. These tools are available from your
dealer.
6. Replace all 'O' rings and install adaptor (4), elbow
*
2
*
*
*
SM 1794 4-99
BRAKING SYSTEM - Air Pressure Protection Valve
Section 250-0290
DESCRIPTION
SM - 3187
8
The 4 way pressure protection valve can be identified
as item 6 in Section 250-0000, AIR BRAKING
SYSTEM SCHEMATIC.
11
5
4
7
3
Mounted off the rear left hand side of the tractor frame,
adjacent to the primary air tank, the pressure protection
valve is located in the air compressor and air drier
delivery line, immediately prior to the air tanks.
Numbers in parenthesis refer to Fig. 1.
Air from the compressor enters the valve through port
'1'. While valves are seated, air flow through delivery
ports '21', '22', '23' and '24' are restricted and pressure
is exerted on pistons. When air pressure reaches the
predetermined settings, pistons move upward, valves
are unseated and air flows through delivery ports '21',
'22', '23' and '24'. Valve remains open until air pressure
at port '1' drops below the predetermined setting. At
this point, piston return springs and valve return
springs return pistons and valves to the closed
position.
1
6
6
The pressure protection valve supplies air to all four
tanks for the service brakes, secondary braking and
accessory air devices, such as the air seat and air
horn. If a pressure drop or failure is experienced in one
circuit of the air system, the valve closes, isolating the
circuit, enabling the compressor to continue to
recharge the unfailed circuits.
OPERATION
2
7
10
9
1
2
3
4
5
-
6
7
Pressure Protection Valve
Mounting Bracket
Lockwasher
Locknut
Elbow - 90°
6 - Adaptor
7 - Tee Piece
8 - Pressure Switch
9 - Elbow - 90°
10 - Reducer
11 - Adaptor
Fig 1. - Pressure Protection Valve Installation
SM - 1950
Rear
Primary
Tank &
Treadle
Valve
Front
Primary
Tank &
Treadle
Valve
1
22
21
MAINTENANCE
Numbers in parentheses refer to Fig. 1.
24
The pressure protection valve is a non-serviceable item
and should be replaced completely, if damaged, as
follows:
Note: Tighten all fasteners to standard torques listed in
Section 300-0080, STANDARD BOLT AND NUT
TORQUE SPECIFICATIONS.
Auxiliary
Air Horn &
Air Seat
23
Front & Rear
Secondary
Tanks & Park Brake
Valve
Fig. 2 - Pressure Protection Valve Schematic
steering in both directions several times to relieve any
pressure in the steering system.
WARNING
To prevent personal injury and property
damage, be sure wheel blocks are properly
secured and of adequate capacity to do the job
safely.
2. Block all road wheels and place the battery master
switch in the 'Off' position. Open drain cocks on air
tanks and drain air from all four air tanks. Close drain
cocks on air tanks when air is exhausted.
1. Position the vehicle in a level work area, apply the
parking brake and switch off the engine. Operate the
3. Tag and disconnect air lines and electrical
connection from pressure protection valve (1), to aid in
installation.
SM 1752 Rev1 04-04
1
Braking System - Air Pressure Protection Valve
Section 250-0290
4. Support valve body and remove locknuts (4) and
lockwashers (3) securing pressure protection valve (1)
to mounting bracket (2). Remove pressure protection
valve (1) from vehicle.
8. Install air lines and electrical connection to pressure
protection valve (1), as tagged at 'Removal'.
9. Place master switch in the 'On' position, start the
engine and allow air pressure in the tanks to build up to
correct operating pressure. Check for leaks at air lines
and tighten as required.
5. If required, remove elbows (5 & 9), reducer (10),
adaptors (6 & 11), tee pieces (7) and pressure switch
(8) from pressure protection valve (1) ports.
10. Remove wheel blocks.
6. If removed, replace all 'O' rings and install elbows
(5 & 9), reducer (10), adaptors (6 & 11), tee pieces (7)
and pressure switch (8) to pressure protection valve (1)
ports.
7. Secure pressure protection valve (1) to mounting
bracket (2) using locknuts (4) and lockwashers (3).
*
2
*
SPECIAL TOOLS
There are no special tools required for procedures
outlined in this section. Refer to Section 300-0070,
SERVICE TOOLS, for part numbers of general service
tools required. These tools are available from your
dealer.
*
*
SM 1752 Rev1 04-04
AIR SYSTEM - Air Horn
Section 255-0020
SM - 2242
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
-
Long Projector
Short Projector
Body
Cover
Diaphragms
Screw
Mounting Pad
Mounting Stem
Washer
4
6
5
3
2
7
1
8
9
Fig. 1 - Exploded View of Air Horn
DESCRIPTION AND OPERATION
CIRCUIT DIAGRAMS, for electrical operation of the
horn solenoid.
Numbers in parentheses refer to Fig. 1.
The air horn consists of a long projector (1), short
projector (2), horn body (3), cover (4), two diaphragms
(5), screw (6), mounting pad (7), mounting stem (8)
and washer (9).
The air horn is mounted on a bracket off the front fuel
tank and is operated when the horn control is pressed
in. This action activates the electrically activated horn
solenoid which allows air to pass from the primary air
tank and into horn body (3). Air pressure forces the
diaphragms upwards and air pressure flows through
projectors (1 & 2) to provide an effective warning
sound.
Diaphragms (5) can be removed by removing six
screws (6) and cover (4).
MAINTENANCE
Refer to Section 250-0000, AIR BRAKING SYSTEM
SCHEMATIC for air lines. Refer to Section 190-0000,
*
SM 1797 4-99
Check horn application on a regular basis for correct
and audible operation.
*
*
*
1
OPERATORS COMPARTMENT - Cab and Mounting
Section 260-0010
SM - 2221
13
A
B
9
5
6
6
4
4
7
8
8
7
A
B
B
A
B
10
11
A
B
A
3
12
10
2
1
2
3
4
11
1
- Rear Cab Support
- Front LH Cab Support
- Front RH Cab Support
- Rubber Mount
5
6
7
8
- Bolt
- Snubbing Washer
- Washer
- Locknut
9
10
11
12
13
- Bolt
- Bolt
- Washer
- Rubber Floor Mat
- Cab Assembly
Fig. 1 - Exploded View of Cab and Mounting
DESCRIPTION
Numbers in parentheses refer to Fig. 1.
The cab is fully insulated and mounted on rubber
isolation mounts (4) which damp structure borne
noise and vibration. The cab conforms with ISO/SAE,
ROPS (Roll Over Protective Structure) and FOPS
(Falling Object Protective Structure) safety
legislation.
ROPS - ISO 3471, SAE J1040 APR 88
FOPS - ISO 3449, SAE J231
SM 1728 Rev 1 11-99
WARNING
The protection offered by the ROPS & FOPS
protective structure may be impaired if it has
been subjected to any modification or damage.
Unauthorized modification will void
certification.
Cab assembly (13) is spacious and offers
outstanding visibility through large areas of tinted
safety glass. Access to cab assembly (13) is from
the left hand side.
1
Operators Compartment - Cab and Mounting
Section 260-0010
The cab interior, trimmed with noise-absorbant
material, is extensively thermally insulated and a
heater and demisting unit keeps internal air fresh and
dust free. Sliding windows provide additional
ventilation. An air conditioning unit is also fitted.
Refer to Section 260-0130, AIR CONDITIONING.
Note: Access from the cab, in case of an
emergency, can be gained by breaking any of the
windows using the hammer provided (mounted on the
right hand cab pillar).
REMOVAL
Numbers in parentheses refer to Fig. 1.
Note: Identify and tag all cables, harnesses, lines
and pipes disconnected from cab assembly (13)
during removal to aid in installation.
a. Disconnect battery equalizer ground cables.
b. Disconnect battery cables from terminal posts
(ground cables first).
c. Disconnect battery equalizer positive cables.
d. Disconnect electrical connections at the ECU.
4. Disconnect all remaining electrical connections
attached to cab assembly (13).
5. Open drain cocks on air tanks and drain air from
tanks. Close drain cocks on air tanks when air is
exhausted.
6. With a suitable container in position, drain the
cooling system. Refer to Section 210-0040,
RADIATOR AND MOUNTING.
WARNINGS
To prevent personal injury and property
damage, be sure wheel chocks, blocking
materials and lifting equipment are properly
secured and of adequate capacity to do the job
safely.
7. Ensure all steering and bowl hydraulic lines
connected to the cab are identified for ease of
installation, and with suitable containers available to
catch leakage, disconnect all lines. Fit blanking caps
to all open lines and fittings.
Hydraulic oil pressure will remain within
the steering system after engine shutdown.
Operate the steering wheel continuously until
the pressure has dissipated before removing
any steering lines or serious injury could
result.
WARNING
Before disconnecting any air conditioner lines,
refer to Section 260-0130, AIR CONDITIONING.
Refrigerant will rapidly freeze all objects with
which it comes into contact. It can cause
serious and permanent damage to the eyes
and skin.
Hydraulic oil pressure will remain within
the bowl hydraulic system after engine
shutdown. Operate the bowl controls until the
pressure has dissipated before disconnecting
any hoses.
High electrical current. Turn the battery
master switch 'Off' before disconnecting any
electrical components. Disconnect electrical
connections in the correct order given to
prevent damage to the electrical components.
1. Position the vehicle in a level work area, apply the
parking brake and switch off the engine. Operate the
steering in both directions several times to relieve
any pressure in the steering system.
2. Block all road wheels and place the battery master
switch in the 'Off' position.
2
3. Disconnect the electrical cables in the following
order to prevent damage to the electrical
components.
8. If the vehicle is equipped with air conditioning,
evacuate the system and disconnect air conditioning
lines. Refer to Section 260-0130, AIR
CONDITIONING. Fit blanking caps to all open lines
and fittings.
9. Ensure heater lines are identified for ease of
installation, and with suitable containers available to
catch leakage, disconnect heater lines. Fit blanking
caps to open lines and fittings.
10. Ensure all connections to cab assembly (13)
have been removed, prior to removal.
11. Attach suitable lifting equipment to cab assembly
(13) and take up the slack.
Note: Use padded spreader bars when removing cab
assembly (13) with overhead lifting equipment to
SM 1728 Rev 1 11-99
Operators Compartment - Cab and Mounting
Section 260-0010
prevent damage from concentrated loads at cab
lifting points with hooks, chains, cables etc..
12. Remove locknuts (8), washers (7), snubbing
washers (6) and bolts (5 & 9) securing the cab
assembly (13) to cab mounting supports (1, 2 & 3) on
the tractor frame.
13. Lift cab assembly (13) carefully from the cab
supports (1, 2 & 3) and remove to suitable stands.
Remove rubber isolation mounts (4) from cab
mounting supports (1, 2 & 3).
14. If required, remove bolts (10) and washers (11)
securing cab supports (1, 2 & 3) to tractor frame.
Remove cab mounting supports (1, 2 & 3) from
tractor frame.
INSTALLATION
Numbers in parentheses refer to Fig. 1.
Note: Tighten all fasteners to standard torques listed
in Section 300-0080, STANDARD BOLT AND NUT
TORQUE SPECIFICATIONS.
WARNING
To prevent personal injury and property
damage, be sure wheel chocks, blocking
materials and lifting equipment are properly
secured and of adequate capacity to do the job
safely.
1. If removed, secure cab mounting supports (1, 2 &
3) to tractor frame using bolts (10) and washers (11).
2. Inspect rubber mounts (4) for damage and replace
if necessary. If installing new rubber mounts (4),
lubricate them with water or a suitable rubber
lubricant and install in cab mounting supports (1, 2 &
3). Use a driver of the same diameter as the internal
metal sleeve in rubber mount (4) to drive the mounts
fully home.
3. Attach suitable lifting equipment (with padded
spreader bars) and position cab assembly (13) to cab
mounting supports (1, 2 & 3). Take care when
positioning cab assembly (13) to prevent snagging of
lines and components on the underside of cab
assembly (13).
4. Secure cab assembly (13) to mounting supports
(1, 2 & 3) with bolts (5 & 9), snubbing washers (6),
washers (7) and locknuts (8). Tighten bolts (5 & 9) to
a torque of 271 Nm (200 lbf ft).
SM 1728 Rev 1 11-99
5. Remove blanking caps from all bowl hydraulic
lines and connect lines as identified at removal.
Tighten all lines securely.
6. Remove blanking caps from all steering lines and
connect lines as identified at removal. Tighten all
lines securely.
7. Connect all electrical connections with the
exception of battery cables, battery equalizer cables
and ECU connections, as identified at removal.
8. Remove blanking caps from heater lines and
fittings and connect lines as identified at removal.
Tighten heater lines securely.
WARNING
Before connecting any air conditioner lines,
refer to Section 260-0130, AIR CONDITIONING.
Refrigerant will rapidly freeze all objects with
which it comes into contact. It can cause
serious and permanent damage to the eyes
and skin.
9. If the vehicle is equipped with air conditioning,
connect the lines to the evaporator and charge the
system. Refer to Section 260-0130, AIR
CONDITIONING.
10. Connect electrical cables in the following order:
a. Connect all electrical connections removed at the
ECU.
b. Connect battery equalizer positive connections.
c. Connect battery cables to terminal posts (positive
cables first).
d. Connect battery equalizer ground cables.
11. Check cab assembly (13) and be sure that all
lines, cables and harnesses removed at removal
have been reconnected.
12. Fill hydraulic tank with hydraulic oil specified in
Section 300-0020, LUBRICATION SYSTEM. Fill the
cooling system with coolant specified in
Section 300-0020, LUBRICATION SYSTEM.
13. Place the battery master switch in the 'On'
position, start the engine and check for leaks. Tighten
lines and fittings as required. Allow the vehicle to
warm to normal operating temperatures and check all
connections for leaks. Ensure electrical systems and
gear shift are functioning properly.
3
Operators Compartment - Cab and Mounting
Section 260-0010
14. Ensure parking brake is applied and remove
wheel blocks from all road wheels.
6. Clean the remains of the adhesive from the edge of
the panel opening using a suitable solvent.
REPLACING GLASS
Numbers in parentheses refer to Fig. 1.
7. Coat the edge of the replacement glass with primer
and apply adhesive around the lip of the window aperture,
as per the manufacturers recommendations.
Note: When replacing broken glass, it is the user’s
responsibility to ensure that replacement glass meets
the required specifications.
8. Position glass onto panel opening, pressing firmly
so that adhesive bonds sufficiently to allow the glass
to be moved or straightened up as required.
Front glasses, rear glasses and side glass panels are
held in place by a bonding adhesive. The front and
rear glasses also have corner covers.
9. Ensuring the glass is adequately supported, allow
the sealing adhesive to set properly.
10. Clean off any excess adhesive using a suitable
solvent.
To replace a glass assembly, proceed as follows:
Note: Ensure the glass is supported adequately
before starting to cut the adhesive seal.
11. If removed, re-fit corner covers.
1. If necessary, remove corner covers.
Water Leaks
2. Using a pointed tool, pierce a hole in the adhesive
seal, it is advisable to start at the top edge of the
glass. Unscrew one handle of the special tool and
feed the wire through the opening. Pierce a second
hole in the adhesive on the side directly opposite the
first.
Test for leaks by directing a stream of water along
the adhesive seal, while an assistant marks the spot
of leakage inside the cab. Care should be taken to
note whether the leak is between adhesive and glass.
Then apply a sealing compound from the outside.
Start from a point near the leak and continue applying
the sealer until well beyond the suspected point of
entry.
3. From inside the cab pull the wire through and feed
it back out through the second hole.
This should stop the leak immediately, but since
some sealing compounds should be allowed to set
before getting wet, wait a few minutes before testing.
4. Re-fit the handle on the special tool. Pull both
handles outwards until wire is taut.
5. Manouver the special tool around the edge of the
glass, keeping the wire taut, to cut the adhesive seal.
Ensure the glass is supported adequately before
completing the cut. Remove glass from window aperture.
SPECIAL TOOLS
Refer to Section 300-0070, SERVICE TOOLS, for
part numbers of special tools referenced in this
section and general service tools required. These
tools are available from your dealer.
SPECIAL TORQUE SPECIFICATIONS
TORQUE
FIG. NO.
1
1
ITEM NO.
5
9
ITEM NAME
Bolt
Bolt
*
4
*
*
Nm
271
271
lbf ft
200
200
*
SM 1728 Rev 1 11-99
OPERATORS COMPARTMENT - Driver Seat and Mounting
Section 260-0090
SM - 2127
2
4
1
6
10
10
8
5
7
11
16
9
3
21
10
14
12
15
22
13
17
G
20
F
23
C
28
B
A
31
E
-
Seat Assembly
Seat Frame
Latch Height Riser
Lumbar Support
Back Cushion
Back Cover
Seat Cushion
Seat Cover
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
19
30
D4
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
27
29
18
24
25
26
- Height Riser Assembly
- Handles
- Height Riser Spring
- Damper
- Suspension Assembly
- Upstop/Bumpstop
- Air Spring
- Suspension Cover
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
- Manual Valve
- Bearing
- Lever
- Slide Adjuster
- Lap Belt
- Tether
- Arm Rests
- Bolt
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
- Bolt
- Lockwasher
- Seat Base
- Bolt
- Washer
- Lockwasher
- Nut
Fig. 1 - Exploded View of Driver Seat
DESCRIPTION
Numbers in parentheses refer to Fig. 1.
WARNING
By Law, seat belts must be provided. Always
wear seat belts when travelling in the vehicle.
SM 1742 Rev 1 11-99
The driver seat is secured to the cab floor with bolts
(24 & 25) and lockwashers (26). The seat assembly
(1) consists of a seat cushion (7) and back cushion (5)
mounted to seat frame (2). Seat frame (2) is attached
to seat base (27) by means of a suspension assembly.
The air seat only reacts when the driver sits on the
seat. When unoccupied, the seat sinks to the lowest
1
Operator's Compartment - Driver Seat and Mounting
Section 260-0090
position to allow easier access. The incorporated block
out maintains the seat in position for driving.
A retractable lap belt (21) is secured to the seat
assembly using bolts and lockwashers. A lift lever
buckle allows quick release of lap belt (21).
The following is the list of controls to adjust the seat:
A. Height and slope adjustment, front.
B. Height and slope adjustment, rear.
C. Backrest angle adjustment.
D. Weight adjustment.
E. Horizontal adjustment (sliderails).
F. Lumber support adjustment (5 positions).
G. Armrest adjustment.
WARNING
Do not attempt to adjust the seat or seat belt
while the machine is moving. Loss of control
may result. Stop the machine; apply the
brakes; then adjust.
6. Remove bolts (24 & 25) and lockwashers (26)
securing complete seat assembly to the cab floor.
Remove seat assembly from vehicle.
7. Remove bolts and lockwashers securing lap belt
(21) to seat assembly. Remove lap belt (21).
8. Remove bolts (28), washers (29), lockwashers (30)
and nuts (31) securing seat base (27) to seat
assembly. Remove seat base (27) from seat
assembly.
9. If required, remove pop-out button and pull back
suspension cover (16) to allow access to suspension
assembly (13).
10. If required, remove mounting hardware securing
dampers (12) to suspension assembly (13). Remove
dampers (12).
INSPECTION
Numbers in parentheses refer to Fig. 1.
REMOVAL AND DISASSEMBLY
Numbers in parentheses refer to Fig. 1.
WARNINGS
To prevent personal injury and property
damage, be sure wheel chocks, blocking
materials and lifting equipment are properly
secured and of adequate capacity to do the job
safely.
1. Position the vehicle in a level work area, apply the
parking brake and switch off the engine. Operate the
steering in both directions several times to relieve any
pressure in the steering system.
1. Inspect air lines, control valve (D), dampers (12)
and air spring (15) for leaks and damage and replace if
required.
2. Check all brackets and frame for cracks and/or
damage. Repair or replace as necessary.
3. Check springs (11) for fatigue or damage and
replace as required.
ASSEMBLY AND INSTALLATION
Numbers in parentheses refer to Fig. 1.
2. Block all road wheels and place the battery master
switch in the 'Off' position.
Note: Tighten all fasteners without special torques
specified to torques listed in Section 300-0080,
STANDARD BOLT AND NUT TORQUE
SPECIFICATIONS.
3. Open drain cocks on air tanks and drain air from
tanks. Close drain cocks on air tanks when air is
exhausted.
1. If removed, secure dampers (12) to suspension
assembly (13) using mounting hardware as removed
at Removal.
4. Disconnect air line at floor plate at the rear of the
seat.
2. If required, install suspension cover (16) over
suspension assembly (13) and refit pop-out button.
5. Push the control valve button (D) in to release the
air from the seat air suspension system.
3. Install seat base (27) to seat assembly and secure
using bolts (28), washers (29), lockwashers (30) and
nuts (31).
2
SM 1742 Rev 1 11-99
Operator's Compartment - Driver Seat and Mounting
Section 260-0090
Accumulation of dirt on the surface eventually turns
into a hard gritty substance which cuts into the surface
of the upholstery.
4. Position lap belt (21) to seat assembly and secure
using bolts and lockwashers as removed at Removal.
5. Position seat assembly on the cab floor and secure
with bolts (24 & 25) and lockwashers (26).
To clean seat cover (8) and back cover (6), use warm
water and a mild soap, such as Castile. Work up thin
soap suds on a piece of soft cloth and rub the
upholstery briskly. Remove the suds with a damp
cloth, using no soap, and finish by wiping the
upholstery dry with a soft, dry cloth.
6. Reconnect air line at floor plate to the port at the
rear of the seat.
7. Place battery master switch in the 'On' position,
start the engine and charge the air system. Pull out
control valve button (D) to allow air into seat
suspension system and check seat for proper
operation.
Lap belt (21) assembly should be inspected by the
user on a regular basis. Replace lap belt (21)
immediately if hardware is worn or damage, straps are
nicked or frayed, buckle is not functioning correctly,
loose stitching is found, or if the strap material has lost
strength due to the effects of ultraviolet rays.
8. Remove wheel chocks from road wheels.
MAINTENANCE
Note: Regardless of appearance, lap belt (21) must be
removed and replaced at least once every three years.
Numbers in parentheses refer to Fig. 1.
The care of the upholstery on seat cover (8) and back
cover (6) is a relatively simple, but important matter.
*
SM 1742 Rev 1 11-99
*
*
*
3
OPERATORS COMPARTMENT - Air Conditioning
Section 260-0130
SM - 572
3 - Receiver Drier
4 - Expansion Valve
1 - Compressor
2 - Condenser
5 - Evaporator
6 - Sensing Bulb
Fig. 1 - Typical Air Conditioning Flow Diagram
DESCRIPTION
Temperature Control Switch
A thermostat switch senses the temperature of the
evaporator and engages or disengages the compressor
clutch. The control for this switch is located in the cab.
Compressor
The compressor is designed to compress vapour and
can be damaged by non-compressibles such as dirt,
moisture, liquid refrigerant (R-134a), etc. The
compressor draws vaporized R-134a from the
evaporator (which maintains the low pressure
necessary for proper evaporation) and compresses the
vapour to a high pressure, which is necessary for
condensation. The high pressure vapour then moves
into the condenser where heat can be radiated to
change the R-134a back to liquid.
Note: R-134a designates the type of refrigerant used in
heavy duty vehicle air conditioning systems.
SM 1787 Rev1 03-04
Compressor Drive Clutch
The R-134a compressor systems use an electronically
actuated clutch to engage and disengage drive to the
compressor. The 'V' belt pulley is mounted on a bearing
and is free to rotate without turning the compressor
crankshaft any time electrical power is disconnected. The
compressor is not operating when the pulley is
freewheeling. The field coil is energized by supplying
electrical current to the exposed wire. The other end of the
coil winding is grounded to the compressor and equipment
frame. Energizing the coil creates a magnetic force that
locks the driven disk to the pulley and drives the
compressor.
Condenser
The purpose of the condenser is to radiate enough heat
energy from the compressed high pressure vaporized
R-134a so that the R-134a changes from vapour to
liquid. During normal operation all the high pressure
section of the system will be warm or hot, but large
quantities of heat should be radiating from the
condenser. Nothing should be permitted to stop or slow
1
Operators Compartment - Air Conditioning
Section 260-0130
down this radiation of heat. Cooling fins are located on
the condenser tubes and fans are used to circulate
cool air around the condenser tubes. Keep all leaves,
paper, dirt, etc. clear from the condenser and
condenser filter. The cooling fins should be straight to
permit free flow of air. The condenser is sometimes
located ahead of the engine radiator and blockage of air
flow through the radiator also affects the condenser.
Bent fan blades, slipping fan drive, inoperable
condenser fan motors, or any other fault that lessens
the amount of cool air circulated through the
condenser, should be corrected. The oil, dirt, or
antifreeze will act as an insulator that will inhibit the
radiation of heat.
Since the purpose of the condenser is to radiate heat
energy, anything that prevents or inhibits this action
may affect cooling, but the temperature and pressure
of the R-134a raise and lower together. Heat energy
that has not been radiated will remain in the R-134a
and the result will be pressure that is too high. The
condenser, hoses, connections and seals can be
damaged by the high pressure. Pressure sensing
safety switches may be activated by the high pressure
caused by the condenser not radiating enough heat.
Receiver Drier
The high pressure liquid R-134a moves from the condenser
to the receiver drier, where the R-134a is stored and
filtered. Moisture is the major enemy of the air conditioning
system and the desiccant inside the receiver drier will
absorb only a small amount. The container of desiccant
inside the receiver drier may break open and contaminate
the system if any attempt is made to dry the desiccant,
or, if more moisture is inside the system than the desiccant
can absorb.
Every effort should be made to remove all moisture
from the system and install a new receiver drier if its
condition is questionable. Installation of a new receiver
drier is recommended each time any part of the R-134a
system is open to the atmosphere. The receiver drier is
equipped with a moisture indicator at the sight glass.
When moisture is in the system, the indicator turns
yellow. A dry system is indicated by a green colour.
Bubbles are observed in the sight glass on top of the
receiver drier during the charging procedure.
Thermostatic Expansion Valve
An expansion valve is installed in the system to lower
the pressure before the R-134a enters the evaporator.
The reduction in pressure is done by passing the R134a through a small hole (orifice). The size of the
orifice must be controlled to compensate for changes
in pressure and temperature. The temperature of R134a leaving the evaporator is sensed by a thermal
bulb and capillary tube that moves the valve seat via a
diaphragm and actuating pins. Externally equalized
expansion valves have a line connected to the outlet
from the evaporator, and R-134a pressure passes
through this line to push against the diaphragm and
actuate the valve.
Evaporator - Heat/Cool
The evaporator is the low pressure, low temperature
component where liquid R-134a absorbs heat from
surrounding air. The expansion valve bleeds high
pressure R-134a into the low pressure evaporator. The
R-134a expands rapidly in the evaporator and its
temperature is quickly reduced. The R-134a absorbs
heat from the air when the blower fan circulates air over
the evaporator coil fins. The exchange of heat from the
air to the R-134a depends upon the difference in
temperature. During high heat load, such as usually
encountered when the system is first turned on, the
temperature difference is great and the R-134a will
absorb heat quickly. The blower fan can be set at its
highest setting to circulate large quantities of warm air
around the evaporator. After the cab has cooled, the
fan speed should be reduced so that the already cool
air will have a longer time to yield heat to the R-134a
as it passes the evaporator coils. The heater circuits
utilize engine coolant at approximately 82° C (180° F).
High Pressure and Low Pressure Switches
The pressure switches are electric switches that
monitor air conditioner operation. The high pressure
and low pressure switches are activated at preset
pressures and engage and disengage the compressor
clutch.
A filter screen is located in the receiver drier to stop
solid contaminates from leaving the unit. Blockage of
the filter will result in a drop in pressure that will be
indicated by a drop in temperature. Connections of the
new receiver drier should be securely capped before
installation to prevent the entrance of moisture (air)
while in storage.
2
SM 1787 Rev1 03-04
Operators Compartment - Air Conditioning
Section 260-0130
Section 100-0010, CHASSIS, HOOD AND FENDERS.
REMOVAL
Numbers in parentheses refer to Fig. 2, unless
otherwise stated.
WARNINGS
Always wear goggles or glasses to protect your
eyes when working around R-134a.
R-134a boils at sea level temperatures of
-29.8° C (-21.6° F), which means that direct
contact with your skin will produce frostbite.
Exercise extreme care when handling R-134a.
5. Discharge the air conditioning system as described
under 'Discharging The System'.
6. Remove mounting hardware securing cover on air
conditioner unit (1) to gain access to refrigerant hosing
and control cable (32).
7. When satisfied that the system is completely
discharged, tag refrigerant hoses (21& 23) to aid in
installation and carefully disconnect hoses from air
conditioner unit (1) and cab bulkhead. Cap fittings and
refrigerant hoses (21 & 23) to prevent foreign matter
from entering the system.
If you get the slightest trace of R-134a in
your eye, flood the eye immediately with cool
water; then treat with mineral oil or clear
petroleum jelly followed by boric acid rinse.
Report to a hospital or doctor as soon as
possible.
8. Remove fastener (31) and lock (30) and unhook
control cable (32) from water valve (29). Disconnect
harness.
The chemicals of R-134a change when
burned and become a poison phosgene gas
that will damage the respiratory system if
inhaled. NEVER SMOKE in an area where
R-134a is used or stored. Use hot water or an
approved heated charge cylinder as a heat
source if required to force R-134a into the
system. If using water, do not exceed 52° C
(125° F). Never use direct flame or electric
heaters in direct contact with the R-134a
container. High temperatures may result in
raising the pressure to a dangerous level.
10. Tag refrigerant hoses (24 & 5) to aid in installation
and carefully disconnect hoses from receiver/drier (6).
Cap receiver/drier (6) fittings and refrigerant hoses (24
& 5) to prevent foreign matter from entering the
system.
To prevent personal injury and property
damage, be sure wheel blocks, blocking
materials and lifting equipment are properly
secured and of adequate capacity to do the job
safely.
1. Position the vehicle in a level work area, apply the
parking brake and switch off the engine. Operate the
steering in both directions several times to relieve any
pressure in the steering system.
2. Block all road wheels and place the battery master
switch in the 'Off' position.
3. Remove hood assembly and side panel from vehicle
to gain access to air conditioning components. Refer to
Section 100-0010, CHASSIS, HOOD AND FENDERS.
4. Disconnect electrical cables from headlights and
reverse alarm. Remove mounting hardware and radiator
guard from machine. Refer to
SM 1787 Rev1 03-04
9. Tag refrigerant hoses (22 & 24) to aid in installation
and carefully disconnect hoses from cab bulkhead.
Cap fittings and refrigerant hoses (22 & 24) to prevent
foreign matter from entering the system.
11. Slacken band clamps (9) and remove receiver/drier
(6) from mounting bracket (7). If necessary, remove
mounting hardware and mounting bracket (7) from
vehicle.
12. Tag refrigerant hoses (5 & 10) to aid in installation
and carefully disconnect hoses at condenser (33). Cap
condenser (33) fittings and refrigerant hoses (5 & 10) to
prevent ingress of foreign matter.
13. If required, support air conditioner condenser (33)
and mounting bracket (34) and remove Screws (28),
lockwashers (27) , washers (26 ) securing condenser
(33) and mounting bracket (34) to radiator assembly.
Remove condenser (33) from vehicle.
14. Tag refrigerant hoses (10 & 22) to aid in installation
and carefully disconnect hoses from compressor (2).
Cap compressor (2) fittings and refrigerant hoses
(10 & 22) to prevent foreign matter from entering the
system.
15. Disconnect electrical connection from compressor
(2) clutch.
3
Operators Compartment - Air Conditioning
Section 260-0130
SM - 3157
31
30
32
23
1
29
21
8
5
22
3
3
24
9
6
7
25
9
26
27
28
10
15 16
3
19
2
18
13
14
14
3
17 14
12
15
20
16
15
13
4
1516
14
31
34
33
12
11
30
14
15
16
16
15
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
- Air Conditioning Unit
- Compressor
- 'O'-Ring
- V-Belt
- Refrigerant Hose
- Receiver / Drier
- Mounting Bracket
- Trinary Switch
- Clamp
13
35
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
- Refrigerant Hose
- Spacer (Long)
- Spacer (Short)
- Bolt
- Washer
- Lockwasher
- Nut
- Bolt
- Bolt
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
-
'P'-Clip
'P'-Clip
Refrigerant Hose
Refrigerant Hose
Refrigerant Hose
Refrigerant Hose
Spacer
Washer
Lockwasher
Screw
29
30
31
32
33
34
35
-
Water Valve
Lock
Fastener
Control Cable
Condenser
Mounting Bracket
Bracket
Fig. 2 - Air Conditioner Lines and Mounting
4
SM 1787 Rev1 03-04
Operators Compartment - Air Conditioning
Section 260-0130
SM - 3158
44
42
43
38
36
37
1
39
COVER
40
41
DRAIN
1 - Air Conditioning Unit
36 - Blower Unit
37 - Evaporator Matrix
38 - Expansion Valve
39 - Heater Matrix
40 - Clamp
41
42
43
44
-Hose (Drain)
- Clamp
- Duct - Flexible
- Filter Element
Fig. 3 - Air Conditioner Lines and Mounting
SM 1787 Rev1 03-04
5
Operators Compartment - Air Conditioning
Section 260-0130
16. Back of Bolts (13) enought to allow gentle pivot
motion of compressor unit (2) on outer brackets (35)
to release tension on 'V' belt (4).
1. If removed, slide air conditioner cover into position
inside the cab and secure cover with mounting
hardware as removed at Removal.
17. 'V' belt (4) should now be free to slide off the
groove in compressor (2).
2. Attach control cable (32) to water valve (29) and
secure in place with fastener (31) and lock (30).
Connect harness.
3. Remove caps from end of refrigerant hoses (4 & 5)
and ports on air conditioner (1) and cab bulkhead and
connect hoses to ports as tagged at Removal.
18. Support compressor (2) and remove bolts (18) and
lockwashers (14 & 15) and nuts (16) (from both sides)
securing compressor (2) to bracket assembly (35).
Carefully remove compressor (2) from the vehicle.
Note: If 'V' belt (4) does not require replacement do not
remove from engine fan pulley. If 'V' belt (2) requires
replacement, proceed with steps 19 and 20.
19. If required, remove mounting hardware securing fan
guard assembly to radiator shroud assembly.
Refer to SECTION 210-0040, RADIATOR AND
MOUNTING.
20. Release tension on Poly 'V' fan belt and remove
from fan pulley. Remove compressor 'V' belt (4) from
the rear groove of the fan pulley. Refer to Section 1100030, ENGINE AND MOUNTING.
21. If required, remove bolts (31), washers (30), and
bracket (35).
22. If required, disconnect all clamps and clips
securing refrigerant hoses and harnesses to the
vehicle. Remove hoses and harnesses from the
vehicle.
23. If necessary to gain access to blower unit
(36, Fig. 3), evaporator matrix (37, Fig. 3), heater
matrix (39, Fig. 3) and expansion valve (38, Fig. 3)
remove mounting hardware and slide cover from air
conditioning unit.
INSTALLATION
Numbers in parentheses refer to Fig. 2, unless
otherwise stated.
Note: Tighten all fasteners to standard torques
specified in Section 300-0080, STANDARD BOLT AND
NUT TORQUE SPECIFICATIONS.
WARNING
To prevent personal injury and property
damage, be sure wheel blocks, blocking
materials and lifting equipment are properly
secured and of adequate capacity to do the job
safely.
6
4. Position front cover and filter assemblies on air
conditioner (1) unit and secure using mounting
hardware as removed at Removal.
5. If removed, re-route refrigerant hoses and secure in
place with clamps removed during Removal.
6. If removed, secure mounting bracket (15) in place
using mounting hardware as removed at Removal.
Install receiver/drier (14) to mounting bracket (15) and
secure with band clamps (16).
7. Remove caps from end of refrigerant hoses (6 & 9)
and ports on receiver/drier (14) and connect hoses to
ports as tagged at Removal.
8. If removed, install condenser unit (10) and mounting
bracket (11) to radiator assembly and secure with bolts
(12) and washers (13).
9. Remove caps and connect refrigerant hoses
(8 & 9) to condenser unit (10) ports as tagged at
Removal.
10. If removed, install mounting bracket (35) and
secure using bolts (31) and washers (30).
11. Fit compressor (2) to outer mounting brackets (35)
and secure with bolts (17) and washers (14).
12. Take the assembly from step 11. and arrange
Spacers (11 &12), Bolts (13), washers (14),
Lockwashers (15) and nuts (16) in the correct
orientation as shown (fig 1.) to enable the compressor
and outer mounting brackets to be fitted to the main
braket (35).
Note: Do not tighten bolts (13) and nuts (16) fully at
this stage, to allow for fitting and adjustment of Poly 'V'
belt.
Note: If fan guard, Poly 'V' fan belt and compressor
'V' belt (4) were removed, proceed with steps 12 & 13.
SM 1787 Rev1 03-04
Operators Compartment - Air Conditioning
Section 260-0130
12. Install new 'V' belt (4) onto rear groove on engine fan
pulley and fit to rear groove on compressor (2).
13. Refit Poly 'V' fan belt and adjust tension. Refer to
Section 110-0030, ENGINE AND MOUNTING. Refit fan
guard and secure with mounting hardware as removed
during removal. Refer to Section 210-0040, RADIATOR
AND MOUNTING.
14. Adjust tension of compressor 'V' belt until there is
approximately an inward deflection of 10 mm (0.4 in) at
the centre of 'V' belt (18). When tension correct, tighten
bolts (13) and nuts (16) to fix location of compressor
(2) relative to belt.Fully tighten all mounting hardware.
15. Remove caps from end of refrigerant hoses (10& 22)
and ports on compressor (2) and connect hoses to
ports as tagged at Removal.
MAINTENANCE
WARNINGS
Always wear goggles or glasses to protect your
eyes when working around R-134a.
R-134a
boils at sea level temperatures of
-29.8° C
(-21.6° F), which means that direct contact with
your skin will produce frostbite. Exercise
extreme care when handling R-134a.
If you get the slightest trace of R-134a in
your eye, flood the eye immediately with cool
water; then treat with mineral oil or clear
petroleum jelly followed by boric acid rinse.
Report to a hospital or doctor as soon as
possible.
16. Connect electrical connection to compressor (2)
clutch.
17. Secure all lines with clips and clamps as removed
during removal. Ensure no lines are chaffing on sharp
edges or resting against areas where heat will be
evident.
18. Charge the air conditioning system as described
under 'Charging Procedure'.
19. Switch the battery master switch to the 'On'
position, start up the engine and check for correct
operation of the air conditioning system.
20. Install hood assembly and side panel to vehicle.
Refer to Section 100-0010, CHASSIS, HOOD AND
FENDERS. Install radiator guard to vehicle and
connect electrical cables to headlights and reverse
alarm. Refer to Section 100-0010, CHASSIS, HOOD
AND FENDERS.
WARNING
The chemicals of R-134a change when
burned and become a poison phosgene gas
that will damage the respiratory system if
inhaled. NEVER SMOKE in an area where
R-134a is used or stored. Use hot water or an
approved heated charge cylinder as a heat
source if required to force R-134a into the
system. If using water, do not exceed 52° C
(125° F). Never use direct flame or electric
heaters in direct contact with the R-134a
container. High temperatures may result in
raising the pressure to a dangerous level.
1. Periodically clean the condenser coil of debris and
dirt using water or air pressure. A partially blocked
condenser coil can reduce the life of the compressor
belt and/or clutch.
21. Remove wheel chocks.
2. If the system has a heater in the same location as
the air conditioning evaporator core, heater valves
should be closed.
3. To check the refrigerant level, run the engine at
1 200 rev/min with fans on high speed and thermostat
fully open for a minimum of five minutes. If the clutch
is engaged in this situation, there should be very few
bubbles visible in the receiver-drier sight glass.
Note: Unit can operate with some bubbles visible, but
not milky looking.
SM 1787 Rev1 03-04
7
Operators Compartment - Air Conditioning
Section 260-0130
4. Ensure all hoses and hose clamps are free from
contact with sharp metal, moving parts or near to
manifolds.
7. A belt that has operated while rolled over in the
sheave groove may be damaged - replace it.
5. Inspect condensation drain lines for debris, sharp
bends or breaks.
8. Store belts in a cool, dry place. If stored on a
machine, relieve all belt tension by loosening the
'V' belt tightener.
6. Inspect the clutch wire from the thermostat for bare
spots.
9. Never attempt to check or adjust belts while they are
running.
7. Inspect bolts and nuts on the compressor and
mounting bracket for proper tightness.
System Leak Testing
8. Inspect and clean outside and inside cab air filters
periodically, depending on dust conditions. Replace the
outside filter when it becomes saturated to the point it
won't come clean.
Maintenance of 'V' belt Drives
1. Listen for 'ticking' sound - they mean interference
with the belts. Visually inspect for bent or damaged
belt guards.
2. Replace all belts in a mismatched set at one time to
ensure even load distribution.
Recommended Equipment Required:
Halogen Leak Detector
Switch off the engine and check all connections
throughout the system for leaks. A large leak point will
have an oily or greasy appearance. The refrigerant
carries compressor oil with it and deposits it around the
leak area. Check all such points for loose connections
and tighten.
Using a suitable leak detector, search for leaks around
all joints, connections, seals and control devices. If a
leak is located, purge the system of refrigerant and
repair. Fully evacuate and charge the system to make
it operational.
3. Periodically check tension and keep belts tight.
- The ideal tension is the lowest tension at which the
belt will not slip under peak load conditions.
- Check belt tension frequently during the first 24 - 48
hours of run-in operation.
- Initial belt tension should be 445 N (100 lbf)
dropping to 334 N (75 lbf) after the first 48 hours.
- There should be a freeplay of 10 mm in the 'V' belt.
- Do not over tension belts.
- Keep belts free from foreign material that may
cause slippage.
- Inspect the V-drive periodically. Re-tension belts if
they are slipping.
- Maintain sheave alignment with a strong straight
edge tool while tensioning belts.
4. Never attempt to correct belt slippage by using a
belt dressing. The dressing may cause softening and
deterioration.
5. If belt slips, even when properly tensioned, check for
overload, worn sheave grooves or oil or grease on the
belts.
DISCHARGING THE SYSTEM
Note: Refer to all WARNINGS listed under
'Maintenance' prior to discharging the system.
Recommended Equipment Required:
Portable High Vacuum Charging Station
Suitable Canister
To eliminate system contaminants from an air
conditioning system requires discharging the entire
system. This means removing all of the refrigerant and
cleansing all contamination (air and moisture) from the
system components. If any of the major system
components are to be repaired or replaced, the system
must also be completely discharged.
WARNING
The vehicle must not be running during this
procedure. Be sure to have adequate ventilation
during this operation. Do not discharge
refrigerant near an open flame.
6. Never pry a 'V' belt or force it into the sheave
groove. Loosen the 'V' belt tightener prior to installation.
8
SM 1787 Rev1 03-04
Operators Compartment - Air Conditioning
Section 260-0130
1. Position the vehicle in a level work area, apply the
parking brake and switch off the engine. Operate the
steering in both directions several times to relieve any
pressure in the steering system.
2. Block all road wheels and place the battery master
switch in the 'Off' position.
3. If necessary, remove hood assembly and side panel
from vehicle to gain access to air conditioning
components. Refer to Section 100-0010, CHASSIS,
HOOD AND FENDERS.
4. Tighten down (turn clockwise) both high and low side
valves on the gauge manifold to the closed position.
Remove protective caps from the service ports on the
compressor.
5. Connect both service hoses from the two fittings in the
bottom of the manifold to the two service ports on the
compressor. High side (red) to compressor discharge
valve, low side (blue) to compressor suction valve, and
centre service hose (yellow) vented to a suitable canister
(canister on charging station).
6. Open the low side hand valve on the manifold very
slowly. Watch the centre service hose for evidence of
any refrigerant oil in the canister. Carefully adjust low
side hand valve to prevent oil from escaping.
7. When the high side manifold gauge reading moves
below 3.5 bar (50 lbf/in2), open high side hand valve
very slowly. The refrigerant should flow at a fairly even
rate from both high and low sides of the system. As
necessary, continue to monitor the hand valves to
prevent any oil leakage.
8. When 0 bar (0 lbf/in2) is reached on both gauges,
close both hand valves. The system should now be
completely discharged and may be opened for service.
9. If removed, install hood assembly and side panel to
vehicle. Refer to Section 100-0010, CHASSIS, HOOD
AND FENDERS.
10. Remove wheel blocks.
CHARGING THE SYSTEM
Note: Refer to all WARNINGS listed under
'Maintenance' prior to charging the system.
Recommended Equipment Required:
Portable High Vacuum Charging Station
Halogen Leak Detector
SM 1787 Rev1 03-04
For New Or Completely Empty System
Note: The charging procedure must be done in ambient
temperatures above 15.5° C (60° F) with the R-134a
canister temperature equal to the outside ambient
temperature.
1. Shut off engine and block all road wheels.
2. If necessary, remove hood assembly and side panel
from vehicle to gain access to air conditioning
components. Refer to Section 100-0010, CHASSIS,
HOOD AND FENDERS.
3. Remove protective caps from 'Schraeder' valves on
rear of compressor.
4. Connect low pressure gauge hose (blue hose and
gauge) to suction side or low side fitting on
compressor. The suction side can be identified by the
size of the hose connected to the fitting. This will be
the largest diameter hose of the system.
5. Connect the high pressure gauge hose (red hose and
gauge) to discharge or high side fitting on compressor.
6. Connect yellow supply hose to suction port on
vacuum pump.
7. Open both sides of gauges, low and high, completely.
8. Start vacuum pump to evacuate the complete air
conditioning system.
9. Run vacuum pump for approximately 30 minutes.
Ideal gauge readings should be 29.92 inches of
mercury. The pressure will vary with altitude; it will be
approximately 0.03 bar (0.5 lbf/in²) less for each 305 m
(1 000 ft) of elevation.
10. Before disconnecting power supply from vacuum
pump, close both high and low side gauges. Remove
yellow hose from vacuum pump and connect to
R-134a source.
11. Open R-134a source. Loosen, but do not remove,
yellow supply hose at manifold on gauges to remove all
air in the yellow supply hose, replacing the air with R134a. This is done in a few seconds. Tighten yellow
supply hose.
12. Open low side of R-134a gauges slowly. When
gauge reads zero open both sides completely. Vacuum
in the system will draw R-134a gas into the system.
Hold until both gauge readings equalize.
9
Operators Compartment - Air Conditioning
Section 260-0130
Note: Never charge with liquid R-134a. Charge on the
low pressure side only.
Note: Occasionally bubbles are noticed during clutch
cycling or system start-up. This is a normal condition.
Final Charging Of The System
5. With the system completely charged, shut off the
engine. Close the valve on the R-134a canister and
remove the yellow supply hose. Remove both the low
pressure (blue) hose and high pressure (red) hose from
the filling ports on the compressor.
1. Start the engine and run at engine idle speed.
2. Turn the air conditioning system on with the
thermostat set on maximum cooling, fan on high speed
and toggle switch set to air conditioning.
3. At this point a visual inspection must be made of the
sight glass on top of the receiver-drier. As charging
continues, the sight glass will appear milky coloured as
the bubbles in the system circulate. As the system
continues the charging process, the regularity of the
bubbles in the sight glass will gradually diminish. When
no bubbles are seen in the sight glass, close the low
pressure valve (blue side) completely.
4. Increase the engine idle speed while observing the
sight glass. If many bubbles are seen resulting from
the increased engine speed, open the low pressure
side valve. Allow the system to continue the charging
procedure until the sight glass is clear. If the sight
glass remains clear, with the increased engine speed,
do not add any more R-134a.
10
Note: Some R-134a will escape as the hoses are being
removed. Replace protective caps on hoses.
6. If removed, install hood assembly and side panel to
vehicle. Refer to Section 100-0010, CHASSIS, HOOD
AND FENDERS.
7. Remove wheel blocks.
SPECIAL TOOLS
Refer to Section 300-0070, SERVICE TOOLS, for part
numbers of special tools referenced in this section and
general service tools and sealants required. These
tools and sealants are available from your dealer.
SM 1787 Rev1 03-04
Operators Compartment - Air Conditioning
Section 260-0130
AIR CONDITIONING DIAGNOSIS
CONDITION
PROBLEM
REMEDY
Loose
Adjust belt to 12 mm (0.5 in)
depression
Overcharge
Correct the charge
Air in system
Evacuate and re-charge
Pulley not aligned
Align Pulley
Belt too tight
Adjust or replace
Bad idler bearing
Replace idler bearing
Belt wrong width
Replace with correct belt
Vibration/noise
Stuck compressor or clutch
Replace
Vibration
Overcharge
Correct the charge
Air in system
Evacuate system and re-charge
Compressor mounting or belts loose
Tighten
Drive pulley loose
Tighten
Belt tension incorrect
Correct tension
Faulty compressor
Replace compressor
Noise with clutch engaged
Faulty clutch bearing
Replace bearing
Noise with clutch engaged or
disengaged
Clutch loose
Tighten
Noise
Clutch rubbing field coil
Align clutch
Faulty belt
Replace belt
Compressor oil level low
Add oil
Valve plate broken
Repair or replace
1. Belt Trouble
Slipping
Excessive wear
2. Vibration/Noise in Compressor
area
Chatter/Knock
SM 1787 Rev1 03-04
11
Operators Compartment - Air Conditioning
Section 260-0130
AIR CONDITIONING DIAGNOSIS (continued)
CONDITION
PROBLEM
REMEDY
Rubbing/scraping
Fan blade or blower
Repair or replace
Hissing
Low charge/leak
Correct charge/repair leak
Chatter/Knocking
Air in system
Evacuate and re-charge
Noisy case
Loose brackets/screws
Tighten
Motor squeal
Dry bearings
Replace
Moisture in system
Replace thermostat
Thermostat
Correct the charge
Clutch
Check pull-in of clutch or replace
Moisture in system
Replace drier
Defective circuit breaker or bad
wiring connections
Replace. Clean and tighten
connections
Tight motor bearing
Repair or replace motor
Switch open or shorted
Repair or replace switch
Shaft binding
Replace motor - worn bearings
Wheel misaligned
Replace
Bad blower switch
Replace blower
Insufficient current
Install larger alternator
Defective circuit breaker
Replace
Loose connection
Clean and tighten connection
Broken wire - ground
Repair wire
Shorted or open field
Replace field
3. Noise - Evaporator
4. Air Conditioning Inadequate
After Short Period Of Operation
Cooling quits
Cooling intermittent
5. Electrical Trouble
Blower motor or condenser fan
motor inoperable
Slow running blower
Clutch inoperable
12
SM 1787 Rev1 03-04
Operators Compartment - Air Conditioning
Section 260-0130
AIR CONDITIONING DIAGNOSIS (continued)
CONDITION
PROBLEM
REMEDY
Overcharge of refrigerant
Purge system as necessary
Air in system
Correct charge/repair leak
Condenser clogged
Clean condenser
Defective condenser fan motor
Check electrical connections before
replacing fan motors
Undercharge of refrigerant
Complete charge
Bad compressor valve plate or
gasket
Repair or replace
Restriction in drier
Replace drier
Restriction in lines
Clean lines
Restriction in expansion valve
Replace expansion valve and drier
Improper expansion valve in charge
Replace expansion valve
Damaged expansion valve cap tube
- valve remains closed
Replace expansion valve
Refrigerant leak
Inspect lines and fittings. Tighten,
repair or replace
6. Air Conditioning System
Trouble - Gauges must be
connected
High head pressure
Low head pressure
Low suction pressure
*
SM 1787 Rev1 03-04
*
*
*
13
BODY - SCRAPER BOWL AND TAIL
Section 280-0010
SM - 3188
27
20
23 24 25
19
26
21,22
26
28
1
6
2
9
4,5
CUTTING EDGES
18
10
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
3
16
11
7
8
17
14
TRANS. FILTER MTG.
15
13
12
- Bowl Assembly
- Spindle
- Bushing
- Oil Transfer tube
- Oil Transfer tube
- Bushing
- Bracket
- Bolt
- Lockwasher
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
- Washer
- Mudflap
- Bolt
- Lockwasher
- Plate
- Grease Fitting
- Ejector Rod Cover Plates
- Bushing
- Clamp plate
19 - Grab Handle- Tube
20 - Grab Handle- Grip
21 - Guard
22 - Guard
23 - Bolt
24 - Lockwasher
25 - Washer
26 - Guard Bracket
27 - Top Extension
28 - Platform
Fig. 1 - Exploded View of Bowl and Tail Assembly
DESCRIPTION AND OPERATION
Numbers in parentheses refer to Fig. 1.
The bowl (1) assembly is the portion of the scraper in
which the load is carried. The front of the bowl is
supported by bowl cylinders connected to the lift
beam brackets (26) and pull yoke. The pivot point (ball
SM 1799 Rev 2 04-04
and socket joint) on both sides is approximately at the
centre of the load. The bowl is of single wall
construction with channel reinforcement on the
outside. This form of construction provides an all
welded, torsion resisting structure.
1
Body - Scraper Bowl and Tail
Section 280-0010
SM - 3190
becomes an important load-carrying and strengthening
member of the scraper.
Bowl
1
2
3
4
- Spill guard
- Spill guard arms
- Bolt
- Nut
5 - Washer
6 - Tapped Boss
7 - Bolt
The bowl (1) operated by two single stage, double
acting cylinders which are pinned to the pull yoke
drawbar. The rod ends of the cylinders are connected to
the lift beam of the scraper bowl. When the cylinders
extend, the bowl is lowered. To raise the bowl, the
action is reversed, as the cylinders retract, the bowl is
raised. See Fig. 3.
REPLACEMENT OF SPINDLE
Damaged spindles (2, Fig. 1) and oil transfer tubes (4,5
Fig. 1) can be removed and new ones installed by
following the procedures described in this section.
Fig. 2 - Top extension - Spill guard.
SM - 2248
PULL YOKE
BOWL CYLINDER
WARNING
To prevent personal injury and property
damage, be sure wheel chocks, blocking
materials and lifting equipment are properly
secured and of adequate capacity to do the job
safely.
1. Position the vehicle in a level work area, apply the
parking brake and switch off the engine. Operate the
steering in both directions several times to relieve
any pressure in the steering system.
BOWL
Fig. 3 - Typical Bowl Operation
Numbers in parentheses refer to Fig. 2.
There is a spill guard (1) which bolts onto the bowl
assembly (1, Fig. 1) at two positions- the top extension
(27, Fig. 1) and the Brackets (26, fig. 1) and is
removable when not needed for heaped loads.
2. Block all road wheels and place battery master
switch in the 'Off' position.
3. Remove all components from the spindle to be
replaced. Attach a suitable lifting device to the
component and remove mounting hardware. Remove
the component from the vehicle. Refer to
Section 160-0050, WHEEL RIM AND TYRE, for tyre
and wheel removal; Section 160-0040, PLANETARY
GEARING, for axle and planetary removal; and
Section 165-0031, BRAKE PARTS, for brake removal.
4. Remove sun pinion and axle shaft from the
opposite side of the machine. Refer to
Section 160-0040, PLANETARY GEARING, for
procedure.
Numbers in parentheses refer to Fig. 1.
The scraper tail structure is formed by four tapered box
section struts. They are welded to the rear of the bowl
and converge to the rear where they are welded to the
rear bumper. An important feature of the scrapers
construction is its integral drive axle banjo housing and
spindles. These parts are welded to the box section
side rails and the banjo housing this design arrangment
2
5. Remove differential from the banjo. Refer to
Section 160-0020, DIFFERENTIAL.
Oil Transfer Tube
1. Burn off weld that fastens oil transfer tube to spindle.
2. Reaching into the banjo, burn off the weld that holds
the oil transfer tube to the banjo housing.
SM 1799 Rev 2 04-04
Body - Scraper Bowl and Tail
Section 280-0010
3. Remove and discard oil transfer tube from the
spindle.
4. Using a grinder, remove all burrs and slag from the
spindle end and inside the banjo weld joint areas.
5. Thoroughly clean the spindle and banjo cavities to
remove all metal chips.
6. Install new oil transfer tube in the spindle.
7. Weld all round the oil transfer tube at the spindle end
and banjo end. Use E-70 low hydrogen weld rod and
make a 1/1 6 in (1.6 mm) oil tight fillet weld all around
the tube. See Fig. 4.
8. Install brakes, planetary, wheel and tyre assemblies
on the spindle. Refer to
Section 165-0031, BRAKE PARTS, for brake
installation, Section 160-0040, PLANETARY
GEARING, for planetary installation and
Section 160-0050, WHEEL RIM AND TYRE, for tyre
and wheel installation.
Spindle
1. Remove oil transfer tube as described under heading
'Oil Transfer Tube'.
2. Attach a suitable lifting device to the spindle.
3. Burn off weld that fastens top and bottom plates
(view A-A, Fig. 4) to frame and spindle. Discard the
plates.
4. Burn off weld that fastens the spindle to the banjo
end plate. See fig. 4. Remove spindle from the banjo.
5. With a grinder, clean up the weld area on the tail
assembly and banjo housing.
6. Thoroughly clean the banjo housing with a suitable
solvent and dry. Make sure there are no chips and
metal dust in the differential cavity of the banjo
housing.
SM 1799 Rev 2 04-04
7. With a suitable lifting device, position the spindle on
the banjo end plate.
8. Install spindle alignment tool, which can be
fabricated as shown in Fig. 5, through the spindles and
banjo. Align the spindle to the dimensions shown in
Fig. 4 and tighten alignment tool.
9. Pre-heat the weld joint to 149 - 205° C
(360 - 400° F) and maintain the heat during the welding
process.
10. Weld spindle to the banjo end plate with a 9.5 mm
(3/8 inch) fillet weld all around using E-70 low hydrogen
electrode.
11.Position the top and bottom plates, as shown in Fig.
3 and tack weld in place. Re-check position.
12. Weld the top and bottom plates to the tail assembly
and banjo. See View A-A, Fig. 4.
13. Remove the alignment tool from the spindles and
banjo.
14. If removed, install new bushings in spindle (2, Fig.
1).
15. To install oil seal bushing, if removed, on spindle,
heat the new bushing to 177 - 205° C (350 - 400° F) in
oil to expand it for installation. If oil heating
equipment is not available, heat the bushing evenly to
205° C (400° F). This takes about one minute using a
torch with a heating tip. Use a templistik or other
temperature gauge to make sure the bushing is hot
enough. Slide heated bushing on spindle and tap lightly
with a hammer to seat it.
Note: Do not apply flame directly to bushing. Place
bushing on steel plate and direct flame to centre of
plate to evenly distribute heat.
17. Install oil transfer tube in the spindle and banjo as
described under the heading ‘Oil Transfer Tube.’
3
Body - Scraper Bowl and Tail
Section 280-0010
SM - 2249
Fig. 4 - Spindle Alignment and Installation
4
SM 1799 Rev 2 04-04
SM 1799 Rev 2 04-04
0.002
0.153
0.05
3.89
0.213
0.50
5.41
12.7
0.656
0.75
16.66
19.05
1.50
1.625
3.81
41.28
1.81
1.88
46.0
47.8
1.994
2.0
50.65
50.8
2.001
2.003
50.83
50.88
2.249
2.251
57.12
57.18
2.252
2.256
57.20
57.30
2.75
3.00
69.9
7.60
3.182
3.192
80.82
81.08
3.50
4.00
88.9
101.6
4.1965
4.1985
106.59
106.64
5.00
16.25
127.0
412.8
17.75
119.75
450.9
3 041.7
120.25
3 054.4
SM - 2210
5
Section 280-0010
mm
0.010
Body - Scraper Bowl and Tail
Fig. 5 - Spindle Alignment Tool
INCHES
0.0004
Body - Scraper Bowl and Tail
Section 280-0010
MAINTENANCE
Inspection
Inspect the frame and attached parts at intervals not
exceeding 250 hours for cracked or broken welds and
bending/twisting of the frame. Any defects found
should be repaired before they progress into major
failures. Contact your dealer for recommended weld
and repair instructions.
Straightening
Hydraulic straightening or aligning equipment should be
used to straighten bent or twisted frames whenever
possible. However, if heat must be applied, never heat
the metal beyond a dull cherry red colour, as too much
heat will weaken the metal. When it is necessary to
heat the metal, apply heat uniformly over the area to be
straightened and protect the heated surface from
sudden cooling. Frame parts, that cannot be
straightened should be replaced.
Welding
WARNINGS
Before any welding is done on a machine
equipped with the HEUI electronic
management system, disconnect the following
in this order: Battery earth cable, battery
supply cable, alternator earth cables,
alternator supply cables, front & rear
transmission ECU connectors (located behind
access door below cab door) and front & rear
engine ECU connectors (located on LH side of
engine). Turn off battery master switch before
disconnecting any components. After welding
connect all of the above in the reverse order.
23B-10, and is designed to protect against
gases, vapours, and/or metal fumes.
Note: Prior to welding, switch off/disconnect the
following in the order given. Failure to do so may
seriously damage the machines electrical
components.
abcdefgh-
Turn ignition keyswitch off
Turn battery master switch off
Battery earth cables
Battery supply cables
Alternator earth cables
Alternator supply cables
Transmission ECU connectors (front & rear)
Engine ECU connectors (front & rear)
After welding, connect all of the above in the reverse
order.
Note: Always fasten the welding machines ground
cable to the piece/frame being welded if possible.
Electric arc welding is recommended for all welded
frame repairs. Since the nature and extent of damage
to the frame cannot be predetermined, no definite
repair procedure can be established. As a general
rule however, if parts are twisted, bent or pulled
apart, or a frame is bent or out of alignment, no
welding should be done until the parts are
straightened or realigned.
Successfully welded repairs will depend to a great
extent upon the use of the proper equipment,
materials and the ability of the welder. The Service
Department can be consulted regarding the feasibility
of welding repairs.
Patching
Welding and flame cutting cadmium plated
metals produce odourless fumes which are
toxic. Recommended industrial hygiene
practice for protection of the welding operator
from the cadmium fumes and metallic oxides
requires enclosure ventilation specifically
designed for the welding process. A
respiratory protective device such as the
M.S.A. 'Gasfoe' respirator with G.M.A.
cartridge will provide protection against
cadmium, fumes and metallic oxides. The
'Gasfoe' respirator has been approved by the
U.S. Bureau of Mines: Approval number
6
There are two methods to be used when patching a
hole. On the outside surfaces where no moving parts
will come in contact with the patch, trim off the
curved edges of the hole and place a patch, of the
same thickness and type of steel, over the hole. This
patch should overlap the hole at least 51 mm
(2 inches) all around. Tack weld the patch in a few
places to hold it in place, and then weld around the
edges of the patch.
When patching a hole where moving parts must pass
over the patch, the hole should be trimmed with a
cutting torch and a patch of the same shape and
SM 1799 Rev 2 04-04
Body - Scraper Bowl and Tail
Section 280-0010
contour as the panel placed in the hole. Before welding
the patch, tack weld a piece of strap steel across it to
provide a grip and to keep the patch in the proper
position. Next weld around the patch enough to hold it
firmly in place and remove the strap steel. After
removing the strap, complete the weld and grind it
down to finish the job.
SM - 2212
If the hole is completely through the panel of the wall,
each side can be mended in the manner suggested.
See Fig. 6.
Reinforcement
Frame reinforcement can be made with channel,
angle, or flat structural stock. Whenever possible, the
reinforcement should extend well beyond the bent,
broken, or cracked area. The reinforcement stock
thickness should not exceed that of the frame stock
and the material should be of the same tensile
strength.
Fig. 6 - Applying a Patch
Painting
A check of the condition of the paint should be made
approximately twice a year and chassis repainted if
necessary.
WARNING
Welding, burning, heating or dressing
surfaces previously painted using
polyurethane paint produces fumes which are
toxic. Surfaces must be prepared using paint
stripper prior to area being reworked.
Recommended Industrial Hygiene and Safety
Rules should be followed for protection of the
welding operator from fumes.
If painting of the actual frame of the unit is required,
thoroughly clean the areas to be painted. Apply a
primer coat of red oxide and then a finish coat of
polyurethane enamel.
To keep rust and corrosion to a minimum, periodic
painting of abrasions and other exposed metal areas
on the frame is highly recommended.
*
SM 1799 Rev 2 04-04
*
*
*
7
BODY - Scraper Pull Yoke
Section 280-0020
SM - 2375
13
5
12
10
26
24
25
21
26
7,8,9
1
24
6
25
22
23
11
18
4
19
3
17
16
20
2
14
15
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
- Pull Yoke
- Ball Seats
- Bolt
- Nut
- Upper King Pin
- Upper King Pin Bushing
- Shim
- Shim
- Shim
- Bolt
- Grease Fitting
- Nut
- Grease Fitting
- Lower King Pin
- Grease Fitting
- Steering Cylinder Pin
- Bolt
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
- Lockwasher
- Nut
- Grease Fitting
- Cover Assembly
- Cover Plate
- Cover Assembly
- Lockwasher
- Washer
- Bolt
Fig. 1 - Exploded View of Typical Pull Yoke
DESCRIPTION AND OPERATION
The pull yoke assembly consists of a torque tube, a
drawbar and two pull arms. The assembly is fabricated
from steel plates and is welded together to form a
strong, rigid pull yoke. One end of the drawbar is
welded to the torque tube and the other end to the king
pin housing. The pull arms are welded to the ends of
the torque tube and are fastened to the bowl by means
of ball and socket joints. The ball cylinders base ends
are pinned at the ears of the pull yoke at the drawbar.
The pull yoke is designed to provide sufficient turning
clearance for the tractor, with stability, whether the
scraper is excavating, hauling, or ejecting its load.
DISCONNECTING SCRAPER FROM
TRACTOR
WARNING
To prevent personal injury and property
damage, be sure wheel blocks, blocking
materials and lifting equipment are properly
secured and of adequate capacity to do the job
safely.
1. Position the vehicle in a level work area, lower the
scraper bowl and apron. Return ejector completely,
apply the parking brake and switch off the engine.
2. Operate steering in both directions several times to
relieve any pressure in the steering system. Block all
road wheels and place the battery master switch in the
'Off' position.
SM 1888 1-00
1
Body - Scraper Pull Yoke
Section 280-0020
SM - 2257
9
PULL YOKE
3
8
2
5
1
4
6
7
STEERING CYLINDER
STEERING TRUNNION
1 - Bolt
2 - Lockwasher
3 - Nut
4 - Bolt
5 - Lockwasher
6 - Nut
7 - Steering Cylinder Pin
8 - Lower King Pin
9 - Upper King Pin
Fig. 2 - Separating Pull Yoke From Steering Trunnion
3. With a suitable container in position, remove drain
plug from hydraulic tank and drain the hydraulic
system. Reinstall drain plug and tighten securely.
4. Open drain cocks on air tanks and drain all air from
the system. Close drain cocks securely after draining.
3. With a suitable container in position to catch any
spillage, tag and disconnect apron hose assembly from
scraper apron cylinder line. Cap lines and ports to
prevent entry of dirt.
5. Disconnect battery cables from terminal posts (earth
cable first).
4. With a suitable container in position to catch any
spillage, tag and disconnect ejector hose assembly
from scraper ejector hose assembly. Cap lines and
ports to prevent entry of dirt.
Disconnecting Hydraulic Lines
5. Move lines clear of the pull yoke so they will not be
damaged when pull yoke is separated from tractor.
1. Remove bolts, lockwashers and clamps from top of
pull yoke.
Disconnecting Air Lines
2. With a suitable container in position to catch any
spillage, tag and disconnect bowl hose assembly from
bowl manifold. Cap line and manifold port to prevent
entry of dirt.
2
1. Remove bolts and clamps from inner right side of
pull yoke.
2. Tag and disconnect at the pull yoke, four tractor and
scraper brake air lines. Cap lines and ports to prevent
entry of dirt.
SM 1888 1-00
Body - Scraper Pull Yoke
Section 280-0020
Disconnecting Electrical Wiring
1. Disconnect frame harness and rear transmission
harness from separation point on the gooseneck.
2. Tag and disconnect three heavy cables, (starter,
engine supply and engine earth) from separation point
on the gooseneck.
Removing King Pin
damaged parts. If bushing (6) is to be replaced, make
sure the grease groove in the bushing, when
installed, will be in fine with the grease hole in the
upper king pin.
DISCONNECTING PULL YOKE FROM
BOWL
Numbers in parentheses refer to Fig. 1.
Numbers in parentheses refer to Fig. 2.
WARNING
To prevent personal injury and property
damage, be sure wheel blocks, blocking
materials and lifting equipment are properly
secured and of adequate capacity to do the job
safely.
1. Block up the front end of the tractor with timber or
heavy-duty stands. Support the pull yoke with an
overhead crane or other suitable lifting equipment.
2. With a suitable container in position to catch any
spillage, disconnect the steering hoses from steering
cylinders and remove the steering cylinders. Refer to
Section 220-0120, STEERING CYLINDER, for
removal procedure for steering cylinders and attaching
components (4, 5, 6 & 7). Cap all hoses and ports to
keep out dirt.
3. Remove bolt (1), lockwasher (2), and nut (3) from
steering trunnion and upper king pin (9). Remove
upper king pin from pull yoke.
4. Using suitable lifting equipment, lift the scraper and
lower king pin (8) up and away from the tractor. While
removing pull yoke, carefully guide air and electrical
lines out of pull yoke.
WARNING
To prevent personal injury and property
damage, be sure wheel blocks, blocking
materials and lifting equipment are properly
secured and of adequate capacity to do the job
safely.
1. Support pull yoke (1) using suitable lifting
equipment. With a suitable container in position to
catch any spillage, tag and disconnect all necessary
hydraulic and air lines at the bowl, and cap lines to
keep dirt out.
2. Tag and disconnect electrical wires at bowl.
3. Remove bowl cylinder from lift beam of the bowl.
Refer to Section 235-0020, BOWL CYLINDER.
4. Remove bolts (3) and nuts (4) securing ball seats
(2) and pull yoke arms to the pull yoke arm balls on
bowl. Remove both ball seats (2) from pull yoke arms.
5. Slide pull yoke assembly forward to free it from the
pull yoke arm balls. Remove pull yoke assembly from
scraper bowl.
6. Remove lifting device from pull yoke.
5. If required, remove lower king pin from pull yoke.
INSPECTION
Inspection
Numbers in parentheses refer to Fig. 1.
Numbers in parentheses refer to Fig. 1.
Check socket assembly on the end of the pull yoke
arm and ball seat (2) for wear, burrs and out of
roundness. Check pull yoke arm ball on bowl for wear.
Replace any parts that show signs of wear.
Check lower and upper king pins (5 & 14) for
excessive wear and replace as necessary. Check
king pin bores, and bushing (6) and replace worn or
SM 1888 1-00
3
Body - Scraper Pull Yoke
Section 280-0020
CONNECTING PULL YOKE TO BOWL
Numbers in parentheses refer to Fig. 1.
WARNING
To prevent personal injury and property
damage, be sure wheel blocks, blocking
materials and lifting equipment are properly
secured and of adequate capacity to do the job
safely.
Note: Tighten all fasteners, without special torques
specified, to standard torques listed in
Section 300-0080, STANDARD BOLT AND NUT
TORQUE SPECIFICATIONS.
1. With suitable lifting equipment attached to pull yoke
(1), align pull yoke arms with pull yoke arm balls on
bowl and install ball seats (2). Install bolts (3) and nuts
(4) to secure ball seats and pull yoke arms to bowl.
2. Connect bowl lift rods to bowl. For proper
installation procedure refer to Section 280-0040,
BOWL LINKAGE.
3. Remove caps from air and hydraulic lines and
connect at bowl as tagged at removal. Connect
electrical wires at bowl, as tagged at removal, and
remove lifting device used.
2. If removed, install lower king pin (8) in pull yoke.
Make sure the lube passage in the side of the king pin
faces forward.
3. Align the pull yoke and king pin (6) with the steering
trunnion of the tractor and carefully lower pull yoke,
inserting lower king pin into steering trunnion bore.
Note: When installing lower king pin and pull yoke to
steering trunnion, it may be necessary to lift the front
end of the tractor with crane, forklift truck or other
suitable lifting device to align the angle of bore in the
steering trunnion with the angle of entry of the lower
king pin.
4. Install upper king pin (9) through bushing in upper
bore of pull yoke and steering trunnion. Be sure that
the upper king pin bolt holes lines up with the hole in
the steering trunnion.
5. Install bolt (1) through steering trunnion and king
pin (9). Secure the bolt (1) with lockwasher (2) and
nut (3).
6. Install steering cylinders. Refer to Section
220-0120, STEERING CYLINDER, for installation
procedures.
7. Guide air hoses and wiring through the pull yoke.
CONNECTING SCRAPER TO TRACTOR
Connecting Wiring
Installing King Pins
1. Connect three heavy cables, (starter, engine supply
and engine earth) at separation point on the
gooseneck.
Numbers in parentheses refer to Fig. 2.
WARNING
To prevent personal injury and property
damage, be sure wheel blocks, blocking
materials and lifting equipment are properly
secured and of adequate capacity to do the job
safely.
Note: Tighten all fasteners, without special torques
specified, to standard torques listed in
Section 300-0080, STANDARD BOLT AND NUT
TORQUE SPECIFICATIONS.
2. Connect frame harness and rear transmission
harness at separation point on the gooseneck.
Connecting Air Lines
1. Remove caps and connect the tractor brake air lines
to the corresponding scraper brake lines.
Note: Tractor brake lines can only be connected to
scraper brake lines in the correct manner.
2. Install clamps and bolts to secure tubes to pull yoke.
1. Block tractor wheels. Attach an overhead crane to
the scraper pull yoke.
4
SM 1888 1-00
Body - Scraper Pull Yoke
Section 280-0020
Connecting Hydraulic Lines
6. Install the anti-syphon plug in the hydraulic oil
tank.
1. Guide hydraulic lines through opening in front of
pull yoke.
7. Check hydraulic oil level and replenish, if
necessary.
2. Remove dirt caps and connect bowl, apron and
ejector hose assemblies as tagged during removal.
8. Place the battery master switch in the ‘On’ position,
start the engine and bring air and hydraulic systems to
operating temperature and pressure.
3. Install clamps, lockwashers and bolts to secure
hoses to pull yoke.
4. Connect negative battery cable to the battery.
9. Remove all blocking from the machine and operate
hydraulic and brake systems controls. Check for leaks
and tighten fittings, if required.
5. Close all air reservoir drain cocks.
10. Shut down engine and check hydraulic oil level.
Replenish, if necessary.
*
SM 1888 1-00
*
*
*
5
BOWL - Apron and Ejector
Section 280-0030
SM - 3189
11
5
4
10
3
14
5
1
2
7
8
4
9
6
8
13
14
1
2
3
4
5
- Apron
- Apron Arm
- Apron Arm
- Bushing
- Bushing
6
7
8
9
10
- Apron Mounting Pin
- Bolt
- Fitting grease
- Pin
- Ejector Assembly
11
12
13
14
- Lift Bar
- Hinge Tube
- Cam Assembly
- Ejector Hinge Rod
Fig. 1 - Exploded View of Typical Apron and Ejector
REMOVAL
2. Operate the steering in both directions several
times to relieve any pressure in the steering system.
Apron
Numbers in parentheses refer to Fig. 1.
WARNING
To prevent personal injury and property
damage, be sure wheel chocks, blocking
materials and lifting equipment are properly
secured and of adequate capacity to do the job
safely.
1. Position the vehicle in a level work area, lower
apron (1) completely, apply the parking brake and
switch off the engine.
3. Block all road wheels and place battery master
switch in the 'Off' position.
4. Disconnect apron cylinders. Refer to Section
235-0035, APRON CYLINDER.
5. Remove locking bolts (7) from apron mounting pin
(6) and remove pin (6) from Pin (9) and apron arm (2).
Repeat for second apron arm (3).
6. Using suitable lifting equipment secured to lifting
bar, welded to centre of apron (1), remove apron (1)
from scraper bowl.
7. If required, remove bushing (4 & 5) from apron arms
(2 & 3).
SM 1890 Rev1 04-04
1
Bowl - Apron and Ejector
Section 280-0030
INSPECTION
REMOVAL
Apron
Ejector
Numbers in parentheses refer to Fig. 1.
Numbers in parentheses refer to Fig. 1.
1. Check condition of bushings (4 & 5). If bushings
(4 & 5) are scored, out of round, worn or damaged in
any way, they must be replaced.
2. Check bores of apron arms (2 & 3) and apron
mounting pins (6) for wear or damage and repair or
replace parts as necessary.
WARNING
To prevent personal injury and property
damage, be sure wheel chocks, blocking
materials and lifting equipment are properly
secured and of adequate capacity to do the job
safely.
3. Check apron arms (2 & 3) and apron (1) for cracks
or bends and repair or straighten parts as necessary.
Refer to 'Maintenance' for correct procedure to follow.
1. Position the vehicle in a level work area, lower
ejector completely, apply the parking brake and switch
off the engine.
INSTALLATION
2. Operate the steering in both directions several times
to relieve any pressure in the steering system.
Apron
Numbers in parentheses refer to Fig. 1.
Note: Tighten all fasteners to standard torques listed
in Section 300-0080, STANDARD BOLT AND NUT
TORQUE SPECIFICATIONS.
1. If removed, press bushings (4 & 5) into bores on
apron arms (2 & 3).
2. Using suitable lifting equipment attached to lifting
bar, position apron (1) on vehicle and align the bores
of the apron arms (2 & 3) with those of the bowl. Install
pins (9) and locate apron mounting pins (6) and secure
with bolts (7).
3. Block all road wheels and place battery master
switch in the 'Off' position.
4. Using suitable lifting equipment, secured to lifting
bar (11), support ejector assembly (10).
5. Cut off cover plates welded over ejector hinge
opening. Drive one ejector hinge rod (14) out slightly
by tapping with a drift or punch against the other rod.
Pull hinge rod (14) out from hinge tubes (12). Remove
other hinge rod (14) in the same manner.
6. When hinge rods (14) are removed, remove ejector
assembly (10) from scraper bowl.
3. Install apron cylinders. Refer to Section 235-0035,
APRON CYLINDER, for proper procedure.
INSPECTION
4. Place the battery master switch in the 'On' position,
start the engine and check the operation of the apron
and bowl.
Numbers in parentheses refer to Fig. 1.
5. Ensure parking brake is applied and remove wheel
blocks from all road wheels.
2
Ejector
1. Check ejector hinge tubes (12) for cracks and
replace or reweld as necessary.
2. Check ejector assembly (10) for cracks or bends
and repair or straighten parts as necessary. Refer to
'Maintenance' for correct procedure to follow.
SM 1890 Rev1 04-04
Bowl - Apron and Ejector
Section 280-0030
INSTALLATION
Ejector
Numbers in parentheses refer to Fig. 1.
Note: Tighten all fasteners to standard torques listed
in Section 300-0080, STANDARD BOLT AND NUT
TORQUE SPECIFICATIONS.
1.Using suitable lifting equipment attached to lifting bar
(11), position ejector assembly (10) on vehicle. When
properly aligned, drive ejector hinge rods (14) through
hinge tubes (12).
2. Weld the cover plates over ejector hinge openings.
Refer to 'Welding' section for proper procedure.
3. Place the battery master switch in the 'On' position,
start the engine and check the operation of the apron
and bowl linkage.
4. Ensure parking brake is applied and remove wheel
blocks from all road wheels.
MAINTENANCE
Inspection
Inspect the apron and ejector assemblies periodically
for cracked or broken welds and bending/twisting. Any
defects found should be repaired before they progress
into major failures. Moving parts, such as levers, apron
arms and ejector hinges should be checked for wear
and for binding. Worn parts should be replaced before
they break and cause considerable damage to the
vehicle.
Straightening
Hydraulic straightening or aligning equipment should
be used to straighten bent or twisted components
whenever possible. However, if heat must be applied,
never heat the metal beyond a dull cherry red colour,
as too much heat will weaken the metal. When it is
necessary to heat the metal, apply heat uniformly over
the area to be straightened and protect the heated
surface from sudden cooling. Any parts buckled
sufficiently to show cracks or signs of strain afer cold
straightening should be reinforced or replaced.
SM 1890 Rev1 04-04
Welding
WARNINGS
Before any welding is done on a machine
equipped with the HEUI electronic
management system, disconnect the following
in this order: Battery earth cable, battery
supply cable, alternator earth cables, alternator
supply cables, front & rear transmission ECU
connectors (located behind access door below
cab door) and front & rear engine ECU
connectors (located on LH side of engine).
Turn off battery master switch before
disconnecting any components. After welding
connect all of the above in the reverse order.
Welding and flame cutting cadmium plated
metals produce odourless fumes which are
toxic. Recommended industrial hygiene
practice for protection of the welding operator
from the cadmium fumes and metallic oxides
requires enclosure ventilation specifically
designed for the welding process. A
respiratory protective device such as the
M.S.A. 'Gasfoe' respirator with G.M.A. cartridge
will provide protection against cadmium,
fumes and metallic oxides. The 'Gasfoe'
respirator has been approved by the U.S.
Bureau of Mines: Approval number 23B-10,
and is designed to protect against gases,
vapours, and/or metal fumes.
Note: Prior to welding, switch off/disconnect the
following in the order given. Failure to do so may
seriously damage the machines electrical
components.
abcdefgh-
Turn keyswitch off
Turn battery master switch off
Battery earth cables
Battery supply cables
Alternator earth cables
Alternator supply cables
Transmission ECU connectors (front & rear)
Engine ECU connectors (front & rear)
After welding, connect all of the above in the reverse
order.
3
Bowl - Apron and Ejector
Section 280-0030
Painting
Note: Always fasten the welding machines ground
cable to the piece/frame being welded if possible.
A check of the condition of the paint should be made
approximately twice a year.
Electric arc welding is recommended for all welded
repairs. Since the nature and extent of damage to the
apron and ejector cannot be predetermined, no
definite repair procedure can be established. As a
general rule however, if parts are twisted, bent or
pulled apart, or is bent or out of alignment, no welding
should be done until the parts are straightened or
realigned.
Successfully welded repairs will depend to a great
extent upon the use of the proper equipment, materials
and the ability of the welder. The Service Department
can be consulted regarding the feasibility of welding
repairs.
Patching
WARNING
Welding, burning, heating or dressing surfaces
previously painted using polyurethane paint
produces fumes which are toxic. Surfaces
must be prepared using paint stripper prior to
area being reworked. Recommended Industrial
Hygiene and Safety Rules should be followed
for protection of the welding operator from
fumes.
If painting of the unit is required, thoroughly clean the
areas to be painted. Apply a primer coat of red oxide
and then a finish coat of polyurethane enamel.
To keep rust and corrosion to a minimum, periodic
painting of abrasions and other exposed metal areas
on the frame is highly recommended.
Refer to Fig. 2.
There are two methods to be used when patching a
hole. On the outside surfaces where no moving parts
will come in contact with the patch, trim off the curved
edges of the hole and place a patch, of the same
thickness and type of steel, over the hole. This patch
should overlap the hole at least two inches all around.
Tack weld the patch in a few places to hold it in place,
and then weld all around the edge of the patch.
If the unit is to be stored for any length of time, the
interior of the apron and ejector should painted with a
primer coat of red oxide to prevent formation of rust.
SM - 2212
When patching a hole where moving parts must pass
over the patch, the hole should be trimmed with a
cutting torch and a patch of the same shape and
contour as the panel placed in the hole. Before
welding the patch, tack weld a piece of strap steel
across it to provide a grip and to keep the patch in the
proper position. Next, weld around the patch enough
to hold it firmly in place and remove the strap steel.
After removing the strap, complete the weld and grind
it down to finish the job.
If the hole is completely through both panels of the
wall, each side can be mended in the manner
suggested. In order to obtain the original strength of
the wall when the hole is completely through it, the ‘I’
reinforcing spacers must be repaired if they are
damaged.
*
4
Fig. 2 - Applying a Patch
*
*
*
SM 1890 Rev1 04-04
BOWL - Ejector Lever
Section 280-0040
SM - 2380
16
8
17
2
11
15
7
19
12
20
18
3
3
15
10
13
15
1
5
10
9
14
4
6
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
10
9
- Ejector Lever
- Lever Mounting Pin
- Bushing
- Roller
- Mounting Pin
- Mounting Pin
- Bolt
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
- Locknut
- Bolt
- Washer
- Mounting Pin
- Bolt
- Nut
- Grease Fitting
15
16
17
18
19
20
- Elbow
- Lube Hose
- Lube Hose
- Lube Hose
- Adaptor
- Grease Fitting
Fig. 1 - Exploded View of Ejector Lever and Lube Fittings
OPERATION
REMOVAL
Numbers in parentheses refer to Fig. 1.
Numbers in parentheses refer to Fig. 1.
When the ejector cylinder is actuated, the ejector lever
pivots at the top and the ejector roller (4) pushes
against the ejector. The ejector raises and pushes the
material up and out of the scraper bowl.
WARNING
To prevent personal injury and property
damage, be sure wheel blocks, blocking
materials and lifting equipment are properly
secured and of adequate capacity to do the job
safely.
1. Position the vehicle in a level work area, lower
ejector completely until it rests on ejector stops, apply
the parking brake and switch off the engine. Operate
the steering in both directions several times to relieve
any pressure in the steering system.
SM 1892 1-00
1
Bowl - Ejector Lever
Section 280-0040
INSTALLATION
2. Block all road wheels and place the battery master
switch in the 'Off' position.
Numbers in parentheses refer to Fig. 1.
3. Identify lube hoses (16 & 17) for ease of installation
and disconnect from elbows (15) on ejector lever (1)
and mounting pin (5). Cap ends to prevent entry of dirt.
Remove elbows (15) from ejector lever (1) and
mounting pin (5).
4. Using suitable blocking equipment, support ejector
cylinder and remove bolt (9), washer (10) and
mounting pin (5) from ejector lever (1).
Note: Tighten all fasteners to standard torques listed
in Section 300-0080, STANDARD BOLT AND NUT
TORQUE SPECIFICATIONS.
1. If removed, press bushing (3) into ejector lever (1)
bore.
2. Support roller (4) and install mounting pin (6)
through bore. Secure with bolt (9) and washer (10).
Check roller (4) turns freely and does not bind. Install
grease fitting (14) in mounting pin (6).
5. Using suitable lifting equipment, support ejector
lever (1), remove bolt (7) and nut (8) and drive lever
mounting pin (2) from ejector lever (1). Remove
ejector lever (1) from vehicle.
6. Remove grease fitting (14) from mounting pin (6).
Support roller (4) and remove bolt (9), washer (10) and
mounting pin (6) from ejector lever (1). Remove roller
(4) from vehicle.
3. Using suitable lifting equipment, position ejector
lever (1) on vehicle and install lever mounting pin (2)
through bowl mounting brackets and ejector lever (1)
bore. Secure mounting pin (2) with bolt (9) and nut (8).
4. Align ejector lever (1) with ejector cylinder eye and
install mounting pin (5). Secure mounting pin (5) with
bolt (9) and washer (10).
7. If required, remove bushing (3) from ejector lever (1).
5. Install elbows (15) in ejector lever (1) and mounting
pin (5). Remove caps and connect lube hoses
(16 & 17) to elbows (15) as identified at Removal.
INSPECTION
Numbers in parentheses refer to Fig. 1.
6. Place the battery master switch in the 'On' position,
start the engine and check the operation of the apron
and bowl linkage.
1. Check ejector lever (1) for cracks or bends and
repair or replace as necessary.
7. Ensure parking brake is applied and remove wheel
blocks from all road wheels.
2. Check bushing (3), bores of ejector lever (1) and
pins (5 & 6) for excessive wear and replace parts as
necessary.
SPECIAL TOOLS
3. Check roller (4) for wear, and out of roundness.
Replace roller (4) if it shows signs of wear.
There are no special tools required for procedures
outlined in this section. Refer to Section 300-0070,
SERVICE TOOLS, for part numbers of the general
service tools required. These tools are available from
your dealer.
*
2
*
*
*
SM 1892 1-00
BOWL - Bowl Linkage
Section 280-0040
SM - 2379
2
7
1
3
8
7
6
5
8
5
4
4
9
10
8
2
6
8
12
13
BOWL
CYLINDER
5
11
6
3
9
10
14
4
9
10
6
6
5
BOWL
CYLINDER
1
2
3
4
5
- Pin
- Cotter Pin
- Spacer
- Cylinder Pin
- Bolt
6
7
8
9
10
- Grease Fitting
- Bowl Lift Lever
- Bushing
- Lockwasher
- Nut
11
12
13
14
- Locknut
- Roller
- Lift Rod Mounting Pin
- Lift Rod
Fig. 1 - Exploded View of Bowl Linkage
REMOVAL
Numbers in parentheses refer to Fig. 1.
WARNING
To prevent personal injury and property
damage, be sure wheel blocks, blocking
materials and lifting equipment are properly
secured and of adequate capacity to do the job
safely.
1. Position the vehicle in a level work area, ensure
scraper bowl and apron is completely lowered, apply
the parking brake and switch off the engine. Operate
the steering in both directions several times to relieve
any pressure in the steering system.
SM 1891 1-00
2. Block all road wheels and place the battery master
switch in the 'Off' position.
3. Disconnect lift rods (14) and roller (12), if used, from
bowl by removing bolts (5), nuts (10) and lockwashers
(9) and driving out pins (13). Remove grease fitting (6)
before removing pins.
4. Remove bolts (5), nuts (11) and grease fittings (6)
from pins (4). Support lift rods (14) and drive out pins
(4) separating lift rods (14) from levers (7).
5. Support cylinders and disconnect levers (7) from
cylinders by removing cylinder pin locking bolts (5),
nuts (10), lockwashers (9) and grease fittings (6) and
driving out pins (4).
1
Bowl - Bowl Linkage
Section 280-0040
6. Support levers (7), with suitable lifting equipment, to
keep them from falling and to take weight off lever pin
(1). Remove cotter pin (2) from pin (1). Drive pin (1)
out and remove spacers (3). Remove levers (7) and
place in a suitable working area.
WARNING
Before any welding is done on a machine
equipped with the HEUI electronic
management system, disconnect the following
in this order: Battery earth cable, battery
supply cable, alternator earth cables, alternator
supply cables, front & rear transmission ECU
connectors (located behind access door below
cab door) and front & rear engine ECU
connectors (located on LH side of engine).
Turn off battery master switch before
disconnecting any components. After welding
connect all of the above in the reverse order.
7. Remove bushings (8) if scored or scratched.
INSPECTION
Numbers in parentheses refer to Fig. 1.
1. Check levers (7) for cracks or bends and repair or
replace as necessary.
2. Check bushing (8), pins (1, 4 & 13), bores in levers
(7) and lift rods (14) and roller (12), if used, for
excessive wear and replace parts as necessary.
3. Support levers (7) with a suitable lifting device and
drive lever mounting pin (1) through bores containing
bushings (8) of bowl levers and spacers (3). Install
cotter pin (2) on each end of pin (1).
3. Inspect all bolts and nuts for stripping or bends and
replace as necessary.
4. Install levers (7) to bowl cylinders by installing pins
(4) and securing with bolts (5), lockwashers (9) and
nuts (10). Install grease fittings (6) in pins (4).
INSTALLATION
Numbers in parentheses refer to Fig. 1.
5. Connect lift rods (14) to bowl levers (7) by installing
pins (4) and securing with bolts (5) and nuts (11).
Install grease fittings (6) in pins (4).
Note: Tighten all fasteners to standard torques listed
in Section 300-0080, STANDARD BOLT AND NUT
TORQUE SPECIFICATIONS.
6. Position lift rods (14) and rollers (12), to brackets on
bowl and secure with pins (13). Secure pins (13) with
bolts (5), lockwashers (9) and nuts (10). Replace
grease fittings (6).
1. If removed, press bushing (8) into bowl levers (7).
SPECIAL TOOLS
There are no special tools required for procedures
outlined in this section. Refer to Section 300-0070,
SERVICE TOOLS, for part numbers of the general
service tools required. These tools are available from
your dealer.
*
2
*
*
*
SM 1891 1-00
BOWL - Cutting Edges and Side Blades
Section 280-0050
SM - 2215
1 - Plow Bolt
2 - Nut
3 - Blade Base
4 - Plow Bolt
5 - Side Blade
6 - Nut
7 - Cutting Edge
Fig. 1 - Exploded View of Cutting Edges and Side Blades
REMOVAL
Numbers in parentheses refer to Fig. 1.
WARNING
To prevent personal injury and property
damage, be sure wheel blocks, blocking
materials and lifting equipment are properly
secured and of adequate capacity to do the job
safely.
1. Position the vehicle in a level work area, apply the
parking brake and switch off the engine. Operate the
SM 1726 2-99
steering in both directions several times to relieve any
pressure in the steering system.
2. Block all road wheels and place the battery master
switch in the 'Off' position.
3. Remove nuts (2) and plow bolts (1) securing cutting
edges (7) to blade base (3). Remove cutting edges (7)
from vehicle.
4. Remove nuts (6) and plow bolts (4) securing side
blades (5) to bowl frame. Remove side blades (5) from
vehicle.
1
Bowl - Cutting Edges and Side Blades
Section 280-0050
INSTALLATION
Numbers in parentheses refer to Fig. 1.
Note: Tighten all fasteners to standard torques listed
in Section 300-0080, STANDARD BOLT AND NUT
TORQUE SPECIFICATIONS.
Note: The plow bolts used to attach the scraper
cutting edges and side blades must be tightened
correctly if the blades are to stay in place. The plow
bolts have square shoulders which fit into square
holes in the blades to keep the bolts from turning. If
the bolt shoulders are not seated properly the bolts
cannot be tightened adequately and the blades will
eventually work loose. To make sure the bolts are
torqued to the recommended 750 - 820 Nm
(550 - 600 lbf ft), strike the heads with a suitable
hammer while tightening the nuts with a torque
wrench. When the torque on the nuts cannot be
reduced below 750 Nm (550 lbf ft) by additional
striking on bolts heads, the bolts are then properly
seated and tightened correctly.
1. Inspect cutting edges (7) for damage and replace if
necessary. Position cutting edges (7) to blade base (3)
and secure with plow bolts (1) and nuts (2).
2. Inspect side blades (5) for damage and replace if
necessary. Position side blades (5) to bowl frame and
secure with plow bolts (4) and nuts (6).
3. Place the battery master switch in the 'On' position
and remove blocks from all road wheels.
used for various edge arrangements. In addition, the
edges are reversible which prolongs the useful life of
the edges. The use of the proper edge arrangement
for certain types of cut or soil conditions can save a
great deal of money in edge replacement and labour.
Scraper edges should never be allowed to wear to the
point where the blade base is doing the cutting.
The 100 mm (4 in) drop centre arrangement is
recommended for hard, rock-free soils when a
maximum drop centre and centre heaped loads is
required. To renew this arrangement after one edge is
worn, reverse all edges and interchange the outer pair
of edges (1 & 4) with the inner pair (2 & 3).
The straight edge arrangement is recommended
whenever a level cut or a level fill is required. To
renew this arrangement after one edge is worn,
reverse all edges and interchange the outer pair of
edges (1 & 4) with the inner pair (2 & 3).
The maximum overhang arrangement is
recommended for fast, easy loading in rock-free soils
and for maximum edge wear life. When working in
rocky soils, the minimum overhang edge arrangement
is recommended. For beginning scraper cuts on side
slopes or to crown a scraper cut, the one side cutting
edge is recommended. These three edge
arrangements cannot be renewed by reversing the
edge when one edge is worn, however, the edges can
be used with the 100 mm (4 in) drop centre and
straight edge arrangements.
SPECIAL TOOLS
BLADE ARRANGEMENTS
Numbers in parentheses refer to Fig. 2.
The scraper cutting edges (blades) and scraper blade
base are designed so that one type of edge can be
There are no special tools required for procedures
outlined in this section. Refer to Section 300-0070,
SERVICE TOOLS, for part numbers of the general
service tools required. These tools are available from
your dealer.
SPECIAL TORQUE SPECIFICATIONS
TORQUE
FIG. NO.
1
1
2
ITEM NO.
2
6
ITEM NAME
Nut
Nut
Nm
750 - 820
750 - 820
lbf ft
550 - 600
550 - 600
SM 1726 2-99
Bowl - Cutting Edges and Side Blades
Section 280-0050
SM - 2216
Fig. 2 - Various Cutting Edge Arrangements
*
SM 1726 2-99
*
*
*
3
MISCELLANEOUS - Lubrication System
Section 300-0020
LUBRICATION AND SERVICE
SAFETY PRECAUTIONS
Do not allow unauthorized personnel to service or
maintain this vehicle. Study the Operator’s Handbook
and Maintenance Manual before starting, operating or
servicing this vehicle. Always follow procedures and
safety precautions detailed throughout this manual.
Always attach a 'DO NOT OPERATE' or similar
warning sign to the ignition switch or a prominent
control before cleaning, lubricating or servicing the
vehicle.
Never allow anyone to work on the vehicle while it is
moving. Make sure there is no one on the vehicle
before working on it.
Do not work under or near any unblocked or
unsupported linkage, part or vehicle.
Always relieve pressure before servicing any
pressurized system. Follow the procedures and safety
precautions detailed in the relevant Maintanance
Manual section.
When changing oil in the engine, transmission and
hydraulic systems, or removing hydraulic lines,
remember that the oil may be hot and can cause burns
to unprotected skin.
When working on or around exhaust components,
remember that the components may be hot and can
cause burns to unprotected skin.
Always deflate the tyre before attempting to remove
any embedded objects or removing the tyre and rim
assembly from the vehicle.
Always use a self-attaching chuck with a long airline,
and, stand to one side while the tyre is inflating. Refer
to Section 160-0050, WHEEL RIM AND TYRE.
WARNING
These vehicles are equipped with engine and
transmission oil pans which permit operation
on longitudinal slopes up to 30° (57%). For
operation on steeper slopes, the factory
should be consulted.
Lubrication is an essential part of preventive
maintenance. It is important that the instructions,
regarding types of lubricants and the frequency of their
application, be followed to prolong the useful life of the
vehicle. Periodic lubrication of moving parts reduces to
a minimum the possibility of mechanical failures.
All change and service periods are recommendations
based on average operating conditions. Lubricants
showing evidence of excessive heat, oxidation or dirt
should be changed more frequently to prevent these
conditions.
Lubricant change and service periods must be
established on the basis of individual job conditions
utilizing oil sampling and recommendations from
lubricant suppliers.
Thoroughly clean all fittings, caps, plugs etc., to
prevent dirt from entering any system while carrying
out servicing procedures. Lubricants must be at
operating temperature when draining.
Note: Do not operate any system unless oil level is
within the recommended operating levels as indicated
on oil level dipstick, sight gauge or level plug.
Lubrication and Service Chart
Small circles on the following illustration represent
points at which lubrication and/or servicing must take
place, at the intervals indicated on the left hand side of
the lubrication and service chart. The numbered
circles on the illustration contain reference numbers
which correspond to the reference numbers in the
'Ref. Points' column of the lubrication and service chart.
Note: At each scheduled maintenance interval, perform
all previous checks in addition to the ones specified.
SM 1889 Rev 2 12-05
1
Miscellaneous - Lubrication System
Section 300-0020
SM - 2224
1
6
13
10 12
7
11
9
10
12
7
11
4
8
3
20
9
2
10
5
4
Fig. 1 - Lubrication Points - Tractor
LUBRICATION AND SERVICE CHART - Tractor
Interval
Hours
10
50
150
2
Ref.
Points
No. of
Points
Identification
Service Instructions
1
2
-
Engine
Transmission
Hydraulic Oil Tank
Coolant Level
Fuel Tank
Fuel Filter/Water Separator
Cooling Fan
Drive Belts
Air Reservoirs
Air Cleaner Restriction
Air/Water Separator
Tyres
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
3
1
1
2
EO
HTF
HO
Antifreeze
-
-
Controls and Instruments
General Inspection
Check oil level. Add if low
Check oil level. Add if low
Check oil level. Add if low
Check coolant level. Add if low
Drain water
Drain water and sediment
Visually inspect for debris & damage
Visually inspect all belts
Drain all air tanks
Check gauge. Replace element if reqd
Drain water
Check condition. Check pressures
when tyres are cold.
Check for proper operation
Check for leaks and damaged parts.
Repair/replace as required.
Lubricant Service/Quantities
-
-
-
3
4
5
-
Steering Frame Pins
Steering Cylinder Pins
Reversing Valve Rollers
Remote Lubrication Points
- Basic Parts
Lube
Lube
Lube
Lube
2
4
2
3
EP,
EP,
EP,
EP,
NLGI
NLGI
NLGI
NLGI
See Note 1
See Note 1
See Note 1
See Note 1 & Page 4
7
8
9
10
11
12
Cooling System
Planetary Assemblies
Differential
Driveline Slip Joints
Universal Joints
Brake Cam Shafts
Brake Shoe Anchor Pins
Check antifreeze concentration
Check oil level. Add if low
Check oil level. Add if low
Lube
Lube
Lube
Lube
2
1
2
4
2
4
EPL
EPL
EP, NLGI
EP, NLGI
EP, NLGI
EP, NLGI
As required
As required
As required
As required
See Page 5
Refer to Section 160-0050
Ref. Engine Manual
As required
As required
Refer to Section 130-0010
Refer to Section 130-0010
See Note 1
See Note 1
SM 1889 Rev 2 12-05
Miscellaneous - Lubrication System
Section 300-0020
LUBRICATION AND SERVICE CHART - Tractor (Continued)
Interval
Hours
Ref.
Points Identification
13
-
Steering Gear
Differential Breather
Remote Lubrication Points
- Brake Parts
20
300
500
No. of
Points
Service Instructions
Lubricant Service/Quantities
1
1
1
EP, NLGI See Note 1
EP, NLGI See Note 1 & Page 4
Transmission Input Bearing Lube
1
EP, NLGI See Page 5
1
-
Engine
Engine Lube Oil Filters
Drain oil and refill
Replace
1
-
EO
-
16
Transmission Oil Filter
Replace
1
-
-
-
Fuel Filters and Strainer
Drive Belts
Hydraulic Filter
Hydraulic Tank Breather
Air Compressor Governor
Coolant Inhibitor
Replace filters and clean housings
Check tension. Adjust if required
Change filter element
Clean
Clean or replace filters
Replenish
1
1
1
-
Ref. Engine Manual
Ref. Engine Manual
900
-
Engine Coolant Filter
Replace filter/conditioner element
1
-
Ref. Engine Manual
1 000
2
16
Transmission
Transmission Oil Filter
Drain oil and refill
Replace
1
1
HTF
-
6
7
8
-
Engine Power Takeoff
Engine Air Cleaner
Engine Crankcase Breather
Planetary Assemblies
Differential
Cooling System
Drain oil and refill
Clean inlet hood and tubes
Replace element
Drain oil and refill
Drain oil and refill
Drain coolant and refill
1
1
2
1
1
EPL
EPL
EPL
Antifreeze
See Page 5
40 litres (10.6 US gal)
-
Hydraulic System
Hydraulic Oil Tank Screen
Drain oil and refill
Remove and clean
1
HO
-
204 litres (54 US gal)
-
150
600
1 200
1 800
Lube
Clean
Lube
2 000
-
Air Drier
Replace dessicant cartridge.
1
2 400
-
Engine Cooling System
Drain coolant and refill. Replace filters
1
Note: Capacities given are approximate, work to
dipstick, sight gauges or level plugs. Use chart in
conjunction with 'Recommended Lubricants' table.
-
24.6 litres (6.5 US gal)
Ref. Engine Manual
48.5 litres (12.8 US gal)
-
-
Antifreeze 40 litres (10.5 US gal)
EPL
- Extreme Pressure Gear Lubricant spec.
MIL-L-2105D.
HTF
- Hydraulic Transmission Fluid Type C-4. Refer
to 'Recommended Lubricants' table.
- Hydraulic Transmission Oil. Refer to
'Recommended Lubricants' table.
Note 1 - Lubricate slowly until excess lube is seen.
EO
- Engine Oil. Refer to 'Recommended
Lubricants' table.
HO
*
- Refer to 'Recommended Lubricants' table.
EP, NLGI- Extreme Pressure Lithium No. 2 Grease.
Refer to 'Recommended Lubricants Table'.
SM 1889 Rev 2 12-05
3
Miscellaneous - Lubrication System
Section 300-0020
SM - 2370A
FRONT LHS
OF BOWL
TRACTOR
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
STEERING CYLINDER PIN
LEVER MOUNTING PIN
STEERING CYLINDER PIN
BOWL CYLINDER MOUNTING PIN
BOWL CYLINDER MOUNTING PIN (Lower)
LIFT ROD MOUNTING PIN (Upper)
BOWL CYLINDER MOUNTING PIN (Lower)
LIFT ROD MOUNTING PIN (Upper)
BOWL CYLINDER MOUNTING PIN (Lower)
LIFT ROD MOUNTING PIN (Upper)
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
LEVER MOUNTING PIN
BOWL CYLINDER MOUNTING PIN
LEVER MOUNTING PIN
APRON CABLE ROLLER
BOWL CYLINDER MOUNTING PIN
LOWER KING PIN
LIFT ROD MOUNTING PIN (Upper)
LIFT ROD MOUNTING PIN (Lower)
LIFT ROD MOUNTING PIN (Lower)
LOWER KING PIN
PLUGGED
PLUGGED
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
C
1 3 5 7 9
2 4 6 8 10
D
1 3 5 7 9 11
2 4 6 8 10 12
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
BRAKE CAM SHAFT
DRIVE BEARING
BRAKE SAFETY CHAMBER
BRAKE SAFETY CHAMBER
BRAKE SHOE ANCHOR PIN
BRAKE SHOE ANCHOR PIN
BRAKE SHOE ANCHOR PIN
BRAKE SHOE ANCHOR PIN
PLUGGED
BRAKE CAM SHAFT
ROLLER
STEERING FRAME PIN
ROLLER
STEERING FRAME PIN
STEERING CYLINDER PIN
STEERING FRAME PIN
PLUGGED
STEERING CYLINDER PIN
A
1 3 5 7 9
2 4 6 8 10
B
1 3 5 7
2 4 6 8
FRONT RHS
ON ENGINE
COVER
TRACTOR
Fig. 2 - Remote Lubrication Lines - Tractor
Remote Lubrication Points
For improved accessibility, remote lube lines are run to
manifold blocks mounted on the front right hand side
engine cover and the front left hand side of the bowl.
These lines should be inspected periodically for damage.
Apply sufficient grease into each nipple until there is
clear evidence of grease emerging from one or two of
the clearly visible connected bearing points.
Do not over grease the brake system.
When a component is lubricated, the general condition
of the component should also be visually checked.
Look for cracked parts, loose fasteners, excessive
wear, or improper clearance as applicable to the
component being lubricated.
Operation
The distributor manifolds progressively and positively
distribute the total lubricant input into each of the
single grease points to all connected bearing points on
the scraper, via internal reciprocating pistons, without
reliance on springs, valves or seals.
4
The progressive distribution of the lubricant throughout
the system is absolutely positive. Such that should any
connected bearing point not be able to accept the
individually measured quantity of lubricant from the
system for any reason, the distribution will
progressively cease to function until a 'pressure stall'
situation occurs. This situation will be clearly evident to
the operator as the lever gun or air gun will stop
operating, and no more lubricant will enter the system.
Should a pressure stall condition occur, this indicates
that one or more of the connected bearing points
cannot receive its measured quantity of grease. The
following procedure should be followed in order to
quickly identify which of the connected points is the
cause of the problem.
With the grease gun applied to the single nipple in
question, maintain pressure on the system. Remove
and refit each outlet of the distributor manifold in turn,
until grease appears and the distributor can operate
once again. This indicates which bearing point is
causing the problem, trace the feed line to the bearing
point and rectify the problem.
SM 1889 Rev 2 12-05
Miscellaneous - Lubrication System
Section 300-0020
MISCELLANEOUS SERVICING
WHEN REQUIRED
Seat Belts - Inspect seat belts and replace if
damaged.
Note: Replace seat belts at least once every three
years, regardless of appearance.
Windscreen Wipers and Washers - Inspect wiper
blades and replace if damaged. Top up washer
reservoir.
EVERY 10 HOURS OF OPERATION (DAILY)
Walk Around Inspection - Inspect the machine as
described in Section 4 of the Operators Handbook.
Engine - Visually check engine for damage, loose or
frayed belts and listen for any unusual noises.
Engine Air Cleaner - Change air cleaner element
only when air restriction gauge locks up in the red.
Service dust cup daily.
Note: Service air cleaners more often when
operating under extremely dusty conditions.
Engine Crankcase - Check oil level and add oil if
low. With the engine off, the oil should be between
the 'Low' and 'Full' marks on the dipstick, up to the
'Full' mark is preferable.
Transmission - Adjust bowl height to level the
transmission and, with the engine running and oil at
normal operating temperature, check oil level. Add
oil if the level is below the 'FULL' line on the dipstick.
Do not overfill.
Hydraulic Tank - With the bowl on the ground,
apron down, ejector returned and the engine off,
check oil level. Oil level should be between the 'Cold'
and 'Hot' marks on the sight gauge. Add oil if low.
EVERY 150 HOURS OF OPERATION
General Inspection - Check entire scraper for leaks,
loose bolts and nuts or damaged parts. Examine the
scraper, particularly the chassis, for cracks or broken
welds. Repair where necessary.
Drive Belts - Visually check the belts and replace if
they are cracked or frayed. Adjust belts that have a
glazed or shiny surface which indicates belt
slippage. Correctly installed and tensioned belts will
show even pulley and belt wear. Refer to 'Engine
Operation and Maintenance Manual' for drive belt
tension and adjustment of new and used belts.
Note: The fan belt is maintained to the correct belt
tension by a spring loaded idler arm, therefore, there
is no need to adjust belt tension.
Oil Can Points - Oil brake treadle rollers, hinges
and other working parts with engine oil.
Transmission Input Bearing - Lubricate through the
lube fitting with a hand grease gun, 3-4 shots of
grease. Do not overgrease
Note: Failure to lubricate with a No. 2 Consistency
grease could cause premature failure of the input
bearing.
EVERY 250 HOURS OF OPERATION
Cooling Fan - Visually check fan for cracks, loose
rivets, and bent or loose blades. Check fan mounting
and tighten if required. Replace any fan that is
damaged.
EVERY 600 HOURS OF OPERATION
Coolant Inhibitor - Check and replenish coolant
inhibitor as described in Engine 'Operation and
Maintenance Manual'.
Cooling System - Check coolant level, add if low.
Add coolant to the top of the filler neck.
AFTER FIRST 50 HOURS OF OPERATING NEW OR
REBUILT COMPONENTS
Transmission - Drain oil, replace filter and refill.
AFTER FIRST 150 HOURS OF OPERATING NEW
OR REBUILT COMPONENTS
Differential - Drain oil and refill.
Planetaries - Drain oil and refill.
SM 1889 Rev 2 12-05
EVERY 1 200 HOURS OF OPERATION
Engine Power Takeoff - Drain and refill. Remove
bottom pipe plug in PTO cover and drain oil into a
suitable container. Reinstall pipe plug and refill to
level of check cock.
EVERY 1 800 HOURS OF OPERATION
Hydraulic Oil Tank - Drain tank, remove and clean
filter screen assembly and discard filter element.
Reinstall filter screen, new filter element and refill
with clean hydraulic oil. Refer to Section 235-0040,
HYDRAULIC TANK.
5
Miscellaneous - Lubrication System
Section 300-0020
ENGINES AND TRANSMISSION
All information contained in the 'Lubrication and Service
Chart' was extracted from the relevant manufacturers
Operators Manual and was correct at time of
publication. User should ensure that information
contained in this chart, regarding the Engine and
Transmission, reflects the information shown in the
relevant manufacturers Operators Manuals, supplied
with the machine. Maintenance procedures should be
carried out in conjunction with any additional
procedures contained in the relevant manufacturers
'Operation and Maintenance Manual', at the intervals
specified.
RECOMMENDED LUBRICANTS
COMPONENT
LUBRICANT
Engine
Engine oil with 1.00% ash is recommended.
Sulphated ash must not exceed 1.85% limit.
Classification is as follows:
API Classification
Military Specifications
SAE Grade
VISCOSITY (See Note 1)
The use of low viscosity oils, such as
10W or 10W-30, can be used to aid in
starting the engine and providing
sufficient oil flow at ambient
CG-4 or CF-4 temperatures below -5°C (23°F).
MIL-L-2104E Continuous use of low viscosity oils can
15W-40 decrease engine life due to wear.
Transmission
Hydraulic Transmission Oil, Type C-4.
See Note 3.
Ambient
-30° to 30° C
-25° to 30° C
-15° to 30° C
-10° to 30° C
-5° to 50° C
0° to 50° C
Recommendation
SAE 0W-20 (Arctic)
DEXRON-III
SAE 10W
SAE 15W
SAE 30
SAE 40
Differential,
Planetary Gears,
Power Takeoff,
Steering Gear
Multipurpose Extreme Pressure type gear oil
meeting MIL-L-2105C Specifications
(No Zinc Additive).
SAE 80W-90
at ambient temperatures of -18° to 32°C
Grease Fittings
Multipurpose Extreme Pressure Lithium Grease
with a typical melting point of 190° C.
No. 2 Consistency
Cooling System
Antifreeze, Ethylene Glycol
Fuel Tank
Diesel Fuel Oil with maximum sulphur 0.5%
DIN EN590
Hydraulic System Hydraulic Transmission Oil meeting MIL-L-2104C SAE 10W
Specifications or API Service Code CC or CD/SC at ambient temperatures of -18° to 32°C
Drivelines,
Steering Column
Multipurpose Extreme Pressure Lithium Grease
(without 'Molybdenum'), with a typical melting
point of 190° C.
Note - For temperature conversions to degrees
Fahrenheit (°F) refer to the table on page 11.
Note 1 - Consult your lubricant supplier for the correct
viscosity of lubricant to use when ambient
temperatures are consistently above or below those
listed.
Note 2 - Detroit Diesel does not recommend any
specific brand of engine oil but the use of oils that
meet API categories. Detroit Diesel recommends use
of only the multi-graded viscosity oils shown for the
various ambient temperatures listed.
6
No. 2 Consistency
Note 3 - Preheat is required below minimum
temperatures shown. Operation below the minimum
temperatures listed for the oil used without proper
preheat or warm-up results in greatly reduced
transmission life. Proper warm-up requires 20 minutes
minimum operation in neutral (with engine at part
throttle) before operating the transmission in gear.
Hydraulic Transmission Oil meeting Specification
EMS19058 may also conform to the Allison C-4
requirements. Consult your lubricant supplier for
confirmation.
SM 1889 Rev 2 12-05
Miscellaneous - Lubrication System
Section 300-0020
SM - 2377
5
4
7
6
8
9
12
2
17 15
19 16 18
14
1
8
9
12
3
16 21 17
19 13 18
14
17
Fig. 3 - Lubrication Points - Scraper
LUBRICATION AND SERVICE CHART - Scraper
Interval
Hours
Ref.
Points
10
50
No. of
Points
Identification
Service Instructions
1
2
-
Engine
Transmission
Coolant Level
Fuel Tank
Fuel Strainer
Fuel/Water Separator
Cooling Fan
Drive Belts
Air Reservoirs
Air Cleaner Restriction
Tyres
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
2
EO
HTF
Antifreeze
-
-
General Inspection
Check oil level. Add if low
Check oil level. Add if low
Check coolant level. Add if low
Drain water
Drain water and sediment
Drain water and sediment
Visually inspect for debris & damage
Visually inspect all belts
Drain all air tanks
Check gauge. Replace element if reqd
Check condition. Check pressures
when tyres are cold.
Check for leaks and damaged parts.
Repair/Replace as required
-
-
-
Lube
Lube
Lube
Lube
Lube
Lube
Lube
Lube
Lube
Lube
Lube
1
1
1
1
3
6
4
1
2
2
3
EP,
EP,
EP,
EP,
EP,
EP,
EP,
EP,
EP,
EP,
EP,
NLGI
NLGI
NLGI
NLGI
NLGI
NLGI
NLGI
NLGI
NLGI
NLGI
NLGI
See Note 1
See Note 1
See Note 1
See Note 1
See Note 1
See Note 1
See Note 1
See Note 1
See Note 1
See Note 1
See Note 1
Lube
1
EP, NLGI See Note 1 & Page 9
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
-
Ejector Lever Roller Pin
Lower Kingpin Thrust Bearing
Lower Kingpin Bushing
Upper Kingpin
Lever Mounting Pins
Bowl Cylinder Mounting Pins
Lift Rod Mounting Pins
Apron Sheave Pin
Apron Cable Roller
Pull Yoke Ball Joint
Ejector Lever Mounting and
Ejector Cylinder Pins
Remote Lubrication Points
- Basic Parts
SM 1889 Rev 2 12-05
Lubricant Service/Quantities
As required
As required
As required
See Page 10
Refer to Section 160-0050
7
Miscellaneous - Lubrication System
Section 300-0020
LUBRICATION AND SERVICE CHART - Scraper (Continued)
Interval
Hours
150
300
Ref.
Points
No. of
Points Lubricant Service/Quantities
Identification
Service Instructions
14
15
16
17
18
19
-
Cooling System
Planetary Assemblies
Differential
Driveline Slip Joints
Universal Joints
Brake Cam Shafts
Brake Shoe Anchor Pins
Differential Breather
Remote Lubrication Points
- Brake Parts
Check antifreeze concentration
Check oil level. Add if low
Check oil level. Add if low
Lube
Lube
Lube
Lube
Clean
Lube
21
Transmission Input Bearing
1
-
Engine
Engine Lube Oil Filter
2
1
2
4
2
4
1
1
EPL
EPL
EP, NLGI
EP, NLGI
EP, NLGI
EP, NLGI
EP, NLGI
Lube
1
EP, NLGI See Page 10
Drain oil and refill
Replace
1
1
EO
-
Ref. Engine Manual
As required
As required
See Note 1
See Note 1
See Note 1
See Note 1
See Note 1 & Page 9
24.6 litres (6.5 US gal)
-
500
-
Transmission Oil Filter
Replace
1
-
-
600
-
Fuel Filters and Strainer
Coolant Inhibitor
Drive Belts
Replace filters and clean housings
Replenish
Check tension. Adjust if required
1
-
-
Ref. Engine Manual
Ref. Engine Manual
900
-
Engine Coolant Filter
Replace filter/conditioner element
1
-
1 000
2
-
Transmission
Transmission Oil Filter
Drain oil and refill
Replace
1
1
HTF
-
49 litres (12.9 US gal)
-
14
15
-
Engine Power Takeoff
Engine Air Cleaner
Engine Crankcase Breather
Planetary Assemblies
Differential
Fuel Tank
Drain oil and refill
Clean inlet hood and tubes
Replace element
Drain oil and refill
Drain oil and refill
Clean filler neck screen
1
1
2
1
1
EPL
EPL
EPL
-
See Page 10
-
Cooling System
Drain coolant and refill
1
1 200
2 400
-
Note: Capacities given are approximate, work to
dipstick, sight gauges or level plugs. Use chart in
conjunction with 'Recommended Lubricants' table.
-
Antifreeze 39 litres (10.3 US gal)
EPL
- Extreme Pressure Gear Lubricant spec.
MIL-L-2105D.
HTF
- Hydraulic Transmission Fluid Type C-4. Refer
to 'Recommended Lubricants' table.
- Hydraulic Transmission Oil. Refer to
'Recommended Lubricants' table.
Note 1 - Lubricate slowly until excess lube is seen.
EO
- Engine Oil. Refer to 'Recommended
Lubricants' table.
HO
*
- Refer to 'Recommended Lubricants' table.
EP, NLGI- Extreme Pressure Lithium No. 2 Grease.
Refer to 'Recommended Lubricants Table'.
8
SM 1889 Rev 2 12-05
Miscellaneous - Lubrication System
Section 300-0020
SM - 2370B
REAR LHS SCRAPER
ENGINE COVER
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
10 8 6 4 2
9 7 5 3 1
E
6 4 2
5 3 1
F
1
2
3
4
5
6
BRAKE SAFETY CHAMBER
BRAKE SHOE ANCHOR PIN
PLUGGED
BRAKE SHOE ANCHOR PIN
BRAKE SHOE ANCHOR PIN
BRAKE CAM SHAFT
BRAKE SAFETY CHAMBER
DRIVE BEARING
BRAKE SHOE ANCHOR PIN
BRAKE CAM SHAFT
EJECTOR CYLINDER
EJECTOR LEVER ROLLER PIN
EJECTOR CYLINDER MOUNTING PLATE
EJECTOR CYLINDER (Lower)
PLUGGED
PLUGGED
Fig. 4 - Remote Lubrication Lines - Scraper
Remote Lubrication Points
For improved accessibility, remote lube lines are run to
a manifold block mounted on the rear right hand side
of the engine cover. These lines should be inspected
periodically for damage.
Apply sufficient grease into each nipple until there is
clear evidence of grease emerging from one or two of
the clearly visible connected bearing points.
Do not over grease the brake system.
When a component is lubricated, the general condition
of the component should also be visually checked.
Look for cracked parts, loose fasteners, excessive
wear, or improper clearance as applicable to the
component being lubricated.
Operation
The distributor manifolds progressively and positively
distribute the total lubricant input into each of the
single grease points to all connected bearing points on
the scraper, via internal reciprocating pistons, without
reliance on springs, valves or seals.
SM 1889 Rev 2 12-05
The progressive distribution of the lubricant throughout
the system is absolutely positive. Such that should any
connected bearing point not be able to accept the
individually measured quantity of lubricant from the
system for any reason, the distribution will
progressively cease to function until a 'pressure stall'
situation occurs. This situation will be clearly evident to
the operator as the lever gun or air gun will stop
operating, and no more lubricant will enter the system.
Should a pressure stall condition occur, this indicates
that one or more of the connected bearing points
cannot receive its measured quantity of grease. The
following procedure should be followed in order to
quickly identify which of the connected points is the
cause of the problem.
With the grease gun applied to the single nipple in
question, maintain pressure on the system. Remove
and refit each outlet of the distributor manifold in turn,
until grease appears and the distributor can operate
once again. This indicates which bearing point is
causing the problem, trace the feed line to the bearing
point and rectify the problem.
9
Miscellaneous - Lubrication System
Section 300-0020
MISCELLANEOUS SERVICING
Every 10 hours of Operation (Daily)
Walk Around Inspection - Inspect the machine as
described in Section 4 of the Operators Handbook.
Engine - Visually check engine for damage, loose or
frayed belts and listen for any unusual noises.
Engine Air Cleaner - Change air cleaner element
only when air restriction gauge locks up in the red.
Service dust cup daily.
Note: Service air cleaners more often when
operating under extremely dusty conditions.
Engine Crankcase - Check oil level and add oil if
low. With the engine off, the oil should be between
the 'Low' and 'Full' marks on the dipstick, up to the
'Full' mark is preferable.
Transmission - Adjust bowl height to level the
transmission and, with the engine running and oil at
normal operating temperature, check oil level. Add
oil if the level is below the 'FULL' line on the dipstick.
Do not overfill.
Cooling System - Check coolant level, add if low.
Add coolant to the top of the filler neck.
AFTER FIRST 50 HOURS OF OPERATING NEW OR
REBUILT COMPONENTS
Transmission - Drain oil, replace filter and refill.
AFTER FIRST 150 HOURS OF OPERATING NEW
OR REBUILT COMPONENTS
Differential - Drain oil and refill.
Planetaries - Drain oil and refill.
EVERY 150 HOURS OF OPERATION
General Inspection - Check entire scraper for
leaks, loose bolts and nuts or damaged parts.
Examine the scraper, particularly the chassis, for
cracks or broken welds. Repair where necessary.
Oil Can Points - Oil brake treadle rollers and other
working parts with engine oil.
Drive Belts - Visually check the belts and replace if
they are cracked or frayed. Adjust belts that have a
10
glazed or shiny surface which indicates belt
slippage. Correctly installed and tensioned belts will
show even pulley and belt wear. Refer to 'Engine
Operation and Maintenance Manual' for drive belt
tension and adjustment of new and used belts.
Note: The fan belt is maintained to the correct belt
tension by a spring loaded idler arm, therefore, there
is no need to adjust belt tension.
Transmission Input Bearing - Lubricate through
the lube fitting with a hand grease gun, 3-4 shots of
grease. Do not overgrease.
Note: Failure to lubricate with a No. 2 Consistency
grease could cause premature failure of the input
bearing.
EVERY 250 HOURS OF OPERATION
Cooling Fan - Visually check fan for cracks, loose
rivets, and bent or loose blades. Check fan mounting
and tighten if required. Replace any fan that is
damaged.
EVERY 600 HOURS OF OPERATION
Coolant Inhibitor - Check and replenish coolant
inhibitor as described in Engine 'Operation and
Maintenance Manual'.
EVERY 1 200 HOURS OF OPERATION
Engine Power Takeoff - Drain and refill. Remove
bottom pipe plug in PTO cover and drain oil into a
suitable container. Reinstall pipe plug and refill to
level of check cock.
ENGINE AND TRANSMISSION
All information contained in the 'Lubrication and
Service Chart' was extracted from the relevant
manufacturers Operators Manual and was correct at
time of publication. User should ensure that
information contained in this chart, regarding the
Engine and Transmission, reflects the information
shown in the relevant manufacturers Operators
Manuals, supplied with the machine. Maintenance
procedures should be carried out in conjunction with
any additional procedures contained in the relevant
manufacturers 'Operation and Maintenance Manual',
at the intervals specified.
SM 1889 Rev 2 12-05
Miscellaneous - Lubrication System
Section 300-0020
RECOMMENDED LUBRICANTS
COMPONENT
LUBRICANT
VISCOSITY (See Note 1)
Engine
Engine oil with 1.00% ash is recommended.
Sulphated ash must not exceed 1.85% limit.
The use of low viscosity oils, such as
10W or 10W-30, can be used to aid in
starting the engine and providing
sufficient oil flow at ambient
CG-4 or CF-4 temperatures below -5°C (23°F).
MIL-L-2104E Continuous use of low viscosity oils can
15W-40 decrease engine life due to wear.
Classification is as follows:
API Classification
Military Specifications
SAE Grade
Transmission
Hydraulic Transmission Oil, Type C-4.
See Note 3.
Differential,
Planetary Gears
Multipurpose Extreme Pressure type gear oil
meeting MIL-L-2105C Specifications
(No Zinc Additive).
SAE 80W-90
at ambient temperatures of -18° to 32°C
Grease Fittings
Ejector Rollers
Multipurpose Extreme Pressure Lithium Grease
with a typical melting point of 190° C.
No. 2 Consistency
Cooling System
Antifreeze, Ethylene Glycol
Fuel Tank
Diesel Fuel Oil with maximum sulphur 0.5%
DIN EN590
Drivelines
Multipurpose Extreme Pressure Lithium Grease
(without 'Molybdenum'), with a typical melting
point of 190° C.
No. 2 Consistency
Note - For temperature conversions to degrees
Fahrenheit (°F) refer to the table below.
Ambient
-30° to 30° C
-25° to 30° C
-15° to 30° C
-10° to 30° C
-5° to 50° C
0° to 50° C
Recommendation
SAE 0W-20 (Arctic)
DEXRON-III
SAE 10W
SAE 15W
SAE 30
SAE 40
Note 3 - Preheat is required below minimum
temperatures shown. Operation below the minimum
temperatures listed for the oil used without proper
preheat or warm-up results in greatly reduced
transmission life. Proper warm-up requires 20 minutes
minimum operation in neutral (with engine at part
throttle) before operating the transmission in gear.
Note 1 - Consult your lubricant supplier for the correct
viscosity of lubricant to use when ambient
temperatures are consistently above or below those
listed.
Hydraulic Transmission Oil meeting Specification
EMS19058 may also conform to the Allison C-4
requirements. Consult your lubricant supplier for
confirmation.
Note 2 - Detroit Diesel does not recommend any
specific brand of engine oil but the use of oils that
meet API categories. Detroit Diesel recommends use
of only the multi-graded viscosity oils shown for the
various ambient temperatures listed.
Temperature Conversions
° Celsius
-32 -30 -27 -25 -20 -18 -15 -10
-5
0
10
15
25
32
35
° Fahrenheit
-26 -22 -17 -13
23
32
50
59
77
90
95 100 122 200
-4
0
5
*
SM 1889 Rev 2 12-05
14
*
*
38
50
93
*
11
MISCELLANEOUS - Service Tools
Section 300-0070
INTRODUCTION
Engine
Contained in this section are recommended service
tools and equipment required for maintenance,
overhaul and troubleshooting. In certain instances,
both Metric and Imperial equivalents of the same tools
are listed.
The following tools are recommended for Engine
Maintenance Procedures. These tools should be used
in conjunction with procedures outlined in the engine
manufacturers service manual.
Note: A tool may be of one piece construction or
consist of a number of parts.
General
*15269784 - Multi-Gauge - Pressure range of 30 in of
vacuum to 5 000 lbf/in²
15269785 - Non-contact Infrared Thermometer
15268968 - Strap Type Filter Wrench
15268969 - Socket Type Filter Wrench
15268970 - Universal Belt Tension Gauge
15270180 - Belt Tension Gauge - Poly 'V' Belt
15269858 - Digital Tachometer
15269859 - Multimeter
15269813 - Water Manometer
15269802 - Dial Indicator Gauge - Metric
15269803 - Dial Indicator Gauge - Imperial
15269804 - Magnetic Base for Dial Indicator Gauge
15269805 - Micrometer - 0 to 25 mm
15269806 - Micrometer - 0 to 1 in
15269860 - 92 Piece Heavy Equipment Tool Kit
15269861 - Torque Wrench - 3/8 in drive,
20 - 100 Nm (15 - 80 lbf ft) range
15269862 - Torque Wrench - 1/2 in drive,
60 - 330 Nm (45 - 250 lbf ft) range
15269863 - Torque Wrench - 3/8 in drive,
4 - 20 Nm (40 - 180 lbf in) range
15269864 - Torque Wrench - 3/4 in drive,
300 - 1 000 Nm (200 - 750 lbf ft) range
15269865 - Torque Wrench - 3/4 in drive,
700 - 1 500 Nm (500 - 1 000 lbf ft) range
15269866 - Torque Multiplier - 1/2 in to 1 in drive,
25:1 Ratio, 3 000 Nm (2 200 lbf ft) range
15273106 - Sled Gauge
15273107 - Nozzle Tester with Adapter
15273105 - PRO-LINK 9000
15270310 - Adaptor Cable for DDR
15273084 - Multi Protocol Cartridge
15273101 - Navistar RAM Card
15273123 - Pressure Test Kit
15273110 - Crankshaft Front Oil Seal Wear Sleeve
Installer
15273122 - Orifice Restrictor Tool
15273121 - Piston Groove Wear Measuring Tool
15273119 - Valve Seat Installer
15273120 - Camshaft Bushing Service Set
15273109 - Plunger Pin (to check timing)
15273111 - Crankshaft Rear Oil Seal Installer
15273112 -Valve Guide Removal Tool
15273113 - Nozzle Puller
15273108 - Idler Nut Socket
15273089 - Fuel Injector Sleeve Remover
15273090 - Fuel Injector Remover Tool
15273091 - Fuel Injector Sleeve Installer
15273092 - Engine Harness Repair Kit
15273093 - Terminal Release Tool Kit
15273100 - ECM Terminal Crimping Plier
15273094 - Cylinder Sleeve Holding Adapters
15273095 - Guide Stud Set
15273096 - Oil Cooling Plate
15273099 - Injector Test Harness
15273097 - Cylinder Head Magnet Intake Shield
15273098 - Valve Guide Installer
15273102 - CEC Breakout Box
15273103 - ICP Breakout "T" Harness
15273104 - ICP Adapter Plug Kit
* - The following items should be added to the
multi-gauge to enable the gauge to be used on
diagnostic test points:
15018226 - Diagnostic Coupling
00118748 - Connector (2 off)
15004085 - Hose Assembly (-4 HP, 84 in long)
SM 1802 Rev 1 10-99
1
Miscellaneous - Service Tools
Section 300-0070
Axles and Differentials
Cooling and Air Conditioning
15269893 - Pin Spanner - M95 x 1.5
15269894 - Wheel Bolt Puller - Basic Set
15269895 - Insert - M22 x 1.5
15269896 - Driver
15269897 - Driver
15269898 - Driver Handle
15269899 - Hot Air Blower - 220 V, 50 Hz
15269900 - Hot Air Blower - 127 V, 60 Hz
15269928 - Back-off Screw - M14
15269929 - Lifting Pliers
15269930 - Grab Sleeve
15269931 - Sleeve
15269932 - Basic Set Rollex 1
15269933 - Grab Sleeve 'Super'
15269934 - Measuring Shaft
15269935 - Thrust Washer
15269936 - Measuring Piston
15269937 - Shims - 120 mm Diameter
15270204 - Driver
15269939 - Measuring Ring
15269940 - Driver
15269941 - Driver
15269942 - Driver Handle
15269943 - Spanner
15269944 - Hook Spanner
15269945 - Insert
15269946 - Puller Set
15269947 - Shims
15269948 - Straightedge - 600 mm
15269949 - Pry Bars - Set of 2
15269950 - Driver
15269814 15269815 15269816 15269817 15269844 -
Nitrogen Charging/Inflation
15269121 - Nitrogen Tyre Inflation Kit
09359489 - Charging Assembly
DCA4 Test Kit - Metric Version
DCA4 Test Kit - US gallon Version
Refractometer - °C Scale
Refractometer - °F Scale
Portable High Vacuum Charging
Station - R-134a Gas
15269845 - Halogen Leak Tester
Cab
15271016 - Glass Removal Tool
15271017 - Bonding Kit (Quick Dry)
Adhesives and Sealants
15269103 - Loctite 221
09362529 - Loctite 225
09029849 - Loctite 243
09244598 - Loctite 270
09985300 - Loctite 271
15269104 - Loctite 275
15269245 - Loctite 277
15233715 - Loctite Prism 406
15269111 - Loctite Prism 410
15269105 - Loctite 515
09007209 - Loctite 574 (50 ml)
09379518 - Loctite 574 (160 ml)
15269106 - Loctite 577 (Superflex)
15270244 - Loctite 592 - Pipe Sealer with Teflon
15023696 - Loctite 635
09371048 - Loctite 638
15269107 - Loctite 641
15269108 - Loctite Superclean Safety Solvent 706
15304830 - Loctite 5205
15229541 - Loctite Activator 'N'
09243825 - Loctite Activator 'T'
09175039 - General Adhesive
15269114 - Tectyl 280 Wax Based Rust Preventive
09380475 - Hylosil RTV Silicone Compound
15303808 - Silicon Grease (Dielectric)
Fabricated Tools
The service tools shown in Fig. 1 through 5 can be
fabricated as shown.
2
SM 1802 Rev 1 10-99
Miscellaneous - Service Tools
Section 300-0070
SM - 372
SM - 2055
0.10
0.05
0.10
ø 3/8 x 16
UNC THD.
0.50
Fig. 3 - Seal Retainer Removal Tool
(Section 235-0050, TRIPLE PUMP)
1.12
Material:
Make from 13017, 13040 or 13083
SM - 2169
Shank should be about 8 in long
and fitted with Tee handle
approx. 4 in long
Machined
Length
1.00 in
0.5 in dia.
bar
0.75 in
0.343 in
Fig. 1 - Flywheel Damper Locating Pin
(Section 110-0030, ENGINE AND MOUNTING)
0.218 in dia.
SM - 1953
0.480 in
dia.
0.475 in
ø 0.403
+ 0.000
- 0.002
0.938 in
Pins to be 0.072 in dia.
Fig. 2 - Typical Fabricated Wheel Tool
(Section 160-0050, WHEEL, RIM AND TYRE)
SM 1802 Rev 1 10-99
Fig. 4 - Unloader Valve Adjusting Bush Installation Tool
(Section 250-0200, AIR DRIER)
3
*
*
*
Fig. 5 - Spindle Alignment Tool
(Section 280-0010, SCRAPER BOWL AND TAIL)
*
0.002
0.153
0.05
3.89
0.213
0.50
5.41
12.7
0.656
0.75
16.66
19.05
1.50
1.625
3.81
41.28
1.81
1.88
46.0
47.8
1.994
2.0
50.65
50.8
2.001
2.003
50.83
50.88
2.249
2.251
57.12
57.18
2.252
2.256
57.20
57.30
2.75
3.00
69.9
7.60
3.182
3.192
80.82
81.08
3.50
4.00
88.9
101.6
4.1965
4.1985
106.59
106.64
5.00
16.25
127.0
412.8
17.75
119.75
450.9
3 041.7
120.25
3 054.4
SM - 2210
SM 1802 Rev 1 10-99
mm
0.010
Miscellaneous - Service Tools
Section 300-0070
4
INCHES
0.0004
MISCELLANEOUS - Standard Bolt and Nut Torque Specifications
Section 300-0080
and to establish a uniform value to which these
fasteners can be safely tightened, the following torque
tables have been compiled.
WARNING
Some fasteners are important attaching parts
which could affect the performance of vital
components and systems, and/or, could result
in major repair expense. Fasteners should be
replaced with parts of the same part number,
or with equivalent parts, if replacement
becomes necessary. Do not use replacement
parts of lesser quality or substitute design.
The torque values shown in the following
tables should be used in all cases, unless
otherwise specified elsewhere in this manual,
in order to avoid possible personal injury or
property damage.
The torque values listed in the tables have been
established over a period of years and cover all
conditions of assembly. The maximum torque values
for standard bolts and nuts are based on 75% of the
specified minimum proof strength of the bolt steel in
order to provide a safety factor to compensate for the
variation in the accuracy of torque wrenches, skill of
the assembler, and variance in fractional conditions.
All torque values are for lubricated threads. The
term 'lubricated' includes the application of thread
lubricants, cadmium plating or the use of hardened
washers.
The following torque specification tables are based on
GM Standard Materials for bolts, nuts, studs and selflocking fasteners based on SAE bolt steel
classifications, or, prevailing torque specifications for
self-locking fasteners.
To prevent the threaded bolts and nuts used on this
equipment from being overstressed during assembly,
To provide a quick method for determining the GM
material classification of a particular standard bolt or
nut, compare the bolt head markings to those in the
appropriate tables, then locate the maximum torque
value for that bolt size in the column under that
marking.
RECOMMENDED MAXIMUM TORQUES (IMPERIAL) ± 10%
SAE Symbol
GM 260-M Steel
(SAE GR 2)
SAE Symbol
GM 280-M Steel
(SAE GR 5)
SAE Symbol
GM 290-M Steel
(SAE GR 7)
TABLE144
SAE Symbol
GM 300-M Steel
(SAE GR 8)
12 Point Cap
Screws
Size
Nm
lbf ft
Nm
lbf ft
Nm
lbf ft
Nm
lbf ft
Nm
lbf ft
0.25 - 20
0.25 - 28
0.31 - 18
0.31 - 24
0.38 - 16
0.38 - 24
0.44 - 14
0.44 - 20
0.50 - 13
0.50 - 20
0.56 - 12
0.56 - 18
0.62 - 11
0.62 - 18
0.75 - 10
0.75 - 16
0.88 - 9
0.88 - 14
1.00 - 8
1.00 - 12
1.00 - 14
5
7
11
12
20
23
33
37
50
56
75
81
102
115
176
203
169
190
258
285
285
4
5
8
9
15
17
24
27
37
41
55
60
75
85
130
150
125
140
190
210
210
8
10
18
19
31
34
47
54
75
88
108
122
149
169
271
298
434
488
651
719
732
6
7
13
14
23
25
35
40
55
65
80
90
110
125
200
220
320
360
480
530
540
11
12
22
24
38
43
59
68
94
106
136
149
190
210
332
366
536
590
800
881
902
8
9
16
18
28
32
43
50
69
78
100
110
140
155
245
270
395
435
590
650
665
12
14
24
27
43
49
68
79
106
122
156
176
217
244
380
420
610
678
915
1 003
1 030
9
10
18
20
32
36
50
58
78
90
115
130
160
180
280
310
450
500
675
740
760
14
15
27
30
49
56
75
87
119
134
171
191
237
270
420
472
679
751
1 021
1 119
1 148
10
11
20
22
36
41
55
64
88
99
126
141
175
199
310
348
501
554
753
825
847
SM 1238 2-98
1
Miscellaneous - Standard Bolt and Nut Torque Specifications
Section 300-0080
RECOMMENDED MAXIMUM TORQUES (IMPERIAL) ± 10%
SAE Symbol
GM 260-M Steel
(SAE GR 2)
SAE Symbol
GM 280-M Steel
(SAE GR 5)
TABLE145
SAE Symbol
GM 290-M Steel
(SAE GR 7)
SAE Symbol
GM 300-M Steel
(SAE GR 8)
12 Point Cap
Screws
Size
Nm
lbf ft
Nm
lbf ft
Nm
lbf ft
Nm
lbf ft
Nm
lbf ft
1.12 - 7
1.12 - 12
1.25 - 7
1.25 - 12
1.38 - 6
1.38 - 12
1.50 - 6
1.50 - 8
1.50 - 12
1.75 - 5
1.75 - 12
1.88 - 8
1.88 - 12
2.00 - 4.5
2.00 - 8
2.00 - 12
2.25 - 4.5
2.25 - 8
2.25 - 12
2.50 - 12
366
407
515
569
664
759
881
936
990
-
270
300
380
420
490
560
650
690
730
-
800
902
1 132
1 254
1 478
1 688
1 966
2 088
2 217
-
590
665
835
925
1 090
1 245
1 450
1 540
1 635
-
1 132
1 274
1 600
1 776
2 095
2 393
2 786
2 962
3 145
4 393
5 091
6 006
6 304
6 623
7 342
7 687
9 701
10 629
11 050
15 280
835
940
1 180
1 310
1 545
1 765
2 055
2 185
2 320
3 240
3 755
4 430
4 650
4 885
5 415
5 670
7 155
7 840
8 150
11 270
1 302
1 451
1 830
2 034
2 400
2 739
3 186
3 390
3 593
5 016
5 830
6 874
7 213
7 565
8 406
8 786
11 090
12 148
12 636
17 463
960
1 075
1 350
1 500
1 770
2 020
2 350
2 500
2 650
3 700
4 300
5 070
5 320
5 580
6 200
6 480
8 180
8 960
9 320
12 880
1 447
1 624
2 043
2 267
2 676
3 056
3 556
3 781
4 010
5 604
6 497
7 664
8 048
8 448
9 367
9 811
12 377
13 566
14 102
19 500
1 067
1 198
1 507
1 672
1 974
2 254
2 623
2 789
2 958
4 133
4 792
5 653
5 936
6 231
6 909
7 236
9 129
10 006
10 401
14 383
Note: Where materials other than GM Standards are used, refer to the conversion table below.
Types of Steel
Rockwell Hardness Range
Applicable Torque Values
Plain Low Carbon
(eg. SAE 1018 or 1020)
Rockwell "B" 85-100
GM 260-M
Plain Medium Carbon
(eg. SAE 1035, 1038 & 1045)
Rockwell "C" 19-30
GM 280-M
Medium Carbon Alloy
(eg. SAE 4140, 8642 & 5157)
Rockwell "C" 28-34
GM 290-M
Medium Carbon Alloy
(eg. SAE 4140, 8642 & 5147)
Rockwell "C" 32-38
GM 300-M
2
SAE Bolt Head Symbols
SM 1238 2-98
Miscellaneous - Standard Bolt and Nut Torque Specifications
Section 300-0080
RECOMMENDED MAXIMUM TORQUES (METRIC) ± 10%
Class 8.8
Size
M 1.6 - 0.35
M 1.6 - 0.20
M 2.0 - 0.40
M 2.0 - 0.25
M 2.0 - 0.45
M 2.5 - 0.35
M 3.0 - 0.50
M 3.0 - 0.35
M 3.5 - 0.60
M 4.0 - 0.70
M 4.0 - 0.35
M 5.0 - 0.80
M 5.0 - 0.50
M 6.0 - 1.00
M 6.3 - 1.00
M 6.0 - 0.75
M 8.0 - 1.25
M 8.0 - 1.00
M 10.0 - 1.50
M 10.0 - 1.25
M 12.0 - 1.75
M 12.0 - 1.25
M 14.0 - 2.00
M 14.0 - 1.50
M 16.0 - 2.00
M 16.0 - 1.50
M 18.0 - 2.50
M 18.0 - 1.50
M 20.0 - 2.50
M 20.0 - 1.50
M 22.0 - 2.50
M 22.0 - 1.50
M 24.0 - 3.00
M 24.0 - 2.00
M 27.0 - 3.00
M 27.0 - 2.00
M 30.0 - 3.00
M 30.0 - 2.00
M 30.0 - 1.50
M 36.0 - 4.00
M 36.0 - 3.00
SM 1238 2-98
Class 9.8
TABLE146
Class 10.9
Class 12.9
Nm
lbf ft
Nm
lbf ft
Nm
lbf ft
Nm
lbf ft
169
181
234
263
330
367
451
495
571
623
837
903
1 135
1 258
1 300
1 985
2 102
122
130
169
190
239
265
325
357
412
450
605
652
820
908
939
1 433
1 517
0.20
0.25
0.25
0.45
0.25
1
1
1
2
3
3
5
6
9
10
10
21
23
42
45
74
81
118
128
-
0.15
0.20
0.20
0.30
0.20
0.75
0.75
0.75
1.5
2
2
4
4
6
8
7
15
17
31
32
53
58
85
92
-
13
12
27
29
54
57
94
103
151
163
234
250
323
363
457
507
623
684
790
861
1 158
1 250
1 570
1 740
1 799
2 745
2 907
10
9
20
21
39
41
68
74
109
118
169
180
234
262
330
366
450
494
570
622
836
902
1 134
1 256
1 299
1 982
2 099
0.20
0.40
0.45
0.45
0.45
1
2
2
3
4
5
8
9
13
16
14
32
34
63
67
110
121
176
190
274
292
378
425
531
593
728
800
923
1 007
1 354
1 461
1 835
2 034
2 102
3 208
3 398
0.15
0.30
0.30
0.30
0.30
0.75
1.5
1.5
2
3
3
6
6
10
11
10
23
25
46
48
80
87
127
137
197
211
273
307
386
423
526
577
667
727
977
1 055
1 325
1 468
1 516
2 317
2 453
3
Miscellaneous - Standard Bolt and Nut Torque Specifications
Section 300-0080
SELF-LOCKING FASTENERS
has been used. Do not use a self-locking fastener
more than five times.
Self-locking fasteners develop a measured gripping
action or torque and provide a renewed locking action
after being removed and reinstalled to their original
mating part. The self-locking fasteners used on this
equipment meet specifications necessary to allow the
fasteners to be reused up to five times. Whenever a
self-locking fastener is removed, the head of the
fastener should be deeply scribed or otherwise
marked to record the number of times the fastener
The following table shows the minimum torque
specifications allowed to remove self-locking fasteners
after the initial break-away torque has been achieved.
Any self locking fastener that can be removed with
less than the prevailing torque value shown in the
table should be discarded, even if the fastener has not
yet been reused five times.
MINIMUM PREVAILING TORQUE - REMOVAL
TABLE537
Lockscrews
Locknuts
SAE Grade 5 & 8
and ASTM A-574
SAE Grade 5
SAE Grade 8
Size
Nm
lbf in
Nm
lbf in
Nm
lbf in
0.25 - 20
0.25 - 28
0.31 - 18
0.31 - 24
0.38 - 16
0.38 - 24
0.44 - 14
0.44 - 20
0.50 - 13
0.50 - 20
0.56 - 12
0.56 - 18
0.62 - 11
0.62 - 18
0.75 - 10
0.75 - 16
0.88 - 9
0.88 - 14
1.00 - 8
1.00 - 12
1.00 - 14
0.3
0.3
0.6
0.6
1.0
1.0
1.4
1.4
1.8
1.8
2.5
2.5
3.4
3.4
5.1
5.1
7.3
7.3
9.6
9.6
-
3
3
5
5
9
9
12
12
16
16
22
22
30
30
45
45
65
65
85
85
-
0.4
0.4
0.6
0.6
1.0
1.0
1.4
1.4
1.7
1.7
2.4
2.4
3.1
3.1
4.6
4.6
7.0
7.0
9.5
9.5
9.5
3.5
3.5
5.5
5.5
8.5
8.5
12
12
15
15
21
21
27
27
41
41
62
62
84
84
84
0.5
0.5
0.9
0.9
1.3
1.3
1.8
1.8
2.3
2.3
3.2
3.2
4.1
4.1
6.1
6.1
9.3
9.3
12.7
12.7
12.7
4.5
4.5
7.5
7.5
11.5
11.5
16
16
20
20
28
28
36
36
54
54
82
82
112
112
112
*
4
*
*
*
SM 1238 2-98
MISCELLANEOUS - Unit Storage
Section 300-0090
GENERAL
The storage of machines for short periods of time or
during the off-season is an important item if major
damage to components is to be avoided. Failure to
take the necessary steps to protect the various
assemblies while the machine is being stored can
result in an expensive overhaul job and delay in
returning the machine to work.
TEMPORARY STORAGE
When storing a machine for a period of 30 days or
less, the following precautions must be taken:
1. INSPECTION AND REPAIR - Thoroughly inspect
and test the machine and make any necessary repairs
or adjustments which may be necessary to prepare
the machine for service. This will enable you to put the
machine back into use immediately at the end of the
storage period.
2. LUBRICATION - Lubricate the machine completely
according to the instructions given in Section
300-0020, LUBRICATION SYSTEM of this manual.
3. PARKING - After thoroughly cleaning the entire
machine, park it on a hard, dry, level surface that is
free from grease and oil. The oil and grease would
cause tyre deterioration. Apply the parking brake.
4. BATTERIES - Where moderate temperatures are
expected, the batteries may be left in the machine. Up
to 30 days, the batteries may require a boost at the
end of the storage period. Preferably place the
batteries in the shop where they can be inspected,
brought up to full charge and placed on a trickle
charge to keep them at full charge. In very cold or hot
climates, store the batteries where they will be
protected from temperature extremes.
5. RUST PREVENTION - Remove all evidence of rust
from the machine and repaint. In addition, cover all
exposed machine surfaces with a good rust
preventive.
6. SUPPLY TANKS - Fill fuel and hydraulic tanks to
prevent moisture condensation within the tanks.
7. TYRES - Inflate all tyres to correct pressure. During
storage, check inflation pressure approximately once
every two weeks.
SM 1239 2-98
8. ENGINE - Consult the relevant Engine Maintenance
Manual for complete information on storing the engine
for periods shorter than 30 days.
9. TRANSMISSION - Fill transmission sumps to the
proper level.
EXTENDED STORAGE - Under Six Months
When storing a machine for periods of longer than 30
days, but under six months, the following procedure
must be followed:
1. INSPECTION AND REPAIR - Same as Step 1
given under 'Temporary Storage'.
2. LUBRICATION - Same as Step 2 given under
'Temporary Storage'.
3. PARKING - Same as Step 3 given under
'Temporary Storage'. Machines should be blocked up
so the tyres are off the ground or floor.
4. BATTERIES - Remove batteries from the machine
and store them in a suitable place where they can be
inspected and charged at least every 30 days or
placed on a trickle charger.
5. RUST PREVENTION - Same as Step 5 given under
'Temporary Storage'.
6. SUPPLY TANKS - Same as Step 6 given under
'Temporary Storage'.
7. TYRES - With the machine on blocks, as called for
in Step 3, deflate the tyres to 0.7 bar (10 lbf/in²)
pressure. Remove all traces of grease and oil and
protect the tyres from direct sunlight and water with a
suitable cover.
8. TRANSMISSION - Consult the relevant
Transmission Maintenance Manual for storage data
involving periods longer than 30 days.
9. ENGINE - Consult the relevant Engine Maintenance
Manual for storage data involving periods longer than
30 days.
10. VENTS AND BREATHERS - Remove all vents
and breathers and plug openings with pipe plugs. If it
is not possible to do this, seal vents and breathers with
waterproof tape.
1
Miscellaneous - Unit Storage
Section 300-0090
EXTENDED STORAGE - Over Six Months
2. BATTERIES - Install batteries and check for a full
charge. Charge batteries as required.
When a machine is to be stored for a period over SIX
MONTHS, the following procedure must be followed:
3. TYRES - Inflate tyres to the proper pressures. Refer
to Section 140-0040, WHEEL RIM AND TYRE, of this
manual.
Note: These steps are in addition to those given
previously under 'Extended Storage - Under Six
Months'.
4. FUEL AND HYDRAULIC TANKS - Drain off
condensation and fill tanks to proper level, remove
breather covers and install air breathers. Be sure
breathers are clean before installation.
1. LUBRICATION - Completely lubricate the machine
according to the instructions contained in Section
300-0020, LUBRICATION SYSTEM of this manual.
2. WHEEL BEARING - Remove, clean, inspect and
repack all wheel bearings.
5. VENTS AND BREATHERS - Remove seals and
plugs from all breather openings, then install all
breathers and vents.
Note: The above steps must be repeated for every Six
Month period the machine is in storage.
REMOVAL FROM EXTENDED STORAGE
7. PAINT - Check machine for rust. Remove all rust
spots and repaint rusted areas.
General
1. LUBRICATION - Completely lubricate the machine
according to the instructions in Section 300-0020,
LUBRICATION SYSTEM of this manual.
*
2
6. ENGINES - Consult the relevant Engine
Maintenance Manual for instructions on removing an
engine from storage.
8. TRANSMISSION - Consult the relevant
Transmission Maintenance Manual for instructions on
removing from storage.
*
*
*
SM 1239 2-98
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