WaveLab Studio 6 – Operation Manual

WaveLab Studio 6 – Operation Manual
Operation Manual
Operation Manual by Anders Nordmark,
Revision for WaveLab Studio by Stefan Zachau
The information in this document is subject to change without notice and does not represent a commitment on the part
of Steinberg Media Technologies GmbH. The software described by this document is subject to a License Agreement
and may not be copied to other media except as specifically allowed in the License Agreement. No part of this publication may be copied, reproduced or otherwise transmitted or recorded, for any purpose, without prior written permission
by Steinberg Media Technologies GmbH.
All product and company names are ™ or ® trademarks of their respective owners. Windows XP is a trademark of
Microsoft Corporation. The Mac logo is a trademark used under license. Macintosh and Power Macintosh are registered
trademarks.
© Steinberg Media Technologies GmbH, 2006.
All rights reserved.
Table of Contents
7
Introduction
8
8
8
Welcome!
Key command conventions
How you can reach us
40
44
49
56
Selecting
Basic editing commands
File handling in Wave windows
Editing audio properties and file attributes
9
Installing and setting up
57
Playback and recording
10
10
11
11
11
13
14
14
Setting up the computer
Installation procedure
Register your software!
Launching WaveLab Studio
Program settings
Installing a CD/DVD recorder
Installation done! Where do I go next?
About the Tracer application
58
63
Playing back
Recording
68
Metering
69
69
Introduction
The meters
76
Off-line processing
15
Overview
16
16
18
Get to know WaveLab Studio
The windows and what you can do with them
Find your way around in WaveLab Studio
19
Basic methods
20
20
20
21
23
25
25
26
26
28
29
29
Why you should read this chapter
Getting help
Undo and Redo
Working with windows
Dockable control bars
The status bar
Speed menus
Units of time and level
Setting values
Presets
About non-modal dialogs
Using the computer keyboard
30
Editing in the Wave window
77
77
77
78
78
80
82
83
83
85
85
85
85
85
87
88
89
90
90
91
91
Introduction
Applying processing
Level Normalizer
Gain Change
Loudness Normalizer
Dynamics
Level envelope
Fade-in and fade-out
Crossfade
Invert Phase
Reverse
Eliminate DC Offset
Waveform Restorer
Time Stretch
Pitch Correction
Pitch Bend
Harmonization
Hi-fi Chorus
EQ
Convert sample rate
Support for reNOVAtor™
31
31
31
33
35
38
38
39
39
39
About this chapter
Creating new empty documents
Opening Waves
Window overview and adjustments
Setting the zoom factor
Navigating through the file
Snapshots
Setting the ruler start position
Working with a meter based display
Setting the wave cursor position
92
Master Section
93
93
94
94
96
99
101
102
104
Introduction
The Master Section window
About the signal path
The Master level pane
The Effects pane
The Dithering pane
Master Section presets
Rendering
The Monitor window
107 Spectrum Display
108
4
Table of Contents
Selecting Spectrum display mode
110 Batch processing
111
112
112
113
116
120
123
124
124
181
182
183
185
187
188
191
192
193
196
Introduction
Opening the Batch Processor
Overview of the Window
The Input tab – Assembling a list of files
Setting up the processing tasks to be performed
The Output tab – Settings for created files
Scheduling
Running and stopping the batch(es)
Using presets for batch processing
Managing effects in the Plug-ins view
The Meta Normalizer
Groups
Using markers in the Montage
Undo/Redo and History
File handling in the Audio Montage
Using video tracks
Mixing down – The Render function
Preparing the Audio Montage for CD burning
Creating an Audio CD report
125 Batch file encoding
199 Burning an audio CD
126
200
200
200
201
202
Basic procedure
127 Markers
128
129
130
130
130
131
131
131
Introduction
Creating markers
About the marker list
Marker appearance and visibility
Editing, converting and naming markers
Moving and duplicating markers
Deleting markers
Operations involving markers
204 Data CD/DVD Projects
205
205
205
206
207
134 Using Auto Split
135
135
Introduction
Selecting a CD-R unit
Testing an audio CD before burning
Writing a CD
The audio CD format – Background information
Introduction
Creating a new Data CD/DVD Project
Source window settings
Destination window settings
The Write dialog for the Data CD/DVD
208 Importing audio CD tracks
Introduction
The Auto Split dialog
209
Importing audio CD tracks into WaveLab Studio
136 The Audio Montage
212 Creating labels
137
137
139
144
147
150
151
160
162
164
170
174
175
177
213
213
215
217
218
Introduction
The Audio Montage window
Assembling the Montage
Zooming and navigating
Playing back
Recording
Rearranging clips
Editing in the Clips view
Managing clips and source files
The volume envelope
Using fades and crossfades in the Montage
The pan envelope
Transforming clips
Adding effects to tracks and clips
Introduction
Using the Label Editor
Positioning objects
Defining user variables
Printing labels
220 Analysis
221
225
Global analysis
3D Frequency Analysis
228 Generating signals
229
230
5
Table of Contents
Audio Signal Generator
DTMF Generator
231 Synchronizing WaveLab Studio to external devices
232
232
276 Troubleshooting
277
277
277
278
278
279
279
279
279
280
280
Introduction
MTC sync
235 Sampling and creating loops
236
236
236
237
238
242
Introduction
Using WaveLab Studio with Steinberg HALion
Editing sample attributes
Basic looping
Using the Crossfade Looper
Using the Loop Tone Equalizer
General problems
Problems with opening files
Problems with saving files
Recording problems
Playback problems
Editing problems
Troubleshooting and precautions
Problems and solutions
Questions and Answers
Day to day precautions for trouble-free CD writing
Hardware and setup issues
244 Requirements
282 Key commands
245
245
246
246
283
283
283
283
283
284
284
285
285
285
This is what you need…
Computer requirements
About audio cards
About the System Information feature
247 Customizing
248
248
248
249
249
251
254
254
255
255
257
What is customizing?
Preferences
Folder editing
Saving the window layout
Styling WaveLab Studio – Wave windows
Styling WaveLab Studio – Audio Montage windows
Working with window layouts
Setting default size and position for windows
Creating a Favorites menu
Customizable key commands
Organizing plug-in processors
286 Index
260 Plug-in processor reference
261
264
File handling
Wave display mode
View
Zooming
Processing
Playback and cursor position
Selecting
Editing and Recording
Markers
Miscellaneous
About WaveLab Studio plug-ins
VST Plug-ins
6
Table of Contents
1
Introduction
Welcome!
Congratulations on your choice of WaveLab Studio,
which is the audio editor of choice, not only in top-of-theline mastering and restoration facilities, but also for any
serious engineer or musician.
WaveLab Studio is continuously developed and refined, in
collaboration with our users – from professional audio engineers to hobbyists. Your input helps making this program one of the most flexible and user-friendly ever!
Find out about the ease of use and workflow that makes
working with WaveLab Studio so effective.
Steinberg has always shown a strong commitment to protect the investment of loyal customers. WaveLab Studio
follows this route by making use of the Steinberg key to
preserve your competitive advantage.
Your Steinberg Team.
Key command conventions
Many of the default key commands in WaveLab Studio
use modifier keys. For example, the default key command
for Undo is [Ctrl]-[Z] under Windows.
When key commands with modifier keys are described in
this manual, they are shown with the Windows modifier
key first, in the following way:
[Win modifier key]-[key]
For example, [Ctrl-[Z] means "press [Ctrl] , then press [Z]".
Similarly, [Alt]-[X] means "press [Alt] then press [X]".
How you can reach us
After having installed and launched the program, you will
find a number of useful Steinberg Web links on the Help
menu (“Steinberg on the internet” submenu). These allow
you to get online support, check for updates, get answers
to frequently asked questions, etc.
!
These features require that you have a working Internet connection.
8
Introduction
2
Installing and setting up
Setting up the computer
The Steinberg Key is, in fact, a little computer on which
your Steinberg software licenses are stored. All hardwareprotected Steinberg products use the same type of key,
and you can store more than one license on one key. Also,
licenses can (within certain limits) be transferred between
keys – which is helpful, e.g. if you want to sell a piece of
software.
Before proceeding, your computer should be set up and
the following items should be installed:
• Windows (see “This is what you need…” on page 245 for details on which version to use).
• The audio card and its driver.
• If you already own copy-protected Steinberg software,
you must remove any existing Steinberg Keys from the
computer’s USB port before starting the WaveLab Studio
installation routine.
Checking the audio card
To make sure the audio card will work as expected, you
can perform the following two tests:
• If you are using other copy-protected Steinberg products, you may want to transfer all licenses for your applications to only one Steinberg Key, thus using only one USB
port of your computer. More information on the transfer of
licenses between keys can be found in the help for the
Syncrosoft License Control Center (which can be found in
the Start/Programs menu of your computer).
• Use the software included with the audio card to make
sure you can record and play back without problems.
• Use the Media Player application (included with Windows and described in the Windows documentation) to
record and play back audio.
Colors
!
At this point you might want to check and for example
change the number of colors you use on your computer
screen. See your Windows documentation for instructions
on how to do this. The recommended setting for WaveLab
Studio is 24 or 32 bit mode (“True Color”).
The Steinberg Key must not be plugged in before the
installation of WaveLab Studio. Otherwise the operating system of your computer will register it as new
USB hardware and try to find drivers that won’t be
present before WaveLab Studio installation.
Installing the software
Installation procedure
The installation procedure unpacks all the files and automatically puts them in the right places.
The Steinberg Key
!
1. Insert the CD-ROM disk in the drive.
The installation program should start automatically after a few seconds.
If, for some reason it doesn’t – for instance if you have “Auto Insert Notification” deactivated for your CD drive – perform steps 2-4 below. Otherwise, proceed to step 5.
Please read the following section before installing
the WaveLab Studio software.
Included with the WaveLab Studio package, you will find
the Steinberg Key (sometimes referred to as a “dongle”), a
hardware copy protection device that is part of the WaveLab Studio copy protection scheme. WaveLab Studio will
not run if there is no Steinberg Key.
2. Launch the Explorer, open the “My Computer” window
or select “Run” from the Start menu.
3. Locate and double click on the drive symbol for the
CD-ROM drive.
4. Double click on the “setup” symbol (setup.exe).
5. Follow the instructions on screen.
The Steinberg Key
10
Installing and setting up
6. At one point of the installation a dialog appears requesting you to connect your Steinberg Key – do so.
Selecting an ASIO driver
1. Open the Preferences–Audio device tab.
The first time the copy protection device is plugged in, it will be registered as a new hardware device, and a dialog will appear asking you
whether you would like to find drivers for the device manually or automatically. You should select to find drivers automatically, and click OK to
proceed and close the dialog.
2. Select the ASIO driver from the “Playback device”
pop-up menu.
Note that the “Playback device” menu heading has now changed to
“Playback/Record device” and the Recording device section has been
greyed out. This is because with ASIO, the same driver is always used
both for output and input.
7. Finally, a dialog informs you that the installation was
successful.
3. If you click the “Control Panel” button the audio card
settings application (usually installed with the audio card)
for the ASIO driver opens.
A restart may be requested – but if no dialog requests a restart it is not
necessary to do so.
When the installation is finished, the program is found
among your other programs on the Start menu and/or the
desktop.
In the Control Panel you may find settings for buffer size, digital formats,
additional I/O connections, etc. depending on the audio card and the
driver.
This completes the installation of your WaveLab Studio
program! But, you’re not really done yet…
4. Click on the “Connections” button.
The ASIO Audio connections dialog will appear, listing all available channel inputs and outputs in WaveLab Studio. Select the channels you want
to use for stereo output and input.
Register your software!
5. Close the dialog.
Registering your software will make sure you are entitled
to technical support and kept aware of updates and news
regarding WaveLab Studio.
• When using ASIO, the playback resolution is set from
the ASIO driver (you may find a setting for this in the ASIO
Control Panel, depending on the hardware and driver).
Therefore, the Playback Resolution settings will be greyed out.
Launching WaveLab Studio
Selecting an MME/WDM driver
1. Make sure the Steinberg Key is plugged into the USB
port.
1. Select “Preferences…” from the Options menu.
2. Launch WaveLab Studio.
2. Click on the Audio device tab.
WaveLab Studio starts.
3. Select the audio card you want to use for recording
and playback from the pop-ups.
Ö The Steinberg Key has to be plugged in at all times
when running WaveLab Studio.
If you only have one audio card you can also select the “Microsoft Sound
Mapper” options (the sound mapper is a “virtual audio card” which
“maps” all audio to your real card). However this does not let you take full
advantage of the card’s driver when recording audio and is therefore not
recommended.
Program settings
Before you start working, you should make some settings:
4. Choose your “Playback Resolution”.
Audio card settings
You need to specify which audio card and driver you intend to use. WaveLab Studio can communicate with the
audio card via any of the standard protocols; ASIO, MME
or WDM.
11
Installing and setting up
Additional audio settings
About latency
There are other settings in the Preferences that affect audio playback and recording. We recommend that you try
the default settings before you change anything, since
these work well in most cases.
In the Playback section of the Audio device tab, you will
find an indication of the current latency (at 16bit/44.1kHz
stereo). Latency is the delay between when audio is “sent”
from the program and when you actually hear it. The latency in an audio system depends on the audio hardware,
its drivers and their settings. It’s usually possible to reduce
latency by lowering the number and size of the playback/
recording buffers. However, please note:
On the “Audio Card” tab, you will find the following settings:
• Playback Buffer Number and Size.
These determine how much RAM memory is used for buffering when
playing back. If you get playback problems such as dropouts or glitches,
you should try to increase these values. Click the question mark icon in
the dialog for details.
!
!
With ASIO drivers, you may find these settings in the
ASIO Control Panel.
• Recording Buffer Number and Size (not available when
using ASIO).
These determine how much RAM is used for buffering when recording. If
you get dropouts in the recorded audio, you should try increasing these
values. Click the question mark icon in the dialog for details.
Temporary files
On the Preferences–File tab, you will find the following
settings:
You also need to specify where WaveLab Studio should
store its temporary files. Temporary files are used for certain operations, such as WaveLab Studio’s extensive
Undo function (see “Undo and Redo” on page 20).
• Disk block buffer size.
Governs the buffer size used when WaveLab Studio is reading data from
the hard disk. If you experience problems in a read intensive scenario
(such as playing back an Audio Montage with a lot of simultaneous
clips), you should try changing this value.
If you change this setting, playback will stop when you leave the dialog.
WaveLab Studio allows you to specify up to three different folders for storing temporary files. If you have access
to more than one drive, saving your temp files on separate
drives (not partitions) can considerably speed up performance.
• Use system cache.
When this is deactivated (default), WaveLab Studio reads files directly
from the hard disk, bypassing Windows’ file cache.
!
While a very low latency can be crucial in a real-time
DAW application such as Steinberg Nuendo or Cubase, this is not strictly the case with WaveLab Studio. Here the important issues are optimum and
stable playback and editing precision. Therefore, you
should not try to reach the lowest possible latency
figures when working with WaveLab Studio. And
again, should you get dropouts, crackles or glitches
during playback, raise the Buffer Number setting on
the Preferences–Audio device tab.
For example, if your source files are located on the C:
drive, you could specify D:\temp and E:\temp as temporary folders.
We recommend that you leave this option deactivated!
The option is available since it may remedy problems on certain systems
with slow disk drives. Note:
This will not only improve performance, but also reduce
disk fragmentation.
• If you activate this, avoid using large disk block buffer
size values!
• After activating this option, you need to close and reopen all open files, for the setting to take effect!
12
Installing and setting up
1. In Windows, create a separate folder in which to store
your “temp” files.
!
Select Preferences from the Options menu and select the
Wave edit tab.
• If the “Save view settings in companion file” option is
activated, view memory files will be saved in the same
folder as the related audio file.
The folder(s) should be on your fastest hard disk and
you should make sure you have plenty of room available on that hard disk (or partition). Putting the
“temp” files on a separate drive (that is, not the same
drive as your regular files) will speed up file operations considerably.
• If you select “Save in independent folder” you can click
the “Edit” button, which will open the Folder dialog with
the “Peak and view memories” work folder selected.
From here you can navigate to a new folder location to store the peak
and view memory temp files.
2. Select “Folders…” from the Options menu.
This opens the Folders dialog, where you can edit how various WaveLab
Studio folders are handled .
Installing a CD/DVD recorder
3. Click on the plus sign beside the “Temporary folders”
item (this is located in the “Work folders” category).
Three possible folders can be specified for temp files.
Hardware installation/connection
4. Selecting one of the Temporary Folder items will show
the current location where the temp files will be created in
the Folder field to the right.
For general instructions on installing internal or connecting external recorders via USB or Firewire, please refer to
the instructions that came with the computer, or the
recorder itself.
5. Either type in the path to the directory or you can
browse the drives to locate and select the folder via a
standard Windows file dialog.
For WaveLab Studio, please just check the following
points:
Click OK to select a folder and exit the file dialog.
• Make sure to have the latest firmware version installed in your
recorder unit. For CD recorders, the firmware you have must
support Disk-at-Once mode! In addition, running a unit with
older firmware might for example prevent you from writing
sub-index markers into the tracks.
Peak and view memories
A peak file is a small file with the extension “.gpk” automatically created by WaveLab Studio each time a file is modified or opened in WaveLab Studio (if it hasn’t been
previously). The peak file contains information about the
waveform, and determines how it is drawn in the wave
window.
Checking the installation of the CD/DVD
recorder
You might want to check that the recorder unit was actually found by the program. Proceed as follows:
View memory files (extension “.mem”) store view information relating to a specific audio file such as window and
scroll positions, etc., and optionally any Master Section effects used – see “Saving view settings” on page 54.
1. Select “CD/DVD Information…” from the Tools menu.
The CD/DVD Info dialog appears.
By default, peak files and view memory files are stored in
the same folder as the related audio file. Setting this to another folder on a different drive will also improve performance to a certain degree. Regardless of whether this
folder is on a different drive or not you also get the advantage of not having the audio file folder cluttered with nonaudio files if a separate folder is used.
This folder can be specified from the Folders dialog, either
directly or via the Preferences–Wave edit tab.
13
Installing and setting up
2. Check that your recorder unit appears in the list to the
left.
The list will also contain any regular DVD-ROM drives, etc. If your CD/
DVD recorder isn’t listed, there’s either something wrong with the installation or the unit is not supported by WaveLab Studio.
Installation done! Where do I go
next?
There are three things we suggest you do:
• Read through the rest of this book and try out the different possibilities as you go along.
• Examine your WaveLab Studio directory and other disks
included in this package for files that might be useful to
you.
• If you run into problems, check the Troubleshooting
chapter in the Operation Manual.
About the Tracer application
In the WaveLab Studio directory created on your hard disk
during installation, you will find a folder called “Tools”.
Among other things, this folder contains a small application called Tracer. This is a diagnostic tool that tracks and
logs various procedures that WaveLab Studio executes
when it is launched, e.g. the loading of plug-ins.
Should you run into problems with WaveLab Studio and
need to contact technical support, you can use the Tracer
application and pass on the information it displays to the
technical support staff. This could be of great assistance
since it might be possible to see exactly which operation
caused a problem.
• To use the Tracer, locate the file Tracer.exe in the Windows
Explorer and double click on it – or use the Run command on
the Start menu to browse for the file.
• After you have activated the Tracer application, launch WaveLab Studio.
• All loading procedures are displayed as plain text, and you can
copy this information and then paste it into, for example, an email.
14
Installing and setting up
3
Overview
Get to know WaveLab Studio
The Audio Montage window
Welcome to WaveLab Studio!
This chapter is intended to get you acquainted with the
program. We will here briefly describe its fundamental
functions and main features, so as to point you in the right
direction on your road to mastering all of the possibilities
that WaveLab Studio offers.
The windows and what you can do
with them
Working with WaveLab Studio, you will encounter a number of different windows that let you do different things.
Editing audio files, compiling files for burning CDs or
DVDs, applying effects and much, much more. This is an
overview of the main windows in the program.
This is an Audio Montage window. An Audio Montage lets
you compile and edit multiple clips (references to audio
files on disk) on one or several tracks.
As you can see, the window consists of two panes. The
lower one is called the Track View, and this is where you
assemble the clips. The appearance of the upper pane depends on which of the 10 tabs at the very top of the window is selected. These tabs give you access to various
functions.
The Wave window
After you have imported audio files as clips into an Audio
Montage, you can arrange, edit and play back the clips.
You can also apply effects, fades or crossfades, and much
more, and last but not least, you can directly create CDs.
All in all, the Audio Montage is an excellent tool for advanced music CD creation.
Read more about the Audio Montage and its features in
the chapter “The Audio Montage” on page 136.
This is a Wave window, a graphical representation of an
audio file. It consists of two parts – the lower is the Main
view, and this is where you can perform various audio editing operations such as copying, cutting, pasting, moving,
deleting, etc.
The upper part is the Overview and serves to let you easily
navigate through long files.
You can read more about the Wave window and the operations you can perform in it in the chapter “Editing in the
Wave window” on page 30.
16
Overview
The Data CD/DVD Project window
The Master Section
The Data CD/DVD window can be used for compiling and
creating data CDs/DVDs (discs that exclusively contain
computer data) and Mixed Mode CDs (discs that contain
both data and audio).
The window is divided into two panes; the upper is called
the source window, and the lower is the destination window. You drag files from the source window to the destination window, in which you can rename, remove and
move files before burning a CD or DVD.
For a detailed description of the Data CD/DVD window and
what you can do with it, see “Creating labels” on page 212.
The CD/DVD Label Editor
This is a very important part of WaveLab Studio, called the
Master Section. It has a number of uses including:
• Adding real-time effect plug-in processors such as Chorus,
Reverb, etc.
• Applying effects to files so that they are permanently made a
part of the files (as opposed to using them in real-time).
• Monitoring and controlling the WaveLab Studio output level.
• Adding dithering.
For details, see “Master Section” on page 92.
This window is the Label Editor. Here you can design and
print custom labels for the CDs or DVDs you create. You
can create labels for both the front and back of a jewel
case, as well as for the discs.
Read more about this in the chapter “Creating labels” on
page 212.
17
Overview
Find your way around in WaveLab
Studio
CD/DVD creation
Editing and processing
• Create an audio CD that can be played back in a regular CD player?
Where do I go if I want to…
You create an Audio Montage and use the CD Wizard and/or set individual CD track markers (see “The Audio Montage” on page 136).
Where do I go if I want to…
• Edit an existing audio file?
When you open an audio file, it appears in a Wave window, in which you
can edit it in various ways. See “Editing in the Wave window” on page 30.
• Create a data CD/DVD or a Mixed Mode CD/DVD containing audio, data and video?
• Compile and edit several audio files on multiple tracks?
You do this in a Data CD/DVD window. See “Data CD/DVD Projects” on
page 204.
Create an Audio Montage. See “The Audio Montage” on page 136.
• Create labels for the CDs/DVDs I make?
• Apply processing to a wave file?
This is done in the Label Editor. See “Creating labels” on page 212.
The Process menu contains a number of options for manipulating wave
files, including fade-in/out, normalize, time stretch and much more – see
“Off-line processing” on page 76. You can also use the Render function
in the Master Section to apply effects to a file.
The above are just a few pointers to some of the fundamental functions in WaveLab Studio. While using them,
you will discover a multitude of other features and functions that let you make full use of the possibilities of this
amazing program.
• Apply processing and effects to multiple files in one go?
You do this with a function called batch processing. See “The Audio
Montage” on page 136.
Have fun exploring WaveLab Studio!
• Convert an audio file into another audio format?
There are several ways: You can use either the “Save as” command or
the “Save Special” command on the File menu (see “Saving in another
format (Save as…)” on page 51), or the “Render” function in the Master
Section (see “Rendering” on page 102). Finally, batch file encoding lets
you convert multiple files to another format – see “Batch file encoding”
on page 125.
Playback and recording
Where do I go if I want to…
• Play back with real-time effects?
Effects are added in the Master Section, see “Master Section” on page 92.
In Audio Montages you can also add individual track and clip effects, see
“Adding effects to tracks and clips” on page 177.
• Record new audio files?
Use the Record button on the Transport bar. The new file will appear in a
Wave window, and can also be added as a new clip in a Montage. See
“Recording” on page 63.
• Record songs from an audio CD into WaveLab Studio?
You don’t – you import them directly from the disc. On the Tools menu
there is an option called “Import Audio CD tracks” (see “Importing audio
CD tracks into WaveLab Studio” on page 209).
18
Overview
4
Basic methods
Why you should read this chapter
For this reason, WaveLab Studio will need to store files on
your hard disk, in the folder you have specified for the temporary files (see “Temporary files” on page 12). These files
are automatically deleted each time you close or save the
related document.
This chapter describes general methods that you will use
when working with WaveLab Studio. Getting accustomed
with these procedures will allow you to work more effectively with the program.
Limiting the Undo function
Getting help
If you run out of hard disk space or if you are applying processing to extremely long sections of waves, you might
want to put a limit on the Undo function (applicable to
Wave windows only):
WaveLab Studio comes with a detailed help system, making it easy to look up procedures and descriptions from
within the program. There are several ways to access the
help system:
1. Select “Preferences” from the Options menu and click
the Wave edit tab.
• By selecting “Operation Manual” from the Help menu.
2. Uncheck the “Unlimited” option in the Undo/Redo
section.
• This takes you to the help in Adobe Acrobat format (extension “.pdf”). This PDF file contains all chapters of the
manual including additional sections describing plug-ins,
key commands and troubleshooting procedures.
3. Change the Limit number to the desired value.
• By pressing [F1].
Undo and Redo
Clearing the undo
WaveLab Studio has an extremely extensive Undo function, applicable when working in Wave windows, Audio
Montages or the CD Label Editor. You can:
There might be situations where you have “collected” a
large number of undo possibilities that you know you don’t
need. You might then clear the whole undo “buffer” for
one file at a time. This will free up some primary memory
(RAM) but more importantly it will also delete all the “undo
files” from your hard disk, to free up space.
• Undo as many steps back as you like, by using the Undo
item on the Edit menu.
The only limitation is the available hard disk space. You can also use the
shortcuts [Ctrl]-[Z] or [F3] to undo. [F3] has the added advantage in that
you can undo even if a modal dialog is currently open.
1. Select “Clear undo” from the Edit menu.
• Redo as many steps as you like, by using the Redo item
on the Edit menu (or by pressing [Ctrl]-[Y] or [F4]).
A window appears informing you of how much RAM and hard disk space
you will gain by this operation.
Furthermore, each window has its own undo “history”, so
you can click on any window and undo the last changes
made there, even if you afterwards worked in another window.
About Undo and disk space
Many undo operations require no memory or disk space.
However, operations that modify actual wave data (like
time stretch, EQ, etc.) require that a file copy of the selected part of the wave is stored, so that it can be brought
back when you need to redo.
20
Basic methods
Quick window switching
2. Click OK.
!
• To “cycle” between all open windows, press [Ctrl]-[Tab]
or [Ctrl]-[F6].
Please note that this function works on one document at a time. It is only the undo buffer for the file in
the active window that will be cleared. Also note that
it only applies to Wave windows.
• If you release the [Ctrl] key, and use any of these commands again, you will switch to the previous window,
rather than the next window in the stack.
This allows you to quickly move back and forth between two windows.
Working with windows
The document switch bar
Basic window handling
A quick way to switch between the open document windows is to use the document switch bar.
WaveLab Studio follows the basic guidelines for the Windows interface, which means standard “Windows procedures” apply.
Closing Wave windows
In this example, clicking on the tab will bring the “MoonProject”
window to front.
You can close a document window by clicking its close
button, by selecting Close from the File menu or by pressing [Ctrl]-[W]. If document window(s) contain unsaved
changes, you will be asked whether you want to save
those changes before closing.
Ö You can position the document switch bar at the top,
bottom, left or right side of the screen by using the document switch bar submenu on the View menu.
This submenu also lets you hide the document switch bar, if you like.
Ö If you hold down [Ctrl]+[Shift] when clicking the close
button, the window closes immediately. Any changes you
have made will not be saved.
Panes
Several of WaveLab Studio’s windows are divided into
panes. Panes are separated by dividers. For example, a
Wave window can have two panes, the Overview and the
Main view.
Ö You can also close all windows in one go (either all
Wave windows, or all windows regardless of type), by selecting the corresponding option from the Windows
menu.
Minimizing Wave windows
WaveLab Studio windows are minimized like any other,
but there are also options for minimizing all Wave windows or all windows (regardless of type, as with closing,
see above), from the Window menu.
Panes
Quitting
When you quit the program, and have files with unsaved
changes, the “Exiting with modified documents” dialog,
see “Save All” on page 53, appears. Selecting all files in
the list and clicking Save Selected, ensures that all
changes made to any and all files, are saved.
The panes and dividers in a Database window.
21
Basic methods
Dividers
Adjusting the size of a pane
1. Position the mouse over the divider between the two
panes.
The pointer turns into a two-way arrow.
2. Drag the divider to adjust the pane size.
Hiding and revealing a pane
In some windows, a pane can be hidden altogether.
To hide a pane, drag the border between the two panes all
the way up or double click it. To reveal the pane again,
drag the miniature divider symbol down or double click it.
The normal Time Stretch dialog…
…and when “folded in”.
The miniature divider symbol
The Document icon
The Document icon
You can also hide/show the Overview pane in the Wave
window by pressing [O] on the computer keyboard.
“Folding” windows
If you find a window takes up too much screen space, but
you still don’t want to close it, you can “fold it in” by clicking on the fold-in icon on the title bar. For dialogs, you can
also double click on the title bar.
WaveLab Studio adds another symbol to some document
windows, the Document icon. This is used to drag the
whole document to various other windows, such as Audio
Montages or Data CD/DVD windows.
The fold-in icon
Unsaved changes indicator
To return to normal size, just click again.
When you have made changes to a document window, an
asterisk will be displayed after the document name in the
title bar until you save the document.
22
Basic methods
Working with multiple windows
Windows sets, snapshots and Wave view
settings
You can edit the same data in more than one Wave window. Among other things this allows you to work on different sections of a wave file (for example the start and end),
without scrolling back and forth.
In addition to the above, there are other ways to manage
windows:
• Snapshots store individual settings for one Wave window at a
time, which allows you to quickly move between various views
of a file. See “Snapshots” on page 38.
• Screen layouts store document window and dialog box positions and sizes. See “Working with window layouts” on page
254.
• View settings can be automatically stored (Preference setting)
when saving wave audio files. This will store all view settings
for an individual Wave window; i.e. window size & placement,
time ruler style, scroll positions, selection ranges, snapshots
and a master section preset. See “Saving view settings” on
page 54.
Ö The two windows are views of exactly the same data.
Any change you make in one Wave window is immediately apparent in the
other.
Creating a second window using menus
1. Make sure the desired window is the active one.
If it isn’t, click once in its title bar.
2. Select Duplicate View from the View menu.
Creating a second window by dragging
1. Make sure “Create windows using mouse” is activated
on the Preferences–Wave edit tab.
Dockable control bars
2. Click and drag a rectangle in an empty area of the
WaveLab Studio window.
Various tools, shortcuts and commands are gathered on
“control bars” (strips with symbols). These can be used either as “palettes” (separate windows) or you can “dock”
them to the window edges.
The following control bars are available:
This must be of a certain minimum size or bigger. If you don’t get a new
window, try again with a bigger rectangle.
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
The Standard Commands
The Transport bar
The Meters
The Window Controller
The Wave toolbox
The Wave Snapshots control bar
The Marker toolbar
Docking a control bar
Dragging a box like this will create a new window for this audio file.
There are two ways to dock a control bar:
• Drag the control bar window (by its title bar) to any of
the sides of the application window and release the
mouse button.
The outline shows you the shape of the control bar at the docked position.
• Double click the title bar of a control bar to return it to its
last docked position.
23
Basic methods
Please note that you can stack control bars and put them
side by side, to create any type of layout you desire.
4. Move the pointer over an item on the control bar and
wait a moment.
A text showing the name of the button appears.
In this example, the Standard Commands, Toolbox and Transport control bars have all been docked to the upper part of the application window.
An example of a “Tip” pop-up for the control bar.
Turning a docked control bar into a separate
window
The various control bars
To “un-dock” a control bar, drag it out from the docked
position, or double click somewhere on its handle.
The Window Controller
Ö Control bar windows are moved by dragging the title
bar, just as with any other window.
To drag a control bar on side of the application window, without docking
it, hold down [Ctrl] when dragging.
The Window Controller acts as “master selector” for the
main windows and control bars, providing quick access
even to those that have no keyboard shortcut. If a Window Controller button is “pressed”, the corresponding
window/bar is active and visible. If not, the window/bar
is hidden.
Showing/hiding a control bar
There are various ways to show/hide a control bar:
• Pull down the View menu, select Control Bars, and from the
submenu that appears, select the desired control bar, or…
• Click on a button on the Window controller (a control bar
used for showing/hiding other control bars, see below), or…
• Hide a control bar by clicking its Close box.
The Standard Commands
Changing the appearance of a control bar
To change the shape of a control bar to either horizontal,
square or vertical, drag the right or bottom edge as when
resizing any other window.
The Standard Commands bar supplies shortcuts for the
most commonly used menu items, as well as some unique
functions.
To change the size of the buttons in the control bar, open
the Preferences–Environment tab and adjust the “Button
size” setting.
The Toolbox
Finding out what a button on a control bar
does
The tools are used to perform various operations on the
data in the window, like selecting, playing, etc.
1. Select Preferences from the Options menu and click
on the Environment tab.
2. Make sure “Show Tips” is activated.
3. Close the Preferences dialog.
24
Basic methods
The Snapshots control bar
• For some of the fields you can also click to perform operations
related to that field.
• The status bar also indicates the progress of operations that
take some time to finish.
This is used to store and recall window “layouts”, see
“Snapshots” on page 38.
Speed menus
The Transport bar
Ö To bring up a speed menu, right-click in the desired
area.
Most displays have speed menus associated with them.
In the Wave windows for example, there is one speed menu for the level
ruler, one for each of the time rulers and one for each of the waveform
displays.
The Transport bar is used for various playback commands,
see “Using the Transport bar” on page 58.
The Marker toolbar
This is used for various commands related to markers, see
“Introduction” on page 128.
The Meters
This provides shortcuts to the various level meters in
WaveLab Studio, see “Metering” on page 68l.
The status bar
This is normally displayed at the bottom of the screen, but
it can be hidden on the Preferences–Environment tab.
The status bar shows information related to the active window. Exactly what information appears depends on the
window type – for Wave windows it shows various information about the file. See “The status bar” on page 34.
The Wave window main view “speed menu”
The Speed menus contain the same items that can be
found on the main menus, but some speed menus also
contain unique items.
!
25
Basic methods
When searching for a function, don’t forget to check
the speed menus in the window in which you are
working!
Units of time and level
Setting values
For rulers
In dialog boxes, you will find yourself adjusting values. The
following techniques apply:
You can specify the time and level (amplitude) formats for
each ruler in each window, by right-clicking on the ruler and
selecting a format from the pop-up menu that appears.
Typing values
As in most other Windows programs you can “tab to” or
click directly on a value and type in a new one.
Time formats
Menu name
Description
Using the spin controls/value fields
Time
Positions are shown as hours, minutes, seconds and
milliseconds. At large magnification factors, hundredths
of milliseconds are shown.
Values can be set using either the regular Windows spin
controls, or any of the other methods described below.
Samples
Positions are shown as number of samples. How many
samples there are to a second depends on the sample
rate of the wave. For 44.1 kHz for example, there are
44100 samples for each second.
Time code
Also called SMPTE. Positions are shown in the following format:
hours:minutes:seconds:frames.
The number of frames per second is set on the Preferences–Sync tab.
Meter
Positions are shown as bars, beats and ticks, as specified on the Preferences–Sync tab.
File size
Positions are shown in file size units, MegaBytes, where
the decimals represent kiloBytes.
The spin controls
The history pop-up
Level formats
Menu name
Description
%
Amplitude (level) is shown as a percentage of full level.
dB
Amplitude is shown in decibels, a logarithmic scale
used in audio engineering.
Decimal
This is the actual value of the amplitude as stored in
computer memory (always displayed as 16 bits). Please
note that the range is from negative to positive with “0”
representing “no signal”.
• Clicking either arrow raises/lowers the value.
• Keeping the mouse button pressed over an arrow will “scroll”
the value.
• Holding down [Ctrl] makes the value change in larger steps.
• Holding down [Ctrl]+[Shift] changes the value to its minimum/
maximum.
• The last adjusted control can be changed using the [↑] and [↓]
keys, also in combination with [Ctrl] or [Ctrl]+[Shift] as described above.
• You can also click and hold in the value field and move the
pointer up or down to change values.
• Pointing in a value field will display the available parameter
range.
• The down arrow to the right of the spin controls brings up a
history pop-up where the last applied value change(s) in the
current dialog are shown and can be selected.
Ö To make a ruler format the default (to be used in new
Wave windows), you need to save it as part of the default
window style.
See “Styling WaveLab Studio – Wave windows” on page 249.
26
Basic methods
Using sliders and pop-ups
In effect processor panels
Many times, the most convenient way of changing a value is
using WaveLab Studio’s proprietary sliders and pop-ups:
In the Master Section you will find either generic or custom effect panels for each effect processor. In custom
panels, values are adjusted using special methods, see
“The Effects pane” on page 96.
1. Click with the right mouse button on the spin control
(in some windows you can also double-click with the left
mouse button).
Using a wheel mouse
2. If a pop-up menu appears, select one of the options
on it.
If you are using a mouse with a scroll wheel or similar, you
can take advantage of the wheel for various operations in
WaveLab Studio:
3. If one or more sliders appear, drag the handle(s) or
click the arrows to set the value.
Scrolling
The setting is shown in the value box “behind” the slider window.
If you point at a waveform, the wheel scrolls the view horizontally.
In this case, four faders appear, one
for the integer and three for the decimals.
Zooming
If you hold down [Ctrl] and point at a waveform, the wheel
zooms the view horizontally.
If you hold down [Ctrl] and [Shift] and point at a waveform,
the wheel zooms the view vertically.
The value gets updated when you
move the sliders.
Changing values
If you point at an edit field in a dialog, the wheel can be
used to adjust the value.
4. When you have finished, click outside the slider window.
• If the value is “segmented” (for example divided into minutes
and seconds, etc.), more than one slider will appear, each
used for adjusting one of the “segments”.
• The slider window can be dragged to any position on the
screen, using the “title bar” at the top.
• The last-used slider can also be adjusted using the computer
keyboard:.
These keys
Move the slider handle
[↑] and [↓]
One step up/down.
[Page Up] and [Page Down]
A few steps up/down.
[Home] and [End]
To the top/bottom.
• If you hold down [Ctrl], the value changes in bigger increments.
• If you hold down [Ctrl]+[Shift] the value jumps to the minimum
or maximum.
Master Section
• When working in the Master Section window, the wheel
can be used to adjust the master volume.
You have to point in the Master Section for this to work.
Ö This functionality can be turned off in the Preferences–
Environment tab.
27
Basic methods
Presets
Creating a preset
1. Open the dialog you wish to use and set up the dialog
as desired.
Many dialogs in WaveLab Studio have either a Presets tab
or a Presets pop-up menu. If you think of the dialogs as
forms, presets allow those forms to be filled out automatically. WaveLab Studio comes with a selection of presets
for most dialogs that use them, but the real power of presets becomes evident when you start creating your own!
2. Click on the Presets tab or pull down the Preset menu.
3. Click on the name line and type in a name for the preset or click the Save As… menu item and type in a name in
the dialog that appears.
Ö For some WaveLab Studio effect panels there is a
Preset button instead of a Presets tab or pop-up menu.
Clicking the button opens the Presets dialog which has
the same items as described below.
4. Where applicable, click the Add button.
Modifying a preset
1. Load the preset you want to modify, as described
above.
Depending on how presets are displayed in a certain dialog (tab or menu) they are handled slightly differently, but
both cases are described below.
2. Make the desired settings in the dialog.
3. Click the Update button or click the Save item.
Deleting a preset
1. In the Presets tab, click on the preset you want to delete.
2. Click the Delete button.
Or…
1. From the Presets menu, select the option Explore presets.
2. In the Explorer window that appears, select the preset
file you want to delete and press [Delete].
Store temporarily and Restore
A number of presets in the Harmonization dialog
Some dialogs also allow you to quickly save and load up
to 5 presets with the Store temporarily and Restore menu
items. This is useful if you want to quickly test and compare different settings.
Loading presets
1. Open the dialog you wish to use and click on its Presets tab or pull down its Presets menu.
1. Select the option “Store temporarily” and from the submenu select the number under which you want to save (#1
– #5).
2. Select the preset you want to use.
3. Where applicable, click the Load button.
Ö A quick way to load a preset is to right-click on the
Preset tab and select a preset from the menu that appears.
2. To quickly load the saved settings again, select the
corresponding number from the Restore submenu.
28
Basic methods
Using the computer keyboard
How presets are saved
The presets are automatically saved when you quit the
program. The next time you load the program, the presets
are ready and waiting, just as you left them. Furthermore
the presets are “global” to all files. No matter which file
you are working on, you still have access to all your presets.
When you are working with WaveLab Studio, the computer keyboard has several different uses:
Transport controls
The Transport functions (such as Play, Stop, Record and
so on) can all be managed from the computer keyboard.
The keyboard commands for these functions are located
on the numeric keypad, to the right on the computer keyboard. See “Using the Transport bar” on page 58.
About non-modal dialogs
Many of the dialog boxes in WaveLab Studio are “nonmodal”. This means that the window behind the dialog can
be operated even though the dialog box is still up on the
screen.
Keyboard shortcuts
Shortcuts for menus
For example, when you have a Processing dialog up on
screen, you can still work with the Wave window and the
main menus. For example, this allows you to perform the
following operations without closing the dialog.
Many of the items in WaveLab Studio’s menus have a
computer keyboard equivalent – an “accelerator”, listed
on the menu. Some abbreviations might need an explanation:
• Play back the wave to hear the effect of any applied processing.
• Adjust the selection before re-processing.
• Use the menu to undo the last processing.
Abbreviation
Description
KP
The numeric keypad. “KP 2” for example means
the “2” key on the numeric keypad.
BkSp
The Backspace key.
Keyboard commands
F1 to F12
The Function keys.
Windows normally does not allow you to select from
menus and use keyboard accelerators when a dialog box
is the active window. However, we have provided a few
special key shortcuts for the most crucial commands:
Key
Command
[F3]
Undo
Due to the large number of functions in WaveLab Studio,
some key commands consist of double or triple key
strokes (known as “key sequences”). These are displayed
with the different keys separated by comma signs.
For example, “Alt+F12, T” means “hold down [Alt] and
press [F12], release, then press [T]”.
[F4]
Redo
Customizable shortcuts
[F6]
Play selection
[Shift]+[F6]
Activate loop and play selection
[F7]
Stop
[F8]
Play
You can define your own key shortcuts for a number of
functions in the program, see “Customizable key commands” on page 255.
Additional shortcuts
In addition to the above, there are key commands that are
not listed on the menus or in this manual. Check the Key
Commands chapter in the online documentation for a full
list.
29
Basic methods
5
Editing in the Wave window
About this chapter
Opening Waves
The Wave window is the heart of WaveLab Studio’s audio
editing capabilities. This is where you view, play back and
edit individual audio files. This chapter describes how to
open and save audio files, how to perform wave editing
and how to handle the Wave window itself.
!
For a list of supported file formats, see “Supported
file formats” on page 49.
Using the Open dialog
1. Select Open Wave from the File menu, press [Ctrl]-[O]
or click the Open icon on the Standard commands control
bar and select “Wave…” from the pop-up menu that appears.
Creating new empty documents
If you want to start with an empty file, for assembling material from other files for example, proceed as follows:
2. Use the standard controls to locate and select the desired file.
Using menus
The file format pop-up allows you to only view files in a certain format and
the buttons in the upper left half provide various views of the files on the
disk.
1. Select New from the File menu, and Wave from the
submenu that appears.
3. Click Open.
Or, right-click the New icon on the Standard Commands control bar.
The Wave appears in a new window.
2. Fill out the dialog that appears.
See “Supported file formats” on page 49 for details about the various
options.
Below follow descriptions of the items/procedures which
are not standard for all Windows Open dialog boxes:
By dragging
The Recent Folders pop-up menu
This is only possible if the currently active window is a
Wave window (or if no document windows are open).
At the top of the dialog, you will find a pop-up menu which
lists the most recently accessed folders. Select one to
open it.
1. Make sure “Create window using mouse” is activated
in the Preferences–Wave edit tab.
The playback functions
2. Drag to make up a box in an empty free area of the
WaveLab Studio application window.
Once you have selected a file in the list you can audition it
by clicking Play. Click again to Stop.
This must be of a certain minimum size. If you don’t get a new window, try
again with a bigger box. The new window “inherits” its attributes from the
last active window. If no window is open, the dialog box settings for units
are used instead.
You can also have files play back automatically as soon as
they are selected. To do this, activate the Auto button.
Opening multiple files
About display options
As in many other Windows programs, you can select and
open as many files as you wish. The [Shift] key is used for
making continuous selections and [Ctrl] is used for selecting any combination of files.
There are a number of options that govern how a window
will look when it is first created. These are all found on the
Preferences–Wave edit tab. Click the question mark icon
in the dialog for details.
When you click Open the selected files will be opened,
each in an individual window.
The Open in Audio Montage window option
If you check this option at the bottom of the dialog, the
file(s) you open will be placed in an automatically created
new Audio Montage.
31
Editing in the Wave window
Opening dual mono files
Using drag and drop
If you have two mono files which are actually the left and
right channels of a stereo recording (some systems handle stereo this way), you can open these as if they were a
stereo file. Proceed as follows:
To open files from the Windows desktop, use one of the
following possibilities:
• Drag and drop the file(s) on the WaveLab Studio application window.
1. Open the Preferences from the Options menu, and
click the File tab.
• Drag and drop the file(s) on the WaveLab Studio program icon or a shortcut for it.
2. Make sure the option “Allow opening of dual mono
files” is activated, and close the dialog.
If the program isn’t already running, it will be launched. This works even if
the application is running but minimized.
3. Select Open Wave from the File menu.
To Nuendo
4. Select the first file, hold down [Ctrl] and select the
other.
Ö It is also possible to drag and drop files from WaveLab
Studio to Steinberg’s Nuendo!
5. Click Open.
This should be done using the Document button.
The two files are opened as one stereo file, with the file with the first
name (alphabetically) becoming the left channel. If this is not as desired,
you can swap the channels, see “Swapping channels in a stereo file” on
page 49.
Opening files from the desktop
To open a file in WaveLab Studio by double-clicking on it,
you must have created an association between the file format and the WaveLab Studio application. Such an association can be set up in two ways:
You can now work on the two files as if they were one.
You can later save them as a stereo file or as two mono
files. See “File handling in Wave windows” on page 49.
• There is an option to automatically associate certain file
formats with WaveLab Studio during the installation process.
Ö You may want to deactivate the “Allow opening of dual
mono files” option when you’re done, to avoid accidentally
opening two separate mono files as a dual mono file.
Inserting a file into the current document
• You can also do this from within WaveLab Studio at any
time by selecting “Associate all files of this type with
WaveLab Studio” on the File menu–Special submenu.
You may have a file that you want to insert into an existing
file. The two must have the same attributes (e.g. sample
rate), or a warning will appear.
This association is made according to the currently selected file’s format,
and will ensure that all files of this format always opens with WaveLab
Studio.
1. Locate the document into which you want to add material, and make it active.
2. If you want to add the file at some arbitrary position in
the document (rather than at the beginning or end), click
to move the wave cursor to that position.
3. Pull down the Edit menu and select Insert Audio File
and then one of the options from the submenu that appears.
4. Select a file and click Open.
The file is added. If you used the “at cursor position” option, a temporary
marker is added at the insertion point.
32
Editing in the Wave window
Window overview and adjustments
Using the Recent Files lists
On the bottom of the File menu you will find one or several
hierarchical menu items that allow you to open recently
used document files. There are different submenus for different file types, as indicated by the menu items (“Recent
Audio Files”, “Recent Audio Montages”, etc.). Each section holds up to twenty files. Selecting an item on one of
the submenus opens the corresponding file.
Left audio channel
Overview
Display mode pop-up
Using Favorites
Just above the “Recent…” items is the Favorites menu.
This lets you create a “library” of files that you want to be
able to open quickly.
Right audio channel
• The “Add current document” option, adds the currently
active document to the menu.
Main view
Zoom controls
About the window sections
The list is sorted alphabetically.
Main view
• “Validate list” checks whether each document on the
menu is still residing in the specified location on your hard
disk(s).
The lower waveform area is where the main action is going
on. It is here that you select, apply tools, drag and drop,
etc.
If a document can’t be found, it is removed from the list.
• “Clear list” removes all files from the menu.
• There are both time and level rulers. These can be hidden and
displayed (see the ruler and wave display speed menus). You
can also set which units of time and level they show (see
“Units of time and level” on page 26).
Opening Wave files from within other windows
You can also open files from Audio Montage windows and
the Batch dialog. See the respective chapters for details.
Overview
The overview is mainly used for navigating through long
files. Since you can have different zoom factors in the two
areas, the Overview can display the entire wave while the
Main view only shows you a short portion. You can also
synchronize these views – see “Synchronizing the views”
on page 34.
Importing tracks from an audio CD
This is described in the section “Importing audio CD
tracks into WaveLab Studio” on page 209.
33
Editing in the Wave window
About the Display modes
• This is done by selecting “Synchronize top and bottom
views” from the Display mode pop-up menu (either for the
main view or the overview).
Both the main view and the overview can independently
be set to show the audio in one of two display modes:
When this is selected, the horizontal Zoom control (see “About zooming”
on page 35) is only available in the main view.
• Wave display.
This is the standard waveform display, as shown in the main picture.
• The Spectrum display.
This displays the audio as a “spectrogram” which allows you to view the
level intensity of each area in the frequency spectrum across the time
line. See “Spectrum Display” on page 107.
Ö In the rest of this chapter the Wave editing are described for the standard Wave display mode.
The Spectrum display is described in a separate chapter – see “Spectrum Display” on page 107.
The status bar
The status bar can be hidden. This is done on the Preferences–Environment tab. The status bar provides the following information:
You select which view is shown in each section from the
pop-up to the left of the respective horizontal Zoom control.
Mouse cursor position/Level
Synchronizing the views
You may find it useful to work with separate display modes
for the main view and the overview, as this gives you the
option of viewing the audio in two different ways. In such
cases you might want the two views to display the same
part of the audio file simultaneously, so that the cursor position is synchronized in both views.
File format details (see “Supported
file formats” on page 49)
Wave cursor position/Selection length
Zoom factor
• The Wave and Mouse cursor time positions are shown using
the same unit of time as in the rulers and dialog boxes.
• Level positions are always shown in dB.
• The “Selection length” field shows the length of the entire
wave if nothing is selected, and the length of the selection (in
brackets) if there is one. If you click this value the window
zooms in on the selected range.
• If Spectrum display mode is selected, the Level is substituted
for Frequency.
34
Editing in the Wave window
Sizing, moving and minimizing
Vertical zoom
WaveLab Studio uses standard Windows techniques for
resizing, moving, maximizing and minimizing windows. See
your Windows documentation for details.
Selecting the Maximize Width item on the View menu
makes the window as big as the screen (or any other factor) permits.
• When you zoom out all the way, the complete height of the
wave fits into the window. You can note this by checking the
ruler on the left side.
• As you progressively zoom in, the display will only show you a
smaller part of the total height. Exactly which section you see
can be adjusted with the vertical scroll bars. Again, check the
ruler to see which part of the waveform is currently shown in
the display.
The divider
For example, to check the peaks of the waveform in great
detail, zoom in and scroll all the way up and down.
Maximizing width
The divider between the Main view and the Overview can
be dragged to change the view sizes. See “Panes” on
page 21 for details.
Detailed view of
waveform peaks
Setting the zoom factor
About zooming
Horizontal zoom
• When you zoom out all the way the entire file fits the window.
• When you zoom in as far as possible, each sample will occupy
several pixels on the screen. This allows for single sample-accurate editing of waveforms.
Using the zoom controls
Both the Main view and the Overview have horizontal and
vertical zoom controls. These behave just like scroll bars:
Zoom out all the
way to see the
entire wave.
Vertical and horizontal zoom
controls
Zoom in until
you can see
each individual
sample point,
for very detailed
editing.
• You can drag the handle to any position.
• You can click anywhere on the scale to move the handle
there.
• You can click on the arrows at either end to change the
zoom factor in smaller steps.
Either way, the zoom factor on the status bar is updated continuously.
35
Editing in the Wave window
Using the Magnifying Glass tool
Using the tool in the Overview
The Magnifying Glass tool is used to specify any section
of the waveform and have it occupy the entire window.
The Magnifying Glass can be used in the Overview, just as
in the Main view. However, even though you use the tool in
the Overview, it is the Main view that gets zoomed.
You can for example use this as follows: keep the Overview zoomed out all the way and use the Magnifying Glass
tool to display any section in the Main view.
The Magnifying Glass tool selected.
Selecting the tool
Mouse zooming
The Magnifying Glass tool can of course be selected from
the tool box, but there are two other options:
Using the mouse, you can continuously change the zoom
factor by dragging:
• When you hold down [Ctrl] and move the pointer over
the Main view, the Magnifying Glass is automatically selected.
1. Position the mouse pointer over the ruler in the Main
view.
This is just a momentary selection. As soon as you release [Ctrl] you get
the previous tool back.
The zoom factor changes continuously.
2. Press the mouse button and drag up or down.
• When you move the pointer over the overview, it turns
into the Magnifying Glass automatically.
Using the tool in the Main view
1. Press the mouse button with the pointer somewhere in
the waveform.
2. Drag left or right to make up a box, and then release
the button.
Dragging to change the zoom factor.
The area encompassed in the box now fills up the entire window.
• To zoom with the cursor in a fixed center position, hold
down [Shift].
• To make vertical zoom adjust automatically to the peaks
in the waveform, hold down [Ctrl].
Making a box like this…
• To switch to scrolling, hold down [Alt].
…zooms in so that the
“boxed” area will span the
entire display.
This technique works very well in combination with the
fact that you can move the song position by dragging horizontally in the ruler. By dragging in both directions, you
can quickly find a certain position in the file and display it
at the desired magnification factor.
Using mouse zooming to its full effect requires some practice – but it is worth the effort!
Setting sensitivity for mouse zooming
On the Preferences–Environment tab, there’s a Sensitivity
setting for mouse zooming. The higher the value, the less
sensitive the function. You might want to raise this value
when you first try out the function.
36
Editing in the Wave window
Using a wheel mouse
Using auto zoom for Overview
• If you hold down [Ctrl] and point at a waveform, the wheel
zooms the view horizontally.
• If you hold down [Ctrl] and [Shift] and point at a waveform, the
wheel zooms the view vertically.
This setting, found on the Preferences–Wave edit tab, allows you to have the zoom factor automatically adjusted,
so that it always shows the entire wave.
1. Activate “Auto zoom for overview” in the Preferences
dialog.
Using the Zoom menu
2. Zoom out on the overview so that you see the entire
wave.
The Zoom submenu can be invoked from two places:
• From the main view menu.
• By clicking on the Zoom factor on the status bar.
Now, when you resize the window, the overview zoom factor is automatically adjusted so that the entire wave is always shown. If you then zoom
in on the overview, the automatic zooming is deactivated until you zoom
out all the way again.
It provides the following options:
Option
Description
Restore last zoom
Brings back the last zoom factor set using this
menu or the Magnifying Glass tool.
Overview
Zooms the view out as far as possible.
Zoom in 1:1
Zooms in so that one pixel (dot) on the screen represents one sample.
Microscope
Zooms in as far as possible, so that one sample occupies several pixels.
Zoom selection
Zooms the window so that the current selection
(see “Selecting” on page 40) fills the entire display.
You can also click the selection range (in brackets)
on the Status bar.
Custom…
This brings up a dialog that allows you to enter any
zoom factor. Click the question mark icon in the dialog for details.
Optimize vertical
zoom
This changes the vertical zoom factor so that the
peaks are clearly visible. This adjustment is done
according to the section of the wave currently visible in the window, not the whole file.
Which part of the file do I see?
In the overview, a striped line called the “range indicator”
tells you which section of the file is currently displayed in
the Main view. Note that the range indicator is only shown,
if the option “Synchronize top and bottom views” is deactivated.
Furthermore, the range indicator moves while you drag the
scroll bar handle. This means that by observing the overview you can easily find positions in the Main view when
scrolling, even though the Main view might be zoomed in
very closely.
Using the keyboard
A quick way to zoom the active Wave window is to use the
arrow keys on the computer keyboard: Press [arrow up] or
[arrow down] to zoom in or out (respectively) horizontally.
Hold down [Shift] and use the arrow keys to zoom in or
out vertically.
There are also additional key commands for zooming –
check the Key Commands chapter in the online documentation for a full list.
When you drag the scroll bar, the range indicator continuously
shows you which part of the wave is shown in the Main view.
The range indicator can be displayed at the top or bottom
of the overview, see “Range Indicator at top/bottom” on
page 251.
37
Editing in the Wave window
Navigating through the file
Clicking on the status bar
If you click on the cursor position on the status bar, the
view is scrolled so that the wave cursor becomes visible.
There are several ways to move the view to a certain position in the file:
If you right-click instead, a dialog appears to let you specify a certain time position to scroll the view to.
Scroll bars
This is the most evident option. These work exactly as in
any other Windows program. Please note that the waveform scrolls while you drag the scroll bar handle.
Using a wheel mouse
If you move the wheel down the scroll bar will move forward and vice versa. You can also hold down the wheel
and drag the view in either horizontal direction.
Furthermore, WaveLab Studio uses proportional scroll
bars, that is, the size of the handle shows you how much
of the entire document you see. To get a feeling for how
this works, drag the horizontal zoom control while observing the size of the scroll bar “handle”.
Snapshots
Centering the view vertically
Snapshots store the Main view’s “layout” – essentially two
things:
If you have zoomed in vertically, you might want to center
the waveform view. To do so, double click in the level ruler.
• How a window is scrolled (which part of the wave you see).
• The window’s zoom factor.
If you move back and forth between various positions in a
file, or if you zoom in and out for detailed or overview editing, using snapshots will save you a lot of time. Snapshots
are created and managed on the Wave Snapshots control
bar, opened from the View menu.
Clicking in the Overview
If you click once in the Overview, the Main view is scrolled
so that the position where you clicked is shown on the left
side of the window.
To create a snapshot, you first set up the view as desired
(by scrolling and/or zooming). Then click the camera icon
on the Wave Snapshots control bar, followed by one of
the numbers. The snapshot is now stored under that button. The fact that the snapshot is used is indicated by a
red circle around the number.
Using the Scroll to menu
To bring up the Scroll to menu, either select “Scroll to”
from the Main view menu, or right-click in the Overview or
the Main view.
The difference between the methods is that the main
menu always affects the Main view, whereas the speed
menus affect either view depending on where you clicked.
The following options are available on the menu:
Option
Scrolls the view to
Start/End
The beginning or end of the wave.
Selection start/end
The beginning or end of the current selection, if
any.
Cursor
The wave cursor.
This snapshot is “programmed”.
You use the same procedure to “reprogram” existing
snapshots.
To recall a stored snapshot, simply click on its number on
the Wave Snapshots control bar.
Ö Snapshots will be automatically saved with the individual file if “Save view settings in companion file” is activated in the Preferences–Wave edit tab, see “Saving view
settings” on page 54.
38
Editing in the Wave window
Setting the ruler start position
4. Set the “Ticks per quarter note” setting to a number
you feel comfortable with.
Normally, the ruler is set so that the beginning of the file
represents position “0”. However, for editing purposes
you may want to set the “0” position at some other point in
the file. The picture sequence below shows you how to do
this:
This might for example be the same value as that used by your MIDI sequencer.
1. Set the wave cursor where you want the “0” position.
In this example, a meter ruler with 96 ticks per quarter note is used.
Setting the wave cursor position
2. Right-click
the ruler to bring
up this pop-up
menu.
Many operations, such as playback and selection depend
on the current cursor position – for example, playback often starts at the cursor. The current cursor position is indicated by a vertical flashing line, both in the Main view and
in the Overview. There are various ways to move the wave
cursor:
• By clicking once somewhere in the Main view or on the
time ruler.
3. Select “Set
origin at cursor”.
If you have a selection, click on the ruler, since clicking in the waveform
deselects all.
• By clicking and dragging in the time ruler.
• By using the Transport controls (see “Setting the start
point for playback” on page 59).
• By using the “Move cursor to” menu on the View menu.
The ruler start
position is
moved.
The options on this are similar to the “Scroll to” menu, see above. There’s
also a “Position” option which allows you to specify any position in the
format selected for dialogs and a “Snap Cursor” option described in the
section “Using “Snap Cursor”” on page 40.
• By using the Cursor keys:
Working with a meter based display
If the material on which you are working is tempo based,
and you know the tempo, you can make the ruler show positions in meter format (bars, beats and ticks), to make it
easier to find musically related cutting points:
These keys
Move the wave cursor
[←] and [→]
One “pixel” (screen dot) in either direction.
[Ctrl] + [←] and [→]
Twenty “pixels” in either direction.
[Home] and [End]
To the beginning and end of the
wave.
• By using markers
Markers allow you to pre-define positions and move the cursor there, see
“What are markers for?” on page 128.
1. Select Meter for the ruler time format, see “Units of
time and level” on page 26.
2. Open the Preferences–Wave edit tab.
3. Set the Time Signature and Tempo to match the file.
39
Editing in the Wave window
Using magnetization
You can also press [Shift] and click in the Wave window
to make a selection between the position of the wave cursor and the click position.
If you have “Magnetize bounds” on the Options menu activated and drag the cursor on the time ruler, it will “snap”
to the following positions:
By using the Audio Range dialog
• The start and end of the entire wave.
• The start and end of the selection.
• Markers (see “What are markers for?” on page 128).
Another way of selecting a range in a Wave window is to
use the Audio Range dialog. This dialog, accessed by selecting the “Edit…” item from the Select submenu on the
Edit menu, allows you to define a selection range in great
detail. See“Using the Audio Range dialog” on page 61.
Using “Snap Cursor”
This function – which can be reached from the “Move cursor to” item on the View menu and from the main wave
display speed menu – moves the cursor position automatically for you. There are two options:
Selecting in stereo files
If you are working on stereo material you can select either
channel or both so that you can apply an operation to one
channel only or to the entire stereo material. Which channel will be selected when you drag or [Shift]-click depends on where you position the mouse pointer, as
indicated by the pointer shape:
• Move to the closest zero crossing (see “Snapping to
zero crossings” on page 42) to the left of the cursor position.
To get this effect, make sure “Snap to time unit” is turned off on the Options menu.
Position
• Move to the zero crossing closest to a major time unit.
For example, this can be to the zero crossing closest to a whole second
on the time ruler. To get this effect, make sure “Snap to time unit” is activated on the Options menu.
In the last case, the “time unit” mentioned depends on
which type of scale is selected for the ruler:
Option
Cursor moves to
Time
Closest whole second
Samples
Function not available
Time code
Closest frame
Meter
Closest whole beat
Pointer
Shape
Description
Upper half of left channel
Only the left channel will be
selected.
Middle area
Both channels will be selected.
Lower half of right channel
Only the right channel will be
selected.
Ö To select a single channel by [Shift]-clicking, you need
to set the wave cursor in only one channel (by clicking in
the upper or lower part of the wave) and then [Shift]-click
in the same channel.
Selecting
Switching the selection between channels
Almost all types of editing and processing you perform in
WaveLab Studio operate on the selection. There are numerous ways to make a selection:
If you have made a selection, you can move this to the
other channel or extend it to both channels by selecting
the corresponding items from the Select submenu (on the
Edit menu). Or, you can press [Tab] to move the selection
between channels (if there is no selection, [Tab] moves
the cursor between channels).
By dragging or [Shift]-clicking
The standard way to select a range in a Wave window is
to click and drag. If you drag all the way to the left or right
side of the window, it scrolls automatically, allowing you to
select larger sections than what can be shown in the window. The speed of the scrolling depends on how far from
the window edge you are.
40
Editing in the Wave window
Selection shortcuts
Extending and shrinking the selection
There are a number of ways to quickly make certain selections (for many options there is more than one method):
Very often you will have made a selection only to find it isn’t
completely perfect. In this case you can extend or shrink
the selection. In fact you can very well use this as a
method: make a coarse selection with a lower zoom factor,
then zoom in and adjust the start and end in more detail.
To select…
You can…
The area between two consec- • Double click between them.
utive markers
• Depending on the type of marker, use
one of the last three options on the Select
menu (on the Edit menu).
The area between any two
markers
• Double click between two markers,
keep the mouse button pressed and drag
left or right.
The entire waveform
• If there are no markers, double click.
• Triple click.
• Press [Ctrl]-[A].
• Select “All” from the Select menu on the
Edit menu.
From the cursor to the following or previous marker
• Select “From cursor to previous/next
edge” from the Select menu (on the Edit
menu).
• Hold down [Shift] and double click between the cursor and the marker.
From the cursor to the beginning or end of the file
• Select “From cursor to start/end of file”
from the Select submenu (on the Edit
menu).
• Hold down [Shift] and double click to
the left/right of the cursor position.
• Press [Shift]+[Home] or [Shift]+[End].
All data between two start/end
loop, region or mute markers
• Hold down [Shift] and double click on
either marker head.
• Click between the start/end region
markers and select the type (loop, mute,
generic region) from the Select menu on
the Edit menu.
Half or double the current selection length
What was previously selected
By dragging
1. Move the mouse pointer to the beginning or end of the
selection.
It turns into a double arrow.
2. Press the mouse button and drag left/right.
Dragging the end of the selection.
Using [Shift]
• Hold down [Shift] and click outside (extend) or inside
(shrink) the current selection.
If you click inside the first half of the selection, this will change the start
point, if you click inside the latter half, this will change the end point.
• Select “Halve the selection length” or
“Double selection length” from the Select
menu on the Edit menu. These options are
useful if you are working with measures.
Using the cursor keys
• If you hold down [Shift] and press the [←] or [→] keys, the
start or end of the selection is moved one pixel (screen dot) to
the left/right. If you also hold down [Ctrl] it is moved twenty
pixels instead.
• If you hold down [Shift] and press [Page Up]/[Page Down], it
will also move 20 pixels.
• If you hold down [Shift] and press the [Home]/[End] keys, the
selection will extend from the current cursor position to the
start/end of the file respectively.
• Select “Toggle” from the Select menu
on the Edit menu.
• Press [Esc].
Selecting in the Overview
You can select in the Overview, just as in the Main view.
To get the selection tool in the overview, hold down [Ctrl]
and move the pointer into the overview.
Which end of the selection you change depends on which
end of the selection the cursor is closest to.
41
Editing in the Wave window
Exactly how much one pixel represents depends on the
zoom factor. If for example the zoom factor is “x1:64”, the
cursor keys alone move 64 samples, and together with
[Ctrl] they move 1280 samples.
WaveLab Studio can help!
If you wish, WaveLab Studio can automatically search for
zero crossings, and extend the selection “outwards”
(make it bigger at both ends) so that it begins and ends at
a zero crossing. Normally this will not be noted in the editing precision (since there are usually hundreds or thousands of zero crossings per second), but it will help avoid
“clicks” and “pops” and “bumps”.
Using the Select menu
The Select submenu (on the Edit menu) has a number of
options for extending the selection to various points in the
waveform. For details, use the help item on the Edit menu.
If the selection is the right length, but at the wrong position, you can move it:
But just making the selection start and end at zero crossings is not enough. When you actually perform the editing
operation (cut and paste or dragging, for example) you
need to make sure the material is inserted at a zero crossing. See “By dragging” on page 44.
1. Hold down [Ctrl] and [Shift].
Setting up zero crossing detection
2. Point at the selection and drag left/right.
1. Pull down the Options menu and activate “Snap to
zero crossing”.
Moving the selection
Snapping to zero crossings
2. Select Preferences from the Options menu.
About zero crossings
3. Click on the Wave edit tab.
If you cut out a portion of a wave and paste it in somewhere else, chances are there will be a discontinuity
where the two waves are joined. See the example below.
This discontinuity will result in a transient in the wave
when it is played back, which is perceived as a “click” or
“bump” in the sound.
4. Fill out the “Snap to Zero crossing” options.
Click the question mark icon in the respective dialog for details.
Checking the effect of Snap to Zero crossing
1. Make sure that “Off at high zoom factor” is not activated and zoom in until the zoom factor is 1:1.
At this point, there
will be a click in
the sound, due to
the discontinuity in
the splice.
2. Make a selection and observe how it is extended left
and right.
If you make a selection like this…
To avoid this you need to make the splice at a zero crossing.
A zero crossing is – a point where the wave crosses the
zero level axis, the point where the wave is considered to
have “zero level”.
…it is automatically
extended at both
ends, to the closest
zero crossings.
Furthermore we recommend that joins are made with the
splice points of the two waves heading from opposite directions to the zero crossing. That is, one should be on its
way up (below the zero level axis), and the other should be
on its way down (above the zero level axis).
42
Editing in the Wave window
Snapping to time units
4. Press the mouse button and drag up/down.
When “Snap to time units” is activated on the Options
menu, selections will automatically be extended to the left
and right so that they start and end at whole time units
(and also at the closest zero crossing, if that option is activated, see above). This allows you to easily make selections spanning a certain number of seconds for example.
!
Make a regular selection, move
the pointer to its top or bottom
and hold down [Shift]…
Note that this means that you must drag across a
certain “time area” (for example more than half a second) to get any selection at all.
…drag up/down,
and release the
mouse button.
The “time unit” mentioned depends on which type of scale
is selected for the ruler:
Option
Cursor moves to
Time
Closest whole second
Samples
Function not available
Time code
Closest frame
Meter
Closest whole beat
File size
Function not available
If you then extend the selection time-wise, the level selection still remains the same.
Extend to peaks
Using Magnetization
To automatically set the level selection to the highest peak
in the current selection, make a time selection as desired
and select “Extend to peaks” from the Select submenu on
the Edit menu.
If you have “Magnetize bounds” on the Options menu activated and create or adjust a selection, it will “snap” to the
following positions (or to the zero crossing closest to the
position, see above):
• The wave cursor.
• The start and end of the entire wave.
• Markers (see “What are markers for?” on page 128).
Level selections
For some of WaveLab Studio’s level processing functions,
it is useful to make a selection not only in time, but in level.
By dragging
1. Make a regular “time” selection.
2. Hold down [Shift].
3. Move the mouse to the top or bottom of the selection
box.
The pointer changes into a vertical double arrow.
43
Editing in the Wave window
Basic editing commands
5. Release the mouse button.
The selection is inserted at the indicated point. The audio that previously
began at that point is moved forward so that it is now played after the inserted section.
Mono/stereo
WaveLab Studio is totally flexible in its handling of stereo.
All editing operations can be performed on either channel
or both.
Copying audio
The following operations allow you to make copies of sections of audio within the same file or from one file to another.
!
Make a selection, position the mouse pointer over it…
Please note that any existing markers (see “What are
markers for?” on page 128) in the source audio section also will be copied.
By dragging
1. Decide whether you want to use “Snap to Zero crossing” (activated from the Options menu) for this operation.
When this is activated, both the selection start and end as well as the
drop position will always occur at zero crossings. See “Snapping to zero
crossings” on page 42 for details.
…drag and drop…
2. Make a selection.
3. Point at the selection, press the mouse button and
hold it down.
4. Drag to a position outside the selection (in the same
file) or to another Wave window.
When you have the cursor over a valid area, the pointer will turn into a
single or double waveform (see below). The status bar will show the exact position at which the selection will be inserted.
…the dragged section is inserted at the drop point.
!
Make sure you don’t drop on a selection in the destination window, or you will perform a crossfade, see
“Crossfade” on page 83.
Using “Magnetize Bounds”
If you have “Magnetize bounds” on the Options menu activated when you drag, the cursor will “snap” to the following positions:
• The wave cursor.
• The start and end of the entire wave.
• Markers (see “What are markers for?” on page 128).
44
Editing in the Wave window
Stereo/mono “conflicts”
5. Select Paste from the Edit menu or press [Ctrl]-[V].
The material you copied is either inserted at the indicated point (no selection) or it replaces the current selection (if you have a selection).
Stereo/mono is handled as follows when you drag between files:
Dragged
section
“Drop”
wave
Action
Stereo
Stereo
The dragged audio is always inserted into both
channels.
Stereo
Mono
Only the left channel is inserted.
Mono
Stereo
What happens depends on the vertical position
in the destination window at which the drop is
made. This is indicated by the cursor shape (see
“Selecting in stereo files” on page 40). The selection can be inserted into only one of the channels, or the same material can be inserted into
both channels.
Make a selection, and select Copy…
Sample rate conflicts
If you copy or move audio from one window to another,
and the sample rates of the two files are not the same, the
copied/moved sound will play back at the wrong pitch
(speed). The program will warn you if this is about to happen.
While mixing sample rates can sometimes be used as an
effect, it is most often not desired. There are two ways to
get around this:
…click for an insertion point…
• Sample rate convert the source file to the same rate as the
destination file before doing the editing.
You might go back later and undo this conversion if necessary.
• Sample rate convert the destination file to the same rate as the
source file before adding the audio to it.
Please note that you are then partly “stuck” with this new sample rate,
since rate converting back and forth too many times is not recommended, see “Convert sample rate” on page 91.
…and select Paste. The copied section is inserted at the cursor position.
By using Copy and Paste
1. Make a selection.
Stereo/mono “conflicts”
2. Select Copy from the Edit menu, press [Ctrl]-[C] or
drag the selection onto the Copy icon on the Standard
Commands control bar.
Stereo/mono is handled as follows when you paste:
3. If you want to insert the audio, click once at some position in the same file or in another file.
Copied
section
Paste
wave
Action
Stereo
Stereo
If the wave cursor extends across both channels of the destination file, the material will be
inserted into both channels.
Stereo
Stereo
If the wave cursor is only in one channel, the
Paste will only happen in that channel. Material
from the left channel will be pasted in the left
channel and vice versa.
The wave cursor appears at that point.
4. If you would rather replace a section of audio, select it.
In this case, the position of the cursor is of no relevance.
45
Editing in the Wave window
Ö The moved section “overwrites” the audio originally at
that position.
Copied
section
Paste
wave
Action
Stereo
Mono
Only the left channel is pasted.
Mono
Stereo
What happens depends on whether the wave
cursor is in one channel or both. The Paste can
either happen in one of the channels, or the
same material can be inserted into both channels.
For example, when you nudge a selection to the right, silence will appear
before the nudged section while audio to the right will be replaced by the
nudged section. This is different from moving by dragging.
Ö If you nudge many times in a row and then undo, all the
moves are undone in one go.
Moving audio
Repeating an audio selection
The following commands allow you to rearrange the “order” of the audio in a file.
To repeat a section of audio, proceed as follows:
1. Make a selection, select Cut or Copy and place a new
insertion point, just as when performing a normal Cut or
Copy (see above).
By dragging
This is just like drag copying (see above). The only difference is that you hold down [Alt] and [Ctrl] while dragging
to move audio. The material you dragged is removed from
its original position and inserted where you drop it.
2. Select “Multiple copies…” from the Paste Special
submenu on the Edit menu.
3. In the dialog that appears, enter the number of copies
you desire (up to 1000), and click OK.
By using Cut and Paste
This is just like using Copy and Paste (you can for example
drag the selection to the Cut symbol on the Standard
Commands control bar – see above). The only difference
is that when you select Cut, the audio is removed from the
window. The material after the cut section will be moved
to fill out the gap.
!
Other Paste operations
On the Paste Special menu you will find some additional
options:
Overwrite
This will overwrite data in the destination file, rather than
moving data to make room for the inserted audio. The actual amount that will be overwritten depends on the selection in the destination file:
Please note that to completely undo a move between
two files you must first undo the paste in the destination window and then undo the cut in the source window.
• If there is no selection in the destination file, a section
with the same length as the pasted data will be overwritten.
By nudging
If there is a selection, the pasted data will replace that selection, just as
when making a regular paste.
The Nudge tools
Append
The Nudge left/right tools in the Toolbox (also known as
“Kicker tools”) can be used to move the audio in small
steps within a file.
This will add the pasted audio after the end of the file, just
as if you had placed the wave cursor there and selected
Paste.
1. Make a selection.
Prepend
2. Click on the selection with one of the Nudge tools (depending on the direction in which you want to move it).
This will add the pasted audio before the beginning of the
file.
The audio is moved one pixel (screen dot). Exactly how much this is depends on how far you are zoomed in. If for example the status bar says
x1:256, the selection will be moved 256 samples.
46
Editing in the Wave window
Mix
Silence
This will blend the two files into each other, starting at the
selection (if you have one) or at the cursor position (if
there is no selection).
The Silence function offers two different methods for inserting silence:
• You can “insert” silence into a section, i.e. to space two sections further apart.
• Or, you can select to “replace” a selection or time range with
silence.
• When you select the Paste Special – Mix option, a dialog appears, allowing you to specify the desired gain for
the audio on the clipboard and at the destination, respectively.
A setting of 0 dB means the level will be unaffected.
Insert silence
• All the data on the clipboard is always mixed in, regardless of the length of the selection.
If you intend to insert silence, proceed as follows:
1. Make a selection that encompasses the range where
you wish to insert the silence.
It doesn’t matter whether or not you have a selection in the destination
file when you paste.
Deleting selections
2. Select Insert Silence from the Edit menu or press
[Ctrl]+[Shift]-[Space].
Delete
Replace selection
You can use the following methods to delete a selection
of audio:
If you intend to replace a specific range with silence, proceed as follows:
•
•
•
•
1. Make a selection that encompasses the range you
wish to replace with silence.
Select Delete from the Edit menu.
Click the Delete icon on the Standard Commands control bar.
Press [Backspace] or [Delete].
Drag the selection to the Delete icon on the Standard Commands control bar.
2. Select Silence from the Edit menu or press [Ctrl][Space].
There are four ways to replace a section of audio with
silence:
Trim
To remove all the audio except the current selection, select Trim from the Edit menu (or press [Ctrl]-[Backspace]).
• Select it and select Silence from the Edit menu.
• Select it and click the Silence icon on the Standard Commands control bar.
• Select it and press [Ctrl]-[Space].
• Select it and drag the selection to the Silence icon on the
Standard Commands control bar.
Smooth Delete
This function is available from the Edit menu. It is similar to
the standard “Delete” function, but in addition, a short
crossfade is performed at the edges of the section to be
deleted, allowing for a smoother audio transition.
• The default length and shape of the crossfade is set in the
Preferences–Wave edit tab.
• If the range to cut out is smaller than the defined fade length,
then standard “Delete” is performed.
• Note that the crossfade is performed at the edges of the selection to delete. Thus if the region to remove is 1000 milliseconds and the defined crossfade is 20 milliseconds, only 980
milliseconds of audio will be removed.
• If the region is the start of the file, only a fade-in is performed.
If the region is the end of the file, only a fade-out is performed.
47
Editing in the Wave window
Turning selections into new documents
This can be done in three ways. Which method to use
mainly depends on whether you want to convert the entire
file or just a selection:
If you want to turn a section of wave into a new document,
proceed as follows.
By dragging
By dragging
1. Make a stereo selection.
1. Make a selection.
2. Drag the selection out to the WaveLab Studio “desktop”.
2. Drag the selection out of the window and onto an
empty section of the WaveLab Studio application window.
3. When the pointer is outside the window, hold down
[Ctrl] and release the mouse button.
The cursor turns into a “new document” icon.
3. Release the mouse button.
The selection appears in a new window. You can also use this function to
create stereo waves out of mono waves, see below.
By using menus (converting a selection)
1. Make a stereo selection.
By using “Copy to new window”
2. Select “Convert to Mono (Mix)” from the “Copy to new
window” menu on the Edit menu.
1. Make a selection.
The selection appears in a new window, mixed down to mono.
2. Select “As is” from the “Copy to new window” submenu on the Edit menu.
Converting from mono to stereo
Ö The option “Convert to Mono (subtract right channel
from left channel)” will also convert stereo audio to mono
– but in this case one channel is subtracted from the
other.
You may convert a mono file into a stereo file that contains
the same material in both channels, for example for further
processing into “real” stereo.
The resulting mono wave will contain the difference between the channels. For example, this allows you to verify that a wave file really is a true
stereo file (rather than a mono file converted to stereo format).
This can be done in two ways, by using menus or by dragging to a new file, as described below.
By saving (converting an entire file)
By dragging
2. Select “Save as” from the File menu and click the
Properties button at the bottom of the dialog to open the
“Audio File Format” dialog.
The selection appears in a new window.
1. Open the stereo file.
1. Make a selection.
2. Drag the selection out to the WaveLab Studio “desktop”.
3. Change the Channels setting to the “Mono (Mix)” option, but leave the other settings as they are.
3. When the pointer is outside the window, hold down
[Ctrl] and release the mouse button.
You can of course change the other settings too, but this will have other
effects, see “Saving in another format (Save as…)” on page 51.
Ö The other two “Mono (Mix)” options will also convert a
stereo file to mono, but the amplitude of the resulting file
will be attenuated by 3 or 6 dB respectively.
By using menus
1. Make a mono selection.
2. Select “Convert to Stereo” from the “Copy to new
window” menu on the Edit menu.
Since the mixing of the two channels when converting a stereo file to
mono might often result in the amplitude increasing to a point where clipping occurs, these two options can be useful to remedy such a situation.
The selection appears in a new stereo window.
4. Click OK and save the file.
Converting from stereo to mono
5. Open the file you just saved.
You may mix the two channels in a stereo file into a mono
document.
48
Editing in the Wave window
File handling in Wave windows
Swapping channels in a stereo file
You may move the material in the left channel to the right
channel, and vice versa:
!
1. Make a selection across both channels.
Only the material in the selected section will be swapped.
This section describes file handling in the Wave window (i.e. handling audio files). File handling of other
document types (e.g. Audio Montages) is described
in the respective chapter.
2. Select “Swap channels” from the Edit menu.
Supported file formats
Waveform restoration with the Pencil tool
WaveLab Studio can open and save audio files in a number of file formats. The table below gives you some basic
information about the various formats available (note that
additional file formats may have been added after this
document was written).
The Pencil tool allows you to redraw the waveform directly
in the Wave window. This can be used to quickly repair
waveform errors.
• The Format column also lists the typical file name extensions
for each format.
• All sample rates are supported, for all file formats.
• All file types can handle mono and stereo.
Format
Description
Wave (.wav)
The most common file format on the PC platform. If
you plan to load the files into any other PC program,
Wave files are a safe bet. 8, 16, 20, 24 bit and 32 bit
(float) resolutions are supported.
Wave 64 (.w64)
This file format, developed by Sony, is very similar to
the Wave format but with one important difference;
it allows you to record and/or edit files of virtually any
length (actually the limit is 512 GB but this ought to
cover most situations). Standard Wave files are limited to 2 GB (stereo files) in WaveLab Studio.
RF64
You have an option (set in the Preferences - Files
tab) to support the RF64 file format. If this is activated, the standard Wave file format switches automatically to the RF64 file format as soon as the file
size exceeds 2 GB, without any performance loss or
interruption. This is especially useful when recording
very long sessions as there is no need to worry
about file size limit (apart from available disk space).
A RF64 file will still have the “.wav” extension but
can only be opened with an application that supports the RF64 standard.
This error in the right channel (red waveform) can be corrected quickly
by using the Pencil tool.
• The Pencil tool can be used if the Zoom resolution is set
to at least 1:8 (one pixel on the screen equals 8 samples)
or a higher resolution.
Resolution values can be set in the Zoom pop-up menu. You can open it
by clicking on the Zoom factor field in the Status bar, located at WaveLab Studio’s bottom window rim.
Click here to open the
Zoom pop-up menu.
AIFF (.aif, .aiff, .snd) Audio Interchange File Format, a standard defined
by Apple Computers Inc. 8, 16, 20, or 24 bit resolutions are supported.
• Select the Pencil tool from the Toolbox and redraw the
waveform.
If you wish to redraw the waveform of both channels at once, press
[Shift] on your computer keyboard during the drawing process.
49
Editing in the Wave window
Format
Description
Format
Description
MPEG-1 Layer 3
(.mp3)
The most common audio compression format. The
major advantage of MPEG compression is that the
file size is significantly reduced, while there is little
degradation of sound quality. WaveLab Studio can
both open and save files in this format.
- Note that when you open an MPEG compressed
file in WaveLab Studio, the file is converted to a
temporary wave file that is much larger than the original compressed file. Therefore, make sure that you
have enough free space on your hard disk when
opening MPEG compressed files.
- When you save, the temporary wave file will be
converted back to MP3, so from a user perspective
the file handling is transparent apart from the size
difference mentioned above.
Text/Excel (.txt)
This is a text representation of a waveform. By saving an audio file as a text file and then opening it in a
spreadsheet application such as Excel, you can view
it in textual, decimal form and edit the sample values.
When you open a text file representing a waveform
in WaveLab Studio, it will be decoded and opened
as an audio file. Note that these files are not compressed in any way, so they can get very large!
Therefore, avoid creating and opening extremely
large .txt files. Also note that when using 32 bit float
files, the .txt format is not 100% lossless – i.e. information may be lost! This is because it is not possible
to express a binary floating point value in textual
decimal form without some precision loss.
MPEG-1 Layer 2
(.mp2/.mpa/.mpg/
.mus))
MP2 (sometimes referred to as “Musicam files”) is a
common file format in the broadcast industry. With
regard to file sizes the same applies as with MP3
files.
Original Sound
Quality (.osq)
This is WaveLab Studio’s proprietary lossless compressed audio format. By saving files in this format,
you can save considerable disk space without compromising audio quality. See “About saving OSQ
files” on page 52.
Sound
Designer II (.sd2)
This audio file format is used by Digidesign applications (such as Pro Tools). 8, 16 or 24 bit resolutions
supported.
U-LAW
(.ulaw, .vox)
This is an audio encoding and compression technique supported by Windows and Web phones, using 8 bit resolution. The U.S. telephone system uses
U-law encoding for digitization.
A-LAW
(.alaw, .vox)
This is an audio encoding and compression technique for telephony, using 8 bit resolution. The EU
telephone system uses A-law encoding for digitization.
Sun/Java
(.snd, .au)
This is an audio file format used on Sun and NeXT
computers. Files in this format can often be found on
the Internet. 8, 16 or 24 bit resolutions are supported.
ADPCM –
Microsoft/
Dialogic (.vox)
This is a format commonly used for games and telephony applications that offers a lower bit rate than
linear PCM and thus requires less storage space/
bandwidth.
Ogg Vorbis
(.ogg)
Ogg Vorbis is a relatively new compressed file format that is open and patent-free and offers very
small audio files maintaining comparatively high audio quality.
Windows Media Au- Microsoft’s own compressed format. WaveLab Studio (.wma, .asf))
dio lets you import/export audio in this format. Note
that it is also possible to import/export audio in
WMA surround format, provided that you have Windows Media Player 9 (or later) installed on your system.
Ensoniq Paris (.paf)
Used by the Ensoniq Paris™ system (16 bit resolution).
Raw PCM files
(.raw, .bin, .pcm,
.$$$)
In this format, no information about bit resolution or
sample rate is included. If you open a file in this format, WaveLab Studio will ask you to specify the bit
resolution and sample rate. If you don’t do this correctly, the file will not play back as intended.
!
The “$$$” file type is WaveLab Studio’s own temporary file format. In case you experience a computer
crash you may restore some of your work by opening
any stray “$$$” files on your hard disk(s).
About 20-, 24- and 32-bit float files
You do not need a 20- or 24-bit audio card to take advantage of the fact that WaveLab Studio can handle 20- and
24-bit audio files. Any processing or editing performed on
the files is always done at full resolution, even if your card
doesn’t support the full resolution. For playback, WaveLab
Studio automatically adapts to whatever card you have installed.
50
Editing in the Wave window
About temporary files
Automatic backups
As you work in WaveLab Studio, temporary files used for
Undo, etc. are created on your hard disk, see “Temporary
files” on page 12.
For all save operations except a regular “Save”, backups
are created automatically if a file with the same name already exists.
You can decide whether these files should be in 16-, 24or 32 bit format. This is done on the Preferences–File tab.
If for example you select Save As and specify a file name
already used in that folder, the program will ask you if you
want to back up the existing file first. If you click Yes, the
first letter in the file’s extension will be changed to “~”.
“AIF” for example, will become “~IF”.
The higher this value, the better the quality of the temporary file. However, 32-bit files are also twice as big as 16bit files and take longer to process.
• If you ever plan to export your files in 24-bit or 32-bit format,
use this format or a better one (higher number) for your temporary files as well.
• Use 32-bit if you want to create files with levels exceeding
0dB.
• Even if you only work with 16-bit files, selecting 24-bit for your
temporary files can improve audio quality slightly.
• For less critical applications where speed and disk space are
crucial factors, use 16-bit temporary files.
Saving in another format (Save as…)
Opening files
3. If you wish to change other attributes of the file (e.g.
mono/stereo status, bit resolution or sample rate), click
the button at the bottom of the dialog.
If you want to change the format (file format, sampling frequency, bit resolution and stereo/mono status) when saving, proceed as follows:
1. Select Save as… on the File menu.
2. A regular file dialog appears where you can specify a
file name, folder and a file format (see “Supported file formats” on page 49).
The various methods for opening an audio file in a Wave
window are described in the section “Opening Waves” on
page 31. Importing CD tracks from an audio CD is described in the section “Importing tracks from an audio CD”
on page 33.
This opens the Audio File Format dialog where you can specify the desired properties of the converted file.
Save and Save as – General information
Ö When you save a new document for the first time, it
doesn’t matter whether you select Save or Save as.
The “Save as” dialog will appear, since you need to specify a file format,
folder, and file name.
Ö Once a file has been saved, you can continue to edit it
and then select Save from the File menu, or press [Ctrl][S], to update the file and make the changes permanent.
Ö If you want to specify a new name, location and/or file
format, you should select Save As from the File menu.
See “Saving in another format (Save as…)” on page 51.
The Audio File Format dialog
Ö All save operations except “Save Copy” clear the
Undo buffers, which means that after saving you cannot
undo or redo.
4. After making the desired settings, close the Audio File
Format dialog and click Save.
A new file is created. The original file is not affected by the operation. For
detailed descriptions of the settings in the Audio File Format dialog, click
the question mark icon in the dialog.
51
Editing in the Wave window
If you change the sample rate, bit resolution and number
of channels, the following operations are performed:
• You can save any audio file as an OSQ file by using the
Save As function.
Property
Action
The audio will play back exactly the same as in the original, uncompressed file.
Sample Rate
If a new sample rate is specified, a sample rate conversion will be performed (see “Convert sample rate” on
page 91).
Bit Resolution
Mono/Stereo
• Similarly, if you open an OSQ file in WaveLab Studio
and save it as an uncompressed audio file in its original
format (e.g. WAV), the audio will play back exactly the
same.
If a different bit resolution is specified, the file is either
“truncated” down to 8 bits, or “padded” up to 16 bits. If
you convert to 8 bits, the audio is automatically normalized.
If you are converting to a lower bit resolution, you should
consider adding dithering – see “The Dithering pane”
on page 99.
• You can also convert several files to OSQ format in a
batch. See “Batch file encoding” on page 125.
Save selection as
If the file is converted from mono to stereo, the same
material will appear in both channels. If the conversion is
from stereo to mono, a mix of the two channels will be
created (clipping is prevented in the mixing process).
This is a menu item on the Save Special submenu. It
works exactly as Save As, except that only the current selection is saved as a new file.
• If you only wish to change the bit resolution you can do
this directly in the “Audio Properties” dialog (see “Editing
audio properties” on page 56) instead and perform a standard save.
Save selection as clip (for Audio Montages)
This item is available from the Wave window speed menu
when a selection is active. It allows you to save the current
selection as a clip file which can be used in Audio Montages. Clip files can be used just like audio files in Montages but are not self-contained audio files. Instead they
contain a reference to the source audio file.
• For high quality mastering purposes, it is not recommended to change the sample rate and number of channels this way, but instead use plug-ins and functions of the
Master Section (see “The Effects pane” on page 96).
• For the available compressed file formats (MP3, MP2,
WMA and Ogg Vorbis), you can select “Edit…” from both
the Encoding and Attributes pop-up menus in the Audio
File Format dialog.
Save a Copy
This item, also on the Save Special submenu, allows you
to save a copy of the file, in its current state, without affecting the original. A regular file dialog is used as with
Save As.
This opens additional settings dialogs, where you can specify various options such as bit rate and compression method, and also enter text tags
for the file. Click the question mark icon in the dialog for details.
Save left/right channel as
Ö It is also possible to convert several files to another
format in one go (batch encoding).
These two menu items are also located on the Save Special submenu. They allow you to save each channel individually, into a separate file. A regular file dialog is used as
with Save As.
See “Batch file encoding” on page 125.
Ö Note that you can also save as WMA files, MP3 files
and MP2 files via the “Encode to…” options on the Save
Special submenu.
This menu command is used when you have been editing
“dual mono” files for example, and wish to save the channels into separate files.
About saving OSQ files
OSQ (Original Sound Quality) is a lossless audio compression format, which can significantly reduce the audio
file size without affecting the audio quality at all.
52
Editing in the Wave window
Save All
Renaming files and documents (Rename)
The Rename function is available from most WaveLab
Studio documents, not just Wave windows. The function
is however of particular importance when renaming audio
files. If you rename an audio file outside WaveLab Studio,
and this file is referenced to an Audio Montage or Data
CD/DVD project, the reference will be lost the next time
you open the document that references this file.
But WaveLab Studio allows you to handle file renaming in
an intelligent way so that all the documents that reference
this renamed file are automatically updated! This works as
follows:
Ö All open documents that reference the file or document to be renamed will be automatically updated to reference the new name.
The Save All dialog
This menu item brings up a dialog that allows you to save
some or all of the open documents, in one go.
E.g. if you rename an audio file named “India” to “Sitar”, all currently open
documents that reference the file “India” will be updated to reference the
file as “Sitar”!
The list displays all open documents that currently contain
unsaved changes. The “Show paths” check box allows
you to display/hide the complete file paths.
For audio files, peak and marker files will also be renamed
accordingly.
1. Select /deselect files by clicking on them or by using
the Select/Deselect button.
• Documents that use audio file references are Audio
Montages and Data CD/DVD projects.
Only the selected files will be saved.
• WaveLab Studio documents can also refer to the
names of other documents, e.g. a Data CD/DVD project
will contain references to Audio Montages.
2. Click “Save selected”.
Revert to saved
This will work in the same way – if the document/project that references
the document to be renamed is open, the references will be updated.
This menu option, on the File menu, allows you to revert
the file back to its last saved state (actually, the last saved
version of the file is loaded from disk). This can be used as
a kind of “super undo” which undoes all the changes
made to the file since it was last saved.
To rename a file or document proceed as follows:
1. Select the audio file/document to be renamed.
Make sure all documents that reference this particular file are open. This
is not mandatory, but if they aren’t, the file references will not be updated.
1. Select “Revert to saved” from the File menu.
2. Select “Rename…” from the File menu, or press [F2].
2. Click “Yes” in the warning dialog that appears.
The Rename dialog opens.
The file is restored to its previously saved state.
53
Editing in the Wave window
The dialog contains the following items:
Item
Description
Name text field
This is where you type in the new name.
Change folder
It is also possible to change the folder location
of the file when renaming. If Change folder is
ticked, you can navigate to a new location. Note
that this is only possible within the same drive
partition.
Keep as default path
Extension pop-up
• However, if a file is being referenced by a currently open
Audio Montage, you will not be able to delete the file and a
warning will appear.
In addition, you will not be able to delete the file in the following circumstances:
• If it is currently copied to the clipboard.
• If a part of it is has been pasted into another file that is open.
• If the file is open in another application.
If you check this option, the same path will be
selected the next time you open the dialog. This
is useful if you need to move several files successively.
• Deleting an audio file will also automatically delete its
peak and marker file names.
The file extension can be changed, but only if
corresponds to the original file format (certain
file formats can have different possible file extensions, e.g. “aif” or “snd”).
Saving view settings
WaveLab Studio can automatically save all settings associated with a Wave file. This includes:
Deleting files and documents
•
•
•
•
•
•
It is possible to delete whole files or documents from
within WaveLab Studio. This function is available from the
File menu and will delete the currently selected file or document from disk. Make sure the file or document you wish
to delete is in focus.
1. Select “Delete…” from the File menu.
Window size and position.
Zooming.
Scroll position.
Display mode (Wave/Spectrum/Loudness Envelope).
Snapshots.
Master Section preset associated with the file.
The view setting information is stored in a companion file
(extension “.mem”) either together with your audio files or
in a separate folder.
A dialog appears as a warning, allowing you to cancel or proceed with
the operation.
• This feature is activated/deactivated (on by default) in
the Preferences–Wave edit tab (“Save view settings in
companion file”).
If the feature is activated and you save a file, the settings
will be recreated exactly as you had them when later reloading the same file!
Saving a Master Section preset with an audio file
You can also store all Master Section settings used as
part of the saved file. When you reload the file, you can
choose to recreate the Master Section effects exactly as
they were when saved.
2. Select whether to permanently delete the file or to
move it to the Recycle bin by clicking the appropriate button in the Method section of the dialog.
Only select to permanently delete if you are absolutely certain – you
won’t be able to retrieve the file!
To store Master Section effects as part of an audio file,
proceed as follows:
• Any open documents in WaveLab Studio that has a reference to this file will be updated accordingly.
1. Make sure the effects and their settings are configured
the way you wish to store them.
“Save view settings in companion file” must be activated in the Preferences.
This update will apply to Data CD/DVD projects, and the file name will be
removed from these.
54
Editing in the Wave window
2. Select the file you wish to save a Master Section preset for, and [Ctrl]-click on the “M” button on the title bar.
WaveLab Studio can also import any file supported by
ACM, provided that the correct ACM drivers are installed.
The button will now be lit up in green, to indicate that the Master Section
effects settings have been saved.
!
If you need audio file compression with uncompromised audio quality, you should use the OSQ (Original Sound Quality) lossless audio compression
format instead (see “About saving OSQ files” on
page 52).
Exporting to encoded formats
The menu item “Encode (ACM)” uses the Microsoft MediaTools technology to convert the file to one of a number of
compressed formats.
3. Anytime you reload the file, you can recreate the Master Section effects by clicking on the “M” button.
The effects will be loaded exactly as saved.
1. Select “Encode (ACM)…” from the Save Special submenu.
Compression encoded export formats
The dialog that appears is a MediaTools dialog, not a WaveLab Studio
dialog.
Apart from the formats available in the Save As dialog and
the Save special encode MP3/MP2/WMA options, WaveLab Studio allows you to export files in a number of compression encoded audio formats, suitable for multimedia,
web publishing, etc. (see “Supported file formats” on
page 49). The basic functionality for this is part of a software technology called Microsoft ACM (Audio Compression Manager) which is included with Microsoft Media
Tools.
2. Select one of the formats from the pop-up in the middle and chose a setting for it from the pop-up below.
The dialog also provides possibilities for creating “presets” of formats
and settings, using the upper row of controls.
!
The number of formats you can export, depend on which
ACM drivers you have installed on your computer.
For more information, see www.microsoft.com/windows/
windowsmedia.
The options which are available depend on the original format of the file, its sample rate, the number of
channels, etc. However, we have noted problems
with some ACM drivers. Even though a certain format can be selected, an error message appears
when you try to save the file. If this happens, please
use another encoding method.
3. Click OK.
About “lossy” and “non-lossy” compression
A regular file dialog appears.
There are two types of compression methods. When you
use a “non-lossy” method (like saving as an OSQ file –
see above), all information about the file is preserved,
which means that when you decompress the file, you get it
back exactly as it was.
4. Specify a name and location for the file, as with any
Save operation.
Note: When you export to compressed files using the “Encode (ACM)” option, the file that is created will technically
be a Wave file, regardless of the compression format (the
files will have the extension “wav”). But instead of the regular “linear” audio data that usually makes up a wave file, a
special audio data “chunk” is included that contains the
compressed audio.
However, most audio compression techniques are “lossy”.
This means that once the file has been compressed, some
information has been lost. This type of compression always results in some kind of audio degradation, albeit in
many cases a very small one.
This is normally not a problem, but something to be aware
of when planning for usage of files in other programs and
on other computer platforms.
55
Editing in the Wave window
Editing audio properties and file
attributes
File attributes
If you select this option on the Edit menu, a dialog opens
in which you can specify various information about the
wave file.
Editing audio properties
Each audio file has a certain set of properties, that is, information about the sample rate at which it was recorded,
what the bit resolution is, etc. The “Audio Properties” dialog allows you to change that information.
There are two ways to bring up this dialog:
• Select “Audio Properties” from the Edit menu.
• Click on the properties information field, on the status
bar.
The Wave Attributes dialog
You can enter information on either the Standard tab or
the Broadcast Audio Extension tab. The information you
enter here is added to the header of the file, and thereby
labels it as either a Standard wave file or a Broadcast
wave file. A Broadcast wave file is essentially the same
thing as a Standard wave file, the difference is what information the file headers can contain.
The Audio Properties dialog
• On the Standard tab in the dialog, you can enter information that will be displayed for instance when viewing
the file’s properties in the Windows explorer.
About changing the values
Changing the values in this dialog does not process the
file in any way, unlike Convert File (see “Saving in another
format (Save as…)” on page 51). However, the following
rules apply:
Ö Note that you can instruct WaveLab Studio to automatically fill out the text fields for “Originator software”
(WaveLab Studio) and “Creation Date” (the current), by
clicking the small buttons to the right of the fields.
• If you change the sample rate, the file will play back at the
wrong pitch.
• If you change the bit resolution the file will be converted to the
new resolution the next time you save it.
!
• On the Broadcast Audio Extension tab you can also enter information to be embedded in the file, such as title,
author, etc. A Timecode position is included in the file as
well. This makes it possible to insert audio at precise positions in other applications. By default, the Timecode position is set to the start position of the audio.
There is no Undo for this item. If you save with a
lower bit resolution, the file is permanently converted.
56
Editing in the Wave window
6
Playback and recording
Playing back
Using the Transport bar
Displaying the Transport bar
Background information
If the Transport is hidden, select Transport from the Control bars submenu on the View menu.
About sample rates
If the wave file is recorded at a sample rate not supported
by your audio card you will not be able to play it back. You
might then opt to use sample rate conversion, see “Convert sample rate” on page 91. Also see “Supported file
formats” on page 49 for more on file formats.
The Transport controls
About sync
Start
Point
It is possible to synchronize WaveLab Studio to other devices via MIDI Time Code. This is described in the chapter
“Synchronizing WaveLab Studio to external devices” on
page 231.
Skip
Playback Speed
Jog & Shuttle
Loop On/Off
Stop Point/Loop
About the playback cursor position and
appearance
Great care has been taken to achieve synchronization between what you hear and what you see (the wave cursor
position in the wave during playback). However, by nature,
this precision depends to a large extent on the audio card
and its driver. In case you run into problems you may want
to adjust the settings on Preferences–Audio device tab.
Click the question mark icon in the dialog for details.
Record
Play
Stop
Goto End
Fast Forward
Goto beginning
Rewind
The Stop button
About audio cards and playing in the background
The result of clicking on the stop button depends on the
current situation:
When you activate playback or recording in WaveLab
Studio, it will “grab” the audio card so that other applications cannot access it. The opposite is also true: if another
application has grabbed the card, WaveLab Studio will be
unable to play.
• If the program is stopped and you click the Stop button,
the wave cursor is moved to the beginning of the last start
position. A second click will move the cursor to the start of
current selection (if any and if this is located before the
last start position).
Ö If you want to run WaveLab Studio together with another audio program, and make sure whichever application is active gets access to the audio card, activate the
“Release audio hardware…” option in the Preferences–
Audio device tab.
• If there is no selection, or if the wave cursor is already to
the left of the selection, it is moved to the beginning of the
file instead.
When you do, WaveLab Studio will “let go” of the audio card when another application is made active (provided that this doesn’t happen during playback or recording in WaveLab Studio).
• If there is no selection, and you activate playback from a
point and then stop so the wave cursor is to the right of
the original point, the cursor will move to the place you last
started when you click Stop again.
58
Playback and recording
• If you click on the Stop Point/Loop button and activate
the “On stop, move cursor back to start” option on the
menu, the cursor will be automatically moved back to the
beginning of the selection when you click Stop (from playback).
Setting the Stop point/loop
If there is no selection, it will automatically move back to the place you
started from.
Automatic Stop
Transport control settings for separate windows
For example, if you select “Stop at next marker”, playback
will stop as soon as the program reaches a marker or the
end of the file, whichever comes first.
The Stop point/loop button on the Transport bar allows
you to select where playback should stop and whether it
should loop indefinitely.
By default, open windows in WaveLab Studio (wave windows and montage windows) all use the same Transport
control settings (loop settings, playback speed, etc.). You
can however choose to use separate settings for separate
windows if you want: open the Preferences–Audio device
tab and make sure the option “Transport settings are global to all windows” is not activated.
Looping
Let’s say you have chosen “Loop selection” mode. Now, if
some piece of the wave is selected, this will be repeated
indefinitely (as long as you don’t start playback from a position later than the selection).
If no selection is made, the entire wave is looped.
When this option is deactivated, the following transport
controls can be set differently for each open wave or montage window:
Ö For details about the Stop point/loop menu items, use
the help item at the bottom of the menu.
• Start point (see “Setting the start point for playback” on page
59).
• Skip (see “Skipping sections during playback” on page 60).
• Playback speed (see “Setting the playback speed” on page
60).
• Stop point/loop (see “Setting the Stop point/loop” on page
59).
• Loop On/Off (see “Looping” on page 59).
About loop updating and short loops
The loop points are updated continuously during playback, which means that if you change the loop start or end
during playback, the loop changes. This is a great feature
for auditioning selection points for rhythmic material!
The Start point button on the transport brings up a menu
that allows you to specify where playback will start.
Please note that it takes some time for positions to be updated (0.3 to 1 second, depending on the file’s bit resolution and sample rate). If you don’t want to wait, activate
“Restart loop on change” on the Options menu. When this
is activated, the loop starts over as soon as you adjust the
selection or move a loop start marker.
For example, if you select “Play from start of file”, as soon
as you hit Play, the wave cursor will jump back to the beginning of the file and playback starts from there.
Also please note that WaveLab Studio handles playback
of extremely short loops without problems. However, the
cursor position might not be updated correctly.
Setting the start point for playback
For detailed information about the options on this menu,
use the help item at the bottom of the menu.
Ö For a description of the option “Synchronize from MIDI
Time Code” on this pop-up menu, see “Synchronizing
WaveLab Studio to external devices” on page 231.
59
Playback and recording
Skipping sections during playback
To set the playback speed, proceed as follows:
You can also have playback automatically jump past certain positions during playback. This way, you will be able
to audition what the material would sound like with certain
sections cut out, before the actual edits are made.
1. Click the red Playback Speed button on the Transport
bar.
This selection is done from the menu invoked by clicking
the Skip button on the Transport bar.
• If you have added mute markers to your file (see “The
various marker types” on page 128), you can select “Skip
Muted regions” to skip areas between mute markers.
The Playback Speed button
2. From the pop-up menu that appears, select “Edit”.
The Playback Speed dialog appears.
• If you have made a selection range, you can select “Skip
selection” to skip the selected area.
Setting the playback speed
You can change the playback speed for open documents
with or without affecting the pitch of the audio. Playback
speed can be set for:
• Wave windows.
• Audio Montages (all clips in a montage are affected).
Each separate open wave or montage can have its own
playback speed setting if you wish, i.e. if you have several
wave windows open and change the playback speed for
one of them, the set speed does not affect the other windows when you switch to them. This requires that you deactivate the option “Transport settings are global to all
windows” in the Preferences–Audio device tab. See
“Transport control settings for separate windows” on
page 59 for details.
The Playback Speed dialog
3. Select a preset number by clicking one of the radio
buttons to the right, and type in the desired name in the
name field above the buttons.
!
This function can be put to good use in a number of ways.
For example, lowering the playback speed could be used
for locating certain positions in the audio, to discern the
nuances of a tricky section, for practicing an elaborate recording or as a special effect.
Note that WaveLab Studio comes with a number of
ready-made playback speed presets, so unless you
want to overwrite one of these with your own settings, make sure to select a preset number that isn’t
already used (the name should read “Untitled”).
4. Make the desired settings in the dialog and save them
as the selected preset by clicking “OK”.
For a detailed description of the options in the dialog, click the question
mark icon in the dialog.
Ö Note that the playback speed does not affect the original audio file in any way, but merely how it is played back.
5. You can now select the saved preset from the pop-up
menu on the Transport bar.
You’ll notice that the Playback Speed button on the Transport bar
changes shape to resemble a stopwatch when you select any of the presets.
60
Playback and recording
Play tool – Playing one or both channels in
stereo files
• When the “Restrict to Play tool” option is activated, Playback
Browsing is not available when you activate Playback using
the transport bar or computer keyboard.
Selecting the Play tool momentarily
On the Options menu you will also find an option called
“Stop after playback browsing”, which determines what
happens when you release the mouse button: playback
continues (deactivated) or stops (activated). Note that
when this option is activated, the cursor will automatically
be moved back to the playback start position on stop, allowing you to use this function for locate positions in the
audio.
The Play tool can of course be selected by clicking in the
Toolbox, but there are situations when you are working
with another tool and just momentarily want to use the
Play tool.
• To momentarily select the Play tool, hold down [Alt].
When you have finished playing, release [Alt].
Using the Play tool
The Play tool allows you to play back from any position:
Playing the selection only
1. Point at the position where you want playback to start.
There are several ways to play the selected part of the
wave only:
2. If the wave is in stereo, move the pointer up or down to
decide whether only one channel should be played back.
Watch the cursor shape, it indicates what will be played back (L, R or
both).
• Press the right mouse button in the Overview or the
Main view and select Play Selection from the menu that
appears.
3. Press the mouse button.
• Hold down [Ctrl] and click on the Play button.
Playback continues for as long as you keep the mouse button pressed,
or until the wave ends. After playback has stopped, the cursor will be
moved to the playback start position, making this a quick way to locate to
certain positions in the audio.
• Press [F6].
If you hold down [Shift] and press [F6], the selection will be played back
repeatedly (looped).
• Drag and drop the selection on the Play button on the
Transport.
Using the Playback Browser
• Use the Audio Range dialog (see below).
The Playback Browser feature helps you find a certain position in an audio file, by restarting playback repeatedly
when you click or drag to move the wave cursor.
Using the Audio Range dialog
1. Activate playback using the regular Play function, or
select the Play tool.
Note that depending on your Preferences settings, Playback Browsing
may only be available for the Play tool.
2. Click or drag in the ruler.
If you click, playback jumps immediately to the position at which you
clicked. If you drag continuously, a short snippet of audio from each new
position is played (looped).
Playback Browser preferences
On the Preferences–Wave edit tab you will find two preferences for Playback Browsing:
The Audio Range dialog
This dialog is opened by selecting “Edit” from the Select
submenu on the Edit menu, and allows you to define an
audio range to play back in great detail.
• The Sensitivity setting is used to determine the size of the
“snippets of audio” played back when you drag.
61
Playback and recording
Using the Jog/Shuttle function
Select the desired options in the FROM and TO sections
of the dialog to define an audio range.
The Jog/Shuttle function allows you to play back audio
forwards or backwards, at any speed. This is useful for
finding exact spots in the audio file, etc.
You can specify audio ranges to play back From/To:
•
•
•
•
•
Start/End of the file, respectively.
The Cursor position.
Start/End of selection.
Named Markers.
User specified time positions (Custom).
!
In addition you can specify an offset for any range position.
Jog
The playback buttons work like this:
Play to
The range before the set position is played back.
Play from
The range after the set position is played back.
Play once
The set range is played back once.
Play looped
The set range is played back as a loop until you click on
the Stop button that becomes visible during playback.
The Jog and Shuttle functions are CPU intensive because of the real-time scrolling that occurs. If you experience stuttering playback, try reducing the
window size (this will reduce CPU usage proportionally).
This can be viewed as dragging the audio past a “playback point”, much like dragging a reel-to-reel tape past
the playback head:
1. Zoom in so that you can get a good visual feedback.
2. Click the Jog/Shuttle button on the Transport bar or
press [F10].
A vertical line appears in the middle of the Wave window. This is the
“playback point”.
• In the Options section of the dialog, the audio range to
be processed can be set more precisely. You must first
set a FROM position, then set a specific length in seconds
in the Options section. For this to work, the “Specify
length” option must be activated.
• Using the “Snap to zero-crossing” function, you can
make sure that the start and end of the selected range
snap to a zero-crossing of the waveform.
This prevents click noise that could otherwise occur when start and end
are played back.
• The “Channels” pop-up menu lets you select which
channel(s) should be played back.
The playback point
• The “Play duration” option is used to set the desired
playback length.
3. Move the pointer to the upper half of the Wave window.
Note that this overrides the set “From” or “To” selection range. If the audio range is set to play to “End of selection”, the selection is 4 seconds
long and the Play duration is set to 2 seconds, only the last 2 seconds
before the end will play back.
4. Click and drag to the left or right to drag the audio
past the playback point.
The pointer takes on the shape of a hand.
The audio is played back, forwards (if you drag the audio to the left) or
backwards (if you drag to the right), at the speed with which you drag.
Shuttle
This can be viewed as playing back with a continuous
control for tape speed and direction:
1. Zoom in so that you can get a good visual feedback.
2. Activate the Jog/Shuttle button on the Transport bar or
press [F10].
62
Playback and recording
Scrolling during playback
3. Move the pointer to the lower part of the Wave window.
The “Scrolling during playback” submenu on the Options
menu contains several options for how the view should be
scrolled in Play mode:
The pointer takes on the shape of a speaker.
4. Click and hold the mouse button to the left or right of
the vertical line.
Clicking to the left of the line will play the audio backwards and clicking
to the right will play the audio forwards. The playback speed is determined by the distance from the line to the pointer, so that the further
away from the line you move the pointer, the faster the playback.
5. Release the mouse button to stop playback.
Option
Description
Immobile view
This disables scrolling completely.
View follows cursor
In this mode, the waveform view will automatically change when the Wave cursor reaches the
right side of the window during playback.
Scroll wave (partial)
In this mode, the waveform view is scrolled continuously, attempting to keep the Wave cursor in
the middle of the view. However, if loop mode is
activated and the loop range fits on the screen,
no unnecessary scrolling takes place, allowing
for a more stable view of the loop. The program
will also “sense” the end of a file and stop scrolling when it is “in view”, rather than when the end
is reached.
Scroll wave (always)
In this mode, the waveform view is scrolled continuously, attempting to keep the Wave cursor in
the middle of the screen.
6. Deactivate the Jog/Shuttle button on the Transport bar
by executing any stop command when finished.
Using ShuttlePro
WaveLab Studio features support for Contour Design’s
ShuttlePro Multimedia Controller. You can use the buttons on the ShuttlePro to perform the above described
Jog and Shuttle functions, as well as several other functions such as zoom in/out, undo/redo, start/stop playback,
play selection, toggle loop mode, toggle jog & shuttle
mode, open file and save as. The WaveLab Studio functions that can be performed with a ShuttlePro are defined
in a ShuttlePro preferences file called “WaveLab Shuttle
Pro.pref”, located in the WaveLab Studio/Tools folder.
Ö Note: the two last options require a fast computer and
graphics card.
If you get dropouts during playback, please select another Scrolling
mode.
These options do not apply to playback using the Play
tool.
If you want to use a ShuttlePro with WaveLab Studio, proceed as follows:
Recording
1. Copy the preferences file from the WaveLab Studio/Tools
folder to the ShuttlePro Settings folder.
By default, this is C:\Program Files\Contour ShuttlePro\Settings.
!
2. Open the ShuttlePro control panel in your ShuttlePro
folder.
3. In the control panel, select “File – Import Settings” and
select the “WaveLab Shuttle Pro.pref” file.
For details on connections, recording levels, etc.
please refer to the documentation that came with
your audio card.
About automatic gain controls
Some audio cards may have a feature which automatically
sets the recording level for the microphone input. This feature is often called AGC (Automatic Gain Control). For
“professional” results we recommend that you deactivate
this feature using the software that came with the card.
4. Exit the ShuttlePro control panel.
You can now use the ShuttlePro with WaveLab Studio.
Please note that if you leave this feature activated, the Microphone input gain control in the Mixer (see later in this
text) will have less effect on the recording level.
63
Playback and recording
Preparations
• Alternatively, if you have the “Support RF64 file format”option activated, the standard Wave file format
switches automatically to the RF64 file format as soon as
the file size exceeds 2 GB, without any performance loss
or interruption. This is especially useful when recording
very long sessions as there is no need to worry about file
size limit (apart from available disk space). A RF64 file will
still have the “.wav” extension but can only be opened with
an application that supports the RF64 standard.
To record a new file, proceed as follows:
1. Click the Record button, or press [*] on the numeric
key pad.
The Record dialog appears.
3. If you have selected one of the “Named File” options in
the step above, type in the path to the desired destination
for the file on the line below the pop-up or click the folder
button and specify a file location.
If you activate the Auto number checkbox, a three-digit number will be
added to the file name. Starting at the number you specify in the value
field to the left of the checkbox, the Auto number will be increased in increments with each new recording, to prevent existing files from being
overwritten.
4. Click the file format button at the top of the Record dialog, and decide on a recording format. WaveLab Studio
lets you record directly into a number of different formats
(see “Supported file formats” on page 49 for details).
In the Audio File Format dialog that appears, you can among other things
choose the desired format, sample rate, number of channels to record
and bit resolution. Click the question mark icon in the respective dialog
for details.
The Record dialog
2. Decide whether you want to record to a “named” or a
“temporary” file, by selecting from the pop-up at the top of
the dialog.
Temporary files are practical to use, since you don’t need to name the file
beforehand, you just “hit record and go”. On the other hand, you will
need to save the file at a later stage. Temporary files are always wave
files, while named files allow you to choose to record files in a number of
different formats. Also note that if you plan to make a recording over several minutes we recommend that you record a named file.
Ö If you plan to record continuously for a long time, you
should consider using Wave 64 as the format.
The Audio File Format dialog
Other formats can record files up to 2 GB, whereas the Wave 64 format
allows you to record files of any size.
!
If you choose a bit resolution not supported by your
audio card, you will not be able to record.
5. Click OK to close the Audio File Format dialog.
64
Playback and recording
6. Select an appropriate Input mode, depending on
whether you want to record the audio card input or the
Playback output:
Exactly what controls will appear in the mixer depends on
the card, but here are some possibilities:
•
•
•
•
•
Ö In “Audio input (hardware)” mode, WaveLab Studio
will record the signals from the activated inputs on your
audio hardware.
This is the standard mode. Use this for recording any external audio signal sources connected to the inputs on your audio card.
Master Gain (output-fader)
Synth In (input-fader plus on/off check box)
CD (input-fader plus on/off check box)
Line (input-fader plus on/off check box)
Mic (input-fader plus on/off check box)
In addition to the above, the card might have custom controls for monitoring, etc., which cannot be accessed from
the WaveLab Studio mixer. Again, please use the application(s) included with the card.
Ö In “Playback output” mode, the program will record
only what is being played back in WaveLab Studio itself.
This mode does not utilize your audio card or any Windows audio protocols. Instead, the audio from WaveLab Studio is sent straight back into
WaveLab Studio and this input is then recorded. The typical use for this
is:
Record what you are playing back, capturing any real-time volume or parameter changes you make during playback.
!
Not all audio cards have a mixer application and can
therefore not access the WaveLab Studio mixer. This
is especially true with digital I/O cards.
Using the meters
7. If needed, activate the desired recording options in the
dialog.
In the lower part of the Record dialog, you will find a meter
display. This is useful for checking the input level, as well
as the frequency spectrum of the input signal.
There are also additional settings in a separate dialog, opened by clicking the Settings button. For details, click the question mark icon in the dialog.
Ö The meters in the Record dialog are “miniature” versions of the Level, Spectrum and Phase Meters in the
Meter windows.
At this point, you can start recording (see “Start recording!” on page 66) if you like. For details on the available recording options, click the question mark icon in the
respective dialog.
For detailed descriptions of the functionality and features, see “Level/pan
meter” on page 69.
Recording settings presets
For the meters to register the signal, you need to activate
the Monitor checkbox. This can be done automatically, if
the option “Activate meters when opening record window” is activated in the Record Settings dialog. The popup menu in the lower left corner allows you to select between Level or Spectrum metering.
You can create and save different recording options and
settings as presets for quick access by using the Preset
menu in the Record dialog.
This way, you can set up options and settings for different
specific recording purposes and then quickly load the settings when the need arises.
See “Presets” on page 28 for information about creating,
saving and loading presets in WaveLab Studio.
Setting up the mixer (MME/WDM drivers)
• When the Level Meter is selected, horizontal bars show
the peak level (outer bars) and average loudness (VU, inner bars) of each channel.
At this point you may want to click the Mixer button to adjust the relative volume of your card’s inputs.
Values are also shown numerically. If the Phase Scope option is activated on the pop-up menu next to the Reset button, a Phase Meter is
displayed to the right of the Level Meter (see “Phase Scope” on page
71).
Ö For the mixer to appear, you must have specifically selected the card on the Preferences–Audio device tab.
If the Input and Output are set to “Microsoft Sound Mapper” a mixer cannot be created.
65
Playback and recording
• When the Spectrum Meter is selected, a “bar diagram”
will be shown, providing a continuous graphical representation of the frequency spectrum.
• If you like, you can pause the recording by clicking the
Pause button at any time.
The Record button will blink to indicate Pause mode. To resume recording, click the Pause or Record button again. As described above, a short
section of audio just before you resume recording (according to the
Pause memory value in the Record Settings dialog) will be captured.
See “Spectrum meter (60 bands)” on page 72.
You can reset the meters by clicking the Reset button –
this instantly resets all meters and numerical indicators, including the Maximum Peak and RMS values to the right in
the Level Meter.
• You can drop markers in the file during recording by
clicking the Drop Marker buttons.
See below.
You can also select one of five presets for the Level Meter
on the pop-up menu next to the Reset button. These presets (containing settings for meter ranges, colors, etc.)
can be edited by selecting “Settings…” from the pop-up
menu. The options are described in the chapter “Making
settings for the level and pan meters” on page 70.
!
• If you want to abort the recording, click the Discard button.
This terminates recording and discards the recorded file.
Ö Note that if you have activated the option “Confirm
when discarding recording” in the Record settings dialog,
a dialog will appear asking you to confirm whether you really want to terminate recording and discard the recorded
file.
Use the Level Meter to check the audio input level.
Adjust this (with the mixer controls or the audio
card’s applications), so that the Peak Level Meters
go as high as possible without ever reaching 0dB!
If you change your mind and select “Cancel”, recording will continue.
• When you have finished, click Stop. You can also have
recording stop automatically by using one of the Autostop options. Either way, the recording by default appears
in a new window behind the dialog.
Checking disk capacity
The Disk Capacity indicator above the meters helps you
make sure you have enough disk space for the recording.
This indicator shows the amount of available disk space
on the hard disk specified in the Create Final File path, or
the hard disk you have selected for your temporary files
(see “Temporary files” on page 12). Please note that this
value is approximate.
!
Ö You can deactivate the option “Open audio file in
WaveLab Studio after recording” in the Record settings
dialog if you don’t want the recording to appear in a new
window.
In this case, the recorded file is saved to disk but does not automatically
appear in WaveLab Studio after recording.
When there is less than ten seconds of available
hard disk space, the disk capacity indication is displayed in red.
If you want to perform more recordings after the first, click
the Record button and record again. If you have selected
the Named File option, and the Auto number option is deactivated, you have to specify another file name to avoid
overwriting the previously recorded file.
Start recording!
When all the preparations are done, click Record to start
the actual recording.
When you have finished recording completely, click the
Close button (in the lower right corner) to close the dialog.
• If you have selected one of the Auto-start options (click
the question mark icon in the Record dialog), the recording will go into Pause mode (the Record button will blink),
until the specified Auto-start criteria are met.
Ö If you have created temporary files, and want to save
the file(s) permanently, click on each document you have
created and use Save As on the File menu to save each
one.
When recording starts, the Record button will be “lit” and the Recorded
Time value will indicate how much you have recorded.
See “Saving in another format (Save as…)” on page 51 for details.
• If you have selected the “Auto-stop after given duration”
option, the “Remaining Time” value will indicate how much
recording time you have left.
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Playback and recording
Ö Note: if you insert two or more region start markers in
a row (with no region end markers in between), only the
last of these start markers will be kept (the first marker(s)
will be removed).
About dropping markers during recording
In other words, the last region start marker doesn’t become “permanent”
until you insert a region end marker.
The same goes for region end markers – if you insert several end markers
in a row, only the last one will be kept.
When you are recording, you can click the marker buttons
at any time, to add a marker to the recorded file. The yellow button will generate a numbered, generic marker (see
“The various marker types” on page 128), while the white
buttons will generate numbered, generic region start and
end markers.
This is a very useful function, because it allows you to
“change your mind” when inserting markers during recording. For example, let’s say you are recording a continuous performance and want to mark all takes worth
keeping. At the start of a take you insert a region start
marker. However, this turns out to be a false start or a
flawed take. When the next take starts you insert a new region start marker again and the previous, unwanted start
marker is removed.
If you want to name the markers you drop rather than using generic, numbered markers, you can do this in one of
the following ways, or use a combination of both:
• Type in the desired name in the box below the buttons.
You can type in a new name for each marker before you drop. This works
well if you know beforehand where you want to drop the markers and
what their names should be. If you want to be able to drop markers not
planned beforehand though, the method described below is probably
better suited.
• Activate the option “Confirm name of markers to drop”
in the record settings dialog.
In this case, a dialog will appear each time you click a button to drop a
marker. In this dialog, you can either type in a name for the marker, or you
can confirm that you want to use an already entered name. The benefit of
using this method is that the marker will be dropped at the time position
when you clicked the marker button, regardless of how long you take to
type in a name for the marker.
Furthermore, this dialog also allows you to specify a delay value for the
marker. The marker will then be dropped at the position when you clicked
the marker button, minus the delay value you specify. So if you clicked
the marker button after 10 seconds of recording and specify a delay
value of 2 seconds, the marker will be dropped 8 seconds into the recording.
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Playback and recording
7
Metering
Introduction
Level/pan meter
WaveLab Studio offers very detailed and versatile metering, allowing you to monitor level, pan, phase, spectrum
and more during playback. This chapter describes how to
display, set up and use the various meters.
Level meters
The upper part of the level/pan meter window shows the
peak level and average loudness, in the following way:
Meter presets (see “Selecting meter presets” on page 71)
Monitor playback
Reset button
The meters reflect the audio being played back. Note that
metering occurs after the Master Section, which means
the results of effects, dithering and Master faders are
taken into account.
VU meters
The meters can be used for monitoring all kinds of audio
playback: Wave windows, Audio Montage, audio CD
track lists, audition in file dialogs, etc.
Peak level
meters
The meters
• The Peak Level meters display the peak levels of each
channel, graphically and numerically.
There are seven different meters in WaveLab Studio, each
with its separate window. The meters are opened and
closed from the Analysis menu (or by clicking the buttons
on the Meters control bar).
By default, the meter segments and numerical peak values are displayed
in green for low levels, yellow for levels between –6dB and –2dB, and
red for levels above –2dB. You can change both the colors and the
range boundaries if you wish, as described on “Making settings for the
level and pan meters” on page 70.
• The VU (Volume Unit) meters measure the average
loudness (RMS) of each channel.
These meters have a built-in inertia, evening out loudness variations over
a user-defined time span.
If you are monitoring playback or audio input, you will also note two vertical lines following each VU meter bar, seemingly “trying to reach” the
current RMS value. These lines indicate the average of the most recent
minimum RMS values (left line) and the average of the most recent maximum RMS values (right line). To the left, the difference between the minimum and maximum average values is displayed (the level value in
brackets) – this gives you an overview of the dynamic range of the audio
material.
Ö To close all open meter windows, click the Close
Meters button on the Meters control bar.
As with any standard window, you can resize the meter
windows by dragging the window borders, and fold the
windows by clicking the fold icons (or by double clicking
the title bars).
On the following pages, the available meters are described.
Difference value
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Metering
Recent minimum
Recent maximum
• If you are monitoring real-time audio (playback or input),
the maximum peak and loudness values are displayed numerically to the right of the meter bars.
Making settings for the level and pan meters
You can adjust the behavior, scale and color of the meters
as desired. It is also possible to save five sets of meter
settings as presets, for instant access. Proceed as follows:
Numbers in brackets to the right of the Maximum Peak values indicate
the number of successive clips (0dB signal peaks). 1 or 2 clips can be
acceptable, but if you get a larger number, you should lower the master
level to avoid digital distortion.
1. Pull down the Options pop-up menu and select “Settings” (or click the “tool” icon).
Pan meters
The Level/Pan Meter Settings dialog appears.
The lower part of the window shows the pan (the difference in level between the left and right channel, only applicable when monitoring stereo audio):
• The upper pan meters show the peak level difference
between the channels, graphically and numerically.
Note that the pan meters are “two-sided”; the level bars can go to the left
or right, indicating which channel is the loudest. The two sides are shown
in different colors (which can be edited – see “Making settings for the
level and pan meters” on page 70).
• The lower pan meters show the average difference in
loudness between the channels, in a similar way.
2. Adjust the settings as desired.
This gives you a visual indication of whether a stereo recording is properly centered, etc.
By using the Apply button, you can check the results of your changes
without closing the dialog. The following settings are available:
• If you are monitoring real-time audio (playback or input),
the maximum balance difference values (peak and loudness) for each channel are displayed numerically to the
left and right of the meter bars.
Setting
Description
Global colors
Click these buttons to select colors for the meter background, marks (scale units) and grid lines.
Global range
This is where you specify the low and high end of the
displayed level range. Typically, you may want to create
a preset showing the full level range, and other presets
for detailed view of a smaller range.
Peak meter –
Ballistics
These settings determine how fast the peak level meter
falls after a peak (Release rate) and for how long the
numerical peak indication remains displayed after a
peak (Peak hold time).
Peak meter –
Zones
The color buttons allow you to select colors for the
peak level meters’ low, middle and top zones. You can
also define what should be considered “middle” and
“top” zones, by changing the “Middle zone from” and
“Top zone from” values.
VU meter –
Show
Allows you to activate or deactivate the VU meters.
Resetting the meters
You can reset the level and pan meters by clicking the Reset icon, or by selecting Reset from the Options pop-up
menu. This instantly resets all meters and numerical indicators, including the Maximum Peak and RMS values and
the number of signal clips.
The Reset icon
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Metering
Setting
Description
VU meter –
Ballistics
These settings determine how the VU meter responds:
Resolution is the sample width of the “average window” for the VU meter (the number of samples continuously evaluated to calculate the average). The smaller
this is, the more the VU meter behaves like the peak
meter.
Range inertia determines the “average windows” for
the recent minimum and maximum value lines, and will
therefore affect how quickly these respond to changes
in loudness.
VU meter –
Color
The color button allows you to select the color for the
VU level meter.
Panning Meter
In this section, you can turn the pan meter on or off,
change the colors used for the pan meter bars and adjust the dB range of the pan meter.
The Phase Scope indicates the phase and amplitude relationship between the two channels, in the following way:
• A vertical line indicates a perfect mono signal (the left and
right channels are the same).
• A horizontal line indicates that the left channel is the same as
the right, but with an inverse phase.
• A random but fairly round shape indicates a well balanced stereo signal. If the shape “leans” to the left, there is more energy
in the left channel and vice versa (the extreme case of this is if
one side is muted, in which case the Phase Scope will show a
straight line, angled 45° to the other side).
• A perfect circle indicates a sine wave on one channel, and the
same sine wave shifted by 45° on the other.
• Generally, the more you can see a “thread”, the more bass in
the signal, and the more “spray-like” the display, the more high
frequencies in the signal.
3. If you want to store your settings for later use (or assign them to a preset), select “Save as…” from the popup menu at the bottom of the dialog, and specify a name
for the preset in the file dialog that appears.
At the bottom of the display, you will find a Phase Correlation meter, which shows the same information but in a different way:
4. To make the settings instantly available for selection in
the Meter window, use the “Assign to preset button” submenu on the pop-up menu.
• The green line shows the current phase correlation, while the
two red lines show the recent peak minimum and maximum
values, respectively (these are the default colors, which can
be adjusted).
• With a mono signal, the meter would show +1, indicating that
both channels are perfectly in phase.
• Similarly, –1 indicates that the two channels are the same, but
one is inverted.
• Generally, for a “good” mix, the meter should show a value between 0 and +1.
5. When you are finished, click OK to close the dialog.
Clicking Cancel closes the dialog and discards any changes you have
made (even if you have used the Apply button to apply them to the
meters).
Selecting meter presets
If you have assigned your settings to the Preset buttons in
the Settings dialog, you can quickly switch between different level scales and display modes, by clicking one of the
Preset icons [1]-[5], or selecting the desired preset from
the Options pop-up menu.
Unlike the main Phase “coil” meter, the Phase Correlation
meter is also available in “Analyse Selection” mode, showing an average value for the selected range.
Phase Scope
Making settings
To make settings for the Phase Scope, select “Settings”
from the Options pop-up menu, or click the “tool” icon.
The dialog that appears contains the following settings:
Setting
!
Description
Background
Click this to change the background color.
Coil display
Allows you to adjust the color for the grid and
phase coil display.
Auto-size
When Auto-size is activated, the display will be
optimized so that the size of the “shape” matches
the window size.
The Phase Scope is only relevant when monitoring
stereo audio material.
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Metering
Setting
Description
Correlation display
This is where you select colors for the elements in
the Phase Correlation meter display, and adjust
the Peak hold time for the maximum and minimum
indicators.
Number of samples
to display
This setting affects the length of the phase coil,
and hence the density of the display. For audio
with high sample rates, you might want to raise
this value.
• By clicking the camera icon, you can take a snapshot of the
current spectrum. This will be superimposed on the current
peak spectrum graphs, in a color you can customize (by default, a purple graph), until you click the camera icon again (to
take a new snapshot). One use for this is to check the effects
of adding EQ, etc.
Zooming
You can adjust the frequency scale and range in the Settings dialog as described below, but it’s also possible to
temporarily zoom in on a frequency area of interest. This is
done by clicking and dragging a rectangle in the Spectrum display – when you release the mouse button, the
display is zoomed in so that the enclosed frequency range
fills the window. To return to full-scale display, select
“Zoom-out fully” from the Options pop-up menu.
Spectrum meter (60 bands)
Making settings
You can adjust the behavior and display of the meters as
desired, and assign up to five sets of Spectrum Analysis
settings to the Preset buttons, for instant access. Open
the Settings dialog by selecting “Settings” from the Options pop-up menu or clicking the “tool” icon.
The Spectrum meter shows a continuous graphical representation of the frequency spectrum, in the shape of a “bar
diagram” with 60 frequency bands (much like a simplified
form of the FFT meter below).
Spectrum analyser (FFT)
The Spectrum Analyser uses FFT (Fast Fourier Transform)
to display a continuous frequency graph, allowing for very
precise and detailed real-time frequency analysis.
• The current frequency spectrum will be shown as a blue graph
(by default).
• Spectrum “peaks” (recent maximum values) will be shown in
red. All colors can be adjusted in the Settings dialog as described below.
The dialog has two tabs (see below).
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Metering
If you want to store your settings for later use (or assign
them to a Preset button), select “Save as…” from the popup menu in the lower part of the dialog, and specify a
name for the preset in the file dialog that appears. Now,
you can choose to make the settings instantly available for
selection in the FFT Meter window, by using the “Assign
to preset button” submenu on the pop-up menu.
• When you are finished, click OK to close the dialog.
Clicking Cancel closes the dialog and discards any changes you have
made (even if you have used the Apply button to apply them to the
meters).
Setting
Description
Level ruler range
Determines the range of the vertical level ruler, in dB or
as a percentage.
Display type
Allows you to choose whether the spectrum should be
shown as a curve or as a bar graph.
Peak Hold time
Determines for how long the peak level graph remains
displayed when the levels drop.
Colors
This is where you select colors for the curves, grid,
background, etc.
Note that you can apply your settings without closing the
dialog, by clicking the Apply button.
• The Process tab contains parameters for the actual
analysis:
Selecting Spectrum Analyser presets
Setting
Description
Analysis
block size
The higher this value, the higher the accuracy in the
frequency domain (the spectrum is divided into more
bands). However, raising the block size value will also
require more CPU power and introduce more latency.
Therefore:
High values may only be usable for off-line monitoring.
Analysis
overlapping
To get more accurate results, the program can analyse
overlapping blocks (i.e. samples will be analysed more
than once). This setting determines the amount of
overlap between each block – the higher the value, the
more accurate the results.
A word of caution: raising this value is very CPU intensive. Compared to no overlap at all, a setting of 50%
requires twice the amount of CPU power, a setting of
75% requires four times the CPU power, etc.
Smoothing
window
Allows you to choose which method should be used
for pre-processing the samples in order to optimize
the display of the desired information in the spectrum.
The smoothing window sets a compromise between
the accuracy at which a frequency can be detected,
and the noise-floor.
This parameter is best left at its default setting, if
you’re not an expert in the field.
If you have assigned your settings to the Preset buttons in
the Settings dialog, you can quickly switch between different level scales and display modes, by clicking one of the
Preset icons [1]-[5], or selecting the desired preset from
the Options pop-up menu.
Bit Meter
• The Display tab contains settings for how the spectrum
graph should be shown:
Setting
Description
Frequency ruler
range
Determines the frequency range to be shown, at fullscale display. Note that the lowest frequency actually
to be shown depends on the Analysis block size setting and the highest actual frequency depends on the
sample rate (only frequencies up to about half the sample rate will be shown).
The Bit Meter shows how many bits are used, i.e. the resolution of the audio being monitored. While you may expect the maximum number of bits to be the same as the
resolution of the audio file (e.g. a 16 bit audio file would
show up to 16 bits being used), this is not necessarily the
case!
Logarithmic scale When this is activated, each octave will occupy the
same horizontal space in the display. If you need more
resolution in the high frequency range, you may want to
turn this off.
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Metering
As soon as you perform any kind of real-time processing
on an audio file, the audio data will be treated at a much
higher resolution (32 bit floating point), to allow for pristine
audio quality. Examples of such processing include level
adjustments, effects, mixing of two or more files, etc. In
fact, the only time when a 16 bit file will be played back at
16 bit resolution is if you play it without any fades or effects, and with the Master Faders set to 0.00 (no level adjustment). You can try this out for yourself by playing back
a 16 bit audio file and viewing the Bit Meter – as soon as
you adjust the Master Faders, you will note that 24 bits are
used and the “inter” indicator is lit (more on this below).
• If the “inter” segment is lit, this indicates that the audio data
cannot really be expressed on a regular 24 bit scale (there are
floating point values “in between” bits – thus the label “inter”).
This is typically the case if you apply effects, etc.
When to use the Bit Meter
• To check whether dithering is necessary or not.
As a rule, if you’re playing back or mixing down to 16 bits, and the Bit
Meter shows that more than 16 bits are used, you should apply dithering.
How to “read” the Bit Meter
• To see the “actual” resolution of an audio file.
For example, even though a file is in 24 bit format, only 16 bits may be
used. Or, a 32 bit file may only use 24 bits (in this case, the “below” segment would not be lit). For this purpose, the Bit Meter is best used in
“Analyse selection” mode.
• To see whether a “zeroed” plug-in still affects your signal, or whether a plug-in uses 16 bit internal processing.
Making settings for the Bit Meter
To adjust the Bit Meter settings, select “Settings…” from
the Options pop-up menu or click the “tool” icon.
• The innermost meters (closest to the bit scale) show the number of bits in use. You can adjust this display in the Settings
dialog, as described below.
• The outer meters are “history” meters, showing how many bits
were recently in use. You can adjust the hold time in the Settings dialog.
• The “over” segment indicates clipping, similar to a clip indicator.
• If the “below” segment is lit, there are more than 24 bits. The
bit meter will show the 24 higher bits, and the “below” segment indicates the existence of extra, lower bits. Note that audio is processed with more than 24 bits internally.
The dialog that appears contains the following settings:
Setting
Description
Colors
You can adjust the colors of the meter segments,
grids, background, etc. by clicking the corresponding
color buttons.
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Metering
Setting
Description
Making settings
Bit hold time
Determines for how long peak values are held (by the
outer meters, by default shown in dark green).
Bit display
Determines how the bits are displayed:
In “Intuitive mode”, the absolute value of the signal is
displayed. The bar graphs will go higher with higher
signal levels, similar to a common level meter (although
the range will not work the same way).
In “True mode”, the meter shows the direct mapping of
the bits, but since the actual values may be negative,
there is no intuitive relationship with the level (a negative value may use a lot of bits, even though its absolute value is very small). This mode is useful if you
instantly want to check the full range, since all bits will
quickly be displayed, regardless of the audio signal
level.
Selecting “Settings” from the Options pop-up menu (or
clicking the “tool” icon) will open the Oscilloscope settings dialog. Here you can adjust the display colors, and
choose whether Auto-zoom should be active or not.
When Auto-zoom is activated, the display will be optimized so that the highest level reaches the top of the display at all times.
Waveform Scope
Oscilloscope
This meter displays a real time waveform drawing of the
audio signal being monitored.
Making settings
Selecting “Settings” from the Options pop-up menu (or
clicking the “tool” icon) will open the Waveform Scope
settings dialog. Here you can set various color options for
the background, grid and waveform display, as well as
setting the waveform rendering speed and vertical zoom.
The Oscilloscope is a “microscope” version of the level
meter, showing the area around the cursor position at
large magnification.
If “Clear waveform when reaching right of pane” is
checked the waveform display is cleared each time the
cursor reaches the right end of the display. If unchecked,
the previous waveform is overwritten.
If you are analysing stereo audio, the Oscilloscope will
normally show the separate levels of the two channels.
However, if you activate the option “Show Mix and Subtraction” on the Options pop-up menu (or click the +/–
icon) the upper half of the Oscilloscope will show the mix
of the two channels and the lower half will show the subtraction.
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Metering
8
Off-line processing
Introduction
Getting the most out of the non-modal dialogs
The processing dialogs are non-modal, which means they
stay on screen even after the processing has been applied. This, together with the Undo allows you to try different types of processing without ever leaving the dialog (or
even stopping playback!):
When we refer to off-line processing, we mean functions
that “permanently” alter the file, to make it sound more or
less different. This is in opposition to “real-time processing”, which makes the file play back differently, without
making any permanent changes to it. Real-time processing is described in the next chapter.
• When the dialog is still the active window you can use
the computer keyboard for the following operations:
Applying processing
Processing can be applied to a selection or to a whole file.
For certain processing operations processing the entire
file is necessary. This will be indicated in the respective
section.
Ö If “Process whole file if no selection exists” is activated
in the Preferences–Wave edit tab, the whole file will automatically be processed if no selection exists.
Key
Command
[F3]
Undo
[F4]
Redo
[F6]
Play selection
[Shift]+[F6]
Loop selection
[F7]
Stop
[F8]
Play
• While the dialog is still open (but inactive) you can select from menus and use other dialogs and palettes (for
example the Transport bar).
To apply processing to a selection, proceed as follows:
1. Make a selection.
Note that you will “Select All” to process the entire file. If the file is in stereo, you can apply processing to either channel or both, by selecting one
channel or both, see “Selecting in stereo files” on page 40.
• You can “fold in” and “fold out” non-modal dialogs, as
described in the section ““Folding” windows” on page 22.
2. Select the desired type of processing from the menus.
Presets
3. If a dialog appears, fill it out.
As described in the section “Loading presets” on page
28, you can use presets for most processing dialogs, to
save and recall settings. In addition, the program comes
with a number of useful presets for each processing option.
If the dialog uses presets, you can load one of them to fill out the settings
automatically, see “Presets” on page 28.
4. When you have finished with the settings in the dialog,
click the Apply/Paste/Process button.
The status bar shows the progress of the operation. If you need to interrupt a long process, click the “Stop” button on the status bar or press
[Esc].
Level Normalizer
Undo/Redo
No matter how long the selection is or how elaborate the
processing may be, you have access to unlimited Undo/
Redo for all processing. The only limitation to this is the
available hard disk space, as described in the section
“Undo and Redo” on page 20.
This allows you to change the amplitude (volume) of the
selection. The value is always related to the maximum level
that can be obtained.
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Off-line processing
Loudness Normalizer
The controls
To find out exactly what each control in the dialog does,
click the question mark icon in the dialog.
Gain Change
This also allows you to change the amplitude (volume) of
the selection, just like the Level Normalizer. The difference
here is that the gain change is set in absolute numbers,
plus/minus the current level (which is indicated as 0dB).
This processing tool allows you to specify the loudness of
a file. Because it relates to loudness as opposed to maximum peak level, this tool works quite differently than the
Level Normalizer. A typical application is to specify a level,
e.g. -12dB, and the Loudness Normalizer will process the
loudness to match this level.
Clipping
This processor lets you do something that most other
functions in WaveLab Studio never do: introduce clipping.
Clipping is when the gain is raised to a point where distortion is added. While this is normally not wanted, mild clipping in for example the attack of a drum sound can add
some “punch”.
Like Gain Change, increasing the loudness to a certain
value might introduce clipping, which is to be avoided. To
remedy this, a peak limiter (the Peak Master plug-in) can
be part of the process. The Loudness Normalizer will
smartly raise the loudness and limit peaks in the signal at
the same time (if needed), to achieve the desired loudness.
If you try to raise the
level of a wave above
0dB (100%)…
In case of stereo files, both channels are processed independently.
…it will get distorted
(the peaks are
“clipped”).
• This process happens over two stages; first an analysis
and then the final rendering.
The results of this analysis can be seen in the Statistics. If all seems well,
you can apply the processing using the Render button.
• The Loudness Normalizer is also available in the Batch
processor, which is logical as one of the primary applications is to process different files to equal loudness.
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Off-line processing
The dialog contains the following options:
Item
Description
Desired Loudness
The loudness you desire to achieve. Positive and negative values can be set.
Be aware that specifying high positive values might not be good practice, as this could require a gain which is beyond what
the limiter can properly handle so distortion could occur. A good tip is to use “Statistics” (see below) after specifying a loudness, which will tell you how much the gain needs to be raised and if peak limiting needs to be applied. Light peak limiting is
acceptable, but if heavy limiting is necessary this will probably render a result that will not accurately match the desired loudness and precision and might degrade the audio quality. In such cases a warning will be shown after applying the process, allowing you to undo it.
Sliding interval
(keep maximum)
If this option is not checked, the global average loudness of the selection (or the whole file) is used as a loudness reference
(RMS). If checked, a “sliding interval” is used, meaning that the maximum loudness value found in the audio selection is retained, and used as a reference. If you have a file where the overall loudness is more or less even, leave this option unchecked.
If you have a file with a high dynamic range, Sliding interval is preferable.
Compensate for ear’s
frequency sensitivity
The human ear is less sensitive to low and high frequencies than to mid-range frequencies (as shown in the famous “FletcherMunson” curve). Moreover, the degree of this phenomenon depends on the overall loudness (the lower the loudness, the
more sensitive the ear is to the frequency difference).
WaveLab Studio takes into account the frequency contents of the file. E.g. if it contains much bass, you’ll get a lower RMS
value if you use the compensation option (since low frequencies contribute less to the perceived loudness), and a higher
value if mid-range frequencies are prominent. If you want to normalize two files so that they sound equally loud, you should
specify both equal “Desired loudness” values and equal “Compensation” values.
Catch loudness from
audio selection
This will set the “Desired loudness” value to the average loudness found in the current audio file (or selection).
Peak Limiter –
Max peak level
This specifies the maximum peak level of the resulting audio. The lower this is set, the less loudness you can achieve.
Peak Limiter –
Softness
This parameter affects the way the Peak Master operates. A high setting will maximize the perceived loudness effect but can
in some cases result in a slight harshness of the sound. Adjust this parameter to optimize the balance between sound quality
and the desired effect.
Remove DC offset
If any DC offset exists in the file, this will affect the loudness computation. Therefore it is recommended that you keep this option activated. See “Eliminate DC Offset” on page 85 for a description of DC offset.
Attempts/Analysis –
Desired precision
If the Desired loudness requires peak limiting, this will also reduce the loudness to some degree. This can’t be computed in
advance and be automatically applied to the gain change, because the limiting is a complex process. Instead, several simulation passes are performed to find the best possible gain. This option lets you define the desired precision of the result.
Attempts/Analysis – Maximum number of passes
WaveLab Studio will perform as many analysis passes as are needed to match the desired precision. Use this option to specify the maximum number of passes to be performed.
Attempts/Analysis – Autho- As too much compression will degrade the audio quality, you can here specify a limit to the applied compression. The value
rized peak compression
can be set between -1 and -20 dB. If you actually need maximum allowed compression (-20 dB) to achieve the desired loudness, it might be better to reconsider, and instead lower the Desired loudness value, as this will almost certainly render better
results.
Warn if unmatched
If checked, this will warn you if the normalizing process does not meet the desired loudness/precision. This option is not available in the Batch processor.
Statistics
This opens a window which shows you information about the file to be processed. It will show any DC offset, the current loudness, the current peak level, the required gain to achieve the desired loudness, and an indication about whether or not limiting
is required.
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Off-line processing
Dynamics
The Normalize controls
These are used to normalize the sound before and/or after
processing. Please note the following:
• The effect of all dynamic processing depends on the amplitude (level) of the material to be processed. Therefore, if you
process a number of files with slightly different levels (for example using presets or batch processing) the effect of the
processing will be different from file to file. To avoid this, activate “Normalize before”.
• On the other hand if you are experimenting with different settings, this means that after activating “Normalize before” you
may have to re-adjust the Threshold level. See “Level Normalizer” on page 77 for more information on normalizing.
• One reason for setting the “Normalize before” value to less
than 0 dB (full level) is if you are expanding, which might introduce clipping if the signal is too strong to start with.
This dialog allows you to tailor the dynamics of the audio,
to create effects like compression, expansion, limiting and
noise gating. Since dynamic processing of audio is a big
subject, we will not be able to describe all the possibilities
in this short text. Please study the included presets which
implement examples of the above-mentioned functions
and experiment with the controls to get a feeling for what
they do.
Again, click the question mark icon in the dialog for details.
The Dynamics controls
When the Graphic Editing switch is deactivated, the dynamics processor works very much like a simple compressor. Use the Threshold and Ratio settings to set the
amount of compression (click the question mark icon in
the dialog for details).
The Time Response controls
The settings in this section apply regardless of whether
you use the graphic editing possibilities or not. These controls govern how a variation in sound level in the material
affects the amount of processing.
About graphic editing
When the Graphic Editing check box is activated, you can
specify any input to output function. This allows you to
“draw” limiters, noise gates, expanders, etc. and combinations of all these. See the presets for examples.
The Attack parameter, for example, is related to the beginning of new sounds in the material (for example each new
“hit” in a drum recording). Raising the Attack time means
that more of the beginning of each sound (the attack) will
pass through unprocessed.
• The curve shows input level along the horizontal axis and output level along the vertical axis. With a straight line diagonally,
each input level is represented by the same output level (the
signal is not processed at all).
We recommend that you try the Auto feature first, and if
that doesn’t give the desired result, use the individual controls instead.
To find out exactly what each control in the dialog does,
click the question mark icon in the dialog.
No processing
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• If the curve starts at 45° and then tilts downwards from any
point, signals above this point will have a lower output level
than input level. In other words, a gain (compression) reduction is performed.
• If the curve starts out horizontally flat and then rises upwards,
signals in the flat area will be eliminated completely. This is
called (noise) gating.
Gating
Compression
Setting up the curve
• If the curve is tilted upwards instead, the output level will be
higher than the input level, which is referred to as expanding.
• You can drag any breakpoint in the curve to any position, using the left mouse button.
• When you move breakpoints closer to the left side or
the bottom of the graph, you will note that the number of
positions is more limited. This is due to the nature of digital
audio, where, for lower levels, a smaller number of “bits” is
used to represent the data.
• You can add a new breakpoint by clicking anywhere on
the curve with the left mouse button.
• You can delete a breakpoint by clicking on it with the
right mouse button.
Expansion
• The Reset button restores the curve to a straight line
with only one breakpoint.
• If the curve is horizontally flat from some point, the output level
will be the same regardless of input level. This is referred to as
limiting.
• The “Add point at level selection” button adds a breakpoint at the level indicated by the current level selection
(see “Level selections” on page 43 and the example below).
An example of using “Add point at level selection”
The “Add point at level selection” function can be used to
create a noise gate with a threshold at a certain level. Let’s
say you have a recording of narration, with noise between
the phrases that you’d like to remove:
1. Make a regular selection in a section that only contains
background noise.
Limiting
The longer this selection, the more accurate the result will be.
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2. Select “Extend to peaks” from the Select submenu on
the Edit menu.
3. Open the Dynamics dialog and set it up for graphic
editing.
The dialog consists of a waveform view in the middle, with
an envelope curve (initially a straight line) running through
it. A vertical ruler displays the level change in dB, and the
horizontal ruler displays the time line. You can boost the
level up to 6 dB and decrease it down to silence.
4. Remove all breakpoints from the graph.
Basic operation procedure
5. Click on the “Add point at level selection” button.
By adding points to the envelope curve you can create an
envelope curve that will change the volume of the material
over time.
The selection height now represents the level of the background noise.
6. Add a second breakpoint, “manually”, to the left of the
one that just appeared.
7. Drag this second breakpoint so that it appears directly
below the other one, at the bottom of the graph.
1. Double click on the envelope curve to add a point.
See the noise gate example above.
2. If you click on the point it will be selected (red color)
and by click-dragging you can move it in any direction.
A point will be added where you click.
8. Adjust the Attack, Hold and Release settings as desired.
The curve changes accordingly in the waveform display.
• When you point the mouse in the display (or move a
point), the current position and level change is shown
continuously in the field above the display.
9. Go back to the Wave window and select the section
to be gated.
10. Open the Dynamics window and click the Process
button.
3. You can keep adding as many points as you like to the
curve.
11. Listen to the result, and if necessary, Undo, adjust the
settings and Process again.
You cannot move a point past a another point in the horizontal direction.
4. You can select several points using [Shift] and move
them together.
Expert settings
By clicking on the envelope curve itself (not on a point) you can move the
whole curve up or down.
The Dynamics dialog has a special tab devoted to “expert”
settings. Click the question mark icon in the respective dialog for details.
Envelope functions in the dialog
The functions are selectable in three ways (the same options in all cases):
Level envelope
• From the Functions menu.
• By clicking the icons above the display.
• By right-clicking in the display.
The following options are available in the dialog:
Option
Description
Deselect all points
This will deselect all selected points.
Delete selected points
Deletes all selected points.
Reset selected points
Resets all selected points to 0dB.
Reset whole envelope
This removes all added points.
Flip Vertical
This will flip the current envelope vertically (in the
level axis).
This dialog allows you to create a volume envelope which
can be applied to a selected range or a whole file.
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3. Use the Type options to select a fade-in or a fade-out.
Option
Description
Flip Horizontal
This will flip the current envelope horizontally (in
the time axis).
Smooth envelope
4. Set the Offset and Damping parameters.
A graph in the waveform indicates the resulting shape. The Damping
value indicates how much the wave will be attenuated at the Offset point.
A 6dB Damping with a 50% Offset normally gives the most natural results. See “Crossfade” below for more details.
This allows you to create spline curves, for
smoother level changes.
Fade-in and fade-out
Crossfade
A fade-in is a gradual increase in level and a fade-out is of
course the opposite. There are two ways of applying fades
in WaveLab Studio: by using the Easy Fade function or by
using the Fade dialog.
A crossfade is a gradual fade between two sounds, where
one is faded in and the other faded out. This function allows you to do just that. It also lets you create plain mixes
of two sounds.
Easy Fades
Performing a regular crossfade
The Easy Fade function allows you to very quickly apply a
fade-in or fade-out to an audio file, without having to make
any settings:
The material you want to crossfade can either be in two
different sections of the same file, or it can be in two different files.
1. To create a fade-in, make a selection from the start of
the audio file to where you want the fade-in to end.
Since the crossfade is a type of paste operation, you must
start by getting the section into which you want to fade
(the later part of the fade) onto the clipboard.
Similarly, to create a fade-out, you should make a selection from the position where you want the fade to start, to the end of the audio file.
2. Select “Easy Fade” from the Process menu, or press
[Ctrl]-[D].
1. Select the section into which you want to fade.
2. Select Copy, from the Edit menu.
A fade is applied to the selection. The shape of the fade is governed by
the Default fade/crossfade setting in the Preferences–Wave edit tab.
Now it’s time to move over to the section from which you
want to fade, which might very well be in another Wave
window:
Using the Fade dialog
The Fade dialog allows you to specify the desired shape
of the fade, and to create fade-ins or fade-outs anywhere
in a file:
3. Select the section from which you want to fade-out.
!
1. Make a selection that spans from where you want the
fade to start to where you want it to end.
This selection cannot be longer than the selection
you just copied, or the program will not be able to
perform the crossfade!
The length of this selection will determine the length of the
actual crossfade (check the length on the status bar). In a
typical case, this selection will be at the end of the wave.
See below for details.
2. Select fade-in/out from the Process menu to open the
Fade dialog.
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For each of the two sections – the fade-out and the fadein – you can select an Offset and a Damping value. When
you adjust these values, the curves in the wave are adjusted accordingly so that you can see what kind of crossfade you will get.
4. Select Crossfade from the Process menu.
The dialog appears and crossfade slope indicators are shown in the current selection.
The Offset factor determines where in the fade section the
file will play at its “mid level” (normally half the level, see
below).
The Damping parameters adjust the “steepness” of the
fade. For example, a -6dB setting for the fade-in will result
in a normal fade, where the level is half the original when it
reaches the Offset point. Values closer to 0dB will emphasize the beginning of the fade-in wave. Values closer
to -18dB will make the fade-in sound drop drastically at
the beginning of the fade.
5. Make sure that “Mix without fading” is not activated in
either section.
6. Adjust the Offset and Damping parameters as desired.
The shape of the two curves is indicated in the selection. See below for
details.
7. Click the Paste button.
!
Please note that if both waves already have full level
sections in the crossfade area (for example if you
have normalized both waves), clipping (and hence
distortion) might occur! If this happens, reduce the
amplitude of both waves by 3 to 6 dB and try again.
Also note however, that if one of the “Inverse of Fade
In/Out” boxes is checked, clipping can never occur.
Here, the default -6dB Damping curves with 50% Offsets are selected.
This gives you a normal crossfade with the focus on the middle of the
fade.
How the fade is done
• As described above, the length of the fade is determined by
the size of the selection in the file into which you paste.
• The pasted material has to be longer than the selection you
paste “into” (or there won’t be enough material to finish the
fade).
• Any “excess” material in the copied selection will appear after
the fade (at “full level”). The wave is lengthened as needed.
• Any material that originally appeared after the selection in the
file into which you paste, will be moved so that it now appears
after the newly pasted material.
In this example, the Offsets have been moved so that the focus of the
fade is more to the left. This means the fade-out is faster than the fadein. However, both Damping factors are still set to the standard -6dB.
Mix without fading
If you activate “Mix without fading” for either section, it will
play at full level throughout the entire fade.
About the curves
The design of the fade and crossfade curves is based on
psycho-acoustic research material, in order to give as
pleasant and harmonic a result as possible.
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An example
A DC offset is when there is too large a DC (direct current) component in the signal. If the DC offset is really
bad, it can be visible as the signal not being visually centered around the “zero level axis”. However, the DC offset
can be significant without actually being seen.
Let’s say you have two environmental sound effects you
want to fade between, “city” and “restaurant”. You want to
fade from “city” to “restaurant”. The two sounds are in different windows.
1. Select the entire “restaurant” wave and copy it.
2. Make a selection in the “city” wave, from a point close
to the end.
The length of this selection is equal to the length of the fade.
3. Open the crossfade dialog, set both Offsets to 50%,
both Damping settings to -6dB, deactivate both “Mix without fading” options and click the Paste button.
A wave with a serious DC offset
A DC offset is problematic for two reasons:
The “city” wave is now lengthened, so that it starts as it originally did,
then fades over to the beginning of the “restaurant” wave and ends like
the “restaurant” wave.
• It affects where the zero crossings appear, which in turn affects the smoothness of splices between audio files.
• Certain processing options do not give optimal results when
performed on files with a DC offset.
Invert Phase
Checking for and eliminating DC Offset
This turns the signal “upside down”, which is the same as
inverting the phase by 180°. No settings are needed for
the operation.
1. Select the wave you want to check and fix.
2. Select “Eliminate DC Offset” from the Process menu.
There is no audible change when you invert the phase of a
mono signal. However, if one channel in a stereo pair is
out of phase with the other, this will lead to artifacts such
as a drop in the bass register and a “blurred” stereo image.
A dialog appears stating the amount of DC offset.
3. Click OK or Cancel.
Waveform Restorer
The most common use for this function is therefore to fix a
stereo recording where one of the channels has accidentally been recorded out of phase with the other.
This lets you remove intermittent clicks and pops in an audio file. First make a selection encompassing the artefact
you want to remove, then apply one of the available methods. Usually, you will have to use a high zoom factor to be
able to locate and select the undesired element.
Reverse
The Waveform Restorer lets you select one of several
available restoration methods. The selected method is described in the dialog.
This function reverses the selection, as if playing a tape
backwards. No settings are needed.
Eliminate DC Offset
Time Stretch
This function removes a problem that most often appears
due to mismatches between various types of recording
equipment.
!
Time stretch is an operation that allows you to change the
length of a recording without affecting its pitch. Actually
the standard term “time stretch” is a bit misleading since
you can of course also make the material shorter.
This function should be applied to whole files, since
the problem is normally present throughout the entire
recording.
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This function is most often used to make a section of audio fit in with some other material. Therefore this dialog is
set up exactly for that. You select the material to be
stretched and use the options in the dialog to find a
stretch factor (the “Percentage”). This is done by specifying the desired length, or the desired tempo, all according
to what the situation requires.
Enter the start
position here.
Enter the desired
end position here.
Opening the dialog
The other values and the Percentage are updated accordingly.
When you open the dialog, the following information
about the selection is displayed:
Calculating the Percentage by specifying a new tempo
If you know you want the selection to play back in a certain
tempo, after the stretch, proceed as follows:
The original length
in samples.
1. If you know the current tempo of the selection, type it
in the Tempo field in the Source part of the dialog.
The original length
in seconds.
2. If you don’t know the exact current tempo, but the
length of the selection and the time signature, you can
specify these instead, in the Bars and signature fields, and
the Source tempo will be calculated for you.
The calculated original tempo according to the set length
and time signature.
!
Specifying a percentage directly
If you know by how many percent you want to change the
length, you can enter this value in the “Percentage” field.
Please note for these operations to work properly,
the exact specified source tempo or length must be
selected. Any deviation from the real values will be
transferred to the stretched audio.
3. Type in the desired tempo in the Tempo field in the
“Desired result” section.
Calculating the percentage by specifying a new length
• If you know the desired length in samples, adjust the
Samples value in the “Desired result” section.
Reset
• If you know the desired length in minutes, seconds and
milliseconds, adjust the corresponding value in the “Desired result” section.
Additional settings
Setting
Description
Regardless of which you choose, the other values and the Ratio are updated accordingly.
Quality
There are three Quality settings, “Quick Process”,
“Standard” and “High Quality”. The High Quality
mode provides very high quality pitch correction,
but the process will take longer. For most uses, the
Standard mode is probably sufficient.
The Reset button resets the Percentage to “100%”.
Calculating the ratio by specifying a time code range
If you want to fit the selection to a certain range, for example in a video or film sequence, you can specify the start
and end of this range as time code values:
Use DIRAC processor This is described separately below.
Preserve pitch
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When this option is activated, the pitch of the audio
material will not be affected when you apply Time
stretch. This is the normal mode of operation. If you
turn this off, the pitch will change proportionally
with the Time stretch ratio, much like when speeding up or slowing down a tape recorder.
Pitch Correction
Setting
Description
Audio quantize
When this option is activated, the length of the resulting file will be exactly the one displayed in the
“Desired result” section of the dialog. When it is
deactivated, the actual file length may differ by a
few milliseconds.
If you don’t need this accuracy, you should leave
the option deactivated, for a slightly better audio
quality.
Rhythm accuracy
Pitch Correction is a function which allows you to detect,
and to change, the pitch of a sound, with or without affecting its length.
This is only available if “Standard” or “High Quality”
mode is selected. Set this parameter according to
whether the rhythmic feel of the audio material has
a high priority or not. If you set this to a high value,
the timing and rhythmic feel will be preserved as far
as possible, which is important for drum tracks, etc.
If you set it to a low value, the audio quality can be
slightly better, but sections of audio might be
moved slightly (in the milliseconds region) in the
process.
Limitations
Time stretch is a very complicated Digital Signal Processing (DSP) operation. It requires complicated mathematical
operations and always affects the sound quality to some
extent:
• For speech, stretch factors within a ±30% limit will normally
provide very good results.
• For composite music, try to limit the range to ±10%.
• For sensitive material, like solo piano, try not to exceed ±3%.
Amount of shift
Ö Note that if the DIRAC algorithm is used (see below),
the above range recommendations can be extended and
still produce very good results.
This allows you to specify the amount of pitch change in
semitones and/or cents.
Pitch detection
About the DIRAC processor
WaveLab Studio can analyze an audio selection and detect the pitch of the audio. Click the “Find current pitch of
audio selection” button to perform the detection. The
found pitch is displayed below the button.
The DIRAC (DIRAC Time Stretch/Pitch Shift technology,
©2005 Stephan M. Bernsee) engine is a very high quality
time stretcher, perhaps the best available on the market
today. It will produce the best quality results possible, but
the trade-off is longer processing times. In WaveLab Studio, you can use the DIRAC algorithm to process mono or
stereo files with up to 96kHz sample rates.
You also have the option to automatically compute the required pitch shift, based on the currently detected pitch
and the pitch specified in the value field below the “According to the current pitch, etc.” button. When the button
is clicked the “Amount of Shift” parameters are automatically adjusted to the computed pitch shift.
• If you check the “Use DIRAC processor” box there will be an
extra quality mode available (“Best (very slow)”).
• The selected quality mode affects the processing speed to
large extent. Be prepared for very long processing times if the
“Best (very slow)” option is used.
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Length compensation
About the DIRAC processor
This allows you to set how the length of the selection
should be affected by the operation.
The DIRAC engine (DIRAC Time Stretch/Pitch Shift technology, ©2005 Stephan M. Bernsee) is a very high quality
pitch shifter, perhaps the best available on the market today. It will produce the best quality results possible, but
the trade off is longer processing times. In WaveLab Studio, you can use the DIRAC algorithm to process files with
up to 96kHz sample rates, but not over.
• A setting of 100 means that the length will be the same after
the operation.
• A setting of 0 means that the program will behave like a tape
recorder does when the speed of its tape is varied. For example, if you raise the pitch by one octave, the sound will become
half as long.
• Intermediate values will give results in between these two extremes.
• For large transposition values, the lower this setting is, the
better the quality of the effect will be.
• If you check the “Use DIRAC processor” box there will be an
extra quality mode available (“Best (very slow)”).
• The selected quality mode affects the processing speed to
large extent. Be prepared for very long processing times if the
“Best (very slow)” option is used.
Additional settings
Pitch Bend
Setting
Description
Quality
There are three Quality settings, “Quick Process”, “Standard” and “High Quality”. The High
Quality mode provides very high quality pitch
correction, but the process will take longer. For
most uses, the Standard mode is probably sufficient. If the DIRAC processor is used you will
get an additional setting; “Best”.
Audio Quantize
When this option is activated, the processed file
will have the exact same sample length as the
original. When it is deactivated, the resulting file
length may differ by a few milliseconds.
If you don’t need this length accuracy, you
should leave the option deactivated, for a slightly
better audio quality.
Preserve Formants
When this option is activated, changing the
pitch of vocal material will give a more realistic
result. When you are processing non-vocal material, you should leave this option deactivated,
since it uses a slightly slower processing algorithm.
Warning: this algorithm might increase the signal level. If your audio material has a high level,
you may need to lower its level before pitch
shifting.
In fact, the best solution is to use this effect from
the Batch Processor, followed by a normalizer.
Rhythm Accuracy
This is only available if “Standard” or “High
Quality” mode is selected. Set this parameter
according to whether the rhythmic feel of the audio material has a high priority or not. If you set
this to a high value, the timing and rhythmic feel
will be preserved as far as possible, which is important for drum tracks, etc. If you set it to a low
value, the audio quality can be slightly better, but
sections of audio might be moved slightly (in the
milliseconds region) in the process.
Use DIRAC processor
This is described below.
This function utilizes a high quality pitch shifting engine
that lets you create stunning effects, by gradually changing the pitch of a sound according to a set envelope
curve.
Range
Specify the maximum range in semitones for the pitch
change. When you change this value, the vertical ruler reflects the changes. You can right-click or double-click in
the dialog box to bring up a slider.
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Harmonization
Envelope
In this window, you draw the curve that the pitch should
follow.
• Create and erase points by double clicking.
• Select points by clicking on them.
By pressing [Ctrl] when clicking, you can select more than
one point and later move them together. Selected points
don’t have to be contiguous. You can also click anywhere
in the window and drag the mouse over the envelope
points to select them.
• You can drag any segment to move the whole envelope curve
up and down.
• You can drag a single segment vertically by pressing [Ctrl]
and moving the segment up and down.
• You can drag a single segment horizontally by pressing [Ctrl]
+ [Shift] and moving the segment left and right.
This is a variation of the Pitch Correction, which allows
you to create not only one shifted voice, but up to sixteen!
Functions
Setting up the voices
You can access these functions either from the Functions
menu, or by clicking the corresponding icon:
1. Set the scroll bar to the voice for which you want to
make settings.
Option
Description
Which voice is currently shown is indicated just above the scroll bar.
Deselect all points
Select this option to deselect points (selected points are red, unselected points are
yellow).
2. Activate the voice by clicking the check box.
Delete selected points
All selected points will be deleted.
3. Set up the amount of pitch shift for this voice, by adjusting the Semitones and Cents values.
Reset selected points
All selected points will be set to position “0”
(no pitch change).
The maximum range is ±36 semitones (±3 octaves). The cents value adjusts the pitch within one semitone, that is, 50 means a quarter tone.
Reset whole envelope
The envelope curve will be reset to its default
shape (2 points and no pitch change).
Flip Vertical
All envelope points will be moved to the opposite side of the horizontal axis.
4. If you want one of the voices to play back the original
wave (at the recorded pitch), activate one voice for this
and set both its Semitones and Cents settings to 0.
Flip Horizontal
The envelope curve will be reversed (the start
becomes the end, and vice versa).
Smooth envelope
Activate this option if you wish to make the
envelope curve smoother (no straight lines
between points).
Undo
Select this option if you want to undo the last
envelope change.
Redo
Select this option if you want to redo the last
undone change.
6. Use the scroll bar to select the next voice and set this
up like the first.
Apply
Click this button when you have set up the
envelope curve and want to apply the effect
on the audio selection.
The text to the right of the Pan control tells you how many voices are activated.
5. If you are processing a stereo selection or if you have
activated “Create stereo wave” (see below), you can adjust the stereo position of the voice by using the Pan control.
If you pull the slider all the way left or right, this voice will be played in that
channel only.
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EQ
Additional controls
Control
Description
Preserve level
When this is activated, the resulting audio will have the
same level as the original, even though a number of
voices have been added.
Create stereo
wave
If you are operating from a mono selection you can still
create a stereo wave by activating this option. The processed wave will then open in a new window.
Please note that by specifying very small pitch shift
amounts (a few cents only) and panning the detuned
voices hard left and right, you can create stereo material
out of mono recordings without a noticeable change in
pitch. Please try to keep a balance in the detuning. If for
example you set one voice to +5 cents, set another to -5
cents.
Hi-fi Chorus
This is a three-band equalizer with high and low shelving
filters and a full parametric mid-frequency band. The following parameters are available on the Settings tab:
This chorus works slightly differently from many others.
Often chorusing is achieved by delaying a copy of the signal, continuously varying the amount of delay and mixing
the delayed signal back in with the original.
While this is adequate for many purposes, WaveLab Studio takes a more natural approach to creating chorus.
Since a chorus effect is about making a recording sound
as if it was performed by many “identical musicians”,
WaveLab Studio takes just that approach. It multiplies the
recording up to 100 times and detunes and delays each
“voice” slightly and – if so desired – pans the voices
across the stereo image.
Parameter
Description
High Shelf Gain
Determines the boost or cut (in dB) of the high
shelving filter.
High Shelf
Frequency
Sets the frequency of the high shelving filter. Frequencies above this value will gradually be increased or reduced in level, according to the High
Gain setting.
Mid Shelf Gain
Determines the boost or cut (in dB) of the Mid
range EQ.
Mid Shelf
Frequency
Sets the center frequency of the Mid range EQ.
Frequencies around this value will be affected by
the Mid Gain.
Mid Q
Use this parameter to set the width of the Mid
range, i.e. how wide a frequency range around the
Mid Frequency should be affected by the Mid range
EQ. The higher this value, the “narrower” the Mid
range.
Low Shelf Gain
Determines the boost or cut (in dB) of the low
shelving filter.
Low Shelf
Frequency
Sets the frequency of the low shelving filter. Frequencies below this value will gradually be increased or reduced in level, according to the Low
Gain setting.
To find out exactly what each control does, click the question mark icon in the dialog.
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Presets tab
2. Select the desired sample rate from the pop-up menu
and click OK.
The Presets tab features a list of EQ presets, with self-explanatory names.
If you want to change any other audio properties (e.g. the bit resolution or
stereo/mono status), you can do this in one of two ways:
• Open the Audio Properties dialog from the Edit menu and
make the desired settings (see “Editing audio properties” on
page 56).
• Open the Audio File Format dialog by selecting “Save as” on
the File menu and clicking the Properties button in the lower
section of the dialog (see “Saving in another format (Save
as…)” on page 51).
• To load a preset, select it in the list and click the “Load”
button.
• If you have modified a preset which you wish to save,
use the “Update” button.
• You can also save your own presets by typing in a name
and clicking the “Add” button.
!
Convert sample rate
This function allows you to change the sample rate of a recording. This is very convenient if you have a file that you
wish to use in a certain audio system and find that the file
was recorded at a sample rate this system doesn’t support. Please note that Sample rate conversion can also be
done as part of the Saving process (see “Saving in another format (Save as…)” on page 51).
Sample rate conversion is always applied to the entire file. Any selection you have made is not used in
any way for this operation.
Support for reNOVAtor™
If this audio restoration plugin is installed on your system,
you can select it from the Tools menu.
This menu option is enabled if a wave window is open and
an audio selection is active (it can be both channels or a
single channel).
Please note the following:
• Sample rate conversion from a low frequency upwards does
not improve sound quality. The high frequencies that were lost
due to a low recording frequency cannot be restored by a
conversion.
• When you sample rate convert down to a lower frequency,
high frequency material will be lost (this is part of the mathematics behind digital audio). Therefore, do not convert down
and then up again, since this will lead to a degradation in
sound quality (unless that’s exactly what you’re after). Instead,
use the Undo and Redo functions.
Selecting “reNOVAtor…” from the menu opens this plugin and the active audio range is edited. The plug-in window is non-modal, hence you can work in WaveLab Studio without closing the plug-in.
Go to http://www.algorithmix.com/en/renovator.htm for
more info.
Performing the sample rate conversion
1. Select Convert sample rate from the Process menu.
This opens the Sample Rate dialog.
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Off-line processing
9
Master Section
Introduction
There are six slots for inserting effect processors. Effects can be turned
on or off with the On buttons, and reordered by dragging the slots.
The Master Section is the heart of WaveLab Studio’s
“Real-time Engine” and the final block in the signal path,
before the audio is sent to the audio hardware (or to an
audio file on disk). This is where you adjust master levels,
add effect processors and dither.
Indicates that an effect is activated.
The Effects pane allows you to
add and manage effect processors. See “The Effects
pane” on page 96.
The settings and processors in the Master Section are
taken into account in the following cases:
Ö When playing back an audio file in a Wave window.
Indicates that the level faders are
active (any setting other than
0.00), or that the Mono button is
activated.
Ö When playing back an Audio Montage.
Note that the Master Section effects are global for all clips and tracks in
a Montage, as opposed to the individual clip or track effects.
Level faders.
Ö When using the Render function with any of the
above.
The Master Level pane. This is
where you adjust the final output
level. See “The Master level pane”
on page 94.
The Render function writes the outputs of the Master Section to a file on
disk, allowing you to apply Master Section processing to a Wave or mix
down a Montage to an audio file. See “Rendering” on page 102.
Activate this for mono output.
About the “Use Master Section” option
Here you can insert a post-master
fader effect, such as Apogee UV22
or other dithering plug-ins, replacing
the internal dithering.
If you don’t need the Master Section at all, you can turn it
off completely by deactivating the Use Master Section
setting on the Options menu. This will save processor
power, but makes the following sections of the program
unavailable:
Indicates that dithering is on.
The Dithering pane lets you add dithering when mixing down to a lower
bit resolution. See “The Dithering
pane” on page 99.
• The Master Section window, including processors and dithering.
• Several functions of the Monitor window.
• The Batch Processor.
• Audio CD Burning from the Audio Montage.
Options for the internal dithering
algorithm.
Click here to render the output to a file.
The Master Section window
Ö When you open the Master Section, active effect processor panels will also appear (if they haven’t been hidden).
To open the Master Section window, you can either select
it from the Specialized Windows submenu on the View
menu, click the Master Section button on the Window
controller bar or press [Ctrl]-[F9].
To close the Master Section, select it from the menu again
(or click the Master Section button again).
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Master Section
The Master level pane
Showing and hiding panes
You can independently hide the three Master Section
panes in any combination:
• Clicking on the Hide button for a pane will “fold” it, leaving only the pane title bar visible.
This is useful for saving screen space, if you e.g. don’t need to see the
Dithering settings. Note that the green indicator for the pane will still be
visible when the pane is hidden, allowing you to see at a glance whether
effects, master volume or dithering are used or not.
The Faders
The faders in the Master level pane govern the final output
level. Use these in conjunction with the level meters (those
next to the fader, or even better, the meters in the Level/
Pan Meter window) and the clip indicators to optimize the
level of the signal sent to the audio hardware.
• To show a hidden pane, click its Hide button again.
• Right-clicking (or [Ctrl]-clicking) a Hide button will hide the
other two panes and bring the clicked pane to view (if hidden).
• Double clicking a Hide button will hide or show that pane and
the pane(s) below it.
!
About the signal path
The three panes in the Master Section window correspond to the Master Section’s three “processing blocks”:
Effects, Master Level and Dithering. The signal passes
through these blocks from top to bottom, as shown in this
figure:
To adjust the level, use the following methods:
1. To make coarse adjustments, click a fader handle and
drag it.
You can also click directly anywhere along the fader scale to move the
fader handle there immediately.
Audio from WaveLab
Slot 1
Slot 6
Note that the signal passes
through the effects in series
(from top to bottom) – reordering the effect slots affects the
signal path.
2. For fine adjustments, click on the upper or lower half
of the fader handle.
This raises or lowers the level by a small amount.
• To reset a fader to 0.00 dB, press [Ctrl] and click anywhere on the fader.
When both faders are set to 0.00 (and the Mono button isn’t activated),
the Master level section will not affect the signal at all. This is indicated
by the green indicator for the Master pane going dark.
Master Level
Master Section meters monitor
the signal here.
Dithering
(or post-master effect)
Audio Hardware
(or file on disk)
It’s particularly important to avoid clipping (signal levels exceeding the available headroom), especially
when mastering. Clipping is indicated by the Master
Section’s clip indicators (see below) and by the
number of clip indicators in the Level/Pan meter.
• You can control the faders using a wheel mouse.
This has to be activated in the Preferences–Environment tab.
Meters in the Meter windows
monitor the signal here.
The fader settings are shown numerically below each
fader.
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Master Section
About the Unlink mode
The Mono button
The Unlink button determines whether the faders should
be individually adjustable (indicated by a lit Unlink button)
or “ganged”. Normally, you will probably want Unlink deactivated, so that moving one fader also moves the other
by the same amount. Turning on Unlink allows you to correct improper stereo balancing by adjusting the channels’
levels individually. Note:
If you activate the Mono button, the two channels will be
summed to mono. Furthermore, the output level is automatically reduced by -6dB, to avoid clipping. The Mono
button is useful for checking mono compatibility of stereo
mixes, etc.
Ö If the Mono button is activated, the green indicator for
the Master level pane will be lit, even if the master level
isn’t adjusted.
Ö If you offset the faders (with Unlink turned on) and
then deactivate Unlink again, you can adjust the overall
level without changing the level offset between the channels.
This helps you avoid accidentally leaving the Mono button activated.
The Dropout indicator
In other words, moving one fader will move the other one by the same
amount, relative to its current setting. Note that the faders use an exponential scale – this means that when you move one fader, the other does
not follow in a linear fashion on the screen. However, the audio result is
what you expect.
This indicator lights up whenever WaveLab Studio fails to
properly play back as little as a single sample of the currently selected wave. A dropout is most likely to occur
when your computer does not have the processing power
to adequately handle all effect processors you have inserted.
Ö Fader offsets are not preserved at the end of the range
of movement.
To avoid dropouts, try the following:
The Meters
• Use fewer effects.
The Master Section meters show the signal level of the
signal before dithering (or any other plug-in you have applied post-master fader – see “Adding other plug-ins to
the Dithering pane” on page 100). Use these to get an
overview of the signal levels.
You might be running out of processing power.
• Consider “Rendering” the processing rather than running it in real time. Then master from the processed file
without any processors plugged in. See “Rendering” on
page 102.
Dropouts never occur when “Rendering” to a file.
• The numeric fields above the faders show the peak levels (the highest signal levels reached) for each channel.
• Do not process any files in the background while mastering digitally to a DAT for example. See “Working with
multiple files” on page 104.
They will hold these values until you click on them to reset them.
• The red “LEDs” above the meters are clip indicators,
which will light up whenever the signal clips (exceeds the
maximum available headroom).
• If neither of the above helps, please check the audio
card preference settings, you might need to adjust the audio buffer settings.
If this happens, you should lower the faders, reset the clip indicators by
clicking on one of them, and play back the section again until no clipping
occurs.
!
If a dropout occurs during a real-time mastering process
(and if your master needs to be flawless) we recommend
that you re-master. Stop playback, click on the dropout indicator to reset it, and try again.
For critical level metering, we recommend using the
level/pan meter (see “The meters” on page 69). Not
only is this more detailed, it’s also applied after the
whole Master Section (after dithering) and will thus
show the actual signal level sent to the audio hardware.
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Master Section
Ö As mentioned above, this indicator lights up as soon
as even a single sample is not played back correctly. This
type of precision is not often required, but it’s there if you
need it.
Selecting effects and managing slots
To select an effect plug-in for a slot, click on the slot (or
the numbered button to the right of the slot) and select an
effect from the pop-up menu that appears. Note that effects can be organized in groups (see “Organizing plug-in
processors” on page 257), in which case they will appear
in hierarchical submenus.
The Effects pane
Selecting an effect from the VST group.
WaveLab Studio allows you to insert up to six effect plugins in series (plus an additional, post-master fader plug-in,
normally used for dithering, see “The Dithering pane” on
page 99). Three plug-in formats are supported in the Master Section:
!
• WaveLab Studio-specific plug-ins, included with the
program.
The number of effects available on the menu depends on which plug-ins you have installed. It’s also
possible to globally deactivate or exclude effects you
don’t need, as described in the section “Activating
and deactivating plug-ins and groups” on page 257.
When you have selected an effect, it is automatically activated (the On button lights up), and its control panel appears as a separate window (see “Making settings – The
Effect control panels” on page 97 for more on effect control panels).
• VST plug-ins.
Steinberg’s VST plug-in format is supported by a lot of programs and
plug-in manufacturers. You will find a number of VST plug-ins included
with WaveLab Studio; other plug-ins can be purchased separately from
Steinberg or other manufacturers or in some cases downloaded from the
Internet.
Note also that if you have Cubase installed on your computer, the effects
that were included with Cubase can optionally also be available in WaveLab Studio (provided that they are installed in the “Shared VST Plug-ins”
folder, see the Cubase documentation for details). Whether the effects in
the “Shared VST Plug-ins” folder should be available in WaveLab Studio
or not is set in the Preferences–VST tab. You can also specify an extra
VST plug-ins folder in the Preferences if you wish, meaning that you can
have access to both the effects in the “Shared VST Plug-ins” folder and
the effects in some other folder containing VST plug-ins.
• You can turn off an effect (without removing it) by clicking its On button.
To activate the effect again, click the On button so that it lights up.
• To hide the control panel for an effect, right-click its On
button (or right-click the effect slot and select Hide from
the pop-up menu that appears).
A hidden control panel can be shown by right-clicking the On button
again (or by selecting Show from the same pop-up). You can also have
one effect panel shown and automatically hide all the other panels, by
right-clicking the Solo button for the slot.
• Plug-ins that adhere to the Microsoft DirectX standard.
• Clicking the Solo button for an effect will bypass all
other effect slots, allowing you to check the sound of that
effect only.
These are known as DirectX or DX plug-ins and are also widely available.
You can also bypass effects manually in their control panels – see below.
96
Master Section
• You can change the order of the slots (and thus the order in which the signal passes through the effects) by
clicking a slot and dragging it to a new position.
Bypass, Mute and Preset
As you can see in the figure above, the three buttons
above the actual panel are common to both kinds of control panel windows. They have the following functionality:
When you drag, a dotted outline shows the position of the slot.
• Clicking the Bypass button will temporarily bypass the
effect.
Unlike turning off the On button for the slot, the bypass function does not
free up any processing power. Note that you can bypass all effects except one by using the Solo button for a slot. It’s also possible to bypass
all effects by using the global bypass button in the Effects pane. Also
note that bypassing effects is for playback only, and does not affect rendering. To deactivate an effect when rendering, use the On/Off buttons
in the Master Section effect pane.
• The Mute button turns off the signal output from the effect.
This means that you will no longer hear your signal because it won’t even
reach the next stage (either another slot or the master faders).
• To remove an effect from a slot, right-click the slot and
select Remove from the pop-up menu that appears.
• The Preset button allows you to select and edit presets
for the effect.
This is the same as selecting “None” from the effect selection pop-up
menu.
This is described in the section “Working with effect processor presets”
on page 98.
Making settings – The Effect control panels
Standard panels
The control panel window is where you make settings for
an effect. Plug-ins can either have specialized control
panels (with any combination of knobs, sliders, buttons
and displays) or use standard panels.
A standard panel shows parameter names and values in
the display to the left. To make settings, use the slider beside the corresponding parameter.
Custom panels
An effect plug-in can actually have any control panel that
the plug-in designer desires. There are several examples
of custom panel plug-ins included with WaveLab Studio.
For information about the panels for additional plug-ins,
see the documentation for each plug-in.
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Master Section
Working with effect processor presets
About the effect plug-ins supplied with
WaveLab Studio
With WaveLab Studio comes a number of “factory presets” for the included processors, which you can either
select and use as is, or use as a starting point for your own
settings. Additional plug-in processors may provide their
own “factory presets”.
Included with WaveLab Studio is a large number of plugins for all kinds of purposes, audio compression, chorus,
stereo enhancement, reverb, etc. The parameters for each
plug-in are described in the “Plug-in Processor Reference” in the online documentation.
Ö To access the presets for an effect, click the Preset
button in its control panel window.
Installing additional effect plug-ins
The result and available functions depend on the type of plug-in:
If you have purchased or downloaded additional plug-ins
(VST or DirectX), you need to install these to be able to
use them in WaveLab Studio. Normally, plug-ins come
with an installer application of some kind, along with a
manual or installation notes – make sure to follow the instructions in these when installing the plug-in.
WaveLab Studio specific plug-ins
Applying and saving presets for WaveLab Studio specific
processors works exactly as with any other preset, apart
from the fact that there are no preset “tabs” or menu items
as in dialogs. Instead, clicking the Preset button will open
a separate Preset dialog. The options in this dialog are exactly the same as for dialogs with Preset tabs. See “Presets” on page 28 for more details.
About installing DirectX plug-ins
Normally if the DirectX plug-in has been installed properly,
it will automatically be “visible” in WaveLab Studio. If it
isn’t, you need to “update the Windows registry” so that it
is. Proceed as follows:
VST-compatible plug-ins
VST plug-ins have their own preset handling. When you
click the Preset button for this type of effect, a pop-up
menu with the following options appears:
Item
Description
Load/Save Bank…
This allows you to load and save complete sets of
presets. The file format is compatible with Cubase.
Load/Save Default
Bank
This allows you to load the default set of presets
(as will appear when first loading the plug-in) or
save the current set of presets as the default bank.
Load/Save Effect
Lets you load or save one preset at a time. Also
compatible with Cubase.
Edit name of current
program…
This allows you to define a name for the preset,
which might be displayed in the panel (depending
on the plug-in).
Preset List
This allows you to select one of the currently
loaded presets.
1. In Windows, locate the actual plug-in file on your hard
disk.
These are “dll” (dynamic link library) files, which means they normally
have the extension “.dll”. Sometimes other extensions are used as well.
2. Drag and drop the file icon, either onto the WaveLab
Studio program icon, or somewhere in the WaveLab Studio application window.
A dialog box will ask you whether you want to register the plug-in or not.
Organizing plug-ins
You can specify which plug-ins should be available in the
program and how these should be organized on the
menus. See “Organizing plug-in processors” on page
257.
DirectX plug-ins
Here, the same functionality is provided as for WaveLab
Studio plug-ins. In addition, you can import “native” presets created for the plug-in.
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Master Section
The Dithering pane
When should I apply dithering?
The basic rule-of-thumb is that you should dither when
moving to a lower bit resolution. One obvious instance of
this is when converting an audio file to a lower resolution
(e.g. preparing a 24-bit file for mastering to CD, which
uses 16-bit format).
However, even if you’re playing back or rendering a 16-bit
file to the same resolution, you need to dither if you’re using any real-time processing whatsoever in WaveLab Studio! The reason for this is that WaveLab Studio works with
an internal resolution of 32-bit (floating point), for supreme
audio quality. This means that as soon as you perform any
kind of real-time processing, the audio data will be treated
at this high resolution instead of the original 16 bits, thus
making dithering necessary.
The Dithering pane allows you to add dithering to the signal before it’s sent to the audio hardware or to a file on
disk. You can choose between WaveLab Studio’s internal
dithering algorithm, Apogee’s renowned UV22 algorithm
or any external dithering plug-in of your choice. First, some
theory:
Examples of real-time processing include level adjustments, any effects, mixing of two or more clips in a Montage, etc. In fact, the only time when a 16-bit file will be
played back at 16-bit resolution is if you play it without any
fades or effects, and with the Master Faders set to 0.00
(no level adjustment – Master level indicator turned off).
What is dithering?
Dithering is a method for reducing quantization errors in
digital recordings. In the case of WaveLab Studio, dithering is applied when reducing the number of bits in a recording, for example when moving from 24 to 16 bits, and
when applying processing.
Ö To make sure whether you need to dither or not, use
the Bit Meter to check the actual resolution of your audio
signals.
The theory behind this is that during low level passages,
only a few bits are used to represent the signal, which
leads to quantization errors and hence distortion. To the
ear, this is perceived as “graininess” during low level passages in a recording.
The Bit Meter is described in the section “Bit Meter” on page 73.
Selecting a dithering algorithm
When “truncating bits”, as a result of moving from for example 24- to 16-bit resolution, such quantization noise is
added to an otherwise immaculate recording.
To select and activate a dithering algorithm, click on the
arrow button next to the plug-in slot in the Dithering pane,
and select one of the options from the pop-up menu that
appears. The default options are “Intern” (WaveLab Studio’s internal dithering algorithm) and “UV22” (dithering
algorithm developed by Apogee). However, you can also
add other plug-ins to this list, see “Adding other plug-ins
to the Dithering pane” on page 100.
By adding a special kind of noise at an extremely low level,
the quantization errors are minimized. Indeed, the added
noise can be perceived as a very low-level quiescent hiss
added to the recording. However, this is hardly noticeable
and much preferred to the distortion that otherwise occurs.
Ö When you select the “UV22” option, a special control
panel appears. This is where you make the UV22 dithering
settings (see “UV22 Dithering” on page 100).
Ö The reason for the dithering block to be last in the
Master Section is that the output level must not be
changed after dithering a signal.
This is handled in the same way as regular effect control panels – you
can hide or show it by right-clicking on the slot, bypass it in the control
panel, etc. The same is true if you select any plug-in other than the “Intern” option. For the internal dithering, the controls in the Dithering pane
are used, as described below.
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Master Section
Once you have selected a dithering algorithm, dithering is
active (as indicated by the green indicator for the Dithering pane). It will apply to all playback (through the Master
Section) or rendering.
UV22 Dithering
Ö To turn off dithering completely, right click in the slot
and select “Remove” from the pop-up menu that appears.
This is the same as selecting “None” from the effect selection pop-up
menu.
Making settings
When dithering, there are no hard and fast rules for how to
set up the parameters – this largely depends on the type
of material. We recommend that you experiment and let
your ears be the final judge.
The UV22 is a dithering plug-in based on an algorithm developed by Apogee.
The available parameters are different for the internal algorithm and the UV22 algorithms:
Normal
Try this first, it is the most “all-round” type.
Low
This applies a lower level of dither noise.
Internal dithering
Autoblack
When this is activated, the dither noise is gated
(muted) during silent passages in the material.
Option
Description
Adding other plug-ins to the Dithering pane
Parameter
Description
Noise Type
Determines the dithering method used:
In “Off” mode, no dithering is applied – use this as a
Bypass function.
The “Type 1” mode is the most “all-round” type of
method.
The “Type 2” mode emphasizes higher frequencies
more than Type 1.
Noise Shaping
Output Bit
Resolution
If you have purchased another dithering plug-in that you
prefer, you can use this instead of the internal or UV22
dithering. It’s also possible to insert some other type of
plug-in in the Dithering pane – it will be applied after the
Master level faders (possible useful plug-ins would be
maximizers, limiters, etc.).
!
This parameter alters the character of the noise added
when dithering. Again, there are no hard and fast rules,
but you may notice that the higher the number you select here, the more the noise is moved out of the ear’s
most sensitive range, the mid-range.
Please remember that the meters in the Master Section monitor the signal before the Dithering pane! To
avoid clipping, check the Level/Pan Meter and adjust
the output level setting of the plug-in, if available.
To make a plug-in available on the plug-in slot pop-up
menu in the Dithering pane, proceed as follows:
1. Pull down the Options menu and select “Organize
Master Section plug-ins…”.
This is where you specify the intended bit resolution for
the final audio, after dithering, regardless of whether
you will “Render” the settings or play back in real-time.
It is very important to set this to the correct resolution!
Dithering will change the sample resolution, but not the
sample size. E.g. when dithering 24-bit to 16-bit, the
file will be still be 32-bit in size, although only 16 bits of
information will have significance.
Hence, when rendering to a 16-bit file, specify the desired file resolution to avoid wasting space!
A dialog appears, listing all plug-ins installed in your system. See “Organizing plug-in processors” on page 257.
2. Locate the plug-in in the list.
Note that plug-ins can be placed in groups (folders) in the list – click the
plus sign next to a folder to view the contents of a group if needed.
3. Activate the checkbox in the PM column for the plugin.
PM stands for “Post Master fader”.
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Master Section
Ö The presets are saved automatically when you quit the
program. The next time you load the program, the presets
are ready and waiting, just as you left them.
4. Click OK to close the dialog.
Now, the plug-in will appear on the pop-up menu in the
Dithering pane, and can be inserted after the Master Level
faders (as with the regular dithering types). You make settings for the plug-in like you would for effects in the Effects pane. Note also that the plug-in will still be available
for selection as a regular, pre-master effect.
Loading a preset
To load a preset, select it in the list to the left, and click on
one of the Load buttons, depending on the desired load
method:
Master Section presets
• The Replace method replaces all settings in the Master
Section with the setting in the preset.
• The Mask method replaces only those slots in the Master Section that are actually used in the preset.
• The Append method fills the unused slots in the Master
Section with the settings in the preset.
If there are not enough free slots available to load the entire preset, a
warning message will appear.
Modifying a preset
1. Set up the Master Section as desired.
If you only want to adjust a few settings in an existing preset, you may
want to load this first, as described above.
2. Go back to the “Master Section Presets” window.
3. Select the preset you want to overwrite with the new
settings.
You can turn all settings currently made in the Master
Section into a preset. This includes which processors
were used, what settings were made for each one of
them, and dithering options.
4. Click the Update button.
• To update settings for the last loaded preset you can
[Ctrl]-click the Presets button.
This will save any changes without having to open the dialog.
Creating presets
Deleting a preset
To create a new preset, proceed as follows:
To delete a preset, select it in the list to the left and click
the Delete button.
1. Set up the Master Section as you want it.
This includes selecting Processors, making settings, and setting dithering options.
Using key sequences for presets
2. Click the Presets button in the Effects pane.
If you want to invoke a preset via a key command sequence, you can do this by defining key sequences.
3. Type in a name for the preset in the upper right corner.
4. If you want the dithering options and Master level settings to be part of the preset, make sure “Save Dither/
Level settings” is activated.
A key sequence contains between one and three keys that
must be pressed in a certain order to recall the preset.
This is the default.
5. Click Add.
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Master Section
Rendering
Defining key sequences
1. Select the preset for which you want to create a key
sequence, and click the key sequence button.
2. If you want to clear the current key sequence, click
Clear.
While the Master Section can perform all processing in
real time during playback, it’s also possible to save the audio output to a file on disk. This is done with the Render
function.
3. Make sure Catch mode is active.
There are several uses for Rendering:
4. Press the first combination of keys that you want to
use.
• Mix down a complete Audio Montage to an audio file.
This can be a goal in itself, but can also be necessary if your Montage
uses e.g. more effects than the system can handle in real time. By Rendering it to a file first, and creating a CD from this file instead, you can
avoid dropouts and CD burning failure.
You can include modifiers ([Shift], [Ctrl], [Alt], etc.) if you like. There is
also a setting that makes the program distinguish between two modifiers
with the same label, on each side of the space bar.
5. Proceed with the following key(s).
• Mix down a file in a Wave window to a new audio file,
complete with Master Section effects, dithering and other
settings.
6. Disable Catch mode.
This is just a safety measure so that you don’t accidentally erase or add
to your current key sequence, when pressing more keys.
You can freely choose the format of the new audio file, allowing you to
create an mp3 file and add effects at the same time, for example.
7. Close the dialog.
• “Apply” all settings in the Master Section to a file in a
Wave window.
8. Use the Default Key Action buttons to decide whether
your key sequences will invoke the “Replace”, “Mask” or
“Append” load method.
This is the same as the previous option, but the Master Section processing will transparently and permanently be “applied” to the current file instead.
This setting is global to all Key sequences.
!
Using key sequences
Key sequences can only be invoked when the Master
Section Presets dialog is closed. Press the keys in the order they were entered in the dialog, and the preset is
loaded.
Rendering Audio Montages is described in the Audio
Montage chapter (see “Mixing down – The Render
function” on page 192). This section describes Rendering waves.
What is rendered?
When you use Render, all Master Section settings (effects, master levels, dithering, etc.) are included in the resulting audio file. In other words, what you hear is what
you get.
Saving and loading preset groups
You can save one or more created presets as a preset
group for easy access. If you have added presets to the
Preset window and want to save them as a group, use the
drop-down menu at the bottom of the dialog to enter a
name for the group and save it.
Ö One thing to note: the Bypass switch affects playback
only, while the effect On switches affect both playback
and Rendering.
When you have saved a set of presets as a group, you can
delete the presets themselves, since they are saved in the
group and can be recalled by selecting that group from
the drop-down menu.
This function is useful if you are working on several
projects, since it makes for a convenient way to keep specific Master Section presets for specific projects well organized and easily accessible.
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Master Section
Calling up the Render dialog and filling out the
options
Option
Description
Copy markers
If this is ticked, the resulting new file will contain all
markers present in the original file.
Click the Render button to call up the following dialog:
Do crossfade at
“Do crossfade at boundaries” is useful when proboundaries/Do fade- cessing in place (selection or regions), because it alin/out at boundaries lows smooth transitions between the processed/
non-processed parts.
“Do fade-in/out at boundaries” is selectable when
“Process in place” is not activated. In this case, the
generated files get a short fade-in at the start, and a
short fade-out at the end.
The crossfade time and shape is set in the “Default
fade/crossfade” section in the Preferences–Wave
edit tab.
Create named file
If this is activated, the resulting new file will be saved (not
temporary). The field below the checkbox allows you to
specify a name and location for the file, and you can click
the audio properties button to set the desired audio format. Clicking the “Rename as source” button will set the
file name to the same as the file being processed (but retaining any path you have specified above).
The Render dialog for Wave windows (for information on Rendering Audio Montages, see “Mixing down – The Render function” on page 192).
Here is what the options mean:
Option
Description
Selection
Process only the portion that is currently selected
in the Main view.
Ö If you click the audio properties button at the bottom
of the dialog, you open the Audio File Format dialog in
which you can choose the desired format of the file and
make settings for the conversion and encoding. Click the
question mark icon for details about the Audio File Format
dialog.
Whole file
Process the entire file.
Batch…
Skip Mute
Regions
When this is activated, regions between Mute
markers (see “The various marker types” on page
128) will not be included in the resulting file.
This button opens up the Batch Processor (see “Opening
the Batch Processor” on page 112).
Range
This is where you specify what part of the wave to render.
This is only available if “Whole file” is selected and “No
tail” is disabled.
Result
Here, you can choose whether the original wave file
should be changed (“applying” the Master Section settings) or whether a new audio file should be generated.
Option
Description
Process in place
Modifies the original file. If you wish to keep the
changes, you need to save the file again. Note: if you
use this for adding effects to a file, you may want to
activate the “Activate Global Bypass” option on the
Schedule tab (see below).
No tail
If this is activated, the resulting file will end where the
original did, even if the processing adds material (like
for example echoes or reverb tails).
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Master Section
Options on the Schedule tab
Processing the file
• The On Start options determine what WaveLab Studio should
do before rendering:
Once everything is set up correctly, click OK to initiate the
processing. Or, if you change your mind, click Cancel.
Stop playback
Stops playback to free up some processing
power. This option is not available if playback is
already stopped.
Open Monitor window
Opens the Monitor window, see “The Monitor
window” on page 104.
Ö Tip: If you just need to process the current audio selection in place, you can press [Ctrl] while clicking on the
Render button. This will process the audio selection in
place without opening the dialog.
Minimize window
The file window is minimized to free up screen
space.
Settings like Crossfade on/off are kept from the last time you accessed
the dialog.
Working with multiple files
• The On Completion options determine what should happen
after rendering:
Beep
WaveLab Studio will beep to signal that the operation
is completed.
Show
message box
WaveLab Studio will display a message to confirm the
operation. Click OK to continue.
Restore
audio window
Upon completion, WaveLab Studio will restore a minimized window (see above) to its original size.
Activate
Global Bypass
WaveLab Studio will automatically activate the Bypass
switch in the Master Section’s Effects pane (see “Bypass, Mute and Preset” on page 97) upon completion.
This allows you to play the processed file back after
rendering, without hearing the effects “twice” (applied
to the file and activated in the Master Section).
Once you have applied settings to one wave, as described below, you can continue with processing the next.
The processing of the first wave will continue in the background. This way you can apply processing to as many
waves as desired. Please also note that each wave can
have its own priority setting, as described below.
!
If you are rendering to MP3 format, you should only
render one file at a time.
The Monitor window
This window allows you to monitor the ongoing processes, check how hard your computer’s CPU is working
with various tasks, and more.
• The Priority setting lets you specify how fast the file should be
processed.
Relax
Background
The file is processed in the background, but priority is
given to audio playback and to your continued work on
other files. This makes WaveLab Studio as responsive as
possible, but slows down processing.
Background
The file is processed in the background but with a lower
priority given to your continued work on other files. This
makes processing faster but the program less responsive.
Try this mode when several files should be processed in
the background.
The Monitor button
Fast
Processing is given a high priority. A fairly high-performance computer may be required to avoid dropouts in
playback.
The window has three displays, selected by clicking the
corresponding tab at the bottom of the window.
!
To open this window, select “Monitor” from the Specialized Windows submenu on the View menu or click the
Monitor button on the Window controller bar.
Any dropouts that occur as a result of too little processing power left will only affect the played file.
Files processed in the background will always be
free of dropouts!
104
Master Section
The Progress display
The following options are available:
The Progress display shows a list with the following columns:
Option
Description
Suspend/Resume
Suspends processing of the wave. The menu
option changes to Resume so that you can activate processing again. When a process is suspended, more CPU power will be available to
the other processes.
Suspend/Resume All
Halts/starts processing of all waves.
Relax Background, Back- Changes the priority status for the wave, see
ground, Fast
“Relax Background” on page 104.
Cancel
Column
Description
Name
The name of each wave or montage being processed.
Progress
How much of the wave has been processed so far.
Remaining time
This indicates how much time is required to finish
the processing.
Priority Boost
The priority assigned to this particular processing
(see “The Priority setting lets you specify how fast
the file should be processed.” on page 104 and below).
Cancels the processing operation for the selected wave, in which case the message in the
Priority Boost column reads Cancelled until
WaveLab Studio has performed all the necessary clean up operations.
The Performance display
Process menu
Even while a wave is being processed, you can change its
settings. Position the pointer in the monitor window and
press the right mouse button.
The Performance display provides an overview of the processing power currently being used.
• The yellow lines refer to the power used for providing input to
the Master Section, i.e. reading waves from disk. Please note
that the values are an approximation.
• The purple lines indicate the processing power that is required for all processors currently running in the Master Section. The shorter the line, the less the load on the CPU. This is
a very precise measurement.
• The blue lines reflect the processing power required by the
output device.
• There is also a number indicating processor usage in percent.
105
Master Section
Customizing the Performance display
The Timecode display
You can customize the way the processing information is
displayed. If you want to see more of what is going on, resize the window.
This has two uses (selected on the Options pop-up menu
in the window):
• To display incoming timecode when synchronizing
WaveLab Studio to external equipment.
Other options are available if you position the cursor anywhere in the black part of the window and press the right
mouse button.
See “Synchronizing WaveLab Studio to external devices” on page 231.
• To show the current position of the playback cursor in
the active Wave or Montage window.
The following options are available:
You can resize the window as desired, changing the size of the numerals.
• You can activate/deactivate the Input, Process, and Output information (see above).
• To get an exact (but not as smooth) picture of the processor
usage, deactivate Average.
• You can select a Zoom factor for the display (50%~400%).
• You can change the direction of the status information flow
(horizontal or vertical).
106
Master Section
10
Spectrum Display
Selecting Spectrum display mode
• The status bar will show exact time/frequency positions
for the mouse pointer.
First, it should be noted that the Spectrum display isn’t really designed to be an alternative to the Wave display
when it comes to standard editing procedures in WaveLab Studio. Using a detailed spectrogram view, it is specifically meant for the purpose of frequency analysis.
• You select Spectrum display mode by clicking the arrow button in the lower right corner of the main view or
overview, and selecting “Spectrum” from the pop-up
menu that appears.
• You can perform standard selection and edit operations, just like in the Wave display.
Note that the Pencil tool is not available.
About the Spectrum options
The Spectrum options dialog allows you to define how the
frequency spectrum should be displayed.
The Spectrum display is a “spectrogram”, where each vertical line represents the frequency spectrum at the corresponding time location. The bottom of the display
corresponds to the lower frequencies while the upper part
of the display represents the higher frequencies.
• You open the dialog by clicking the arrow button in the
lower right corner of the main view or overview, and selecting “Spectrum options…” from the pop-up menu.
The intensity or level of the frequencies are either represented as a color spectrum, from red (maximum intensity)
to purple/black (minimum intensity), or as a monochrome
intensity (depending on the setting in the Spectrum options dialog – see below).
It may take a while to get accustomed to “reading” the
spectrogram, but you will find the effort worthwhile.
• The vertical ruler on the left shows the frequency area
(in Hz) for the spectrum.
108
Spectrum Display
The dialog contains the following items:
Option
Description
Style
Use this to specify whether the Spectrum should be displayed in color or in one of two grayscale modes.
Logarithmic
frequency
scale
If this is activated, each octave in the frequency spectrum
will be equally spaced vertically. However, linear mode
(i.e. this option is not activated) is sometimes better
suited for spectrograms. The reason for this is that for
sound restoration purposes the “interesting” frequencies
are often located in the upper end of the spectrum, and
in linear mode the higher frequencies are displayed over
a larger region.
Range
Any frequency below this level will not be displayed in
the spectrogram. This option allows you to focus the display on the more audible part of the spectrum.
Audio gain
for analysis
This allows you to apply gain to the analysis (audio is unchanged). This helps you find artefacts with low levels.
Resolution
This selects the size of the frequency analysis (FFT). This
analysis calculates the spectrum from a block of audio
samples. The selectable values represent the number of
samples per analysis. The higher the value, the more frequencies can be analyzed, but the analysis will be less
accurately localized in the time domain, and vice versa.
Together with the FFT size, the time and frequency resolution is displayed on the menu.
109
Spectrum Display
11
Batch processing
Introduction
Let’s say you set things up so that a three minute file
should be processed through the following chain of effects:
Batch processing is an extension of the Master Section
Render function (see “Rendering” on page 102). The big
difference is that the Batch Processor can work on any
number of files, and process different files with different
settings. However, it also allows you to do a few other
things that are not available with the Render function:
DC Remover –> Denoiser –> Normalizer (first instance) –
> Compressor –> Normalizer (second instance) –>
MPEG Compression
Of these effects, the DC Remover and the Normalizer(s)
are Multi Pass effects. This means that the signal needs to
pass each of these effects more than once – in this case
twice, first for the effect to analyse the signal (gathering
data for the processing) and then again for the actual processing.
• Have any number of processors applied.
• Use plug-ins not available in the Master Section, see “About
the off-line processors” on page 117.
• Work on files that aren’t open, and save the processed files
directly to disk.
• Change the file format and name of files.
This is how WaveLab Studio would handle the processing
chain in this example:
Furthermore, the Batch Processor is much more effective
than rendering multiple files simultaneously, especially
when a large number of files are processed. This is because it is more efficient for the computer to process the
files one after the other, rather than sharing the processing
power between a number of files, all processed “simultaneously”. The truth is that the Batch Processor in WaveLab Studio is really fast.
Pass 1:
Read file
Transfer
However, there are a few things that you can achieve with
Render in the Master Section that aren’t available from the
Batch Processor. The “No tail” and “Skip Mute sections”
options are only available in the Render dialog.
= disk domain
= RAM
DC Remover
Analysis
During the first “pass”, the audio is read from the file and
passed through the analysis part of the DC Remover. The
other processors don’t need to read the signal at this
stage and are skipped. Nothing is written to disk, the only
result of this pass is the amount of DC removal required.
After only a few seconds of analysis (the DC remover
does not need to read the whole file), the process starts
over.
Ö Note that WaveLab Studio also has a specific batch
file encoding function, for batch converting files from one
format to another.
See “Basic procedure” on page 126.
Pass 2:
An example of the advantages of the WaveLab Studio
Batch Processor
Great care has been taken to make the WaveLab Studio
Batch Processor as effective as possible. We would like
to give you an example to prove this. If you are not yet familiar with the Batch Processor, you might not understand
all the details. Still, this text should give you an insight to
the inner workings of this extremely useful and effective
part of the program.
= disk domain
Read file
DC Remover
Normalizer
Transfer
Process
Analysis
= RAM
During pass two, the DC remover processes the signal,
but it is not saved to disk (which makes the process fast).
It also passes through the first Normalizer for analysis so
that the program is aware of how much Normalization will
be required. The other processors are skipped.
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Batch processing
Pass 3:
= disk domain
Opening the Batch Processor
= RAM
!
Read file
Transfer
DC Remover
Normalizer
Denoiser
Process
Process
Process
“Use Master Section” (on the Options menu) must
be active for batch processing to be available!
There are two basic ways of opening the Batch Processor:
Compressor
Normalizer
• From the Tools menu.
Process
Analysis
This gives you a “clean slate” to start with. You can open as many Batch
Processor windows as you like.
• From the Render dialog (see “Rendering” on page
102).
During pass three, the signal is processed by the DC Remover, the first Normalizer, the Denoiser and Compressor
and is analysed by the second Normalizer. Again, nothing
is saved to disk, the only purpose of this pass is to gather
information about how much normalization will be required.
Pass 4:
= disk domain
This takes the current settings in the Master window and converts them
into a process list (a sequence).
!
For the Batch Processor button to be available in the
Render dialog, “Whole file” must be selected and
“No tail” must be disabled!
= RAM
Overview of the Window
Read file
Transfer
DC Remover
Normalizer
Denoiser
Process
Process
Process
Compressor
Normalizer
Process
Process
MPEG
Encoding
Write file
Process
Transfer
Time for pass four. Now all information has been gathered
so that all the real processing and disk writing can take
place during one single pass.
Thanks to the unique WaveLab Studio technology, the
process finishes much faster than if the file had been read
and written to disk by each processor. Furthermore,
rounding errors are reduced to a minimum since the audio
never leaves the “32 bit domain” (no temporary file is created). This increases the overall sound quality even further!
The Batch Processor window
The window is divided into four tabs:
The Input tab
This is used to set up the files to process. Here you use
various tools and functions to assemble lists of files and
documents.
From the Input tab you can also open the process list,
which allows you to specify exactly what type of processing should be performed on the files.
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Batch processing
The Output tab
Renaming and setting attributes for a batch
This is used to specify where the resulting files should be
stored, how they should be named and in what format they
should be.
To rename a batch, proceed as follows:
The Schedule tab
Alternatively you can hold down [Alt] and double click directly on the
batch.
This is used to set up priorities and post-processing options.
2. Enter the desired name in the dialog.
1. Select the batch in the list and click on the name icon
(the “A”).
Entering a number instead of a name has a special meaning. This will
change the name of the batch to the default name “Batch X”, where X is
the number you typed. All the other batches with default names will be
renumbered accordingly.
The Presets tab
You can create presets of batch settings made on the Input, Output and Schedule tabs. See “Presets” on page 28
for details.
3. If desired, specify an output path for the batch.
This is an advanced option that in many cases will not be necessary. You
will only need to specify a path here if you want to process a number of
batches at the same time and want some of the batches to store their
output files in a different directory. See “Setting up file locations and
names” on page 120 for details.
The Input tab – Assembling a list of
files
!
The functions described in this section are also available on a speed menu (accessed by right-clicking in
the file list).
Setting the order of batches
Batches will be processed in the order they appear in the
list. If you want a certain batch to be processed first, put it
at the top of the list. There are several ways to set the order of batches:
Creating batches
You are not only able to process one batch of files, but
many. Each batch contains a number of files, and all the
files in a batch will be processed identically. However,
each batch can use a totally different set of processors.
• You can move a batch up and down by using the arrow
buttons.
• You can drag and drop a batch to change the order.
• To create a batch, click the button “Create batch folder”
at the top of the list.
Adding and removing files from a batch
In addition, if there is no batch at all, one will be created automatically
when you add the first file, see below.
Ö Regardless of which method you choose from below,
you should first select the batch to which you want to add
the files, by clicking on it.
This will ensure that the files are added to the right batch. If you forget
this, you can always drag files to the right batch later, see “Moving files
between batches” on page 115.
The “Create batch folder” button.
• To remove a batch, select it and click the Remove button (the red cross).
All the files in the batch will be removed from the list as well.
In this example, there
are three batches.
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Batch processing
Adding open documents
Adding files via Drag and Drop
To add a document that is already open to the list, select it
from the document pop-up menu.
• You can add files from the Windows Explorer or My
Computer windows. Drag the file icon and drop it on the
batch.
!
Note that this also works with documents in open
Audio Montages. This way you can add and batch
process all files that “belong” to an Audio Montage.
• You can add an open Wave document, by using the
drag icon on the title bar and dropping it on a batch.
Adding all files in a folder
The document button…
To add all files in a folder (and in all its subfolders), proceed as follows:
1. Click the Add folder button.
The Add folder button.
2. In the list that appears, select the desired folder and
click Open.
…brings up the document pop-up menu.
Open documents are represented by blue and white miniature window icons.
3. In the next dialog, decide what file types should be included, via specifying an extension (you can use “*” to add
all file types).
An open document
You can also specify whether or not you want to include files in folders
located inside the selected folder (subfolders).
About “Allow duplicate file names”
A file on disk
!
When this option on the Extra pop-up menu is activated,
the same file can be added to several batches, and hence
be processed several times.
You cannot process files that have never been saved
(“Untitled” files). However, you can process files that
have previously been saved, but are now open for
editing.
The only restriction is that each “instance” of the file must
be set to create a file with a name and/or location that is
different from the other “instances” of the same file. This is
done by using path variables, as described in the section
“Using path variables” on page 120.
Adding one or more files via a dialog
1. Click the Add file button.
Removing files
If you want to remove a file from the list, select it and click
the Remove button (the red cross).
The Add File button.
You can also clear the list completely and start “from
scratch”, by pulling down the Extra menu and selecting
“Clear list”.
2. In the file dialog that appears, locate and select the
desired files and click Open.
Files are represented by yellow icons. Please remember that you can use
[Shift] and [Ctrl] in the file dialogs to select as many files as you wish,
from the same folder.
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Batch processing
Various file considerations
About the file icons – File status
If you are processing a file that is already open, please
note the following things:
To the left of the file you will find an icon providing information about the status of the file:
• If the new file will have the same name and is saved in the
same location, the file will not be saved (since it is already
open). This is the same as using the Render function with the
“Process in place” option activated. In this case, Undo is available for the processing.
• If the new file will have the same name and is saved in the
same location, and the number of channels changes in the file
(mono becomes stereo or vice versa) then a new document is
created, which is opened in an untitled window.
• If the new file is saved under a new name or in a new location,
a new file on disk is created, there’s no need for saving. The
Batch Processor can be used for saving very large files to disk
in the background, so that you can keep working on other files
“in the foreground”.
The file status
icons
Setting the order of files in the list
Option
Description
Green circle
The file is ready to be processed. You cannot start processing unless at least one file has this status.
Purple dot
The file is currently being processed. The Batch window
can’t be closed if any files have this status, the only way
to stop a batch is then from the Monitor window, see
“The Monitor window” on page 104.
Half filled
green circle
The file has been analysed by an “Ultra-pass” processor
but has not been processed and written to disk yet, see
“Ultra-pass processors” on page 118.
Green dot
The batch has been processed without problems. In order to process the file again, you need to reset its status,
see below.
Red cross
An error occurred. You will most likely have been warned
via an alert box. If an error occurs, processing is cancelled by default. On the Extra menu there is however an
option called “Stop batch processing at first error”. If you
deactivate this, processing will not stop upon error, but
instead skip to the next file in the batch.
Moving files between batches
It is very important which batch a file is part of, since all
files in a batch are processed with the same set of effects.
If one ore more files for some reason have wound up in the
wrong batch, you can move it:
1. Select the file(s) that are in the wrong batch.
Resetting file status
2. Drag and drop it/them onto the correct batch.
To reset the status of a file to the “green circle” status described above, click on the symbol to the left of the file.
Changing file order within a batch
To reset the status of all files, select “Reset status of all
files” from the Extra pop-up menu.
The order of files within a batch is usually of no particular
importance (they will all get processed in the same way),
but when you set up a batch with many files, it might make
things easier if you can organize things the way you want
it:
Opening files
There are three ways to open a source file in a Wave window:
• You can move a file up and down within the batch by
using the arrow buttons.
• Double click on it in the list.
• Select it and click the “Open window” button (to the right of
the Play button).
• Drag it and drop it on an empty section of the WaveLab Studio program window.
• You can drag and drop files within a batch to change
the order.
• You can re-sort the order of the files on the Input tab by
selecting one of the sort options on the “Extra” menu.
You can also re-sort the list by clicking on the file headings.
115
Batch processing
Setting up the processing tasks to
be performed
To instead open the processed file (after running a batch),
proceed as follows:
• Double click on the file in the Output column in the list, or…
• Select the original file in the list, hold down [Ctrl] and click the
“Open window” button, or…
• Hold down [Ctrl], drag the file from the list and drop it on an
empty section of the WaveLab Studio program window.
The next step is to set up how the effect processors
should be applied to the batch.
Opening the Processor List
There are three ways to open the Processor List:
Other file functions and options
• Select a batch in the list and click the Processor List button.
• Select a batch in the list and press [Return].
• Double click on a batch.
• The “Show full path” and “Show name only” options on
the Extra menu allow you to determine what file information you want to see in the list.
• To play a file, select it and click the Play button (speaker icon).
Stopping is done using any of the usual methods or by clicking the button again.
The Processor List button
• If the file list contains files in raw format, or files that
contain an unsupported header, you can specify the format for them, by selecting “Define default special file format” from the Extra pop-up menu. If this is done, you don’t
have to specify the format manually each time a file in
“raw” format is about to be processed.
Please note that it might take some time to open this window, depending on the number of presets and additional
plug-ins you might have installed. If this is a problem, delete the presets you don’t need.
About the Processor List
For this to make sense, all “raw” files must be in the same format.
Saving and opening file lists
To save the file list as a simple text file, containing the absolute paths (locations) of all files in the list, select “Save
file list…” from the Extra menu. When you open a file list
that you have saved (or one created in some other way),
the files in the list are added to the currently selected
batch.
Validating the list
There might be occasions where it is not certain the file
list really matches the contents of the hard disk. For example, a file might have been deleted from the disk since you
last updated the list.
The Processor List has two tabs, one is the main tab and
the second is for managing presets (see “Presets” on
page 28).
Also, you might add files in formats that WaveLab Studio
can’t handle.
Ö When you select “Validate list” from the Extra menu,
the program will scan the list and check that all files really
exist in the specified locations and that their formats are
valid.
Entries for non-existent or invalid files will be removed from the list.
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Batch processing
The Processors tab
The plug-in icons and presets
This tab is divided into two columns:
• In the Plug-ins folder, each icon represents an installed plugin.
• Unfolding a processor icon reveals its current presets. If an
icon has no plus symbol, it has no “WaveLab Studio Presets”,
that is, to access presets, you then need to open the panel for
the processor itself, see later in this chapter.
• The left column (Sequence) displays a list of processing that
will be applied to the batch. When you first open the dialog,
this list is probably empty, because you haven’t assigned any
processors to it yet. Later, when you process, the processing
will be performed in the order it appears in this list.
• The right column (Plug-ins/Presets) contains the list of available processors and combinations of processors. This is described in the following paragraph.
The Plug-ins/Presets list
This list contains three folders on the top level, with items
that represent various processing options:
A processor plug-in (Chorus) and its presets.
• The “Master Section Presets” folder contains a list of all presets created in the Master Section Presets dialog, see “Master Section presets” on page 101. Such a preset can contain
a number of combined processors, all with their own individual
settings.
• The Process List Presets folder contains a list of presets created in this dialog. As with the Master Section Presets, this
can represent a combination of a number of processors. This
allows you to easily re-use combinations of processors.
• The Plug-ins folder contains folders and lists of the processors in the program, to some extent the same list as in the
Master Section.
• DirectX and VST plug-ins are in their own folders.
• Off-line processors (see below) are categorized by different
colors.
About the off-line processors
There are some important things to note about the off-line
processors:
The three categories
• Regular (yellow). These require only one processing pass (see
“An example of the advantages of the WaveLab Studio Batch
Processor” on page 111). Example: “Time Stretch”.
• Multi pass (turquoise). These require two or more passes
(analyse and process). Example: “Normalizer”.
• Ultra pass (green). See “Ultra-pass processors” on page 118.
Example: “Meta Normalizer”.
The three Plug-ins/
Presets folders
Other considerations
• Off-line processors might not have presets.
• Off-line processors that require extra processing “passes”,
slightly increase the overall processing time.
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Batch processing
The included off-line processors
Ultra-pass processors can be freely combined with other
types of processors. For example you can use both the
Meta Normalizer and a regular Normalizer in the same
batch. You may also combine ultra-pass plug-ins with
multi-pass plug-ins.
• DC Remover. This removes any DC Offset in the file (see
“Eliminate DC Offset” on page 85). This would normally be inserted at the beginning of the processing list, preparing the
file for processing, so to speak.
• Normalizer. This is normally included at the end of the list to
get the resulting file back up into “full level”. Alternatively, it
can be inserted in between other processors when required
(for example before the input of a compressor). You can add
as many Normalizers as you need, in between other processors, if required.
• Time Stretch and Pitch Correction. See “Time Stretch” on
page 85 and “Pitch Correction” on page 87.
• Loudness Restorer. This is used to “capture” the loudness at
a certain point in the audio chain and restore that loudness at
some other point. For this reason, these must be inserted in
pairs into the signal chain (one plug-in “capturing” and one
“restoring”). Click the question mark icon in the dialog for details.
• Meta Normalizer. This allows you to give all the processed files
the same level after processing. Click the question mark icon
in the dialog for details.
• Meta Leveler. This lets you raise the level of all processed files
by a certain amount while maintaining the original level differences between the files. Click the question mark icon in the
dialog for details.
• Resizer. This allows you to set the sample length of a file to a
given value.
• Stereo -> Mono. Lets you convert stereo files to mono files
and limit the level of these to avoid clipping.
• Fade-In and Fade-Out. These allow you to apply identical
fade-ins and fade-outs to all the processed files. You can
specify the fade curve shape, the length of the fades and the
desired start (fade-in) and end (fade-out) amplitudes.
An ultra-pass plug-in requires two processing passes.
During the first pass all the files in the batch are analysed,
during the second pass, they are all processed:
Global Pass 1:
Read file
= disk domain
Any plug-ins
= RAM
Meta Normalizer
File 1
Transfer
Process
Analysis
File 2
Transfer
Process
Analysis
File 3
Transfer
Process
Analysis
Global Pass 2:
Read file
Any plug-ins
Meta
Normalizer
Write file
File 1
Transfer
Process
Process
Transfer
File 2
Transfer
Process
Process
Transfer
File 3
Transfer
Process
Process
Transfer
This is different from other multi-pass plug-ins, where
each file is analysed/processed twice (or even more times
if required).
Levels – About the Normalize “Only if
clipping” option
Ultra-pass processors
Processors often increase signal level. If you are not careful, your file may be distorted when it exits the batch. To
prevent this, you can use the “Only if clipping” option in
the Normalizer. The theory behind this is as follows:
An ultra-pass processor analyses all files in the batch, collects the result, and applies it to the files by various
amounts, if desired. This means that the result of the analysis of one file, can affect how other files are processed. A
typical example is the (included) Meta Normalizer, which
can process a number of files so that they all get the same
loudness as the loudest file in the batch. It does this by
analyzing all files to find out which is the loudest (and how
loud it is) and then process them all by various amounts so
that they get the same level.
It is perfectly OK if the signal is amplified above “0 dB”
(full level) within the “audio stream”, since WaveLab Studio uses 32 bit internal processing. There’s lot’s of extra
“headroom” and the signal will not be clipped.
However, when a signal that exceeds “0 dB” is converted
to a 16 bit file at the output of the Batch Processor, clipping – and hence distortion – will occur.
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Batch processing
• If you use the “+” button or drop below the existing list,
the processor will be added at the end of the list.
To remedy this, you can insert the Normalizer at the end of
the signal chain. The Normalizer will not only raise levels,
but also lower them as required so that the signal peaks
exactly at the specified value just before it is converted to
a file. This is useful to do even when “Only if Clipping” is
not activated.
You can also do this by double clicking the processor in the list to the
right.
• If you drag and drop on another symbol, it will be added
just before that processor in the list.
However, if you only want the Normalizer to be applied
when clipping should otherwise occur, activate “Only if
Clipping”. When this is activated, the signal output may be
low, but you can rest assured it isn’t clipped due to amplification within any of the processors.
!
Effectively, this allows you to use the Normalizer as a completely distortion-free limiter.
Removing processors from the list
To remove a processor, select it in the left list and click the
Remove button or press [Backspace].
Adding a processor to the list
1. If the processing option has presets that you want to
use, click on its folder “+” symbol to open it.
Changing the order of the processing
If you have added the correct processors, but realize they
are in the wrong order, you may change this:
2. Select either the desired preset or the plug-in icon.
Selecting the plug-in icon itself, adds the processor with default settings.
!
If you create an “impossible” combination of effects,
for example feed a mono output into a processor that
only accepts stereo input, you will get an error message when you try to process.
1. Select a processor in the list.
VST plug-ins do not have presets in this list, you
have to make settings in the actual panel. See “VSTcompatible plug-ins” on page 98 for further information.
2. To move it one step up/down, click the up/down arrow
buttons.
Activating and deactivating processors
3. Either click on the “+” button or drag the selected
symbol in the left pane of the window and drop it.
You can activate or deactivate a processor in the sequence list by clicking in the checkbox to the left.
Making settings for a processor
If you want to adjust the settings for a certain processor,
proceed as follows:
1. Double click on the processor in the sequence list, or
select the processor in the list and click the Edit button
(the fader).
The panel for the processor appears.
2. Adjust the settings (or select another preset) and click
OK.
To add processors, drag them
from the Plug-ins/Presets pane
into the Sequence pane.
See “Making settings – The Effect control panels” on page 97 for more
information on processor panels and presets.
!
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Batch processing
Some off-line processors (shown with “blue”, “yellow” or “green” icons) may not have presets. In this
case, you have to adjust the settings on the panel.
Closing the Processor List window
Using path variables
Once you have finished with all the settings, click OK to
confirm the settings and close the dialog or Cancel to
close it without saving any changes.
If you need more advanced options, for example if you
need to store different batches in different folders, you
need to use the path variables, available on the pop-up to
the right of the folder icon.
The Output tab – Settings for
created files
Variables are text strings enclosed in brackets (for example “<Group Path>”) that appear on the Destination
folder line. You can type these variables yourself, but usually it makes much more sense to select them from the
pop-up.
When you run the batch, the variables are replaced by
folder names. Exact details follow later in this text.
!
The specified folders are created automatically if
they don’t exist.
You can use more than one variable on the line, to create
very advanced automatic file paths. Then the order of the
variables on the line is very important since each added
item will represent a subfolder inside the previous folder.
This tab allows you to specify where the created files are
to be located, in what format they should be, and other related options.
When you add variables to the Destination path, they will
appear just after the insertion point, just as when you type
text. Hence, adding a variable is done as follows:
In fact, you can perform useful batch processing with the
options on this tab, without using any processors at all!
You might for example convert files from one format to another and/or just change the names of a number of files.
1. Click at the position on the Destination folder line
where you want the variable added.
A blinking insertion point cursor appears.
2. Select the desired variable from the pop-up menu invoked by clicking the arrow button to the right of the Destination folder line.
Setting up file locations and names
Please note that to completely replace the existing text with a variable,
you can just select all text and then select the variable from the pop-up
menu.
Setting up a simple destination folder
There are two ways to specify a folder for all created files:
• Type in a path (file location) on the Destination folder line.
• Click the folder icon just beside the destination folder line,
browse your way to a folder and select it.
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Batch processing
The available variables have the following functions:
Variable
Function
Example
Batch Name
Creates a folder with the name of the batch, as
specified on the Input tab (see “Setting up file
locations and names” on page 120).
If you have a group called MyAudioFiles, and the Destination file reads “c:\<BatchName>\” the files will be stored in a folder called “MyAudioFiles”, located in the root
of the C drive.
Batch Path
Same as above, but instead uses the path that
can optionally be specified for each batch, see
“Renaming and setting attributes for a batch” on
page 113.
If the path “c:\MyFolder\” has been specified for a batch, the files in that batch will be
stored in a folder called “MyFolder” on the root of the C drive.
Source file path
This specifies the same path as that in which
the source file(s) are stored.
Using this without any additional tags, will put the outputs files in the same folder as
the source file. If you combine this with no pre/suffix for file names (see below), the
output files will overwrite the original files.
Source file
path – down 1
Same as above, but specifies a folder one level
down in the hierarchy.
If the source file is located in “c:\Folder1\Folder2\Folder3\”, this specifies the file location “c:\Folder2\Folder3\”.
Source file
path – down 2
Same as above, but specifies a folder two levels
down in the hierarchy.
If the source file is located in “c:\Folder1\Folder2\Folder3\”, this specifies the file location “c:\Folder3\”.
No file output
No output file is created at all.
This is not a “variable” but a “constant”. If you use this, nothing else should be entered on the line. It is only useful for processors that analyse the file (not producing
any output audio file at all) rather than process it.
Using file name prefixes and suffixes
There is one exception to the statements above, and this
is drive names. If you explicitly specify a drive name, this
will always be used, regardless of where the source is located and what type of variables are used.
For the file names created, you can use the fields “File
name prefix” and “File name suffix” to add text to the beginning and/or the end of the original name.
For example, if you have a source file in “c:\MyFolder\” and
specify “e:\<SourcePath>\”, the new file will be stored in
“e:\MyFolder\”.
• You can type in any text, which will then be added at the
beginning/end of the file name.
If for example you leave the prefix field empty and type “(processed)” in
the suffix field, “MyFile” will become “MyFile (processed)”.
We will also give two more examples of variables, to show
you what advanced specifications you can make:
• You can add the “variable” “Batch name” (see above)
anywhere in the text by selecting it from the small pop-up
to the right of the pre/suffix lines.
Let’s say you have a file with the following path:
“c:\Folder1\Folder2\Folder3\Sound.wav”. It is part of a
batch titled “Orange” with a “Banana” path specified for it.
This will add the name of the batch into the file name, at that location.
• You can add the variable “File number from…”, in the
same way.
• If you enter “d:\NewFolder\<SourcePath2>, the file will be
stored as: “d:\NewFolder\Folder3\Sound.wav”.
• If instead you enter “<BatchPath><BatchName>”, the new
file will be: “c:\Banana\Orange\Sound.wav”.
This will add a number to the file name. All the files will be numbered
consecutively, and a dialog will allow you to specify the first number in
the series.
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Batch processing
Creating backups and automatically deleting
source files
Checking the output paths and names
Once you have set up the path and file name, you can
switch to the Input tab and check the Output column. It
will tell you where each processed file will be located and
under what name.
If a line is empty, there is something wrong with the settings on the Output tab – the settings aren’t valid for this
file. Please go back and adjust.
If you want the program to create backups of any files
that would otherwise be overwritten as a result of the procedure, activate the “Create backups” options. When this
is activated, the program will make a copy of the file before
processing. It will also change the first letter in the extension of the copy to “~”. For example “myfile.wav” will be
backed up as “myfile.~av”.
Creating zip archives
This only applies if you have used the variable “Source
Path”, as described above, to specify that the file should
be overwritten with the same name.
You can automatically create a zip archive of the created
files. A zip archive is a file which contains other files, in a
compressed format. The compression is non-lossy, which
means that when you “un-zip” the files, you get exactly
what you had when you created the archive – the information is not changed in any way.
!
If you are not absolutely sure of what you are doing, we
strongly recommend that you leave this option activated, to avoid accidentally overwriting files.
If you want the program to delete the original (unprocessed) files after processing activate “Delete files after
process”.
Zip files are often used for archiving purposes and when
sending files to other people, for example via the Internet.
!
The zip archive is created after all processing has finished.
Proceed as follows:
1. Activate “Archive Output Files”.
2. Decide on a Path and file name for the zip file.
This is done either by typing the complete path or by clicking the folder
button.
3. If you want the zip archive to contain information about
how the files are stored in subfolders, activate “Save path
information”.
4. If you want to delete the output files after the files have
been added to the zip archive, activate “Move (erase) output files”.
If this is deactivated, you will get the output files in their regular format
plus a zip archive containing the same files.
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Batch processing
Be careful with this option! If the processing didn’t
turn out as expected, you can’t redo it, because you
won’t have any files left to re-process!
Scheduling
Selecting an Output Format
• Click the large button to open the Audio File Format dialog in which you can select the desired output format and
make settings for it.
For details about various file formats, see “Supported file formats” on
page 49. For detailed information about the Audio File Format dialog,
please click the question mark icon in the dialog.
The Schedule tab is used for various options related to the
performance of the batch processing:
On start of batch process
This is where you instruct WaveLab Studio what to do just
before starting the batch operation:
Option
Description
Stop playback
Stops playback to free up some processing
power.
Open Monitor window
Opens the Monitor window (see “The Monitor
window” on page 104).
On batch process completion
The Audio File Format dialog.
This is where you select how WaveLab Studio should behave after processing all files.
Ö If you want the output files to be of the same format as
the source files, select “No change” from the Type pop-up
menu.
Ö The Audio File Format dialog offers not only the possibility of changing the file format, but also lets you change
the number of channels and the sample rate and resolution – however, this is not recommended for high quality
mastering purposes.
Option
Description
Beep
WaveLab Studio will beep to signal that the settings have been applied.
Show message box
WaveLab Studio will display a message to confirm the operation. Click OK to go on working.
On start of file process
This is where you select how WaveLab Studio should behave when processing each file. There is only one option
here: “Minimize wave window”. If this is activated and the
document is currently open in a window, WaveLab Studio
will minimize this before the processing starts.
For these purposes, you should insert plug-ins to facilitate the conversions (such as Resampler) into the audio chain instead.
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Batch processing
On file process completion
You can stop processing in two ways:
These settings determine what should happen after each
individual file has been processed:
• By clicking the Stop button in the Batch Processing dialog.
Option
Description
Restore wave window
If the window was minimized when processing started, it will be restored to its previous size.
• By right clicking in the Monitor window, see “Process
menu” on page 105.
Zip archiving won’t stop until the current file has been processed.
If this option is activated, the file will be
opened after processing, regardless of
whether it was open before or not.
Using presets for batch processing
Open in window
Please note that there are two different types of presets
involved in this dialog:
Priority
These buttons specify how fast the wave file should be
processed.
Batch processing presets
Option
Description
Use these for storing and recalling settings that apply to
all batches. They include:
Relax Background
The file is processed in the background, but priority is given to audio playback and to your continued work on other files. This makes WaveLab
Studio as responsive as possible, but slows
down processing.
• All settings made on the Input tab, except the actual file list.
• All settings made on the Output tab.
• All settings made on the Schedule tab.
Background
The file is processed in the background but with
a lower priority given to your continued work on
other files. This makes processing faster but the
program less responsive (unless your computer
is fast enough for this not to make any discernible
difference). Try this mode when several files
should be processed in the background.
They do not include:
Processing is given high priority. If you have playback activated during processing, a fairly highperformance computer will be required to avoid
dropouts in playback.
These include the currently assembled list of processors
in the Processor List dialog. Use these to save useful
combinations of processors with their settings.
Fast
!
• The list of files to be processed.
• The list of processors assembled in the Processor List dialog.
Processor List presets
File lists
Any dropouts that occur as a result of too little processing power will only affect the playback of the file.
Files processed by the Batch Processor will always
be free of dropouts!
While strictly not a type of preset, the Open and Save file
list features described in the section “Saving and opening
file lists” on page 116 can be used to save and recall the
list of files processed in a batch. Note that this is a simple
text file that can be edited by any text editor.
Running and stopping the batch(es)
Once all settings are made, all you have to do to start the
batch is to click Run. The files get processed, much like
when you click Render in the Master Section, see “Rendering” on page 102.
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Batch processing
12
Batch file encoding
Basic procedure
4. Select the destination folder for the converted files
from the corresponding pop-up menu.
WaveLab Studio can open and play both uncompressed
and compressed files in a number of different formats, including WAV, AIFF, MP3, WMA (Windows Media Audio)
and OSQ (Original Sound Quality), which is WaveLab
Studio’s proprietary lossless audio format.
5. Select the desired destination format by clicking the
audio properties button at the bottom of the dialog.
This opens the Audio File Format dialog in which you can select the desired format and make settings for it.
It’s also possible to convert WAV or AIFF files to another
format. While this can be done by opening a file and selecting “Save As” or “Save Special/Encode” on the File
menu, you can also convert several files in one go (batch
conversion). This is much like a simplified version of the
Batch Processor, for when only batch file conversion is
needed (no processing).
Proceed as follows:
1. Select “Batch file encoding…” from the Tools menu.
The “Encode audio files” dialog opens.
2. Click on the green “plus” symbol.
A file selector opens, where you can select the desired audio files (WAV
or AIFF). Files must have the same sample rate and number of channels
(e.g. stereo/mono).
Click here to add files.
6. For some compressed file formats, clicking on the arrow button to the right of the Encoding and Attributes
menus calls up dialogs where you can set the encoding
parameters and enter text strings.
3. In the file type pop-up select one of the available formats (WAV or AIFF) and then – in the file list – select the
desired files. If necessary, use the [Ctrl] and/or [Shift] keys
to select several files. Confirm your selection by clicking
“Open”.
Click the question mark icon in the Audio File Format dialog for a description of the various options.
This brings you back to the “Encode audio files” dialog.
!
Note that it is possible to simultaneously batch encode audio files of different formats, given that all the
files have the same sample rate and number of channels.
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Batch file encoding
13
Markers
Introduction
Marker type
Description
Mute start and
end
These let you temporarily silence a certain section.
Muted sections can also be skipped on playback
(see “Skipping sections during playback” on page
60).
Region start and
end
Use these to define start and end points for generic regions. This is useful for editing purposes
and can be created directly during recording if
needed (see “About dropping markers during recording” on page 67).
Playback Starter
This is used to program a playback start point. See
“Setting the start point for playback” on page 59.
What are markers for?
About marker pairs
Markers allow you to save and name certain positions in a
file. You can use these positions later on in various ways:
Four of the marker types come in pairs: CD (only available
in Audio Montages), Loop, Mute and Region.
•
•
•
•
Set the wave cursor to a marker.
Select all audio between two markers.
Loop the section between two markers, etc.
Define CD tracks according to markers (only available in Audio Montages).
Since you can’t have a region that starts but never ends, a
loop end point without a start, etc., special rules exist for
creating, deleting and moving these types of markers.
There is no limit to the amount of markers you can have in
a file.
You can enter just a start marker, but its purpose will be defeated by the
lack of a corresponding end marker. Furthermore, if you delete a start
marker, the corresponding end marker will also be deleted.
!
• Loop, Mute and region markers only have a functionality
when balanced.
This chapter describes how to use markers in Wave
windows.
Audio Montages have their own markers, see “Using
markers in the Montage” on page 185.
About importing and saving loop markers
There are a few points to be aware of when importing files
with loops into WaveLab Studio. This is because the
loops can be defined in two places: Wave and AIFF file
formats have the ability to contain loop points, and WaveLab Studio stores loop points as markers separately for
each file, in “.MRK” files. So, there’s a potential risk for
conflict:
The various marker types
The following marker types are available:
Marker type
Description
Generic
This is mainly used for locating certain important
positions and for editing (for example selecting all
audio between two positions). Generic markers
can be created directly during recording if needed
(see “About dropping markers during recording”
on page 67).
Temporary
• When you import a file that has never been used in WaveLab
Studio before, and which contains loops, the loops are “imported” and displayed as loop markers (in addition, the sample
note and detune information described in the section “Editing
sample attributes” on page 236 is imported, if present).
• When you then save the file in AIFF or Wave format, the loop
points are stored, both as part of the actual file (so that other
applications can read them) and in the “.MRK” file (for WaveLab Studio).
• When you open a file that has been used in WaveLab Studio
before, loop indications that were originally in the file, before
you used it in WaveLab Studio, are ignored. Only the loop information in the “.MRK” file is used.
As Generic, but not saved with the file.
CD Track Start,
These denote where CD tracks start and end. A
End and Splice (only in CD track splice is used when a CD track starts just
Audio Montages)
where another ends.
CD Track Index (only in These are used to create “index” points in CD
Audio Montages)
tracks.
Loop start and
end
These are used for defining loop points. This is
useful for editing purposes as well as when creating loop sounds (e.g. for samplers).
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Markers
The Marker toolbar
4. Fill out the other options in the dialog and click OK.
Click the question mark icon in the dialog for details.
This is a special control bar for markers. It can be brought
up from the Control Bars submenu on the View menu.
Open marker list
Go to previous
marker
Go to next
marker
Add new
marker
Drop Generic marker
Add Mute markers
Add region markers
Add loop markers
Creating markers
Dropping markers on the fly
To add a marker on the fly, proceed as follows:
1. Play back the file.
The new marker appears at the wave cursor position.
2. When the cursor reaches the position where you want
a marker, do one of the following:
Dropping markers while recording
Ö The markers dropped this way are generic.
You can drop markers during a recording. For example, if
you are auditioning some material while transferring it from
DAT tape to WaveLab Studio, you can add markers at important positions, as they are coming up. The marker types
you can add are: Generic, Region start and Region end.
See “About dropping markers during recording” on page
67.
Creating a marker from “stop mode”
Creating marker pairs from the Marker toolbar
1. Set the wave cursor to where you want the marker to
appear.
To create a loop, a mute region or a region (see later in
this chapter for descriptions of these terms), you can use
the Marker toolbar:
• Press [Insert].
• Click the Drop marker button on the Marker toolbar.
• Select Drop Marker from the time ruler speed menu.
You can give the marker a proper name later.
2. Do one of the following:
1. Make a selection that spans the area you want to enclose by a marker pair.
• Click on the New Marker button on the Marker toolbar.
• Click with the right mouse button on the time ruler and
select New Marker from the menu that appears.
2. Click on the corresponding marker pair symbol on the
Marker toolbar.
• Press [Ctrl]+[Insert] as a shortcut for the “New Marker”
operation described above.
Markers are added at the start and end of the selection.
3. Select a marker type.
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Markers
About the marker list
Hiding all markers of a certain type
There’s a special dialog for hiding markers of certain
types. To open it:
There is a marker list window that displays all markers in a
wave. This can be used for various purposes, for editing,
deleting and locating to markers, as described in the following sections.
• Click with the right mouse button on the time ruler and
select Visibility, or…
• Open the marker list, click with the right mouse button
on a marker and select Visibility.
Opening the list
To open the marker list, either select “Specialized Windows”/”Wave Marker List” from the View menu, or click
the corresponding button on the Marker toolbar.
In this dialog you can show/hide markers of any type.
Editing, converting and naming
markers
The Edit Marker window can be used to change existing
marker’s properties. There are several ways to open this
window with settings for a certain marker:
• Right click on the marker in the time ruler and choose “Edit
Marker” from the menu that appears.
• Hold down [Alt] and double click on the marker.
• Open the marker list, select a marker and click with the right
mouse button on a marker and select Edit or press [Return].
The marker list
• To sort the list alphabetically, click on the “Name” heading.
• To sort the list according to position, click the “Position”
heading.
This is the default when you first open the window.
Marker appearance and visibility
Hiding marker heads
To hide/display the marker triangles from the ruler, click
with the right mouse button in the ruler and select Hide/
Show Marker Heads.
To transform a marker into any other type, select that type
in the list to the left.
Changing the appearance of marker lines
To hide the marker lines in the waveform, click with the
right mouse button in the waveform and select Elements.
From the menu that appears, set things up so that neither
Solid markers, nor Dotted markers are activated.
130
Markers
Deleting in the marker list
To rename a marker, uncheck “Automatic naming” and
type in a name of your own choice. The name of the
marker will then be visible beside it. The name of the
marker will also be shown as a “tip” if you move the mouse
pointer over the marker head and wait for a moment.
1. Hold down [Ctrl] and double click in the ruler.
The wave markers window appears.
2. Click with the right mouse button on the marker you
want to delete.
3. Select Delete.
Deleting all markers of a certain type
1. Click with the right mouse button on the time ruler.
2. Select “Delete Multiple Markers…”.
The name of the marker is shown as a “tip”.
3. Check the marker types that you want to delete.
• To lock the position of a marker so that it can’t be
moved, activate the Lock Position option.
4. Click OK.
• If the marker is a loop end marker you can change the
number of loop repetitions by unchecking Infinite and
specifying your own number of loops.
Operations involving markers
Setting the wave cursor to a marker position
To move the wave cursor to a certain marker, do one of
the following:
Moving and duplicating markers
• Double click on the marker triangle.
To move a marker, press the mouse button over the triangle “Head” and drag to the new position.
This is probably the most convenient option if the marker is currently visible in the window. This even works during playback!
Ö If “Magnetize bounds” is activated (see “Dropping on
markers (Magnetize bounds)” on page 132) the marker
“snaps” to the edges of the selection, the cursor’s position and the beginning and end of the wave.
• Open the marker list and select one of the markers on it.
This is probably the most convenient option if the marker is outside the
current view.
• Activate “Magnetize bounds” on the Options menu.
Click on the ruler close to the marker, or drag the cursor to
a position close to the marker.
Ö If you hold down [Shift] while dragging a marker in the
ruler, you will be duplicating it instead of moving it.
Deleting markers
!
When you delete one marker in a marker pair, the
other marker will also be deleted.
Deleting one marker from the Wave window
1. To delete a marker in the Wave window, click with the
right mouse button on the head of marker you want to delete/rename.
2. Select Delete.
Alternatively you can drag the marker out of the window.
131
Markers
Browsing markers
To select all audio between any two markers, double click
just to the right of the leftmost one, hold down [Shift] and
double click just to the left of the rightmost one.
You can move the wave cursor from marker to marker by
clicking the arrow buttons on the Marker toolbar, or by using the keys [4] and [5] on the numeric key pad.
Make this selection by double clicking as above…
Starting playback from a marker
…then press [Shift] and double
click to the left of the rightmost
marker…
There are several ways to make playback start from a certain marker:
• Locate to a marker, as described above, and activate
playback from there.
• Double click on a marker in the marker list.
• Select one of the marker related options on the Transport bar (see “Setting the start point for playback” on
page 59 for details).
Selecting between markers
To select all audio between two adjacent markers, double
click between them.
…to select all audio between the leftmost and rightmost markers.
Dropping on markers (Magnetize bounds)
Double clicking here…
For any operation involving drag and drop of audio material you can use a marker position as start point for the
section you drop. This is useful when it is very important
that the dropped material is inserted at a very specific position.
1. Make sure Magnetize bounds (on the Options menu) is
activated.
…selects the audio between the markers.
2. Drag the selection, and position the mouse pointer
close to a marker line.
You can extend the selection to consecutive markers, by
continuing to drag to the left/right.
The “drag line” snaps to the marker line.
132
Markers
3. Make sure the marker line and the drag line appear on
top of each other, then release the mouse button.
If you point at a marker
when using drag and drop,
the audio will be inserted
there.
Looping
Loop markers are primarily intended for creating loop
sounds (e.g. for samplers) as described in the section
“Sampling and creating loops” on page 235, but you can
use loop markers in various additional ways:
• Set up a loop and repeat it indefinitely during playback,
while editing material inside the loop.
For more information on playback and loops, see “Looping” on page 59.
• Set up a loop with a specified number of repetitions, to
check out how a repetition effect will sound.
• Note that you can nest loops, that is you can have loops
inside loops.
Skipping regions
You can use start and end Mute markers to have sections
skipped during playback (or when rendering, see “Rendering” on page 102):
• To skip a mute region on playback, click the Playback
skip mode icon on the Transport bar and select “Skip
Muted regions” from the pop-up menu that appears.
This can be very useful in conjunction with looping. Loop a section and
adjust the Mute markers during playback until the desired section is
skipped.
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Markers
14
Using Auto Split
Introduction
• The second page of the dialog varies according to the
chosen split method.
Auto Split is a powerful function that allows you to automatically split audio files according to certain specified
rules. You can use it to split files in the following ways:
The following pages of the dialog are common to all types of Auto Split,
except that certain options are greyed out in the dialogs if not applicable.
•
•
•
•
• The third page is where you specify what to do with the
regions created by Auto Split.
…at marker points
…at regions containing silences
…at beat points using beat detection
…at specific time intervals
You can choose to save the regions as separate files or to create clips
and add these to a new Montage. Click the question mark icon in the dialog for details.
• On the last page you specify how the files or clips created by Auto Split should be named before finally performing the splitting.
The Auto Split function can either create new files or Montage clips referencing the original file. The new files or
clips can be automatically named and/or numbered.
Options are the source file name plus a number, or the marker names (if
splitting according to markers). Click the question mark icon in the dialog
for details.
The Auto Split dialog
Auto Split processes the currently active Wave window.
To open the Auto Split dialog, select “Auto Split” from the
Tools menu, or press [Ctrl]-[T].
What appears is actually a series of dialogs or pages, with
different parameters and options according to what Auto
Split method you select. When you have set up the first
page as desired, click “Next” to proceed to the next page,
and so on. If you change your mind, you can click “Back”
to go back to the previous page.
Ö On the first page you select the type of splitting you
wish to perform:
Option
Description
Split according to
markers
This will split the file at specific marker positions. If
you select this, the next page allows you to select
which marker type should govern where splitting will
occur.
Split at specific
intervals
This will split the file at specific time intervals. If you
select this, the next page allows you to specify this
time interval (and thus the duration of each region).
Split between
silences
This will split the file so that each non-silent section
becomes a separate region. If you select this, the
next page lets you specify the minimum region duration, minimum duration of a silent section, and the
signal level that should be considered as “silence”.
Split at beats
This option will detect “beats” in the audio material
and split the file at each beat. If you select this, the
next page allows you to specify the sensitivity of the
beat detection, the minimum beat level to create a
split point, and the minimum region duration (i.e. no
regions shorter than the specified duration will be
created).
135
Using Auto Split
15
The Audio Montage
Introduction
About the two panes and the views
The Audio Montage window is divided into two “panes”.
The lower pane always shows the tracks and the clips,
while the upper pane shows one of ten views, as listed below.
The Audio Montage is a multi-track non-destructive
editing environment, which allows you to arrange, edit,
play back and record audio clips on multiple tracks. Features include both track- and clip-based effects, volume
and pan automation, wide-ranging fade and crossfade
functions and synchronization to MIDI Time Code.
The Audio Montage is a great tool for music CD creation,
mastering, multimedia work, radio spot production, etc.
• You can resize the upper and lower panes by dragging
the divider between the panes up or down.
• You can choose to view the upper pane or the Track
View only, by selecting “Show tabs only” or “Show Tracks
only” from the main View menu.
Basic terminology
To revert to the standard view (showing both panes), pull down the View
menu again and deselect the selected option.
The Audio Montage can contain up to eight stereo or
mono audio tracks. These provide a way for the user to
structure the work graphically, but should not be viewed
as “virtual tape tracks”.
• You select views for the upper pane by clicking the tabs
at the top of the Montage window, or by using key commands (see below).
On an audio track, you can place any number of clips.
These are “containers” for the audio, and include a number of settings and functions such as volume and pan
curves, fades, etc.
Apart from the actual displays, the different views may have different
menus and icon bars.
The following views are available:
A clip contains a reference to a source audio file on your
hard disk, as well as start and end positions in the file (allowing clips to play back smaller sections of their source
audio files). Any number of clips can reference the same
source file.
In addition to audio tracks you can create a video track
(see “Using video tracks” on page 191) in the Audio Montage.
The Audio Montage window
View
Key
Description
Edit
E
This is where you configure various options for editing, fading, selecting, etc.
Clips
C
This view contains a list of all clips in the Montage,
allowing numerical editing and adjustment. See “Editing in the Clips view” on page 160.
Groups
O
Use this view for grouping clips that you want to select as one entity. See “Groups” on page 183.
Files
L
Contains various tools for audio file management, including direct import of audio files into the Montage.
See “The Files view” on page 162.
Plug-ins
R
This allows you to overview and manage all plug-in
effects (track and clip) used in a Montage. See
“Managing effects in the Plug-ins view” on page
181.
Markers
M
This view allows you to add and manage markers in
the Montage. This includes CD markers for writing
CDs directly from the Audio Montage, see “Using
markers in the Montage” on page 185.
Video
V
Displays the contents of the video track in the upper
pane of the Audio Montage. See “Using video
tracks” on page 191.
CD
D
This is where you prepare for writing a CD directly
from the Audio Montage (see “Preparing the Audio
Montage for CD burning” on page 193).
History
Y
This is a list representation of the Undo history, allowing you to undo/redo several operations in one
go. See “Undo/Redo and History” on page 187.
The Edit view selected in the upper pane
Notes
Tracks
Clips
The Track View
137
The Audio Montage
A standard notepad.
• If the Montage window is too narrow to show all tabs,
two arrow buttons are displayed in the upper right corner
of the window.
Info line symbols
The following symbols are used in the info line (the symbols for [Shift], [Ctrl] and [Alt] may differ depending on the
language selected for WaveLab Studio):
Use these to “move” the row of tabs so that you can see and click the
one you want.
Symbol
Description
Indicates that you can right-click to display a speed menu.
The name of the speed menu is displayed after the M symbol.
Indicates what happens if you single click.
About naming
Indicates what happens if you double click.
Most of the views contain one or several menus. To make
it clear which menu is meant in each case, we use the following syntax:
This means that you can [Ctrl]-click for an additional function. Press [Ctrl] for more information.
• X view : Y menu
This means that you can [Shift]-click for an additional function. Press [Shift] for more information.
For example, “Edit view : Options menu” means the Options menu in the Edit view.
This means that you can [Alt]-click for an additional function. Press [Alt] for more information.
The info line
C/S/A
Indicates that you can use combined modifier keys.
combinations For example, “CS” means that you can [Ctrl]-[Shift]-click
for an additional function. Press the indicated modifier keys
for more information.
Indicates what happens if you click and drag up or down.
Indicates what happens if you click and drag left or right.
The info line is the grey area below the Track View. It indicates what will happen when you click the mouse buttons
(with or without modifier keys), depending on where you
currently aim the pointer (much like tool tips for buttons).
This is especially useful since editing in the Audio Montage is based on mouse zones – you click in different areas of the clips to perform different actions (see “About
the mouse zones (audio tracks only)” on page 151).
Indicates what happens if you click and drag the item (in
any direction) within the Montage.
Indicates what happens if you click and drag the item out of
the Montage.
This is shown as an alert indicator, when you are moving or
resizing clips or changing envelope values, etc.
The info line will also display positions and lengths when
you are moving, copying or resizing clips.
Showing and hiding the info line
In this example, the info line indicates that you can open the envelope
speed menu by right-clicking, you can click and drag up or down to
change the envelope level or double click to add a point. Holding down
[Alt], [Ctrl] or [Shift], will enable additional functions.
1. Select the Edit view by clicking on the Edit tab.
2. Pull down the Edit view : Options menu and activate or
deactivate the option “Show Info Line”.
138
The Audio Montage
Assembling the Montage
The ruler
At the top of the Track View in the Audio Montage window, there is a ruler, similar to that in the Wave window.
To change the ruler format, right-click in the ruler and
make a selection from the pop-up menu that appears.
Creating a new Montage
1. Pull down the File menu and open the New submenu.
2. Select the “Audio Montage…” item.
The Sample rate dialog appears.
3. Specify the preferred sample rate.
The audio files that you want to use in the Montage must have this sample rate.
!
If you plan to burn a CD from the Audio Montage,
you have to select the 44.1 kHz sample rate.
4. Click OK.
A new Audio Montage window appears, containing one stereo track.
!
Selecting Meter format on the ruler pop-up menu
• Depending on the selected format, you can make detailed display settings by selecting “Time format…” from
this pop-up menu.
• It is also possible to offset the ruler, so that “zero” is
somewhere other than at the actual start of the Montage
(this is done by selecting “Time offset…”).
If you have saved a template (see “Saving a Montage
template” on page 188), the Sample rate dialog will
not automatically be displayed (since the new Montage will use the sample rate saved in the template).
To change the sample rate, you will need to select
“Audio Properties…” from the Edit menu.
Alternative ways to create a Montage
There are several ways to generate a new Montage “automatically”:
• When you move and edit clips, you can choose to snap
to the ruler positions.
• Import cue-sheet/CD image as Audio Montage.
See “Magnetic bounds” on page 151.
This function on the File menu (Open submenu) allows you to open a cue
sheet – a text file containing information about how CD tracks correspond to the audio in an associated CD image file. The result will be a
Montage with clips corresponding to the tracks in the cue sheet, all referencing the same CD image audio file.
Cue sheets and CD images can be created in many programs, including
WaveLab Studio (see “Rendering a CD image and cue sheet” on page
196).
The time grid
If you like, a “grid” can be displayed in the Track View,
consisting of vertical lines at every labeled position in the
ruler. To show or hide the grid, right-click in the ruler and
activate or deactivate the “Show Grid” option on the popup menu.
• By importing Audio CD tracks directly to a Montage.
When using the Import Audio CD tracks function on the Tools menu, you
can automatically create an Audio Montage playing the imported tracks.
See “Convert to Montage” on page 210.
• You can create a Montage from a Wave file with the
Auto Split function.
See “The Auto Split dialog” on page 135.
Time grid activated
• By opening a Wave file and selecting “Create Audio
Montage from Wave” on the Edit menu.
This option is also available in the Open – Wave dialog (File menu).
139
The Audio Montage
Handling tracks
Deleting tracks
Creating and managing tracks is done in the area to the
left of the tracks in the Track View (from now on called the
Track Control area). In the middle of this area is a button
with the number of the track. Clicking this button brings
up the track pop-up menu, which contains most of the
track functions.
To remove unwanted tracks, proceed as follows:
1. Click on the track number button for the track that you
want to delete.
The track pop-up menu appears.
2. Select Delete track.
If there are clips on the selected track, you will be asked whether you really want to delete the track. Click OK to proceed.
!
Deleting a track with clips will also delete the clips!
However, the audio files to which the clips refer will
not be affected. Also remember that you can recover
accidentally deleted clips by using the Undo function.
Folding tracks
To save screen space, you can fold tracks that you don’t
need to have visible. This is done by clicking the arrow
button at the top left corner of the Track Control area.
Adding tracks
There are two different track types available in the Montage: audio and video (see “Using video tracks” on page
191).
Click on the arrow…
1. Click on the track number button for a track next to
where you want to add a new track.
The track pop-up menu appears.
…to fold the track.
2. Select one of the Add items at the top of the menu.
To unfold a folded track, just click on the button again, or
double click anywhere in the folded track.
You can choose what type of track to insert and, if an audio track is to be
inserted, whether the new audio track should be mono or stereo. By default, the new track is added below the focused track. If you wish to place
it above the focused track rather than below, press [Ctrl] when adding
the new track.
Half height tracks
Another way to save screen space is to bring up the track
pop-up menu for a track and selecting “Half height”. The
height of the track will then be reduced by half relative to
other tracks.
Moving tracks
To move a track up or down in the Track View, proceed as
follows:
1. Click on the track number button for the track that you
want to move.
The track pop-up menu appears.
2. Select “Move track up” or “Move track down”.
140
The Audio Montage
Adding audio clips to the Montage
By using Copy and Paste
You can create clips by copying audio selections from
Wave windows into the Audio Montage. There are several
ways to do this:
1. In the Wave window, select the audio section that you
want the clip to refer to.
You cannot add a mono clip to a stereo track or vice
versa. Also, the clip’s audio file has to have the same
sample rate as the Audio Montage.
3. Make the Audio Montage window active, and click in
the track on which you want to put the clip, at the desired
position.
!
2. Select Copy from the Edit menu, or press [Ctrl]-[C].
This sets the Montage cursor position (as indicated by the vertical line)
and selects the track (as indicated by the highlighted Track Control area
to the left).
By using drag and drop from Wave windows
Select the audio section that you want the clip to refer to,
and drag the selection into the Montage window and drop
it on a track. A pop-up menu appears, listing a number of
Insert options, see “The Insert options” on page 142.
4. Select Paste from the Edit menu, or press [Ctrl]-[V].
5. A pop-up menu appears, listing a number of Insert options. Select one of these.
A clip is created, named after the original audio file. You
can change the name of clips in the Audio Montage, as
described in the section “The columns” on page 161.
The options are described in the section “The Insert options” on page
142.
!
• This method can also be used for dragging selection
ranges (see “Selection ranges” on page 153) from another (or the same) Montage.
The dragged range will become a separate clip.
• If you want to drag the whole audio file from the Wave
window to the Audio Montage, you don’t need to make a
selection first.
Once you have added the desired clips from an audio file, you don’t need to have the original Wave
window open. Should you need to edit the original
(source) audio file, you can access it from the clip
speed menu, as described in the section “Editing
source files” on page 162 (any editing done to the
source audio file is immediately reflected in all clips
referring to the file).
Instead you can click on the purple document button at the upper right
corner of the Wave window and drag it to the Montage.
By dragging from the Files view
• You can also drag files into the Clips view.
This way, you can add clips without having Wave windows open:
By inserting from open Wave windows
1. Select the Files view by clicking the Files tab.
If one or several Wave windows are open, you can rightclick an empty area on a Montage track and select any
open Wave from the pop-up menu that appears. A number of Insert options for the file are presented before inserting, see “The Insert options” on page 142.
2. Click the System tab to the left of the display.
The view now shows a file navigation environment, similar to the Windows Explorer.
3. Use the left pane to locate and open the folder containing the audio files you want to import.
If several Wave windows are open you can also select “Insert all open waves” from the pop-up to insert them all.
This will open the Insert audio files dialog, allowing you to
specify how the files should be ordered and whether they
all should be placed on one single track or separate tracks
– see “Multiple clips” on page 143.
The contents of the folder are shown in the right pane.
4. Locate the desired audio file(s) and drag them to a
Montage track.
If you are dragging a single file, a pop-up menu appears, allowing you to
select one of the Insert options. If several audio files are dragged, the Insert audio files dialog appears, allowing you to specify how the files
should be ordered and whether they all should be placed on one single
track or separate tracks – see “The Insert options” on page 142.
141
The Audio Montage
By importing files
The Insert options
1. In the Track View, click in the track on which you want
to put the clip, at the desired position.
Single clip
When you add a single clip to the Montage (by pasting,
importing from disk or using drag and drop), a pop-up
menu appears. By selecting one of the menu items, you
specify how the clip should be inserted, whether existing
clips should be affected or not, etc.
This sets the Montage cursor position (as indicated by the vertical line)
and selects the track (as indicated by the highlighted Track Control area
to the left).
2. Right-click in an empty area on the track and select
“Insert file(s)…” from the pop-up menu that appears.
A regular file dialog appears. You can also open this from the Files view :
File menu.
3. Locate and select the file(s) you want to import, and
click Open.
Depending on whether you have selected one or several files, the Insert
options pop-up or the Insert audio files dialog will appear (see “The Insert options” on page 142). The new clips are then added, ordered according to your settings.
The two clips shown in the picture above have been imported. The first
clip has been positioned at the Montage cursor. Note the default pregap time inserted between the first and the second clip.
Option
Description
Add/Mix
The clip is inserted without affecting any clips
that already exist on the destination track. The
exception is if an inserted audio clip partially
overlaps another audio clip, in which case a
crossfade is created in the overlapping zone
(see “Using crossfades” on page 172).
Add/Mix & bind
right Clips (track)
When the clip is inserted, all clips to the right of
it (on the same track) are moved to the right, to
“make room” for the inserted clip.
Add/Mix & bind
right Clips (global)
When the clip is inserted, all clips to the right of
it (on all tracks) are moved to the right, to “make
room” for the inserted clip.
Split/Insert
This option is only available if the insertion point
is within an existing clip (audio tracks only).
When the clip is inserted, the existing clip is
split and the right section is moved to the right
to make room for the inserted clip. Other clips
are not affected.
Split/Insert & bind
right Clips (track)
As Split/Insert, but other clips to the right on
the same track are also moved accordingly (audio tracks only).
Split/Insert & bind
right Clips (global)
As Split/Insert, but other clips to the right on all
tracks are also moved accordingly (audio tracks
only).
By copying clips from another Montage
If you have more than one Montage open, you can copy
clips from one Montage to another. This can be done either by using drag and drop (from the clip list or the Track
View) or by using Copy and Paste. You can also use this
method to copy clips within the same Montage.
!
When dragging or selecting clips in the Track View,
you need to click at the appropriate mouse zone, as
explained in the section “About the mouse zones
(audio tracks only)” on page 151.
By dragging clips from the Clips view
You can add clips (that are already used in the Montage)
by using drag and drop from the clip list in the Clips view.
142
The Audio Montage
Option
Description
In this dialog you can:
Replace selected range
Only available if there is a selection range on
the destination track. The clip with the selection
range will be split at the selection range edges,
the inserted clip will replace the range and the
section to the right of the range is moved to the
left or right (depending on the length of the inserted clip vs. the length of the selection
range), so that there is no gap after the inserted
clip.
• Select files in the list by clicking on them.
• Change the order of the files by clicking the green arrow buttons or by using drag and drop in the list.
• Add files to the list by clicking the green plus sign.
• Remove files from the list by clicking the red cross sign.
• Specify how the clips should be inserted.
The dialog contains the following options:
Replace selected range This is only possible if there is a selection range
(trim source accordingly) on the destination track, and if that selection
range is shorter than the range of the clip to be
inserted. The inserted clip will overwrite the selected range only, that is, the range to be inserted will be trimmed according to the current
selection.
Option
Description
Line up on the
current track
The clips will be added to the Montage,
lined up contiguously on a single track and
spaced according to the default pre-gap
time (set on the Edit view : Options menu).
Replace selected range
& bind right Clips (track)
As Replace selected range, but other clips to
the right on the same track are also moved accordingly.
Place each file on
a different track
The clips will be added to the Montage,
each on a separate track, according to the
settings below.
Replace selected range
& bind right Clips
(global)
As Replace selected range, but other clips to
the right on all tracks are also moved accordingly.
Start inserting
below current track
If this is activated, the new tracks for the
files you add will be inserted below the currently selected track.
Overwrite from
cursor
If the inserted clip overlaps any other clips, the
overlapped regions are removed from the existing clips.
Always create
new tracks
Cancel
No clip is added (you can also cancel the insertion by clicking outside the pop-up menu).
You will probably want to have this activated for most purposes. Anytime you add
more files to a Montage by using this
method, this will ensure that they end up on
separate tracks.
Shift existing
clips to the right
If this is activated, any already existing clips
in the Montage will be moved to the right
by an amount equalling the length of the
first new added file.
Multiple clips
When you add several audio clips to the Montage (by importing from disk or using drag and drop), the Insert audio
files dialog appears.
When you insert audio clips, regardless of whether it is a
single clip or multiple clips, the following option is taken
into account:
• Create default fades in new clips (see “Create default fades in
new clips” on page 171).
About the auto-grouping options
The Track and Global auto-grouping icons.
There are two auto-grouping options that can be used
when inserting clips. If any of these auto-grouping options
are activated in the Edit view, clips to the right of the insertion point will be moved to the right to “make room” for the
inserted clips.
143
The Audio Montage
Zooming in the ruler
If you are adding several clips at the same time, these options affect the result in the following way:
As in the Wave windows, you can adjust the horizontal
zoom by clicking in the ruler and dragging the pointer up
or down with the mouse button pressed. Drag up to zoom
out and drag down to zoom in.
• If “Track auto-grouping” is activated, clips on the same track,
to the right of the insertion point, will be moved to the right to
“make room” for the added clips.
• If “Global auto-grouping” is activated, clips on all tracks, to the
right of the insertion point, will be moved in the same way.
!
Ö If you hold down [Shift] while zooming this way, the
Montage cursor position isn’t affected.
The auto-grouping options are not taken into account when you add a single clip. Instead, you can
use one of the “bind right clips” options on the Insert
options pop-up menu to achieve the same result.
Changing the height of tracks
The height of the tracks (and thereby the number of tracks
displayed in the Montage window) is governed by the
track magnification controls in the lower right corner of the
Montage window.
Zooming and navigating
Horizontal and vertical zoom controls
• Click on the large Magnifying Glass icon to “zoom in” –
increase the height of the tracks.
This is the same as displaying one track less. When only one track is displayed, this icon will be greyed out.
• Click on the small Magnifying Glass icon to “zoom out”
– decrease the height of the tracks.
This is the same as displaying one track more. When all tracks are visible,
this icon will be greyed out. Consequentially, if the Montage only contains one track, both Magnifying Glass icons will be greyed out.
The zoom “levers” in the upper and lower right corners of
the Montage window work just like in the Wave windows.
• You can zoom in on a single track, making it fill the window.
Note that changing the vertical zoom does not affect the
height of the tracks. Rather, it affects the vertical magnification of the waveforms within each (audio) clip.
This is done by clicking the numbered button to the left of the track to
bring up the track pop-up menu, and selecting “Zoom”.
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The Audio Montage
Zooming with the Rubber Band tool
3. Select “Zoom”, and from the submenu that appears,
“Whole Clip”.
1. Click the magnifying glass icon in the top left corner of
the Track View.
The Track View zooms in on the clip.
The pointer takes on the shape of a “four-way arrow” with a magnifying
glass.
Zooming and navigating in the Edit Overview
When the Edit view is selected (by clicking the Edit tab),
the upper pane shows an Overview of the Montage, with
clips displayed as boxes. You can use this Overview to
zoom in or out, and for navigating to other sections of the
Montage. This is done by moving and resizing the Track
View rectangle in the Overview:
2. Click and drag a rectangle in the Track View, to indicate the section you want to zoom in on.
When you release the mouse button, the Track View is magnified, so that
the section in the rectangle fills out the display. Note that the magnified
view will include any tracks fully or partially enclosed by the rectangle.
The Track View rectangle
Drag a rectangle and release the mouse button…
• The Track View rectangle indicates the section of the
Montage currently displayed in the Track View.
• You can zoom in or out, vertically or horizontally, by resizing the Track View rectangle.
… and the selection is magnified to fill out the display of the Track View.
3. Deactivate the Rubber Band tool by clicking the icon
again, or by right-clicking anywhere in the Track View.
• It is also possible to temporarily select the Rubber Band
tool, by holding down [Ctrl] and aiming in an empty area of
the Track View (or in a mouse zone used for range selection).
You can also resize the rectangle horizontally by holding down [Shift] and
clicking. This will instantly move the closest edge of the rectangle to the
clicked position.
See “About the mouse zones (audio tracks only)” on page 151.
• You can drag the Track View rectangle to view other
sections of the Audio Montage.
Zooming in on a single audio clip
If you want to study an audio clip in detail, you can zoom in
on it so that it fills up the track display:
• Clicking on one of the clip boxes outside the Track View
rectangle will make the Track View zoom in horizontally on
that clip.
1. Point at the audio clip.
The number of tracks shown will not change.
Make sure you don’t aim at an envelope curve.
• Double clicking on one of the clip boxes in the Overview
will make the Track View zoom in horizontally and vertically
on that clip.
2. Click with the right mouse button.
The clip speed menu appears, containing various clip-based functions
and settings.
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The Audio Montage
Undoing view and position changes
• Right-clicking anywhere in the Overview will make the
Track View zoom out, so that the whole Audio Montage is
visible.
There is a separate “Undo history” for zoom, view and position changes in the Audio Montage. This allows you to
undo one or several changes, in the following way:
The Key Command for this is [J].
• To identify a clip in the Overview, position the pointer
over its box.
• To undo the latest change to the view, click the green
left arrow to the left of the Track View ruler (or press [7] on
the numeric keypad).
The name of the clip is displayed.
You can repeat this as long as there is any change to undo (as long as
the green left arrow is lit). This Undo history includes changes to zoom,
view and cursor position.
Moving the Montage cursor
To move the Montage cursor, you can either click at the
desired position, use the Transport bar or use the computer keyboard.
• You can click in the ruler, in an empty section of the
Montage or within a clip (anywhere except in the mouse
zone used for copying clips by dragging, and on the volume envelope line).
The mouse zone concept is described in the section “About the mouse
zones (audio tracks only)” on page 151.
• The buttons on the Transport bar work as in the Wave
windows.
• To redo an undone view change, click the yellow right
arrow to the left of the Track View ruler (or press [8] on the
numeric keypad).
The Fast Forward and Rewind buttons scroll the playback position forwards or backwards, while the start and end buttons move the playback
position to the start or end of the Montage.
Maximizing the width of the Audio Montage
• The left and right arrow buttons on the computer keyboard can be used to move the Montage cursor in finer
steps.
If you click the double arrow icon at the top left corner of
the Track View, the Montage window is enlarged horizontally to fill the screen.
If you hold down [Ctrl] and press the left or right arrow button, the Montage cursor will jump to the nearest clip edge (start or end position of a
clip). It is also possible to move the Cursor by using the Page Up, Page
Down, Home and End keys.
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The Audio Montage
Playing back
• Note that a track is soloed when the Solo button is blue
(lit).
Playback in the Audio Montage works in much the same
way as in the Wave windows. However, there are some
extra things to note:
• The Solo buttons are exclusive, that is, solo can only be
activated for one track at a time.
However, you can manually unmute other tracks when Solo is activated,
if you want to listen to a combination of tracks.
Ö Audio tracks are normally routed through the Master
Section.
Muting individual clips
This allows you to add global effects to the Audio Montage or use the
Render function to create a mixdown audio file (see “Mixing down – The
Render function” on page 192).
You can also choose to route the audio from a track to the nearest track
above (see “About the “Upper Track” output option” on page 180), for
use with clip effects that allow modulating audio inputs (such as sidechain compressors, duckers, etc.).
The routing is done using the “Route to” options on the track pop-up
menu.
It is also possible to mute a clip:
1. Right-click anywhere on the clip you want to mute (except on the envelope curve).
The clip speed menu appears.
2. Select “Mute” from the menu.
The clip is muted. This is indicated in three ways:
• The clip is shown with another color (by default “greyed
out”) when not selected.
• The “M” checkbox in the Clips view is ticked (see “The
columns” on page 161).
• The “Mute” item on the clip speed menu is ticked.
Ö The loop settings on the Transport bar apply as in the
Wave windows.
• To unmute the clip, bring up the clip speed menu again
and uncheck the “Mute” item.
If the “Loop Selection” mode is selected, playback will loop within the
boundaries of the current selection range (see “Selection ranges” on
page 153). This selection range may be on any track – you can even
make a “selection” on an empty track. This vertical position of the selection range is of no relevance for loop playback, only the left and right selection boundaries matter.
• To mute or unmute all selected clips, pull down the Edit
view : Select menu and select “Mute/Unmute all selected
clips”.
It is also possible to mute a selection range within a clip,
using the volume envelope. This is described in the section “Muting a selected range of a clip” on page 167.
The track activity indicator
Mute and solo
You can mute or solo tracks in the Montage by using the
corresponding buttons in the Track Control area:
Solo
The track activity indicator
Mute
The track activity indicator is located on the right side of
the Track Control area. This shows the volume level for
audio tracks. It is not intended to give exact level readings
but rather to provide an overview of which tracks are currently playing back audio, and at what approximate level.
• Note that a track is muted when the green button is
dark.
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The Audio Montage
About the track gain faders
Playing back individual clips and selections
When editing and rearranging the Audio Montage, it can
be useful to audition the individual clips and selections.
This is done using the clip speed menu:
1. Right-click on the clip you want to play back (make
sure you don’t click on the envelope curve, as this will open
another speed menu – see “Hiding/Showing volume envelope curves” on page 165).
The clip speed menu appears.
The track gain faders are located to the left of the track activity indicator in the Track Control area. They provide a
simple way of adjusting the level for all clips on an audio
track.
• The track gain is independent from both the volume envelope and the clip gain.
• The track gain can be lowered down to -48 dB, and increased up to 6 dB.
If you change the level by dragging the faders, the fader handles change
from grey to red/blue to indicate that the level is offset from the default 0
dB setting. If you point at the faders, the current gain setting is shown.
• In the audio chain, the track gain affects the level post
any track effects and before the Master Section.
• The track activity meter does not reflect the track gain
setting, nor is track gain reflected in the waveform.
• Press [Shift] and drag a fader handle to change the level
for the left or right side of a stereo track separately.
Press [Ctrl] and click on the fader to reset the level to 0 dB.
The clip speed menu
2. Select one of the “Play” items.
“Play clip” plays back the clip you clicked on.
“Play clip selection” plays back the current selection range only (this is
only available if you have made a selection in the clip – see “Selection
ranges” on page 153).
“Play (with Pre-roll)” plays back the clip you clicked on, starting slightly
before the clip. The Pre-roll time is set in the “Edit playback times” options in the CD view : Functions menu.
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The Audio Montage
Playing all tracks within the current selection
range
2. Click and hold the mouse button to the left or right of
the vertical line.
Clicking to the left of the line will play back the audio backwards and
clicking to the right will play the audio forwards. The playback speed is
determined by the distance from the line to the pointer, so that the further
away from the line you move the pointer, the faster the playback.
If you have made a selection range (see “Selection
ranges” on page 153), you have the possibility to play
back this range only. This is a quick way to listen to a short
section of an Audio Montage:
Ö The playback speed is indicated in the info line.
1. Drag with the mouse to create the selection range, either in a clip or in an empty section of a track.
“1.00” is normal playback speed. Negative values indicate reverse playback.
2. Right-click in the ruler.
3. Release the mouse button to stop playback.
The ruler pop-up menu appears.
!
Remember to deactivate the Jog/Shuttle button on
the Transport bar when finished (by clicking the button, pressing [F10] or using Stop).
Using the Jog function
As described in the section “Using the Jog/Shuttle function” on page 62, the Jog function can be viewed as dragging the audio past a “playback point”, much like dragging
a reel-to-reel tape past the playback head. This is done in
a different way than in the Wave window:
1. Click the Jog/Shuttle button on the Transport bar or
press [F10].
3. Select “Play selection” from the pop-up menu, or
press [F6].
A vertical line appears in the middle of the Audio Montage window. This
is the “playback point”. Furthermore, the area above the ruler turns purple.
All unmuted audio within the selection range is played back.
2. Point in the purple area above the ruler.
!
When you use this playback method, the loop settings on the Transport bar are disregarded. To play
back the selection in a loop, press [Shift]-[F6].
Using the Shuttle function
As described in the section “Using the Jog/Shuttle function” on page 62, the Shuttle function can be viewed as
playing back with a continuous control for tape speed and
direction. This works in the same way in the Audio Montage as in the Wave windows:
3. Click and drag to the left or right to drag the audio
past the playback point.
The audio is played back, forwards (if you drag the audio to the left) or
backwards (if you drag to the right), at the speed with which you drag.
1. Activate the Jog/Shuttle button on the Transport bar
(or press [F10]).
!
A vertical line is displayed in the middle of the Audio Montage window
and the pointer takes on the shape of a speaker.
Remember to deactivate the Jog/Shuttle button on
the Transport bar when finished (by clicking the button, pressing [F10] or using Stop).
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The Audio Montage
Playing back from the ruler
4. Activate recording.
The clip will be inserted at the position where the Montage cursor was
the moment you activated recording. If you first go into Pause mode and
then activate recording, you will get a “pre-roll” time according to the
Pause buffer, allowing you to capture the audio just before you start recording.
You can use the ruler to quickly locate to a position and
start playback from there:
• Double clicking in the ruler starts playback from that position.
Playback continues until you press Stop (or until the end of the Montage).
By using the Record button
1. Select a track by clicking in its Track Control area.
• If you double click in the ruler and keep the mouse button pressed, playback will start from that position and stop
when you release the mouse button.
2. If you like, activate playback.
3. Click the Record button on the Transport bar or press
[*] on the numeric keypad.
After stopping, the Montage cursor will return to the position where you
clicked. This is a handy way to quickly locate and audition positions in the
Montage.
The Record dialog appears.
• If you single click in the ruler during playback, playback
will immediately jump to that position.
4. Make sure the checkbox “Add to selected track of
Montage” is activated.
This even allows you to “jump” between different document windows.
5. Proceed as when recording into a Wave window.
Recording
When you finish recording, a clip is created at the cursor position, or if
playback was activated, at the position where the Montage cursor was
the moment you activated recording.
It is possible to record audio and have it appear directly as
a clip in the Audio Montage. There are several ways to do
this:
Things to note
Ö Make sure you select a stereo track if you want to do a
stereo recording and vice versa.
By using the track pop-up menu
Ö If “Temporary File” is selected when you record, the
clip will refer to an untitled, unsaved “invisible” file.
1. Move the Montage cursor to the position where you
want the recorded clip to appear.
If you try to save a Montage with references to temporary files, WaveLab
Studio will ask you to save these files (since the program needs to know
the file names, for proper reference).
2. Select Record at cursor from the track pop-up menu
for the desired track.
The Record dialog appears. The option “Add to selected track of Montage” is automatically activated, and stereo or mono is automatically selected depending on the selected track.
About playing back during recording
When you record in a multi-track environment, it is often
desirable to have the existing tracks play back during recording, performing an “overdub”. For this to be possible
in the Montage, the following requirements must be met:
3. Proceed as when recording into a Wave window.
When you finish recording, a clip is created at the cursor position.
By using the track pop-up menu during playback
• Your audio card must support Full Duplex operation
(MME/WMA drivers only).
1. Start playback.
This means that the card must allow simultaneous recording and playback. Consult the documentation for the audio card if you are uncertain.
ASIO drivers always allow simultaneous recording and playback.
2. Select Record at cursor from the track pop-up menu
for the desired track.
The Record dialog appears as in the previous example.
• The option “Stop playback when metering or recording”
must be deactivated in the Record Settings dialog.
3. Make settings as when recording into a Wave window.
If it is activated, you will be asked whether you want WaveLab Studio to
turn it off for you before starting recording.
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The Audio Montage
Ö When you move the pointer over a mouse zone, the
info line indicates the corresponding action(s).
About monitoring the recorded signal
WaveLab Studio in itself does not handle monitoring
(routing the input signal back to the output) during recording. If you want to hear the signal you are recording, there
are two ways to achieve this:
As described in the section “Info line symbols” on page 138, this also indicates whether you can perform additional functions by holding down
modifier keys.
• Use an external mixer.
Normally, you connect your audio input sources (and the audio card’s
outputs) to the mixer’s inputs, connect the mixer’s main outs to the monitoring equipment and use a send or bus to send the desired channels to
the audio card’s inputs for recording. This is necessary to avoid including
background tracks in the recorded signal.
Magnetic bounds
• Use the audio card’s mixer application.
When you move and edit clips, it is often useful to have
them snap to other clips as well as to significant positions
in the Montage. To facilitate this, you can specify that certain positions should be “magnetic”.
Many audio cards allow you to route the input signal back to the outputs.
Consult the documentation of the audio card for details.
Rearranging clips
This is done using the Magnetic bounds submenu on the
Edit view : Options menu.
About the mouse zones (audio tracks only)
Basic rearranging of clips in the Audio Montage is done
by clicking and dragging with the mouse. However, the results of dragging with the mouse depend on where in the
clip you click. The different areas in a clip are called
mouse zones.
Top clip area
Upper clip area
Upper clip edge
Upper clip
edge
Lower clip edge
Lower clip
edge
Bottom clip area
Lower clip area
Option
Description
Start of Audio Montage
The start of the Audio Montage.
Clip’s cue-point
A position within a clip that you set using the
clip speed menu (see “Using cue points” on
page 159).
The mouse zones have the following basic functionalities:
Mouse zone
Description
Clip’s head
The start of a clip.
Top clip area
Copy clip by dragging (see “Duplicating clips”
on page 155).
Clip’s tail
The end of a clip.
Time units
Upper clip area
Make a selection range (see “Selection ranges”
on page 153).
Lower clip area and
Bottom clip area
Select clips and move clips by dragging (see
“Selecting clips” on page 152 and “Moving
clips” on page 154).
The time units displayed in the ruler (the
same as the positions of the grid lines when
the time grid is activated). The coarseness
of these units is determined by horizontal
magnification. For details about the ruler and
the grid, see “The ruler” on page 139.
Upper and lower
clip edges
Resize clips by dragging the edges (keeping the
audio source “static” – see “Resizing clips” on
page 156).
Audio Montage markers
Markers in the Audio Montage window (see
“Using markers in the Montage” on page
185).
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The Audio Montage
Option
Description
Selecting clips
Markers in audio source
Markers in the clips’ original audio files (see
“Using markers in the Montage” on page
185).
Selection Edges
The start and end of a selected range in the
Audio Montage.
To select a clip (for copying, deletion, etc.), click in the
bottom clip area (the mouse zone to which “Select/Move
clip” is assigned).
Cursor
The Montage cursor position.
Activating Snap
Having set up the desired Magnetic bounds options, you
activate the Snap function by clicking the “Enable snapping” icon in the Edit view (or by pressing [N] on the computer keyboard).
Selected clips are normally displayed in a different color. You can edit
this color, as described in the section “Defining custom colors” on page
252.
• You can select multiple clips by [Ctrl]-clicking.
Now, when you move or resize a clip and its edges (or its
cue point) get close to one of the Magnetic positions, two
things happen:
This works in the same way as selecting multiple objects in other Windows programs.
• Holding down [Shift] and clicking allows you to select a
range of consecutive clips (on the same track).
• The clip snaps to the magnetic position.
• A label is displayed, indicating what the clip snaps to.
Again, this is similar to how you select ranges of objects in other Windows programs. Don’t confuse this with making a “selection range”, see
“Selection ranges” on page 153.
• If you hold down [Ctrl] and [Shift], you can click and
drag a selection rectangle to select several clips on several tracks.
All clips touched or enclosed by the rectangle are selected.
To deactivate Snap, click the icon again or press [N].
When you hold down [Ctrl] and [Shift], the cursor takes on the shape of
a “selection arrow”.
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The Audio Montage
Using the Select menu
Option
The Edit view : Select menu holds several items for selecting clips:
Lock/Unlock all selected clips Locks all selected clips (or unlocks them, if
they are locked). See “Unlocking a locked
clip” on page 159.
Description
Mute/Unmute all selected clips Mutes all selected clips (or unmutes them,
if they are muted). See “Muting individual
clips” on page 147.
About selected and focused clips
The program makes a distinction between selected and
focused clips:
• A selected clip is a clip you have selected using the any
of the procedures described above.
Several clips can be selected at the same time.
• The focused clip is the clip you selected (or clicked, or
edited) last.
Only one clip can be focused at a time. By default, the focused clip is
distinguished by a highlighted name label:
Option
Description
Select all clips
Selects all clips in the Montage.
Clicking on the selected clip to the right makes it the focused clip.
Select clips of
selected track
Selects all clips on the selected track (the
track with the highlighted Track Control
area).
Selection ranges
A selection range is a selected area on a track. The selection range may be entirely or partially within a clip, or in an
empty section of the track. There are several uses for selection ranges:
Select all clips included in the Selects all clips fully encompassed by a
selection (on all tracks)
selection range, on all tracks.
Select all clips at left of cursor Selects all clips with the endpoint to the
(selected track)
left of the Montage cursor, on the selected
track.
• You can edit clips using selection ranges. This involves cutting
or erasing the selection, or trimming the clip to contain only
the selection (see “Resizing by trimming” on page 157).
• You can create a new clip by dragging the selection range to
another track.
• You can open a Wave window with the range selected in the
source audio file, by dragging the selection range to the
WaveLab Studio desktop.
• You can play back the selection range only, either the whole
Montage or just the clip with the selection range (see “Playing
back individual clips and selections” on page 148).
• You can have the playback loop within the selection, by activating the loop and selecting the “Loop Selection” mode on
the Transport bar.
Select all clips at left of cursor Selects all clips with the endpoint to the
(all tracks)
left of the Montage cursor, on all tracks.
Select all clips at right of
cursor (selected track)
Selects all clips that start to the right of the
Montage cursor, on the selected track.
Select all clips at right of
cursor (all tracks)
Selects all clips that start to the right of the
Montage cursor, on all tracks.
Inverse Selection
Deselects all currently selected clips and
selects all other clips in the Montage.
Deselect clips
Deselects the currently selected clips.
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The Audio Montage
To create a selection range, proceed as follows:
Moving clips
• Creating a selection range in an empty area on a track is
done by clicking and dragging with the mouse as when
selecting audio in the Wave windows.
To move a clip, proceed as follows:
1. If you want to move more than one clip, you need to select these clips first.
• Creating a selection range within a clip is done in the
same way, but the pointer must be in the upper clip area
(the mouse zone to which the “Select range” function is
assigned).
2. Position the pointer over the clip, in the lower clip area
(the mouse zone to which the “Select/Move clip” function
is assigned).
When the pointer is in the “select range” mouse zone, it takes on the
“Selection tool” shape.
3. Click and drag the clip(s) in any direction.
The pointer takes on the shape of a “four-way arrow”.
When you are moving the clip(s), the info line displays the current start
position of the clip you are dragging.
• When you drag the mouse to create the selection
range, the start and end position and the length of the
range are displayed in the info line.
• The clip(s) will snap to any activated magnetic bounds,
see “Magnetic bounds” on page 151.
• If you double click in the selection range mouse zone, a
selection range is automatically created, spanning the entire clip or the area between the closest markers (if there
are any).
• If you move clips sideways, the auto-grouping settings
are taken into account, as described below.
If you move the clip over another track, auto-grouping is temporarily disabled until you release the mouse button.
In the latter case, triple clicking will expand the selection range to the entire clip. Furthermore, if you double click and keep the mouse button
pressed, you can drag the mouse to expand the selection range in
“blocks” (clips or marker areas).
• If you click on a clip, keep the mouse button pressed
and then press [Shift], movement is restricted to vertical.
This is useful if you want to move a clip to another track without accidentally changing its horizontal position.
• You can resize a selection range by [Shift]-clicking or
dragging its edges, as in the Wave windows.
• You cannot move mono clips to stereo tracks or vice
versa.
• As in the Wave windows, you can toggle the selection
range on and off by pressing [Esc].
Moving with auto-grouping
• To remove (deactivate) a selection range, click elsewhere in the Montage.
There are two options on the Edit view : Options menu
that affect the result when you move clips horizontally:
Track auto-grouping and Global auto-grouping. There are
also separate icons for these options on the toolbar in Edit
view mode:
Track auto-grouping
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The Audio Montage
Global auto-grouping
• If Track auto-grouping is activated when you move a clip sideways, all clips to the right of it on the destination track will be
moved by the same amount.
• If Global auto-grouping is activated when you move a clip
sideways, all clips to the right of it in the whole Audio Montage
will be moved accordingly.
• There is an automatic crossfading option that automatically adjusts the volume envelope curves when you overlap clips.
This is described in the section “Using crossfades” on page 172.
Duplicating clips
To make a copy of a clip, proceed as follows:
1. If you want to copy more than one clip, you need to select these clips first.
2. Position the pointer over the clip, in the top clip area
(the mouse zone to which the “Drag/Copy clip” function is
assigned).
Here, Clip auto-grouping (all tracks) is activated. If you move the selected clip sideways…
3. Click and drag the clip(s) in any direction.
While you are dragging the clip(s), a dotted line indicates where the first
of the copied clips will end up. The position is also indicated on the info
line (see “The info line” on page 138).
4. Release the mouse button.
If you dragged a single clip, the Insert options pop-up menu appears
(see “The Insert options” on page 142). Select one of the options to insert the duplicate of the clip. If you dragged more than one clip, the duplicates are inserted, taking the auto-grouping settings into account, as
described below.
• The clip(s) will snap to any activated magnetic bounds,
see “Magnetic bounds” on page 151.
…all clips that are “connected” vertically or horizontally will also be
moved.
• You cannot copy mono clips to stereo tracks or vice
versa.
About overlapping clips
Duplicating with auto-grouping
You can move clips so that they overlap each other on the
same track. Please note:
If you are copying more than one clip at the same time, the
auto-grouping settings in the Edit view affect the result
(see “Moving with auto-grouping” on page 154):
• The tracks in the Audio Montage are polyphonic, which
means that each track can play back several overlapping
clips at the same time.
Overlapping clips will be transparent, allowing you to see the underlying
clips and their waveforms.
• If Track auto-grouping is activated when you duplicate
clips, all clips on the destination track, to the right of the
new copy, will be moved to the right, to “make room” for
the new clips.
• To select an overlapped (underlying) clip, double click
in the bottom clip area (the mouse zone to which “Select/
Move clip” is assigned).
• If Global auto-grouping is activated when you duplicate
clips, all clips to the right of the new copy in the whole Audio Montage will be moved to the right in the same way.
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The Audio Montage
Repeating clips
Dragging selections to create new clips
1. If you don’t know the exact number of copies (clones)
needed, but know roughly where you want the last clip in
the row to be positioned, move the Montage cursor there.
If you have made a selection range in a clip, you can copy
this to a new clip, in the following way:
1. Create the selection range, see “Selection ranges” on
page 153.
2. Right-click on the clip to bring up the clip speed menu.
3. Select “Repeat clip…”.
!
The Repeat clip dialog appears.
If the selection range covers more than one clip, only
the section belonging to the focused clip will be copied!
2. Position the pointer over the selection, in the the upper
clip area (the mouse zone to which the “Select range”
function is assigned).
3. Drag the selection to the desired position.
When you are dragging, the position of the pointer is displayed on the
info line. Magnetic bounds apply, as when duplicating clips.
4. Release the mouse button.
4. Either select the “Count” option and specify an exact
number of clones, or select the “Repeat until cursor” option.
The Insert options pop-up menu appears (see “The Insert options” on
page 142). Select one of the options to insert the new clip.
!
5. Select one of the Placement options:
Option
Description
Place clips one after
the other
Lines up the copies after the clip, spaced according to the “Gap between clips” setting.
Place every…
Allows you to position the copies according to
a time interval. You cannot specify times
shorter than the length of the clip (i.e. it is not
possible to have the clips overlap each other).
Align with clips of
focused track
When this option is selected, the copies will
be positioned according to the clips on the focused track (the track with the highlighted
Track Control area).
If you specify an Offset value, the copied clips
will be positioned at the starting position of the
clips on the focused track + the Offset.
Envelopes and effects will not be included when you
copy selection ranges.
Resizing clips
In this context, “resizing” usually means moving the start
and end points of a clip, so that more or less of the original
audio file is “revealed”. However, in the Audio Montage
there are two ways of doing this: with the audio source
“static” or “tied”. These two methods are explained below.
As with other clip operations, the mouse zones determine
which function is used, and the pointer changes shape to
indicate the current function.
6. Click OK.
The copies are created. If you chose the “Repeat until cursor” option, the
last clip will start to the left of the Montage cursor.
The “Resize clips” pointers for static and tied audio sources, respectively.
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The Audio Montage
Resize clips (static audio source)
Resizing all selected clips
This is the traditional way of resizing clips, you move the
start or end point to the left or to the right:
• If you press [Alt] when resizing, all selected clips will be
resized by the same amount.
1. Point at the left or right edge of the clip.
To resize multiple selected clips using tied audio sources press [Alt] +
[Ctrl].
It doesn’t matter whether you click in the upper or lower half of the edge.
2. Click and drag to the right or left.
Resizing by trimming
The start and end positions and length of the clip are displayed on the
info line while you are dragging.
If you need to remove unnecessary material at the beginning and end of a clip, this can be quickly done by trimming:
1. Make a selection range within the clip (see “Selection
ranges” on page 153), encompassing the audio material
you want to keep in the clip.
• You cannot drag the edge of a clip past the start or end
point of the audio file it refers to.
• The clip edges will snap to any activated magnetic
bounds, as described in the section “Magnetic bounds”
on page 151.
2. Right-click to open the clip speed menu.
3. Select Trim to selection.
The clip is resized to contain only the selected audio.
• When you drag the right edge of a clip this way, the
auto-grouping settings on the Edit view : Options menu
are taken into account.
Sliding the audio in a clip
If you want to adjust the position in the audio file to which
the clip refers, you can do this by “sliding” the audio within
the clip, without resizing it:
As when copying clips, this means that if Track auto-grouping is activated, all the following clips on the track will be moved when you resize
the clip (so that the distance between the clip’s right edge and the next
clip on the track remains the same).
If Global auto-grouping is activated, the same is true, but for clips on all
tracks in the Audio Montage.
1. Position the pointer over the clip, in the lower or bottom
clip area (the mouse zone to which the “Select/Move clip”
function is assigned).
Resize clips (tied audio source)
2. Press [Ctrl] and [Alt].
When you resize a clip using this method, the audio
source is “tied” to the edge you are moving. This means
that the audio is “scrolled” at the other edge of the clip, as
in the picture below.
The pointer takes on the shape of a double arrow.
3. Drag left or right to slide the audio source.
1. Point at the left or right edge of the clip, and press
[Ctrl].
2. Click and drag to the right or left.
The start and end positions and length of the clip are displayed on the
info line while you are dragging.
In this example, the right edge of the clip is moved to the right. As a result, the start point of the clip will refer to an earlier position in the audio
file.
• Magnetic bounds and the auto-grouping options apply
as when resizing with static audio source.
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The Audio Montage
Moving a clip with the audio source fixed
Cutting and erasing sections of a clip
This is the opposite of sliding the audio: this function
moves the clip in the Montage, but the audio source remains fixed in position:
You can cut or erase a selection range within a clip, by using the functions “Cut selection” or “Erase selection” on
the clip speed menu, or by selecting Delete or Erase selected range from the main Edit menu.
1. Position the pointer over the clip, in the lower or bottom
clip area (the mouse zone to which the “Select/Move clip”
function is assigned).
Cutting
If you select “Cut selection” (or Delete on the main Edit
menu), the selected range is removed, and the right section of the clip is moved to the left, to fill out the gap.
2. Press [Shift] and [Alt].
The pointer takes on the shape of a box with arrows.
3. Drag left or right to move the clip, “revealing” other
sections of the “underlying” audio source.
• If the automatic crossfading mode or the option “Create
default fades in new clips” are activated on the Edit view :
Fade menu, a default crossfade is created between the
resulting two clips, ensuring a click-free, clean transition.
Splitting a clip
You can split a clip in two, using the following method:
• The auto-grouping settings in the Edit mode are taken
into account.
1. Set the Montage cursor to the position at which you
want to split the clip.
This means that the following clips (on the same track or on all tracks)
may be moved to the left, depending on the auto-grouping settings.
2. Position the pointer over the clip, in the top clip area
(the mouse zone for which the “Split at cursor with a double click” function is activated).
Erasing
Selecting “Erase selection” removes the selected range,
resulting in two clips with a gap between them.
The cursor takes on the shape of a pair of scissors.
3. Double click.
• If “Create default fades in new clips” is activated on the
Edit view : Fade menu, a default fade-in is created for the
right clip, and a default fade-out for the left clip.
The clip is split in two. The two clips will have the same name and settings. Envelopes and fades (see “The volume envelope” on page 164)
are converted, so that the two clips play back as before.
• If the options “Create default fades in new clips” is activated on the Edit view : Fade menu, a crossfade is automatically created between the resulting left and right clip.
• You can also split a clip by setting the Montage cursor
and selecting “Split at Cursor” from the clip speed menu,
or by pressing [S] on the computer keyboard (in which
case the focused clip is split).
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The Audio Montage
Deleting clips
Using cue points
There are two principal ways to delete a clip:
A cue point is a defined position marker that belongs to a
clip. It may be positioned within or outside the clip. Cue
points are displayed as dotted vertical lines.
• Right-click on the clip to bring up the clip speed menu,
and select “Delete clip”.
• Select it, and press [Backspace].
Instead of using [Backspace], you can press the [Delete] key or select
“Delete” from the main Edit menu.
!
Make sure there is no selection range before deleting – otherwise the range will be deleted instead of
the clip. To ensure there is no selection range, press
[Esc].
A cue point
When you move a clip, its cue point will be magnetic to
any edges, markers or positions activated on the Magnetic
bounds menu (see “Magnetic bounds” on page 151).
There are several uses for this:
Locking clips
Sometimes it’s useful to lock a clip (or several selected
clips), to prevent you from accidentally moving, editing or
deleting it. This is done by selecting “Lock” from the clip
speed menu.
• Set the cue point at a “relevant” position in the audio and use
it to align the clip with other clips, etc.
• Set the cue point before the start of a clip, allowing you to position clips in a row with pre-defined spaces (by magnetizing
the cue point to the end of the previous clip).
• Set the cue point at the fade-in or fade-out point of a clip,
making it easy to maintain defined fade lengths when crossfading (see “Using crossfades” on page 172).
To set the cue point for a clip, proceed as follows:
This clip is locked. This is indicated by the mouse pointer taking on the
shape of a lock symbol, whenever you move it over the clip. The default
color for locked clips is green, but you can change this if you like (see
“The color elements” on page 253).
1. If you want to set the cue point at an arbitrary position,
move the Montage cursor to that position.
Unlocking a locked clip
2. Right-click on the clip to bring up the clip speed menu.
There are three ways to unlock a locked clip:
3. Open the Cue point submenu.
This may be within the clip or outside it.
• Click on the clip, and click “Yes” when asked whether you
want to remove the lock.
• Uncheck the checkbox in the Lock column in the Clips view
(see “The columns” on page 161).
• Deactivate the Lock item on the clip speed menu.
• To lock or unlock several clips in one go, select the clips
and select “Lock/Unlock all selected clips” from the Edit
view : Select menu.
4. Select one of the functions on the submenu:
To be able to select locked clips, you need to use a selection rectangle
(by pressing [Ctrl] and [Shift] and dragging with the mouse).
Option
Description
Set at cursor
Sets the cue point at the current Montage cursor position.
Follows fade-in
end point
Sets the cue point at the clip’s fade-in junction point
(the left purple handle in the volume envelope). The
cue point will follow the handle if you move it. See
“Editing fades” on page 170.
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The Audio Montage
Option
Description
Follows fade-out
start point
As the previous option, but for the fade-out start
point.
3. To hide a Column deselect the respective column type
in the list.
The column disappears from the clip list, and the pop-up closes.
Set at default pregap Sets the cue point before the start of the clip, at a
position
distance governed by the default pre-gap position
(set on the Edit view : Options menu).
4. To show a hidden column type, open the columns
pop-up menu again and select the desired column type.
The pop-up closes, and the column is now shown in the clip list.
!
Each clip can only have one cue point. This means
that if you repeat the procedure above and select another option on the submenu, the cue point will be
moved to a new position.
Moving columns
It is possible to rearrange the order of the columns by
click-dragging a column heading. A vertical line is shown
in the clip list to indicate where the column will be inserted
when you release the mouse button.
Editing in the Clips view
Resizing columns
You can freely adjust the width of columns by positioning
the mouse pointer on the edge of the column, and clickdragging the divider.
Optimize column width
When the Clips view is selected, all currently used clips
(including video clips if used) are displayed in a list in the
upper pane. Each clip in the Track View has a corresponding entry in the clip list. Clips can also be dragged
from the clip list into the Montage.
This columns menu option can be used to optimize the
size of all columns with regard to their contents, in other
words all columns will be resized so that the column contents will be shown in full. Normally, you don’t have to do
this, since WaveLab Studio automatically optimizes the
column widths each time the view is opened or resized.
The list also allows you to edit the clips in various ways. In
fact, virtually all clip editing functions available in the Track
View are also available in the clip list. As usual, you can either type in the values or use sliders, allowing for exact
and precise editing.
Only show selected clips
Customizing the view
When this item is activated on the Clips view : Functions
menu, only those clips that are selected in the Track View
are listed. Deselecting a clip in the Track View will automatically hide it in the clip list.
Hiding/Showing columns
Sorting the clips in the list
The Clips view can be divided in up to ten columns, with
each column displaying different data relating to the clips
in the list.
The clips in the list can be sorted in a number of ways; alphabetically, by length, by start position, etc. This is done
in the standard Windows fashion, by clicking on the desired column heading. Clicking again on the same heading
will reverse the sort order.
To hide/show columns, proceed as follows:
1. Click on the Clips tab to select the Clips view.
Navigating in the Clips view
Make sure the divider between the upper and lower panes is pulled
down, so you can see the clip list properly.
If there are a lot of clips in the list, you can either use the
scrollbar to the right to manually scroll the list up or down,
or you can type in the first letter of a clip’s name – the selection will then immediately jump to the first clip in the list
starting with this letter.
2. Click on the arrow above the clip numbers to open the
Columns pop-up menu.
This pop-up menu displays all available column types. Currently visible
column types are indicated with a tick mark.
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The Audio Montage
Re-ordering clips in the Montage by drag and drop
In the clip list, you can edit the following parameters:
This feature allows you to reorder clips in the Montage, in
a way that is only possible from the clip list. As an example, let’s assume that we have edited the “Welcome”
wave file (included with WaveLab Studio) so that the
words “Welcome” “to Steinberg’s” and “WaveLab” are instead contained in three separate clips. In this example
the clips are all on the same track, but they do not have to
be. Proceed as follows:
Column
Description
Row header
(number)
Clicking on the numbered button to the left of a clip in
the list automatically selects the clip in the Track View
and scrolls the Track View to display the clip.
Speaker
icon
Click on the Speaker icon to audition a clip (including
muted clips). This column cannot be removed, resized or
edited.
Name
Double click on a name to type in a new name.
Track
Clicking on a track number opens a pop-up menu where
you can select a new track for the clip (stereo clips cannot be moved to mono tracks and vice versa).
Pregap
Length of silence before clip, or the overlap time between clips (see further description below).
1. Place the clips so that the original welcome message
is played back in the right order.
2. Open the Clips view : Functions menu, and make sure
that the top menu item “Allow reordering by drag and
drop” is ticked.
3. Now click the “Welcome” Clip number (1) to the left of
the speaker icon in the clip list, and drag and drop it below
the “WaveLab” clip in the list.
Start
The clip start time (in the format selected on the ruler).
End
The clip end time.
Length
The length of the clip.
Clip-lock
status
If a box is ticked in this column, the related clip is timelocked in the Track View, and no editing can be performed on the clip.
Gain
This allows you to boost or cut the clip gain by +/- 24
dB. Note that this “extra” gain adjustment is done at the
end of the clip chain, after the envelope, effects and pan.
This is the setting adjusted by the Meta Normalizer (see
“The Meta Normalizer” on page 182).
Mute status
If a box is ticked in this column, the related clip is muted
(see “Muting individual clips” on page 147).
Comment
In this column you can type in comments for the clip.
While dragging, the pointer changes to a Waveform icon.
4. The clip order is still 1-2-3 but the message now says
“to Steinberg’s” – “WaveLab” – “Welcome”.
About the Pregap column options
There are three options on the Clips view : Functions
menu that determine what is displayed in the Pregap column:
• Show global pre-gaps.
If this is activated, the Pregap Column displays the length of the gap (if
any) between the start of a clip and the end of the previous clip, on any
track. In other words, it shows the gap between the two clips, regardless
of whether they are on the same or on different tracks.
The order of the clips is changed.
The columns
Editing in the clip list allows for very precise adjustments.
There are three ways you can edit values in the clip list
columns (and in other Montage lists):
• Show pre-gaps by track.
As above, but shows the gap between clips on the same track only.
• Show overlap times (in red).
• By typing in the value.
• By using sliders or pop-ups.
• By using the spin controls.
If this is activated, and a clip overlaps the previous clip, the Pregap column will display the length of the overlapping section, in red. Note that
the “global” and “by track” options above apply to overlap times as well.
For details, see “Setting values” on page 26.
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The Audio Montage
Managing clips and source files
1. Right-click on the clip to bring up the clip speed menu.
2. Select Edit from the Source submenu.
There are several functions to help you check and manage
the relationship between the clips and their source audio
files:
The Files view
A Wave window opens, showing the referenced source audio file with a
selection corresponding to the clip.
3. Edit the file as desired, save it and return to the Audio
Montage.
The Files view has two “subviews”, Audio Montage and
System (selectable by clicking the vertical tabs to the left
of the view). The System subview shows the files and folders on your hard disk, and can be used for importing audio
files via drag and drop into the Audio Montage (see “By
dragging from the Files view” on page 141). The Montage
subview resembles the Clips view, but lists all source audio files and their respective clips. This is useful for keeping track of which audio files are used.
You can also use the following methods to edit the source
file:
• Drag the clip onto the WaveLab Studio desktop.
• Double click in the Top Clip area (the mouse zone used
for dragging/copying clips).
• Drag a selection range onto the WaveLab Studio desktop.
• To display the clips that reference to a certain audio file,
select the audio file in the left list.
In this case, the selection in the Wave window will correspond to the selection range, rather than the clip.
Its clips are displayed in the right list, which has the same columns and
functions as the list in the Clips view (see “Editing in the Clips view” on
page 160). By default, not all columns are displayed in this list, but you
can customize this as in the Clips view.
Please note the following:
Ö Any editing you perform this way will affect all clips
that use the audio file (including clips in other Audio Montages).
• To navigate in the Files view, you can either use the
scrollbar to manually scroll the list up or down, or type in
the first letter of a file’s name – the selection will then immediately jump to the first file in the list starting with this
letter.
If this is not what you want, you should consider using the “Clone and
Substitute” function before editing (see below).
Ö You can undo/redo all changes in Wave windows, and
these changes will be reflected immediately in all open
Montages.
Editing source files
Editing the Montage may require that you process or edit
the actual audio files referenced by the clips. This is done
in the following way:
Ö If you reduce the length of the source audio file, so
that it ends before the clip end point, the end of the corresponding clip(s) will be displayed in another color (inverse
video), to alert you.
Ö If you use “Save as” to save the source audio file under another name, the Montage will now refer to that new
file instead.
This is true for all open Montages that refer to the file.
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The Audio Montage
Cloning and substituting source files
The “Implicit folder” is used when WaveLab Studio needs
to save files to disk. It is similar to the “Temporary folders”
setting in the Edit folder dialog (see “Folder editing” on
page 248), but with one important difference: Files stored
in the “Implicit folder” are not “temporary”, that is, they are
not deleted when you close WaveLab Studio. This is necessary since the Montage contains references to the files.
If you want to edit the source file of a clip, without the risk
of affecting any other clips, you should use the function
“Clone and substitute” on the Source submenu on the clip
speed menu. This creates a copy of the audio source file,
and makes the clip reference to this new file. As a result
you can edit the source file without affecting other clips or
the original audio file.
!
• The cloned audio file will have the same name as the
original, but with the suffix “_#X”, where X is a number.
For example, if the original file is called “Piano.wav”, the first clone you
make will be called “Piano_#1.wav”. If you repeat the procedure with another clip referencing to “Piano.wav”, that clone will be called
“Piano_#2.wav”, and so on.
• The cloned audio file will be stored in the folder specified in the “Implicit folder” dialog on the Edit view : Options menu.
If the option “Use existing folders when possible” is
activated, the cloned audio file will be stored in the
same folder as the original file (provided that the
original file has ever been saved).
Note that this is not always desirable; if you are
working with large audio files and have two or more
hard disks, you should consider having the “implicit”
folder on a different hard disk from that of your regular audio folder. This will make cloning files twice as
fast. However, most often it is best to have all source
files in the same folder, to make backups easier.
Substituting the source audio file
There are two ways to substitute the source audio file:
Substitute for existing wave…
If you select the function “Substitute for existing wave…”
from the Source submenu on the clip speed menu, a file
dialog appears, allowing you to make the clip reference to
another audio file. This is a good method to use if you wish
to compare different takes.
• All clip settings will be retained.
• The substituting audio file must be long enough for the
clip to “fit”.
This means that the audio file must at least cover the range between the
clip’s start and end points.
• You cannot substitute a stereo file with a mono file or
vice versa.
• You can also use the “Substitute…” function for video
tracks.
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The Audio Montage
Change file…
The fade-in and fade-out parts of the envelope are described in the section “Using fades and crossfades in the
Montage” on page 170. The following pages describe the
“sustain part” of the envelope, that is, the section between
the two fade junction points.
This is available from the File view : File menu. It opens a
dialog which allows you to substitute an existing file with a
new one.
Ö Unlike “Substitute for existing wave” (which is applied
to the current clip only), “Change file” will reference all
clips referring to the original file to the new file.
Graphic display of envelope curves
The envelope curve indicates at a glance if points, fadeins or fade-outs have been defined. In addition to the
curve, changes in the volume envelope are by default also
reflected in the waveform itself. If you do not want this feature you can deselect the “Map waveforms to volume”
item on the Edit view : Options menu.
You can also double-click in the file list while pressing
[Ctrl] to open this dialog.
Renaming files and clips
You can rename source files and have all open Montages
that reference the audio files automatically be updated.
You can also freely rename clips from within a Montage
and the current Montage will be updated accordingly.
Just use the Rename dialog (see “Renaming files and documents (Rename)” on page 53).
A defined volume envelope curve with “Map waveforms to volume” activated.
The volume envelope mouse zone
The volume envelope
The default envelope curve contains no volume envelope
points. In this condition you can still use the curve to
change the overall volume for a clip. Proceed as follows:
It is possible to create independent volume envelope
curves for the clips in the Audio Montage. These envelope
curves are used to automate volume, to create fades and
crossfades, and for muting sections of clips.
1. Place the mouse pointer on the curve.
The mouse pointer takes on the shape of a circle with two arrows pointing up and down, indicating the envelope mouse zone. A label also appears displaying the current clip volume in dB, and the info line indicates
the possible courses of action.
How the envelope is displayed
By default all clips display a volume envelope curve. Actually, you should view the volume envelope as three separate envelopes: the fade-in part, the “sustain part” and the
fade-out part. The purple points to the left and right on the
curve are the fade-in and fade-out junction points that
separate the fade parts from the sustain part.
The volume envelope mouse zone
!
The envelope mouse zone is always linked to an envelope curve.
2. Click and drag the curve up or down to change the
clip volume and release the mouse button.
The default volume envelope, with zero fade-in and fade-out times.
The new volume level for the clip is displayed in the info line.
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The Audio Montage
Hiding/Showing volume envelope curves
Mono/stereo envelopes
All clips display volume envelopes by default. There are
two ways you can hide the envelope curve for a clip.
It is possible to display two volume envelope curves for
stereo clips, allowing you to control the volume separately
for the left and right channels. Proceed as follows:
Method 1:
1. Right-click on an envelope curve to open the envelope
speed menu.
• Bring up the clip speed menu and deactivate the option
“Fade/Level” on the “Show Envelope” submenu.
The volume envelope is hidden, but still active. To show the volume envelope, activate the option again.
2. Select “Convert to stereo envelope” from the menu.
Method 2:
3. To convert back to a mono envelope, repeat step 1
and select “Convert to mono envelope” from the menu.
The clip now displays two volume envelope curves.
• Bring up the envelope speed menu and select “Hide”.
The volume envelope is hidden, but still active. To show the envelope
curve again, bring up the clip speed menu and activate “Fade/Level” on
the “Show Envelope” submenu.
!
By definition, pan envelopes cannot be converted to
stereo.
Only show one envelope at a time
Editing envelopes
As pan settings (see “The pan envelope” on page 174)
and effect send levels (see “Using effect envelopes (clip
effects only)” on page 180) also can be automated using
envelope curves, it is possible to have quite a few different
envelope curves in a clip. This might make it difficult to
quickly find the curve you wish to view or edit. To remedy
this, you can activate the option “Only show one envelope
at a time” on the clip speed menu “Show envelope” submenu, and have only one selected envelope type shown:
About using key commands
!
On the envelope speed menu, you will find that most functions have key commands. These will affect the envelope
curve with the focus.
Ö The focused envelope curve is displayed with yellow
handles for the envelope points.
The focused
envelope curve.
If “Only show one envelope at a time” is selected
when several curves are currently shown in a clip,
nothing will happen. This is logical, since WaveLab
Studio cannot “know” what curves you want to show
or hide.
1. On the clip speed menu, open the “Show envelope”
submenu and activate the option “Only show one envelope
at a time”.
To set the focus to an envelope curve, click on it.
Adding volume envelope points
2. To hide envelope curves, open the clip speed menu
and deactivate the item(s) you wish to hide on the “Show
envelope” submenu.
The volume envelope points allow you to “draw” volume
curves in the clip. To add a point, double click on the envelope curve (or select “New point” from the envelope
speed menu). You may add as many points as you like.
3. Repeat this procedure until only the relevant curve is
shown.
Selecting envelope points
4. If you now select another envelope type from the submenu, the new envelope will replace the previous, only allowing one envelope at a time to be shown.
!
The following sections apply to both volume and
fade envelope points. In other words, you can select,
deselect and move both sustain and fade envelope
points.
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The Audio Montage
Clicking on an envelope point selects it (it becomes red).
You can also select several envelope points. The following
rules apply:
• [Shift]-clicking on the envelope curve and dragging it
left or right will select (and move) the two nearest points to
the right and left respectively.
You are constrained to horizontal movement using this method. This
method is useful when working with “Duck according to other track” (see
“Duck according to other track” on page 168) since it allows you to
quickly adjust the position of duck regions.
• [Shift]-click (on a point) to select all points between a
previously selected point and the current point.
• [Ctrl]-click (on a point) to select non-contiguous points
in the envelope curve.
• Clicking and dragging the envelope curve up or down
selects (and moves) all points.
• [Alt]-click (anywhere in the clip) and draw a selection
rectangle.
You are constrained to vertical movement using this method. Note that
points set to the minimum value are not affected (see “Muting a selected
range of a clip” on page 167).
All points inside the rectangle become selected.
Deselecting points
• Holding down [Alt] and dragging the envelope curve up
or down adjusts the corresponding envelopes in all selected clips.
You can deselect all selected points by clicking on a selected point or by selecting “Deselect all points” from the
envelope speed menu. To deselect a single point
(amongst other selected points), [Ctrl]-click the point you
want to deselect.
This is a quick way to adjust the level or pan of several clips at the same
time (and also to adjust both sides of a stereo envelope simultaneously).
Deleting volume envelope points
Dragging volume envelope points
!
• To move a point, click on it and drag it in any direction.
The junction points (the points separating the Fade parts and the sustain
part) will only move horizontally this way. To move a junction part vertically, press [Ctrl] and drag.
The junction points between the sustain and fade
parts of the envelope cannot be deleted.
There are three ways you can delete points:
• By double-clicking on a point.
• By right-clicking on the point and selecting “Delete point”
from the envelope speed menu.
• By selecting points and selecting “Delete selected point(s)”
from the envelope speed menu.
• To move several selected points, click any selected
point and drag in any direction.
All selected points will be moved.
• Clicking on a curve segment (i.e. the part of an envelope
curve between two selected points) allows all currently
selected points to be moved vertically.
Resetting points and envelopes
There are various ways to reset the envelope:
You are constrained to vertical movement using this method.
• To reset a point to 0dB, right-click on the point and select “Reset point” from the envelope speed menu.
• Clicking on a curve segment (i.e. the part of an envelope
curve between two selected points) and then pressing
[Shift] allows all selected points to be moved horizontally.
• To reset the whole envelope curve to default, right-click
the envelope curve and select “Reset all” from the speed
menu.
You are constrained to horizontal movement using this method.
• [Ctrl]-clicking on the envelope curve and dragging it up
or down will select (and move) the two nearest points to
the right and left respectively.
• To reset the sustain part of the volume envelope only,
select “Reset sustain to 0dB” on the envelope speed
menu.
You are constrained to vertical movement using this method. This
method is useful as a shortcut for quickly adjusting the level of a curve
segment.
All volume envelope points will be removed, but any defined fades will be
left untouched. This applies to volume envelopes only.
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Copying envelopes
Creating envelope presets
It is possible to copy an envelope curve and paste it onto
another clip. Proceed as follows:
It is possible to create envelope presets which you can
later recall and apply to other clips. Proceed as follows:
1. Open the envelope speed menu for the curve you wish
to copy, and select “Clipboard” on the menu.
1. Open the envelope speed menu for the clip containing
the envelope curve you wish to save as a preset.
A submenu appears.
2. Select “Envelope presets” from the menu.
2. Select “Copy envelope” on the submenu.
A submenu opens.
The curve is copied to the clipboard and the speed menu closes.
3. Select “Edit…” from the submenu.
3. Open the envelope speed menu for the clip to which
you want to apply the curve and select “Paste envelope”
from the Clipboard submenu.
The Envelope presets dialog opens.
4. Type in a name for the envelope preset and click
“Add” in the dialog.
The envelope curve is applied to the clip.
The curve is now stored as a preset.
Muting a selected range of a clip
• Note that there are separate presets for the sustain part
(envelope presets) and the fade parts.
It is possible to mute parts of a clip using the volume envelope. Proceed as follows:
Envelope smoothing
1. Use the “Select range” mouse zone to define the part
of the clip you want to mute.
If this item is ticked on the envelope speed menu, the resulting envelope curve angles will be rounded instead of
angular. This produces smoother, more natural envelope
curves. It can be used while drawing the envelope curve,
or applied to an existing curve.
2. Right-click the clip to open the clip speed menu, and
select “Mute selection (envelope)”.
The program adds points and draws a curve to mute the selected range
(by lowering the volume to -144dB, with 20ms fall and rise times).
Envelope smoothing off
• By design, points set to the minimum value (-144 dB)
are not affected when you drag the whole envelope curve
up or down.
This allows you to adjust the overall level of the envelope without affecting muted regions.
Envelope smoothing on
Muting whole clips and tracks is described in the section
“Mute and solo” on page 147.
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Applying envelope presets
Duck according to other track
To apply an envelope preset, proceed as follows:
This feature allows you to create ducking effects between
clips on two adjacent tracks. Normally, ducking is when
the signal level on one track or channel is automatically
lowered by the presence of another signal on another
track or channel (if this is what you want, you should use
the Ducker plug-in, described in the section “About the
“Upper Track” output option” on page 180). With “Duck
according to other track” it is not the presence of another
signal that causes ducking to take place, but the presence
of another clip on an adjacent track.
1. Open the envelope speed menu for the clip to which
you want to apply an envelope preset.
2. Select “Envelope presets” from the menu.
A submenu opens.
3. Select the preset from the list on the submenu.
The envelope curve is applied.
!
Volume envelope presets can only be applied to volume envelopes. Non-volume envelope presets (such
as pan and effect presets) can be applied to any
other non-volume envelope, but not to volume envelopes.
The most obvious application of this feature is when mixing background music with a voice-over. When the voiceover starts, the level of the music is automatically lowered
and when the voice-over stops, the level of the music is
restored to the original level. This is done by automatically
creating volume envelope curves. In the following example
we have chosen to use “music” on the track to which
ducking will be applied and a “voice-over” on an adjacent
track that will cause ducking to take place.
Envelope edit-lock
If this item is ticked on the envelope speed menu, the volume envelope curve points are hidden and cannot be edited with the mouse. You can however drag the whole
curve up or down.
!
The clips that cause ducking must be located completely inside the time range of the clip to which
ducking is applied.
!
If the clip(s) that cause ducking contain silent passages, ducking will not work properly. These clips
have to be edited so that each phrase is a separate
clip without any silence. This is because it is not the
signal level that activates the ducking, but the clip itself.
!
When “Duck according to other track” is performed
it is applied to one clip at a time. If the music (in our
example) consists of several clips that have been
spliced together, only one of the clips will be ducked
by the voice-over. One solution is to repeat the function for each clip, another is to use the “Render”
function (see “Mixing down – The Render function”
on page 192) in the Master Section to create a specific (single) file from the separate clips, and re-import this as a new clip in the Montage.
Global envelope lock
The Global envelope lock icon
If the Global envelope lock icon (in the Edit view) is activated, all envelopes are locked and cannot be edited with
the mouse. The envelopes and their points will still be displayed, but cannot be selected or edited (the mouse
pointer doesn’t change shape when moved over the
curve).
• You can toggle global envelope lock on/off by pressing
[Shift]+[V] on the computer keyboard.
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Proceed as follows:
4. Click “OK”.
The level of the music is automatically lowered by the voice-over clips, as
shown in the illustration below.
1. Place the clips containing the music and the voiceover on separate adjacent tracks.
Make sure the voice-over clips are located inside the time range of the
music clip.
After applying “Duck according to other track”
The following parameters can be set in the Ducking options dialog:
The three voice-over clips on the upper track are placed inside the time
range of the music bed on the track below.
2. Open the envelope speed menu for the clip containing
the music, and select “Duck according to other track…”.
The Ducking options dialog opens.
Parameter
Description
Fall Duration
The time it takes for the level to fall when ducking
starts.
Rise Duration
The time it takes for the level to rise to the original
level after ducking ends.
Gap before Clip
(Fall)
The time between the end of the Fall region and
the start of the voice clip.
Gap before Clip (Rise) The time between the end of the voice clip and the
start of the Rise region.
Balance clip
fade-in
If this is ticked, any Duration or Gap settings in the
Fall region will be ignored. Instead the ducking envelope will lower the volume according to the time
of the voice clip’s fade-in curve.
Balance clip
fade-out
If this is ticked, any Duration or Gap settings in the
Rise region will be ignored. Instead the ducking
envelope will raise the volume according to the
time of the voice clip’s fade-out curve.
Damp factor
This sets the amount of ducking, i.e. the level of attenuation applied to the affected clip.
Clips to follow
This determines whether the track that will cause
ducking to take place is positioned before or after
the track that will be ducked. If “Only selected
clips” is ticked only the selected clips on the specified track will cause ducking.
The Ducking options dialog
3. Click the appropriate “Previous track” or “Next track”
radio button in the “Clips to follow” section (according to
whether the voice-over track is above or below the music
track in the Montage).
For now, we will use the default settings for the other dialog options.
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Using fades and crossfades in the
Montage
• To make editing of fades easier, there are special Zoom
options on the clip speed menu, for zooming in on the
fade-in or fade-out area.
There are a number of different options to choose from
when creating and editing fades and crossfades in the
Montage. These are described in the following sections.
!
Creating fades
As mentioned earlier, by default all clips display a fade-in
and a fade-out junction point. These can be dragged horizontally to create a fade-in or fade-out for a clip. You can
add envelope points to a fade just as with volume envelopes. To create a fade, proceed as follows:
Note that the fade junction points (the points separating the fade parts from the sustain part) have a
special property: If you move a junction point, all
other points in the corresponding fade are moved
proportionally, to maintain the shape of the fade!
Fade Options
Using fade-in/out smoothing
If either or both of these items are ticked on the envelope
speed menu, the resulting corresponding fade curve angles will be rounded instead of angular. This produces
smoother, more natural fade curves. It can be used while
drawing the fade curve, or applied to an existing curve.
1. Click on the fade-in point at the beginning of a clip and
drag it to the right.
The resulting linear (by default) fade-in curve is displayed in the clip, and
the fade is also reflected in the waveform. If you position the mouse over
the fade-in point, a label appears, showing the fade-in time in seconds
and milliseconds, and the volume in dB.
Fade-in/out presets
It is possible to create fade presets which you can recall
and apply at will. This is done in the same way as with volume envelopes (see “Muting whole clips and tracks is described in the section “Mute and solo” on page 147.” on
page 167).
Fade-in/out edit-lock
If either or both of these items are ticked on the envelope
speed menu, the corresponding fade points are hidden
and cannot be edited.
A linear fade-in
2. To create a fade-out, use the same basic procedure
but instead click and drag the fade-out point at the end of
the clip to the left.
Editing the fades of all selected clips
If you press [Alt] and change a fade-in or fade-out point,
this will affect all selected clips simultaneously.
• By default you can only move the fade junction points
horizontally. To move them up or down, you need to hold
down [Ctrl] and drag.
Editing fades
The operating procedure when creating and editing fades
is identical to volume envelopes, except that the fade-in
and fade-out speed menus only contain items related to
the fade parts (whereas the envelope speed menu contains settings for all parts of the envelope). Please refer to
the volume envelope section for details.
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Default fade-in/out
To apply both default fade-in shape and length use the following method:
The factory default fade-in/out curve shape is linear. You
can change this setting and define a default shape and/or
length separately for both fade-ins and fade-outs. To define a new default fade-in, follow the steps below. To define a new default fade-out use the same method
described below but select “Default Fade-out” on the envelope speed menu:
!
1. Open the envelope speed menu for the clip to which
you want to apply the fade-in shape and time, and select
“Default Fade-in”.
2. Select “Apply default shape and time” from the submenu.
The fade-in time and shape and is now set to the defined default value.
Note that the default fades are saved for each Montage. If you want to use the same default fade for
several Montages, you should update the Montage
template file (see “Saving a Montage template” on
page 188).
Create default fades in new clips
If this option is ticked on the Edit view : Fade menu, all
new clips that are imported or recorded in the Montage
will get the default fade-in and fade-out shape and length.
This is also true for clips that are created by splitting a clip.
1. Open the envelope speed menu for the clip that contains the fade-in shape and/or length you want to use as
default.
Copying fades
It is possible to copy a fade-in (or fade-out) and paste it
onto another clip. Proceed as follows:
2. Select “Default Fade-in” on the menu.
A submenu opens.
3. Select “Define current shape as default” on the submenu.
1. Open the envelope speed menu by right-clicking on
the fade you wish to copy, then select “Clipboard” on the
menu.
Now every new fade-in will have the defined default shape.
A submenu appears.
4. If you also want to define a default length, use the
same procedure but select “Define current fade-in time as
default” from the submenu.
2. Select “Copy fade-in” (or fade-out) on the submenu.
The curve is copied to the clipboard and the speed menu closes.
3. Open the envelope speed menu for the clip to which
you want to apply the fade, and select “Paste fade-in” (or
fade-out) from the Clipboard submenu.
You have now defined both a new default shape and length.
To apply the default fade-in time use the following
method:
The fade is applied to the clip.
1. Open the envelope speed menu for the clip to which
you want to apply the default fade-in length, and select
“Default Fade-in”.
Set fade/level envelope after effects
You have the option of placing the fade/level envelope after instead of before the clip effect section (default setting). This is useful for dynamic processors that alter the
level of the clip.
2. Select “Apply default fade time” from the submenu.
The fade-in time is now set to the defined default value.
To apply the default fade-in shape to an existing non-default fade shape, use the following method:
To do this right-click the level envelope to open the envelope speed menu and select “Set fade/level envelope after effects”.
1. Open the envelope speed menu for the clip you want
to apply the default fade-in shape to, and select “Default
Fade-in”.
About fade-in/out presets
These are created and applied in the same way as volume
envelope presets, see “Muting whole clips and tracks is
described in the section “Mute and solo” on page 147.”
on page 167.
2. Select “Apply default shape” from the submenu.
!
When you create a new fade-in in a clip that previously had no fade-in, the default shape is automatically applied.
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Using the fade- in/out ROM presets
Fade-in curve type
Description
If you select “Fade-in/out ROM Presets” on the envelope
speed menu, a submenu opens where you can select various preset curves and other fade-related options.
Exponential
This creates a curve that fades in
slowly in the beginning.
Exponential +
This creates an even more pronounced exponential curve.
!
The fade-in/out ROM presets are only selectable on
the envelope speed menu if the respective fade-in/
out length in the clip is defined, i.e. not set to zero.
The following curve types can be selected (in these examples fade-in curves are used – the corresponding fadeout curves would of course display the mirror image):
Fade-in curve type
Description
Linear
This is the factory default fade curve.
A straight line between two points.
Sinus
Square-root
Using crossfades
A crossfade is a gradual fade between two clips, where
one is faded in and the other faded out. Crossfades in the
Montage are created automatically when clip edges overlap. To create an automatic crossfade, proceed as follows:
This produces a fade-in curve that
starts out moderately fast but planes
out towards the end. This curve type
will provide a constant power crossfade (see “Power compensation” on
page 173).
!
This creates a curve that fades in
quickly then planes out. This curve
type will provide a constant power
crossfade (see “Power
compensation” on page 173).
For automatic crossfading to work, the items “Enable
automatic fade-in changes” and “Enable automatic
fade-out changes” must be ticked (default setting)
on the envelope speed menu for the clip to which
you want to apply the crossfade. For a description of
these menu items, see “Enable/Disable automatic
fade changes” on page 173.
1. Click on the Edit tab and open the Edit view : Fade
menu.
Sinusoid
This creates an s-shaped fade, with
a medium slow start and end fade.
2. Select the menu item “Automatic crossfading – free
overlaps”.
This can also be selected by clicking the automatic crossfade icon.
Logarithmic
This creates a curve that fades in
fast in the beginning, reaching full
level early in the fade.
The automatic crossfade icon
3. Move a clip so that it overlaps the edge of another clip.
The crossfade is automatically created in the overlap; by default two
equal length linear fade curves, one fading out and the other fading in.
This will also happen if you paste a clip so that it overlaps another clip.
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Crossfade options
!
The automatic crossfade option on the Edit view : Fade
menu determines if automatic crossfades will be created
in the Montage:
• Automatic crossfading – free overlaps.
Note that selecting a compensation attribute for a
single fade (not in a crossfade) will change the
shape of the curve, but the actual “compensation”
will only take place when the fade becomes part of a
crossfade.
Editing crossfades
If this is activated, automatic crossfades are created when a clip overlaps
the edge of another clip on the same track, and the length of the overlap
determines the length of the crossfade.
The factory default automatic crossfade is linear, using the
same shape and fade lengths for both the fade-in and
fade-out. Most of the time, an unaltered linear or sinus
crossfade will produce the desired result. You can, however, create crossfades with totally independent shapes
and lengths for the fade-in and fade-out curves. The following rules apply:
Enable/Disable automatic fade changes
You can also disable automatic fade changes for individual clips, as opposed to the “No automatic crossfading”
Fade menu item, which is global. This can be used if you
have set a fade that you do not want to be altered in any
way, even though you may want to overlap the clip with
another clip. Proceed as follows:
• You can edit the fade-in and fade-out curves in crossfades in exactly the same way as fades.
1. Open the envelope speed menu for the clip for which
you want to disable automatic fade changes.
• To change the crossfade time (the width of the crossfade zone) “symmetrically”, press [Shift] and move left and
right.
2. Deactivate “Enable automatic fade-in changes” if the
fade you want left unaltered is a fade-in (or “Enable automatic fade-out changes” if it is a fade-out).
• Press [Ctrl] and move left and right to “slide” the crossfade region while keeping its length.
About the crossfade compensation attributes
On the fade-in and fade-out ROM presets submenus, you
can find an item called “Pure shape” along with three
“compensation” items:
Menu item
Description
Pure shape
The pure mathematical curve shape is used. This is
the default setting when any fade-in/out ROM preset
is selected.
Amplitude
compensation
If this is selected for a fade-in (or fade-out) curve in a
crossfade, the summed fade-in and fade-out amplitudes will be the same all along the crossfade region.
This option is recommended for short crossfades.
Power
compensation
If this is selected for a fade-in (or fade-out) curve in a
crossfade, the energy (power) of the crossfade will be
constant all along the crossfade region. Crossfading
between completely different types of audio material
can sometimes cause harmonics to “cancel each
other out” at the crossfade splice point, causing the
volume to drop. Constant power crossfades compensate for this problem. Using either the “Sinus” or
“Square-root” fade ROM presets for a fade-in (or
fade-out) will give a constant power crossfade without selecting this item.
Medium
compensation
Changing the crossfade time (left), and sliding the crossfade region
(right).
Ö Please note that for these tow functions to work, the
mouse pointer must not be positioned on an envelope
curve point inside the crossfade region.
If the mouse pointer is positioned on an envelope point, this point was
the priority and you cannot change the crossfade time nor slide the
crossfade region.
• When you move a clip so that it overlaps another clip to
create a crossfade, and neither clip has a defined fade in
the overlap, a default crossfade is created.
This option provides an intermediary between Amplitude and Power compensation. This is recommended
if the other two compensation attributes won’t provide
the desired result.
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• When moving a clip with a defined fade curve so that it
overlaps another clip’s adjacent edge (without a defined
fade), the unmoved clip automatically gets the same fade
shape as the moved clip (but as a corresponding opposite
fade), with amplitude compensation.
Other predefined rules when creating crossfades
Apart from the different combinations described above,
there are other factors that govern the result when creating crossfades. In this example we will use a pre-defined
fade-out and an undefined fade-in. The fade-in will be created when the crossfade is performed. What will happen
depends on what type of defined fade-out curve is used:
• If the fade-out is a ROM preset (except “Sinus” or
“Square-root”) that uses “Pure shape”, the corresponding
fade-in will get the same ROM preset, with amplitude
compensation.
• If the fade-out is a ROM preset that uses a compensation attribute (i.e. not “Pure shape”), the fade-in will get the
same ROM preset, but with “Pure shape” activated, for
the compensation to take effect.
Dragging the right clip so that it overlaps the left clip…
• If the fade-out uses either the “Sinus” or “Square-root”
ROM presets with the “Pure shape” setting, the fade-in
will get the same ROM preset also with the “Pure shape”
setting, and the compensation attributes will be greyed
out on the menu.
In fact power compensation is used. This is because the “Sinus” and
“Square-root” curves provide constant power crossfades by themselves,
for mathematical reasons.
…will use the right clip’s fade shape (as a corresponding fade-out), to
create a crossfade.
!
Note that the above only applies if the unmoved
clip’s fade-out length is set to zero.
The pan envelope
• If both clips have different defined fade curves at their
adjacent edges when creating a crossfade, this will create
an asymmetrical crossfade, based on the defined fade
curves.
You can draw pan envelope curves to automate the pan
setting for clips in the same way as with volume envelopes. For mono clips, pan governs the left/right position
in the stereo spectrum. For stereo clips, pan sets the left/
right balance. The operating procedure when creating and
editing pan envelopes is the same as for volume envelopes, so please refer to that section for details. This section only deals with the options that affect pan specifically.
Dragging the right clip so that it overlaps the left clip…
…creates a crossfade based on the already defined fades.
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Showing pan envelopes
On the clip speed menu, you will find a submenu called
Transform. This contains two items: “Time-stretch to cursor…” and “Pitch Shift…”. When you use one of these
functions, a clone of the original audio file is automatically
created, containing exactly the audio range used in the
clip. The selected processing is applied to the clone, and
the clip will reference to this file instead. The Transform
functions can be viewed as “non-destructive”, since the
original audio files are not affected.
To show the pan envelope, proceed as follows:
1. Right-click anywhere on a clip (except the envelope
curve) to open the clip speed menu.
2. On the “Show Envelope” submenu select “Pan”.
The pan envelope is shown. If the option “Map Waveforms to volume” is
activated on the Edit view : Options menu, the waveforms are scaled according to the pan envelope (as with the volume envelope).
• The cloned audio file will have the same name as the original,
but with the suffix “_#X”, where X is a number.
• The cloned audio file will be stored in the folder specified in
the “Implicit folder” dialog on the Edit view : Options menu
(see “Cloning and substituting source files” on page 163).
• For a description of the general procedure for showing/
hiding envelope curves, see “Hiding/Showing volume envelope curves” on page 165.
About pan modes
The four pan modes all relate to the fact that without
power compensation, the power of the sum of the channels will drop by about 3 dB if a signal is panned hard left
or right, compared to the same signal being panned center. You should experiment with the modes to see which
fits best in a given situation. Proceed as follows:
!
Note that since the new cloned audio file contains
exactly the audio range used by the clip, it is not possible to lengthen the clip by resizing it after the
Transform operation.
Time-stretch to cursor
1. Open the pan envelope speed menu by right-clicking
the pan envelope curve.
This function uses WaveLab Studio’s (or DIRAC’s) time
stretch algorithm to adjust the length of a clip:
2. Select “Pan mode” on the menu.
1. Move the Montage cursor to the position where you
want the clip to end.
A submenu opens. Select one of the following four modes:
Channel damp
(0dB / mute)
This mode will not compensate for power loss at
all. If a signal is panned hard left or right, the
power of the sum of the channels will drop by
3dB.
Constant power
(+3dB / mute)
This is the default mode. Regardless of the pan
position, the power of the sum of the channels
will remain constant.
Note that the time stretch algorithm will give best results when stretching/compressing by small or moderate amounts, i.e. when the Montage
cursor is positioned not too far from the clip’s current end. Also, you
should avoid time stretching already time stretched material – therefore,
if you are not satisfied with the result, you should undo the operation before trying again.
Channel boost (+4.5dB / If this mode is selected and a signal is panned
mute)
hard left or right, the power of the sum of the
channels will actually be higher than with a signal
panned center.
Channel boost
(+6dB / mute)
This is the same as the previous option, but with
even greater power boost.
Transforming clips
In this example, the goal is to match the length of the lower clip to the
upper clip. The magnetic bounds (see “Magnetic bounds” on page
151) make it easy to position the Montage cursor exactly at the end of
the upper clip.
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2. Right-click on the clip to bring up the clip speed menu.
Pitch shift
3. Select “Time-stretch to cursor” from the Transform
submenu.
This function uses WaveLab Studio’s (or DIRAC’s) pitch
correction algorithm to change the pitch of the clip:
The Time Stretching dialog appears. This is the same dialog as when
time stretching wave files, but the fields for stretch factor/time/tempo are
greyed out (since these are determined by the cursor position).
1. Right-click on the clip to bring up the clip speed menu.
2. Select “Pitch shift” from the Transform submenu.
The Pitch Correction dialog appears.
4. Make settings for Quality, Audio Quantize and Preserve pitch, see “Time Stretch” on page 85.
5. Click OK.
The clip is stretched (or shortened) so that it ends exactly at the Montage
cursor.
3. Specify the desired amount of pitch shift.
As with time stretch, small changes usually give better results.
4. Specify a Length Compensation value.
If you set this parameter to 100, the length of the clip will not be affected.
Setting it to a smaller value will make the clip longer (negative pitch shift
values) or shorter (positive pitch shift values).
5. Make settings for Quality, Audio Quantize, Preserve
Formants and Rhythm Accuracy.
Click the question mark icon in the dialog for details.
6. Click OK.
The pitch of the clip is changed.
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Adding effects to tracks and clips
Adding a track effect slot
To add an effect to a track, proceed as follows:
The Montage supports VST effect plug-ins, both for individual clips and for tracks. The main difference between
clip and track effects is:
1. Click on the “Add effect slot” button in the Track Control area.
If no effects are currently loaded the button will display “no fx”.
• Clip effects affect individual clips only.
• Track effects affect all clips on a track.
The standard WaveLab Studio and DirectX plug-ins cannot be used as clip or track effects in the Montage, but
VST versions of several standard WaveLab Studio effects
are provided, as well as several of the standard Cubase
VST effects. Each independent clip and/or audio track in
the Montage can be independently processed by up to
two VST effect plug-ins. Effects are configured either as
Inserts, when all sound is processed by the effect, or as
Send effects (“Split mode”) where the balance between
the unprocessed sound and the effect send level can be
adjusted or controlled by effect envelope curves (clip effects only).
!
!
!
2. Select “Add effect slot…” from the menu.
A slot is created and a dialog opens where various settings relating to
that slot can be made. Leave the dialog open for now.
Selecting an effect for a slot
The following applies to both clip and track effects.
Only clip effects for clips that are active at the current playback position will consume any CPU power.
This does not apply to track effects, which consume
CPU power regardless whether any clips on the
track are playing back or not.
1. Click on the button marked “Effects”.
A pop-up menu opens containing all installed VST plug-ins.
2. Select one of the effects from the menu.
The chosen effect’s parameters appear to the left in the dialog.
3. Change the parameter settings as desired.
DirectX plug-ins from Waves Ltd. can be used as
Montage effects by using the Waves VST shell.
4. When you are done, click “Close” to close the dialog
or leave it open if you want to make more adjustments
later.
The first time you play a Montage after opening or
cloning it, the program has to load all effects into
memory. If you have a lot of effects, this may result in
a short silence before playback starts.
You can continue working with the Effect dialog open. It is also possible
to have several Effect dialogs open.
If a clip effect has been added, the number [1] is displayed
before the clip name. This is to indicate that one active effect slot is used for that clip. For track effects, the number
of active effect slots currently used is shown in the “Add
effect slot” button.
Adding a clip effect slot
To add an effect to a clip, proceed as follows:
1. Open the clip speed menu by right-clicking the clip.
2. Select “Add effect slot…” from the menu.
!
A slot is created and a dialog box opens where various settings relating
to that slot can be made. Leave the dialog open for now.
You can add effects during playback. However, if
you add an effect with a latency larger than zero (displayed to the right in the Effect dialog, see “Latency”
on page 179), you should stop and restart playback
to avoid timing discrepancies.
Also, a small number of VST plug-ins may change latency depending on parameter settings. If that is the
case, make sure to stop and restart playback after
the latency is changed.
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The Audio Montage
Removing an effect from a slot
The Reset Plug-ins options
You can’t actually manually remove created effect slots,
only the slot’s effect. Here’s what you do:
On the Edit view : Options menu, you will find two options
related to the plug-in effects:
1. To remove a clip effect from a slot, open the clip speed
menu and select the effect you want to remove from a slot.
To remove a track effect from a slot, click the “Add effect
slot” button (in the Track Control area) and select the effect you want to remove from a slot from the menu that appears.
• Reset plug-ins when starting playback.
When this is activated and you start playback, the program asks the
plug-ins to first release any samples in plug-in memory. Activate this if
you get a small click or noise when the playback position reaches the
start of a clip with effects (typically reverb or delay effects). If not needed,
you should leave this option off, since having it activated could result in a
slightly delayed response when you start playback (especially in a Montage with many plug-ins used).
The effect window opens.
2. Click on the “Effects” button, and select “Remove”
from the pop-up menu that appears.
• Reset plug-ins before rendering.
Unfortunately, a small number of plug-ins do not respond properly to the
VST “Reset” command sent by the option above. These plug-ins are only
properly initialized when they are created (in effect, when the Montage is
opened). If you have activated “Reset plug-ins when starting playback”
and still get clicks on playback as described above, you can activate this
option before rendering (see “Mixing down – The Render function” on
page 192). This makes WaveLab Studio reload all plug-ins before rendering the file(s).
Note that this requires twice the amount of memory (since the Montage
is in effect opened twice).
The effect is removed from the slot. You can now either select a new effect for the slot or leave the slot unused.
• You can also remove effects from slots in the Plug-ins
view – see “Managing effects in the Plug-ins view” on
page 181.
!
Unused slots are automatically removed the next
time WaveLab Studio is launched, and do not consume any CPU power.
The Effect dialog
Effect type: Insert or Split Mode?
Clip and track effects can be configured either as Insert or
Send effects. This is done using the “Split mode” setting
in the Effect dialog (see “The Effect dialog” on page 178).
• When Split mode is deactivated for an effect, it is
treated as an insert effect.
This means the whole clip signal is routed through the effect. Typical insert effects would be compressors, auto panners or distortion units, etc.
• When Split mode is activated for an effect, it is treated
more as a send effect.
In this mode, you can adjust the send level to the effect. Note that Split
mode is different to conventional send effects in that the effect signal is
mixed directly into the audio path and not to an effect return section.
When Split mode is activated, the send level can be automated using effect envelope curves (this applies to clip effects only). Typical Split mode
effects would be reverb, chorus or delay, etc.
!
Some effects are always in Insert mode or always in
Split mode. For these effects, the Split mode setting
is greyed out and cannot be changed.
The Effect dialog
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The Audio Montage
When an effect is selected, the left part of the Effect dialog contains the parameters for the effect. The right part of
the dialog contains a number of options and functions that
are common (although some settings may be disabled depending on the effect type, as explained above).
Copying effect settings to another clip or track
The dialog contains the following common elements:
2. Select “Copy” from the Functions menu in the Effect
dialog.
Dialog item
Description
Send level
slider
This controls the send level for the chosen effect. Only
available when Split mode is selected.
Latency
Certain effect plug-ins that have to analyze the sound before passing it on, will introduce a latency (delay) in the audio path. WaveLab Studio automatically compensates for
this delay with regard to other tracks. However, real-time
changes (like turning an effect knob) will be delayed according to the maximum latency found among all clips (the
largest sum of latencies for a single clip). Plug-ins with latency cannot be used as Split mode effects (see below).
Tail
You can copy both the effect type and its settings and
paste them into another clip/track. Proceed as follows:
1. Select the effect you want to copy the settings from.
3. Click the “Add effect slot” button for a track or rightclick the clip which you want to paste the effects settings,
and either select “Add effect slot…” or select an existing
effect slot (if you want to replace the existing effect).
4. Select “Paste” from the Functions menu.
The copied effect type is added to a new slot along with the effect settings you copied.
• You can also copy/paste effects in the Plug-ins view.
Effects like reverb and delay produce audio “tails”, i.e. the
effect sound continues after the clip sound ends. If for example you add echo to a clip without specifying a tail
value, the echo effect is muted as soon as the clip ends,
which is in most cases undesirable. Set the tail length so
that the effect is allowed to decay naturally. If you add another plug-in to the clip that also produces a tail, a separate tail value does not have to be set for this plug-in
unless the new effect has a longer natural decay tail than
the first. The overall tail length for the clip is the sum of
each plug-in’s tail. The maximum tail setting is 30 seconds.
Split mode
If Split mode is activated for an effect, the send level for
the effect can be adjusted, as described in the section “Effect type: Insert or Split Mode?” on page 178. For some
effects, this setting cannot be changed.
Bypass
If this is activated, the effect is bypassed.
Effects
button
This button opens the Effects menu where you can select
to remove the slot’s current effect, or select a new one
from the menu for the same slot. Changing the effect using
this menu will erase any unsaved changes to the previously selected effect.
Preset
button
This button opens the preset menu where you can load or
save effect banks or effects. There are also two items
named Load and Save Default Bank. Saving as default
bank will store the effect settings in the same folder as the
plug-in’s .dll file, and each time you load the plug-in this
bank will automatically be loaded. This is the way to customize the default presets of a plug-in.
Functions
button
This button opens the Functions menu which allows you to
copy/paste effect settings between clips, rearrange the
order of the effect slots and switch between the different
effect dialogs currently active. See “Copying effect settings to another clip” and “Rearranging the order of the effect slots” below.
See “Managing effects in the Plug-ins view” on page 181.
!
Stereo plug-in settings can’t be pasted onto mono
clips (the same applies for mono plug-in settings and
stereo clips).
Undoing effect changes
It is possible to undo changes to the effect settings. However, WaveLab Studio will only “register” the changes
(thus making them undoable), when the Effect dialog
loses focus. Therefore, if you have made an effect setting
change that you want to undo:
1. Click on another window, so that the Effect dialog loses focus.
The new effect setting is registered by WaveLab Studio.
2. Select Undo as usual.
3. Go back to the Effect dialog to continue working (if
you wish).
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The Audio Montage
Rearranging the order of the effect slots
About the “Upper Track” output option
The Function menu items “Move up” and “Move down” allow you to rearrange the order of the effect slots. The effect order in a chain determines to a certain degree how
the effects will affect each other. If you have selected to
use compression and reverb for example, the order decides whether compression affects the clip signal only
(compressor used as Effect 1), or both the clip signal and
the reverb signal (compressor used as Effect 2). The rule
is that any effect that follows a previous effect slot will process the previous effect(s) (or a mix of input/effect in case
Split mode is used). Proceed as follows:
On the track pop-up menu you will find two items: “Route
to Master Section and upper track” and “Route to upper
track only”. These items are related to the fact that WaveLab Studio can host plug-ins that modulate audio with
other audio (clip effects only). As an example of this, a
plug-in called “Ducker” is included with the program. This
is used for lowering the volume of one signal, whenever
another signal is present. A typical application for the
Ducker would be a music track with a commentary voiceover on another track; whenever the commentary voice is
heard, the volume of the music track is lowered by a certain amount.
1. Open the effect dialog for the first effect in a chain consisting of two active effect slots.
To set up for this example, proceed as follows:
2. Select the Function menu item “Move down”.
1. Make sure the “voice-over” clip is on the track just below the “music track”.
The effect dialog remains open and unchanged except that the previous
Effect 1 slot now becomes Effect slot 2 and vice versa.
2. Pull down the track pop-up menu for the “voice-over”
track and select the option “Route to Master Section and
upper track”.
3. Now selecting “Move up” would return both effect
slots to their original positions.
Only relevant menu items are selectable, you can’t select “Move down”
for the last effect slot or “Move up” for the first effect slot.
This will route the sound of the “voice-over” track both to the Master
Section and to the track above. In other situations, you may not want to
hear the sound of the modulating track at all, in which case you would
select “Route to upper track only” instead.
Ö You can also reorder effect slots in the Plug-ins view.
See “Managing effects in the Plug-ins view” on page 181.
3. Add a new clip effect slot to the “music” clip, and select the Ducker plug-in.
Using effect envelopes (clip effects only)
You have to use a clip effect for the Ducker effect to work.
It is possible to automate the effect send level for split
mode clip effects by using effect envelope curves. Proceed as follows:
4. Start playback.
Whenever the “voice-over” signal exceeds a certain level (the Ducker effect’s Threshold value), the level of the “music” clip will be lowered (by an
amount set with the Damping parameter).
1. Open the clip speed menu for a clip that has a split
mode effect active.
5. Adjust the Ducker effect parameters until you get the
desired effect.
2. Select “Show envelope” from the clip speed menu.
The clip’s split mode effects are now selectable from the “Show envelope” submenu.
Ö A similar effect can be obtained using the “Duck according to other track” function (see “Duck according to
other track” on page 168). The difference is that with the
Ducker, it is the actual signal level that governs the ducking, while with the “Duck according to other track” function, it is the presence of a clip.
3. Select the effect to which you want to add an effect
envelope.
The effect envelope appears in the clip.
4. Editing the effect envelope is done using the same
methods as for volume envelopes.
Therefore, the Ducker is the best choice if the modulating track (the
“voice-over”) consists of long clips including silence, while the “Duck according to other track” function is best used when the modulating track
holds a lot of short clips (without silence).
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The Audio Montage
Managing effects in the Plug-ins
view
Option
Description
Paste
This allows you to paste in the copied effect in another
slot.
Remove
This removes the current effect from the slot. The slot
itself will then read “Unused slot”. You can now either
select a new effect for the slot or leave the slot unused.
Move up/down
This allows you to reorder the plug-in chain.
Left pane
• The left pane shows all the available plug-ins in a tree
list.
Used plug-ins have a plus sign beside the name. Clicking the plus sign
allows you to see exactly which clips or tracks are currently using the
corresponding effect, and which slot each effect uses. For clip effects
you can also see the clip start time in brackets.
The Plug-ins view allows you to overview and manage
plug-in effects used in a Montage. The view is divided into
two panes:
Right pane
• The right pane shows all plug-in slots currently used for
either the focused track or the focused clip.
Which is shown is selected by clicking the “C” button (focused clip) or
the “T” button (focused track) or by selecting the respective item on the
Options menu.
If you right-click on the plugin name, a pop-up opens with
the following options:
Option
Description
Remove from all clips and This removes all instances of this plugin in the
tracks that use it
Audio Montage.
Replace with clipboard in If a plug-in has previously been copied into the
all clips and tracks that clipboard, it will be used to replace the selected
use it
plug-in (in all clips and tracks). This is useful if
you want to replace a plug-in with another in the
whole Montage, or if you want to update a plugin to use different settings.
• There are two columns; Plug-in chain and Preset.
The Plug-in chain column will show all plug-ins used by a clip or track as
a chain according to the slots used. The Preset column will show the
name of the preset used.
Add to selected clips
This is an easy way to add a plug-in to all selected clips in one operation.
• Double-clicking an effect opens it for editing.
If you right-click on the the clip or track name in the tree, a
pop-up opens with the following options:
If you right-click on an effect in the Plug-in chain column, a
pop-up opens with the following options:
Option
Description
Find in plug-in
tree
When you select this option, the lift pane displays the
clip/track which uses this effect.
Edit…
This opens the Effect dialog for the corresponding effect.
Copy
This will copy the effect and its settings.
Option
Description
Show plugin chain
This will display the plug-in chain that uses this
plug-in in the right pane.
Edit…
This opens the Effect dialog for the corresponding effect.
Zoom on this clip/
Make this track visible
This will focus the Montage on the plugin host;
either the clip or the track.
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The Audio Montage
The Meta Normalizer dialog
Option
Description
Copy
This will copy the effect and its settings.
Paste
This allows you to paste in the copied effect into
another slot.
Remove
This removes the current effect from the slot.
The slot itself will then read “Unused slot”. You
can now either select a new effect for the slot or
leave the slot unused.
Add to selected clips
This is an easy way to add a plug-in to all selected clips in one operation.
• You can also drag and drop plug-ins from the left pane
to a slot in the right pane.
You can either drag a plug-in, or a clip or track plug-in instance, i.e. the
plug-in and its current preset. You can replace a slot, or insert into an
empty slot this way.
The Meta Normalizer
The Meta Normalizer, found on the Edit view : Special
menu, is a special Montage version of the Batch plug-in
processor with the same name that is also included with
WaveLab Studio. The basic functionality is similar but instead of processing batched files, it processes clips. The
processing is non destructive, i.e. it will not affect the
source audio files.
The Meta Normalizer settings dialog
Selecting the Meta Normalizer from the Edit view : Special
menu opens a dialog where you can set up various options before applying the processing. The dialog is divided
into two pages; “Settings” and “Schedule”, which you can
switch between by clicking on the appropriate tab at the
top of the dialog. In the Settings dialog you specify how
the clips will be processed, and in the Schedule dialog
you set up options related to the performance of the processing (which always happens in the background).
The Meta Normalizer operates in two or three passes. It
first analyses the peak or RMS levels on all clips in the
Montage. Then it processes the clips according to the
highest possible level found amongst the clips, so that
they will all play back at equal peak or RMS levels. This is
achieved by automatically adjusting the clips “Gain” setting in the clip list. Note that the gain level of a clip can either be amplified or reduced. The two purposes of the
Meta Normalizer are to equalize the loudness between all
clips (useful e.g. when producing a CD) and to ensure
that the full mixdown of the Montage will never clip. Depending on how much the levels differ between clips,
there are a number of options available to ensure that the
applied processing optimizes the levels without clipping.
!
The options on the Settings tab in the Meta Normalizer dialog are listed on the next page.
• The Meta Normalizer’s Schedule settings are similar to
those in the Batch Processing dialog (see “Scheduling”
on page 123).
• When you have set up the Meta Normalizer dialog, click
the “Process” button to activate processing.
Processing happens in the background. You can go on working in
WaveLab Studio during the processing, although not in the Montage being processed.
The audio path in WaveLab Studio uses 32 Bit floating point processing. You can therefore “overload” it,
i.e. use levels above 0 dB, without running the risk of
causing clipping in the signal path. The only section
of the audio path that can introduce clipping is the
output of the Master Section, and this can also be
taken care of by the Meta Normalizer.
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The Audio Montage
Groups
The following options are available in the Meta Normalizer
dialog:
Option
Description
Equalize Clip Volume
Selecting this will process all clips in the
Montage according to the highest possible
level or loudness found amongst the clips, so
that they will all play back at equal levels.
Equalize peak level
Select this option if you want to use peak levels as a basis for determining what is considered “equal level” when executing Equalize
Clip Volume.
Equalize loudness
(RMS)
Select this option if you want to use RMS
(Root Mean Square) levels as a basis for determining what is considered “equal level”
when executing Equalize Clip Volume. RMS
normally produces more natural results than
using Peak levels, since this method is better
at detecting the perceived “loudness” of a
sound.
Global
When this is activated, the RMS value is calculated over the whole clip. That is, the overall loudness of entire clips will be used as a
basis for calculating the loudness.
Resolution
(0 – 10 seconds)
In many situations, it is useful to work with several clips as
one entity. This is easily done by grouping them in the
Groups view.
A group selected in
the Groups view.
The clips in the selected group are automatically selected in the Track View.
This option is only relevant if “Equalize Loudness (RMS)” has been selected and “Global”
is deactivated. It is used to set the size of the
audio sections that are analysed when calculating the loudness. The loudest section
found will be used. The smaller this value, the
more sensitive the method will be to peaks in
the material.
Normalize Mix
(Master Section Input)
(-24 to 0 dB)
If this is selected, the entire Montage mix will
be normalized to a preset level at the Master
Section input. The maximum level that can be
used is 0 dB. Since there is no risk of clipping in the 32 bit internal audio path, you can
usually turn off this feature.
Normalize Master Section
Output
(-24 to 0 dB)
If this is selected, the entire mix will be normalized to a preset level at the Master Section output. The maximum level that can be
used is 0 dB. This function is useful before
you mix down or create a CD.
Note that this function affects the output of
the Master Section, which is “outside” the
actual Montage. Therefore, the effect of this
function is not saved when you save the
Montage.
Exclude effects
If this is selected, effects will not be taken
into account when processing with the Meta
Normalizer.
Only selected clips
If this is selected, only selected clips will be
processed with the Meta Normalizer.
Grouping clips
1. Select the clips you want to group.
2. Click the Groups tab to select the Groups view.
3. Select “Group selected Clips…” from the Groups
view : Grouping menu, or click the Group icon.
4. Enter a name for the group in the dialog that appears
and click OK.
The new group appears in the group list. All clips included in the group
will also have the name of the group prepended to the clip names in the
Track View.
This clip belongs to the group “Introduction”.
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The Audio Montage
Adding clips to an existing group
Group options
If you already have a group, and want to add one or several clips to that group, this is done in the following way:
There are a couple of options in the Groups view that affect how groups are handled:
1. Select the clips you want to add.
• You can temporarily “turn off” a group by deactivating
the checkbox to the left of a group in the list.
2. In the Groups view, select “Group selected Clips”
from the Grouping menu, or click the corresponding icon.
When the group is deactivated this way, you can move individual clips in
the group, as if they were not grouped.
3. In the dialog that appears, select the group to which
you want to add the clips.
The clips are added to the group.
• If the option “A mouse click selects a group” is activated
on the Groups view : Options menu, selecting a clip in the
Track View automatically selects all clips in the same
group.
• If you want to create a new empty group, to which you
can add clips one at a time, start by selecting “Add empty
Group” from the Groups view : Grouping menu.
If the option is deactivated, selecting a whole group requires that you
click on the group name in the Groups view list. This is useful if you want
to be able to modify the relative positions of clips in the group, without
having to remove them from the group.
4. Click OK.
This creates an empty group in the list, to which you can later add clips.
• It is possible to create nested groups, by adding a
group to another group.
This can be useful, since it allows you to deactivate the grouping for
some subgroups only, as described below. For clips in nested groups, all
group names are displayed before the clip name (separated by “:”)
You can also turn on or off “A mouse click selects a group” by clicking
this icon.
Coloring groups
You can select a specific color for a group to make it easy
to discern it in the Track View:
1. Select the group by clicking on its name in the Groups
view list.
A nested group in the Groups view.
2. Pull down the Groups View : Grouping menu and select the desired color from the “Color selected group”
submenu.
For more information about Audio Montage colors, see “Styling WaveLab Studio – Audio Montage windows” on page 251.
!
A clip belonging to the nested group.
Any individual color selections for the clips will override the group color.
• A clip cannot be part of more than one group.
If you add a clip to a group, it is automatically removed from any other
group it is part of.
Removing groups
1. Select the group by clicking on its name in the Groups
view list.
2. Pull down the Grouping menu and select “Remove selected group”.
The group is removed (the clips are not affected).
184
The Audio Montage
Using markers in the Montage
Importing markers
When you use the option “Create Audio Montage from
Wave” on the Edit menu to create a new Montage from an
open wave file, you can choose to import any existing
markers in the file so that they will be present in the Montage as well.
Separate markers are provided for use in the Montage.
Markers are used in the Montage in much the same way
as in the source Wave windows. See “Markers” on page
127 for details regarding marker types and the basic functionality of markers.
This is done by activating the option “Translate markers” in
the Wave to Audio Montage dialog.
It is also possible to view the markers of a clip’s source
audio file, by activating the option “Show source’s ruler
and markers” on the clip speed menu.
Creating markers
The quickest way to create a marker is to right-click in the
area above the ruler and select a marker type from the
pop-up menu that appears. Right-clicking this way automatically moves the cursor to the click position (provided
that you don’t click on an existing marker) and inserts the
marker at the cursor position – i.e. the position at which
you click.
This dialog lets you specify some options for how the
wave file should be inserted into the new Montage. Click
the question mark icon in the dialog for details.
Creating markers by right-clicking can be done regardless
of what view is currently selected.
Moving markers in the Track View
To move a marker in the Track View, you click and drag it.
The Magnetic bounds setting on the Edit view : Options
menu applies.
Deleting markers
There are three ways to delete markers in the Montage:
The Markers view
• By right-clicking the marker head and selecting “Delete
marker” on the menu.
When the Markers view is selected, you can create markers at the Montage cursor position by using one of the following methods:
• By selecting the markers and then selecting “Delete selected markers” on the Markers view : Functions menu.
• By selecting a marker type from the Markers view : Insert
menu.
• By clicking on one of the marker icons.
• By pressing the [Insert] key (this creates a Generic marker).
!
• By dragging the marker up and dropping it outside the
ruler.
You can also use any of the above methods to create
markers at the current cursor position while playing
back.
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The Audio Montage
Editing in the markers list view
About attaching markers to clips
Clicking on the Marker tab opens the Markers view in the
upper pane of the Montage. By default, this list contains all
markers currently in the Montage. Below the Montage
tabs there is a row of marker icons, and to the left of them
are the Markers view : Insert and Functions menus. The
markers list columns are used for editing and/or displaying
the following marker data:
On the Functions menu there are two items that control if
and how markers you insert should be automatically attached to existent clips. If a marker is attached to a clip,
the marker will move with and maintain its relative position
to the clip if the clip is moved or resized.
Option
Description
Type
This column displays the corresponding marker type
icon. Clicking the icon opens a pop-up menu where
you can select a new marker type for the current
marker position.
Name
Displays the marker name. Double click the name field
to type in a new name. This can also be done by double clicking to the right of the marker head in the area
above the ruler (the pointer changes shape when you
move it into the “Marker name zone”).
Position
This column displays the markers’ time positions.
Double click to edit.
Lock
If this is ticked, the marker cannot be moved by dragging the marker head.
Clip reference
By selecting one of the Functions menu items “Make
current marker relative to start of focused clip”, “Make
current marker relative to end of focused clip” or
“Make current marker relative to audio of focused clip”
you can lock a marker position to the left or right edge
of a clip, or to its audio position. This column displays
the name of the clip to which a marker is locked.
Offset
Activating the option “Attach automatically new markers to
the most suitable clip” results in the following:
• If a marker is created within the boundaries of a focused clip
or a clip on a focused track, the marker is attached to the audio of that clip (as per the option “Make marker relative to audio of focused clip” described above).
• If a marker is created outside of any clips on the focused track
(or if there is no clip on the focused track) but within the
boundaries of a clip on any other track, the marker will be attached to the audio of that clip.
Ö Note that if the inserted marker is of the type CD track
start or end, it can be inserted farther away from a clip
edge than 2 seconds and still get attached.
All other types of markers must be inserted within 2 seconds from a clip
edge.
Activating the option “Full clip attachment” will cause attached markers to not only remain in position relatively to
clips when you move them, but also to be attached during
clip operations. That means; if you copy a clip, the attached markers will also be copied. If you delete a clip, the
attached markers will also be deleted.
Depending on which of the three Functions menu
items described above is chosen, this column displays
the time offset between the clip and the marker position.
About locking marker positions to clips
As described in the table above, you can lock markers to
clips by selecting one of the Functions menu items “Make
current marker relative to start of focused clip”, “Make current marker relative to end of focused clip” or “Make current marker relative to audio of focused clip”. If selected,
the marker will remain in the same position relative to the
clip start, end or audio position even if the clip is moved in
the Montage or is resized.
Selecting the Functions menu item “Detach current marker
from its relative clip” removes the marker’s clip reference
and the marker position is no longer locked to the clip.
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The Audio Montage
Undo/Redo and History
History view Functions
On the History menu in the History view, the following
functions and options are available:
The Audio Montage has a separate Undo/Redo list, independent from the Undo/Redo of Wave windows. If you
have several Montages, each window has its own Undo
history.
Undoing and redoing commands in the Audio Montage is
done as in the Wave windows (by using the Edit menu, or
by pressing [Ctrl]-[Z] or [F3] for Undo, and [Shift]-[Ctrl][Z] or [F4] for Redo). However, the Audio Montage has a
special History view, which displays the Undo history as a
list and makes it possible to undo several commands in
one go.
Option
Description
Undo last operation
This is the same as the Undo command on the Edit
menu. You can also undo the last operation by
clicking the green arrow icon above the list (or in
the main control bar).
Undo until selected
operation
This is only available if you have selected an operation in the History list. Selecting this function undoes all operations up to and including the
selected one. This is a quick way to undo several
operations in one go.
Undo all operations
since last saving
This is similar to “Revert to saved” on the File
menu, with two differences: It does not undo any
view, zoom or position changes, and it does not
clear the History list.
Undo all operations
Undoes all operations in the list, even those done
before the last save.
Redo last undone
operation
This is the same as the Redo command on the Edit
menu. You can also redo the last undone operation by clicking the yellow arrow icon above the list
(or in the main control bar).
Redo all undone
operations
Redoes all undone operations in the list, i.e. all operations displayed in yellow.
Clear History now
Removes all operations from the History list. If you
use this function, you cannot undo any previous
operations.
Clear History after
each saving
When this option is activated, the History list will
be cleared each time you save the Montage.
Group similar
operations
When this option is activated, and you perform
several, similar operations one after another, these
will later be “compressed” into one Undo operation.
Let’s say you move a clip in several steps until you
find the perfect position. While you are doing this,
it is still possible to undo each separate movement
as usual. However, as soon as you perform another operation, all the previous moves (the “similar” operations) will be considered as one single
entry in the Undo History. This saves memory, and
makes work quicker since you don’t have to undo
every single step to revert to the clip’s original position.
The History view
In the History view, all operations you have made are listed.
Furthermore, if you recently have undone any operations,
these will be listed as well, allowing you to redo them (as
long as you don’t perform any other operation, in which
case the undone operations will disappear from the list).
The list works in the following way:
The numbers indicate how many operations you can undo
(negative numbers) or redo (positive numbers).
The type of performed/undone
operation.
The time when you
performed or undid
the operation.
A detailed description of the
operation.
The green arrow indicates the last action performed.
Yellow items indicate undone operations.
In the figure above, selecting Undo would undo the operation “Group clips” at the green arrow. This operation
would then be displayed in yellow, and the green arrow
would move one step down in the list.
• You can hide columns in the History view, by using the
Columns pop-up menu.
This is accessed by clicking the arrow button to the left of the column
headings.
The History view also contains the Montage Backup functions, see “Backing up Montages” on page 190.
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The Audio Montage
File handling in the Audio Montage
Saving a Montage template
Ö The Montage files do not contain any audio data in
themselves.
Once you have set up the Audio Montage window the way
you want it, you can save it as a template. The template file
contains all settings and options in the Montage, but no
clips. Next time you create a new Audio Montage (by selecting New Audio Montage on the File menu), the Templates dialog will come up and you can select to open a
template, which is used as a basis for the new Montage.
This allows you to create custom track layouts and other
settings, stored in different templates.
Rather, they contain references to audio files. This means that you must
make sure not to delete, move or rename any audio files referenced by
Montages.
To save a template, pull down the File menu and select
“Save as template…” from the Save special submenu.
Ö You can use the Rename dialog to rename (and/or
move) audio files and automatically update all clip references.
Ö When a new Montage is created based on the template, the new Montage will automatically get the sample
rate saved in the template.
See “Renaming files and documents (Rename)” on page 53.
To change this, select Audio Properties from the Edit menu and select
another sample rate in the dialog that appears.
Saving the Montage
You save the Montage using the Save or Save As commands on the File menu. Audio Montage files have the extension “.mon”.
A couple of things to note:
Ö If the Audio Montage contains clips that refer to untitled audio files, you will be asked to save these audio files
before you can save the Montage.
Opening Montage files
To open a saved Audio Montage (.mon) file, pull down the
File menu and select “Audio Montage…” from the Open
submenu.
Ö WaveLab Studio can save Montages automatically.
See “Backing up Montages” on page 190.
If any of the audio files referenced in the Montage cannot
be found, you will be asked to locate them manually. In the
file dialog that appears, it’s also possible to replace the
missing file with another – useful if you have renamed the
original audio file.
Ö You can store the current settings in the Master Section as part of the Montage, by selecting “Store current
Master Section’s configuration” from the Edit view : Special menu.
To apply the settings stored in a Montage to the Master Section, select
“Restore Master Section’s configuration”.
Closing the Montage
There are two alternative ways to store/recall a Master
Section preset for a Montage:
Closing the Montage is done as with any document window, by clicking the window’s close button or by selecting
Close from the File menu. If you have unsaved changes,
you will be asked whether you want to save the Montage
before closing it.
• [Ctrl]-click the “M” button in the title bar.
The button is now green to indicate that the current Master Section configuration is stored with the Montage. If you later load this Montage, click
the green M button to restore the Master Section preset.
Ö If you have recorded audio files in the Montage, and
close the Montage without saving it, the recorded files will
automatically be erased.
• You can right-click the Master Section Presets button
and select “Save in audio window” to store a preset.
To recall this preset later, simply right-click the Presets button again and
select “Restore from audio window”.
Cloning Montages
There are two ways to make a “clone” of an Audio Montage: “Quick cloning”, in which the new clips will reference to the original audio files, and “Full cloning”, in which
the actual audio files are cloned as well, creating a new
“self-contained” Montage.
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The Audio Montage
Quick cloning
Proceed as follows:
This method is useful if you want to create several versions of the Montage, for example experimenting with variations. Note however that any processing or editing you
apply to the actual audio files will be reflected in both
Montages, since they share all file references.
1. Select “Full cloning (recreate audio files)…”, either
from the Edit view : Special menu or from the Save special
submenu on the File menu.
A dialog appears.
1. Select the Edit view by clicking the Edit tab.
2. Pull down the Edit view : Special menu and select
“Quick cloning (reuse audio files)”.
A clone of the Audio Montage is created and appears in a new untitled
window.
• You can also create a “quick clone” by clicking the document
button of the Montage window and dragging to an empty area
in the WaveLab Studio window.
2. Specify a path and file name for the Audio Montage
clone.
If you specify a folder that doesn’t exist, it will automatically be created.
The cloned audio file(s) will be stored in the same folder as the Audio
Montage clone.
3. Select one of the “How to recreate audio files” options:
Option
Full cloning
Description
Recreate exact audio files The cloned audio files will be exact copies of
the original files. Unused ranges are not removed.
There are several uses for Full cloning.
All used ranges in the original audio files are
Combine optimally all
audio files into as few au- copied and combined into a single audio file, to
which the clips in the clone will reference. The
dio files as possible
file will get the same name as the Montage
clone file.
Note: If the Montage contains both mono and
stereo clips, there will be two “combined” audio
files, one for the mono material and one for the
stereo material. In this case, the file names will
have the suffix S (stereo) and M (mono), respectively.
Also, this option is not recommended if clips on
different tracks play back the same audio files at
the same time.
• Since the cloned Montage will have its own audio files, you
can edit and process these files without affecting any other
Montages.
• It is also a good way to “pack” the Montage, removing all unused audio sections.
• Even if you don’t need a copy of the Montage as such, you can
use this feature to split audio files and give them specific
names (using the “Create exactly one file per clip” option).
Note that Full cloning doesn’t render effects to files (as
does the Render function). It merely “re-maps” file references.
Keep same number of files The same number of audio files will be created,
but remove unused
but any unused ranges in the files are removed.
ranges
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The Audio Montage
Option
Description
Backing up Montages
Split files to remove
unused ranges
Unused ranges in the files are removed, but instead of concatenating the used sections of a
file (as with the previous option), the file is split
when a range is removed.
The Audio Montage has a special backup mechanism,
which allows you to maintain previous versions of saved
Montages, and have the Audio Montage automatically
saved. It works in the following way:
Create exactly one file per Every clip in the Montage clone will reference to
clip
a unique file, containing only the audio used in
the clip. The files will be named after the clips,
with the addition of a number if several clips
have the same name.
Create one file per clip,
avoid duplicates
• Each time you save the Audio Montage, the previously
saved version is copied to the subfolder “Backup.mon” (in
the same folder as the Audio Montage file).
As the previous option, but if two clips use the
exact same audio range, a common file is created for these clips.
This backup folder is automatically created by WaveLab Studio. The
backup files are named “Montage_#X”, where “Montage” is the name of
the Montage and “X” is a number.
4. If you later want to be able to lengthen the clips in the
cloned Montage, you need to specify a clip margins value
greater than zero.
• You can specify how many previous versions you want
to keep.
The maximum number of stored backup versions is 1000 (this is possible
since Montage files are small, containing no audio data). Once the specified number of backups has been created, the oldest file will be overwritten each time the Montage is backed up.
This feature allows you to add a specified number of seconds before and
after the beginning and end of the clip range in the created audio files.
!
This is only relevant if you have selected any other
option than the first one (“Recreate exact audio
files”).
!
5. If you want the clips in the cloned Montage to have the
names of their respective audio file, activate the option
“Reset clip names from file names”.
This means that the numbers in the backup file
names are not related to the age of the backup files.
Instead, you need to check the dates of the files to
know which backup is the most recent.
• “Untitled” Montages (that are not yet saved) are also
backed up.
6. If you want the markers in the original audio files to be
included in the cloned files, activate the option “Copy audio file markers”.
The backup files for “Untitled” Montages are saved in the Windows temporary folder, and use a number as Montage name, so that the files are
called “Y_#X”, where “Y” is a number identifying the Montage and “X” is
the number of the backup file. Once the Montage is saved, these “temporary backup files” can be discarded.
7. Click the Schedule tab to make settings for Priority,
Completion, etc.
The options are the same as when using the Render function in the Master Section (see “Options on the Schedule tab” on page 104). Note that
the process will happen in the background, allowing you to continue
working in WaveLab Studio (although not with the Montage being
cloned).
Setting up
You make backup settings in the History view:
1. Select the History view by clicking the History tab.
2. Pull down the History view : Backup menu and select
“Backup options…”.
8. Click Clone.
The audio files and the Montage are cloned. When finished, the cloned
Montage will appear in a new Montage window.
The Backup options dialog appears.
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The Audio Montage
Playing back a video clip
3. Specify how many previous versions you want to keep
(0 to 1000), in the “Number of backups” field.
Video clips are displayed as clips on the video track, with
thumbnails representing the frames in the film. If you start
playback, the video is played back in the Track view for the
video track.
Setting this to 0 is the same as turning off the backup for the Montage.
4. Activate the Auto save checkbox if you want WaveLab
Studio to automatically save the Montage.
Use the value field to the right to specify how often the automatic save
should be done (every 5 to every 120 minutes).
5. Click OK to close the dialog.
Opening the previous version
The “Open previous version” function on the History view :
Backup menu works as follows:
• If there are no unsaved changes in the Audio Montage,
the most recent backup file is opened in a new window.
If you select the function from an open backup file, the previous backup
version is opened, etc.
• If the Audio Montage has unsaved changes, the saved
Montage file is opened in a new window.
This is not the same as “Revert to saved” on the File menu! The difference is that “Revert to saved” will close the current (unsaved) Montage
and open the last saved version, effectively replacing the current Montage, while “Open previous version” will open the saved version in a new
window, without closing the current, unsaved version.
Viewing video clips in the Video view
You can also view the film in the upper Montage pane if
you select the Video view. Here you can set a number of
view options:
Using video tracks
!
• To view the video in full screen mode, press [Shift]+[A].
Use this same command to reset the view.
To be able to use video tracks, DirectX 9 must be installed.
• If you make a selection range in an audio clip that is
placed in the same time line as the video clip, there will be
three visible images in the upper pane placed side by side.
You can edit audio in sync with video placed on a video
track in the Montage. Video tracks are created from the
track pop-up menu, just like audio tracks.
The middle display shows the film, and the left and right displays will
show still images in the video clip relating to the boundaries of your audio
selection. You can use [Esc] to toggle between showing/hiding the audio selection boundaries.
Adding video clips to the video track
There are several ways you can add video clips:
• By right-clicking somewhere on the empty video track
and selecting “Insert file(s)”.
A file dialog opens where you can locate the video clip you wish to insert.
The clip will be inserted at the cursor position.
• By dragging from the Files view (see “By dragging from
the Files view” on page 141).
• By copying video clips from another Montage (see “By
copying clips from another Montage” on page 142).
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The Audio Montage
The Video view Options menu
5. Click the Render button in the Master Section window.
The Rendering preferences dialog appears.
There are two items on the Video view : Options menu:
• Play video in track (at cursor).
If this is ticked, the video frames will play back in the Track view at the
cursor position. If this is off, the frames will be displayed as non-animated
thumbnail images.
• No video playback in track when this tab is open.
If both options are ticked, the frames will be displayed as non-animated
thumbnail images when the Video view is selected, but otherwise play
back.
Editing video clips in the Montage
You can perform basic functions like moving the video clip
by dragging it in the time line, lock the clip position, use
Split at cursor, copy and paste, etc. All available functions
are displayed on the clip speed menu for a video clip.
6. Use the radio buttons in the Source section to specify
what you want to include in the created file.
The Time Selection and Selected Clips options will only be available if
you made a selection range or selected clips, respectively (in step 2 and
3 above).
Mixing down – The Render function
The Render function in the Master Section allows you to
“mix down” the whole Montage (or sections of it) to a single audio file.
7. Activate the options as desired:
The Render function can be used in many ways:
• It’s useful if you want to burn a CD from a CPU-intensive Montage, as it allows you to first render all track and clip effect
processing and then burn the CD in a second pass (see
“About the two CD write methods” on page 196).
• The Render function is useful for “printing” the effect processing for CPU-intensive Montages prior to the “final” rendering,
allowing you to add more effects, etc.
Option
Description
No Tail
When this is activated, any audio appended by the
Master Section effects (such as echoes and reverb
tails) will be cut off. Note that this doesn’t affect the
Tail setting for clip effects (see “Tail” on page 179).
Copy markers
When this is activated, any markers in the Montage
are copied to the created file.
Create CD image and This option (available when “Whole Montage” and
cue-sheet
“Create named file” are selected and CD track
markers have been added) lets you export an Audio
Montage as a CD image with an accompanying cue
sheet (a text file identifying the CD tracks in the image file). The cue sheet and the image file it describes can then be imported into any CD recording
application that supports this function (including
WaveLab Studio), and written onto CD.
1. If you want to render the whole Montage from start to
end, proceed to step 4.
2. If you want to render some of the clips only, select
these.
Open as new Audio
Montage
3. If you want to render a certain section of the Montage
only (on several tracks), make a selection range.
Note that although the selection range is only “horizontal”, all the audio
on all tracks within the range will be included.
4. If necessary, mute or unmute tracks or clips.
!
Only unmuted audio will be included in the rendered
file(s)!
192
The Audio Montage
If you have selected “Create CD image and cuesheet”, you can select this option, in which case the
created CD image will open as a new Audio Montage on completion. This is the method to use when
burning a CD from a CPU-intensive Montage, as it
lets you render the processing and burn the CD in
two separate passes, without losing any Montage
functionality (see “About the two CD write methods” on page 196).
You can also use this option to “print” the Montage
effects, allowing you to add more effects, etc.
8. Select whether you want to create a named file or not.
If you activate “Create named file”, you must specify a name and location
for the file. If you don’t activate the option, a temporary file is created,
with the bit resolution specified in the Preferences dialog–File tab.
9. If “Create named file” is selected you can click the
item at the bottom of the dialog to open the Audio File
Format dialog.
Here you can specify the various audio properties for the file(s) to be rendered. For certain compressed file formats (mp3/mp2/WMA/Ogg Vorbis), you can make encoding settings from the Encode pop-up menu.
Click the question mark icon in the dialog for details.
10. Close the Audio File Format dialog when you are done.
11. Click the Schedule tab to make settings for Priority,
Start and Completion actions (see “Options on the
Schedule tab” on page 104).
12. Click OK to create the file.
4. Activate the option “Generate CD Track Markers” and
activate the desired sub-options.
Preparing the Audio Montage for CD
burning
These options are:
The descriptions in this section cover preparations for CD
burning.
A CD can be burned directly from within the Montage:
1. Make sure the Audio Montage contains exactly the material you want on the CD.
Ö Note that CD tracks must be at least 4 seconds long.
2. Click the CD tab to select the corresponding CD view.
Create markers at clip
boundaries
This causes the CD Wizard to add CD track
start and end markers at the beginning and end
of all non-overlapping clips. Most likely, you
want to have this activated.
Create markers at
crossfade points
When this is activated, the CD Wizard will create CD boundary markers at all crossfade intersection points. Activate this if you have clips
that overlap each other, but should become
different tracks on the CD.
Keep locked CD track
markers
Normally, any previously created CD track markers in the Montage will be removed by the CD
Wizard. However, if this option is activated, any
locked CD track markers (see “Editing in the
markers list view” on page 186) will be kept.
This contains a CD track list. However, at this point, it will be empty
(since there are no CD track markers inserted yet).
3. Select “CD Wizard…” from the Functions menu (or
click the “magic wand” icon).
• “Ensure minimum required size for CD tracks” is activated by default.
The CD Wizard dialog appears. This contains a number of settings that
help you automate the CD creation.
If a clip is shorter than 4 seconds, the CD end markers are moved to the
right so as to make the track 4 seconds long (Red Book requirement).
5. If you like, activate the option “Adjust pause before
tracks”.
This automatically adjusts the pause before each track, either to a fixed
value (as specified in the Set time value box) or to the number of whole
seconds closest to each current pause in the Montage.
If you want to adjust the pauses between tracks but don’t want the start
time of the first track in the Montage to change, be sure to activate “Don’t
change first pause”. If you do, the original position of the first track will
not change relative to the start of the Montage.
193
The Audio Montage
• The Red Book audio CD standard requires that the
pause before the first track is at least 2 seconds.
• The CD is too long (the total length of the CD is displayed in
the control bar at the top of the tab).
6. Adjust the other settings if you want.
!
Click the question mark icon in the dialog for details.
7. Click Apply.
The dialog closes. Now, CD track markers are generated and pauses are
adjusted according to your settings. The CD view will now display a list
of CD tracks, as defined by the corresponding track markers.
If the “Audio in pauses” mode is activated on the CD
view’s icon bar, there will be no warnings if clips are
placed outside the tracks, see below.
Audio in pauses
Normally when creating a CD, only the section between
the CD markers are burned, and the pauses between
tracks are replaced by silence. However, when Audio in
pauses is activated, the exact image of the Audio Montage
is burned to CD, including any audio between tracks.
8. You can use the Play Next/Play Previous buttons on
the toolbar (also available on the Functions menu) to audition tracks.
9. You can use the “Play all track starts” playback option
on the toolbar (also available on the Functions menu) to
check the beginning of – or the transition between – consecutive tracks, see “Checking transitions between
tracks” on page 195.
!
Not all CD drives support this feature, and the only
way to find out if this works with your drive is to test
it.
Here are two possible uses for the Audio in pauses function:
10. If needed, you can adjust the CD track markers manually in the Track View or Markers view.
An example of a situation where you would need to add markers manually
would be a continuous recording (one clip, e.g. a live recording), which
you want to divide into separate CD tracks. Since this would contain neither clip boundaries nor crossfade points, the CD Wizard would not add
any markers (apart from at the start and end of the whole clip). Then it
would be necessary to add track splice markers at the desired positions.
Other instances are track indexes (see “The different types of “events”
on an audio CD” on page 202). However, in most cases the CD Wizard
will do a good job, and we recommend that you don’t edit the generated
markers unless you really need to.
Moving CD track markers to “hide” clip sections
11. Select “Check” from the CD view : Functions menu or
click the “glasses” icon.
1. Place the CD track end marker of the first track at the
position where the music ends, but before the applause
section.
Let’s say you have a live recording, with a section of applause between two songs. By moving the track markers
so that the applause section is between the tracks and activating Audio in pauses, the applause will not be heard if
you play any of the two tracks on their own – but it will be
played normally when playing “through” the CD tracks.
Proceed as follows:
WaveLab Studio will check the CD list and inform you whether it’s OK or
not (this check is also performed automatically before actually burning a
CD from the Montage).
2. If necessary, place the CD track start marker of the following track at the position where the music starts.
12. If the Check gave a warning message, make manual
adjustments and repeat the Check procedure until the list
is OK.
3. Activate the “Audio in pauses” mode by clicking the
corresponding icon on the the CD view’s icon bar.
You may get warning messages for several reasons, including:
•
•
•
•
You have CD tracks that are shorter than 4 seconds.
The pause before the first CD track is shorter than 2 seconds.
There are clips (or sections of clips) outside the CD tracks.
There are CD track start or end markers within clips (if you
want a new CD track to begin within a clip, you should use CD
track boundary markers).
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The Audio Montage
Placing a clip before track 1
Checking transitions between tracks
To create a “hidden” CD track before track 1, proceed as
follows:
On the CD view : Functions menu there is an item named
“Edit playback times…”. This dialog allows you to set two
things; a pre-roll time before a track is played back, and a
test time, which is the time the beginning of a track is
played back when using the “Play all track starts” function
on the toolbar (also located on the CD view : Functions
menu).
1. Place a clip without CD track markers prior to the first
track start marker in the Audio Montage.
• It is recommended that you do not place the hidden
track at the very start of the Montage, but leave a little
room between the Montage start and the start of the hidden track.
Say for example that you wish to hear a few seconds of
each track end and following track start, to check the transitions between them:
2. Activate the “Audio in pauses” mode by clicking the
corresponding icon on the the CD view’s icon bar.
If you now run the CD “Check” function, there will be no warning and the
CD track list should be “valid” (given that the rest of the Montage is ok).
1. Open the “Edit playback times” dialog on the CD view
: Functions menu.
3. Proceed with writing the CD or continue making the
necessary preparations before burning.
2. Enter suitable values for pre-roll and test times and
click OK.
To hear the hidden track after burning the disc, rewind from the start of
track 1.
You can tick the option “Pre-roll starts with one second of silence” if you
wish to make the transitions less abrupt.
Editing the CD view list
3. Activate Pre-Roll mode on the CD view : Functions
menu.
When this is activated all tracks will start with the set pre-roll if played
back using the Functions menu playback items.
Once you have prepared a CD track list as described previously, you can go ahead and write the CD.
4. Select “Play all track starts” from the Functions menu,
or by clicking the corresponding icon on the control bar.
However, there are some additional settings you can adjust in the CD view track list:
Each track start and end (including the last track) are played back according to the values set in the dialog.
• You can hide or show CD track list columns by using
the column pop-up menu (accessed by clicking the arrow
button to the left of the column headings).
Edit CD-Text
You can also drag and resize columns as usual.
This CD view : Functions menu item opens the CD Text
editor, where you can input the track’s title, artist and
other information. It will be burnt onto the CD as CD Text.
Some CD Players support CD Text and display this information during track playback. For details, click the question mark icon in this dialog.
• You can adjust all settings (except the “Length” value)
numerically in the list.
However, changing track start and end positions may result in warning
messages, as described above.
• You can change the order of CD tracks by dragging
tracks in the CD view list.
Render selected CD track
There is one restriction: you can only drag tracks that are enclosed by
CD track start and end markers – not by CD track splice markers. Tracks
divided by a CD track boundary marker (a combined start and end
marker) can only be moved as an entity.
It is possible to render a selected CD track as an audio
file. The rendered file can replace the existing clips that
make the CD track, or can be placed on a free track or on
a new track.
For details, click the question mark icon in this dialog.
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The Audio Montage
Creating an Audio CD report
About the two CD write methods
The final phase of CD creation can be done in two ways:
Basic concept
• By burning directly from the CD view in the Montage.
An Audio CD report presents the contents of the current
Audio Montage in text form, for printing.
This is an easy process, but puts some demand on your computer. Keep
in mind that even if your Audio Montage plays back without problems, the
CPU load will be four times as high if you burn in 4x speed (since the audio file has to be rendered four times as fast)! There is, however, an option in the CD Write dialog to “Render a temporary file before burning”
that alleviates this problem – see “About the “Render to temporary file
before burning” option” on page 200.
Audio CD reports are based on a number of small documents in RTF format (Rich Text Format), one for each section in the report. These can be edited in any RTFcompatible application (e.g. WordPad), allowing you to
change fonts and styles, set text justifications, add pictures, etc.
• By using the Render function in the Master Section to
first render the Montage to a CD image on disk, and then
burn the CD in a second pass.
Furthermore, the RTF documents contain references to
text variables, and these provide the actual information in
the Audio CD report – track names, times, etc. When
generating the report, the information provided by the variables will be presented according to the set style in the
RTF documents.
This method is recommended if your Audio Montage contains a lot of clip
effects (or is otherwise CPU intensive), since it separates the audio file
rendering from the CD burning process. It is also recommended if you
want to create multiple copies of the CD. For a description of the Rendering process and its options, see “Mixing down – The Render function” on page 192.
There are two types of variables, factory and user editable:
In both cases, all clip and track effects are used and the
Montage is processed through the Master Section, including any activated effects and the dithering/noise
shaping stage.
• Factory variables provide automatically generated information
about a project such as number of tracks, track times, track
names, etc. – based on the actual contents of the project.
• User variables contain personal data such as company name
and copyright information, etc. – which is defined by the user.
Rendering a CD image and cue sheet
1. Open the Master Section and click the Render button.
Along with the variables, the Audio CD report can also include any CD Text you have specified in the Edit CD Text
dialog (see “Edit CD-Text” on page 195). This is typically
where you specify composers, performers, etc.
The Rendering Preferences dialog appears.
2. Select the “Whole Montage” option in the Range section and activate the “Create named file” option.
3. Specify a name and location for the file, and make sure
the Wav 16 bit format is selected.
Generating the Audio CD report
4. Select the “Create CD image and cue-sheet” option in
the Options section and activate the “Open as new Audio
Montage” option.
An Audio CD report should be generated when an Audio
Montage is fully prepared and ready for CD burning (or after having already done so). Proceed as follows to generate a preview of the Audio CD report template:
5. Click OK.
1. Open the Audio Montage you wish to create a report
for.
Now, the whole Montage is rendered to an CD image file, with a corresponding cue sheet. A new Audio Montage is created, which will play
back as the original Montage and have all its features (but refer to the
ready-processed CD image file instead).
Now you can proceed with burning the CD as described in the next
chapter.
2. Click the CD tab and select “Generate/Print Audio
CD report” from the Functions menu.
A dialog opens.
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The Audio Montage
At this point, you can select one of three Audio CD report
templates (or presets) from the pop-up menu; two of them
will show “Absolute” times, where the timing is continuous
from the beginning of the CD (i.e. from the start of the first
pause), the third shows “Relative” times, where the timing
is relative to the start of the first track, and the durations
are given without pauses.
Editing CD Text
The first two represent the standard way of measuring
track times in professional use, such as for CD duplication
plants, the third the way track times are normally listed on
a CD cover.
Editing the elements of the Audio CD report
CD Text is included on the actual CD, and can be displayed by some CD players. It can also be included in the
Audio CD report, allowing you to specify titles, performers,
composers and more for the whole CD and for each track.
See “Edit CD-Text” on page 195 for details.
You have complete control over what is shown in the Audio CD report. Proceed as follows:
3. Click OK to generate a preview image of the report.
1. Select “Generate/Print Audio CD report” from the CD
view : Functions menu.
This is the standard or template layout, which provides all of the relevant
factory variable information.
2. Click the “Edit…” button in the dialog.
This opens the Audio CD report edit dialog.
4. You can now use the Print item on the Functions menu
in the window to print the Audio CD report.
However, you probably want to edit the contents of the report first. Read
on!
The main part of the dialog consists of “elements”; the
RTF files that make up the CD report.
Editing the Audio CD report
• Each element entry consists of a path to a RTF file.
One exception is the Logo, which should point to the location of an image file. The image will be embedded in the final RTF file.
Editing user variables
To enter personal data for the user editable variables, or to
add new variables, you use the “Edit text variables” dialog,
located on the CD view : Functions menu, see “Defining
user variables” on page 217.
• To use another RTF file for an element, click the folder
icon and browse to the new RTF file.
You could for example have created different versions of the various RTF
files, or a client could bring his own RTF files, etc.
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The Audio Montage
• To remove an element from the Audio CD report, delete
the path to its RTF file.
As you can see, this is the personal information that was
shown under the logo in the preview CD report template.
The entries are written exactly as in the “Edit Variables” dialog; a title followed by a variable name enclosed with “%”
characters.
• At the bottom of the dialog you will find additional settings for the printout (page size and margins) as well as a
Formats button (allowing you to edit the formats used for
dates, times and numbering).
Ö All text in the RTF documents apart from the code inside the percentage marks will be shown in the report.
You can also save the current Audio CD report as a preset, by selecting
“Save as…” from the pop-up menu at the bottom of the dialog.
This lets you change headings, orders and similar; you
may for example want to use another term than “Engineer”, exclude the address or phone number fields, etc.
You can also change the fonts, styles and justification for
the text.
Also, if you have added a new user variable in the Edit
Variables dialog, or defined a variable that is not called
upon in the RTF file, this variable has to be written into the
RTF file (enclosed by % signs).
Editing the RTF files
You can use the existing template RTF files as a starting
point for creating custom CD reports, or create new RTF
documents from scratch. Regardless of which, you may
want to keep a copy of the original template RTF files, as a
safety measure.
!
When you edit the RTF documents, it is recommended that you use WordPad (included with Windows) rather than Microsoft Word, as Word can
sometimes automatically create “extra” information
that cannot be translated correctly by WaveLab Studio.
However, while it is perfectly possible to enter the actual
information (e.g. the name of the project) directly in the
RTF file and remove the corresponding variable, this
would require that you edited the RTF files each time you
created a new Audio CD report. It is much better to set up
the styling of your Audio CD report and its RTF files once
and for all, and then only edit the variables and CD Text
when you work with a new project. In short:
To open an RTF file for editing, proceed as follows:
1. In the Audio CD report edit dialog, click the arrow popup to the right of the element you want to edit.
!
2. On the pop-up menu that appears, select “Open containing folder”.
The folder containing the RTF file opens in a separate window.
The RTF documents should be used for adjusting the
appearance of the report, not for writing in variable
values.
3. Double click the RTF file (or drag it to the desired RTF
editor program icon).
In this example, we’ve opened the file “Header1.rtf”.
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The Audio Montage
16
Burning an audio CD
Introduction
Testing an audio CD before burning
This chapter describes the basic CD burning process, as
well as some general reference information about the CD
format.
It does not, however, describe the necessary preparations
for creating a CD from an Audio Montage. In other words,
this chapter assumes that the respective preparations
have been completed, and that you are ready to execute
the actual CD burning.
There are two ways to check a CD before burning:
Check
The “Check” command on the Audio Montage Functions
menu (CD tab selected) scans through the audio CD and
checks that the settings conform to the CD standard. This
command does not access the CD-R recorder in any way,
it only checks the setting in the list against a set of rules.
These rules are described in the help for the Check menu
item.
Please refer to the chapter “The Audio Montage” for a description of the respective preparations before following
the instructions in this chapter.
This check is automatically performed when you try to actually burn a CD.
Selecting a CD-R unit
“Test writing of first track” and “Test writing of
the whole CD”
Before you start writing, you must specify which CD-R
unit WaveLab Studio should use (for example, you can
have more than one unit connected at a time, and switch
between them from within WaveLab Studio).
These two options in the Write CD dialog actually simulate writing of one or all tracks to the CD. This takes all
settings into account, including the writing speed (1x, 2x,
etc.), or whether a disk image should be rendered first
(see below), etc.
1. Click the Audio Montage CD tab and select “Write
CD” from the Functions pop-up menu.
• If the test fails, try writing at a lower speed.
• If the testing of all tracks is successful, you can be sure there
will be no problems with writing the actual CD.
About the “Render to temporary file before
burning” option
This is an additional option in the Write CD dialog that can
be used in case you have a slow computer and/or a lot of
CPU-load intensive effects, etc. in the Montage. If this
item is ticked, a disk image is created before burning,
which eliminates the risk of buffer underruns.
2. Use the Device pop-up menu to select your recorder.
• This option is included in the test writing if it is ticked
beforehand.
3. Click the “i” (info) button next to the Device name.
This will show you details about, and settings for, your specific CD-R
unit. Click the question mark icon in the dialog for details.
Therefore if it was on when testing, it should be on when writing.
• If this option was off, and the whole CD was test written
successfully, there is no need to activate it when burning.
It will only make the write time longer, without providing any “extra”
safety.
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Burning an audio CD
Writing a CD
CD-Extra support
When writing an audio CD as described above, it is possible to prepare it for CD-Extra support. CD-Extra is comparable to Mixed Mode CDs in that both of these formats
allow for the writing of both audio and data on a single
CD. However, unlike Mixed Mode CDs, the audio on CDExtra CDs is placed on the first track(s) of the CD and the
data follows subsequently. This means that the audio will
start to play immediately when the CD is used in a regular
audio CD player, without having to skip to track 2. Also,
when creating a CD-Extra CD, you can make use of all the
functions available in the Montage.
Once you have set up the CD Montage, we suggest the
following work order for burning the CD. These steps are
not mandatory though, just a recommendation.
!
Please observe the precautions indicated in the
Troubleshooting chapter in the online documentation
before writing your first CD!
1. Listen through the CD once more from the Montage, to
check that all starts, ends and transitions are OK.
2. Select Check from the CD tab – Functions menu, to
check that all settings conform to the Red Book standard.
!
This is done automatically before burning, but you might want to do this
anyway at this point.
3. Insert a fresh CD-R disc into your drive.
Please be aware that some computer CD drives may
not recognize CDs in the CD-Extra format. Plextor
drives are recommended.
4. Select Write CD.
If you are writing an audio CD and want to prepare it for
CD-Extra, do the following:
5. Select the speed at which you expect to be able to
burn from the small pop-up menu.
1. Put a checkmark in the “CD-Extra compatible” box in
the Write CD dialog.
6. Use the test options in the dialog to check that you will
actually be able to write the CD at that speed.
This will prepare the CD for further writing of data later. Much like a multisession CD.
2. Write the audio CD as described above.
7. If you want to create a CD in the CD-Extra format, activate the CD-Extra Support option in the dialog.
3. The next step is to create a Data CD/DVD containing
the data you want to incorporate on the CD.
See below.
8. Once the Montage has passed the test, switch to
“WRITE” and press OK in the dialog.
How to create a Data CD/DVD is described in the section “Creating a
new Data CD/DVD Project” on page 205.
If you run into problems, check the Troubleshooting chapter in the online
documentation.
4. In the Write dialog for the Data CD/DVD (described in
the section “The Write dialog for the Data CD/DVD” on
page 207), select the options “Track At Once” for Write
Method and “Close CD” for Closing Method.
• In the progress dialog that appears while the CD is recorded, you will find an option called “Eject CD on success”. If you activate this option, the CD recorder will
automatically eject the CD once it’s finished.
5. Click on “Write”.
The data will now be added to the CD after the audio you added previously, and the CD-Extra is created and finalized (no further writing is possible).
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Burning an audio CD
The audio CD format – Background
information
About frames, positions, small frames and bits
The data on an audio CD is divided into frames. A frame
consists of 588 stereo samples. 75 frames make up one
second of audio. Why? Well, 75 x 588 = 44100, and
since the sampling frequency of the CD format is
44100kHz (samples per second), this equals one second
of audio. When you specify positions on the CD, in WaveLab Studio, you do it in the format mm:ss:ff, where mm is
minutes, ss is seconds and ff is frames. The frame values
go from 0 to 74, since there are 75 frames to a second.
This text aims to provide you with some background information on the CD format, to help you better understand
how to create your own CDs. This is a big subject, and we
will only be able to touch upon it here. For more information, try a text-book on the subject, or search the Internet
for more information.
The basic CD formats
Technically, there is no way to specify something smaller
than a frame on a CD. One effect of this is that if the
length of a track on the CD does not equal a perfect number of frames, some blank audio must be added at the
end. Another effect of this is that when you play the CD,
you can never locate (position) to anything closer than a
frame. If you need some data in the middle of a frame, you
still have to read the whole frame. Again, this is unlike a
hard disk, where you can retrieve any byte on the disk,
without reading the surrounding data.
There are a number of different formats for the contents of
a CD disc. You are probably familiar with audio CDs, CDROMS, and CD-I. These are all slightly different, although
they use the same media – CD discs. The audio CD specification is called Red Book. It is this standard to which
WaveLab Studio conforms.
Red Book CD is not a real file format
Those of you who are computer literate might know about
file formats. Please note that Red Book CD is not a real
file format. All the audio on the CD is stored in one big
chunk, one file if you will. This is different from hard disks,
for example, where each file is stored separately. Understanding the fact that all the audio is in fact one long
stream of digital data is something that will probably help
you better understand the limitations of the format.
But frames aren’t the smallest block of data on a CD.
There is also something called “small frames”. A small
frame is a container of 588 bits. 98 small frames together
make up one regular frame. In each small frame there is
actually only room for six stereo samples, which means
that a lot of space is left for data other than the actual audio. There is information for encoding, laser synchronization, error correction and the PQ data (so called because
it is stored in the “P” and “Q” bits). This PQ data is of major importance to anyone who wants to create their own
CD, so please let us explain it in further detail.
The different types of “events” on an audio CD
There are three types of events that can be used to specify various sections of audio on the CD. These are:
Event
Description
Track Start
There can be up to 99 tracks on one CD. Each is
identified by its start point only.
PQ codes and WaveLab Studio's solution to handling
them
Track Sub-Indexes
On advanced CD players, you might have noted that
a track can be divided into sub-indexes (sometimes
called only indexes). These are used to identify “important” positions within a track. There can be 98
sub-indexes in each track. However, since it is difficult and time-consuming to search for and locate to
a sub-index, many CD players ignore this information.
The PQ codes convey information about track start, subindexes and pauses, as described above. They also contain the timing information (minutes, seconds, frames). To
fit all this information in, a block of PQ information is
spread out over 98 small frames.
Pause
A pause appears before each track. Pauses can be
of variable lengths. Some CD players indicate the
pauses between tracks on their displays.
Specifying PQ codes is not complex. However, when creating a CD there are a number of rules you must take into
account. For example, there should be some silent frames
before each track, sub-indexes should be slightly early,
there should be pauses at the beginning and end of the
entire CD, etc.
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Burning an audio CD
When creating CDs from an Audio Montage, these rules
and settings are handled by the CD Wizard. If you don't
change these settings, you will get default values that ensure your CD will work properly. On the other hand, when
the situation so requires, you can adjust them. We recommend you leave these settings as they are, unless you are
completely sure of what you are doing.
“link blocks” created to link the various recording passes
together will be recognized as “uncorrectable errors”
when you try to master from the CD-R. These links can
also result in clicks when playing back the CD.
• Disc-At-Once mode provides more flexibility when
specifying pause lengths between tracks.
• Disc-At-Once is the only mode that supports sub-indexes.
ISRC codes
In addition to the basic PQ codes, there is something
called “International Standard Recording Code”, identification that is only used on CDs intended for commercial
distribution. WaveLab Studio allows you to specify an
ISRC code for each audio track.
Writing on the fly vs. CD images
WaveLab Studio always writes a CD on the fly, that is, it
does not create a CD image before burning. This method
makes writing CDs faster and requires much less disk
space. However, if for some reason you need to, WaveLab Studio lets you join all audio tracks into one large file
that can be used as an “image” of the entire CD.
The ISRC code is structured as follows:
•
•
•
•
Country Code (2 ASCII characters).
Owner Code (3 ASCII characters or digits).
Recording Year (2 digits or ASCII characters).
Serial Number (5 digits or ASCII characters).
UPC/EAN codes
UPC stands for “Universal Product Code”. Some CD/
DVD-R units allow you to specify this code, which is a thirteen-digit catalog number for the disc. Also known as
EAN.
Pre-emphasis
Pre-emphasis works by boosting (or pre-emphasizing)
high frequencies before burning the CD, and cutting (deemphasizing) them when playing back. The theoretical result of this is that the desired audio is returned to normal
sound, but any other high frequency content (noise) in the
recording is reduced.
Disc-At-Once – Writing CD-Rs for duplication into “real”
CDs
WaveLab Studio only writes audio CDs in Disc-at-Once
mode. There are three good reasons for this:
• If you want to create a CD-R to use as a master for a
real CD production, you must write the CD-R in Disc-AtOnce mode. In this mode, the entire disc is written in one
pass, without ever turning off the recording laser. There
are other ways of writing a CD, namely Track-At-Once
and MultiSession. If you use these writing formats, the
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Burning an audio CD
17
Data CD/DVD Projects
Introduction
The principle is simple: The Data CD/DVD window has
two main window panes; the source window on top and
the destination window below.
A Data CD/DVD project is an environment that can be
used to compile and write a data only CD-ROM/DVDROM or Mixed Mode CDs.
The source window shows the contents of your hard disks
(or other storage media) in a way much like the Windows
Explorer: with a folder hierarchy “tree” to the left and the
contents of the selected folder shown to the right. The
destination window shows the contents of the CD/DVD to
be recorded, again with two panes in the same manner.
• Data discs exclusively contain computer data. This can be files
of any type. However, the files are stored on the CD/DVD in
such a way that an audio CD player cannot recognize them.
• The difference between a Mixed Mode CD and a normal audio
CD is that the Mixed Mode CDs contain both computer data
and audio data that can be played back by a CD player.
• On a Mixed Mode CD, the computer data occupies track 1,
and the music occupies the subsequent tracks.
!
• To compile a data only CD-ROM/DVD-ROM or a Mixed
Mode CD, drag files and/or folders from the upper into the
lower window pane.
You can record the CD/DVD as soon as you have placed all files in the
lower pane.
An alternative to a Mixed Mode CD is the “CD-Extra”
format, which also allows audio and data to be combined on the same CD. To create a CD-Extra, you
first create and write an Audio Montage and then
add the data. See “CD-Extra support” on page 201.
• In the destination window, you can rename, remove or
open files.
• You can save and open Data CD/DVD files from the File
menu, as with other document types.
Data CD/DVD files have the extension “.cdp”.
Creating a new Data CD/DVD
Project
!
Source window settings
You can decide how files and folders are displayed in the
source window (as icons, as a list, etc.) by selecting one
of the items on the Source menu (or by clicking the corresponding icon) on the source window toolbar.
For DVD, creating a new Data CD/DVD project as
described below will enable you to create a data only
DVD-ROM disc.
Creating a new Data CD/DVD project for data discs or
Mixed Mode CDs
To help navigating, you can use the functions “Up one
level” and “Recent paths”. The latter (only available as an
icon on the toolbar) displays a menu listing all recently
used paths, allowing you to quickly go back to any of the
listed folders.
To create a new Data CD/DVD project, select “Data CD/
DVD” from the New submenu on the File menu. A new
Data CD/DVD window appears.
The Source window Source menu contains the following
view options:
Source window
Function
Destination window
Icon
Description
Refresh
Click on this icon to update the contents of the window. This is useful if, for
instance, storage media has been
added or removed.
Show Audio and
Video Files
If this function is active, the right part of
the window pane only shows audio and
video files, if available.
Show All Files
If this function is active, the right part of
the window pane shows all file types.
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Data CD/DVD Projects
Destination window settings
The CD/DVD menu
View settings
The CD/DVD menu contains items for preparing and writing the disc:
Use the Destination menu to adjust how files and folders
are displayed in the destination window, just like in the
source window.
Function
Description
Disk Label…
Opens a dialog where you can name the CD/DVD
to be recorded.
CD/DVD Info…
Displays the total number of files as well as the total
file size on the CD/DVD to be recorded.
At the bottom of the Data CD/DVD window, a ruler shows
you the current and the maximum size of the project. On
the CD/DVD menu you can set the ruler to display either a
CD scale or a DVD scale, as well as define the actual
available space of the destination media you intend to use
(see “Define media size…” on page 206). Holding the
mouse pointer over the ruler brings up a pop-up tip, showing you the exact size of the project, and a dotted, vertical
red line in the ruler shows you the maximum available
space on the destination media. This allows you to quickly
assess the used and remaining space for the project.
Add photo viewer
to CD/DVD…
This opens a dialog where you can select to add a
simple photo viewing application to CDs/DVDs that
contain photo images. The viewer application is
called ImageViewer.exe and is added to the root of
the CD/DVD. It can only be used to visualize the
photos on the CD/DVD. Note that the CD/DVD
does not need to exclusively contain photos.
Write CD/DVD…
Opens a dialog from where you can start recording
the data or Mixed Mode CD (see below).
Create Label set…
This allows you to create labels for your CDs. See
“Selecting a template” on page 213 for more information.
You can also select “Properties” from the Destination window Edit menu, to get information about the number of
files on the CD/DVD and their total size.
Edit text variables…
Opens a dialog where you can edit and create text
variables as used for CD labels (see “Defining user
variables” on page 217).
Getting size information
Save as ISO Image… An ISO image is a file that holds the entire contents
of a data CD or DVD (files and folders).
Export text variables in This saves the current text variables as an ASCII
ASCII…
text document in a tabulated format, suitable for editing in a spreadsheet application such as Microsoft
Excel.
Editing the CD/DVD contents
You can move items between folders on the CD/DVD by
using drag and drop, just like you drag them from the
source window to add them. There are also various options on the Edit menu for adjusting the contents of the
CD/DVD to be created:
CD Scale/DVD Scale These items allow you to select whether the ruler at
the bottom of the Data CD/DVD window should
display a CD scale or a DVD scale, showing the
available amount of storage space. Since a DVD
can hold considerably more data than a CD, you
should for proper reference select the appropriate
option depending on which kind of media the material you are compiling is intended to end up.
• To add a new folder (within the selected folder), select
“New Folder”.
Define media size…
See “Creating a Mixed Mode CD” on page 207 for a description of the
“Add Audio Track Folder” function.
• To rename the selected folder, select “Rename” from
the menu and type in a new name.
• To remove the selected file or folder from the Data CD/
DVD, select “Remove”.
If a folder was selected, this and all its contents will be removed. Note
that this only removes files from the Data CD/DVD, not from the hard
disk.
• To open the selected file or folder, select “Open”.
There is also an “Open in WaveLab Studio” item, for opening audio files
and other documents in WaveLab Studio.
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Data CD/DVD Projects
Opens a dialog in which you can specify the available storage space of the destination media. If you
for instance are using a DVD disc that can hold
more data than the “standard” 4 700 MB, you can
specify how much it can hold, to get a correct visual
reference of the available space when preparing
the DVD.
Creating a Mixed Mode CD
Item
Description
To create a Mixed Mode CD (i.e. a CD with both audio
and data), proceed as follows:
Write speed
Here you can select a write speed supported by
your recorder.
Write method
Here you can select a Write method supported by
your CD recorder. If you are adding the data portion to a CD-Extra CD, you must select “Track At
Once” (see “CD-Extra support” on page 201). For
DVD, there are no write method options.
Closing method
Here you can select a closing method. If you are
adding the data portion to a CD-Extra CD, you
must select “Close CD” (see “CD-Extra support”
on page 201).
Simulation
The Write dialog for the Data CD/
DVD
Here you define if and how a simulation should be
performed before the actual writing process. Simulating the writing process lets you find out whether
the writing process will be successful, or if problems might occur.
Write to hard
disk first
When you select “Write CD/DVD…” on the Destination
window’s CD/DVD menu, you will first be asked for a
name for the CD or DVD to be created. After entering a
name and clicking OK, the “Write virtual Disc” dialog appears. Here you can make all the necessary settings for
the CD or DVD to be recorded.
If this function is active (ticked), the writing program first writes an image file onto your hard disk
(which must have enough free space to hold the
file). An image file has the advantage that the data
to be recorded doesn’t have to be converted into
CD format during burning, as this is done when the
image file is created. The actual burning (recording) procedure will therefore be faster and performed with greater reliability and less risk of
malfunction.
Default
Click on this button to save the current dialog settings as default. The next time you open the dialog,
they will automatically be set.
Advanced
If you click the “Advanced” button, the dialog is extended downwards and you get access to five
tabs. These let you make a number of additional
settings for the writing process.
1. Select the “root” of the CD in the left destination window pane.
2. Select “Add Audio Track Folder” from the Destination
window Edit menu.
An Audio Track Folder item appears in the destination window. This cannot be moved or removed.
3. Drag any audio files you want included as audio tracks
from the source window to the audio track folder.
!
Item
Note that at the end of the DVD burning process it
can take up to 15 minutes to close the DVD. Please
be patient.
Description
Write
The CD/DVD writing process is started.
Close
The dialog is closed.
Settings
This opens a dialog where you can make settings
for your CD/DVD recorder. The content of this dialog depends on the recorder used.
Disc Info
If a writable disc is in the CD/DVD recorder, you
can use this option to get information about its size
and available space.
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Data CD/DVD Projects
18
Importing audio CD tracks
Importing audio CD tracks into
WaveLab Studio
• By default, the tracks will be named “Track XX”, where
XX is a number starting at 01. You can adjust the auto
numbering scheme by right-clicking in the list and selecting an option from the pop-up menu that appears.
WaveLab Studio provides the ability to read audio tracks
from regular CDs. This makes a digital copy of the audio
from the CD directly into an audio file on your hard disk.
This pop-up menu also contains some additional functions for saving individual tracks directly as files, appending a track to the current Montage,
etc.
Although WaveLab Studio supports a large number of CD
drives, there are some restrictions you should be aware of:
Ö There are a number of different, not very well standardized protocols for retrieving audio from a CD-ROM/
CD-R drive.
WaveLab Studio tries to support as many of these methods as possible,
but there are no guarantees it will work with any particular drive. Some
brands that reportedly use the same method still have slightly different
implementations which might cause problems.
Ö Please observe and respect any copyright notices on
the CDs from which you are reading tracks!
To import CD tracks, proceed as follows:
1. Insert the CD into the CD-ROM/CD-R unit.
2. Pull down the Tools menu and select “Import Audio
CD tracks”.
3. Select the drive from which you want to read from the
pop-up menu at the top of the dialog.
The “Import Audio CD Tracks” dialog
4. Select a read speed from the pop-up menu just beside this.
6. Click on the Folder button at the bottom of the dialog
to select a destination folder for the file(s).
For information about which speed to use, click the question mark icon.
The files will be saved with the name that is shown in the track list. To rename a file, double click on it in the track list and type the desired name.
5. If necessary, click Refresh so that the list of tracks is
updated.
!
The window now lists the tracks on the CD, plus some information about
each track. Please note that the Copy Protection and Pre-emphasis columns are for information only, you cannot change these settings.
The tracks must have unique names if you want to
import them all. If two or more files have the same
name, a warning dialog will appear when the second
one is imported, allowing you to either cancel the operation or to replace the first file saved with that
name.
7. If you want to import to a format other than Wave, click
on the file format button at the bottom of the dialog and
select the desired format from the Audio File Format dialog that appears.
See “Supported file formats” on page 49 for information about the available file formats.
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Importing audio CD tracks
8. If required, you can select one file and click Play.
File format – Converting CD track(s) to other formats
This will play the beginning of the track so that you can check it out.
The extracted audio files are saved in WAV (Wave) format
by default. You can, however, directly save files in other
audio formats by clicking the button at the bottom of the
dialog to open the Audio File Format dialog, and select the
desired file format from the Type menu.
Ö If you notice that playback starts too late into the track
– i.e. a small part of the beginning of the track is “cut out”,
you can specify a pre-roll value to ensure that the entire
beginning of the track is read.
This is done by selecting the option “Define reading of audio before and
after CD track…” on the Options menu, and entering the desired pre-roll
value in the dialog that appears. You can also specify a post-roll value to
ensure that the entire end of the track is read. The technical reason behind this is that it’s not possible to locate, or position, to anything closer
than a frame – a block of data on a CD. Thus, if there is data in the middle
of a frame, you might have to specify a pre-roll or post-roll so that the
whole frame is read. See “About frames, positions, small frames and bits”
on page 202 for more information.
Among the formats available are the following compressed audio formats: MP3, MP2, WMA and Ogg Vorbis.
When any of these formats is selected, you can click the
Encoding field and select “Edit…” from the pop-up to
open the corresponding Encoding dialog, where you can
specify the bit rate and other attributes of the file to be
created.
9. Select as many tracks as you wish from the list.
CD reading method
You can use [Ctrl] and [Shift] to make multiple selections, or use the Select All button.
In rare cases, the default method of extracting audio samples from a drive does not work. In such cases you can
change the extraction method used by selecting the “CD
reading method” item on the Options pop-up menu. This
opens a dialog with several optional audio extraction
methods. Click the question mark icon in the respective
dialog for details.
• You can also “drag and drop” one or more CD tracks
onto WaveLab Studio’s desktop or into an Audio Montage
to save them.
In the latter case, you can drop them in the clip list or directly into the
track pane. For this to work, the item “Enable Drag and Drop to Audio
Montages” must be activated on the Options pop-up menu.
10. If you have only selected one file, you can import just a
part of the track by adjusting the start and end/length values.
Ö Do not change the settings if you are not having problems!
The bar graph shows the part of the track that will be imported.
About Ultra-Safe mode
11. Click the Save button.
Sometimes a small bit of a CD track is not properly retrieved (this depends on the quality of your CD drive). This
can result in unpleasant clicks and pops. To solve this issue, you can activate the ultra-safe mode on the Options
pop-up menu. When activated, each CD track is read several times until the exact same result is found (check sums
are used).
The track(s) are retrieved. Optionally, each is opened in its own window.
This is specified in the progress indication menu that appears during importing.
About the Freedb function
You need to be connected to the Internet to use the
Freedb function.
Convert to Montage
Clicking the Freedb button opens a pop-up menu where
you can use some functions provided by Freedb to get information about your CDs. Freedb maintains a worldwide
database of CD information.
The “Convert to Montage” function can convert a CD to
an Audio Montage. Once you have converted to a montage, you can reorder tracks, remove some tracks or add
new tracks. You can use this function to create mixed
compilations of CDs.
• When an audio CD is inserted, you can query the database to
get the track names of this CD, and more.
• If the CD is not yet recorded in the database, you have the option to become a participant by describing the CD and submitting your description to the database. Find more information on
this at www.freedb.org.
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Importing audio CD tracks
Notes
• Note that importing audio CD tracks is technically more complicated than reading files from a CD-ROM or hard disk, because audio sectors can be hard to detect. Some CDs which
do not conform completely to the CD standard may cause
problems.
• There are several other functions on the Options pop-up
menu. Click the question mark icon in the dialog for details.
• If you import a CD track with Emphasis, and later want to use
this on a CD of your own, remember to activate Emphasis for
that track in the Audio Montage CD view.
211
Importing audio CD tracks
19
Creating labels
Introduction
3. A dialog appears, allowing you to select a template for
your project.
The Label Editor allows you to design and print custom labels for your CD and DVD projects. You can design separate layouts for front, inside, back and disk labels. Both
text information and a wide range of image file formats can
be imported and edited in various ways.
About variables and templates
Every Data CD/DVD Project, Audio Montage or Import
Audio CD Tracks session has a default set of “variables”,
text that consists of a short code string plus a value. Variables provide information about a project, such as track titles, personal data, etc. There are two types of variables:
factory and user editable.
Factory variables automatically provide information based
on the contents of a project, and user editable variables
can be customized to suit the current project. Variables
are also used for the Audio CD Report function (see
“Creating an Audio CD report” on page 196).
To the right in the dialog there is a list of available templates, divided into
three groups “Audio”, “Data” and “Audio + Data”. By clicking on the corresponding tab the available templates for the selected project type are
shown in the list. To the left in the dialog, preview images of the front,
back and the disk labels are shown.
Templates are ready-made layouts that will use the information provided by the variables.
You can freely customize the properties of a template layout by using the Label Editor. Add new images or other
objects, delete or edit existing objects, etc.
4. Select a template, and click OK.
Selecting a template
This will open the Label Editor with totally empty labels, allowing you to
build your own labels from scratch by adding objects, specifying backgrounds, etc.
The Label Editor window opens, displaying the CD case front label.
• If you do not wish to use a template at all you can select
“Void” in this dialog.
The first thing you do before the Label Editor is opened is
to select a template. As mentioned previously, templates
provide some information based on the current project,
and have ready-made layouts:
• You can also save user templates.
See “Saving a label set as a user template” on page 217.
1. Open the project you wish to create labels for.
This can be a Data CD/DVD Project, an Audio Montage or an Import Audio CD Tracks session.
Using the Label Editor
2. Select the “Create Label set…” menu item.
Overview
Where this menu item is located depends on the type of project; for Audio Montages it is on the Functions menu, for Data CD/DVD it is on the
CD/DVD menu, and for Import Audio CD Tracks it is on the Options
menu.
The Label Editor always displays one of the three available
views or pages: the front, back or disk case label. You
switch between these pages by selecting the corresponding tabs below the toolbar. The layout is completely independent for each page.
Ö Please note that the front label can be either single- or
double-sided.
This option is set in the Page Layout dialog on the Printing menu.
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Creating labels
The Label Editor window displays a frame with the currently selected label (front, back or disk) layout. Layouts
are made up of editable objects – images, text boxes, lines
or circles. You can also select either an image or color as
background for the layout as a whole.
Horizontal and vertical rulers
The following tools are available:
Tool
Description
Selection tool
Used to select, resize or move objects.
Zoom Object &
Zoom In/Out
This is used to zoom in on a selected object, keeping it in view. The Zoom In/Out
zooms the layout as a whole in or out. You
can go back to normal magnification (1:1)
by selecting “Zoom 100%” from the Options menu.
Insert track list
This will produce an automatically generated track list, based on the tracks belonging to the current project.
Insert box with text
Creates a text box object.
Insert Circle
This will insert a circle or ellipse object.
Insert Line
This will insert line objects.
Insert Image
This will insert an image.
Set background color…
(menu only)
Allows you to define a color for the background of the layout.
Set background image…
(menu only)
Allows you to define an image for the background of the layout.
Front/back/disk layout buttons
Toolbar
Selecting objects
Circle object
Click an object with the Selection tool to select it.
Text box object
• Selected objects are indicated by a dotted outline, and square
“handles”, which can be used to scale the size of the object.
• To select several objects, hold down [Shift] or [Ctrl] and click.
Selected objects can be de-selected by [Shift]-clicking.
• When several objects are selected, one of the objects will always have “focus”. The focus is indicated by red handles on
this particular object. You can move the focus to any of the selected objects by [Ctrl]-clicking.
Basic object handling in the Label Editor
The Label Editor tools
Insert box
with text
Insert circle
Insert line
Insert image
Insert track list
Selection tool
Zoom object
Zoom in/out
Print label
Tools can be selected in three ways:
• From the Tools menu
• By clicking the corresponding icon on the toolbar
• By right-clicking in the background area (not an object), and
selecting from the speed menu that appears
Two objects selected, with the upper having the focus.
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Creating labels
Positioning objects
Resizing objects
If you click on a handle of a selected object, the pointer
changes to a double arrow, indicating that you can resize
the object by dragging. Images or circle objects will be
scaled, whereas dragging the handles of text box objects
will resize the size of the box, not the text itself.
There are several methods you can use to position objects:
• Manually – by dragging objects using the Selection tool.
• Automatically in relation to the layout frame. You can have an
object centered (horizontally or vertically) by right-clicking it
and selecting the corresponding item from the speed menu.
• Automatically in relation to other selected objects (see “The
Objects menu” on page 216).
• By selecting “Edit Position and Size…” from the Objects (or
context) menu and adjusting the position numerically in the dialog that appears. Note that this adjusts the position of the
object with focus.
Ö You can also right-click an object and select “Edit Position and Size…” from the speed menu.
A dialog appears, allowing you to edit size (width and height) numerically,
in cm/mm.
Inserting new objects
Inserting new objects is done by selecting the corresponding tool, and clicking and dragging in the layout.
When you release the mouse button, a dialog appears, allowing you to define basic properties for the inserted object. Note that this does not apply to image objects, where
instead a standard file dialog appears.
Ö The Edit Properties dialog is also selectable from the
Objects menu and by right-clicking objects and selecting
from the speed menu.
You specify the position from the left side and the top of the layout
frame, in cm/mm. Click “Apply” to apply the position change without
closing the dialog.
See “About the Edit Properties dialog” on page 216 for a description of
the items available in the Edit Properties dialogs.
About the grid, rulers and magnetize options
On the Options menu, you will find two items, “Show
Grid” and “Show Rulers”. If these are ticked, the background of the layout will show a dotted grid, and also vertical and horizontal rulers that show the current position of
the mouse pointer. Both these items help you to position
objects with fine precision in the layout. The grid spacing
can be specified in the Preferences dialog on the Options
menu.
Inserting a text box object
Deleting objects
To delete objects, select them and use the [Delete] key.
Copy/move object
You can also use magnetize so that objects will snap either to grid positions, to other objects or to the frames limits (or all three), by selecting the corresponding Options
menu item.
If you manually move an object with the right mouse button pressed, a small pop-up menu appears when you release the button allowing you to either select to copy the
object to the new position or to move it there.
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Creating labels
About the Edit Properties dialog
If several objects are selected when opening the Objects
menu, the following additional items are available:
The Edit Properties dialog can be opened in three ways:
• By selecting an object and selecting “Edit Properties” from
the Objects menu
• By right-clicking an object and selecting the same item from
the speed menu
• By double-clicking an object
The contents of the dialog varies depending on the object
type. Click the question mark icon in the respective dialog
for details.
Item
Description
Apply same properties
as focused object
This item allows you to apply properties
from the focused object to all of the selected objects of the same type.
Space evenly horizontally
This distributes the selected objects horizontally, using the top center handle as a
guide. This means that the top center handles in each selected object will be exactly
the same distance from each other horizontally.
Space evenly vertically
This distributes the selected objects vertically, using the side center handle as a
guide. This means that the side center handles in each selected object will be exactly
the same distance from each other vertically.
Place under each other
This will place all selected objects directly
under each other.
The Objects menu
The Objects menu can be selected from the toolbar, or
opened by right-clicking an object (speed menu). The
items on the Objects menu are greyed out if no object is
selected.
Align with focused object (sev- These menu items will align selected oberal items)
jects to the position of the focused object.
You can select to align to any side (left/
right/top/bottom), or to the horizontal or
vertical center of the object with the focus.
If one object is selected, the following Object menu items
are available:
Item
Description
Edit properties…
See “About the Edit Properties dialog” on
page 216.
Edit position and size…
See “Positioning objects” on page 215.
Edit display condition
This allows you to decide whether an object
will be displayed or not, depending on
whether a given variable is empty or not.
Bring to front
This brings any object that is partially obscured by another overlapping object to the
front.
Send to back
This sends any object that partially or completely overlaps another object to the back.
Center horizontally
Centers a selected object horizontally in the
layout.
Center vertically
Centers a selected object vertically in the layout.
Lock movement
This locks the position of the selected object.
Select all
Selects all objects.
Select all with the
same size
Selects all objects with identical dimensions
to the selected object.
Resize as focused object (sev- These menu items will resize all selected
eral items)
objects to either the same size as the focused object or to the same width or height
as the focused object.
Group/Ungroup
This will group all selected objects so that
they will act as one object when selected
or moved (keeping the relative positions to
each other). Ungroup deselects the grouping.
About label sets
You can save as many label sets as you like for a project.
However, whenever you open the Label Editor by selecting the “Create Label” menu item, a new label set opens
which is untitled and only contains the auto-generated
data.
Whenever you have edited layouts in the Label Editor, you
will be asked to save it as a label set if you close the Label
Editor or exit the program without first having saved your
changes. If you don’t save, any changes are lost.
Ö It is important to note that any work performed in the
Label Editor is not saved with the project – it has to be
saved separately as a label set.
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Creating labels
Ö Saved label sets (with the extension *.lab) contain all
the layout work performed in the Label Editor.
2. Select the “Edit text variables…” menu item.
Where this menu item is located depends on the type of project; for Audio Montages it is on the Functions menu and for Data CD/DVD Projects
it is on the CD/DVD menu. Selecting this item opens a dialog containing
a list of folders similar to the structure in the Windows Explorer.
It is, however, not dynamic. This means that if you have added to or
changed the Data CD/DVD Project, Audio Montage, etc. in any way after
saving a label set, these changes will not be reflected in the saved label
set, unless you save it as a user template (see below).
Saving a label set
To save a label set, select “Save” or “Save As…” from the
File menu with the Label Editor open and as the active
window (on top).
Opening a label set
To open a saved label set, select “Open” from the File
menu and “Label Set…” from the submenu that appears.
Saving a label set as a user template
If you have saved a label set, you can make this appear on
the list of available templates in the “Select a Label Template” dialog. Label templates are label sets that reside in
designated subfolders inside the WaveLab Studio program folder. The path to the Label template folders (starting from the main WaveLab Studio program folder) is
“Presets\Label\Templates\”. Here you will find four folders: “Audio/AudioData/Data/Images”. Place (or save directly) a label set in the appropriate folder. It will now
appear as a new template next time you open the “Select
a Label Template” dialog.
• Only the variables in open folders (and “Editable” written in the Type column) can be edited.
The editable variables vary according to the type of project.
3. To define a value for a default variable, for example
copyright or personal information, double-click in the Current Value column for the relevant description.
A text box opens where you can type in the relevant information.
Defining user variables
4. Click OK when done.
!
If you have reached this section via a cross-reference from the CD report section in the Audio Montage chapter, please note that the information
applies equally to CD reports, although the text is
written specifically for labels.
Creating new variables
You can create new variables and define values for them.
The new variable will automatically be put in the currently
selected folder (or in the folder with a currently selected
variable). Proceed as follows:
Apart from the auto-generated data such as media information, date and time, etc., you can define a number of
user editable variables that are local to the project you are
working on. Once you have defined a set of user variables,
this is automatically saved with the current project. To define user variables, proceed as follows:
1. Either create a new folder by clicking the “New Folder”
button, or select a folder that you want to add a new variable to.
If you chose the former option, select the new folder.
2. Click the “New Variable” button.
1. Open the project you wish to set user variables for.
A new editable variable appears in the selected folder.
This can be a Data CD/DVD Project, an Audio Montage or an Import Audio CD Tracks session.
217
Creating labels
Printing labels
3. Double-click in the Description column beside the
new variable to open a text box where an appropriate description can be typed in.
You print your labels directly from the Label Editor, either
on standard paper or on special media label paper (usually available in computer peripheral stores, etc.).
For example “Producer”.
4. Double-click in the Current Value column to enter the
relevant information for the new variable, i.e. the name of
the producer.
Calibrating the printer
If you are printing on special label paper, it is very important that the printer is “calibrated”, that is, the measurements in the program (for margins, positioning, etc.) must
be exactly the same as the actual results you get when
printing. This is not as important when you print on standard paper (since the printouts then don’t have to fit exactly in specific positions on paper).
5. To create a code that can be used to refer to the variable in the Label Editor, type in an appropriate name beginning and ending with “%” in the Code column.
To use the earlier example, this would be written “%Producer%”.
6. Click OK when done.
Once you have entered your personal data you can save
the text variables file as a preset, see below.
To calibrate the printer, select “Calibrate printer” from the
Printing menu in the Label Editor and follow the steps in
the dialog that appears.
On the Options menu there is a default set of text variables that is always available. Use this as a clean slate for
creating new variables.
!
Saving variable sets as presets
Clicking the name field pop-up at the bottom of the window opens a menu which allows you to save sets of variables as presets. After having saved one or more variable
sets as presets, you can switch between different presets
of already “filled in” variables by selecting one from the
name field pop-up. A preset could typically represent the
information belonging to a client you work with regularly,
for example. Naturally, the auto-generated variables will
still adapt to the current project as usual.
You only need to do this once (unless you switch to
another printer).
Setting up page layouts
The Page Layout dialog contains various settings relating
to how the page layout will be printed. It’s important to
note that you make page layout settings individually for
each one of the three label types (case front, case back
and disc label). These are also printed individually.
!
Exporting text variables in ASCII
If you are using special label paper, these will typically come with a measurement sheet, showing the
exact size and positioning of the labels.
To set up the page layout, select the desired label type (by
clicking the corresponding tab) and select “Page layout…” from the Printing menu in the Label Editor. For details about the settings, click the question mark icon in the
dialog. Note that there are different settings for the three
different label types.
This option opens the current text variables as an ASCII
text document in a tabulated format, suitable for editing in
a spreadsheet application such as Excel.
Where this menu item is located depends on the type of
project; for Audio Montages it is on the Functions menu,
and for Data CD/DVD Projects it is on the CD/DVD menu.
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Creating labels
Printing
Printing is done independently for the three label types.
However, there are two settings that are global for all
three label types:
1. Pull down the Options pop-up menu and select “Preferences”.
The “Label editor preferences” dialog appears.
2. Use the “Printing” checkboxes to determine whether
the frames around the labels should be printed, and
whether cut markers should be printed (making it easier to
cut out the labels from the printed paper).
Now, you are ready to print:
3. Select one of the label types by clicking its tab.
4. Select “Print” from the Printing menu in the Label Editor window.
The “Print label” dialog appears, allowing you to make printer settings,
preview the result and specify a number of copies.
5. Click Print.
6. Select the next label type by clicking on its tab, and
proceed from step 3 above.
219
Creating labels
20
Analysis
Global analysis
2. Select “Global analysis…” from the Analysis menu.
Introduction
What does the “Global analysis” dialog do?
This dialog allows you to perform advanced analysis on
your audio to find certain areas with specified properties.
It can be used to find problem areas (glitches, distortion),
etc., or to check general information such as the pitch of a
sound.
How does it work?
When you analyse a section of an audio file, the program
scans it and extracts overall information which it displays
in the dialog.
However, during analysis, it also “pin-points” sections in
the file that meet specific characteristics, for example,
sections being very loud or very silent. You can then
browse between these points, set markers at these places
or zoom in on them.
Deciding what types of analysis to perform
As described above, there are several types of analysis
that can be performed. Each of them takes some time, so
you may want to make sure that only the types you are actually interested in are included in the analysis.
About the tabs
• The Peaks tab is used for finding individual samples with very
high values.
• The Loudness tab is for finding sections with high amplitude.
• The Pitch tab is for finding out the exact pitch of a sound or
section.
• The Extra tab tells you about DC offsets and the significant bit
resolution.
• The Errors tab helps you find glitches and sections where the
audio has been clipped (recorded or processed at too high a
level).
It doesn’t hurt to have more options activated than you
need, but it will slow down the process. The pitch analysis
in particular uses up a lot of processing time, because by
its very nature it is complicated.
If the section you are analyzing is very short, it doesn’t
matter much whether all options are activated.
• Click on the Peaks tab and decide whether you want peak
analysis by activating the “Peaks” option.
• Click on the Loudness tab and decide whether you want
“RMS Power” analysis performed.
• Click on the Pitch tab for the program to find the “Average
Pitch”.
• On the Errors tab, decide whether you want the program to
search for “Glitches” and/or “Clipping”.
General operations
Opening the “Global analysis” dialog
1. Make a selection in the wave file that you want to process.
This selection can be of any length and in one or both channels. If you
want to analyse the entire file, hit [Ctrl]-[A]. If “Process whole file if no selection exists” is activated in the Preferences - Wave edit tab, the whole
file will be processed automatically if no selection has been made.
221
Analysis
Setting parameters and performing the analysis
3. Decide which of these values you want to browse.
1. Set up the parameters.
For example, say you want to browse the minimum amplitudes in the right
channel.
On most of the tabs, you will find settings determining exactly how the analysis should be performed. For example,
on the Peaks tab there are two parameters:
4. Click on the button that currently displays this value.
The value displayed is for the “hot point” with the highest/lowest value. In
our example, you would click the button in the lower right corner.
• “Maximum number…” allows you to set an upper limit for the
number of peaks reported. For example, if you set this to “10”,
the program will only report the ten highest peaks in the file.
• “Minimum time…” allows you to specify the minimum interval
between two peaks found. For example, if this is set to “5 s”,
there will always be at least five seconds between the reported peaks.
Click here to
browse the minimum levels for
the right channel.
5. Check the “Number of hot points” value at the bottom
of the dialog. It displays how many positions in the file the
analysis found.
These two settings allow you to make sure that the reported peaks are not all in the same area. Click the question mark icon in the dialog for details.
In our example it shows how many positions with low amplitude in the
right channel meet the criteria specified by the parameters in the dialog.
2. If desired, move the wave cursor to a new position.
The Peak and Loudness tabs report values specifically for the position of
the wave cursor, so if this is of interest, you should make sure the wave
cursor is at the position for which you want a readout.
Here you can
see the number
of “hot points”
found.
3. Click Analyse.
6. Use the scroll bar below the “Number of hot points”
value to browse between the positions found.
Checking and browsing the results
Checking the results on the Pitch and Extra tabs is simple,
since there is only one value returned for the whole section of analysed audio. Just click on the tab and read off
the values in the dialog (for details about the values, see
later in this chapter).
The wave cursor jumps between the points found by the analysis, and
the display scrolls if needed.
7. When you want to browse another property, click on
the corresponding tab (if required) and then on the value
button that represents it.
For the other tabs, slightly more advanced options are
available. This is since all these analysis methods provide
their results as a number of positions in the file, positions
that indicate peaks, glitches, etc. We call these “hot
points”.
For example, to check the amplitude of the left channel instead, click that
button. To check peak values, click on the Peaks tab and then on one of
the value buttons on that tab.
The result of the analysis is saved until you close the dialog or click Analyse again.
You can browse (jump) between these points in a very
practical way. Proceed as follows:
Creating markers
If you like you can add markers at the “hot points”:
1. Click on the tab that represents the values you are interested in.
1. Select a property and channel for which you want to
add markers.
For example, let’s say you click the Loudness tab.
You will add markers for the same property as you are currently browsing, so this selection is done with the value buttons, as described above.
2. Check the display for maximum/minimum values in the
entire section analysed.
For the Loudness tab, these values represent the maximum and minimum
amplitudes in the left and right channels respectively (for a stereo file).
!
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Analysis
Since you are always browsing one channel at a time
in a stereo file, markers can be added for only one
channel at a time.
2. Click the “Create markers…” button.
• “Minimum time…” lets you set things up so that the points
don’t occur too close. Settings this to “1 s” will ensure there is
always at least a second between reported points.
Temporary markers (see “The various marker types” on page 128) are
added at all “hot points”.
The markers are named using the following principle: “Hot
point number” (“Channel”). For example, a marker at the
third “hot point” in the left channel would be labelled “3
(L)”.
Result
The Result fields show you the following values:
Focusing
You can also focus the display on a certain “hot point”:
1. Use the “Number of hot points” scroll bar to move the
position indicator to the position you are interested in.
Option
Description
Maximum
The highest peak in the analysed section.
At Cursor
The level of the sample at the wave cursor position, at the
time of the analysis.
The Loudness tab
2. Click the Focus button.
Now two things happen:
• The wave display zooms in on the selected point.
• The “Global analysis” dialog is “folded in” so that only
its title bar is visible.
The Peaks tab
This finds loud and weak sections in a more “intelligent”
manner than the Peaks tab. The theory behind this is that
there might be a single sample with a high or low value
somewhere, but this may not necessarily mean that this
section is perceived as loud/weak.
To find sections that the ear perceives as significant in volume, you must look at a longer section of audio. To do this
you measure a consecutive section of samples and then
average their value. WaveLab Studio does just this, using
a mathematical method called RMS (Root Mean Square)
which is well known for its accuracy.
This is used to find peak values in the audio, that is, single
samples with very high values.
Parameters
There are two report parameters:
Parameters
• “Maximum number…” allows you to put restrictions on how
many points will be reported. For example, setting this to “1”
will make the program report only the highest peak (or one of
the peaks with the highest value – if there are several with the
same value).
The parameters on the Loudness tab are slightly more
complicated than those for Peak analysis:
• “Resolution” is the length of audio measured and averaged. If
this value is lowered, very short passages of loud/low audio
will be detected. When it is raised, the sound will have to be
loud/low for a longer period to result in a hot point.
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Analysis
• “Threshold…” is used for recordings where there are pauses,
to make sure the average value is calculated correctly. A
pause could “fool” the algorithm. Therefore you can set up a
value, and all audio below that value will be considered silence
and will not be taken into account for the average value.
• “Maximum number…” and “Minimum time…” are the same as
on the Peaks tab, see above.
Usage guidelines
• The result is an average value for the whole selection.
• The method only works on monophonic material (not on
chords or harmonies).
• The algorithm assumes the analysed section has a reasonably
stable pitch.
• The material must be relatively well isolated from other
sounds.
• It is preferable to analyse the sustain portion of a sound, rather
than the attack. The pitch is usually not “stable” during the attack.
• Some synthetic sounds may have a weak fundamental (first
harmonic) which can fool the algorithm.
Result
The Result fields show you the following values:
Option
Description
Maximum and Mini- The level of the highest and lowest points in the analymum
sed section.
Average
The overall loudness of the whole analysed section.
Around Cursor
The loudness at the wave cursor position at the time of
the analysis.
The Extra tab
The Pitch tab
This tab shows you two things:
• The average DC Offset in the analysed section.
See “Eliminate DC Offset” on page 85 for details.
The Pitch tab shows the values from WaveLab Studio’s
extremely accurate pitch detection algorithm. This can be
used for pitch shifting, for example, to get one sound in
tune with another.
• The Apparent Bit Resolution.
This attempts to detect the actual resolution in the audio, i.e. how many
bits are really used. This is useful e.g. if you want to check whether a 16
bit file really uses 16 bits (or if it was actually recorded with only 8 bit resolution and then expanded up to 16 bits).
There are no parameters to set. The display shows the
pitch for each channel, both in Hertz (Hz) and as semitones and cents (hundredths of a semitone).
!
Since the display shows an overall value for the entire
analysed section, the “hot point” controls in the lower section of the dialog are not used on this tab.
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Analysis
You may want to use the Bit Meter for this instead, as
this is even more accurate (see “Bit Meter” on page
73.
The Errors tab
Glitch parameters
• “Threshold” is a value for setting how drastic a change in level
has to be reported as a glitch. The higher this value, the less
sensitive the detection.
• “Sensitivity” is a length value. It represents the length of time
that the waveform must exceed the threshold to be reported
as a glitch. The higher this value, the less sensitive the detection.
!
It is not 100% certain that the points found by the algorithm are real glitches. Please zoom in and play
back to check whether the found points really indicate a problem.
This tab actually reports two totally separate things:
Clipping parameters
• Glitches
The program checks for a number of consecutive samples
at full value, to determine whether clipping has occurred.
“Threshold” is a setting to determine the exact number of
these consecutive samples which must occur for the program to report clipping.
These are disruptions in the audio. Glitches may occur after problematic
digital transfers, after careless editing, etc. They manifest themselves as
“clicks” or “pops” in the audio.
• Clipping
A digital system has a finite number of levels that it can represent properly. When a sound has been recorded at too high a level or when digital
processing has raised the level past what the system can handle, hard
clipping occurs. This will be heard as a very harsh type of distortion.
Results
This reports the number of glitches and clipping instances
that have been found.
Working with presets
As with effect processors you can create presets for all
the settings in the dialog for quick recall. See “Presets” on
page 28 for details.
A sine waveform before clipping…
3D Frequency Analysis
This function allows you to view a wave file in the frequency domain rather than in the time domain. Although a
wave display (time domain) tells you a lot about where one
sound starts or ends in a file, for example, it doesn’t say
anything about the timbral contents of the file. A frequency
graph (frequency domain) does.
…and after.
Report parameters
The graph used in WaveLab Studio is actually something
often referred to as an FFT (Fast Fourier Transform) plot.
“Maximum number…” and “Minimum time…” are the same
as for the Peaks tab, see above.
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Analysis
Creating the graph
The frequency graph shows you how the different frequency components vary over time. A high “mountain”
means that this frequency is very prominent at that particular time.
1. Select the part of the file you want to analyse.
If you select a stereo recording, a mix of the two channels will be analysed.
!
Adjusting the view
The length of the selection affects the accuracy of
the analysis. For short selections the result will be
very detailed. For longer selections (over a minute or
so) it will not give equally detailed results, since the
harmonic content might vary “between the measure
points”, which is then not shown in the display. You
might for example make a separate analysis of the attack (beginning) of a sound, since the most drastic variations usually occur there.
There are a number of settings you can make that affect
the way the graph is displayed.
1. Either select “3D Frequency analysis options…” from
the Analysis menu, or double click directly on the graph.
Click on the Style tab.
2. Select “3D Frequency analysis options” from the Analysis menu and click on the Frequency tab. Adjust the settings if needed.
These are the only settings that cannot be redone when the graph is already open.
2. Decide whether you want the graph to be in color,
grey scale or black and white.
3. Decide whether you want to use a change in color to
represent the amplitude (the height of each mountain determines its color) or if you want it to represent frequency
(the frequency spectrum is drawn in colors ranging from
red to purple).
3. If you only want to see a plot for a part of the frequency
range, adjust the “From” and “To” values.
4. Decide on a background color (black or white).
The range must always span at least three octaves.
5. To view the effect of your changes, click Redraw.
4. Decide if you want the frequency axis in the graph to
be linear or logarithmic.
Logarithmic is often the most natural choice since each octave (doubling
of the frequency) is then represented by an equal distance on the frequency axis.
5. Click OK to close the dialog.
6. Select 3D Frequency analysis from the Analysis menu.
The wave is analysed and the graph opens in a new window.
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Analysis
6. Click the Perspective tab.
7. Decide from which point of view you want to examine
the graph (use the “freq/time” figure as a directional
guide).
8. Decide whether you want a linear or exponential amplitude display.
The Wave window’s level rulers use a linear display, so this is a natural
choice to start with.
9. Again, if you so desire, click Redraw.
Working with multiple views
If you wish you can view the same graph in several windows, but with different style and perspective settings.
This allows you to get a better view of an otherwise
crowded graph.
• To open a second view of the graph, drag-create a window,
see “Working with multiple windows” on page 23.
• To make settings for one of the windows, select it, open the
“3D Frequency analysis…” options dialog from the Analysis
menu and proceed as described above.
Examples of how the graph can be used
The graph can be used for example for the following purposes:
• To see how the frequency spectrum is distributed in a mix.
• As a basis for EQ-ing, so that you know which frequencies to
reduce or boost.
• To see which parts of the audio spectrum a certain background
noise occupies (for removing by filtering).
• For educational purposes – these graphs tell you a lot about
how different sounds are “built”.
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Analysis
21
Generating signals
Audio Signal Generator
Proceed as follows:
1. Select the Audio Signal Generator option on the Tools
menu.
2. Decide on a number of layers, by setting the “Number of layers” parameter at the bottom of the dialog.
You can always change this value at a later stage if required.
3. Select one of the layers, using the “Edit layer” parameter.
4. Decide if you want to make changes for both or just
one of the channels in this layer, by using the “Edit channel(s)” pop-up.
5. Make the required settings on the Source, Frequency
and Level tabs.
Click the question mark icon in the dialog for details. Please note that the
length of the file is determined by settings on the Level tab.
This utility allows you to synthesize audio documents from
scratch. The resulting documents can then be used for a
number of purposes:
6. Repeat steps 3 to 5 as required.
7. When everything is done, set up a file format and Global level in the middle section of the lower half of the dialog.
• For testing the specifications of audio equipment.
• For measurements of various kinds, including calibrating tape
recorders.
• For testing signal processing methods.
• For educational purposes.
!
8. Click Generate.
The file is generated and opens up in a new window.
!
The Audio Signal Generator is not intended for synthesizing musical sounds.
The algorithms that the Audio Signal Generator is
based on were optimized for accuracy, not for
speed. Creating long and/or complex files might take
a while, especially on slower computers.
The Signal Generator is based on a waveform generator
which can generate a large number of basic waveforms
such as sine, saw, pulse and various types of noise.
The Signal Generator has a multitude of settings for character (Source tab), frequency (Frequency tab) and amplitude (Level tab).
As if that wasn’t enough, you can combine up to 64 such
signal generators into “layers” and even make separate
settings for the left and right channel for each.
Once all settings have been made, the program calculates
an audio file according to the specifications.
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Generating signals
DTMF Generator
4. Make the desired settings for Durations and Amplitude.
Click the question mark icon in the dialog for details.
5. Select a bit resolution and a sample rate for the file to
be created.
When you click the button, the Audio Properties dialog (see “Editing audio properties” on page 56) opens to let you make settings for the audio
file.
6. If you wish, you can save the settings you make as a
preset.
You can create presets for settings in the dialog, for quick recall.
7. When the settings are to your satisfaction, click Generate.
The file is generated and opens up in a new window.
DTMF (Dual Tone Multi Frequency – or Touch Tone) is a
way of generating signals by combining two sine waves
with variable frequencies, used in telephone systems. The
numbers you press generate sine waves of different frequencies, and these signals are then decoded at the central telephone office to actually identify which numbers you
press.
The DTMF Generator does just this – it allows you to generate an audio file with the sounds you hear when pressing the different keys on a telephone.
To use the DTMF Generator, proceed as follows:
1. Pull down the Tools menu and select DTMF Generator.
The DTMF Generator dialog opens.
2. Enter a dial string in the text box in the top of the dialog.
The characters you can use are the same as those you can use on a telephone and are listed in the dialog. Any other characters will not generate
any tone.
3. Select the desired standard; DTMF or MF.
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Generating signals
22
Synchronizing WaveLab Studio to
external devices
Introduction
With this setup, the master device sends MTC into WaveLab Studio (ensuring that audio playback starts at the correct time position) and word clock to the audio card
(ensuring that audio playback continuously follows the
master device.
It is possible to synchronize the audio playback in WaveLab Studio to incoming MIDI Time Code (MTC).
Ö For MTC sync to be possible, you need to have a MIDI
Interface installed and working!
!
MTC sync
MIDI Time Code provides timing information, so that each
time position coincides in the master (the other recorder,
MIDI sequencer, etc.) and the slave (WaveLab Studio).
However, there is still one problem: Even though WaveLab Studio starts playback of an audio file at the exact
correct position, it cannot affect the timing of the audio file
once playback is started. At that point, the playback of the
audio file is only dependent on the clock on the computer’s audio card.
Let’s say you are syncing WaveLab Studio to a tape recorder providing MTC. As the clock on the computer’s audio card and the internal clock of the master (in this case
the tape recorder) are not synchronized, the audio file(s)
played back by WaveLab Studio and the tape tracks will
inevitably be drifting out of sync after a period of time.
It is worth noting that without using a word clock
based system, it is possible to synchronize WaveLab
Studio with another device for a shorter period of time.
Exactly how long depends on a number of factors,
such as the overall stability of the system (using an
ADAT as master will provide higher stability than using
an analog tape machine for example) and the length of
the audio files played by WaveLab Studio, etc.
Also note that if a project involves using several different types of machines as the master, the result (the
length of time synchronization is upheld) is likely to
vary in an unpredictable way. For best results when
using synchronization without word clock, it is recommended that you use a fixed (and relatively stable)
setup during the course of the project.
Setting up
1. Make sure the desired Montage or Wave window is
active.
This is important, since each Montage or Wave can have separate Sync
settings.
The solution is to not only synchronize WaveLab Studio,
but also the audio card! This means that you need:
2. Pull down the Options menu and select Preferences.
• A synchronization device that can send both MTC and word
clock.
• An audio card that can read and synchronize to incoming
word clock.
The Preferences dialog appears.
3. Click the Sync tab.
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Synchronizing WaveLab Studio to external devices
4. Pull down the MIDI Input pop-up menu and select the
MIDI Input port to which your synchronization device is
connected.
If the time code in the master device is offset (so that playback starts at a time position other than zero), you need to
compensate for this in WaveLab Studio by setting the
SMPTE Offset parameter to the same value:
Sync mode
selected
5. If the SMPTE Offset is positive, click the [+] button
next to the SMPTE Offset parameter. If it is negative, click
the [–] button.
6. Set the SMPTE Offset parameter to the time position
when you want playback to start.
This should be set according to any offset values in the master device, so
that both devices have the same start position. The offset value is subtracted from (+ button activated) or added to (– button activated) the incoming time code. Usually, positive offset values are used. If you edit this
value during playback you have to stop and restart for the change to take
effect.
!
• You can also activate Sync mode by pressing
[Shift]+[F9] on the computer keyboard.
WaveLab Studio is now expecting MIDI Time Code, and
will start playback when the master device is started. If the
MIDI Time Code stops, WaveLab Studio will stop playback but remain in Sync mode. You can also do the reverse: start the master (generating MTC), then press
[Shift]+[F9] to start WaveLab Studio in sync.
Each Audio Montage can save its own SMPTE offset. When you edit the offset in the Preferences dialog, you actually edit the offset of the currently active
audio document.
Ö If you find that there is a slight, constant offset between the master and slave, you need to adjust the time
correction parameter until you get it right, by stopping
playback and going back to the Preferences dialog.
7. Leave the Time Correction parameter at 0 for now.
You may need to adjust this later on, as described below.
8. Click OK to close the dialog.
Although rare, such an offset could occur due to audio card latency,
“slow” MIDI equipment, the coarseness of the MTC signal, etc.
Activating MTC sync
To activate MTC sync in WaveLab Studio, proceed as follows:
!
1. Click the playback start position icon to the left on the
Transport bar.
A pop-up menu appears.
2. Select “Sync from MIDI Time Code” from the pop-up
menu.
The purpose of this function is to adjust for any constant
offset between master and slave. It is not meaningful
to use this for compensating for drifting sync (in a
setup without word clock).
Also note that this is a function for fine adjustments,
± 5000 samples at most.
3. To exit Sync mode, select another playback start position option from the pop-up menu, press [Shift]+[F9] or
stop playback manually.
The button changes shape to a MIDI symbol, indicating that WaveLab
Studio is in MTC Sync mode.
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Synchronizing WaveLab Studio to external devices
Checking incoming time code
You can inspect the incoming MIDI Time Code in the following way:
1. Enable Sync Mode as described above.
The Time Code display will only be updated in Sync mode.
2. Open the Monitor window from the Specialized Windows submenu on the View menu.
3. Click the Timecode tab at the bottom of the Monitor
window.
Now, the Monitor window serves as a time code display, indicating incoming time code in the format hours:minutes:seconds,frames:
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Synchronizing WaveLab Studio to external devices
23
Sampling and creating loops
Introduction
5. Make a new selection in another file and press [Ctrl][Shift]-[C] again.
This chapter describes various operations related to creating loop sounds (e.g. for samplers).
The file and region information for the new selection is added to the clipboard, without removing any previous information there.
Looping is a common technique used in samplers to simulate the infinite (or at least very long) sustain of many instrumental sounds. WaveLab Studio has tools for creating
smooth loops, even for the most complex types of sounds.
6. Copy the regions of as many audio files as you like in
the same way.
What we normally refer to as audio files in WaveLab Studio are probably called “samples” in your sampler. In this
chapter we will adhere to this terminology and call audio
recordings “samples”.
The copied regions appear as separate samples in HALion, assigned to
keys corresponding to their original root key settings.
7. When you have copied the desired regions, go to the
Keyzone Page view in HALion and press [Ctrl]-[V].
Ö If you are using HALion with Cubase SX/SL, and have
selected WaveLab Studio as your external Wave Editor,
you can open HALion samples for editing in WaveLab
Studio directly from the sampler, by selecting “Edit in Cubase SX/SL”.
Using WaveLab Studio with
Steinberg HALion
Editing sample attributes
If you are the lucky owner of Steinberg’s HALion software
sampler, you can use WaveLab Studio as your sample editor. You can add samples by dragging audio file selections from WaveLab Studio onto the HALion Key Zone
Editor or by using copy and paste. It is also possible to
transfer multiple samples from WaveLab Studio to HALion
in one go, using the following procedure:
1. Open and set up the audio files in WaveLab Studio.
You may for example need to adjust the root key settings in the “Sample
attributes” dialog (see “Editing sample attributes” on page 236), so that
they correspond to the proper pitches of the files.
2. If you have edited the files in any way, make sure they
are saved.
This is very important, since HALion will load the actual file from disk.
The “Sample attributes” dialog.
Ö If you haven’t edited the actual audio, but only the loop
markers or sample attributes (e.g. root key settings), you
should save the file(s) with the “Save as” command.
This menu item on the Sampling menu allows you to make
settings for a sample. They do not process the sample in
any way, they just give it properties that your sampler may
or may not take advantage of.
This is because those settings are stored in the file headers, which are
only rebuilt when the audio is re-saved. If the audio portion of a file hasn’t
been changed, WaveLab Studio will not re-save the audio on a regular
“Save” – hence you should use “Save as”.
3. Make a selection range in one of the files, covering the
section you want to use as a sample.
4. Press [Ctrl]-[Shift]-[C].
With this function, no audio is copied, only the audio file reference and
the position of the selected region.
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Sampling and creating loops
Basic looping
Setting
Description
Name
The name the sample will have in the sampler. If the
sample is an already named file, the name is displayed here, but you can change it if you wish. Note
that not all samplers support all characters. Furthermore, if the name is too long, it will be truncated.
Parse name into
key
Instrumental sounds in samplers rely heavily on looping.
Looping a sound allows you to repeat a section of the
sample indefinitely, to create a sustain of unlimited length.
An example of this would be an organ sound. Without
looping you will only be able to play notes as long as the
original recording. With looping, notes can be of any length.
If a sample is named so as to denote its root key
(e.g. “Bass C0” – a sample of a bass in the key C0),
clicking this button will automatically fill in the key
field (see below) with the root key information taken
from the file name. Note that you can also use this
method for samples that are named so as to denote
their MIDI note numbers (see below).
Parse last
group of digits
This is available when you select MIDI note number
notation (see below), and can be useful when you
want to use the Parse name into key option (described above). In cases where samples are named
with multiple groups of numbers – e.g.
“Piano_01_112” – you need to activate this option
to let WaveLab Studio know that the last group of
digits is the one denoting the MIDI note number.
Key
This specifies which key will play back the sound at
its original pitch.
Detune
This specifies whether the sample should be played
back at a slightly different pitch. The range is ±50%
of a semitone, which translates into a quarter tone in
each direction.
Detect from
audio selection
If you click this button, WaveLab Studio will analyse
the sample and determine its pitch and amount of
detune. For this to work properly, the sample must
be of such a nature that it is possible to clearly detect a pitch (it won’t work properly with chords and
drum loops for example).
Finding a good loop point takes a bit of practice. Here is
some advice:
• There are only two types of loops: very long and very short.
Loops of intermediate lengths usually don’t work very well.
• A long loop will sound the most natural, and should be used
whenever possible. However, if the sound does not have a
stable section in the middle (an even sustain part), it might be
hard to find a good long loop. For example, a piano note –
which decays continuously – will be hard to loop since the
start point of the loop will be louder than the end. A flute will
be much simpler, because the sound in the sustain section is
very stable.
• Very short loops (covering only a few cycles or periods) can
almost always be found, but may sound “static” and unnatural.
• A loop should normally start a short time after the “attack” portion, that is, when the sound has “stabilized” to a sustaining
note.
• If you try to set up a long loop, it should end as late as possible, but before the sound starts decaying to silence (if it does).
• If you go for a short loop, it is harder to say exactly where in
the sound to put it, but it should definitely be towards the end.
Musical notation/MIDI These radio buttons let you choose whether to disnote number
play the different key values in the dialog with the
key’s pitch or the key’s MIDI note number. In musical
notation, keys are denoted according to their pitch
(e.g. C3 – meaning the note C in the third octave).
Each key corresponds to a MIDI note number, from
0 – 127. The key C3 for example, corresponds to
the MIDI note number 48. MIDI note numbers make
it possible for samplers to automatically map samples to the correct keys.
Key range
If a sample is part of a multi-sample key map, you
can specify the key range for the sample, i.e. which
keys should be able to play it.
Velocity range
If a sample is part of a multi-sample key map with
velocity switchable samples, you can here specify
the velocity range for the sample – the minimum and
maximum velocity values that should trigger the
sample.
More information about looping in general, and the exact
capabilities of your sampler in particular, can be found in
the sampler’s manual. Below follows a description of
WaveLab Studio’s set of tools for setting up loops.
Adding, moving and playing loop markers
Loop markers are added, moved and otherwise edited just
as any other type of marker. This is described in the section “Introduction” on page 128 and onwards.
!
Please note the points about marker pairs (see
“About marker pairs” on page 128).
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Sampling and creating loops
Here is a brief description on how to create a basic loop:
Using the Crossfade Looper
1. Make a selection that corresponds to the area you
want looped.
What is the Crossfade Looper?
If you like, you can play back with “Loop selection” activated on the
Transport bar and adjust the selection during playback.
The Crossfade Looper is a special tool for creating “seamless” loops. It allows you to “nudge” the loop points while
at the same time providing visual feedback of the “join”
between the start and end point.
2. Bring up the Marker toolbar.
3. Click on the loop marker icons (the green ones).
The Crossfade Looper can also automatically find loop
points for you, by scanning the area of the waveform that
is in the current loop points’ vicinity. You can specify parameters for how “finicky” the program should be when
suggesting loop points.
The selection is now enclosed by loop markers.
4. Make sure that “Loop as marked” is activated on the
Transport bar.
Click the Playback end position/Loop mode button to open the corresponding pop-up.
Finally, if you can’t find a good enough loop point using
the methods described above, the Crossfade Looper allows you to process the waveform to allow for smoother
loops. It does this by crossfading areas of the waveform
close to the loop start and end points.
5. Play back and adjust the position of the markers to
change the loop.
Opening the Crossfade Looper
Before you open the Crossfade Looper we suggest you
set up a basic loop as described on the previous pages.
Then proceed as follows:
1. If you have several loops, place the wave cursor somewhere inside the one you want to work on.
This can be done by clicking somewhere between the loop markers.
2. Select Crossfade Looper… from the Sampling menu.
A basic loop setup using markers.
!
3. Click on the “Loop points” tab.
Note that it takes a while for changes in the loop to
take effect on playback. Exactly how long depends
on your buffer settings, see “About loop updating
and short loops” on page 59.
This tab should be your starting point, since this is where you adjust the
loop points.
Ö The following sections describe the common procedures for using the Crossfade Looper – for details about
the dialog itself, click the question mark icon in the dialog.
Getting a good loop by just dragging the markers around
might be hard. Most often you will hear a click or an abrupt
change in timbre at the turning point, which is hard to get
rid of by dragging the markers.
About the Crossfade Looper dialogs
The Crossfade Looper dialogs are non-modal. While they
are open, you can still access other windows (e.g. the
Transport bar). However, all editing of the Wave window
on which you are working is blocked out (except moving
the current pair of loop markers, of course).
We suggest you only use this method for setting up the
basic length of the loop (leaving clicks, etc. as they are)
and then use the Crossfade Looper and Loop Tone Equalizer (described below) to perfect it.
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Sampling and creating loops
Furthermore, each time you click Apply, the process starts
out from the wave data as it was when you opened the
Crossfade Looper (since you want to be able to try out
various types of crossfading without re-processing the
wave each time). This affects the undo function: there is
only one step of undo and no redo in the Crossfade
Looper.
• The nudge buttons are more useful for fine-tuning since they
move the points by one screen pixel. This means that in 1:1
zoom mode, each press on a nudge button moves the loop
point a single sample.
The various moving options
• By moving the left part of the display, you are moving the end
point to a later (left) or earlier (right) position.
• By moving the right part of the display, you are moving the
start point to a later (left) or earlier (right) position.
• If you activate Linking, both the start and end points will move
simultaneously. That is, the loop length will be exactly the
same, but the entire loop will move.
• You can switch to the Wave window and adjust the markers
there, if needed.
Moving the loop points “manually”
Let’s assume you have set up a basic loop that you are
happy with, except for glitches or “bumps” at the turning
point. You can then use the Crossfade Looper to move
the points manually, in small steps, to eliminate the glitch.
This is actually technically no different from moving the
loop points in the wave display, but the features of this dialog makes it much easier to find good loop points, since
the display gives you visual feedback as you go along. We
also recommend that you have playback going on in “Loop
as marked” mode since you will then also hear what you
are doing!
Using the auto-find feature
If desired, you can have the program search for good
loop points automatically. This is technically no different
from adjusting the loop points yourself, only that the program uses pattern matching algorithms to suggest loop
points for you.
The two ways of moving loop points
There are two ways of moving the loop points: dragging in
the actual waveform (position the mouse pointer in the
display and drag sideways) and using the “nudge” buttons.
Let’s say that you want to let the program find a better
start point for the loop. You first set up a start and end
loop marker, to get a basic loop, as described above. You
then invoke the automatic searching, and the program
searches the waveform from the current start point, trying
to find a section that is as similar as possible to the area
just after the current end point. When it finds a match it
stops.
You can drag either side of the waveform directly…
You decide how similar the section must be to be considered a match.
Setting up the parameters
…or use the nudge buttons.
The auto-find parameters.
There are two parameters for the auto-find feature, desired correspondence and search accuracy.
• Dragging in the waveform allows you to perform larger moves
more quickly.
• Search accuracy is a parameter for determining how many
samples should be included in the analysis. Higher values result in greater accuracy, but also longer processing times.
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Sampling and creating loops
When you have set up the loop points as desired, you
store them by selecting “Save candidate” from the options
pop-up menu in the dialog, and then selecting one of the
five memory locations.
• Desired correspondence is a value for how well the found
section must resemble the section to which it is compared, to
be considered a match. WaveLab Studio uses two methods
for comparison, “phase match” and “join match” (which provide much better matching than the simple zero crossing detection used by most other programs. Phase matching also
ensures that no harmonic cancellation will occur when you
crossfade, see later in this chapter). First phase matching is
performed and then, to “fine tune”, a join match is employed. A
value of 1000 will most likely fail completely, since it requires a
100% perfect match.
Searching
1. Set up the search parameters.
2. Click on one of the buttons in between the “nudge”
buttons.
Each time you click, the program scans from the current point (forwards
or backwards, depending on which button you clicked) until it finds a
point that matches. It then stops. If you wish you can stop at any time by
clicking the right mouse button, by using the Stop button on the status
bar or by hitting [Esc]. The program will then jump back to the best match
found so far.
To recall a stored candidate, select “Restore candidate”
from the pop-up menu, and then select the desired memory location from the submenu. The points are now recalled and the loop points in the wave are moved to the
positions stored in the memory location.
3. Check the loop by playing back.
4. If you think there might be a better point, at some later
or earlier position, just click the button again, and scanning continues from this point onwards.
Ö To compare several candidates, you can for example
have playback going, select them one after the other, and
listen to the difference.
Remember that you can always go back to the main Wave
window and adjust the markers manually.
Once you have found your candidate, you can select OK to exit this window or proceed to crossfading.
Working with candidates
Things to note about candidates
Often you will want to try various alternatives before committing to a loop. To be able to compare several alternatives, WaveLab Studio offers looping candidates. These
allow you to store sets of loop points in memory locations
for later recall.
• There is only one set of candidates per Wave window, not one
per set of loop points. This means that if you have several sets
of loops in your file, you must be careful so that you don’t recall the wrong set.
• Crossfading is not part of the candidate, only loop positions
are. You should decide on a candidate to use before you apply crossfading.
240
Sampling and creating loops
Creating a crossfade
4. Decide on a length for the crossfade either by dragging the length handle or by adjusting the Length value
below the graph.
What is a crossfade and when do I need it?
The length is used to adjust the amount of the audio file that will be processed. This area is always located just before the end of the loop, but
the Length value adjusts how far towards the start of the loop it
stretches. As you can see, an equally large area before the loop start is
used as basis for the processing. However, this area is not processed,
just analysed.
Sometimes it is impossible to find a loop that doesn’t
cause any glitches. This is especially true for stereo material, where you might be able to find a perfect candidate
for either channel, but not for both at the same time.
One solution to this problem is to use crossfading. This
technique “smears” the material around the end loop point
so that it loops perfectly. It does this by mixing material before the loop start with material just before the loop end.
Generally you will want the crossfade to be as short as it
can be, with an acceptable result:
• Using a long crossfade will be a better guarantee that the loop
will be smooth. However, more of the waveform will be processed and hence changed in character.
• Using a short crossfade will ensure the sound is affected as
little as possible. However, the loop might then not be as
smooth as otherwise.
The only problem with this technique is that it alters the
waveform and hence changes the sound. However, normally you can find settings that minimize this problem.
Setting up
1. While still at the “Loop points” tab (in the Crossfade
Looper dialog), try to create as good a loop as you can.
5. Decide on a crossfade shape, by dragging the shape
handle or by adjusting the shape value.
2. Click on the Crossfade tab.
The considerations for this are the same as when creating other crossfades, see “Crossfade” on page 83. 0% means that the sound level will
be equal in the middle of the crossfade, whereas 100% means that the
energy will be equal in the middle of the crossfade. Use low values for
“simple” sounds and high values for “complex” sounds.
3. Make sure the Crossfade check box is activated.
There is a corresponding check box on the Post-Crossfade tab. This lets
you choose if regular crossfading and/or post-crossfading will be performed when you click Apply later.
Applying and checking the crossfade
When you click Apply, the sound is processed. If you have
playback going, repeating the loop you will hear the
change take effect after a short while.
Ö You can check the crossfade visually by opening the
“Loop points” tab and activating “Display processed signal” on the options pop-up menu.
When this is activated, the display will show the waveform as it looks
when crossfaded. When the option is deactivated, the display will show
the waveform as it originally was. Switching back and forth allows you to
compare the two.
Ö You can undo the crossfade by selecting Undo from
the Edit menu.
The Crossfade tab with crossfading activated.
Ö If you click OK, the dialog closes and crossfading is
made permanent.
If you click Cancel instead, the dialog closes and the waveform is reverted back to the way it was before crossfading.
!
Do not move the loop points after performing a
crossfade! The waveform has been processed specifically for the current loop settings!
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Sampling and creating loops
Using the Loop Tone Equalizer
Creating a post-crossfade
The post-crossfade is accessed from its own tab.
This is identical to the regular crossfade, but it is applied
to the area after the loop. This means that it is used to fade
the material so that there will be no glitch when playback
continues out of the loop.
!
The Loop Tone Equalizer is a function for looping those
un-loopable sounds, for example sounds that constantly
decay in level or continuously change in timbre. The Loop
Tone Equalizer applies drastic processing to the sound
that evens out changes in level and timbral characteristics,
before and during the loop.
If you intend to use the sound in your sampler in such
a way that the area after the loop is never played, you
don’t need to worry about this feature at all! Some
samplers don’t even allow you to play the area after
the loop. However, if you do intend to use the area
after the loop it is very important to have post-crossfade activated!
It does this by using one of the following two methods:
• Slice mixing
A number of slices is specified for the looped section. If for example you
specify eight slices, the loop is cut up into eight sections of equal length.
These sections are then mixed together as one sound which is repeated
eight times. This new piece of audio replaces all audio inside the loop in
a smart way so that no harmonic cancellation (due to phase offsets) occurs.
The post-crossfade looks at the part of the waveform that
occurs just after the loop start and processes a certain
area beginning at the end of the loop. The Length parameter adjusts the size of this area.
• Chorus smoothing
Everything else is identical to regular crossfading, see
above.
This has nothing to do with a conventional chorus effect, but uses a
method known as “Phase Vocoding” to filter the harmonics. This method
is recommended for looping ensemble and choir sounds.
Working with presets
You can use both slice mixing and chorus smoothing in
conjunction, but it is highly unlikely that you will ever need
to. Note also that the original length of the loop will not be
changed by the processing.
As with effect processors, you can create presets for settings in the dialog for quick recall. See “Presets” on page
28 for details. This comes in extremely handy for example
when processing a number of similar files, for example for
creating a multisample (several instrumental samples
mapped across the keyboard).
In addition to the above, the Loop Tone Equalizer includes
a crossfade facility so that the original sound fades into
the processed sections as playback approaches the loop
start.
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Sampling and creating loops
Ö If you click OK, the dialog closes and processing is
made permanent.
To use the Loop Tone Equalizer, proceed as follows:
1. Set up a basic loop of the length you desire.
If you click Cancel instead, the dialog closes and the waveform is reverted back to the way it was before processing.
This will probably not be a very good loop. If it was you wouldn’t need to
use the Loop Tone Equalizer.
!
2. Select Loop Tone Equalizer from the Sampling menu
and click on the Loop Tone Equalizer tab.
3. Make sure that either slice mixing or chorus smoothing
is activated and make the desired settings.
Do not move the loop points after performing the
processing! The waveform has been processed specifically for the current loop settings!
About the end of the loop – Post-crossfading
For slice mixing, you need to determine the number of slices. Only experimentation can tell how many slices are needed, but generally, the more
slices, the more natural the sound (to a certain extent). However, the program puts a restriction on the number of slices, so that each one is never
shorter than 20 milliseconds.
After using the Loop Tone Equalizer, the transition from
the end of the loop to the end of the file in many cases
won’t be very natural. This can be fixed as follows:
1. Close the Loop Tone Equalizer and open the Crossfade Looper.
For chorus smoothing, you can make the following settings:
Option
Description
2. Click on the Crossfade tab and deactivate the Crossfade option (the check box).
Timbre
This governs the amount by which the timbral characteristics of the sample should be evened out. The
higher the value, the more pronounced the effect.
3. Click on the Post-Crossfade tab and make sure
Crossfade is activated.
Chorusing
The delay time of the chorus effect varies with the
modulation, which causes a sweeping effect. What
this parameter does is determine the width and
speed of the chorus sweep.
4. Set up the post-crossfade parameters and click Apply.
Enhance Warmth
Creates a smoother, warmer sounding effect.
Stereo Expansion
This increases the width of the sample in the stereo
sound image.
As with the Crossfade Looper, you can create presets for
settings in the dialog for quick recall. See “Presets” on
page 28 for details.
Working with presets
4. Switch to the Pre-Crossfade tab and set up a crossfade.
You will need to use this feature since the Loop Tone Equalizer itself
changes the timbre inside the loop and only there. This will mean that the
transition into the loop will not be as smooth as expected, unless you apply crossfading. Generally, this is the same as the crossfade in the
Crossfade Looper window. However, the difference is that this crossfade is made before and up to the loop start. The processed material created by the Loop Tone Equalizer is added to the original material before
the loop.
5. Click Apply, and the sound gets processed.
If you have playback going, repeating the loop, you will hear the change
take effect after a short while.
Ö You can undo the crossfade by selecting Undo from
the Edit menu.
243
Sampling and creating loops
24
Requirements
This is what you need…
RAM
Since WaveLab Studio is disk based, the amount of RAM
does not limit the size of audio files you can work with.
Even with moderate amounts of RAM, you can have many
files open at the same time. However, when more RAM is
available, some processes can be accelerated by WaveLab Studio.
To use WaveLab Studio you need the following:
• A PC with Windows XP or 2000 installed and ready.
A free USB port is also required. For more details about the computer requirements, see below.
• A Multimedia PC compatible, 16-bit (or better) audio
card.
Processing power
By audio card we mean a card capable of recording and playing back
audio, using the computer’s hard disk as storage media. See “About audio cards” on page 246.
The difference between running WaveLab Studio on a
faster computer and a slower one is noticeable in many
cases:
To take advantage of WaveLab Studio’s more advanced
features, you need the following:
• More real-time processing
• To utilize WaveLab Studio’s CD burning capabilities,
you will need a CD recorder.
The faster the computer, the more real-time plug-ins you will be able to
use.
Your CD recorder must support the disc-at-once write mode.
• Faster “off-line” processing and analysis tasks
• DirectX 9 or later must be installed.
Certain types of processing which make heavy demands on the computer will be completed more quickly on a faster machine.
Computer requirements
• Screen updates
Scrolling, editing and manipulating objects is “snappier” on a faster machine.
Below, the minimum computer requirements are listed,
with recommendations where applicable. The following
sections describe each system component (processor,
RAM, etc.) in more detail.
Hard disk
Audio files are relatively big. Approximately 10.6 MB of
hard disk space is used up for every minute of 16 bit stereo/44.1 kHz audio recorded. For 24 bit/48 kHz audio or
higher, the audio files are of course a lot bigger. Therefore
we recommend that you get the largest hard disk you can
afford. The speed of the hard disk will affect some of the
processing operations. This is mainly noticeable when you
work with very long files.
Minimum requirements
• Intel Pentium III/AMD Athlon 800 MHz (Intel Pentium IV/AMD
Athlon or AMD Opteron 2,4GHz).
• Newer dual core CPUs are recommended.
• 256 MB RAM (1GB recommended).
• A monitor and video card with a resolution of 24bit (32bit recommended).
• 50MB of free hard disk space (10GB recommended).
• Windows XP or 2000 (Windows XP recommended).
• Windows MME compatible audio hardware (ASIO compatible
audio hardware recommended).
• CD or DVD ROM drive for installation (CD/DVD writer recommended).
• USB port.
• DirectX version 9 or later is required for using video and some
export functions.
In addition, a fast hard disk is absolutely crucial for CD-R
and DVD-R burning. If the hard disk is slow, your recorder
might not be able to write at its maximum possible speed.
!
245
Requirements
Do not use file compression on hard disks where audio files are stored!
About audio cards
WaveLab Studio works with any Multimedia PC compatible audio card. However, the audio quality varies dramatically between cards.
For serious work with WaveLab Studio, we recommend
that you get a card with the highest possible specifications.
However, if you use WaveLab Studio to edit files for use
with other hardware (such as a hard disk based recording
system using its own audio converters) any loss in audio
quality that you experience when listening to the files in
WaveLab Studio (due to deficiencies in the audio card)
will not affect the final audio files in any way.
For professional use (mastering, etc.) we recommend that
you get a card capable of playing back files in 24 bit resolution.
About the System Information
feature
After having installed and launched WaveLab Studio, you
can get a very detailed report describing your computer
system by selecting “System Information” on the Help
menu. This function analyses your system and lists operating system specifics; processor(s), memory, hard drives,
and much more. This is especially useful if you need to
contact Technical Support, since this allows you to describe your computer configuration accurately.
246
Requirements
25
Customizing
What is customizing?
3. Launch the program again, and deactivate “Save preferences on exit”.
When we talk about customizing, we mean making settings so that the program behaves and looks the way you
want it to!
Now you can change the preferences for this session, but the settings
you had when you last quit will be the ones you get next time you launch
the program.
Preferences
Folder editing
Navigating to the right folder via file dialogs can sometimes be time consuming, but WaveLab Studio gives you
the option to optimize these operations.
If you select “Folders” from the Options menu, a dialog
opens where you set for the saving and opening of preferences for WaveLab Studio’s various folders.
In the Preferences dialog on the Options menu you will
find a number of settings for tailoring the look and behavior of the program.
To the left in the dialog is a tree list with two root folders;
“Work folders” and “Document folders”. Work folders are
the folders associated with temporary files, and Document
folders are all folders associated with WaveLab Studio
specific files and documents (Wave, Audio Montage,
etc.).
The settings are collected on tabs. To get a description of
the Preferences settings of a particular tab, click the question mark icon.
Saving the preferences
To make sure the preference settings “stick”, select the
General tab and make sure “Save preferences on exit” is
activated. When this is activated, all your preferences settings (as well as all menu options, etc.) are automatically
saved when you Quit the program.
Work folders
The Work folders are usually set up after installing WaveLab Studio, as the folders specified for temporary files
have an important bearing on WaveLab Studio’s overall
performance. See “Temporary files” on page 12 for a description of how to set up these folders.
Creating startup preferences
To make sure the program starts with the same preference
settings each time you launch it, proceed as follows:
1. Set up all preferences as desired and make sure “Save
preferences on exit” is activated.
2. Quit the program.
248
Customizing
Ö If you hold down [Ctrl] when quitting the program, the
effect of the “Open last window layout on startup” setting
is reversed. If it was activated, it will be deactivated and
vice versa.
Document folders
For each WaveLab Studio document type, you can specify paths to open and save folders (given that the document can be saved). This is done in the following way:
Ö If you hold down [Ctrl] when launching the program,
no window layout is loaded.
1. Click on the plus sign for a document type in the tree
list.
All document types will have Open and Save sub-items.
Styling WaveLab Studio – Wave
windows
2. Select either Open or Save.
Now you can specify a path to a folder which will be automatically selected when opening or saving a document of this type.
It’s possible to “style” the Wave windows to your liking, by
adjusting colors (of waveforms, background, cursor lines,
etc.) and changing the look of the ruler and other window
details. This can be done in two ways:
For each folder, you can specify the following:
Item
Description
Current folder
Here you can specify a path to a folder to use for
Saving or Opening documents of the selected
type.
Keep last used
The last folder used for saving or opening documents of the selected type will be selected the
next time you open or save from the file dialog.
Change when save/
open folder changes
Use this if you want the folder to be redefined if
the opposite operation is performed (open vs
save). If you set this option both for the Open and
Save folders, then these folders will always be the
same.
When opening
WaveLab Studio
set this folder
• By changing the default style.
This is the style that is normally used when you open or record an audio
file in a Wave window.
• By having the program assign different styles to different Waves, according to specific conditions.
You could for example have all files of a certain file type or with a certain
name be shown with their own style.
On the following pages, we will first describe the general
procedure for how to change the default style or set up
style conditions, then describe the elements you can
change.
If you want to reset the folder to a specific folder
each time you open WaveLab Studio you can
specify a path here.
Saving the window layout
Changing the default style
If “Open last window layout on startup”, on the Preferences–General tab is activated, the program will open in
exactly the same state as it was when you last quit (with
the option activated). The snapshots, and even the document windows you had open (and their “layout”) will automatically be reopened.
1. Set up a Wave window to look the way you want it.
Note that this also includes the ruler formats – see “Units of time and
level” on page 26.
2. Select “Audio window styles…” from the View menu.
3. In the dialog that appears, make sure “Default style” is
selected and click “Save”.
You can use this to create a startup “layout” that will always appear when you launch WaveLab Studio:
4. Close the dialog.
Now, all Wave windows (which do not match any style condition you may
have set up) will be shown in the style you specified.
1. Set up all windows as desired.
2. Make sure “Open last window layout on startup” is activated and quit the program.
3. Launch the program again, and deactivate “Open last
window layout on startup”.
The next time you launch the program, it will open with the windows set
up as in step 1 above, regardless of whether you have changed the window layout since.
249
Customizing
Setting up style conditions
The following settings are available:
Setting
Description
File extension
Here you can specify files of certain types, by
entering their file extensions (e.g. mp3 or wav).
Separate several extensions with a blank space
or comma.
Name
Allows you to specify keywords in the file names.
For example, by entering the keyword “bass”, all
files with “bass” in the name can be shown with
a separate style.
Separate keywords with a blank space or
comma.
Sample Rate
If this is activated, only files with a sample rate in
the range specified will be shown with this style.
Bit Resolution
If this is activated, only files with a bit resolution
in the range specified will be shown with this
style.
Number of channels
Lets you specify that only mono (1 channel) or
stereo (2 channels) files should be shown with
this style.
5. Click OK to close the “Style condition” dialog, and
close the Audio Window Styles dialog.
In the Audio Window Styles dialog, there are 15 additional
style “slots” (apart from the default style), some of which
already hold pre-defined styles to use or overwrite, as you
see fit. For each of these styles, you can specify that it
should be applied to all Wave windows with audio files
that meet certain criteria, called conditions:
Now, if you open or record a new file that meets all conditions specified for a style slot, it will automatically be
shown in that style.
!
1. Open the Audio Window Styles dialog from the View
menu.
2. Select one of the style slots.
This could hold a pre-defined style or one that you have saved yourself
(see below).
Note that the conditions are set for the style slots –
not for the actual style settings stored in the slot. This
means you can set up your conditions first if you like,
and then change the style settings for the slots (see
below), without having to redefine the conditions.
Saving your own styles for use with conditions
• To make sure you select the correct style, you can click
the “Apply to current window “button to temporarily apply
the style to the active Wave window.
To save your own settings in the style slots, you proceed
just as when changing the default style: set up the Wave
window as desired, select the style slot in the Audio Window Styles dialog and click Save. It’s also possible to rename a style slot by clicking and typing.
This is just a way to check what style settings are stored in the style slot.
3. Click the Condition button to open the “Style condition” dialog.
4. Activate the desired conditions by ticking their radio
buttons, and fill in the settings as required.
The elements of a style
Ö Again: When you change any of these style settings
(apart from ruler formats), you need to save them in a style
(either the default style or one of the conditional styles –
see “Changing the default style” on page 249).
If you don't do so, the window will automatically be reset to the default
style (or a conditional style) as soon as you perform any editing (because
the style to apply is evaluated after each edit)!
250
Customizing
Waveform elements
If you prefer a single background color (or if you need to
speed up display redraws, typically with slower graphic
cards), you can turn this feature off by activating “Do not
use gradient backgrounds” in the Preferences–Environment tab. The background color will then be a 50/50 mix
of the top and bottom color.
To change the waveform elements, right-click on a waveform (in the overview or in the main display), select Elements and then select the desired item from the submenu
that appears.
!
Note that you make separate settings for the main
waveform display, the overview and for the two channels in a stereo file! Which section you make settings
for depends on where you click.
!
Again, when changing colors for the waveform images, you make separate settings for the main waveform display, the overview and for the two channels
in a stereo file, depending on where you click.
Ruler style
Item
Description
Time Ruler
Specifies whether or not the display should have
a time ruler.
Level Ruler
This only applies to the Main view display. It is
used to set whether or not there should be a ruler
showing levels.
Solid/Dotted
Markers
These two (mutually exclusive) items are used to
set the style of the marker lines extending across
the waveform. If neither is activated, the marker
lines are hidden.
Range Indicator
at top/bottom
The range indicator is a small “barber shop
striped” bar that indicates which part of the
waveform is shown in the main display. These
two items are used to set whether it should appear at the top or bottom of the overview.
Thin/Medium/
Fat Cursor
These three items are used to set the thickness
of the cursor line.
Solid/Dotted
zero level axis
These two (mutually exclusive) items are used to
set the style of the line crossing the waveform at
zero level (in the middle). If neither is activated,
the zero level axis is hidden.
Solid/Dotted
half level axis
As above, but for the two lines crossing the
waveform at ±50% level.
End of file indicator
Allows you to show/hide the line that indicates
the end of the file.
To change the look of the rulers (done separately for the
Overview and Main view), right-click on the ruler, select
style and then select one of the options from the submenu
that appears:
Option
Description
3D/Mingled
These two (mutually exclusive) items allow you
to select whether the ruler should have its own
looks (3D) or whether it should “inherit” the color
of the waveform background.
Font
Opens up a dialog box that allows you to set a
font for the text/numbers on the ruler. Select a
font, style, size, effect and color and click OK.
Tick Color
This allows you to set the color for the tick marks
on the ruler. A standard Windows color dialog is
used.
Styling WaveLab Studio – Audio
Montage windows
Using custom colors
You can create and assign different color schemes to different clips, tracks or groups to make it easier to find your
way through the Montage:
Colors
To set the color of a certain element in the display, rightclick in the Wave window, select Colors and then select
an element from the submenu that appears. In the standard Windows color dialog that appears, select or define
a color and click OK.
• To assign a color scheme to a track, open the Track
menu and select a color scheme from the Color submenu.
Ö For the display background colors, there are separate
“top” and “bottom” settings – the resulting display background will be a gradient “fade” from the top color to the
bottom color.
• To assign a color scheme to a group, use the “Color selected group” options in the Grouping menu on the
Groups tab (see “Coloring groups” on page 184).
The selected color scheme is used for all current clips on the track, as
well as for clips you add later on. However, note that this color selection
is overridden by the group and clip colors.
The group color (if other than default) supersedes the track colors, but is
overridden by individual clip color scheme selections.
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Customizing
• To assign a color scheme to an individual clip, right click
on the clip to bring up the clip speed menu, and select a
color scheme from the Color submenu.
Clip color selections (if other than default) override track and group color
selections.
• The Lock and Mute colors override all color settings
above.
If a clip is both locked and muted, the Mute color is used.
It’s also possible to have different color schemes automatically applied to different clips, according to their names or
properties of their audio files. This is described in the section “Automatic coloring – Setting up conditions” on page
253.
• If you are editing a clip color element, you can make
separate color settings for the left and right sides of stereo
clips.
Defining custom colors
If you want the same color for the left and right sides, you must make
sure that the checkbox Edit Left/Right is activated (it is by default).
You can redefine all colors on the Color pop-up menus, as
well as the colors for various other elements in the Audio
Montage. This is done in the Audio Montage Colors dialog, using the following procedure:
!
There are many items of different color displayed in a
Montage. If you redefine colors, be careful not to
choose colors which cause some elements to “disappear” (e.g. black marker lines on a black background).
When this is activated, settings for the left side of a clip are automatically “mirrored” on the right side, and vice versa.
• If you activate the Link sliders checkbox, you can adjust
all three sliders at once, by moving one of them.
This is useful if you want to adjust the brightness of the color, without affecting the hue.
1. Pull down the View menu and select “Audio Montage
colors…”.
• Some elements can be hidden totally by activating the
Hide option.
The Audio Montage Colors dialog appears. For the menu item to be
available, the active window must be a Montage window.
When this is activated, it is not possible to make any color adjustments
(since the element won’t be visible in the Audio Montage anyway).
2. In the Items list, select the element for which you want
to edit the colors.
• It is also possible to select colors from a standard Windows color dialog, opened by clicking the Select button.
By clicking the plus sign next to a heading, you display the sub elements
for that item. The available elements are described in the section “The
color elements” on page 253.
4. If you make a mistake, you can undo your latest adjustment by clicking the Undo button.
3. Use the three sliders (red, green and blue) to adjust
the color of the selected element.
To undo all changes you made since you opened the dialog, click Undo
All.
The current color is displayed in the field to the right. You can also see
the changes in the Audio Montage window while you are editing.
5. If you want to apply the same color to several elements, you can use the Copy and Paste buttons.
Set up the color, click Copy, select the next element and click Paste to
apply the same color settings.
• You can also copy an entire color scheme (for example,
copy all settings for one of the custom schemes to the default scheme) by dragging and dropping in the Items list.
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Customizing
6. If you are editing one of the color definitions (the items
that appear on the track, group and clip color menus), you
can rename the color by clicking on the name in the Item
list and typing a new name.
For each item, you can select colors for a number of different clip elements. You can make separate adjustments for
the left and right sides of a stereo clip, though by default,
editing a color for the left side will automatically change
the same setting for the right side and vice versa (see
“Defining custom colors” on page 252). For mono clips,
the “Left (mono)” setting is used.
In the Items list, the color definitions that can be renamed are displayed
in blue.
7. When you’re finished, click Close to close the window.
The following color elements are available:
Option
Automatic coloring – Setting up conditions
Background top/bottom The background colors of the clip (unselected,
selected and selection range, respectively). The
(normal/selected/seresulting display backgrounds will be gradient
lected range)
“fades” from the top colors to the bottom colors
(this can be turned off in the Preferences–Environment tab, as described in the section “Colors” on page 251.
When you have defined a custom color scheme, you have
the option of automatically applying this to any files you
add to the Montage that match certain conditions.
Select a custom color scheme in the Audio Montage Colors dialog and click the Conditions button to bring up the
“Style condition” dialog. Here you can set up which conditions must be matched for a clip to automatically get the
selected custom color scheme. The procedures and options are the same as when setting up style conditions for
Wave windows (see “Setting up style conditions” on page
250), with one exception: here, the “Name” condition refers to the clip name, not the name of the actual audio file.
When you close the dialog, the selected color scheme will
be applied to all clips that match the set conditions.
Waveform (normal/
selected/sel.range)
The waveform color for unselected/selected
clips or selection ranges, respectively.
Waveform outline (normal/selected/sel.range)
The color of the waveform outline (unselected/
selected clips and selection range, respectively).
Edge
The left and right edge of the clip.
Edge (selected)
The left and right edge, if the clip is selected.
Edge (sel. range)
The left and right edge, if within a selection
range.
Axis (level zero)
The color of the horizontal dotted line in the middle of a clip, indicating zero level.
Axis (half level)
The color of the horizontal dotted lines halfway
up and down from the middle of a clip, indicating
50% level.
Channel separator
(stereo clip)
The line dividing the two sides in a stereo clip.
The color elements
Clip colors
Under the heading Clip Colors you can select colors for
various elements in the following clip types:
Option
Description
Crossfade Region
Allows you to set the background color for overlapping clip sections.
Default
The default colors, used for clips for which you haven’t selected any specific color.
Locked
The colors used for all locked clips.
Muted
The colors used for all muted clips.
Custom
These options correspond to the items on the Color
submenus (on the Track menu, clip speed menu and
Groups view : Grouping menu). These can be renamed, and you can also set up conditions for when
these should be automatically applied, as described
above.
Description
Clip name
The name label of the clip.
Focused Clip name
The name label of the focused clip (see “About
selected and focused clips” on page 153).
Focused Clip name
background
The name label background of the focused clip.
!
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Customizing
For the Crossfade Region item, you can only select
colors for “Background” and “Background (sel.
range)”.
Miscellaneous colors
• To create a new window layout, set up the display as
you want it (see the list above) and use the Window Layout dialog to name and add the new layout.
This section of the Items list in the dialog contains color
settings for other elements in the Track View:
• To modify an existing window layout, set up the display
as you want it, select the window layout in the dialog and
click the Update button.
Option
Description
Background
top/bottom
The background colors of the Track View.
Background (selected
range) top/bottom
The background colors in selected ranges.
Cursor
The color of the Montage cursor. Note that because of the blinking Cursor, the selected colors
will appear in inverse video in the Montage.
Marker
• To load an existing window layout, select it in the dialog
and click Load.
Using key sequences
You can use key sequences for recalling window layouts,
just as with many other items (see “Customizable key
commands” on page 255). This can be used for quick and
easy window control. For example, open a single document window, maximize it, save a window layout and assign it to a key sequence. Later, this key sequence can be
used to maximize the active window only.
The color of the marker lines in the Montage.
Cue-Point
The color of the vertical dotted cue point lines.
Marker (source)
The color of marker lines from the source Wave
windows (shown in clips if the option “Show
source’s ruler and markers” is activated on the
clip speed menu).
Time Ruler (source)
The color of the source ruler (shown in clips if
the option “Show source’s ruler and markers” is
activated on the clip speed menu).
Time Grid
The color of the time grid (see “The time grid” on
page 139).
Setting default size and position for
windows
As mentioned above, while window layouts can be used
for storing the size and position of windows, it also stores
settings for various dialog boxes. If you only wish to determine a default size and position for different types of windows (Waves, Audio Montages, etc.), you can instead use
the option “Remember active window’s layout as opening
setting” on the View menu. This is a quick and effective
way of organizing your working environment the way you
want it.
Working with window layouts
Window layouts are used for creating various “work displays” for different situations. The following items are
stored in window layouts:
• The size, position and minimize/maximize properties of document windows. This does not include the contents of the window, just the properties of the window “frame” itself. For
example, if some Database window was included in the window layout, the Database you currently have open when you
load the preset will be sized and moved accordingly.
• Positions of non-modal dialog boxes, such as the off-line processors. This includes opening any such windows.
• Positions of plug-in processor panels.
!
To set a default size and position for a certain type of window, proceed as follows:
1. Open or create the desired type of window.
2. Size and position it the way you like.
3. Pull down the View menu and select “Remember active window’s layout as opening setting”.
Windows that are already open will never be closed as a
result of recalling a window layout.
A dialog appears asking you to confirm the option.
Window layouts are managed in the Window Layouts dialog on the View menu. The procedures are the same as
when handling regular presets (for detailed descriptions,
see “Presets” on page 28):
4. Click “Yes” to continue.
All windows of that type will now open in this same size
and position.
Ö Loading a window layout as described above will
override this setting.
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Customizing
Creating a Favorites menu
About the list of operations
The Favorites item on the File menu allows you to assemble a list of files that you want to be able to open quickly –
a library if you will.
The main part of this dialog is occupied by the list of available operations that can be called up via key sequences.
You can choose to view this list in one of two ways, with
the “Sort” buttons in the upper right corner of the dialog:
• To add a file to the list, make sure its window is active
and select “Add current document” from the FavoritesFunctions submenu.
• “Sort by Command” organizes the operations in folders, in
groupings that relate to various sections in the program.
• “Sort by Key” lists all commands in a “flat” fashion (no folders),
and sorts the list alphabetically via the defined key commands,
which allows you to easily find a command assigned to a certain key.
• To open a file from the list, select it.
• To clear the whole list, select Clear List from the Favorites–Functions submenu.
Regardless of which mode you select, the actual available
operations are the same, it’s just the view that changes.
• To update the list so that it only lists files that actually
still exist in the specified locations on your hard disk(s),
select Validate List from the Favorites–Functions submenu.
The “dynamic” items in the list
Please note that the number of items in the list varies with
other settings in the program. For example, if you have assigned key shortcuts to plug-ins, in the Plug-in manager,
they will appear in this list too. Otherwise they will not.
Files that can’t be found are removed.
Customizable key commands
In addition to the fixed key commands for selecting from
menus, etc., there are a number of operations for which
you can set up your own commands.
The columns
• The Description column lists the operations available.
• The next column allows you to choose between three modes
that determine when a key sequence is available and when it
is not, see “Setting enable options” on page 256.
• The Key column shows the Key sequence defined for the operation.
You can do this by specifying a key sequence – a sequence of between one to three keys that must be
pressed in a certain order to invoke the operation.
Key sequences are listed and managed in the “Keyboard
Commands” dialog, opened from the Options menu.
Defining key sequences
1. Select the operation for which you want to create a key
sequence.
2. Click the “Key Sequence…” button.
3. If you want to clear the current key sequence, click
Clear.
4. Make sure “Catch mode” is active.
5. Press the first combination of keys that you want to
use.
You can include modifiers ([Shift], [Ctrl], [Alt], etc.) if you like. There is
also a setting that makes the program distinguish between two modifiers
with the same label, on each side of the space bar.
6. Proceed with the following key(s).
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Customizing
7. Disable “Catch mode”.
“Exclude windows” allows you to prevent this situation:
This is just an optional safety measure so that you don’t accidentally
erase or add to your current key sequence, when pressing more keys.
1. Click the “Exclude windows” button.
8. Close the dialog.
2. Type in the name of the window in the Window exclusion list.
!
You can include DOS “wildcard” characters. For example to exclude all
products from the manufacturer Waves, you can type “Waves*”.
It is possible to define the same key sequence for
two operations. If you do, one of them will be invoked. To see which, select “Sort by key” and locate
the items in the list. The top one is the one that will
be used.
3. Close the window.
Using key sequences
To use a key sequence, press the keys/buttons specified
in the dialog, and the corresponding operation is performed.
Setting enable options
Once the key sequence has been defined, you may want
to set the Enable Options for the operation. This is done
by selecting from the pop-up in the middle column:
!
Key sequences can only be executed after you have
closed the Key Commands dialog.
About some special key commands
There are some key commands that might require an explanation:
Option
Description
Command
Description
Enabled all the time
This key sequence is always active.
Enabled if active
window…
This key sequence can be used for all windows,
except the ones added to the “Exclude Windows” lists, described below.
Set focus on this
key command group
Enabled if involved
window…
This key sequence is only available if the window
it is applied to has the focus (is active or displayed on top of all other windows).
This is mainly for plug-in windows. Since some plug-ins,
especially from third-party manufacturers, have their own
set of key commands, you may want to disable WaveLab
Studio key commands for these windows.
This allows you to re-use key commands
for certain groups.
For example, let’s say you set up things so
that [Ctrl]+[F10] is the key command for
setting the focus to the Master Section.
You then assign simple key commands to
the Master Section items, for example [A]
for “Apply” and [R] for “Remove all plugins”, even though these keys may be used
for other sections of the program.
You can then Press [Ctrl]-[F10] followed
by any of the single commands to control
most aspects of the Master Section.
Bypass all defined
key commands/
Enable all key commands
Let’s say you assign a key command to “apply” in the Master Section, and a certain plug-in already uses the same
key combination for an internal operation. Then, pressing
this key command might lead to the wrong operation being invoked when this plug-in has the focus.
This can be used when an installed plugin, from a third party manufacturer, has its
own set of key commands. You can then
temporarily disable all WaveLab Studio
key commands to be able to use the plugin’s own.
Bypass all defined
key commands except those
set to “Enabled all time”
Same as above but disables all key commands except those where you have set
the Enable Option to “Enabled all time”.
Plug-in Slot commands
To assign a certain processor to a certain
slot, in the Master Section, you need two
key sequences. Selecting a slot is done
by a key sequence in the “Slot selection”
section, and selecting a plug-in is done in
the “Slot Commands” section.
Excluding windows (Key commands)
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Customizing
Organizing plug-in processors
Groups
Introduction
In the Master Section folder in the list, you will find subfolders, representing groups of plug-ins.
You may find that you need to organize your processors
into sensible groups. Why? Well, a host of plug-ins are included with the program, and additional ones can be
added. If you have Cubase installed on the computer,
even more appear in WaveLab Studio. Also, sometimes
when you install a package of DirectX plug-ins you get effects that are of no relevance to WaveLab Studio (or even
to audio) and therefore just clutter menus.
By organizing your plug-ins into folders, you arrange the
way they appear on menus in the program. How you organize your effects is of course up to you, but initially, they
are categorized according to their technical “type”, regular
WaveLab Studio plug-ins in one folder, VST plug-ins in
another, DirectX plug-ins in yet another, etc. (see “The Effects pane” on page 96 for more details on these types of
plug-ins).
To organize how your plug-ins appear on menus in the
program, open the “Organize Master Section plug-ins” dialog on the Options menu.
!
!
This organizes plug-ins accessed from the Master
Section or Batch Processor, not the VST plug-ins in
the Montage. Note however, that you can exclude
some VST plug-ins completely, see “Handling VST
plug-ins” on page 258.
VST and DirectX plug-ins need to be in a group,
whereas WaveLab Studio plug-ins can be outside all
groups.
The columns
• The Plug-in column displays the names of all the available
plug-ins.
• The FX column determines whether a plug-in is active or not,
see below.
• If the checkbox in the PM (Post Master) column is activated
for a plug-in, it will be available for selection in the Dithering
pane in the Master Section (after the master faders in the signal path). This allows you to use separately purchased dithering plug-ins and similar. See “Adding other plug-ins to the
Dithering pane” on page 100 for more information.
• The Key column displays the key sequence defined for a plugin.
• The Module column tells you the name of the plug-in (dll) file.
About the plug-in list
Activating and deactivating plug-ins and
groups
By clicking in the FX column, you can activate/deactivate
individual plug-ins or an entire group of plug-ins (see below for more information on groups). If you have plug-ins
installed on your computer that you don’t want to use in
WaveLab Studio, this lets you disable them completely,
thus reducing “menu clutter”. The disabled plug-ins will
still be applicable in other programs that can use them.
The “Organize Master Section plug-ins” dialog
These are plug-ins that can be used in the program. They
are processors, or effects, that can be added to the Master Section slots (see “The Effects pane” on page 96) or utilized from the Batch Processor (see “Setting up the processing
tasks to be performed” on page 116).
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Customizing
An example of this would be DirectX plug-ins. Many of
these do not apply to audio at all and are of no relevance
to WaveLab Studio whatsoever. By disabling these, you
will make it easier to find the plug-ins that you really want
to use in WaveLab Studio.
!
• If you want to restore everything to the default “factory
settings”, click “Set default”.
!
VST plug-ins can also be excluded, see “Handling
VST plug-ins” on page 258.
Working with groups
The Master Section plug-ins can be organized into
groups. This is done by adding subfolders to the Master
Section folder and then dragging Plug-in icons into these
folders.
These settings are stored in the files “WaveLab Studio/Presets/Plug-ins/PlugInPrefAE.set” and “WaveLab Studio/System/plugIns.set”. If you ever
encounter problems with “lost” plug-ins, delete
these files and the program will re-scan and build a
new list of plug-ins the next time you launch it. This
can also be achieved by clicking the “Force plugin
dectection at next launch” button in the Preferences–VST dialog (see below).
Handling VST plug-ins
If you have VST plug-ins installed on your computer that
you don’t need in WaveLab Studio, you can tell the program to ignore these on launch. This is done in the Preferences–VST dialog. It is possible to exclude single VST
plug-ins, entire folders and subfolders containing VST
plug-ins, and the “Shared VST Plug-ins” folder (if present
on your system). The methods for doing this are all described below.
When you then select from plug-in menus or display lists
of plug-ins, the organization you have created will be reflected in the menu/list.
!
Here, a “Dynamics”
group has been
created, which
then appears in
the Master Section.
Note that unlike deactivating a plug-in in the Plug-in
Manager (as described in the section “Activating and
deactivating plug-ins and groups” on page 257)
which will only remove it from the plug-in menu in the
Master Section, “ignoring” a VST plug-in as described below will remove it from the whole program,
including the Montage.
Proceed as follows to set up which VST plug-ins to use in
WaveLab Studio:
• To create a group, click the New Group button, enter a
name and press [Return].
• Open the Preferences dialog from the Options menu,
and select the VST tab.
The group will initially appear at the end of the list, but when you start using it, the list will be resorted so that the groups are displayed in alphabetical order.
This contains the following items:
• To delete a group, select it and click Delete Group.
If the group contains any plug-ins, they will not be deleted. Instead, they
will appear in the Master Section section, outside all other groups.
Item
Description
Use VST plugin
shared folder
If you have Cubase installed on your computer,
the effects that were included with Cubase can
also be available in WaveLab Studio, provided
that they are installed in the “Shared VST Plugins” folder and this checkbox is activated. Next
time WaveLab Studio is launched the plug-ins in
this folder will be available.
Optional extra VST
plugin folder
(WaveLab Studio specific)
Here you can set a path to an “extra” VST plugin
folder. As many Cubase plug-ins are not usable
in WaveLab Studio, you can set up a specific
folder containing all the VST plug-ins you wish
to use in WaveLab Studio.
• Moving plug-ins between groups is done by dragging
and dropping, just as when dragging files in the Windows
Explorer.
• If you lose track of your changes and wish to return to
the state that the list was in when you first opened the dialog, click Undo Changes.
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Customizing
Item
• Quit WaveLab Studio and then launch the program
again.
Description
Ignore plugins located in In this text field, you can type in the name of a
the following
folder or subfolder containing VST plug-ins that
sub-folders
you want to exclude.
If you want to exclude several folders, type in all
their names, but separate each name with a
semicolon.
Do not load the
following plugins
If you check the effect menus, you will find that the plug-ins in the specified folders are removed.
• If you change your mind and want to use the ignored
plug-ins again, repeat the steps above but remove the
folder names from the text field.
In this list you can exclude individual plug-ins
from being loaded by adding them to the list.
Common VST instrument plug-ins (which cannot be used in WaveLab Studio) are already
added to the list.
Excluding all plug-ins
If you wish, you can temporarily exclude all plug-ins so that
none will be available in WaveLab Studio:
Faster graphics refresh- This can be useful for plug-ins that display e.g.
ing (consumes more
meters. If changed, this option takes effect after
computer power)
closing and reopening the VST plug-in window(s).
• Press and hold [Ctrl]+[Shift] when launching WaveLab
Studio.
Force plugin detection at Clicking this button lets WaveLab Studio renext launch
scan and build a new list of all plug-ins next time
it is launched.
This will disable the Master Section and prevent all plug-ins from being
loaded. This can be useful for troubleshooting purposes – i.e. to determine whether the loading of one or more plug-ins is causing problems.
Note the following:
• If you wish to have access to the plug-ins again, activate
the Master Section.
• If VST plug-ins you want to exclude reside in one or several
subfolders inside a main folder, you don’t have to list all the
subfolders. Excluding the main folder will also automatically
exclude its subfolders.
• It’s not necessary to type in the entire path to a folder you
want to exclude (e.g. C:\plug-ins\reverb). Typing just reverb
will suffice, since WaveLab Studio will look through the folders and subfolders on your C disk or partition upon startup,
searching for the folder named reverb, and exclude it.
• On the other hand, if you have a main folder containing two or
more subfolders and you only want to exclude the plug-ins in
one of the folders and you also have another folder or subfolder with the same name as the one you want to exclude, you
will need to type the path to the subfolder you want to exclude
(e.g. C:\plug-ins\delay).
In this case, the subfolder “Delay” in the folder “Old effects” will be excluded, but the subfolder “Delay” in the folder “New effects” will be included.
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Customizing
26
Plug-in processor reference
About WaveLab Studio plug-ins
Chorus
These plug-ins use WaveLab Studio’s own plug-in format,
and cannot be used with other applications. Note:
The Chorus plug-in (only available in the Master Section)
is a classic stereo chorus based on a sweeping delay,
with the following parameters:
Ö As a rule, WaveLab Studio specific plug-ins can only
be used in the Master Section (not as track or clip effects
in the Audio Montage).
Parameter
Description
Delay (0.1~60ms)
Use this parameter to specify the basic time delay
for the chorused signal with respect to the “dry”
signal. The higher the value, the more prominent the
effect. Low settings (up to 7ms) create flanger-like
effects. Settings up to 25ms are for classic chorus
while settings above this value are mainly for special effects.
Width (0~100%)
Use this parameter to specify how much the delay
time is allowed to vary with the modulation. It is this
variation in delay time that causes the sweeping effect. Note that the value 0% should probably be
avoided since it might create the impression that
you are experiencing phase problems.
This also allows you to specify which plug-ins should be available in the
Dithering Pane (post-master fader).
Frequency
(0.01~25Hz)
Ö Presets for WaveLab Studio plug-ins are handled like
other presets in WaveLab Studio (processing functions,
etc.).
The Frequency parameter sets the speed of the
sweep (the modulation). The higher the value, the
faster the modulation. You will probably not use values above 7Hz except for special effects.
Feedback
(0~100%)
This parameter specifies how much of the output
from the effect is fed back to the input (the feedback signal is also phase inverted). The higher the
value, the more prominent the effect. At short delay
times, this creates a flanger-like effect. At larger
settings it creates more of a slapback repetition
type of sound.
However, some WaveLab Studio effects are also included as VST plugins, available as track or clip effects in Audio Montages. This is indicated
for each effect below.
Ö WaveLab Studio specific plug-ins can also be used in
the batch processor.
Ö You can specify which plug-ins should be available in
the Master Section by using the Organize Master Section
Plug-ins function on the Options menu.
Auto Panner
The Auto Panner (only available in the Master Section)
pans the signals continuously between the left and right
channel in the stereo image. It has the following parameters:
Parameter
Description
LFO Freq
(0.1Hz~50Hz)
This parameter sets the speed of the panning. The
higher the value, the faster the signal moves around
in the stereo image.
Width (0~100%)
Use this parameter to specify the “width” of the pan
movements. The value 100% causes the signal to
move from the extreme left to the extreme right,
while 0% disables the panning effect.
Waveform
(Sine, Pulse)
Allows you to specify the way in which the signal
moves from left to right. Select Sine if you prefer
fluid movements, or Pulse to create abrupt panning
“jumps”.
Out Left, Out Right
(-96dB~6dB)
These two parameters allow you to adjust the level
of the left or right channel, useful e.g. for correcting
the stereo image or adjusting the overall gain. The
setting 0dB means no change of level, while -96dB
means turning the channel off completely.
Fb Balance (0~100%)Use this parameter to set the volume of the Feedback signal (see above) in the mix. If this is set to
100%, and combined with a Feedback setting between 65% and 100%, the effect goes into self-oscillation.
Glimmer 1,
The two Glimmer parameters allow you to specify
Glimmer 2 (0~100%) to what extent the Chorus signal should move
around in the stereo image. They work in more or
less the same way as the Auto Panner but only apply to the Chorus signals. Glimmer 1 processes the
right channel signal, while Glimmer 2 processes a
combination of the left and right channels (the actual left channel always remains at 0).
Stereo Spread
(0~100%)
This parameter specifies the width the Chorus effect will occupy in the stereo sound image. The
value 0% creates a mono impression, and since left
and right channel signals are then mixed together,
the Chorus becomes louder.
Mix (0~100%)
Use this parameter to specify the balance in level
between the dry and the delayed signal. The value
0% means that only the dry signal will be heard,
while 100% actually means a 50/50 mix between
dry and effect signal.
Output Lev
(-48dB~0dB)
This is an attenuator that allows you to reduce the
output level of the Chorus effect, avoiding clipping
and hence distortion. If the Clip indicator lights up
continuously, lower this value.
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Plug-in processor reference
Crystal Resampler
This is a three-band equalizer with high and low shelving
filters and a full parametric mid-frequency band. You can
turn off each band separately by clicking the corresponding button, making it easy to compare the signal with and
without EQ. The following parameters are available:
The Crystal Resampler plug-in (only available in the Master Section) is a professional sample rate converter providing exceptional transparency and preservation of the
frequency content:
Parameter
Sample Rate
(6 - 192 kHz)
Description
This defines the output sample rate while the input
sample rate is determined by the sample rate of the
active audio file or Audio Montage.
Quality (Preview (fast), This defines the quality of the algorithm which is
Standard, High)
used. In Preview mode the CPU load is much lower
than in High mode, but as a trade off the sonic
quality of the resulting audio is also lower.
Echo
The Echo plug-in (only available in the Master Section) is
a stereo echo effect with two separate delay lines. It has
the following parameters:
Parameter
Description
Delay 1
(0.5~1000ms)
This sets the delay time of Delay 1, with respect to
the incoming signal. Please note that the minimum
value (0.5ms) creates an out-of-phase impression.
Feedback 1
(0~100%)
This sets the amount of delayed signal fed back
into the Delay 1 block, to create repetitions. The
value 100% means that the echo signal is repeated
indefinitely, while 0% means there is only one repetition.
Link 1-2
(Off, Linked)
Select Off if you wish to use Delay 1 and Delay 2 as
two independent blocks. Select Linked if the output
of Delay 1 is to be connected to the Input of Delay
2.
This sets the stereo width of Delay 1 and Delay 2.
When set to 100%, Delay 1 is assigned to the left
channel, while Delay 2 is assigned to the right
channel. The value 0% means that both Delay
blocks are spread across the stereo field.
Vol Left, Vol Right
(-96dB~0dB)
Use these parameters to correct volume imbalances brought about by the Delay effects. These
parameters only apply to the Echo effect, the dry
signal is not affected by these settings.
Description
High Gain
Determines the boost or cut (in dB) of the high
shelving filter.
High Frequency
Sets the frequency of the high shelving filter. Frequencies above this value will gradually be increased or reduced in level, according to the High
Gain setting.
Mid Gain
Determines the boost or cut (in dB) of the mid band
EQ.
Mid Frequency
Sets the center frequency of the mid band eq. Frequencies around this value will be affected by the
Mid Gain.
Mid Q
Use this parameter to set the width of the Mid
band, e.g. how wide a frequency range around the
Mid Frequency should be affected by the mid band
EQ. The higher this value, the “narrower” the mid
band.
Low Gain
Determines the boost or cut (in dB) of the low
shelving filter.
Low Frequency
Sets the frequency of the low shelving filter. Frequencies below this value will gradually be increased or reduced in level, according to the Low
Gain setting.
Ö WaveLab Studio also includes the “Q” equalizer plugin, which offers two full-parametric EQ bands and additional features.
As always, which equalizer to choose depends on your needs in the
given situation.
Delay 2, Feedback 2 See Delay 1 (0.5~1000ms) and Feedback 1
(0~100%) above. These parameters are identical
to these but apply to the second Delay block.
Del. Balance
(0~100%)
Parameter
Leveler
This plug-in is available both as a VST and a WaveLab
Studio plug-in. It can be used as a clip or track effect in
the Audio Montage, or as a global effect in the Master
Section.
This “effect” simply reduces or boosts the signal level.
This is useful for matching levels between effects. You
may want to patch in the Leveler after an equalizer plug-in,
for example. The parameters consist of volume settings for
the left and right channels, and a Stereo Link setting
(when activated, the Volume Left parameters control the
level of both channels). Finally, a Mix to mono setting allows you to mix an incoming stereo signal to mono (much
like the Mono button in the Master Section).
EQ-1
EQ-1 is available both as a VST and a WaveLab Studio
plug-in. It can be used as a clip or track effect in the Audio
Montage, or as a global effect in the Master Section.
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Plug-in processor reference
Noise Gate
Parameter
Description
This plug-in is available both as a VST and a WaveLab
Studio plug-in. It can be used as a clip or track effect in
the Audio Montage, or as a global effect in the Master
Section.
Out Ceiling
(-18~0dB)
This setting determines the maximum level at the
Peak Master outputs.
Softness (-5~5)
This parameter affects the way the Peak Master operates. A high setting will maximize the perceived
loudness effect but can in some cases result in a
slight harshness of the sound. Adjust this parameter to optimize the balance between sound quality
and the desired effect.
The Noise Gate plug-in mutes any signal that falls below a
specified threshold level. This can be useful for removing
unwanted residual noise from audio material without having to manually clean up or mute soundfiles. Other applications include gating reverb “tails” and tightening
percussion tracks.
Parameter
Description
Threshold
(-144~-12dB)
This setting determines at what level the Noise
Gate is activated. Any signal or portion of a signal
that falls below the chosen threshold will be muted.
Puncher
This plug-in is available both as a VST and a WaveLab
Studio plug-in. It can be used as a clip or track effect in
the Audio Montage, or as a global effect in the Master
Section.
The Puncher plug-in generates additional harmonics
which are added to the audio material. The result is a more
dynamic, and “punchier” sound, particularly when applied
to drums and percussive material. Compared to the Peak
Master the Puncher plug-in could be described as operating in almost the opposite way. Puncher leaves quieter
parts untouched but will add power to the louder portions
without causing clipping. The plug-in is optimized for peak
signal levels between 10 and 0dB, the closer to 0dB, the
better.
Rel Time (1~5000ms) Determines how long the gate stays open after a
signal below the Threshold level has been detected.
Rel Sens (1~100)
This setting is used to prevent the gate from being
triggered on/off inadvertently when the signal is
close to the threshold level.
Attack Sens (1~100) Determines the time it takes for the gate to open. A
low setting provides a fast transient response but a
high setting will soften or mute the early portion of
the sound which is triggering the gate.
Parameter
Peak Master
Density (Soft, Medium, The difference between these 3 settings lies in the
Hard)
number of added harmonics. The setting you use
depends on the audio material.
This plug-in is available both as a VST and a WaveLab
Studio plug-in. It can be used as a clip effect in the Audio
Montage, or as a global effect in the Master Section. This
plug-in provides a safe and transparent way of boosting
the perceived loudness of audio material. By limiting transients and simultaneously raising the general level by
compression, the Peak Master will increase the subjective
loudness of the signal without risk of distortion inducing
peaks.
Parameter
Description
Input Gain
(-12~+24dB)
This allows you to adjust the input level to Peak
Master. Use this to (typically) raise the loudness of
the signal. Use extreme boost settings with caution
as they can induce distortion.
Description
Effect (0~100%)
This adjusts the balance between the processed
and the dry signal.
Input Gain
(-12~24dB)
This sets the input level. Boosting the signal may
cause clipping, so use this with caution. With no
boost, Puncher will never cause clipping.
Resizer
The Resizer plug-in (only available in the Batch Processor)
is a simple but useful plug-in allowing you to specify a set
length for all files in the batch.
Simply set a desired Duration time using the slider.
If “Add silence” is on, silence will be added to all files
shorter than the set Duration time to make them the exact
length specified.
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Plug-in processor reference
Ö It’s also possible to exclude VST plug-ins completely
from WaveLab Studio, thereby removing them from the
clip and track effects lists as well.
StereoExpander
The StereoExpander plug-in (only available in the Master
Section) narrows or enlarges the stereo width of an existing stereo signal. This is set by the single “Width” parameter.
Ö VST plug-ins have their own preset handling.
When you click the Preset button for this type of effect, a pop-up menu
appears, allowing you to save or load effect programs (presets) or complete banks containing several programs.
A value of 0% produces two equal output channels (the
original stereo image is lost). Values between 1 and 49%
correspond to a narrower stereo image. A value of 50%
corresponds to the original signal. Values between 51 and
100% enlarge the stereo image.
Autopan
The AutoPan plug-in pans the signals continuously between the left and right channel in the stereo image. It has
the following parameters:
Silence
The Silence plug-in (only available in the Master Section)
lets you add silent portions at the start and/or end of a file.
This can be useful for example in conjunction with effects
such as reverb and delay which produce audio “tails” – i.e.
the sound of the effect lingers after the end of the file –
since the sound of the effect would otherwise be muted at
the end of the file. To remedy this, just place the Silence
plug-in before the other plug-in in the Master Section and
specify the length of the silent portion as necessary, so
that the sound of the effect is allowed to decay naturally.
The Silence plug-in only has two parameters which let you
define the length of the silent portions at the start and end
of the file.
Parameter
Description
LFO Freq
(0.1Hz~10Hz)
This parameter sets the speed of the pan movements. The higher the value, the faster the processed signal moves around in the stereo image.
Width (0~100%)
Use this parameter to specify the “width” of the pan
movements. Setting this to its maximum value
causes the signal to move from the extreme left to
the extreme right, while lowering it completely disables the panning effect.
Waveform
Determines the shape of the panning curve. Available curve shapes are Sine, Triangle, Sawtooth,
and Pulse.
Out Levl
The stereo output level of the effect.
Choirus2
Choirus2 is a chorus effect, used for making the sound
“warmer”, etc. It has the following parameters:
VST Plug-ins
About VST Plug-ins
Parameter
Description
Time
Use this parameter to specify the basic time delay
for the chorused signal with respect to the “dry”
signal. The higher the value, the more prominent the
effect. Low settings create flanger-like effects, medium settings provides classic chorus while higher
settings are mainly for special effects.
Width
Use this parameter to specify how much the delay
time is allowed to vary with the modulation. It is this
variation in delay time that causes the sweeping effect. Note that the value 0% should probably be
avoided since it might create the impression that
you are experiencing phase problems.
Lfo Freq
The Frequency parameter sets the speed of the
sweep (the modulation). The higher the value, the
faster the modulation. You will probably not use
higher values (above 7Hz) except for special effects.
These plug-ins use Steinberg’s widely adapted VST plugin format. As a rule, VST plug-ins can be used by any VSTcompatible application, although some plug-ins may still
be limited to use with certain programs. Note:
Ö VST Plug-ins can be used in the Master Section or as
track or clip effects in the Audio Montage.
The only exception to this is the “Ducker” effect, which can only be used
as a clip effect.
Ö As with WaveLab Studio plug-ins, you can specify
which VST plug-ins should be available in the Master Section by using the Organize Master Section Plug-ins function on the Options menu.
This also allows you to specify which plug-ins should be available in the
Dithering Pane (post-master fader).
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Plug-in processor reference
Parameter
Description
Feedback
This parameter specifies how much of the output
from the effect is fed back to the input (the feedback signal is also phase inverted). The higher the
value, the more prominent the effect. At short delay
times, this creates a flanger-like effect. At larger
settings it creates more of a slapback repetition
type of sound.
Feed Bal
Ö Note that the DeClicker module is not optimized for
crackles (a series of short clicks).
However, as it is often hard to distinguish between clicks and crackles,
you might also be able to use it to improve your recording in this respect.
Ö If the recording also contains background noise (hiss),
you may want to combine DeClicker with the DeNoiser
plug-in.
Use this parameter to set the volume of the Feedback signal (see above) in the mix. If this is set to
100%, and combined with a Feedback setting between 65% and 100%, the effect goes into self-oscillation.
Glimmer 1,
Glimmer 2
The two Glimmer parameters allow you to specify
to what extent the Chorus signal should move
around in the stereo image. They work in more or
less the same way as the Auto Panner but only apply to the Chorus signals. Glimmer 1 processes the
right channel signal, while Glimmer 2 processes a
combination of the left and right channels (the actual left channel always remains at 0).
Out Levl
The stereo output level of the effect.
How DeClicker works
The Declicker process is divided into two steps:
• Analysis – when the audio signal passes through DeClicker, the selected analysis algorithm finds the clicks in
the recording. You provide input to the analysis parameters by selecting a Mode and the Threshold and DePlop
parameters.
• Removal – a de-click algorithm is applied to the audio,
removing the clicks.
In many cases, the original audio material “hidden” underneath a click
cannot be restored. This means there will be a gap once the click has
been removed. DeClicker has the ability to automatically “redraw” the
hence missing parts of the waveform. This feature can also be used to
remove tape dropouts with a length of up to 60 samples (just above one
millisecond at 44.1kHz).
CleanComp
CleanComp is a simple compressor that allows you to
limit loud sounds, while at the same time boosting the
overall loudness of the audio material.
Parameter
Description
Ceiling (0dB~-24)
This setting determines the maximum level at the
CleanComp outputs.
Softness (-5~5)
This parameter affects the way CleanComp operates. A high setting will maximize the perceived
loudness effect but can in some cases result in a
slight harshness of the sound. Adjust this parameter to optimize the balance between sound quality
and the desired effect.
The whole Declicking process can be visually monitored in
the Input and Output displays of the DeClicker window
(showing the incoming audio and the processed - DeClicked - audio, respectively). This helps you to adjust the
parameters. Furthermore, if you activate the Audition button, only the removed material will be heard (and shown in
the Output display).
Out Gain (0~+24dB) This allows you to adjust the output level from
CleanComp. Use this to (typically) raise the loudness of the signal. Use extreme boost settings with
caution as they can induce distortion.
!
Make sure that no low-pass filter has been applied to
your audio material before you edit it with DeClicker.
This may affect the detection of clicks.
Parameters
DeClicker
The DeClicker plug-in is specifically designed to eliminate
single “clicks” or “pops” in a recording. One typical application is to clean up recordings made from vinyl records,
but you may also find it useful for removing pops from microphone switches, oxidized connector noises, clicks from
sync problems when transferring material digitally, etc.
Parameter
Description
Audition button
When this is activated, only the removed material
will be heard. The Output display will also show the
waveform image of the removed material in this
mode.
Classic
When this is activated, the DeClicker attempts to
remove both audible clicks and crackle noise.
When it’s deactivated, only single clicks will be removed while crackles (rapidly repeated clicks) are
ignored. Which mode to choose depends on the
source material. Note also that Classic mode requires less CPU power.
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Plug-in processor reference
Parameter
Description
DeNoiser
Threshold
This setting determines the amplitude (level) required for a click to be detected. In many cases,
DeClicker’s sensitive algorithms identify a lot more
clicks than you can actually hear. To avoid wasting
processing power to remove inaudible clicks, raise
this parameter to a high value, and then lower it until all the artefacts that you actually want removed
are detected. The lower the setting, the more clicks
will be detected but also the higher the risk of audible artefacts. If in doubt, activate Audition mode
and check that the removed material doesn’t contain any actual musical or rhythmical information,
etc.
The DeNoiser plug-in lets you suppress noise without affecting the general sound quality. Or, in tech talk, the DeNoiser removes broad band noise from arbitrary audio
material without leaving any “spectral finger print”. The algorithm that this plug-in is based on has the ability to track
and adjust itself to variations in background noise. This
means the noise can be diminished without side effects,
preserving the spatial impression, and without letting the
result become “colorless”. Many years of research were
invested in developing the methods used.
DePlop
This setting controls a special highpass filter which
works on signals below 150 Hz. It cuts away the
“plop noise” which sometimes appears after eliminating a click. The slider adjusts the filter frequency
(off - 150 Hz).
Note: This function is best applied to older recordings, which often use a narrow frequency range. Be
careful when applying this function to modern recordings, as you may risk removing parts of the
useful signal!
Quality
Mode
Bypass
Typical applications for the DeNoiser include cleaning or
remastering recordings from old tape or vinyl, or noisy live
recordings.
How DeNoiser works
DeNoiser is based on spectral subtraction. Each section
of the frequency spectrum that has an amplitude below
the estimated noise floor, is reduced in intensity by use of
a spectral expander. The result is a noise reduction that
does not affect the phase of the signal.
This determines the quality of the click removal and
audio restoration, with “4” being the best quality
setting. Please note that selecting higher quality
settings also means that more processing power is
consumed.
Also, note that in some situations it might be more
productive to use a lower Quality value. One example of this is when two clicks follow each other in
quick succession or when you tackle a click in a
low level part that is followed by a loud part.
The figure below shows the signal flow:
Noise Reduction
Level
Which Mode to select depends on the source material. Standard mode is suitable for a wide variety
of source material - try this option first. Vintage
mode is suitable for restoring “antique” recordings
(with limited high frequency content), while Modern
mode is best suited for contemporary recordings
with a wide frequency range (putting greater emphasis on distinguishing clicks from other strong
impulses in the audio material).
Noise Floor
This will bypass the effect, allowing you to compare
the DeClicked and unprocessed material.
Input
Ambient
Analysis
Ambience
Transient
Analysis
Noise
Reduction
Output
Tips and Tricks
The solid line represents the actual audio signal, while the dotted lines
represent control signals
• By combining Vintage Mode and extreme Threshold and DePlop settings, you can create an interesting effect which “softens” material with particularly sharp attacks, e.g. percussion or
brass.
• If you have material with digital distortion (clipping), try applying DeClicker. While it can’t do miracles, it can at least make
some improvement to the overall “hardness” introduced by the
distortion.
The signal is continuously analyzed by the first module in
the chain, to estimate the noise floor at any given time.
This is sufficient when the noise level is constant or modulates slowly. When the noise level varies rapidly, the Ambience and Transient analyses help adjust the response of
the noise reduction unit, allowing transient-rich material to
maintain its liveliness and natural ambience.
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Plug-in processor reference
Ö When you process audio in DeNoiser, the plug-in will
need a short time (less than a second) to analyze the material and set its internal parameters.
Parameter
Description
Ambience
This parameter is used to specify a balance
between the noise suppression and the amount of
natural ambience, which is essential for a natural
result. With a low Ambience setting, the sound can
become somewhat lifeless and sterile. A high setting, on the other hand, preserves more of the ambient character of the sound, but the noise
suppression is less effective.
Offset
This parameter serves as a threshold, governing the
overall level at which the noise reduction is performed. For optimal noise reduction with a minimum
of sound coloration, this parameter should be set to
a value slightly above the noise floor level. To help
you do this, the offset value is shown as a light
green line in the noisefloor display, while the noise
floor is shown as a yellow line.
Since you would not want to include this short “startup sequence” in the
final result, you should make it a habit to first play back a short section of
the audio, thereby letting DeNoiser “learn” the noisefloor, and then stop
and start over again from the beginning. The plug-in then remembers the
settings internally.
The Noisefloor Display
The display to the left in the DeNoiser window is crucial
when making settings. It contains the following three elements:
• The dark green spectral graph.
This shows the spectrum of the audio currently being played back. The
horizontal axis shows the frequency (linear scale). The low frequencies
are visible on the left side, the high ones on the right side. The vertical
axis shows the signal amplitudes, thus the level (displayed as a logarithmic dB scale).
A/B/Store
These are described below this table.
Classic
When this is activated, a less CPU-intensive version of the DeNoiser algorithm is used. Use Classic
mode if you are short on processing power. However, for optimum noise suppression, we recommend that you deactivate Classic mode.
• The yellow line.
Bypass
When this is activated, the signal passes through
the plug-in but you don’t hear the results of the processing. Use this to compare the sound with and
without processing. Note: the analysis is always
performed, regardless of the Bypass switch. This
allows you to monitor the noise floor, spectrum and
level in the spectrum display.
This is a spectral estimation of the noise floor. The average of this value is
shown numerically below the display.
• The light green line.
This is simply a graphic representation of the Offset parameter.
The light green Offset line should be adjusted so that it
appears as close above the yellow noise floor graph as
possible. The dark green spectrum plot is there to help
you fine-tune the Offset setting, so that only the noise is
removed, not parts of the signal (ideally, the light green
line should be between the yellow line and the spectrum
plot).
Using the A/B setups
With the A/B buttons you can make instantaneous
switches between two different DeNoiser setups, allowing
you to quickly try out and compare different configurations. You can also use this feature for separate settings
for two different sections of an audio recording. Proceed
as follows:
Parameters
Parameter
Description
1. Make the settings you want for setup A.
Freeze
If you activate this button, you “freeze” the noise
floor detection process. The yellow noise floor
graph in the display will hold its current value (as
will the numeric noise floor value display below) until you deactivate Freeze. This allows you to take a
closer look at the readings.
2. Click on [Store] and then on the [A] button.
Reduction
3. Make the settings you want for setup B.
4. Click on [Store] and then on the [B] button.
Now the two setups are stored, and you can switch between them simply by clicking [A] or [B].
Governs the amount of noise reduction. The display
below this fader shows the amount of dB by which
the noise level is being reduced. The final result
also depends on the Ambience parameter, and on
the automatic Ambience and Transient analysis of
the original material, as described above.
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Plug-in processor reference
Ducker
MultiBand Compressor
This is a special VST plug-in that can only be used as a
Montage clip effect.
This is a high-quality multi-band compressor, especially
suited for professional mastering. It will split the signal into
up to five frequency bands, and process each band with
its own freely adjustable compressor characteristic.
It uses the “Route to Upper Track” feature which can be
found on the Track menu. The Ducker is a plug-in that can
control (modulate) the volume of clips placed on a track
with the signal of one or more clips placed on the next adjacent track below it. Let's say you have a clip containing
music, and you want to add a voice-over to that clip. First
place the music clip on track 1 and assign the ducker
plug-in to this clip. Then place the voice-over clip(s) on
track 2. On the Track menu (for track 2), select the “Route
to Master Section and Upper Track” item. Now the signal
of track 2 will be sent to the Master Section as usual, but
also to the Ducker plug-in on track 1. The clip volume on
track 1 will now be automatically lowered by the Ducker
whenever there is a signal (in this example the voiceovers) on track 2, and raised again when the signal stops.
Note that it is possible to use mono or stereo tracks for
both the modulating and the upper track.
Parameter
Description
Threshold
This sets the loudness threshold that will trigger the
Ducker. Clips on the modulator track with levels
above the threshold will cause the level of a clip on
the upper track to be lowered.
Damping
This sets the amount of level reduction that is applied to the clip on the upper track.
Fall Time
This sets the time it takes for the level to change
from 0dB to the set damping level.
Hold Time
When the modulating signal falls below the set
threshold, this setting determines how long the
level will stay reduced before it starts rising to normal level again.
Rise Time
Controls how long it takes for the reduced level to
rise to normal level when the modulating signal falls
below the set threshold (after the Hold time).
Mix Mode
If this is activated, the Ducker will output a mix of
the two tracks. This is only useful if the “Route to
Upper Track only” mode has been selected for the
modulating track. Then this feature can be used for
processing several clips through the same plug-in
chain, if more plug-ins have been assigned after the
Ducker on the upper track. Note that the mixed output is controlled by the upper track. If this is not
playing a clip, both of the tracks will be silent.
The MultiBand Compressor window is divided into two
main sections: the Frequency Band editor and the Characteristic display. You can specify the level, bandwidth
and compressor characteristics for each band by using
the various controls.
The Frequency Band editor
The Frequency Band editor is where you set the width of
the frequency bands as well as their level before compression. The horizontal value scale below the Frequency band
display indicates the frequency with the maximum value
corresponding to half the current sample rate. The vertical
value scale indicates the level setting (in dB) of each frequency band.
• You can drag the diamond-shaped handles at the bottom to adjust the frequency range occupied by each band.
To add a new band (up to the maximum of five bands), drag the leftmost
or rightmost frequency handle towards the middle of the display. Similarly, to remove the lowest or highest frequency band, drag its upper or
lower frequency handle, respectively, to the very edge of the display.
If you hold down the [Shift] key and click on a frequency handle, all bands
will be set to the same bandwidth (in octaves). The exact bandwidth depends on the number of bands currently used.
• By dragging the diamond-shaped handles on top of
each frequency band you can cut or boost the input gain
by +/- 12dB before compression.
To reset a Level handle to 0 dB, hold down the [Shift] key on your computer keyboard and click on the handle.
For both types of handles, you can hold down [Ctrl] and
drag to change the values in smaller steps.
The Characteristic display
By adding breakpoints and drawing curves you set the
compressor characteristic. Before you start using the
Characteristic display, you have to select the frequency
band you want to process. This is done in the Frequency
Band editor by clicking in the area inside the frequency
band.
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Plug-in processor reference
NaturalVerb
A selected band is highlighted for editing both in the Frequency Band editor and the Characteristic display. If you
select another frequency band, the previously edited characteristic is still shown in the Characteristic display, but it
is no longer highlighted, and is editable only when you select it again.
NaturalVerb is a high-quality reverb that adds ambience,
or room-quality, to the sound. In addition to the standard
size and decay parameters, NaturalVerb also features lowand high-pass filters, plus a gate for gated reverb effects.
To change the parameters, either drag the sliders up and
down, or click in a slider area to set the slider. If you hold
down [Shift], you can change the parameters with a higher
degree of precision. If you hold down [Ctrl] and click in a
slider area, the slider is reset to its default value.
To edit the compression curve for the selected frequency
band, you add and adjust breakpoints in the Characteristic display.
• Clicking anywhere on the line will add a breakpoint.
• To remove a breakpoint, hold down [Shift] and click on it.
• The first breakpoint at which the line deviates from the straight
diagonal will be the threshold point.
• Creating a curve in the area below the diagonal input/output
line will cause compression. Compression decreases the output level in relation to the input level.
• Creating a curve in the area above the diagonal input/output
line will cause expansion. Expansion increases the output level
in relation to the input level.
If you click on the logo a diagram of the signal-chain is
shown. The following parameters are available:
Parameter
Description
Pre-Delay
This governs the start time of the first “early reflection”, i.e. how the sound is “bounced” off the walls
in the simulated room environment. The value range
is 0-100 milliseconds. The lower the value, the
sooner the early reflection is heard.
HPF
This is a high-pass filter that only affects the reverb
signal into the NaturalVerb, not the original audio
signal. A high-pass filter lets high-frequency signals
through while cutting off low-frequency signals.
The slider allows you to set the frequency for the filter, and only sounds above the set frequency will
be heard.
LPF
This is a low-pass filter that only affects the reverb
signal into the NaturalVerb, not the original audio
signal. A low-pass filter lets low-frequency signals
through while cutting off high-frequency signals.
The slider allows you to set the frequency for the filter, and only sounds below the set frequency will
be heard.
Room Size
This regulates the size of the simulated room, and
thereby the spaciousness of the reverb. The value
range is 1-30, and the higher the value you specify,
the bigger the room.
Decay
This lets you specify the length of the reverberation.
The value range goes from 26 milliseconds to
11.63 seconds.
Damping
Damping can be used for attenuating the high frequencies of the reverb, thereby creating a softer,
warmer sound. The higher the value, the more the
high frequencies will be attenuated.
Stereo Mix
This parameter is used for balancing the reverb signal between the left and right channel inputs to the
NaturalVerb. The value range is 0-100%. A setting
of 0 means that the reverb signals for both channels are completely independent of each other (default), while a setting of 100 means that the reverb
signals for both channels are equally mixed with
each other (50/50). In between these, settings from
1-99% mean that each channel signal will contain
that percentage of the other channel’s signal.
Additional parameters
Parameter
Description
Solo switch
This switch is located above the Frequency bands
editor window. You can use it to separately monitor
each of the frequency bands. This function is useful
both when editing bandwidth settings and compressor characteristics. To select another band
while solo is active, click somewhere in the (dark)
area of the frequency band that you wish to monitor.
Compressor Type
Output
Soft Clip
Classic mode works like a standard compressor
with fixed attack and release parameters. Complex
mode features a new compression approach with a
program adaptive circuit. The program adaptive
compression automatically optimizes parameters
according to the audio material.
The Output dial controls the total output level that
the MultiCompressor passes on to WaveLab Studio. The range available is +/- 12 dB. If the Soft
Clip function (see below) is active, the Output dial
instead controls the amount of soft clipping.
The Soft Clip function is positioned at the very last
stage of the internal signal path, right after the Output dial. When active, it will ensure that the total
output to WaveLab Studio never exceeds 0 dB. It
works by clipping the signal gently, generating harmonics which add a warm, tube-like characteristic
to the signal.
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Plug-in processor reference
2. Set the parameters for an activated EQ band.
Parameter
Description
Wet/Dry
This regulates the balance between the effect
sound (wet) and the original, unprocessed audio
signal (dry). If the slider is in the middle position
(default), the output will be balanced equally. With
higher values, the original signal will be more pronounced, and with lower values, the effect sound
will be more dominant.
Gate button
Clicking this button turns the Gate section on and
off. Gating cuts off signals below a certain set
threshold level. That is, the Gate only opens to let
signals above the set threshold through. Note that
the three sliders directly above this button (Sensitivity, Threshold and Fade-Out) control the Gate effect, and therefore have no functionality when this
button is in the Off position. Also note that the Gate
only affects the reverb, not the original audio signal.
Sensitivity
This parameter determines how fast the Gate will
open to let a trigger signal pass. The value range is
1-100 milliseconds. In order for this to have any effect, the Gate button must be in the On position.
This can be done in several ways:
• By using the knobs.
• By clicking a value field and entering values numerically.
• By using the mouse to drag points in the EQ curve display window.
By using this method, you control both the Gain and Frequency parameters simultaneously. The knobs turn accordingly when you drag points. In
addition, if the Mid 1 and Mid 2 bands (M1 and M2) are activated there
will be two points on each side of the Gain/Frequency point that control
the width (Q) parameter.
If you press [Shift] while dragging, values can be set in finer increments.
Parameters
Parameter
Description
Low Freq
(20-2000Hz)
This sets the frequency of the Low band.
Low Gain (+/-20dB)
This sets the amount of cut/boost for the Low
band.
Low Cut
If this button is activated for the Low band, it will
act as a Low Cut filter. The Gain parameter will
be fixed.
Mid 1 Freq
(20-20000Hz)
This sets the center frequency of the Mid 1 band.
Mid 1 Gain
(+/- 20dB)
This sets the amount of cut/boost for the Mid 1
band.
Mid 1 Width
(0.05-5.00 Octaves)
This sets the width of the Mid 1 band, in octaves.
The lower this value, the “narrower” the bandwidth.
Q
Mid 2 Freq
(20-20000Hz)
This sets the center frequency of the Mid 2 band.
Q is a high-quality 4-band parametric stereo equalizer
with two fully parametric midrange bands. The low and
high bands can act as either standard shelving filters or
fixed-gain high/low-cut filters.
Mid 2 Gain
(+/- 20dB)
This sets the amount of cut/boost for the Mid 2
band.
Mid 2 Width
(0.05-5.00 Octaves)
This sets the width of the Mid 2 band, in octaves.
The lower this value, the “narrower” the bandwidth.
Making settings
High Freq
(200-20000Hz)
This sets the frequency of the High band.
High Gain (+/-20dB)
This sets the amount of cut/boost for the High
band.
High Cut
If this button is activated for the High band, it will
act as a High Cut filter. The Gain parameter will
be fixed.
Threshold
Fade-Out
This is used for setting the reference signal level (in
dB) for the Gate. Signal levels above the set
threshold open the Gate and pass through, but signal levels below the set threshold close the Gate
and are cut off. In order for this to have any effect,
the Gate button must be in the On position.
This parameter determines how long it should take
for the Gate to close again after being triggered to
let a signal through. The value range is 0-200 milliseconds. With higher values, more signal “residue”
will be allowed to pass through the Gate before it
closes, thereby producing a smoother cut-off. In order for this to have any effect, the Gate button must
be in the On position.
1. Click the corresponding On button below the EQ
curve display to activate any or all of the Low, Mid 1, Mid 2
or High equalizer bands.
When a band is activated, a corresponding EQ point appears in the EQ
curve display.
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Plug-in processor reference
Parameter
Description
Output (+/- 20dB)
This parameter allows you to adjust the overall
output level.
Ö Please note the relation between the Frequency parameter and the harmonics generated.
If the Frequency parameter for example is set to 4000, the 2nd harmonic
generator will only create frequencies from 8000Hz upwards and the 3rd
harmonic generator will add frequencies starting at 12000Hz.
Left/Stereo/Right/Mono For stereo signals you can set independent
Modes
curves for the left and right channels by clicking
the corresponding button. If the Stereo mode is
activated, the curve will be applied to both channels.
When channel independent curves have been
set, the left/right channel curves will be colored
green and red, respectively. The currently nonselected channel is shown with a dotted curve. If
you activate Stereo mode after independent
curves have been set, the currently active curve
will be applied to both channels.
Mono mode is automatically activated for mono
signals and is otherwise unavailable.
Another part of this process is giving the added harmonics
appropriate amplitude curves. The amplitude of the harmonics is based on the amplitude of the existing material,
but you can control it to some extent using the Density
and Kick parameters, see “Parameters” below.
The amplitude of the added harmonics is usually very low.
The difference Spectralizer makes is sometimes only apparent on a psycho-acoustical level. To hear what is actually added to the signal, use the Solo button.
Spectralizer
Parameters
The Spectralizer is a type of audio “enhancer” or “exciter”.
It can be put to many uses:
The parameters are as follows:
Parameter
Description
Solo
When this is activated, the output will only contain
the added Harmonics. The original unprocessed
signal will not be heard on the output.
This mode is used as a diagnostic tool to monitor
what the current settings actually add to the signal.
Kick
When this is activated, even more Harmonics will
be added when a transient (attack) occurs in the
signal.
Frequency
This adjusts the frequency of the high-pass filter
that appears just after the input. Signals with a frequency lower than this setting will not be affected
by the processing. In other words, there will be no
harmonics added to the frequencies that are too
low to pass through the filter.
Density
This controls the amplitude “envelope” of the
added harmonics. The higher the value, the more
prominent the effect.
Input
This adjusts the overall input to the processor. Use
this to both maximize the signal level and to make
sure that internal clipping does not occur. Use the
Meter and “Int. Clip” indicator to check the levels.
• The second harmonic is a signal at twice the frequency (one
octave) above the basic frequency (the fundamental).
• The 3rd harmonic is three times the fundamental (one octave
and a fifth above it).
Gain
This adjusts the level of the signal just before it
reaches the harmonic generators.
As you increase this, you will most probably have to
lower the Input setting to avoid clipping.
2nd
This sets the level of the 2nd harmonics in the mix.
The reasons for limiting the processor to these two frequencies are; firstly, higher harmonics are most often perceived as “too high”, and secondly, their amplitude
normally doesn’t follow that of the fundamental in a natural
way.
3rd
This sets the level of the 3rd harmonics in the mix.
Mix
The Mix parameter adjusts the balance between the
unprocessed signal and the added harmonics.
• To restore lost harmonics in a recording.
• To improve the clarity and transparency of a recording.
• To make a recording sound “warmer”.
How Spectralizer works
Most audio equipment introduces a slight low-pass filtering to the audio signal. This means you lose “high end” or
“clarity”. The lost high frequency components often have a
level close to the noise floor. This means that simply using
EQ to boost the high frequencies does not create the desired effect – the noise is amplified as much as the signal.
Spectralizer can actually re-synthesize lost harmonics
based on existing lower frequencies in the material. This
can create an acoustically more pleasing result than EQing.
Spectralizer basically works by generating 2nd and 3rd
harmonics or overtones.
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Plug-in processor reference
Parameter
Description
StereoExpander
Int. clip
When this lights up, the signal has exceeded the
maximum level that Spectralizer can handle. This
will lead to unpleasant distortion and should definitely be avoided. If this happens, please lower the
Input level and/or Gain.
Meter
This allows you to check your adjustments of the Input and Gain controls, so that the signal does not
change drastically in level when passing through
the Spectralizer.
The StereoExpander plug-in narrows or enlarges the stereo width of an existing stereo signal. There is only one
parameter, the horizontal stereo effect slider. Setting this
to a value of -100% produces two equal output channels
(the original stereo image is lost). Values between -99 and
-1 correspond to a narrower stereo image. A value of 0
corresponds to the original signal, while values between 1
and 100 enlarge the stereo image.
Stereo Echo
Tools One
The Stereo Echo is a delay with separate settings for the
left and right channel. It can also be used as a single mono
delay, in which case the maximum delay time will be doubled.
Tools One is an extremely useful “effect” for various applications.
The level faders allow you to adjust the level of the left and
right channel respectively. You can [Shift]-drag to make
detailed settings. [Ctrl]-clicking a fader resets it to 0 dB
(no level adjustment). Normally, adjusting one fader automatically moves the other as well, but you can make separate adjustments for the channels by pressing [Alt] and
dragging.
The Stereo Echo has the following parameters:
Parameter
Description
Delay 1
The delay time for the left channel. The maximum
delay time is 1486 ms, unless you link both channels for mono operation, in which case the maximum delay time is 2972 ms - see below (1000ms
= 1 second).
Feedback 1
This sets the amount of delayed signal fed back
into the Delay 1 block, to create repetitions. Higher
values result in a higher number of echo repeats.
Link 1-2
(Off, Linked)
Select Off if you wish to use Delay 1 and Delay 2 as
two independent blocks. Select Linked if the output
of Delay 1 is to be connected to the Input of Delay
2.
Delay 2,
Feedback 2
These parameters are identical to these but apply
to the second Delay block.
Del2 Bal
This parameter determines how much of the left
channel output is sent to the right channel input.
When set to 0.0 (fully left), then none of the left
channel output is added to the right channel input;
when it is set to 1.0 (fully right), the right input receives both its normal source and the complete
output of the left channel.
Volume L
The output level of the left channel delay.
Volume R
The output level of the right channel delay.
The two Phase switches let you invert the phase of the left
or right channel (or both).
The Algorithm buttons let you adjust the stereo sound image. When none of the buttons are activated, the stereo
image will be preserved as is. MS process mode can be
used in one of two ways:
• To transform an incoming “regular” stereo signal so that it resembles a signal recorded according to the M-S (middle/side)
principle. This technique is often used in broadcasting to
record the direct signal source (usually a voice) using one microphone, and the ambience using a second microphone positioned at a 90° angle.
• To transform an incoming MS signal into a “regular” stereo
signal (to simulate an “XY” recording technique, where neither
microphone is placed directly in front of the signal source).
Channel Swap, finally, means that the left channel is assigned to the right side and the right channel to the left
side.
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Plug-in processor reference
Voice Attenuator
The following processors are available on the VST Dynamics panel (click an item in the list for more information
about the corresponding processor):
This plug-in can be used to remove lead vocals from a recording, to produce a “karaoke” effect. The principle concept is based on the fact that vocals are usually mixed to
center position in the stereo field, and that the human
voice occupies a limited area of the frequency spectrum.
•
•
•
•
•
Note, however, that it is nearly impossible to remove a vocal completely, without using very complex processing beyond the scope of this plug-in.
“AutoGate” on page 273
“AutoLevel” on page 274
“Compress” on page 274
“SoftClip” on page 275
“Limit” on page 275
AutoGate
• If the Remove Mono button is activated, the plug-in will sum
the right and the left channels (with one of the channels out of
phase), in the frequency range set by the Low and High Frequency parameters. This method will only work with stereo
material.
• If the Notch Filter button is activated, the plug-in will filter out
the signals within the frequency range set with the Low and
High Frequency parameters, by applying a notch (band reject)
filter. This method can be used with both stereo and mono
material.
• The Gain parameter allows you to adjust the output level of
the plug-in.
Gating, or noise gating, is a method of dynamic processing that silences audio signals below a certain set threshold level. As soon as the signal level exceeds the set
threshold, the gate opens to let the signal through. AutoGate offers all the features of a standard noise gate, plus
some very useful additional features, such as auto calibration of the threshold setting, a look-ahead predict function, and frequency selective triggering. Available
parameters are as follows:
Parameter
Explanation
Threshold
This setting determines the level where AutoGate is
activated. Signal levels above the set threshold trigger the gate to open, but signal levels below the set
threshold will close the gate.
Attack
This parameter sets the time it takes for the gate to
open after being triggered. If the Predict button is
activated, it will ensure that the gate will already be
open when a signal above the threshold level is
played back. AutoGate manages this by “looking
ahead” in the audio material, checking for signals
loud enough to pass the gate.
Hold
This determines how long the gate stays open after
the signal drops below the threshold level.
Release
This parameter sets the amount of time it takes for
the gate to close (after the set hold time). If the
“Auto” button is activated, AutoGate will find an optimum release setting, depending on the audio program material.
VSTDynamics
General Information
The VST Dynamics plug-in combines five separate processors; AutoGate, Compress, AutoLevel, Limit and SoftClip, covering a variety of Dynamic Processing functions.
The VST Dynamics window is divided into five sections,
containing controls and meters for each processor. You
activate the VST Dynamics panel by clicking the “On” button in the lower right corner. Once VST Dynamics is activated, you can turn the individual processors on and off by
clicking on their labels. Activated processors have highlighted labels.
You can activate as many processors as you want, but remember that not all processors are designed to work together. For example, “Limit” and “SoftClip” are both
designed to ensure that the output never exceeds 0dB,
but achieve this in different ways. To have both of them
activated would be unnecessary. The internal signal flow
is printed in the lower right part of the Dynamics panel.
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Plug-in processor reference
Trigger Frequency Range
2. Play it back, and click on the Calibrate button.
The button will blink for a few seconds, and then automatically set the
threshold so that the noise will be silenced (gated) during passages
where there is no other signal present.
AutoGate has a feature that allows the gate to be triggered only by signals within a specified frequency range.
This is a most useful feature because it lets you filter out
parts of the signal that might otherwise trigger the gate in
places you don’t want it to, thus allowing more control
over the gate function. The Trigger Frequency Range
function is controlled using the control in the upper part of
the AutoGate panel, and the slider located below it. The
basic operation of the Trigger Frequency Range function
is as follows:
AutoLevel
AutoLevel reduces signal level differences in audio material. It can be used to process recordings where the level
unintentionally varies. It will boost low levels and attenuate
high level audio signals. Only levels above the set threshold will be processed, so low level noise or rumble will not
be boosted. If the input level is greater than 0dB, AutoLevel will react very fast, because it looks ahead in the
audio material for strong signal levels and can attenuate
levels before they occur, thus reducing the risk of signal
clipping.
1. While playing back audio, drag the slider to the “Listen” position.
You will now monitor the audio signal, and the gate will be bypassed.
2. While listening, drag the two handles in the Trigger
Frequency window to set the frequency range you wish to
use to trigger the gate.
You will hear the audio being filtered as you move the handles.
Parameter
Description
Threshold
Only levels stronger than the set threshold will be
processed.
• Dragging the left handle to the right will progressively
cut frequencies starting from the low end of the frequency
spectrum.
Reaction Time Switch This parameter sets the amount of time it takes for
AutoLevel to adjust the gain. Set this according to
whether the program level changes suddenly or
over a length of time.
• Dragging the right handle to the left will progressively
cut frequencies starting from the high end of the frequency spectrum.
Compress
Compress reduces the dynamic range of the audio, so
that softer sounds get louder or louder sounds get softer,
or both. Compress functions like a standard compressor
with separate controls for threshold, ratio, attack, release
and make-up gain parameters.
3. After setting the frequency range, drag the slider to
the “On” position.
AutoGate will now use the selected frequency range as the trigger input.
4. To disable the Trigger Frequency Range function,
drag the slider to “Off”.
There is also a separate display that graphically illustrates
the compressor curve shaped according to the Threshold,
Ratio and MakeUp Gain parameter settings. Compress
also features a Gain Reduction meter that shows the
amount of gain reduction in dB, and a program dependent
Auto feature for the Release parameter.
AutoGate will now use the unfiltered audio signal as the trigger input.
Calibrate Function
This function, activated by using the Calibrate button located below the Threshold knob, is used to automatically
set the threshold level. It is especially useful for material
with consistent inherent background noise in the audio
material, like tape hiss for example. This may be masked
by the audio content for most of the time, but becomes
noticeable during silent passages. Use as follows:
Parameter
Description
Threshold
This setting determines the level where Compress
“kicks in”. Signal levels above the set threshold are
affected, but signal levels below are not processed.
Ratio
Ratio determines the amount of gain reduction applied to signals over the set threshold. A ratio of 3:1
means that for every three dB the input level increases, the output level will increase by only one
dB.
1. Find a part of the audio material, preferably not too
short, where only the background noise is heard.
If you can find only a short section with background noise, try looping it.
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Plug-in processor reference
Parameter
Description
Limit
Attack
This determines how fast Compress will respond to
signals above the set threshold. If the attack time is
long, more of the early part of the signal (attack) will
pass through unprocessed.
Release
Sets the amount of time it takes for the gain to return to its original level when the signal drops below
the Threshold level. If the “Auto” button is activated,
Compress will automatically find an optimum release setting, that varies depending on the audio
program material.
MakeUp Gain
This parameter is used to compensate for output
gain loss, caused by compression.
Limit is designed to ensure that the output level never exceeds a certain set output level, to avoid clipping in following devices. Conventional limiters usually require very
accurate setting up of the attack and release parameters,
to totally avoid the possibility of the output level going beyond the set threshold level. Limit adjusts and optimizes
these parameters automatically, according to the audio
material. However, should you want to, you can adjust the
Release parameter manually.
SoftClip
SoftClip is designed to ensure that the output level never
exceeds 0dB, like a limiter. SoftClip, however, acts differently compared to a conventional limiter. When the signal
level exceeds -6dB, SoftClip starts limiting (or clipping)
the signal “softly”, at the same time generating harmonics
which add a warm, tubelike characteristic to the audio material. SoftClip is simplicity itself to use as it has no control
parameters. The meter indicates the input signal level, and
thus the amount of “softclipping”. Levels in the green area
(weaker than -6dB) are unaffected, while levels in the yellow-orange-red area indicate the degree of “softclipping”.
The deep red meter area to the right indicates input levels
higher than 0dB.
Parameter
Description
Threshold
This setting determines the maximum output level.
Signal levels above the set threshold are affected,
but signal levels below are left unaffected
Release
This parameter sets the amount of time it takes for
the gain to return to its original level when the signal drops below the threshold level. If the “Auto”
button is activated, Limit will automatically find an
optimum release setting that varies depending on
the audio program material.
Ö Avoid feeding SoftClip with excessively high signal
levels as audible distortion may occur, although the output
level will never exceed 0dB.
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Plug-in processor reference
27
Troubleshooting
General problems
Problems with opening files
Can't create a temporary file
The file doesn't appear in the Open dialog.
• Please check which drive is specified for your temporary files
(in the Edit Folders dialog). You cannot use a CD-ROM disk
or a write protected drive for your temporary files.
• Is the drive full? Please select a drive with as much free space
as possible.
• Does the file have the right extension? Select “All files (*.*)”
from the pop-up in the Open dialog and check again.
• Is the drive on which the file resides currently accessible? If
you use removable hard disks or CD-ROMs, make sure the
right disk is in the drive.
A drive/partition can't be found
Can't open a file
• Is this volume a removable drive, or a CD-ROM? In that case,
is the correct disk really in the drive?
• Have you renamed the Volume since you last used the program?
• Is the file really a supported file type?
• Is it possible to open it in other programs that support files of
the same format? If not, it is probably damaged.
• Try opening the file in the Media Player application, included
with Windows. If that doesn't work, the file is probably damaged. Note that WaveLab Studio carefully checks the file
headers: if any mistake in the format is found, WaveLab Studio
does not open the file for safety reasons. This could happen
(rarely) with some files created by non-professional software.
• Is the drive on which the file resides currently accessible? If
you use removable hard disks or CD-ROMs, make sure the
right disk is in the drive.
A file can't be deleted or renamed
• Is the volume write protected on which the file is residing? In
that case, turn the write protection off.
• Is the file on a CD-ROM? Files can’t be deleted from CDROMs.
The program opens/doesn't open with the same files
each time
Can't open dual mono files
• This is not a bug, it's a feature! You can decide to have the
program boot up as you last left it. This is done by activating/
deactivating “Open last window layout on startup” in the Preferences dialog. See Preferences Topics.
• Open the Preferences dialog, click on the File tab and activate
“Allow opening of dual mono files”.
Problems with saving files
My snapshots are gone!
Can't save
There are two main ways to make sure your snapshots
“stay” from session to session:
• Is the volume on which you are trying to save write protected?
For example, you cannot save anything on a CD-ROM.
• Is there enough space on the drive?
• Is the drive to which the file was last saved currently accessible? If you use removable hard disks or CD-ROMs, make sure
the right disk is in the drive.
• Are you trying to overwrite another file with the same name? If
so, is that file write protected? If it is, it can't be overwritten.
Save under another name, or remove the write protection.
• Are you trying to overwrite another file with the same name? Is
that file open? If it is, close it and try again.
• To get around all of the problems listed above, try saving to
another disk/folder.
• Make sure “Save view settings in companion file” is activated
in the Preferences - Wave edit tab. This will automatically save
any snapshots associated with an audio file.
• Use Open last window layout on startup (described above) to
make all settings remain just as you left them.
The wave isn't styled as when I opened it last
There are three ways to save your window styling, etc.:
• Make sure “Save view settings in companion file” is activated
in the Preferences–Wave edit tab. This will automatically save
any window settings associated with an audio file.
• Use “Open last window layout on startup” in the Preferences
dialog to make all settings remain just as you left them.
277
Troubleshooting
Recording problems
The mixer can't be “created”
• Have you specified your audio card in the Preferences dialog?
A mixer can't be created if “Microsoft Sound Mapper” is selected.
• Do you have the latest and correct drivers for your card? We
have noted that some card drivers contain “bugs” that prevent
a mixer from being created.
I can't record
• Are you trying to record at a sample rate/bit resolution that
your card doesn't support? Check the documentation for the
card to find out which formats it supports.
• Is the card really installed correctly? Try using some application included with the card to see if that works. Also try the
“Sound recorder” included with Windows.
• Do you have the latest drivers for your card? Contact your
dealer for the latest drivers.
• Is your temporary files location set up correctly and do you
have enough free space on that drive?
Playback problems
No playback at all
• Is the card really installed correctly? Try using some application included with the card to see if that works. Also try the
“Media Player” included with Windows. If that doesn't work,
there's something wrong with the card or the installation.
I can’t hear what i just recorded
• Do the meters move when you record? Do you get a waveform in the window? If you do, the recording is not the problem, it is the playback.
• Check the Mixer. Do you have the correct recording inputs activated, and are the levels set properly?
• If you can't seem to activate the correct inputs and levels from
WaveLab Studio, try the mixer application that was included
with your audio card. Some card drivers do not react correctly
to the standard Windows commands transmitted by WaveLab
Studio.
• Please check your cables and the devices you have connected. Is there really a proper audio signal coming in to the
card?
• Have you selected the appropriate recording mode for the recording source? If you want to record an external audio signal
through the active inputs on your audio hardware, you must
select the “Audio input (hardware)” mode in the Record dialog.
Playback is choppy
• Are you using a compressed hard drive? You should not use
WaveLab Studio on such drives because they eat up too
much processor power!
• To play a quality wave (e.g. 16 bit Stereo 44,1 kHz file) from a
CD-ROM, your CD-ROM reader must be at least of a “Double
Speed” type.
A file can't be played
• Is the file really in a format (sample rate, bit resolution mono/
stereo) supported by your audio card? The format of the file is
indicated on the status bar.
Playback can’t be heard
• Do you have an application for the audio card that allows you
to adjust playback volumes? Are these settings correct?
• Check the cables and the other audio equipment you use.
There is too much noise in my recordings
• Have you adjusted your recording levels properly?
• Is the source connected to the proper input?
• Have you specified 8 bits as the bit resolution for the recording? Try 16 bits instead.
• Keep in mind that microphones provided with sound cards are
very low quality.
278
Troubleshooting
Editing problems
• If this doesn't work, you might try switching off the recorder
(even if the computer is still on), wait three seconds and then
turn it back on again. Often, only rebooting the computer is
not enough.
After editing I get clicks and pops
• Are you making “splices” in the middle of an audio section? If
you do, we recommend that you make all cuts at zero crossings, to avoid clicks and pops.
Questions and Answers
After crossfading, I get distortion
• I have problems with a Phillips CDD-2000 unit.
• If both sections play at full level during the crossfade, it is possible that clipping will occur (although it is unlikely). If this happens, undo the crossfade, lower the gain of both sections (by
3 or 6 dB for example) and try again. The problem cannot occur if you check the “Inverse of Fade In” or “Inverse of Fade
Out” options.
If you have a real Phillips drive or a drive that contains this
Phillips mechanism, you must make sure that the firmware
version is 1.25 or later. A firmware update can be found at
http://www.philips.com/sv/pcaddon.
Troubleshooting and precautions
Well of course there could be many reasons for this.
Check the “Day to day precautions for trouble free CD
writing” section below. But, here are two more things to
try:
• I have other problems writing a CD and/or importing CD audio
tracks.
The following sections provide information concerning
problems relating to CD/DVD burning, hardware devices,
precautions for trouble-free CD writing as well as hardware and setup issues.
!
Open the Control Panel, and double click on System. Select the Device Manager tab, select CD-R in the list (if this
entry exists, which is not mandatory) and click on the
Properties button and then select Settings. Disable the
“Insert auto notification” to prevent Windows from reading
from the CD-R during the writing process.
Please note that Steinberg cannot make any guarantees about the validity of your recorded audio CDs.
Problems and solutions
If you have problems at higher speeds, try lowering it.
Even if your system writes correctly at 8x most of the time,
it's safer to write at lower speeds.
General instructions
The following text is written for problems relating to CD
burning, but applies to DVD as well.
• I have problems writing CDs when I specify ISRC and EAN/
UPS codes, but otherwise things work fine.
• If you run into problems, the first thing to check is your hardware and software setup. To isolate the problem, you could try
using other CD burning software (for example a program supplied with the CD-R unit). If this doesn't work either, the problem isn't with WaveLab Studio, but with some other
component in the system.
• When you insert a disk into the recorder, make sure you wait
long enough before you start using it. You might have to wait
several seconds. Watch any possible LEDs on the front panel.
They will indicate when the unit is ready for use (see the operation manual for the unit for details).
• If your CD recorder doesn't respond, the first thing to do is to
eject the disc and insert it again. This will reinitialize the recorder.
If you try to write a ISRC code or EAN/UPC code, WaveLab Studio might return an error if: a) the CD recorder
does not support this (not all do, or not all firmware versions do). b) the codes are not properly formatted: UPC/
EAN: 13 numeric characters. ISRC: 5 alphanumeric followed by 7 numeric characters.
• A CD disc that I have created doesn't play correctly on my CD
player.
The reflections of a “normal” CD and a CD-R are different
(a CD-R reflects less light). A dirty lens on the CD player
might disturb playback. This is more common on old CD
players because their lasers do not properly calibrate for
recordable CDs. Sometimes, the combination of disc
brand and CD recorder brand can make a difference.
279
Troubleshooting
• I can't write track Sub-Indexes.
• If you use the CD-R unit as a CD-ROM reader, make sure you
quit the Explorer and close any “My Computer” windows before writing.
• Stop audio playback in WaveLab Studio before writing.
Some CD recorders are simply not capable of this. Some
others can only write 50 Sub-Indexes per track for example, and some others only 100 Sub-Indexes per CD. This
depends on the CD-R firmware.
Hardware and setup issues
Day to day precautions for troublefree CD writing
CD-R Drivers
• If you have previously installed another CD-R software product, you may run into driver conflicts. Normally this should not
happen since WaveLab Studio has built-in drivers that are
loaded as needed, and which usually override any other installed drivers. However, if you do have problems writing to
CD-R, this is a point to check.
• If it isn't absolutely required, don't install any other driver for
your CD-R unit (for example a driver that allows you to use the
CD-R as a CD-ROM drive). The drivers might make Windows
try to access the drive during writing, which can cause system
interruptions.
• In the advanced BIOS settings of your SCSI host adapter, the
following should normally be disabled:
- Plug and Play SCAM Support
- Support Removable Disks Under BIOS as Fixed Disks
- BIOS Support for Bootable CD-ROM
- BIOS Support for Int 13 Extensions
The most important thing to remember is that CD writing
is a real-time operation where a laser burns depressions
into the surface of the CD. This is done at a speed which
cannot be slowed down or interrupted. Any interruption
will most likely be fatal, rendering the CD-R disk useless.
For these reasons you should make sure your system
does not interrupt the CD-R writing once it's under way.
Read the following points:
• Keep the CD-recorder on a vibration-free surface. Sudden
“shocks” could cause writing interruptions.
• Do not read files directly from a CD, copy them to a fast hard
disk first.
• Do not read files over a network. Networks usually are far too
slow for CD-R writing.
• Turn off networking, at least for the hard disk drive from which
you are reading, since the CD writing may be interrupted by
anyone trying to access this drive.
• It is best to store the files on a hard disk partition that is 1 gigabyte in size, or smaller (since this means the sectors will be
16kByte rather than 32kByte).
• Do not read files from a hard disk with compression enabled!
• It is highly recommended that you keep your hard disk(s) defragmented at all times. Windows includes an application for
this.
• If you have multiple hard drives in your system, put the audio
files on your fastest drive! Also use a fast drive for WaveLab
Studio's “temp” files.
• Turn off any screen savers, anti-virus, schedulers, animated
icons and alarm or reminder programs that might interrupt the
CD burning operation.
• Make sure any fax reception or background e-mail software is
disabled.
• If you use the System Agent, make sure no activities are
scheduled for the time you write to the CD. Do no use the
“When Idle” option in the System Agent.
• Disable any System Monitoring programs.
Networking Cards
Network cards can produce hardware interrupts which
momentarily halt operation of all software. This can cause
various problems. For CD writing, a non-networked machine is more stable than a networked one.
• If you need to keep your machine connected to a network try
to not load the network card drivers when you plan to write
CDs.
About Hard disks
• Many hard disks automatically perform something called thermal calibration at regular (but unpredictable) intervals. For this
reason, drives sold as “A/V drives” are recommended, since
they have built-in “intelligence” which delays any recalibration
to times when the disk is not being used. Some drives not
marketed as “A/V Drives” also have this capability, check with
the vendor if in doubt.
280
Troubleshooting
CD-R disks
• There are many brands of CD-R disks. Always use one that
has been tested and recommended by your CD-R drive manufacturer.
• CD-R discs are not as solid as real CDs. Handle them with
care! Do not expose discs to sunlight for long periods, and
avoid heat and humidity.
• The top (label) side of a CD-R disc is also vulnerable. Don't
use alcohol-based pens to write on discs and don't put labels
on unless they are specifically designed for CD-Rs (otherwise
the glue on the label might eat through the surface).
Links and sources for more information
• A general CD-R site that might be of interest:
http://www.osta.org/technology/cdqa.htm
281
Troubleshooting
28
Key commands
File handling
Zooming
Key Command
Function
Main View
[Ctrl]-[O]
Open wave file
Key Command
Function
[Alt]-[Enter]
Open wave file information window
[G]
Zoom in horizontally
[Ctrl]-[F2]
Open Audio Montage
[Arrow up]
[Ctrl]-[S]
Save current document
Zoom in horizontally (or Zoom out if Cubase compatibility is enabled)
[Shift]-[S]
Save current document under new name and/or in
a new location
[Ctrl]-[Shift]-[S]
Save all currently open documents
[Ctrl]-[N]
Create new wave
[Ctrl]-[W]
Close current document (and all its related windows)
[Ctrl]-[E]
Convert Wave to MP3 (Save special – Encode
(MP3))
[Ctrl]-[Shift]-[E]
Convert Wave to MP2 (Save special – Encode
(MP2))
[Shift]-[E]
Save current wave selection as a new wave file
Wave display mode
The following keys on the alphanumeric part of the keyboard (not on the numeric keypad) are used for these
commands:
[H]
Zoom out horizontally
[Arrow down]
Zoom out horizontally (or Zoom in if Cubase compatibility is enabled)
[Ctrl]-[Arrow up]
Zoom in horizontally to maximum zoom factor
[Ctrl]-[Arrow down]
or [J]
Zoom out horizontally to display the entire wave or
montage
[Shift]-[G] or
[Shift]-[Arrow up]
Zoom in vertically (or Zoom out if Cubase compatibility is enabled)
[Shift]-[H] or
[Shift]-[Arrow down]
Zoom out vertically (or Zoom in if Cubase compatibility is enabled)
[Shift]-[J]
Zoom in or out to get an optimized level display
(best fit)
[K]
Zoom selection
[Ctrl]-[L]
Zoom in vertically to decrease the number of visible
tracks (Montage)
[Ctrl]-[Shift]-[L]
Zoom out vertically to increase the number of visible tracks (Montage)
Key Command
Function
[1]
Wave display
[3]
Spectrum display
Key Command
Function
[4]
Open spectrum options dialog
[N]
Level Normalizer
[0]
Sync top and bottom views
[Shift]+[M]
Loudness Normalizer
Processing
[Ctrl]-[G]
Change gain
View
[D]
Dynamics
[V]
Level envelope
The following commands scroll the window without moving the cursor:
[Ctrl]-[D]
Easy Fade
[Ctrl]-[F]
Fade in/out
Key Command
Function
[X]
Crossfade
[Ctrl]-[Home]
Start of Wave or Montage
[Ctrl]-[R]
Reverse
[Ctrl]-[End]
End of Wave or Montage
[R]
Waveform Restorer
[.] (Numeric keypad)
Cursor position
[T]
Time stretch
[P]
Pitch Correction
[Ctrl]-[Q]
EQ
[B]
Pitch Bend
Overview
Key Command
Function
[Ctrl]-[J]
Zoom out to display the entire wave/Montage horizontally
283
Key commands
Playback and cursor position
Selecting
Numeric keypad
Key Command
[Enter]
Key Command
Function
Function
[Esc]
Toggle selection on/off
Play (from current position)
[Tab]
Toggle selection between left/right/both channels
(stereo waves only)
[0]
Stop / Move to selection start / Move to beginning
[1]
Move cursor to selection start
[2]
Move cursor to selection end
[4]
Move cursor to previous marker
[5]
Move cursor to next marker
[.] (full stop)
Scroll to cursor
[/]
Loop on/off (current wave only)
[F]
Scroll during playback on/off
Extending or making selections
The following commands create a new selection or extend
the current one.
Function keys
Key Command
Function
[Space Bar]
Toggle Play / Stop
[F8]
Play (from current position)
[F7]
Stop / Move to selection end/ Move to selection
start / Move to beginning
[F6]
Play selection
[Shift]+F9]
Activate/deactivate MTC synchronization mode
[F10]
Activate/deactivate Jog and Shuttle mode
Key Command
Function
[Shift]-[Arrow left]
One pixel to the left
[Shift]-[Arrow right]
One pixel to the right
[Ctrl]+[Shift][Arrow left]
20 pixels to the left
[Ctrl]+[Shift][Arrow right]
20 pixels to the right
[Shift]-[Page Up]
20 pixels to the left (or right if Cubase compatibility
is enabled)
[Shift]-[Page Down] 20 pixels to the right (or left if Cubase compatibility
is enabled)
[Ctrl]+[Shift][Page Up]
One window width to the left (or right if Cubase
compatibility is enabled)
[Ctrl]+[Shift][Page Down]
One window width to the right (or left if Cubase
compatibility is enabled)
Making selections
Cursor keys
The following commands always create a new selection:
Key Command
Function
[Arrow left]
Move cursor one pixel to the left
Key Command
Function
Move cursor one pixel to the right
[Shift]-[Home]
From cursor to start
Move cursor 1/10 of the window width to the right
(or left if Cubase compatibility is enabled)
[Shift]-[End]
From cursor to end
[Ctrl]-[A]
Select all
[Arrow right]
[Ctrl]-[Arrow right]
[Ctrl]-[Arrow left]
Move cursor 1/10 of the window width to the left
(or right if Cubase compatibility is enabled)
[Ctrl]-[Page Up]
Move cursor one window width to the left (or right if
Cubase compatibility is enabled)
[Ctrl]-[Page Down]
Move cursor one window width to the right (or left if
Cubase compatibility is enabled)
The following commands are for selecting during playback. Please note that the keys on the numeric keypad
must be used.
[Home]
Move cursor to beginning
Key Command
Function
[End]
Move cursor to end
[Shift]-[1]
Set start of selection
[Tab]
Toggle Cursor between left/right/both channels
(stereo waves only)
[Shift]-[2]
Set end of selection
[+]
Press and hold to set start of selection, release to
set end of selection.
“One the fly” numeric keypad commands
284
Key commands
Editing and Recording
Undo and Redo
General
Key Command
Function
[Shift]-[A]
Open Wave Attributes dialog
[Ctrl]-[U]
Open Audio Properties dialog
Key Command
Function
[Ctrl]-[Z]
Undo
[F3]
Undo
[Ctrl]+[Shift]-[Z]
Redo
[F4]
Redo
Cut and Paste
Key Command
Function
[Ctrl]-[X]
Cut
[Ctrl]-[C]
Copy
[Ctrl]-[V]
Paste
[Ctrl]+[Shift]-[V]
Paste Append
Markers
Key Command
Function
[Ctrl]-[M]
Open marker list
[Insert]
Drop new marker at cursor position (for example
during playback)
[Ctrl]-[Insert]
Create Marker
Delete and Silence
Key Command
Function
[Backspace] or [Del]
Delete current selection
[Ctrl]-[Space bar]
Silence current selection
Miscellaneous
Key Command
Function
[Ctrl]+[Shift]-[Space] Insert silence
[F2]
Open Rename dialog
[Ctrl]-[Backspace]
Trim (to selection)
[Alt]-[Ctrl]-[M]
Maximize Wave or Montage window width
[Ctrl]+[Del]
Smooth delete
[W]
View Window layouts
Recording
Key Command
Function
[*] (Multiply on the nu- Open Record dialog
meric keypad)
Function
[Ctrl]-[M]
Drop generic marker
[Ctrl]-[L]
Drop generic region start marker
[Ctrl]-[R]
Drop generic region end marker
[Ctrl]-[P]
Pause
[Ctrl]-[Enter]
Record
[Ctrl]-[0]
(Numeric keypad)
Stop record
[Ctrl]-[Y]
Reset meters
Show/hide Master Section
[Ctrl]-[F10]
Show/hide Monitor window
[Ctrl]-[P]
Open Preferences dialog
[M]
Magnetize Bounds on/off
[Z]
Zero crossing on/off
[7] (Numeric keypad) Undo zoom/view/position change in Montage
When Record dialog is open
Key Command
[Ctrl]-[F9]
[8] (Numeric keypad) Redo zoom/view/position change in Montage
[Shift]+[F5]
285
Key commands
Open a dialog where you can save a picture of the
active window.
Index
A
Accelerators 29
ACM 55
Append 46
ASIO driver 11
Audio card
Checking 10
Settings 11
Audio CD
Testing 200
Writing 201
Audio CD format 202
Audio CD report 196
Audio CD track import 209
Audio files See “Wave files”
Audio in pauses 194
Audio Montage
About 137
Backing up 190
Cloning 189
Creating new 139
Opening 188
Panes 137
Recording 150
Saving 188
Audio Properties 56
Audio Range dialog 61
Audio Signal Generator 229
Auto Panner 261
Auto Split 135
Auto zoom for overview 37
Autopan 264
B
Backups
Audio files 51
Montage 190
Batch file encoding 126
Batch processing
Adding files 113
Creating zip archives 122
File list 113
File settings 120
File status icon 115
Introduction 111
Off-line processors 117
Plug-ins 117
Presets 124
Processor list 116
Scheduling 123
Ultra-pass processors 118
Bit Meter 73
Bypass (Master Section effects) 97
C
Calibrating printer 218
CD format specification 202
CD images
Creating with cue sheet 196
Importing as Montage 139
CD recorders
Disc-At-Once 203
Installing 13
Selecting 200
CD track markers
Audio Montage 128
CD track sub-index markers 128
CD view (Montage) 193
CD Wizard dialog 193
CD/DVD Project
About 205
CD-Extra 201
Change Gain 78
Choirus2 264
Chorus 90
Chorus (Plug-in) 261
CleanComp 265
Clear Undo 20
Clip effects
Adding 177
Latency 179
Tail 179
Clipping
About 78
287
Index
Clips
About 137
Adding 141
Deleting 159
Duplicating 155
Editing in the clip list 161
Grouping 183
Locking 159
Mouse zones 151
Moving 154
Overlapping 155
Pitch shifting 176
Reordering in the clip list 161
Repeating 156
Resizing 156
Selecting 152
Selecting ranges in 153
Sliding audio source in 157
Source files 162
Splitting 158
Time stretching 175
Clips view
About 160
Customizing 160
Editing 161
Pregap column options 161
Reordering clips 161
Clone and substitute source 163
Colors
Conditions (Montage) 253
Customizing (Montage) 251
Customizing (Wave window) 251
Colors (System) 10
Compression 80
Audio file formats 55
Control bars 23
Appearance 24
Button functions 24
Descriptions 24
Docking 23
Moving 24
Show tips 24
Showing/hiding 24
Un-docking 24
Convert format
Batch encoding 126
Using Save as 51
Convert sample rate 91
Copy 45
Copy to new window 48
Copying wave selections 44
Crossfade 83
Crossfade Looper 238
Crossfades (Montage)
About 172
Editing 173
Options 173
Power/Amplitude
compensation 173
Crystal Resampler (Plug-in) 262
Cue Points 159
Cursor
Appearance 251
Moving to marker 131
Scroll to 38
Setting position 39
Status bar 34
Cut 46
D
Data CD/DVD
Creating 205
Writing 207
dB (Level unit) 26
DC Offset 85
Decimal (Level unit) 26
DeClicker 265
Deleting clips 159
Deleting files and documents 54
Deleting wave selections 47
DeNoiser 266
Dialogs (Non-modal) 29
DIRAC processor
Pitch Shift 88
Time Stretch 87
DirectX plug-ins 96
Disc-At-Once 203
Disk space 66
Dithering
About 99
Internal 100
UV22 100
Dockable control bars
See “Control bars”
Drag and drop 32
Drop marker 129
Dropout 95
DTMF Generator 230
Dual mono files 32
Duck according to other track 168
Ducker (Plug-in) 180, 268
Dynamics 80
E
Easy Fade 83
Echo (Plug-in) 262
Edit Folders dialog 248
Edit Overview (Montage) 145
Edit playback times 195
Effects
About 96
Installing 98
Mute 97
Presets 98
Removing 96
Reordering 96
Selecting 96
Effects (Montage)
Copying settings 179
Effect dialog 178
Envelopes 180
Removing 178
Split mode 178
Eliminate DC Offset 85
Enable Snapping 152
Encode (ACM) 55
Encoded formats
About 55
Batch encoding to 126
Exporting to 55
Envelopes
About 164
Copying 167
Displaying 165
Editing 165
Locking 168
Presets 167
Resetting 166
Smoothing 167
EQ (Processing) 90
EQ-1 262
288
Index
Extend to peaks 43
F
Fade-In/Out 83
Faders (Master Section)
About 94
Offset 95
Unlink mode 95
Fades (Montage)
Copying 171
Creating 170
Default 171
Editing 170
Presets 170
ROM presets 172, 173
Favorites 33, 255
FFT
3D Frequency Analysis 225
Spectrum Analyser 72
File formats 49
File size (Unit) 26
Files (Audio) See “Wave files”
Files view 162
Folder editing 248
Frames (CD) 202
Freedb 210
Frequency Analysis, 3D 225
Full cloning 189
G
Gating 80
Generic markers 128
Global Analysis
Errors 225
Extra 224
Introduction 221
Loudness 223
Operations 221
Peaks 223
Pitch 224
Global auto-grouping 144
Global envelope lock 168
Groups
Montage 183
Plug-ins 258
H
Hard disk requirements 245
Harmonization 89
Help 20
Hidden CD tracks
Creating 194
Hi-fi Chorus 90
History 187
I
Implicit folder 163
Import
Audio CD track 209
Audio files 31
CD image as Audio Montage 139
Cue sheet 139
Markers 128
Index markers 128
Info line (Montage) 138
Insert audio file 32
Insert silence 47
Installation 10
Invert Phase 85
ISRC codes
About 203
J
Jog
Montage window 149
Wave window 62
K
Key commands
About 29
Customizing 255
Key sequences 255
L
Label Editor
Edit Properties dialog 216
Editing objects 214
Grid 215
Objects menu 216
Tools 214
Label sets
About 216
Opening 217
Printing 218
Saving 217
Saving as user template 217
Templates 213
Layouts
Saving 249
Window layouts 254
Level envelope 82
Level Processing (Dynamics) 80
Level selections 43
Level/Pan Meter 69
Leveler 262
Limiting 80
Locking
Clips 159
Envelopes 168
Loop markers 128, 133, 237
Loop Tone Equalizer 242
Looping 59, 133, 237
Loudness Normalizer 78
M
Magnetic bounds (Montage) 151
Magnetize bounds
Cursor 40
Cursor to marker 131
Dropping audio on markers 132
Snap to 44
Wave selections 43
Magnification See “Zooming”
Magnifying Glass 36
Marker list 130
Marker toolbar 129
Markers
Appearance 251
Creating 129
Deleting 131
Displaying/hiding 130
Dropping 129
Dropping audio on 132
Dropping while recording 67
Editing 130
289
Index
Importing and Saving 128
Introduction 128
Montage 185
Moving 131
Moving cursor to 131
Selecting between 132
Types 128
Master Section
About 93
Deactivating 93
Dithering Pane 99
Effects Pane 96
Master Level Pane 94
Render 102
Storing settings with
Montage 188
Window handling 94
Master Section preset groups 102
Maximize width 35
Memory requirements 245
Meta Normalizer (Montage) 182
Meter format 26, 39
Metering
Bits 73
Introduction 69
Level 69
Pan 70
Phase 71
Spectrum 72
Meters
Master Section 95
Meter Windows 69
Record dialog 65
MIDI Time Code 232
Mix (Option) 47
Mixed Mode CD
About 205
Creating 207
MME/WDM Driver 11
Monitor playback 69
Monitor window
Performance display 105
Progress display 105
Timecode display 234
Mono
Master Section button 95
Mono to Stereo 48
Montage See “Audio Montage”
Mouse zones 151
Mouse zooming 36
Move cursor to 39
Moving wave selections 46
MP3 files
Batch encoding 126
MRK files 128
MTC 232
MultiBand Compressor 268
Multiple copies 46
Multitasking 124
Mute
Clips and tracks 147
Effects 97
Selection in wave 128
Selection range in clip 167
Mute markers 128
N
NaturalVerb 269
Navigating
By clicking 38
Scroll menu 38
Using status bar 38
New documents, Creating 31
Noise Gate (Plug-in) 263
Noise gating 80
Non-modal dialogs 29, 77
Normalize 77, 118
Nudge (Kicker) tools
Wave window 46
Nudging
Wave window 46
O
Online documentation 20
Only if clipping (Normalize) 118
Open last window layout on startup
249
Oscilloscope 75
OSQ files
Batch conversion to 126
Saving and opening 52
Overwrite 46
P
Page layout (Labels) 218
Pan envelopes
Displaying 174
Pan modes 175
Pan Meter 70
Panes 21
Paste
Append 46
Copying wave selections 45
Mix 47
Moving wave selections 46
Overwrite 46
Prepend 46
Peak Master 263
Pencil tool 49
Percent (Level unit) 26
Phase Invert 85
Phase Scope 71
Photo viewer 206
Pitch Bend 88
Pitch Correction 87
Pitch Shift (Montage) 176
Play (Transport bar) 58
Play selection 61
Play tool 61
Playback Browser 61
Playback position display 106
Playback speed 60
Playback starter marker 128
Playing
Clips 148
Montage 147
One channel in stereo file 61
Play tool 61
Selection 61
Setting playback speed 60
Setting start point 39
Skipping sections 60
Plug-ins
About 96
Installing 98
Organizing 257
Presets 98
Pop-up menus
In displays 25
Values 27
290
Index
Position display 106
Position See “Cursor”
PQ codes 202
Pre-Emphasis 203
Preferences
Introduction 248
Saving 248
Startup 248
Prepend 46
Pre-roll 195
Preset groups 102
Presets
Batch processing 124
Creating 28
Deleting 28
Introduction 28
Loading 28
Master Section 101
Modifying 28
Printing CD Labels 218
Priorities
Batch processing 124
Master Section 104
Monitor window 105
Puncher 263
Q
Q (Plug-in) 270
Quick Cloning 189
R
RAM 245
Range indicator 37, 251
Recent audio files 33
Recording
Disk capacity 66
Dropping markers 67
File format 64
In the Montage 150
Introduction 63
Levels 65
Mixer settings 65
Redo 20, 77
Redo (Montage) 187
Region markers
About 128
Marking takes during recording 67
Release audio hardware 58
Remember active window’s
layout 254
Renaming files and documents 53
Render selected CD track 195
Rendering
Audio Montage 192
Wave windows 102
Repeating wave selections 46
Resize clips 156
Resizer 263
Restore Master
Section’s configuration 188
Resume 105
Reverse 85
Revert to saved 53
Route to upper track 180
Rulers
Appearance 251
Hiding/showing 251
Meter format 39
Montage 139
Selecting units 26
Start position 39
Wave window 33
S
Sample rate
Conflicts 45
Conversion 91
Montage 139
Samples (Unit) 26
Sampling
Editing sample attributes 236
Save All 53
Save and Save as 51
Save Copy 52
Save left/right channel as 52
Save markers 128
Save selection as Clip 52
Scroll during playback 63
Scroll menu 38
Select menu 42
Selecting
At zero crossings 42
By dragging 39
Clips 152
Effects 96
Level selections 43
Select menu 42
Shortcuts 41
Stereo files 40
Switching between channels 40
Selection
Selection ranges 153
Turning into new document 48
Set origin at cursor 39
Show tips 24
Shuttle
Montage window 149
Wave window 62
ShuttlePro 63
Signal Generator 229
Silence (Plug-in) 264
Size ruler (CD/DVD Project) 206
Skip 60
Skip muted regions 133
Sliders 27
Smooth Delete 47
Snap (Montage) 152
Snap to time units 43
Snap to zero crossing 42
Snapshots
Wave window 38
Solo (Montage) 147
Source audio files (Montage) 162
Speaker tool 61
Spectralizer 271
Spectrum Analyser
FFT Meter 72
Spectrum display
Activating 108
Options 108
Spectrum Meter 72
Speed Menus 25
Spin controls 26
Split mode
Effects (Montage) 178
Splitting audio files (Auto Split) 135
Splitting clips 158
291
Index
Status bar
Introduction 25
Navigating from 38
Wave windows 34
Steinberg on the internet 8
Stereo Echo 272
Stereo to Mono 48
StereoExpander 264, 272
Stop button 58
Store current Master
Section’s configuration 188
Style conditions
Audio Montages 253
Wave windows 250
Styles 249
Substitute with existing wave 163
Suspend 105
Swap channels 49
Sync tab (Preferences) 232
Synchronizing WaveLab Studio 232
System information 246
T
Templates (Label Editor) 213
Tempo 39
Temporary files 12
Temporary markers 128
The track activity indicator
About 147
Time code 26
Time format 26
Time stretch 85
Timecode display 106
Time-stretch to cursor 175
Toolbox
Introduction 24
Magnifying Glass 36
Play tool 61
Tools One 272
Tracer application 14
Track auto-grouping 144
Track effects
Adding 177
Track gain faders
About 148
Tracks (Montage)
About 137
Handling 140
Output routing 180
Transform clips 175
Transport bar 58
Trim 47
U
Undo
Clearing 20
Introduction 20
Limiting 20
Processing 77
Undo (Montage)
History view 187
View changes 146
UPC/EAN codes 203
Use Master Section 93
UV22 100
V
Values (Setting) 26
Variables
About 213
Editing 217
Video track (Montage)
About 191
View settings
Saving 54
Voice Attenuator 273
Volume envelopes
About 164
Displaying 165
Editing 165
Mono/Stereo 165
VST plug-ins
About 96
Excluding 258
Presets 98
VSTDynamics 273
W
Wave cursor See “Cursor”
Wave files
Basic editing commands 44
Drag and drop 32
Importing from audio CD 209
Opening 31
Processing 76
Recording 63
Selecting in 39
Zooming 35
Wave selections
Copying 44
Deleting 47
Moving 46
Repeating 46
Waveform elements 251
Waveform Restorer 85
Waveform Scope 75
Web links 8
Wheel mouse 27
Window layouts 254
Windows
Closing 21
Duplicate view 23
Maximizing width 35
Minimizing 21
Multiple views 23
Panes 21
Saving layout 249
Switching between 21
WMA files
Batch encoding 126
Word Clock 232
Write CD 201
Z
Zero crossings 42
Zero level axis 251
Zip archives
Batch processing 122
Zoom controls 35
Zoom menu 37
292
Index
Zooming
About 35
Auto zoom for overview 37
Magnifying Glass 36
Montage 144
Mouse zooming 36
Using the keyboard 37
Using the menu 37
Zoom selection 37
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