PIC16C7X, 8-Bit CMOS MCU with A/D Converter

PIC16C7X, 8-Bit CMOS MCU with A/D Converter
PIC16C7X
8-Bit CMOS Microcontrollers with A/D Converter
• Wide operating voltage range: 2.5V to 6.0V
• High Sink/Source Current 25/25 mA
• Commercial, Industrial and Extended temperature
ranges
• Low-power consumption:
• < 2 mA @ 5V, 4 MHz
• 15 µA typical @ 3V, 32 kHz
• < 1 µA typical standby current
Devices included in this data sheet:
• PIC16C72
• PIC16C74A
• PIC16C73
• PIC16C76
• PIC16C73A
• PIC16C77
• PIC16C74
PIC16C7X Microcontroller Core Features:
• High-performance RISC CPU
• Only 35 single word instructions to learn
• All single cycle instructions except for program
branches which are two cycle
• Operating speed: DC - 20 MHz clock input
DC - 200 ns instruction cycle
• Up to 8K x 14 words of Program Memory,
up to 368 x 8 bytes of Data Memory (RAM)
• Interrupt capability
• Eight level deep hardware stack
• Direct, indirect, and relative addressing modes
• Power-on Reset (POR)
• Power-up Timer (PWRT) and
Oscillator Start-up Timer (OST)
• Watchdog Timer (WDT) with its own on-chip RC
oscillator for reliable operation
• Programmable code-protection
• Power saving SLEEP mode
• Selectable oscillator options
• Low-power, high-speed CMOS EPROM
technology
• Fully static design
PIC16C7X Features
PIC16C7X Peripheral Features:
• Timer0: 8-bit timer/counter with 8-bit prescaler
• Timer1: 16-bit timer/counter with prescaler,
can be incremented during sleep via external
crystal/clock
• Timer2: 8-bit timer/counter with 8-bit period
register, prescaler and postscaler
• Capture, Compare, PWM module(s)
• Capture is 16-bit, max. resolution is 12.5 ns,
Compare is 16-bit, max. resolution is 200 ns,
PWM max. resolution is 10-bit
• 8-bit multichannel analog-to-digital converter
• Synchronous Serial Port (SSP) with
SPI and I2C
• Universal Synchronous Asynchronous Receiver
Transmitter (USART/SCI)
• Parallel Slave Port (PSP) 8-bits wide, with
external RD, WR and CS controls
• Brown-out detection circuitry for
Brown-out Reset (BOR)
72
73
73A
74
74A
76
77
Program Memory (EPROM) x 14
2K
4K
4K
4K
4K
8K
8K
Data Memory (Bytes) x 8
128
192
192
192
192
368
368
I/O Pins
22
22
22
33
33
22
33
Parallel Slave Port
—
—
—
Yes
Yes
—
Yes
Capture/Compare/PWM Modules
1
2
2
2
2
2
2
Timer Modules
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
A/D Channels
5
5
5
8
8
5
8
SPI/I2C
SPI/I2C,
USART
SPI/I2C,
USART
SPI/I2C,
USART
SPI/I2C,
USART
SPI/I2C,
USART
SPI/I2C,
USART
In-Circuit Serial Programming
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Brown-out Reset
Yes
—
Yes
—
Yes
Yes
Yes
Interrupt Sources
8
11
11
12
12
11
12
Serial Communication
 1997 Microchip Technology Inc.
DS30390E-page 1
PIC16C7X
Pin Diagrams
SDIP, SOIC, Windowed Side Brazed Ceramic
SSOP
•1
28
RB7
MCLR/VPP
•1
28
RB7
RA0/AN0
2
27
RB6
RA0/AN0
2
27
RB6
RA1/AN1
3
26
RB5
RA1/AN1
3
26
RB5
RA2/AN2
4
25
RB4
RA2/AN2
4
25
RB4
RA3/AN3/VREF
5
24
RB3
RA3/AN3/VREF
5
24
RB3
RA4/T0CKI
6
23
RB2
RA4/T0CKI
6
23
RB2
RA5/SS/AN4
VSS
7
8
22
21
RB1
RB0/INT
RA5/SS/AN4
VSS
7
8
22
21
RB1
RB0/INT
OSC1/CLKIN
MCLR/VPP
9
20
VDD
OSC1/CLKIN
9
20
VDD
OSC2/CLKOUT
10
19
VSS
OSC2/CLKOUT
10
19
VSS
RC0/T1OSO/T1CKI
11
18
RC7
RC0/T1OSO/T1CKI
11
18
RC7
RC1/T1OSI
12
17
RC6
RC1/T1OSI
12
17
RC6
RC2/CCP1
13
16
RC5/SDO
RC2/CCP1
13
16
RC5/SDO
RC3/SCK/SCL
14
15
RC4/SDI/SDA
RC3/SCK/SCL
14
15
RC4/SDI/SDA
PIC16C72
PIC16C72
SDIP, SOIC, Windowed Side Brazed Ceramic
•1
28
RB7
RA0/AN0
2
27
RB6
RA1/AN1
3
26
RB5
MCLR/VPP
RA2/AN2
4
25
RB4
RA3/AN3/VREF
5
24
RB3
RA4/T0CKI
6
23
RB2
RA5/SS/AN4
VSS
7
8
22
21
RB1
RB0/INT
OSC1/CLKIN
9
20
VDD
OSC2/CLKOUT
10
19
VSS
RC0/T1OSO/T1CKI
11
18
RC7/RX/DT
RC1/T1OSI/CCP2
12
17
RC6/TX/CK
RC2/CCP1
13
16
RC5/SDO
RC3/SCK/SCL
14
15
RC4/SDI/SDA
PIC16C73
PIC16C73A
PIC16C76
DS30390E-page 2
PDIP, Windowed CERDIP
MCLR/VPP
RA0/AN0
RA1/AN1
RA2/AN2
RA3/AN3/VREF
RA4/T0CKI
RA5/SS/AN4
RE0/RD/AN5
RE1/WR/AN6
RE2/CS/AN7
VDD
VSS
OSC1/CLKIN
OSC2/CLKOUT
RC0/T1OSO/T1CKI
RC1/T1OSI/CCP2
RC2/CCP1
RC3/SCK/SCL
RD0/PSP0
RD1/PSP1
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
40
39
38
37
36
35
34
33
32
31
30
29
28
27
26
25
24
23
22
21
RB7
RB6
RB5
RB4
RB3
RB2
RB1
RB0/INT
VDD
VSS
RD7/PSP7
RD6/PSP6
RD5/PSP5
RD4/PSP4
RC7/RX/DT
RC6/TX/CK
RC5/SDO
RC4/SDI/SDA
RD3/PSP3
RD2/PSP2
PIC16C74
PIC16C74A
PIC16C77
 1997 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC16C7X
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
PIC16C74
33
32
31
30
29
28
27
26
25
24
23
NC
RC0/T1OSO/T1CKI
OSC2/CLKOUT
OSC1/CLKIN
VSS
VDD
RE2/CS/AN7
RE1/WR/AN6
RE0/RD/AN5
RA5/SS/AN4
RA4/T0CKI
MQFP
TQFP
RC7/RX/DT
RD4/PSP4
RD5/PSP5
RD6/PSP6
RD7/PSP7
VSS
VDD
RB0/INT
RB1
RB2
RB3
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
PIC16C74A
PIC16C77
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
RB3
RB2
RB1
RB0/INT
VDD
VSS
RD7/PSP7
RD6/PSP6
RD5/PSP5
RD4/PSP4
RC7/RX/DT
NC
NC
RB4
RB5
RB6
RB7
MCLR/VPP
RA0/AN0
RA1/AN1
RA2/AN2
RA3/AN3/VREF
PIC16C74
PIC16C74A
PIC16C77
39
38
37
36
35
34
33
32
31
30
29
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
RC1/T1OSI/CCP2
RC2/CCP1
RC3/SCK/SCL
RD0/PSP0
RD1/PSP1
RD2/PSP2
RD3/PSP3
RC4/SDI/SDA
RC5/SDO
RC6/TX/CK
NC
RA4/T0CKI
RA5/SS/AN4
RE0/RD/AN5
RE1/WR/AN6
RE2/CS/AN7
VDD
VSS
OSC1/CLKIN
OSC2/CLKOUT
RC0/T1OSO/T1CKI
NC
44
43
42
41
40
39
38
37
36
35
34
6
5
4
3
2
1
44
43
42
41
40
PLCC
RC6/TX/CK
RC5/SDO
RC4/SDI/SDA
RD3/PSP3
RD2/PSP2
RD1/PSP1
RD0/PSP0
RC3/SCK/SCL
RC2/CCP1
RC1/T1OSI/CCP2
NC
RA3/AN3/VREF
RA2/AN2
RA1/AN1
RA0/AN0
MCLR/VPP
NC
RB7
RB6
RB5
RB4
NC
NC
NC
RB4
RB5
RB6
RB7
MCLR/VPP
RA0/AN0
RA1/AN1
RA2/AN2
RA3/AN3/VREF
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
RC7/RX/DT
RD4/PSP4
RD5/PSP5
RD6/PSP6
RD7/PSP7
VSS
VDD
RB0/INT
RB1
RB2
RB3
44
43
42
41
40
39
38
37
36
35
34
MQFP
RC6/TX/CK
RC5/SDO
RC4/SDI/SDA
RD3/PSP3
RD2/PSP2
RD1/PSP1
RD0/PSP0
RC3/SCK/SCL
RC2/CCP1
RC1/T1OSI/CCP2
NC
Pin Diagrams (Cont.’d)
 1997 Microchip Technology Inc.
33
32
31
30
29
28
27
26
25
24
23
NC
RC0/T1OSO/T1CKI
OSC2/CLKOUT
OSC1/CLKIN
VSS
VDD
RE2/CS/AN7
RE1/WR/AN6
RE0/RD/AN5
RA5/SS/AN4
RA4/T0CKI
DS30390E-page 3
PIC16C7X
Table of Contents
1.0 General Description ....................................................................................................................................................................... 5
2.0 PIC16C7X Device Varieties ........................................................................................................................................................... 7
3.0 Architectural Overview ................................................................................................................................................................... 9
4.0 Memory Organization................................................................................................................................................................... 19
5.0 I/O Ports....................................................................................................................................................................................... 43
6.0 Overview of Timer Modules ......................................................................................................................................................... 57
7.0 Timer0 Module ............................................................................................................................................................................. 59
8.0 Timer1 Module ............................................................................................................................................................................. 65
9.0 Timer2 Module ............................................................................................................................................................................. 69
10.0 Capture/Compare/PWM Module(s).............................................................................................................................................. 71
11.0 Synchronous Serial Port (SSP) Module....................................................................................................................................... 77
12.0 Universal Synchronous Asynchronous Receiver Transmitter (USART) ...................................................................................... 99
13.0 Analog-to-Digital Converter (A/D) Module ................................................................................................................................. 117
14.0 Special Features of the CPU ..................................................................................................................................................... 129
15.0 Instruction Set Summary............................................................................................................................................................ 147
16.0 Development Support ................................................................................................................................................................ 163
17.0 Electrical Characteristics for PIC16C72 ..................................................................................................................................... 167
18.0 Electrical Characteristics for PIC16C73/74................................................................................................................................ 183
19.0 Electrical Characteristics for PIC16C73A/74A ........................................................................................................................... 201
20.0 Electrical Characteristics for PIC16C76/77................................................................................................................................ 219
21.0 DC and AC Characteristics Graphs and Tables ........................................................................................................................ 241
22.0 Packaging Information ............................................................................................................................................................... 251
Appendix A: ................................................................................................................................................................................... 263
Appendix B:
Compatibility ............................................................................................................................................................. 263
Appendix C:
What’s New............................................................................................................................................................... 264
Appendix D:
What’s Changed ....................................................................................................................................................... 264
Appendix E:
PIC16/17 Microcontrollers ....................................................................................................................................... 265
Pin Compatibility ................................................................................................................................................................................ 271
Index .................................................................................................................................................................................................. 273
List of Examples................................................................................................................................................................................. 279
List of Figures..................................................................................................................................................................................... 280
List of Tables...................................................................................................................................................................................... 283
Reader Response .............................................................................................................................................................................. 286
PIC16C7X Product Identification System........................................................................................................................................... 287
For register and module descriptions in this data sheet, device legends show which devices apply to those sections. As
an example, the legend below would mean that the following section applies only to the PIC16C72, PIC16C73A and
PIC16C74A devices.
Applicable Devices
72 73 73A 74 74A 76 77
To Our Valued Customers
We constantly strive to improve the quality of all our products and documentation. We have spent an exceptional
amount of time to ensure that these documents are correct. However, we realize that we may have missed a few
things. If you find any information that is missing or appears in error, please use the reader response form in the
back of this data sheet to inform us. We appreciate your assistance in making this a better document.
DS30390E-page 4
 1997 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC16C7X
1.0
GENERAL DESCRIPTION
The PIC16C7X is a family of low-cost, high-performance, CMOS, fully-static, 8-bit microcontrollers with
integrated analog-to-digital (A/D) converters, in the
PIC16CXX mid-range family.
All PIC16/17 microcontrollers employ an advanced
RISC architecture. The PIC16CXX microcontroller family has enhanced core features, eight-level deep stack,
and multiple internal and external interrupt sources.
The separate instruction and data buses of the Harvard
architecture allow a 14-bit wide instruction word with
the separate 8-bit wide data. The two stage instruction
pipeline allows all instructions to execute in a single
cycle, except for program branches which require two
cycles. A total of 35 instructions (reduced instruction
set) are available. Additionally, a large register set gives
some of the architectural innovations used to achieve a
very high performance.
PIC16CXX microcontrollers typically achieve a 2:1
code compression and a 4:1 speed improvement over
other 8-bit microcontrollers in their class.
The PIC16C72 has 128 bytes of RAM and 22 I/O pins.
In addition several peripheral features are available
including: three timer/counters, one Capture/Compare/
PWM module and one serial port. The Synchronous
Serial Port can be configured as either a 3-wire Serial
Peripheral Interface (SPI) or the two-wire Inter-Integrated Circuit (I 2C) bus. Also a 5-channel high-speed
8-bit A/D is provided. The 8-bit resolution is ideally
suited for applications requiring low-cost analog interface, e.g. thermostat control, pressure sensing, etc.
The PIC16C73/73A devices have 192 bytes of RAM,
while the PIC16C76 has 368 byes of RAM. Each device
has 22 I/O pins. In addition, several peripheral features
are available including: three timer/counters, two Capture/Compare/PWM modules and two serial ports. The
Synchronous Serial Port can be configured as either a
3-wire Serial Peripheral Interface (SPI) or the two-wire
Inter-Integrated Circuit (I 2C) bus. The Universal Synchronous
Asynchronous
Receiver
Transmitter
(USART) is also known as the Serial Communications
Interface or SCI. Also a 5-channel high-speed 8-bit A/
D is provided.The 8-bit resolution is ideally suited for
applications requiring low-cost analog interface, e.g.
thermostat control, pressure sensing, etc.
The PIC16C74/74A devices have 192 bytes of RAM,
while the PIC16C77 has 368 bytes of RAM. Each
device has 33 I/O pins. In addition several peripheral
features are available including: three timer/counters,
two Capture/Compare/PWM modules and two serial
ports. The Synchronous Serial Port can be configured
as either a 3-wire Serial Peripheral Interface (SPI) or
the two-wire Inter-Integrated Circuit (I2C) bus. The Universal Synchronous Asynchronous Receiver Transmitter (USART) is also known as the Serial
Communications Interface or SCI. An 8-bit Parallel
Slave Port is provided. Also an 8-channel high-speed
 1997 Microchip Technology Inc.
8-bit A/D is provided. The 8-bit resolution is ideally
suited for applications requiring low-cost analog interface, e.g. thermostat control, pressure sensing, etc.
The PIC16C7X family has special features to reduce
external components, thus reducing cost, enhancing
system reliability and reducing power consumption.
There are four oscillator options, of which the single pin
RC oscillator provides a low-cost solution, the LP oscillator minimizes power consumption, XT is a standard
crystal, and the HS is for High Speed crystals. The
SLEEP (power-down) feature provides a power saving
mode. The user can wake up the chip from SLEEP
through several external and internal interrupts and
resets.
A highly reliable Watchdog Timer with its own on-chip
RC oscillator provides protection against software lockup.
A UV erasable CERDIP packaged version is ideal for
code development while the cost-effective One-TimeProgrammable (OTP) version is suitable for production
in any volume.
The PIC16C7X family fits perfectly in applications ranging from security and remote sensors to appliance control and automotive. The EPROM technology makes
customization of application programs (transmitter
codes, motor speeds, receiver frequencies, etc.)
extremely fast and convenient. The small footprint
packages make this microcontroller series perfect for
all applications with space limitations. Low cost, low
power, high performance, ease of use and I/O flexibility
make the PIC16C7X very versatile even in areas where
no microcontroller use has been considered before
(e.g. timer functions, serial communication, capture
and compare, PWM functions and coprocessor applications).
1.1
Family and Upward Compatibility
Users familiar with the PIC16C5X microcontroller family will realize that this is an enhanced version of the
PIC16C5X architecture. Please refer to Appendix A for
a detailed list of enhancements. Code written for the
PIC16C5X can be easily ported to the PIC16CXX family of devices (Appendix B).
1.2
Development Support
PIC16C7X devices are supported by the complete line
of Microchip Development tools.
Please refer to Section 16.0 for more details about
Microchip’s development tools.
DS30390E-page 5
PIC16C7X
TABLE 1-1:
PIC16C7XX FAMILY OF DEVCES
PIC16C710
PIC16C71
PIC16C711
PIC16C715
PIC16C72
PIC16CR72(1)
Maximum Frequency
of Operation (MHz)
20
20
20
20
20
20
EPROM Program Memory
(x14 words)
512
1K
1K
2K
2K
—
ROM Program Memory
(14K words)
—
—
—
—
—
2K
Data Memory (bytes)
36
36
68
128
128
128
Timer Module(s)
TMR0
TMR0
TMR0
TMR0
TMR0,
TMR1,
TMR2
TMR0,
TMR1,
TMR2
Capture/Compare/
Peripherals PWM Module(s)
—
—
—
—
1
1
Serial Port(s)
(SPI/I2C, USART)
—
—
—
—
SPI/I2C
SPI/I2C
Parallel Slave Port
—
—
Clock
Memory
Features
—
—
—
—
A/D Converter (8-bit) Channels 4
4
4
4
5
5
Interrupt Sources
4
4
4
4
8
8
I/O Pins
13
13
13
13
22
22
Voltage Range (Volts)
3.0-6.0
3.0-6.0
3.0-6.0
3.0-5.5
2.5-6.0
3.0-5.5
In-Circuit Serial Programming
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Brown-out Reset
Yes
—
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Packages
18-pin DIP, 18-pin DIP, 18-pin DIP, 18-pin DIP, 28-pin SDIP, 28-pin SDIP,
SOIC;
SOIC
SOIC;
SOIC;
SOIC, SSOP SOIC, SSOP
20-pin SSOP
20-pin SSOP 20-pin SSOP
PIC16C74A
PIC16C73A
Clock
Memory
PIC16C77
Maximum Frequency of Oper- 20
ation (MHz)
20
20
20
EPROM Program Memory
(x14 words)
4K
4K
8K
8K
Data Memory (bytes)
192
192
368
368
Timer Module(s)
TMR0,
TMR1,
TMR2
TMR0,
TMR1,
TMR2
TMR0,
TMR1,
TMR2
TMR0,
TMR1,
TMR2
2
2
2
Serial Port(s) (SPI/I2C, US- SPI/I2C, USART
ART)
SPI/I2C, USART
SPI/I2C, USART
SPI/I2C, USART
Parallel Slave Port
Yes
—
Yes
8
5
8
Capture/Compare/PWM Mod- 2
Peripherals ule(s)
—
A/D Converter (8-bit) Channels 5
Features
PIC16C76
Interrupt Sources
11
12
11
12
I/O Pins
22
33
22
33
Voltage Range (Volts)
2.5-6.0
2.5-6.0
2.5-6.0
2.5-6.0
In-Circuit Serial Programming
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Brown-out Reset
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Packages
28-pin SDIP,
SOIC
40-pin DIP;
44-pin PLCC,
MQFP, TQFP
28-pin SDIP,
SOIC
40-pin DIP;
44-pin PLCC,
MQFP, TQFP
All PIC16/17 Family devices have Power-on Reset, selectable Watchdog Timer, selectable code protect and high I/O current capability. All PIC16C7XX Family devices use serial programming with clock pin RB6 and data pin RB7.
Note 1: Please contact your local Microchip sales office for availability of these devices.
DS30390E-page 6
 1997 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC16C7X
2.0
PIC16C7X DEVICE VARIETIES
A variety of frequency ranges and packaging options
are available. Depending on application and production
requirements, the proper device option can be selected
using the information in the PIC16C7X Product Identification System section at the end of this data sheet.
When placing orders, please use that page of the data
sheet to specify the correct part number.
For the PIC16C7X family, there are two device “types”
as indicated in the device number:
1.
2.
2.1
C, as in PIC16C74. These devices have
EPROM type memory and operate over the
standard voltage range.
LC, as in PIC16LC74. These devices have
EPROM type memory and operate over an
extended voltage range.
UV Erasable Devices
The UV erasable version, offered in CERDIP package
is optimal for prototype development and pilot
programs. This version can be erased and
reprogrammed to any of the oscillator modes.
2.3
Quick-Turnaround-Production (QTP)
Devices
Microchip offers a QTP Programming Service for factory production orders. This service is made available
for users who choose not to program a medium to high
quantity of units and whose code patterns have stabilized. The devices are identical to the OTP devices but
with all EPROM locations and configuration options
already programmed by the factory. Certain code and
prototype verification procedures apply before production shipments are available. Please contact your local
Microchip Technology sales office for more details.
2.4
Serialized Quick-Turnaround
Production (SQTPSM) Devices
Microchip offers a unique programming service where
a few user-defined locations in each device are programmed with different serial numbers. The serial numbers may be random, pseudo-random, or sequential.
Serial programming allows each device to have a
unique number which can serve as an entry-code,
password, or ID number.
Microchip's PICSTART Plus and PRO MATE II
programmers both support programming of the
PIC16C7X.
2.2
One-Time-Programmable (OTP)
Devices
The availability of OTP devices is especially useful for
customers who need the flexibility for frequent code
updates and small volume applications.
The OTP devices, packaged in plastic packages, permit the user to program them once. In addition to the
program memory, the configuration bits must also be
programmed.
 1997 Microchip Technology Inc.
DS30390E-page 7
PIC16C7X
NOTES:
DS30390E-page 8
 1997 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC16C7X
3.0
ARCHITECTURAL OVERVIEW
The high performance of the PIC16CXX family can be
attributed to a number of architectural features commonly found in RISC microprocessors. To begin with,
the PIC16CXX uses a Harvard architecture, in which,
program and data are accessed from separate memories using separate buses. This improves bandwidth
over traditional von Neumann architecture in which program and data are fetched from the same memory
using the same bus. Separating program and data
buses further allows instructions to be sized differently
than the 8-bit wide data word. Instruction opcodes are
14-bits wide making it possible to have all single word
instructions. A 14-bit wide program memory access
bus fetches a 14-bit instruction in a single cycle. A twostage pipeline overlaps fetch and execution of instructions (Example 3-1). Consequently, all instructions (35)
execute in a single cycle (200 ns @ 20 MHz) except for
program branches.
The table below lists program memory (EPROM) and
data memory (RAM) for each PIC16C7X device.
Device
PIC16C72
PIC16C73
PIC16C73A
PIC16C74
PIC16C74A
PIC16C76
PIC16C77
Program
Memory
2K x 14
4K x 14
4K x 14
4K x 14
4K x 14
8K x 14
8K x 14
PIC16CXX devices contain an 8-bit ALU and working
register. The ALU is a general purpose arithmetic unit.
It performs arithmetic and Boolean functions between
the data in the working register and any register file.
The ALU is 8-bits wide and capable of addition, subtraction, shift and logical operations. Unless otherwise
mentioned, arithmetic operations are two's complement in nature. In two-operand instructions, typically
one operand is the working register (W register). The
other operand is a file register or an immediate constant. In single operand instructions, the operand is
either the W register or a file register.
The W register is an 8-bit working register used for ALU
operations. It is not an addressable register.
Depending on the instruction executed, the ALU may
affect the values of the Carry (C), Digit Carry (DC), and
Zero (Z) bits in the STATUS register. The C and DC bits
operate as a borrow bit and a digit borrow out bit,
respectively, in subtraction. See the SUBLW and SUBWF
instructions for examples.
Data Memory
128 x 8
192 x 8
192 x 8
192 x 8
192 x 8
368 x 8
386 x 8
The PIC16CXX can directly or indirectly address its
register files or data memory. All special function registers, including the program counter, are mapped in the
data memory. The PIC16CXX has an orthogonal (symmetrical) instruction set that makes it possible to carry
out any operation on any register using any addressing
mode. This symmetrical nature and lack of ‘special
optimal situations’ make programming with the
PIC16CXX simple yet efficient. In addition, the learning
curve is reduced significantly.
 1997 Microchip Technology Inc.
DS30390E-page 9
PIC16C7X
FIGURE 3-1:
PIC16C72 BLOCK DIAGRAM
13
Program
Memory
Program
Bus
14
PORTA
RA0/AN0
RA1/AN1
RA2/AN2
RA3/AN3/VREF
RA4/T0CKI
RA5/SS/AN4
RAM
File
Registers
128 x 8
8 Level Stack
(13-bit)
2K x 14
8
Data Bus
Program Counter
EPROM
RAM Addr(1)
PORTB
9
Addr MUX
Instruction reg
7
Direct Addr
8
RB0/INT
Indirect
Addr
RB7:RB1
FSR reg
STATUS reg
8
3
Power-up
Timer
Oscillator
Start-up Timer
Instruction
Decode &
Control
Power-on
Reset
Timing
Generation
ALU
MCLR
RC0/T1OSO/T1CKI
RC1/T1OSI
RC2/CCP1
RC3/SCK/SCL
RC4/SDI/SDA
RC5/SDO
RC6
RC7
8
Watchdog
Timer
Brown-out
Reset
OSC1/CLKIN
OSC2/CLKOUT
MUX
PORTC
W reg
VDD, VSS
Timer0
Timer1
Timer2
A/D
Synchronous
Serial Port
CCP1
Note 1: Higher order bits are from the STATUS register.
DS30390E-page 10
 1997 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC16C7X
FIGURE 3-2:
Device
PIC16C73/73A/76 BLOCK DIAGRAM
Program Memory Data Memory (RAM)
PIC16C73
PIC16C73A
PIC16C76
4K x 14
4K x 14
8K x 14
192 x 8
192 x 8
368 x 8
13
8
Data Bus
Program Counter
PORTA
RA0/AN0
RA1/AN1
RA2/AN2
RA3/AN3/VREF
RA4/T0CKI
RA5/SS/AN4
EPROM
Program
Memory
Program
Bus
RAM
File
Registers
8 Level Stack
(13-bit)
14
RAM Addr(1)
PORTB
9
Addr MUX
Instruction reg
7
Direct Addr
8
RB0/INT
Indirect
Addr
RB7:RB1
FSR reg
STATUS reg
8
3
MUX
Power-up
Timer
Instruction
Decode &
Control
Oscillator
Start-up Timer
Timing
Generation
Watchdog
Timer
Brown-out
Reset(2)
OSC1/CLKIN
OSC2/CLKOUT
Power-on
Reset
MCLR
ALU
PORTC
RC0/T1OSO/T1CKI
RC1/T1OSI/CCP2
RC2/CCP1
RC3/SCK/SCL
RC4/SDI/SDA
RC5/SDO
RC6/TX/CK
RC7/RX/DT
8
W reg
VDD, VSS
Timer0
Timer1
Timer2
A/D
CCP1
CCP2
Synchronous
Serial Port
USART
Note 1: Higher order bits are from the STATUS register.
2: Brown-out Reset is not available on the PIC16C73.
 1997 Microchip Technology Inc.
DS30390E-page 11
PIC16C7X
FIGURE 3-3:
Device
PIC16C74/74A/77 BLOCK DIAGRAM
Program Memory Data Memory (RAM)
PIC16C74
PIC16C74A
PIC16C77
4K x 14
4K x 14
8K x 14
192 x 8
192 x 8
368 x 8
13
8
Data Bus
Program Counter
PORTA
RA0/AN0
RA1/AN1
RA2/AN2
RA3/AN3/VREF
RA4/T0CKI
RA5/SS/AN4
EPROM
Program
Memory
Program
Bus
RAM
File
Registers
8 Level Stack
(13-bit)
14
RAM Addr (1)
PORTB
9
Addr MUX
Instruction reg
Direct Addr
7
8
RB0/INT
Indirect
Addr
RB7:RB1
FSR reg
STATUS reg
8
3
Power-up
Timer
Instruction
Decode &
Control
Timing
Generation
OSC1/CLKIN
OSC2/CLKOUT
Oscillator
Start-up Timer
Power-on
Reset
RC0/T1OSO/T1CKI
RC1/T1OSI/CCP2
RC2/CCP1
RC3/SCK/SCL
RC4/SDI/SDA
RC5/SDO
RC6/TX/CK
RC7/RX/DT
MUX
ALU
PORTD
8
Watchdog
Timer
Brown-out
Reset(2)
W reg
RD7/PSP7:RD0/PSP0
Parallel Slave Port
MCLR
PORTC
VDD, VSS
PORTE
RE0/RD/AN5
RE1/WR/AN6
Timer0
Timer1
Timer2
A/D
CCP1
CCP2
Synchronous
Serial Port
USART
RE2/CS/AN7
Note 1: Higher order bits are from the STATUS register.
2: Brown-out Reset is not available on the PIC16C74.
DS30390E-page 12
 1997 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC16C7X
TABLE 3-1:
PIC16C72 PINOUT DESCRIPTION
DIP
Pin#
SSOP
Pin#
SOIC
Pin#
I/O/P
Type
OSC1/CLKIN
9
9
9
I
OSC2/CLKOUT
10
10
10
O
—
Oscillator crystal output. Connects to crystal or resonator in
crystal oscillator mode. In RC mode, the OSC2 pin outputs
CLKOUT which has 1/4 the frequency of OSC1, and denotes
the instruction cycle rate.
MCLR/VPP
1
1
1
I/P
ST
RA0/AN0
RA1/AN1
RA2/AN2
RA3/AN3/VREF
RA4/T0CKI
2
3
4
5
6
2
3
4
5
6
2
3
4
5
6
I/O
I/O
I/O
I/O
I/O
TTL
TTL
TTL
TTL
ST
RA5/SS/AN4
7
7
7
I/O
TTL
RB0/INT
RB1
RB2
RB3
RB4
RB5
RB6
RB7
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
I/O
I/O
I/O
I/O
I/O
I/O
I/O
I/O
TTL/ST(1)
TTL
TTL
TTL
TTL
TTL
TTL/ST(2)
TTL/ST(2)
Master clear (reset) input or programming voltage input. This
pin is an active low reset to the device.
PORTA is a bi-directional I/O port.
RA0 can also be analog input0
RA1 can also be analog input1
RA2 can also be analog input2
RA3 can also be analog input3 or analog reference voltage
RA4 can also be the clock input to the Timer0 module.
Output is open drain type.
RA5 can also be analog input4 or the slave select for the
synchronous serial port.
PORTB is a bi-directional I/O port. PORTB can be software
programmed for internal weak pull-up on all inputs.
RB0 can also be the external interrupt pin.
RC0/T1OSO/T1CKI
11
11
11
I/O
ST
RC1/T1OSI
RC2/CCP1
12
13
12
13
12
13
I/O
I/O
ST
ST
RC3/SCK/SCL
14
14
14
I/O
ST
RC4/SDI/SDA
15
15
15
I/O
ST
Pin Name
RC5/SDO
RC6
RC7
VSS
VDD
Legend: I = input
Buffer
Type
Description
ST/CMOS(3) Oscillator crystal input/external clock source input.
Interrupt on change pin.
Interrupt on change pin.
Interrupt on change pin. Serial programming clock.
Interrupt on change pin. Serial programming data.
PORTC is a bi-directional I/O port.
RC0 can also be the Timer1 oscillator output or Timer1
clock input.
RC1 can also be the Timer1 oscillator input.
RC2 can also be the Capture1 input/Compare1 output/
PWM1 output.
RC3 can also be the synchronous serial clock input/output
for both SPI and I2C modes.
RC4 can also be the SPI Data In (SPI mode) or
data I/O (I2C mode).
RC5 can also be the SPI Data Out (SPI mode).
16
16
16
I/O
ST
17
17
17
I/O
ST
18
18
18
I/O
ST
8, 19 8, 19
8, 19
P
—
Ground reference for logic and I/O pins.
20
20
20
P
—
Positive supply for logic and I/O pins.
O = output
I/O = input/output
P = power
— = Not used
TTL = TTL input
ST = Schmitt Trigger input
Note 1: This buffer is a Schmitt Trigger input when configured as the external interrupt.
2: This buffer is a Schmitt Trigger input when used in serial programming mode.
3: This buffer is a Schmitt Trigger input when configured in RC oscillator mode and a CMOS input otherwise.
 1997 Microchip Technology Inc.
DS30390E-page 13
PIC16C7X
TABLE 3-2:
PIC16C73/73A/76 PINOUT DESCRIPTION
DIP
Pin#
SOIC
Pin#
I/O/P
Type
OSC1/CLKIN
9
9
I
OSC2/CLKOUT
10
10
O
—
Oscillator crystal output. Connects to crystal or resonator in
crystal oscillator mode. In RC mode, the OSC2 pin outputs
CLKOUT which has 1/4 the frequency of OSC1, and denotes
the instruction cycle rate.
MCLR/VPP
1
1
I/P
ST
RA0/AN0
RA1/AN1
RA2/AN2
RA3/AN3/VREF
RA4/T0CKI
2
3
4
5
6
2
3
4
5
6
I/O
I/O
I/O
I/O
I/O
TTL
TTL
TTL
TTL
ST
RA5/SS/AN4
7
7
I/O
TTL
RB0/INT
RB1
RB2
RB3
RB4
RB5
RB6
RB7
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
I/O
I/O
I/O
I/O
I/O
I/O
I/O
I/O
TTL/ST(1)
TTL
TTL
TTL
TTL
TTL
TTL/ST(2)
TTL/ST(2)
Master clear (reset) input or programming voltage input. This
pin is an active low reset to the device.
PORTA is a bi-directional I/O port.
RA0 can also be analog input0
RA1 can also be analog input1
RA2 can also be analog input2
RA3 can also be analog input3 or analog reference voltage
RA4 can also be the clock input to the Timer0 module.
Output is open drain type.
RA5 can also be analog input4 or the slave select for the
synchronous serial port.
PORTB is a bi-directional I/O port. PORTB can be software
programmed for internal weak pull-up on all inputs.
RB0 can also be the external interrupt pin.
Pin Name
Buffer
Type
Description
ST/CMOS(3) Oscillator crystal input/external clock source input.
Interrupt on change pin.
Interrupt on change pin.
Interrupt on change pin. Serial programming clock.
Interrupt on change pin. Serial programming data.
PORTC is a bi-directional I/O port.
RC0/T1OSO/T1CKI
11
11
I/O
ST
RC0 can also be the Timer1 oscillator output or Timer1
clock input.
RC1/T1OSI/CCP2
12
12
I/O
ST
RC1 can also be the Timer1 oscillator input or Capture2
input/Compare2 output/PWM2 output.
RC2/CCP1
13
13
I/O
ST
RC2 can also be the Capture1 input/Compare1 output/
PWM1 output.
RC3/SCK/SCL
14
14
I/O
ST
RC3 can also be the synchronous serial clock input/output
for both SPI and I2C modes.
RC4/SDI/SDA
15
15
I/O
ST
RC4 can also be the SPI Data In (SPI mode) or
data I/O (I2C mode).
RC5/SDO
16
16
I/O
ST
RC5 can also be the SPI Data Out (SPI mode).
RC6/TX/CK
17
17
I/O
ST
RC6 can also be the USART Asynchronous Transmit or
Synchronous Clock.
RC7/RX/DT
18
18
I/O
ST
RC7 can also be the USART Asynchronous Receive or
Synchronous Data.
VSS
8, 19
8, 19
P
—
Ground reference for logic and I/O pins.
VDD
20
20
P
—
Positive supply for logic and I/O pins.
Legend: I = input
O = output
I/O = input/output
P = power
— = Not used
TTL = TTL input
ST = Schmitt Trigger input
Note 1: This buffer is a Schmitt Trigger input when configured as the external interrupt.
2: This buffer is a Schmitt Trigger input when used in serial programming mode.
3: This buffer is a Schmitt Trigger input when configured in RC oscillator mode and a CMOS input otherwise.
DS30390E-page 14
 1997 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC16C7X
TABLE 3-3:
PIC16C74/74A/77 PINOUT DESCRIPTION
DIP
Pin#
PLCC
Pin#
QFP
Pin#
I/O/P
Type
OSC1/CLKIN
13
14
30
I
OSC2/CLKOUT
14
15
31
O
—
Oscillator crystal output. Connects to crystal or resonator in
crystal oscillator mode. In RC mode, OSC2 pin outputs
CLKOUT which has 1/4 the frequency of OSC1, and
denotes the instruction cycle rate.
MCLR/VPP
1
2
18
I/P
ST
Master clear (reset) input or programming voltage input.
This pin is an active low reset to the device.
RA0/AN0
2
3
19
I/O
TTL
RA0 can also be analog input0
RA1/AN1
3
4
20
I/O
TTL
RA1 can also be analog input1
RA2/AN2
4
5
21
I/O
TTL
RA2 can also be analog input2
RA3/AN3/VREF
5
6
22
I/O
TTL
RA3 can also be analog input3 or analog reference
voltage
RA4/T0CKI
6
7
23
I/O
ST
RA4 can also be the clock input to the Timer0 timer/
counter. Output is open drain type.
RA5/SS/AN4
7
8
24
I/O
TTL
RA5 can also be analog input4 or the slave select for
the synchronous serial port.
Pin Name
Buffer
Type
Description
ST/CMOS(4) Oscillator crystal input/external clock source input.
PORTA is a bi-directional I/O port.
PORTB is a bi-directional I/O port. PORTB can be software
programmed for internal weak pull-up on all inputs.
RB0/INT
33
36
8
I/O
TTL/ST(1)
RB1
34
37
9
I/O
TTL
RB2
35
38
10
I/O
TTL
RB3
36
39
11
I/O
TTL
RB4
37
41
14
I/O
TTL
Interrupt on change pin.
RB5
38
42
15
I/O
TTL
Interrupt on change pin.
I/O
TTL/ST(2)
RB6
39
43
16
RB0 can also be the external interrupt pin.
Interrupt on change pin. Serial programming clock.
40
44
17
I/O
TTL/ST(2)
Interrupt on change pin. Serial programming data.
O = output
I/O = input/output
P = power
— = Not used
TTL = TTL input
ST = Schmitt Trigger input
This buffer is a Schmitt Trigger input when configured as an external interrupt.
This buffer is a Schmitt Trigger input when used in serial programming mode.
This buffer is a Schmitt Trigger input when configured as general purpose I/O and a TTL input when used in the Parallel
Slave Port mode (for interfacing to a microprocessor bus).
This buffer is a Schmitt Trigger input when configured in RC oscillator mode and a CMOS input otherwise.
RB7
Legend: I = input
Note 1:
2:
3:
4:
 1997 Microchip Technology Inc.
DS30390E-page 15
PIC16C7X
TABLE 3-3:
PIC16C74/74A/77 PINOUT DESCRIPTION (Cont.’d)
Pin Name
DIP
Pin#
PLCC
Pin#
QFP
Pin#
I/O/P
Type
Buffer
Type
Description
PORTC is a bi-directional I/O port.
RC0/T1OSO/T1CKI
15
16
32
I/O
ST
RC0 can also be the Timer1 oscillator output or a
Timer1 clock input.
RC1/T1OSI/CCP2
16
18
35
I/O
ST
RC1 can also be the Timer1 oscillator input or
Capture2 input/Compare2 output/PWM2 output.
RC2/CCP1
17
19
36
I/O
ST
RC2 can also be the Capture1 input/Compare1 output/
PWM1 output.
RC3/SCK/SCL
18
20
37
I/O
ST
RC3 can also be the synchronous serial clock input/
output for both SPI and I2C modes.
RC4/SDI/SDA
23
25
42
I/O
ST
RC4 can also be the SPI Data In (SPI mode) or
data I/O (I2C mode).
RC5/SDO
24
26
43
I/O
ST
RC5 can also be the SPI Data Out
(SPI mode).
RC6/TX/CK
25
27
44
I/O
ST
RC6 can also be the USART Asynchronous Transmit or
Synchronous Clock.
RC7/RX/DT
26
29
1
I/O
ST
RC7 can also be the USART Asynchronous Receive or
Synchronous Data.
PORTD is a bi-directional I/O port or parallel slave port
when interfacing to a microprocessor bus.
RD0/PSP0
RD1/PSP1
RD2/PSP2
RD3/PSP3
RD4/PSP4
RD5/PSP5
RD6/PSP6
RD7/PSP7
19
20
21
22
27
28
29
30
21
22
23
24
30
31
32
33
38
39
40
41
2
3
4
5
I/O
I/O
I/O
I/O
I/O
I/O
I/O
I/O
ST/TTL(3)
ST/TTL(3)
ST/TTL(3)
ST/TTL(3)
ST/TTL(3)
ST/TTL(3)
ST/TTL(3)
ST/TTL(3)
RE0/RD/AN5
8
9
25
I/O
ST/TTL(3)
RE0 can also be read control for the parallel slave port,
or analog input5.
RE1/WR/AN6
9
10
26
I/O
ST/TTL(3)
RE1 can also be write control for the parallel slave port,
or analog input6.
RE2/CS/AN7
10
11
27
I/O
ST/TTL(3)
12,31
11,32
—
13,34
12,35
1,17,28,
40
6,29
7,28
12,13,
33,34
P
P
—
—
—
RE2 can also be select control for the parallel slave
port, or analog input7.
Ground reference for logic and I/O pins.
Positive supply for logic and I/O pins.
These pins are not internally connected. These pins should
be left unconnected.
PORTE is a bi-directional I/O port.
VSS
VDD
NC
Legend: I = input
Note 1:
2:
3:
4:
O = output
I/O = input/output
P = power
— = Not used
TTL = TTL input
ST = Schmitt Trigger input
This buffer is a Schmitt Trigger input when configured as an external interrupt.
This buffer is a Schmitt Trigger input when used in serial programming mode.
This buffer is a Schmitt Trigger input when configured as general purpose I/O and a TTL input when used in the Parallel
Slave Port mode (for interfacing to a microprocessor bus).
This buffer is a Schmitt Trigger input when configured in RC oscillator mode and a CMOS input otherwise.
DS30390E-page 16
 1997 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC16C7X
3.1
Clocking Scheme/Instruction Cycle
3.2
The clock input (from OSC1) is internally divided by
four to generate four non-overlapping quadrature
clocks namely Q1, Q2, Q3 and Q4. Internally, the program counter (PC) is incremented every Q1, the
instruction is fetched from the program memory and
latched into the instruction register in Q4. The instruction is decoded and executed during the following Q1
through Q4. The clocks and instruction execution flow
is shown in Figure 3-4.
Instruction Flow/Pipelining
An “Instruction Cycle” consists of four Q cycles (Q1,
Q2, Q3 and Q4). The instruction fetch and execute are
pipelined such that fetch takes one instruction cycle
while decode and execute takes another instruction
cycle. However, due to the pipelining, each instruction
effectively executes in one cycle. If an instruction
causes the program counter to change (e.g. GOTO)
then two cycles are required to complete the instruction
(Example 3-1).
A fetch cycle begins with the program counter (PC)
incrementing in Q1.
In the execution cycle, the fetched instruction is latched
into the “Instruction Register" (IR) in cycle Q1. This
instruction is then decoded and executed during the
Q2, Q3, and Q4 cycles. Data memory is read during Q2
(operand read) and written during Q4 (destination
write).
FIGURE 3-4:
CLOCK/INSTRUCTION CYCLE
Q1
Q2
Q3
Q4
Q1
Q2
Q3
Q4
Q1
Q2
Q3
Q4
OSC1
Q1
Q2
Internal
phase
clock
Q3
Q4
PC
OSC2/CLKOUT
(RC mode)
EXAMPLE 3-1:
PC
PC+1
Fetch INST (PC)
Execute INST (PC-1)
PC+2
Fetch INST (PC+1)
Execute INST (PC)
Fetch INST (PC+2)
Execute INST (PC+1)
INSTRUCTION PIPELINE FLOW
1. MOVLW 55h
Tcy0
Tcy1
Fetch 1
Execute 1
2. MOVWF PORTB
3. CALL
SUB_1
4. BSF
PORTA, BIT3 (Forced NOP)
5. Instruction @ address SUB_1
Fetch 2
Tcy2
Tcy3
Tcy4
Tcy5
Execute 2
Fetch 3
Execute 3
Fetch 4
Flush
Fetch SUB_1 Execute SUB_1
All instructions are single cycle, except for any program branches. These take two cycles since the fetch
instruction is “flushed” from the pipeline while the new instruction is being fetched and then executed.
 1997 Microchip Technology Inc.
DS30390E-page 17
PIC16C7X
NOTES:
DS30390E-page 18
 1997 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC16C7X
4.0
MEMORY ORGANIZATION
FIGURE 4-2:
Applicable Devices
72 73 73A 74 74A 76 77
Program Memory Organization
The PIC16C7X family has a 13-bit program counter
capable of addressing an 8K x 14 program memory
space. The amount of program memory available to
each device is listed below:
Device
Program
Memory
Address Range
CALL, RETURN
RETFIE, RETLW
13
Stack Level 1
Stack Level 8
PIC16C72
2K x 14
0000h-07FFh
PIC16C73
4K x 14
0000h-0FFFh
PIC16C73A
4K x 14
0000h-0FFFh
PIC16C74
4K x 14
0000h-0FFFh
PIC16C74A
4K x 14
0000h-0FFFh
PIC16C76
8K x 14
0000h-1FFFh
PIC16C77
8K x 14
0000h-1FFFh
For those devices with less than 8K program memory,
accessing a location above the physically implemented
address will cause a wraparound.
The reset vector is at 0000h and the interrupt vector is
at 0004h.
FIGURE 4-1:
PC<12:0>
PIC16C72 PROGRAM
MEMORY MAP AND STACK
User Memory
Space
4.1
PIC16C73/73A/74/74A
PROGRAM MEMORY MAP
AND STACK
Reset Vector
0000h
Interrupt Vector
0004h
0005h
On-chip Program
Memory (Page 0)
07FFh
On-chip Program
Memory (Page 1)
0800h
0FFFh
1000h
1FFFh
PC<12:0>
CALL, RETURN
RETFIE, RETLW
13
Stack Level 1
User Memory
Space
Stack Level 8
Reset Vector
0000h
Interrupt Vector
0004h
0005h
On-chip Program
Memory
07FFh
0800h
1FFFh
 1997 Microchip Technology Inc.
DS30390E-page 19
PIC16C7X
FIGURE 4-3:
PIC16C76/77 PROGRAM
MEMORY MAP AND STACK
4.2
Applicable Devices
72 73 73A 74 74A 76 77
PC<12:0>
CALL, RETURN
RETFIE, RETLW
The data memory is partitioned into multiple banks
which contain the General Purpose Registers and the
Special Function Registers. Bits RP1 and RP0 are the
bank select bits.
13
Stack Level 1
RP1:RP0 (STATUS<6:5>)
= 00 → Bank0
= 01 → Bank1
= 10 → Bank2
= 11 → Bank3
Stack Level 2
User Memory
Space
Stack Level 8
Reset Vector
0000h
Interrupt Vector
0004h
0005h
On-Chip
On-Chip
On-Chip
Each bank extends up to 7Fh (128 bytes). The lower
locations of each bank are reserved for the Special
Function Registers. Above the Special Function Registers are General Purpose Registers, implemented as
static RAM. All implemented banks contain special
function registers. Some “high use” special function
registers from one bank may be mirrored in another
bank for code reduction and quicker access.
Page 0
07FFh
0800h
Page 1
0FFFh
1000h
On-Chip
Data Memory Organization
4.2.1
GENERAL PURPOSE REGISTER FILE
The register file can be accessed either directly, or indirectly through the File Select Register FSR
(Section 4.5).
Page 2
Page 3
17FFh
1800h
1FFFh
DS30390E-page 20
 1997 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC16C7X
FIGURE 4-4:
PIC16C72 REGISTER FILE
MAP
File
Address
00h
01h
02h
03h
04h
05h
06h
07h
08h
09h
0Ah
0Bh
0Ch
0Dh
0Eh
0Fh
10h
11h
12h
13h
14h
15h
16h
17h
18h
19h
1Ah
1Bh
1Ch
1Dh
1Eh
1Fh
20h
INDF(1)
TMR0
PCL
STATUS
FSR
PORTA
PORTB
PORTC
INDF(1)
OPTION
PCL
STATUS
FSR
TRISA
TRISB
TRISC
PCLATH
INTCON
PIR1
PCLATH
INTCON
PIE1
TMR1L
TMR1H
T1CON
TMR2
T2CON
SSPBUF
SSPCON
CCPR1L
CCPR1H
CCP1CON
PCON
ADRES
ADCON0
General
Purpose
Register
PR2
SSPADD
SSPSTAT
ADCON1
General
Purpose
Register
FIGURE 4-5:
File
Address
File
Address
80h
81h
82h
83h
84h
85h
86h
87h
88h
89h
8Ah
8Bh
8Ch
8Dh
8Eh
8Fh
90h
91h
92h
93h
94h
95h
96h
97h
98h
99h
9Ah
9Bh
9Ch
9Dh
9Eh
9Fh
00h
01h
02h
03h
04h
05h
06h
07h
08h
09h
0Ah
0Bh
0Ch
0Dh
0Eh
0Fh
10h
11h
12h
13h
14h
15h
16h
17h
18h
19h
1Ah
1Bh
1Ch
1Dh
1Eh
1Fh
20h
A0h
PIC16C73/73A/74/74A
REGISTER FILE MAP
File
Address
INDF(1)
TMR0
PCL
STATUS
FSR
PORTA
PORTB
PORTC
PORTD(2)
PORTE(2)
PCLATH
INTCON
PIR1
PIR2
TMR1L
TMR1H
T1CON
TMR2
T2CON
SSPBUF
SSPCON
CCPR1L
CCPR1H
CCP1CON
RCSTA
TXREG
RCREG
CCPR2L
CCPR2H
CCP2CON
ADRES
ADCON0
General
Purpose
Register
BFh
C0h
INDF(1)
OPTION
PCL
STATUS
FSR
TRISA
TRISB
TRISC
TRISD(2)
TRISE(2)
PCLATH
INTCON
PIE1
PIE2
PCON
PR2
SSPADD
SSPSTAT
TXSTA
SPBRG
ADCON1
General
Purpose
Register
FFh
7Fh
Bank 0
7Fh
80h
81h
82h
83h
84h
85h
86h
87h
88h
89h
8Ah
8Bh
8Ch
8Dh
8Eh
8Fh
90h
91h
92h
93h
94h
95h
96h
97h
98h
99h
9Ah
9Bh
9Ch
9Dh
9Eh
9Fh
A0h
Bank 1
FFh
Bank 0
Bank 1
Unimplemented data memory locations, read as
'0'.
Note 1: Not a physical register.
 1997 Microchip Technology Inc.
Unimplemented data memory locations, read as
'0'.
Note 1: Not a physical register.
2: These registers are not physically implemented on the PIC16C73/73A, read as '0'.
DS30390E-page 21
PIC16C7X
FIGURE 4-6:
PIC16C76/77 REGISTER FILE MAP
File
Address
Indirect addr.(*)
TMR0
PCL
STATUS
FSR
PORTA
PORTB
PORTC
PORTD (1)
PORTE (1)
PCLATH
INTCON
PIR1
PIR2
TMR1L
TMR1H
T1CON
TMR2
T2CON
SSPBUF
SSPCON
CCPR1L
CCPR1H
CCP1CON
RCSTA
TXREG
RCREG
CCPR2L
CCPR2H
CCP2CON
ADRES
ADCON0
00h
01h
02h
03h
04h
05h
06h
07h
08h
09h
0Ah
0Bh
0Ch
0Dh
0Eh
0Fh
10h
11h
12h
13h
14h
15h
16h
17h
18h
19h
1Ah
1Bh
1Ch
1Dh
1Eh
1Fh
20h
General
Purpose
Register
Indirect addr.(*)
OPTION
PCL
STATUS
FSR
TRISA
TRISB
TRISC
TRISD (1)
TRISE (1)
PCLATH
INTCON
PIE1
PIE2
PCON
PR2
SSPADD
SSPSTAT
TXSTA
SPBRG
ADCON1
accesses
70h-7Fh
7Fh
Bank 0
Indirect addr.(*)
TMR0
PCL
STATUS
FSR
PORTB
PCLATH
INTCON
General
Purpose
Register
16 Bytes
A0h
General
Purpose
Register
80 Bytes
96 Bytes
80h
81h
82h
83h
84h
85h
86h
87h
88h
89h
8Ah
8Bh
8Ch
8Dh
8Eh
8Fh
90h
91h
92h
93h
94h
95h
96h
97h
98h
99h
9Ah
9Bh
9Ch
9Dh
9Eh
9Fh
EFh
F0h
FFh
Bank 1
General
Purpose
Register
80 Bytes
accesses
70h-7Fh
100h
101h
102h
103h
104h
105h
106h
107h
108h
109h
10Ah
10Bh
10Ch
10Dh
10Eh
10Fh
110h
111h
112h
113h
114h
115h
116h
117h
118h
119h
11Ah
11Bh
11Ch
11Dh
11Eh
11Fh
120h
Indirect addr.(*)
OPTION
PCL
STATUS
FSR
TRISB
PCLATH
INTCON
General
Purpose
Register
16 Bytes
180h
181h
182h
183h
184h
185h
186h
187h
188h
189h
18Ah
18Bh
18Ch
18Dh
18Eh
18Fh
190h
191h
192h
193h
194h
195h
196h
197h
198h
199h
19Ah
19Bh
19Ch
19Dh
19Eh
19Fh
1A0h
General
Purpose
Register
80 Bytes
16Fh
170h
accesses
70h - 7Fh
17Fh
1EFh
1F0h
1FFh
Bank 3
Bank 2
Unimplemented data memory locations, read as '0'.
* Not a physical register.
Note 1: PORTD, PORTE, TRISD, and TRISE are unimplemented on the PIC16C76, read as '0'.
Note:
DS30390E-page 22
The upper 16 bytes of data memory in banks 1, 2, and 3 are mapped in Bank 0. This may require
relocation of data memory usage in the user application code if upgrading to the PIC16C76/77.
 1997 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC16C7X
4.2.2
SPECIAL FUNCTION REGISTERS
The Special Function Registers are registers used by
the CPU and Peripheral Modules for controlling the
desired operation of the device. These registers are
implemented as static RAM.
TABLE 4-1:
Address Name
The special function registers can be classified into two
sets (core and peripheral). Those registers associated
with the “core” functions are described in this section,
and those related to the operation of the peripheral features are described in the section of that peripheral feature.
PIC16C72 SPECIAL FUNCTION REGISTER SUMMARY
Bit 7
Bit 6
Bit 5
Bit 4
Bit 3
Bit 2
Bit 1
Bit 0
Value on:
POR,
BOR
Value on all
other resets
(3)
Bank 0
00h(1)
INDF
Addressing this location uses contents of FSR to address data memory (not a physical register)
0000 0000 0000 0000
01h
TMR0
Timer0 module’s register
xxxx xxxx uuuu uuuu
02h(1)
PCL
Program Counter's (PC) Least Significant Byte
0000 0000 0000 0000
(1)
03h
STATUS
04h(1)
FSR
05h
PORTA
06h
PORTB
07h
PORTC
08h
09h
(4)
IRP
(4)
RP1
RP0
TO
PD
Z
DC
C
Indirect data memory address pointer
—
—
0001 1xxx 000q quuu
xxxx xxxx uuuu uuuu
PORTA Data Latch when written: PORTA pins when read
--0x 0000 --0u 0000
PORTB Data Latch when written: PORTB pins when read
xxxx xxxx uuuu uuuu
PORTC Data Latch when written: PORTC pins when read
xxxx xxxx uuuu uuuu
—
Unimplemented
—
Unimplemented
0Ah(1,2)
PCLATH
—
0Bh(1)
INTCON
0Ch
PIR1
Write Buffer for the upper 5 bits of the Program Counter
—
—
—
—
—
—
GIE
PEIE
T0IE
INTE
RBIE
T0IF
INTF
RBIF
0000 000x 0000 000u
—
ADIF
—
—
SSPIF
CCP1IF
TMR2IF
TMR1IF
-0-- 0000 -0-- 0000
Unimplemented
---0 0000 ---0 0000
0Dh
—
0Eh
TMR1L
Holding register for the Least Significant Byte of the 16-bit TMR1 register
0Fh
TMR1H
Holding register for the Most Significant Byte of the 16-bit TMR1 register
10h
T1CON
11h
TMR2
12h
T2CON
13h
SSPBUF
14h
SSPCON
15h
CCPR1L
Capture/Compare/PWM Register (LSB)
xxxx xxxx uuuu uuuu
16h
CCPR1H
Capture/Compare/PWM Register (MSB)
xxxx xxxx uuuu uuuu
—
—
—
T1CKPS1
xxxx xxxx uuuu uuuu
T1CKPS0 T1OSCEN
T1SYNC
TMR1CS
TMR1ON
TOUTPS3 TOUTPS2 TOUTPS1 TOUTPS0
TMR2ON
T2CKPS1
T2CKPS0 -000 0000 -000 0000
SSPM2
SSPM1
Timer2 module’s register
—
SSPOV
CCP1M2
CCP1M1
CCP1M0
0000 0000 0000 0000
Unimplemented
—
—
19h
—
Unimplemented
—
—
1Ah
—
Unimplemented
—
—
1Bh
—
Unimplemented
—
—
1Ch
—
Unimplemented
—
—
—
Unimplemented
—
—
ADCON0
CCP1M3
xxxx xxxx uuuu uuuu
SSPM0
—
1Fh
CCP1Y
SSPM3
CCP1CON
ADRES
CCP1X
CKP
17h
1Dh
—
SSPEN
18h
1Eh
—
--00 0000 --uu uuuu
0000 0000 0000 0000
Synchronous Serial Port Receive Buffer/Transmit Register
WCOL
—
xxxx xxxx uuuu uuuu
A/D Result Register
ADCS1
ADCS0
--00 0000 --00 0000
xxxx xxxx uuuu uuuu
CHS2
CHS1
CHS0
GO/DONE
—
ADON
0000 00-0 0000 00-0
Legend: x = unknown, u = unchanged, q = value depends on condition, - = unimplemented read as '0'.
Shaded locations are unimplemented, read as ‘0’.
Note 1: These registers can be addressed from either bank.
2: The upper byte of the program counter is not directly accessible. PCLATH is a holding register for the PC<12:8> whose
contents are transferred to the upper byte of the program counter.
3: Other (non power-up) resets include external reset through MCLR and Watchdog Timer Reset.
4: The IRP and RP1 bits are reserved on the PIC16C72, always maintain these bits clear.
 1997 Microchip Technology Inc.
DS30390E-page 23
PIC16C7X
TABLE 4-1:
Address Name
PIC16C72 SPECIAL FUNCTION REGISTER SUMMARY (Cont.’d)
Bit 7
Bit 6
Bit 5
Bit 4
Bit 3
Bit 2
Bit 1
Bit 0
Value on:
POR,
BOR
Value on all
other resets
(3)
Bank 1
80h(1)
INDF
Addressing this location uses contents of FSR to address data memory (not a physical register)
81h
OPTION
82h(1)
PCL
83h(1)
STATUS
84h(1)
FSR
85h
TRISA
86h
TRISB
87h
TRISC
88h
—
Unimplemented
—
Unimplemented
89h
RBPU
INTEDG
T0CS
T0SE
PSA
PS2
PS1
PS0
Program Counter's (PC) Least Significant Byte
IRP(4)
RP1(4)
RP0
TO
—
1111 1111 1111 1111
0000 0000 0000 0000
PD
Z
DC
C
Indirect data memory address pointer
—
0000 0000 0000 0000
0001 1xxx 000q quuu
xxxx xxxx uuuu uuuu
PORTA Data Direction Register
--11 1111 --11 1111
PORTB Data Direction Register
1111 1111 1111 1111
PORTC Data Direction Register
1111 1111 1111 1111
8Ah(1,2)
PCLATH
—
8Bh(1)
INTCON
8Ch
PIE1
Write Buffer for the upper 5 bits of the PC
—
—
—
—
—
—
GIE
PEIE
T0IE
INTE
RBIE
T0IF
INTF
RBIF
0000 000x 0000 000u
—
ADIE
—
—
SSPIE
CCP1IE
TMR2IE
TMR1IE
-0-- 0000 -0-- 0000
—
—
—
—
POR
BOR
---- --qq ---- --uu
---0 0000 ---0 0000
8Dh
—
8Eh
PCON
8Fh
—
Unimplemented
—
—
90h
—
Unimplemented
—
—
—
Unimplemented
—
—
91h
Unimplemented
—
—
—
92h
PR2
Timer2 Period Register
93h
SSPADD
Synchronous Serial Port (I2C mode) Address Register
94h
SSPSTAT
—
—
—
1111 1111 1111 1111
D/A
P
0000 0000 0000 0000
S
R/W
UA
BF
--00 0000 --00 0000
95h
—
Unimplemented
—
—
96h
—
Unimplemented
—
—
97h
—
Unimplemented
—
—
98h
—
Unimplemented
—
—
99h
—
Unimplemented
—
—
9Ah
—
Unimplemented
—
—
9Bh
—
Unimplemented
—
—
9Ch
—
Unimplemented
—
—
9Dh
—
Unimplemented
—
—
9Eh
—
Unimplemented
—
—
---- -000
---- -000
9Fh
ADCON1
—
—
—
—
—
PCFG2
PCFG1
PCFG0
Legend: x = unknown, u = unchanged, q = value depends on condition, - = unimplemented read as '0'.
Shaded locations are unimplemented, read as ‘0’.
Note 1: These registers can be addressed from either bank.
2: The upper byte of the program counter is not directly accessible. PCLATH is a holding register for the PC<12:8> whose
contents are transferred to the upper byte of the program counter.
3: Other (non power-up) resets include external reset through MCLR and Watchdog Timer Reset.
4: The IRP and RP1 bits are reserved on the PIC16C72, always maintain these bits clear.
DS30390E-page 24
 1997 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC16C7X
TABLE 4-2:
Address Name
PIC16C73/73A/74/74A SPECIAL FUNCTION REGISTER SUMMARY
Bit 7
Bit 6
Bit 5
Bit 4
Bit 3
Bit 2
Bit 1
Bit 0
Value on:
POR,
BOR
Value on all
other resets
(2)
Bank 0
00h(4)
INDF
Addressing this location uses contents of FSR to address data memory (not a physical register)
0000 0000 0000 0000
01h
TMR0
Timer0 module’s register
xxxx xxxx uuuu uuuu
02h(4)
PCL
Program Counter's (PC) Least Significant Byte
0000 0000 0000 0000
(4)
03h
STATUS
04h(4)
FSR
05h
PORTA
06h
PORTB
(7)
(7)
IRP
RP1
RP0
TO
PD
Z
DC
C
Indirect data memory address pointer
—
—
0001 1xxx 000q quuu
xxxx xxxx uuuu uuuu
PORTA Data Latch when written: PORTA pins when read
--0x 0000 --0u 0000
PORTB Data Latch when written: PORTB pins when read
xxxx xxxx uuuu uuuu
07h
PORTC
PORTC Data Latch when written: PORTC pins when read
xxxx xxxx uuuu uuuu
08h(5)
PORTD
PORTD Data Latch when written: PORTD pins when read
xxxx xxxx uuuu uuuu
(5)
09h
PORTE
—
—
—
0Ah(1,4)
PCLATH
—
—
—
0Bh(4)
INTCON
0Ch
PIR1
0Dh
PIR2
0Eh
TMR1L
Holding register for the Least Significant Byte of the 16-bit TMR1 register
0Fh
TMR1H
Holding register for the Most Significant Byte of the 16-bit TMR1 register
10h
T1CON
11h
TMR2
12h
T2CON
13h
SSPBUF
14h
SSPCON
15h
CCPR1L
Capture/Compare/PWM Register1 (LSB)
xxxx xxxx uuuu uuuu
16h
CCPR1H
Capture/Compare/PWM Register1 (MSB)
xxxx xxxx uuuu uuuu
17h
CCP1CON
18h
RCSTA
19h
TXREG
USART Transmit Data Register
0000 0000 0000 0000
1Ah
RCREG
USART Receive Data Register
0000 0000 0000 0000
1Bh
CCPR2L
Capture/Compare/PWM Register2 (LSB)
xxxx xxxx uuuu uuuu
1Ch
CCPR2H
Capture/Compare/PWM Register2 (MSB)
xxxx xxxx uuuu uuuu
1Dh
CCP2CON
1Eh
ADRES
1Fh
ADCON0
—
—
RE2
RE1
RE0
Write Buffer for the upper 5 bits of the Program Counter
---- -xxx ---- -uuu
---0 0000 ---0 0000
GIE
PEIE
T0IE
INTE
RBIE
T0IF
INTF
RBIF
0000 000x 0000 000u
PSPIF(3)
ADIF
RCIF
TXIF
SSPIF
CCP1IF
TMR2IF
TMR1IF
0000 0000 0000 0000
—
—
—
–
—
—
—
CCP2IF
---- ---0 ---- ---0
—
—
xxxx xxxx uuuu uuuu
xxxx xxxx uuuu uuuu
T1CKPS1
T1CKPS0
T1OSCEN
T1SYNC
TMR1CS
TMR1ON
TOUTPS3 TOUTPS2
TOUTPS1
TOUTPS0
TMR2ON
T2CKPS1
T2CKPS0 -000 0000 -000 0000
SSPM2
SSPM1
Timer2 module’s register
—
0000 0000 0000 0000
Synchronous Serial Port Receive Buffer/Transmit Register
WCOL
SSPOV
--00 0000 --uu uuuu
SSPEN
CKP
SSPM3
xxxx xxxx uuuu uuuu
SSPM0
0000 0000 0000 0000
—
—
CCP1X
CCP1Y
CCP1M3
CCP1M2
CCP1M1
CCP1M0
--00 0000 --00 0000
SPEN
RX9
SREN
CREN
—
FERR
OERR
RX9D
0000 -00x 0000 -00x
—
—
CCP2X
CCP2Y
CCP2M3
CCP2M2
CCP2M1
CCP2M0
A/D Result Register
ADCS1
ADCS0
--00 0000 --00 0000
xxxx xxxx uuuu uuuu
CHS2
CHS1
CHS0
GO/DONE
—
ADON
0000 00-0 0000 00-0
Legend: x = unknown, u = unchanged, q = value depends on condition, - = unimplemented read as '0'.
Shaded locations are unimplemented, read as ‘0’.
Note 1: The upper byte of the program counter is not directly accessible. PCLATH is a holding register for the PC<12:8> whose contents are transferred to the upper byte of the program counter.
2: Other (non power-up) resets include external reset through MCLR and Watchdog Timer Reset.
3: Bits PSPIE and PSPIF are reserved on the PIC16C73/73A, always maintain these bits clear.
4: These registers can be addressed from either bank.
5: PORTD and PORTE are not physically implemented on the PIC16C73/73A, read as ‘0’.
6: Brown-out Reset is not implemented on the PIC16C73 or the PIC16C74, read as '0'.
7: The IRP and RP1 bits are reserved on the PIC16C73/73A/74/74A, always maintain these bits clear.
 1997 Microchip Technology Inc.
DS30390E-page 25
PIC16C7X
TABLE 4-2:
Address Name
PIC16C73/73A/74/74A SPECIAL FUNCTION REGISTER SUMMARY (Cont.’d)
Bit 7
Bit 6
Bit 5
Bit 4
Bit 3
Bit 2
Bit 1
Bit 0
Value on:
POR,
BOR
Value on all
other resets
(2)
Bank 1
80h(4)
INDF
81h
OPTION
82h(4)
PCL
(4)
83h
STATUS
84h(4)
FSR
85h
TRISA
86h
TRISB
Addressing this location uses contents of FSR to address data memory (not a physical register)
RBPU
INTEDG
T0CS
T0SE
PSA
PS2
PS1
PS0
Program Counter's (PC) Least Significant Byte
(7)
IRP
(7)
RP1
RP0
TO
—
1111 1111 1111 1111
0000 0000 0000 0000
PD
Z
DC
C
Indirect data memory address pointer
—
0000 0000 0000 0000
0001 1xxx 000q quuu
xxxx xxxx uuuu uuuu
PORTA Data Direction Register
--11 1111 --11 1111
PORTB Data Direction Register
1111 1111 1111 1111
87h
TRISC
PORTC Data Direction Register
1111 1111 1111 1111
88h(5)
TRISD
PORTD Data Direction Register
1111 1111 1111 1111
(5)
89h
TRISE
IBF
OBF
IBOV
8Ah(1,4)
PCLATH
—
—
—
8Bh(4)
INTCON
GIE
PEIE
T0IE
INTE
RBIE
T0IF
INTF
RBIF
0000 000x 0000 000u
8Ch
PIE1
PSPIE(3)
ADIE
RCIE
TXIE
SSPIE
CCP1IE
TMR2IE
TMR1IE
0000 0000 0000 0000
8Dh
PIE2
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
CCP2IE
---- ---0 ---- ---0
8Eh
PCON
—
—
—
—
—
—
POR
BOR(6)
---- --qq ---- --uu
8Fh
—
Unimplemented
—
—
90h
—
Unimplemented
—
—
—
Unimplemented
—
—
91h
PSPMODE
—
PORTE Data Direction Bits
0000 -111 0000 -111
Write Buffer for the upper 5 bits of the Program Counter
---0 0000 ---0 0000
92h
PR2
Timer2 Period Register
93h
SSPADD
Synchronous Serial Port (I2C mode) Address Register
94h
SSPSTAT
95h
—
Unimplemented
—
—
96h
—
Unimplemented
—
—
97h
—
Unimplemented
—
—
98h
TXSTA
99h
SPBRG
—
CSRC
—
TX9
1111 1111 1111 1111
D/A
TXEN
P
SYNC
0000 0000 0000 0000
S
—
R/W
BRGH
UA
TRMT
BF
TX9D
Baud Rate Generator Register
--00 0000 --00 0000
0000 -010 0000 -010
0000 0000 0000 0000
9Ah
—
Unimplemented
—
—
9Bh
—
Unimplemented
—
—
9Ch
—
Unimplemented
—
—
9Dh
—
Unimplemented
—
—
9Eh
—
Unimplemented
—
—
---- -000
---- -000
9Fh
ADCON1
—
—
—
—
—
PCFG2
PCFG1
PCFG0
Legend: x = unknown, u = unchanged, q = value depends on condition, - = unimplemented read as '0'.
Shaded locations are unimplemented, read as ‘0’.
Note 1: The upper byte of the program counter is not directly accessible. PCLATH is a holding register for the PC<12:8> whose contents are transferred to the upper byte of the program counter.
2: Other (non power-up) resets include external reset through MCLR and Watchdog Timer Reset.
3: Bits PSPIE and PSPIF are reserved on the PIC16C73/73A, always maintain these bits clear.
4: These registers can be addressed from either bank.
5: PORTD and PORTE are not physically implemented on the PIC16C73/73A, read as ‘0’.
6: Brown-out Reset is not implemented on the PIC16C73 or the PIC16C74, read as '0'.
7: The IRP and RP1 bits are reserved on the PIC16C73/73A/74/74A, always maintain these bits clear.
DS30390E-page 26
 1997 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC16C7X
TABLE 4-3:
Address
PIC16C76/77 SPECIAL FUNCTION REGISTER SUMMARY
Name
Bit 7
Bit 6
Bit 5
Bit 4
Bit 3
Bit 2
Bit 1
Bit 0
Value on:
POR,
BOR
Value on all
other resets
(2)
Bank 0
00h(4)
INDF
Addressing this location uses contents of FSR to address data memory (not a physical register)
0000 0000 0000 0000
01h
TMR0
Timer0 module’s register
xxxx xxxx uuuu uuuu
02h(4)
PCL
Program Counter's (PC) Least Significant Byte
0000 0000 0000 0000
(4)
03h
STATUS
04h(4)
FSR
05h
PORTA
06h
PORTB
IRP
RP1
RP0
TO
PD
Z
DC
C
Indirect data memory address pointer
—
—
0001 1xxx 000q quuu
xxxx xxxx uuuu uuuu
PORTA Data Latch when written: PORTA pins when read
--0x 0000 --0u 0000
PORTB Data Latch when written: PORTB pins when read
xxxx xxxx uuuu uuuu
07h
PORTC
PORTC Data Latch when written: PORTC pins when read
xxxx xxxx uuuu uuuu
08h(5)
PORTD
PORTD Data Latch when written: PORTD pins when read
xxxx xxxx uuuu uuuu
(5)
09h
PORTE
—
—
—
0Ah(1,4)
PCLATH
—
—
—
0Bh(4)
INTCON
0Ch
PIR1
0Dh
PIR2
0Eh
TMR1L
Holding register for the Least Significant Byte of the 16-bit TMR1 register
0Fh
TMR1H
Holding register for the Most Significant Byte of the 16-bit TMR1 register
10h
T1CON
11h
TMR2
12h
T2CON
13h
SSPBUF
14h
SSPCON
15h
CCPR1L
Capture/Compare/PWM Register1 (LSB)
xxxx xxxx uuuu uuuu
16h
CCPR1H
Capture/Compare/PWM Register1 (MSB)
xxxx xxxx uuuu uuuu
17h
CCP1CON
18h
RCSTA
19h
TXREG
USART Transmit Data Register
0000 0000 0000 0000
1Ah
RCREG
USART Receive Data Register
0000 0000 0000 0000
1Bh
CCPR2L
Capture/Compare/PWM Register2 (LSB)
xxxx xxxx uuuu uuuu
1Ch
CCPR2H
Capture/Compare/PWM Register2 (MSB)
xxxx xxxx uuuu uuuu
1Dh
CCP2CON
1Eh
ADRES
1Fh
ADCON0
—
—
RE2
RE1
RE0
Write Buffer for the upper 5 bits of the Program Counter
---- -xxx ---- -uuu
---0 0000 ---0 0000
GIE
PEIE
T0IE
INTE
RBIE
T0IF
INTF
RBIF
0000 000x 0000 000u
PSPIF(3)
ADIF
RCIF
TXIF
SSPIF
CCP1IF
TMR2IF
TMR1IF
0000 0000 0000 0000
—
—
—
–
—
—
—
CCP2IF
—
—
xxxx xxxx uuuu uuuu
T1CKPS1
T1CKPS0
T1OSCEN
T1SYNC
TMR1CS
TMR1ON
TOUTPS3 TOUTPS2
TOUTPS1
TOUTPS0
TMR2ON
T2CKPS1
T2CKPS0 -000 0000 -000 0000
SSPM2
SSPM1
Timer2 module’s register
—
SSPOV
--00 0000 --uu uuuu
0000 0000 0000 0000
Synchronous Serial Port Receive Buffer/Transmit Register
WCOL
---- ---0 ---- ---0
xxxx xxxx uuuu uuuu
SSPEN
CKP
SSPM3
xxxx xxxx uuuu uuuu
SSPM0
0000 0000 0000 0000
—
—
CCP1X
CCP1Y
CCP1M3
CCP1M2
CCP1M1
CCP1M0
--00 0000 --00 0000
SPEN
RX9
SREN
CREN
—
FERR
OERR
RX9D
0000 -00x 0000 -00x
—
—
CCP2X
CCP2Y
CCP2M3
CCP2M2
CCP2M1
CCP2M0
A/D Result Register
ADCS1
ADCS0
--00 0000 --00 0000
xxxx xxxx uuuu uuuu
CHS2
CHS1
CHS0
GO/DONE
—
ADON
0000 00-0 0000 00-0
Legend: x = unknown, u = unchanged, q = value depends on condition, - = unimplemented read as '0'.
Shaded locations are unimplemented, read as ‘0’.
Note 1: The upper byte of the program counter is not directly accessible. PCLATH is a holding register for the PC<12:8> whose contents are transferred to the upper byte of the program counter.
2: Other (non power-up) resets include external reset through MCLR and Watchdog Timer Reset.
3: Bits PSPIE and PSPIF are reserved on the PIC16C76, always maintain these bits clear.
4: These registers can be addressed from any bank.
5: PORTD and PORTE are not physically implemented on the PIC16C76, read as ‘0’.
 1997 Microchip Technology Inc.
DS30390E-page 27
PIC16C7X
TABLE 4-3:
Address
PIC16C76/77 SPECIAL FUNCTION REGISTER SUMMARY (Cont.’d)
Name
Bit 7
Bit 6
Bit 5
Bit 4
Bit 3
Bit 2
Bit 1
Bit 0
Value on:
POR,
BOR
Value on all
other resets
(2)
Bank 1
80h(4)
INDF
81h
OPTION
82h(4)
PCL
(4)
83h
STATUS
84h(4)
FSR
85h
TRISA
86h
TRISB
Addressing this location uses contents of FSR to address data memory (not a physical register)
RBPU
INTEDG
T0CS
T0SE
PSA
PS2
PS1
PS0
Program Counter's (PC) Least Significant Byte
IRP
RP1
RP0
TO
—
1111 1111 1111 1111
0000 0000 0000 0000
PD
Z
DC
C
Indirect data memory address pointer
—
0000 0000 0000 0000
0001 1xxx 000q quuu
xxxx xxxx uuuu uuuu
PORTA Data Direction Register
--11 1111 --11 1111
PORTB Data Direction Register
1111 1111 1111 1111
87h
TRISC
PORTC Data Direction Register
1111 1111 1111 1111
88h(5)
TRISD
PORTD Data Direction Register
1111 1111 1111 1111
(5)
89h
TRISE
IBF
OBF
IBOV
8Ah(1,4)
PCLATH
—
—
—
8Bh(4)
INTCON
GIE
PEIE
T0IE
INTE
RBIE
T0IF
INTF
RBIF
0000 000x 0000 000u
8Ch
PIE1
PSPIE(3)
ADIE
RCIE
TXIE
SSPIE
CCP1IE
TMR2IE
TMR1IE
0000 0000 0000 0000
8Dh
PIE2
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
CCP2IE
---- ---0 ---- ---0
8Eh
PCON
—
—
—
—
—
—
POR
BOR
---- --qq ---- --uu
8Fh
—
Unimplemented
—
—
90h
—
Unimplemented
—
—
—
Unimplemented
—
—
91h
PSPMODE
—
PORTE Data Direction Bits
0000 -111 0000 -111
Write Buffer for the upper 5 bits of the Program Counter
---0 0000 ---0 0000
92h
PR2
Timer2 Period Register
93h
SSPADD
Synchronous Serial Port (I2C mode) Address Register
94h
SSPSTAT
95h
—
Unimplemented
—
—
96h
—
Unimplemented
—
—
Unimplemented
—
—
97h
—
98h
TXSTA
99h
SPBRG
SMP
CKE
CSRC
TX9
1111 1111 1111 1111
D/A
TXEN
P
SYNC
0000 0000 0000 0000
S
—
R/W
BRGH
UA
BF
TRMT
TX9D
Baud Rate Generator Register
0000 0000 0000 0000
0000 -010 0000 -010
0000 0000 0000 0000
9Ah
—
Unimplemented
—
—
9Bh
—
Unimplemented
—
—
9Ch
—
Unimplemented
—
—
9Dh
—
Unimplemented
—
—
9Eh
—
Unimplemented
—
—
---- -000
---- -000
9Fh
ADCON1
—
—
—
—
—
PCFG2
PCFG1
PCFG0
Legend: x = unknown, u = unchanged, q = value depends on condition, - = unimplemented read as '0'.
Shaded locations are unimplemented, read as ‘0’.
Note 1: The upper byte of the program counter is not directly accessible. PCLATH is a holding register for the PC<12:8> whose contents are transferred to the upper byte of the program counter.
2: Other (non power-up) resets include external reset through MCLR and Watchdog Timer Reset.
3: Bits PSPIE and PSPIF are reserved on the PIC16C76, always maintain these bits clear.
4: These registers can be addressed from any bank.
5: PORTD and PORTE are not physically implemented on the PIC16C76, read as ‘0’.
DS30390E-page 28
 1997 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC16C7X
TABLE 4-3:
Address
PIC16C76/77 SPECIAL FUNCTION REGISTER SUMMARY (Cont.’d)
Name
Bit 7
Bit 6
Bit 5
Bit 4
Bit 3
Bit 2
Bit 1
Bit 0
Value on:
POR,
BOR
Value on all
other resets
(2)
Bank 2
100h(4)
INDF
Addressing this location uses contents of FSR to address data memory (not a physical register)
0000 0000 0000 0000
101h
TMR0
Timer0 module’s register
xxxx xxxx uuuu uuuu
102h(4)
PCL
Program Counter's (PC) Least Significant Byte
0000 0000 0000 0000
103h(4)
STATUS
104h(4)
FSR
IRP
RP1
RP0
TO
PD
Z
DC
C
Indirect data memory address pointer
0001 1xxx 000q quuu
xxxx xxxx uuuu uuuu
105h
—
106h
PORTB
107h
—
Unimplemented
—
—
108h
—
Unimplemented
—
—
—
Unimplemented
—
—
109h
Unimplemented
—
PORTB Data Latch when written: PORTB pins when read
(1,4)
PCLATH
—
—
—
(4)
INTCON
GIE
PEIE
T0IE
10Ah
10Bh
10Ch10Fh
—
Write Buffer for the upper 5 bits of the Program Counter
INTE
RBIE
—
xxxx xxxx uuuu uuuu
T0IF
INTF
---0 0000 ---0 0000
RBIF
Unimplemented
0000 000x 0000 000u
—
—
Bank 3
180h(4)
INDF
181h
OPTION
182h(4)
PCL
183h(4)
STATUS
184h(4)
FSR
Addressing this location uses contents of FSR to address data memory (not a physical register)
RBPU
INTEDG
T0CS
T0SE
PSA
PS2
PS1
PS0
Program Counter's (PC) Least Significant Byte
IRP
RP1
RP0
TO
0000 0000 0000 0000
1111 1111 1111 1111
0000 0000 0000 0000
PD
Z
DC
C
Indirect data memory address pointer
0001 1xxx 000q quuu
xxxx xxxx uuuu uuuu
185h
—
186h
TRISB
187h
—
Unimplemented
—
—
188h
—
Unimplemented
—
—
—
Unimplemented
—
—
189h
Unimplemented
—
PORTB Data Direction Register
(1,4)
PCLATH
—
—
—
(4)
INTCON
GIE
PEIE
T0IE
18Ah
18Bh
18Ch18Fh
—
Unimplemented
—
1111 1111 1111 1111
Write Buffer for the upper 5 bits of the Program Counter
INTE
RBIE
T0IF
INTF
RBIF
---0 0000 ---0 0000
0000 000x 0000 000u
—
—
Legend: x = unknown, u = unchanged, q = value depends on condition, - = unimplemented read as '0'.
Shaded locations are unimplemented, read as ‘0’.
Note 1: The upper byte of the program counter is not directly accessible. PCLATH is a holding register for the PC<12:8> whose contents are transferred to the upper byte of the program counter.
2: Other (non power-up) resets include external reset through MCLR and Watchdog Timer Reset.
3: Bits PSPIE and PSPIF are reserved on the PIC16C76, always maintain these bits clear.
4: These registers can be addressed from any bank.
5: PORTD and PORTE are not physically implemented on the PIC16C76, read as ‘0’.
 1997 Microchip Technology Inc.
DS30390E-page 29
PIC16C7X
4.2.2.1
STATUS REGISTER
Applicable Devices
72 73 73A 74 74A 76 77
For example, CLRF STATUS will clear the upper-three
bits and set the Z bit. This leaves the STATUS register
as 000u u1uu (where u = unchanged).
It is recommended, therefore, that only BCF, BSF,
SWAPF and MOVWF instructions are used to alter the
STATUS register because these instructions do not
affect the Z, C or DC bits from the STATUS register. For
other instructions, not affecting any status bits, see the
"Instruction Set Summary."
The STATUS register, shown in Figure 4-7, contains the
arithmetic status of the ALU, the RESET status and the
bank select bits for data memory.
The STATUS register can be the destination for any
instruction, as with any other register. If the STATUS
register is the destination for an instruction that affects
the Z, DC or C bits, then the write to these three bits is
disabled. These bits are set or cleared according to the
device logic. Furthermore, the TO and PD bits are not
writable. Therefore, the result of an instruction with the
STATUS register as destination may be different than
intended.
FIGURE 4-7:
R/W-0
IRP
bit7
bit 7:
Note 1: For those devices that do not use bits IRP
and RP1 (STATUS<7:6>), maintain these
bits clear to ensure upward compatibility
with future products.
Note 2: The C and DC bits operate as a borrow
and digit borrow bit, respectively, in subtraction. See the SUBLW and SUBWF
instructions for examples.
STATUS REGISTER (ADDRESS 03h, 83h, 103h, 183h)
R/W-0
RP1
R/W-0
RP0
R-1
TO
R-1
PD
R/W-x
Z
R/W-x
DC
R/W-x
C
bit0
R = Readable bit
W = Writable bit
U = Unimplemented bit,
read as ‘0’
- n = Value at POR reset
IRP: Register Bank Select bit (used for indirect addressing)
1 = Bank 2, 3 (100h - 1FFh)
0 = Bank 0, 1 (00h - FFh)
bit 6-5: RP1:RP0: Register Bank Select bits (used for direct addressing)
11 = Bank 3 (180h - 1FFh)
10 = Bank 2 (100h - 17Fh)
01 = Bank 1 (80h - FFh)
00 = Bank 0 (00h - 7Fh)
Each bank is 128 bytes
bit 4:
TO: Time-out bit
1 = After power-up, CLRWDT instruction, or SLEEP instruction
0 = A WDT time-out occurred
bit 3:
PD: Power-down bit
1 = After power-up or by the CLRWDT instruction
0 = By execution of the SLEEP instruction
bit 2:
Z: Zero bit
1 = The result of an arithmetic or logic operation is zero
0 = The result of an arithmetic or logic operation is not zero
bit 1:
DC: Digit carry/borrow bit (ADDWF, ADDLW,SUBLW,SUBWF instructions) (for borrow the polarity is reversed)
1 = A carry-out from the 4th low order bit of the result occurred
0 = No carry-out from the 4th low order bit of the result
bit 0:
C: Carry/borrow bit (ADDWF, ADDLW,SUBLW,SUBWF instructions)
1 = A carry-out from the most significant bit of the result occurred
0 = No carry-out from the most significant bit of the result occurred
Note: For borrow the polarity is reversed. A subtraction is executed by adding the two’s complement of the
second operand. For rotate (RRF, RLF) instructions, this bit is loaded with either the high or low order bit of
the source register.
DS30390E-page 30
 1997 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC16C7X
4.2.2.2
OPTION REGISTER
Applicable Devices
72 73 73A 74 74A 76 77
Note:
The OPTION register is a readable and writable register which contains various control bits to configure the
TMR0/WDT prescaler, the External INT Interrupt,
TMR0, and the weak pull-ups on PORTB.
FIGURE 4-8:
R/W-1
RBPU
bit7
To achieve a 1:1 prescaler assignment for
the TMR0 register, assign the prescaler to
the Watchdog Timer.
OPTION REGISTER (ADDRESS 81h, 181h)
R/W-1
INTEDG
R/W-1
T0CS
R/W-1
T0SE
R/W-1
PSA
R/W-1
PS2
R/W-1
PS1
bit 7:
RBPU: PORTB Pull-up Enable bit
1 = PORTB pull-ups are disabled
0 = PORTB pull-ups are enabled by individual port latch values
bit 6:
INTEDG: Interrupt Edge Select bit
1 = Interrupt on rising edge of RB0/INT pin
0 = Interrupt on falling edge of RB0/INT pin
bit 5:
T0CS: TMR0 Clock Source Select bit
1 = Transition on RA4/T0CKI pin
0 = Internal instruction cycle clock (CLKOUT)
bit 4:
T0SE: TMR0 Source Edge Select bit
1 = Increment on high-to-low transition on RA4/T0CKI pin
0 = Increment on low-to-high transition on RA4/T0CKI pin
bit 3:
PSA: Prescaler Assignment bit
1 = Prescaler is assigned to the WDT
0 = Prescaler is assigned to the Timer0 module
R/W-1
PS0
bit0
R = Readable bit
W = Writable bit
U = Unimplemented bit,
read as ‘0’
- n = Value at POR reset
bit 2-0: PS2:PS0: Prescaler Rate Select bits
Bit Value
TMR0 Rate
WDT Rate
000
001
010
011
100
101
110
111
1:2
1:4
1:8
1 : 16
1 : 32
1 : 64
1 : 128
1 : 256
1:1
1:2
1:4
1:8
1 : 16
1 : 32
1 : 64
1 : 128
 1997 Microchip Technology Inc.
DS30390E-page 31
PIC16C7X
4.2.2.3
INTCON REGISTER
Applicable Devices
72 73 73A 74 74A 76 77
Note:
The INTCON Register is a readable and writable register which contains various enable and flag bits for the
TMR0 register overflow, RB Port change and External
RB0/INT pin interrupts.
FIGURE 4-9:
R/W-0
GIE
bit7
Interrupt flag bits get set when an interrupt
condition occurs regardless of the state of
its corresponding enable bit or the global
enable bit, GIE (INTCON<7>).
INTCON REGISTER
(ADDRESS 0Bh, 8Bh, 10Bh, 18Bh)
R/W-0
PEIE
R/W-0
T0IE
R/W-0
INTE
R/W-0
RBIE
R/W-0
T0IF
R/W-0
INTF
R/W-x
RBIF
bit0
R = Readable bit
W = Writable bit
U = Unimplemented bit,
read as ‘0’
- n = Value at POR reset
bit 7:
GIE:(1) Global Interrupt Enable bit
1 = Enables all un-masked interrupts
0 = Disables all interrupts
bit 6:
PEIE: Peripheral Interrupt Enable bit
1 = Enables all un-masked peripheral interrupts
0 = Disables all peripheral interrupts
bit 5:
T0IE: TMR0 Overflow Interrupt Enable bit
1 = Enables the TMR0 interrupt
0 = Disables the TMR0 interrupt
bit 4:
INTE: RB0/INT External Interrupt Enable bit
1 = Enables the RB0/INT external interrupt
0 = Disables the RB0/INT external interrupt
bit 3:
RBIE: RB Port Change Interrupt Enable bit
1 = Enables the RB port change interrupt
0 = Disables the RB port change interrupt
bit 2:
T0IF: TMR0 Overflow Interrupt Flag bit
1 = TMR0 register has overflowed (must be cleared in software)
0 = TMR0 register did not overflow
bit 1:
INTF: RB0/INT External Interrupt Flag bit
1 = The RB0/INT external interrupt occurred (must be cleared in software)
0 = The RB0/INT external interrupt did not occur
bit 0:
RBIF: RB Port Change Interrupt Flag bit
1 = At least one of the RB7:RB4 pins changed state (must be cleared in software)
0 = None of the RB7:RB4 pins have changed state
Note 1: For the PIC16C73 and PIC16C74, if an interrupt occurs while the GIE bit is being cleared, the GIE bit
may be unintentionally re-enabled by the RETFIE instruction in the user’s Interrupt Service Routine.
Refer to Section 14.5 for a detailed description.
Interrupt flag bits get set when an interrupt condition occurs regardless of the state of its corresponding enable bit or the
global enable bit, GIE (INTCON<7>). User software should ensure the appropriate interrupt flag bits are clear prior to
enabling an interrupt.
DS30390E-page 32
 1997 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC16C7X
4.2.2.4
PIE1 REGISTER
Applicable Devices
72 73 73A 74 74A 76 77
Note:
Bit PEIE (INTCON<6>) must be set to
enable any peripheral interrupt.
This register contains the individual enable bits for the
peripheral interrupts.
FIGURE 4-10: PIE1 REGISTER PIC16C72 (ADDRESS 8Ch)
U-0
—
bit7
R/W-0
ADIE
U-0
—
U-0
—
R/W-0
SSPIE
bit 7:
Unimplemented: Read as '0'
bit 6:
ADIE: A/D Converter Interrupt Enable bit
1 = Enables the A/D interrupt
0 = Disables the A/D interrupt
R/W-0
CCP1IE
R/W-0
TMR2IE
R/W-0
TMR1IE
bit0
R = Readable bit
W = Writable bit
U = Unimplemented bit,
read as ‘0’
- n = Value at POR reset
bit 5-4: Unimplemented: Read as '0'
bit 3:
SSPIE: Synchronous Serial Port Interrupt Enable bit
1 = Enables the SSP interrupt
0 = Disables the SSP interrupt
bit 2:
CCP1IE: CCP1 Interrupt Enable bit
1 = Enables the CCP1 interrupt
0 = Disables the CCP1 interrupt
bit 1:
TMR2IE: TMR2 to PR2 Match Interrupt Enable bit
1 = Enables the TMR2 to PR2 match interrupt
0 = Disables the TMR2 to PR2 match interrupt
bit 0:
TMR1IE: TMR1 Overflow Interrupt Enable bit
1 = Enables the TMR1 overflow interrupt
0 = Disables the TMR1 overflow interrupt
 1997 Microchip Technology Inc.
DS30390E-page 33
PIC16C7X
FIGURE 4-11: PIE1 REGISTER PIC16C73/73A/74/74A/76/77 (ADDRESS 8Ch)
R/W-0
PSPIE(1)
bit7
R/W-0
ADIE
R/W-0
RCIE
R/W-0
TXIE
R/W-0
SSPIE
R/W-0
CCP1IE
R/W-0
TMR2IE
bit 7:
PSPIE(1): Parallel Slave Port Read/Write Interrupt Enable bit
1 = Enables the PSP read/write interrupt
0 = Disables the PSP read/write interrupt
bit 6:
ADIE: A/D Converter Interrupt Enable bit
1 = Enables the A/D interrupt
0 = Disables the A/D interrupt
bit 5:
RCIE: USART Receive Interrupt Enable bit
1 = Enables the USART receive interrupt
0 = Disables the USART receive interrupt
bit 4:
TXIE: USART Transmit Interrupt Enable bit
1 = Enables the USART transmit interrupt
0 = Disables the USART transmit interrupt
bit 3:
SSPIE: Synchronous Serial Port Interrupt Enable bit
1 = Enables the SSP interrupt
0 = Disables the SSP interrupt
bit 2:
CCP1IE: CCP1 Interrupt Enable bit
1 = Enables the CCP1 interrupt
0 = Disables the CCP1 interrupt
bit 1:
TMR2IE: TMR2 to PR2 Match Interrupt Enable bit
1 = Enables the TMR2 to PR2 match interrupt
0 = Disables the TMR2 to PR2 match interrupt
bit 0:
TMR1IE: TMR1 Overflow Interrupt Enable bit
1 = Enables the TMR1 overflow interrupt
0 = Disables the TMR1 overflow interrupt
R/W-0
TMR1IE
bit0
R = Readable bit
W = Writable bit
U = Unimplemented bit,
read as ‘0’
- n = Value at POR reset
Note 1: PIC16C73/73A/76 devices do not have a Parallel Slave Port implemented, this bit location is reserved
on these devices, always maintain this bit clear.
DS30390E-page 34
 1997 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC16C7X
4.2.2.5
PIR1 REGISTER
Applicable Devices
72 73 73A 74 74A 76 77
Note:
This register contains the individual flag bits for the
Peripheral interrupts.
Interrupt flag bits get set when an interrupt
condition occurs regardless of the state of
its corresponding enable bit or the global
enable bit, GIE (INTCON<7>). User software should ensure the appropriate interrupt flag bits are clear prior to enabling an
interrupt.
FIGURE 4-12: PIR1 REGISTER PIC16C72 (ADDRESS 0Ch)
U-0
—
bit7
R/W-0
ADIF
U-0
—
U-0
—
R/W-0
SSPIF
R/W-0
CCP1IF
R/W-0
TMR2IF
R/W-0
TMR1IF
bit0
bit 7:
Unimplemented: Read as '0'
bit 6:
ADIF: A/D Converter Interrupt Flag bit
1 = An A/D conversion completed (must be cleared in software)
0 = The A/D conversion is not complete
R = Readable bit
W = Writable bit
U = Unimplemented bit,
read as ‘0’
- n = Value at POR reset
bit 5-4: Unimplemented: Read as '0'
bit 3:
SSPIF: Synchronous Serial Port Interrupt Flag bit
1 = The transmission/reception is complete (must be cleared in software)
0 = Waiting to transmit/receive
bit 2:
CCP1IF: CCP1 Interrupt Flag bit
Capture Mode
1 = A TMR1 register capture occurred (must be cleared in software)
0 = No TMR1 register capture occurred
Compare Mode
1 = A TMR1 register compare match occurred (must be cleared in software)
0 = No TMR1 register compare match occurred
PWM Mode
Unused in this mode
bit 1:
TMR2IF: TMR2 to PR2 Match Interrupt Flag bit
1 = TMR2 to PR2 match occurred (must be cleared in software)
0 = No TMR2 to PR2 match occurred
bit 0:
TMR1IF: TMR1 Overflow Interrupt Flag bit
1 = TMR1 register overflowed (must be cleared in software)
0 = TMR1 register did not overflow
Interrupt flag bits get set when an interrupt condition occurs regardless of the state of its corresponding enable bit or the
global enable bit, GIE (INTCON<7>). User software should ensure the appropriate interrupt flag bits are clear prior to
enabling an interrupt.
 1997 Microchip Technology Inc.
DS30390E-page 35
PIC16C7X
FIGURE 4-13: PIR1 REGISTER PIC16C73/73A/74/74A/76/77 (ADDRESS 0Ch)
R/W-0
PSPIF(1)
bit7
R/W-0
ADIF
R-0
RCIF
R-0
TXIF
R/W-0
SSPIF
R/W-0
CCP1IF
R/W-0
TMR2IF
R/W-0
TMR1IF
bit0
R = Readable bit
W = Writable bit
U = Unimplemented bit,
read as ‘0’
- n = Value at POR reset
bit 7:
PSPIF(1): Parallel Slave Port Read/Write Interrupt Flag bit
1 = A read or a write operation has taken place (must be cleared in software)
0 = No read or write has occurred
bit 6:
ADIF: A/D Converter Interrupt Flag bit
1 = An A/D conversion completed (must be cleared in software)
0 = The A/D conversion is not complete
bit 5:
RCIF: USART Receive Interrupt Flag bit
1 = The USART receive buffer is full (cleared by reading RCREG)
0 = The USART receive buffer is empty
bit 4:
TXIF: USART Transmit Interrupt Flag bit
1 = The USART transmit buffer is empty (cleared by writing to TXREG)
0 = The USART transmit buffer is full
bit 3:
SSPIF: Synchronous Serial Port Interrupt Flag bit
1 = The transmission/reception is complete (must be cleared in software)
0 = Waiting to transmit/receive
bit 2:
CCP1IF: CCP1 Interrupt Flag bit
Capture Mode
1 = A TMR1 register capture occurred (must be cleared in software)
0 = No TMR1 register capture occurred
Compare Mode
1 = A TMR1 register compare match occurred (must be cleared in software)
0 = No TMR1 register compare match occurred
PWM Mode
Unused in this mode
bit 1:
TMR2IF: TMR2 to PR2 Match Interrupt Flag bit
1 = TMR2 to PR2 match occurred (must be cleared in software)
0 = No TMR2 to PR2 match occurred
bit 0:
TMR1IF: TMR1 Overflow Interrupt Flag bit
1 = TMR1 register overflowed (must be cleared in software)
0 = TMR1 register did not overflow
Note 1: PIC16C73/73A/76 devices do not have a Parallel Slave Port implemented, this bit location is reserved
on these devices, always maintain this bit clear.
Interrupt flag bits get set when an interrupt condition occurs regardless of the state of its corresponding enable bit or the
global enable bit, GIE (INTCON<7>). User software should ensure the appropriate interrupt flag bits are clear prior to
enabling an interrupt.
DS30390E-page 36
 1997 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC16C7X
4.2.2.6
PIE2 REGISTER
Applicable Devices
72 73 73A 74 74A 76 77
This register contains the individual enable bit for the
CCP2 peripheral interrupt.
FIGURE 4-14: PIE2 REGISTER (ADDRESS 8Dh)
U-0
—
bit7
U-0
—
U-0
—
U-0
—
U-0
—
U-0
—
U-0
—
R/W-0
CCP2IE
bit0
R = Readable bit
W = Writable bit
U = Unimplemented bit,
read as ‘0’
- n = Value at POR reset
bit 7-1: Unimplemented: Read as '0'
bit 0:
CCP2IE: CCP2 Interrupt Enable bit
1 = Enables the CCP2 interrupt
0 = Disables the CCP2 interrupt
 1997 Microchip Technology Inc.
DS30390E-page 37
PIC16C7X
4.2.2.7
PIR2 REGISTER
Applicable Devices
72 73 73A 74 74A 76 77
.
Note:
Interrupt flag bits get set when an interrupt
condition occurs regardless of the state of
its corresponding enable bit or the global
enable bit, GIE (INTCON<7>). User software should ensure the appropriate interrupt flag bits are clear prior to enabling an
interrupt.
U-0
—
R/W-0
CCP2IF
bit0
This register contains the CCP2 interrupt flag bit.
FIGURE 4-15: PIR2 REGISTER (ADDRESS 0Dh)
U-0
—
bit7
U-0
—
U-0
—
U-0
—
U-0
—
U-0
—
R = Readable bit
W = Writable bit
U = Unimplemented bit,
read as ‘0’
- n = Value at POR reset
bit 7-1: Unimplemented: Read as '0'
bit 0:
CCP2IF: CCP2 Interrupt Flag bit
Capture Mode
1 = A TMR1 register capture occurred (must be cleared in software)
0 = No TMR1 register capture occurred
Compare Mode
1 = A TMR1 register compare match occurred (must be cleared in software)
0 = No TMR1 register compare match occurred
PWM Mode
Unused
Interrupt flag bits get set when an interrupt condition occurs regardless of the state of its corresponding enable bit or the
global enable bit, GIE (INTCON<7>). User software should ensure the appropriate interrupt flag bits are clear prior to
enabling an interrupt.
DS30390E-page 38
 1997 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC16C7X
4.2.2.8
PCON REGISTER
Applicable Devices
72 73 73A 74 74A 76 77
Note:
The Power Control (PCON) register contains a flag bit
to allow differentiation between a Power-on Reset
(POR) to an external MCLR Reset or WDT Reset.
Those devices with brown-out detection circuitry contain an additional bit to differentiate a Brown-out Reset
condition from a Power-on Reset condition.
BOR is unknown on Power-on Reset. It
must then be set by the user and checked
on subsequent resets to see if BOR is
clear, indicating a brown-out has occurred.
The BOR status bit is a don't care and is
not necessarily predictable if the brown-out
circuit is disabled (by clearing the BODEN
bit in the Configuration word).
FIGURE 4-16: PCON REGISTER (ADDRESS 8Eh)
U-0
—
bit7
U-0
—
U-0
—
U-0
—
U-0
—
U-0
—
R/W-0
POR
R/W-q
BOR(1)
bit0
R = Readable bit
W = Writable bit
U = Unimplemented bit,
read as ‘0’
- n = Value at POR reset
bit 7-2: Unimplemented: Read as '0'
bit 1:
POR: Power-on Reset Status bit
1 = No Power-on Reset occurred
0 = A Power-on Reset occurred (must be set in software after a Power-on Reset occurs)
bit 0:
BOR(1): Brown-out Reset Status bit
1 = No Brown-out Reset occurred
0 = A Brown-out Reset occurred (must be set in software after a Brown-out Reset occurs)
Note 1: Brown-out Reset is not implemented on the PIC16C73/74.
 1997 Microchip Technology Inc.
DS30390E-page 39
PIC16C7X
4.3
PCL and PCLATH
Note 1: There are no status bits to indicate stack
overflow or stack underflow conditions.
Applicable Devices
72 73 73A 74 74A 76 77
The program counter (PC) is 13-bits wide. The low byte
comes from the PCL register, which is a readable and
writable register. The upper bits (PC<12:8>) are not
readable, but are indirectly writable through the
PCLATH register. On any reset, the upper bits of the
PC will be cleared. Figure 4-17 shows the two situations for the loading of the PC. The upper example in
the figure shows how the PC is loaded on a write to
PCL (PCLATH<4:0> → PCH). The lower example in
the figure shows how the PC is loaded during a CALL
or GOTO instruction (PCLATH<4:3> → PCH).
FIGURE 4-17: LOADING OF PC IN
DIFFERENT SITUATIONS
PCH
PCL
12
8
7
0
PC
5
8
PCLATH<4:0>
Instruction with
PCL as
Destination
ALU
PCLATH
PCH
12
11 10
Program Memory Paging
Applicable Devices
72 73 73A 74 74A 76 77
PIC16C7X devices are capable of addressing a continuous 8K word block of program memory. The CALL and
GOTO instructions provide only 11 bits of address to
allow branching within any 2K program memory page.
When doing a CALL or GOTO instruction the upper 2 bits
of the address are provided by PCLATH<4:3>. When
doing a CALL or GOTO instruction, the user must ensure
that the page select bits are programmed so that the
desired program memory page is addressed. If a return
from a CALL instruction (or interrupt) is executed, the
entire 13-bit PC is pushed onto the stack. Therefore,
manipulation of the PCLATH<4:3> bits are not required
for the return instructions (which POPs the address
from the stack).
Note:
0
7
GOTO, CALL
PCLATH<4:3>
11
Opcode <10:0>
PCLATH
4.3.1
4.4
PCL
8
PC
2
Note 2: There are no instructions/mnemonics
called PUSH or POP. These are actions
that occur from the execution of the
CALL, RETURN, RETLW, and RETFIE
instructions, or the vectoring to an interrupt address.
PIC16C7X devices with 4K or less of program memory ignore paging bit
PCLATH<4>. The use of PCLATH<4> as a
general purpose read/write bit is not recommended since this may affect upward
compatibility with future products.
COMPUTED GOTO
A computed GOTO is accomplished by adding an offset to the program counter (ADDWF PCL). When doing
a table read using a computed GOTO method, care
should be exercised if the table location crosses a PCL
memory boundary (each 256 byte block). Refer to the
application note “Implementing a Table Read" (AN556).
4.3.2
STACK
The PIC16CXX family has an 8 level deep x 13-bit wide
hardware stack. The stack space is not part of either
program or data space and the stack pointer is not
readable or writable. The PC is PUSHed onto the stack
when a CALL instruction is executed or an interrupt
causes a branch. The stack is POPed in the event of a
RETURN, RETLW or a RETFIE instruction execution.
PCLATH is not affected by a PUSH or POP operation.
The stack operates as a circular buffer. This means that
after the stack has been PUSHed eight times, the ninth
push overwrites the value that was stored from the first
push. The tenth push overwrites the second push (and
so on).
DS30390E-page 40
 1997 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC16C7X
Example 4-1 shows the calling of a subroutine in
page 1 of the program memory. This example assumes
that PCLATH is saved and restored by the interrupt service routine (if interrupts are used).
4.5
EXAMPLE 4-1:
The INDF register is not a physical register. Addressing
the INDF register will cause indirect addressing.
ORG 0x500
BSF
PCLATH,3
BCF
PCLATH,4
CALL
SUB1_P1
:
:
:
ORG 0x900
SUB1_P1:
:
:
RETURN
Indirect Addressing, INDF and FSR
Registers
Applicable Devices
72 73 73A 74 74A 76 77
CALL OF A SUBROUTINE IN
PAGE 1 FROM PAGE 0
Indirect addressing is possible by using the INDF register. Any instruction using the INDF register actually
accesses the register pointed to by the File Select Register, FSR. Reading the INDF register itself indirectly
(FSR = '0') will read 00h. Writing to the INDF register
indirectly results in a no-operation (although status bits
may be affected). An effective 9-bit address is obtained
by concatenating the 8-bit FSR register and the IRP bit
(STATUS<7>), as shown in Figure 4-18.
;Select page 1 (800h-FFFh)
;Only on >4K devices
;Call subroutine in
;page 1 (800h-FFFh)
;called subroutine
;page 1 (800h-FFFh)
A simple program to clear RAM locations 20h-2Fh
using indirect addressing is shown in Example 4-2.
;return to Call subroutine
;in page 0 (000h-7FFh)
EXAMPLE 4-2:
movlw
movwf
clrf
incf
btfss
goto
NEXT
INDIRECT ADDRESSING
0x20
FSR
INDF
FSR,F
FSR,4
NEXT
;initialize pointer
;to RAM
;clear INDF register
;inc pointer
;all done?
;no clear next
CONTINUE
:
;yes continue
FIGURE 4-18: DIRECT/INDIRECT ADDRESSING
Direct Addressing
Indirect Addressing
from opcode
RP1:RP0
6
bank select
location select
0
IRP
7
bank select
00
00h
01
80h
10
100h
FSR register
0
location select
11
180h
not used
Data
Memory
7Fh
Bank 0
FFh
Bank 1
17Fh
Bank 2
1FFh
Bank 3
For register file map detail see Figure 4-4, and Figure 4-5.
 1997 Microchip Technology Inc.
DS30390E-page 41
PIC16C7X
NOTES:
DS30390E-page 42
 1997 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC16C7X
5.0
I/O PORTS
FIGURE 5-1:
Applicable Devices
72 73 73A 74 74A 76 77
Some pins for these I/O ports are multiplexed with an
alternate function for the peripheral features on the
device. In general, when a peripheral is enabled, that
pin may not be used as a general purpose I/O pin.
5.1
Data
bus
BLOCK DIAGRAM OF
RA3:RA0 AND RA5 PINS
D
Q
VDD
WR
Port
Q
CK
PORTA and TRISA Registers
Data Latch
Applicable Devices
72 73 73A 74 74A 76 77
D
WR
TRIS
PORTA is a 6-bit latch.
Pin RA4 is multiplexed with the Timer0 module clock
input to become the RA4/T0CKI pin.
Other PORTA pins are multiplexed with analog inputs
and analog VREF input. The operation of each pin is
selected by clearing/setting the control bits in the
ADCON1 register (A/D Control Register1).
Note:
On a Power-on Reset, these pins are configured as analog inputs and read as '0'.
TRIS Latch
Q
RD PORT
To A/D Converter
Note 1: I/O pins have protection diodes to VDD and
VSS.
FIGURE 5-2:
Data
bus
EXAMPLE 5-1:
WR
TRIS
STATUS, RP0
STATUS, RP1
PORTA
BSF
MOVLW
STATUS, RP0
0xCF
MOVWF
TRISA
;
;
;
;
;
;
;
;
;
;
;
;
;
PIC16C76/77 only
Initialize PORTA by
clearing output
data latches
Select Bank 1
Value used to
initialize data
direction
Set RA<3:0> as inputs
RA<5:4> as outputs
TRISA<7:6> are always
read as '0'.
D
EN
WR
PORT
BCF
BCF
CLRF
TTL
input
buffer
RD TRIS
The TRISA register controls the direction of the RA
pins, even when they are being used as analog inputs.
The user must ensure the bits in the TRISA register are
maintained set when using them as analog inputs.
INITIALIZING PORTA
I/O pin(1)
VSS
Analog
input
mode
Q
Setting a TRISA register bit puts the corresponding output driver in a hi-impedance mode. Clearing a bit in the
TRISA register puts the contents of the output latch on
the selected pin(s).
Reading the PORTA register reads the status of the
pins whereas writing to it will write to the port latch. All
write operations are read-modify-write operations.
Therefore a write to a port implies that the port pins are
read, this value is modified, and then written to the port
data latch.
N
Q
CK
The RA4/T0CKI pin is a Schmitt Trigger input and an
open drain output. All other RA port pins have TTL input
levels and full CMOS output drivers. All pins have data
direction bits (TRIS registers) which can configure
these pins as output or input.
P
BLOCK DIAGRAM OF RA4/
T0CKI PIN
D
Q
CK
Q
N
I/O pin(1)
Data Latch
D
Q
CK
Q
VSS
Schmitt
Trigger
input
buffer
TRIS Latch
RD TRIS
Q
D
EN
EN
RD PORT
TMR0 clock input
Note 1: I/O pin has protection diodes to VSS only.
 1997 Microchip Technology Inc.
DS30390E-page 43
PIC16C7X
TABLE 5-1:
PORTA FUNCTIONS
Name
Bit#
Buffer
RA0/AN0
RA1/AN1
RA2/AN2
RA3/AN3/VREF
RA4/T0CKI
bit0
bit1
bit2
bit3
bit4
TTL
TTL
TTL
TTL
ST
Function
Input/output or analog input
Input/output or analog input
Input/output or analog input
Input/output or analog input or VREF
Input/output or external clock input for Timer0
Output is open drain type
RA5/SS/AN4
bit5
TTL
Input/output or slave select input for synchronous serial port or analog input
Legend: TTL = TTL input, ST = Schmitt Trigger input
TABLE 5-2:
SUMMARY OF REGISTERS ASSOCIATED WITH PORTA
Address Name
Bit 7 Bit 6
05h
PORTA
—
—
85h
TRISA
—
—
9Fh
ADCON1
—
—
Bit 5
Bit 4
Bit 3
Bit 2
Bit 1
Bit 0
Value on:
POR,
BOR
Value on all
other resets
RA5
RA4
RA3
RA2
RA1
RA0
--0x 0000
--0u 0000
--11 1111
--11 1111
---- -000
---- -000
PORTA Data Direction Register
—
—
—
PCFG2
PCFG1
PCFG0
Legend: x = unknown, u = unchanged, - = unimplemented locations read as '0'. Shaded cells are not used by PORTA.
DS30390E-page 44
 1997 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC16C7X
5.2
PORTB and TRISB Registers
Applicable Devices
72 73 73A 74 74A 76 77
PORTB is an 8-bit wide bi-directional port. The corresponding data direction register is TRISB. Setting a bit
in the TRISB register puts the corresponding output
driver in a hi-impedance input mode. Clearing a bit in
the TRISB register puts the contents of the output latch
on the selected pin(s).
EXAMPLE 5-2:
INITIALIZING PORTB
BCF
CLRF
STATUS, RP0
PORTB
BSF
MOVLW
STATUS, RP0
0xCF
MOVWF
TRISB
;
;
;
;
;
;
;
;
;
;
;
Initialize PORTB by
clearing output
data latches
Select Bank 1
Value used to
initialize data
direction
Set RB<3:0> as inputs
RB<5:4> as outputs
RB<7:6> as inputs
Each of the PORTB pins has a weak internal pull-up. A
single control bit can turn on all the pull-ups. This is
performed by clearing bit RBPU (OPTION<7>). The
weak pull-up is automatically turned off when the port
pin is configured as an output. The pull-ups are disabled on a Power-on Reset.
FIGURE 5-3:
BLOCK DIAGRAM OF
RB3:RB0 PINS
VDD
RBPU(2)
Data bus
WR Port
weak
P pull-up
Data Latch
D
Q
I/O
pin(1)
CK
TRIS Latch
D
Q
WR TRIS
Four of PORTB’s pins, RB7:RB4, have an interrupt on
change feature. Only pins configured as inputs can
cause this interrupt to occur (i.e. any RB7:RB4 pin configured as an output is excluded from the interrupt on
change comparison). The input pins (of RB7:RB4) are
compared with the old value latched on the last read of
PORTB. The “mismatch” outputs of RB7:RB4 are
OR’ed together to generate the RB Port Change Interrupt with flag bit RBIF (INTCON<0>).
This interrupt can wake the device from SLEEP. The
user, in the interrupt service routine, can clear the interrupt in the following manner:
a)
b)
Any read or write of PORTB. This will end the
mismatch condition.
Clear flag bit RBIF.
A mismatch condition will continue to set flag bit RBIF.
Reading PORTB will end the mismatch condition, and
allow flag bit RBIF to be cleared.
This interrupt on mismatch feature, together with software configurable pull-ups on these four pins allow
easy interface to a keypad and make it possible for
wake-up on key-depression. Refer to the Embedded
Control Handbook, "Implementing Wake-Up on Key
Stroke" (AN552).
Note:
For the PIC16C73/74, if a change on the
I/O pin should occur when the read operation is being executed (start of the Q2
cycle), then interrupt flag bit RBIF may not
get set.
The interrupt on change feature is recommended for
wake-up on key depression operation and operations
where PORTB is only used for the interrupt on change
feature. Polling of PORTB is not recommended while
using the interrupt on change feature.
TTL
Input
Buffer
CK
RD TRIS
Q
RD Port
D
EN
RB0/INT
Schmitt Trigger
Buffer
RD Port
Note 1: I/O pins have diode protection to VDD and VSS.
2: To enable weak pull-ups, set the appropriate TRIS bit(s)
and clear the RBPU bit (OPTION<7>).
 1997 Microchip Technology Inc.
DS30390E-page 45
PIC16C7X
FIGURE 5-4:
BLOCK DIAGRAM OF
RB7:RB4 PINS (PIC16C73/74)
FIGURE 5-5:
VDD
RBPU(2)
weak
P pull-up
Data Latch
D
Q
Data bus
WR Port
I/O
pin(1)
CK
WR TRIS
VDD
RBPU(2)
Data bus
WR Port
TRIS Latch
D
Q
TTL
Input
Buffer
CK
RD TRIS
Q
BLOCK DIAGRAM OF
RB7:RB4 PINS (PIC16C72/
73A/74A/76/77)
weak
P pull-up
Data Latch
D
Q
I/O
pin(1)
CK
TRIS Latch
D
Q
ST
Buffer
WR TRIS
Latch
D
TTL
Input
Buffer
CK
RD TRIS
Q
ST
Buffer
Latch
D
EN
RD Port
Set RBIF
EN
RD Port
Q1
Set RBIF
From other
RB7:RB4 pins
Q
D
EN
RD Port
From other
RB7:RB4 pins
Q
RD Port
EN
RB7:RB6 in serial programming mode
Note 1: I/O pins have diode protection to VDD and VSS.
2: To enable weak pull-ups, set the appropriate TRIS bit(s)
and clear the RBPU bit (OPTION<7>).
TABLE 5-3:
Name
D
Q3
RB7:RB6 in serial programming mode
Note 1: I/O pins have diode protection to VDD and VSS.
2: To enable weak pull-ups, set the appropriate TRIS bit(s)
and clear the RBPU bit (OPTION<7>).
PORTB FUNCTIONS
Bit#
Buffer
Function
TTL/ST(1)
Input/output pin or external interrupt input. Internal software
programmable weak pull-up.
RB1
bit1
TTL
Input/output pin. Internal software programmable weak pull-up.
RB2
bit2
TTL
Input/output pin. Internal software programmable weak pull-up.
RB3
bit3
TTL
Input/output pin. Internal software programmable weak pull-up.
RB4
bit4
TTL
Input/output pin (with interrupt on change). Internal software programmable
weak pull-up.
RB5
bit5
TTL
Input/output pin (with interrupt on change). Internal software programmable
weak pull-up.
RB6
bit6
TTL/ST(2)
Input/output pin (with interrupt on change). Internal software programmable
weak pull-up. Serial programming clock.
RB7
bit7
TTL/ST(2)
Input/output pin (with interrupt on change). Internal software programmable
weak pull-up. Serial programming data.
Legend: TTL = TTL input, ST = Schmitt Trigger input
Note 1: This buffer is a Schmitt Trigger input when configured as the external interrupt.
2: This buffer is a Schmitt Trigger input when used in serial programming mode.
RB0/INT
bit0
DS30390E-page 46
 1997 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC16C7X
TABLE 5-4:
SUMMARY OF REGISTERS ASSOCIATED WITH PORTB
Address
Name
Bit 7
Bit 6
Bit 5
Bit 4
Bit 3
Bit 2
Bit 1
Bit 0
Value on:
POR,
BOR
Value on all
other resets
06h, 106h
PORTB
RB7
RB6
RB5
RB4
RB3
RB2
RB1
RB0
xxxx xxxx
uuuu uuuu
86h, 186h
TRISB
1111 1111
1111 1111
81h, 181h
OPTION
1111 1111
1111 1111
PORTB Data Direction Register
RBPU
INTEDG
T0CS
T0SE
PSA
PS2
PS1
PS0
Legend: x = unknown, u = unchanged. Shaded cells are not used by PORTB.
 1997 Microchip Technology Inc.
DS30390E-page 47
PIC16C7X
5.3
PORTC and TRISC Registers
FIGURE 5-6:
Applicable Devices
72 73 73A 74 74A 76 77
PORTC is an 8-bit bi-directional port. Each pin is individually configurable as an input or output through the
TRISC register. PORTC is multiplexed with several
peripheral functions (Table 5-5). PORTC pins have
Schmitt Trigger input buffers.
When enabling peripheral functions, care should be
taken in defining TRIS bits for each PORTC pin. Some
peripherals override the TRIS bit to make a pin an output, while other peripherals override the TRIS bit to
make a pin an input. Since the TRIS bit override is in
effect while the peripheral is enabled, read-modifywrite instructions (BSF, BCF, XORWF) with TRISC as
destination should be avoided. The user should refer to
the corresponding peripheral section for the correct
TRIS bit settings.
EXAMPLE 5-3:
PORT/PERIPHERAL Select(2)
Peripheral Data Out
Data bus
WR
PORT
D
STATUS, RP0
STATUS, RP1
PORTC
BSF
MOVLW
STATUS, RP0
0xCF
MOVWF
TRISC
;
;
;
;
;
;
;
;
;
;
;
;
Select Bank 0
PIC16C76/77 only
Initialize PORTC by
clearing output
data latches
Select Bank 1
Value used to
initialize data
direction
Set RC<3:0> as inputs
RC<5:4> as outputs
RC<7:6> as inputs
VDD
0
Q
P
1
CK
Q
Data Latch
WR
TRIS
D
CK
I/O
pin(1)
Q
Q
N
TRIS Latch
VSS
Schmitt
Trigger
RD TRIS
Peripheral
OE(3)
Q
INITIALIZING PORTC
BCF
BCF
CLRF
TABLE 5-5:
PORTC BLOCK DIAGRAM
(PERIPHERAL OUTPUT
OVERRIDE)
D
EN
RD
PORT
Peripheral input
Note 1: I/O pins have diode protection to VDD and VSS.
2: Port/Peripheral select signal selects between port
data and peripheral output.
3: Peripheral OE (output enable) is only activated if
peripheral select is active.
PORTC FUNCTIONS
Name
Bit#
Buffer Type
Function
RC0/T1OSO/T1CKI
bit0
ST
Input/output port pin or Timer1 oscillator output/Timer1 clock input
RC1/T1OSI/CCP2(1)
bit1
ST
Input/output port pin or Timer1 oscillator input or Capture2 input/
Compare2 output/PWM2 output
RC2/CCP1
bit2
ST
Input/output port pin or Capture1 input/Compare1 output/PWM1
output
RC3/SCK/SCL
bit3
ST
RC3 can also be the synchronous serial clock for both SPI and I2C
modes.
RC4/SDI/SDA
bit4
ST
RC4 can also be the SPI Data In (SPI mode) or data I/O (I2C mode).
RC5/SDO
bit5
ST
Input/output port pin or Synchronous Serial Port data output
(2)
RC6/TX/CK
bit6
ST
Input/output port pin or USART Asynchronous Transmit, or USART
Synchronous Clock
RC7/RX/DT(2)
bit7
ST
Input/output port pin or USART Asynchronous Receive, or USART
Synchronous Data
Legend: ST = Schmitt Trigger input
Note 1: The CCP2 multiplexed function is not enabled on the PIC16C72.
2: The TX/CK and RX/DT multiplexed functions are not enabled on the PIC16C72.
DS30390E-page 48
 1997 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC16C7X
TABLE 5-6:
SUMMARY OF REGISTERS ASSOCIATED WITH PORTC
Address Name
Bit 7
Bit 6
Bit 5
Bit 4
Bit 3
Bit 2
Bit 1
Bit 0
Value on:
POR,
BOR
Value on all
other resets
07h
PORTC
RC7
RC6
RC5
RC4
RC3
RC2
RC1
RC0
xxxx xxxx
uuuu uuuu
87h
TRISC
1111 1111
1111 1111
PORTC Data Direction Register
Legend: x = unknown, u = unchanged.
 1997 Microchip Technology Inc.
DS30390E-page 49
PIC16C7X
5.4
PORTD and TRISD Registers
FIGURE 5-7:
Applicable Devices
72 73 73A 74 74A 76 77
Data
bus
PORTD is an 8-bit port with Schmitt Trigger input buffers. Each pin is individually configurable as an input or
output.
D
WR
PORT
PORTD can be configured as an 8-bit wide microprocessor port (parallel slave port) by setting control bit
PSPMODE (TRISE<4>). In this mode, the input buffers
are TTL.
PORTD BLOCK DIAGRAM (IN
I/O PORT MODE)
Q
I/O pin(1)
CK
Data Latch
D
WR
TRIS
Q
Schmitt
Trigger
input
buffer
CK
TRIS Latch
RD TRIS
Q
D
EN
EN
RD PORT
Note 1: I/O pins have protection diodes to VDD and VSS.
TABLE 5-7:
Name
PORTD FUNCTIONS
Bit#
Buffer Type
bit0
ST/TTL(1)
Input/output port pin or parallel slave port bit0
RD1/PSP1
bit1
(1)
ST/TTL
Input/output port pin or parallel slave port bit1
RD2/PSP2
bit2
ST/TTL(1)
Input/output port pin or parallel slave port bit2
bit3
(1)
Input/output port pin or parallel slave port bit3
(1)
Input/output port pin or parallel slave port bit4
(1)
RD0/PSP0
RD3/PSP3
RD4/PSP4
ST/TTL
bit4
ST/TTL
Function
RD5/PSP5
bit5
ST/TTL
Input/output port pin or parallel slave port bit5
RD6/PSP6
bit6
ST/TTL(1)
Input/output port pin or parallel slave port bit6
(1)
Input/output port pin or parallel slave port bit7
RD7/PSP7
bit7
ST/TTL
Legend: ST = Schmitt Trigger input TTL = TTL input
Note 1: Input buffers are Schmitt Triggers when in I/O mode and TTL buffer when in Parallel Slave Port Mode.
TABLE 5-8:
Address Name
SUMMARY OF REGISTERS ASSOCIATED WITH PORTD
Bit 7 Bit 6
Bit 5
Bit 4
Bit 3
Bit 2
Bit 1
Bit 0
Value on:
POR,
BOR
Value on all
other resets
RD5
RD4
RD3
RD2
RD1
RD0
xxxx xxxx
uuuu uuuu
1111 1111
1111 1111
0000 -111
0000 -111
08h
PORTD
RD7
88h
TRISD
PORTD Data Direction Register
89h
TRISE
IBF
RD6
OBF
IBOV PSPMODE
—
PORTE Data Direction Bits
Legend: x = unknown, u = unchanged, - = unimplemented read as '0'. Shaded cells are not used by PORTD.
DS30390E-page 50
 1997 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC16C7X
5.5
PORTE and TRISE Register
Note:
Applicable Devices
72 73 73A 74 74A 76 77
On a Power-on Reset these pins are configured as analog inputs.
FIGURE 5-8:
PORTE has three pins RE0/RD/AN5, RE1/WR/AN6
and RE2/CS/AN7, which are individually configurable
as inputs or outputs. These pins have Schmitt Trigger
input buffers.
Data
bus
D
WR
PORT
I/O PORTE becomes control inputs for the microprocessor port when bit PSPMODE (TRISE<4>) is set. In
this mode, the user must make sure that the
TRISE<2:0> bits are set (pins are configured as digital
inputs) and that register ADCON1 is configured for digital I/O. In this mode the input buffers are TTL.
I/O pin(1)
CK
D
WR
TRIS
Q
Schmitt
Trigger
input
buffer
CK
TRIS Latch
PORTE pins are multiplexed with analog inputs. The
operation of these pins is selected by control bits in the
ADCON1 register. When selected as an analog input,
these pins will read as '0's.
RD TRIS
Q
TRISE controls the direction of the RE pins, even when
they are being used as analog inputs. The user must
make sure to keep the pins configured as inputs when
using them as analog inputs.
R-0
IBF
bit7
Q
Data Latch
Figure 5-9 shows the TRISE register, which also controls the parallel slave port operation.
FIGURE 5-9:
PORTE BLOCK DIAGRAM (IN
I/O PORT MODE)
D
EN
EN
RD PORT
Note 1: I/O pins have protection diodes to VDD and VSS.
TRISE REGISTER (ADDRESS 89h)
R-0
OBF
R/W-0
IBOV
R/W-0
PSPMODE
U-0
—
R/W-1
bit2
R/W-1
bit1
R/W-1
bit0
bit0
R = Readable bit
W = Writable bit
U = Unimplemented bit,
read as ‘0’
- n = Value at POR reset
bit 7 :
IBF: Input Buffer Full Status bit
1 = A word has been received and is waiting to be read by the CPU
0 = No word has been received
bit 6:
OBF: Output Buffer Full Status bit
1 = The output buffer still holds a previously written word
0 = The output buffer has been read
bit 5:
IBOV: Input Buffer Overflow Detect bit (in microprocessor mode)
1 = A write occurred when a previously input word has not been read (must be cleared in software)
0 = No overflow occurred
bit 4:
PSPMODE: Parallel Slave Port Mode Select bit
1 = Parallel slave port mode
0 = General purpose I/O mode
bit 3:
Unimplemented: Read as '0'
PORTE Data Direction Bits
bit 2:
Bit2: Direction Control bit for pin RE2/CS/AN7
1 = Input
0 = Output
bit 1:
Bit1: Direction Control bit for pin RE1/WR/AN6
1 = Input
0 = Output
bit 0:
Bit0: Direction Control bit for pin RE0/RD/AN5
1 = Input
0 = Output
 1997 Microchip Technology Inc.
DS30390E-page 51
PIC16C7X
TABLE 5-9:
PORTE FUNCTIONS
Name
Bit#
Buffer Type
Function
RE0/RD/AN5
bit0
ST/TTL(1)
Input/output port pin or read control input in parallel slave port mode or
analog input:
RD
1 = Not a read operation
0 = Read operation. Reads PORTD register (if chip selected)
RE1/WR/AN6
bit1
ST/TTL(1)
Input/output port pin or write control input in parallel slave port mode or
analog input:
WR
1 = Not a write operation
0 = Write operation. Writes PORTD register (if chip selected)
bit2
ST/TTL(1)
Input/output port pin or chip select control input in parallel slave port
mode or analog input:
CS
1 = Device is not selected
0 = Device is selected
Legend: ST = Schmitt Trigger input TTL = TTL input
Note 1: Input buffers are Schmitt Triggers when in I/O mode and TTL buffers when in Parallel Slave Port Mode.
RE2/CS/AN7
TABLE 5-10:
SUMMARY OF REGISTERS ASSOCIATED WITH PORTE
Bit 7
Bit 6
Bit 5
Bit 4
Bit 3
Bit 2
Bit 1
Bit 0
Value on:
POR,
BOR
Value on all
other resets
PORTE
—
—
—
—
—
RE2
RE1
RE0
---- -xxx
---- -uuu
89h
TRISE
IBF
OBF
IBOV
PSPMODE
—
0000 -111
0000 -111
9Fh
ADCON1
—
—
—
—
—
---- -000
---- -000
Address
Name
09h
PORTE Data Direction Bits
PCFG2
PCFG1
PCFG0
Legend: x = unknown, u = unchanged, - = unimplemented read as '0'. Shaded cells are not used by PORTE.
DS30390E-page 52
 1997 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC16C7X
5.6
I/O Programming Considerations
EXAMPLE 5-4:
Applicable Devices
72 73 73A 74 74A 76 77
5.6.1
BI-DIRECTIONAL I/O PORTS
Any instruction which writes, operates internally as a
read followed by a write operation. The BCF and BSF
instructions, for example, read the register into the
CPU, execute the bit operation and write the result back
to the register. Caution must be used when these
instructions are applied to a port with both inputs and
outputs defined. For example, a BSF operation on bit5
of PORTB will cause all eight bits of PORTB to be read
into the CPU. Then the BSF operation takes place on
bit5 and PORTB is written to the output latches. If
another bit of PORTB is used as a bi-directional I/O pin
(e.g., bit0) and it is defined as an input at this time, the
input signal present on the pin itself would be read into
the CPU and rewritten to the data latch of this particular
pin, overwriting the previous content. As long as the pin
stays in the input mode, no problem occurs. However, if
bit0 is switched to an output, the content of the data
latch may now be unknown.
Reading the port register, reads the values of the port
pins. Writing to the port register writes the value to the
port latch. When using read-modify-write instructions
(ex. BCF, BSF, etc.) on a port, the value of the port pins
is read, the desired operation is done to this value, and
this value is then written to the port latch.
Example 5-4 shows the effect of two sequential readmodify-write instructions on an I/O port.
READ-MODIFY-WRITE
INSTRUCTIONS ON AN I/O
PORT
;Initial PORT settings: PORTB<7:4> Inputs
;
PORTB<3:0> Outputs
;PORTB<7:6> have external pull-ups and are
;not connected to other circuitry
;
;
PORT latch PORT pins
;
---------- --------BCF PORTB, 7
; 01pp pppp
11pp pppp
BCF PORTB, 6
; 10pp pppp
11pp pppp
BSF STATUS, RP0 ;
BCF TRISB, 7
; 10pp pppp
11pp pppp
BCF TRISB, 6
; 10pp pppp
10pp pppp
;
;Note that the user may have expected the
;pin values to be 00pp ppp. The 2nd BCF
;caused RB7 to be latched as the pin value
;(high).
A pin actively outputting a Low or High should not be
driven from external devices at the same time in order
to change the level on this pin (“wired-or”, “wired-and”).
The resulting high output currents may damage the
chip.
5.6.2
SUCCESSIVE OPERATIONS ON I/O PORTS
The actual write to an I/O port happens at the end of an
instruction cycle, whereas for reading, the data must be
valid at the beginning of the instruction cycle (Figure 510). Therefore, care must be exercised if a write followed by a read operation is carried out on the same I/
O port. The sequence of instructions should be such to
allow the pin voltage to stabilize (load dependent)
before the next instruction which causes that file to be
read into the CPU is executed. Otherwise, the previous
state of that pin may be read into the CPU rather than
the new state. When in doubt, it is better to separate
these instructions with a NOP or another instruction not
accessing this I/O port.
FIGURE 5-10: SUCCESSIVE I/O OPERATION
Q1 Q2 Q3 Q4 Q1 Q2 Q3 Q4 Q1 Q2 Q3 Q4 Q1 Q2 Q3 Q4
PC
Instruction
fetched
PC
PC + 1
MOVWF PORTB MOVF PORTB,W
write to
PORTB
PC + 2
PC + 3
NOP
NOP
This example shows a write to PORTB
followed by a read from PORTB.
Note that:
data setup time = (0.25TCY - TPD)
RB7:RB0
where TCY = instruction cycle
TPD = propagation delay
Port pin
sampled here
TPD
Instruction
executed
NOP
MOVWF PORTB
write to
PORTB
 1997 Microchip Technology Inc.
Note:
MOVF PORTB,W
Therefore, at higher clock frequencies,
a write followed by a read may be problematic.
DS30390E-page 53
PIC16C7X
5.7
Parallel Slave Port
Applicable Devices
72 73 73A 74 74A 76 77
PORTD operates as an 8-bit wide Parallel Slave Port,
or microprocessor port when control bit PSPMODE
(TRISE<4>) is set. In slave mode it is asynchronously
readable and writable by the external world through RD
control input pin RE0/RD/AN5 and WR control input pin
RE1/WR/AN6.
It can directly interface to an 8-bit microprocessor data
bus. The external microprocessor can read or write the
PORTD latch as an 8-bit latch. Setting bit PSPMODE
enables port pin RE0/RD/AN5 to be the RD input, RE1/
WR/AN6 to be the WR input and RE2/CS/AN7 to be the
CS (chip select) input. For this functionality, the corresponding data direction bits of the TRISE register
(TRISE<2:0>) must be configured as inputs (set) and
the A/D port configuration bits PCFG2:PCFG0
(ADCON1<2:0>) must be set, which will configure pins
RE2:RE0 as digital I/O.
There are actually two 8-bit latches, one for data-out
(from the PIC16/17) and one for data input. The user
writes 8-bit data to PORTD data latch and reads data
from the port pin latch (note that they have the same
address). In this mode, the TRISD register is ignored,
since the microprocessor is controlling the direction of
data flow.
A write to the PSP occurs when both the CS and WR
lines are first detected low. When either the CS or WR
lines become high (level triggered), then the Input
Buffer Full status flag bit IBF (TRISE<7>) is set on the
Q4 clock cycle, following the next Q2 cycle, to signal
the write is complete (Figure 5-12). The interrupt flag bit
PSPIF (PIR1<7>) is also set on the same Q4 clock
cycle. IBF can only be cleared by reading the PORTD
input latch. The input Buffer Overflow status flag bit
IBOV (TRISE<5>) is set if a second write to the Parallel
Slave Port is attempted when the previous byte has not
been read out of the buffer.
FIGURE 5-11: PORTD AND PORTE BLOCK
DIAGRAM (PARALLEL
SLAVE PORT)
Data bus
D
WR
PORT
Q
RDx
pin
CK
TTL
Q
RD
PORT
D
EN
EN
One bit of PORTD
Set interrupt flag
PSPIF (PIR1<7>)
Read
TTL
RD
Chip Select
TTL
CS
TTL
WR
Write
Note: I/O pin has protection diodes to VDD and VSS.
A read from the PSP occurs when both the CS and RD
lines are first detected low. The Output Buffer Full status flag bit OBF (TRISE<6>) is cleared immediately
(Figure 5-13) indicating that the PORTD latch is waiting
to be read by the external bus. When either the CS or
RD pin becomes high (level triggered), the interrupt flag
bit PSPIF is set on the Q4 clock cycle, following the
next Q2 cycle, indicating that the read is complete.
OBF remains low until data is written to PORTD by the
user firmware.
When not in Parallel Slave Port mode, the IBF and OBF
bits are held clear. However, if flag bit IBOV was previously set, it must be cleared in firmware.
An interrupt is generated and latched into flag bit
PSPIF when a read or write operation is completed.
PSPIF must be cleared by the user in firmware and the
interrupt can be disabled by clearing the interrupt
enable bit PSPIE (PIE1<7>).
DS30390E-page 54
 1997 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC16C7X
FIGURE 5-12: PARALLEL SLAVE PORT WRITE WAVEFORMS
Q1
Q2
Q3
Q4
Q1
Q2
Q3
Q4
Q1
Q2
Q3
Q4
Q4
Q1
Q2
Q3
Q4
CS
WR
RD
PORTD<7:0>
IBF
OBF
PSPIF
FIGURE 5-13: PARALLEL SLAVE PORT READ WAVEFORMS
Q1
Q2
Q3
Q4
Q1
Q2
Q3
CS
WR
RD
PORTD<7:0>
IBF
OBF
PSPIF
TABLE 5-11:
REGISTERS ASSOCIATED WITH PARALLEL SLAVE PORT
Address Name
Bit 7
Bit 6
08h
PORTD
09h
PORTE
—
—
89h
TRISE
IBF
OBF
Bit 5
Bit 4
Bit 3
Bit 2
Bit 1
Bit 0
Port data latch when written: Port pins when read
—
—
IBOV PSPMODE
—
—
RE2
RE1
RE0
PORTE Data Direction Bits
Value on:
POR,
BOR
Value on all
other resets
xxxx xxxx
uuuu uuuu
---- -xxx
---- -uuu
0000 -111
0000 -111
0Ch
PIR1
PSPIF ADIF RCIF
TXIF
SSPIF
CCP1IF
TMR2IF
TMR1IF
0000 0000
0000 0000
8Ch
PIE1
PSPIE ADIE RCIE
TXIE
SSPIE
CCP1IE
TMR2IE
TMR1IE
0000 0000
0000 0000
9Fh
ADCON1
—
—
PCFG2
PCFG1
PCFG0
---- -000
---- -000
—
—
—
Legend: x = unknown, u = unchanged, - = unimplemented read as '0'. Shaded cells are not used by the Parallel Slave Port.
 1997 Microchip Technology Inc.
DS30390E-page 55
PIC16C7X
NOTES:
DS30390E-page 56
 1997 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC16C7X
6.0
OVERVIEW OF TIMER
MODULES
Applicable Devices
72 73 73A 74 74A 76 77
CCP module, Timer1 is the time-base for 16-bit Capture or the 16-bit Compare and must be synchronized
to the device.
6.3
Applicable Devices
72 73 73A 74 74A 76 77
The PIC16C72, PIC16C73/73A, PIC16C74/74A,
PIC16C76/77 each have three timer modules.
Each module can generate an interrupt to indicate that
an event has occurred (i.e. timer overflow). Each of
these modules is explained in full detail in the following
sections. The timer modules are:
• Timer0 Module (Section 7.0)
• Timer1 Module (Section 8.0)
• Timer2 Module (Section 9.0)
6.1
Timer0 Overview
Applicable Devices
72 73 73A 74 74A 76 77
The Timer0 module is a simple 8-bit overflow counter.
The clock source can be either the internal system
clock (Fosc/4) or an external clock. When the clock
source is an external clock, the Timer0 module can be
selected to increment on either the rising or falling
edge.
The Timer0 module also has a programmable prescaler option. This prescaler can be assigned to either
the Timer0 module or the Watchdog Timer. Bit PSA
(OPTION<3>) assigns the prescaler, and bits PS2:PS0
(OPTION<2:0>) determine the prescaler value. Timer0
can increment at the following rates: 1:1 (when prescaler assigned to Watchdog timer), 1:2, 1:4, 1:8, 1:16,
1:32, 1:64, 1:128, and 1:256 (Timer0 only).
Synchronization of the external clock occurs after the
prescaler. When the prescaler is used, the external
clock frequency may be higher then the device’s frequency. The maximum frequency is 50 MHz, given the
high and low time requirements of the clock.
6.2
Timer1 Overview
Applicable Devices
72 73 73A 74 74A 76 77
Timer1 is a 16-bit timer/counter. The clock source can
be either the internal system clock (Fosc/4), an external
clock, or an external crystal. Timer1 can operate as
either a timer or a counter. When operating as a
counter (external clock source), the counter can either
operate synchronized to the device or asynchronously
to the device. Asynchronous operation allows Timer1 to
operate during sleep, which is useful for applications
that require a real-time clock as well as the power savings of SLEEP mode.
Timer2 Overview
Timer2 is an 8-bit timer with a programmable prescaler
and postscaler, as well as an 8-bit period register
(PR2). Timer2 can be used with the CCP1 module (in
PWM mode) as well as the Baud Rate Generator for
the Synchronous Serial Port (SSP). The prescaler
option allows Timer2 to increment at the following
rates: 1:1, 1:4, 1:16.
The postscaler allows the TMR2 register to match the
period register (PR2) a programmable number of times
before generating an interrupt. The postscaler can be
programmed from 1:1 to 1:16 (inclusive).
6.4
CCP Overview
Applicable Devices
72 73 73A 74 74A 76 77
The CCP module(s) can operate in one of these three
modes: 16-bit capture, 16-bit compare, or up to 10-bit
Pulse Width Modulation (PWM).
Capture mode captures the 16-bit value of TMR1 into
the CCPRxH:CCPRxL register pair. The capture event
can be programmed for either the falling edge, rising
edge, fourth rising edge, or the sixteenth rising edge of
the CCPx pin.
Compare mode compares the TMR1H:TMR1L register
pair to the CCPRxH:CCPRxL register pair. When a
match occurs an interrupt can be generated, and the
output pin CCPx can be forced to given state (High or
Low), TMR1 can be reset (CCP1), or TMR1 reset and
start A/D conversion (CCP2). This depends on the control bits CCPxM3:CCPxM0.
PWM mode compares the TMR2 register to a 10-bit
duty cycle register (CCPRxH:CCPRxL<5:4>) as well as
to an 8-bit period register (PR2). When the TMR2 register = Duty Cycle register, the CCPx pin will be forced
low. When TMR2 = PR2, TMR2 is cleared to 00h, an
interrupt can be generated, and the CCPx pin (if an output) will be forced high.
Timer1 also has a prescaler option which allows
Timer1 to increment at the following rates: 1:1, 1:2, 1:4,
and 1:8. Timer1 can be used in conjunction with the
Capture/Compare/PWM module. When used with a
 1997 Microchip Technology Inc.
DS30390E-page 57
PIC16C7X
NOTES:
DS30390E-page 58
 1997 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC16C7X
7.0
TIMER0 MODULE
Source Edge Select bit T0SE (OPTION<4>). Clearing
bit T0SE selects the rising edge. Restrictions on the
external clock input are discussed in detail in
Section 7.2.
Applicable Devices
72 73 73A 74 74A 76 77
The Timer0 module timer/counter has the following features:
•
•
•
•
•
•
The prescaler is mutually exclusively shared between
the Timer0 module and the Watchdog Timer. The prescaler assignment is controlled in software by control bit
PSA (OPTION<3>). Clearing bit PSA will assign the
prescaler to the Timer0 module. The prescaler is not
readable or writable. When the prescaler is assigned to
the Timer0 module, prescale values of 1:2, 1:4, ...,
1:256 are selectable. Section 7.3 details the operation
of the prescaler.
8-bit timer/counter
Readable and writable
8-bit software programmable prescaler
Internal or external clock select
Interrupt on overflow from FFh to 00h
Edge select for external clock
Figure 7-1 is a simplified block diagram of the Timer0
module.
7.1
Applicable Devices
72 73 73A 74 74A 76 77
Timer mode is selected by clearing bit T0CS
(OPTION<5>). In timer mode, the Timer0 module will
increment every instruction cycle (without prescaler). If
the TMR0 register is written, the increment is inhibited
for the following two instruction cycles (Figure 7-2 and
Figure 7-3). The user can work around this by writing
an adjusted value to the TMR0 register.
The TMR0 interrupt is generated when the TMR0 register overflows from FFh to 00h. This overflow sets bit
T0IF (INTCON<2>). The interrupt can be masked by
clearing bit T0IE (INTCON<5>). Bit T0IF must be
cleared in software by the Timer0 module interrupt service routine before re-enabling this interrupt. The
TMR0 interrupt cannot awaken the processor from
SLEEP since the timer is shut off during SLEEP. See
Figure 7-4 for Timer0 interrupt timing.
Counter mode is selected by setting bit T0CS
(OPTION<5>). In counter mode, Timer0 will increment
either on every rising or falling edge of pin RA4/T0CKI.
The incrementing edge is determined by the Timer0
FIGURE 7-1:
Timer0 Interrupt
TIMER0 BLOCK DIAGRAM
Data bus
FOSC/4
0
PSout
1
Sync with
Internal
clocks
1
Programmable
Prescaler
RA4/T0CKI
pin
8
0
TMR0
PSout
(2 cycle delay)
T0SE
3
Set interrupt
flag bit T0IF
on overflow
PSA
PS2, PS1, PS0
T0CS
Note 1: T0CS, T0SE, PSA, PS2:PS0 (OPTION<5:0>).
2: The prescaler is shared with Watchdog Timer (refer to Figure 7-6 for detailed block diagram).
FIGURE 7-2:
PC
(Program
Counter)
TIMER0 TIMING: INTERNAL CLOCK/NO PRESCALE
Q1 Q2 Q3 Q4 Q1 Q2 Q3 Q4 Q1 Q2 Q3 Q4 Q1 Q2 Q3 Q4 Q1 Q2 Q3 Q4 Q1 Q2 Q3 Q4 Q1 Q2 Q3 Q4 Q1 Q2 Q3 Q4
PC-1
Instruction
Fetch
TMR0
T0
PC
PC+1
MOVWF TMR0
MOVF TMR0,W
T0+1
Instruction
Executed
 1997 Microchip Technology Inc.
PC+2
PC+3
MOVF TMR0,W MOVF TMR0,W
T0+2
NT0
NT0
Write TMR0
executed
Read TMR0
reads NT0
Read TMR0
reads NT0
PC+4
MOVF TMR0,W
NT0
Read TMR0
reads NT0
PC+5
PC+6
MOVF TMR0,W
NT0+1
Read TMR0
reads NT0 + 1
NT0+2
T0
Read TMR0
reads NT0 + 2
DS30390E-page 59
PIC16C7X
FIGURE 7-3:
TIMER0 TIMING: INTERNAL CLOCK/PRESCALE 1:2
Q1 Q2 Q3 Q4 Q1 Q2 Q3 Q4 Q1 Q2 Q3 Q4 Q1 Q2 Q3 Q4 Q1 Q2 Q3 Q4 Q1 Q2 Q3 Q4 Q1 Q2 Q3 Q4 Q1 Q2 Q3 Q4
PC
(Program
Counter)
PC-1
Instruction
Fetch
PC
PC+1
MOVWF TMR0
MOVF TMR0,W
PC+3
Instruction
Execute
PC+5
MOVF TMR0,W
PC+6
MOVF TMR0,W
Read TMR0
reads NT0
Read TMR0
reads NT0
PC+6
NT0+1
NT0
Write TMR0
executed
FIGURE 7-4:
PC+4
MOVF TMR0,W
T0+1
T0
TMR0
PC+2
MOVF TMR0,W
Read TMR0
reads NT0
Read TMR0
reads NT0
Read TMR0
reads NT0 + 1
TIMER0 INTERRUPT TIMING
Q1
Q2
Q3
Q4
Q1
Q2
Q3
Q4
Q1
Q2
Q3
Q4
Q1
Q2
Q3
Q4
Q1
Q2
Q3
Q4
OSC1
CLKOUT(3)
Timer0
FEh
T0IF bit
(INTCON<2>)
FFh
00h
01h
02h
1
1
GIE bit
(INTCON<7>)
INSTRUCTION
FLOW
PC
PC
Instruction
fetched
Inst (PC)
Instruction
executed
Inst (PC-1)
PC +1
PC +1
Inst (PC+1)
Inst (PC)
Dummy cycle
0004h
0005h
Inst (0004h)
Inst (0005h)
Dummy cycle
Inst (0004h)
Note 1: Interrupt flag bit T0IF is sampled here (every Q1).
2: Interrupt latency = 4Tcy where Tcy = instruction cycle time.
3: CLKOUT is available only in RC oscillator mode.
DS30390E-page 60
 1997 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC16C7X
7.2
Using Timer0 with an External Clock
When a prescaler is used, the external clock input is
divided by the asynchronous ripple-counter type prescaler so that the prescaler output is symmetrical. For
the external clock to meet the sampling requirement,
the ripple-counter must be taken into account. Therefore, it is necessary for T0CKI to have a period of at
least 4Tosc (and a small RC delay of 40 ns) divided by
the prescaler value. The only requirement on T0CKI
high and low time is that they do not violate the minimum pulse width requirement of 10 ns. Refer to parameters 40, 41 and 42 in the electrical specification of the
desired device.
Applicable Devices
72 73 73A 74 74A 76 77
When an external clock input is used for Timer0, it must
meet certain requirements. The requirements ensure
the external clock can be synchronized with the internal
phase clock (TOSC). Also, there is a delay in the actual
incrementing of Timer0 after synchronization.
7.2.1
EXTERNAL CLOCK SYNCHRONIZATION
When no prescaler is used, the external clock input is
the same as the prescaler output. The synchronization
of T0CKI with the internal phase clocks is accomplished by sampling the prescaler output on the Q2 and
Q4 cycles of the internal phase clocks (Figure 7-5).
Therefore, it is necessary for T0CKI to be high for at
least 2Tosc (and a small RC delay of 20 ns) and low for
at least 2Tosc (and a small RC delay of 20 ns). Refer to
the electrical specification of the desired device.
FIGURE 7-5:
7.2.2
TMR0 INCREMENT DELAY
Since the prescaler output is synchronized with the
internal clocks, there is a small delay from the time the
external clock edge occurs to the time the Timer0 module is actually incremented. Figure 7-5 shows the delay
from the external clock edge to the timer incrementing.
TIMER0 TIMING WITH EXTERNAL CLOCK
Q1 Q2 Q3 Q4
Q1 Q2 Q3 Q4
Q1 Q2 Q3 Q4
External Clock Input or
Prescaler output (2)
Q1 Q2 Q3 Q4
Small pulse
misses sampling
(1)
(3)
External Clock/Prescaler
Output after sampling
Increment Timer0 (Q4)
Timer0
T0
T0 + 1
T0 + 2
Note 1: Delay from clock input change to Timer0 increment is 3Tosc to 7Tosc. (Duration of Q = Tosc).
Therefore, the error in measuring the interval between two edges on Timer0 input = ±4Tosc max.
2: External clock if no prescaler selected, Prescaler output otherwise.
3: The arrows indicate the points in time where sampling occurs.
 1997 Microchip Technology Inc.
DS30390E-page 61
PIC16C7X
7.3
Prescaler
The PSA and PS2:PS0 bits (OPTION<3:0>) determine
the prescaler assignment and prescale ratio.
Applicable Devices
72 73 73A 74 74A 76 77
When assigned to the Timer0 module, all instructions
writing to the TMR0 register (e.g. CLRF 1, MOVWF 1,
BSF
1,x....etc.) will clear the prescaler. When
assigned to WDT, a CLRWDT instruction will clear the
prescaler along with the Watchdog Timer. The prescaler is not readable or writable.
An 8-bit counter is available as a prescaler for the
Timer0 module, or as a postscaler for the Watchdog
Timer, respectively (Figure 7-6). For simplicity, this
counter is being referred to as “prescaler” throughout
this data sheet. Note that there is only one prescaler
available which is mutually exclusively shared between
the Timer0 module and the Watchdog Timer. Thus, a
prescaler assignment for the Timer0 module means
that there is no prescaler for the Watchdog Timer, and
vice-versa.
FIGURE 7-6:
Note:
Writing to TMR0 when the prescaler is
assigned to Timer0 will clear the prescaler
count, but will not change the prescaler
assignment.
BLOCK DIAGRAM OF THE TIMER0/WDT PRESCALER
Data Bus
CLKOUT (=Fosc/4)
0
RA4/T0CKI
pin
8
M
U
X
1
M
U
X
0
1
SYNC
2
Cycles
TMR0 reg
T0SE
T0CS
0
Watchdog
Timer
1
M
U
X
Set flag bit T0IF
on Overflow
PSA
8-bit Prescaler
8
8 - to - 1MUX
PS2:PS0
PSA
WDT Enable bit
1
0
MUX
PSA
WDT
Time-out
Note: T0CS, T0SE, PSA, PS2:PS0 are (OPTION<5:0>).
DS30390E-page 62
 1997 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC16C7X
7.3.1
SWITCHING PRESCALER ASSIGNMENT
The prescaler assignment is fully under software control, i.e., it can be changed “on the fly” during program
execution.
Note:
To avoid an unintended device RESET, the
following instruction sequence (shown in
Example 7-1) must be executed when
changing the prescaler assignment from
Timer0 to the WDT. This sequence must
be followed even if the WDT is disabled.
EXAMPLE 7-1:
CHANGING PRESCALER (TIMER0→WDT)
Lines 2 and 3 do NOT have to
be included if the final desired
prescale value is other than 1:1.
If 1:1 is final desired value, then
a temporary prescale value is
set in lines 2 and 3 and the final
prescale value will be set in lines
10 and 11.
1)
BSF
STATUS, RP0
;Bank 1
2)
MOVLW
b'xx0x0xxx'
;Select clock source and prescale value of
3)
MOVWF
OPTION_REG
;other than 1:1
4)
BCF
STATUS, RP0
;Bank 0
5)
CLRF
TMR0
;Clear TMR0 and prescaler
6)
BSF
STATUS, RP1
;Bank 1
7)
MOVLW
b'xxxx1xxx'
;Select WDT, do not change prescale value
8)
MOVWF
OPTION_REG
;
9)
CLRWDT
;Clears WDT and prescaler
10) MOVLW
b'xxxx1xxx'
;Select new prescale value and WDT
11) MOVWF
OPTION_REG
;
12) BCF
STATUS, RP0
;Bank 0
To change prescaler from the WDT to the Timer0 module use the sequence shown in Example 7-2.
EXAMPLE 7-2:
CLRWDT
BSF
MOVLW
MOVWF
BCF
CHANGING PRESCALER (WDT→TIMER0)
STATUS, RP0
b'xxxx0xxx'
OPTION_REG
STATUS, RP0
TABLE 7-1:
;Clear WDT and prescaler
;Bank 1
;Select TMR0, new prescale value and
;clock source
;Bank 0
REGISTERS ASSOCIATED WITH TIMER0
Address
Name
01h,101h
TMR0
0Bh,8Bh,
INTCON
10Bh,18Bh
81h,181h
OPTION
85h
TRISA
Bit 7
Bit 6
Bit 4
Bit 3
Bit 2
Bit 1
Bit 0
Value on:
POR,
BOR
xxxx xxxx
uuuu uuuu
T0IE
INTE
RBIE
T0IF
INTF
RBIF
0000 000x
0000 000u
T0CS
T0SE
PSA
PS2
PS1
PS0
1111 1111
1111 1111
--11 1111
--11 1111
Bit 5
Timer0 module’s register
GIE
PEIE
RBPU INTEDG
—
—
PORTA Data Direction Register
Value on all
other resets
Legend: x = unknown, u = unchanged, - = unimplemented locations read as '0'. Shaded cells are not used by Timer0.
 1997 Microchip Technology Inc.
DS30390E-page 63
PIC16C7X
NOTES:
DS30390E-page 64
 1997 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC16C7X
8.0
TIMER1 MODULE
In timer mode, Timer1 increments every instruction
cycle. In counter mode, it increments on every rising
edge of the external clock input.
Applicable Devices
72 73 73A 74 74A 76 77
The Timer1 module is a 16-bit timer/counter consisting
of two 8-bit registers (TMR1H and TMR1L) which are
readable and writable. The TMR1 Register pair
(TMR1H:TMR1L) increments from 0000h to FFFFh
and rolls over to 0000h. The TMR1 Interrupt, if enabled,
is generated on overflow which is latched in interrupt
flag bit TMR1IF (PIR1<0>). This interrupt can be
enabled/disabled by setting/clearing TMR1 interrupt
enable bit TMR1IE (PIE1<0>).
Timer1 can operate in one of two modes:
• As a timer
• As a counter
The operating mode is determined by the clock select
bit, TMR1CS (T1CON<1>).
FIGURE 8-1:
Timer1 can be enabled/disabled by setting/clearing
control bit TMR1ON (T1CON<0>).
Timer1 also has an internal “reset input”. This reset can
be generated by either of the two CCP modules
(Section 10.0). Figure 8-1 shows the Timer1 control
register.
For the PIC16C72/73A/74A/76/77, when the Timer1
oscillator is enabled (T1OSCEN is set), the RC1/
T1OSI/CCP2 and RC0/T1OSO/T1CKI pins become
inputs. That is, the TRISC<1:0> value is ignored.
For the PIC16C73/74, when the Timer1 oscillator is
enabled (T1OSCEN is set), RC1/T1OSI/CCP2 pin
becomes an input, however the RC0/T1OSO/T1CKI
pin will have to be configured as an input by setting the
TRISC<0> bit.
T1CON: TIMER1 CONTROL REGISTER (ADDRESS 10h)
U-0
U-0
—
—
R/W-0
R/W-0
R/W-0
R/W-0
T1CKPS1 T1CKPS0 T1OSCEN T1SYNC
bit7
R/W-0
R/W-0
TMR1CS TMR1ON
bit0
R = Readable bit
W = Writable bit
U = Unimplemented bit,
read as ‘0’
- n = Value at POR reset
bit 7-6: Unimplemented: Read as '0'
bit 5-4: T1CKPS1:T1CKPS0: Timer1 Input Clock Prescale Select bits
11 = 1:8 Prescale value
10 = 1:4 Prescale value
01 = 1:2 Prescale value
00 = 1:1 Prescale value
bit 3:
T1OSCEN: Timer1 Oscillator Enable Control bit
1 = Oscillator is enabled
0 = Oscillator is shut off
Note: The oscillator inverter and feedback resistor are turned off to eliminate power drain
bit 2:
T1SYNC: Timer1 External Clock Input Synchronization Control bit
TMR1CS = 1
1 = Do not synchronize external clock input
0 = Synchronize external clock input
TMR1CS = 0
This bit is ignored. Timer1 uses the internal clock when TMR1CS = 0.
bit 1:
TMR1CS: Timer1 Clock Source Select bit
1 = External clock from pin RC0/T1OSO/T1CKI (on the rising edge)
0 = Internal clock (FOSC/4)
bit 0:
TMR1ON: Timer1 On bit
1 = Enables Timer1
0 = Stops Timer1
 1997 Microchip Technology Inc.
DS30390E-page 65
PIC16C7X
8.1
Timer1 Operation in Timer Mode
8.2.1
Applicable Devices
72 73 73A 74 74A 76 77
When an external clock input is used for Timer1 in synchronized counter mode, it must meet certain requirements. The external clock requirement is due to
internal phase clock (Tosc) synchronization. Also, there
is a delay in the actual incrementing of TMR1 after synchronization.
Timer mode is selected by clearing the TMR1CS
(T1CON<1>) bit. In this mode, the input clock to the
timer is FOSC/4. The synchronize control bit T1SYNC
(T1CON<2>) has no effect since the internal clock is
always in sync.
8.2
When the prescaler is 1:1, the external clock input is
the same as the prescaler output. The synchronization
of T1CKI with the internal phase clocks is accomplished by sampling the prescaler output on the Q2 and
Q4 cycles of the internal phase clocks. Therefore, it is
necessary for T1CKI to be high for at least 2Tosc (and
a small RC delay of 20 ns) and low for at least 2Tosc
(and a small RC delay of 20 ns). Refer to the appropriate electrical specifications, parameters 45, 46, and 47.
Timer1 Operation in Synchronized
Counter Mode
Applicable Devices
72 73 73A 74 74A 76 77
Counter mode is selected by setting bit TMR1CS. In
this mode the timer increments on every rising edge of
clock input on pin RC1/T1OSI/CCP2 when bit
T1OSCEN is set or pin RC0/T1OSO/T1CKI when bit
T1OSCEN is cleared.
When a prescaler other than 1:1 is used, the external
clock input is divided by the asynchronous ripplecounter type prescaler so that the prescaler output is
symmetrical. In order for the external clock to meet the
sampling requirement, the ripple-counter must be
taken into account. Therefore, it is necessary for T1CKI
to have a period of at least 4Tosc (and a small RC delay
of 40 ns) divided by the prescaler value. The only
requirement on T1CKI high and low time is that they do
not violate the minimum pulse width requirements of
10 ns). Refer to the appropriate electrical specifications, parameters 40, 42, 45, 46, and 47.
If T1SYNC is cleared, then the external clock input is
synchronized with internal phase clocks. The synchronization is done after the prescaler stage. The prescaler stage is an asynchronous ripple-counter.
In this configuration, during SLEEP mode, Timer1 will
not increment even if the external clock is present,
since the synchronization circuit is shut off. The prescaler however will continue to increment.
FIGURE 8-2:
EXTERNAL CLOCK INPUT TIMING FOR
SYNCHRONIZED COUNTER MODE
TIMER1 BLOCK DIAGRAM
Set flag bit
TMR1IF on
Overflow
0
TMR1
TMR1H
Synchronized
clock input
TMR1L
1
TMR1ON
on/off
T1OSC
RC0/T1OSO/T1CKI
RC1/T1OSI/CCP2(2)
T1SYNC
(3)
1
T1OSCEN FOSC/4
Enable
Internal
Oscillator(1) Clock
Prescaler
1, 2, 4, 8
Synchronize
det
0
2
T1CKPS1:T1CKPS0
TMR1CS
SLEEP input
Note 1: When the T1OSCEN bit is cleared, the inverter and feedback resistor are turned off. This eliminates power drain.
2: The CCP2 module is not implemented in the PIC16C72.
3: For the PIC16C73 and PIC16C74, the Schmitt Trigger is not implemented in external clock mode.
DS30390E-page 66
 1997 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC16C7X
8.3
Timer1 Operation in Asynchronous
Counter Mode
Applicable Devices
72 73 73A 74 74A 76 77
If control bit T1SYNC (T1CON<2>) is set, the external
clock input is not synchronized. The timer continues to
increment asynchronous to the internal phase clocks.
The timer will continue to run during SLEEP and can
generate an interrupt on overflow which will wake-up
the processor. However, special precautions in software are needed to read/write the timer (Section 8.3.2).
In asynchronous counter mode, Timer1 can not be
used as a time-base for capture or compare operations.
8.3.1
EXTERNAL CLOCK INPUT TIMING WITH
UNSYNCHRONIZED CLOCK
If control bit T1SYNC is set, the timer will increment
completely asynchronously. The input clock must meet
certain minimum high time and low time requirements.
Refer to the appropriate Electrical Specifications Section, timing parameters 45, 46, and 47.
8.3.2
READING AND WRITING TIMER1 IN
ASYNCHRONOUS COUNTER MODE
Reading TMR1H or TMR1L while the timer is running,
from an external asynchronous clock, will guarantee a
valid read (taken care of in hardware). However, the
user should keep in mind that reading the 16-bit timer
in two 8-bit values itself poses certain problems since
the timer may overflow between the reads.
For writes, it is recommended that the user simply stop
the timer and write the desired values. A write contention may occur by writing to the timer registers while the
register is incrementing. This may produce an unpredictable value in the timer register.
Reading the 16-bit value requires some care.
Example 8-1 is an example routine to read the 16-bit
timer value. This is useful if the timer cannot be
stopped.
EXAMPLE 8-1:
READING A 16-BIT FREERUNNING TIMER
; All interrupts
MOVF
TMR1H,
MOVWF TMPH
MOVF
TMR1L,
MOVWF TMPL
MOVF
TMR1H,
SUBWF TMPH,
BTFSC
GOTO
are disabled
W ;Read high byte
;
W ;Read low byte
;
W ;Read high byte
W ;Sub 1st read
; with 2nd read
STATUS,Z ;Is result = 0
CONTINUE ;Good 16-bit read
;
; TMR1L may have rolled over between the read
; of the high and low bytes. Reading the high
; and low bytes now will read a good value.
;
MOVF
TMR1H, W ;Read high byte
MOVWF TMPH
;
MOVF
TMR1L, W ;Read low byte
MOVWF TMPL
;
; Re-enable the Interrupt (if required)
CONTINUE
;Continue with your code
8.4
Timer1 Oscillator
Applicable Devices
72 73 73A 74 74A 76 77
A crystal oscillator circuit is built in between pins T1OSI
(input) and T1OSO (amplifier output). It is enabled by
setting control bit T1OSCEN (T1CON<3>). The oscillator is a low power oscillator rated up to 200 kHz. It will
continue to run during SLEEP. It is primarily intended
for a 32 kHz crystal. Table 8-1 shows the capacitor
selection for the Timer1 oscillator.
The Timer1 oscillator is identical to the LP oscillator.
The user must provide a software time delay to ensure
proper oscillator start-up.
TABLE 8-1:
CAPACITOR SELECTION
FOR THE TIMER1
OSCILLATOR
Osc Type
Freq
C1
C2
LP
32 kHz
100 kHz
200 kHz
33 pF
15 pF
15 pF
33 pF
15 pF
15 pF
These values are for design guidance only.
Crystals Tested:
32.768 kHz Epson C-001R32.768K-A ± 20 PPM
100 kHz
Epson C-2 100.00 KC-P
± 20 PPM
200 kHz
STD XTL 200.000 kHz
± 20 PPM
Note 1: Higher capacitance increases the stability
of oscillator but also increases the start-up
time.
2: Since each resonator/crystal has its own
characteristics, the user should consult the
resonator/crystal manufacturer for appropriate values of external components.
 1997 Microchip Technology Inc.
DS30390E-page 67
PIC16C7X
8.5
Resetting Timer1 using a CCP Trigger
Output
8.6
Applicable Devices
72 73 73A 74 74A 76 77
Applicable Devices
72 73 73A 74 74A 76 77
The CCP2 module is not implemented on the
PIC16C72 device.
If the CCP1 or CCP2 module is configured in compare
mode to generate a “special event trigger"
(CCP1M3:CCP1M0 = 1011), this signal will reset
Timer1.
Note:
Resetting of Timer1 Register Pair
(TMR1H, TMR1L)
The special event triggers from the CCP1
and CCP2 modules will not set interrupt
flag bit TMR1IF (PIR1<0>).
Timer1 must be configured for either timer or synchronized counter mode to take advantage of this feature.
If Timer1 is running in asynchronous counter mode, this
reset operation may not work.
TMR1H and TMR1L registers are not reset to 00h on a
POR or any other reset except by the CCP1 and CCP2
special event triggers.
T1CON register is reset to 00h on a Power-on Reset or
a Brown-out Reset, which shuts off the timer and
leaves a 1:1 prescale. In all other resets, the register is
unaffected.
8.7
Timer1 Prescaler
Applicable Devices
72 73 73A 74 74A 76 77
The prescaler counter is cleared on writes to the
TMR1H or TMR1L registers.
In the event that a write to Timer1 coincides with a special event trigger from CCP1 or CCP2, the write will
take precedence.
In this mode of operation, the CCPRxH:CCPRxL registers pair effectively becomes the period register for
Timer1.
TABLE 8-2:
Address
REGISTERS ASSOCIATED WITH TIMER1 AS A TIMER/COUNTER
Name
0Bh,8Bh,
INTCON
10Bh,18Bh
Value on:
POR,
BOR
Value on
all other
resets
Bit 7
Bit 6
Bit 5
Bit 4
Bit 3
Bit 2
Bit 1
Bit 0
GIE
PEIE
T0IE
INTE
RBIE
T0IF
INTF
RBIF
0000 000x 0000 000u
PIR1
PSPIF(1,2) ADIF
RCIF(2)
TXIF(2)
SSPIF
CCP1IF
TMR2IF
TMR1IF
0000 0000 0000 0000
8Ch
PIE1
PSPIE(1,2)
RCIE(2)
TXIE(2)
SSPIE
CCP1IE
TMR2IE
TMR1IE
0000 0000 0000 0000
0Eh
TMR1L
Holding register for the Least Significant Byte of the 16-bit TMR1 register
xxxx xxxx uuuu uuuu
0Fh
TMR1H
Holding register for the Most Significant Byte of the 16-bit TMR1 register
xxxx xxxx uuuu uuuu
10h
T1CON
0Ch
—
ADIE
—
T1CKPS1 T1CKPS0 T1OSCEN T1SYNC TMR1CS TMR1ON --00 0000 --uu uuuu
Legend: x = unknown, u = unchanged, - = unimplemented read as '0'. Shaded cells are not used by the Timer1 module.
Note 1: Bits PSPIE and PSPIF are reserved on the PIC16C73/73A/76, always maintain these bits clear.
2: The PIC16C72 does not have a Parallel Slave Port or a USART, these bits are unimplemented, read as '0'.
DS30390E-page 68
 1997 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC16C7X
9.0
TIMER2 MODULE
9.1
Applicable Devices
72 73 73A 74 74A 76 77
Applicable Devices
72 73 73A 74 74A 76 77
Timer2 is an 8-bit timer with a prescaler and a
postscaler. It can be used as the PWM time-base for
PWM mode of the CCP module(s). The TMR2 register
is readable and writable, and is cleared on any device
reset.
The input clock (FOSC/4) has a prescale option of 1:1,
1:4
or
1:16,
selected
by
control
bits
T2CKPS1:T2CKPS0 (T2CON<1:0>).
The Timer2 module has an 8-bit period register PR2.
Timer2 increments from 00h until it matches PR2 and
then resets to 00h on the next increment cycle. PR2 is
a readable and writable register. The PR2 register is initialized to FFh upon reset.
The match output of TMR2 goes through a 4-bit
postscaler (which gives a 1:1 to 1:16 scaling inclusive)
to generate a TMR2 interrupt (latched in flag bit
TMR2IF, (PIR1<1>)).
Timer2 can be shut off by clearing control bit TMR2ON
(T2CON<2>) to minimize power consumption.
Timer2 Prescaler and Postscaler
The prescaler and postscaler counters are cleared
when any of the following occurs:
• a write to the TMR2 register
• a write to the T2CON register
• any device reset (Power-on Reset, MCLR reset,
Watchdog Timer reset, or Brown-out Reset)
TMR2 is not cleared when T2CON is written.
9.2
Output of TMR2
Applicable Devices
72 73 73A 74 74A 76 77
The output of TMR2 (before the postscaler) is fed to the
Synchronous Serial Port module which optionally uses
it to generate shift clock.
FIGURE 9-1:
Sets flag
bit TMR2IF
TIMER2 BLOCK DIAGRAM
TMR2
output (1)
Reset
Figure 9-2 shows the Timer2 control register.
Postscaler
1:1 to 1:16
4
EQ
TMR2 reg
Comparator
Prescaler
1:1, 1:4, 1:16
FOSC/4
2
PR2 reg
Note 1: TMR2 register output can be software selected
by the SSP Module as a baud clock.
 1997 Microchip Technology Inc.
DS30390E-page 69
PIC16C7X
FIGURE 9-2:
T2CON: TIMER2 CONTROL REGISTER (ADDRESS 12h)
U-0
—
bit7
R/W-0
R/W-0
R/W-0
R/W-0
R/W-0
R/W-0
R/W-0
TOUTPS3 TOUTPS2 TOUTPS1 TOUTPS0 TMR2ON T2CKPS1 T2CKPS0
bit0
bit 7:
Unimplemented: Read as '0'
bit 6-3:
TOUTPS3:TOUTPS0: Timer2 Output Postscale Select bits
0000 = 1:1 Postscale
0001 = 1:2 Postscale
•
•
•
1111 = 1:16 Postscale
bit 2:
TMR2ON: Timer2 On bit
1 = Timer2 is on
0 = Timer2 is off
bit 1-0:
T2CKPS1:T2CKPS0: Timer2 Clock Prescale Select bits
00 = Prescaler is 1
01 = Prescaler is 4
1x = Prescaler is 16
TABLE 9-1:
Address
Name
R = Readable bit
W = Writable bit
U = Unimplemented bit,
read as ‘0’
- n = Value at POR reset
REGISTERS ASSOCIATED WITH TIMER2 AS A TIMER/COUNTER
Value on:
POR,
BOR
Value on
all other
resets
Bit 7
Bit 6
Bit 5
Bit 4
Bit 3
Bit 2
Bit 1
Bit 0
GIE
PEIE
T0IE
INTE
RBIE
T0IF
INTF
RBIF
PIR1
PSPIF(1,2)
ADIF
RCIF(2)
TXIF(2)
SSPIF
CCP1IF
TMR2IF
TMR1IF
0000 0000 0000 0000
8Ch
PIE1
(1,2)
PSPIE
ADIE
(2)
(2)
TMR1IE
0000 0000 0000 0000
11h
TMR2
Timer2 module’s register
0Bh,8Bh,
INTCON
10Bh,18Bh
0Ch
12h
T2CON
92h
PR2
Legend:
Note 1:
2:
—
RCIE
TXIE
SSPIE
CCP1IE
TMR2IE
TOUTPS3 TOUTPS2 TOUTPS1 TOUTPS0 TMR2ON T2CKPS1
Timer2 Period Register
0000 000x 0000 000u
0000 0000 0000 0000
T2CKPS0 -000 0000 -000 0000
1111 1111 1111 1111
x = unknown, u = unchanged, - = unimplemented read as '0'. Shaded cells are not used by the Timer2 module.
Bits PSPIE and PSPIF are reserved on the PIC16C73/73A/76, always maintain these bits clear.
The PIC16C72 does not have a Parallel Slave Port or a USART, these bits are unimplemented, read as '0'.
DS30390E-page 70
 1997 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC16C7X
10.0
CAPTURE/COMPARE/PWM
MODULE(s)
Applicable Devices
72 73 73A 74 74A 76 77 CCP1
72 73 73A 74 74A 76 77 CCP2
Each CCP (Capture/Compare/PWM) module contains
a 16-bit register which can operate as a 16-bit capture
register, as a 16-bit compare register or as a PWM
master/slave Duty Cycle register. Both the CCP1 and
CCP2 modules are identical in operation, with the
exception of the operation of the special event trigger.
Table 10-1 and Table 10-2 show the resources and
interactions of the CCP module(s). In the following sections, the operation of a CCP module is described with
respect to CCP1. CCP2 operates the same as CCP1,
except where noted.
TABLE 10-2:
CCP1 module:
Capture/Compare/PWM Register1 (CCPR1) is comprised of two 8-bit registers: CCPR1L (low byte) and
CCPR1H (high byte). The CCP1CON register controls
the operation of CCP1. All are readable and writable.
CCP2 module:
Capture/Compare/PWM Register2 (CCPR2) is comprised of two 8-bit registers: CCPR2L (low byte) and
CCPR2H (high byte). The CCP2CON register controls
the operation of CCP2. All are readable and writable.
For use of the CCP modules, refer to the Embedded
Control Handbook, "Using the CCP Modules" (AN594).
TABLE 10-1:
CCP MODE - TIMER
RESOURCE
CCP Mode
Timer Resource
Capture
Compare
PWM
Timer1
Timer1
Timer2
INTERACTION OF TWO CCP MODULES
CCPx Mode CCPy Mode
Interaction
Capture
Capture
Same TMR1 time-base.
Capture
Compare
The compare should be configured for the special event trigger, which clears TMR1.
Compare
Compare
The compare(s) should be configured for the special event trigger, which clears TMR1.
PWM
PWM
The PWMs will have the same frequency, and update rate (TMR2 interrupt).
PWM
Capture
None
PWM
Compare
None
 1997 Microchip Technology Inc.
DS30390E-page 71
PIC16C7X
FIGURE 10-1: CCP1CON REGISTER (ADDRESS 17h)/CCP2CON REGISTER (ADDRESS 1Dh)
U-0
—
bit7
U-0
—
R/W-0
CCPxX
R/W-0
R/W-0
CCPxY CCPxM3
R/W-0
CCPxM2
R/W-0
R/W-0
CCPxM1 CCPxM0
bit0
R = Readable bit
W = Writable bit
U = Unimplemented bit,
read as ‘0’
- n =Value at POR reset
bit 7-6: Unimplemented: Read as '0'
bit 5-4: CCPxX:CCPxY: PWM Least Significant bits
Capture Mode: Unused
Compare Mode: Unused
PWM Mode: These bits are the two LSbs of the PWM duty cycle. The eight MSbs are found in CCPRxL.
bit 3-0: CCPxM3:CCPxM0: CCPx Mode Select bits
0000 = Capture/Compare/PWM off (resets CCPx module)
0100 = Capture mode, every falling edge
0101 = Capture mode, every rising edge
0110 = Capture mode, every 4th rising edge
0111 = Capture mode, every 16th rising edge
1000 = Compare mode, set output on match (CCPxIF bit is set)
1001 = Compare mode, clear output on match (CCPxIF bit is set)
1010 = Compare mode, generate software interrupt on match (CCPxIF bit is set, CCPx pin is unaffected)
1011 = Compare mode, trigger special event (CCPxIF bit is set; CCP1 resets TMR1; CCP2 resets TMR1
and starts an A/D conversion (if A/D module is enabled))
11xx = PWM mode
10.1
Capture Mode
Applicable Devices
72 73 73A 74 74A 76 77
FIGURE 10-2: CAPTURE MODE
OPERATION BLOCK
DIAGRAM
In Capture mode, CCPR1H:CCPR1L captures the
16-bit value of the TMR1 register when an event occurs
on pin RC2/CCP1. An event is defined as:
•
•
•
•
Every falling edge
Every rising edge
Every 4th rising edge
Every 16th rising edge
An event is selected by control bits CCP1M3:CCP1M0
(CCP1CON<3:0>). When a capture is made, the interrupt request flag bit CCP1IF (PIR1<2>) is set. It must
be cleared in software. If another capture occurs before
the value in register CCPR1 is read, the old captured
value will be lost.
10.1.1
CCP PIN CONFIGURATION
In Capture mode, the RC2/CCP1 pin should be configured as an input by setting the TRISC<2> bit.
Note:
If the RC2/CCP1 is configured as an output, a write to the port can cause a capture
condition.
DS30390E-page 72
Prescaler
÷ 1, 4, 16
Set flag bit CCP1IF
(PIR1<2>)
RC2/CCP1
Pin
CCPR1H
CCPR1L
Capture
Enable
and
edge detect
TMR1H
TMR1L
CCP1CON<3:0>
Q’s
10.1.2
TIMER1 MODE SELECTION
Timer1 must be running in timer mode or synchronized
counter mode for the CCP module to use the capture
feature. In asynchronous counter mode, the capture
operation may not work.
10.1.3
SOFTWARE INTERRUPT
When the Capture mode is changed, a false capture
interrupt may be generated. The user should keep bit
CCP1IE (PIE1<2>) clear to avoid false interrupts and
should clear the flag bit CCP1IF following any such
change in operating mode.
 1997 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC16C7X
10.1.4
CCP PRESCALER
10.2.1
There are four prescaler settings, specified by bits
CCP1M3:CCP1M0. Whenever the CCP module is
turned off, or the CCP module is not in capture mode,
the prescaler counter is cleared. This means that any
reset will clear the prescaler counter.
Switching from one capture prescaler to another may
generate an interrupt. Also, the prescaler counter will
not be cleared, therefore the first capture may be from
a non-zero prescaler. Example 10-1 shows the recommended method for switching between capture prescalers. This example also clears the prescaler counter
and will not generate the “false” interrupt.
EXAMPLE 10-1: CHANGING BETWEEN
CAPTURE PRESCALERS
CLRF
MOVLW
MOVWF
10.2
CCP1CON
NEW_CAPT_PS
CCP1CON
;Turn CCP module off
;Load the W reg with
; the new prescaler
; mode value and CCP ON
;Load CCP1CON with this
; value
CCP PIN CONFIGURATION
The user must configure the RC2/CCP1 pin as an output by clearing the TRISC<2> bit.
Note:
10.2.2
Clearing the CCP1CON register will force
the RC2/CCP1 compare output latch to the
default low level. This is not the data latch.
TIMER1 MODE SELECTION
Timer1 must be running in Timer mode or Synchronized Counter mode if the CCP module is using the
compare feature. In Asynchronous Counter mode, the
compare operation may not work.
10.2.3
SOFTWARE INTERRUPT MODE
When generate software interrupt is chosen the CCP1
pin is not affected. Only a CCP interrupt is generated (if
enabled).
10.2.4
SPECIAL EVENT TRIGGER
In this mode, an internal hardware trigger is generated
which may be used to initiate an action.
The special event trigger output of CCP1 resets the
TMR1 register pair. This allows the CCPR1 register to
effectively be a 16-bit programmable period register for
Timer1.
Compare Mode
Applicable Devices
72 73 73A 74 74A 76 77
In Compare mode, the 16-bit CCPR1 register value is
constantly compared against the TMR1 register pair
value. When a match occurs, the RC2/CCP1 pin is:
• Driven High
• Driven Low
• Remains Unchanged
The special trigger output of CCP2 resets the TMR1
register pair, and starts an A/D conversion (if the A/D
module is enabled).
For the PIC16C72 only, the special event trigger output
of CCP1 resets the TMR1 register pair, and starts an
A/D conversion (if the A/D module is enabled).
The action on the pin is based on the value of control
bits CCP1M3:CCP1M0 (CCP1CON<3:0>). At the
same time, interrupt flag bit CCP1IF is set.
Note:
The special event trigger from the
CCP1and CCP2 modules will not set interrupt flag bit TMR1IF (PIR1<0>).
FIGURE 10-3: COMPARE MODE
OPERATION BLOCK
DIAGRAM
Special event trigger will:
reset Timer1, but not set interrupt flag bit TMR1IF (PIR1<0>),
and set bit GO/DONE (ADCON0<2>)
which starts an A/D conversion (CCP1 only for PIC16C72,
CCP2 only for PIC16C73/73A/74/74A/76/77).
Special Event Trigger
Set flag bit CCP1IF
(PIR1<2>)
CCPR1H CCPR1L
Q S Output
Logic
match
RC2/CCP1
R
Pin
TRISC<2>
Output Enable CCP1CON<3:0>
Mode Select
 1997 Microchip Technology Inc.
Comparator
TMR1H
TMR1L
DS30390E-page 73
PIC16C7X
10.3
PWM Mode
10.3.1
Applicable Devices
72 73 73A 74 74A 76 77
In Pulse Width Modulation (PWM) mode, the CCPx pin
produces up to a 10-bit resolution PWM output. Since
the CCP1 pin is multiplexed with the PORTC data latch,
the TRISC<2> bit must be cleared to make the CCP1
pin an output.
Note:
Clearing the CCP1CON register will force
the CCP1 PWM output latch to the default
low level. This is not the PORTC I/O data
latch.
Figure 10-4 shows a simplified block diagram of the
CCP module in PWM mode.
For a step by step procedure on how to set up the CCP
module for PWM operation, see Section 10.3.3.
The PWM period is specified by writing to the PR2 register. The PWM period can be calculated using the following formula:
PWM period = [(PR2) + 1] • 4 • TOSC •
(TMR2 prescale value)
PWM frequency is defined as 1 / [PWM period].
When TMR2 is equal to PR2, the following three events
occur on the next increment cycle:
• TMR2 is cleared
• The CCP1 pin is set (exception: if PWM duty
cycle = 0%, the CCP1 pin will not be set)
• The PWM duty cycle is latched from CCPR1L into
CCPR1H
Note:
FIGURE 10-4: SIMPLIFIED PWM BLOCK
DIAGRAM
CCP1CON<5:4>
Duty cycle registers
CCPR1L
10.3.2
CCPR1H (Slave)
R
Comparator
Q
RC2/CCP1
TMR2
(Note 1)
TRISC<2>
Clear Timer,
CCP1 pin and
latch D.C.
PR2
Note 1: 8-bit timer is concatenated with 2-bit internal Q clock
or 2 bits of the prescaler to create 10-bit time-base.
A PWM output (Figure 10-5) has a time base (period)
and a time that the output stays high (duty cycle). The
frequency of the PWM is the inverse of the period
(1/period).
FIGURE 10-5: PWM OUTPUT
The Timer2 postscaler (see Section 9.1) is
not used in the determination of the PWM
frequency. The postscaler could be used to
have a servo update rate at a different frequency than the PWM output.
PWM DUTY CYCLE
The PWM duty cycle is specified by writing to the
CCPR1L register and to the CCP1CON<5:4> bits. Up
to 10-bit resolution is available: the CCPR1L contains
the eight MSbs and the CCP1CON<5:4> contains the
two LSbs. This 10-bit value is represented by
CCPR1L:CCP1CON<5:4>. The following equation is
used to calculate the PWM duty cycle in time:
PWM duty cycle = (CCPR1L:CCP1CON<5:4>) •
Tosc • (TMR2 prescale value)
S
Comparator
PWM PERIOD
CCPR1L and CCP1CON<5:4> can be written to at any
time, but the duty cycle value is not latched into
CCPR1H until after a match between PR2 and TMR2
occurs (i.e., the period is complete). In PWM mode,
CCPR1H is a read-only register.
The CCPR1H register and a 2-bit internal latch are
used to double buffer the PWM duty cycle. This double
buffering is essential for glitchless PWM operation.
When the CCPR1H and 2-bit latch match TMR2 concatenated with an internal 2-bit Q clock or 2 bits of the
TMR2 prescaler, the CCP1 pin is cleared.
Maximum PWM resolution (bits) for a given PWM
frequency:
Period
(
log
=
FOSC
FPWM
)
bits
log(2)
Duty Cycle
TMR2 = PR2
TMR2 = Duty Cycle
Note:
If the PWM duty cycle value is longer than
the PWM period the CCP1 pin will not be
cleared.
TMR2 = PR2
DS30390E-page 74
 1997 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC16C7X
EXAMPLE 10-2: PWM PERIOD AND DUTY
CYCLE CALCULATION
In order to achieve higher resolution, the PWM frequency must be decreased. In order to achieve higher
PWM frequency, the resolution must be decreased.
Desired PWM frequency is 78.125 kHz,
Fosc = 20 MHz
TMR2 prescale = 1
Table 10-3 lists example PWM frequencies and resolutions for Fosc = 20 MHz. The TMR2 prescaler and PR2
values are also shown.
1/78.125 kHz= [(PR2) + 1] • 4 • 1/20 MHz • 1
12.8 µs
= [(PR2) + 1] • 4 • 50 ns • 1
10.3.3
PR2
= 63
The following steps should be taken when configuring
the CCP module for PWM operation:
Find the maximum resolution of the duty cycle that can
be used with a 78.125 kHz frequency and 20 MHz
oscillator:
1.
1/78.125 kHz= 2PWM RESOLUTION • 1/20 MHz • 1
12.8 µs
=2
256
= 2PWM RESOLUTION
PWM RESOLUTION
2.
• 50 ns • 1
3.
log(256) = (PWM Resolution) • log(2)
8.0
4.
= PWM Resolution
5.
At most, an 8-bit resolution duty cycle can be obtained
from a 78.125 kHz frequency and a 20 MHz oscillator,
i.e., 0 ≤ CCPR1L:CCP1CON<5:4> ≤ 255. Any value
greater than 255 will result in a 100% duty cycle.
TABLE 10-3:
PWM Frequency
Address
Set the PWM period by writing to the PR2 register.
Set the PWM duty cycle by writing to the
CCPR1L register and CCP1CON<5:4> bits.
Make the CCP1 pin an output by clearing the
TRISC<2> bit.
Set the TMR2 prescale value and enable Timer2
by writing to T2CON.
Configure the CCP1 module for PWM operation.
EXAMPLE PWM FREQUENCIES AND RESOLUTIONS AT 20 MHz
1.22 kHz 4.88 kHz 19.53 kHz
Timer Prescaler (1, 4, 16)
PR2 Value
Maximum Resolution (bits)
TABLE 10-4:
SET-UP FOR PWM OPERATION
16
0xFF
10
4
0xFF
10
78.12 kHz
156.3 kHz
208.3 kHz
1
0x3F
8
1
0x1F
7
1
0x17
5.5
1
0xFF
10
REGISTERS ASSOCIATED WITH CAPTURE, COMPARE, AND TIMER1
Name
0Bh,8Bh, INTCON
10Bh,18Bh
Bit 7
Bit 6
Bit 5
Bit 4
Bit 3
Bit 2
Bit 1
Bit 0
GIE
PEIE
T0IE
INTE
RBIE
T0IF
INTF
RBIF
RCIF(2)
TXIF(2)
SSPIF
CCP1IF
TMR2IF
PSPIF(1,2) ADIF
Value on:
POR,
BOR
Value on
all other
resets
0000 000x 0000 000u
TMR1IF 0000 0000 0000 0000
0Ch
PIR1
0Dh(2)
PIR2
8Ch
PIE1
8Dh(2)
PIE2
87h
TRISC
0Eh
0Fh
10h
T1CON
15h
CCPR1L
Capture/Compare/PWM register1 (LSB)
xxxx xxxx uuuu uuuu
16h
CCPR1H
Capture/Compare/PWM register1 (MSB)
xxxx xxxx uuuu uuuu
—
—
PSPIE(1,2) ADIE
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
CCP2IF ---- ---0 ---- ---0
RCIE(2)
TXIE(2)
SSPIE
CCP1IE
TMR2IE
TMR1IE 0000 0000 0000 0000
—
—
—
—
—
CCP2IE ---- ---0 ---- ---0
PORTC Data Direction Register
1111 1111 1111 1111
TMR1L
Holding register for the Least Significant Byte of the 16-bit TMR1 register
xxxx xxxx uuuu uuuu
TMR1H
Holding register for the Most Significant Byte of the 16-bit TMR1register
xxxx xxxx uuuu uuuu
—
—
T1CKPS1 T1CKPS0 T1OSCEN T1SYNC TMR1CS TMR1ON --00 0000 --uu uuuu
17h
CCP1CON
1Bh(2)
CCPR2L
Capture/Compare/PWM register2 (LSB)
1Ch(2)
CCPR2H
Capture/Compare/PWM register2 (MSB)
1Dh(2)
CCP2CON
—
—
—
—
CCP1X
CCP2X
CCP1Y
CCP2Y
CCP1M3
CCP1M2 CCP1M1 CCP1M0 --00 0000 --00 0000
xxxx xxxx uuuu uuuu
xxxx xxxx uuuu uuuu
CCP2M3
CCP2M2 CCP2M1 CCP2M0 --00 0000 --00 0000
Legend: x = unknown, u = unchanged, - = unimplemented read as '0'. Shaded cells are not used by Capture and Timer1.
Note 1: Bits PSPIE and PSPIF are reserved on the PIC16C73/73A/76, always maintain these bits clear.
2: The PIC16C72 does not have a Parallel Slave Port, USART or CCP2 module, these bits are unimplemented, read as '0'.
 1997 Microchip Technology Inc.
DS30390E-page 75
PIC16C7X
TABLE 10-5:
Address
REGISTERS ASSOCIATED WITH PWM AND TIMER2
Name
0Bh,8Bh, INTCON
10Bh,18Bh
0Ch
PIR1
Value on:
POR,
BOR
Value on
all other
resets
Bit 7
Bit 6
Bit 5
Bit 4
Bit 3
Bit 2
Bit 1
Bit 0
GIE
PEIE
T0IE
INTE
RBIE
T0IF
INTF
RBIF
0000 000x 0000 000u
PSPIF(1,2)
ADIF
RCIF(2)
TXIF(2)
SSPIF
CCP1IF
TMR2IF
TMR1IF
0000 0000 0000 0000
0Dh(2)
PIR2
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
CCP2IF
---- ---0 ---- ---0
8Ch
PIE1
PSPIE(1,2)
ADIE
RCIE(2)
TXIE(2)
SSPIE
CCP1IE
TMR2IE
TMR1IE
0000 0000 0000 0000
8Dh(2)
PIE2
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
CCP2IE
---- ---0 ---- ---0
87h
TRISC
PORTC Data Direction Register
1111 1111 1111 1111
11h
TMR2
Timer2 module’s register
0000 0000 0000 0000
92h
PR2
Timer2 module’s period register
1111 1111 1111 1111
12h
T2CON
15h
CCPR1L
Capture/Compare/PWM register1 (LSB)
xxxx xxxx uuuu uuuu
16h
CCPR1H
Capture/Compare/PWM register1 (MSB)
xxxx xxxx uuuu uuuu
17h
CCP1CON
1Bh(2)
CCPR2L
Capture/Compare/PWM register2 (LSB)
1Ch(2)
CCPR2H
Capture/Compare/PWM register2 (MSB)
1Dh(2)
CCP2CON
Legend:
Note 1:
2:
—
—
—
TOUTPS3 TOUTPS2 TOUTPS1 TOUTPS0 TMR2ON T2CKPS1 T2CKPS0 -000 0000 -000 0000
—
—
CCP1X
CCP2X
CCP1Y
CCP2Y
CCP1M3 CCP1M2 CCP1M1 CCP1M0 --00 0000 --00 0000
xxxx xxxx uuuu uuuu
xxxx xxxx uuuu uuuu
CCP2M3 CCP2M2 CCP2M1 CCP2M0 --00 0000 --00 0000
x = unknown, u = unchanged, - = unimplemented read as '0'. Shaded cells are not used by PWM and Timer2.
Bits PSPIE and PSPIF are reserved on the PIC16C73/73A/76, always maintain these bits clear.
The PIC16C72 does not have a Parallel Slave Port, USART or CCP2 module, these bits are unimplemented, read as '0'.
DS30390E-page 76
 1997 Microchip Technology Inc.
Applicable Devices
72 73 73A 74 74A 76 77
11.0
SYNCHRONOUS SERIAL
PORT (SSP) MODULE
11.1
SSP Module Overview
PIC16C7X
The Synchronous Serial Port (SSP) module is a serial
interface useful for communicating with other peripheral or microcontroller devices. These peripheral
devices may be Serial EEPROMs, shift registers, display drivers, A/D converters, etc. The SSP module can
operate in one of two modes:
• Serial Peripheral Interface (SPI)
• Inter-Integrated Circuit (I2C)
The SSP module in I2C mode works the same in all
PIC16C7X devices that have an SSP module. However
the SSP Module in SPI mode has differences between
the PIC16C76/77 and the other PIC16C7X devices.
The register definitions and operational description of
SPI mode has been split into two sections because of
the differences between the PIC16C76/77 and the
other PIC16C7X devices. The default reset values of
both the SPI modules is the same regardless of the
device:
11.2 SPI Mode for PIC16C72/73/73A/74/74A ..........78
11.3 SPI Mode for PIC16C76/77..............................83
11.4 I2C™ Overview ................................................89
11.5 SSP I2C Operation...........................................93
Refer to Application Note AN578, “Use of the SSP
Module in the I 2C Multi-Master Environment.”
 1997 Microchip Technology Inc.
DS30390E-page 77
Applicable Devices
PIC16C7X
11.2
72 73 73A 74 74A 76 77
SPI Mode for PIC16C72/73/73A/74/74A
This section contains register definitions and operational characteristics of the SPI module for the
PIC16C72, PIC16C73, PIC16C73A, PIC16C74,
PIC16C74A.
FIGURE 11-1: SSPSTAT: SYNC SERIAL PORT STATUS REGISTER (ADDRESS 94h)
U-0
—
bit7
U-0
—
R-0
D/A
R-0
P
R-0
S
R-0
R/W
R-0
UA
R-0
BF
bit0
R = Readable bit
W = Writable bit
U = Unimplemented bit,
read as ‘0’
- n =Value at POR reset
bit 7-6: Unimplemented: Read as '0'
bit 5:
D/A: Data/Address bit (I2C mode only)
1 = Indicates that the last byte received or transmitted was data
0 = Indicates that the last byte received or transmitted was address
bit 4:
P: Stop bit (I2C mode only. This bit is cleared when the SSP module is disabled, SSPEN is cleared)
1 = Indicates that a stop bit has been detected last (this bit is '0' on RESET)
0 = Stop bit was not detected last
bit 3:
S: Start bit (I2C mode only. This bit is cleared when the SSP module is disabled, SSPEN is cleared)
1 = Indicates that a start bit has been detected last (this bit is '0' on RESET)
0 = Start bit was not detected last
bit 2:
R/W: Read/Write bit information (I2C mode only)
This bit holds the R/W bit information following the last address match. This bit is valid from the address
match to the next start bit, stop bit, or ACK bit.
1 = Read
0 = Write
bit 1:
UA: Update Address (10-bit I2C mode only)
1 = Indicates that the user needs to update the address in the SSPADD register
0 = Address does not need to be updated
bit 0:
BF: Buffer Full Status bit
Receive (SPI and I2C modes)
1 = Receive complete, SSPBUF is full
0 = Receive not complete, SSPBUF is empty
Transmit (I2C mode only)
1 = Transmit in progress, SSPBUF is full
0 = Transmit complete, SSPBUF is empty
DS30390E-page 78
 1997 Microchip Technology Inc.
Applicable Devices
PIC16C7X
72 73 73A 74 74A 76 77
FIGURE 11-2: SSPCON: SYNC SERIAL PORT CONTROL REGISTER (ADDRESS 14h)
R/W-0
WCOL
bit7
R/W-0
SSPOV
R/W-0
SSPEN
R/W-0
CKP
R/W-0
SSPM3
R/W-0
SSPM2
R/W-0
SSPM1
R/W-0
SSPM0
bit0
R = Readable bit
W = Writable bit
U = Unimplemented bit,
read as ‘0’
- n =Value at POR reset
bit 7:
WCOL: Write Collision Detect bit
1 = The SSPBUF register is written while it is still transmitting the previous word
(must be cleared in software)
0 = No collision
bit 6:
SSPOV: Receive Overflow Detect bit
In SPI mode
1 = A new byte is received while the SSPBUF register is still holding the previous data. In case of overflow,
the data in SSPSR register is lost. Overflow can only occur in slave mode. The user must read the SSPBUF, even if only transmitting data, to avoid setting overflow. In master mode the overflow bit is not set
since each new reception (and transmission) is initiated by writing to the SSPBUF register.
0 = No overflow
In I2C mode
1 = A byte is received while the SSPBUF register is still holding the previous byte. SSPOV is a "don’t care"
in transmit mode. SSPOV must be cleared in software in either mode.
0 = No overflow
bit 5:
SSPEN: Synchronous Serial Port Enable bit
In SPI mode
1 = Enables serial port and configures SCK, SDO, and SDI as serial port pins
0 = Disables serial port and configures these pins as I/O port pins
In I2C mode
1 = Enables the serial port and configures the SDA and SCL pins as serial port pins
0 = Disables serial port and configures these pins as I/O port pins
In both modes, when enabled, these pins must be properly configured as input or output.
bit 4:
CKP: Clock Polarity Select bit
In SPI mode
1 = Idle state for clock is a high level. Transmit happens on falling edge, receive on rising edge.
0 = Idle state for clock is a low level. Transmit happens on rising edge, receive on falling edge.
In I2C mode
SCK release control
1 = Enable clock
0 = Holds clock low (clock stretch) (Used to ensure data setup time)
bit 3-0: SSPM3:SSPM0: Synchronous Serial Port Mode Select bits
0000 = SPI master mode, clock = Fosc/4
0001 = SPI master mode, clock = Fosc/16
0010 = SPI master mode, clock = Fosc/64
0011 = SPI master mode, clock = TMR2 output/2
0100 = SPI slave mode, clock = SCK pin. SS pin control enabled.
0101 = SPI slave mode, clock = SCK pin. SS pin control disabled. SS can be used as I/O pin.
0110 = I2C slave mode, 7-bit address
0111 = I2C slave mode, 10-bit address
1011 = I2C firmware controlled Master Mode (slave idle)
1110 = I2C slave mode, 7-bit address with start and stop bit interrupts enabled
1111 = I2C slave mode, 10-bit address with start and stop bit interrupts enabled
 1997 Microchip Technology Inc.
DS30390E-page 79
PIC16C7X
11.2.1
Applicable Devices
72 73 73A 74 74A 76 77
OPERATION OF SSP MODULE IN SPI
MODE
Applicable Devices
72 73 73A 74 74A 76 77
The SPI mode allows 8-bits of data to be synchronously transmitted and received simultaneously. To
accomplish communication, typically three pins are
used:
• Serial Data Out (SDO)
• Serial Data In (SDI)
• Serial Clock (SCK)
Additionally a fourth pin may be used when in a slave
mode of operation:
• Slave Select (SS)
When initializing the SPI, several options need to be
specified. This is done by programming the appropriate
control bits in the SSPCON register (SSPCON<5:0>).
These control bits allow the following to be specified:
• Master Mode (SCK is the clock output)
• Slave Mode (SCK is the clock input)
• Clock Polarity (Output/Input data on the Rising/
Falling edge of SCK)
• Clock Rate (Master mode only)
• Slave Select Mode (Slave mode only)
The SSP consists of a transmit/receive Shift Register
(SSPSR) and a Buffer register (SSPBUF). The SSPSR
shifts the data in and out of the device, MSb first. The
SSPBUF holds the data that was written to the SSPSR,
until the received data is ready. Once the 8-bits of data
have been received, that byte is moved to the SSPBUF
register. Then the Buffer Full bit, BF (SSPSTAT<0>)
and flag bit SSPIF are set. This double buffering of the
received data (SSPBUF) allows the next byte to start
reception before reading the data that was just
received. Any write to the SSPBUF register during
transmission/reception of data will be ignored, and the
write collision detect bit, WCOL (SSPCON<7>) will be
set. User software must clear bit WCOL so that it can
be determined if the following write(s) to the SSPBUF
completed successfully. When the application software
is expecting to receive valid data, the SSPBUF register
should be read before the next byte of data to transfer
is written to the SSPBUF register. The Buffer Full bit BF
(SSPSTAT<0>) indicates when the SSPBUF register
has been loaded with the received data (transmission
is complete). When the SSPBUF is read, bit BF is
cleared. This data may be irrelevant if the SPI is only a
transmitter. Generally the SSP Interrupt is used to
determine when the transmission/reception has completed. The SSPBUF register must be read and/or written. If the interrupt method is not going to be used, then
software polling can be done to ensure that a write collision does not occur. Example 11-1 shows the loading
of the SSPBUF (SSPSR) register for data transmission.
The shaded instruction is only required if the received
data is meaningful.
DS30390E-page 80
EXAMPLE 11-1: LOADING THE SSPBUF
(SSPSR) REGISTER
BSF
STATUS, RP0
LOOP BTFSS SSPSTAT, BF
GOTO
BCF
MOVF
;Specify Bank 1
;Has data been
;received
;(transmit
;complete)?
;No
;Specify Bank 0
;W reg = contents
;of SSPBUF
;Save in user RAM
;W reg = contents
; of TXDATA
;New data to xmit
LOOP
STATUS, RP0
SSPBUF, W
MOVWF RXDATA
MOVF TXDATA, W
MOVWF SSPBUF
The block diagram of the SSP module, when in SPI
mode (Figure 11-3), shows that the SSPSR register is
not directly readable or writable, and can only be
accessed from addressing the SSPBUF register. Additionally, the SSP status register (SSPSTAT) indicates
the various status conditions.
FIGURE 11-3: SSP BLOCK DIAGRAM
(SPI MODE)
Internal
data bus
Read
Write
SSPBUF reg
SSPSR reg
RC4/SDI/SDA
shift
clock
bit0
RC5/SDO
SS Control
Enable
RA5/SS/AN4
Edge
Select
2
Clock Select
SSPM3:SSPM0
4
Edge
Select
RC3/SCK/
SCL
TMR2 output
2
Prescaler TCY
4, 16, 64
TRISC<3>
 1997 Microchip Technology Inc.
Applicable Devices
PIC16C7X
72 73 73A 74 74A 76 77
To enable the serial port, SSP enable bit SSPEN
(SSPCON<5>) must be set. To reset or reconfigure SPI
mode, clear enable bit SSPEN, re-initialize SSPCON
register, and then set enable bit SSPEN. This configures the SDI, SDO, SCK, and SS pins as serial port
pins. For the pins to behave as the serial port function,
they must have their data direction bits (in the TRIS register) appropriately programmed. That is:
• SDI must have TRISC<4> set
• SDO must have TRISC<5> cleared
• SCK (Master mode) must have TRISC<3>
cleared
• SCK (Slave mode) must have TRISC<3> set
• SS must have TRISA<5> set (if implemented)
Any serial port function that is not desired may be overridden by programming the corresponding data direction (TRIS) register to the opposite value. An example
would be in master mode where you are only sending
data (to a display driver), then both SDI and SS could
be used as general purpose outputs by clearing their
corresponding TRIS register bits.
Figure 11-4 shows a typical connection between two
microcontrollers. The master controller (Processor 1)
initiates the data transfer by sending the SCK signal.
Data is shifted out of both shift registers on their programmed clock edge, and latched on the opposite edge
of the clock. Both processors should be programmed to
the same Clock Polarity (CKP), then both controllers
would send and receive data at the same time.
Whether the data is meaningful (or dummy data)
depends on the application software. This leads to
three scenarios for data transmission:
The master can initiate the data transfer at any time
because it controls the SCK. The master determines
when the slave (Processor 2) is to broadcast data by
the software protocol.
In master mode the data is transmitted/received as
soon as the SSPBUF register is written to. If the SPI is
only going to receive, the SCK output could be disabled
(programmed as an input). The SSPSR register will
continue to shift in the signal present on the SDI pin at
the programmed clock rate. As each byte is received, it
will be loaded into the SSPBUF register as if a normal
received byte (interrupts and status bits appropriately
set). This could be useful in receiver applications as a
“line activity monitor” mode.
In slave mode, the data is transmitted and received as
the external clock pulses appear on SCK. When the
last bit is latched interrupt flag bit SSPIF (PIR1<3>) is
set.
The clock polarity is selected by appropriately programming bit CKP (SSPCON<4>). This then would give
waveforms for SPI communication as shown in
Figure 11-5 and Figure 11-6 where the MSB is transmitted first. In master mode, the SPI clock rate (bit rate)
is user programmable to be one of the following:
•
•
•
•
Fosc/4 (or TCY)
Fosc/16 (or 4 • TCY)
Fosc/64 (or 16 • TCY)
Timer2 output/2
This allows a maximum bit clock frequency (at 20 MHz)
of 5 MHz. When in slave mode the external clock must
meet the minimum high and low times.
In sleep mode, the slave can transmit and receive data
and wake the device from sleep.
• Master sends data — Slave sends dummy data
• Master sends data — Slave sends data
• Master sends dummy data — Slave sends data
FIGURE 11-4: SPI MASTER/SLAVE CONNECTION
SPI Master SSPM3:SSPM0 = 00xxb
SPI Slave SSPM3:SSPM0 = 010xb
SDO
SDI
Serial Input Buffer
(SSPBUF register)
Serial Input Buffer
(SSPBUF register)
SDI
Shift Register
(SSPSR)
MSb
SDO
LSb
Shift Register
(SSPSR)
MSb
LSb
Serial Clock
SCK
PROCESSOR 1
 1997 Microchip Technology Inc.
SCK
PROCESSOR 2
DS30390E-page 81
Applicable Devices
PIC16C7X
72 73 73A 74 74A 76 77
point at which it was taken high. External pull-up/
pull-down resistors may be desirable, depending on the
application.
The SS pin allows a synchronous slave mode. The
SPI must be in slave mode (SSPCON<3:0> = 04h)
and the TRISA<5> bit must be set the for synchronous slave mode to be enabled. When the SS pin is
low, transmission and reception are enabled and
the SDO pin is driven. When the SS pin goes high,
the SDO pin is no longer driven, even if in the middle of a transmitted byte, and becomes a floating
output. If the SS pin is taken low without resetting
SPI mode, the transmission will continue from the
To emulate two-wire communication, the SDO pin can
be connected to the SDI pin. When the SPI needs to
operate as a receiver the SDO pin can be configured as
an input. This disables transmissions from the SDO.
The SDI can always be left as an input (SDI function)
since it cannot create a bus conflict.
FIGURE 11-5: SPI MODE TIMING, MASTER MODE OR SLAVE MODE W/O SS CONTROL
SCK
(CKP = 0)
SCK
(CKP = 1)
bit7
SDO
bit6
bit5
bit4
bit3
bit2
bit1
bit0
SDI
bit7
bit0
SSPIF
FIGURE 11-6: SPI MODE TIMING, SLAVE MODE WITH SS CONTROL
SS
SCK
(CKP = 0)
SCK
(CKP = 1)
bit6
bit7
SDO
bit5
bit4
bit3
bit2
bit1
bit0
SDI
bit7
bit0
SSPIF
TABLE 11-1:
REGISTERS ASSOCIATED WITH SPI OPERATION
Bit 7
Bit 5
Bit 4
T0IE
INTE
0Bh,8Bh
INTCON
GIE
PEIE
0Ch
PIR1
PSPIF(1,2)
ADIF
RCIF(2) TXIF(2)
SSPIF
CCP1IF TMR2IF TMR1IF 0000 0000 0000 0000
8Ch
PIE1
PSPIE(1,2)
ADIE
RCIE(2) TXIE(2)
SSPIE
CCP1IE TMR2IE TMR1IE 0000 0000 0000 0000
87h
TRISC
PORTC Data Direction Register
1111 1111 1111 1111
13h
SSPBUF
Synchronous Serial Port Receive Buffer/Transmit Register
xxxx xxxx uuuu uuuu
14h
SSPCON
SSPOV SSPEN
85h
TRISA
—
—
94h
SSPSTAT
—
—
CKP
Bit 3
RBIE
Bit 2
Bit 1
Bit 0
T0IF
INTF
RBIF
Value on
all other
resets
Name
WCOL
Bit 6
Value on:
POR,
BOR
Address
SSPM3 SSPM2
SSPM1
SSPM0 0000 0000 0000 0000
PORTA Data Direction Register
D/A
P
S
R/W
0000 000x 0000 000u
--11 1111 --11 1111
UA
BF
--00 0000 --00 0000
Legend: x = unknown, u = unchanged, - = unimplemented read as '0'. Shaded cells are not used by the SSP in SPI mode.
Note 1: Bits PSPIE and PSPIF are reserved on the PIC16C73/73A, always maintain these bits clear.
2: The PIC16C72 does not have a Parallel Slave Port or USART, these bits are unimplemented, read as '0'.
DS30390E-page 82
 1997 Microchip Technology Inc.
Applicable Devices
PIC16C7X
72 73 73A 74 74A 76 77
11.3
SPI Mode for PIC16C76/77
This section contains register definitions and operational characteristics of the SPI module on the
PIC16C76 and PIC16C77 only.
FIGURE 11-7: SSPSTAT: SYNC SERIAL PORT STATUS REGISTER (ADDRESS 94h)(PIC16C76/77)
R/W-0 R/W-0
SMP
CKE
R-0
R-0
R-0
R-0
R-0
R-0
D/A
P
S
R/W
UA
BF
bit7
bit0
R = Readable bit
W = Writable bit
U = Unimplemented bit,
read as ‘0’
- n =Value at POR reset
bit 7:
SMP: SPI data input sample phase
SPI Master Mode
1 = Input data sampled at end of data output time
0 = Input data sampled at middle of data output time
SPI Slave Mode
SMP must be cleared when SPI is used in slave mode
bit 6:
CKE: SPI Clock Edge Select (Figure 11-11, Figure 11-12, and Figure 11-13)
CKP = 0
1 = Data transmitted on rising edge of SCK
0 = Data transmitted on falling edge of SCK
CKP = 1
1 = Data transmitted on falling edge of SCK
0 = Data transmitted on rising edge of SCK
bit 5:
D/A: Data/Address bit (I2C mode only)
1 = Indicates that the last byte received or transmitted was data
0 = Indicates that the last byte received or transmitted was address
bit 4:
P: Stop bit (I2C mode only. This bit is cleared when the SSP module is disabled, or when the Start bit is
detected last, SSPEN is cleared)
1 = Indicates that a stop bit has been detected last (this bit is '0' on RESET)
0 = Stop bit was not detected last
bit 3:
S: Start bit (I2C mode only. This bit is cleared when the SSP module is disabled, or when the Stop bit is
detected last, SSPEN is cleared)
1 = Indicates that a start bit has been detected last (this bit is '0' on RESET)
0 = Start bit was not detected last
bit 2:
R/W: Read/Write bit information (I2C mode only)
This bit holds the R/W bit information following the last address match. This bit is only valid from the
address match to the next start bit, stop bit, or ACK bit.
1 = Read
0 = Write
bit 1:
UA: Update Address (10-bit I2C mode only)
1 = Indicates that the user needs to update the address in the SSPADD register
0 = Address does not need to be updated
bit 0:
BF: Buffer Full Status bit
Receive (SPI and I2C modes)
1 = Receive complete, SSPBUF is full
0 = Receive not complete, SSPBUF is empty
Transmit (I2C mode only)
1 = Transmit in progress, SSPBUF is full
0 = Transmit complete, SSPBUF is empty
 1997 Microchip Technology Inc.
DS30390E-page 83
Applicable Devices
PIC16C7X
72 73 73A 74 74A 76 77
FIGURE 11-8: SSPCON: SYNC SERIAL PORT CONTROL REGISTER (ADDRESS 14h)(PIC16C76/77)
R/W-0
R/W-0
R/W-0
R/W-0
R/W-0
R/W-0
R/W-0
R/W-0
WCOL
SSPOV
SSPEN
CKP
SSPM3
SSPM2
SSPM1
SSPM0
bit7
bit0
R = Readable bit
W = Writable bit
U = Unimplemented bit,
read as ‘0’
- n =Value at POR reset
bit 7:
WCOL: Write Collision Detect bit
1 = The SSPBUF register is written while it is still transmitting the previous word
(must be cleared in software)
0 = No collision
bit 6:
SSPOV: Receive Overflow Indicator bit
In SPI mode
1 = A new byte is received while the SSPBUF register is still holding the previous data. In case of overflow,
the data in SSPSR is lost. Overflow can only occur in slave mode. The user must read the SSPBUF, even
if only transmitting data, to avoid setting overflow. In master mode the overflow bit is not set since each
new reception (and transmission) is initiated by writing to the SSPBUF register.
0 = No overflow
In I2C mode
1 = A byte is received while the SSPBUF register is still holding the previous byte. SSPOV is a "don’t care"
in transmit mode. SSPOV must be cleared in software in either mode.
0 = No overflow
bit 5:
SSPEN: Synchronous Serial Port Enable bit
In SPI mode
1 = Enables serial port and configures SCK, SDO, and SDI as serial port pins
0 = Disables serial port and configures these pins as I/O port pins
In I2C mode
1 = Enables the serial port and configures the SDA and SCL pins as serial port pins
0 = Disables serial port and configures these pins as I/O port pins
In both modes, when enabled, these pins must be properly configured as input or output.
bit 4:
CKP: Clock Polarity Select bit
In SPI mode
1 = Idle state for clock is a high level
0 = Idle state for clock is a low level
In I2C mode
SCK release control
1 = Enable clock
0 = Holds clock low (clock stretch) (Used to ensure data setup time)
bit 3-0: SSPM3:SSPM0: Synchronous Serial Port Mode Select bits
0000 = SPI master mode, clock = FOSC/4
0001 = SPI master mode, clock = FOSC/16
0010 = SPI master mode, clock = FOSC/64
0011 = SPI master mode, clock = TMR2 output/2
0100 = SPI slave mode, clock = SCK pin. SS pin control enabled.
0101 = SPI slave mode, clock = SCK pin. SS pin control disabled. SS can be used as I/O pin
0110 = I2C slave mode, 7-bit address
0111 = I2C slave mode, 10-bit address
1011 = I2C firmware controlled master mode (slave idle)
1110 = I2C slave mode, 7-bit address with start and stop bit interrupts enabled
1111 = I2C slave mode, 10-bit address with start and stop bit interrupts enabled
DS30390E-page 84
 1997 Microchip Technology Inc.
Applicable Devices
PIC16C7X
72 73 73A 74 74A 76 77
11.3.1
SPI MODE FOR PIC16C76/77
The SPI mode allows 8-bits of data to be synchronously transmitted and received simultaneously. To
accomplish communication, typically three pins are
used:
• Serial Data Out (SDO) RC5/SDO
• Serial Data In (SDI) RC4/SDI/SDA
• Serial Clock (SCK) RC3/SCK/SCL
Additionally a fourth pin may be used when in a slave
mode of operation:
EXAMPLE 11-2: LOADING THE SSPBUF
(SSPSR) REGISTER
(PIC16C76/77)
BCF
STATUS, RP1
BSF
STATUS, RP0
LOOP BTFSS SSPSTAT, BF
GOTO
BCF
MOVF
;Specify Bank 1
;
;Has data been
;received
;(transmit
;complete)?
;No
;Specify Bank 0
;W reg = contents
; of SSPBUF
;Save in user RAM
LOOP
STATUS, RP0
SSPBUF, W
• Slave Select (SS) RA5/SS/AN4
When initializing the SPI, several options need to be
specified. This is done by programming the appropriate
control bits in the SSPCON register (SSPCON<5:0>)
and SSPSTAT<7:6>. These control bits allow the following to be specified:
•
•
•
•
Master Mode (SCK is the clock output)
Slave Mode (SCK is the clock input)
Clock Polarity (Idle state of SCK)
Clock edge (output data on rising/falling edge of
SCK)
• Clock Rate (Master mode only)
• Slave Select Mode (Slave mode only)
The SSP consists of a transmit/receive Shift Register
(SSPSR) and a buffer register (SSPBUF). The SSPSR
shifts the data in and out of the device, MSb first. The
SSPBUF holds the data that was written to the SSPSR
until the received data is ready. Once the 8-bits of data
have been received, that byte is moved to the SSPBUF
register. Then the buffer full detect bit BF
(SSPSTAT<0>) and interrupt flag bit SSPIF (PIR1<3>)
are set. This double buffering of the received data
(SSPBUF) allows the next byte to start reception before
reading the data that was just received. Any write to the
SSPBUF register during transmission/reception of data
will be ignored, and the write collision detect bit WCOL
(SSPCON<7>) will be set. User software must clear the
WCOL bit so that it can be determined if the following
write(s) to the SSPBUF register completed successfully. When the application software is expecting to
receive valid data, the SSPBUF should be read before
the next byte of data to transfer is written to the
SSPBUF. Buffer full bit BF (SSPSTAT<0>) indicates
when SSPBUF has been loaded with the received data
(transmission is complete). When the SSPBUF is read,
bit BF is cleared. This data may be irrelevant if the SPI
is only a transmitter. Generally the SSP Interrupt is
used to determine when the transmission/reception
has completed. The SSPBUF must be read and/or written. If the interrupt method is not going to be used, then
software polling can be done to ensure that a write collision does not occur. Example 11-2 shows the loading
of the SSPBUF (SSPSR) for data transmission. The
shaded instruction is only required if the received data
is meaningful.
 1997 Microchip Technology Inc.
MOVWF RXDATA
MOVF
TXDATA, W
;W reg = contents
; of TXDATA
;New data to xmit
MOVWF SSPBUF
The block diagram of the SSP module, when in SPI
mode (Figure 11-9), shows that the SSPSR is not
directly readable or writable, and can only be accessed
from addressing the SSPBUF register. Additionally, the
SSP status register (SSPSTAT) indicates the various
status conditions.
FIGURE 11-9: SSP BLOCK DIAGRAM
(SPI MODE)(PIC16C76/77)
Internal
data bus
Read
Write
SSPBUF reg
SSPSR reg
RC4/SDI/SDA
shift
clock
bit0
RC5/SDO
SS Control
Enable
RA5/SS/AN4
Edge
Select
2
Clock Select
SSPM3:SSPM0
4
Edge
Select
RC3/SCK/
SCL
TMR2 output
2
Prescaler TCY
4, 16, 64
TRISC<3>
DS30390E-page 85
Applicable Devices
PIC16C7X
72 73 73A 74 74A 76 77
To enable the serial port, SSP Enable bit, SSPEN
(SSPCON<5>) must be set. To reset or reconfigure SPI
mode, clear bit SSPEN, re-initialize the SSPCON register, and then set bit SSPEN. This configures the SDI,
SDO, SCK, and SS pins as serial port pins. For the pins
to behave as the serial port function, they must have
their data direction bits (in the TRISC register) appropriately programmed. That is:
• SDI must have TRISC<4> set
• SDO must have TRISC<5> cleared
• SCK (Master mode) must have TRISC<3>
cleared
• SCK (Slave mode) must have TRISC<3> set
• SS must have TRISA<5> set
Any serial port function that is not desired may be overridden by programming the corresponding data direction (TRIS) register to the opposite value. An example
would be in master mode where you are only sending
data (to a display driver), then both SDI and SS could
be used as general purpose outputs by clearing their
corresponding TRIS register bits.
The master can initiate the data transfer at any time
because it controls the SCK. The master determines
when the slave (Processor 2) is to broadcast data by
the firmware protocol.
In master mode the data is transmitted/received as
soon as the SSPBUF register is written to. If the SPI is
only going to receive, the SCK output could be disabled
(programmed as an input). The SSPSR register will
continue to shift in the signal present on the SDI pin at
the programmed clock rate. As each byte is received, it
will be loaded into the SSPBUF register as if a normal
received byte (interrupts and status bits appropriately
set). This could be useful in receiver applications as a
“line activity monitor” mode.
In slave mode, the data is transmitted and received as
the external clock pulses appear on SCK. When the
last bit is latched the interrupt flag bit SSPIF (PIR1<3>)
is set.
The clock polarity is selected by appropriately programming bit CKP (SSPCON<4>). This then would give
waveforms for SPI communication as shown in
Figure 11-11, Figure 11-12, and Figure 11-13 where
the MSB is transmitted first. In master mode, the SPI
clock rate (bit rate) is user programmable to be one of
the following:
Figure 11-10 shows a typical connection between two
microcontrollers. The master controller (Processor 1)
initiates the data transfer by sending the SCK signal.
Data is shifted out of both shift registers on their programmed clock edge, and latched on the opposite edge
of the clock. Both processors should be programmed to
same Clock Polarity (CKP), then both controllers would
send and receive data at the same time. Whether the
data is meaningful (or dummy data) depends on the
application firmware. This leads to three scenarios for
data transmission:
•
•
•
•
• Master sends data — Slave sends dummy data
• Master sends data — Slave sends data
• Master sends dummy data — Slave sends data
In sleep mode, the slave can transmit and receive data
and wake the device from sleep.
FOSC/4 (or TCY)
FOSC/16 (or 4 • TCY)
FOSC/64 (or 16 • TCY)
Timer2 output/2
This allows a maximum bit clock frequency (at 20 MHz)
of 5 MHz. When in slave mode the external clock must
meet the minimum high and low times.
FIGURE 11-10: SPI MASTER/SLAVE CONNECTION (PIC16C76/77)
SPI Master SSPM3:SSPM0 = 00xxb
SPI Slave SSPM3:SSPM0 = 010xb
SDO
SDI
Serial Input Buffer
(SSPBUF)
Serial Input Buffer
(SSPBUF)
SDI
Shift Register
(SSPSR)
MSb
SDO
LSb
Shift Register
(SSPSR)
MSb
LSb
Serial Clock
SCK
PROCESSOR 1
DS30390E-page 86
SCK
PROCESSOR 2
 1997 Microchip Technology Inc.
Applicable Devices
PIC16C7X
72 73 73A 74 74A 76 77
The SS pin allows a synchronous slave mode. The
SPI must be in slave mode (SSPCON<3:0> = 04h)
and the TRISA<5> bit must be set for the synchronous slave mode to be enabled. When the SS pin is
low, transmission and reception are enabled and
the SDO pin is driven. When the SS pin goes high,
the SDO pin is no longer driven, even if in the middle of a transmitted byte, and becomes a floating
output. If the SS pin is taken low without resetting
SPI mode, the transmission will continue from the
point at which it was taken high. External pull-up/
pull-down resistors may be desirable, depending on the
application.
.
Note:
When the SPI is in Slave Mode with SS pin
control enabled, (SSPCON<3:0> = 0100)
the SPI module will reset if the SS pin is set
to VDD.
Note:
If the SPI is used in Slave Mode with
CKE = '1', then the SS pin control must be
enabled.
To emulate two-wire communication, the SDO pin can
be connected to the SDI pin. When the SPI needs to
operate as a receiver the SDO pin can be configured as
an input. This disables transmissions from the SDO.
The SDI can always be left as an input (SDI function)
since it cannot create a bus conflict.
FIGURE 11-11: SPI MODE TIMING, MASTER MODE (PIC16C76/77)
SCK (CKP = 0,
CKE = 0)
SCK (CKP = 0,
CKE = 1)
SCK (CKP = 1,
CKE = 0)
SCK (CKP = 1,
CKE = 1)
bit7
SDO
bit6
bit5
bit4
bit3
bit2
bit1
bit0
SDI (SMP = 0)
bit7
bit0
SDI (SMP = 1)
bit7
bit0
SSPIF
FIGURE 11-12: SPI MODE TIMING (SLAVE MODE WITH CKE = 0) (PIC16C76/77)
SS (optional)
SCK (CKP = 0)
SCK (CKP = 1)
bit7
SDO
bit6
bit5
bit4
bit3
bit2
bit1
bit0
SDI (SMP = 0)
bit7
bit0
SSPIF
 1997 Microchip Technology Inc.
DS30390E-page 87
Applicable Devices
PIC16C7X
72 73 73A 74 74A 76 77
FIGURE 11-13: SPI MODE TIMING (SLAVE MODE WITH CKE = 1) (PIC16C76/77)
SS
(not optional)
SCK (CKP = 0)
SCK (CKP = 1)
SDO
bit7
bit6
bit5
bit3
bit4
bit2
bit1
bit0
SDI (SMP = 0)
bit7
bit0
SSPIF
TABLE 11-2:
Address
REGISTERS ASSOCIATED WITH SPI OPERATION (PIC16C76/77)
Name
Value on:
POR,
BOR
Value on
all other
resets
Bit 7
Bit 6
Bit 5
Bit 4
Bit 3
Bit 2
Bit 1
Bit 0
GIE
PEIE
T0IE
INTE
RBIE
T0IF
INTF
RBIF
PIR1
PSPIF(1)
ADIF
RCIF
TXIF
SSPIF
CCP1IF TMR2IF TMR1IF 0000 0000 0000 0000
8Ch
PIE1
PSPIE(1)
ADIE
RCIE
TXIE
SSPIE
CCP1IE TMR2IE TMR1IE 0000 0000 0000 0000
87h
TRISC
PORTC Data Direction Register
1111 1111 1111 1111
13h
SSPBUF
Synchronous Serial Port Receive Buffer/Transmit Register
xxxx xxxx uuuu uuuu
14h
SSPCON WCOL
85h
TRISA
94h
SSPSTAT
0Bh,8Bh.
INTCON
10Bh,18Bh
0Ch
SSPOV SSPEN CKP SSPM3 SSPM2
—
—
SMP
CKE
SSPM1
SSPM0
PORTA Data Direction Register
D/A
P
S
R/W
0000 000x 0000 000u
0000 0000 0000 0000
--11 1111 --11 1111
UA
BF
0000 0000 0000 0000
Legend: x = unknown, u = unchanged, - = unimplemented read as '0'. Shaded cells are not used by the SSP in SPI mode.
Note 1: Bits PSPIE and PSPIF are reserved on the PIC16C76, always maintain these bits clear.
DS30390E-page 88
 1997 Microchip Technology Inc.
Applicable Devices
PIC16C7X
72 73 73A 74 74A 76 77
I 2C™ Overview
11.4
This section provides an overview of the Inter-Integrated Circuit (I 2C) bus, with Section 11.5 discussing
the operation of the SSP module in I2C mode.
The I 2C bus is a two-wire serial interface developed by
the Philips Corporation. The original specification, or
standard mode, was for data transfers of up to 100
Kbps. The enhanced specification (fast mode) is also
supported. This device will communicate with both
standard and fast mode devices if attached to the same
bus. The clock will determine the data rate.
The I 2C interface employs a comprehensive protocol to
ensure reliable transmission and reception of data.
When transmitting data, one device is the “master”
which initiates transfer on the bus and generates the
clock signals to permit that transfer, while the other
device(s) acts as the “slave.” All portions of the slave
protocol are implemented in the SSP module’s hardware, except general call support, while portions of the
master protocol need to be addressed in the
PIC16CXX software. Table 11-3 defines some of the
I 2C bus terminology. For additional information on the
I 2C interface specification, refer to the Philips document “The I 2C bus and how to use it.” #939839340011,
which can be obtained from the Philips Corporation.
In the I 2C interface protocol each device has an
address. When a master wishes to initiate a data transfer, it first transmits the address of the device that it
wishes to “talk” to. All devices “listen” to see if this is
their address. Within this address, a bit specifies if the
master wishes to read-from/write-to the slave device.
The master and slave are always in opposite modes
(transmitter/receiver) of operation during a data transfer. That is they can be thought of as operating in either
of these two relations:
In both cases the master generates the clock signal.
The output stages of the clock (SCL) and data (SDA)
lines must have an open-drain or open-collector in
order to perform the wired-AND function of the bus.
External pull-up resistors are used to ensure a high
level when no device is pulling the line down. The number of devices that may be attached to the I2C bus is
limited only by the maximum bus loading specification
of 400 pF.
11.4.1
During times of no data transfer (idle time), both the
clock line (SCL) and the data line (SDA) are pulled high
through the external pull-up resistors. The START and
STOP conditions determine the start and stop of data
transmission. The START condition is defined as a high
to low transition of the SDA when the SCL is high. The
STOP condition is defined as a low to high transition of
the SDA when the SCL is high. Figure 11-14 shows the
START and STOP conditions. The master generates
these conditions for starting and terminating data transfer. Due to the definition of the START and STOP conditions, when data is being transmitted, the SDA line
can only change state when the SCL line is low.
FIGURE 11-14: START AND STOP
CONDITIONS
SDA
SCL
S
Start
Condition
• Master-transmitter and Slave-receiver
• Slave-transmitter and Master-receiver
TABLE 11-3:
INITIATING AND TERMINATING DATA
TRANSFER
P
Change
of Data
Allowed
Change
of Data
Allowed
Stop
Condition
I2C BUS TERMINOLOGY
Term
Description
Transmitter
The device that sends the data to the bus.
Receiver
The device that receives the data from the bus.
Master
The device which initiates the transfer, generates the clock and terminates the transfer.
Slave
The device addressed by a master.
Multi-master
More than one master device in a system. These masters can attempt to control the bus at the
same time without corrupting the message.
Arbitration
Procedure that ensures that only one of the master devices will control the bus. This ensure that
the transfer data does not get corrupted.
Synchronization
Procedure where the clock signals of two or more devices are synchronized.
 1997 Microchip Technology Inc.
DS30390E-page 89
Applicable Devices
PIC16C7X
72 73 73A 74 74A 76 77
ADDRESSING I 2C DEVICES
11.4.2
FIGURE 11-17: SLAVE-RECEIVER
ACKNOWLEDGE
There are two address formats. The simplest is the
7-bit address format with a R/W bit (Figure 11-15). The
more complex is the 10-bit address with a R/W bit
(Figure 11-16). For 10-bit address format, two bytes
must be transmitted with the first five bits specifying this
to be a 10-bit address.
Data
Output by
Transmitter
Data
Output by
Receiver
R/W ACK
slave address
S
R/W
ACK
Sent by
Slave
Start Condition
Read/Write pulse
Acknowledge
S 1 1 1 1 0 A9 A8 R/W ACK A7 A6 A5 A4 A3 A2 A1 A0 ACK
If the slave needs to delay the transmission of the next
byte, holding the SCL line low will force the master into
a wait state. Data transfer continues when the slave
releases the SCL line. This allows the slave to move the
received data or fetch the data it needs to transfer
before allowing the clock to start. This wait state technique can also be implemented at the bit level,
Figure 11-18. The slave will inherently stretch the clock,
when it is a transmitter, but will not when it is a receiver.
The slave will have to clear the SSPCON<4> bit to
enable clock stretching when it is a receiver.
sent by slave
= 0 for write
11.4.3
Clock Pulse for
Acknowledgment
If the master is receiving the data (master-receiver), it
generates an acknowledge signal for each received
byte of data, except for the last byte. To signal the end
of data to the slave-transmitter, the master does not
generate an acknowledge (not acknowledge). The
slave then releases the SDA line so the master can
generate the STOP condition. The master can also
generate the STOP condition during the acknowledge
pulse for valid termination of data transfer.
FIGURE 11-16: I2C 10-BIT ADDRESS FORMAT
S
R/W
ACK
9
8
2
1
S
Start
Condition
LSb
S
acknowledge
SCL from
Master
FIGURE 11-15: 7-BIT ADDRESS FORMAT
MSb
not acknowledge
- Start Condition
- Read/Write Pulse
- Acknowledge
TRANSFER ACKNOWLEDGE
All data must be transmitted per byte, with no limit to the
number of bytes transmitted per data transfer. After
each byte, the slave-receiver generates an acknowledge bit (ACK) (Figure 11-17). When a slave-receiver
doesn’t acknowledge the slave address or received
data, the master must abort the transfer. The slave
must leave SDA high so that the master can generate
the STOP condition (Figure 11-14).
FIGURE 11-18: DATA TRANSFER WAIT STATE
SDA
MSB
acknowledgment
signal from receiver
byte complete
interrupt with receiver
acknowledgment
signal from receiver
clock line held low while
interrupts are serviced
SCL
S
Start
Condition
DS30390E-page 90
1
2
Address
7
8
9
R/W
ACK
1
Wait
State
2
Data
3•8
9
ACK
P
Stop
Condition
 1997 Microchip Technology Inc.
Applicable Devices
PIC16C7X
72 73 73A 74 74A 76 77
SCL is high), but occurs after a data transfer acknowledge pulse (not the bus-free state). This allows a master to send “commands” to the slave and then receive
the requested information or to address a different
slave device. This sequence is shown in Figure 11-21.
Figure 11-19 and Figure 11-20 show Master-transmitter and Master-receiver data transfer sequences.
When a master does not wish to relinquish the bus (by
generating a STOP condition), a repeated START condition (Sr) must be generated. This condition is identical to the start condition (SDA goes high-to-low while
FIGURE 11-19: MASTER-TRANSMITTER SEQUENCE
For 10-bit address:
S Slave Address R/W A1 Slave Address A2
Second byte
First 7 bits
For 7-bit address:
S Slave Address R/W A Data A Data A/A P
'0' (write)
data transferred
(n bytes - acknowledge)
A master transmitter addresses a slave receiver with a
7-bit address. The transfer direction is not changed.
From master to slave
From slave to master
(write)
Data A
A = acknowledge (SDA low)
A = not acknowledge (SDA high)
S = Start Condition
P = Stop Condition
Data A/A P
A master transmitter addresses a slave receiver
with a 10-bit address.
FIGURE 11-20: MASTER-RECEIVER SEQUENCE
For 10-bit address:
For 7-bit address:
S Slave Address R/W A1 Slave Address A2
Second byte
First 7 bits
S Slave Address R/W A Data A Data A P
'1' (read)
data transferred
(n bytes - acknowledge)
A master reads a slave immediately after the first byte.
From master to slave
From slave to master
(write)
A = acknowledge (SDA low)
A = not acknowledge (SDA high)
S = Start Condition
P = Stop Condition
Sr Slave Address R/W A3 Data A
First 7 bits
Data A P
(read)
A master transmitter addresses a slave receiver
with a 10-bit address.
FIGURE 11-21: COMBINED FORMAT
(read or write)
(n bytes + acknowledge)
S Slave Address R/W A Data A/A Sr Slave Address R/W A Data A/A P
(read)
Sr = repeated
Start Condition
(write)
Direction of transfer
may change at this point
Transfer direction of data and acknowledgment bits depends on R/W bits.
Combined format:
Sr Slave Address R/W A Slave Address A Data A
First 7 bits
Second byte
Data A/A Sr Slave Address R/W A Data A
First 7 bits
Data A P
(read)
(write)
Combined format - A master addresses a slave with a 10-bit address, then transmits
data to this slave and reads data from this slave.
From master to slave
From slave to master
 1997 Microchip Technology Inc.
A = acknowledge (SDA low)
A = not acknowledge (SDA high)
S = Start Condition
P = Stop Condition
DS30390E-page 91
Applicable Devices
PIC16C7X
11.4.4
72 73 73A 74 74A 76 77
MULTI-MASTER
11.2.4.2 Clock Synchronization
The I2C protocol allows a system to have more than
one master. This is called multi-master. When two or
more masters try to transfer data at the same time, arbitration and synchronization occur.
11.4.4.1
ARBITRATION
Arbitration takes place on the SDA line, while the SCL
line is high. The master which transmits a high when
the other master transmits a low loses arbitration
(Figure 11-22), and turns off its data output stage. A
master which lost arbitration can generate clock pulses
until the end of the data byte where it lost arbitration.
When the master devices are addressing the same
device, arbitration continues into the data.
FIGURE 11-22: MULTI-MASTER
ARBITRATION
(TWO MASTERS)
Clock synchronization occurs after the devices have
started arbitration. This is performed using a
wired-AND connection to the SCL line. A high to low
transition on the SCL line causes the concerned
devices to start counting off their low period. Once a
device clock has gone low, it will hold the SCL line low
until its SCL high state is reached. The low to high transition of this clock may not change the state of the SCL
line, if another device clock is still within its low period.
The SCL line is held low by the device with the longest
low period. Devices with shorter low periods enter a
high wait-state, until the SCL line comes high. When
the SCL line comes high, all devices start counting off
their high periods. The first device to complete its high
period will pull the SCL line low. The SCL line high time
is determined by the device with the shortest high
period, Figure 11-23.
FIGURE 11-23: CLOCK SYNCHRONIZATION
transmitter 1 loses arbitration
DATA 1 SDA
wait
state
DATA 1
DATA 2
start counting
HIGH period
CLK
1
SDA
CLK
2
counter
reset
SCL
SCL
Masters that also incorporate the slave function, and
have lost arbitration must immediately switch over to
slave-receiver mode. This is because the winning master-transmitter may be addressing it.
Arbitration is not allowed between:
• A repeated START condition
• A STOP condition and a data bit
• A repeated START condition and a STOP condition
Care needs to be taken to ensure that these conditions
do not occur.
DS30390E-page 92
 1997 Microchip Technology Inc.
Applicable Devices
72 73 73A 74 74A 76 77
11.5
SSP I 2C Operation
The SSP module in I 2C mode fully implements all slave
functions, except general call support, and provides
interrupts on start and stop bits in hardware to facilitate
firmware implementations of the master functions. The
SSP module implements the standard mode specifications as well as 7-bit and 10-bit addressing. Two pins
are used for data transfer. These are the
RC3/SCK/SCL pin, which is the clock (SCL), and the
RC4/SDI/SDA pin, which is the data (SDA). The user
must configure these pins as inputs or outputs through
the TRISC<4:3> bits. The SSP module functions are
enabled by setting SSP Enable bit SSPEN (SSPCON<5>).
FIGURE 11-24: SSP BLOCK DIAGRAM
(I2C MODE)
Internal
data bus
Read
Write
SSPBUF reg
RC3/SCK/SCL
shift
clock
SSPSR reg
RC4/
SDI/
SDA
MSb
LSb
Match detect
Addr Match
SSPADD reg
Start and
Stop bit detect
Set, Reset
S, P bits
(SSPSTAT reg)
The SSP module has five registers for I2C operation.
These are the:
PIC16C7X
The SSPCON register allows control of the I2C operation. Four mode selection bits (SSPCON<3:0>) allow
one of the following I 2C modes to be selected:
• I 2C Slave mode (7-bit address)
• I 2C Slave mode (10-bit address)
• I 2C Slave mode (7-bit address), with start and
stop bit interrupts enabled
• I 2C Slave mode (10-bit address), with start and
stop bit interrupts enabled
• I 2C Firmware controlled Master Mode, slave is
idle
Selection of any I 2C mode, with the SSPEN bit set,
forces the SCL and SDA pins to be open drain, provided these pins are programmed to inputs by setting
the appropriate TRISC bits.
The SSPSTAT register gives the status of the data
transfer. This information includes detection of a
START or STOP bit, specifies if the received byte was
data or address if the next byte is the completion of
10-bit address, and if this will be a read or write data
transfer. The SSPSTAT register is read only.
The SSPBUF is the register to which transfer data is
written to or read from. The SSPSR register shifts the
data in or out of the device. In receive operations, the
SSPBUF and SSPSR create a doubled buffered
receiver. This allows reception of the next byte to begin
before reading the last byte of received data. When the
complete byte is received, it is transferred to the
SSPBUF register and flag bit SSPIF is set. If another
complete byte is received before the SSPBUF register
is read, a receiver overflow has occurred and bit
SSPOV (SSPCON<6>) is set and the byte in the
SSPSR is lost.
The SSPADD register holds the slave address. In 10-bit
mode, the user first needs to write the high byte of the
address (1111 0 A9 A8 0). Following the high byte
address match, the low byte of the address needs to be
loaded (A7:A0).
•
•
•
•
SSP Control Register (SSPCON)
SSP Status Register (SSPSTAT)
Serial Receive/Transmit Buffer (SSPBUF)
SSP Shift Register (SSPSR) - Not directly accessible
• SSP Address Register (SSPADD)
 1997 Microchip Technology Inc.
DS30390E-page 93
Applicable Devices
PIC16C7X
11.5.1
72 73 73A 74 74A 76 77
SLAVE MODE
In slave mode, the SCL and SDA pins must be configured as inputs (TRISC<4:3> set). The SSP module will
override the input state with the output data when
required (slave-transmitter).
When an address is matched or the data transfer after
an address match is received, the hardware automatically will generate the acknowledge (ACK) pulse, and
then load the SSPBUF register with the received value
currently in the SSPSR register.
There are certain conditions that will cause the SSP
module not to give this ACK pulse. These are if either
(or both):
a)
b)
The buffer full bit BF (SSPSTAT<0>) was set
before the transfer was received.
The overflow bit SSPOV (SSPCON<6>) was set
before the transfer was received.
In this case, the SSPSR register value is not loaded
into the SSPBUF, but bit SSPIF (PIR1<3>) is set.
Table 11-4 shows what happens when a data transfer
byte is received, given the status of bits BF and SSPOV.
The shaded cells show the condition where user software did not properly clear the overflow condition. Flag
bit BF is cleared by reading the SSPBUF register while
bit SSPOV is cleared through software.
The SCL clock input must have a minimum high and
low for proper operation. The high and low times of the
I2C specification as well as the requirement of the SSP
module is shown in timing parameter #100 and parameter #101.
11.5.1.1
address is compared on the falling edge of the eighth
clock (SCL) pulse. If the addresses match, and the BF
and SSPOV bits are clear, the following events occur:
a)
b)
c)
d)
In 10-bit address mode, two address bytes need to be
received by the slave (Figure 11-16). The five Most Significant bits (MSbs) of the first address byte specify if
this is a 10-bit address. Bit R/W (SSPSTAT<2>) must
specify a write so the slave device will receive the second address byte. For a 10-bit address the first byte
would equal ‘1111 0 A9 A8 0’, where A9 and A8 are
the two MSbs of the address. The sequence of events
for 10-bit address is as follows, with steps 7- 9 for
slave-transmitter:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
ADDRESSING
Once the SSP module has been enabled, it waits for a
START condition to occur. Following the START condition, the 8-bits are shifted into the SSPSR register. All
incoming bits are sampled with the rising edge of the
clock (SCL) line. The value of register SSPSR<7:1> is
compared to the value of the SSPADD register. The
TABLE 11-4:
The SSPSR register value is loaded into the
SSPBUF register.
The buffer full bit, BF is set.
An ACK pulse is generated.
SSP interrupt flag bit, SSPIF (PIR1<3>) is set
(interrupt is generated if enabled) - on the falling
edge of the ninth SCL pulse.
6.
7.
8.
9.
Receive first (high) byte of Address (bits SSPIF,
BF, and bit UA (SSPSTAT<1>) are set).
Update the SSPADD register with second (low)
byte of Address (clears bit UA and releases the
SCL line).
Read the SSPBUF register (clears bit BF) and
clear flag bit SSPIF.
Receive second (low) byte of Address (bits
SSPIF, BF, and UA are set).
Update the SSPADD register with the first (high)
byte of Address, if match releases SCL line, this
will clear bit UA.
Read the SSPBUF register (clears bit BF) and
clear flag bit SSPIF.
Receive repeated START condition.
Receive first (high) byte of Address (bits SSPIF
and BF are set).
Read the SSPBUF register (clears bit BF) and
clear flag bit SSPIF.
DATA TRANSFER RECEIVED BYTE ACTIONS
Status Bits as Data
Transfer is Received
Set bit SSPIF
(SSP Interrupt occurs
if enabled)
BF
SSPOV
SSPSR → SSPBUF
Generate ACK
Pulse
0
0
Yes
Yes
Yes
1
0
No
No
Yes
1
1
No
No
Yes
0
1
No
No
Yes
DS30390E-page 94
 1997 Microchip Technology Inc.
Applicable Devices
PIC16C7X
72 73 73A 74 74A 76 77
11.5.1.2
An SSP interrupt is generated for each data transfer
byte. Flag bit SSPIF (PIR1<3>) must be cleared in software. The SSPSTAT register is used to determine the
status of the byte.
RECEPTION
When the R/W bit of the address byte is clear and an
address match occurs, the R/W bit of the SSPSTAT register is cleared. The received address is loaded into the
SSPBUF register.
When the address byte overflow condition exists, then
no acknowledge (ACK) pulse is given. An overflow condition is defined as either bit BF (SSPSTAT<0>) is set
or bit SSPOV (SSPCON<6>) is set.
FIGURE 11-25: I 2C WAVEFORMS FOR RECEPTION (7-BIT ADDRESS)
Receiving Address
Receiving Data
R/W=0
Receiving Data
ACK
ACK
ACK
A7 A6 A5 A4 A3 A2 A1
D7 D6 D5 D4 D3 D2 D1 D0
D7 D6 D5 D4 D3 D2 D1 D0
SDA
SCL
S
1
2
3
4
5
6
SSPIF (PIR1<3>)
BF (SSPSTAT<0>)
7
8
9
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
Cleared in software
9
P
Bus Master
terminates
transfer
SSPBUF register is read
SSPOV (SSPCON<6>)
Bit SSPOV is set because the SSPBUF register is still full.
ACK is not sent.
 1997 Microchip Technology Inc.
DS30390E-page 95
Applicable Devices
PIC16C7X
11.5.1.3
72 73 73A 74 74A 76 77
TRANSMISSION
When the R/W bit of the incoming address byte is set
and an address match occurs, the R/W bit of the
SSPSTAT register is set. The received address is
loaded into the SSPBUF register. The ACK pulse will
be sent on the ninth bit, and pin RC3/SCK/SCL is held
low. The transmit data must be loaded into the SSPBUF register, which also loads the SSPSR register.
Then pin RC3/SCK/SCL should be enabled by setting
bit CKP (SSPCON<4>). The master must monitor the
SCL pin prior to asserting another clock pulse. The
slave devices may be holding off the master by stretching the clock. The eight data bits are shifted out on the
falling edge of the SCL input. This ensures that the SDA
signal is valid during the SCL high time (Figure 11-26).
An SSP interrupt is generated for each data transfer
byte. Flag bit SSPIF must be cleared in software, and
the SSPSTAT register is used to determine the status
of the byte. Flag bit SSPIF is set on the falling edge of
the ninth clock pulse.
As a slave-transmitter, the ACK pulse from the master-receiver is latched on the rising edge of the ninth
SCL input pulse. If the SDA line was high (not ACK),
then the data transfer is complete. When the ACK is
latched by the slave, the slave logic is reset (resets
SSPSTAT register) and the slave then monitors for
another occurrence of the START bit. If the SDA line
was low (ACK), the transmit data must be loaded into
the SSPBUF register, which also loads the SSPSR register. Then pin RC3/SCK/SCL should be enabled by
setting bit CKP.
FIGURE 11-26: I 2C WAVEFORMS FOR TRANSMISSION (7-BIT ADDRESS)
Receiving Address
SDA
SCL
A7
S
A6
1
2
Data in
sampled
SSPIF (PIR1<3>)
R/W = 1
A5
A4
A3
A2
A1
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
ACK
Transmitting Data
ACK
D7
1
SCL held low
while CPU
responds to SSPIF
D6
D5
D4
D3
D2
D1
D0
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
P
cleared in software
BF (SSPSTAT<0>)
SSPBUF is written in software
From SSP interrupt
service routine
CKP (SSPCON<4>)
Set bit after writing to SSPBUF
(the SSPBUF must be written-to
before the CKP bit can be set)
DS30390E-page 96
 1997 Microchip Technology Inc.
Applicable Devices
PIC16C7X
72 73 73A 74 74A 76 77
11.5.2
11.5.3
MASTER MODE
In multi-master mode, the interrupt generation on the
detection of the START and STOP conditions allows
the determination of when the bus is free. The STOP
(P) and START (S) bits are cleared from a reset or
when the SSP module is disabled. The STOP (P) and
START (S) bits will toggle based on the START and
STOP conditions. Control of the I2C bus may be taken
when bit P (SSPSTAT<4>) is set, or the bus is idle and
both the S and P bits clear. When the bus is busy,
enabling the SSP Interrupt will generate the interrupt
when the STOP condition occurs.
Master mode of operation is supported in firmware
using interrupt generation on the detection of the
START and STOP conditions. The STOP (P) and
START (S) bits are cleared from a reset or when the
SSP module is disabled. The STOP (P) and START (S)
bits will toggle based on the START and STOP conditions. Control of the I 2C bus may be taken when the P
bit is set, or the bus is idle and both the S and P bits are
clear.
In master mode the SCL and SDA lines are manipulated by clearing the corresponding TRISC<4:3> bit(s).
The output level is always low, irrespective of the
value(s) in PORTC<4:3>. So when transmitting data, a
'1' data bit must have the TRISC<4> bit set (input) and
a '0' data bit must have the TRISC<4> bit cleared (output). The same scenario is true for the SCL line with the
TRISC<3> bit.
In multi-master operation, the SDA line must be monitored to see if the signal level is the expected output
level. This check only needs to be done when a high
level is output. If a high level is expected and a low level
is present, the device needs to release the SDA and
SCL lines (set TRISC<4:3>). There are two stages
where this arbitration can be lost, these are:
The following events will cause SSP Interrupt Flag bit,
SSPIF, to be set (SSP Interrupt if enabled):
• Address Transfer
• Data Transfer
• START condition
• STOP condition
• Data transfer byte transmitted/received
When the slave logic is enabled, the slave continues to
receive. If arbitration was lost during the address transfer stage, communication to the device may be in
progress. If addressed an ACK pulse will be generated.
If arbitration was lost during the data transfer stage, the
device will need to re-transfer the data at a later time.
Master mode of operation can be done with either the
slave mode idle (SSPM3:SSPM0 = 1011) or with the
slave active. When both master and slave modes are
enabled, the software needs to differentiate the
source(s) of the interrupt.
TABLE 11-5:
MULTI-MASTER MODE
REGISTERS ASSOCIATED WITH I2C OPERATION
Address
Name
Bit 7
Bit 6
Bit 5
Bit 4
Bit 3
Bit 2
Bit 1
Bit 0
Value on
POR,
BOR
Value on all
other resets
0Bh, 8Bh,
10Bh,18Bh
INTCON
GIE
PEIE
T0IE
INTE
RBIE
T0IF
INTF
RBIF
0000 000x
0000 000u
0Ch
PIR1
PSPIF(1)
ADIF
RCIF
TXIF
SSPIF CCP1IF TMR2IF TMR1IF
0000 0000
0000 0000
8Ch
PIE1
PSPIE(1)
ADIE
RCIE
TXIE
SSPIE CCP1IE TMR2IE TMR1IE
0000 0000
0000 0000
13h
SSPBUF Synchronous Serial Port Receive Buffer/Transmit Register
xxxx xxxx
uuuu uuuu
93h
SSPADD Synchronous Serial Port (I2C mode) Address Register
0000 0000
0000 0000
14h
SSPCON
WCOL
SSPOV SSPEN
0000 0000
0000 0000
94h
SSPSTAT
SMP(2)
CKE(2)
0000 0000
0000 0000
87h
TRISC
1111 1111
1111 1111
D/A
PORTC Data Direction register
CKP
P
SSPM3 SSPM2 SSPM1 SSPM0
S
R/W
UA
BF
Legend: x = unknown, u = unchanged, - = unimplemented locations read as '0'.
Shaded cells are not used by SSP module in SPI mode.
Note 1: PSPIF and PSPIE are reserved on the PIC16C73/73A/76, always maintain these bits clear.
2: The SMP and CKE bits are implemented on the PIC16C76/77 only. All other PIC16C7X devices have these two bits unimplemented, read as '0'.
 1997 Microchip Technology Inc.
DS30390E-page 97
Applicable Devices
PIC16C7X
72 73 73A 74 74A 76 77
FIGURE 11-27: OPERATION OF THE I 2C MODULE IN IDLE_MODE, RCV_MODE OR XMIT_MODE
IDLE_MODE (7-bit):
if (Addr_match)
{
Set interrupt;
if (R/W = 1)
{
Send ACK = 0;
set XMIT_MODE;
}
else if (R/W = 0) set RCV_MODE;
}
RCV_MODE:
if ((SSPBUF=Full) OR (SSPOV = 1))
{
Set SSPOV;
Do not acknowledge;
}
else
{
transfer SSPSR → SSPBUF;
send ACK = 0;
}
Receive 8-bits in SSPSR;
Set interrupt;
XMIT_MODE:
While ((SSPBUF = Empty) AND (CKP=0)) Hold SCL Low;
Send byte;
Set interrupt;
if ( ACK Received = 1)
{
End of transmission;
Go back to IDLE_MODE;
}
else if ( ACK Received = 0) Go back to XMIT_MODE;
IDLE_MODE (10-Bit):
If (High_byte_addr_match AND (R/W = 0))
{
PRIOR_ADDR_MATCH = FALSE;
Set interrupt;
if ((SSPBUF = Full) OR ((SSPOV = 1))
{
Set SSPOV;
Do not acknowledge;
}
else
{
Set UA = 1;
Send ACK = 0;
While (SSPADD not updated) Hold SCL low;
Clear UA = 0;
Receive Low_addr_byte;
Set interrupt;
Set UA = 1;
If (Low_byte_addr_match)
{
PRIOR_ADDR_MATCH = TRUE;
Send ACK = 0;
while (SSPADD not updated) Hold SCL low;
Clear UA = 0;
Set RCV_MODE;
}
}
}
else if (High_byte_addr_match AND (R/W = 1)
{
if (PRIOR_ADDR_MATCH)
{
send ACK = 0;
set XMIT_MODE;
}
else PRIOR_ADDR_MATCH = FALSE;
}
DS30390E-page 98
 1997 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC16C7X
12.0
UNIVERSAL SYNCHRONOUS
ASYNCHRONOUS RECEIVER
TRANSMITTER (USART)
as a half duplex synchronous system that can communicate with peripheral devices such as A/D or D/A integrated circuits, Serial EEPROMs etc.
The USART can be configured in the following modes:
Applicable Devices
72 73 73A 74 74A 76 77
• Asynchronous (full duplex)
• Synchronous - Master (half duplex)
• Synchronous - Slave (half duplex)
The Universal Synchronous Asynchronous Receiver
Transmitter (USART) module is one of the two serial
I/O modules. (USART is also known as a Serial Communications Interface or SCI). The USART can be configured as a full duplex asynchronous system that can
communicate with peripheral devices such as CRT terminals and personal computers, or it can be configured
Bit SPEN (RCSTA<7>), and bits TRISC<7:6>, have to
be set in order to configure pins RC6/TX/CK and RC7/
RX/DT as the Universal Synchronous Asynchronous
Receiver Transmitter.
FIGURE 12-1: TXSTA: TRANSMIT STATUS AND CONTROL REGISTER (ADDRESS 98h)
R/W-0
CSRC
bit7
bit 7:
R/W-0
TX9
R/W-0
TXEN
R/W-0
SYNC
U-0
—
R/W-0
BRGH
R-1
TRMT
R/W-0
TX9D
bit0
R = Readable bit
W = Writable bit
U = Unimplemented bit,
read as ‘0’
- n =Value at POR reset
CSRC: Clock Source Select bit
Asynchronous mode
Don’t care
Synchronous mode
1 = Master mode (Clock generated internally from BRG)
0 = Slave mode (Clock from external source)
bit 6:
TX9: 9-bit Transmit Enable bit
1 = Selects 9-bit transmission
0 = Selects 8-bit transmission
bit 5:
TXEN: Transmit Enable bit
1 = Transmit enabled
0 = Transmit disabled
Note: SREN/CREN overrides TXEN in SYNC mode.
bit 4:
SYNC: USART Mode Select bit
1 = Synchronous mode
0 = Asynchronous mode
bit 3:
Unimplemented: Read as '0'
bit 2:
BRGH: High Baud Rate Select bit
Asynchronous mode
1 = High speed
Note: For the PIC16C73/73A/74/74A, the asynchronous high speed mode (BRGH = 1) may experience a high rate of receive errors. It is recommended that BRGH = 0. If you desire a higher
baud rate than BRGH = 0 can support, refer to the device errata for additional information,
or use the PIC16C76/77.
0 = Low speed
Synchronous mode
Unused in this mode
bit 1:
TRMT: Transmit Shift Register Status bit
1 = TSR empty
0 = TSR full
bit 0:
TX9D: 9th bit of transmit data. Can be parity bit.
 1997 Microchip Technology Inc.
DS30390E-page 99
PIC16C7X
FIGURE 12-2: RCSTA: RECEIVE STATUS AND CONTROL REGISTER (ADDRESS 18h)
R/W-0
SPEN
bit7
R/W-0
RX9
R/W-0
SREN
R/W-0
CREN
U-0
—
R-0
FERR
R-0
OERR
R-x
RX9D
bit0
R = Readable bit
W = Writable bit
U = Unimplemented bit,
read as ‘0’
- n =Value at POR reset
bit 7:
SPEN: Serial Port Enable bit
1 = Serial port enabled (Configures RC7/RX/DT and RC6/TX/CK pins as serial port pins)
0 = Serial port disabled
bit 6:
RX9: 9-bit Receive Enable bit
1 = Selects 9-bit reception
0 = Selects 8-bit reception
bit 5:
SREN: Single Receive Enable bit
Asynchronous mode
Don’t care
Synchronous mode - master
1 = Enables single receive
0 = Disables single receive
This bit is cleared after reception is complete.
Synchronous mode - slave
Unused in this mode
bit 4:
CREN: Continuous Receive Enable bit
Asynchronous mode
1 = Enables continuous receive
0 = Disables continuous receive
Synchronous mode
1 = Enables continuous receive until enable bit CREN is cleared (CREN overrides SREN)
0 = Disables continuous receive
bit 3:
Unimplemented: Read as '0'
bit 2:
FERR: Framing Error bit
1 = Framing error (Can be updated by reading RCREG register and receive next valid byte)
0 = No framing error
bit 1:
OERR: Overrun Error bit
1 = Overrun error (Can be cleared by clearing bit CREN)
0 = No overrun error
bit 0:
RX9D: 9th bit of received data (Can be parity bit)
DS30390E-page 100
 1997 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC16C7X
12.1
USART Baud Rate Generator (BRG)
EXAMPLE 12-1: CALCULATING BAUD
RATE ERROR
Applicable Devices
72 73 73A 74 74A 76 77
Desired Baud rate = Fosc / (64 (X + 1))
The BRG supports both the Asynchronous and Synchronous modes of the USART. It is a dedicated 8-bit
baud rate generator. The SPBRG register controls the
period of a free running 8-bit timer. In asynchronous
mode bit BRGH (TXSTA<2>) also controls the baud
rate. In synchronous mode bit BRGH is ignored.
Table 12-1 shows the formula for computation of the
baud rate for different USART modes which only apply
in master mode (internal clock).
9600 =
16000000 /(64 (X + 1))
X
25.042 = 25
=
Calculated Baud Rate=16000000 / (64 (25 + 1))
=
Error
Given the desired baud rate and Fosc, the nearest integer value for the SPBRG register can be calculated
using the formula in Table 12-1. From this, the error in
baud rate can be determined.
=
9615
(Calculated Baud Rate - Desired Baud Rate)
Desired Baud Rate
=
(9615 - 9600) / 9600
=
0.16%
It may be advantageous to use the high baud rate
(BRGH = 1) even for slower baud clocks. This is
because the FOSC/(16(X + 1)) equation can reduce the
baud rate error in some cases.
Example 12-1 shows the calculation of the baud rate
error for the following conditions:
FOSC = 16 MHz
Desired Baud Rate = 9600
BRGH = 0
SYNC = 0
Note:
For the PIC16C73/73A/74/74A, the asynchronous high speed mode (BRGH = 1)
may experience a high rate of receive
errors. It is recommended that BRGH = 0.
If you desire a higher baud rate than
BRGH = 0 can support, refer to the device
errata for additional information, or use the
PIC16C76/77.
Writing a new value to the SPBRG register, causes the
BRG timer to be reset (or cleared), this ensures the
BRG does not wait for a timer overflow before outputting the new baud rate.
TABLE 12-1:
BAUD RATE FORMULA
SYNC
BRGH = 0 (Low Speed)
BRGH = 1 (High Speed)
(Asynchronous) Baud Rate = FOSC/(64(X+1))
(Synchronous) Baud Rate = FOSC/(4(X+1))
X = value in SPBRG (0 to 255)
Baud Rate= FOSC/(16(X+1))
NA
0
1
TABLE 12-2:
REGISTERS ASSOCIATED WITH BAUD RATE GENERATOR
Bit 0
Value on:
POR,
BOR
Value on all
other resets
Address
Name
Bit 7
Bit 6
Bit 5
Bit 4
Bit 3
Bit 2
Bit 1
98h
TXSTA
CSRC
TX9
TXEN
SYNC
—
BRGH
TRMT
TX9D 0000 -010
0000 -010
18h
RCSTA
SPEN
RX9
SREN CREN
—
FERR
OERR RX9D 0000 -00x
0000 -00x
99h
SPBRG
Baud Rate Generator Register
0000 0000
0000 0000
Legend: x = unknown, - = unimplemented read as '0'. Shaded cells are not used by the BRG.
 1997 Microchip Technology Inc.
DS30390E-page 101
PIC16C7X
TABLE 12-3:
BAUD
RATE
(K)
0.3
1.2
2.4
9.6
19.2
76.8
96
300
500
HIGH
LOW
BAUD RATES FOR SYNCHRONOUS MODE
FOSC = 20 MHz
KBAUD
NA
NA
NA
NA
19.53
76.92
96.15
294.1
500
5000
19.53
16 MHz
SPBRG
value
%
KBAUD
ERROR (decimal)
+1.73
+0.16
+0.16
-1.96
0
-
255
64
51
16
9
0
255
FOSC = 5.0688 MHz
BAUD
RATE
(K)
0.3
1.2
2.4
9.6
19.2
76.8
96
300
500
HIGH
LOW
0.3
1.2
2.4
9.6
19.2
76.8
96
300
500
HIGH
LOW
+0.16
+0.16
-0.79
+2.56
0
-
207
51
41
12
7
0
255
4 MHz
NA
NA
NA
9.766
19.23
75.76
96.15
312.5
500
2500
9.766
7.15909 MHz
SPBRG
SPBRG
value
value
%
%
KBAUD
ERROR (decimal)
ERROR (decimal)
+1.73
+0.16
-1.36
+0.16
+4.17
0
-
255
129
32
25
7
4
0
255
3.579545 MHz
NA
NA
NA
9.622
19.24
77.82
94.20
298.3
NA
1789.8
6.991
+0.23
+0.23
+1.32
-1.88
-0.57
-
1 MHz
185
92
22
18
5
0
255
32.768 kHz
SPBRG
SPBRG
SPBRG
SPBRG
SPBRG
KBAUD
%
value KBAUD
%
value
KBAUD
%
value KBAUD
%
value KBAUD
%
value
ERROR (decimal)
ERROR (decimal)
ERROR (decimal)
ERROR (decimal)
ERROR (decimal)
NA
NA
NA
9.6
19.2
79.2
97.48
316.8
NA
1267
4.950
TABLE 12-4:
BAUD
RATE
(K)
NA
NA
NA
NA
19.23
76.92
95.24
307.69
500
4000
15.625
10 MHz
SPBRG
value
%
KBAUD
ERROR (decimal)
0
0
+3.13
+1.54
+5.60
-
131
65
15
12
3
0
255
NA
NA
NA
9.615
19.231
76.923
1000
NA
NA
100
3.906
NA
1.221
2.404
9.469
19.53
78.13
104.2
312.5
NA
312.5
1.221
103
51
12
9
0
255
NA
NA
NA
9.622
19.04
74.57
99.43
298.3
NA
894.9
3.496
+0.23
-0.83
-2.90
+3.57
-0.57
-
92
46
11
8
2
0
255
NA
1.202
2.404
9.615
19.24
83.34
NA
NA
NA
250
0.9766
+0.16
+0.16
+0.16
+0.16
+8.51
-
207
103
25
12
2
0
255
0.303
1.170
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
8.192
0.032
+1.14
-2.48
-
26
6
0
255
BAUD RATES FOR ASYNCHRONOUS MODE (BRGH = 0)
FOSC = 20 MHz
KBAUD
+0.16
+0.16
+0.16
+4.17
-
16 MHz
SPBRG
%
value
ERROR (decimal) KBAUD
+1.73
+0.16
-1.36
+1.73
+1.73
+8.51
+4.17
-
255
129
32
15
3
2
0
0
255
FOSC = 5.0688 MHz
NA
1.202
2.404
9.615
19.23
83.33
NA
NA
NA
250
0.977
10 MHz
SPBRG
%
value
ERROR (decimal) KBAUD
+0.16
+0.16
+0.16
+0.16
+8.51
-
207
103
25
12
2
0
255
4 MHz
NA
1.202
2.404
9.766
19.53
78.13
NA
NA
NA
156.3
0.6104
7.15909 MHz
SPBRG
SPBRG
%
value
%
value
ERROR (decimal) KBAUD ERROR (decimal)
+0.16
+0.16
+1.73
+1.73
+1.73
-
3.579545 MHz
129
64
15
7
1
0
255
NA
1.203
2.380
9.322
18.64
NA
NA
NA
NA
111.9
0.437
+0.23
-0.83
-2.90
-2.90
-
1 MHz
92
46
11
5
0
255
32.768 kHz
BAUD
RATE
(K)
SPBRG
SPBRG
SPBRG
SPBRG
SPBRG
%
value
%
value
%
value
%
value
%
value
KBAUD ERROR (decimal) KBAUD ERROR (decimal) KBAUD ERROR (decimal) KBAUD ERROR (decimal) KBAUD ERROR (decimal)
0.3
1.2
2.4
9.6
19.2
76.8
96
300
500
HIGH
LOW
0.31
1.2
2.4
9.9
19.8
79.2
NA
NA
NA
79.2
0.3094
+3.13
0
0
+3.13
+3.13
+3.13
-
DS30390E-page 102
255
65
32
7
3
0
0
255
0.3005
1.202
2.404
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
62.500
3.906
-0.17
+1.67
+1.67
-
207
51
25
0
255
0.301
1.190
2.432
9.322
18.64
NA
NA
NA
NA
55.93
0.2185
+0.23
-0.83
+1.32
-2.90
-2.90
-
185
46
22
5
2
0
255
0.300
1.202
2.232
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
15.63
0.0610
+0.16
+0.16
-6.99
-
51
12
6
0
255
0.256
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
0.512
0.0020
-14.67
-
1
0
255
 1997 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC16C7X
TABLE 12-5:
BAUD
RATE
(K)
9.6
19.2
38.4
57.6
115.2
250
625
1250
BAUD
RATE
(K)
BAUD RATES FOR ASYNCHRONOUS MODE (BRGH = 1)
FOSC = 20 MHz
KBAUD
9.615
19.230
37.878
56.818
113.636
250
625
1250
16 MHz
SPBRG
%
value
ERROR (decimal) KBAUD
+0.16
+0.16
-1.36
-1.36
-1.36
0
0
0
129
64
32
21
10
4
1
0
9.615
19.230
38.461
58.823
111.111
250
NA
NA
10 MHz
SPBRG
%
value
ERROR (decimal) KBAUD
+0.16
+0.16
+0.16
+2.12
-3.55
0
-
103
51
25
16
8
3
-
9.615
18.939
39.062
56.818
125
NA
625
NA
7.16 MHz
SPBRG
SPBRG
%
value
%
value
ERROR (decimal) KBAUD ERROR (decimal)
+0.16
-1.36
+1.7
-1.36
+8.51
0
-
64
32
15
10
4
0
-
9.520
19.454
37.286
55.930
111.860
NA
NA
NA
-0.83
+1.32
-2.90
-2.90
-2.90
-
46
22
11
7
3
-
FOSC = 5.068 MHz
4 MHz
3.579 MHz
1 MHz
32.768 kHz
SPBRG
SPBRG
SPBRG
SPBRG
SPBRG
%
value
%
value
%
value
%
value
%
value
KBAUD ERROR (decimal) KBAUD ERROR (decimal) KBAUD ERROR (decimal) KBAUD ERROR (decimal) KBAUD ERROR (decimal)
9.6
19.2
9.6
18.645
0
-2.94
32
16
NA
1.202
38.4
57.6
115.2
250
625
1250
39.6
52.8
105.6
NA
NA
NA
+3.12
-8.33
-8.33
-
7
5
2
-
2.403
9.615
19.231
NA
NA
NA
Note:
+0.17
+0.13
+0.16
+0.16
-
207
9.727
18.643
+1.32
-2.90
22
11
8.928
20.833
-6.99
+8.51
6
2
NA
NA
-
-
103
25
12
-
37.286 -2.90
55.930 -2.90
111.860 -2.90
223.721 -10.51
NA
NA
-
5
3
1
0
-
31.25
62.5
NA
NA
NA
NA
-18.61
+8.51
-
1
0
-
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
-
-
For the PIC16C73/73A/74/74A, the asynchronous high speed mode (BRGH = 1) may experience a high
rate of receive errors. It is recommended that BRGH = 0. If you desire a higher baud rate than BRGH = 0
can support, refer to the device errata for additional information, or use the PIC16C76/77.
 1997 Microchip Technology Inc.
DS30390E-page 103
PIC16C7X
12.1.1
set (i.e., at the high baud rates), the sampling is done
on the 3 clock edges preceding the second rising edge
after the first falling edge of a x4 clock (Figure 12-4 and
Figure 12-5).
SAMPLING
The data on the RC7/RX/DT pin is sampled three times
by a majority detect circuit to determine if a high or a
low level is present at the RX pin. If bit BRGH
(TXSTA<2>) is clear (i.e., at the low baud rates), the
sampling is done on the seventh, eighth and ninth falling edges of a x16 clock (Figure 12-3). If bit BRGH is
FIGURE 12-3: RX PIN SAMPLING SCHEME. BRGH = 0 (PIC16C73/73A/74/74A)
Start bit
RX
(RC7/RX/DT pin)
Bit0
Baud CLK for all but start bit
baud CLK
x16 CLK
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
1
2
3
Samples
FIGURE 12-4: RX PIN SAMPLING SCHEME, BRGH = 1 (PIC16C73/73A/74/74A)
RX pin
bit0
Start Bit
bit1
baud clk
First falling edge after RX pin goes low
Second rising edge
x4 clk
1
2
3
4
1
2
3
4
1
2
Q2, Q4 clk
Samples
Samples
Samples
FIGURE 12-5: RX PIN SAMPLING SCHEME, BRGH = 1 (PIC16C73/73A/74/74A)
RX pin
Start Bit
bit0
Baud clk for all but start bit
baud clk
First falling edge after RX pin goes low
Second rising edge
x4 clk
1
2
3
4
Q2, Q4 clk
Samples
DS30390E-page 104
 1997 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC16C7X
FIGURE 12-6: RX PIN SAMPLING SCHEME, BRGH = 0 OR BRGH = 1 (PIC16C76/77)
Start bit
RX
(RC7/RX/DT pin)
Bit0
Baud CLK for all but start bit
baud CLK
x16 CLK
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
1
2
3
Samples
 1997 Microchip Technology Inc.
DS30390E-page 105
PIC16C7X
12.2
USART Asynchronous Mode
flag bit TXIF (PIR1<4>) is set. This interrupt can be
enabled/disabled by setting/clearing enable bit TXIE
( PIE1<4>). Flag bit TXIF will be set regardless of the
state of enable bit TXIE and cannot be cleared in software. It will reset only when new data is loaded into the
TXREG register. While flag bit TXIF indicated the status of the TXREG register, another bit TRMT
(TXSTA<1>) shows the status of the TSR register. Status bit TRMT is a read only bit which is set when the
TSR register is empty. No interrupt logic is tied to this
bit, so the user has to poll this bit in order to determine
if the TSR register is empty.
Applicable Devices
72 73 73A 74 74A 76 77
In this mode, the USART uses standard nonreturn-tozero (NRZ) format (one start bit, eight or nine data bits
and one stop bit). The most common data format is
8-bits. An on-chip dedicated 8-bit baud rate generator
can be used to derive standard baud rate frequencies
from the oscillator. The USART transmits and receives
the LSb first. The USART’s transmitter and receiver are
functionally independent but use the same data format
and baud rate. The baud rate generator produces a
clock either x16 or x64 of the bit shift rate, depending
on bit BRGH (TXSTA<2>). Parity is not supported by
the hardware, but can be implemented in software (and
stored as the ninth data bit). Asynchronous mode is
stopped during SLEEP.
Note 1: The TSR register is not mapped in data
memory so it is not available to the user.
Note 2: Flag bit TXIF is set when enable bit TXEN
is set.
Transmission is enabled by setting enable bit TXEN
(TXSTA<5>). The actual transmission will not occur
until the TXREG register has been loaded with data
and the baud rate generator (BRG) has produced a
shift clock (Figure 12-7). The transmission can also be
started by first loading the TXREG register and then
setting enable bit TXEN. Normally when transmission
is first started, the TSR register is empty, so a transfer
to the TXREG register will result in an immediate transfer to TSR resulting in an empty TXREG. A back-toback transfer is thus possible (Figure 12-9). Clearing
enable bit TXEN during a transmission will cause the
transmission to be aborted and will reset the transmitter. As a result the RC6/TX/CK pin will revert to hiimpedance.
Asynchronous mode is selected by clearing bit SYNC
(TXSTA<4>).
The USART Asynchronous module consists of the following important elements:
•
•
•
•
Baud Rate Generator
Sampling Circuit
Asynchronous Transmitter
Asynchronous Receiver
12.2.1
USART ASYNCHRONOUS TRANSMITTER
The USART transmitter block diagram is shown in
Figure 12-7. The heart of the transmitter is the transmit
(serial) shift register (TSR). The shift register obtains its
data from the read/write transmit buffer, TXREG. The
TXREG register is loaded with data in software. The
TSR register is not loaded until the STOP bit has been
transmitted from the previous load. As soon as the
STOP bit is transmitted, the TSR is loaded with new
data from the TXREG register (if available). Once the
TXREG register transfers the data to the TSR register
(occurs in one TCY), the TXREG register is empty and
In order to select 9-bit transmission, transmit bit TX9
(TXSTA<6>) should be set and the ninth bit should be
written to TX9D (TXSTA<0>). The ninth bit must be
written before writing the 8-bit data to the TXREG register. This is because a data write to the TXREG register can result in an immediate transfer of the data to the
TSR register (if the TSR is empty). In such a case, an
incorrect ninth data bit maybe loaded in the TSR register.
FIGURE 12-7: USART TRANSMIT BLOCK DIAGRAM
Data Bus
TXIF
TXREG register
TXIE
8
MSb
LSb
• • •
(8)
Pin Buffer
and Control
0
TSR register
RC6/TX/CK pin
Interrupt
TXEN
Baud Rate CLK
TRMT
SPEN
SPBRG
Baud Rate Generator
TX9
TX9D
DS30390E-page 106
 1997 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC16C7X
Steps to follow when setting up an Asynchronous
Transmission:
4.
1.
5.
Initialize the SPBRG register for the appropriate
baud rate. If a high speed baud rate is desired,
set bit BRGH. (Section 12.1)
Enable the asynchronous serial port by clearing
bit SYNC and setting bit SPEN.
If interrupts are desired, then set enable bit
TXIE.
2.
3.
If 9-bit transmission is desired, then set transmit
bit TX9.
Enable the transmission by setting bit TXEN,
which will also set bit TXIF.
If 9-bit transmission is selected, the ninth bit
should be loaded in bit TX9D.
Load data to the TXREG register (starts transmission).
6.
7.
FIGURE 12-8: ASYNCHRONOUS MASTER TRANSMISSION
Write to TXREG
Word 1
BRG output
(shift clock)
RC6/TX/CK (pin)
Start Bit
Bit 0
Bit 1
Bit 7/8
Stop Bit
WORD 1
TXIF bit
(Transmit buffer
reg. empty flag)
WORD 1
Transmit Shift Reg
TRMT bit
(Transmit shift
reg. empty flag)
FIGURE 12-9: ASYNCHRONOUS MASTER TRANSMISSION (BACK TO BACK)
Write to TXREG
Word 1
BRG output
(shift clock)
RC6/TX/CK (pin)
TXIF bit
(interrupt reg. flag)
TRMT bit
(Transmit shift
reg. empty flag)
Word 2
Start Bit
Bit 0
Bit 1
WORD 1
Bit 7/8
Stop Bit
Start Bit
Bit 0
WORD 2
WORD 1
Transmit Shift Reg.
WORD 2
Transmit Shift Reg.
Note: This timing diagram shows two consecutive transmissions.
TABLE 12-6:
REGISTERS ASSOCIATED WITH ASYNCHRONOUS TRANSMISSION
Value on:
POR,
BOR
Value on
all other
Resets
Address
Name
Bit 7
Bit 6
Bit 5
Bit 4
Bit 3
Bit 2
Bit 1
Bit 0
0Ch
PIR1
PSPIF(1)
ADIF
RCIF
TXIF
SSPIF
CCP1IF
TMR2IF
TMR1IF
0000 0000
0000 0000
RX9D
0000 -00x
0000 -00x
0000 0000
0000 0000
0000 0000
0000 0000
18h
RCSTA
19h
TXREG USART Transmit Register
8Ch
PIE1
SPEN
PSPIE(1)
RX9
ADIE
SREN
RCIE
CREN
TXIE
—
FERR
SSPIE CCP1IE
OERR
TMR2IE
TMR1IE
0000 -010 0000 -010
98h
TXSTA
CSRC
TX9
TXEN
SYNC
—
BRGH
TRMT
TX9D
99h
SPBRG Baud Rate Generator Register
0000 0000 0000 0000
Legend: x = unknown, - = unimplemented locations read as '0'. Shaded cells are not used for Asynchronous Transmission.
Note 1: Bits PSPIE and PSPIF are reserved on the PIC16C73/73A/76, always maintain these bits clear.
 1997 Microchip Technology Inc.
DS30390E-page 107
PIC16C7X
12.2.2
double buffered register, i.e. it is a two deep FIFO. It is
possible for two bytes of data to be received and transferred to the RCREG FIFO and a third byte begin shifting to the RSR register. On the detection of the STOP
bit of the third byte, if the RCREG register is still full
then overrun error bit OERR (RCSTA<1>) will be set.
The word in the RSR will be lost. The RCREG register
can be read twice to retrieve the two bytes in the FIFO.
Overrun bit OERR has to be cleared in software. This
is done by resetting the receive logic (CREN is cleared
and then set). If bit OERR is set, transfers from the
RSR register to the RCREG register are inhibited, so it
is essential to clear error bit OERR if it is set. Framing
error bit FERR (RCSTA<2>) is set if a stop bit is
detected as clear. Bit FERR and the 9th receive bit are
buffered the same way as the receive data. Reading
the RCREG, will load bits RX9D and FERR with new
values, therefore it is essential for the user to read the
RCSTA register before reading RCREG register in
order not to lose the old FERR and RX9D information.
USART ASYNCHRONOUS RECEIVER
The receiver block diagram is shown in Figure 12-10.
The data is received on the RC7/RX/DT pin and drives
the data recovery block. The data recovery block is
actually a high speed shifter operating at x16 times the
baud rate, whereas the main receive serial shifter operates at the bit rate or at FOSC.
Once Asynchronous mode is selected, reception is
enabled by setting bit CREN (RCSTA<4>).
The heart of the receiver is the receive (serial) shift register (RSR). After sampling the STOP bit, the received
data in the RSR is transferred to the RCREG register (if
it is empty). If the transfer is complete, flag bit RCIF
(PIR1<5>) is set. The actual interrupt can be enabled/
disabled by setting/clearing enable bit RCIE
(PIE1<5>). Flag bit RCIF is a read only bit which is
cleared by the hardware. It is cleared when the RCREG
register has been read and is empty. The RCREG is a
FIGURE 12-10: USART RECEIVE BLOCK DIAGRAM
x64 Baud Rate CLK
FERR
OERR
CREN
SPBRG
÷ 64
or
÷ 16
Baud Rate Generator
RSR register
MSb
Stop (8)
• • •
7
1
LSb
0 Start
RC7/RX/DT
Pin Buffer
and Control
Data
Recovery
RX9
RX9D
SPEN
RCREG register
FIFO
8
RCIF
Interrupt
Data Bus
RCIE
FIGURE 12-11: ASYNCHRONOUS RECEPTION
RX (pin)
Rcv shift
reg
Rcv buffer reg
Read Rcv
buffer reg
RCREG
Start
bit
bit0
bit1
bit7/8 Stop
bit
Start
bit
WORD 1
RCREG
bit0
bit7/8
Stop
bit
Start
bit
bit7/8
Stop
bit
WORD 2
RCREG
RCIF
(interrupt flag)
OERR bit
CREN
Note: This timing diagram shows three words appearing on the RX input. The RCREG (receive buffer) is read after the third word,
causing the OERR (overrun) bit to be set.
DS30390E-page 108
 1997 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC16C7X
6.
Steps to follow when setting up an Asynchronous
Reception:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
Initialize the SPBRG register for the appropriate
baud rate. If a high speed baud rate is desired,
set bit BRGH. (Section 12.1).
Enable the asynchronous serial port by clearing
bit SYNC, and setting bit SPEN.
If interrupts are desired, then set enable bit
RCIE.
If 9-bit reception is desired, then set bit RX9.
Enable the reception by setting bit CREN.
TABLE 12-7:
Address Name
7.
8.
9.
Flag bit RCIF will be set when reception is complete and an interrupt will be generated if enable
bit RCIE was set.
Read the RCSTA register to get the ninth bit (if
enabled) and determine if any error occurred
during reception.
Read the 8-bit received data by reading the
RCREG register.
If any error occurred, clear the error by clearing
enable bit CREN.
REGISTERS ASSOCIATED WITH ASYNCHRONOUS RECEPTION
Bit 7
Bit 6
Bit 5
PSPIF(1)
ADIF
RCIF
TXIF
SPEN
RX9
SREN
CREN
0Ch
PIR1
18h
RCSTA
1Ah
RCREG USART Receive Register
8Ch
PIE1
98h
TXSTA
99h
SPBRG
Bit 4
PSPIE(1)
ADIE
RCIE
TXIE
CSRC
TX9
TXEN
SYNC
Baud Rate Generator Register
Bit 3
Bit 2
SSPIF CCP1IF
—
FERR
Bit 1
Bit 0
Value on:
POR,
BOR
Value on
all other
Resets
TMR2IF
TMR1IF
0000 0000
0000 0000
OERR
RX9D
0000 -00x
0000 -00x
0000 0000
0000 0000
TMR1IE
0000 0000
0000 0000
TX9D
0000 -010
0000 -010
0000 0000
0000 0000
SSPIE CCP1IE TMR2IE
—
BRGH
TRMT
Legend: x = unknown, - = unimplemented locations read as '0'. Shaded cells are not used for Asynchronous Reception.
Note 1: Bits PSPIE and PSPIF are reserved on the PIC16C73/73A/76, always maintain these bits clear.
 1997 Microchip Technology Inc.
DS30390E-page 109
PIC16C7X
12.3
USART Synchronous Master Mode
Applicable Devices
72 73 73A 74 74A 76 77
In Synchronous Master mode, the data is transmitted in
a half-duplex manner i.e. transmission and reception
do not occur at the same time. When transmitting data,
the reception is inhibited and vice versa. Synchronous
mode is entered by setting bit SYNC (TXSTA<4>). In
addition enable bit SPEN (RCSTA<7>) is set in order to
configure the RC6/TX/CK and RC7/RX/DT I/O pins to
CK (clock) and DT (data) lines respectively. The Master
mode indicates that the processor transmits the master
clock on the CK line. The Master mode is entered by
setting bit CSRC (TXSTA<7>).
12.3.1
USART SYNCHRONOUS MASTER
TRANSMISSION
The USART transmitter block diagram is shown in
Figure 12-7. The heart of the transmitter is the transmit
(serial) shift register (TSR). The shift register obtains its
data from the read/write transmit buffer register
TXREG. The TXREG register is loaded with data in
software. The TSR register is not loaded until the last
bit has been transmitted from the previous load. As
soon as the last bit is transmitted, the TSR is loaded
with new data from the TXREG (if available). Once the
TXREG register transfers the data to the TSR register
(occurs in one Tcycle), the TXREG is empty and interrupt bit, TXIF (PIR1<4>) is set. The interrupt can be
enabled/disabled by setting/clearing enable bit TXIE
(PIE1<4>). Flag bit TXIF will be set regardless of the
state of enable bit TXIE and cannot be cleared in software. It will reset only when new data is loaded into the
TXREG register. While flag bit TXIF indicates the status
of the TXREG register, another bit TRMT (TXSTA<1>)
shows the status of the TSR register. TRMT is a read
only bit which is set when the TSR is empty. No interrupt logic is tied to this bit, so the user has to poll this
bit in order to determine if the TSR register is empty.
The TSR is not mapped in data memory so it is not
available to the user.
Clearing enable bit TXEN, during a transmission, will
cause the transmission to be aborted and will reset the
transmitter. The DT and CK pins will revert to hi-impedance. If either bit CREN or bit SREN is set, during a
transmission, the transmission is aborted and the DT
pin reverts to a hi-impedance state (for a reception).
The CK pin will remain an output if bit CSRC is set
(internal clock). The transmitter logic however is not
reset although it is disconnected from the pins. In order
to reset the transmitter, the user has to clear bit TXEN.
If bit SREN is set (to interrupt an on-going transmission
and receive a single word), then after the single word is
received, bit SREN will be cleared and the serial port
will revert back to transmitting since bit TXEN is still set.
The DT line will immediately switch from hi-impedance
receive mode to transmit and start driving. To avoid
this, bit TXEN should be cleared.
In order to select 9-bit transmission, the TX9
(TXSTA<6>) bit should be set and the ninth bit should
be written to bit TX9D (TXSTA<0>). The ninth bit must
be written before writing the 8-bit data to the TXREG
register. This is because a data write to the TXREG can
result in an immediate transfer of the data to the TSR
register (if the TSR is empty). If the TSR was empty and
the TXREG was written before writing the “new” TX9D,
the “present” value of bit TX9D is loaded.
Steps to follow when setting up a Synchronous Master
Transmission:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
Initialize the SPBRG register for the appropriate
baud rate (Section 12.1).
Enable the synchronous master serial port by
setting bits SYNC, SPEN, and CSRC.
If interrupts are desired, then set enable bit
TXIE.
If 9-bit transmission is desired, then set bit TX9.
Enable the transmission by setting bit TXEN.
If 9-bit transmission is selected, the ninth bit
should be loaded in bit TX9D.
Start transmission by loading data to the
TXREG register.
Transmission is enabled by setting enable bit TXEN
(TXSTA<5>). The actual transmission will not occur
until the TXREG register has been loaded with data.
The first data bit will be shifted out on the next available
rising edge of the clock on the CK line. Data out is stable around the falling edge of the synchronous clock
(Figure 12-12). The transmission can also be started by
first loading the TXREG register and then setting bit
TXEN (Figure 12-13). This is advantageous when slow
baud rates are selected, since the BRG is kept in reset
when bits TXEN, CREN, and SREN are clear. Setting
enable bit TXEN will start the BRG, creating a shift
clock immediately. Normally when transmission is first
started, the TSR register is empty, so a transfer to the
TXREG register will result in an immediate transfer to
TSR resulting in an empty TXREG. Back-to-back transfers are possible.
DS30390E-page 110
 1997 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC16C7X
TABLE 12-8:
REGISTERS ASSOCIATED WITH SYNCHRONOUS MASTER TRANSMISSION
Address
Name
Bit 7
Bit 6
Bit 5
Bit 4
Bit 3
Bit 2
Bit 1
Bit 0
Value on:
POR,
BOR
Value on all
other Resets
0Ch
PIR1
PSPIF(1)
ADIF
RCIF
TXIF
SSPIF
CCP1IF
TMR2IF
TMR1IF
0000 0000
0000 0000
RX9D
0000 -00x
0000 -00x
18h
RCSTA
SPEN
RX9
SREN
CREN
—
FERR
OERR
19h
TXREG
USART Transmit Register
0000 0000
0000 0000
8Ch
PIE1
PSPIE(1)
ADIE
RCIE
TXIE
SSPIE
CCP1IE
TMR2IE
TMR1IE
0000 0000
0000 0000
98h
TXSTA
CSRC
TX9
TXEN
SYNC
—
BRGH
TRMT
TX9D
0000 -010
0000 -010
0000 0000
0000 0000
99h
SPBRG Baud Rate Generator Register
Legend: x = unknown, - = unimplemented, read as '0'. Shaded cells are not used for Synchronous Master Transmission.
Note 1: Bits PSPIE and PSPIF are reserved on the PIC16C73/73A/76, always maintain these bits clear.
FIGURE 12-12: SYNCHRONOUS TRANSMISSION
Q1Q2 Q3Q4 Q1 Q2Q3 Q4Q1 Q2Q3 Q4Q1 Q2Q3 Q4Q1 Q2 Q3Q4
RC7/RX/DT pin
Bit 0
Bit 1
Q3Q4 Q1Q2 Q3Q4 Q1Q2 Q3Q4 Q1Q2 Q3 Q4Q1 Q2Q3 Q4Q1 Q2Q3 Q4Q1 Q2Q3 Q4
Bit 2
Bit 7
Bit 0
WORD 1
Bit 1
WORD 2
Bit 7
RC6/TX/CK pin
Write to
TXREG reg
Write word1
Write word2
TXIF bit
(Interrupt flag)
TRMT
TRMT bit
TXEN bit
'1'
'1'
Note: Sync master mode; SPBRG = '0'. Continuous transmission of two 8-bit words
FIGURE 12-13: SYNCHRONOUS TRANSMISSION (THROUGH TXEN)
RC7/RX/DT pin
bit0
bit1
bit2
bit6
bit7
RC6/TX/CK pin
Write to
TXREG reg
TXIF bit
TRMT bit
TXEN bit
 1997 Microchip Technology Inc.
DS30390E-page 111
PIC16C7X
12.3.2
Steps to follow when setting up a Synchronous Master
Reception:
USART SYNCHRONOUS MASTER
RECEPTION
1.
Initialize the SPBRG register for the appropriate
baud rate. (Section 12.1)
2. Enable the synchronous master serial port by
setting bits SYNC, SPEN, and CSRC.
3. Ensure bits CREN and SREN are clear.
4. If interrupts are desired, then set enable bit
RCIE.
5. If 9-bit reception is desired, then set bit RX9.
6. If a single reception is required, set bit SREN.
For continuous reception set bit CREN.
7. Interrupt flag bit RCIF will be set when reception
is complete and an interrupt will be generated if
enable bit RCIE was set.
8. Read the RCSTA register to get the ninth bit (if
enabled) and determine if any error occurred
during reception.
9. Read the 8-bit received data by reading the
RCREG register.
10. If any error occurred, clear the error by clearing
bit CREN.
Once Synchronous mode is selected, reception is
enabled by setting either enable bit SREN
(RCSTA<5>) or enable bit CREN (RCSTA<4>). Data is
sampled on the RC7/RX/DT pin on the falling edge of
the clock. If enable bit SREN is set, then only a single
word is received. If enable bit CREN is set, the reception is continuous until CREN is cleared. If both bits are
set then CREN takes precedence. After clocking the
last bit, the received data in the Receive Shift Register
(RSR) is transferred to the RCREG register (if it is
empty). When the transfer is complete, interrupt flag bit
RCIF (PIR1<5>) is set. The actual interrupt can be
enabled/disabled by setting/clearing enable bit RCIE
(PIE1<5>). Flag bit RCIF is a read only bit which is
reset by the hardware. In this case it is reset when the
RCREG register has been read and is empty. The
RCREG is a double buffered register, i.e. it is a two
deep FIFO. It is possible for two bytes of data to be
received and transferred to the RCREG FIFO and a
third byte to begin shifting into the RSR register. On the
clocking of the last bit of the third byte, if the RCREG
register is still full then overrun error bit OERR
(RCSTA<1>) is set. The word in the RSR will be lost.
The RCREG register can be read twice to retrieve the
two bytes in the FIFO. Bit OERR has to be cleared in
software (by clearing bit CREN). If bit OERR is set,
transfers from the RSR to the RCREG are inhibited, so
it is essential to clear bit OERR if it is set. The 9th
receive bit is buffered the same way as the receive
data. Reading the RCREG register, will load bit RX9D
with a new value, therefore it is essential for the user to
read the RCSTA register before reading RCREG in
order not to lose the old RX9D information.
TABLE 12-9:
REGISTERS ASSOCIATED WITH SYNCHRONOUS MASTER RECEPTION
Address
Name
Bit 7
Bit 6
Bit 5
Bit 4
Bit 3
Bit 2
Bit 1
Bit 0
Value on:
POR,
BOR
Value on all
other Resets
0Ch
PIR1
PSPIF(1)
ADIF
RCIF
TXIF
SSPIF
CCP1IF
TMR2IF
TMR1IF
0000 0000
0000 0000
RX9D
0000 -00x
0000 -00x
18h
RCSTA
SPEN
RX9
SREN
CREN
—
FERR
OERR
1Ah
RCREG
USART Receive Register
0000 0000
0000 0000
8Ch
PIE1
PSPIE(1)
ADIE
RCIE
TXIE
SSPIE
CCP1IE
TMR2IE
TMR1IE
0000 0000
0000 0000
98h
TXSTA
CSRC
TX9
TXEN
SYNC
—
BRGH
TRMT
TX9D
0000 -010
0000 -010
0000 0000
0000 0000
99h
SPBRG Baud Rate Generator Register
Legend: x = unknown, - = unimplemented read as '0'. Shaded cells are not used for Synchronous Master Reception.
Note 1: Bits PSPIE and PSPIF are reserved on the PIC16C73/73A/76, always maintain these bits clear.
DS30390E-page 112
 1997 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC16C7X
FIGURE 12-14: SYNCHRONOUS RECEPTION (MASTER MODE, SREN)
Q2 Q3 Q4 Q1 Q2 Q3 Q4 Q1 Q2 Q3 Q4 Q1 Q2 Q3 Q4Q1 Q2 Q3 Q4 Q1 Q2 Q3 Q4Q1 Q2 Q3 Q4 Q1 Q2 Q3 Q4Q1 Q2 Q3 Q4 Q1 Q2 Q3 Q4 Q1 Q2 Q3 Q4
RC7/RX/DT pin
bit0
bit1
bit2
bit3
bit4
bit5
bit6
bit7
RC6/TX/CK pin
Write to
bit SREN
SREN bit
CREN bit '0'
'0'
RCIF bit
(interrupt)
Read
RXREG
Note: Timing diagram demonstrates SYNC master mode with bit SREN = '1' and bit BRG = '0'.
 1997 Microchip Technology Inc.
DS30390E-page 113
PIC16C7X
12.4
USART Synchronous Slave Mode
Applicable Devices
72 73 73A 74 74A 76 77
Synchronous slave mode differs from the Master mode
in the fact that the shift clock is supplied externally at
the RC6/TX/CK pin (instead of being supplied internally
in master mode). This allows the device to transfer or
receive data while in SLEEP mode. Slave mode is
entered by clearing bit CSRC (TXSTA<7>).
12.4.1
USART SYNCHRONOUS SLAVE
TRANSMIT
The operation of the synchronous master and slave
modes are identical except in the case of the SLEEP
mode.
If two words are written to the TXREG and then the
SLEEP instruction is executed, the following will occur:
a)
b)
c)
d)
e)
The first word will immediately transfer to the
TSR register and transmit.
The second word will remain in TXREG register.
Flag bit TXIF will not be set.
When the first word has been shifted out of TSR,
the TXREG register will transfer the second
word to the TSR and flag bit TXIF will now be
set.
If enable bit TXIE is set, the interrupt will wake
the chip from SLEEP and if the global interrupt
is enabled, the program will branch to the interrupt vector (0004h).
Steps to follow when setting up a Synchronous Slave
Transmission:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
Enable the synchronous slave serial port by setting bits SYNC and SPEN and clearing bit
CSRC.
Clear bits CREN and SREN.
If interrupts are desired, then set enable bit
TXIE.
If 9-bit transmission is desired, then set bit TX9.
Enable the transmission by setting enable bit
TXEN.
If 9-bit transmission is selected, the ninth bit
should be loaded in bit TX9D.
Start transmission by loading data to the
TXREG register.
DS30390E-page 114
12.4.2
USART SYNCHRONOUS SLAVE
RECEPTION
The operation of the synchronous master and slave
modes is identical except in the case of the SLEEP
mode. Also, bit SREN is a don't care in slave mode.
If receive is enabled, by setting bit CREN, prior to the
SLEEP instruction, then a word may be received during
SLEEP. On completely receiving the word, the RSR
register will transfer the data to the RCREG register
and if enable bit RCIE bit is set, the interrupt generated
will wake the chip from SLEEP. If the global interrupt is
enabled, the program will branch to the interrupt vector
(0004h).
Steps to follow when setting up a Synchronous Slave
Reception:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
Enable the synchronous master serial port by
setting bits SYNC and SPEN and clearing bit
CSRC.
If interrupts are desired, then set enable bit
RCIE.
If 9-bit reception is desired, then set bit RX9.
To enable reception, set enable bit CREN.
Flag bit RCIF will be set when reception is complete and an interrupt will be generated, if
enable bit RCIE was set.
Read the RCSTA register to get the ninth bit (if
enabled) and determine if any error occurred
during reception.
Read the 8-bit received data by reading the
RCREG register.
If any error occurred, clear the error by clearing
bit CREN.
 1997 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC16C7X
TABLE 12-10: REGISTERS ASSOCIATED WITH SYNCHRONOUS SLAVE TRANSMISSION
Address
Name
Bit 7
Bit 6
Bit 5
Bit 4
Bit 3
Bit 2
Bit 1
Bit 0
Value on:
POR,
BOR
Value on all
other Resets
0Ch
PIR1
PSPIF(1)
ADIF
RCIF
TXIF
SSPIF
CCP1IF
TMR2IF
TMR1IF
0000 0000
0000 0000
RX9D
0000 -00x
0000 -00x
18h
RCSTA
SPEN
RX9
SREN
CREN
—
FERR
OERR
19h
TXREG
USART Transmit Register
0000 0000
0000 0000
8Ch
PIE1
PSPIE(1)
ADIE
RCIE
TXIE
SSPIE
CCP1IE
TMR2IE
TMR1IE
0000 0000
0000 0000
98h
TXSTA
CSRC
TX9
TXEN
SYNC
—
BRGH
TRMT
TX9D
0000 -010
0000 -010
0000 0000
0000 0000
99h
SPBRG Baud Rate Generator Register
Legend: x = unknown, - = unimplemented read as '0'. Shaded cells are not used for Synchronous Slave Transmission.
Note 1: Bits PSPIE and PSPIF are reserved on the PIC16C73/73A/76, always maintain these bits clear.
TABLE 12-11: REGISTERS ASSOCIATED WITH SYNCHRONOUS SLAVE RECEPTION
Address
Name
Bit 7
Bit 6
Bit 5
Bit 4
Bit 3
Bit 2
Bit 1
Bit 0
Value on:
POR,
BOR
Value on all
other Resets
0Ch
PIR1
PSPIF(1)
ADIF
RCIF
TXIF
SSPIF
CCP1IF
TMR2IF
TMR1IF
0000 0000
0000 0000
18h
RCSTA
SPEN
RX9
SREN
CREN
—
FERR
OERR
RX9D
0000 -00x
0000 -00x
0000 0000
0000 0000
TMR1IE
0000 0000
0000 0000
TX9D
0000 -010
0000 -010
1Ah
RCREG
USART Receive Register
8Ch
PIE1
PSPIE(1)
98h
TXSTA
CSRC
ADIE
TX9
RCIE
TXEN
TXIE
SYNC
SSPIE
—
CCP1IE
BRGH
TMR2IE
TRMT
0000 0000
0000 0000
99h
SPBRG Baud Rate Generator Register
Legend: x = unknown, - = unimplemented read as '0'. Shaded cells are not used for Synchronous Slave Reception.
Note 1: Bits PSPIE and PSPIF are reserved on the PIC16C73/73A/76, always maintain these bits clear.
 1997 Microchip Technology Inc.
DS30390E-page 115
PIC16C7X
NOTES:
DS30390E-page 116
 1997 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC16C7X
13.0
ANALOG-TO-DIGITAL
CONVERTER (A/D) MODULE
The A/D converter has a unique feature of being able to
operate while the device is in SLEEP mode. To operate
in sleep, the A/D conversion clock must be derived from
the A/D’s internal RC oscillator.
Applicable Devices
72 73 73A 74 74A 76 77
The analog-to-digital (A/D) converter module has five
inputs for the PIC16C72/73/73A/76, and eight for the
PIC16C74/74A/77.
The A/D allows conversion of an analog input signal to
a corresponding 8-bit digital number (refer to Application Note AN546 for use of A/D Converter). The output
of the sample and hold is the input into the converter,
which generates the result via successive approximation. The analog reference voltage is software selectable to either the device’s positive supply voltage (VDD)
or the voltage level on the RA3/AN3/VREF pin.
The A/D module has three registers. These registers
are:
• A/D Result Register (ADRES)
• A/D Control Register 0 (ADCON0)
• A/D Control Register 1 (ADCON1)
The ADCON0 register, shown in Figure 13-1, controls
the operation of the A/D module. The ADCON1 register, shown in Figure 13-2, configures the functions of
the port pins. The port pins can be configured as analog inputs (RA3 can also be a voltage reference) or as
digital I/O.
FIGURE 13-1: ADCON0 REGISTER (ADDRESS 1Fh)
R/W-0 R/W-0
ADCS1 ADCS0
bit7
R/W-0
CHS2
R/W-0
CHS1
R/W-0
CHS0
R/W-0
GO/DONE
U-0
—
R/W-0
ADON
bit0
R = Readable bit
W = Writable bit
U = Unimplemented bit,
read as ‘0’
- n = Value at POR reset
bit 7-6: ADCS1:ADCS0: A/D Conversion Clock Select bits
00 = FOSC/2
01 = FOSC/8
10 = FOSC/32
11 = FRC (clock derived from an internal RC oscillator)
bit 5-3: CHS2:CHS0: Analog Channel Select bits
000 = channel 0, (RA0/AN0)
001 = channel 1, (RA1/AN1)
010 = channel 2, (RA2/AN2)
011 = channel 3, (RA3/AN3)
100 = channel 4, (RA5/AN4)
101 = channel 5, (RE0/AN5)(1)
110 = channel 6, (RE1/AN6)(1)
111 = channel 7, (RE2/AN7)(1)
bit 2:
GO/DONE: A/D Conversion Status bit
If ADON = 1
1 = A/D conversion in progress (setting this bit starts the A/D conversion)
0 = A/D conversion not in progress (This bit is automatically cleared by hardware when the A/D conversion
is complete)
bit 1:
Unimplemented: Read as '0'
bit 0:
ADON: A/D On bit
1 = A/D converter module is operating
0 = A/D converter module is shutoff and consumes no operating current
Note 1: A/D channels 5, 6, and 7 are implemented on the PIC16C74/74A/77 only.
 1997 Microchip Technology Inc.
DS30390E-page 117
PIC16C7X
FIGURE 13-2: ADCON1 REGISTER (ADDRESS 9Fh)
U-0
—
bit7
U-0
—
U-0
—
U-0
—
U-0
—
R/W-0
PCFG2
R/W-0
PCFG1
R/W-0
PCFG0
bit0
R = Readable bit
W = Writable bit
U = Unimplemented
bit, read as ‘0’
- n = Value at POR reset
bit 7-3: Unimplemented: Read as '0'
bit 2-0: PCFG2:PCFG0: A/D Port Configuration Control bits
PCFG2:PCFG0
000
001
010
011
100
101
11x
RA0
A
A
A
A
A
A
D
RA1
A
A
A
A
A
A
D
RA2
A
A
A
A
D
D
D
RA5
A
A
A
A
D
D
D
RA3
A
VREF
A
VREF
A
VREF
D
RE0(1) RE1(1) RE2(1)
A
A
D
D
D
D
D
A
A
D
D
D
D
D
A
A
D
D
D
D
D
VREF
VDD
RA3
VDD
RA3
VDD
RA3
—
A = Analog input
D = Digital I/O
Note 1: RE0, RE1, and RE2 are implemented on the PIC16C74/74A/77 only.
DS30390E-page 118
 1997 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC16C7X
3.
4.
The ADRES register contains the result of the A/D conversion. When the A/D conversion is complete, the
result is loaded into the ADRES register, the GO/DONE
bit (ADCON0<2>) is cleared, and A/D interrupt flag bit
ADIF is set. The block diagrams of the A/D module are
shown in Figure 13-3.
5.
OR
After the A/D module has been configured as desired,
the selected channel must be acquired before the conversion is started. The analog input channels must
have their corresponding TRIS bits selected as an
input. To determine acquisition time, see Section 13.1.
After this acquisition time has elapsed the A/D conversion can be started. The following steps should be followed for doing an A/D conversion:
1.
2.
Wait the required acquisition time.
Start conversion:
• Set GO/DONE bit (ADCON0)
Wait for A/D conversion to complete, by either:
• Polling for the GO/DONE bit to be cleared
6.
7.
• Waiting for the A/D interrupt
Read A/D Result register (ADRES), clear bit
ADIF if required.
For next conversion, go to step 1 or step 2 as
required. The A/D conversion time per bit is
defined as TAD. A minimum wait of 2TAD is
required before next acquisition starts.
Configure the A/D module:
• Configure analog pins / voltage reference /
and digital I/O (ADCON1)
• Select A/D input channel (ADCON0)
• Select A/D conversion clock (ADCON0)
• Turn on A/D module (ADCON0)
Configure A/D interrupt (if desired):
• Clear ADIF bit
• Set ADIE bit
• Set GIE bit
FIGURE 13-3: A/D BLOCK DIAGRAM
CHS2:CHS0
111
110
101
RE2/AN7(1)
RE1/AN6(1)
RE0/AN5(1)
100
RA5/AN4
VIN
011
(Input voltage)
RA3/AN3/VREF
010
RA2/AN2
A/D
Converter
001
RA1/AN1
VDD
000
RA0/AN0
000 or
010 or
100
VREF
(Reference
voltage)
001 or
011 or
101
PCFG2:PCFG0
Note 1: Not available on PIC16C72/73/73A/76.
 1997 Microchip Technology Inc.
DS30390E-page 119
PIC16C7X
13.1
A/D Acquisition Requirements
VDD = 5V → Rss = 7 kΩ
Applicable Devices
72 73 73A 74 74A 76 77
Temp (application system max.) = 50°C
VHOLD = 0 @ t = 0
For the A/D converter to meet its specified accuracy,
the charge holding capacitor (CHOLD) must be allowed
to fully charge to the input channel voltage level. The
analog input model is shown in Figure 13-4. The source
impedance (RS) and the internal sampling switch (RSS)
impedance directly affect the time required to charge
the capacitor CHOLD. The sampling switch (RSS) impedance varies over the device voltage (VDD), Figure 13-4.
The source impedance affects the offset voltage at the
analog input (due to pin leakage current). The maximum recommended impedance for analog sources
is 10 kΩ. After the analog input channel is selected
(changed) this acquisition must be done before the conversion can be started.
To calculate the minimum acquisition time,
Equation 13-1 may be used. This equation calculates
the acquisition time to within 1/2 LSb error is used (512
steps for the A/D). The 1/2 LSb error is the maximum
error allowed for the A/D to meet its specified accuracy.
EQUATION 13-1:
A/D MINIMUM CHARGING
TIME
Note 1: The reference voltage (VREF) has no
effect on the equation, since it cancels
itself out.
Note 2: The charge holding capacitor (CHOLD) is
not discharged after each conversion.
Note 3: The maximum recommended impedance
for analog sources is 10 kΩ. This is
required to meet the pin leakage specification.
Note 4: After a conversion has completed, a
2.0TAD delay must complete before acquisition can begin again. During this time
the holding capacitor is not connected to
the selected A/D input channel.
EXAMPLE 13-1: CALCULATING THE
MINIMUM REQUIRED
ACQUISITION TIME
TACQ = Amplifier Settling Time +
Holding Capacitor Charging Time +
VHOLD = (VREF - (VREF/512)) • (1 - e(-TCAP/CHOLD(RIC + RSS + RS)))
Given: VHOLD = (VREF/512), for 1/2 LSb resolution
Temperature Coefficient
TACQ = 5 µs + TCAP + [(Temp - 25°C)(0.05 µs/°C)]
The above equation reduces to:
TCAP = -CHOLD (RIC + RSS + RS) ln(1/511)
TCAP = -(51.2 pF)(1 kΩ + RSS + RS) ln(1/511)
-51.2 pF (1 kΩ + 7 kΩ + 10 kΩ) ln(0.0020)
Example 13-1 shows the calculation of the minimum
required acquisition time TACQ. This calculation is
based on the following system assumptions.
-51.2 pF (18 kΩ) ln(0.0020)
-0.921 µs (-6.2364)
5.747 µs
TACQ = 5 µs + 5.747 µs + [(50°C - 25°C)(0.05 µs/°C)]
CHOLD = 51.2 pF
Rs = 10 kΩ
10.747 µs + 1.25 µs
1/2 LSb error
11.997 µs
FIGURE 13-4: ANALOG INPUT MODEL
VDD
Rs
ANx
CPIN
5 pF
VA
Sampling
Switch
VT = 0.6V
VT = 0.6V
RIC ≤ 1k
SS RSS
CHOLD
= DAC capacitance
= 51.2 pF
I leakage
± 500 nA
VSS
Legend CPIN
= input capacitance
VT
= threshold voltage
I leakage = leakage current at the pin due to
various junctions
RIC
SS
CHOLD
DS30390E-page 120
= interconnect resistance
= sampling switch
= sample/hold capacitance (from DAC)
6V
5V
VDD 4V
3V
2V
5 6 7 8 9 10 11
Sampling Switch
( kΩ )
 1997 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC16C7X
13.2
Selecting the A/D Conversion Clock
13.3
Configuring Analog Port Pins
Applicable Devices
72 73 73A 74 74A 76 77
Applicable Devices
72 73 73A 74 74A 76 77
The A/D conversion time per bit is defined as TAD. The
A/D conversion requires 9.5TAD per 8-bit conversion.
The source of the A/D conversion clock is software
selectable. The four possible options for TAD are:
•
•
•
•
2TOSC
8TOSC
32TOSC
Internal RC oscillator
The ADCON1, TRISA, and TRISE registers control the
operation of the A/D port pins. The port pins that are
desired as analog inputs must have their corresponding TRIS bits set (input). If the TRIS bit is cleared (output), the digital output level (VOH or VOL) will be
converted.
The A/D operation is independent of the state of the
CHS2:CHS0 bits and the TRIS bits.
For correct A/D conversions, the A/D conversion clock
(TAD) must be selected to ensure a minimum TAD time
of 1.6 µs.
Table 13-1 shows the resultant TAD times derived from
the device operating frequencies and the A/D clock
source selected.
Note 1: When reading the port register, all pins
configured as analog input channels will
read as cleared (a low level). Pins configured as digital inputs, will convert an analog input. Analog levels on a digitally
configured input will not affect the conversion accuracy.
Note 2: Analog levels on any pin that is defined as
a digital input (including the AN7:AN0
pins), may cause the input buffer to consume current that is out of the devices
specification.
TABLE 13-1:
TAD vs. DEVICE OPERATING FREQUENCIES
AD Clock Source (TAD)
Operation
ADCS1:ADCS0
2TOSC
00
8TOSC
01
32TOSC
10
RC(5)
Legend:
Note 1:
2:
3:
4:
5:
Device Frequency
20 MHz
100
ns(2)
ns(2)
400
1.6 µs
5 MHz
ns(2)
400
1.6 µs
6.4 µs
333.33 kHz
1.6 µs
6 µs
6.4 µs
24 µs(3)
25.6 µs(3)
96 µs(3)
2-6
2-6
2 - 6 µs(1)
2 - 6 µs
Shaded cells are outside of recommended range.
The RC source has a typical TAD time of 4 µs.
These values violate the minimum required TAD time.
For faster conversion times, the selection of another clock source is recommended.
When device frequency is greater than 1 MHz, the RC A/D conversion clock source is recommended for
sleep operation only.
For extended voltage devices (LC), please refer to Electrical Specifications section.
11
 1997 Microchip Technology Inc.
(1,4)
µs(1,4)
1.25 MHz
µs(1,4)
DS30390E-page 121
PIC16C7X
13.4
A/D Conversions
Applicable Devices
72 73 73A 74 74A 76 77
Note:
Example 13-2 shows how to perform an A/D conversion. The RA pins are configured as analog inputs. The
analog reference (VREF) is the device VDD. The A/D
interrupt is enabled, and the A/D conversion clock is
FRC. The conversion is performed on the RA0 pin
(channel 0).
The GO/DONE bit should NOT be set in
the same instruction that turns on the A/D.
Clearing the GO/DONE bit during a conversion will
abort the current conversion. The ADRES register will
NOT be updated with the partially completed A/D conversion sample. That is, the ADRES register will continue to contain the value of the last completed
conversion (or the last value written to the ADRES register). After the A/D conversion is aborted, a 2TAD wait
is required before the next acquisition is started. After
this 2TAD wait, an acquisition is automatically started on
the selected channel.
EXAMPLE 13-2: A/D CONVERSION
BSF
BCF
CLRF
BSF
BCF
MOVLW
MOVWF
BCF
BSF
BSF
;
;
;
;
STATUS,
STATUS,
ADCON1
PIE1,
STATUS,
0xC1
ADCON0
PIR1,
INTCON,
INTCON,
RP0
RP1
ADIE
RP0
ADIF
PEIE
GIE
;
;
;
;
;
;
;
;
;
;
Select Bank 1
PIC16C76/77 only
Configure A/D inputs
Enable A/D interrupts
Select Bank 0
RC Clock, A/D is on, Channel 0 is selected
Clear A/D interrupt flag bit
Enable peripheral interrupts
Enable all interrupts
Ensure that the required sampling time for the selected input channel has elapsed.
Then the conversion may be started.
BSF
:
:
ADCON0, GO
DS30390E-page 122
; Start A/D Conversion
; The ADIF bit will be set and the GO/DONE bit
; is cleared upon completion of the A/D Conversion.
 1997 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC16C7X
13.4.1
FASTER CONVERSION - LOWER
RESOLUTION TRADE-OFF
Not all applications require a result with 8-bits of resolution, but may instead require a faster conversion time.
The A/D module allows users to make the trade-off of
conversion speed to resolution. Regardless of the resolution required, the acquisition time is the same. To
speed up the conversion, the clock source of the A/D
module may be switched so that the TAD time violates
the minimum specified time (see the applicable electrical specification). Once the TAD time violates the minimum specified time, all the following A/D result bits are
not valid (see A/D Conversion Timing in the Electrical
Specifications section.) The clock sources may only be
switched between the three oscillator versions (cannot
be switched from/to RC). The equation to determine
the time before the oscillator can be switched is as follows:
Since the TAD is based from the device oscillator, the
user must use some method (a timer, software loop,
etc.) to determine when the A/D oscillator may be
changed. Example 13-3 shows a comparison of time
required for a conversion with 4-bits of resolution, versus the 8-bit resolution conversion. The example is for
devices operating at 20 MHz and 16 MHz (The A/D
clock is programmed for 32TOSC), and assumes that
immediately after 6TAD, the A/D clock is programmed
for 2TOSC.
The 2TOSC violates the minimum TAD time since the last
4-bits will not be converted to correct values.
Conversion time = 2TAD + N • TAD + (8 - N)(2TOSC)
Where: N = number of bits of resolution required.
EXAMPLE 13-3: 4-BIT vs. 8-BIT CONVERSION TIMES
Freq. (MHz)(1)
TAD
TOSC
2TAD + N • TAD + (8 - N)(2TOSC)
20
16
20
16
20
16
Resolution
4-bit
8-bit
1.6 µs
2.0 µs
50 ns
62.5 ns
10 µs
12.5 µs
1.6 µs
2.0 µs
50 ns
62.5 ns
16 µs
20 µs
Note 1: PIC16C7X devices have a minimum TAD time of 1.6 µs.
 1997 Microchip Technology Inc.
DS30390E-page 123
PIC16C7X
13.5
A/D Operation During Sleep
Applicable Devices
72 73 73A 74 74A 76 77
The A/D module can operate during SLEEP mode. This
requires that the A/D clock source be set to RC
(ADCS1:ADCS0 = 11). When the RC clock source is
selected, the A/D module waits one instruction cycle
before starting the conversion. This allows the SLEEP
instruction to be executed, which eliminates all digital
switching noise from the conversion. When the conversion is completed the GO/DONE bit will be cleared, and
the result loaded into the ADRES register. If the A/D
interrupt is enabled, the device will wake-up from
SLEEP. If the A/D interrupt is not enabled, the A/D module will then be turned off, although the ADON bit will
remain set.
When the A/D clock source is another clock option (not
RC), a SLEEP instruction will cause the present conversion to be aborted and the A/D module to be turned off,
though the ADON bit will remain set.
Turning off the A/D places the A/D module in its lowest
current consumption state.
Note:
13.6
For the A/D module to operate in SLEEP,
the A/D clock source must be set to RC
(ADCS1:ADCS0 = 11). To perform an A/D
conversion in SLEEP, ensure the SLEEP
instruction immediately follows the instruction that sets the GO/DONE bit.
A/D Accuracy/Error
Applicable Devices
72 73 73A 74 74A 76 77
The absolute accuracy specified for the A/D converter
includes the sum of all contributions for quantization
error, integral error, differential error, full scale error, offset error, and monotonicity. It is defined as the maximum deviation from an actual transition versus an ideal
transition for any code. The absolute error of the A/D
converter is specified at < ±1 LSb for VDD = VREF (over
the device’s specified operating range). However, the
accuracy of the A/D converter will degrade as VDD
diverges from VREF.
Gain error measures the maximum deviation of the last
actual transition and the last ideal transition adjusted
for offset error. This error appears as a change in slope
of the transfer function. The difference in gain error to
full scale error is that full scale does not take offset error
into account. Gain error can be calibrated out in software.
Linearity error refers to the uniformity of the code
changes. Linearity errors cannot be calibrated out of
the system. Integral non-linearity error measures the
actual code transition versus the ideal code transition
adjusted by the gain error for each code.
Differential non-linearity measures the maximum actual
code width versus the ideal code width. This measure
is unadjusted.
The maximum pin leakage current is ± 1 µA.
In systems where the device frequency is low, use of
the A/D RC clock is preferred. At moderate to high frequencies, TAD should be derived from the device oscillator. TAD must not violate the minimum and should be
≤ 8 µs for preferred operation. This is because TAD,
when derived from TOSC, is kept away from on-chip
phase clock transitions. This reduces, to a large extent,
the effects of digital switching noise. This is not possible with the RC derived clock. The loss of accuracy due
to digital switching noise can be significant if many I/O
pins are active.
In systems where the device will enter SLEEP mode
after the start of the A/D conversion, the RC clock
source selection is required. In this mode, the digital
noise from the modules in SLEEP are stopped. This
method gives high accuracy.
13.7
Effects of a RESET
Applicable Devices
72 73 73A 74 74A 76 77
A device reset forces all registers to their reset state.
This forces the A/D module to be turned off, and any
conversion is aborted.
The value that is in the ADRES register is not modified
for a Power-on Reset. The ADRES register will contain
unknown data after a Power-on Reset.
For a given range of analog inputs, the output digital
code will be the same. This is due to the quantization of
the analog input to a digital code. Quantization error is
typically ± 1/2 LSb and is inherent in the analog to digital conversion process. The only way to reduce quantization error is to increase the resolution of the A/D
converter.
Offset error measures the first actual transition of a
code versus the first ideal transition of a code. Offset
error shifts the entire transfer function. Offset error can
be calibrated out of a system or introduced into a system through the interaction of the total leakage current
and source impedance at the analog input.
DS30390E-page 124
 1997 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC16C7X
13.8
Use of the CCP Trigger
FIGURE 13-5: A/D TRANSFER FUNCTION
04h
03h
02h
01h
256 LSb
(full scale)
4 LSb
255 LSb
00h
3 LSb
An A/D conversion can be started by the “special event
trigger” of the CCP2 module (CCP1 on the PIC16C72
only). This requires that the CCP2M3:CCP2M0 bits
(CCP2CON<3:0>) be programmed as 1011 and that
the A/D module is enabled (ADON bit is set). When the
trigger occurs, the GO/DONE bit will be set, starting the
A/D conversion, and the Timer1 counter will be reset to
zero. Timer1 is reset to automatically repeat the A/D
acquisition period with minimal software overhead
(moving the ADRES to the desired location). The
appropriate analog input channel must be selected and
the minimum acquisition done before the “special event
trigger” sets the GO/DONE bit (starts a conversion).
FFh
FEh
2 LSb
In the PIC16C72, the "special event trigger" is implemented in the CCP1 module.
0.5 LSb
1 LSb
Note:
Digital code output
Applicable Devices
72 73 73A 74 74A 76 77
Analog input voltage
If the A/D module is not enabled (ADON is cleared),
then the “special event trigger” will be ignored by the
A/D module, but will still reset the Timer1 counter.
13.11
13.9
References
Connection Considerations
Applicable Devices
72 73 73A 74 74A 76 77
If the input voltage exceeds the rail values (VSS or VDD)
by greater than 0.2V, then the accuracy of the conversion is out of specification.
A very good reference for understanding A/D converters is the "Analog-Digital Conversion Handbook" third
edition, published by Prentice Hall (ISBN
0-13-03-2848-0).
An external RC filter is sometimes added for anti-aliasing of the input signal. The R component should be
selected to ensure that the total source impedance is
kept under the 10 kΩ recommended specification. Any
external components connected (via hi-impedance) to
an analog input pin (capacitor, zener diode, etc.) should
have very little leakage current at the pin.
13.10
Transfer Function
Applicable Devices
72 73 73A 74 74A 76 77
The ideal transfer function of the A/D converter is as
follows: the first transition occurs when the analog input
voltage (VAIN) is Analog VREF/256 (Figure 13-5).
 1997 Microchip Technology Inc.
DS30390E-page 125
PIC16C7X
FIGURE 13-6: FLOWCHART OF A/D OPERATION
ADON = 0
Yes
ADON = 0?
No
Acquire
Selected Channel
Yes
GO = 0?
No
Yes
A/D Clock
= RC?
SLEEP Yes
Instruction?
Start of A/D
Conversion Delayed
1 Instruction Cycle
Finish Conversion
GO = 0
ADIF = 1
No
No
Yes
Device in
SLEEP?
Abort Conversion
GO = 0
ADIF = 0
Finish Conversion
GO = 0
ADIF = 1
Wake-up Yes
From Sleep?
Wait 2 TAD
No
No
Finish Conversion
GO = 0
ADIF = 1
SLEEP
Power-down A/D
Stay in Sleep
Power-down A/D
Wait 2 TAD
Wait 2 TAD
TABLE 13-2:
REGISTERS/BITS ASSOCIATED WITH A/D, PIC16C72
Address
Name
Bit 7
Bit 6
Bit 5
Bit 4
Bit 3
Bit 2
Bit 1
Bit 0
Value on:
POR,
BOR
Value on all
other Resets
0Bh,8Bh
INTCON
GIE
PEIE
T0IE
INTE
RBIE
T0IF
INTF
RBIF
0000 000x
0000 000u
0Ch
PIR1
—
ADIF
—
—
SSPIF
CCP1IF
TMR2IF TMR1IF -0-- 0000
-0-- 0000
8Ch
PIE1
—
ADIE
—
—
SSPIE
CCP1IE
TMR2IE TMR1IE -0-- 0000
-0-- 0000
1Eh
ADRES
xxxx xxxx
uuuu uuuu
1Fh
ADCON0 ADCS1 ADCS0 CHS2 CHS1
CHS0
GO/DONE
—
ADON
0000 00-0
0000 00-0
9Fh
ADCON1
—
PCFG2
PCFG1
PCFG0
---- -000
---- -000
RA0
--0x 0000
--0u 0000
05h
PORTA
A/D Result Register
—
—
—
—
—
RA5
—
RA4
RA3
RA2
RA1
--11 1111 --11 1111
85h
TRISA
—
—
PORTA Data Direction Register
Legend: x = unknown, u = unchanged, - = unimplemented read as '0'. Shaded cells are not used for A/D conversion.
DS30390E-page 126
 1997 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC16C7X
TABLE 13-3:
Address
SUMMARY OF A/D REGISTERS, PIC16C73/73A/74/74A/76/77
Name
INTCON
0Bh,8Bh,
10Bh,18Bh
PIR1
0Ch
Bit 7
Bit 6
Bit 5
Bit 4
Bit 3
Bit 2
Bit 1
Bit 0
Value on:
POR,
BOR
Value on all
other Resets
GIE
PEIE
T0IE
INTE
RBIE
T0IF
INTF
RBIF
0000 000x
0000 000u
PSPIF(1)
ADIF
RCIF
TXIF
SSPIF
CCP1IF
TMR2IF TMR1IF 0000 0000
0000 0000
PIE1
PSPIE(1)
ADIE
RCIE
TXIE
SSPIE
CCP1IE
TMR2IE TMR1IE 0000 0000
0000 0000
0Dh
PIR2
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
CCP2IF ---- ---0
---- ---0
8Dh
PIE2
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
CCP2IE ---- ---0
---- ---0
8Ch
1Eh
ADRES
A/D Result Register
xxxx xxxx
uuuu uuuu
1Fh
ADCON0
ADCS1
ADCS0
CHS2
CHS1
CHS0
GO/DONE
—
ADON
0000 00-0
0000 00-0
9Fh
ADCON1
—
—
—
—
—
PCFG2
PCFG1
PCFG0
---- -000
---- -000
RA0
--0x 0000
--0u 0000
05h
PORTA
—
—
85h
TRISA
—
—
—
—
RA5
RA4
RA3
PORTA Data Direction Register
—
—
—
RA2
RA1
--11 1111
--11 1111
---- -xxx
---- -uuu
RE2
RE1
RE0
09h
PORTE
—
0000 -111
89h
TRISE
IBF
OBF
IBOV PSPMODE
PORTE Data Direction Bits
Legend: x = unknown, u = unchanged, - = unimplemented read as '0'. Shaded cells are not used for A/D conversion.
Note 1: Bits PSPIE and PSPIF are reserved on the PIC6C73/73A/76, always maintain these bits clear.
 1997 Microchip Technology Inc.
0000 -111
DS30390E-page 127
PIC16C7X
NOTES:
DS30390E-page 128
 1997 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC16C7X
14.0
SPECIAL FEATURES OF THE
CPU
Applicable Devices
72 73 73A 74 74A 76 77
What sets a microcontroller apart from other processors are special circuits to deal with the needs of realtime applications. The PIC16CXX family has a host of
such features intended to maximize system reliability,
minimize cost through elimination of external components, provide power saving operating modes and offer
code protection. These are:
• Oscillator selection
• Reset
- Power-on Reset (POR)
- Power-up Timer (PWRT)
- Oscillator Start-up Timer (OST)
- Brown-out Reset (BOR)
• Interrupts
• Watchdog Timer (WDT)
• SLEEP
• Code protection
• ID locations
• In-circuit serial programming
the chip in reset until the crystal oscillator is stable. The
other is the Power-up Timer (PWRT), which provides a
fixed delay of 72 ms (nominal) on power-up only,
designed to keep the part in reset while the power supply stabilizes. With these two timers on-chip, most
applications need no external reset circuitry.
SLEEP mode is designed to offer a very low current
power-down mode. The user can wake-up from SLEEP
through external reset, Watchdog Timer Wake-up, or
through an interrupt. Several oscillator options are also
made available to allow the part to fit the application.
The RC oscillator option saves system cost while the
LP crystal option saves power. A set of configuration
bits are used to select various options.
14.1
Configuration Bits
Applicable Devices
72 73 73A 74 74A 76 77
The configuration bits can be programmed (read as '0')
or left unprogrammed (read as '1') to select various
device configurations. These bits are mapped in program memory location 2007h.
The PIC16CXX has a Watchdog Timer which can be
shut off only through configuration bits. It runs off its
own RC oscillator for added reliability. There are two
timers that offer necessary delays on power-up. One is
the Oscillator Start-up Timer (OST), intended to keep
The user will note that address 2007h is beyond the
user program memory space. In fact, it belongs to the
special test/configuration memory space (2000h 3FFFh), which can be accessed only during programming.
FIGURE 14-1: CONFIGURATION WORD FOR PIC16C73/74
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
CP1
bit13
CP0
PWRTE WDTE FOSC1 FOSC0
bit0
Register:
Address
CONFIG
2007h
bit 13-5: Unimplemented: Read as '1'
bit 4:
CP1:CP0: Code protection bits
11 = Code protection off
10 = Upper half of program memory code protected
01 = Upper 3/4th of program memory code protected
00 = All memory is code protected
bit 3:
PWRTE: Power-up Timer Enable bit
1 = Power-up Timer enabled
0 = Power-up Timer disabled
bit 2:
WDTE: Watchdog Timer Enable bit
1 = WDT enabled
0 = WDT disabled
bit 1-0:
FOSC1:FOSC0: Oscillator Selection bits
11 = RC oscillator
10 = HS oscillator
01 = XT oscillator
00 = LP oscillator
 1997 Microchip Technology Inc.
DS30390E-page 129
PIC16C7X
FIGURE 14-2: CONFIGURATION WORD FOR PIC16C72/73A/74A/76/77
CP1
CP0
CP1
CP0
CP1
CP0
—
BODEN
CP1
bit13
CP0
PWRTE WDTE FOSC1 FOSC0
bit0
bit 13-8
5-4:
CP1:CP0: Code Protection bits (2)
11 = Code protection off
10 = Upper half of program memory code protected
01 = Upper 3/4th of program memory code protected
00 = All memory is code protected
bit 7:
Unimplemented: Read as '1'
bit 6:
BODEN: Brown-out Reset Enable bit (1)
1 = BOR enabled
0 = BOR disabled
bit 3:
PWRTE: Power-up Timer Enable bit (1)
1 = PWRT disabled
0 = PWRT enabled
bit 2:
WDTE: Watchdog Timer Enable bit
1 = WDT enabled
0 = WDT disabled
bit 1-0:
FOSC1:FOSC0: Oscillator Selection bits
11 = RC oscillator
10 = HS oscillator
01 = XT oscillator
00 = LP oscillator
Register:
Address
CONFIG
2007h
Note 1: Enabling Brown-out Reset automatically enables Power-up Timer (PWRT) regardless of the value of bit PWRTE.
Ensure the Power-up Timer is enabled anytime Brown-out Reset is enabled.
2: All of the CP1:CP0 pairs have to be given the same value to enable the code protection scheme listed.
DS30390E-page 130
 1997 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC16C7X
14.2
Oscillator Configurations
TABLE 14-1:
Applicable Devices
72 73 73A 74 74A 76 77
14.2.1
Ranges Tested:
Mode
OSCILLATOR TYPES
XT
The PIC16CXX can be operated in four different oscillator modes. The user can program two configuration
bits (FOSC1 and FOSC0) to select one of these four
modes:
•
•
•
•
LP
XT
HS
RC
14.2.2
Low Power Crystal
Crystal/Resonator
High Speed Crystal/Resonator
Resistor/Capacitor
FIGURE 14-3: CRYSTAL/CERAMIC
RESONATOR OPERATION
(HS, XT OR LP
OSC CONFIGURATION)
XTAL
To internal
logic
RF
OSC2
C2
SLEEP
PIC16CXX
RS
Note1
Note 1: A series resistor may be required for AT strip
cut crystals.
FIGURE 14-4: EXTERNAL CLOCK INPUT
OPERATION (HS, XT OR LP
OSC CONFIGURATION)
OSC1
PIC16CXX
Open
HS
68 - 100 pF
15 - 68 pF
15 - 68 pF
10 - 68 pF
10 - 22 pF
OSC2
68 - 100 pF
15 - 68 pF
15 - 68 pF
10 - 68 pF
10 - 22 pF
455 kHz
2.0 MHz
4.0 MHz
8.0 MHz
16.0 MHz
Panasonic EFO-A455K04B
Murata Erie CSA2.00MG
Murata Erie CSA4.00MG
Murata Erie CSA8.00MT
Murata Erie CSA16.00MX
± 0.3%
± 0.5%
± 0.5%
± 0.5%
± 0.5%
All resonators used did not have built-in capacitors.
TABLE 14-2:
Osc Type
LP
XT
HS
CAPACITOR SELECTION
FOR CRYSTAL OSCILLATOR
Crystal
Freq
Cap. Range
C1
Cap. Range
C2
32 kHz
33 pF
33 pF
200 kHz
15 pF
15 pF
200 kHz
47-68 pF
47-68 pF
1 MHz
15 pF
15 pF
4 MHz
15 pF
15 pF
4 MHz
15 pF
15 pF
8 MHz
15-33 pF
15-33 pF
20 MHz
15-33 pF
15-33 pF
These values are for design guidance only. See
notes at bottom of page.
Crystals Used
See Table 14-1 and Table 14-2 for recommended values
of C1 and C2.
Clock from
ext. system
455 kHz
2.0 MHz
4.0 MHz
8.0 MHz
16.0 MHz
OSC1
Resonators Used:
In XT, LP or HS modes a crystal or ceramic resonator
is connected to the OSC1/CLKIN and OSC2/CLKOUT
pins to establish oscillation (Figure 14-3). The
PIC16CXX Oscillator design requires the use of a parallel cut crystal. Use of a series cut crystal may give a
frequency out of the crystal manufacturers specifications. When in XT, LP or HS modes, the device can
have an external clock source to drive the OSC1/
CLKIN pin (Figure 14-4).
C1
Freq
These values are for design guidance only. See
notes at bottom of page.
CRYSTAL OSCILLATOR/CERAMIC
RESONATORS
OSC1
CERAMIC RESONATORS
OSC2
 1997 Microchip Technology Inc.
32 kHz
Epson C-001R32.768K-A
± 20 PPM
200 kHz
STD XTL 200.000KHz
± 20 PPM
1 MHz
ECS ECS-10-13-1
± 50 PPM
4 MHz
ECS ECS-40-20-1
± 50 PPM
8 MHz
EPSON CA-301 8.000M-C
± 30 PPM
20 MHz
EPSON CA-301 20.000M-C
± 30 PPM
Note 1: Recommended values of C1 and C2 are
identical to the ranges tested (Table 14-1).
2: Higher capacitance increases the stability
of oscillator but also increases the start-up
time.
3: Since each resonator/crystal has its own
characteristics, the user should consult the
resonator/crystal manufacturer for appropriate values of external components.
4: Rs may be required in HS mode as well as
XT mode to avoid overdriving crystals with
low drive level specification.
DS30390E-page 131
PIC16C7X
14.2.3
EXTERNAL CRYSTAL OSCILLATOR
CIRCUIT
Either a prepackaged oscillator can be used or a simple
oscillator circuit with TTL gates can be built. Prepackaged oscillators provide a wide operating range and
better stability. A well-designed crystal oscillator will
provide good performance with TTL gates. Two types
of crystal oscillator circuits can be used; one with series
resonance, or one with parallel resonance.
Figure 14-5 shows implementation of a parallel resonant oscillator circuit. The circuit is designed to use the
fundamental frequency of the crystal. The 74AS04
inverter performs the 180-degree phase shift that a parallel oscillator requires. The 4.7 kΩ resistor provides
the negative feedback for stability. The 10 kΩ potentiometer biases the 74AS04 in the linear region. This
could be used for external oscillator designs.
FIGURE 14-5: EXTERNAL PARALLEL
RESONANT CRYSTAL
OSCILLATOR CIRCUIT
+5V
To Other
Devices
10k
74AS04
4.7k
PIC16CXX
CLKIN
74AS04
RC OSCILLATOR
For timing insensitive applications the “RC” device
option offers additional cost savings. The RC oscillator
frequency is a function of the supply voltage, the resistor (Rext) and capacitor (Cext) values, and the operating temperature. In addition to this, the oscillator
frequency will vary from unit to unit due to normal process parameter variation. Furthermore, the difference
in lead frame capacitance between package types will
also affect the oscillation frequency, especially for low
Cext values. The user also needs to take into account
variation due to tolerance of external R and C components used. Figure 14-7 shows how the R/C combination is connected to the PIC16CXX. For Rext values
below 2.2 kΩ, the oscillator operation may become
unstable, or stop completely. For very high Rext values
(e.g. 1 MΩ), the oscillator becomes sensitive to noise,
humidity and leakage. Thus, we recommend to keep
Rext between 3 kΩ and 100 kΩ.
Although the oscillator will operate with no external
capacitor (Cext = 0 pF), we recommend using values
above 20 pF for noise and stability reasons. With no or
small external capacitance, the oscillation frequency
can vary dramatically due to changes in external
capacitances, such as PCB trace capacitance or package lead frame capacitance.
See characterization data for desired device for RC frequency variation from part to part due to normal process variation. The variation is larger for larger R (since
leakage current variation will affect RC frequency more
for large R) and for smaller C (since variation of input
capacitance will affect RC frequency more).
10k
XTAL
10k
20 pF
14.2.4
20 pF
Figure 14-6 shows a series resonant oscillator circuit.
This circuit is also designed to use the fundamental frequency of the crystal. The inverter performs a 180degree phase shift in a series resonant oscillator circuit. The 330 kΩ resistors provide the negative feedback to bias the inverters in their linear region.
See characterization data for desired device for variation of oscillator frequency due to VDD for given Rext/
Cext values as well as frequency variation due to operating temperature for given R, C, and VDD values.
The oscillator frequency, divided by 4, is available on
the OSC2/CLKOUT pin, and can be used for test purposes or to synchronize other logic (see Figure 3-4 for
waveform).
FIGURE 14-7: RC OSCILLATOR MODE
FIGURE 14-6: EXTERNAL SERIES
RESONANT CRYSTAL
OSCILLATOR CIRCUIT
V DD
Rext
330 kΩ
330 kΩ
74AS04
74AS04
0.1 µF
OSC1
To Other
Devices
74AS04
PIC16CXX
CLKIN
Cext
Internal
clock
PIC16CXX
VSS
Fosc/4
OSC2/CLKOUT
XTAL
DS30390E-page 132
 1997 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC16C7X
14.3
Reset
A simplified block diagram of the on-chip reset circuit is
shown in Figure 14-8.
Applicable Devices
72 73 73A 74 74A 76 77
The PIC16CXX differentiates between various kinds of
reset:
•
•
•
•
•
The PIC16C72/73A/74A/76/77 have a MCLR noise filter in the MCLR reset path. The filter will detect and
ignore small pulses.
It should be noted that a WDT Reset does not drive
MCLR pin low.
Power-on Reset (POR)
MCLR reset during normal operation
MCLR reset during SLEEP
WDT Reset (normal operation)
Brown-out Reset (BOR) (PIC16C72/73A/74A/76/
77)
Some registers are not affected in any reset condition;
their status is unknown on POR and unchanged in any
other reset. Most other registers are reset to a “reset
state” on Power-on Reset (POR), on the MCLR and
WDT Reset, on MCLR reset during SLEEP, and Brownout Reset (BOR). They are not affected by a WDT
Wake-up, which is viewed as the resumption of normal
operation. The TO and PD bits are set or cleared differently in different reset situations as indicated in
Table 14-5 and Table 14-6. These bits are used in software to determine the nature of the reset. See
Table 14-8 for a full description of reset states of all registers.
FIGURE 14-8: SIMPLIFIED BLOCK DIAGRAM OF ON-CHIP RESET CIRCUIT
External
Reset
MCLR
SLEEP
WDT
Time-out
Reset
WDT
Module
VDD rise
detect
VDD
Power-on Reset
(2)
Brown-out
Reset
S
BODEN
OST/PWRT
OST
Chip_Reset
R
10-bit Ripple counter
Q
OSC1
(1)
On-chip
RC OSC
PWRT
10-bit Ripple counter
Enable PWRT
(3)
Enable OST
Note 1: This is a separate oscillator from the RC oscillator of the CLKIN pin.
2: Brown-out Reset is implemented on the PIC16C72/73A/74A/76/77.
3: See Table 14-3 and Table 14-4 for time-out situations.
 1997 Microchip Technology Inc.
DS30390E-page 133
PIC16C7X
14.4
Power-on Reset (POR), Power-up
Timer (PWRT) and Oscillator Start-up
Timer (OST), and Brown-out Reset
(BOR)
The power-up time delay will vary from chip to chip due
to VDD, temperature, and process variation. See DC
parameters for details.
14.4.3
Applicable Devices
72 73 73A 74 74A 76 77
14.4.1
The Oscillator Start-up Timer (OST) provides 1024
oscillator cycle (from OSC1 input) delay after the
PWRT delay is over. This ensures that the crystal oscillator or resonator has started and stabilized.
POWER-ON RESET (POR)
A Power-on Reset pulse is generated on-chip when
VDD rise is detected (in the range of 1.5V - 2.1V). To
take advantage of the POR, just tie the MCLR pin
directly (or through a resistor) to VDD. This will eliminate external RC components usually needed to create
a Power-on Reset. A maximum rise time for VDD is
specified. See Electrical Specifications for details.
The OST time-out is invoked only for XT, LP and HS
modes and only on Power-on Reset or wake-up from
SLEEP.
14.4.4
When the device starts normal operation (exits the
reset condition), device operating parameters (voltage,
frequency, temperature, ...) must be met to ensure
operation. If these conditions are not met, the device
must be held in reset until the operating conditions are
met. Brown-out Reset may be used to meet the startup
conditions.
BROWN-OUT RESET (BOR)
Applicable Devices
72 73 73A 74 74A 76 77
A configuration bit, BODEN, can disable (if clear/programmed) or enable (if set) the Brown-out Reset circuitry. If VDD falls below 4.0V (3.8V - 4.2V range) for
greater than parameter #35, the brown-out situation will
reset the chip. A reset may not occur if VDD falls below
4.0V for less than parameter #35. The chip will remain
in Brown-out Reset until VDD rises above BVDD. The
Power-up Timer will now be invoked and will keep the
chip in RESET an additional 72 ms. If VDD drops below
BVDD while the Power-up Timer is running, the chip will
go back into a Brown-out Reset and the Power-up
Timer will be initialized. Once VDD rises above BVDD,
the Power-up Timer will execute a 72 ms time delay.
The Power-up Timer should always be enabled when
Brown-out Reset is enabled. Figure 14-9 shows typical brown-out situations.
For additional information, refer to Application Note
AN607, "Power-up Trouble Shooting."
14.4.2
OSCILLATOR START-UP TIMER (OST)
POWER-UP TIMER (PWRT)
The Power-up Timer provides a fixed 72 ms nominal
time-out on power-up only, from the POR. The Powerup Timer operates on an internal RC oscillator. The
chip is kept in reset as long as the PWRT is active. The
PWRT’s time delay allows VDD to rise to an acceptable
level. A configuration bit is provided to enable/disable
the PWRT.
FIGURE 14-9: BROWN-OUT SITUATIONS
VDD
Internal
Reset
BVDD Max.
BVDD Min.
72 ms
VDD
Internal
Reset
BVDD Max.
BVDD Min.
<72 ms
72 ms
VDD
Internal
Reset
DS30390E-page 134
BVDD Max.
BVDD Min.
72 ms
 1997 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC16C7X
14.4.5
14.4.6
TIME-OUT SEQUENCE
On power-up the time-out sequence is as follows: First
PWRT time-out is invoked after the POR time delay has
expired. Then OST is activated. The total time-out will
vary based on oscillator configuration and the status of
the PWRT. For example, in RC mode with the PWRT
disabled, there will be no time-out at all. Figure 14-10,
Figure 14-11, and Figure 14-12 depict time-out
sequences on power-up.
Since the time-outs occur from the POR pulse, if MCLR
is kept low long enough, the time-outs will expire. Then
bringing MCLR high will begin execution immediately
(Figure 14-11). This is useful for testing purposes or to
synchronize more than one PIC16CXX device operating in parallel.
Table 14-7 shows the reset conditions for some special
function registers, while Table 14-8 shows the reset
conditions for all the registers.
TABLE 14-3:
Bit0 is Brown-out Reset Status bit, BOR. Bit BOR is
unknown on a Power-on Reset. It must then be set by
the user and checked on subsequent resets to see if bit
BOR cleared, indicating a BOR occurred. The BOR bit
is a "Don’t Care" bit and is not necessarily predictable
if the Brown-out Reset circuitry is disabled (by clearing
bit BODEN in the Configuration Word).
Bit1 is POR (Power-on Reset Status bit). It is cleared
on a Power-on Reset and unaffected otherwise. The
user must set this bit following a Power-on Reset.
Power-up
PWRTE = 1
PWRTE = 0
72 ms + 1024TOSC
1024TOSC
72 ms
—
XT, HS, LP
RC
Wake-up from SLEEP
1024 TOSC
—
TIME-OUT IN VARIOUS SITUATIONS, PIC16C72/73A/74A/76/77
Oscillator Configuration
XT, HS, LP
RC
TABLE 14-5:
The Power Control/Status Register, PCON has up to
two bits, depending upon the device. Bit0 is not implemented on the PIC16C73 or PIC16C74.
TIME-OUT IN VARIOUS SITUATIONS, PIC16C73/74
Oscillator Configuration
TABLE 14-4:
POWER CONTROL/STATUS REGISTER
(PCON)
Applicable Devices
72 73 73A 74 74A 76 77
Power-up
PWRTE = 0
PWRTE = 1
72 ms + 1024TOSC
1024TOSC
72 ms
—
Brown-out
72 ms + 1024TOSC
72 ms
Wake-up from SLEEP
1024TOSC
—
STATUS BITS AND THEIR SIGNIFICANCE, PIC16C73/74
POR
TO
PD
0
0
0
1
1
1
1
1
0
x
0
0
u
1
1
x
0
1
0
u
0
Power-on Reset
Illegal, TO is set on POR
Illegal, PD is set on POR
WDT Reset
WDT Wake-up
MCLR Reset during normal operation
MCLR Reset during SLEEP or interrupt wake-up from SLEEP
Legend: u = unchanged, x = unknown
 1997 Microchip Technology Inc.
DS30390E-page 135
PIC16C7X
TABLE 14-6:
STATUS BITS AND THEIR SIGNIFICANCE, PIC16C72/73A/74A/76/77
POR
BOR
TO
PD
0
0
0
1
1
1
1
1
x
x
x
0
1
1
1
1
1
0
x
x
0
0
u
1
1
x
0
x
1
0
u
0
TABLE 14-7:
Power-on Reset
Illegal, TO is set on POR
Illegal, PD is set on POR
Brown-out Reset
WDT Reset
WDT Wake-up
MCLR Reset during normal operation
MCLR Reset during SLEEP or interrupt wake-up from SLEEP
RESET CONDITION FOR SPECIAL REGISTERS
Condition
Program
Counter
STATUS
Register
PCON
Register
PCON
Register
PIC16C73/74
PIC16C72/73A/74A/76/77
Power-on Reset
000h
0001 1xxx
---- --0-
---- --0x
MCLR Reset during normal operation
000h
000u uuuu
---- --u-
---- --uu
MCLR Reset during SLEEP
000h
0001 0uuu
---- --u-
---- --uu
WDT Reset
000h
0000 1uuu
---- --u-
---- --uu
WDT Wake-up
PC + 1
uuu0 0uuu
---- --u-
---- --uu
Brown-out Reset
000h
0001 1uuu
N/A
---- --u0
Interrupt wake-up from SLEEP
PC + 1(1)
uuu1 0uuu
---- --u-
---- --uu
Legend: u = unchanged, x = unknown, - = unimplemented bit read as '0'.
Note 1: When the wake-up is due to an interrupt and the GIE bit is set, the PC is loaded
with the interrupt vector (0004h).
TABLE 14-8:
INITIALIZATION CONDITIONS FOR ALL REGISTERS
Register
Applicable Devices
Power-on Reset,
Brown-out Reset
MCLR Resets
WDT Reset
Wake-up via WDT
or
Interrupt
W
72 73 73A 74 74A 76 77
xxxx xxxx
uuuu uuuu
uuuu uuuu
INDF
72 73 73A 74 74A 76 77
N/A
N/A
N/A
TMR0
72 73 73A 74 74A 76 77
xxxx xxxx
uuuu uuuu
uuuu uuuu
PCL
72 73 73A 74 74A 76 77
0000h
0000h
PC + 1(2)
STATUS
72 73 73A 74 74A 76 77
0001 1xxx
000q quuu(3)
uuuq quuu(3)
FSR
72 73 73A 74 74A 76 77
xxxx xxxx
uuuu uuuu
uuuu uuuu
PORTA
72 73 73A 74 74A 76 77
--0x 0000
--0u 0000
--uu uuuu
PORTB
72 73 73A 74 74A 76 77
xxxx xxxx
uuuu uuuu
uuuu uuuu
PORTC
72 73 73A 74 74A 76 77
xxxx xxxx
uuuu uuuu
uuuu uuuu
PORTD
72 73 73A 74 74A 76 77
xxxx xxxx
uuuu uuuu
uuuu uuuu
PORTE
72 73 73A 74 74A 76 77
---- -xxx
---- -uuu
---- -uuu
PCLATH
72 73 73A 74 74A 76 77
---0 0000
---0 0000
---u uuuu
Legend: u = unchanged, x = unknown, - = unimplemented bit, read as '0', q = value depends on condition
Note 1: One or more bits in INTCON, PIR1 and/or PIR2 will be affected (to cause wake-up).
2: When the wake-up is due to an interrupt and the GIE bit is set, the PC is loaded with the interrupt vector
(0004h).
3: See Table 14-7 for reset value for specific condition.
DS30390E-page 136
 1997 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC16C7X
TABLE 14-8:
Register
INITIALIZATION CONDITIONS FOR ALL REGISTERS (Cont.’d)
Applicable Devices
Power-on Reset,
Brown-out Reset
MCLR Resets
WDT Reset
Wake-up via WDT
or
Interrupt
72 73 73A 74 74A 76 77
0000 000x
0000 000u
uuuu uuuu(1)
72 73 73A 74 74A 76 77
-0-- 0000
-0-- 0000
-u-- uuuu(1)
72 73 73A 74 74A 76 77
-000 0000
-000 0000
-uuu uuuu(1)
72 73 73A 74 74A 76 77
0000 0000
0000 0000
uuuu uuuu(1)
PIR2
72 73 73A 74 74A 76 77
---- ---0
---- ---0
---- ---u(1)
TMR1L
72 73 73A 74 74A 76 77
xxxx xxxx
uuuu uuuu
uuuu uuuu
TMR1H
72 73 73A 74 74A 76 77
xxxx xxxx
uuuu uuuu
uuuu uuuu
T1CON
72 73 73A 74 74A 76 77
--00 0000
--uu uuuu
--uu uuuu
TMR2
72 73 73A 74 74A 76 77
0000 0000
0000 0000
uuuu uuuu
T2CON
72 73 73A 74 74A 76 77
-000 0000
-000 0000
-uuu uuuu
SSPBUF
72 73 73A 74 74A 76 77
xxxx xxxx
uuuu uuuu
uuuu uuuu
SSPCON
72 73 73A 74 74A 76 77
0000 0000
0000 0000
uuuu uuuu
CCPR1L
72 73 73A 74 74A 76 77
xxxx xxxx
uuuu uuuu
uuuu uuuu
CCPR1H
72 73 73A 74 74A 76 77
xxxx xxxx
uuuu uuuu
uuuu uuuu
CCP1CON
72 73 73A 74 74A 76 77
--00 0000
--00 0000
--uu uuuu
RCSTA
72 73 73A 74 74A 76 77
0000 -00x
0000 -00x
uuuu -uuu
TXREG
72 73 73A 74 74A 76 77
0000 0000
0000 0000
uuuu uuuu
RCREG
72 73 73A 74 74A 76 77
0000 0000
0000 0000
uuuu uuuu
CCPR2L
72 73 73A 74 74A 76 77
xxxx xxxx
uuuu uuuu
uuuu uuuu
CCPR2H
72 73 73A 74 74A 76 77
xxxx xxxx
uuuu uuuu
uuuu uuuu
CCP2CON
72 73 73A 74 74A 76 77
0000 0000
0000 0000
uuuu uuuu
ADRES
72 73 73A 74 74A 76 77
xxxx xxxx
uuuu uuuu
uuuu uuuu
ADCON0
72 73 73A 74 74A 76 77
0000 00-0
0000 00-0
uuuu uu-u
OPTION
72 73 73A 74 74A 76 77
1111 1111
1111 1111
uuuu uuuu
TRISA
72 73 73A 74 74A 76 77
--11 1111
--11 1111
--uu uuuu
TRISB
72 73 73A 74 74A 76 77
1111 1111
1111 1111
uuuu uuuu
INTCON
PIR1
TRISC
72 73 73A 74 74A 76 77
1111 1111
1111 1111
uuuu uuuu
TRISD
72 73 73A 74 74A 76 77
1111 1111
1111 1111
uuuu uuuu
TRISE
72 73 73A 74 74A 76 77
0000 -111
0000 -111
uuuu -uuu
72 73 73A 74 74A 76 77
-0-- 0000
-0-- 0000
-u-- uuuu
72 73 73A 74 74A 76 77
-000 0000
-000 0000
-uuu uuuu
72 73 73A 74 74A 76 77
0000 0000
0000 0000
uuuu uuuu
72 73 73A 74 74A 76 77
---- ---0
---- ---0
---- ---u
72 73 73A 74 74A 76 77
---- --0-
---- --u-
---- --u-
72 73 73A 74 74A 76 77
---- --0u
---- --uu
---- --uu
72 73 73A 74 74A 76 77
1111 1111
1111 1111
1111 1111
PIE1
PIE2
PCON
PR2
Legend: u = unchanged, x = unknown, - = unimplemented bit, read as '0', q = value depends on condition
Note 1: One or more bits in INTCON, PIR1 and/or PIR2 will be affected (to cause wake-up).
2: When the wake-up is due to an interrupt and the GIE bit is set, the PC is loaded with the interrupt vector
(0004h).
3: See Table 14-7 for reset value for specific condition.
 1997 Microchip Technology Inc.
DS30390E-page 137
PIC16C7X
TABLE 14-8:
INITIALIZATION CONDITIONS FOR ALL REGISTERS (Cont.’d)
Register
Applicable Devices
Power-on Reset,
Brown-out Reset
MCLR Resets
WDT Reset
Wake-up via WDT
or
Interrupt
SSPADD
72 73 73A 74 74A 76 77
0000 0000
0000 0000
uuuu uuuu
SSPSTAT
72 73 73A 74 74A 76 77
--00 0000
--00 0000
--uu uuuu
TXSTA
72 73 73A 74 74A 76 77
0000 -010
0000 -010
uuuu -uuu
SPBRG
72 73 73A 74 74A 76 77
0000 0000
0000 0000
uuuu uuuu
ADCON1
72 73 73A 74 74A 76 77
---- -000
---- -000
---- -uuu
Legend: u = unchanged, x = unknown, - = unimplemented bit, read as '0', q = value depends on condition
Note 1: One or more bits in INTCON, PIR1 and/or PIR2 will be affected (to cause wake-up).
2: When the wake-up is due to an interrupt and the GIE bit is set, the PC is loaded with the interrupt vector
(0004h).
3: See Table 14-7 for reset value for specific condition.
DS30390E-page 138
 1997 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC16C7X
FIGURE 14-10: TIME-OUT SEQUENCE ON POWER-UP (MCLR NOT TIED TO VDD): CASE 1
VDD
MCLR
INTERNAL POR
TPWRT
PWRT TIME-OUT
TOST
OST TIME-OUT
INTERNAL RESET
FIGURE 14-11: TIME-OUT SEQUENCE ON POWER-UP (MCLR NOT TIED TO VDD): CASE 2
VDD
MCLR
INTERNAL POR
TPWRT
PWRT TIME-OUT
TOST
OST TIME-OUT
INTERNAL RESET
FIGURE 14-12: TIME-OUT SEQUENCE ON POWER-UP (MCLR TIED TO VDD)
VDD
MCLR
INTERNAL POR
TPWRT
PWRT TIME-OUT
TOST
OST TIME-OUT
INTERNAL RESET
 1997 Microchip Technology Inc.
DS30390E-page 139
PIC16C7X
FIGURE 14-13: EXTERNAL POWER-ON
RESET CIRCUIT (FOR SLOW
VDD POWER-UP)
FIGURE 14-14: EXTERNAL BROWN-OUT
PROTECTION CIRCUIT 1
VDD
D
VDD
33k
VDD
10k
R
R1
40k
MCLR
C
MCLR
PIC16CXX
PIC16CXX
Note 1: External Power-on Reset circuit is required
only if VDD power-up slope is too slow. The
diode D helps discharge the capacitor
quickly when VDD powers down.
2: R < 40 kΩ is recommended to make sure
that voltage drop across R does not violate
the device’s electrical specification.
3: R1 = 100Ω to 1 kΩ will limit any current
flowing into MCLR from external capacitor
C in the event of MCLR/VPP pin breakdown due to Electrostatic Discharge
(ESD) or Electrical Overstress (EOS).
Note 1: This circuit will activate reset when VDD
goes below (Vz + 0.7V) where Vz = Zener
voltage.
2: Internal brown-out detection on the
PIC16C72/73A/74A/76/77 should be disabled when using this circuit.
3: Resistors should be adjusted for the characteristics of the transistor.
FIGURE 14-15: EXTERNAL BROWN-OUT
PROTECTION CIRCUIT 2
VDD
VDD
R1
Q1
MCLR
R2
40k
PIC16CXX
Note 1: This brown-out circuit is less expensive,
albeit less accurate. Transistor Q1 turns
off when VDD is below a certain level
such that:
R1
= 0.7V
VDD •
R1 + R2
2: Internal brown-out detection on the
PIC16C72/73A/74A/76/77 should be
disabled when using this circuit.
3: Resistors should be adjusted for the
characteristics of the transistor.
DS30390E-page 140
 1997 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC16C7X
14.5
Interrupts
Applicable Devices
72 73 73A 74 74A 76 77
The PIC16C7X family has up to 12 sources of interrupt.
The interrupt control register (INTCON) records individual interrupt requests in flag bits. It also has individual
and global interrupt enable bits.
Note:
instructions. Individual interrupt flag bits are set regardless of the status of their corresponding mask bit or the
GIE bit.
Note:
Individual interrupt flag bits are set regardless of the status of their corresponding
mask bit or the GIE bit.
A global interrupt enable bit, GIE (INTCON<7>)
enables (if set) all un-masked interrupts or disables (if
cleared) all interrupts. When bit GIE is enabled, and an
interrupt’s flag bit and mask bit are set, the interrupt will
vector immediately. Individual interrupts can be disabled through their corresponding enable bits in various registers. Individual interrupt bits are set
regardless of the status of the GIE bit. The GIE bit is
cleared on reset.
The “return from interrupt” instruction, RETFIE, exits
the interrupt routine as well as sets the GIE bit, which
re-enables interrupts.
The RB0/INT pin interrupt, the RB port change interrupt
and the TMR0 overflow interrupt flags are contained in
the INTCON register.
The peripheral interrupt flags are contained in the special function registers PIR1 and PIR2. The corresponding interrupt enable bits are contained in special
function registers PIE1 and PIE2, and the peripheral
interrupt enable bit is contained in special function register INTCON.
For the PIC16C73/74, if an interrupt occurs
while the Global Interrupt Enable (GIE) bit
is being cleared, the GIE bit may unintentionally be re-enabled by the user’s Interrupt Service Routine (the RETFIE
instruction). The events that would cause
this to occur are:
1.
An instruction clears the GIE bit while
an interrupt is acknowledged.
2.
The program branches to the Interrupt
vector and executes the Interrupt Service Routine.
3.
The Interrupt Service Routine completes with the execution of the RETFIE instruction. This causes the GIE
bit to be set (enables interrupts), and
the program returns to the instruction
after the one which was meant to disable interrupts.
Perform the following to ensure that interrupts are globally disabled:
LOOP BCF
INTCON, GIE
BTFSC INTCON, GIE
GOTO
:
LOOP
; Disable global
; interrupt bit
; Global interrupt
;
disabled?
; NO, try again
;
Yes, continue
;
with program
;
flow
When an interrupt is responded to, the GIE bit is
cleared to disable any further interrupt, the return
address is pushed onto the stack and the PC is loaded
with 0004h. Once in the interrupt service routine the
source(s) of the interrupt can be determined by polling
the interrupt flag bits. The interrupt flag bit(s) must be
cleared in software before re-enabling interrupts to
avoid recursive interrupts.
For external interrupt events, such as the INT pin or
PORTB change interrupt, the interrupt latency will be
three or four instruction cycles. The exact latency
depends when the interrupt event occurs (Figure 1417). The latency is the same for one or two cycle
 1997 Microchip Technology Inc.
DS30390E-page 141
PIC16C7X
FIGURE 14-16: INTERRUPT LOGIC
PSPIF
PSPIE
ADIF
ADIE
Wake-up (If in SLEEP mode)
T0IF
T0IE
RCIF
RCIE
INTF
INTE
TXIF
TXIE
SSPIF
SSPIE
Interrupt to CPU
RBIF
RBIE
PEIE
CCP1IF
CCP1IE
GIE
TMR2IF
TMR2IE
TMR1IF
TMR1IE
CCP2IF
CCP2IE
The following table shows which devices have which interrupts.
Device
T0IF
INTF
RBIF
PSPIF
ADIF
PIC16C72
Yes
Yes
Yes
-
Yes
PIC16C73
Yes
Yes
Yes
-
Yes
PIC16C73A
Yes
Yes
Yes
-
Yes
PIC16C74
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
PIC16C74A
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
PIC16C76
Yes
Yes
Yes
PIC16C77
Yes
Yes
Yes
RCIF
TXIF
SSPIF
CCP1IF
TMR2IF
TMR1IF
CCP2IF
-
-
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
-
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
FIGURE 14-17: INT PIN INTERRUPT TIMING
Q1
Q2
Q3
Q4
Q1
Q2
Q3
Q4
Q1
Q2
Q3
Q4
Q1
Q2
Q3
Q4
Q1
Q2
Q3
Q4
OSC1
CLKOUT 3
4
INT pin
1
1
INTF flag
(INTCON<1>)
Interrupt Latency 2
5
GIE bit
(INTCON<7>)
INSTRUCTION FLOW
PC
PC
Instruction
fetched
Inst (PC)
Instruction
executed
Inst (PC-1)
PC+1
Inst (PC+1)
Inst (PC)
0004h
PC+1
—
Dummy Cycle
0005h
Inst (0004h)
Inst (0005h)
Dummy Cycle
Inst (0004h)
Note 1: INTF flag is sampled here (every Q1).
2: Interrupt latency = 3-4 Tcy where Tcy = instruction cycle time.
Latency is the same whether Inst (PC) is a single cycle or a 2-cycle instruction.
3: CLKOUT is available only in RC oscillator mode.
4: For minimum width of INT pulse, refer to AC specs.
5: INTF is enabled to be set anytime during the Q4-Q1 cycles.
DS30390E-page 142
 1997 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC16C7X
14.5.1
14.6
INT INTERRUPT
External interrupt on RB0/INT pin is edge triggered:
either rising if bit INTEDG (OPTION<6>) is set, or falling, if the INTEDG bit is clear. When a valid edge
appears on the RB0/INT pin, flag bit INTF
(INTCON<1>) is set. This interrupt can be disabled by
clearing enable bit INTE (INTCON<4>). Flag bit INTF
must be cleared in software in the interrupt service routine before re-enabling this interrupt. The INT interrupt
can wake-up the processor from SLEEP, if bit INTE was
set prior to going into SLEEP. The status of global interrupt enable bit GIE decides whether or not the processor branches to the interrupt vector following wake-up.
See Section 14.8 for details on SLEEP mode.
Context Saving During Interrupts
Applicable Devices
72 73 73A 74 74A 76 77
During an interrupt, only the return PC value is saved
on the stack. Typically, users may wish to save key registers during an interrupt i.e., W register and STATUS
register. This will have to be implemented in software.
Example 14-1 stores and restores the STATUS, W, and
PCLATH registers. The register, W_TEMP, must be
defined in each bank and must be defined at the same
offset from the bank base address (i.e., if W_TEMP is
defined at 0x20 in bank 0, it must also be defined at
0xA0 in bank 1).
The example:
14.5.2
TMR0 INTERRUPT
An overflow (FFh → 00h) in the TMR0 register will set
flag bit T0IF (INTCON<2>). The interrupt can be
enabled/disabled by setting/clearing enable bit T0IE
(INTCON<5>). (Section 7.0)
14.5.3
a)
b)
c)
d)
e)
PORTB INTCON CHANGE
f)
Stores the W register.
Stores the STATUS register in bank 0.
Stores the PCLATH register.
Executes the ISR code.
Restores the STATUS register (and bank select
bit).
Restores the W and PCLATH registers.
An input change on PORTB<7:4> sets flag bit RBIF
(INTCON<0>). The interrupt can be enabled/disabled
by setting/clearing enable bit RBIE (INTCON<4>).
(Section 5.2)
Note:
For the PIC16C73/74, if a change on the
I/O pin should occur when the read operation is being executed (start of the Q2
cycle), then the RBIF interrupt flag may not
get set.
EXAMPLE 14-1: SAVING STATUS, W, AND PCLATH REGISTERS IN RAM
MOVWF
SWAPF
CLRF
MOVWF
MOVF
MOVWF
CLRF
BCF
MOVF
MOVWF
:
:(ISR)
:
MOVF
MOVWF
SWAPF
W_TEMP
STATUS,W
STATUS
STATUS_TEMP
PCLATH, W
PCLATH_TEMP
PCLATH
STATUS, IRP
FSR, W
FSR_TEMP
;Copy W to TEMP register, could be bank one or zero
;Swap status to be saved into W
;bank 0, regardless of current bank, Clears IRP,RP1,RP0
;Save status to bank zero STATUS_TEMP register
;Only required if using pages 1, 2 and/or 3
;Save PCLATH into W
;Page zero, regardless of current page
;Return to Bank 0
;Copy FSR to W
;Copy FSR from W to FSR_TEMP
PCLATH_TEMP, W
PCLATH
STATUS_TEMP,W
MOVWF
SWAPF
SWAPF
STATUS
W_TEMP,F
W_TEMP,W
;Restore PCLATH
;Move W into PCLATH
;Swap STATUS_TEMP register into W
;(sets bank to original state)
;Move W into STATUS register
;Swap W_TEMP
;Swap W_TEMP into W
 1997 Microchip Technology Inc.
DS30390E-page 143
PIC16C7X
14.7
Watchdog Timer (WDT)
prescaler with a division ratio of up to 1:128 can be
assigned to the WDT under software control by writing
to the OPTION register. Thus, time-out periods up to
2.3 seconds can be realized.
Applicable Devices
72 73 73A 74 74A 76 77
The Watchdog Timer is as a free running on-chip RC
oscillator which does not require any external components. This RC oscillator is separate from the RC oscillator of the OSC1/CLKIN pin. That means that the WDT
will run, even if the clock on the OSC1/CLKIN and
OSC2/CLKOUT pins of the device has been stopped,
for example, by execution of a SLEEP instruction. During normal operation, a WDT time-out generates a
device RESET (Watchdog Timer Reset). If the device is
in SLEEP mode, a WDT time-out causes the device to
wake-up and continue with normal operation (Watchdog Timer Wake-up). The WDT can be permanently
disabled by clearing configuration bit WDTE
(Section 14.1).
The CLRWDT and SLEEP instructions clear the WDT
and the postscaler, if assigned to the WDT, and prevent
it from timing out and generating a device RESET condition.
The TO bit in the STATUS register will be cleared upon
a Watchdog Timer time-out.
14.7.2
WDT PROGRAMMING CONSIDERATIONS
It should also be taken into account that under worst
case conditions (VDD = Min., Temperature = Max., and
max. WDT prescaler) it may take several seconds
before a WDT time-out occurs.
Note:
14.7.1
When a CLRWDT instruction is executed
and the prescaler is assigned to the WDT,
the prescaler count will be cleared, but the
prescaler assignment is not changed.
WDT PERIOD
The WDT has a nominal time-out period of 18 ms, (with
no prescaler). The time-out periods vary with temperature, VDD and process variations from part to part (see
DC specs). If longer time-out periods are desired, a
FIGURE 14-18: WATCHDOG TIMER BLOCK DIAGRAM
From TMR0 Clock Source
(Figure 7-6)
0
WDT Timer
Postscaler
M
U
X
1
8
8 - to - 1 MUX
PS2:PS0
PSA
WDT
Enable Bit
To TMR0 (Figure 7-6)
0
1
MUX
PSA
WDT
Time-out
Note: PSA and PS2:PS0 are bits in the OPTION register.
FIGURE 14-19: SUMMARY OF WATCHDOG TIMER REGISTERS
Address
Name
2007h
Config. bits
81h,181h
OPTION
Bit 7
Bit 6
Bit 5
Bit 4
Bit 3
Bit 2
Bit 1
Bit 0
(1)
BODEN(1)
CP1
CP0
PWRTE(1)
WDTE
FOSC1
FOSC0
RBPU
INTEDG
T0CS
T0SE
PSA
PS2
PS1
PS0
Legend: Shaded cells are not used by the Watchdog Timer.
Note 1: See Figure 14-1, and Figure 14-2 for operation of these bits.
DS30390E-page 144
 1997 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC16C7X
14.8
Power-down Mode (SLEEP)
Applicable Devices
72 73 73A 74 74A 76 77
Power-down mode is entered by executing a SLEEP
instruction.
If enabled, the Watchdog Timer will be cleared but
keeps running, the PD bit (STATUS<3>) is cleared, the
TO (STATUS<4>) bit is set, and the oscillator driver is
turned off. The I/O ports maintain the status they had,
before the SLEEP instruction was executed (driving
high, low, or hi-impedance).
For lowest current consumption in this mode, place all
I/O pins at either VDD, or VSS, ensure no external circuitry is drawing current from the I/O pin, power-down
the A/D, disable external clocks. Pull all I/O pins, that
are hi-impedance inputs, high or low externally to avoid
switching currents caused by floating inputs. The
T0CKI input should also be at VDD or VSS for lowest
current consumption. The contribution from on-chip
pull-ups on PORTB should be considered.
The MCLR pin must be at a logic high level (VIHMC).
14.8.1
WAKE-UP FROM SLEEP
The device can wake up from SLEEP through one of
the following events:
1.
2.
3.
External reset input on MCLR pin.
Watchdog Timer Wake-up (if WDT was
enabled).
Interrupt from INT pin, RB port change, or some
Peripheral Interrupts.
External MCLR Reset will cause a device reset. All
other events are considered a continuation of program
execution and cause a "wake-up". The TO and PD bits
in the STATUS register can be used to determine the
cause of device reset. The PD bit, which is set on
power-up, is cleared when SLEEP is invoked. The TO
bit is cleared if a WDT time-out occurred (and caused
wake-up).
Other peripherals cannot generate interrupts since during SLEEP, no on-chip Q clocks are present.
When the SLEEP instruction is being executed, the next
instruction (PC + 1) is pre-fetched. For the device to
wake-up through an interrupt event, the corresponding
interrupt enable bit must be set (enabled). Wake-up is
regardless of the state of the GIE bit. If the GIE bit is
clear (disabled), the device continues execution at the
instruction after the SLEEP instruction. If the GIE bit is
set (enabled), the device executes the instruction after
the SLEEP instruction and then branches to the interrupt address (0004h). In cases where the execution of
the instruction following SLEEP is not desirable, the
user should have a NOP after the SLEEP instruction.
14.8.2
WAKE-UP USING INTERRUPTS
When global interrupts are disabled (GIE cleared) and
any interrupt source has both its interrupt enable bit
and interrupt flag bit set, one of the following will occur:
• If the interrupt occurs before the execution of a
SLEEP instruction, the SLEEP instruction will complete as a NOP. Therefore, the WDT and WDT
postscaler will not be cleared, the TO bit will not
be set and PD bits will not be cleared.
• If the interrupt occurs during or after the execution of a SLEEP instruction, the device will immediately wake up from sleep. The SLEEP instruction
will be completely executed before the wake-up.
Therefore, the WDT and WDT postscaler will be
cleared, the TO bit will be set and the PD bit will
be cleared.
Even if the flag bits were checked before executing a
SLEEP instruction, it may be possible for flag bits to
become set before the SLEEP instruction completes. To
determine whether a SLEEP instruction executed, test
the PD bit. If the PD bit is set, the SLEEP instruction
was executed as a NOP.
To ensure that the WDT is cleared, a CLRWDT instruction should be executed before a SLEEP instruction.
The following peripheral interrupts can wake the device
from SLEEP:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
TMR1 interrupt. Timer1 must be operating as
an asynchronous counter.
SSP (Start/Stop) bit detect interrupt.
SSP transmit or receive in slave mode (SPI/I2C).
CCP capture mode interrupt.
Parallel Slave Port read or write.
A/D conversion (when A/D clock source is RC).
Special event trigger (Timer1 in asynchronous
mode using an external clock).
USART TX or RX (synchronous slave mode).
 1997 Microchip Technology Inc.
DS30390E-page 145
PIC16C7X
FIGURE 14-20: WAKE-UP FROM SLEEP THROUGH INTERRUPT
Q1 Q2 Q3 Q4
Q1 Q2 Q3 Q4
Q1
Q1 Q2 Q3 Q4
Q1 Q2 Q3 Q4
Q1 Q2 Q3 Q4
Q1 Q2 Q3
Q4
OSC1
TOST(2)
CLKOUT(4)
INT pin
INTF flag
(INTCON<1>)
Interrupt Latency
(Note 2)
GIE bit
(INTCON<7>)
Processor in
SLEEP
INSTRUCTION FLOW
PC
PC
Instruction
fetched
Inst(PC) = SLEEP
Instruction
executed
Inst(PC - 1)
Note 1:
2:
3:
4:
14.9
PC+1
PC+2
Inst(PC + 2)
SLEEP
Inst(PC + 1)
Program Verification/Code Protection
If the code protection bit(s) have not been programmed, the on-chip program memory can be read
out for verification purposes.
14.10
Microchip does not recommend code protecting windowed devices.
ID Locations
Applicable Devices
72 73 73A 74 74A 76 77
Four memory locations (2000h - 2003h) are designated
as ID locations where the user can store checksum or
other code-identification numbers. These locations are
not accessible during normal execution but are readable and writable during program/verify. It is recommended that only the 4 least significant bits of the ID
location are used.
14.11
PC + 2
Dummy cycle
0004h
0005h
Inst(0004h)
Inst(0005h)
Dummy cycle
Inst(0004h)
XT, HS or LP oscillator mode assumed.
TOST = 1024TOSC (drawing not to scale) This delay will not be there for RC osc mode.
GIE = '1' assumed. In this case after wake- up, the processor jumps to the interrupt routine. If GIE = '0', execution will continue in-line.
CLKOUT is not available in these osc modes, but shown here for timing reference.
Applicable Devices
72 73 73A 74 74A 76 77
Note:
PC+2
Inst(PC + 1)
In-Circuit Serial Programming
Applicable Devices
72 73 73A 74 74A 76 77
PIC16CXX microcontrollers can be serially programmed while in the end application circuit. This is
simply done with two lines for clock and data, and three
other lines for power, ground, and the programming
voltage. This allows customers to manufacture boards
with unprogrammed devices, and then program the
microcontroller just before shipping the product. This
also allows the most recent firmware or a custom firmware to be programmed.
DS30390E-page 146
The device is placed into a program/verify mode by
holding the RB6 and RB7 pins low while raising the
MCLR (VPP) pin from VIL to VIHH (see programming
specification). RB6 becomes the programming clock
and RB7 becomes the programming data. Both RB6
and RB7 are Schmitt Trigger inputs in this mode.
After reset, to place the device into programming/verify
mode, the program counter (PC) is at location 00h. A 6bit command is then supplied to the device. Depending
on the command, 14-bits of program data are then supplied to or from the device, depending if the command
was a load or a read. For complete details of serial programming, please refer to the PIC16C6X/7X Programming Specifications (Literature #DS30228).
FIGURE 14-21: TYPICAL IN-CIRCUIT SERIAL
PROGRAMMING
CONNECTION
External
Connector
Signals
To Normal
Connections
PIC16CXX
+5V
VDD
0V
VSS
VPP
MCLR/VPP
CLK
RB6
Data I/O
RB7
VDD
To Normal
Connections
 1997 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC16C7X
15.0
INSTRUCTION SET SUMMARY
Each PIC16CXX instruction is a 14-bit word divided
into an OPCODE which specifies the instruction type
and one or more operands which further specify the
operation of the instruction. The PIC16CXX instruction
set summary in Table 15-2 lists byte-oriented, bit-oriented, and literal and control operations. Table 15-1
shows the opcode field descriptions.
For byte-oriented instructions, 'f' represents a file register designator and 'd' represents a destination designator. The file register designator specifies which file
register is to be used by the instruction.
The destination designator specifies where the result of
the operation is to be placed. If 'd' is zero, the result is
placed in the W register. If 'd' is one, the result is placed
in the file register specified in the instruction.
For bit-oriented instructions, 'b' represents a bit field
designator which selects the number of the bit affected
by the operation, while 'f' represents the number of the
file in which the bit is located.
For literal and control operations, 'k' represents an
eight or eleven bit constant or literal value.
TABLE 15-1:
OPCODE FIELD
DESCRIPTIONS
Field
Description
Register file address (0x00 to 0x7F)
Working register (accumulator)
Bit address within an 8-bit file register
Literal field, constant data or label
Don't care location (= 0 or 1)
The assembler will generate code with x = 0. It is the
recommended form of use for compatibility with all
Microchip software tools.
d
Destination select; d = 0: store result in W,
d = 1: store result in file register f.
Default is d = 1
label Label name
TOS Top of Stack
PC Program Counter
f
W
b
k
x
The instruction set is highly orthogonal and is grouped
into three basic categories:
• Byte-oriented operations
• Bit-oriented operations
• Literal and control operations
All instructions are executed within one single instruction cycle, unless a conditional test is true or the program counter is changed as a result of an instruction.
In this case, the execution takes two instruction cycles
with the second cycle executed as a NOP. One instruction cycle consists of four oscillator periods. Thus, for
an oscillator frequency of 4 MHz, the normal instruction
execution time is 1 µs. If a conditional test is true or the
program counter is changed as a result of an instruction, the instruction execution time is 2 µs.
Table 15-2 lists the instructions recognized by the
MPASM assembler.
Figure 15-1 shows the general formats that the instructions can have.
Note:
All examples use the following format to represent a
hexadecimal number:
0xhh
where h signifies a hexadecimal digit.
FIGURE 15-1: GENERAL FORMAT FOR
INSTRUCTIONS
Byte-oriented file register operations
13
8 7 6
OPCODE
d
f (FILE #)
[ ]
( )
→
<>
∈
Global Interrupt Enable bit
Watchdog Timer/Counter
Time-out bit
Power-down bit
Destination either the W register or the specified
register file location
Options
Contents
0
d = 0 for destination W
d = 1 for destination f
f = 7-bit file register address
Bit-oriented file register operations
13
10 9
7 6
OPCODE
b (BIT #)
f (FILE #)
PCLATH Program Counter High Latch
GIE
WDT
TO
PD
dest
To maintain upward compatibility with
future PIC16CXX products, do not use the
OPTION and TRIS instructions.
0
b = 3-bit bit address
f = 7-bit file register address
Literal and control operations
General
13
8
7
OPCODE
0
k (literal)
k = 8-bit immediate value
Assigned to
Register bit field
In the set of
italics User defined term (font is courier)
CALL and GOTO instructions only
13
11
OPCODE
10
0
k (literal)
k = 11-bit immediate value
 1997 Microchip Technology Inc.
DS30390E-page 147
PIC16C7X
TABLE 15-2:
PIC16CXX INSTRUCTION SET
Mnemonic,
Operands
Description
Cycles
14-Bit Opcode
MSb
LSb
Status
Affected
Notes
BYTE-ORIENTED FILE REGISTER OPERATIONS
ADDWF
ANDWF
CLRF
CLRW
COMF
DECF
DECFSZ
INCF
INCFSZ
IORWF
MOVF
MOVWF
NOP
RLF
RRF
SUBWF
SWAPF
XORWF
f, d
f, d
f
f, d
f, d
f, d
f, d
f, d
f, d
f, d
f
f, d
f, d
f, d
f, d
f, d
Add W and f
AND W with f
Clear f
Clear W
Complement f
Decrement f
Decrement f, Skip if 0
Increment f
Increment f, Skip if 0
Inclusive OR W with f
Move f
Move W to f
No Operation
Rotate Left f through Carry
Rotate Right f through Carry
Subtract W from f
Swap nibbles in f
Exclusive OR W with f
1
1
1
1
1
1
1(2)
1
1(2)
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
00
00
00
00
00
00
00
00
00
00
00
00
00
00
00
00
00
00
0111
0101
0001
0001
1001
0011
1011
1010
1111
0100
1000
0000
0000
1101
1100
0010
1110
0110
dfff
dfff
lfff
0xxx
dfff
dfff
dfff
dfff
dfff
dfff
dfff
lfff
0xx0
dfff
dfff
dfff
dfff
dfff
ffff
ffff
ffff
xxxx
ffff
ffff
ffff
ffff
ffff
ffff
ffff
ffff
0000
ffff
ffff
ffff
ffff
ffff
1
1
1 (2)
1 (2)
01
01
01
01
00bb
01bb
10bb
11bb
bfff
bfff
bfff
bfff
ffff
ffff
ffff
ffff
1
1
2
1
2
1
1
2
2
2
1
1
1
11
11
10
00
10
11
11
00
11
00
00
11
11
111x
1001
0kkk
0000
1kkk
1000
00xx
0000
01xx
0000
0000
110x
1010
kkkk
kkkk
kkkk
0110
kkkk
kkkk
kkkk
0000
kkkk
0000
0110
kkkk
kkkk
kkkk
kkkk
kkkk
0100
kkkk
kkkk
kkkk
1001
kkkk
1000
0011
kkkk
kkkk
C,DC,Z
Z
Z
Z
Z
Z
Z
Z
Z
C
C
C,DC,Z
Z
1,2
1,2
2
1,2
1,2
1,2,3
1,2
1,2,3
1,2
1,2
1,2
1,2
1,2
1,2
1,2
BIT-ORIENTED FILE REGISTER OPERATIONS
BCF
BSF
BTFSC
BTFSS
f, b
f, b
f, b
f, b
Bit Clear f
Bit Set f
Bit Test f, Skip if Clear
Bit Test f, Skip if Set
1,2
1,2
3
3
LITERAL AND CONTROL OPERATIONS
ADDLW
ANDLW
CALL
CLRWDT
GOTO
IORLW
MOVLW
RETFIE
RETLW
RETURN
SLEEP
SUBLW
XORLW
k
k
k
k
k
k
k
k
k
Add literal and W
AND literal with W
Call subroutine
Clear Watchdog Timer
Go to address
Inclusive OR literal with W
Move literal to W
Return from interrupt
Return with literal in W
Return from Subroutine
Go into standby mode
Subtract W from literal
Exclusive OR literal with W
C,DC,Z
Z
TO,PD
Z
TO,PD
C,DC,Z
Z
Note 1: When an I/O register is modified as a function of itself ( e.g., MOVF PORTB, 1), the value used will be that value present
on the pins themselves. For example, if the data latch is '1' for a pin configured as input and is driven low by an external
device, the data will be written back with a '0'.
2: If this instruction is executed on the TMR0 register (and, where applicable, d = 1), the prescaler will be cleared if assigned
to the Timer0 Module.
3: If Program Counter (PC) is modified or a conditional test is true, the instruction requires two cycles. The second cycle is
executed as a NOP.
DS30390E-page 148
 1997 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC16C7X
15.1
Instruction Descriptions
ADDLW
Add Literal and W
ANDLW
AND Literal with W
Syntax:
[label] ADDLW
Syntax:
[label] ANDLW
Operands:
0 ≤ k ≤ 255
Operands:
0 ≤ k ≤ 255
Operation:
(W) + k → (W)
Operation:
(W) .AND. (k) → (W)
C, DC, Z
Status Affected:
Z
Status Affected:
Encoding:
11
k
111x
kkkk
kkkk
Encoding:
11
k
1001
kkkk
kkkk
Description:
The contents of the W register are
added to the eight bit literal 'k' and the
result is placed in the W register.
Description:
The contents of W register are
AND’ed with the eight bit literal 'k'. The
result is placed in the W register.
Words:
1
Words:
1
1
Cycles:
1
Cycles:
Q Cycle Activity:
Example:
Q1
Q2
Q3
Q4
Decode
Read
literal 'k'
Process
data
Write to
W
ADDLW
0x15
Q Cycle Activity:
Example
=
=
ADDWF
Add W and f
Syntax:
[label] ADDWF
Operands:
Q3
Q4
Decode
Read
literal "k"
Process
data
Write to
W
ANDLW
0x5F
W
0x10
=
0xA3
After Instruction
After Instruction
W
Q2
Before Instruction
Before Instruction
W
Q1
W
0x25
=
0x03
ANDWF
AND W with f
Syntax:
[label] ANDWF
0 ≤ f ≤ 127
d ∈ [0,1]
Operands:
0 ≤ f ≤ 127
d ∈ [0,1]
Operation:
(W) + (f) → (destination)
Operation:
(W) .AND. (f) → (destination)
Status Affected:
C, DC, Z
Status Affected:
Z
Encoding:
00
f,d
0111
dfff
ffff
Encoding:
00
f,d
0101
dfff
ffff
Description:
Add the contents of the W register with
register 'f'. If 'd' is 0 the result is stored
in the W register. If 'd' is 1 the result is
stored back in register 'f'.
Description:
AND the W register with register 'f'. If 'd'
is 0 the result is stored in the W register. If 'd' is 1 the result is stored back in
register 'f'.
Words:
1
Words:
1
Cycles:
1
Cycles:
1
Q Cycle Activity:
Example
Q1
Q2
Q3
Q4
Decode
Read
register
'f'
Process
data
Write to
destination
ADDWF
FSR, 0
Before Instruction
W =
FSR =
 1997 Microchip Technology Inc.
Example
Q1
Q2
Q3
Q4
Decode
Read
register
'f'
Process
data
Write to
destination
ANDWF
FSR, 1
Before Instruction
0x17
0xC2
After Instruction
W =
FSR =
Q Cycle Activity:
W =
FSR =
0x17
0xC2
After Instruction
0xD9
0xC2
W =
FSR =
0x17
0x02
DS30390E-page 149
PIC16C7X
BCF
Bit Clear f
BTFSC
Bit Test, Skip if Clear
Syntax:
[label] BCF
Syntax:
[label] BTFSC f,b
Operands:
0 ≤ f ≤ 127
0≤b≤7
Operands:
0 ≤ f ≤ 127
0≤b≤7
Operation:
0 → (f<b>)
Operation:
skip if (f<b>) = 0
Status Affected:
None
Status Affected:
None
Encoding:
01
f,b
00bb
bfff
ffff
Description:
Bit 'b' in register 'f' is cleared.
Words:
1
Cycles:
1
Q Cycle Activity:
Example
Q1
Q2
Q3
Q4
Decode
Read
register
'f'
Process
data
Write
register 'f'
BCF
Encoding:
10bb
bfff
ffff
Description:
Words:
1
Cycles:
1(2)
Q Cycle Activity:
FLAG_REG, 7
01
If bit 'b' in register 'f' is '1' then the next
instruction is executed.
If bit 'b', in register 'f', is '0' then the next
instruction is discarded, and a NOP is
executed instead, making this a 2TCY
instruction.
Before Instruction
Q1
Q2
Q3
Q4
Decode
Read
register 'f'
Process
data
NoOperation
Q3
Q4
FLAG_REG = 0xC7
If Skip:
After Instruction
FLAG_REG = 0x47
Example
(2nd Cycle)
Q1
Q2
NoOperation
NoOperation
HERE
FALSE
TRUE
BTFSC
GOTO
•
•
•
NoNoOperation Operation
FLAG,1
PROCESS_CODE
Before Instruction
PC =
address HERE
After Instruction
BSF
Bit Set f
Syntax:
[label] BSF
Operands:
0 ≤ f ≤ 127
0≤b≤7
Operation:
1 → (f<b>)
Status Affected:
None
Encoding:
01
if FLAG<1> = 0,
PC =
address TRUE
if FLAG<1>=1,
PC =
address FALSE
f,b
01bb
bfff
Description:
Bit 'b' in register 'f' is set.
Words:
1
Cycles:
1
Q Cycle Activity:
Example
ffff
Q1
Q2
Q3
Q4
Decode
Read
register
'f'
Process
data
Write
register 'f'
BSF
FLAG_REG,
7
Before Instruction
FLAG_REG = 0x0A
After Instruction
FLAG_REG = 0x8A
DS30390E-page 150
 1997 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC16C7X
BTFSS
Bit Test f, Skip if Set
CALL
Call Subroutine
Syntax:
[label] BTFSS f,b
Syntax:
[ label ] CALL k
Operands:
0 ≤ f ≤ 127
0≤b<7
Operands:
0 ≤ k ≤ 2047
Operation:
Operation:
skip if (f<b>) = 1
Status Affected:
None
(PC)+ 1→ TOS,
k → PC<10:0>,
(PCLATH<4:3>) → PC<12:11>
Status Affected:
None
Encoding:
Description:
01
1
Cycles:
1(2)
If Skip:
Example
bfff
ffff
If bit 'b' in register 'f' is '0' then the next
instruction is executed.
If bit 'b' is '1', then the next instruction is
discarded and a NOP is executed
instead, making this a 2TCY instruction.
Words:
Q Cycle Activity:
11bb
Q1
Q2
Q3
Q4
Decode
Read
register 'f'
Process
data
NoOperation
(2nd Cycle)
Q1
Q2
NoOperation
NoOperation
HERE
FALSE
TRUE
BTFSC
GOTO
•
•
•
Q3
10
FLAG,1
PROCESS_CODE
kkkk
kkkk
Call Subroutine. First, return address
(PC+1) is pushed onto the stack. The
eleven bit immediate address is loaded
into PC bits <10:0>. The upper bits of
the PC are loaded from PCLATH. CALL
is a two cycle instruction.
Words:
1
Cycles:
2
Q Cycle Activity:
Q1
Q2
Q3
Q4
Decode
Read
literal 'k',
Push PC
to Stack
Process
data
Write to
PC
Q4
NoNoOperation Operation
0kkk
Description:
1st Cycle
2nd Cycle
Example
NoNoNoNoOperation Operation Operation Operation
HERE
CALL
THERE
Before Instruction
PC = Address HERE
After Instruction
Before Instruction
PC =
Encoding:
address HERE
PC = Address THERE
TOS = Address HERE+1
After Instruction
if FLAG<1> = 0,
PC =
address FALSE
if FLAG<1> = 1,
PC =
address TRUE
 1997 Microchip Technology Inc.
DS30390E-page 151
PIC16C7X
CLRF
Clear f
Syntax:
[label] CLRF
Operands:
0 ≤ f ≤ 127
Operation:
00h → (f)
1→Z
Status Affected:
Z
Encoding:
00
f
0001
1fff
ffff
CLRW
Clear W
Syntax:
[ label ] CLRW
Operands:
None
Operation:
00h → (W)
1→Z
Status Affected:
Z
Encoding:
00
0001
0xxx
xxxx
Description:
The contents of register 'f' are cleared
and the Z bit is set.
Description:
W register is cleared. Zero bit (Z) is
set.
Words:
1
Words:
1
Cycles:
1
Cycles:
1
Q Cycle Activity:
Example
Q1
Q2
Q3
Q4
Decode
Read
register
'f'
Process
data
Write
register 'f'
CLRF
Q Cycle Activity:
Example
FLAG_REG
=
0x5A
Q3
Q4
NoOperation
Process
data
Write to
W
CLRW
=
=
0x00
1
W
=
0x5A
After Instruction
After Instruction
FLAG_REG
Z
Q2
Before Instruction
Before Instruction
FLAG_REG
Q1
Decode
W
Z
=
=
0x00
1
CLRWDT
Clear Watchdog Timer
Syntax:
[ label ] CLRWDT
Operands:
None
Operation:
00h → WDT
0 → WDT prescaler,
1 → TO
1 → PD
Status Affected:
TO, PD
Encoding:
00
0000
0110
0100
Description:
CLRWDT instruction resets the Watchdog Timer. It also resets the prescaler
of the WDT. Status bits TO and PD are
set.
Words:
1
Cycles:
1
Q Cycle Activity:
Example
Q1
Q2
Q3
Q4
Decode
NoOperation
Process
data
Clear
WDT
Counter
CLRWDT
Before Instruction
WDT counter =
?
After Instruction
WDT counter =
WDT prescaler=
TO
=
PD
=
DS30390E-page 152
0x00
0
1
1
 1997 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC16C7X
COMF
Complement f
DECFSZ
Decrement f, Skip if 0
Syntax:
[ label ] COMF
Syntax:
[ label ] DECFSZ f,d
Operands:
0 ≤ f ≤ 127
d ∈ [0,1]
Operands:
0 ≤ f ≤ 127
d ∈ [0,1]
Operation:
(f) → (destination)
Operation:
Status Affected:
Z
(f) - 1 → (destination);
skip if result = 0
Status Affected:
None
Encoding:
Description:
00
f,d
1001
dfff
ffff
The contents of register 'f' are complemented. If 'd' is 0 the result is stored in
W. If 'd' is 1 the result is stored back in
register 'f'.
Words:
1
Cycles:
1
Q Cycle Activity:
Q1
Q2
Q3
Q4
Decode
Read
register
'f'
Process
data
Write to
destination
Encoding:
COMF
0x13
1
Cycles:
1(2)
=
=
0x13
0xEC
If Skip:
After Instruction
REG1
W
DECF
Decrement f
Syntax:
[label] DECF f,d
Operands:
0 ≤ f ≤ 127
d ∈ [0,1]
Operation:
(f) - 1 → (destination)
Status Affected:
Z
Encoding:
Q1
Q2
Q3
Q4
Decode
Read
register 'f'
Process
data
Write to
destination
Q3
Q4
NoNoNoOperation Operation Operation
Example
0011
dfff
ffff
Decrement register 'f'. If 'd' is 0 the
result is stored in the W register. If 'd' is
1 the result is stored back in register 'f'.
Words:
1
Cycles:
1
Example
HERE
DECFSZ
GOTO
CONTINUE •
•
•
Q1
Q2
Q3
Q4
Decode
Read
register
'f'
Process
data
Write to
destination
DECF
NoOperation
CNT, 1
LOOP
Before Instruction
Description:
Q Cycle Activity:
(2nd Cycle)
Q1
Q2
PC
00
ffff
Words:
Before Instruction
=
dfff
The contents of register 'f' are decremented. If 'd' is 0 the result is placed in the
W register. If 'd' is 1 the result is placed
back in register 'f'.
If the result is 1, the next instruction, is
executed. If the result is 0, then a NOP is
executed instead making it a 2TCY instruction.
REG1,0
REG1
1011
Description:
Q Cycle Activity:
Example
00
=
address HERE
After Instruction
CNT
if CNT
PC
if CNT
PC
=
=
=
≠
=
CNT - 1
0,
address CONTINUE
0,
address HERE+1
CNT, 1
Before Instruction
CNT
Z
=
=
0x01
0
=
=
0x00
1
After Instruction
CNT
Z
 1997 Microchip Technology Inc.
DS30390E-page 153
PIC16C7X
GOTO
Unconditional Branch
INCF
Increment f
Syntax:
[ label ]
Syntax:
[ label ]
Operands:
0 ≤ k ≤ 2047
Operands:
Operation:
k → PC<10:0>
PCLATH<4:3> → PC<12:11>
0 ≤ f ≤ 127
d ∈ [0,1]
Operation:
(f) + 1 → (destination)
None
Status Affected:
Z
Status Affected:
Encoding:
10
GOTO k
1kkk
kkkk
kkkk
Encoding:
00
INCF f,d
1010
dfff
ffff
Description:
GOTO is an unconditional branch. The
eleven bit immediate value is loaded
into PC bits <10:0>. The upper bits of
PC are loaded from PCLATH<4:3>.
GOTO is a two cycle instruction.
Description:
The contents of register 'f' are incremented. If 'd' is 0 the result is placed in
the W register. If 'd' is 1 the result is
placed back in register 'f'.
Words:
1
Words:
1
Cycles:
2
Cycles:
1
Q Cycle Activity:
1st Cycle
2nd Cycle
Q1
Q2
Q3
Q4
Decode
Read
literal 'k'
Process
data
Write to
PC
Q Cycle Activity:
Q2
Q3
Q4
Read
register
'f'
Process
data
Write to
destination
INCF
CNT, 1
NoNoNoNoOperation Operation Operation Operation
Example
Example
Q1
Decode
Before Instruction
GOTO THERE
After Instruction
PC =
Address THERE
CNT
Z
0xFF
0
=
=
0x00
1
After Instruction
CNT
Z
DS30390E-page 154
=
=
 1997 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC16C7X
INCFSZ
Increment f, Skip if 0
Syntax:
[ label ]
Operands:
0 ≤ f ≤ 127
d ∈ [0,1]
Operation:
(f) + 1 → (destination),
skip if result = 0
Status Affected:
None
Encoding:
Description:
00
1
Cycles:
1(2)
If Skip:
1111
dfff
Q2
Q3
Q4
Decode
Read
register 'f'
Process
data
Write to
destination
Q3
Q4
NoNoNoOperation Operation Operation
Example
ffff
Q1
(2nd Cycle)
Q1
Q2
HERE
INCFSZ
GOTO
CONTINUE •
•
•
Inclusive OR Literal with W
Syntax:
[ label ]
Operands:
0 ≤ k ≤ 255
Operation:
(W) .OR. k → (W)
Status Affected:
Z
Encoding:
The contents of register 'f' are incremented. If 'd' is 0 the result is placed in
the W register. If 'd' is 1 the result is
placed back in register 'f'.
If the result is 1, the next instruction is
executed. If the result is 0, a NOP is
executed instead making it a 2TCY
instruction.
Words:
Q Cycle Activity:
INCFSZ f,d
IORLW
11
IORLW k
1000
kkkk
kkkk
Description:
The contents of the W register is
OR’ed with the eight bit literal 'k'. The
result is placed in the W register.
Words:
1
Cycles:
1
Q Cycle Activity:
Example
Q1
Q2
Q3
Q4
Decode
Read
literal 'k'
Process
data
Write to
W
IORLW
0x35
Before Instruction
W
=
0x9A
After Instruction
W
Z
=
=
0xBF
1
NoOperation
CNT, 1
LOOP
Before Instruction
PC
=
address HERE
After Instruction
CNT =
if CNT=
PC
=
if CNT≠
PC
=
 1997 Microchip Technology Inc.
CNT + 1
0,
address CONTINUE
0,
address HERE +1
DS30390E-page 155
PIC16C7X
IORWF
Inclusive OR W with f
MOVLW
Move Literal to W
Syntax:
[ label ]
Syntax:
[ label ]
Operands:
0 ≤ f ≤ 127
d ∈ [0,1]
Operands:
0 ≤ k ≤ 255
Operation:
(W) .OR. (f) → (destination)
Operation:
k → (W)
Status Affected:
Z
Status Affected:
None
Encoding:
IORWF
00
f,d
0100
dfff
ffff
Description:
Inclusive OR the W register with register 'f'. If 'd' is 0 the result is placed in the
W register. If 'd' is 1 the result is placed
back in register 'f'.
Words:
1
Cycles:
1
Q Cycle Activity:
Example
Encoding:
11
Q2
Q3
Q4
Decode
Read
register
'f'
Process
data
Write to
destination
IORWF
00xx
kkkk
kkkk
Description:
The eight bit literal 'k' is loaded into W
register. The don’t cares will assemble
as 0’s.
Words:
1
Cycles:
1
Q Cycle Activity:
Q1
MOVLW k
Example
Q1
Q2
Q3
Q4
Decode
Read
literal 'k'
Process
data
Write to
W
MOVLW
0x5A
After Instruction
RESULT, 0
W
=
0x5A
Before Instruction
RESULT =
W
=
0x13
0x91
After Instruction
RESULT =
W
=
Z
=
0x13
0x93
1
MOVF
Move f
Syntax:
[ label ]
Operands:
0 ≤ f ≤ 127
d ∈ [0,1]
Operation:
(f) → (destination)
Status Affected:
Z
Encoding:
Encoding:
Description:
00
1
Cycles:
1
Example
1000
dfff
ffff
The contents of register f is moved to a
destination dependant upon the status
of d. If d = 0, destination is W register. If
d = 1, the destination is file register f
itself. d = 1 is useful to test a file register since status flag Z is affected.
Words:
Q Cycle Activity:
MOVF f,d
Q1
Q2
Q3
Q4
Decode
Read
register
'f'
Process
data
Write to
destination
MOVF
FSR, 0
After Instruction
MOVWF
Move W to f
Syntax:
[ label ]
Operands:
0 ≤ f ≤ 127
Operation:
(W) → (f)
Status Affected:
None
00
MOVWF
0000
f
1fff
ffff
Description:
Move data from W register to register
'f'.
Words:
1
Cycles:
1
Q Cycle Activity:
Example
Q1
Q2
Q3
Q4
Decode
Read
register
'f'
Process
data
Write
register 'f'
MOVWF
OPTION_REG
Before Instruction
OPTION =
W
=
0xFF
0x4F
After Instruction
OPTION =
W
=
0x4F
0x4F
W = value in FSR register
Z =1
DS30390E-page 156
 1997 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC16C7X
NOP
No Operation
RETFIE
Return from Interrupt
Syntax:
[ label ]
Syntax:
[ label ]
Operands:
None
Operands:
None
Operation:
No operation
Operation:
Status Affected:
None
TOS → PC,
1 → GIE
Status Affected:
None
Encoding:
00
NOP
0000
0xx0
0000
RETFIE
Description:
No operation.
Encoding:
Words:
1
Description:
Cycles:
1
Return from Interrupt. Stack is POPed
and Top of Stack (TOS) is loaded in the
PC. Interrupts are enabled by setting
Global Interrupt Enable bit, GIE
(INTCON<7>). This is a two cycle
instruction.
Words:
1
Cycles:
2
Q Cycle Activity:
Q1
Decode
Example
Q2
Q3
Q4
NoNoNoOperation Operation Operation
NOP
Q Cycle Activity:
1st Cycle
2nd Cycle
Example
00
0000
0000
1001
Q1
Q2
Q3
Q4
Decode
NoOperation
Set the
GIE bit
Pop from
the Stack
NoNoNoNoOperation Operation Operation Operation
RETFIE
After Interrupt
PC =
GIE =
OPTION
Load Option Register
Syntax:
[ label ]
Operands:
None
Operation:
(W) → OPTION
TOS
1
OPTION
Status Affected: None
Encoding:
00
0000
0110
0010
Description:
The contents of the W register are
loaded in the OPTION register. This
instruction is supported for code compatibility with PIC16C5X products.
Since OPTION is a readable/writable
register, the user can directly address
it.
Words:
1
Cycles:
1
Example
To maintain upward compatibility
with future PIC16CXX products, do
not use this instruction.
 1997 Microchip Technology Inc.
DS30390E-page 157
PIC16C7X
RETLW
Return with Literal in W
RETURN
Return from Subroutine
Syntax:
[ label ]
Syntax:
[ label ]
Operands:
0 ≤ k ≤ 255
Operands:
None
Operation:
k → (W);
TOS → PC
Operation:
TOS → PC
Status Affected:
None
Status Affected:
None
Encoding:
RETLW k
Encoding:
11
Description:
01xx
kkkk
kkkk
The W register is loaded with the eight
bit literal 'k'. The program counter is
loaded from the top of the stack (the
return address). This is a two cycle
instruction.
Words:
1
Cycles:
2
Q Cycle Activity:
1st Cycle
2nd Cycle
Q2
Decode
Read
literal 'k'
Q3
Q4
NoWrite to W,
Operation Pop from
the Stack
NoNoNoNoOperation Operation Operation Operation
0000
0000
1000
Description:
Return from subroutine. The stack is
POPed and the top of the stack (TOS)
is loaded into the program counter. This
is a two cycle instruction.
Words:
1
Cycles:
2
Q Cycle Activity:
Q1
00
RETURN
1st Cycle
2nd Cycle
Example
Q1
Decode
Q2
Q3
Q4
NoNoPop from
Operation Operation the Stack
NoNoNoNoOperation Operation Operation Operation
RETURN
After Interrupt
Example
CALL TABLE
;W contains table
;offset value
;W now has table value
•
•
•
TABLE ADDWF PC
RETLW k1
RETLW k2
PC =
TOS
;W = offset
;Begin table
;
•
•
•
RETLW kn
; End of table
Before Instruction
W
=
0x07
After Instruction
W
DS30390E-page 158
=
value of k8
 1997 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC16C7X
RLF
Rotate Left f through Carry
RRF
Rotate Right f through Carry
Syntax:
[ label ]
Syntax:
[ label ]
Operands:
0 ≤ f ≤ 127
d ∈ [0,1]
Operands:
0 ≤ f ≤ 127
d ∈ [0,1]
Operation:
See description below
Operation:
See description below
Status Affected:
C
Status Affected:
C
Encoding:
Description:
RLF
00
f,d
1101
dfff
ffff
The contents of register 'f' are rotated
one bit to the left through the Carry
Flag. If 'd' is 0 the result is placed in the
W register. If 'd' is 1 the result is stored
back in register 'f'.
C
Encoding:
Description:
00
Register f
Words:
1
Cycles:
1
Cycles:
1
Q1
Q2
Q3
Q4
Decode
Read
register
'f'
Process
data
Write to
destination
RLF
REG1,0
 1997 Microchip Technology Inc.
ffff
Register f
Q1
Q2
Q3
Q4
Decode
Read
register
'f'
Process
data
Write to
destination
RRF
REG1,0
Before Instruction
=
=
1110 0110
0
=
=
=
1110 0110
1100 1100
1
After Instruction
REG1
W
C
Q Cycle Activity:
Example
Before Instruction
REG1
C
dfff
C
1
Example
1100
The contents of register 'f' are rotated
one bit to the right through the Carry
Flag. If 'd' is 0 the result is placed in the
W register. If 'd' is 1 the result is placed
back in register 'f'.
Words:
Q Cycle Activity:
RRF f,d
REG1
C
=
=
1110 0110
0
=
=
=
1110 0110
0111 0011
0
After Instruction
REG1
W
C
DS30390E-page 159
PIC16C7X
SLEEP
SUBLW
Subtract W from Literal
Syntax:
[ label ]
SUBLW k
Syntax:
[ label ]
Operands:
None
Operands:
0 ≤ k ≤ 255
Operation:
00h → WDT,
0 → WDT prescaler,
1 → TO,
0 → PD
Operation:
k - (W) → (W)
Status Affected:
C, DC, Z
SLEEP
Encoding:
11
110x
kkkk
kkkk
Description:
The W register is subtracted (2’s complement method) from the eight bit literal 'k'.
The result is placed in the W register.
The power-down status bit, PD is
cleared. Time-out status bit, TO is
set. Watchdog Timer and its prescaler are cleared.
The processor is put into SLEEP
mode with the oscillator stopped. See
Section 14.8 for more details.
Words:
1
Cycles:
1
Words:
1
Example 1:
Cycles:
1
Status Affected:
TO, PD
Encoding:
Description:
Q Cycle Activity:
00
0000
0110
0011
Q Cycle Activity:
Q1
Q2
Q3
Q4
Decode
Read
literal 'k'
Process
data
Write to W
SUBLW
0x02
Before Instruction
Q1
Decode
Q2
Q3
NoNoOperation Operation
Q4
W
C
Z
Go to
Sleep
=
=
=
1
?
?
After Instruction
Example:
SLEEP
W
C
Z
Example 2:
=
=
=
1
1; result is positive
0
Before Instruction
W
C
Z
=
=
=
2
?
?
After Instruction
W
C
Z
Example 3:
=
=
=
0
1; result is zero
1
Before Instruction
W
C
Z
=
=
=
3
?
?
After Instruction
W
C
Z
DS30390E-page 160
=
=
=
0xFF
0; result is negative
0
 1997 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC16C7X
SUBWF
Subtract W from f
SWAPF
Swap Nibbles in f
Syntax:
[ label ]
Syntax:
[ label ] SWAPF f,d
Operands:
0 ≤ f ≤ 127
d ∈ [0,1]
Operands:
0 ≤ f ≤ 127
d ∈ [0,1]
Operation:
(f) - (W) → (destination)
Operation:
Status Affected:
C, DC, Z
(f<3:0>) → (destination<7:4>),
(f<7:4>) → (destination<3:0>)
Status Affected:
None
Encoding:
Description:
00
1
Cycles:
1
Example 1:
0010
dfff
ffff
Subtract (2’s complement method) W register from register 'f'. If 'd' is 0 the result is
stored in the W register. If 'd' is 1 the
result is stored back in register 'f'.
Words:
Q Cycle Activity:
SUBWF f,d
Q1
Q2
Q3
Q4
Decode
Read
register 'f'
Process
data
Write to
destination
SUBWF
Encoding:
00
REG1
W
C
Z
ffff
Words:
1
Cycles:
1
Q Cycle Activity:
Q1
Q2
Q3
Q4
Decode
Read
register 'f'
Process
data
Write to
destination
Example
=
=
=
=
SWAPF REG,
REG1
W
C
Z
=
=
=
=
REG1
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
2
2
?
?
=
=
=
=
 1997 Microchip Technology Inc.
=
=
=
=
0xA5
0x5A
Load TRIS Register
Syntax:
[label]
Operands:
5≤f≤7
Operation:
(W) → TRIS register f;
TRIS
f
Status Affected: None
0
2
1; result is zero
1
1
2
?
?
After Instruction
REG1
W
C
Z
=
=
TRIS
Encoding:
0xFF
2
0; result is negative
0
00
0000
0110
0fff
Description:
The instruction is supported for code
compatibility with the PIC16C5X products. Since TRIS registers are readable and writable, the user can directly
address them.
Words:
1
Cycles:
1
Before Instruction
REG1
W
C
Z
0xA5
1
2
1; result is positive
0
After Instruction
REG1
W
C
Z
=
After Instruction
REG1
W
Before Instruction
REG1
W
C
Z
0
Before Instruction
3
2
?
?
After Instruction
Example 3:
dfff
The upper and lower nibbles of register
'f' are exchanged. If 'd' is 0 the result is
placed in W register. If 'd' is 1 the result
is placed in register 'f'.
REG1,1
Before Instruction
Example 2:
1110
Description:
Example
To maintain upward compatibility
with future PIC16CXX products, do
not use this instruction.
DS30390E-page 161
PIC16C7X
XORLW
Exclusive OR Literal with W
XORWF
Exclusive OR W with f
Syntax:
[label]
Syntax:
[label]
Operands:
0 ≤ k ≤ 255
Operands:
Operation:
(W) .XOR. k → (W)
0 ≤ f ≤ 127
d ∈ [0,1]
Status Affected:
Z
Operation:
(W) .XOR. (f) → (destination)
Status Affected:
Z
Encoding:
11
XORLW k
1010
kkkk
kkkk
Description:
The contents of the W register are
XOR’ed with the eight bit literal 'k'.
The result is placed in the W register.
Words:
1
Cycles:
1
Q Cycle Activity:
Example:
Q1
Q2
Q3
Q4
Decode
Read
literal 'k'
Process
data
Write to
W
XORLW
Encoding:
00
XORWF
0110
f,d
dfff
ffff
Description:
Exclusive OR the contents of the W
register with register 'f'. If 'd' is 0 the
result is stored in the W register. If 'd' is
1 the result is stored back in register 'f'.
Words:
1
Cycles:
1
Q Cycle Activity:
Q1
Q2
Q3
Q4
Decode
Read
register
'f'
Process
data
Write to
destination
0xAF
Before Instruction
W
=
Example
0xB5
After Instruction
W
=
0x1A
XORWF
REG
1
Before Instruction
REG
W
=
=
0xAF
0xB5
=
=
0x1A
0xB5
After Instruction
REG
W
DS30390E-page 162
 1997 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC16C7X
16.0
DEVELOPMENT SUPPORT
16.1
Development Tools
The PIC16/17 microcontrollers are supported with a full
range of hardware and software development tools:
• PICMASTER/PICMASTER CE Real-Time
In-Circuit Emulator
• ICEPIC Low-Cost PIC16C5X and PIC16CXXX
In-Circuit Emulator
• PRO MATE II Universal Programmer
• PICSTART Plus Entry-Level Prototype
Programmer
• PICDEM-1 Low-Cost Demonstration Board
• PICDEM-2 Low-Cost Demonstration Board
• PICDEM-3 Low-Cost Demonstration Board
• MPASM Assembler
• MPLAB-SIM Software Simulator
• MPLAB-C (C Compiler)
• Fuzzy logic development system (fuzzyTECH−MP)
16.2
PICMASTER: High Performance
Universal In-Circuit Emulator with
MPLAB IDE
16.3
ICEPIC: Low-cost PIC16CXXX
In-Circuit Emulator
ICEPIC is a low-cost in-circuit emulator solution for the
Microchip PIC16C5X and PIC16CXXX families of 8-bit
OTP microcontrollers.
ICEPIC is designed to operate on PC-compatible
machines ranging from 286-AT through Pentium
based machines under Windows 3.x environment.
ICEPIC features real time, non-intrusive emulation.
16.4
PRO MATE II: Universal Programmer
The PRO MATE II Universal Programmer is a full-featured programmer capable of operating in stand-alone
mode as well as PC-hosted mode.
The PRO MATE II has programmable VDD and VPP
supplies which allows it to verify programmed memory
at VDD min and VDD max for maximum reliability. It has
an LCD display for displaying error messages, keys to
enter commands and a modular detachable socket
assembly to support various package types. In standalone mode the PRO MATE II can read, verify or program PIC16C5X, PIC16CXXX, PIC17CXX and
PIC14000 devices. It can also set configuration and
code-protect bits in this mode.
The PICMASTER Universal In-Circuit Emulator is
intended to provide the product development engineer
with a complete microcontroller design tool set for all
microcontrollers in the PIC12C5XX, PIC14C000,
PIC16C5X, PIC16CXXX and PIC17CXX families.
PICMASTER is supplied with the MPLAB Integrated
Development Environment (IDE), which allows editing,
“make” and download, and source debugging from a
single environment.
16.5
Interchangeable target probes allow the system to be
easily reconfigured for emulation of different processors. The universal architecture of the PICMASTER
allows expansion to support all new Microchip microcontrollers.
PICSTART Plus supports all PIC12C5XX, PIC14000,
PIC16C5X, PIC16CXXX and PIC17CXX devices with
up to 40 pins. Larger pin count devices such as the
PIC16C923 and PIC16C924 may be supported with an
adapter socket.
PICSTART Plus Entry Level
Development System
The PICSTART programmer is an easy-to-use, lowcost prototype programmer. It connects to the PC via
one of the COM (RS-232) ports. MPLAB Integrated
Development Environment software makes using the
programmer simple and efficient. PICSTART Plus is
not recommended for production programming.
The PICMASTER Emulator System has been
designed as a real-time emulation system with
advanced features that are generally found on more
expensive development tools. The PC compatible 386
(and higher) machine platform and Microsoft Windows
3.x environment were chosen to best make these features available to you, the end user.
A CE compliant version of PICMASTER is available for
European Union (EU) countries.
 1997 Microchip Technology Inc.
DS30390E-page 163
PIC16C7X
16.6
PICDEM-1 Low-Cost PIC16/17
Demonstration Board
The PICDEM-1 is a simple board which demonstrates
the capabilities of several of Microchip’s microcontrollers. The microcontrollers supported are: PIC16C5X
(PIC16C54 to PIC16C58A), PIC16C61, PIC16C62X,
PIC16C71, PIC16C8X, PIC17C42, PIC17C43 and
PIC17C44. All necessary hardware and software is
included to run basic demo programs. The users can
program the sample microcontrollers provided with
the PICDEM-1 board, on a PRO MATE II or
PICSTART-16B programmer, and easily test firmware. The user can also connect the PICDEM-1
board to the PICMASTER emulator and download
the firmware to the emulator for testing. Additional prototype area is available for the user to build some additional hardware and connect it to the microcontroller
socket(s). Some of the features include an RS-232
interface, a potentiometer for simulated analog input,
push-button switches and eight LEDs connected to
PORTB.
16.7
PICDEM-2 Low-Cost PIC16CXX
Demonstration Board
The PICDEM-2 is a simple demonstration board that
supports the PIC16C62, PIC16C64, PIC16C65,
PIC16C73 and PIC16C74 microcontrollers. All the
necessary hardware and software is included to
run the basic demonstration programs. The user
can program the sample microcontrollers provided
with the PICDEM-2 board, on a PRO MATE II programmer or PICSTART-16C, and easily test firmware.
The PICMASTER emulator may also be used with the
PICDEM-2 board to test firmware. Additional prototype
area has been provided to the user for adding additional hardware and connecting it to the microcontroller
socket(s). Some of the features include a RS-232 interface, push-button switches, a potentiometer for simulated analog input, a Serial EEPROM to demonstrate
usage of the I2C bus and separate headers for connection to an LCD module and a keypad.
16.8
PICDEM-3 Low-Cost PIC16CXXX
Demonstration Board
The PICDEM-3 is a simple demonstration board that
supports the PIC16C923 and PIC16C924 in the PLCC
package. It will also support future 44-pin PLCC
microcontrollers with a LCD Module. All the necessary hardware and software is included to run the
basic demonstration programs. The user can program the sample microcontrollers provided with
the PICDEM-3 board, on a PRO MATE II programmer or PICSTART Plus with an adapter socket, and
easily test firmware. The PICMASTER emulator may
also be used with the PICDEM-3 board to test firmware. Additional prototype area has been provided to
the user for adding hardware and connecting it to the
microcontroller socket(s). Some of the features include
DS30390E-page 164
an RS-232 interface, push-button switches, a potentiometer for simulated analog input, a thermistor and
separate headers for connection to an external LCD
module and a keypad. Also provided on the PICDEM-3
board is an LCD panel, with 4 commons and 12 segments, that is capable of displaying time, temperature
and day of the week. The PICDEM-3 provides an additional RS-232 interface and Windows 3.1 software for
showing the demultiplexed LCD signals on a PC. A simple serial interface allows the user to construct a hardware demultiplexer for the LCD signals.
16.9
MPLAB Integrated Development
Environment Software
The MPLAB IDE Software brings an ease of software
development previously unseen in the 8-bit microcontroller market. MPLAB is a windows based application
which contains:
• A full featured editor
• Three operating modes
- editor
- emulator
- simulator
• A project manager
• Customizable tool bar and key mapping
• A status bar with project information
• Extensive on-line help
MPLAB allows you to:
• Edit your source files (either assembly or ‘C’)
• One touch assemble (or compile) and download
to PIC16/17 tools (automatically updates all
project information)
• Debug using:
- source files
- absolute listing file
• Transfer data dynamically via DDE (soon to be
replaced by OLE)
• Run up to four emulators on the same PC
The ability to use MPLAB with Microchip’s simulator
allows a consistent platform and the ability to easily
switch from the low cost simulator to the full featured
emulator with minimal retraining due to development
tools.
16.10
Assembler (MPASM)
The MPASM Universal Macro Assembler is a PChosted symbolic assembler. It supports all microcontroller series including the PIC12C5XX, PIC14000,
PIC16C5X, PIC16CXXX, and PIC17CXX families.
MPASM offers full featured Macro capabilities, conditional assembly, and several source and listing formats.
It generates various object code formats to support
Microchip's development tools as well as third party
programmers.
MPASM allows full symbolic debugging from
PICMASTER, Microchip’s Universal Emulator
System.
 1997 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC16C7X
MPASM has the following features to assist in developing software for specific use applications.
• Provides translation of Assembler source code to
object code for all Microchip microcontrollers.
• Macro assembly capability.
• Produces all the files (Object, Listing, Symbol,
and special) required for symbolic debug with
Microchip’s emulator systems.
• Supports Hex (default), Decimal and Octal source
and listing formats.
MPASM provides a rich directive language to support
programming of the PIC16/17. Directives are helpful in
making the development of your assemble source code
shorter and more maintainable.
16.11
Software Simulator (MPLAB-SIM)
The MPLAB-SIM Software Simulator allows code
development in a PC host environment. It allows the
user to simulate the PIC16/17 series microcontrollers
on an instruction level. On any given instruction, the
user may examine or modify any of the data areas or
provide external stimulus to any of the pins. The input/
output radix can be set by the user and the execution
can be performed in; single step, execute until break, or
in a trace mode.
MPLAB-SIM fully supports symbolic debugging using
MPLAB-C and MPASM. The Software Simulator offers
the low cost flexibility to develop and debug code outside of the laboratory environment making it an excellent multi-project software development tool.
16.12
C Compiler (MPLAB-C)
The MPLAB-C Code Development System is a
complete ‘C’ compiler and integrated development
environment for Microchip’s PIC16/17 family of microcontrollers. The compiler provides powerful integration
capabilities and ease of use not found with other
compilers.
For easier source level debugging, the compiler provides symbol information that is compatible with the
MPLAB IDE memory display (PICMASTER emulator
software versions 1.13 and later).
16.13
16.14
MP-DriveWay – Application Code
Generator
MP-DriveWay is an easy-to-use Windows-based Application Code Generator. With MP-DriveWay you can
visually configure all the peripherals in a PIC16/17
device and, with a click of the mouse, generate all the
initialization and many functional code modules in C
language. The output is fully compatible with Microchip’s MPLAB-C C compiler. The code produced is
highly modular and allows easy integration of your own
code. MP-DriveWay is intelligent enough to maintain
your code through subsequent code generation.
16.15
SEEVAL Evaluation and
Programming System
The SEEVAL SEEPROM Designer’s Kit supports all
Microchip 2-wire and 3-wire Serial EEPROMs. The kit
includes everything necessary to read, write, erase or
program special features of any Microchip SEEPROM
product including Smart Serials and secure serials.
The Total Endurance Disk is included to aid in tradeoff analysis and reliability calculations. The total kit can
significantly reduce time-to-market and result in an
optimized system.
16.16
TrueGauge Intelligent Battery
Management
The TrueGauge development tool supports system
development with the MTA11200B TrueGauge Intelligent Battery Management IC. System design verification can be accomplished before hardware prototypes
are built. User interface is graphically-oriented and
measured data can be saved in a file for exporting to
Microsoft Excel.
16.17
KEELOQ Evaluation and
Programming Tools
KEELOQ evaluation and programming tools support
Microchips HCS Secure Data Products. The HCS evaluation kit includes an LCD display to show changing
codes, a decoder to decode transmissions, and a programming interface to program test transmitters.
Fuzzy Logic Development System
(fuzzyTECH-MP)
fuzzyTECH-MP fuzzy logic development tool is available in two versions - a low cost introductory version,
MP Explorer, for designers to gain a comprehensive
working knowledge of fuzzy logic system design; and a
full-featured version, fuzzyTECH-MP, edition for implementing more complex systems.
Both versions include Microchip’s fuzzyLAB demonstration board for hands-on experience with fuzzy logic
systems implementation.
 1997 Microchip Technology Inc.
DS30390E-page 165
Emulator Products
Software Tools
DS30390E-page 166
Programmers
✔
KEELOQ
Evaluation Kit

PICDEM-3
PICDEM-2
PICDEM-1
SEEVAL
Designers Kit

KEELOQ
Programmer
PRO MATE II
Universal
Programmer

PICSTART
Plus Low-Cost
Universal Dev. Kit

PICSTART
Lite Ultra Low-Cost
Dev. Kit
Total Endurance
Software Model
✔
✔
✔
fuzzyTECH-MP
Explorer/Edition
Fuzzy Logic
Dev. Tool
MP-DriveWay
Applications
Code Generator
✔
MPLAB C
Compiler
✔
✔
MPLAB
Integrated
Development
Environment
ICEPIC Low-Cost
In-Circuit Emulator
PICMASTER/
PICMASTER-CE
In-Circuit Emulator
✔
✔
✔
✔
✔
✔
PIC14000
✔
✔
✔
✔
✔
✔
✔
✔
✔
✔
PIC16C5X
✔
✔
✔
✔
✔
✔
✔
✔
✔
PIC16CXXX
✔
✔
✔
✔
✔
✔
✔
✔
✔
✔
✔
✔
✔
✔
✔
✔
✔
✔
✔
✔
✔
✔
✔
✔
✔
✔
✔
✔
✔
✔
✔
✔
✔
✔
✔
✔
✔
✔
✔
✔
✔
✔
✔
✔
✔
PIC16C6X PIC16C7XX PIC16C8X PIC16C9XX PIC17C4X
✔
✔
✔
✔
Available
3Q97
PIC17C75X
✔
✔
✔
24CXX
25CXX
93CXX
✔
✔
✔
HCS200
HCS300
HCS301
TABLE 16-1:
Demo Boards
PIC12C5XX
PIC16C7X
DEVELOPMENT TOOLS FROM MICROCHIP
 1997 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC16C7X
Applicable Devices 72 73 73A 74 74A 76 77
17.0
ELECTRICAL CHARACTERISTICS FOR PIC16C72
Absolute Maximum Ratings †
Ambient temperature under bias..................................................................................................................-55 to +125˚C
Storage temperature ............................................................................................................................... -65˚C to +150˚C
Voltage on any pin with respect to VSS (except VDD, MCLR, and RA4) ..........................................-0.3V to (VDD + 0.3V)
Voltage on VDD with respect to VSS ............................................................................................................ -0.3 to +7.5V
Voltage on MCLR with respect to VSS (Note 2) ................................................................................................. 0 to +14V
Voltage on RA4 with respect to Vss ................................................................................................................... 0 to +14V
Total power dissipation (Note 1).................................................................................................................................1.0W
Maximum current out of VSS pin ............................................................................................................................300 mA
Maximum current into VDD pin ...............................................................................................................................250 mA
Input clamp current, IIK (VI < 0 or VI > VDD) .....................................................................................................................± 20 mA
Output clamp current, IOK (VO < 0 or VO > VDD)..............................................................................................................± 20 mA
Maximum output current sunk by any I/O pin...........................................................................................................25 mA
Maximum output current sourced by any I/O pin .....................................................................................................25 mA
Maximum current sunk by PORTA and PORTB (combined)..................................................................................200 mA
Maximum current sourced by PORTA and PORTB (combined).............................................................................200 mA
Maximum current sunk by PORTC ........................................................................................................................200 mA
Maximum current sourced by PORTC ...................................................................................................................200 mA
Note 1: Power dissipation is calculated as follows: Pdis = VDD x {IDD - ∑ IOH} + ∑ {(VDD - VOH) x IOH} + ∑(VOl x IOL)
Note 2: Voltage spikes below VSS at the MCLR pin, inducing currents greater than 80 mA, may cause latch-up. Thus,
a series resistor of 50-100Ω should be used when applying a “low” level to the MCLR pin rather than pulling
this pin directly to VSS.
† NOTICE: Stresses above those listed under “Absolute Maximum Ratings” may cause permanent damage to the
device. This is a stress rating only and functional operation of the device at those or any other conditions above those
indicated in the operation listings of this specification is not implied. Exposure to maximum rating conditions for
extended periods may affect device reliability.
TABLE 17-1:
OSC
CROSS REFERENCE OF DEVICE SPECS FOR OSCILLATOR CONFIGURATIONS
AND FREQUENCIES OF OPERATION (COMMERCIAL DEVICES)
PIC16C72-04
PIC16C72-10
PIC16C72-20
PIC16LC72-04
JW Devices
RC
VDD: 4.0V to 6.0V
IDD: 5 mA max. at 5.5V
IPD: 16 µA max. at 4V
Freq: 4 MHz max.
VDD: 4.5V to 5.5V
IDD: 2.7 mA typ. at 5.5V
IPD: 1.5 µA typ. at 4V
Freq: 4 MHz max.
VDD: 4.5V to 5.5V
IDD: 2.7 mA typ. at 5.5V
IPD: 1.5 µA typ. at 4V
Freq: 4 MHz max.
VDD: 2.5V to 6.0V
IDD: 3.8 mA max. at 3.0V
IPD: 5.0 µA max. at 3V
Freq: 4 MHz max.
VDD: 4.0V to 6.0V
IDD: 5 mA max. at 5.5V
IPD: 16 µA max. at 4V
Freq: 4 MHz max.
XT
VDD: 4.0V to 6.0V
IDD: 5 mA max. at 5.5V
IPD: 16 µA max. at 4V
Freq: 4 MHz max.
VDD: 4.5V to 5.5V
IDD: 2.7 mA typ. at 5.5V
IPD: 1.5 µA typ. at 4V
Freq: 4 MHz max.
VDD: 4.5V to 5.5V
IDD: 2.7 mA typ. at 5.5V
IPD: 1.5 µA typ. at 4V
Freq: 4 MHz max.
VDD: 2.5V to 6.0V
IDD: 3.8 mA max. at 3.0V
IPD: 5.0 µA max. at 3V
Freq: 4 MHz max.
VDD: 4.0V to 6.0V
IDD: 5 mA max. at 5.5V
IPD: 16 µA max. at 4V
Freq: 4 MHz max.
VDD: 4.5V to 5.5V
VDD: 4.5V to 5.5V
VDD: 4.5V to 5.5V
IDD: 13.5 mA typ. at 5.5V
IDD: 10 mA max. at 5.5V
IDD: 20 mA max. at 5.5V
IPD: 1.5 µA typ. at 4.5V
IPD: 1.5 µA typ. at 4.5V
IPD: 1.5 µA typ. at 4.5V
Freq: 4 MHz max.
Freq: 10 MHz max.
Freq: 20 MHz max.
HS
LP
VDD: 4.0V to 6.0V
IDD: 52.5 µA typ. at
32 kHz, 4.0V
IPD: 0.9 µA typ. at 4.0V
Freq: 200 kHz max.
Not recommended for use
in LP mode
Not recommended for use
in LP mode
VDD: 4.5V to 5.5V
IDD: 20 mA max. at 5.5V
Not recommended for use
in HS mode
IPD: 1.5 µA typ. at 4.5V
VDD: 2.5V to 6.0V
IDD: 48 µA max. at
32 kHz, 3.0V
IPD: 5.0 µA max. at 3.0V
Freq: 200 kHz max.
VDD: 2.5V to 6.0V
IDD: 48 µA max. at
32 kHz, 3.0V
IPD: 5.0 µA max. at 3.0V
Freq: 200 kHz max.
Freq: 20 MHz max.
The shaded sections indicate oscillator selections which are tested for functionality, but not for MIN/MAX specifications.
It is recommended that the user select the device type that ensures the specifications required.
 1997 Microchip Technology Inc.
DS30390E-page 167
PIC16C7X
Applicable Devices 72 73 73A 74 74A 76 77
17.1
DC Characteristics:
PIC16C72-04 (Commercial, Industrial, Extended)
PIC16C72-10 (Commercial, Industrial, Extended)
PIC16C72-20 (Commercial, Industrial, Extended)
Standard Operating Conditions (unless otherwise stated)
Operating temperature -40˚C ≤ TA ≤ +125˚C for extended,
-40˚C ≤ TA ≤ +85˚C for industrial and
0˚C
≤ TA ≤ +70˚C for commercial
DC CHARACTERISTICS
Param
No.
Characteristic
Sym
Min
Typ† Max Units
Conditions
D001
D001A
Supply Voltage
VDD
4.0
4.5
-
6.0
5.5
V
V
D002*
RAM Data Retention
Voltage (Note 1)
VDR
-
1.5
-
V
D003
VDD start voltage to
ensure internal Poweron Reset Signal
VPOR
-
VSS
-
V
D004*
VDD rise rate to ensure
internal Power-on Reset
Signal
SVDD
0.05
-
-
D005
Brown-out Reset Voltage BVDD
3.7
4.0
4.3
V
BODEN bit in configuration word enabled
3.7
4.0
4.4
V
Extended Only
-
2.7
5.0
mA
XT, RC osc configuration
FOSC = 4 MHz, VDD = 5.5V (Note 4)
-
10
20
mA
HS osc configuration
FOSC = 20 MHz, VDD = 5.5V
D010
Supply Current
(Note 2,5)
IDD
D013
XT, RC and LP osc configuration
HS osc configuration
See section on Power-on Reset for details
V/ms See section on Power-on Reset for details
D015
Brown-out Reset Current ∆IBOR
(Note 6)
-
350
425
µA
BOR enabled VDD = 5.0V
D020
D021
D021A
D021B
Power-down Current
(Note 3,5)
-
10.5
1.5
1.5
2.5
42
16
19
19
µA
µA
µA
µA
VDD = 4.0V, WDT enabled, -40°C to +85°C
VDD = 4.0V, WDT disabled, -0°C to +70°C
VDD = 4.0V, WDT disabled, -40°C to +85°C
VDD = 4.0V, WDT disabled, -40°C to +125°C
D023
Brown-out Reset Current ∆IBOR
(Note 6)
-
350
425
µA
BOR enabled VDD = 5.0V
*
†
Note 1:
2:
3:
4:
5:
6:
IPD
These parameters are characterized but not tested.
Data in "Typ" column is at 5V, 25˚C unless otherwise stated. These parameters are for design guidance only
and are not tested.
This is the limit to which VDD can be lowered without losing RAM data.
The supply current is mainly a function of the operating voltage and frequency. Other factors such as I/O pin
loading and switching rate, oscillator type, internal code execution pattern, and temperature also have an
impact on the current consumption.
The test conditions for all IDD measurements in active operation mode are:
OSC1 = external square wave, from rail to rail; all I/O pins tristated, pulled to VDD
MCLR = VDD; WDT enabled/disabled as specified.
The power-down current in SLEEP mode does not depend on the oscillator type. Power-down current is
measured with the part in SLEEP mode, with all I/O pins in hi-impedance state and tied to VDD and VSS.
For RC osc configuration, current through Rext is not included. The current through the resistor can be estimated by the formula Ir = VDD/2Rext (mA) with Rext in kOhm.
Timer1 oscillator (when enabled) adds approximately 20 µA to the specification. This value is from characterization and is for design guidance only. This is not tested.
The ∆ current is the additional current consumed when this peripheral is enabled. This current should be
added to the base IDD or IPD measurement.
DS30390E-page 168
 1997 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC16C7X
Applicable Devices 72 73 73A 74 74A 76 77
17.2
DC Characteristics:
PIC16LC72-04 (Commercial, Industrial)
Standard Operating Conditions (unless otherwise stated)
Operating temperature -40˚C
≤ TA ≤ +85˚C for industrial and
0˚C
≤ TA ≤ +70˚C for commercial
DC CHARACTERISTICS
Param
No.
Characteristic
Sym
Min
Typ† Max Units
Conditions
2.5
-
6.0
V
RAM Data Retention Volt- VDR
age (Note 1)
-
1.5
-
V
D003
VPOR
VDD start voltage to
ensure internal Power-on
Reset signal
-
VSS
-
V
D004*
VDD rise rate to ensure
internal Power-on Reset
signal
SVDD
0.05
-
-
3.7
4.0
4.3
V
-
2.0
3.8
mA
XT, RC osc configuration
FOSC = 4 MHz, VDD = 3.0V (Note 4)
-
22.5
48
µA
LP osc configuration
FOSC = 32 kHz, VDD = 3.0V, WDT disabled
-
350
425
µA
BOR enabled VDD = 5.0V
-
7.5
0.9
0.9
30
5
5
µA
µA
µA
VDD = 3.0V, WDT enabled, -40°C to +85°C
VDD = 3.0V, WDT disabled, 0°C to +70°C
VDD = 3.0V, WDT disabled, -40°C to +85°C
-
350
425
µA
BOR enabled VDD = 5.0V
D001
Supply Voltage
D002*
VDD
D005
Brown-out Reset Voltage
BVDD
D010
Supply Current
(Note 2,5)
IDD
D010A
D015*
Brown-out Reset Current ∆IBOR
(Note 6)
D020
Power-down Current
D021
(Note 3,5)
D021A
D023*
*
†
Note 1:
2:
3:
4:
5:
6:
IPD
Brown-out Reset Current ∆IBOR
(Note 6)
LP, XT, RC osc configuration (DC - 4 MHz)
See section on Power-on Reset for details
V/ms See section on Power-on Reset for details
BODEN bit in configuration word enabled
These parameters are characterized but not tested.
Data in "Typ" column is at 5V, 25˚C unless otherwise stated. These parameters are for design guidance
only and are not tested.
This is the limit to which VDD can be lowered without losing RAM data.
The supply current is mainly a function of the operating voltage and frequency. Other factors such as I/O pin
loading and switching rate, oscillator type, internal code execution pattern, and temperature also have an
impact on the current consumption.
The test conditions for all IDD measurements in active operation mode are:
OSC1 = external square wave, from rail to rail; all I/O pins tristated, pulled to VDD
MCLR = VDD; WDT enabled/disabled as specified.
The power-down current in SLEEP mode does not depend on the oscillator type. Power-down current is
measured with the part in SLEEP mode, with all I/O pins in hi-impedance state and tied to VDD and VSS.
For RC osc configuration, current through Rext is not included. The current through the resistor can be estimated by the formula Ir = VDD/2Rext (mA) with Rext in kOhm.
Timer1 oscillator (when enabled) adds approximately 20 µA to the specification. This value is from characterization and is for design guidance only. This is not tested.
The ∆ current is the additional current consumed when this peripheral is enabled. This current should be
added to the base IDD or IPD measurement.
 1997 Microchip Technology Inc.
DS30390E-page 169
PIC16C7X
Applicable Devices 72 73 73A 74 74A 76 77
17.3
DC Characteristics:
PIC16C72-04 (Commercial, Industrial, Extended)
PIC16C72-10 (Commercial, Industrial, Extended)
PIC16C72-20 (Commercial, Industrial, Extended)
PIC16LC72-04 (Commercial, Industrial)
DC CHARACTERISTICS
Param
No.
D030
D030A
D031
D032
D033
D040
D040A
D041
D042
D042A
D043
D070
Characteristic
Input Low Voltage
I/O ports
with TTL buffer
with Schmitt Trigger buffer
MCLR, OSC1 (in RC mode)
OSC1 (in XT, HS and LP)
Input High Voltage
I/O ports
with TTL buffer
Standard Operating Conditions (unless otherwise stated)
Operating temperature
-40˚C ≤ TA ≤ +125˚C for extended,
-40˚C ≤ TA ≤ +85˚C for industrial and
0˚C
≤ TA ≤ +70˚C for commercial
Operating voltage VDD range as described in DC spec Section 17.1
and Section 17.2.
Sym
Min Typ Max Units
Conditions
†
VIL
VSS
VSS
VSS
VSS
VSS
VIH
2.0
0.25VDD
+ 0.8V
D060
with Schmitt Trigger buffer
MCLR
OSC1 (XT, HS and LP)
OSC1 (in RC mode)
PORTB weak pull-up current
IPURB
Input Leakage Current (Notes 2, 3)
I/O ports
IIL
D061
D063
MCLR, RA4/T0CKI
OSC1
D080
Output Low Voltage
I/O ports
D080A
D083
OSC2/CLKOUT (RC osc config)
D083A
VOL
- 0.15VDD
0.8V
- 0.2VDD
- 0.2VDD
- 0.3VDD
V
V
V
V
V
For entire VDD range
4.5 ≤ VDD ≤ 5.5V
-
VDD
VDD
V
V
4.5 ≤ VDD ≤ 5.5V
For entire VDD range
VDD
VDD
VDD
VDD
†400
V For entire VDD range
V
V Note1
V
µA VDD = 5V, VPIN = VSS
0.8VDD 0.8VDD 0.7VDD 0.9VDD 50
250
-
-
±1
-
-
±5
±5
-
-
0.6
V
-
-
0.6
V
-
-
0.6
V
-
-
0.6
V
Note1
µA Vss ≤ VPIN ≤ VDD, Pin at hiimpedance
µA Vss ≤ VPIN ≤ VDD
µA Vss ≤ VPIN ≤ VDD, XT, HS and
LP osc configuration
IOL = 8.5 mA, VDD = 4.5V,
-40°C to +85°C
IOL = 7.0 mA, VDD = 4.5V,
-40°C to +125°C
IOL = 1.6 mA, VDD = 4.5V,
-40°C to +85°C
IOL = 1.2 mA, VDD = 4.5V,
-40°C to +125°C
*
†
These parameters are characterized but not tested.
Data in “Typ” column is at 5V, 25°C unless otherwise stated. These parameters are for design guidance only
and are not tested.
Note 1: In RC oscillator configuration, the OSC1/CLKIN pin is a Schmitt trigger input. It is not recommended that the
PIC16C7X be driven with external clock in RC mode.
2: The leakage current on the MCLR/VPP pin is strongly dependent on the applied voltage level. The specified
levels represent normal operating conditions. Higher leakage current may be measured at different input voltages.
3: Negative current is defined as current sourced by the pin.
DS30390E-page 170
 1997 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC16C7X
Applicable Devices 72 73 73A 74 74A 76 77
DC CHARACTERISTICS
Param
No.
D090
Characteristic
Output High Voltage
I/O ports (Note 3)
Standard Operating Conditions (unless otherwise stated)
Operating temperature
-40˚C ≤ TA ≤ +125˚C for extended,
-40˚C ≤ TA ≤ +85˚C for industrial and
0˚C
≤ TA ≤ +70˚C for commercial
Operating voltage VDD range as described in DC spec Section 17.1
and Section 17.2.
Sym
Min Typ Max Units
Conditions
†
VOH VDD - 0.7 -
-
V
VDD - 0.7 -
-
V
VDD - 0.7 -
-
V
VDD - 0.7 -
-
V
D090A
D092
OSC2/CLKOUT (RC osc config)
D092A
D150*
D100
Open-Drain High Voltage
VOD
Capacitive Loading Specs on Output Pins
OSC2 pin
COSC2
-
-
14
V
-
-
15
pF
IOH = -3.0 mA, VDD = 4.5V,
-40°C to +85°C
IOH = -2.5 mA, VDD = 4.5V,
-40°C to +125°C
IOH = -1.3 mA, VDD = 4.5V,
-40°C to +85°C
IOH = -1.0 mA, VDD = 4.5V,
-40°C to +125°C
RA4 pin
In XT, HS and LP modes
when external clock is used to
drive OSC1.
D101
D102
All I/O pins and OSC2 (in RC mode) CIO
50
pF
400
pF
CB
SCL, SDA in I2C mode
* These parameters are characterized but not tested.
† Data in “Typ” column is at 5V, 25°C unless otherwise stated. These parameters are for design guidance only
and are not tested.
Note 1: In RC oscillator configuration, the OSC1/CLKIN pin is a Schmitt trigger input. It is not recommended that the
PIC16C7X be driven with external clock in RC mode.
2: The leakage current on the MCLR/VPP pin is strongly dependent on the applied voltage level. The specified
levels represent normal operating conditions. Higher leakage current may be measured at different input voltages.
3: Negative current is defined as current sourced by the pin.
 1997 Microchip Technology Inc.
DS30390E-page 171
PIC16C7X
Applicable Devices 72 73 73A 74 74A 76 77
17.4
Timing Parameter Symbology
The timing parameter symbols have been created following one of the following formats:
1. TppS2ppS
3. TCC:ST
(I2C specifications only)
2. TppS
4. Ts
(I2C specifications only)
T
F
Frequency
Lowercase letters (pp) and their meanings:
pp
cc
CCP1
ck
CLKOUT
cs
CS
di
SDI
do
SDO
dt
Data in
io
I/O port
mc
MCLR
Uppercase letters and their meanings:
S
F
Fall
H
High
I
Invalid (Hi-impedance)
L
Low
I2C only
AA
BUF
output access
Bus free
TCC:ST (I2C specifications only)
CC
HD
Hold
ST
DAT
DATA input hold
STA
START condition
T
Time
osc
rd
rw
sc
ss
t0
t1
wr
OSC1
RD
RD or WR
SCK
SS
T0CKI
T1CKI
WR
P
R
V
Z
Period
Rise
Valid
Hi-impedance
High
Low
High
Low
SU
Setup
STO
STOP condition
FIGURE 17-1: LOAD CONDITIONS
Load condition 2
Load condition 1
VDD/2
RL
CL
Pin
VSS
CL
Pin
VSS
RL = 464Ω
CL = 50 pF
15 pF
DS30390E-page 172
for all pins except OSC2
for OSC2 output
 1997 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC16C7X
Applicable Devices 72 73 73A 74 74A 76 77
17.5
Timing Diagrams and Specifications
FIGURE 17-2: EXTERNAL CLOCK TIMING
Q4
Q1
Q2
Q3
Q4
Q1
OSC1
1
3
3
4
4
2
CLKOUT
TABLE 17-2:
Parameter
No.
EXTERNAL CLOCK TIMING REQUIREMENTS
Sym
Characteristic
Fosc
External CLKIN Frequency
(Note 1)
Min
Typ†
Max
Units Conditions
DC
—
4
MHz XT and RC osc mode
DC
—
4
MHz HS osc mode (-04)
DC
—
10
MHz HS osc mode (-10)
DC
—
20
MHz HS osc mode (-20)
DC
—
200
kHz LP osc mode
Oscillator Frequency
DC
—
4
MHz RC osc mode
(Note 1)
0.1
—
4
MHz XT osc mode
4
—
20
MHz HS osc mode
5
—
200
kHz LP osc mode
1
Tosc External CLKIN Period
250
—
—
ns
XT and RC osc mode
(Note 1)
250
—
—
ns
HS osc mode (-04)
100
—
—
ns
HS osc mode (-10)
50
—
—
ns
HS osc mode (-20)
5
—
—
µs
LP osc mode
Oscillator Period
250
—
—
ns
RC osc mode
(Note 1)
250
—
10,000
ns
XT osc mode
250
—
250
ns
HS osc mode (-04)
100
—
250
ns
HS osc mode (-10)
50
—
250
ns
HS osc mode (-20)
5
—
—
µs
LP osc mode
200
—
DC
ns
TCY = 4/FOSC
2
TCY Instruction Cycle Time (Note 1)
3
TosL, External Clock in (OSC1) High or
100
—
—
ns
XT oscillator
TosH Low Time
2.5
—
—
µs
LP oscillator
15
—
—
ns
HS oscillator
4
TosR, External Clock in (OSC1) Rise or
—
—
25
ns
XT oscillator
TosF Fall Time
—
—
50
ns
LP oscillator
—
—
15
ns
HS oscillator
† Data in "Typ" column is at 5V, 25˚C unless otherwise stated. These parameters are for design guidance only and are not
tested.
Note 1: Instruction cycle period (TCY) equals four times the input oscillator time-base period. All specified values are based on
characterization data for that particular oscillator type under standard operating conditions with the device executing code.
Exceeding these specified limits may result in an unstable oscillator operation and/or higher than expected current consumption. All devices are tested to operate at "min." values with an external clock applied to the OSC1/CLKIN pin.
When an external clock input is used, the "Max." cycle time limit is "DC" (no clock) for all devices.
 1997 Microchip Technology Inc.
DS30390E-page 173
PIC16C7X
Applicable Devices 72 73 73A 74 74A 76 77
FIGURE 17-3: CLKOUT AND I/O TIMING
Q1
Q4
Q2
Q3
OSC1
11
10
CLKOUT
13
19
14
12
18
16
I/O Pin
(input)
15
17
I/O Pin
(output)
new value
old value
20, 21
Note: Refer to Figure 17-1 for load conditions.
TABLE 17-3:
CLKOUT AND I/O TIMING REQUIREMENTS
Parameter Sym
No.
Characteristic
Min
Typ†
Max
Units Conditions
10*
TosH2ckL
OSC1↑ to CLKOUT↓
—
75
200
ns
Note 1
11*
TosH2ckH
OSC1↑ to CLKOUT↑
—
75
200
ns
Note 1
12*
TckR
CLKOUT rise time
—
35
100
ns
Note 1
13*
TckF
CLKOUT fall time
—
35
100
ns
Note 1
14*
TckL2ioV
CLKOUT ↓ to Port out valid
—
—
0.5TCY + 20
ns
Note 1
15*
TioV2ckH
Port in valid before CLKOUT ↑
TOSC + 200
—
—
ns
Note 1
16*
TckH2ioI
Port in hold after CLKOUT ↑
0
—
—
ns
Note 1
17*
TosH2ioV
OSC1↑ (Q1 cycle) to
Port out valid
—
50
150
ns
18*
TosH2ioI
OSC1↑ (Q2 cycle) to
Port input invalid (I/O in
hold time)
PIC16C72
100
—
—
ns
PIC16LC72
200
—
—
ns
19*
TioV2osH
Port input valid to OSC1↑ (I/O in setup time)
0
—
—
ns
20*
TioR
Port output rise time
PIC16C72
—
10
40
ns
PIC16LC72
—
—
80
ns
PIC16C72
—
10
40
ns
PIC16LC72
—
—
80
ns
21*
TioF
Port output fall time
22††*
Tinp
INT pin high or low time
TCY
—
—
ns
23††*
Trbp
RB7:RB4 change INT high or low time
TCY
—
—
ns
* These parameters are characterized but not tested.
†Data in "Typ" column is at 5V, 25˚C unless otherwise stated. These parameters are for design guidance
only and are not tested.
†† These parameters are asynchronous events not related to any internal clock edges.
Note 1: Measurements are taken in RC Mode where CLKOUT output is 4 x TOSC.
DS30390E-page 174
 1997 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC16C7X
Applicable Devices 72 73 73A 74 74A 76 77
FIGURE 17-4: RESET, WATCHDOG TIMER, OSCILLATOR START-UP TIMER AND POWER-UP
TIMER TIMING
VDD
MCLR
30
Internal
POR
33
PWRT
Time-out
32
OSC
Time-out
Internal
RESET
Watchdog
Timer
RESET
31
34
34
I/O Pins
Note: Refer to Figure 17-1 for load conditions.
FIGURE 17-5: BROWN-OUT RESET TIMING
BVDD
VDD
35
TABLE 17-4:
RESET, WATCHDOG TIMER, OSCILLATOR START-UP TIMER, POWER-UP TIMER,
AND BROWN-OUT RESET REQUIREMENTS
Parameter
No.
Sym
Characteristic
30
TmcL
MCLR Pulse Width (low)
2
—
—
µs
VDD = 5V, -40˚C to +125˚C
31*
Twdt
Watchdog Timer Time-out Period
(No Prescaler)
7
18
33
ms
VDD = 5V, -40˚C to +125˚C
*
†
32
Tost
33*
Tpwrt
34
35
Min
Typ†
Max
Units
Conditions
Oscillation Start-up Timer Period
—
1024TOSC
—
—
TOSC = OSC1 period
Power-up Timer Period
28
72
132
ms
VDD = 5V, -40˚C to +125˚C
TIOZ
I/O Hi-impedance from MCLR Low
or Watchdog Timer Reset
—
—
2.1
µs
TBOR
Brown-out Reset pulse width
100
—
—
µs
VDD ≤ BVDD (D005)
These parameters are characterized but not tested.
Data in "Typ" column is at 5V, 25˚C unless otherwise stated. These parameters are for design guidance only and are not
tested.
 1997 Microchip Technology Inc.
DS30390E-page 175
PIC16C7X
Applicable Devices 72 73 73A 74 74A 76 77
FIGURE 17-6: TIMER0 AND TIMER1 EXTERNAL CLOCK TIMINGS
RA4/T0CKI
41
40
42
RC0/T1OSO/T1CKI
46
45
47
48
TMR0 or
TMR1
Note: Refer to Figure 17-1 for load conditions.
TABLE 17-5:
TIMER0 AND TIMER1 EXTERNAL CLOCK REQUIREMENTS
Param
No.
Sym
Characteristic
40*
Tt0H
T0CKI High Pulse Width
No Prescaler
T0CKI Low Pulse Width
With Prescaler
No Prescaler
With Prescaler
41*
42*
45*
46*
47*
48
*
†
Tt0L
Min
Typ†
Max
0.5TCY + 20
—
—
ns
10
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
ns
ns
ns
ns
ns
—
—
—
—
—
—
ns
ns
ns
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
ns
ns
ns
ns
ns
—
—
—
—
—
—
ns
ns
ns
0.5TCY + 20
10
Tt0P
T0CKI Period
TCY + 40
No Prescaler
With Prescaler Greater of:
20 or TCY + 40
N
Tt1H
T1CKI High Time Synchronous, Prescaler = 1
0.5TCY + 20
Synchronous, PIC16C7X
15
Prescaler =
PIC16LC7X
25
2,4,8
Asynchronous PIC16C7X
30
PIC16LC7X
50
Tt1L
T1CKI Low Time
Synchronous, Prescaler = 1
0.5TCY + 20
Synchronous, PIC16C7X
15
Prescaler =
PIC16LC7X
25
2,4,8
Asynchronous PIC16C7X
30
PIC16LC7X
50
Tt1P
T1CKI input period Synchronous PIC16C7X
Greater of:
30 OR TCY + 40
N
Greater of:
PIC16LC7X
50 OR TCY + 40
N
Asynchronous PIC16C7X
60
PIC16LC7X
100
Ft1
Timer1 oscillator input frequency range
DC
(oscillator enabled by setting bit T1OSCEN)
TCKEZtmr1 Delay from external clock edge to timer increment
2Tosc
Units Conditions
Must also meet
parameter 42
Must also meet
parameter 42
N = prescale value
(2, 4, ..., 256)
Must also meet
parameter 47
Must also meet
parameter 47
N = prescale value
(1, 2, 4, 8)
N = prescale value
(1, 2, 4, 8)
—
—
—
—
—
200
ns
ns
kHz
—
7Tosc
—
These parameters are characterized but not tested.
Data in "Typ" column is at 5V, 25˚C unless otherwise stated. These parameters are for design guidance only and are not
tested.
DS30390E-page 176
 1997 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC16C7X
Applicable Devices 72 73 73A 74 74A 76 77
FIGURE 17-7: CAPTURE/COMPARE/PWM TIMINGS (CCP1)
RC2/CCP1
(Capture Mode)
50
51
52
RC2/CCP1
(Compare or PWM Mode)
53
54
Note: Refer to Figure 17-1 for load conditions.
TABLE 17-6:
Param
No.
50*
CAPTURE/COMPARE/PWM REQUIREMENTS (CCP1)
Sym Characteristic
TccL CCP1 input low time
Min
No Prescaler
With Prescaler PIC16C72
PIC16LC72
51*
TccH CCP1 input high time
No Prescaler
With Prescaler PIC16C72
PIC16LC72
52*
TccP CCP1 input period
53*
TccR CCP1 output rise time
54*
*
†
TccF CCP1 output fall time
Typ† Max Units Conditions
0.5TCY + 20
—
—
ns
10
—
—
ns
20
—
—
ns
0.5TCY + 20
—
—
ns
10
—
—
ns
20
—
—
ns
3TCY + 40
N
—
—
ns
PIC16C72
—
10
25
ns
PIC16LC72
—
25
45
ns
PIC16C72
—
10
25
ns
PIC16LC72
—
25
45
ns
N = prescale
value (1,4 or 16)
These parameters are characterized but not tested.
Data in "Typ" column is at 5V, 25˚C unless otherwise stated. These parameters are for design guidance only and are not
tested.
 1997 Microchip Technology Inc.
DS30390E-page 177
PIC16C7X
Applicable Devices 72 73 73A 74 74A 76 77
FIGURE 17-8: SPI MODE TIMING
SS
70
SCK
(CKP = 0)
71
72
78
79
79
78
SCK
(CKP = 1)
80
SDO
77
75, 76
SDI
74
73
Note: Refer to Figure 17-1 for load conditions
TABLE 17-7:
SPI MODE REQUIREMENTS
Parameter
No.
Sym
Characteristic
Min
Typ†
Max
Units
TCY
—
—
ns
70
TssL2scH,
TssL2scL
SS↓ to SCK↓ or SCK↑ input
71
TscH
SCK input high time (slave mode)
TCY + 20
—
—
ns
72
TscL
SCK input low time (slave mode)
TCY + 20
—
—
ns
73
TdiV2scH,
TdiV2scL
Setup time of SDI data input to SCK
edge
50
—
—
ns
74
TscH2diL,
TscL2diL
Hold time of SDI data input to SCK
edge
50
—
—
ns
75
TdoR
SDO data output rise time
—
10
25
ns
76
TdoF
SDO data output fall time
—
10
25
ns
77
TssH2doZ
SS↑ to SDO output hi-impedance
10
—
50
ns
78
TscR
SCK output rise time (master mode)
—
10
25
ns
79
TscF
SCK output fall time (master mode)
—
10
25
ns
Conditions
80
†
TscH2doV,
SDO data output valid after SCK
—
—
50
ns
TscL2doV
edge
Data in "Typ" column is at 5V, 25˚C unless otherwise stated. These parameters are for design guidance only and are not
tested.
DS30390E-page 178
 1997 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC16C7X
Applicable Devices 72 73 73A 74 74A 76 77
FIGURE 17-9: I2C BUS START/STOP BITS TIMING
SCL
93
91
90
92
SDA
STOP
Condition
START
Condition
Note: Refer to Figure 17-1 for load conditions
TABLE 17-8:
I2C BUS START/STOP BITS REQUIREMENTS
Parameter
No.
Sym
90
TSU:STA
91
THD:STA
92
TSU:STO
93
THD:STO
Characteristic
START condition
Setup time
START condition
Hold time
STOP condition
Setup time
STOP condition
Hold time
 1997 Microchip Technology Inc.
Min
100 kHz mode
400 kHz mode
100 kHz mode
400 kHz mode
100 kHz mode
400 kHz mode
100 kHz mode
400 kHz mode
4700
600
4000
600
4700
600
4000
600
Typ Max
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
Units
Conditions
ns
Only relevant for repeated START
condition
ns
After this period the first clock
pulse is generated
ns
ns
DS30390E-page 179
PIC16C7X
Applicable Devices 72 73 73A 74 74A 76 77
FIGURE 17-10: I2C BUS DATA TIMING
103
102
100
101
SCL
90
106
107
91
92
SDA
In
110
109
109
SDA
Out
Note: Refer to Figure 17-1 for load conditions
I2C BUS DATA REQUIREMENTS
TABLE 17-9:
Parameter
No.
Sym
Characteristic
100
THIGH
Clock high time
101
102
103
TLOW
TR
TF
Clock low time
SDA and SCL rise
time
SDA and SCL fall time
90
TSU:STA
START condition
setup time
91
THD:STA
START condition hold
time
106
THD:DAT
Data input hold time
107
TSU:DAT
Data input setup time
92
TSU:STO
STOP condition setup
time
109
TAA
Output valid from
clock
110
TBUF
Bus free time
Cb
Bus capacitive loading
Min
Max
Units
Conditions
100 kHz mode
4.0
—
µs
400 kHz mode
0.6
—
µs
Device must operate at a minimum of 1.5 MHz
Device must operate at a minimum of 10 MHz
SSP Module
100 kHz mode
1.5TCY
4.7
—
—
µs
400 kHz mode
1.3
—
µs
SSP Module
100 kHz mode
400 kHz mode
1.5TCY
—
20 + 0.1Cb
—
1000
300
ns
ns
100 kHz mode
400 kHz mode
—
20 + 0.1Cb
300
300
ns
ns
100 kHz mode
400 kHz mode
100 kHz mode
400 kHz mode
100 kHz mode
400 kHz mode
100 kHz mode
400 kHz mode
100 kHz mode
400 kHz mode
100 kHz mode
400 kHz mode
100 kHz mode
400 kHz mode
4.7
0.6
4.0
0.6
0
0
250
100
4.7
0.6
—
—
4.7
1.3
—
—
—
—
—
0.9
—
—
—
—
3500
—
—
—
µs
µs
µs
µs
ns
µs
ns
ns
µs
µs
ns
ns
µs
µs
—
400
pF
Device must operate at a minimum of 1.5 MHz
Device must operate at a minimum of 10 MHz
Cb is specified to be from
10 to 400 pF
Cb is specified to be from
10 to 400 pF
Only relevant for repeated
START condition
After this period the first clock
pulse is generated
Note 2
Note 1
Time the bus must be free
before a new transmission can
start
Note 1: As a transmitter, the device must provide this internal minimum delay time to bridge the undefined region (min. 300 ns) of
the falling edge of SCL to avoid unintended generation of START or STOP conditions.
2: A fast-mode (400 kHz) I2C-bus device can be used in a standard-mode (100 kHz)S I2C-bus system, but the requirement
tsu;DAT ≥ 250 ns must then be met. This will automatically be the case if the device does not stretch the LOW period of the
SCL signal. If such a device does stretch the LOW period of the SCL signal, it must output the next data bit to the SDA line
TR max.+tsu;DAT = 1000 + 250 = 1250 ns (according to the standard-mode I2C bus specification) before the SCL line is
released.
DS30390E-page 180
 1997 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC16C7X
Applicable Devices 72 73 73A 74 74A 76 77
TABLE 17-10: A/D CONVERTER CHARACTERISTICS:
PIC16C72-04 (Commercial, Industrial, Extended)
PIC16C72-10 (Commercial, Industrial, Extended)
PIC16C72-20 (Commercial, Industrial, Extended)
PIC16LC72-04 (Commercial, Industrial)
Param Sym Characteristic
No.
A01
NR
A02
Resolution
EABS Total Absolute error
Typ†
Max
Units
Conditions
—
—
8-bits
bit
—
—
<±1
LSb VREF = VDD = 5.12V,
VSS ≤ VAIN ≤ VREF
—
—
<±1
LSb VREF = VDD = 5.12V,
VSS ≤ VAIN ≤ VREF
VREF = VDD = 5.12V,
VSS ≤ VAIN ≤ VREF
A03
EIL
A04
EDL Differential linearity error
—
—
<±1
LSb VREF = VDD = 5.12V,
VSS ≤ VAIN ≤ VREF
A05
EFS Full scale error
—
—
<±1
LSb VREF = VDD = 5.12V,
VSS ≤ VAIN ≤ VREF
A06
EOFF Offset error
—
—
<±1
LSb VREF = VDD = 5.12V,
VSS ≤ VAIN ≤ VREF
A10
—
Integral linearity error
Min
VSS ≤ VAIN ≤ VREF
Monotonicity
—
guaranteed
—
—
A20
VREF Reference voltage
3.0V
—
VDD + 0.3
V
A25
VAIN Analog input voltage
VSS - 0.3
—
VREF + 0.3
V
A30
ZAIN Recommended impedance of
analog voltage source
—
—
10.0
kΩ
A40
IAD
PIC16C72
—
180
—
µA
PIC16LC72
—
90
—
µA
10
—
1000
µA
During VAIN acquisition.
Based on differential of
VHOLD to VAIN to charge
CHOLD, see Section 13.1.
—
—
10
µA
During A/D Conversion
cycle
A50
A/D conversion current (VDD)
IREF VREF input current (Note 2)
Average current consumption when A/D is on.
(Note 1)
*
†
These parameters are characterized but not tested.
Data in “Typ” column is at 5V, 25°C unless otherwise stated. These parameters are for design guidance only and are not
tested.
Note 1: When A/D is off, it will not consume any current other than minor leakage current.
The power-down current spec includes any such leakage from the A/D module.
2: VREF current is from RA3 pin or VDD pin, whichever is selected as reference input.
 1997 Microchip Technology Inc.
DS30390E-page 181
PIC16C7X
Applicable Devices 72 73 73A 74 74A 76 77
FIGURE 17-11: A/D CONVERSION TIMING
BSF ADCON0, GO
134
1 TCY
(TOSC/2) (1)
131
Q4
130
132
A/D CLK
7
A/D DATA
6
5
4
3
2
1
NEW_DATA
OLD_DATA
ADRES
0
ADIF
GO
DONE
SAMPLING STOPPED
SAMPLE
Note 1: If the A/D clock source is selected as RC, a time of TCY is added before the A/D clock starts. This allows the
SLEEP instruction to be executed.
TABLE 17-11: A/D CONVERSION REQUIREMENTS
Param
No.
130
Sym Characteristic
TAD
A/D clock period
Units
Conditions
1.6
—
—
µs
2.0
—
—
µs
TOSC based, VREF full range
PIC16C72
2.0
4.0
6.0
µs
A/D RC Mode
PIC16LC72
3.0
6.0
9.0
µs
A/D RC Mode
—
9.5
—
TAD
Note 2
20
—
µs
5*
—
—
µs
The minimum time is the amplifier
settling time. This may be used if
the "new" input voltage has not
changed by more than 1 LSb (i.e.,
20.0 mV @ 5.12V) from the last
sampled voltage (as stated on
CHOLD).
—
TOSC/2 §
—
—
If the A/D clock source is selected
as RC, a time of TCY is added
before the A/D clock starts. This
allows the SLEEP instruction to be
executed.
1.5 §
—
—
TAD
132
TACQ Acquisition time
Q4 to A/D clock start
TSWC Switching from convert → sample time
135
Max
PIC16C72
TCNV Conversion time (not including S/H
time) (Note 1)
TGO
Typ†
PIC16LC72
131
134
Min
TOSC based, VREF ≥ 3.0V
*
†
These parameters are characterized but not tested.
Data in “Typ” column is at 5V, 25°C unless otherwise stated. These parameters are for design guidance only and are not
tested.
§ This specification ensured by design.
Note 1: ADRES register may be read on the following TCY cycle.
2: See Section 13.1 for min conditions.
DS30390E-page 182
 1997 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC16C7X
Applicable Devices 72 73 73A 74 74A 76 77
18.0
ELECTRICAL CHARACTERISTICS FOR PIC16C73/74
Absolute Maximum Ratings †
Ambient temperature under bias..................................................................................................................-55 to +125˚C
Storage temperature ............................................................................................................................... -65˚C to +150˚C
Voltage on any pin with respect to VSS (except VDD, MCLR. and RA4)...........................................-0.3V to (VDD + 0.3V)
Voltage on VDD with respect to VSS ............................................................................................................ -0.3 to +7.5V
Voltage on MCLR with respect to VSS (Note 2) ................................................................................................. 0 to +14V
Voltage on RA4 with respect to Vss ................................................................................................................... 0 to +14V
Total power dissipation (Note 1).................................................................................................................................1.0W
Maximum current out of VSS pin ............................................................................................................................300 mA
Maximum current into VDD pin ...............................................................................................................................250 mA
Input clamp current, IIK (VI < 0 or VI > VDD) .....................................................................................................................± 20 mA
Output clamp current, IOK (VO < 0 or VO > VDD)..............................................................................................................± 20 mA
Maximum output current sunk by any I/O pin...........................................................................................................25 mA
Maximum output current sourced by any I/O pin .....................................................................................................25 mA
Maximum current sunk by PORTA, PORTB, and PORTE (combined) (Note 3).....................................................200 mA
Maximum current sourced by PORTA, PORTB, and PORTE (combined) (Note 3) ...............................................200 mA
Maximum current sunk by PORTC and PORTD (combined) (Note 3) ...................................................................200 mA
Maximum current sourced by PORTC and PORTD (combined) (Note 3)..............................................................200 mA
Note 1: Power dissipation is calculated as follows: Pdis = VDD x {IDD - ∑ IOH} + ∑ {(VDD - VOH) x IOH} + ∑(VOl x IOL)
Note 2: Voltage spikes below VSS at the MCLR pin, inducing currents greater than 80 mA, may cause latch-up. Thus,
a series resistor of 50-100Ω should be used when applying a “low” level to the MCLR pin rather than pulling
this pin directly to VSS.
Note 3: PORTD and PORTE are not implemented on the PIC16C73.
† NOTICE: Stresses above those listed under “Absolute Maximum Ratings” may cause permanent damage to the
device. This is a stress rating only and functional operation of the device at those or any other conditions above those
indicated in the operation listings of this specification is not implied. Exposure to maximum rating conditions for
extended periods may affect device reliability.
TABLE 18-1:
OSC
CROSS REFERENCE OF DEVICE SPECS FOR OSCILLATOR CONFIGURATIONS
AND FREQUENCIES OF OPERATION (COMMERCIAL DEVICES)
PIC16C73-04
PIC16C74-04
PIC16C73-10
PIC16C74-10
PIC16C73-20
PIC16C74-20
PIC16LC73-04
PIC16LC74-04
JW Devices
RC
VDD: 4.0V to 6.0V
IDD: 5 mA max. at 5.5V
IPD: 21 µA max. at 4V
Freq: 4 MHz max.
VDD: 4.5V to 5.5V
IDD: 2.7 mA typ. at 5.5V
IPD: 1.5 µA typ. at 4V
Freq: 4 MHz max.
VDD: 4.5V to 5.5V
IDD: 2.7 mA typ. at 5.5V
IPD: 1.5 µA typ. at 4V
Freq: 4 MHz max.
VDD: 3.0V to 6.0V
IDD: 3.8 mA max. at 3.0V
IPD: 13.5 µA max. at 3V
Freq: 4 MHz max.
VDD: 4.0V to 6.0V
IDD: 5 mA max. at 5.5V
IPD: 21 µA max. at 4V
Freq: 4 MHz max.
XT
VDD: 4.0V to 6.0V
IDD: 5 mA max. at 5.5V
IPD: 21 µA max. at 4V
Freq: 4 MHz max.
VDD: 4.5V to 5.5V
IDD: 2.7 mA typ. at 5.5V
IPD: 1.5 µA typ. at 4V
Freq: 4 MHz max.
VDD: 4.5V to 5.5V
IDD: 2.7 mA typ. at 5.5V
IPD: 1.5 µA typ. at 4V
Freq: 4 MHz max.
VDD: 3.0V to 6.0V
IDD: 3.8 mA max. at 3.0V
IPD: 13.5 µA max. at 3V
Freq: 4 MHz max.
VDD: 4.0V to 6.0V
IDD: 5 mA max. at 5.5V
IPD: 21 µA max. at 4V
Freq: 4 MHz max.
VDD: 4.5V to 5.5V
VDD: 4.5V to 5.5V
VDD: 4.5V to 5.5V
IDD: 13.5 mA typ. at 5.5V
IDD: 15 mA max. at 5.5V
IDD: 30 mA max. at 5.5V
IPD: 1.5 µA typ. at 4.5V
IPD: 1.5 µA typ. at 4.5V
IPD: 1.5 µA typ. at 4.5V
Freq: 4 MHz max.
Freq: 10 MHz max.
Freq: 20 MHz max.
HS
LP
VDD: 4.0V to 6.0V
IDD: 52.5 µA typ. at
32 kHz, 4.0V
IPD: 0.9 µA typ. at 4.0V
Freq: 200 kHz max.
Not recommended for
use in LP mode
Not recommended for
use in LP mode
VDD: 4.5V to 5.5V
Not recommended for
use in HS mode
IDD: 30 mA max. at 5.5V
IPD: 1.5 µA typ. at 4.5V
Freq: 20 MHz max.
VDD: 3.0V to 6.0V
IDD: 48 µA max. at
32 kHz, 3.0V
IPD: 13.5 µA max. at 3.0V
Freq: 200 kHz max.
VDD: 3.0V to 6.0V
IDD: 48 µA max. at
32 kHz, 3.0V
IPD: 13.5 µA max. at 3.0V
Freq: 200 kHz max.
The shaded sections indicate oscillator selections which are tested for functionality, but not for MIN/MAX specifications.
It is recommended that the user select the device type that ensures the specifications required.
 1997 Microchip Technology Inc.
DS30390E-page 183
PIC16C7X
Applicable Devices 72 73 73A 74 74A 76 77
18.1
DC Characteristics:
PIC16C73/74-04 (Commercial, Industrial)
PIC16C73/74-10 (Commercial, Industrial)
PIC16C73/74-20 (Commercial, Industrial)
Standard Operating Conditions (unless otherwise stated)
Operating temperature -40˚C ≤ TA ≤ +85˚C for industrial and
0˚C
≤ TA ≤ +70˚C for commercial
DC CHARACTERISTICS
Param
No.
Characteristic
Sym
Min
Typ† Max Units
Conditions
D001 Supply Voltage
D001A
VDD
4.0
4.5
-
6.0
5.5
V
V
D002*
RAM Data Retention
Voltage (Note 1)
VDR
-
1.5
-
V
D003
VPOR
VDD start voltage to
ensure internal Power-on
Reset signal
-
VSS
-
V
D004*
VDD rise rate to ensure
internal Power-on Reset
signal
0.05
-
-
D010
Supply Current (Note 2,5) IDD
-
2.7
5
mA
XT, RC osc configuration
FOSC = 4 MHz, VDD = 5.5V (Note 4)
-
13.5
30
mA
HS osc configuration
FOSC = 20 MHz, VDD = 5.5V
-
10.5
1.5
1.5
42
21
24
µA
µA
µA
VDD = 4.0V, WDT enabled, -40°C to +85°C
VDD = 4.0V, WDT disabled, -0°C to +70°C
VDD = 4.0V, WDT disabled, -40°C to +85°C
SVDD
D013
D020 Power-down Current
D021 (Note 3,5)
D021A
*
†
Note 1:
2:
3:
4:
5:
IPD
XT, RC and LP osc configuration
HS osc configuration
See section on Power-on Reset for details
V/ms See section on Power-on Reset for details
These parameters are characterized but not tested.
Data in "Typ" column is at 5V, 25˚C unless otherwise stated. These parameters are for design guidance only
and are not tested.
This is the limit to which VDD can be lowered without losing RAM data.
The supply current is mainly a function of the operating voltage and frequency. Other factors such as I/O pin
loading and switching rate, oscillator type, internal code execution pattern, and temperature also have an
impact on the current consumption.
The test conditions for all IDD measurements in active operation mode are:
OSC1 = external square wave, from rail to rail; all I/O pins tristated, pulled to VDD
MCLR = VDD; WDT enabled/disabled as specified.
The power-down current in SLEEP mode does not depend on the oscillator type. Power-down current is
measured with the part in SLEEP mode, with all I/O pins in hi-impedance state and tied to VDD and VSS.
For RC osc configuration, current through Rext is not included. The current through the resistor can be estimated by the formula Ir = VDD/2Rext (mA) with Rext in kOhm.
Timer1 oscillator (when enabled) adds approximately 20 µA to the specification. This value is from characterization and is for design guidance only. This is not tested.
DS30390E-page 184
 1997 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC16C7X
Applicable Devices 72 73 73A 74 74A 76 77
18.2
DC Characteristics:
PIC16LC73/74-04 (Commercial, Industrial)
Standard Operating Conditions (unless otherwise stated)
Operating temperature -40˚C
≤ TA ≤ +85˚C for industrial and
0˚C
≤ TA ≤ +70˚C for commercial
DC CHARACTERISTICS
Param
No.
Characteristic
Sym
Min
Typ† Max Units
Conditions
D001
Supply Voltage
VDD
3.0
-
6.0
V
D002*
RAM Data Retention
Voltage (Note 1)
VDR
-
1.5
-
V
D003
VPOR
VDD start voltage to
ensure internal Power-on
Reset signal
-
VSS
-
V
D004*
VDD rise rate to ensure
internal Power-on Reset
signal
0.05
-
-
D010
Supply Current (Note 2,5) IDD
-
2.0
3.8
mA
XT, RC osc configuration
FOSC = 4 MHz, VDD = 3.0V (Note 4)
-
22.5
48
µA
LP osc configuration
FOSC = 32 kHz, VDD = 3.0V, WDT disabled
-
7.5
0.9
0.9
30
13.5
18
µA
µA
µA
VDD = 3.0V, WDT enabled, -40°C to +85°C
VDD = 3.0V, WDT disabled, 0°C to +70°C
VDD = 3.0V, WDT disabled, -40°C to +85°C
SVDD
D010A
D020
D021
D021A
*
†
Note 1:
2:
3:
4:
5:
Power-down Current
(Note 3,5)
IPD
LP, XT, RC osc configuration (DC - 4 MHz)
See section on Power-on Reset for details
V/ms See section on Power-on Reset for details
These parameters are characterized but not tested.
Data in "Typ" column is at 5V, 25˚C unless otherwise stated. These parameters are for design guidance only
and are not tested.
This is the limit to which VDD can be lowered without losing RAM data.
The supply current is mainly a function of the operating voltage and frequency. Other factors such as I/O pin
loading and switching rate, oscillator type, internal code execution pattern, and temperature also have an
impact on the current consumption.
The test conditions for all IDD measurements in active operation mode are:
OSC1 = external square wave, from rail to rail; all I/O pins tristated, pulled to VDD
MCLR = VDD; WDT enabled/disabled as specified.
The power-down current in SLEEP mode does not depend on the oscillator type. Power-down current is
measured with the part in SLEEP mode, with all I/O pins in hi-impedance state and tied to VDD and VSS.
For RC osc configuration, current through Rext is not included. The current through the resistor can be estimated by the formula Ir = VDD/2Rext (mA) with Rext in kOhm.
Timer1 oscillator (when enabled) adds approximately 20 µA to the specification. This value is from characterization and is for design guidance only. This is not tested.
 1997 Microchip Technology Inc.
DS30390E-page 185
PIC16C7X
Applicable Devices 72 73 73A 74 74A 76 77
18.3
DC Characteristics:
PIC16C73/74-04 (Commercial, Industrial)
PIC16C73/74-10 (Commercial, Industrial)
PIC16C73/74-20 (Commercial, Industrial)
PIC16LC73/74-04 (Commercial, Industrial)
DC CHARACTERISTICS
Param
No.
Characteristic
Input Low Voltage
I/O ports
with TTL buffer
D030
D030A
D031
with Schmitt Trigger buffer
D032
MCLR, OSC1 (in RC mode)
D033
OSC1 (in XT, HS and LP)
Input High Voltage
I/O ports
D040
with TTL buffer
D040A
D041
D042
D042A
D043
D070
D060
with Schmitt Trigger buffer
MCLR
OSC1 (XT, HS and LP)
OSC1 (in RC mode)
PORTB weak pull-up current
Input Leakage Current
(Notes 2, 3)
I/O ports
D061
D063
MCLR, RA4/T0CKI
OSC1
D080
Output Low Voltage
I/O ports
D083
OSC2/CLKOUT (RC osc config)
D090
Output High Voltage
I/O ports (Note 3)
D092
OSC2/CLKOUT (RC osc config)
D150*
*
†
Standard Operating Conditions (unless otherwise stated)
Operating temperature
-40˚C ≤ TA ≤ +85˚C for industrial and
0˚C
≤ TA ≤ +70˚C for commercial
Operating voltage VDD range as described in DC spec Section 18.1 and
Section 18.2.
Sym
Min Typ Max Units
Conditions
†
VIL
VSS
VSS
VSS
VSS
VSS
VIH
2.0
0.25VDD
+ 0.8V
-
0.15VDD
0.8V
0.2VDD
0.2VDD
0.3VDD
V
V
V
V
V
For entire VDD range
4.5V ≤ VDD ≤ 5.5V
-
VDD
VDD
V
V
4.5V ≤ VDD ≤ 5.5V
For entire VDD range
VDD
VDD
VDD
VDD
400
V For entire VDD range
V
V Note1
V
µA VDD = 5V, VPIN = VSS
0.8VDD 0.8VDD 0.7VDD 0.9VDD IPURB
50
250
-
-
±1
-
-
±5
±5
-
-
0.6
V
-
-
0.6
V
VOH VDD - 0.7 -
-
V
VDD - 0.7 -
-
V
IIL
VOL
Note1
µA Vss ≤ VPIN ≤ VDD, Pin at hi-impedance
µA Vss ≤ VPIN ≤ VDD
µA Vss ≤ VPIN ≤ VDD, XT, HS and LP osc
configuration
IOL = 8.5 mA, VDD = 4.5V,
-40°C to +85°C
IOL = 1.6 mA, VDD = 4.5V,
-40°C to +85°C
IOH = -3.0 mA, VDD = 4.5V,
-40°C to +85°C
IOH = -1.3 mA, VDD = 4.5V,
-40°C to +85°C
RA4 pin
Open-Drain High Voltage
VOD
14
V
These parameters are characterized but not tested.
Data in “Typ” column is at 5V, 25°C unless otherwise stated. These parameters are for design guidance only
and are not tested.
Note 1: In RC oscillator configuration, the OSC1/CLKIN pin is a Schmitt Trigger input. It is not recommended that the
PIC16C7X be driven with external clock in RC mode.
2: The leakage current on the MCLR pin is strongly dependent on the applied voltage level. The specified levels
represent normal operating conditions. Higher leakage current may be measured at different input voltages.
3: Negative current is defined as current sourced by the pin.
DS30390E-page 186
 1997 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC16C7X
Applicable Devices 72 73 73A 74 74A 76 77
DC CHARACTERISTICS
Param
No.
D100
Characteristic
Capacitive Loading Specs on
Output Pins
OSC2 pin
Standard Operating Conditions (unless otherwise stated)
Operating temperature
-40˚C ≤ TA ≤ +85˚C for industrial and
0˚C
≤ TA ≤ +70˚C for commercial
Operating voltage VDD range as described in DC spec Section 18.1 and
Section 18.2.
Sym
Min Typ Max Units
Conditions
†
COSC2
-
-
15
pF
In XT, HS and LP modes when external clock is used to drive OSC1.
D101
D102
All I/O pins and OSC2 (in RC
CIO
50
pF
400
pF
CB
mode) SCL, SDA in I2C mode
* These parameters are characterized but not tested.
† Data in “Typ” column is at 5V, 25°C unless otherwise stated. These parameters are for design guidance only
and are not tested.
Note 1: In RC oscillator configuration, the OSC1/CLKIN pin is a Schmitt Trigger input. It is not recommended that the
PIC16C7X be driven with external clock in RC mode.
2: The leakage current on the MCLR pin is strongly dependent on the applied voltage level. The specified levels
represent normal operating conditions. Higher leakage current may be measured at different input voltages.
3: Negative current is defined as current sourced by the pin.
 1997 Microchip Technology Inc.
DS30390E-page 187
PIC16C7X
Applicable Devices 72 73 73A 74 74A 76 77
18.4
Timing Parameter Symbology
The timing parameter symbols have been created following one of the following formats:
1. TppS2ppS
3. TCC:ST
(I2C specifications only)
2. TppS
4. Ts
(I2C specifications only)
T
F
Frequency
Lowercase letters (pp) and their meanings:
pp
cc
CCP1
ck
CLKOUT
cs
CS
di
SDI
do
SDO
dt
Data in
io
I/O port
mc
MCLR
Uppercase letters and their meanings:
S
F
Fall
H
High
I
Invalid (Hi-impedance)
L
Low
I2C only
AA
BUF
output access
Bus free
TCC:ST (I2C specifications only)
CC
HD
Hold
ST
DAT
DATA input hold
STA
START condition
T
Time
osc
rd
rw
sc
ss
t0
t1
wr
OSC1
RD
RD or WR
SCK
SS
T0CKI
T1CKI
WR
P
R
V
Z
Period
Rise
Valid
Hi-impedance
High
Low
High
Low
SU
Setup
STO
STOP condition
FIGURE 18-1: LOAD CONDITIONS
Load condition 2
Load condition 1
VDD/2
RL
CL
Pin
VSS
CL
Pin
VSS
RL = 464Ω
CL = 50 pF
15 pF
for all pins except OSC2, but including PORTD and PORTE outputs as
ports
for OSC2 output
Note: PORTD and PORTE are not implemented on the PIC16C73.
DS30390E-page 188
 1997 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC16C7X
Applicable Devices 72 73 73A 74 74A 76 77
18.5
Timing Diagrams and Specifications
FIGURE 18-2: EXTERNAL CLOCK TIMING
Q4
Q1
Q2
Q3
Q4
Q1
OSC1
1
3
3
4
4
2
CLKOUT
TABLE 18-2:
Parameter
No.
EXTERNAL CLOCK TIMING REQUIREMENTS
Sym
Characteristic
Fosc
External CLKIN Frequency
(Note 1)
Min
Typ†
Max
Units Conditions
DC
—
4
MHz XT and RC osc mode
DC
—
4
MHz HS osc mode (-04)
DC
—
10
MHz HS osc mode (-10)
DC
—
20
MHz HS osc mode (-20)
DC
—
200
kHz LP osc mode
Oscillator Frequency
DC
—
4
MHz RC osc mode
(Note 1)
0.1
—
4
MHz XT osc mode
4
—
20
MHz HS osc mode
5
—
200
kHz LP osc mode
1
Tosc External CLKIN Period
250
—
—
ns
XT and RC osc mode
(Note 1)
250
—
—
ns
HS osc mode (-04)
100
—
—
ns
HS osc mode (-10)
50
—
—
ns
HS osc mode (-20)
5
—
—
µs
LP osc mode
Oscillator Period
250
—
—
ns
RC osc mode
(Note 1)
250
—
10,000
ns
XT osc mode
250
—
250
ns
HS osc mode (-04)
100
—
250
ns
HS osc mode (-10)
50
—
250
ns
HS osc mode (-20)
5
—
—
µs
LP osc mode
200
—
DC
ns
TCY = 4/FOSC
2
TCY Instruction Cycle Time (Note 1)
3
TosL, External Clock in (OSC1) High or
50
—
—
ns
XT oscillator
TosH Low Time
2.5
—
—
µs
LP oscillator
15
—
—
ns
HS oscillator
4
TosR, External Clock in (OSC1) Rise or
—
—
25
ns
XT oscillator
TosF Fall Time
—
—
50
ns
LP oscillator
—
—
15
ns
HS oscillator
† Data in "Typ" column is at 5V, 25˚C unless otherwise stated. These parameters are for design guidance only and are not
tested.
Note 1: Instruction cycle period (TCY) equals four times the input oscillator time-base period. All specified values are based on
characterization data for that particular oscillator type under standard operating conditions with the device executing code.
Exceeding these specified limits may result in an unstable oscillator operation and/or higher than expected current consumption. All devices are tested to operate at "min." values with an external clock applied to the OSC1/CLKIN pin.
When an external clock input is used, the "Max." cycle time limit is "DC" (no clock) for all devices.
 1997 Microchip Technology Inc.
DS30390E-page 189
PIC16C7X
Applicable Devices 72 73 73A 74 74A 76 77
FIGURE 18-3: CLKOUT AND I/O TIMING
Q1
Q4
Q2
Q3
OSC1
11
10
CLKOUT
13
19
14
12
18
16
I/O Pin
(input)
15
17
I/O Pin
(output)
new value
old value
20, 21
Note: Refer to Figure 18-1 for load conditions.
TABLE 18-3:
CLKOUT AND I/O TIMING REQUIREMENTS
Parameter Sym
No.
Characteristic
Min
Typ†
Max
Units Conditions
10*
TosH2ckL
OSC1↑ to CLKOUT↓
—
75
200
ns
Note 1
11*
TosH2ckH
OSC1↑ to CLKOUT↑
—
75
200
ns
Note 1
12*
TckR
CLKOUT rise time
—
35
100
ns
Note 1
13*
TckF
CLKOUT fall time
—
35
100
ns
Note 1
14*
TckL2ioV
CLKOUT ↓ to Port out valid
—
—
0.5TCY + 20
ns
Note 1
15*
TioV2ckH
Port in valid before CLKOUT ↑
0.25TCY + 25
—
—
ns
Note 1
16*
TckH2ioI
Port in hold after CLKOUT ↑
0
—
—
ns
Note 1
17*
TosH2ioV
OSC1↑ (Q1 cycle) to
Port out valid
—
50
150
ns
18*
TosH2ioI
OSC1↑ (Q2 cycle) to
Port input invalid (I/O in
hold time)
PIC16C73/74
100
—
—
ns
PIC16LC73/74
200
—
—
ns
19*
TioV2osH
Port input valid to OSC1↑ (I/O in setup time)
0
—
—
ns
20*
TioR
Port output rise time
PIC16C73/74
—
10
25
ns
PIC16LC73/74
—
—
60
ns
PIC16C73/74
—
10
25
ns
PIC16LC73/74
—
—
60
ns
21*
TioF
Port output fall time
22††*
Tinp
INT pin high or low time
TCY
—
—
ns
23††*
Trbp
RB7:RB4 change INT high or low time
TCY
—
—
ns
* These parameters are characterized but not tested.
†Data in "Typ" column is at 5V, 25˚C unless otherwise stated. These parameters are for design guidance
only and are not tested.
†† These parameters are asynchronous events not related to any internal clock edges.
Note 1: Measurements are taken in RC Mode where CLKOUT output is 4 x TOSC.
DS30390E-page 190
 1997 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC16C7X
Applicable Devices 72 73 73A 74 74A 76 77
FIGURE 18-4: RESET, WATCHDOG TIMER, OSCILLATOR START-UP TIMER AND POWER-UP
TIMER TIMING
VDD
MCLR
30
Internal
POR
33
PWRT
Time-out
32
OSC
Time-out
Internal
RESET
Watchdog
Timer
RESET
31
34
34
I/O Pins
Note: Refer to Figure 18-1 for load conditions.
TABLE 18-4:
RESET, WATCHDOG TIMER, OSCILLATOR START-UP TIMER AND POWER-UP
TIMER REQUIREMENTS
Parameter
No.
Sym
Characteristic
Min
30
TmcL
MCLR Pulse Width (low)
100
—
—
ns
VDD = 5V, -40˚C to +85˚C
31*
Twdt
Watchdog Timer Time-out Period
(No Prescaler)
7
18
33
ms
VDD = 5V, -40˚C to +85˚C
*
†
32
Tost
33*
Tpwrt
34
TIOZ
Typ†
Max
Units
Conditions
Oscillation Start-up Timer Period
—
1024TOSC
—
—
TOSC = OSC1 period
Power up Timer Period
28
72
132
ms
VDD = 5V, -40˚C to +85˚C
I/O Hi-impedance from MCLR Low
or Watchdog Timer Reset
—
—
100
ns
These parameters are characterized but not tested.
Data in "Typ" column is at 5V, 25˚C unless otherwise stated. These parameters are for design guidance only and are not
tested.
 1997 Microchip Technology Inc.
DS30390E-page 191
PIC16C7X
Applicable Devices 72 73 73A 74 74A 76 77
FIGURE 18-5: TIMER0 AND TIMER1 EXTERNAL CLOCK TIMINGS
RA4/T0CKI
41
40
42
RC0/T1OSO/T1CKI
46
45
47
48
TMR0 or
TMR1
Note: Refer to Figure 18-1 for load conditions.
TABLE 18-5:
TIMER0 AND TIMER1 EXTERNAL CLOCK REQUIREMENTS
Param
No.
Sym
Characteristic
40*
Tt0H
T0CKI High Pulse Width
No Prescaler
T0CKI Low Pulse Width
With Prescaler
No Prescaler
With Prescaler
41*
42*
45*
46*
47*
48
*
†
Tt0L
Min
Typ†
Max
0.5TCY + 20
—
—
ns
10
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
ns
ns
ns
ns
ns
—
—
—
—
—
—
ns
ns
ns
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
ns
ns
ns
ns
ns
—
—
—
—
—
—
ns
ns
ns
0.5TCY + 20
10
Tt0P
T0CKI Period
TCY + 40
No Prescaler
With Prescaler Greater of:
20 or TCY + 40
N
Tt1H
T1CKI High Time Synchronous, Prescaler = 1
0.5TCY + 20
Synchronous, PIC16C7X
15
Prescaler =
PIC16LC7X
25
2,4,8
Asynchronous PIC16C7X
30
PIC16LC7X
50
Tt1L
T1CKI Low Time
Synchronous, Prescaler = 1
0.5TCY + 20
Synchronous, PIC16C7X
15
Prescaler =
PIC16LC7X
25
2,4,8
Asynchronous PIC16C7X
30
PIC16LC7X
50
Tt1P
T1CKI input period Synchronous PIC16C7X
Greater of:
30 OR TCY + 40
N
Greater of:
PIC16LC7X
50 OR TCY + 40
N
Asynchronous PIC16C7X
60
PIC16LC7X
100
Ft1
Timer1 oscillator input frequency range
DC
(oscillator enabled by setting bit T1OSCEN)
TCKEZtmr1 Delay from external clock edge to timer increment
2Tosc
Units Conditions
Must also meet
parameter 42
Must also meet
parameter 42
N = prescale value
(2, 4, ..., 256)
Must also meet
parameter 47
Must also meet
parameter 47
N = prescale value
(1, 2, 4, 8)
N = prescale value
(1, 2, 4, 8)
—
—
—
—
—
200
ns
ns
kHz
—
7Tosc
—
These parameters are characterized but not tested.
Data in "Typ" column is at 5V, 25˚C unless otherwise stated. These parameters are for design guidance only and are not
tested.
DS30390E-page 192
 1997 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC16C7X
Applicable Devices 72 73 73A 74 74A 76 77
FIGURE 18-6: CAPTURE/COMPARE/PWM TIMINGS (CCP1 AND CCP2)
RC1/T1OSI/CCP2
and RC2/CCP1
(Capture Mode)
50
51
52
RC1/T1OSI/CCP2
and RC2/CCP1
(Compare or PWM Mode)
53
54
Note: Refer to Figure 18-1 for load conditions.
TABLE 18-6:
Parameter
No.
50*
51*
CAPTURE/COMPARE/PWM REQUIREMENTS (CCP1 AND CCP2)
Sym Characteristic
TccL CCP1 and CCP2
input low time
TccH CCP1 and CCP2
input high time
Min
No Prescaler
*
†
—
—
ns
10
—
—
ns
20
—
—
ns
0.5TCY + 20
—
—
ns
PIC16C73/74
10
—
—
ns
PIC16LC73/74
20
—
—
ns
3TCY + 40
N
—
—
ns
No Prescaler
52*
TccP CCP1 and CCP2 input period
53*
TccR CCP1 and CCP2 output fall time
54*
0.5TCY + 20
PIC16C73/74
With Prescaler PIC16LC73/74
With Prescaler
TccF CCP1 and CCP2 output fall time
Typ† Max Units Conditions
PIC16C73/74
—
10
25
ns
PIC16LC73/74
—
25
45
ns
PIC16C73/74
—
10
25
ns
PIC16LC73/74
—
25
45
ns
N = prescale value
(1,4 or 16)
These parameters are characterized but not tested.
Data in "Typ" column is at 5V, 25˚C unless otherwise stated. These parameters are for design guidance only and are not
tested.
 1997 Microchip Technology Inc.
DS30390E-page 193
PIC16C7X
Applicable Devices 72 73 73A 74 74A 76 77
FIGURE 18-7: PARALLEL SLAVE PORT TIMING (PIC16C74)
RE2/CS
RE0/RD
RE1/WR
65
RD7:RD0
62
64
63
Note: Refer to Figure 18-1 for load conditions
TABLE 18-7:
Parameter
No.
*
†
PARALLEL SLAVE PORT REQUIREMENTS (PIC16C74)
Sym
Characteristic
62
TdtV2wrH Data in valid before WR↑ or CS↑ (setup time)
63*
TwrH2dtI
WR↑ or CS↑ to data–in invalid (hold time)
Min Typ† Max Units
20
—
—
Conditions
ns
PIC16C74
20
—
—
ns
PIC16LC74
35
—
—
ns
64
TrdL2dtV
RD↓ and CS↓ to data–out valid
—
—
80
ns
65
TrdH2dtI
RD↑ or CS↓ to data–out invalid
10
—
30
ns
These parameters are characterized but not tested.
Data in "Typ" column is at 5V, 25˚C unless otherwise stated. These parameters are for design guidance only and are not
tested.
DS30390E-page 194
 1997 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC16C7X
Applicable Devices 72 73 73A 74 74A 76 77
FIGURE 18-8: SPI MODE TIMING
SS
70
SCK
(CKP = 0)
71
72
78
79
79
78
SCK
(CKP = 1)
80
SDO
77
75, 76
SDI
74
73
Note: Refer to Figure 18-1 for load conditions
TABLE 18-8:
Parameter
No.
SPI MODE REQUIREMENTS
Sym
Characteristic
Min
Typ†
Max
Units
TCY
—
—
ns
70
TssL2scH,
TssL2scL
SS↓ to SCK↓ or SCK↑ input
71
TscH
SCK input high time (slave mode)
TCY + 20
—
—
ns
72
TscL
SCK input low time (slave mode)
TCY + 20
—
—
ns
73
TdiV2scH,
TdiV2scL
Setup time of SDI data input to SCK
edge
50
—
—
ns
74
TscH2diL,
TscL2diL
Hold time of SDI data input to SCK
edge
50
—
—
ns
75
TdoR
SDO data output rise time
—
10
25
ns
76
TdoF
SDO data output fall time
—
10
25
ns
77
TssH2doZ
SS↑ to SDO output hi-impedance
10
—
50
ns
78
TscR
SCK output rise time (master mode)
—
10
25
ns
79
TscF
SCK output fall time (master mode)
—
10
25
ns
Conditions
80
†
TscH2doV,
SDO data output valid after SCK
—
—
50
ns
TscL2doV
edge
Data in "Typ" column is at 5V, 25˚C unless otherwise stated. These parameters are for design guidance only and are not
tested.
 1997 Microchip Technology Inc.
DS30390E-page 195
PIC16C7X
Applicable Devices 72 73 73A 74 74A 76 77
FIGURE 18-9: I2C BUS START/STOP BITS TIMING
SCL
93
91
90
92
SDA
STOP
Condition
START
Condition
Note: Refer to Figure 18-1 for load conditions
TABLE 18-9:
I2C BUS START/STOP BITS REQUIREMENTS
Parameter
No.
Sym
90
TSU:STA
91
THD:STA
92
TSU:STO
93
THD:STO
DS30390E-page 196
Characteristic
START condition
Setup time
START condition
Hold time
STOP condition
Setup time
STOP condition
Hold time
Min
100 kHz mode
400 kHz mode
100 kHz mode
400 kHz mode
100 kHz mode
400 kHz mode
100 kHz mode
400 kHz mode
4700
600
4000
600
4700
600
4000
600
Typ Max
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
Units
Conditions
ns
Only relevant for repeated START
condition
ns
After this period the first clock
pulse is generated
ns
ns
 1997 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC16C7X
Applicable Devices 72 73 73A 74 74A 76 77
FIGURE 18-10: I2C BUS DATA TIMING
103
102
100
101
SCL
90
106
107
91
92
SDA
In
110
109
109
SDA
Out
Note: Refer to Figure 18-1 for load conditions
TABLE 18-10: I2C BUS DATA REQUIREMENTS
Parameter
No.
Sym
Characteristic
100
THIGH
Clock high time
101
102
103
TLOW
TR
TF
Clock low time
SDA and SCL rise
time
SDA and SCL fall time
90
TSU:STA
START condition
setup time
91
THD:STA
START condition hold
time
106
THD:DAT
Data input hold time
107
TSU:DAT
Data input setup time
92
TSU:STO
STOP condition setup
time
109
TAA
Output valid from
clock
110
TBUF
Bus free time
Min
Max
Units
Conditions
100 kHz mode
4.0
—
µs
400 kHz mode
0.6
—
µs
Device must operate at a minimum of 1.5 MHz
Device must operate at a minimum of 10 MHz
SSP Module
100 kHz mode
1.5TCY
4.7
—
—
µs
400 kHz mode
1.3
—
µs
SSP Module
100 kHz mode
400 kHz mode
1.5TCY
—
20 + 0.1Cb
—
1000
300
ns
ns
100 kHz mode
400 kHz mode
—
20 + 0.1Cb
300
300
ns
ns
100 kHz mode
400 kHz mode
100 kHz mode
400 kHz mode
100 kHz mode
400 kHz mode
100 kHz mode
400 kHz mode
100 kHz mode
400 kHz mode
100 kHz mode
400 kHz mode
100 kHz mode
400 kHz mode
4.7
0.6
4.0
0.6
0
0
250
100
4.7
0.6
—
—
4.7
1.3
—
—
—
—
—
0.9
—
—
—
—
3500
—
—
—
µs
µs
µs
µs
ns
µs
ns
ns
µs
µs
ns
ns
µs
µs
Device must operate at a minimum of 1.5 MHz
Device must operate at a minimum of 10 MHz
Cb is specified to be from
10 to 400 pF
Cb is specified to be from
10 to 400 pF
Only relevant for repeated
START condition
After this period the first clock
pulse is generated
Note 2
Note 1
Time the bus must be free
before a new transmission can
start
Cb
Bus capacitive loading
—
400
pF
Note 1: As a transmitter, the device must provide this internal minimum delay time to bridge the undefined region (min. 300 ns) of
the falling edge of SCL to avoid unintended generation of START or STOP conditions.
2: A fast-mode (400 kHz) I2C-bus device can be used in a standard-mode (100 kHz) I2C-bus system, but the requirement
tsu;DAT ≥ 250 ns must then be met. This will automatically be the case if the device does not stretch the LOW period of the
SCL signal. If such a device does stretch the LOW period of the SCL signal, it must output the next data bit to the SDA line
TR max.+tsu;DAT = 1000 + 250 = 1250 ns (according to the standard-mode I2C bus specification) before the SCL line is
released.
 1997 Microchip Technology Inc.
DS30390E-page 197
PIC16C7X
Applicable Devices 72 73 73A 74 74A 76 77
FIGURE 18-11: USART SYNCHRONOUS TRANSMISSION (MASTER/SLAVE) TIMING
RC6/TX/CK
pin
121
121
RC7/RX/DT
pin
120
122
Note: Refer to Figure 18-1 for load conditions
TABLE 18-11: USART SYNCHRONOUS TRANSMISSION REQUIREMENTS
Parameter
No.
120
121
Characteristic
TckH2dtV
SYNC XMIT (MASTER &
SLAVE)
Clock high to data out valid
Tckrf
122
†:
Sym
Tdtrf
Min
Clock out rise time and fall time
(Master Mode)
Data out rise time and fall time
Typ†
Max
Units Conditions
PIC16C73/74
—
—
80
ns
PIC16LC73/74
—
—
100
ns
PIC16C73/74
—
—
45
ns
PIC16LC73/74
—
—
50
ns
PIC16C73/74
—
—
45
ns
PIC16LC73/74
—
—
50
ns
Data in “Typ” column is at 5V, 25°C unless otherwise stated. These parameters are for design guidance only and are not
tested.
FIGURE 18-12: USART SYNCHRONOUS RECEIVE (MASTER/SLAVE) TIMING
RC6/TX/CK
pin
RC7/RX/DT
pin
125
126
Note: Refer to Figure 18-1 for load conditions
TABLE 18-12: USART SYNCHRONOUS RECEIVE REQUIREMENTS
Parameter
No.
†:
Sym
Characteristic
Min
Typ†
Max
125
TdtV2ckL
126
TckL2dtl
Units Conditions
SYNC RCV (MASTER & SLAVE)
Data setup before CK ↓ (DT setup time)
15
—
—
ns
Data hold after CK ↓ (DT hold time)
15
—
—
ns
Data in “Typ” column is at 5V, 25°C unless otherwise stated. These parameters are for design guidance only and are not
tested.
DS30390E-page 198
 1997 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC16C7X
Applicable Devices 72 73 73A 74 74A 76 77
TABLE 18-13: A/D CONVERTER CHARACTERISTICS:
PIC16C73/74-04 (Commercial, Industrial)
PIC16C73/74-10 (Commercial, Industrial)
PIC16C73/74-20 (Commercial, Industrial)
PIC16LC73/74-04 (Commercial, Industrial)
Param Sym Characteristic
No.
A01
NR
A02
Resolution
EABS Total Absolute error
Typ†
Max
Units
Conditions
—
—
8-bits
bit
—
—
<±1
LSb VREF = VDD = 5.12V,
VSS ≤ VAIN ≤ VREF
—
—
<±1
LSb VREF = VDD = 5.12V,
VSS ≤ VAIN ≤ VREF
VREF = VDD = 5.12V,
VSS ≤ VAIN ≤ VREF
A03
EIL
A04
EDL Differential linearity error
—
—
<±1
LSb VREF = VDD = 5.12V,
VSS ≤ VAIN ≤ VREF
A05
EFS Full scale error
—
—
<±1
LSb VREF = VDD = 5.12V,
VSS ≤ VAIN ≤ VREF
A06
EOFF Offset error
—
—
<±1
LSb VREF = VDD = 5.12V,
VSS ≤ VAIN ≤ VREF
A10
—
Integral linearity error
Min
VSS ≤ VAIN ≤ VREF
Monotonicity
—
guaranteed
—
—
A20
VREF Reference voltage
3.0V
—
VDD + 0.3
V
A25
VAIN Analog input voltage
VSS - 0.3
—
VREF + 0.3
V
A30
ZAIN Recommended impedance of
analog voltage source
—
—
10.0
kΩ
A40
IAD
PIC16C73/74
—
180
—
µA
PIC16LC73/74
—
90
—
µA
10
—
1000
µA
During VAIN acquisition.
Based on differential of
VHOLD to VAIN to charge
CHOLD, see Section 13.1.
—
—
10
µA
During A/D Conversion
cycle
A50
A/D conversion current
(VDD)
IREF VREF input current (Note 2)
Average current consumption when A/D is on.
(Note 1)
*
†
These parameters are characterized but not tested.
Data in “Typ” column is at 5V, 25°C unless otherwise stated. These parameters are for design guidance only and are not
tested.
Note 1: When A/D is off, it will not consume any current other than minor leakage current.
The power-down current spec includes any such leakage from the A/D module.
2: VREF current is from RA3 pin or VDD pin, whichever is selected as reference input.
 1997 Microchip Technology Inc.
DS30390E-page 199
PIC16C7X
Applicable Devices 72 73 73A 74 74A 76 77
FIGURE 18-13: A/D CONVERSION TIMING
BSF ADCON0, GO
134
1 TCY
(TOSC/2) (1)
131
Q4
130
132
A/D CLK
7
A/D DATA
6
5
4
3
2
1
NEW_DATA
OLD_DATA
ADRES
0
ADIF
GO
DONE
SAMPLING STOPPED
SAMPLE
Note 1: If the A/D clock source is selected as RC, a time of TCY is added before the A/D clock starts. This allows the
SLEEP instruction to be executed.
TABLE 18-14: A/D CONVERSION REQUIREMENTS
Param
No.
130
Sym Characteristic
TAD
A/D clock period
Min
Typ†
Max
Units
Conditions
PIC16C73/74
1.6
—
—
µs
PIC16LC73/74
2.0
—
—
µs
TOSC based, VREF ≥ 3.0V
TOSC based, VREF full range
PIC16C73/74
2.0
4.0
6.0
µs
A/D RC Mode
A/D RC Mode
PIC16LC73/74
3.0
6.0
9.0
µs
131
TCNV Conversion time (not including S/H time)
(Note 1)
—
9.5
—
TAD
132
TACQ Acquisition time
Note 2
20
—
µs
5*
—
—
µs
The minimum time is the amplifier
settling time. This may be used if
the "new" input voltage has not
changed by more than 1 LSb (i.e.,
20 mV @ 5.12V) from the last
sampled voltage (as stated on
CHOLD).
—
TOSC/2 §
—
—
If the A/D clock source is selected
as RC, a time of TCY is added
before the A/D clock starts. This
allows the SLEEP instruction to be
executed.
1.5 §
—
—
TAD
134
TGO
Q4 to A/D clock start
TSWC Switching from convert → sample time
135
*
†
These parameters are characterized but not tested.
Data in “Typ” column is at 5V, 25°C unless otherwise stated. These parameters are for design guidance only and are not
tested.
§ This specification ensured by design.
Note 1: ADRES register may be read on the following TCY cycle.
2: See Section 13.1 for min conditions.
DS30390E-page 200
 1997 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC16C7X
Applicable Devices 72 73 73A 74 74A 76 77
19.0
ELECTRICAL CHARACTERISTICS FOR PIC16C73A/74A
Absolute Maximum Ratings †
Ambient temperature under bias..................................................................................................................-55 to +125˚C
Storage temperature ............................................................................................................................... -65˚C to +150˚C
Voltage on any pin with respect to VSS (except VDD, MCLR. and RA4)...........................................-0.3V to (VDD + 0.3V)
Voltage on VDD with respect to VSS ............................................................................................................ -0.3 to +7.5V
Voltage on MCLR with respect to VSS (Note 2) ................................................................................................. 0 to +14V
Voltage on RA4 with respect to Vss ................................................................................................................... 0 to +14V
Total power dissipation (Note 1).................................................................................................................................1.0W
Maximum current out of VSS pin ............................................................................................................................300 mA
Maximum current into VDD pin ...............................................................................................................................250 mA
Input clamp current, IIK (VI < 0 or VI > VDD) .....................................................................................................................± 20 mA
Output clamp current, IOK (VO < 0 or VO > VDD)..............................................................................................................± 20 mA
Maximum output current sunk by any I/O pin...........................................................................................................25 mA
Maximum output current sourced by any I/O pin .....................................................................................................25 mA
Maximum current sunk by PORTA, PORTB, and PORTE (combined) (Note 3).....................................................200 mA
Maximum current sourced by PORTA, PORTB, and PORTE (combined) (Note 3) ...............................................200 mA
Maximum current sunk by PORTC and PORTD (combined) (Note 3) ...................................................................200 mA
Maximum current sourced by PORTC and PORTD (combined) (Note 3)..............................................................200 mA
Note 1: Power dissipation is calculated as follows: Pdis = VDD x {IDD - ∑ IOH} + ∑ {(VDD - VOH) x IOH} + ∑(VOl x IOL)
Note 2: Voltage spikes below VSS at the MCLR pin, inducing currents greater than 80 mA, may cause latch-up. Thus,
a series resistor of 50-100Ω should be used when applying a “low” level to the MCLR pin rather than pulling
this pin directly to VSS.
Note 3: PORTD and PORTE are not implemented on the PIC16C73A.
† NOTICE: Stresses above those listed under “Absolute Maximum Ratings” may cause permanent damage to the
device. This is a stress rating only and functional operation of the device at those or any other conditions above those
indicated in the operation listings of this specification is not implied. Exposure to maximum rating conditions for
extended periods may affect device reliability.
TABLE 19-1:
OSC
CROSS REFERENCE OF DEVICE SPECS FOR OSCILLATOR CONFIGURATIONS
AND FREQUENCIES OF OPERATION (COMMERCIAL DEVICES)
PIC16C73A-04
PIC16C74A-04
PIC16C73A-10
PIC16C74A-10
PIC16C73A-20
PIC16C74A-20
PIC16LC73A-04
PIC16LC74A-04
JW Devices
RC
VDD: 4.0V to 6.0V
IDD: 5 mA max. at 5.5V
IPD: 16 µA max. at 4V
Freq: 4 MHz max.
VDD: 4.5V to 5.5V
IDD: 2.7 mA typ. at 5.5V
IPD: 1.5 µA typ. at 4V
Freq: 4 MHz max.
VDD: 4.5V to 5.5V
IDD: 2.7 mA typ. at 5.5V
IPD: 1.5 µA typ. at 4V
Freq: 4 MHz max.
VDD: 2.5V to 6.0V
IDD: 3.8 mA max. at 3.0V
IPD: 5 µA max. at 3V
Freq: 4 MHz max.
VDD: 4.0V to 6.0V
IDD: 5 mA max. at 5.5V
IPD: 16 µA max. at 4V
Freq: 4 MHz max.
XT
VDD: 4.0V to 6.0V
IDD: 5 mA max. at 5.5V
IPD: 16 µA max. at 4V
Freq: 4 MHz max.
VDD: 4.5V to 5.5V
IDD: 2.7 mA typ. at 5.5V
IPD: 1.5 µA typ. at 4V
Freq: 4 MHz max.
VDD: 4.5V to 5.5V
IDD: 2.7 mA typ. at 5.5V
IPD: 1.5 µA typ. at 4V
Freq: 4 MHz max.
VDD: 2.5V to 6.0V
IDD: 3.8 mA max. at 3.0V
IPD: 5 µA max. at 3V
Freq: 4 MHz max.
VDD: 4.0V to 6.0V
IDD: 5 mA max. at 5.5V
IPD: 16 µA max. at 4V
Freq: 4 MHz max.
VDD: 4.5V to 5.5V
VDD: 4.5V to 5.5V
VDD: 4.5V to 5.5V
IDD: 13.5 mA typ. at 5.5V
IDD: 10 mA max. at 5.5V
IDD: 20 mA max. at 5.5V
IPD: 1.5 µA typ. at 4.5V
IPD: 1.5 µA typ. at 4.5V
IPD: 1.5 µA typ. at 4.5V
Freq: 4 MHz max.
Freq: 10 MHz max.
Freq: 20 MHz max.
HS
LP
VDD: 4.0V to 6.0V
IDD: 52.5 µA typ. at
32 kHz, 4.0V
IPD: 0.9 µA typ. at 4.0V
Freq: 200 kHz max.
Not recommended for
use in LP mode
Not recommended for
use in LP mode
VDD: 4.5V to 5.5V
Not recommended for
use in HS mode
IDD: 20 mA max. at 5.5V
IPD: 1.5 µA typ. at 4.5V
Freq: 20 MHz max.
VDD: 2.5V to 6.0V
IDD: 48 µA max. at
32 kHz, 3.0V
IPD: 5.0 µA max. at 3.0V
Freq: 200 kHz max.
VDD: 2.5V to 6.0V
IDD: 48 µA max. at
32 kHz, 3.0V
IPD: 5.0 µA max. at 3.0V
Freq: 200 kHz max.
The shaded sections indicate oscillator selections which are tested for functionality, but not for MIN/MAX specifications.
It is recommended that the user select the device type that ensures the specifications required.
 1997 Microchip Technology Inc.
DS30390E-page 201
PIC16C7X
Applicable Devices 72 73 73A 74 74A 76 77
19.1
DC Characteristics:
PIC16C73A/74A-04 (Commercial, Industrial, Extended)
PIC16C73A/74A-10 (Commercial, Industrial, Extended)
PIC16C73A/74A-20 (Commercial, Industrial, Extended)
Standard Operating Conditions (unless otherwise stated)
Operating temperature -40˚C ≤ TA ≤ +125˚C for extended,
-40˚C ≤ TA ≤ +85˚C for industrial and
0˚C
≤ TA ≤ +70˚C for commercial
DC CHARACTERISTICS
Param
No.
Characteristic
Sym
Min
Typ† Max Units
Conditions
D001 Supply Voltage
D001A
VDD
4.0
4.5
-
6.0
5.5
V
V
D002*
RAM Data Retention
Voltage (Note 1)
VDR
-
1.5
-
V
D003
VPOR
VDD start voltage to
ensure internal Power-on
Reset signal
-
VSS
-
V
D004*
VDD rise rate to ensure
internal Power-on Reset
signal
SVDD
0.05
-
-
D005
Brown-out Reset Voltage
BVDD
3.7
4.0
4.3
V
BODEN bit in configuration word enabled
3.7
4.0
4.4
V
Extended Range Only
-
2.7
5
mA
XT, RC osc configuration
FOSC = 4 MHz, VDD = 5.5V (Note 4)
-
10
20
mA
HS osc configuration
FOSC = 20 MHz, VDD = 5.5V
∆IBOR
-
350
425
µA
BOR enabled VDD = 5.0V
D020 Power-down Current
D021 (Note 3,5)
D021A
D021B
IPD
-
10.5
1.5
1.5
2.5
42
16
19
19
µA
µA
µA
µA
VDD = 4.0V, WDT enabled, -40°C to +85°C
VDD = 4.0V, WDT disabled, -0°C to +70°C
VDD = 4.0V, WDT disabled, -40°C to +85°C
VDD = 4.0V, WDT disabled, -40°C to +125°C
D023*
∆IBOR
-
350
425
µA
BOR enabled VDD = 5.0V
D010
Supply Current (Note 2,5) IDD
D013
D015*
*
†
Note 1:
2:
3:
4:
5:
6:
Brown-out Reset Current
(Note 6)
Brown-out Reset Current
(Note 6)
XT, RC and LP osc configuration
HS osc configuration
See section on Power-on Reset for details
V/ms See section on Power-on Reset for details
These parameters are characterized but not tested.
Data in "Typ" column is at 5V, 25˚C unless otherwise stated. These parameters are for design guidance only
and are not tested.
This is the limit to which VDD can be lowered without losing RAM data.
The supply current is mainly a function of the operating voltage and frequency. Other factors such as I/O pin
loading and switching rate, oscillator type, internal code execution pattern, and temperature also have an
impact on the current consumption.
The test conditions for all IDD measurements in active operation mode are:
OSC1 = external square wave, from rail to rail; all I/O pins tristated, pulled to VDD
MCLR = VDD; WDT enabled/disabled as specified.
The power-down current in SLEEP mode does not depend on the oscillator type. Power-down current is
measured with the part in SLEEP mode, with all I/O pins in hi-impedance state and tied to VDD and VSS.
For RC osc configuration, current through Rext is not included. The current through the resistor can be estimated by the formula Ir = VDD/2Rext (mA) with Rext in kOhm.
Timer1 oscillator (when enabled) adds approximately 20 µA to the specification. This value is from characterization and is for design guidance only. This is not tested.
The ∆ current is the additional current consumed when this peripheral is enabled. This current should be
added to the base IDD or IPD measurement.
DS30390E-page 202
 1997 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC16C7X
Applicable Devices 72 73 73A 74 74A 76 77
19.2
DC Characteristics:
PIC16LC73A/74A-04 (Commercial, Industrial)
Standard Operating Conditions (unless otherwise stated)
Operating temperature -40˚C
≤ TA ≤ +85˚C for industrial and
0˚C
≤ TA ≤ +70˚C for commercial
DC CHARACTERISTICS
Param
No.
Characteristic
Sym
Min
Typ† Max Units
Conditions
D001
Supply Voltage
VDD
2.5
-
6.0
V
D002*
RAM Data Retention
Voltage (Note 1)
VDR
-
1.5
-
V
D003
VPOR
VDD start voltage to
ensure internal Power-on
Reset signal
-
VSS
-
V
D004*
VDD rise rate to ensure
internal Power-on Reset
signal
SVDD
0.05
-
-
D005
Brown-out Reset Voltage
BVDD
3.7
4.0
4.3
V
D010
Supply Current (Note 2,5) IDD
-
2.0
3.8
mA
XT, RC osc configuration
FOSC = 4 MHz, VDD = 3.0V (Note 4)
-
22.5
48
µA
LP osc configuration
FOSC = 32 kHz, VDD = 3.0V, WDT disabled
D010A
LP, XT, RC osc configuration (DC - 4 MHz)
See section on Power-on Reset for details
V/ms See section on Power-on Reset for details
BODEN bit in configuration word enabled
D015*
Brown-out Reset Current ∆IBOR
(Note 6)
-
350
425
µA
BOR enabled VDD = 5.0V
D020
D021
D021A
Power-down Current
(Note 3,5)
-
7.5
0.9
0.9
30
5
5
µA
µA
µA
VDD = 3.0V, WDT enabled, -40°C to +85°C
VDD = 3.0V, WDT disabled, 0°C to +70°C
VDD = 3.0V, WDT disabled, -40°C to +85°C
D023*
Brown-out Reset Current ∆IBOR
(Note 6)
-
350
425
µA
BOR enabled VDD = 5.0V
*
†
Note 1:
2:
3:
4:
5:
6:
IPD
These parameters are characterized but not tested.
Data in "Typ" column is at 5V, 25˚C unless otherwise stated. These parameters are for design guidance only
and are not tested.
This is the limit to which VDD can be lowered without losing RAM data.
The supply current is mainly a function of the operating voltage and frequency. Other factors such as I/O pin
loading and switching rate, oscillator type, internal code execution pattern, and temperature also have an
impact on the current consumption.
The test conditions for all IDD measurements in active operation mode are:
OSC1 = external square wave, from rail to rail; all I/O pins tristated, pulled to VDD
MCLR = VDD; WDT enabled/disabled as specified.
The power-down current in SLEEP mode does not depend on the oscillator type. Power-down current is
measured with the part in SLEEP mode, with all I/O pins in hi-impedance state and tied to VDD and VSS.
For RC osc configuration, current through Rext is not included. The current through the resistor can be estimated by the formula Ir = VDD/2Rext (mA) with Rext in kOhm.
Timer1 oscillator (when enabled) adds approximately 20 µA to the specification. This value is from characterization and is for design guidance only. This is not tested.
The ∆ current is the additional current consumed when this peripheral is enabled. This current should be
added to the base IDD or IPD measurement.
 1997 Microchip Technology Inc.
DS30390E-page 203
PIC16C7X
Applicable Devices 72 73 73A 74 74A 76 77
19.3
DC Characteristics:
PIC16C73A/74A-04 (Commercial, Industrial, Extended)
PIC16C73A/74A-10 (Commercial, Industrial, Extended)
PIC16C73A/74A-20 (Commercial, Industrial, Extended)
PIC16LC73A/74A-04 (Commercial, Industrial)
DC CHARACTERISTICS
Param
No.
Characteristic
Input Low Voltage
I/O ports
with TTL buffer
D030
D030A
D031
with Schmitt Trigger buffer
D032
MCLR, OSC1 (in RC mode)
D033
OSC1 (in XT, HS and LP)
Input High Voltage
I/O ports
D040
with TTL buffer
D040A
D041
D042
D042A
D043
D070
D060
with Schmitt Trigger buffer
MCLR
OSC1 (XT, HS and LP)
OSC1 (in RC mode)
PORTB weak pull-up current
Input Leakage Current
(Notes 2, 3)
I/O ports
D061
D063
MCLR, RA4/T0CKI
OSC1
D080
Output Low Voltage
I/O ports
D080A
D083
OSC2/CLKOUT (RC osc config)
D083A
Standard Operating Conditions (unless otherwise stated)
Operating temperature
-40˚C ≤ TA ≤ +125˚C for extended,
-40˚C ≤ TA ≤ +85˚C for industrial and
0˚C
≤ TA ≤ +70˚C for commercial
Operating voltage VDD range as described in DC spec Section 19.1 and
Section 19.2.
Sym
Min Typ Max Units
Conditions
†
VIL
VSS
VSS
VSS
VSS
VSS
VIH
2.0
0.25VDD
+ 0.8V
- 0.15VDD
0.8V
- 0.2VDD
- 0.2VDD
- 0.3VDD
-
0.8VDD 0.8VDD 0.7VDD 0.9VDD IPURB
50
250
IIL
VOL
V
For entire VDD range
4.5V ≤ VDD ≤ 5.5V
V
V
V
Note1
VDD
VDD
V
V
4.5V ≤ VDD ≤ 5.5V
For entire VDD range
VDD
VDD
VDD
VDD
400
V For entire VDD range
V
V Note1
V
µA VDD = 5V, VPIN = VSS
-
-
±1
µA Vss ≤ VPIN ≤ VDD, Pin at hi-impedance
µA Vss ≤ VPIN ≤ VDD
µA Vss ≤ VPIN ≤ VDD, XT, HS and LP osc
configuration
-
-
±5
±5
-
-
0.6
V
-
-
0.6
V
-
-
0.6
V
-
-
0.6
V
IOL = 8.5 mA, VDD = 4.5V,
-40°C to +85°C
IOL = 7.0 mA, VDD = 4.5V,
-40°C to +125°C
IOL = 1.6 mA, VDD = 4.5V,
-40°C to +85°C
IOL = 1.2 mA, VDD = 4.5V,
-40°C to +125°C
*
†
These parameters are characterized but not tested.
Data in “Typ” column is at 5V, 25°C unless otherwise stated. These parameters are for design guidance only
and are not tested.
Note 1: In RC oscillator configuration, the OSC1/CLKIN pin is a Schmitt Trigger input. It is not recommended that the
PIC16C7X be driven with external clock in RC mode.
2: The leakage current on the MCLR pin is strongly dependent on the applied voltage level. The specified levels
represent normal operating conditions. Higher leakage current may be measured at different input voltages.
3: Negative current is defined as current sourced by the pin.
DS30390E-page 204
 1997 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC16C7X
Applicable Devices 72 73 73A 74 74A 76 77
DC CHARACTERISTICS
Param
No.
D090
Characteristic
Output High Voltage
I/O ports (Note 3)
Standard Operating Conditions (unless otherwise stated)
Operating temperature
-40˚C ≤ TA ≤ +125˚C for extended,
-40˚C ≤ TA ≤ +85˚C for industrial and
0˚C
≤ TA ≤ +70˚C for commercial
Operating voltage VDD range as described in DC spec Section 19.1 and
Section 19.2.
Sym
Min Typ Max Units
Conditions
†
VOH VDD - 0.7 -
-
V
VDD - 0.7 -
-
V
VDD - 0.7 -
-
V
VDD - 0.7 -
-
V
D090A
D092
OSC2/CLKOUT (RC osc config)
D092A
D150*
D100
Open-Drain High Voltage
Capacitive Loading Specs on
Output Pins
OSC2 pin
VOD
-
-
14
V
COSC2
-
-
15
pF
IOH = -3.0 mA, VDD = 4.5V,
-40°C to +85°C
IOH = -2.5 mA, VDD = 4.5V,
-40°C to +125°C
IOH = -1.3 mA, VDD = 4.5V,
-40°C to +85°C
IOH = -1.0 mA, VDD = 4.5V,
-40°C to +125°C
RA4 pin
In XT, HS and LP modes when external clock is used to drive OSC1.
D101
D102
All I/O pins and OSC2 (in RC
CIO
50
pF
2
400
pF
C
B
mode) SCL, SDA in I C mode
* These parameters are characterized but not tested.
† Data in “Typ” column is at 5V, 25°C unless otherwise stated. These parameters are for design guidance only
and are not tested.
Note 1: In RC oscillator configuration, the OSC1/CLKIN pin is a Schmitt Trigger input. It is not recommended that the
PIC16C7X be driven with external clock in RC mode.
2: The leakage current on the MCLR pin is strongly dependent on the applied voltage level. The specified levels
represent normal operating conditions. Higher leakage current may be measured at different input voltages.
3: Negative current is defined as current sourced by the pin.
 1997 Microchip Technology Inc.
DS30390E-page 205
PIC16C7X
Applicable Devices 72 73 73A 74 74A 76 77
19.4
Timing Parameter Symbology
The timing parameter symbols have been created following one of the following formats:
1. TppS2ppS
3. TCC:ST
(I2C specifications only)
2. TppS
4. Ts
(I2C specifications only)
T
F
Frequency
Lowercase letters (pp) and their meanings:
pp
cc
CCP1
ck
CLKOUT
cs
CS
di
SDI
do
SDO
dt
Data in
io
I/O port
mc
MCLR
Uppercase letters and their meanings:
S
F
Fall
H
High
I
Invalid (Hi-impedance)
L
Low
I2C only
AA
BUF
output access
Bus free
TCC:ST (I2C specifications only)
CC
HD
Hold
ST
DAT
DATA input hold
STA
START condition
T
Time
osc
rd
rw
sc
ss
t0
t1
wr
OSC1
RD
RD or WR
SCK
SS
T0CKI
T1CKI
WR
P
R
V
Z
Period
Rise
Valid
Hi-impedance
High
Low
High
Low
SU
Setup
STO
STOP condition
FIGURE 19-1: LOAD CONDITIONS
Load condition 2
Load condition 1
VDD/2
RL
CL
Pin
CL
Pin
VSS
VSS
RL = 464Ω
CL = 50 pF
15 pF
for all pins except OSC2, but including PORTD and PORTE outputs as
ports
for OSC2 output
Note: PORTD and PORTE are not implemented on the PIC16C73A.
DS30390E-page 206
 1997 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC16C7X
Applicable Devices 72 73 73A 74 74A 76 77
19.5
Timing Diagrams and Specifications
FIGURE 19-2: EXTERNAL CLOCK TIMING
Q4
Q1
Q2
Q3
Q4
Q1
OSC1
1
3
3
4
4
2
CLKOUT
TABLE 19-2:
Parameter
No.
EXTERNAL CLOCK TIMING REQUIREMENTS
Sym
Characteristic
Fosc
External CLKIN Frequency
(Note 1)
Min
Typ†
Max
Units Conditions
DC
—
4
MHz XT and RC osc mode
DC
—
4
MHz HS osc mode (-04)
DC
—
10
MHz HS osc mode (-10)
DC
—
20
MHz HS osc mode (-20)
DC
—
200
kHz LP osc mode
Oscillator Frequency
DC
—
4
MHz RC osc mode
(Note 1)
0.1
—
4
MHz XT osc mode
4
—
20
MHz HS osc mode
5
—
200
kHz LP osc mode
1
Tosc External CLKIN Period
250
—
—
ns
XT and RC osc mode
(Note 1)
250
—
—
ns
HS osc mode (-04)
100
—
—
ns
HS osc mode (-10)
50
—
—
ns
HS osc mode (-20)
5
—
—
µs
LP osc mode
Oscillator Period
250
—
—
ns
RC osc mode
(Note 1)
250
—
10,000
ns
XT osc mode
250
—
250
ns
HS osc mode (-04)
100
—
250
ns
HS osc mode (-10)
50
—
250
ns
HS osc mode (-20)
5
—
—
µs
LP osc mode
200
TCY
DC
ns
TCY = 4/FOSC
2
TCY Instruction Cycle Time (Note 1)
3
TosL, External Clock in (OSC1) High or
100
—
—
ns
XT oscillator
TosH Low Time
2.5
—
—
µs
LP oscillator
15
—
—
ns
HS oscillator
4
TosR, External Clock in (OSC1) Rise or
—
—
25
ns
XT oscillator
TosF Fall Time
—
—
50
ns
LP oscillator
—
—
15
ns
HS oscillator
† Data in "Typ" column is at 5V, 25˚C unless otherwise stated. These parameters are for design guidance only and are not
tested.
Note 1: Instruction cycle period (TCY) equals four times the input oscillator time-base period. All specified values are based on
characterization data for that particular oscillator type under standard operating conditions with the device executing code.
Exceeding these specified limits may result in an unstable oscillator operation and/or higher than expected current consumption. All devices are tested to operate at "min." values with an external clock applied to the OSC1/CLKIN pin.
When an external clock input is used, the "Max." cycle time limit is "DC" (no clock) for all devices.
 1997 Microchip Technology Inc.
DS30390E-page 207
PIC16C7X
Applicable Devices 72 73 73A 74 74A 76 77
FIGURE 19-3: CLKOUT AND I/O TIMING
Q1
Q4
Q2
Q3
OSC1
11
10
CLKOUT
13
14
19
12
18
16
I/O Pin
(input)
15
17
I/O Pin
(output)
new value
old value
20, 21
Note: Refer to Figure 19-1 for load conditions.
TABLE 19-3:
CLKOUT AND I/O TIMING REQUIREMENTS
Param Sym
No.
Characteristic
Min
Typ†
Max
Units Conditions
10*
TosH2ckL OSC1↑ to CLKOUT↓
—
75
200
ns
Note 1
11*
TosH2ckH OSC1↑ to CLKOUT↑
—
75
200
ns
Note 1
12*
TckR
CLKOUT rise time
—
35
100
ns
Note 1
13*
TckF
CLKOUT fall time
—
35
100
ns
Note 1
14*
TckL2ioV
CLKOUT ↓ to Port out valid
—
—
0.5TCY + 20
ns
Note 1
15*
TioV2ckH Port in valid before CLKOUT ↑
TOSC + 200
—
—
ns
Note 1
16*
TckH2ioI
Note 1
17*
TosH2ioV OSC1↑ (Q1 cycle) to
Port out valid
18*
TosH2ioI
Port in hold after CLKOUT ↑
OSC1↑ (Q2 cycle) to
Port input invalid (I/O in
hold time)
0
—
—
ns
—
50
150
ns
PIC16C73A/74A
100
—
—
ns
PIC16LC73A/74A
200
—
—
ns
19*
TioV2osH Port input valid to OSC1↑ (I/O in setup time)
0
—
—
ns
20*
TioR
PIC16C73A/74A
—
10
40
ns
PIC16LC73A/74A
—
—
80
ns
PIC16C73A/74A
—
10
40
ns
PIC16LC73A/74A
—
—
80
ns
21*
TioF
Port output rise time
Port output fall time
22††*
Tinp
INT pin high or low time
TCY
—
—
ns
23††*
Trbp
RB7:RB4 change INT high or low time
TCY
—
—
ns
* These parameters are characterized but not tested.
†Data in "Typ" column is at 5V, 25˚C unless otherwise stated. These parameters are for design guidance
only and are not tested.
†† These parameters are asynchronous events not related to any internal clock edges.
Note 1: Measurements are taken in RC Mode where CLKOUT output is 4 x TOSC.
DS30390E-page 208
 1997 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC16C7X
Applicable Devices 72 73 73A 74 74A 76 77
FIGURE 19-4: RESET, WATCHDOG TIMER, OSCILLATOR START-UP TIMER AND POWER-UP
TIMER TIMING
VDD
MCLR
30
Internal
POR
33
PWRT
Time-out
32
OSC
Time-out
Internal
RESET
Watchdog
Timer
RESET
31
34
34
I/O Pins
Note: Refer to Figure 19-1 for load conditions.
FIGURE 19-5: BROWN-OUT RESET TIMING
BVDD
VDD
35
TABLE 19-4:
RESET, WATCHDOG TIMER, OSCILLATOR START-UP TIMER, POWER-UP TIMER,
AND BROWN-OUT RESET REQUIREMENTS
Parameter
No.
Sym
Characteristic
30
TmcL
MCLR Pulse Width (low)
2
—
—
µs
VDD = 5V, -40˚C to +125˚C
31*
Twdt
Watchdog Timer Time-out Period
(No Prescaler)
7
18
33
ms
VDD = 5V, -40˚C to +125˚C
*
†
32
Tost
33*
Tpwrt
34
35
Min
Typ†
Max
Units
Conditions
Oscillation Start-up Timer Period
—
1024TOSC
—
—
TOSC = OSC1 period
Power up Timer Period
28
72
132
ms
VDD = 5V, -40˚C to +125˚C
TIOZ
I/O Hi-impedance from MCLR Low
or Watchdog Timer Reset
—
—
2.1
µs
TBOR
Brown-out Reset pulse width
100
—
—
µs
VDD ≤ BVDD (D005)
These parameters are characterized but not tested.
Data in "Typ" column is at 5V, 25˚C unless otherwise stated. These parameters are for design guidance only and are not
tested.
 1997 Microchip Technology Inc.
DS30390E-page 209
PIC16C7X
Applicable Devices 72 73 73A 74 74A 76 77
FIGURE 19-6: TIMER0 AND TIMER1 EXTERNAL CLOCK TIMINGS
RA4/T0CKI
41
40
42
RC0/T1OSO/T1CKI
46
45
47
48
TMR0 or
TMR1
Note: Refer to Figure 19-1 for load conditions.
TABLE 19-5:
TIMER0 AND TIMER1 EXTERNAL CLOCK REQUIREMENTS
Param
No.
Sym
Characteristic
40*
Tt0H
T0CKI High Pulse Width
No Prescaler
T0CKI Low Pulse Width
With Prescaler
No Prescaler
With Prescaler
41*
42*
45*
46*
47*
48
*
†
Tt0L
Min
Typ†
Max
0.5TCY + 20
—
—
ns
10
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
ns
ns
ns
ns
ns
—
—
—
—
—
—
ns
ns
ns
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
ns
ns
ns
ns
ns
—
—
—
—
—
—
ns
ns
ns
0.5TCY + 20
10
Tt0P
T0CKI Period
TCY + 40
No Prescaler
With Prescaler Greater of:
20 or TCY + 40
N
Tt1H
T1CKI High Time Synchronous, Prescaler = 1
0.5TCY + 20
Synchronous, PIC16C7X
15
Prescaler =
PIC16LC7X
25
2,4,8
Asynchronous PIC16C7X
30
PIC16LC7X
50
Tt1L
T1CKI Low Time
Synchronous, Prescaler = 1
0.5TCY + 20
Synchronous, PIC16C7X
15
Prescaler =
PIC16LC7X
25
2,4,8
Asynchronous PIC16C7X
30
PIC16LC7X
50
Tt1P
T1CKI input period Synchronous PIC16C7X
Greater of:
30 OR TCY + 40
N
Greater of:
PIC16LC7X
50 OR TCY + 40
N
Asynchronous PIC16C7X
60
PIC16LC7X
100
Ft1
Timer1 oscillator input frequency range
DC
(oscillator enabled by setting bit T1OSCEN)
TCKEZtmr1 Delay from external clock edge to timer increment
2Tosc
Units Conditions
Must also meet
parameter 42
Must also meet
parameter 42
N = prescale value
(2, 4, ..., 256)
Must also meet
parameter 47
Must also meet
parameter 47
N = prescale value
(1, 2, 4, 8)
N = prescale value
(1, 2, 4, 8)
—
—
—
—
—
200
ns
ns
kHz
—
7Tosc
—
These parameters are characterized but not tested.
Data in "Typ" column is at 5V, 25˚C unless otherwise stated. These parameters are for design guidance only and are not
tested.
DS30390E-page 210
 1997 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC16C7X
Applicable Devices 72 73 73A 74 74A 76 77
FIGURE 19-7: CAPTURE/COMPARE/PWM TIMINGS (CCP1 AND CCP2)
RC1/T1OSI/CCP2
and RC2/CCP1
(Capture Mode)
50
51
52
RC1/T1OSI/CCP2
and RC2/CCP1
(Compare or PWM Mode)
53
54
Note: Refer to Figure 19-1 for load conditions.
TABLE 19-6:
Param
No.
50*
51*
CAPTURE/COMPARE/PWM REQUIREMENTS (CCP1 AND CCP2)
Sym Characteristic
TccL CCP1 and CCP2
input low time
TccH CCP1 and CCP2
input high time
Min
No Prescaler
—
—
ns
10
—
—
ns
20
—
—
ns
0.5TCY + 20
—
—
ns
PIC16C73A/74A
10
—
—
ns
PIC16LC73A/74A
20
—
—
ns
3TCY + 40
N
—
—
ns
—
10
25
ns
No Prescaler
52*
TccP CCP1 and CCP2 input period
53*
TccR CCP1 and CCP2 output rise time
54*
TccF CCP1 and CCP2 output fall time
*
†
0.5TCY + 20
PIC16C73A/74A
With Prescaler PIC16LC73A/74A
With Prescaler
Typ† Max Units Conditions
PIC16C73A/74A
PIC16LC73A/74A
—
25
45
ns
PIC16C73A/74A
—
10
25
ns
PIC16LC73A/74A
—
25
45
ns
N = prescale
value (1,4 or 16)
These parameters are characterized but not tested.
Data in "Typ" column is at 5V, 25˚C unless otherwise stated.
These parameters are for design guidance only and are not tested.
 1997 Microchip Technology Inc.
DS30390E-page 211
PIC16C7X
Applicable Devices 72 73 73A 74 74A 76 77
FIGURE 19-8: PARALLEL SLAVE PORT TIMING (PIC16C74A)
RE2/CS
RE0/RD
RE1/WR
65
RD7:RD0
62
64
63
Note: Refer to Figure 19-1 for load conditions
TABLE 19-7:
Parameter
No.
62
PARALLEL SLAVE PORT REQUIREMENTS (PIC16C74A)
Sym
Characteristic
Min Typ† Max Units
TdtV2wrH Data in valid before WR↑ or CS↑ (setup time)
63*
TwrH2dtI
WR↑ or CS↑ to data–in invalid (hold time) PIC16C74A
PIC16LC74A
64
65
*
†
TrdL2dtV
TrdH2dtI
RD↓ and CS↓ to data–out valid
RD↑ or CS↓ to data–out invalid
20
25
—
—
—
—
ns
ns
20
—
—
ns
35
—
—
ns
—
—
—
—
80
90
ns
ns
10
—
30
ns
Conditions
Extended
Range Only
Extended
Range Only
These parameters are characterized but not tested.
Data in "Typ" column is at 5V, 25˚C unless otherwise stated. These parameters are for design guidance only and are not
tested.
DS30390E-page 212
 1997 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC16C7X
Applicable Devices 72 73 73A 74 74A 76 77
FIGURE 19-9: SPI MODE TIMING
SS
70
SCK
(CKP = 0)
71
72
78
79
79
78
SCK
(CKP = 1)
80
SDO
77
75, 76
SDI
74
73
Note: Refer to Figure 19-1 for load conditions
TABLE 19-8:
Parameter
No.
SPI MODE REQUIREMENTS
Sym
Characteristic
Min
Typ†
Max
Units
TCY
—
—
ns
—
—
ns
70
TssL2scH,
TssL2scL
SS↓ to SCK↓ or SCK↑ input
71
TscH
SCK input high time (slave mode)
TCY + 20
72
TscL
SCK input low time (slave mode)
TCY + 20
—
—
ns
73
TdiV2scH,
TdiV2scL
Setup time of SDI data input to SCK
edge
100
—
—
ns
74
TscH2diL,
TscL2diL
Hold time of SDI data input to SCK
edge
100
—
—
ns
75
TdoR
SDO data output rise time
—
10
25
ns
76
TdoF
SDO data output fall time
—
10
25
ns
77
TssH2doZ
SS↑ to SDO output hi-impedance
10
—
50
ns
78
TscR
SCK output rise time (master mode)
—
10
25
ns
79
TscF
SCK output fall time (master mode)
—
10
25
ns
Conditions
80
†
TscH2doV,
SDO data output valid after SCK
—
—
50
ns
TscL2doV
edge
Data in "Typ" column is at 5V, 25˚C unless otherwise stated. These parameters are for design guidance only and are not
tested.
 1997 Microchip Technology Inc.
DS30390E-page 213
PIC16C7X
Applicable Devices 72 73 73A 74 74A 76 77
FIGURE 19-10: I2C BUS START/STOP BITS TIMING
SCL
93
91
90
92
SDA
STOP
Condition
START
Condition
Note: Refer to Figure 19-1 for load conditions
TABLE 19-9:
I2C BUS START/STOP BITS REQUIREMENTS
Parameter
No.
Sym
90
TSU:STA
91
THD:STA
92
TSU:STO
93
THD:STO
DS30390E-page 214
Characteristic
START condition
Setup time
START condition
Hold time
STOP condition
Setup time
STOP condition
Hold time
Min
100 kHz mode
400 kHz mode
100 kHz mode
400 kHz mode
100 kHz mode
400 kHz mode
100 kHz mode
400 kHz mode
4700
600
4000
600
4700
600
4000
600
Typ Max
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
Units
Conditions
ns
Only relevant for repeated START
condition
ns
After this period the first clock
pulse is generated
ns
ns
 1997 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC16C7X
Applicable Devices 72 73 73A 74 74A 76 77
FIGURE 19-11: I2C BUS DATA TIMING
103
102
100
101
SCL
90
106
107
91
92
SDA
In
110
109
109
SDA
Out
Note: Refer to Figure 19-1 for load conditions
TABLE 19-10: I2C BUS DATA REQUIREMENTS
Parameter
No.
Sym
Characteristic
100
THIGH
Clock high time
101
102
103
TLOW
TR
TF
Clock low time
SDA and SCL rise
time
SDA and SCL fall time
90
TSU:STA
START condition
setup time
91
THD:STA
START condition hold
time
106
THD:DAT
Data input hold time
107
TSU:DAT
Data input setup time
92
TSU:STO
STOP condition setup
time
109
TAA
Output valid from
clock
110
TBUF
Bus free time
Min
Max
Units
Conditions
100 kHz mode
4.0
—
µs
400 kHz mode
0.6
—
µs
Device must operate at a minimum of 1.5 MHz
Device must operate at a minimum of 10 MHz
SSP Module
100 kHz mode
1.5TCY
4.7
—
—
µs
400 kHz mode
1.3
—
µs
SSP Module
100 kHz mode
400 kHz mode
1.5TCY
—
20 + 0.1Cb
—
1000
300
ns
ns
100 kHz mode
400 kHz mode
—
20 + 0.1Cb
300
300
ns
ns
100 kHz mode
400 kHz mode
100 kHz mode
400 kHz mode
100 kHz mode
400 kHz mode
100 kHz mode
400 kHz mode
100 kHz mode
400 kHz mode
100 kHz mode
400 kHz mode
100 kHz mode
400 kHz mode
4.7
0.6
4.0
0.6
0
0
250
100
4.7
0.6
—
—
4.7
1.3
—
—
—
—
—
0.9
—
—
—
—
3500
—
—
—
µs
µs
µs
µs
ns
µs
ns
ns
µs
µs
ns
ns
µs
µs
Device must operate at a minimum of 1.5 MHz
Device must operate at a minimum of 10 MHz
Cb is specified to be from
10 to 400 pF
Cb is specified to be from
10 to 400 pF
Only relevant for repeated
START condition
After this period the first clock
pulse is generated
Note 2
Note 1
Time the bus must be free
before a new transmission can
start
Cb
Bus capacitive loading
—
400
pF
Note 1: As a transmitter, the device must provide this internal minimum delay time to bridge the undefined region (min. 300 ns) of
the falling edge of SCL to avoid unintended generation of START or STOP conditions.
2: A fast-mode (400 kHz) I2C-bus device can be used in a standard-mode (100 kHz) I2C-bus system, but the requirement
tsu;DAT ≥ 250 ns must then be met. This will automatically be the case if the device does not stretch the LOW period of the
SCL signal. If such a device does stretch the LOW period of the SCL signal, it must output the next data bit to the SDA line
TR max.+tsu;DAT = 1000 + 250 = 1250 ns (according to the standard-mode I2C bus specification) before the SCL line is
released.
 1997 Microchip Technology Inc.
DS30390E-page 215
PIC16C7X
Applicable Devices 72 73 73A 74 74A 76 77
FIGURE 19-12: USART SYNCHRONOUS TRANSMISSION (MASTER/SLAVE) TIMING
RC6/TX/CK
pin
121
121
RC7/RX/DT
pin
120
122
Note: Refer to Figure 19-1 for load conditions
TABLE 19-11: USART SYNCHRONOUS TRANSMISSION REQUIREMENTS
Param
No.
120
121
Characteristic
TckH2dtV
SYNC XMIT (MASTER &
SLAVE)
Clock high to data out valid
Tckrf
122
†:
Sym
Tdtrf
Min
Typ†
Max
Units Conditions
PIC16C73A/74A
—
—
80
ns
PIC16LC73A/74A
—
—
100
ns
Clock out rise time and fall time PIC16C73A/74A
(Master Mode)
PIC16LC73A/74A
—
—
45
ns
—
—
50
ns
Data out rise time and fall time
PIC16C73A/74A
—
—
45
ns
PIC16LC73A/74A
—
—
50
ns
Data in “Typ” column is at 5V, 25°C unless otherwise stated. These parameters are for design guidance only and are not
tested.
FIGURE 19-13: USART SYNCHRONOUS RECEIVE (MASTER/SLAVE) TIMING
RC6/TX/CK
pin
RC7/RX/DT
pin
125
126
Note: Refer to Figure 19-1 for load conditions
TABLE 19-12: USART SYNCHRONOUS RECEIVE REQUIREMENTS
Parameter
No.
†:
Sym
Characteristic
Min
Typ†
Max
125
TdtV2ckL
126
TckL2dtl
Units Conditions
SYNC RCV (MASTER & SLAVE)
Data setup before CK ↓ (DT setup time)
15
—
—
ns
Data hold after CK ↓ (DT hold time)
15
—
—
ns
Data in “Typ” column is at 5V, 25°C unless otherwise stated. These parameters are for design guidance only and are not
tested.
DS30390E-page 216
 1997 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC16C7X
Applicable Devices 72 73 73A 74 74A 76 77
TABLE 19-13: A/D CONVERTER CHARACTERISTICS:
PIC16C73A/74A-04 (Commercial, Industrial, Extended)
PIC16C73A/74A-10 (Commercial, Industrial, Extended)
PIC16C73A/74A-20 (Commercial, Industrial, Extended)
PIC16LC73A/74A-04 (Commercial, Industrial)
Param Sym Characteristic
No.
A01
NR
A02
Resolution
EABS Total Absolute error
Typ†
Max
Units
Conditions
—
—
8-bits
bit
—
—
<±1
LSb VREF = VDD = 5.12V,
VSS ≤ VAIN ≤ VREF
—
—
<±1
LSb VREF = VDD = 5.12V,
VSS ≤ VAIN ≤ VREF
VREF = VDD = 5.12V,
VSS ≤ VAIN ≤ VREF
A03
EIL
A04
EDL Differential linearity error
—
—
<±1
LSb VREF = VDD = 5.12V,
VSS ≤ VAIN ≤ VREF
A05
EFS Full scale error
—
—
<±1
LSb VREF = VDD = 5.12V,
VSS ≤ VAIN ≤ VREF
A06
EOFF Offset error
—
—
<±1
LSb VREF = VDD = 5.12V,
VSS ≤ VAIN ≤ VREF
A10
—
Integral linearity error
Min
Monotonicity
—
guaranteed
—
—
A20
VREF Reference voltage
3.0V
—
VDD + 0.3
V
VSS ≤ VAIN ≤ VREF
A25
VAIN Analog input voltage
VSS - 0.3
—
VREF + 0.3
V
A30
ZAIN Recommended impedance of
analog voltage source
—
—
10.0
kΩ
A40
IAD
PIC16C73A/74A
—
180
—
µA
PIC16LC73A/74A
—
90
—
µA
10
—
1000
µA
During VAIN acquisition.
Based on differential of
VHOLD to VAIN to charge
CHOLD, see Section 13.1.
—
—
10
µA
During A/D Conversion
cycle
A50
A/D conversion current
(VDD)
IREF VREF input current (Note 2)
Average current consumption when A/D is on.
(Note 1)
*
†
These parameters are characterized but not tested.
Data in “Typ” column is at 5V, 25°C unless otherwise stated. These parameters are for design guidance only and are not
tested.
Note 1: When A/D is off, it will not consume any current other than minor leakage current.
The power-down current spec includes any such leakage from the A/D module.
2: VREF current is from RA3 pin or VDD pin, whichever is selected as reference input.
 1997 Microchip Technology Inc.
DS30390E-page 217
PIC16C7X
Applicable Devices 72 73 73A 74 74A 76 77
FIGURE 19-14: A/D CONVERSION TIMING
BSF ADCON0, GO
134
1 TCY
(TOSC/2) (1)
131
Q4
130
132
A/D CLK
7
A/D DATA
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
NEW_DATA
OLD_DATA
ADRES
ADIF
GO
DONE
SAMPLING STOPPED
SAMPLE
Note 1: If the A/D clock source is selected as RC, a time of TCY is added before the A/D clock starts. This allows the
SLEEP instruction to be executed.
TABLE 19-14: A/D CONVERSION REQUIREMENTS
Param
No.
130
Sym Characteristic
TAD
A/D clock period
Min
Typ†
Max
Units
Conditions
PIC16C73A/74A
1.6
—
—
µs
PIC16LC73A/74A
2.0
—
—
µs
TOSC based, VREF ≥ 3.0V
TOSC based, VREF full range
PIC16C73A/74A
2.0
4.0
6.0
µs
A/D RC Mode
A/D RC Mode
PIC16LC73A/74A
3.0
6.0
9.0
µs
131
TCNV Conversion time (not including S/H time)
(Note 1)
—
9.5
—
TAD
132
TACQ Acquisition time
Note 2
20
—
µs
5*
—
—
µs
The minimum time is the amplifier
settling time. This may be used if
the "new" input voltage has not
changed by more than 1 LSb (i.e.,
20.0 mV @ 5.12V) from the last
sampled voltage (as stated on
CHOLD).
—
TOSC/2 §
—
—
If the A/D clock source is selected
as RC, a time of TCY is added
before the A/D clock starts. This
allows the SLEEP instruction to be
executed.
1.5 §
—
—
TAD
134
TGO
Q4 to A/D clock start
TSWC Switching from convert → sample time
135
*
†
These parameters are characterized but not tested.
Data in “Typ” column is at 5V, 25°C unless otherwise stated. These parameters are for design guidance only and are not
tested.
§ This specification ensured by design.
Note 1: ADRES register may be read on the following TCY cycle.
2: See Section 13.1 for min conditions.
DS30390E-page 218
 1997 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC16C7X
Applicable Devices 72 73 73A 74 74A 76 77
20.0
ELECTRICAL CHARACTERISTICS FOR PIC16C76/77
Absolute Maximum Ratings †
Ambient temperature under bias..................................................................................................................-55 to +125˚C
Storage temperature ............................................................................................................................... -65˚C to +150˚C
Voltage on any pin with respect to VSS (except VDD, MCLR. and RA4)...........................................-0.3V to (VDD + 0.3V)
Voltage on VDD with respect to VSS ............................................................................................................ -0.3 to +7.5V
Voltage on MCLR with respect to VSS (Note 2) ................................................................................................. 0 to +14V
Voltage on RA4 with respect to Vss ................................................................................................................... 0 to +14V
Total power dissipation (Note 1).................................................................................................................................1.0W
Maximum current out of VSS pin ............................................................................................................................300 mA
Maximum current into VDD pin ...............................................................................................................................250 mA
Input clamp current, IIK (VI < 0 or VI > VDD) .....................................................................................................................± 20 mA
Output clamp current, IOK (VO < 0 or VO > VDD)..............................................................................................................± 20 mA
Maximum output current sunk by any I/O pin...........................................................................................................25 mA
Maximum output current sourced by any I/O pin .....................................................................................................25 mA
Maximum current sunk by PORTA, PORTB, and PORTE (combined) (Note 3).....................................................200 mA
Maximum current sourced by PORTA, PORTB, and PORTE (combined) (Note 3) ...............................................200 mA
Maximum current sunk by PORTC and PORTD (combined) (Note 3) ...................................................................200 mA
Maximum current sourced by PORTC and PORTD (combined) (Note 3)..............................................................200 mA
Note 1: Power dissipation is calculated as follows: Pdis = VDD x {IDD - ∑ IOH} + ∑ {(VDD - VOH) x IOH} + ∑(VOl x IOL)
Note 2: Voltage spikes below VSS at the MCLR pin, inducing currents greater than 80 mA, may cause latch-up. Thus,
a series resistor of 50-100Ω should be used when applying a “low” level to the MCLR pin rather than pulling
this pin directly to VSS.
Note 3: PORTD and PORTE are not implemented on the PIC16C76.
† NOTICE: Stresses above those listed under “Absolute Maximum Ratings” may cause permanent damage to the
device. This is a stress rating only and functional operation of the device at those or any other conditions above those
indicated in the operation listings of this specification is not implied. Exposure to maximum rating conditions for
extended periods may affect device reliability.
 1997 Microchip Technology Inc.
DS30390E-page 219
PIC16C7X
Applicable Devices 72 73 73A 74 74A 76 77
TABLE 20-1:
OSC
RC
XT
CROSS REFERENCE OF DEVICE SPECS FOR OSCILLATOR CONFIGURATIONS
AND FREQUENCIES OF OPERATION (COMMERCIAL DEVICES)
PIC16C76-04
PIC16C77-04
VDD: 4.0V to 6.0V
IDD: 5 mA max.
at 5.5V
IPD: 16 µA max.
at 4V
Freq: 4 MHz max.
VDD: 4.0V to 6.0V
IDD: 5 mA max.
at 5.5V
IPD: 16 µA max.
at 4V
Freq: 4 MHz max.
PIC16C76-10
PIC16C77-10
VDD: 4.5V to 5.5V
IDD: 2.7 mA typ.
at 5.5V
IPD: 1.5 µA typ.
at 4V
Freq: 4 MHz max.
VDD: 4.5V to 5.5V
IDD: 2.7 mA typ.
at 5.5V
IPD: 1.5 µA typ.
at 4V
Freq: 4 MHz max.
PIC16C76-20
PIC16C77-20
VDD: 4.5V to 5.5V
IDD: 2.7 mA typ.
at 5.5V
IPD: 1.5 µA typ.
at 4V
Freq: 4 MHz max.
VDD: 4.5V to 5.5V
IDD: 2.7 mA typ.
at 5.5V
IPD: 1.5 µA typ.
at 4V
Freq: 4 MHz max.
PIC16LC76-04
PIC16LC77-04
VDD: 2.5V to 6.0V
IDD: 3.8 mA max.
at 3.0V
IPD: 5 µA max. at 3V
Freq: 4 MHz max.
VDD: 2.5V to 6.0V
IDD: 3.8 mA max.
at 3.0V
IPD: 5 µA max. at 3V
Freq: 4 MHz max.
JW Devices
VDD: 4.0V to 6.0V
IDD: 5 mA max.
at 5.5V
IPD: 16 µA max.
at 4V
Freq: 4 MHz max.
VDD: 4.0V to 6.0V
IDD: 5 mA max.
at 5.5V
IPD: 16 µA max.
at 4V
Freq: 4 MHz max.
VDD: 4.5V to 5.5V
VDD: 4.5V to 5.5V
VDD: 4.5V to 5.5V
VDD: 4.5V to 5.5V
IDD: 13.5 mA typ.
IDD: 10 mA max.
IDD: 20 mA max.
IDD: 20 mA max.
at 5.5V
at 5.5V
at 5.5V
at 5.5V
Not recommended for
HS
use in HS mode
IPD: 1.5 µA typ.
IPD: 1.5 µA typ.
IPD: 1.5 µA typ.
IPD: 1.5 µA typ.
at 4.5V
at 4.5V
at 4.5V
at 4.5V
Freq: 4 MHz max.
Freq: 10 MHz max.
Freq: 20 MHz max.
Freq: 20 MHz max.
VDD: 4.0V to 6.0V
VDD: 2.5V to 6.0V
VDD: 2.5V to 6.0V
IDD: 52.5 µA typ.
IDD: 48 µA max.
IDD: 48 µA max.
at 32 kHz, 4.0V Not recommended for Not recommended for
at 32 kHz, 3.0V
at 32 kHz, 3.0V
LP
IPD: 0.9 µA typ.
use in LP mode
use in LP mode
IPD: 5.0 µA max.
IPD: 5.0 µA max.
at 4.0V
at 3.0V
at 3.0V
Freq: 200 kHz max.
Freq: 200 kHz max.
Freq: 200 kHz max.
The shaded sections indicate oscillator selections which are tested for functionality, but not for MIN/MAX specifications.
It is recommended that the user select the device type that ensures the specifications required.
DS30390E-page 220
 1997 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC16C7X
Applicable Devices 72 73 73A 74 74A 76 77
20.1
DC Characteristics:
PIC16C76/77-04 (Commercial, Industrial, Extended)
PIC16C76/77-10 (Commercial, Industrial, Extended)
PIC16C76/77-20 (Commercial, Industrial, Extended)
Standard Operating Conditions (unless otherwise stated)
Operating temperature -40˚C ≤ TA ≤ +125˚C for extended,
-40˚C ≤ TA ≤ +85˚C for industrial and
0˚C
≤ TA ≤ +70˚C for commercial
DC CHARACTERISTICS
Param
No.
Characteristic
Sym
Min
Typ† Max Units
Conditions
D001 Supply Voltage
D001A
VDD
4.0
4.5
-
6.0
5.5
V
V
D002*
RAM Data Retention
Voltage (Note 1)
VDR
-
1.5
-
V
D003
VPOR
VDD start voltage to
ensure internal Power-on
Reset signal
-
VSS
-
V
D004*
VDD rise rate to ensure
internal Power-on Reset
signal
SVDD
0.05
-
-
D005
Brown-out Reset Voltage
BVDD
3.7
4.0
4.3
V
BODEN bit in configuration word enabled
3.7
4.0
4.4
V
Extended Range Only
-
2.7
5
mA
XT, RC osc configuration
FOSC = 4 MHz, VDD = 5.5V (Note 4)
-
10
20
mA
HS osc configuration
FOSC = 20 MHz, VDD = 5.5V
∆IBOR
-
350
425
µA
BOR enabled VDD = 5.0V
D020 Power-down Current
D021 (Note 3,5)
D021A
D021B
IPD
-
10.5
1.5
1.5
2.5
42
16
19
19
µA
µA
µA
µA
VDD = 4.0V, WDT enabled, -40°C to +85°C
VDD = 4.0V, WDT disabled, -0°C to +70°C
VDD = 4.0V, WDT disabled, -40°C to +85°C
VDD = 4.0V, WDT disabled, -40°C to +125°C
D023*
∆IBOR
-
350
425
µA
BOR enabled VDD = 5.0V
D010
Supply Current (Note 2,5) IDD
D013
D015*
*
†
Note 1:
2:
3:
4:
5:
6:
Brown-out Reset Current
(Note 6)
Brown-out Reset Current
(Note 6)
XT, RC and LP osc configuration
HS osc configuration
See section on Power-on Reset for details
V/ms See section on Power-on Reset for details
These parameters are characterized but not tested.
Data in "Typ" column is at 5V, 25˚C unless otherwise stated. These parameters are for design guidance only
and are not tested.
This is the limit to which VDD can be lowered without losing RAM data.
The supply current is mainly a function of the operating voltage and frequency. Other factors such as I/O pin
loading and switching rate, oscillator type, internal code execution pattern, and temperature also have an
impact on the current consumption.
The test conditions for all IDD measurements in active operation mode are:
OSC1 = external square wave, from rail to rail; all I/O pins tristated, pulled to VDD
MCLR = VDD; WDT enabled/disabled as specified.
The power-down current in SLEEP mode does not depend on the oscillator type. Power-down current is
measured with the part in SLEEP mode, with all I/O pins in hi-impedance state and tied to VDD and VSS.
For RC osc configuration, current through Rext is not included. The current through the resistor can be estimated by the formula Ir = VDD/2Rext (mA) with Rext in kOhm.
Timer1 oscillator (when enabled) adds approximately 20 µA to the specification. This value is from characterization and is for design guidance only. This is not tested.
The ∆ current is the additional current consumed when this peripheral is enabled. This current should be
added to the base IDD or IPD measurement.
 1997 Microchip Technology Inc.
DS30390E-page 221
PIC16C7X
Applicable Devices 72 73 73A 74 74A 76 77
20.2
DC Characteristics:
PIC16LC76/77-04 (Commercial, Industrial)
Standard Operating Conditions (unless otherwise stated)
Operating temperature -40˚C
≤ TA ≤ +85˚C for industrial and
0˚C
≤ TA ≤ +70˚C for commercial
DC CHARACTERISTICS
Param
No.
Characteristic
Sym
Min
Typ† Max Units
Conditions
D001
Supply Voltage
VDD
2.5
-
6.0
V
D002*
RAM Data Retention
Voltage (Note 1)
VDR
-
1.5
-
V
D003
VPOR
VDD start voltage to
ensure internal Power-on
Reset signal
-
VSS
-
V
D004*
VDD rise rate to ensure
internal Power-on Reset
signal
SVDD
0.05
-
-
D005
Brown-out Reset Voltage
BVDD
3.7
4.0
4.3
V
D010
Supply Current (Note 2,5) IDD
-
2.0
3.8
mA
XT, RC osc configuration
FOSC = 4 MHz, VDD = 3.0V (Note 4)
-
22.5
48
µA
LP osc configuration
FOSC = 32 kHz, VDD = 3.0V, WDT disabled
D010A
LP, XT, RC osc configuration (DC - 4 MHz)
See section on Power-on Reset for details
V/ms See section on Power-on Reset for details
BODEN bit in configuration word enabled
D015*
Brown-out Reset Current ∆IBOR
(Note 6)
-
350
425
µA
BOR enabled VDD = 5.0V
D020
D021
D021A
Power-down Current
(Note 3,5)
-
7.5
0.9
0.9
30
5
5
µA
µA
µA
VDD = 3.0V, WDT enabled, -40°C to +85°C
VDD = 3.0V, WDT disabled, 0°C to +70°C
VDD = 3.0V, WDT disabled, -40°C to +85°C
D023*
Brown-out Reset Current ∆IBOR
(Note 6)
-
350
425
µA
BOR enabled VDD = 5.0V
*
†
Note 1:
2:
3:
4:
5:
6:
IPD
These parameters are characterized but not tested.
Data in "Typ" column is at 5V, 25˚C unless otherwise stated. These parameters are for design guidance only
and are not tested.
This is the limit to which VDD can be lowered without losing RAM data.
The supply current is mainly a function of the operating voltage and frequency. Other factors such as I/O pin
loading and switching rate, oscillator type, internal code execution pattern, and temperature also have an
impact on the current consumption.
The test conditions for all IDD measurements in active operation mode are:
OSC1 = external square wave, from rail to rail; all I/O pins tristated, pulled to VDD
MCLR = VDD; WDT enabled/disabled as specified.
The power-down current in SLEEP mode does not depend on the oscillator type. Power-down current is
measured with the part in SLEEP mode, with all I/O pins in hi-impedance state and tied to VDD and VSS.
For RC osc configuration, current through Rext is not included. The current through the resistor can be estimated by the formula Ir = VDD/2Rext (mA) with Rext in kOhm.
Timer1 oscillator (when enabled) adds approximately 20 µA to the specification. This value is from characterization and is for design guidance only. This is not tested.
The ∆ current is the additional current consumed when this peripheral is enabled. This current should be
added to the base IDD or IPD measurement.
DS30390E-page 222
 1997 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC16C7X
Applicable Devices 72 73 73A 74 74A 76 77
20.3
DC Characteristics:
PIC16C76/77-04 (Commercial, Industrial, Extended)
PIC16C76/77-10 (Commercial, Industrial, Extended)
PIC16C76/77-20 (Commercial, Industrial, Extended)
PIC16LC76/77-04 (Commercial, Industrial)
DC CHARACTERISTICS
Param
No.
Characteristic
Input Low Voltage
I/O ports
with TTL buffer
D030
D030A
D031
with Schmitt Trigger buffer
D032
MCLR, OSC1 (in RC mode)
D033
OSC1 (in XT, HS and LP)
Input High Voltage
I/O ports
D040
with TTL buffer
D040A
D041
D042
D042A
D043
D070
D060
with Schmitt Trigger buffer
MCLR
OSC1 (XT, HS and LP)
OSC1 (in RC mode)
PORTB weak pull-up current
Input Leakage Current
(Notes 2, 3)
I/O ports
D061
D063
MCLR, RA4/T0CKI
OSC1
D080
Output Low Voltage
I/O ports
D080A
D083
OSC2/CLKOUT (RC osc config)
D083A
Standard Operating Conditions (unless otherwise stated)
Operating temperature
-40˚C ≤ TA ≤ +125˚C for extended,
-40˚C ≤ TA ≤ +85˚C for industrial and
0˚C
≤ TA ≤ +70˚C for commercial
Operating voltage VDD range as described in DC spec Section 20.1 and
Section 20.2.
Sym
Min Typ Max Units
Conditions
†
VIL
VSS
VSS
VSS
VSS
VSS
VIH
2.0
0.25VDD
+ 0.8V
- 0.15VDD
0.8V
- 0.2VDD
- 0.2VDD
- 0.3VDD
V
V
V
V
V
For entire VDD range
4.5V ≤ VDD ≤ 5.5V
-
VDD
VDD
V
V
4.5V ≤ VDD ≤ 5.5V
For entire VDD range
VDD
VDD
VDD
VDD
400
V For entire VDD range
V
V Note1
V
µA VDD = 5V, VPIN = VSS
0.8VDD 0.8VDD 0.7VDD 0.9VDD IPURB
50
250
IIL
VOL
-
-
±1
-
-
±5
±5
-
-
0.6
V
-
-
0.6
V
-
-
0.6
V
-
-
0.6
V
Note1
µA Vss ≤ VPIN ≤ VDD, Pin at hi-impedance
µA Vss ≤ VPIN ≤ VDD
µA Vss ≤ VPIN ≤ VDD, XT, HS and LP osc
configuration
IOL = 8.5 mA, VDD = 4.5V,
-40°C to +85°C
IOL = 7.0 mA, VDD = 4.5V,
-40°C to +125°C
IOL = 1.6 mA, VDD = 4.5V,
-40°C to +85°C
IOL = 1.2 mA, VDD = 4.5V,
-40°C to +125°C
*
†
These parameters are characterized but not tested.
Data in “Typ” column is at 5V, 25°C unless otherwise stated. These parameters are for design guidance only
and are not tested.
Note 1: In RC oscillator configuration, the OSC1/CLKIN pin is a Schmitt Trigger input. It is not recommended that the
PIC16C7X be driven with external clock in RC mode.
2: The leakage current on the MCLR pin is strongly dependent on the applied voltage level. The specified levels
represent normal operating conditions. Higher leakage current may be measured at different input voltages.
3: Negative current is defined as current sourced by the pin.
 1997 Microchip Technology Inc.
DS30390E-page 223
PIC16C7X
Applicable Devices 72 73 73A 74 74A 76 77
DC CHARACTERISTICS
Param
No.
D090
Characteristic
Output High Voltage
I/O ports (Note 3)
Standard Operating Conditions (unless otherwise stated)
Operating temperature
-40˚C ≤ TA ≤ +125˚C for extended,
-40˚C ≤ TA ≤ +85˚C for industrial and
0˚C
≤ TA ≤ +70˚C for commercial
Operating voltage VDD range as described in DC spec Section 20.1 and
Section 20.2.
Sym
Min Typ Max Units
Conditions
†
VOH VDD - 0.7 -
-
V
VDD - 0.7 -
-
V
VDD - 0.7 -
-
V
VDD - 0.7 -
-
V
D090A
D092
OSC2/CLKOUT (RC osc config)
D092A
D150*
D100
Open-Drain High Voltage
Capacitive Loading Specs on
Output Pins
OSC2 pin
VOD
-
-
14
V
COSC2
-
-
15
pF
IOH = -3.0 mA, VDD = 4.5V,
-40°C to +85°C
IOH = -2.5 mA, VDD = 4.5V,
-40°C to +125°C
IOH = -1.3 mA, VDD = 4.5V,
-40°C to +85°C
IOH = -1.0 mA, VDD = 4.5V,
-40°C to +125°C
RA4 pin
In XT, HS and LP modes when external clock is used to drive OSC1.
D101
D102
All I/O pins and OSC2 (in RC
CIO
50
pF
2
400
pF
CB
mode) SCL, SDA in I C mode
* These parameters are characterized but not tested.
† Data in “Typ” column is at 5V, 25°C unless otherwise stated. These parameters are for design guidance only
and are not tested.
Note 1: In RC oscillator configuration, the OSC1/CLKIN pin is a Schmitt Trigger input. It is not recommended that the
PIC16C7X be driven with external clock in RC mode.
2: The leakage current on the MCLR pin is strongly dependent on the applied voltage level. The specified levels
represent normal operating conditions. Higher leakage current may be measured at different input voltages.
3: Negative current is defined as current sourced by the pin.
DS30390E-page 224
 1997 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC16C7X
Applicable Devices 72 73 73A 74 74A 76 77
20.4
Timing Parameter Symbology
The timing parameter symbols have been created following one of the following formats:
1. TppS2ppS
3. TCC:ST
(I2C specifications only)
2. TppS
4. Ts
(I2C specifications only)
T
F
Frequency
Lowercase letters (pp) and their meanings:
pp
cc
CCP1
ck
CLKOUT
cs
CS
di
SDI
do
SDO
dt
Data in
io
I/O port
mc
MCLR
Uppercase letters and their meanings:
S
F
Fall
H
High
I
Invalid (Hi-impedance)
L
Low
I2C only
AA
BUF
output access
Bus free
TCC:ST (I2C specifications only)
CC
HD
Hold
ST
DAT
DATA input hold
STA
START condition
T
Time
osc
rd
rw
sc
ss
t0
t1
wr
OSC1
RD
RD or WR
SCK
SS
T0CKI
T1CKI
WR
P
R
V
Z
Period
Rise
Valid
Hi-impedance
High
Low
High
Low
SU
Setup
STO
STOP condition
FIGURE 20-1: LOAD CONDITIONS
Load condition 2
Load condition 1
VDD/2
RL
CL
Pin
CL
Pin
VSS
VSS
RL = 464Ω
CL = 50 pF
15 pF
for all pins except OSC2, but including PORTD and PORTE outputs as
ports
for OSC2 output
Note: PORTD and PORTE are not implemented on the PIC16C76.
 1997 Microchip Technology Inc.
DS30390E-page 225
PIC16C7X
Applicable Devices 72 73 73A 74 74A 76 77
20.5
Timing Diagrams and Specifications
FIGURE 20-2: EXTERNAL CLOCK TIMING
Q4
Q1
Q2
Q3
Q4
Q1
OSC1
1
3
3
4
4
2
CLKOUT
TABLE 20-2:
Parameter
No.
EXTERNAL CLOCK TIMING REQUIREMENTS
Sym
Characteristic
Min
Typ†
Max
Fosc
External CLKIN Frequency
(Note 1)
DC
DC
DC
DC
DC
DC
0.1
4
5
250
250
100
50
5
250
250
250
100
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
4
4
10
20
200
4
4
20
200
—
—
—
—
—
—
10,000
250
250
Oscillator Frequency
(Note 1)
1
Tosc
External CLKIN Period
(Note 1)
Oscillator Period
(Note 1)
Units Conditions
MHz
MHz
MHz
MHz
kHz
MHz
MHz
MHz
kHz
ns
ns
ns
ns
µs
ns
ns
ns
ns
XT and RC osc mode
HS osc mode (-04)
HS osc mode (-10)
HS osc mode (-20)
LP osc mode
RC osc mode
XT osc mode
HS osc mode
LP osc mode
XT and RC osc mode
HS osc mode (-04)
HS osc mode (-10)
HS osc mode (-20)
LP osc mode
RC osc mode
XT osc mode
HS osc mode (-04)
HS osc mode (-10)
HS osc mode (-20)
50
—
250
ns
5
—
—
µs
LP osc mode
200
TCY
DC
ns
TCY = 4/FOSC
2
TCY Instruction Cycle Time (Note 1)
3
TosL, External Clock in (OSC1) High or
100
—
—
ns
XT oscillator
TosH Low Time
2.5
—
—
µs
LP oscillator
15
—
—
ns
HS oscillator
4
TosR, External Clock in (OSC1) Rise or
—
—
25
ns
XT oscillator
TosF Fall Time
—
—
50
ns
LP oscillator
—
—
15
ns
HS oscillator
† Data in "Typ" column is at 5V, 25˚C unless otherwise stated. These parameters are for design guidance only and are not
tested.
Note 1: Instruction cycle period (TCY) equals four times the input oscillator time-base period. All specified values are based on
characterization data for that particular oscillator type under standard operating conditions with the device executing code.
Exceeding these specified limits may result in an unstable oscillator operation and/or higher than expected current consumption. All devices are tested to operate at "min." values with an external clock applied to the OSC1/CLKIN pin.
When an external clock input is used, the "Max." cycle time limit is "DC" (no clock) for all devices.
DS30390E-page 226
 1997 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC16C7X
Applicable Devices 72 73 73A 74 74A 76 77
FIGURE 20-3: CLKOUT AND I/O TIMING
Q1
Q4
Q2
Q3
OSC1
11
10
CLKOUT
13
14
19
12
18
16
I/O Pin
(input)
15
17
I/O Pin
(output)
new value
old value
20, 21
Note: Refer to Figure 20-1 for load conditions.
TABLE 20-3:
Param Sym
No.
CLKOUT AND I/O TIMING REQUIREMENTS
Characteristic
Min
Typ†
Max
Units Conditions
10*
TosH2ckL OSC1↑ to CLKOUT↓
—
75
200
ns
Note 1
11*
TosH2ckH OSC1↑ to CLKOUT↑
—
75
200
ns
Note 1
12*
TckR
CLKOUT rise time
—
35
100
ns
Note 1
13*
TckF
CLKOUT fall time
—
35
100
ns
Note 1
14*
TckL2ioV
CLKOUT ↓ to Port out valid
—
—
0.5TCY + 20
ns
Note 1
15*
TioV2ckH Port in valid before CLKOUT ↑
16*
TckH2ioI
17*
TosH2ioV OSC1↑ (Q1 cycle) to
Port out valid
18*
TosH2ioI
TOSC + 200
—
—
ns
Note 1
0
—
—
ns
Note 1
—
50
150
ns
PIC16C76/77
100
—
—
ns
PIC16LC76/77
200
—
—
ns
Port in hold after CLKOUT ↑
OSC1↑ (Q2 cycle) to
Port input invalid (I/O in
hold time)
19*
TioV2osH Port input valid to OSC1↑ (I/O in setup time)
0
—
—
ns
20*
TioR
Port output rise time
—
10
40
ns
21*
TioF
Port output fall time
22††*
Tinp
INT pin high or low time
23††*
Trbp
RB7:RB4 change INT high or low time
TCY
PIC16C76/77
PIC16LC76/77
—
—
80
ns
PIC16C76/77
—
10
40
ns
—
—
80
ns
TCY
—
—
ns
—
—
ns
PIC16LC76/77
*
†
These parameters are characterized but not tested.
Data in "Typ" column is at 5V, 25˚C unless otherwise stated. These parameters are for design guidance
only and are not tested.
†† These parameters are asynchronous events not related to any internal clock edges.
Note 1: Measurements are taken in RC Mode where CLKOUT output is 4 x TOSC.
 1997 Microchip Technology Inc.
DS30390E-page 227
PIC16C7X
Applicable Devices 72 73 73A 74 74A 76 77
FIGURE 20-4: RESET, WATCHDOG TIMER, OSCILLATOR START-UP TIMER AND POWER-UP
TIMER TIMING
VDD
MCLR
30
Internal
POR
33
PWRT
Time-out
32
OSC
Time-out
Internal
RESET
Watchdog
Timer
RESET
31
34
34
I/O Pins
Note: Refer to Figure 20-1 for load conditions.
FIGURE 20-5: BROWN-OUT RESET TIMING
BVDD
VDD
35
TABLE 20-4:
RESET, WATCHDOG TIMER, OSCILLATOR START-UP TIMER, POWER-UP TIMER,
AND BROWN-OUT RESET REQUIREMENTS
Parameter
No.
Sym
Characteristic
Min
Typ†
Max
Units
30
TmcL
31*
MCLR Pulse Width (low)
2
—
—
µs
VDD = 5V, -40˚C to +125˚C
Twdt
Watchdog Timer Time-out Period
(No Prescaler)
7
18
33
ms
VDD = 5V, -40˚C to +125˚C
32
Tost
Oscillation Start-up Timer Period
—
1024TOSC
—
—
TOSC = OSC1 period
33*
Tpwrt
Power up Timer Period
28
72
132
ms
VDD = 5V, -40˚C to +125˚C
34
TIOZ
I/O Hi-impedance from MCLR Low
or Watchdog Timer Reset
—
—
2.1
µs
TBOR
Brown-out Reset pulse width
100
—
—
µs
35
*
†
Conditions
VDD ≤ BVDD (D005)
These parameters are characterized but not tested.
Data in "Typ" column is at 5V, 25˚C unless otherwise stated. These parameters are for design guidance only and are not
tested.
DS30390E-page 228
 1997 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC16C7X
Applicable Devices 72 73 73A 74 74A 76 77
FIGURE 20-6: TIMER0 AND TIMER1 EXTERNAL CLOCK TIMINGS
RA4/T0CKI
41
40
42
RC0/T1OSO/T1CKI
46
45
47
48
TMR0 or
TMR1
Note: Refer to Figure 20-1 for load conditions.
TABLE 20-5:
TIMER0 AND TIMER1 EXTERNAL CLOCK REQUIREMENTS
Param
No.
Sym
Characteristic
40*
Tt0H
T0CKI High Pulse Width
No Prescaler
T0CKI Low Pulse Width
With Prescaler
No Prescaler
With Prescaler
41*
42*
45*
46*
47*
48
*
†
Tt0L
Min
Typ†
Max
0.5TCY + 20
—
—
ns
10
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
ns
ns
ns
ns
ns
—
—
—
—
—
—
ns
ns
ns
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
ns
ns
ns
ns
ns
—
—
—
—
—
—
ns
ns
ns
0.5TCY + 20
10
Tt0P
T0CKI Period
TCY + 40
No Prescaler
With Prescaler Greater of:
20 or TCY + 40
N
Tt1H
T1CKI High Time Synchronous, Prescaler = 1
0.5TCY + 20
Synchronous, PIC16C7X
15
Prescaler =
PIC16LC7X
25
2,4,8
Asynchronous PIC16C7X
30
PIC16LC7X
50
Tt1L
T1CKI Low Time
Synchronous, Prescaler = 1
0.5TCY + 20
Synchronous, PIC16C7X
15
Prescaler =
PIC16LC7X
25
2,4,8
Asynchronous PIC16C7X
30
PIC16LC7X
50
Tt1P
T1CKI input period Synchronous PIC16C7X
Greater of:
30 OR TCY + 40
N
Greater of:
PIC16LC7X
50 OR TCY + 40
N
Asynchronous PIC16C7X
60
PIC16LC7X
100
Ft1
Timer1 oscillator input frequency range
DC
(oscillator enabled by setting bit T1OSCEN)
TCKEZtmr1 Delay from external clock edge to timer increment
2Tosc
Units Conditions
Must also meet
parameter 42
Must also meet
parameter 42
N = prescale value
(2, 4, ..., 256)
Must also meet
parameter 47
Must also meet
parameter 47
N = prescale value
(1, 2, 4, 8)
N = prescale value
(1, 2, 4, 8)
—
—
—
—
—
200
ns
ns
kHz
—
7Tosc
—
These parameters are characterized but not tested.
Data in "Typ" column is at 5V, 25˚C unless otherwise stated. These parameters are for design guidance only and are not
tested.
 1997 Microchip Technology Inc.
DS30390E-page 229
PIC16C7X
Applicable Devices 72 73 73A 74 74A 76 77
FIGURE 20-7: CAPTURE/COMPARE/PWM TIMINGS (CCP1 AND CCP2)
RC1/T1OSI/CCP2
and RC2/CCP1
(Capture Mode)
50
51
52
RC1/T1OSI/CCP2
and RC2/CCP1
(Compare or PWM Mode)
53
54
Note: Refer to Figure 20-1 for load conditions.
TABLE 20-6:
Param
No.
50*
51*
CAPTURE/COMPARE/PWM REQUIREMENTS (CCP1 AND CCP2)
Sym Characteristic
TccL CCP1 and CCP2
input low time
TccH CCP1 and CCP2
input high time
Min
No Prescaler
PIC16C76/77
With Prescaler PIC16LC76/77
52*
TccP CCP1 and CCP2 input period
53*
TccR CCP1 and CCP2 output rise time
54*
TccF CCP1 and CCP2 output fall time
—
—
ns
10
—
—
ns
20
—
—
ns
0.5TCY + 20
—
—
ns
PIC16C76/77
10
—
—
ns
PIC16LC76/77
20
—
—
ns
3TCY + 40
N
—
—
ns
PIC16C76/77
—
10
25
ns
PIC16LC76/77
—
25
45
ns
PIC16C76/77
—
10
25
ns
PIC16LC76/77
—
25
45
ns
No Prescaler
With Prescaler
*
†
0.5TCY + 20
Typ† Max Units Conditions
N = prescale
value (1,4 or 16)
These parameters are characterized but not tested.
Data in "Typ" column is at 5V, 25˚C unless otherwise stated.
These parameters are for design guidance only and are not tested.
DS30390E-page 230
 1997 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC16C7X
Applicable Devices 72 73 73A 74 74A 76 77
FIGURE 20-8: PARALLEL SLAVE PORT TIMING (PIC16C77)
RE2/CS
RE0/RD
RE1/WR
65
RD7:RD0
62
64
63
Note: Refer to Figure 20-1 for load conditions
TABLE 20-7:
Parameter
No.
62
PARALLEL SLAVE PORT REQUIREMENTS (PIC16C77)
Sym
Characteristic
Min Typ† Max Units
TdtV2wrH Data in valid before WR↑ or CS↑ (setup time)
63*
TwrH2dtI
WR↑ or CS↑ to data–in invalid (hold time) PIC16C77
PIC16LC77
64
65
*
†
TrdL2dtV
TrdH2dtI
RD↓ and CS↓ to data–out valid
RD↑ or CS↓ to data–out invalid
20
25
—
—
—
—
ns
ns
20
—
—
ns
35
—
—
ns
—
—
—
—
80
90
ns
ns
10
—
30
ns
Conditions
Extended
Range Only
Extended
Range Only
These parameters are characterized but not tested.
Data in "Typ" column is at 5V, 25˚C unless otherwise stated. These parameters are for design guidance only and are not
tested.
 1997 Microchip Technology Inc.
DS30390E-page 231
PIC16C7X
Applicable Devices 72 73 73A 74 74A 76 77
FIGURE 20-9: SPI MASTER MODE TIMING (CKE = 0)
SS
70
SCK
(CKP = 0)
71
72
78
79
79
78
SCK
(CKP = 1)
80
BIT6 - - - - - -1
MSB
SDO
LSB
75, 76
SDI
MSB IN
BIT6 - - - -1
LSB IN
74
73
Refer to Figure 20-1 for load conditions.
FIGURE 20-10: SPI MASTER MODE TIMING (CKE = 1)
SS
81
SCK
(CKP = 0)
71
72
79
73
SCK
(CKP = 1)
80
78
BIT6 - - - - - -1
MSB
SDO
LSB
75, 76
SDI
MSB IN
BIT6 - - - -1
LSB IN
74
Refer to Figure 20-1 for load conditions.
DS30390E-page 232
 1997 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC16C7X
Applicable Devices 72 73 73A 74 74A 76 77
FIGURE 20-11: SPI SLAVE MODE TIMING (CKE = 0)
SS
70
SCK
(CKP = 0)
83
71
72
78
79
79
78
SCK
(CKP = 1)
80
MSB
SDO
LSB
BIT6 - - - - - -1
77
75, 76
SDI
MSB IN
BIT6 - - - -1
LSB IN
74
73
Refer to Figure 20-1 for load conditions.
FIGURE 20-12: SPI SLAVE MODE TIMING (CKE = 1)
82
SS
SCK
(CKP = 0)
70
83
71
72
SCK
(CKP = 1)
80
MSB
SDO
BIT6 - - - - - -1
LSB
75, 76
SDI
MSB IN
77
BIT6 - - - -1
LSB IN
74
Refer to Figure 20-1 for load conditions.
 1997 Microchip Technology Inc.
DS30390E-page 233
PIC16C7X
Applicable Devices 72 73 73A 74 74A 76 77
TABLE 20-8:
Parameter
No.
70*
71*
72*
73*
74*
75*
76*
77*
78*
79*
80*
81*
82*
SPI MODE REQUIREMENTS
Sym
TssL2scH,
TssL2scL
TscH
TscL
TdiV2scH,
TdiV2scL
TscH2diL,
TscL2diL
TdoR
TdoF
TssH2doZ
TscR
TscF
TscH2doV,
TscL2doV
TdoV2scH,
TdoV2scL
TssL2doV
83*
*
†
Characteristic
Min
Typ†
Max
Units
SS↓ to SCK↓ or SCK↑ input
TCY
—
—
ns
—
—
—
—
—
—
ns
ns
ns
—
—
ns
10
10
—
10
10
—
25
25
50
25
25
50
ns
ns
ns
ns
ns
ns
—
—
ns
—
50
ns
SCK input high time (slave mode)
TCY + 20
SCK input low time (slave mode)
TCY + 20
Setup time of SDI data input to SCK
100
edge
Hold time of SDI data input to SCK
100
edge
SDO data output rise time
—
SDO data output fall time
—
SS↑ to SDO output hi-impedance
10
SCK output rise time (master mode)
—
SCK output fall time (master mode)
—
SDO data output valid after SCK
—
edge
SDO data output setup to SCK
TCY
edge
SDO data output valid after SS↓
—
edge
SS ↑ after SCK edge
1.5TCY + 40
Conditions
TscH2ssH,
—
—
ns
TscL2ssH
These parameters are characterized but not tested.
Data in "Typ" column is at 5V, 25˚C unless otherwise stated. These parameters are for design guidance only and are not
tested.
DS30390E-page 234
 1997 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC16C7X
Applicable Devices 72 73 73A 74 74A 76 77
FIGURE 20-13: I2C BUS START/STOP BITS TIMING
SCL
93
91
90
92
SDA
STOP
Condition
START
Condition
Note: Refer to Figure 20-1 for load conditions
TABLE 20-9:
I2C BUS START/STOP BITS REQUIREMENTS
Parameter
No.
Sym
90
TSU:STA
91
THD:STA
92
TSU:STO
93
THD:STO
Characteristic
START condition
Setup time
START condition
Hold time
STOP condition
Setup time
STOP condition
Hold time
 1997 Microchip Technology Inc.
Min
100 kHz mode
400 kHz mode
100 kHz mode
400 kHz mode
100 kHz mode
400 kHz mode
100 kHz mode
400 kHz mode
4700
600
4000
600
4700
600
4000
600
Typ Max
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
Units
Conditions
ns
Only relevant for repeated START
condition
ns
After this period the first clock
pulse is generated
ns
ns
DS30390E-page 235
PIC16C7X
Applicable Devices 72 73 73A 74 74A 76 77
FIGURE 20-14: I2C BUS DATA TIMING
103
102
100
101
SCL
90
106
107
91
92
SDA
In
110
109
109
SDA
Out
Note: Refer to Figure 20-1 for load conditions
TABLE 20-10: I2C BUS DATA REQUIREMENTS
Parameter
No.
Sym
Characteristic
100
THIGH
Clock high time
101
102
103
TLOW
TR
TF
Clock low time
SDA and SCL rise
time
SDA and SCL fall time
90
TSU:STA
START condition
setup time
91
THD:STA
START condition hold
time
106
THD:DAT
Data input hold time
107
TSU:DAT
Data input setup time
92
TSU:STO
STOP condition setup
time
109
TAA
Output valid from
clock
110
TBUF
Bus free time
Min
Max
Units
Conditions
100 kHz mode
4.0
—
µs
400 kHz mode
0.6
—
µs
Device must operate at a minimum of 1.5 MHz
Device must operate at a minimum of 10 MHz
SSP Module
100 kHz mode
1.5TCY
4.7
—
—
µs
400 kHz mode
1.3
—
µs
SSP Module
100 kHz mode
400 kHz mode
1.5TCY
—
20 + 0.1Cb
—
1000
300
ns
ns
100 kHz mode
400 kHz mode
—
20 + 0.1Cb
300
300
ns
ns
100 kHz mode
400 kHz mode
100 kHz mode
400 kHz mode
100 kHz mode
400 kHz mode
100 kHz mode
400 kHz mode
100 kHz mode
400 kHz mode
100 kHz mode
400 kHz mode
100 kHz mode
400 kHz mode
4.7
0.6
4.0
0.6
0
0
250
100
4.7
0.6
—
—
4.7
1.3
—
—
—
—
—
0.9
—
—
—
—
3500
—
—
—
µs
µs
µs
µs
ns
µs
ns
ns
µs
µs
ns
ns
µs
µs
Device must operate at a minimum of 1.5 MHz
Device must operate at a minimum of 10 MHz
Cb is specified to be from
10 to 400 pF
Cb is specified to be from
10 to 400 pF
Only relevant for repeated
START condition
After this period the first clock
pulse is generated
Note 2
Note 1
Time the bus must be free
before a new transmission can
start
Cb
Bus capacitive loading
—
400
pF
Note 1: As a transmitter, the device must provide this internal minimum delay time to bridge the undefined region (min. 300 ns) of
the falling edge of SCL to avoid unintended generation of START or STOP conditions.
2: A fast-mode (400 kHz) I2C-bus device can be used in a standard-mode (100 kHz) I2C-bus system, but the requirement
tsu;DAT ≥ 250 ns must then be met. This will automatically be the case if the device does not stretch the LOW period of the
SCL signal. If such a device does stretch the LOW period of the SCL signal, it must output the next data bit to the SDA line
TR max.+tsu;DAT = 1000 + 250 = 1250 ns (according to the standard-mode I2C bus specification) before the SCL line is
released.
DS30390E-page 236
 1997 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC16C7X
Applicable Devices 72 73 73A 74 74A 76 77
FIGURE 20-15: USART SYNCHRONOUS TRANSMISSION (MASTER/SLAVE) TIMING
RC6/TX/CK
pin
121
121
RC7/RX/DT
pin
120
122
Note: Refer to Figure 20-1 for load conditions
TABLE 20-11: USART SYNCHRONOUS TRANSMISSION REQUIREMENTS
Param
No.
120
121
Characteristic
TckH2dtV
SYNC XMIT (MASTER &
SLAVE)
Clock high to data out valid
Tckrf
122
†:
Sym
Tdtrf
Min
Typ†
Max
Units Conditions
PIC16C76/77
—
—
80
ns
PIC16LC76/77
—
—
100
ns
Clock out rise time and fall time PIC16C76/77
(Master Mode)
PIC16LC76/77
—
—
45
ns
—
—
50
ns
Data out rise time and fall time
PIC16C76/77
—
—
45
ns
PIC16LC76/77
—
—
50
ns
Data in “Typ” column is at 5V, 25°C unless otherwise stated. These parameters are for design guidance only and are not
tested.
FIGURE 20-16: USART SYNCHRONOUS RECEIVE (MASTER/SLAVE) TIMING
RC6/TX/CK
pin
RC7/RX/DT
pin
125
126
Note: Refer to Figure 20-1 for load conditions
TABLE 20-12: USART SYNCHRONOUS RECEIVE REQUIREMENTS
Parameter
No.
†:
Sym
Characteristic
Min
Typ†
Max
125
TdtV2ckL
126
TckL2dtl
Units Conditions
SYNC RCV (MASTER & SLAVE)
Data setup before CK ↓ (DT setup time)
15
—
—
ns
Data hold after CK ↓ (DT hold time)
15
—
—
ns
Data in “Typ” column is at 5V, 25°C unless otherwise stated. These parameters are for design guidance only and are not
tested.
 1997 Microchip Technology Inc.
DS30390E-page 237
PIC16C7X
Applicable Devices 72 73 73A 74 74A 76 77
TABLE 20-13: A/D CONVERTER CHARACTERISTICS:
PIC16C76/77-04 (Commercial, Industrial, Extended)
PIC16C76/77-10 (Commercial, Industrial, Extended)
PIC16C76/77-20 (Commercial, Industrial, Extended)
PIC16LC76/77-04 (Commercial, Industrial)
Param Sym Characteristic
No.
A01
NR
A02
Resolution
EABS Total Absolute error
Typ†
Max
Units
Conditions
—
—
8-bits
bit
—
—
<±1
LSb VREF = VDD = 5.12V,
VSS ≤ VAIN ≤ VREF
—
—
<±1
LSb VREF = VDD = 5.12V,
VSS ≤ VAIN ≤ VREF
VREF = VDD = 5.12V,
VSS ≤ VAIN ≤ VREF
A03
EIL
A04
EDL Differential linearity error
—
—
<±1
LSb VREF = VDD = 5.12V,
VSS ≤ VAIN ≤ VREF
A05
EFS Full scale error
—
—
<±1
LSb VREF = VDD = 5.12V,
VSS ≤ VAIN ≤ VREF
A06
EOFF Offset error
—
—
<±1
LSb VREF = VDD = 5.12V,
VSS ≤ VAIN ≤ VREF
A10
—
Integral linearity error
Min
VSS ≤ VAIN ≤ VREF
Monotonicity
—
guaranteed
—
—
A20
VREF Reference voltage
3.0V
—
VDD + 0.3
V
A25
VAIN Analog input voltage
VSS - 0.3
—
VREF + 0.3
V
A30
ZAIN Recommended impedance of
analog voltage source
—
—
10.0
kΩ
A40
IAD
PIC16C76/77
—
180
—
µA
PIC16LC76/77
—
90
—
µA
10
—
1000
µA
During VAIN acquisition.
Based on differential of
VHOLD to VAIN to charge
CHOLD, see Section 13.1.
—
—
10
µA
During A/D Conversion
cycle
A50
A/D conversion current
(VDD)
IREF VREF input current (Note 2)
Average current consumption when A/D is on.
(Note 1)
*
†
These parameters are characterized but not tested.
Data in “Typ” column is at 5V, 25°C unless otherwise stated. These parameters are for design guidance only and are not
tested.
Note 1: When A/D is off, it will not consume any current other than minor leakage current.
The power-down current spec includes any such leakage from the A/D module.
2: VREF current is from RA3 pin or VDD pin, whichever is selected as reference input.
DS30390E-page 238
 1997 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC16C7X
Applicable Devices 72 73 73A 74 74A 76 77
FIGURE 20-17: A/D CONVERSION TIMING
BSF ADCON0, GO
134
1 Tcy
(TOSC/2) (1)
131
Q4
130
A/D CLK
132
7
A/D DATA
6
5
4
3
2
1
NEW_DATA
OLD_DATA
ADRES
0
ADIF
GO
DONE
SAMPLING STOPPED
SAMPLE
Note 1: If the A/D clock source is selected as RC, a time of TCY is added before the A/D clock starts. This allows the
SLEEP instruction to be executed.
TABLE 20-14: A/D CONVERSION REQUIREMENTS
Param
No.
130
Sym Characteristic
TAD
A/D clock period
Min
Typ†
Max
Units
Conditions
PIC16C76/77
1.6
—
—
µs
TOSC based, VREF ≥ 3.0V
PIC16LC76/77
2.0
—
—
µs
TOSC based, VREF full range
PIC16C76/77
2.0
4.0
6.0
µs
A/D RC Mode
A/D RC Mode
PIC16LC76/77
3.0
6.0
9.0
µs
131
TCNV Conversion time (not including S/H time)
(Note 1)
—
9.5
—
TAD
132
TACQ Acquisition time
Note 2
20
—
µs
5*
—
—
µs
The minimum time is the amplifier
settling time. This may be used if
the "new" input voltage has not
changed by more than 1 LSb (i.e.,
20.0 mV @ 5.12V) from the last
sampled voltage (as stated on
CHOLD).
—
TOSC/2 §
—
—
If the A/D clock source is selected
as RC, a time of TCY is added
before the A/D clock starts. This
allows the SLEEP instruction to be
executed.
1.5 §
—
—
TAD
134
TGO
Q4 to A/D clock start
TSWC Switching from convert → sample time
135
*
†
These parameters are characterized but not tested.
Data in “Typ” column is at 5V, 25°C unless otherwise stated. These parameters are for design guidance only and are not
tested.
§ This specification ensured by design.
Note 1: ADRES register may be read on the following TCY cycle.
2: See Section 13.1 for min conditions.
 1997 Microchip Technology Inc.
DS30390E-page 239
PIC16C7X
Applicable Devices 72 73 73A 74 74A 76 77
NOTES:
DS30390E-page 240
 1997 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC16C7X
Applicable Devices 72 73 73A 74 74A 76 77
21.0
DC AND AC CHARACTERISTICS GRAPHS AND TABLES
The graphs and tables provided in this section are for design guidance and are not tested or guaranteed.
In some graphs or tables the data presented are outside specified operating range (i.e., outside specified VDD
range). This is for information only and devices are guaranteed to operate properly only within the specified
range.
Note:
The data presented in this section is a statistical summary of data collected on units from different lots over
a period of time and matrix samples. 'Typical' represents the mean of the distribution at, 25°C, while 'max'
or 'min' represents (mean +3σ) and (mean -3σ) respectively where σ is standard deviation.
FIGURE 21-1: TYPICAL IPD vs. VDD (WDT DISABLED, RC MODE)
35
30
IPD(nA)
25
20
15
10
5
0
2.5
3.0
3.5
4.0
4.5
VDD(Volts)
5.0
5.5
6.0
FIGURE 21-2: MAXIMUM IPD vs. VDD (WDT DISABLED, RC MODE)
10.000
85°C
70°C
IPD(µA)
1.000
25°C
0.100
0°C
-40°C
0.010
0.001
2.5
 1997 Microchip Technology Inc.
3.0
3.5
4.0
4.5
VDD(Volts)
5.0
5.5
6.0
DS30390E-page 241
PIC16C7X
Applicable Devices 72 73 73A 74 74A 76 77
FIGURE 21-3: TYPICAL IPD vs. VDD @ 25°C
(WDT ENABLED, RC MODE)
FIGURE 21-5: TYPICAL RC OSCILLATOR
FREQUENCY vs. VDD
Cext = 22 pF, T = 25°C
6.0
25
5.5
5.0
4.5
Fosc(MHz)
IPD(µA)
20
15
10
R = 5k
4.0
3.5
3.0
R = 10k
2.5
2.0
5
1.5
1.0
0
2.5
3.0
3.5
4.0
4.5
5.0
5.5
0.0
2.5
VDD(Volts)
FIGURE 21-4: MAXIMUM IPD vs. VDD (WDT
ENABLED, RC MODE)
35
3.0
3.5
4.0
4.5
VDD(Volts)
5.0
0°C
Cext = 100 pF, T = 25°C
2.4
2.2
R = 3.3k
2.0
20
1.8
70°C
Fosc(MHz)
IPD(µA)
6.0
Shaded area is beyond recommended range.
25
15
85°C
10
5
1.6
R = 5k
1.4
1.2
1.0
R = 10k
0.8
0.6
0
2.5
3.0
3.5
4.0
4.5
5.0
5.5
0.4
6.0
R = 100k
0.2
VDD(Volts)
0.0
2.5
3.0
3.5
4.0
4.5
5.0
5.5
6.0
VDD(Volts)
FIGURE 21-7: TYPICAL RC OSCILLATOR
FREQUENCY vs. VDD
Cext = 300 pF, T = 25°C
1000
900
800
Fosc(kHz)
Data based on matrix samples. See first page of this section for details.
5.5
FIGURE 21-6: TYPICAL RC OSCILLATOR
FREQUENCY vs. VDD
-40°C
30
R = 100k
0.5
6.0
R = 3.3k
700
600
R = 5k
500
400
R = 10k
300
200
R = 100k
100
0
2.5
3.0
3.5
4.0
4.5
5.0
5.5
6.0
VDD(Volts)
DS30390E-page 242
 1997 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC16C7X
Applicable Devices 72 73 73A 74 74A 76 77
FIGURE 21-8: TYPICAL IPD vs. VDD BROWNOUT DETECT ENABLED (RC
MODE)
FIGURE 21-10: TYPICAL IPD vs. TIMER1
ENABLED (32 kHz, RC0/RC1 =
33 pF/33 pF, RC MODE)
1400
1200
30
25
Device NOT in
Brown-out Reset
800
20
600
400
200
0
2.5
IPD(µA)
IPD(µA)
1000
Device in
Brown-out
Reset
15
10
3.0
3.5
4.0
4.5
VDD(Volts)
5.0
5.5
5
6.0
0
2.5
The shaded region represents the built-in hysteresis of the
brown-out reset circuitry.
FIGURE 21-9: MAXIMUM IPD vs. VDD
BROWN-OUT DETECT
ENABLED
(85°C TO -40°C, RC MODE)
3.0
3.5
4.0
4.5
VDD(Volts)
5.0
5.5
6.0
FIGURE 21-11: MAXIMUM IPD vs. TIMER1
ENABLED
(32 kHz, RC0/RC1 = 33 pF/33
pF, 85°C TO -40°C, RC MODE)
1600
1400
1200
45
40
Device NOT in
Brown-out Reset
800
35
30
400
Device in
Brown-out
Reset
20
15
200
4.3
0
2.5
25
3.0
3.5
4.0
4.5
VDD(Volts)
10
5.0
5.5
6.0
The shaded region represents the built-in hysteresis of the
brown-out reset circuitry.
 1997 Microchip Technology Inc.
5
0
2.5
3.0
3.5
4.0
4.5
VDD(Volts)
5.0
5.5
6.0
DS30390E-page 243
Data based on matrix samples. See first page of this section for details.
600
IPD(µA)
IPD(µA)
1000
PIC16C7X
Applicable Devices 72 73 73A 74 74A 76 77
FIGURE 21-12: TYPICAL IDD vs. FREQUENCY (RC MODE @ 22 pF, 25°C)
2000
6.0V
1800
5.5V
5.0V
1600
4.5V
IDD(µA)
1400
4.0V
1200
3.5V
1000
3.0V
800
2.5V
600
400
200
0
0.0
0.5
1.0
1.5
2.0
2.5
3.0
Frequency(MHz)
3.5
4.0
4.5
Shaded area is
beyond recommended range
FIGURE 21-13: MAXIMUM IDD vs. FREQUENCY (RC MODE @ 22 pF, -40°C TO 85°C)
2000
6.0V
1800
5.5V
5.0V
1600
4.5V
IDD(µA)
Data based on matrix samples. See first page of this section for details.
1400
4.0V
1200
3.5V
1000
3.0V
800
2.5V
600
400
200
0
0.0
0.5
1.0
1.5
2.0
2.5
Frequency(MHz)
DS30390E-page 244
3.0
3.5
4.0
4.5
Shaded area is
beyond recommended range
 1997 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC16C7X
Applicable Devices 72 73 73A 74 74A 76 77
FIGURE 21-14: TYPICAL IDD vs. FREQUENCY (RC MODE @ 100 pF, 25°C)
1600
6.0V
1400
5.5V
5.0V
1200
4.5V
4.0V
1000
IDD(µA)
3.5V
3.0V
800
2.5V
600
400
200
0
0
200
400
Shaded area is
beyond recommended range
600
800
1000
1200
1400
1600
1800
Frequency(kHz)
FIGURE 21-15: MAXIMUM IDD vs. FREQUENCY (RC MODE @ 100 pF, -40°C TO 85°C)
1600
6.0V
1400
5.0V
1200
4.5V
4.0V
1000
IDD(µA)
3.5V
3.0V
800
2.5V
600
400
200
0
0
200
400
Shaded area is
beyond recommended range
 1997 Microchip Technology Inc.
600
800
1000
1200
1400
1600
1800
Frequency(kHz)
DS30390E-page 245
Data based on matrix samples. See first page of this section for details.
5.5V
PIC16C7X
Applicable Devices 72 73 73A 74 74A 76 77
FIGURE 21-16: TYPICAL IDD vs. FREQUENCY (RC MODE @ 300 pF, 25°C)
1200
6.0V
5.5V
1000
5.0V
4.5V
4.0V
800
3.5V
IDD(µA)
3.0V
600
2.5V
400
200
0
0
100
200
300
400
500
600
700
Frequency(kHz)
FIGURE 21-17: MAXIMUM IDD vs. FREQUENCY (RC MODE @ 300 pF, -40°C TO 85°C)
1200
6.0V
5.5V
5.0V
4.5V
4.0V
800
3.5V
IDD(µA)
Data based on matrix samples. See first page of this section for details.
1000
3.0V
600
2.5V
400
200
0
0
100
200
300
400
500
600
700
Frequency(kHz)
DS30390E-page 246
 1997 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC16C7X
Applicable Devices 72 73 73A 74 74A 76 77
FIGURE 21-18: TYPICAL IDD vs.
CAPACITANCE @ 500 kHz
(RC MODE)
FIGURE 21-19: TRANSCONDUCTANCE(gm)
OF HS OSCILLATOR vs. VDD
600
4.0
3.5
3.0
gm(mA/V)
4.0V
400
IDD(µA)
Max -40°C
5.0V
500
3.0V
300
200
2.5
Typ 25°C
2.0
Min 85°C
1.5
1.0
100
0.5
100 pF
RC OSCILLATOR
FREQUENCIES
100
300 pF
5k
4.12 MHz
± 1.4%
10k
2.35 MHz
± 1.4%
100k
268 kHz
± 1.1%
5.5
6.0
6.5
7.0
70
60
1.80 MHz
± 1.0%
1.27 MHz
± 1.0%
10k
688 kHz
± 1.2%
20
100k
77.2 kHz
± 1.0%
10
3.3k
707 kHz
± 1.4%
± 1.2%
10k
269 kHz
± 1.6%
100k
28.3 kHz
± 1.1%
The percentage variation indicated here is part to
part variation due to normal process distribution. The
variation indicated is ±3 standard deviation from
average value for VDD = 5V.
Typ 25°C
50
5k
501 kHz
Max -40°C
80
3.3k
5k
5.0
90
gm(µA/V)
100 pF
4.5
110
Rext
Fosc @ 5V, 25°C
22 pF
4.0
FIGURE 21-20: TRANSCONDUCTANCE(gm)
OF LP OSCILLATOR vs. VDD
Average
Cext
3.5
VDD(Volts)
Shaded area is
beyond recommended range
Capacitance(pF)
TABLE 21-1:
0.0
3.0
300 pF
40
30
0
2.0
Min 85°C
2.5 3.0 3.5 4.0 4.5 5.0 5.5 6.0 6.5
7.0
VDD(Volts)
Shaded areas are
beyond recommended range
FIGURE 21-21: TRANSCONDUCTANCE(gm)
OF XT OSCILLATOR vs. VDD
1000
900
Max -40°C
800
gm(µA/V)
700
600
Typ 25°C
500
400
300
Min 85°C
200
100
0
2.0 2.5 3.0 3.5 4.0 4.5 5.0 5.5 6.0 6.5
7.0
VDD(Volts)
Shaded areas are
beyond recommended range
 1997 Microchip Technology Inc.
DS30390E-page 247
Data based on matrix samples. See first page of this section for details.
0
20 pF
PIC16C7X
Applicable Devices 72 73 73A 74 74A 76 77
FIGURE 21-22: TYPICAL XTAL STARTUP
TIME vs. VDD (LP MODE, 25°C)
FIGURE 21-24: TYPICAL XTAL STARTUP
TIME vs. VDD (XT MODE, 25°C)
3.5
70
3.0
60
50
Startup Time(ms)
Startup Time(Seconds)
2.5
2.0
32 kHz, 33 pF/33 pF
1.5
1.0
40
200 kHz, 68 pF/68 pF
30
200 kHz, 47 pF/47 pF
20
1 MHz, 15 pF/15 pF
10
0.5
4 MHz, 15 pF/15 pF
200 kHz, 15 pF/15 pF
0.0
2.5
0
2.5
3.0
3.5
4.0
4.5
5.0
5.5
3.0
3.5
6.0
4.0
4.5
VDD(Volts)
5.0
5.5
6.0
VDD(Volts)
FIGURE 21-23: TYPICAL XTAL STARTUP
TIME vs. VDD (HS MODE, 25°C)
7
Osc Type
Startup Time(ms)
6
Data based on matrix samples. See first page of this section for details.
TABLE 21-2:
LP
20 MHz, 33 pF/33 pF
5
XT
4
8 MHz, 33 pF/33 pF
3
20 MHz, 15 pF/15 pF
8 MHz, 15 pF/15 pF
2
1
4.0
4.5
DS30390E-page 248
5.0
VDD(Volts)
5.5
HS
CAPACITOR SELECTION
FOR CRYSTAL
OSCILLATORS
Crystal
Freq
Cap. Range
C1
Cap. Range
C2
33 pF
32 kHz
33 pF
200 kHz
15 pF
15 pF
200 kHz
47-68 pF
47-68 pF
1 MHz
15 pF
15 pF
4 MHz
15 pF
15 pF
4 MHz
15 pF
15 pF
8 MHz
15-33 pF
15-33 pF
20 MHz
15-33 pF
15-33 pF
6.0
Crystals
Used
32 kHz
Epson C-001R32.768K-A
± 20 PPM
200 kHz
STD XTL 200.000KHz
± 20 PPM
1 MHz
ECS ECS-10-13-1
± 50 PPM
4 MHz
ECS ECS-40-20-1
± 50 PPM
8 MHz
EPSON CA-301 8.000M-C
± 30 PPM
20 MHz
EPSON CA-301 20.000M-C
± 30 PPM
 1997 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC16C7X
Applicable Devices 72 73 73A 74 74A 76 77
FIGURE 21-25: TYPICAL IDD vs. FREQUENCY
(LP MODE, 25°C)
FIGURE 21-27: TYPICAL IDD vs. FREQUENCY
(XT MODE, 25°C)
1800
1600
6.0V
1400
5.5V
120
100
5.0V
1200
4.5V
1000
4.0V
60
40
20
0
0
6.0V
5.5V
5.0V
4.5V
4.0V
3.5V
3.0V
2.5V
IDD(µA)
IDD(µA)
80
3.5V
800
3.0V
600
2.5V
400
50
100
150
200
200
Frequency(kHz)
0
0.0
0.4
0.8
1.2
1.6
2.0
2.4
2.8
3.2
3.6
4.0
Frequency(MHz)
FIGURE 21-26: MAXIMUM IDD vs.
FREQUENCY
(LP MODE, 85°C TO -40°C)
FIGURE 21-28: MAXIMUM IDD vs.
FREQUENCY
(XT MODE, -40°C TO 85°C)
1800
6.0V
1600
120
1400
100
1200
80
1000
4.0V
800
3.5V
40
20
0
0
6.0V
5.5V
5.0V
4.5V
4.0V
3.5V
3.0V
2.5V
5.5V
5.0V
4.5V
3.0V
600
2.5V
400
200
50
100
Frequency(kHz)
150
200
0
0.0
0.4
0.8
1.2
1.6
2.0
2.4
2.8
3.2
3.6
4.0
Frequency(MHz)
 1997 Microchip Technology Inc.
DS30390E-page 249
Data based on matrix samples. See first page of this section for details.
60
IDD(µA)
IDD(µA)
140
PIC16C7X
Applicable Devices 72 73 73A 74 74A 76 77
FIGURE 21-29: TYPICAL IDD vs. FREQUENCY
(HS MODE, 25°C)
7.0
FIGURE 21-30: MAXIMUM IDD vs.
FREQUENCY
(HS MODE, -40°C TO 85°C)
7.0
6.0
6.0
5.0
IDD(mA)
IDD(mA)
5.0
4.0
3.0
2.0
1.0
0.0
1 2
6.0V
5.5V
5.0V
4.5V
4.0V
4.0
3.0
2.0
1.0
4
6
8
10
12
Frequency(MHz)
14
16
18
20
0.0
1 2
6.0V
5.5V
5.0V
4.5V
4.0V
4
6
8
10
12
14
16
18
20
Data based on matrix samples. See first page of this section for details.
Frequency(MHz)
DS30390E-page 250
 1997 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC16C7X
22.0
PACKAGING INFORMATION
22.1
28-Lead Ceramic Side Brazed Dual In-Line with Window (300 mil)(JW)
N
C
E1 E
eA
eB
α
Pin #1
Indicator Area
D
S1
S
Base
Plane
Seating
Plane
L
B1
A3
A2
A
A1
e1
B
D1
Package Group: Ceramic Side Brazed Dual In-Line (CER)
Millimeters
Inches
Symbol
α
A
A1
A2
A3
B
B1
C
D
D1
E
E1
e1
eA
eB
L
N
S
S1
Min
Max
0°
3.937
1.016
2.921
1.930
0.406
1.219
0.228
35.204
32.893
7.620
7.366
2.413
7.366
7.594
3.302
28
1.143
0.533
10°
5.030
1.524
3.506
2.388
0.508
1.321
0.305
35.916
33.147
8.128
7.620
2.667
7.874
8.179
4.064
28
1.397
0.737
 1997 Microchip Technology Inc.
Notes
Typical
Typical
Reference
Typical
Reference
Min
Max
0°
0.155
0.040
0.115
0.076
0.016
0.048
0.009
1.386
1.295
0.300
0.290
0.095
0.290
0.299
0.130
28
0.045
0.021
10°
0.198
0.060
0.138
0.094
0.020
0.052
0.012
1.414
1.305
0.320
0.300
0.105
0.310
0.322
0.160
28
0.055
0.029
Notes
DS30390E-page 251
PIC16C7X
22.2
40-Lead Ceramic CERDIP Dual In-line with Window (600 mil) (JW)
N
E1 E
α
C
Pin No. 1
Indicator
Area
eA
eB
D
S
S1
Base
Plane
Seating
Plane
L
B1
A1 A3 A A2
e1
B
D1
Package Group: Ceramic CERDIP Dual In-Line (CDP)
Millimeters
Symbol
Min
Max
α
0°
A
A1
A2
A3
B
B1
C
D
D1
E
E1
e1
eA
eB
L
N
S
S1
4.318
0.381
3.810
3.810
0.355
1.270
0.203
51.435
48.260
15.240
12.954
2.540
14.986
15.240
3.175
40
1.016
0.381
DS30390E-page 252
Inches
Notes
Min
Max
10°
0°
10°
5.715
1.778
4.699
4.445
0.585
1.651
0.381
52.705
48.260
15.875
15.240
2.540
16.002
18.034
3.810
40
2.286
1.778
0.170
0.015
0.150
0.150
0.014
0.050
0.008
2.025
1.900
0.600
0.510
0.100
0.590
0.600
0.125
40
0.040
0.015
0.225
0.070
0.185
0.175
0.023
0.065
0.015
2.075
1.900
0.625
0.600
0.100
0.630
0.710
0.150
40
0.090
0.070
Typical
Typical
Reference
Reference
Typical
Notes
Typical
Typical
Reference
Reference
Typical
 1997 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC16C7X
22.3
28-Lead Plastic Dual In-line (300 mil) (SP)
N
α
E1 E
C
eA
eB
Pin No. 1
Indicator
Area
B2
D
B1
S
Base
Plane
Seating
Plane
L
Detail A
B3
A1 A2 A
e1
B
Detail A
D1
Package Group: Plastic Dual In-Line (PLA)
Millimeters
Symbol
Min
Max
α
0°
A
A1
A2
B
B1
B2
B3
C
D
D1
E
E1
e1
eA
eB
L
N
S
3.632
0.381
3.175
0.406
1.016
0.762
0.203
0.203
34.163
33.020
7.874
7.112
2.540
7.874
8.128
3.175
28
0.584
 1997 Microchip Technology Inc.
Inches
Notes
Min
Max
10°
0°
10°
4.572
–
3.556
0.559
1.651
1.016
0.508
0.331
35.179
33.020
8.382
7.493
2.540
7.874
9.652
3.683
1.220
0.143
0.015
0.125
0.016
0.040
0.030
0.008
0.008
1.385
1.300
0.310
0.280
0.100
0.310
0.320
0.125
28
0.023
0.180
–
0.140
0.022
0.065
0.040
0.020
0.013
1.395
1.300
0.330
0.295
0.100
0.310
0.380
0.145
0.048
Typical
4 places
4 places
Typical
Reference
Typical
Reference
Notes
Typical
4 places
4 places
Typical
Reference
Typical
Reference
DS30390E-page 253
PIC16C7X
22.4
40-Lead Plastic Dual In-line (600 mil) (P)
N
α
E1 E
C
eA
eB
Pin No. 1
Indicator
Area
D
S
S1
Base
Plane
Seating
Plane
L
B1
A1 A2 A
e1
B
D1
Package Group: Plastic Dual In-Line (PLA)
Millimeters
Symbol
Min
Max
α
0°
A
A1
A2
B
B1
C
D
D1
E
E1
e1
eA
eB
L
N
S
S1
–
0.381
3.175
0.355
1.270
0.203
51.181
48.260
15.240
13.462
2.489
15.240
15.240
2.921
40
1.270
0.508
DS30390E-page 254
Inches
Notes
Min
Max
10°
0°
10°
5.080
–
4.064
0.559
1.778
0.381
52.197
48.260
15.875
13.970
2.591
15.240
17.272
3.683
40
–
–
–
0.015
0.125
0.014
0.050
0.008
2.015
1.900
0.600
0.530
0.098
0.600
0.600
0.115
40
0.050
0.020
0.200
–
0.160
0.022
0.070
0.015
2.055
1.900
0.625
0.550
0.102
0.600
0.680
0.145
40
–
–
Typical
Typical
Reference
Typical
Reference
Notes
Typical
Typical
Reference
Typical
Reference
 1997 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC16C7X
22.5
28-Lead Plastic Surface Mount (SOIC - Wide, 300 mil Body) (SO)
e
B
h x 45°
N
Index
Area
E
H
α
C
Chamfer
h x 45°
L
1
2
3
D
Seating
Plane
Base
Plane
CP
A1
A
Package Group: Plastic SOIC (SO)
Millimeters
Symbol
Min
Max
Inches
Notes
Min
Max
α
0°
8°
0°
8°
A
A1
B
C
D
E
e
H
h
L
N
CP
2.362
0.101
0.355
0.241
17.703
7.416
1.270
10.007
0.381
0.406
28
–
2.642
0.300
0.483
0.318
18.085
7.595
1.270
10.643
0.762
1.143
28
0.102
0.093
0.004
0.014
0.009
0.697
0.292
0.050
0.394
0.015
0.016
28
–
0.104
0.012
0.019
0.013
0.712
0.299
0.050
0.419
0.030
0.045
28
0.004
 1997 Microchip Technology Inc.
Typical
Notes
Typical
DS30390E-page 255
PIC16C7X
22.6
28-Lead Plastic Surface Mount (SSOP - 209 mil Body 5.30 mm) (SS)
N
Index
area
E
H
α
C
L
1 2 3
B
e
A
Base plane
CP
Seating plane
D
A1
Package Group: Plastic SSOP
Millimeters
Symbol
Min
Max
Inches
Notes
Min
Max
α
0°
8°
0°
8°
A
A1
B
C
D
E
e
H
L
N
CP
1.730
0.050
0.250
0.130
10.070
5.200
0.650
7.650
0.550
28
-
1.990
0.210
0.380
0.220
10.330
5.380
0.650
7.900
0.950
28
0.102
0.068
0.002
0.010
0.005
0.396
0.205
0.026
0.301
0.022
28
-
0.078
0.008
0.015
0.009
0.407
0.212
0.026
0.311
0.037
28
0.004
DS30390E-page 256
Reference
Notes
Reference
 1997 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC16C7X
22.7
44-Lead Plastic Leaded Chip Carrier (Square)(PLCC)
D
-A-
D1
-D-
3
-F-
0.812/0.661 N Pics
.032/.026
1.27
.050
2 Sides
0.177
.007 S B D-E S
-HA
A1
3
D3/E3
D2
0.38
.015
3
-G-
8
F-G S
0.177
.007 S B A S
2 Sides
9
0.101 Seating
.004 Plane
D
-C-
4
E2
E1
E
0.38
.015
F-G S
4
-B-
3
-E-
0.177
.007 S A F-G S
10
0.254
.010 Max
2
0.254
.010 Max
11
-H-
11
0.508
.020
0.508
.020
-H-
2
0.812/0.661
3
.032/.026
1.524
.060 Min
6
6
-C1.651
.065
1.651
.065
R 1.14/0.64
.045/.025
R 1.14/0.64
.045/.025
5
0.533/0.331
.021/.013
0.64 Min
.025
0.177
, D-E S
.007 M A F-G S
Package Group: Plastic Leaded Chip Carrier (PLCC)
Millimeters
Symbol
Min
Max
A
4.191
A1
D
D1
D2
D3
E
E1
E2
E3
N
CP
LT
2.413
17.399
16.510
15.494
12.700
17.399
16.510
15.494
12.700
44
–
0.203
 1997 Microchip Technology Inc.
Inches
Notes
Min
Max
4.572
0.165
0.180
2.921
17.653
16.663
16.002
12.700
17.653
16.663
16.002
12.700
44
0.102
0.381
0.095
0.685
0.650
0.610
0.500
0.685
0.650
0.610
0.500
44
–
0.008
0.115
0.695
0.656
0.630
0.500
0.695
0.656
0.630
0.500
44
0.004
0.015
Reference
Reference
Notes
Reference
Reference
DS30390E-page 257
PIC16C7X
22.8
44-Lead Plastic Surface Mount (MQFP 10x10 mm Body 1.6/0.15 mm Lead Form) (PQ)
4 D
D1 5
0.20 M C A-B S
D S
0.20 M H A-B S
D S
7
0.20 min.
0.05 mm/mm A-B
D3
0.13 R min.
Index
area 6
9
PARTING
LINE
0.13/0.30 R
α
b
L
C
E3
E1 E
1.60 Ref.
0.20 M C A-B S
D S
4
TYP 4x
10
e
0.20 M H A-B S
B
D S
5
7
0.05 mm/mm D
A2
A
Base
Plane
Seating
Plane
A1
Package Group: Plastic MQFP
Millimeters
Symbol
Min
Max
Inches
Notes
Min
Max
α
0°
7°
0°
7°
A
A1
A2
b
C
D
D1
D3
E
E1
E3
e
L
N
CP
2.000
0.050
1.950
0.300
0.150
12.950
9.900
8.000
12.950
9.900
8.000
0.800
0.730
44
0.102
2.350
0.250
2.100
0.450
0.180
13.450
10.100
8.000
13.450
10.100
8.000
0.800
1.030
44
–
0.078
0.002
0.768
0.011
0.006
0.510
0.390
0.315
0.510
0.390
0.315
0.031
0.028
44
0.004
0.093
0.010
0.083
0.018
0.007
0.530
0.398
0.315
0.530
0.398
0.315
0.032
0.041
44
–
DS30390E-page 258
Typical
Reference
Reference
Notes
Typical
Reference
Reference
 1997 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC16C7X
22.9
44-Lead Plastic Surface Mount (TQFP 10x10 mm Body 1.0/0.10 mm Lead Form) (TQ)
D
D1
1.0ø (0.039ø) Ref.
Pin#1
2
11°/13°(4x)
Pin#1
2
E
0° Min
E1
Θ
11°/13°(4x)
Detail B
e
3.0ø (0.118ø) Ref.
Option 1 (TOP side)
A2
A
L
Detail A
R 0.08/0.20
Option 2 (TOP side)
A1
Detail B
R1 0.08 Min
Base Metal
Lead Finish
b
L
c
1.00 Ref.
Gage Plane
0.250
c1
L1
1.00 Ref
b1
Detail A
S
0.20
Min
Detail B
Package Group: Plastic TQFP
Millimeters
Inches
Symbol
Min
Max
A
A1
A2
D
D1
E
E1
L
e
b
b1
c
c1
N
1.00
0.05
0.95
11.75
9.90
11.75
9.90
0.45
1.20
0.15
1.05
12.25
10.10
12.25
10.10
0.75
Notes
Min
Max
0.039
0.002
0.037
0.463
0.390
0.463
0.390
0.018
0.047
0.006
0.041
0.482
0.398
0.482
0.398
0.030
0.30
0.30
0.09
0.09
44
0.45
0.40
0.20
0.16
44
0.012
0.012
0.004
0.004
44
0.018
0.016
0.008
0.006
44
Θ
0°
7°
0°
7°
0.80 BSC
Notes
0.031 BSC
Note 1: Dimensions D1 and E1 do not include mold protrusion. Allowable mold protrusion is 0.25m/m (0.010”) per
side. D1 and E1 dimensions including mold mismatch.
2: Dimension “b” does not include Dambar protrusion, allowable Dambar protrusion shall be 0.08m/m
(0.003”)max.
3: This outline conforms to JEDEC MS-026.
 1997 Microchip Technology Inc.
DS30390E-page 259
PIC16C7X
22.10
Package Marking Information
28-Lead SSOP
Example
XXXXXXXXXXXX
XXXXXXXXXXXX
PIC16C72
20I/SS025
AABBCAE
9517SBP
28-Lead PDIP (Skinny DIP)
Example
MMMMMMMMMMMM
XXXXXXXXXXXXXXX
AABBCDE
PIC16C73-10/SP
AABBCDE
28-Lead Side Brazed Skinny Windowed
Example
XXXXXXXXXXX
XXXXXXXXXXX
AABBCDE
MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM
XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX
AABBCDE
MM...M
XX...X
AA
BB
C
D1
E
Note:
9517CAT
Example
28-Lead SOIC
Legend:
PIC16C73/JW
PIC16C73-10/SO
945/CAA
Microchip part number information
Customer specific information*
Year code (last 2 digits of calender year)
Week code (week of January 1 is week '01’)
Facility code of the plant at which wafer is manufactured.
C = Chandler, Arizona, U.S.A.
S = Tempe, Arizona, U.S.A.
Mask revision number for microcontroller
Assembly code of the plant or country of origin in which
part was assembled.
In the event the full Microchip part number cannot be marked on one
line, it will be carried over to the next line thus limiting the number of
available characters for customer specific information.
* Standard OTP marking consists of Microchip part number, year code, week code,
facility code, mask revision number, and assembly code. For OTP marking beyond
this, certain price adders apply. Please check with your Microchip Sales Office.
For QTP devices, any special marking adders are included in QTP price.
DS30390E-page 260
 1997 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC16C7X
Package Marking Information (Cont’d)
40-Lead PDIP
Example
MMMMMMMMMMMMMM
XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX
AABBCDE
40-Lead CERDIP Windowed
PIC16C74-04/P
9512CAA
Example
MMMMMMMMM
XXXXXXXXXXX
XXXXXXXXXXX
AABBCDE
44-Lead PLCC
44-Lead MQFP
PIC16C74
-10/L
AABBCDE
Example
PIC16C74
-10/PQ
MMMMMMMM
XXXXXXXXXX
XXXXXXXXXX
AABBCDE
AABBCDE
MM...M
XX...X
AA
BB
C
D1
E
Note:
AABBCDE
Example
MMMMMMMM
XXXXXXXXXX
XXXXXXXXXX
AABBCDE
Legend:
PIC16C74/JW
Microchip part number information
Customer specific information*
Year code (last 2 digits of calender year)
Week code (week of January 1 is week '01’)
Facility code of the plant at which wafer is manufactured.
C = Chandler, Arizona, U.S.A.
S = Tempe, Arizona, U.S.A.
Mask revision number for microcontroller
Assembly code of the plant or country of origin in which
part was assembled.
In the event the full Microchip part number cannot be marked on one
line, it will be carried over to the next line thus limiting the number of
available characters for customer specific information.
* Standard OTP marking consists of Microchip part number, year code, week code,
facility code, mask revision number, and assembly code. For OTP marking beyond
this, certain price adders apply. Please check with your Microchip Sales Office.
For QTP devices, any special marking adders are included in QTP price.
 1997 Microchip Technology Inc.
DS30390E-page 261
PIC16C7X
Package Marking Information (Cont’d)
44-Lead TQFP
Example
MMMMMMMM
XXXXXXXXXX
XXXXXXXXXX
AABBCDE
Legend:
PIC16C74A
-10/TQ
AABBCDE
MM...M
XX...X
AA
BB
C
D1
E
Note:
Microchip part number information
Customer specific information*
Year code (last 2 digits of calender year)
Week code (week of January 1 is week '01’)
Facility code of the plant at which wafer is manufactured.
C = Chandler, Arizona, U.S.A.
S = Tempe, Arizona, U.S.A.
Mask revision number for microcontroller
Assembly code of the plant or country of origin in which
part was assembled.
In the event the full Microchip part number cannot be marked on one
line, it will be carried over to the next line thus limiting the number of
available characters for customer specific information.
* Standard OTP marking consists of Microchip part number, year code, week code,
facility code, mask revision number, and assembly code. For OTP marking beyond
this, certain price adders apply. Please check with your Microchip Sales Office.
For QTP devices, any special marking adders are included in QTP price.
DS30390E-page 262
 1997 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC16C7X
APPENDIX A:
APPENDIX B: COMPATIBILITY
The following are the list of modifications over the
PIC16C5X microcontroller family:
To convert code written for PIC16C5X to PIC16CXX,
the user should take the following steps:
1.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.
17.
18.
Instruction word length is increased to 14-bits.
This allows larger page sizes both in program
memory (2K now as opposed to 512 before) and
register file (128 bytes now versus 32 bytes
before).
A PC high latch register (PCLATH) is added to
handle program memory paging. Bits PA2, PA1,
PA0 are removed from STATUS register.
Data memory paging is redefined slightly.
STATUS register is modified.
Four new instructions have been added:
RETURN, RETFIE, ADDLW, and SUBLW.
Two instructions TRIS and OPTION are being
phased out although they are kept for compatibility with PIC16C5X.
OPTION and TRIS registers are made addressable.
Interrupt capability is added. Interrupt vector is
at 0004h.
Stack size is increased to 8 deep.
Reset vector is changed to 0000h.
Reset of all registers is revisited. Five different
reset (and wake-up) types are recognized. Registers are reset differently.
Wake up from SLEEP through interrupt is
added.
Two separate timers, Oscillator Start-up Timer
(OST) and Power-up Timer (PWRT) are
included for more reliable power-up. These timers are invoked selectively to avoid unnecessary
delays on power-up and wake-up.
PORTB has weak pull-ups and interrupt on
change feature.
T0CKI pin is also a port pin (RA4) now.
FSR is made a full eight bit register.
“In-circuit serial programming” is made possible.
The user can program PIC16CXX devices using
only five pins: VDD, VSS, MCLR/VPP, RB6 (clock)
and RB7 (data in/out).
PCON status register is added with a Power-on
Reset status bit (POR).
Code protection scheme is enhanced such that
portions of the program memory can be protected, while the remainder is unprotected.
Brown-out protection circuitry has been added.
Controlled by configuration word bit BODEN.
Brown-out reset ensures the device is placed in
a reset condition if VDD dips below a fixed setpoint.
 1997 Microchip Technology Inc.
2.
3.
4.
5.
Remove any program memory page select
operations (PA2, PA1, PA0 bits) for CALL, GOTO.
Revisit any computed jump operations (write to
PC or add to PC, etc.) to make sure page bits
are set properly under the new scheme.
Eliminate any data memory page switching.
Redefine data variables to reallocate them.
Verify all writes to STATUS, OPTION, and FSR
registers since these have changed.
Change reset vector to 0000h.
DS30390E-page 263
PIC16C7X
APPENDIX C: WHAT’S NEW
APPENDIX D: WHAT’S CHANGED
Added the following devices:
Minor changes, spelling and grammatical changes.
• PIC16C76
• PIC16C77
Added the following note to the USART section. This
note applies to all devices except the PIC16C76 and
PIC16C77.
Removed the PIC16C710, PIC16C71, PIC16C711
from this datasheet.
Added PIC16C76 and PIC16C77 devices. The
PIC16C76/77 devices have 368 bytes of data memory
distributed in 4 banks and 8K of program memory in 4
pages. These two devices have an enhanced SPI that
supports both clock phase and polarity. The USART
has been enhanced.
When upgrading to the PIC16C76/77 please note that
the upper 16 bytes of data memory in banks 1,2, and 3
are mapped into bank 0. This may require relocation of
data memory usage in the user application code.
For the PIC16C73/73A/74/74A the asynchronous high
speed mode (BRGH = 1) may experience a high rate of
receive errors. It is recommended that BRGH = 0. If you
desire a higher baud rate than BRGH = 0 can support,
refer to the device errata for additional information or
use the PIC16C76/77.
Divided SPI section into SPI for the PIC16C76/77 and
SPI for all other devices.
Added Q-cycle definitions to the Instruction Set Summary section.
DS30390E-page 264
 1997 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC16C7X
APPENDIX E: PIC16/17 MICROCONTROLLERS
E.1
PIC12CXXX Family of Devices
PIC12C508
Maximum Frequency
of Operation (MHz)
Clock
Memory
Peripherals
Features
4
PIC12C509
4
PIC12C671
4
PIC12C672
4
EPROM Program Memory
512 x 12
1024 x 12
1024 x 14
2048 x 14
Data Memory (bytes)
25
41
128
128
Timer Module(s)
TMR0
TMR0
TMR0
TMR0
A/D Converter (8-bit) Channels
—
—
4
4
Wake-up from SLEEP on
pin change
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
I/O Pins
5
5
5
5
Input Pins
1
1
1
1
Internal Pull-ups
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Voltage Range (Volts)
2.5-5.5
2.5-5.5
2.5-5.5
2.5-5.5
In-Circuit Serial Programming
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Number of Instructions
33
33
35
35
Packages
8-pin DIP, SOIC
8-pin DIP, SOIC
8-pin DIP, SOIC
8-pin DIP, SOIC
All PIC12C5XX devices have Power-on Reset, selectable Watchdog Timer, selectable code protect and high I/O current capability.
All PIC12C5XX devices use serial programming with data pin GP1 and clock pin GP0.
E.2
PIC14C000 Family of Devices
PIC14C000
Clock
Memory
Peripherals
Features
Maximum Frequency of Operation (MHz)
20
EPROM Program Memory (x14 words)
4K
Data Memory (bytes)
192
Timer Module(s)
TMR0
ADTMR
Serial Port(s)
(SPI/I2C, USART)
I2C with SMBus
Support
Slope A/D Converter Channels
8 External; 6 Internal
Interrupt Sources
11
I/O Pins
22
Voltage Range (Volts)
2.7-6.0
In-Circuit Serial Programming
Yes
Additional On-chip Features
Internal 4MHz Oscillator, Bandgap Reference,Temperature Sensor,
Calibration Factors, Low Voltage Detector, SLEEP, HIBERNATE,
Comparators with Programmable References (2)
Packages
28-pin DIP (.300 mil), SOIC, SSOP
 1997 Microchip Technology Inc.
DS30390E-page 265
PIC16C7X
E.3
PIC16C15X Family of Devices
PIC16C154
Clock
Memory
PIC16C156
PIC16CR156
PIC16C158
PIC16CR158
20
20
20
20
20
20
EPROM Program Memory
(x12 words)
512
—
1K
—
2K
—
ROM Program Memory
(x12 words)
—
512
—
1K
—
2K
73
RAM Data Memory (bytes) 25
25
25
25
73
TMR0
TMR0
TMR0
TMR0
TMR0
TMR0
I/O Pins
12
12
12
12
12
12
Voltage Range (Volts)
3.0-5.5
2.5-5.5
3.0-5.5
2.5-5.5
3.0-5.5
2.5-5.5
Number of Instructions
33
33
33
33
33
33
Packages
18-pin DIP, 18-pin DIP,
18-pin DIP, 18-pin DIP,
18-pin DIP,
18-pin DIP,
SOIC;
SOIC;
SOIC;
SOIC;
SOIC;
SOIC;
20-pin SSOP 20-pin SSOP 20-pin SSOP 20-pin SSOP 20-pin SSOP 20-pin SSOP
Peripherals Timer Module(s)
Features
PIC16CR154
Maximum Frequency
of Operation (MHz)
All PIC16/17 Family devices have Power-on Reset, selectable Watchdog Timer, selectable code protect and high
I/O current capability.
E.4
PIC16C5X Family of Devices
PIC16C52
Clock
Memory
PIC16C54A
20
20
20
20
EPROM Program Memory
(x12 words)
384
512
512
—
512
1K
ROM Program Memory
(x12 words)
—
—
—
512
—
—
25
25
25
25
25
24
TMR0
TMR0
TMR0
TMR0
TMR0
TMR0
12
12
12
12
20
12
Voltage Range (Volts)
2.5-6.25
2.5-6.25
2.0-6.25
2.0-6.25
2.5-6.25
2.5-6.25
Number of Instructions
33
33
33
33
33
33
Packages
18-pin DIP, 18-pin DIP,
18-pin DIP,
18-pin DIP,
SOIC
SOIC;
SOIC;
SOIC;
20-pin SSOP 20-pin SSOP 20-pin SSOP
28-pin DIP,
SOIC,
SSOP
18-pin DIP,
SOIC;
20-pin SSOP
PIC16C57
PIC16CR57B
PIC16C58A
PIC16CR58A
Maximum Frequency
of Operation (MHz)
20
20
20
20
EPROM Program Memory
(x12 words)
2K
—
2K
—
ROM Program Memory
(x12 words)
—
2K
—
2K
73
RAM Data Memory (bytes)
72
72
73
TMR0
TMR0
TMR0
TMR0
I/O Pins
20
20
12
12
Voltage Range (Volts)
2.5-6.25
2.5-6.25
2.0-6.25
2.5-6.25
Number of Instructions
33
33
33
33
Packages
28-pin DIP,
SOIC,
SSOP
28-pin DIP, SOIC,
SSOP
18-pin DIP, SOIC; 18-pin DIP, SOIC;
20-pin SSOP
20-pin SSOP
Peripherals Timer Module(s)
Features
PIC16C56
20
I/O Pins
Memory
PIC16C55
4
RAM Data Memory (bytes)
Clock
PIC16CR54A
Maximum Frequency
of Operation (MHz)
Peripherals Timer Module(s)
Features
PIC16C54
All PIC16/17 Family devices have Power-on Reset, selectable Watchdog Timer (except PIC16C52), selectable code protect and
high I/O current capability.
DS30390E-page 266
 1997 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC16C7X
E.5
PIC16C55X Family of Devices
PIC16C556(1)
PIC16C554
Clock
Memory
20
20
20
EPROM Program Memory (x14 words)
512
1K
2K
Data Memory (bytes)
80
80
128
Timer Module(s)
TMR0
TMR0
TMR0
—
—
—
—
—
—
Peripherals Comparators(s)
Internal Reference Voltage
Features
PIC16C558
Maximum Frequency of Operation (MHz)
Interrupt Sources
3
3
3
I/O Pins
13
13
13
Voltage Range (Volts)
2.5-6.0
2.5-6.0
2.5-6.0
Brown-out Reset
—
—
—
Packages
18-pin DIP,
SOIC;
20-pin SSOP
18-pin DIP,
SOIC;
20-pin SSOP
18-pin DIP,
SOIC;
20-pin SSOP
All PIC16/17 Family devices have Power-on Reset, selectable Watchdog Timer, selectable code protect and high
I/O current capability. All PIC16C5XX Family devices use serial programming with clock pin RB6 and data pin RB7.
Note 1: Please contact your local Microchip sales office for availability of these devices.
E.6
PIC16C62X and PIC16C64X Family of Devices
PIC16C620
Clock
Memory
PIC16C622
PIC16C642
PIC16C662
Maximum Frequency
of Operation (MHz)
20
20
20
20
20
EPROM Program Memory
(x14 words)
512
1K
2K
4K
4K
Data Memory (bytes)
80
80
128
176
176
Timer Module(s)
TMR0
TMR0
TMR0
TMR0
TMR0
2
Peripherals Comparators(s)
Features
PIC16C621
2
2
2
2
Internal Reference Voltage
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Interrupt Sources
4
4
4
4
5
I/O Pins
13
13
13
22
33
Voltage Range (Volts)
2.5-6.0
2.5-6.0
2.5-6.0
3.0-6.0
3.0-6.0
Brown-out Reset
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Packages
18-pin DIP,
SOIC;
20-pin SSOP
18-pin DIP,
SOIC;
20-pin SSOP
18-pin DIP,
SOIC;
20-pin SSOP
28-pin PDIP,
SOIC,
Windowed
CDIP
40-pin PDIP,
Windowed
CDIP;
44-pin PLCC,
MQFP
All PIC16/17 Family devices have Power-on Reset, selectable Watchdog Timer, selectable code protect and high
I/O current capability. All PIC16C62X and PIC16C64X Family devices use serial programming with clock pin RB6 and data pin RB7.
 1997 Microchip Technology Inc.
DS30390E-page 267
PIC16C7X
E.7
PIC16C6X Family of Devices
PIC16C61
PIC16C62A
PIC16CR62
PIC16C63
PIC16CR63
Maximum Frequency
of Operation (MHz)
20
20
20
20
20
EPROM Program Memory
(x14 words)
1K
2K
—
4K
—
ROM Program Memory
(x14 words)
—
—
2K
—
4K
Data Memory (bytes)
36
128
128
192
192
Timer Module(s)
TMR0
TMR0,
TMR1,
TMR2
TMR0,
TMR1,
TMR2
TMR0,
TMR1,
TMR2
TMR0,
TMR1,
TMR2
Capture/Compare/
Peripherals PWM Module(s)
—
1
1
2
2
Serial Port(s)
(SPI/I2C, USART)
—
SPI/I2C
SPI/I2C
SPI/I2C,
USART
SPI/I2C
USART
Parallel Slave Port
—
—
—
—
—
Clock
Memory
Features
Interrupt Sources
3
7
7
10
10
I/O Pins
13
22
22
22
22
Voltage Range (Volts)
3.0-6.0
2.5-6.0
2.5-6.0
2.5-6.0
2.5-6.0
In-Circuit Serial Programming
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Brown-out Reset
—
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Packages
18-pin DIP, SO 28-pin SDIP,
SOIC, SSOP
28-pin SDIP,
SOIC, SSOP
28-pin SDIP, 28-pin SDIP,
SOIC
SOIC
PIC16C64A
Clock
Memory
PIC16C65A
PIC16CR65
PIC16C66
PIC16C67
Maximum Frequency
of Operation (MHz)
20
20
20
20
20
20
EPROM Program Memory
(x14 words)
2K
—
4K
—
8K
8K
ROM Program Memory (x14
words)
—
2K
—
4K
—
—
Data Memory (bytes)
128
128
192
192
368
368
Timer Module(s)
TMR0,
TMR1,
TMR2
TMR0,
TMR1,
TMR2
TMR0,
TMR1,
TMR2
TMR0,
TMR1,
TMR2
TMR0,
TMR1,
TMR2
TMR0,
TMR1,
TMR2
1
1
2
2
2
2
Serial Port(s) (SPI/I2C, USART)
SPI/I2C
SPI/I2C
SPI/I2C,
USART
SPI/I2C,
USART
SPI/I2C,
USART
SPI/I2C,
USART
Parallel Slave Port
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
—
Yes
Interrupt Sources
8
8
11
11
10
11
I/O Pins
33
33
33
33
22
33
Voltage Range (Volts)
2.5-6.0
2.5-6.0
2.5-6.0
2.5-6.0
2.5-6.0
2.5-6.0
In-Circuit Serial Programming
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Brown-out Reset
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Packages
40-pin DIP; 40-pin DIP;
40-pin DIP;
40-pin DIP;
44-pin PLCC, 44-pin PLCC, 44-pin PLCC, 44-pin
MQFP, TQFP MQFP, TQFP MQFP, TQFP PLCC,
MQFP,
TQFP
Capture/Compare/PWM ModPeripherals ule(s)
Features
PIC16CR64
28-pin SDIP, 40-pin DIP;
SOIC
44-pin
PLCC,
MQFP,
TQFP
All PIC16/17 Family devices have Power-on Reset, selectable Watchdog Timer, selectable code protect and high I/O current
capability. All PIC16C6X Family devices use serial programming with clock pin RB6 and data pin RB7.
DS30390E-page 268
 1997 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC16C7X
E.8
PIC16C8X Family of Devices
PIC16F83
Clock
Memory
Peripherals
Features
PIC16CR83
PIC16F84
PIC16CR84
Maximum Frequency
of Operation (MHz)
10
10
10
10
Flash Program Memory
512
—
1K
—
EEPROM Program Memory
—
—
—
—
ROM Program Memory
—
512
—
1K
Data Memory (bytes)
36
36
68
68
Data EEPROM (bytes)
64
64
64
64
Timer Module(s)
TMR0
TMR0
TMR0
TMR0
Interrupt Sources
4
4
4
4
I/O Pins
13
13
13
13
Voltage Range (Volts)
2.0-6.0
2.0-6.0
2.0-6.0
2.0-6.0
Packages
18-pin DIP,
SOIC
18-pin DIP,
SOIC
18-pin DIP,
SOIC
18-pin DIP,
SOIC
All PIC16/17 Family devices have Power-on Reset, selectable Watchdog Timer, selectable code protect and high I/O current capability. All PIC16C8X Family devices use serial programming with clock pin RB6 and data pin RB7.
E.9
PIC16C9XX Family Of Devices
PIC16C923
Clock
Memory
8
8
EPROM Program Memory
4K
4K
Data Memory (bytes)
176
176
Timer Module(s)
TMR0,
TMR1,
TMR2
TMR0,
TMR1,
TMR2
Capture/Compare/PWM Module(s)
1
1
SPI/I2C
SPI/I2C
Parallel Slave Port
—
—
A/D Converter (8-bit) Channels
—
5
LCD Module
4 Com,
32 Seg
4 Com,
32 Seg
Interrupt Sources
8
9
I/O Pins
25
25
Input Pins
27
27
Voltage Range (Volts)
3.0-6.0
3.0-6.0
In-Circuit Serial Programming
Yes
Yes
Serial Port(s)
Peripherals (SPI/I2C, USART)
Features
PIC16C924
Maximum Frequency of Operation (MHz)
Brown-out Reset
—
—
Packages
64-pin SDIP(1),
TQFP;
68-pin PLCC,
Die
64-pin SDIP(1),
TQFP;
68-pin PLCC,
Die
All PIC16/17 Family devices have Power-on Reset, selectable Watchdog Timer, selectable code protect and high I/O current capability. All PIC16C9XX Family devices use serial programming with clock pin RB6 and data pin RB7.
 1997 Microchip Technology Inc.
DS30390E-page 269
PIC16C7X
E.10
PIC17CXXX Family of Devices
PIC17C42A
Clock
Memory
Clock
Memory
PIC17CR43
PIC17C44
33
33
33
33
EPROM Program Memory
(words)
2K
—
4K
—
8K
ROM Program Memory
(words)
—
2K
—
4K
—
RAM Data Memory (bytes)
232
232
454
454
454
Timer Module(s)
TMR0,
TMR1,
TMR2,
TMR3
TMR0,
TMR1,
TMR2,
TMR3
TMR0,
TMR1,
TMR2,
TMR3
TMR0,
TMR1,
TMR2,
TMR3
TMR0,
TMR1,
TMR2,
TMR3
Captures/PWM Module(s)
2
2
2
2
2
Serial Port(s) (USART)
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Hardware Multiply
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
External Interrupts
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Interrupt Sources
11
11
11
11
11
I/O Pins
33
33
33
33
33
Voltage Range (Volts)
2.5-6.0
2.5-6.0
2.5-6.0
2.5-6.0
2.5-6.0
Number of Instructions
58
58
58
58
58
Packages
40-pin DIP;
44-pin PLCC,
MQFP, TQFP
40-pin DIP;
44-pin PLCC,
MQFP, TQFP
40-pin DIP;
44-pin PLCC,
MQFP, TQFP
40-pin DIP;
44-pin PLCC,
MQFP, TQFP
40-pin DIP;
44-pin PLCC,
MQFP, TQFP
PIC17C752
PIC17C756
Maximum Frequency
of Operation (MHz)
33
33
EPROM Program Memory
(words)
8K
16K
ROM Program Memory
(words)
—
—
RAM Data Memory (bytes)
454
902
Timer Module(s)
TMR0,
TMR1,
TMR2,
TMR3
TMR0,
TMR1,
TMR2,
TMR3
Peripherals
Features
PIC17C43
33
Peripherals
Features
PIC17CR42
Maximum Frequency
of Operation (MHz)
Captures/PWM Module(s)
4/3
4/3
Serial Port(s) (USART)
2
2
Hardware Multiply
Yes
Yes
External Interrupts
Yes
Yes
Interrupt Sources
18
18
I/O Pins
50
50
Voltage Range (Volts)
3.0-6.0
3.0-6.0
Number of Instructions
58
58
Packages
64-pin DIP;
68-pin LCC,
68-pin TQFP
64-pin DIP;
68-pin LCC,
68-pin TQFP
All PIC16/17 Family devices have Power-on Reset, selectable Watchdog Timer, selectable code protect and high
I/O current capability.
DS30390E-page 270
 1997 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC16C7X
PIN COMPATIBILITY
Devices that have the same package type and VDD,
VSS and MCLR pin locations are said to be pin
compatible. This allows these different devices to
operate in the same socket. Compatible devices may
only requires minor software modification to allow
proper operation in the application socket
(ex., PIC16C56 and PIC16C61 devices). Not all
devices in the same package size are pin compatible;
for example, the PIC16C62 is compatible with the
PIC16C63, but not the PIC16C55.
Pin compatibility does not mean that the devices offer
the same features. As an example, the PIC16C54 is
pin compatible with the PIC16C71, but does not have
an A/D converter, weak pull-ups on PORTB, or
interrupts.
TABLE E-1:
PIN COMPATIBLE DEVICES
Pin Compatible Devices
Package
PIC12C508, PIC12C509, PIC12C671, PIC12C672
8-pin
PIC16C154, PIC16CR154, PIC16C156,
PIC16CR156, PIC16C158, PIC16CR158,
PIC16C52, PIC16C54, PIC16C54A,
PIC16CR54A,
PIC16C56,
PIC16C58A, PIC16CR58A,
PIC16C61,
PIC16C554, PIC16C556, PIC16C558
PIC16C620, PIC16C621, PIC16C622
PIC16C641, PIC16C642, PIC16C661, PIC16C662
PIC16C710, PIC16C71, PIC16C711, PIC16C715
PIC16F83, PIC16CR83,
PIC16F84A, PIC16CR84
18-pin,
20-pin
PIC16C55, PIC16C57, PIC16CR57B
28-pin
PIC16CR62, PIC16C62A, PIC16C63, PIC16CR63,
PIC16C66, PIC16C72, PIC16C73A, PIC16C76
28-pin
PIC16CR64, PIC16C64A, PIC16C65A,
PIC16CR65, PIC16C67, PIC16C74A, PIC16C77
40-pin
PIC17CR42, PIC17C42A,
PIC17C43, PIC17CR43, PIC17C44
40-pin
PIC16C923, PIC16C924
64/68-pin
PIC17C756, PIC17C752
64/68-pin
 1997 Microchip Technology Inc.
DS30390E-page 271
PIC16C7X
NOTES:
DS30390E-page 272
 1997 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC16C7X
INDEX
A
A/D
Accuracy/Error ......................................................... 124
ADCON0 Register .................................................... 117
ADCON1 Register .................................................... 118
ADIF bit .................................................................... 119
Analog Input Model Block Diagram .......................... 120
Analog-to-Digital Converter ...................................... 117
Block Diagram .......................................................... 119
Configuring Analog Port Pins ................................... 121
Configuring the Interrupt .......................................... 119
Configuring the Module ............................................ 119
Connection Considerations ...................................... 125
Conversion Clock ..................................................... 121
Conversion Time ...................................................... 123
Conversions ............................................................. 122
Converter Characteristics ................ 181, 199, 217, 238
Delays ...................................................................... 120
Effects of a Reset ..................................................... 124
Equations ................................................................. 120
Faster Conversion - Lower Resolution Tradeoff ...... 123
Flowchart of A/D Operation ...................................... 126
GO/DONE bit ........................................................... 119
Internal Sampling Switch (Rss) Impedance ............. 120
Operation During Sleep ........................................... 124
Sampling Requirements ........................................... 120
Sampling Time ......................................................... 120
Source Impedance ................................................... 120
Time Delays ............................................................. 120
Transfer Function ..................................................... 125
Using the CCP Trigger ............................................. 125
Absolute Maximum Ratings ..................... 167, 183, 201, 219
ACK ........................................................................ 90, 94, 95
ADIE bit .............................................................................. 33
ADIF bit .............................................................................. 35
ADRES Register .................................... 23, 25, 27, 117, 119
ALU ...................................................................................... 9
Application Notes
AN546 (Using the Analog-to-Digital Converter) ....... 117
AN552 (Implementing Wake-up on Key Strokes Using
PIC16CXXX) .............................................................. 45
AN556 (Table Reading Using PIC16CXX .................. 40
AN578 (Use of the SSP Module in the I2C Multi-Master
Environment) .............................................................. 77
AN594 (Using the CCP Modules) .............................. 71
AN607, Power-up Trouble Shooting ........................ 134
Architecture
Harvard ........................................................................ 9
Overview ...................................................................... 9
von Neumann ............................................................... 9
Assembler
MPASM Assembler .................................................. 164
B
Baud Rate Error ............................................................... 101
Baud Rate Formula .......................................................... 101
Baud Rates
Asynchronous Mode ................................................ 102
Synchronous Mode .................................................. 102
BF .......................................................................... 78, 83, 94
Block Diagrams
A/D ........................................................................... 119
Analog Input Model .................................................. 120
Capture ...................................................................... 72
 1997 Microchip Technology Inc.
Compare .....................................................................73
I2C Mode ....................................................................93
On-Chip Reset Circuit ...............................................133
PIC16C72 ...................................................................10
PIC16C73 ...................................................................11
PIC16C73A .................................................................11
PIC16C74 ...................................................................12
PIC16C74A .................................................................12
PIC16C76 ...................................................................11
PIC16C77 ...................................................................12
PORTC .......................................................................48
PORTD (In I/O Port Mode) .........................................50
PORTD and PORTE as a Parallel Slave Port ............54
PORTE (In I/O Port Mode) .........................................51
PWM ...........................................................................74
RA3:RA0 and RA5 Port Pins ......................................43
RA4/T0CKI Pin ...........................................................43
RB3:RB0 Port Pins .....................................................45
RB7:RB4 Port Pins .....................................................46
SPI Master/Slave Connection .....................................81
SSP in I2C Mode ........................................................93
SSP in SPI Mode ..................................................80, 85
Timer0 ........................................................................59
Timer0/WDT Prescaler ...............................................62
Timer1 ........................................................................66
Timer2 ........................................................................69
USART Receive .......................................................108
USART Transmit ......................................................106
Watchdog Timer .......................................................144
BOR bit .......................................................................39, 135
BRGH bit ..........................................................................101
Buffer Full Status bit, BF ...............................................78, 83
C
C bit ....................................................................................30
C Compiler ........................................................................165
Capture/Compare/PWM
Capture
Block Diagram ....................................................72
CCP1CON Register ...........................................72
CCP1IF ...............................................................72
CCPR1 ...............................................................72
CCPR1H:CCPR1L .............................................72
Mode ..................................................................72
Prescaler ............................................................73
CCP Timer Resources ................................................71
Compare
Block Diagram ....................................................73
Mode ..................................................................73
Software Interrupt Mode .....................................73
Special Event Trigger .........................................73
Special Trigger Output of CCP1 .........................73
Special Trigger Output of CCP2 .........................73
Interaction of Two CCP Modules ................................71
Section ........................................................................71
Special Event Trigger and A/D Conversions ..............73
Capture/Compare/PWM (CCP)
PWM Block Diagram ..................................................74
PWM Mode .................................................................74
PWM, Example Frequencies/Resolutions ..................75
Carry bit ................................................................................9
CCP1CON ..........................................................................29
CCP1IE bit ..........................................................................33
CCP1IF bit ....................................................................35, 36
CCP2CON ..........................................................................29
CCP2IE bit ..........................................................................37
DS30390E-page 273
PIC16C7X
CCP2IF bit .......................................................................... 38
CCPR1H Register ............................................ 25, 27, 29, 71
CCPR1L Register ......................................................... 29, 71
CCPR2H Register ............................................ 25, 27, 29, 71
CCPR2L Register ............................................. 25, 27, 29, 71
CCPxM0 bit ........................................................................ 72
CCPxM1 bit ........................................................................ 72
CCPxM2 bit ........................................................................ 72
CCPxM3 bit ........................................................................ 72
CCPxX bit ........................................................................... 72
CCPxY bit ........................................................................... 72
CKE .................................................................................... 83
CKP .............................................................................. 79, 84
Clock Polarity Select bit, CKP ...................................... 79, 84
Clock Polarity, SPI Mode ................................................... 81
Clocking Scheme ............................................................... 17
Code Examples
Call of a Subroutine in Page 1 from Page 0 ............... 41
Changing Between Capture Prescalers ..................... 73
Changing Prescaler (Timer0 to WDT) ........................ 63
Changing Prescaler (WDT to Timer0) ........................ 63
I/O Programming ........................................................ 53
Indirect Addressing .................................................... 41
Initializing PORTA ...................................................... 43
Initializing PORTB ...................................................... 45
Initializing PORTC ...................................................... 48
Loading the SSPBUF Register ............................ 80, 85
Code Protection ....................................................... 129, 146
Computed GOTO ............................................................... 40
Configuration Bits ............................................................. 129
Configuration Word .......................................................... 129
Connecting Two Microcontrollers ....................................... 81
CREN bit .......................................................................... 100
CS pin ................................................................................ 54
D
D/A ............................................................................... 78, 83
Data/Address bit, D/A ................................................... 78, 83
DC bit ................................................................................. 30
DC Characteristics
PIC16C72 ................................................................ 168
PIC16C73 ................................................................ 184
PIC16C73A .............................................................. 202
PIC16C74 ................................................................ 184
PIC16C74A .............................................................. 202
PIC16C76 ................................................................ 221
PIC16C77 ................................................................ 221
Development Support .................................................. 5, 163
Development Tools .......................................................... 163
Digit Carry bit ....................................................................... 9
Direct Addressing ............................................................... 41
E
Electrical Characteristics
PIC16C72 ................................................................ 167
PIC16C73 ................................................................ 183
PIC16C73A .............................................................. 201
PIC16C74 ................................................................ 183
PIC16C74A .............................................................. 201
PIC16C76 ................................................................ 219
PIC16C77 ................................................................ 219
External Brown-out Protection Circuit .............................. 140
External Power-on Reset Circuit ...................................... 140
DS30390E-page 274
F
Family of Devices
PIC12CXXX ............................................................. 265
PIC14C000 .............................................................. 265
PIC16C15X .............................................................. 266
PIC16C55X .............................................................. 267
PIC16C5X ................................................................ 266
PIC16C62X and PIC16C64X ................................... 267
PIC16C6X ................................................................ 268
PIC16C7XX ................................................................. 6
PIC16C8X ................................................................ 269
PIC16C9XX ............................................................. 269
PIC17CXX ............................................................... 270
FERR bit .......................................................................... 100
FSR Register ........................... 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 41
Fuzzy Logic Dev. System (fuzzyTECH-MP) ......... 163, 165
G
General Description ............................................................. 5
GIE bit .............................................................................. 141
I
I/O Ports
PORTA ...................................................................... 43
PORTB ...................................................................... 45
PORTC ...................................................................... 48
PORTD ................................................................ 50, 54
PORTE ...................................................................... 51
Section ....................................................................... 43
I/O Programming Considerations ...................................... 53
I2C
Addressing ................................................................. 94
Addressing I2C Devices ............................................. 90
Arbitration .................................................................. 92
Block Diagram ........................................................... 93
Clock Synchronization ............................................... 92
Combined Format ...................................................... 91
I2C Operation ............................................................. 93
I2C Overview ............................................................. 89
Initiating and Terminating Data Transfer ................... 89
Master Mode .............................................................. 97
Master-Receiver Sequence ....................................... 91
Master-Transmitter Sequence ................................... 91
Mode .......................................................................... 93
Mode Selection .......................................................... 93
Multi-master ............................................................... 92
Multi-Master Mode ..................................................... 97
Reception .................................................................. 95
Reception Timing Diagram ........................................ 95
SCL and SDA pins ..................................................... 94
Slave Mode ................................................................ 94
START ....................................................................... 89
STOP ................................................................... 89, 90
Transfer Acknowledge ............................................... 90
Transmission ............................................................. 96
IDLE_MODE ...................................................................... 98
In-Circuit Serial Programming .................................. 129, 146
INDF .................................................................................. 29
INDF Register ...................................... 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 41
Indirect Addressing ............................................................ 41
Initialization Condition for all Register .............................. 136
Instruction Cycle ................................................................ 17
Instruction Flow/Pipelining ................................................. 17
Instruction Format ............................................................ 147
 1997 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC16C7X
Instruction Set
ADDLW .................................................................... 149
ADDWF .................................................................... 149
ANDLW .................................................................... 149
ANDWF .................................................................... 149
BCF .......................................................................... 150
BSF .......................................................................... 150
BTFSC ..................................................................... 150
BTFSS ..................................................................... 151
CALL ........................................................................ 151
CLRF ........................................................................ 152
CLRW ...................................................................... 152
CLRWDT .................................................................. 152
COMF ...................................................................... 153
DECF ....................................................................... 153
DECFSZ ................................................................... 153
GOTO ...................................................................... 154
INCF ......................................................................... 154
INCFSZ .................................................................... 155
IORLW ..................................................................... 155
IORWF ..................................................................... 156
MOVF ....................................................................... 156
MOVLW ................................................................... 156
MOVWF ................................................................... 156
NOP ......................................................................... 157
OPTION ................................................................... 157
RETFIE .................................................................... 157
RETLW .................................................................... 158
RETURN .................................................................. 158
RLF .......................................................................... 159
RRF .......................................................................... 159
SLEEP ..................................................................... 160
SUBLW .................................................................... 160
SUBWF .................................................................... 161
SWAPF .................................................................... 161
TRIS ......................................................................... 161
XORLW .................................................................... 162
XORWF .................................................................... 162
Section ..................................................................... 147
Summary Table ........................................................ 148
INT Interrupt ..................................................................... 143
INTCON ............................................................................. 29
INTCON Register ............................................................... 32
INTEDG bit ................................................................. 31, 143
Internal Sampling Switch (Rss) Impedance ..................... 120
Interrupts .......................................................................... 129
PortB Change .......................................................... 143
RB7:RB4 Port Change ............................................... 45
Section ..................................................................... 141
TMR0 ....................................................................... 143
IRP bit ................................................................................ 30
L
Loading of PC .................................................................... 40
 1997 Microchip Technology Inc.
M
MCLR .......................................................................133, 136
Memory
Data Memory ..............................................................20
Program Memory ........................................................19
Program Memory Maps
PIC16C72 ...........................................................19
PIC16C73 ...........................................................19
PIC16C73A ........................................................19
PIC16C74 ...........................................................19
PIC16C74A ........................................................19
PIC16C76 ...........................................................20
PIC16C77 ...........................................................20
Register File Maps
PIC16C72 ...........................................................21
PIC16C73 ...........................................................21
PIC16C73A ........................................................21
PIC16C74 ...........................................................21
PIC16C74A ........................................................21
PIC16C76 ...........................................................21
PIC16C77 ...........................................................21
MPASM Assembler ..........................................................163
MPLAB-C ..........................................................................165
MPSIM Software Simulator ......................................163, 165
O
OERR bit ..........................................................................100
OPCODE ..........................................................................147
OPTION ..............................................................................29
OPTION Register ...............................................................31
Orthogonal ............................................................................9
OSC selection ...................................................................129
Oscillator
HS .....................................................................131, 135
LP .....................................................................131, 135
RC ............................................................................131
XT .....................................................................131, 135
Oscillator Configurations ..................................................131
Output of TMR2 ..................................................................69
P
P ...................................................................................78, 83
Packaging
28-Lead Ceramic w/Window .....................................251
28-Lead PDIP ...........................................................253
28-Lead SOIC ...........................................................255
28-Lead SSOP .........................................................256
40-Lead CERDIP w/Window ....................................252
40-Lead PDIP ...........................................................254
44-Lead MQFP .........................................................258
44-Lead PLCC ..........................................................257
44-Lead TQFP ..........................................................259
Paging, Program Memory ...................................................40
Parallel Slave Port ........................................................50, 54
PCFG0 bit .........................................................................118
PCFG1 bit .........................................................................118
PCFG2 bit .........................................................................118
PCL Register ............................23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 40
PCLATH ...........................................................................136
PCLATH Register .....................23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 40
PCON Register .....................................................29, 39, 135
PD bit ..................................................................30, 133, 135
PICDEM-1 Low-Cost PIC16/17 Demo Board ...........163, 164
PICDEM-2 Low-Cost PIC16CXX Demo Board .........163, 164
PICDEM-3 Low-Cost PIC16C9XXX Demo Board ............164
PICMASTER In-Circuit Emulator ......................................163
DS30390E-page 275
PIC16C7X
PICSTART Low-Cost Development System .................... 163
PIE1 Register ............................................................... 29, 33
PIE2 Register ............................................................... 29, 37
Pin Compatible Devices ................................................... 271
Pin Functions
MCLR/VPP ...................................................... 13, 14, 15
OSC1/CLKIN .................................................. 13, 14, 15
OSC2/CLKOUT .............................................. 13, 14, 15
RA0/AN0 ........................................................ 13, 14, 15
RA1/AN1 ........................................................ 13, 14, 15
RA2/AN2 ........................................................ 13, 14, 15
RA3/AN3/VREF ............................................... 13, 14, 15
RA4/T0CKI ..................................................... 13, 14, 15
RA5/AN4/SS .................................................. 13, 14, 15
RB0/INT ......................................................... 13, 14, 15
RB1 ................................................................ 13, 14, 15
RB2 ................................................................ 13, 14, 15
RB3 ................................................................ 13, 14, 15
RB4 ................................................................ 13, 14, 15
RB5 ................................................................ 13, 14, 15
RB6 ................................................................ 13, 14, 15
RB7 ................................................................ 13, 14, 15
RC0/T1OSO/T1CKI ....................................... 13, 14, 16
RC1/T1OSI ................................................................ 13
RC1/T1OSI/CCP2 ................................................ 14, 16
RC2/CCP1 ..................................................... 13, 14, 16
RC3/SCK/SCL ............................................... 13, 14, 16
RC4/SDI/SDA ................................................ 13, 14, 16
RC5/SDO ....................................................... 13, 14, 16
RC6 ............................................................................ 13
RC6/TX/CK ............................................ 14, 16, 99–114
RC7 ............................................................................ 13
RC7/RX/DT ............................................ 14, 16, 99–114
RD0/PSP0 .................................................................. 16
RD1/PSP1 .................................................................. 16
RD2/PSP2 .................................................................. 16
RD3/PSP3 .................................................................. 16
RD4/PSP4 .................................................................. 16
RD5/PSP5 .................................................................. 16
RD6/PSP6 .................................................................. 16
RD7/PSP7 .................................................................. 16
RE0/RD/AN5 .............................................................. 16
RE1/WR/AN6 ............................................................. 16
RE2/CS/AN7 .............................................................. 16
SCK ...................................................................... 80–82
SDI ....................................................................... 80–82
SDO ..................................................................... 80–82
SS ........................................................................ 80–82
VDD ................................................................ 13, 14, 16
VSS ................................................................. 13, 14, 16
Pinout Descriptions
PIC16C72 .................................................................. 13
PIC16C73 .................................................................. 14
PIC16C73A ................................................................ 14
PIC16C74 .................................................................. 15
PIC16C74A ................................................................ 15
PIC16C76 .................................................................. 14
PIC16C77 .................................................................. 15
PIR1 Register ..................................................................... 35
PIR2 Register ..................................................................... 38
POP .................................................................................... 40
DS30390E-page 276
POR ......................................................................... 134, 135
Oscillator Start-up Timer (OST) ....................... 129, 134
Power Control Register (PCON) .............................. 135
Power-on Reset (POR) ............................ 129, 134, 136
Power-up Timer (PWRT) ................................. 129, 134
Power-Up-Timer (PWRT) ........................................ 134
Time-out Sequence ................................................. 135
Time-out Sequence on Power-up ............................ 139
TO .................................................................... 133, 135
POR bit ...................................................................... 39, 135
Port RB Interrupt .............................................................. 143
PORTA ...................................................................... 29, 136
PORTA Register .............................................. 23, 25, 27, 43
PORTB ...................................................................... 29, 136
PORTB Register .............................................. 23, 25, 27, 45
PORTC ...................................................................... 29, 136
PORTC Register .............................................. 23, 25, 27, 48
PORTD ...................................................................... 29, 136
PORTD Register .................................................... 25, 27, 50
PORTE ...................................................................... 29, 136
PORTE Register .................................................... 25, 27, 51
Power-down Mode (SLEEP) ............................................ 145
PR2 .................................................................................... 29
PR2 Register ......................................................... 26, 28, 69
Prescaler, Switching Between Timer0 and WDT ............... 63
PRO MATE Universal Programmer ................................. 163
Program Branches ............................................................... 9
Program Memory
Paging ....................................................................... 40
Program Memory Maps
PIC16C72 .................................................................. 19
PIC16C73 .................................................................. 19
PIC16C73A ................................................................ 19
PIC16C74 .................................................................. 19
PIC16C74A ................................................................ 19
Program Verification ........................................................ 146
PS0 bit ............................................................................... 31
PS1 bit ............................................................................... 31
PS2 bit ............................................................................... 31
PSA bit ............................................................................... 31
PSPIE bit ........................................................................... 34
PSPIF bit ............................................................................ 36
PSPMODE bit ........................................................ 50, 51, 54
PUSH ................................................................................. 40
R
R/W .............................................................................. 78, 83
R/W bit ............................................................. 90, 94, 95, 96
RBIF bit ...................................................................... 45, 143
RBPU bit ............................................................................ 31
RC Oscillator ............................................................ 132, 135
RCIE bit ............................................................................. 34
RCIF bit .............................................................................. 36
RCREG .............................................................................. 29
RCSTA Register ........................................................ 29, 100
RCV_MODE ...................................................................... 98
RD pin ................................................................................ 54
Read/Write bit Information, R/W .................................. 78, 83
Read-Modify-Write ............................................................. 53
Receive Overflow Detect bit, SSPOV ................................ 79
Receive Overflow Indicator bit, SSPOV ............................. 84
Register File ....................................................................... 20
 1997 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC16C7X
Registers
FSR
Summary ........................................................... 29
INDF
Summary ........................................................... 29
Initialization Conditions ............................................ 136
INTCON
Summary ........................................................... 29
Maps
PIC16C72 .......................................................... 21
PIC16C73 .......................................................... 21
PIC16C73A ........................................................ 21
PIC16C74 .......................................................... 21
PIC16C74A ........................................................ 21
PIC16C76 .......................................................... 22
PIC16C77 .......................................................... 22
OPTION
Summary ........................................................... 29
PCL
Summary ........................................................... 29
PCLATH
Summary ........................................................... 29
PORTB
Summary ........................................................... 29
Reset Conditions ...................................................... 136
SSPBUF
Section ............................................................... 80
SSPCON
Diagram ............................................................. 79
SSPSR
Section ............................................................... 80
SSPSTAT ................................................................... 83
Diagram ............................................................. 78
Section ............................................................... 78
STATUS
Summary ........................................................... 29
Summary .............................................................. 25, 27
TMR0
Summary ........................................................... 29
TRISB
Summary ........................................................... 29
Reset ........................................................................ 129, 133
Reset Conditions for Special Registers ........................... 136
RP0 bit ......................................................................... 20, 30
RP1 bit ............................................................................... 30
RX9 bit ............................................................................. 100
RX9D bit ........................................................................... 100
S
S ................................................................................... 78, 83
SCK .................................................................................... 80
SCL .................................................................................... 94
SDI ..................................................................................... 80
SDO ................................................................................... 80
Serial Communication Interface (SCI) Module, See USART
Services
One-Time-Programmable (OTP) ................................. 7
Quick-Turnaround-Production (QTP) ........................... 7
Serialized Quick-Turnaround Production (SQTP) ........ 7
Slave Mode
SCL ............................................................................ 94
SDA ............................................................................ 94
SLEEP ..................................................................... 129, 133
SMP ................................................................................... 83
Software Simulator (MPSIM) ........................................... 165
SPBRG .............................................................................. 29
 1997 Microchip Technology Inc.
SPBRG Register ...........................................................26, 28
Special Event Trigger .......................................................125
Special Features of the CPU ............................................129
Special Function Registers
PIC16C72 ...................................................................23
PIC16C73 .............................................................25, 27
PIC16C73A ...........................................................25, 27
PIC16C74 .............................................................25, 27
PIC16C74A ...........................................................25, 27
PIC16C76 ...................................................................27
PIC16C77 ...................................................................27
Special Function Registers, Section ...................................23
SPEN bit ...........................................................................100
SPI
Block Diagram ......................................................80, 85
Master Mode ...............................................................86
Master Mode Timing ...................................................87
Mode ...........................................................................80
Serial Clock ................................................................85
Serial Data In ..............................................................85
Serial Data Out ...........................................................85
Slave Mode Timing .....................................................88
Slave Mode Timing Diagram ......................................87
Slave Select ................................................................85
SPI clock .....................................................................86
SPI Mode ....................................................................85
SSPCON ....................................................................84
SSPSTAT ...................................................................83
SPI Clock Edge Select bit, CKE .........................................83
SPI Data Input Sample Phase Select bit, SMP ..................83
SPI Mode ............................................................................80
SREN bit ...........................................................................100
SS .......................................................................................80
SSP
Module Overview ........................................................77
Section ........................................................................77
SSPBUF .....................................................................86
SSPCON ....................................................................84
SSPSR .......................................................................86
SSPSTAT ...................................................................83
SSP in I2C Mode - See I2C
SSPADD .............................................................................93
SSPADD Register ............................................24, 26, 28, 29
SSPBUF .......................................................................29, 93
SSPBUF Register .........................................................25, 27
SSPCON ......................................................................79, 84
SSPCON Register ........................................................25, 27
SSPEN .........................................................................79, 84
SSPIE bit ............................................................................33
SSPIF bit ......................................................................35, 36
SSPM3:SSPM0 ............................................................79, 84
SSPOV ...................................................................79, 84, 94
SSPSTAT .....................................................................78, 93
SSPSTAT Register .....................................24, 26, 28, 29, 83
Stack ...................................................................................40
Overflows ....................................................................40
Underflow ...................................................................40
Start bit, S .....................................................................78, 83
STATUS Register .........................................................29, 30
Stop bit, P .....................................................................78, 83
Synchronous Serial Port (SSP)
Block Diagram, SPI Mode ..........................................80
SPI Master/Slave Diagram .........................................81
SPI Mode ....................................................................80
Synchronous Serial Port Enable bit, SSPEN ................79, 84
DS30390E-page 277
PIC16C7X
Synchronous Serial Port Mode Select bits,
SSPM3:SSPM0 ............................................................ 79, 84
Synchronous Serial Port Module ........................................ 77
Synchronous Serial Port Status Register ........................... 83
T
T0CS bit ............................................................................. 31
T1CKPS0 bit ...................................................................... 65
T1CKPS1 bit ...................................................................... 65
T1CON ............................................................................... 29
T1CON Register ........................................................... 29, 65
T1OSCEN bit ..................................................................... 65
T1SYNC bit ........................................................................ 65
T2CKPS0 bit ...................................................................... 70
T2CKPS1 bit ...................................................................... 70
T2CON Register ........................................................... 29, 70
TAD ................................................................................... 121
Timer Modules, Overview .................................................. 57
Timer0
RTCC ....................................................................... 136
Timers
Timer0
Block Diagram .................................................... 59
External Clock .................................................... 61
External Clock Timing ........................................ 61
Increment Delay ................................................. 61
Interrupt .............................................................. 59
Interrupt Timing .................................................. 60
Overview ............................................................ 57
Prescaler ............................................................ 62
Prescaler Block Diagram ................................... 62
Section ............................................................... 59
Switching Prescaler Assignment ........................ 63
Synchronization ................................................. 61
T0CKI ................................................................. 61
T0IF .................................................................. 143
Timing ................................................................ 59
TMR0 Interrupt ................................................. 143
Timer1
Asynchronous Counter Mode ............................ 67
Block Diagram .................................................... 66
Capacitor Selection ............................................ 67
External Clock Input ........................................... 66
External Clock Input Timing ............................... 67
Operation in Timer Mode ................................... 66
Oscillator ............................................................ 67
Overview ............................................................ 57
Prescaler ...................................................... 66, 68
Resetting of Timer1 Registers ........................... 68
Resetting Timer1 using a CCP Trigger Output .. 68
Synchronized Counter Mode ............................. 66
T1CON ............................................................... 65
TMR1H ............................................................... 67
TMR1L ............................................................... 67
Timer2
Block Diagram .................................................... 69
Module ............................................................... 69
Overview ............................................................ 57
Postscaler .......................................................... 69
Prescaler ............................................................ 69
T2CON ............................................................... 70
Timing Diagrams
A/D Conversion ................................ 182, 200, 218, 239
Brown-out Reset .............................. 134, 175, 209, 228
Capture/Compare/PWM ................... 177, 193, 211, 230
CLKOUT and I/O .............................. 174, 190, 208, 227
DS30390E-page 278
External Clock Timing ...................... 173, 189, 207, 226
I2C Bus Data .................................... 180, 197, 215, 236
I2C Bus Start/Stop bits ..................... 179, 196, 214, 235
I2C Clock Synchronization ......................................... 92
I2C Data Transfer Wait State ..................................... 90
I2C Multi-Master Arbitration ....................................... 92
I2C Reception (7-bit Address) .................................... 95
Parallel Slave Port ................................................... 194
Power-up Timer ............................... 175, 191, 209, 228
Reset ............................................... 175, 191, 209, 228
SPI Master Mode ....................................................... 87
SPI Mode ................................................. 178, 195, 213
SPI Mode, Master/Slave Mode, No SS Control ......... 82
SPI Mode, Slave Mode With SS Control ................... 82
SPI Slave Mode (CKE = 1) ........................................ 88
SPI Slave Mode Timing (CKE = 0) ............................ 87
Start-up Timer .................................. 175, 191, 209, 228
Time-out Sequence ................................................. 139
Timer0 ....................................... 59, 176, 192, 210, 229
Timer0 Interrupt Timing ............................................. 60
Timer0 with External Clock ........................................ 61
Timer1 ............................................. 176, 192, 210, 229
USART Asynchronous Master Transmission .......... 107
USART Asynchronous Reception ........................... 108
USART RX Pin Sampling ................................ 104, 105
USART Synchronous Receive ................ 198, 216, 237
USART Synchronous Reception ............................. 113
USART Synchronous Transmission 111, 198, 216, 237
Wake-up from Sleep via Interrupt ............................ 146
Watchdog Timer .............................. 175, 191, 209, 228
TMR0 ................................................................................. 29
TMR0 Register ............................................................. 25, 27
TMR1CS bit ....................................................................... 65
TMR1H .............................................................................. 29
TMR1H Register .................................................... 23, 25, 27
TMR1IE bit ......................................................................... 33
TMR1IF bit ................................................................... 35, 36
TMR1L ............................................................................... 29
TMR1L Register ..................................................... 23, 25, 27
TMR1ON bit ....................................................................... 65
TMR2 ................................................................................. 29
TMR2 Register ....................................................... 23, 25, 27
TMR2IE bit ......................................................................... 33
TMR2IF bit ................................................................... 35, 36
TMR2ON bit ....................................................................... 70
TO bit ................................................................................. 30
TOUTPS0 bit ..................................................................... 70
TOUTPS1 bit ..................................................................... 70
TOUTPS2 bit ..................................................................... 70
TOUTPS3 bit ..................................................................... 70
TRISA ................................................................................ 29
TRISA Register ................................................ 24, 26, 28, 43
TRISB ................................................................................ 29
TRISB Register ................................................ 24, 26, 28, 45
TRISC ................................................................................ 29
TRISC Register ................................................ 24, 26, 28, 48
TRISD ................................................................................ 29
TRISD Register ...................................................... 26, 28, 50
TRISE ................................................................................ 29
TRISE Register ...................................................... 26, 28, 51
Two’s Complement .............................................................. 9
TXIE bit .............................................................................. 34
TXIF bit .............................................................................. 36
TXREG .............................................................................. 29
TXSTA ............................................................................... 29
TXSTA Register ................................................................. 99
 1997 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC16C7X
U
UA ................................................................................ 78, 83
Universal Synchronous Asynchronous Receiver Transmitter
(USART) ............................................................................ 99
Update Address bit, UA ............................................... 78, 83
USART
Asynchronous Mode ................................................ 106
Asynchronous Receiver ........................................... 108
Asynchronous Reception ......................................... 109
Asynchronous Transmission .................................... 107
Asynchronous Transmitter ....................................... 106
Baud Rate Generator (BRG) .................................... 101
Receive Block Diagram ............................................ 108
Sampling .................................................................. 104
Synchronous Master Mode ...................................... 110
Synchronous Master Reception ............................... 112
Synchronous Master Transmission .......................... 110
Synchronous Slave Mode ........................................ 114
Synchronous Slave Reception ................................. 114
Synchronous Slave Transmit ................................... 114
Transmit Block Diagram ........................................... 106
UV Erasable Devices ........................................................... 7
W
W Register
ALU .............................................................................. 9
Wake-up from SLEEP ...................................................... 145
Watchdog Timer (WDT) ........................... 129, 133, 136, 144
WCOL .......................................................................... 79, 84
WDT ................................................................................. 136
Block Diagram .......................................................... 144
Period ....................................................................... 144
Programming Considerations .................................. 144
Timeout .................................................................... 136
Word ................................................................................ 129
WR pin ............................................................................... 54
Write Collision Detect bit, WCOL ................................. 79, 84
LIST OF EXAMPLES
Example 3-1:
Example 4-1:
Example 4-2:
Example 5-1:
Example 5-2:
Example 5-3:
Example 5-4:
Example 7-1:
Example 7-2:
Example 8-1:
Example 10-1:
Example 10-2:
Example 11-1:
Example 11-2:
Example 12-1:
Equation 13-1:
Example 13-1:
Example 13-2:
Example 13-3:
Example 14-1:
Instruction Pipeline Flow............................17
Call of a Subroutine in Page 1
from Page 0 ..............................................41
Indirect Addressing ....................................41
Initializing PORTA......................................43
Initializing PORTB......................................45
Initializing PORTC .....................................48
Read-Modify-Write Instructions
on an I/O Port ............................................53
Changing Prescaler (Timer0→WDT).........63
Changing Prescaler (WDT→Timer0).........63
Reading a 16-bit Free-Running Timer .......67
Changing Between Capture
Prescalers.................................................73
PWM Period and Duty Cycle
Calculation .................................................75
Loading the SSPBUF (SSPSR)
Register ....................................................80
Loading the SSPBUF (SSPSR)
Register (PIC16C76/77) ...........................85
Calculating Baud Rate Error ....................101
A/D Minimum Charging Time...................120
Calculating the Minimum Required
Acquisition Time .....................................120
A/D Conversion........................................122
4-bit vs. 8-bit Conversion Times ..............123
Saving STATUS, W, and PCLATH
Registers in RAM.....................................143
X
XMIT_MODE ...................................................................... 98
Z
Z bit .................................................................................... 30
Zero bit ................................................................................. 9
 1997 Microchip Technology Inc.
DS30390E-page 279
PIC16C7X
LIST OF FIGURES
Figure 8-1:
Figure 3-1:
Figure 3-2:
Figure 3-3:
Figure 3-4:
Figure 4-1:
Figure 8-2:
Figure 9-1:
Figure 9-2:
Figure 4-2:
Figure 4-3:
Figure 4-4:
Figure 4-5:
Figure 4-6:
Figure 4-7:
Figure 4-8:
Figure 4-9:
Figure 4-10:
Figure 4-11:
Figure 4-12:
Figure 4-13:
Figure 4-14:
Figure 4-15:
Figure 4-16:
Figure 4-17:
Figure 4-18:
Figure 5-1:
Figure 5-2:
Figure 5-3:
Figure 5-4:
Figure 5-5:
Figure 5-6:
Figure 5-7:
Figure 5-8:
Figure 5-9:
Figure 5-10:
Figure 5-11:
Figure 5-12:
Figure 5-13:
Figure 7-1:
Figure 7-2:
Figure 7-3:
Figure 7-4:
Figure 7-5:
Figure 7-6:
PIC16C72 Block Diagram ......................... 10
PIC16C73/73A/76 Block Diagram............. 11
PIC16C74/74A/77 Block Diagram............. 12
Clock/Instruction Cycle.............................. 17
PIC16C72 Program Memory Map
and Stack .................................................. 19
PIC16C73/73A/74/74A Program
Memory Map and Stack ............................ 19
PIC16C76/77 Program Memory
Map and Stack .......................................... 20
PIC16C72 Register File Map .................... 21
PIC16C73/73A/74/74A Register
File Map .................................................... 21
PIC16C76/77 Register File Map ............... 22
Status Register (Address 03h,
83h, 103h, 183h) ...................................... 30
OPTION Register (Address 81h,
181h) ......................................................... 31
INTCON Register
(Address 0Bh, 8Bh, 10bh, 18bh)............... 32
PIE1 Register PIC16C72
(Address 8Ch) ........................................... 33
PIE1 Register PIC16C73/73A/
74/74A/76/77 (Address 8Ch)..................... 34
PIR1 Register PIC16C72
(Address 0Ch) ........................................... 35
PIR1 Register PIC16C73/73A/
74/74A/76/77 (Address 0Ch)..................... 36
PIE2 Register (Address 8Dh).................... 37
PIR2 Register (Address 0Dh).................... 38
PCON Register (Address 8Eh) ................. 39
Loading of PC In Different
Situations .................................................. 40
Direct/Indirect Addressing ......................... 41
Block Diagram of RA3:RA0
and RA5 Pins ............................................ 43
Block Diagram of RA4/T0CKI Pin ............. 43
Block Diagram of RB3:RB0 Pins............... 45
Block Diagram of RB7:RB4 Pins
(PIC16C73/74) .......................................... 46
Block Diagram of
RB7:RB4 Pins (PIC16C72/73A/
74A/76/77)................................................. 46
PORTC Block Diagram
(Peripheral Output Override).................... 48
PORTD Block Diagram
(in I/O Port Mode)..................................... 50
PORTE Block Diagram
(in I/O Port Mode)..................................... 51
TRISE Register (Address 89h).................. 51
Successive I/O Operation ......................... 53
PORTD and PORTE Block Diagram
(Parallel Slave Port) .................................. 54
Parallel Slave Port Write Waveforms ........ 55
Parallel Slave Port Read Waveforms........ 55
Timer0 Block Diagram............................... 59
Timer0 Timing: Internal Clock/No
Prescale .................................................... 59
Timer0 Timing: Internal
Clock/Prescale 1:2 .................................... 60
Timer0 Interrupt Timing............................. 60
Timer0 Timing with External Clock............ 61
Block Diagram of the Timer0/WDT
Prescaler ................................................... 62
DS30390E-page 280
Figure 10-1:
Figure 10-2:
Figure 10-3:
Figure 10-4:
Figure 10-5:
Figure 11-1:
Figure 11-2:
Figure 11-3:
Figure 11-4:
Figure 11-5:
Figure 11-6:
Figure 11-7:
Figure 11-8:
Figure 11-9:
Figure 11-10:
Figure 11-11:
Figure 11-12:
Figure 11-13:
Figure 11-14:
Figure 11-15:
Figure 11-16:
Figure 11-17:
Figure 11-18:
Figure 11-19:
Figure 11-20:
Figure 11-21:
Figure 11-22:
Figure 11-23:
Figure 11-24:
Figure 11-25:
Figure 11-26:
Figure 11-27:
Figure 12-1:
Figure 12-2:
Figure 12-3:
Figure 12-4:
T1CON: Timer1 Control Register
(Address 10h) .......................................... 65
Timer1 Block Diagram .............................. 66
Timer2 Block Diagram .............................. 69
T2CON: Timer2 Control Register
(Address 12h) .......................................... 70
CCP1CON Register (Address 17h)/
CCP2CON Register (Address 1Dh).......... 72
Capture Mode Operation
Block Diagram .......................................... 72
Compare Mode Operation
Block Diagram .......................................... 73
Simplified PWM Block Diagram ................ 74
PWM Output ............................................. 74
SSPSTAT: Sync Serial Port Status
Register (Address 94h)............................. 78
SSPCON: Sync Serial Port Control
Register (Address 14h)............................. 79
SSP Block Diagram (SPI Mode) ............... 80
SPI Master/Slave Connection................... 81
SPI Mode Timing, Master Mode
or Slave Mode w/o SS Control.................. 82
SPI Mode Timing, Slave Mode with
SS Control ................................................ 82
SSPSTAT: Sync Serial Port Status
Register (Address 94h)(PIC16C76/77)..... 83
SSPCON: Sync Serial Port Control
Register (Address 14h)(PIC16C76/77)..... 84
SSP Block Diagram (SPI Mode)
(PIC16C76/77).......................................... 85
SPI Master/Slave Connection
PIC16C76/77) ........................................... 86
SPI Mode Timing, Master Mode
(PIC16C76/77)......................................... 87
SPI Mode Timing (Slave Mode
With CKE = 0) (PIC16C76/77) ................. 87
SPI Mode Timing (Slave Mode
With CKE = 1) (PIC16C76/77) .................. 88
Start and Stop Conditions......................... 89
7-bit Address Format ................................ 90
I2C 10-bit Address Format ........................ 90
Slave-receiver Acknowledge .................... 90
Data Transfer Wait State .......................... 90
Master-transmitter Sequence ................... 91
Master-receiver Sequence........................ 91
Combined Format ..................................... 91
Multi-master Arbitration
(Two Masters)........................................... 92
Clock Synchronization .............................. 92
SSP Block Diagram
(I2C Mode) ................................................ 93
I2C Waveforms for Reception
(7-bit Address) .......................................... 95
I2C Waveforms for Transmission
(7-bit Address) .......................................... 96
Operation of the I2C Module in
IDLE_MODE, RCV_MODE or
XMIT_MODE ............................................ 98
TXSTA: Transmit Status and
Control Register (Address 98h) ................ 99
RCSTA: Receive Status and
Control Register (Address 18h) .............. 100
RX Pin Sampling Scheme. BRGH = 0
(PIC16C73/73A/74/74A) ......................... 104
RX Pin Sampling Scheme, BRGH = 1
(PIC16C73/73A/74/74A) ......................... 104
 1997 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC16C7X
Figure 12-5:
Figure 12-6:
Figure 12-7:
Figure 12-8:
Figure 12-9:
Figure 12-10:
Figure 12-11:
Figure 12-12:
Figure 12-13:
Figure 12-14:
Figure 13-1:
Figure 13-2:
Figure 13-3:
Figure 13-4:
Figure 13-5:
Figure 13-6:
Figure 14-1:
Figure 14-2:
Figure 14-3:
Figure 14-4:
Figure 14-5:
Figure 14-6:
Figure 14-7:
Figure 14-8:
Figure 14-9:
Figure 14-10:
Figure 14-11:
Figure 14-12:
Figure 14-13:
Figure 14-14:
Figure 14-15:
Figure 14-16:
Figure 14-17:
Figure 14-18:
Figure 14-19:
Figure 14-20:
Figure 14-21:
Figure 15-1:
Figure 17-1:
Figure 17-2:
Figure 17-3:
RX Pin Sampling Scheme, BRGH = 1
(PIC16C73/73A/74/74A) ......................... 104
RX Pin Sampling Scheme,
BRGH = 0 OR BRGH = 1 (
PIC16C76/77) ......................................... 105
USART Transmit Block Diagram............. 106
Asynchronous Master Transmission ....... 107
Asynchronous Master Transmission
(Back to Back)......................................... 107
USART Receive Block Diagram.............. 108
Asynchronous Reception ........................ 108
Synchronous Transmission..................... 111
Synchronous Transmission
(Through TXEN)...................................... 111
Synchronous Reception
(Master Mode, SREN)............................. 113
ADCON0 Register (Address 1Fh) ........... 117
ADCON1 Register (Address 9Fh) ........... 118
A/D Block Diagram.................................. 119
Analog Input Model ................................. 120
A/D Transfer Function ............................. 125
Flowchart of A/D Operation..................... 126
Configuration Word for
PIC16C73/74........................................... 129
Configuration Word for
PIC16C72/73A/74A/76/77....................... 130
Crystal/Ceramic Resonator
Operation (HS, XT or LP
OSC Configuration)................................. 131
External Clock Input Operation
(HS, XT or LP OSC Configuration) ......... 131
External Parallel Resonant Crystal
Oscillator Circuit ...................................... 132
External Series Resonant Crystal
Oscillator Circuit ..................................... 132
RC Oscillator Mode ................................. 132
Simplified Block Diagram of On-chip
Reset Circuit............................................ 133
Brown-out Situations ............................... 134
Time-out Sequence on Power-up
(MCLR not Tied to VDD): Case 1............. 139
Time-out Sequence on Power-up
(MCLR Not Tied To VDD): Case 2.......... 139
Time-out Sequence on Power-up
(MCLR Tied to VDD) ................................ 139
External Power-on Reset Circuit
(for Slow VDD Power-up)......................... 140
External Brown-out Protection
Circuit 1 ................................................... 140
External Brown-out Protection
Circuit 2 ................................................... 140
Interrupt Logic ......................................... 142
INT Pin Interrupt Timing .......................... 142
Watchdog Timer Block Diagram ............. 144
Summary of Watchdog
Timer Registers....................................... 144
Wake-up from Sleep Through
Interrupt................................................... 146
Typical In-Circuit Serial
Programming Connection ....................... 146
General Format for Instructions .............. 147
Load Conditions ...................................... 172
External Clock Timing ............................. 173
CLKOUT and I/O Timing ......................... 174
Figure 17-4:
Figure 17-5:
Figure 17-6:
Figure 17-7:
Figure 17-8:
Figure 17-9:
Figure 17-10:
Figure 17-11:
Figure 18-1:
Figure 18-2:
Figure 18-3:
Figure 18-4:
Figure 18-5:
Figure 18-6:
Figure 18-7:
Figure 18-8:
Figure 18-9:
Figure 18-10:
Figure 18-11:
Figure 18-12:
Figure 18-13:
Figure 19-1:
Figure 19-2:
Figure 19-3:
Figure 19-4:
Figure 19-5:
Figure 19-6:
Figure 19-7:
Figure 19-8:
Figure 19-9:
Figure 19-10:
Figure 19-11:
Figure 19-12:
Figure 19-13:
Figure 19-14:
Figure 20-1:
Figure 20-2:
Figure 20-3:
Figure 20-4:
Figure 20-5:
Figure 20-6:
Figure 20-7:
Figure 20-8:
 1997 Microchip Technology Inc.
Reset, Watchdog Timer, Oscillator
Start-up Timer and Power-up Timer
Timing ......................................................175
Brown-out Reset Timing ..........................175
Timer0 and Timer1 External
Clock Timings .........................................176
Capture/Compare/PWM
Timings (CCP1) .......................................177
SPI Mode Timing .....................................178
I2C Bus Start/Stop Bits Timing.................179
I2C Bus Data Timing ................................180
A/D Conversion Timing............................182
Load Conditions.......................................188
External Clock Timing..............................189
CLKOUT and I/O Timing..........................190
Reset, Watchdog Timer,
Oscillator Start-up Timer and Power-up Timer Timing..................................................191
Timer0 and Timer1 External
Clock Timings .........................................192
Capture/Compare/PWM Timings
(CCP1 and CCP2) ...................................193
Parallel Slave Port Timing
(PIC16C74)..............................................194
SPI Mode Timing .....................................195
I2C Bus Start/Stop Bits Timing.................196
I2C Bus Data Timing ................................197
USART Synchronous Transmission
(Master/Slave) Timing..............................198
USART Synchronous Receive
(Master/Slave) Timing..............................198
A/D Conversion Timing............................200
Load Conditions.......................................206
External Clock Timing..............................207
CLKOUT and I/O Timing..........................208
Reset, Watchdog Timer,
Oscillator Start-up Timer and
Power-up Timer Timing ...........................209
Brown-out Reset Timing ..........................209
Timer0 and Timer1 External
Clock Timings .........................................210
Capture/Compare/PWM Timings
(CCP1 and CCP2) ...................................211
Parallel Slave Port Timing
(PIC16C74A) ...........................................212
SPI Mode Timing .....................................213
I2C Bus Start/Stop Bits Timing.................214
I2C Bus Data Timing ................................215
USART Synchronous Transmission
(Master/Slave) Timing..............................216
USART Synchronous Receive
(Master/Slave) Timing..............................216
A/D Conversion Timing............................218
Load Conditions.......................................225
External Clock Timing..............................226
CLKOUT and I/O Timing..........................227
Reset, Watchdog Timer,
Oscillator Start-up Timer and
Power-up Timer Timing ...........................228
Brown-out Reset Timing ..........................228
Timer0 and Timer1 External
Clock Timings ..........................................229
Capture/Compare/PWM Timings
(CCP1 and CCP2) ...................................230
Parallel Slave Port Timing
(PIC16C77).............................................231
DS30390E-page 281
PIC16C7X
Figure 20-9:
Figure 20-10:
Figure 20-11:
Figure 20-12:
Figure 20-13:
Figure 20-14:
Figure 20-15:
Figure 20-16:
Figure 20-17:
Figure 21-1:
Figure 21-2:
Figure 21-3:
Figure 21-4:
Figure 21-5:
Figure 21-6:
Figure 21-7:
Figure 21-8:
Figure 21-9:
Figure 21-10:
Figure 21-11:
Figure 21-12:
Figure 21-13:
Figure 21-14:
Figure 21-15:
Figure 21-16:
Figure 21-17:
Figure 21-18:
Figure 21-19:
Figure 21-20:
Figure 21-21:
Figure 21-22:
Figure 21-23:
Figure 21-24:
Figure 21-25:
Figure 21-26:
SPI Master Mode Timing (CKE = 0)........ 232
SPI Master Mode Timing (CKE = 1)........ 232
SPI Slave Mode Timing (CKE = 0).......... 233
SPI Slave Mode Timing (CKE = 1).......... 233
I2C Bus Start/Stop Bits Timing ................ 235
I2C Bus Data Timing ............................... 236
USART Synchronous Transmission
(Master/Slave) Timing ............................. 237
USART Synchronous Receive
(Master/Slave) Timing ............................. 237
A/D Conversion Timing ........................... 239
Typical IPD vs. VDD (WDT Disabled,
RC Mode)................................................ 241
Maximum IPD vs. VDD (WDT
Disabled, RC Mode)................................ 241
Typical IPD vs. VDD @ 25°C (WDT
Enabled, RC Mode)................................. 242
Maximum IPD vs. VDD (WDT
Enabled, RC Mode)................................. 242
Typical RC Oscillator
Frequency vs. VDD .................................. 242
Typical RC Oscillator
Frequency vs. VDD .................................. 242
Typical RC Oscillator
Frequency vs. VDD .................................. 242
Typical IPD vs. VDD Brown-out
Detect Enabled (RC Mode) ..................... 243
Maximum IPD vs. VDD Brown-out
Detect Enabled
(85°C to -40°C, RC Mode) ...................... 243
Typical IPD vs. Timer1 Enabled
(32 kHz, RC0/RC1= 33 pF/33 pF,
RC Mode)................................................ 243
Maximum IPD vs. Timer1 Enabled
(32 kHz, RC0/RC1 = 33
pF/33 pF, 85°C to -40°C, RC Mode) ....... 243
Typical IDD vs. Frequency
(RC Mode @ 22 pF, 25°C)...................... 244
Maximum IDD vs. Frequency
(RC Mode @ 22 pF, -40°C to 85°C)........ 244
Typical IDD vs. Frequency
(RC Mode @ 100 pF, 25°C).................... 245
Maximum IDD vs. Frequency (
RC Mode @ 100 pF, -40°C to 85°C)....... 245
Typical IDD vs. Frequency
(RC Mode @ 300 pF, 25°C).................... 246
Maximum IDD vs. Frequency
(RC Mode @ 300 pF, -40°C to 85°C)...... 246
Typical IDD vs. Capacitance @
500 kHz (RC Mode) ................................ 247
Transconductance(gm) of
HS Oscillator vs. VDD .............................. 247
Transconductance(gm) of LP
Oscillator vs. VDD .................................... 247
Transconductance(gm) of XT
Oscillator vs. VDD .................................... 247
Typical XTAL Startup Time vs. VDD
(LP Mode, 25°C) ..................................... 248
Typical XTAL Startup Time vs. VDD
(HS Mode, 25°C)..................................... 248
Typical XTAL Startup Time vs. VDD
(XT Mode, 25°C) ..................................... 248
Typical Idd vs. Frequency
(LP Mode, 25°C) ..................................... 249
Maximum IDD vs. Frequency
(LP Mode, 85°C to -40°C) ....................... 249
DS30390E-page 282
Figure 21-27:
Figure 21-28:
Figure 21-29:
Figure 21-30:
Typical IDD vs. Frequency
(XT Mode, 25°C)..................................... 249
Maximum IDD vs. Frequency
(XT Mode, -40°C to 85°C)....................... 249
Typical IDD vs. Frequency
(HS Mode, 25°C) .................................... 250
Maximum IDD vs. Frequency
(HS Mode, -40°C to 85°C) ...................... 250
 1997 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC16C7X
LIST OF TABLES
Table 12-8:
Table 1-1:
Table 3-1:
Table 3-2:
Table 3-3:
Table 4-1:
Table 12-9:
Table 4-2:
Table 4-3:
Table 5-1:
Table 5-2:
Table 5-3:
Table 5-4:
Table 5-5:
Table 5-6:
Table 5-7:
Table 5-8:
Table 5-9:
Table 5-10:
Table 5-11:
Table 7-1:
Table 8-1:
Table 8-2:
Table 9-1:
Table 10-1:
Table 10-2:
Table 10-3:
Table 10-4:
Table 10-5:
Table 11-1:
Table 11-2:
Table 11-3:
Table 11-4:
Table 11-5:
Table 12-1:
Table 12-2:
Table 12-3:
Table 12-4:
Table 12-5:
Table 12-6:
Table 12-7:
PIC16C7XX Family of Devces .................... 6
PIC16C72 Pinout Description ................... 13
PIC16C73/73A/76 Pinout Description ....... 14
PIC16C74/74A/77 Pinout Description ....... 15
PIC16C72 Special Function Register
Summary................................................... 23
PIC16C73/73A/74/74A Special
Function Register Summary...................... 25
PIC16C76/77 Special Function
Register Summary .................................... 27
PORTA Functions ..................................... 44
Summary of Registers Associated
with PORTA .............................................. 44
PORTB Functions ..................................... 46
Summary of Registers Associated
with PORTB .............................................. 47
PORTC Functions ..................................... 48
Summary of Registers Associated
with PORTC .............................................. 49
PORTD Functions ..................................... 50
Summary of Registers Associated
with PORTD .............................................. 50
PORTE Functions ..................................... 52
Summary of Registers Associated
with PORTE .............................................. 52
Registers Associated with
Parallel Slave Port..................................... 55
Registers Associated with Timer0............. 63
Capacitor Selection for the
Timer1 Oscillator ....................................... 67
Registers Associated with Timer1
as a Timer/Counter ................................... 68
Registers Associated with
Timer2 as a Timer/Counter ....................... 70
CCP Mode - Timer Resource.................... 71
Interaction of Two CCP Modules .............. 71
Example PWM Frequencies and
Resolutions at 20 MHz .............................. 75
Registers Associated with Capture,
Compare, and Timer1 ............................... 75
Registers Associated with PWM
and Timer2 ................................................ 76
Registers Associated with SPI
Operation .................................................. 82
Registers Associated with SPI
Operation (PIC16C76/77) ......................... 88
I2C Bus Terminology ................................. 89
Data Transfer Received Byte
Actions ...................................................... 94
Registers Associated with I2C
Operation .................................................. 97
Baud Rate Formula ................................. 101
Registers Associated with Baud
Rate Generator ....................................... 101
Baud Rates for Synchronous Mode ........ 102
Baud Rates for Asynchronous Mode
(BRGH = 0) ............................................. 102
Baud Rates for Asynchronous Mode
(BRGH = 1) ............................................. 103
Registers Associated with
Asynchronous Transmission ................... 107
Registers Associated with
Asynchronous Reception ........................ 109
 1997 Microchip Technology Inc.
Table 12-10:
Table 12-11:
Table 13-1:
Table 13-2:
Table 13-3:
Table 14-1:
Table 14-2:
Table 14-3:
Table 14-4:
Table 14-5:
Table 14-6:
Table 14-7:
Table 14-8:
Table 15-1:
Table 15-2:
Table 16-1:
Table 17-1:
Table 17-2:
Table 17-3:
Table 17-4:
Table 17-5:
Table 17-6:
Table 17-7:
Table 17-8:
Table 17-9:
Table 17-10:
Table 17-11:
Table 18-1:
Registers Associated with Synchronous Master Transmission ......................................111
Registers Associated with Synchronous Master Reception ...........................................112
Registers Associated with
Synchronous Slave Transmission ...........115
Registers Associated with
Synchronous Slave Reception.................115
TAD vs. Device Operating
Frequencies .............................................121
Registers/Bits Associated with A/D,
PIC16C72 ................................................126
Summary of A/D Registers,
PIC16C73/73A/74/74A/76/77 ..................127
Ceramic Resonators ................................131
Capacitor Selection for Crystal
Oscillator..................................................131
Time-out in Various Situations,
PIC16C73/74 ...........................................135
Time-out in Various Situations,
PIC16C72/73A/74A/76/77 .......................135
Status Bits and Their Significance,
PIC16C73/74 ...........................................135
Status Bits and Their Significance,
PIC16C72/73A/74A/76/77 .......................136
Reset Condition for Special
Registers..................................................136
Initialization Conditions for all
Registers..................................................136
Opcode Field Descriptions.......................147
PIC16CXX Instruction Set .......................148
Development Tools from Microchip .........166
Cross Reference of Device Specs
for Oscillator Configurations and
Frequencies of Operation
(Commercial Devices) .............................167
External Clock Timing
Requirements ..........................................173
CLKOUT and I/O Timing
Requirements ..........................................174
Reset, Watchdog Timer,
Oscillator Start-up Timer, Power-up
Timer, and brown-out Reset
Requirements ..........................................175
Timer0 and Timer1 External
Clock Requirements ................................176
Capture/Compare/PWM
Requirements (CCP1) .............................177
SPI Mode Requirements..........................178
I2C Bus Start/Stop Bits
Requirements ..........................................179
I2C Bus Data Requirements ....................180
A/D Converter Characteristics:
PIC16C72-04
(Commercial, Industrial, Extended)
PIC16C72-10
(Commercial, Industrial, Extended)
PIC16C72-20
(Commercial, Industrial, Extended)
PIC16LC72-04
(Commercial, Industrial)...........................181
A/D Conversion Requirements ................182
Cross Reference of Device
Specs for Oscillator Configurations
and Frequencies of Operation
(Commercial Devices) .............................183
DS30390E-page 283
PIC16C7X
Table 18-2:
Table 18-3:
Table 18-4:
Table 18-5:
Table 18-6:
Table 18-7:
Table 18-8:
Table 18-9:
Table 18-10:
Table 18-11:
Table 18-12:
Table 18-13:
Table 18-14:
Table 19-1:
Table 19-2:
Table 19-3:
Table 19-4:
Table 19-5:
Table 19-6:
Table 19-7:
Table 19-8:
Table 19-9:
Table 19-10:
Table 19-11:
Table 19-12:
Table 19-13:
Table 19-14:
external Clock Timing
Requirements.......................................... 189
CLKOUT and I/O Timing
Requirements.......................................... 190
Reset, Watchdog Timer, Oscillator
Start-up Timer and Power-up Timer
Requirements......................................... 191
Timer0 and Timer1 External Clock
Requirements.......................................... 192
Capture/Compare/PWM
Requirements (CCP1 and CCP2) ........... 193
Parallel Slave Port Requirements
(PIC16C74) ............................................. 194
SPI Mode Requirements ......................... 195
I2C Bus Start/Stop Bits
Requirements.......................................... 196
I2C Bus Data Requirements.................... 197
USART Synchronous Transmission
Requirements.......................................... 198
usart Synchronous Receive
Requirements.......................................... 198
A/D Converter Characteristics:................ 199
PIC16C73/74-04
(Commercial, Industrial)
PIC16C73/74-10
(Commercial, Industrial)
PIC16C73/74-20
(Commercial, Industrial)
PIC16LC73/74-04
(Commercial, Industrial) .......................... 199
A/D Conversion Requirements................ 200
Cross Reference of Device Specs
for Oscillator Configurations and
Frequencies of Operation
(Commercial Devices)............................. 201
External Clock Timing
Requirements.......................................... 207
CLKOUT and I/O Timing
Requirements.......................................... 208
Reset, Watchdog Timer, Oscillator
Start-up Timer, Power-up Timer,
and brown-out reset Requirements......... 209
Timer0 and Timer1 External Clock
Requirements.......................................... 210
Capture/Compare/PWM
Requirements (CCP1 and CCP2) ........... 211
Parallel Slave Port Requirements
(PIC16C74A)........................................... 212
SPI Mode Requirements ......................... 213
I2C Bus Start/Stop Bits Requirements .... 214
I2C Bus Data Requirements.................... 215
USART Synchronous Transmission
Requirements.......................................... 216
USART Synchronous Receive
Requirements.......................................... 216
A/D Converter Characteristics:................ 217
PIC16C73A/74A-04
(Commercial, Industrial, Extended)
PIC16C73A/74A-10
(Commercial, Industrial, Extended)
PIC16C73A/74A-20
(Commercial, Industrial, Extended)
PIC16LC73A/74A-04
(Commercial, Industrial) .......................... 217
A/D Conversion Requirements................ 218
DS30390E-page 284
Table 20-1:
Table 20-2:
Table 20-3:
Table 20-4:
Table 20-5:
Table 20-6:
Table 20-7:
Table 20-8:
Table 20-9:
Table 20-10:
Table 20-11:
Table 20-12:
Table 20-13:
Table 20-14:
Table 21-1:
Table 21-2:
Table E-1:
Cross Reference of Device Specs
for Oscillator Configurations and
Frequencies of Operation
(Commercial Devices) ............................ 220
External Clock Timing
Requirements ......................................... 226
CLKOUT and I/O Timing
Requirements ......................................... 227
Reset, Watchdog Timer,
Oscillator Start-up Timer, Power-up
Timer, and brown-out reset
Requirements ......................................... 228
Timer0 and Timer1 External Clock
Requirements ......................................... 229
Capture/Compare/PWM
Requirements (CCP1 and CCP2)........... 230
Parallel Slave Port Requirements
(PIC16C77)............................................. 231
SPI Mode requirements .......................... 234
I2C Bus Start/Stop Bits Requirements .... 235
I2C Bus Data Requirements ................... 236
USART Synchronous Transmission
Requirements ......................................... 237
USART Synchronous Receive
Requirements ......................................... 237
A/D Converter Characteristics: ............... 238
PIC16C76/77-04
(Commercial, Industrial, Extended)
PIC16C76/77-10
(Commercial, Industrial, Extended)
PIC16C76/77-20
(Commercial, Industrial, Extended)
PIC16LC76/77-04
(Commercial, Industrial).......................... 238
A/D Conversion Requirements ............... 239
RC Oscillator Frequencies...................... 247
Capacitor Selection for Crystal
Oscillators ............................................... 248
Pin Compatible Devices.......................... 271
 1997 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC16C6X
ON-LINE SUPPORT
Microchip provides two methods of on-line support.
These are the Microchip BBS and the Microchip World
Wide Web (WWW) site.
Use Microchip's Bulletin Board Service (BBS) to get
current information and help about Microchip products.
Microchip provides the BBS communication channel
for you to use in extending your technical staff with
microcontroller and memory experts.
To provide you with the most responsive service possible,
the Microchip systems team monitors the BBS, posts
the latest component data and software tool updates,
provides technical help and embedded systems
insights, and discusses how Microchip products provide project solutions.
The web site, like the BBS, is used by Microchip as a
means to make files and information easily available to
customers. To view the site, the user must have access
to the Internet and a web browser, such as Netscape or
Microsoft Explorer. Files are also available for FTP
download from our FTP site.
Connecting to the Microchip Internet Web Site
The Microchip web site is available by using your
favorite Internet browser to attach to:
www.microchip.com
The file transfer site is available by using an FTP service to connect to:
ftp://ftp.futureone.com/pub/microchip
The web site and file transfer site provide a variety of
services. Users may download files for the latest
Development Tools, Data Sheets, Application Notes,
User's Guides, Articles and Sample Programs. A variety of Microchip specific business information is also
available, including listings of Microchip sales offices,
distributors and factory representatives. Other data
available for consideration is:
• Latest Microchip Press Releases
• Technical Support Section with Frequently Asked
Questions
• Design Tips
• Device Errata
• Job Postings
• Microchip Consultant Program Member Listing
• Links to other useful web sites related to
Microchip Products
Connecting to the Microchip BBS
Connect worldwide to the Microchip BBS using either
the Internet or the CompuServe communications network.
Internet:
You can telnet or ftp to the Microchip BBS at the
address: mchipbbs.microchip.com
CompuServe Communications Network:
When using the BBS via the Compuserve Network,
in most cases, a local call is your only expense. The
Microchip BBS connection does not use CompuServe
membership services, therefore you do not need
CompuServe membership to join Microchip's BBS.
There is no charge for connecting to the Microchip BBS.
 1996 Microchip Technology Inc.
The procedure to connect will vary slightly from country
to country. Please check with your local CompuServe
agent for details if you have a problem. CompuServe
service allow multiple users various baud rates
depending on the local point of access.
The following connect procedure applies in most locations.
1. Set your modem to 8-bit, No parity, and One stop
(8N1). This is not the normal CompuServe setting
which is 7E1.
2. Dial your local CompuServe access number.
3. Depress the <Enter> key and a garbage string will
appear because CompuServe is expecting a 7E1
setting.
4. Type +, depress the <Enter> key and “Host Name:”
will appear.
5. Type MCHIPBBS, depress the <Enter> key and you
will be connected to the Microchip BBS.
In the United States, to find the CompuServe phone
number closest to you, set your modem to 7E1 and dial
(800) 848-4480 for 300-2400 baud or (800) 331-7166
for 9600-14400 baud connection. After the system
responds with “Host Name:”, type NETWORK, depress
the <Enter> key and follow CompuServe's directions.
For voice information (or calling from overseas), you
may call (614) 723-1550 for your local CompuServe
number.
Microchip regularly uses the Microchip BBS to distribute
technical information, application notes, source code,
errata sheets, bug reports, and interim patches for
Microchip systems software products. For each SIG, a
moderator monitors, scans, and approves or disapproves files submitted to the SIG. No executable files
are accepted from the user community in general to
limit the spread of computer viruses.
Systems Information and Upgrade Hot Line
The Systems Information and Upgrade Line provides
system users a listing of the latest versions of all of
Microchip's development systems software products.
Plus, this line provides information on how customers
can receive any currently available upgrade kits.The
Hot Line Numbers are:
1-800-755-2345 for U.S. and most of Canada, and
1-602-786-7302 for the rest of the world.
970301
Trademarks: The Microchip name, logo, PIC, PICSTART,
PICMASTER and PRO MATE are registered trademarks
of Microchip Technology Incorporated in the U.S.A. and
other countries. FlexROM, MPLAB and fuzzyLAB, are
trademarks and SQTP is a service mark of Microchip in
the U.S.A.
fuzzyTECH is a registered trademark of Inform Software
Corporation. IBM, IBM PC-AT are registered trademarks
of International Business Machines Corp. Pentium is a
trademark of Intel Corporation. Windows is a trademark
and MS-DOS, Microsoft Windows are registered trademarks of Microsoft Corporation. CompuServe is a registered trademark of CompuServe Incorporated.
All other trademarks mentioned herein are the property of
their respective companies.
DS30390E-page 285
PIC16C6X
READER RESPONSE
It is our intention to provide you with the best documentation possible to ensure successful use of your Microchip product. If you wish to provide your comments on organization, clarity, subject matter, and ways in which our documentation
can better serve you, please FAX your comments to the Technical Publications Manager at (602) 786-7578.
Please list the following information, and use this outline to provide us with your comments about this Data Sheet.
To:
Technical Publications Manager
RE:
Reader Response
Total Pages Sent
From: Name
Company
Address
City / State / ZIP / Country
Telephone: (_______) _________ - _________
FAX: (______) _________ - _________
Application (optional):
Would you like a reply?
Device: PIC16C6X
Y
N
Literature Number: DS30390E
Questions:
1. What are the best features of this document?
2. How does this document meet your hardware and software development needs?
3. Do you find the organization of this data sheet easy to follow? If not, why?
4. What additions to the data sheet do you think would enhance the structure and subject?
5. What deletions from the data sheet could be made without affecting the overall usefulness?
6. Is there any incorrect or misleading information (what and where)?
7. How would you improve this document?
8. How would you improve our software, systems, and silicon products?
DS30390E-page 286
 1996 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC16C7X
PIC16C7X PRODUCT IDENTIFICATION SYSTEM
To order or obtain information, e.g., on pricing or delivery refer to the factory or the listed sales office.
Examples
PART NO. -XX X /XX XXX
Pattern:
Package:
Temperature
Range:
Frequency
Range:
Device
QTP, SQTP, Code or Special Requirements
a)
JW
= Windowed CERDIP
PQ
= MQFP (Metric PQFP)
TQ
= TQFP (Thin Quad Flatpack)
SO
= SOIC
SP
= Skinny plastic dip
b)
P
= PDIP
L
= PLCC
SS
= SSOP
= 0°C to +70°C
I
= -40°C to +85°C
c)
E
= -40°C to +125°C
04
= 200 kHz (PIC16C7X-04)
04
= 4 MHz
10
= 10 MHz
20
= 20 MHz
PIC16C7X
:VDD range 4.0V to 6.0V
PIC16C7XT :VDD range 4.0V to 6.0V (Tape/Reel)
PIC16LC7X :VDD range 2.5V to 6.0V
PIC16LC7XT :VDD range 2.5V to 6.0V (Tape/Reel)
PIC16C72 - 04/P 301
Commercial Temp.,
PDIP Package, 4 MHz,
normal VDD limits, QTP
pattern #301
PIC16LC76 - 041/SO
Industrial Temp., SOIC
package, 4 MHz,
extended VDD limits
PIC16C74A - 10E/P
Automotive Temp.,
PDIP package, 10 MHz,
normal VDD limits
* JW Devices are UV erasable and can be programmed to any device configuration. JW Devices meet the electrical requirement of
each oscillator type (including LC devices).
Sales and Support
Products supported by a preliminary Data Sheet may possibly have an errata sheet describing minor operational differences and
recommended workarounds. To determine if an errata sheet exists for a particular device, please contact one of the following:
1. The Microchip Website at www.microchip.com
2. Your local Microchip sales office (see following page)
3. The Microchip Corporate Literature Center U.S. FAX: (602) 786-7277
4. The Microchip’s Bulletin Board, via your local CompuServe number (CompuServe membership NOT required).
Please specify which device, revision of silicon and Data Sheet (include Literature #) you are using.
For latest version information and upgrade kits for Microchip Development Tools, please call 1-800-755-2345 or 1-602-786-7302.
DS30390E-page 287
 1997 Microchip Technology Inc.
Note the following details of the code protection feature on PICmicro® MCUs.
•
•
•
•
•
•
The PICmicro family meets the specifications contained in the Microchip Data Sheet.
Microchip believes that its family of PICmicro microcontrollers is one of the most secure products of its kind on the market today,
when used in the intended manner and under normal conditions.
There are dishonest and possibly illegal methods used to breach the code protection feature. All of these methods, to our knowledge, require using the PICmicro microcontroller in a manner outside the operating specifications contained in the data sheet.
The person doing so may be engaged in theft of intellectual property.
Microchip is willing to work with the customer who is concerned about the integrity of their code.
Neither Microchip nor any other semiconductor manufacturer can guarantee the security of their code. Code protection does not
mean that we are guaranteeing the product as “unbreakable”.
Code protection is constantly evolving. We at Microchip are committed to continuously improving the code protection features of
our product.
If you have any further questions about this matter, please contact the local sales office nearest to you.
Information contained in this publication regarding device
applications and the like is intended through suggestion only
and may be superseded by updates. It is your responsibility to
ensure that your application meets with your specifications.
No representation or warranty is given and no liability is
assumed by Microchip Technology Incorporated with respect
to the accuracy or use of such information, or infringement of
patents or other intellectual property rights arising from such
use or otherwise. Use of Microchip’s products as critical components in life support systems is not authorized except with
express written approval by Microchip. No licenses are conveyed, implicitly or otherwise, under any intellectual property
rights.
Trademarks
The Microchip name and logo, the Microchip logo, FilterLab,
KEELOQ, microID, MPLAB, PIC, PICmicro, PICMASTER,
PICSTART, PRO MATE, SEEVAL and The Embedded Control
Solutions Company are registered trademarks of Microchip Technology Incorporated in the U.S.A. and other countries.
dsPIC, ECONOMONITOR, FanSense, FlexROM, fuzzyLAB,
In-Circuit Serial Programming, ICSP, ICEPIC, microPort,
Migratable Memory, MPASM, MPLIB, MPLINK, MPSIM,
MXDEV, PICC, PICDEM, PICDEM.net, rfPIC, Select Mode
and Total Endurance are trademarks of Microchip Technology
Incorporated in the U.S.A.
Serialized Quick Turn Programming (SQTP) is a service mark
of Microchip Technology Incorporated in the U.S.A.
All other trademarks mentioned herein are property of their
respective companies.
© 2002, Microchip Technology Incorporated, Printed in the
U.S.A., All Rights Reserved.
Printed on recycled paper.
Microchip received QS-9000 quality system
certification for its worldwide headquarters,
design and wafer fabrication facilities in
Chandler and Tempe, Arizona in July 1999. The
Company’s quality system processes and
procedures are QS-9000 compliant for its
PICmicro® 8-bit MCUs, KEELOQ® code hopping
devices, Serial EEPROMs and microperipheral
products. In addition, Microchip’s quality
system for the design and manufacture of
development systems is ISO 9001 certified.
 2002 Microchip Technology Inc.
M
WORLDWIDE SALES AND SERVICE
AMERICAS
ASIA/PACIFIC
Japan
Corporate Office
Australia
2355 West Chandler Blvd.
Chandler, AZ 85224-6199
Tel: 480-792-7200 Fax: 480-792-7277
Technical Support: 480-792-7627
Web Address: http://www.microchip.com
Microchip Technology Australia Pty Ltd
Suite 22, 41 Rawson Street
Epping 2121, NSW
Australia
Tel: 61-2-9868-6733 Fax: 61-2-9868-6755
Microchip Technology Japan K.K.
Benex S-1 6F
3-18-20, Shinyokohama
Kohoku-Ku, Yokohama-shi
Kanagawa, 222-0033, Japan
Tel: 81-45-471- 6166 Fax: 81-45-471-6122
Rocky Mountain
China - Beijing
2355 West Chandler Blvd.
Chandler, AZ 85224-6199
Tel: 480-792-7966 Fax: 480-792-7456
Microchip Technology Consulting (Shanghai)
Co., Ltd., Beijing Liaison Office
Unit 915
Bei Hai Wan Tai Bldg.
No. 6 Chaoyangmen Beidajie
Beijing, 100027, No. China
Tel: 86-10-85282100 Fax: 86-10-85282104
Atlanta
500 Sugar Mill Road, Suite 200B
Atlanta, GA 30350
Tel: 770-640-0034 Fax: 770-640-0307
Boston
2 Lan Drive, Suite 120
Westford, MA 01886
Tel: 978-692-3848 Fax: 978-692-3821
Chicago
333 Pierce Road, Suite 180
Itasca, IL 60143
Tel: 630-285-0071 Fax: 630-285-0075
Dallas
4570 Westgrove Drive, Suite 160
Addison, TX 75001
Tel: 972-818-7423 Fax: 972-818-2924
Detroit
Tri-Atria Office Building
32255 Northwestern Highway, Suite 190
Farmington Hills, MI 48334
Tel: 248-538-2250 Fax: 248-538-2260
Kokomo
2767 S. Albright Road
Kokomo, Indiana 46902
Tel: 765-864-8360 Fax: 765-864-8387
Los Angeles
18201 Von Karman, Suite 1090
Irvine, CA 92612
Tel: 949-263-1888 Fax: 949-263-1338
China - Chengdu
Microchip Technology Consulting (Shanghai)
Co., Ltd., Chengdu Liaison Office
Rm. 2401, 24th Floor,
Ming Xing Financial Tower
No. 88 TIDU Street
Chengdu 610016, China
Tel: 86-28-6766200 Fax: 86-28-6766599
China - Fuzhou
Microchip Technology Consulting (Shanghai)
Co., Ltd., Fuzhou Liaison Office
Unit 28F, World Trade Plaza
No. 71 Wusi Road
Fuzhou 350001, China
Tel: 86-591-7503506 Fax: 86-591-7503521
China - Shanghai
Microchip Technology Consulting (Shanghai)
Co., Ltd.
Room 701, Bldg. B
Far East International Plaza
No. 317 Xian Xia Road
Shanghai, 200051
Tel: 86-21-6275-5700 Fax: 86-21-6275-5060
China - Shenzhen
150 Motor Parkway, Suite 202
Hauppauge, NY 11788
Tel: 631-273-5305 Fax: 631-273-5335
Microchip Technology Consulting (Shanghai)
Co., Ltd., Shenzhen Liaison Office
Rm. 1315, 13/F, Shenzhen Kerry Centre,
Renminnan Lu
Shenzhen 518001, China
Tel: 86-755-2350361 Fax: 86-755-2366086
San Jose
Hong Kong
Microchip Technology Inc.
2107 North First Street, Suite 590
San Jose, CA 95131
Tel: 408-436-7950 Fax: 408-436-7955
Microchip Technology Hongkong Ltd.
Unit 901-6, Tower 2, Metroplaza
223 Hing Fong Road
Kwai Fong, N.T., Hong Kong
Tel: 852-2401-1200 Fax: 852-2401-3431
New York
Toronto
6285 Northam Drive, Suite 108
Mississauga, Ontario L4V 1X5, Canada
Tel: 905-673-0699 Fax: 905-673-6509
India
Microchip Technology Inc.
India Liaison Office
Divyasree Chambers
1 Floor, Wing A (A3/A4)
No. 11, O’Shaugnessey Road
Bangalore, 560 025, India
Tel: 91-80-2290061 Fax: 91-80-2290062
Korea
Microchip Technology Korea
168-1, Youngbo Bldg. 3 Floor
Samsung-Dong, Kangnam-Ku
Seoul, Korea 135-882
Tel: 82-2-554-7200 Fax: 82-2-558-5934
Singapore
Microchip Technology Singapore Pte Ltd.
200 Middle Road
#07-02 Prime Centre
Singapore, 188980
Tel: 65-334-8870 Fax: 65-334-8850
Taiwan
Microchip Technology Taiwan
11F-3, No. 207
Tung Hua North Road
Taipei, 105, Taiwan
Tel: 886-2-2717-7175 Fax: 886-2-2545-0139
EUROPE
Denmark
Microchip Technology Nordic ApS
Regus Business Centre
Lautrup hoj 1-3
Ballerup DK-2750 Denmark
Tel: 45 4420 9895 Fax: 45 4420 9910
France
Microchip Technology SARL
Parc d’Activite du Moulin de Massy
43 Rue du Saule Trapu
Batiment A - ler Etage
91300 Massy, France
Tel: 33-1-69-53-63-20 Fax: 33-1-69-30-90-79
Germany
Microchip Technology GmbH
Gustav-Heinemann Ring 125
D-81739 Munich, Germany
Tel: 49-89-627-144 0 Fax: 49-89-627-144-44
Italy
Microchip Technology SRL
Centro Direzionale Colleoni
Palazzo Taurus 1 V. Le Colleoni 1
20041 Agrate Brianza
Milan, Italy
Tel: 39-039-65791-1 Fax: 39-039-6899883
United Kingdom
Arizona Microchip Technology Ltd.
505 Eskdale Road
Winnersh Triangle
Wokingham
Berkshire, England RG41 5TU
Tel: 44 118 921 5869 Fax: 44-118 921-5820
01/18/02
 2002 Microchip Technology Inc.
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