user manual pco.dimax family S / HD / HS pco. PCO asks you to carefully read this manual before using the pco.dimax camera system and follow the instructions. In case of any questions or comments, please contact us at PCO. telephone +49 (0) 9441 2005 50 fax +49 (0) 9441 2005 20 email [email protected] postal address PCO AG Donaupark 11 93309 Kelheim, Germany The cover photo shows an exemplary PCO camera system. The lens is sold separately. Copyright © 2016 PCO AG (called PCO in the following text), Kelheim, Germany. All rights reserved. PCO assumes no responsibility for errors or omissions in these materials. These materials are provided as is without warranty of any kind, either expressed or implied, including but not limited to, the implied warranties of merchantability, fitness for a particular purpose, or non-infringement. PCO further does not warrant the accuracy or completeness of the information, text, graphics, links or other items contained within these materials. PCO shall not be liable for any special, indirect, incidental, or consequential damages, including without limitation, lost revenues or lost profits, which may result from the use of these materials. The information is subject to change without notice and does not represent a commitment on the part of PCO in the future. PCO hereby authorizes you to copy documents for non – commercial use within your organization only. In consideration of this authorization, you agree that any copy of these documents, which you make, shall retain all copyright and other proprietary notices contained herein. Each individual document published by PCO may contain other proprietary notices and copyright information relating to that individual document. Nothing contained herein shall be construed as conferring by implication or otherwise any license or right under any patent or trademark of PCO or any third party. Except as expressly provided, above nothing contained herein shall be construed as conferring any license or right under any PCO copyright. Note that any product, process, or technology in this document may be the subject of other intellectual property rights reserved by PCO, and may not be licensed hereunder. Released August 2016 © PCO AG pco.dimax User Manual V2.13 © PCO AG, Germany TABLE OF CONTENTS 1. INTRODUCTION 5 1.1 MAIN FEATURES 5 1.2 INTENDED USE 6 2. SAFETY INSTRUCTIONS 7 3. SYSTEM COMPONENTS 8 4. INSTALLATION 9 4.1 DRIVER 9 4.2 CAMWARE 10 5. QUICK START 11 5.1 PREPARATION 11 5.2 START 11 5.3 YOUR FIRST IMAGE 12 6. CAMWARE 4 SOFTWARE 13 6.1 CHAPTER OVERVIEW 13 6.2 CAMERA OVERVIEW / LIST 14 6.3 CAMERA PROPERTIES 16 6.3.1 TIMING 17 6.3.2 IMAGE SIZE 24 6.3.3 SENSOR CONTROL 25 6.3.4 MEMORY 26 6.3.5 RECORDING CONTROL 26 6.3.6 I/O SIGNALS TAB 30 6.3.7 CONVERT CONTROL 32 6.4 IMAGE OVERLAY 34 6.5 RECORDER TOOLS 35 6.6 VIEW WINDOW 37 6.7 RECORDER (IMAGES) 38 6.8 SETTINGS OVERVIEW 40 6.8.1 AUTO SAVE 6.9 CAMWARE MENU TABS & FEATURES 41 43 6.9.1 DEMO MODE 43 6.9.2 FILE MENU 44 6.9.3 CAMERA MENU 46 6.9.4 ACQUISITION MENU 47 6.9.5 VIEW MENU 47 6.9.6 WINDOW MENU 48 6.9.7 HELP MENU 48 6.9.8 RIGHT-CLICK MENU 49 6.9.9 ADDITIONAL FEATURES 51 3 APPENDIX 52 A1 TECHNICAL DATA 53 A1.1 SPECIFICATIONS 53 A1.2 REVERSE WITH CAPTION 54 A1.3 PINOUT OF LEMO CONNECTOR 55 A1.4 MECHANICAL DIMENSIONS 56 A2 INTERFACES 57 A2.1 CABLE POSSIBILITIES 57 A2.2 USB 2.0 / 3.0 58 A2.3 GIGABIT ETHERNET 59 A2.3.1 QUICK INSTALLATION GUIDE 59 A2.3.2 GigE NETWORK INTERFACE CARD (NIC) 60 A2.3.3 DRIVER INSTALLATION 63 A2.3.4 ACTIVATING/DEACTIVATING (WIN7/8) 64 A2.3.5 CALIBRATION TOOL 65 A2.3.6 HELP GUIDE 69 A2.3.7 PERFORMANCE 70 A2.4 CAMERA LINK 71 A2.4.1 FRAME GRABBER INSTALLATION 71 A2.4.2 MICRO DIAGNOSTICS TOOL 72 A2.5 HD-SDI 73 A3 BATTERY OPERATION 74 A4 IMAGE FILE FORMATS 76 A5 CUSTOMER SERVICE 78 A5.1 SERVICE 78 A5.2 MAINTENANCE 78 A5.3 RECYCLING 78 A5.4 LOGFILE / SUPPORT FILE 79 A5.5 TROUBLE SHOOTING 80 A6 INDEX 81 ABOUT PCO 82 4 1 INTRODUCTION 1. INTRODUCTION High-speed meets high resolution. This high-speed 12 bit CMOS camera family comprises advanced CMOS and electronics technology. It is perfectly suited for high-speed camera applications such as material testing, off-board crash or impact tests or super slow motion movie clips. The camera systems feature also a variety of trigger options to cover all off-board applications that have been required by the automotive industry. 1.1 MAIN FEATURES Maximum resolution (pixel) pco.dimax S1 / S4 pco.dimax HD / HD+ pco.dimax HS1/2/4 (mono) S1: 1008x1008 HD: 1920x1080 HS1: 1000x1000 HS2: 1400x1050 S4: 2016x2016 Maximum S1: 4467 speed S4: 1279 (mono) @full resolution S4: 1102 (color) (fps) • • • • • • • HD+: 1920x1440 HD: 2128 HD+: 1603 HS4: 2000x2000 HS1: 7039 HS2: 5469 HS4: 2277 12 bit dynamic range Color or monochrome image sensor versions available Correlated Double Imaging for superior image quality Exposure time range 1.5 μs - 40 ms Integrated image memory (RAM up to 36 GB) Double shutter operation (standard for S/HS, optional for HD) GigE and USB 2.0/3.0 or Camera Link data interfaces (HD-SDI optional) • Multiple trigger interface • Smart battery control (optional) for 1h full operation or 6h data backup • IRIG-B (standard for S, HS - optional for HD/HD+) B000 through B007; B120 through B127 5 1.2 INTENDED USE This camera system is designed for use by technicians, engineers and scientists. It is a scientific measuring instrument, which provides images. The camera may only be used according to the instructions of this manual. The disclosures and operating conditions in these operating instructions installation must be respected. Unauthorized modifications and changes of the device are forbidden for safety reasons. Areas of Application • high-speed particle image velocimetry (PIV) • short time physics • spray analysis • hyper velocity impact studies • automobile crash tests • material testing • tensile tests • airbag inflation • fast flow visualization • 3D high-speed photogrammetry 6 • hydrodynamics • fuel injection • sparks in electronical switches • combustions imaging • semiconductor quality control • fast events in nature and industry • super slow motion movie clips • ballistics 2 SAFETY INSTRUCTIONS 2. SAFETY INSTRUCTIONS Please read the safety instructions completely. DANGER DAMAGED POWER CABLE OR POWER PLUG Danger to life due to electrical shock! Each time the camera is used, check the power cable for damage. WARNING ELECTRIC SHOCK WARNING DUE TO VOLTAGE PARTS INSIDE Risk of injury due to electrical shock! Never slide any items through slits or holes into the camera. CAUTION CONDENSATION Risk of injury due to electric shock if condensation enters the camera. To avoid the risk of water condensation, protect the camera against extreme changes of ambient temperature. CAUTION TRIPPING HAZARD Risk of injury from tripping over loose cables. Never position the cable in a way that it could become a tripping hazard. NOTICE HUMID OR DUSTY ENVIRONMENTS Humidity, dust or X-rays could damage the camera. Never operate the camera in humid or dusty environments or in places with high amounts of X-ray radiation. NOTICE JOLT & VIBRATION To prevent damage to the camera, the system must be kept stable and protected against strong jolts or vibrations. Use the mounting threads of the camera to mount the camera stable. NOTICE LENS MOUNTING Do not force the lens onto the camera. To protect the lens connector thread from damage, use minimal force when attaching a lens to the camera. NOTICE LIQUIDS DAMAGE CAMERA If liquids have penetrated the device. Immediately switch off the camera, separate it from power line and contact our customer support. NOTICE DAMAGED CAMERA HOUSING If the camera has been dropped or the casing is damaged. Immediately switch off the camera, separate it from power line and contact our customer support. NOTICE IF CAMERA IS NOT WORKING PROPERLY If, after thoroughly reviewing the instruction manual, the device is still not operating properly. Immediately switch off the camera, separate it from power line and contact our customer support. 7 3. SYSTEM COMPONENTS The camera system includes the following parts. Camera Head F-mount optical connection: The distance between the front edge of the F-mount and the sensor is 46.50 mm. For standard F-mount lenses and adapters. Power Input (12-36 VDC) ON/OFF Switch Dust Filter (exchangeable) Interface (GigE – USB 2.0/3.0 – CameraLink – HD-SDI optional) Lemosa Connectors (Automotive / industrial applications) LED indicates camera status Serial Number Tag Input/Output BNC connectors (Trigger – Acquire – IRIG-B – Status – Sync-in/out) Mounting Thread 3x 3/8''-16 UNC and 4x M8 threads (bottom) and 2x 1/4"- 20 UNC (top) Battery Pack (optional) Lithium Iron Phosphate (LiFePO4) battery Power Supply 24V AC external Power Supply ETF150-24 Power Chord (optional) Standard IEC13 connector Cable Depending on your interface (see A2.1) Digital Camera Tools (USB storage device content) • • • • Camware: software for camera control & image acquisition Manuals Driver & tools Software Development Kit (SDK) & demo programs in C and C++ 8 4 INSTALLATION 4. INSTALLATION You will find all necessary files on the accompanying USB flash drive. You may also download the newest versions of our software, camera driver and third party software drivers from our website. Minimum system requirements: • • • • • Clock speed > 2.4 GHz (Intel Core i7) RAM 4 GB Windows 7 or higher (no server version) HD-resolution display USB 2.0 or GigE (1000Mbps network interface card) NOTE If you are using Camware with more than one interface, connect your cameras only with the same data interface. Only use one single interface: CameraLink or GigE/USB. Priority of USB over GigE when both connections are used at the same time! Commands over GigE will be ignored 4.1 DRIVER Interface: Install the appropriate driver for the interface you want to use. The pco.dimax camera has many different interfaces, please read chapter A2. In this chapter configuration and installation of all different interfaces is described • • • • USB 2.0 / 3.0 GigE Camera Link HD-SDI A2.2 A2.3 A2.4 A2.5 NVIDIA Cuda Driver: 1 2 Please update your NVIDIA driver for Camware 4. In case of an old driver version GPU Processing is not working. Therefore, image processing is slow. Please check if GPU Processing is activated by having a look into the Proc config settings 2 in the Convert Control window 1 (see Convert Control chapter 6.3.7). If GPU Processing is disabled and shown grayed, please update your NVIDIA driver or check the website of the computer manufacturer for graphic card driver updates. Your NVIDIA driver version must be at least 333.11 or higher. 9 4.2 CAMWARE The Camware Windows application software enables you to control every camera parameter or setting. Images can be displayed on a monitor and may be downloaded and stored. The USB storage device contains the installation files for the software for latest Windows operating systems in 32 & 64 bit. After a successful installation, you will find the program file Digital Camera Toolbox in your program directory and a Camware32/64 button on your desktop. Other helpful tools are also installed in the same directory. To uninstall the Camware program, please use the Software feature under Windows’ System Control. Please follow the installation wizard -1 Install Camware as Admin to install to program folder, instead it will be installed only to user folder. -2 Then choose install directory. -3 Choose components: Select additional drivers for Camera Link Interface. -4 After the next two screens installation is complete. 1 2 3 4 10 5 QUICK START 5. QUICK START In order to get familiar with your new camera and software it might be helpful, if you first aim at an object that is easy to focus and that can be seen at standard light conditions. 5.1 PREPARATION • Computer is turned on • Installation is finished (see chapter 4) • An appropriate lens is attached (remove cap) or the camera is attached properly to the microscope, spectrograph or other scientific device • Camera is connected to the computer and switched on • Camera is connected to the power (one Beep: after 40 s camera is booted ) supply and ready 5.2 START Start Camware and the graphical user interface will start up: NOTE Always install latest Camware version to get access to the full functionality of your camera. 11 5.3 YOUR FIRST IMAGE 2 3 Please follow the instructions: 1 • Camware must be started. 1 • A view window 2 is shown automatically, if not open a new one. • Start live preview. 3 • Right-click into the view window and apply Auto Range Peak. 4 • You may adjust exposure time 5 , aperture and focus. 4 • Now you should clearly 6 see the object in the window. 5 6 If you need to change exposure time (e.g. the image is still either too dark or too bright), please go to chapter 6.3.2. If you want to record and save images, please see chapter 6.3.7 and chapter 6.5 for detailed information. NOTE Live preview: Useful for fast and easy camera adjustment and focusing. Does not record or store images. 12 6 CAMWARE 4 SOFTWARE 6. CAMWARE 4 SOFTWARE PCO’s Camware is excellent software for camera control, image acquisition and archiving of images in various file formats. This chapter provides a detailed description of all Camware functions. Camware works with any kind of PCO camera. Please see PCO website for the latest version of this software. 6.1 CHAPTER OVERVIEW Chapter 6.2: lists all cameras connected 6.2 CAMERA OVERVIEW /LIST Preview, connected cameras, recording profiles Chapter 6.3 describes the Camera Properties window. This is the main interface for all camera settings. 6.3.1 TIMING 6.3.2 IMAGE SIZE 6.3.3 SENSOR CONTROL 6.3.4 MEMORY 6.3.5 RECORDING CONTROL 6.3.6 I/O SIGNALS TAB 6.3.7 CONVERT CONTROL Timing /Trigger modes/ synchronization ROI / Sensor format / Binning CDI / Double shutter / Temperature Camera Internal memory (RAM) Recorder Acquire Mode / Timestamp / Sequence trigger Input and Output Possibilities Contrast, Saturation, Gamma… Chapter 6.4/ 6.5 /6.6 describe the recording functions 6.4 IMAGE OVERLAY 6.5 RECORDER TOOLS 6.6 VIEW WINDOW 6.7 RECORDER (IMAGES) 6.8 SETTINGS OVERVIEW Overlay for recorded images Record / Play and Settings View window functions Preview of recorded images Overview of all property settings / Auto Save Chapter 6.9 introduces to further Camware features: 6.9.1 DEMO MODE 6.9.2 FILE MENU 6.9.3 CAMERA MENU 6.9.4 ACQUISITION MENU 6.9.5 VIEW MENU 6.9.6 WINDOW MENU 6.9.7 HELP MENU 6.9.8 RIGHT-CLICK MENU 6.9.9 ADDITIONAL FEATURES 13 If no camera is connected Open, Save and Print files; Direct record to file Camera control: Settings; Rescan… Live preview; Acquire sequence; Rec. memory settings; Recorder settings B/W or Color window; Convert Control Cascade; Tile; Arrange; Close all Support, Log file, About Camware Zoom; Flip; Mirror; Rotate… White Balance, Contrast, ROI by Mouse, Short-cut list 6.2 CAMERA OVERVIEW / LIST If closed, the Camera Overview window can be opened by selecting the View tab and Toolbars and Docking Windows → Camera Overview. 1 1 4 3 2 6 5 The Camera Overview window allows you to manage several connected cameras. It displays a list of all connected PCO cameras. Camware is able to scan 2 for connected cameras or close a connected camera. It is possible to define several different Settings for each camera (max. 30 sets per camera → add new set 3 ). New view windows 44 can be opened and the Live Preview 5 function can be started. When unfolded, the Preview shows a small preview window 66 (always monochrome) integrated in the camera list. Live preview enables the adjustment of aperture and focus and to have a first look at your object. During live preview no images are saved into the computer RAM. During Live preview Trigger and Acquire mode are set to Auto. Camera Setting: All Preferences that have been made in the Camera Properties (see 6.3) are saved to Camera Settings. Define different Settings with different Preferences in Camera Properties for each of your experiments. Settings can be switched easily at any time (not during record) and can be copied to other cameras. Link Preview Set to ‘Preview’ When Link Preview Set to Preview is activated, the Preview set with its parameters will always be active when you start a Live Preview 55 . In case this function is deactivated, the Live Preview will always show live images with the parameters of your active setting. Setting a higher exposure time for Preview set and linking it to the preview function can be a great advantage if preview light conditions are different from those in recording situations. 14 6 CAMWARE 4 SOFTWARE Click and drag camera setting: if you want to copy e.g. Camera Setting 1 to Camera Setting 4, just drag & drop Setting 1 to Setting 4 and Camware will ask if you want to copy the settings. It is possible to copy each setting to every camera. Master Sets This function facilitates the image acqusition with multiple cameras. Define two or more Master Sets to switch during an experiment very easily between different predefined settings for each camera. Each image acquisition or experiment can be recorded with its own Master Set. To display Master Sets, please right-click in the Camera Overview window and select Show Master Sets. 1 3 2 Master Set window Define different Master Sets. Select individual Camera Settings within each Master Set. Functions: Add Master Set 1 or Remove active master 2 . Put it to active status by clicking on one of your sets 3 . 15 6.3 CAMERA PROPERTIES The Camera Properties window in Camware is the main interface for all camera settings. The active set in Camera list can be adjusted here. The former main instance Camera Control (known from Camware 3.x) and the Convert Control (see 6.3.7) can be opened additionally. Three view options with various functions can be selected: Standard, Custom and Expert. 1 3 2 4 Standard mode 11only shows camera name, type, set, serial number and exposure time. Exposure time is the only parameter that can be changed. It is recommended for new Camware users. Custom mode 2 shows several more setting possibilities and functions can be hidden or shown by the Custom Properties Button. 4 Additional to the standard mode many more options are selectable. Expert mode 3 (for advanced users) shows all possible camera property settings. An explanation for every feature is displayed below the properties dialog. 16 6 CAMWARE 4 SOFTWARE 6.3.1 TIMING General Information The most important parameter for a high-speed camera is the frame rate. The upper limit of the frame rate is defined by the exposure time and the readout time. In this context trigger means exposure trigger, i.e. the trigger signal controls the exposure of a single image. Exposure and readout of one image are done simultaneously, i.e. while image n is being read out from the sensor, image n+1 is already integrated within the sensor’s pixel elements. 1 In case of short exposure times, the readout time is the limiting factor, i.e. a new image can only be recorded, if the last image is read out. readout n n exposure n+1 n+1 texp n+2 n+2 treadout For long exposure times, the exposure time is the limiting factor: readout n-1 exposure NOTE As the pco.dimax is a camera, high-speed triggering single images using the Soft Trigger button will result in a significantly degraded image quality (noisy images). n n texp n+1 n+1 tsys Trigger Modes 1 Auto Sequence: The camera will optimize the image recording to achieve the best possible frame rate. In the Auto Sequence Exposure Control mode, the camera determines the fastest possible frame rate depending on the adjusted exposure time and the required readout time. After a start command is given, the sequential recording is started until a stop command is given. Soft Trigger: Single images can be recorded with this Camware command. The single image can be acquired by pressing the Single Trigger button. This button appears after pressing the Start Record button. Other signals cannot influence this operating mode. Ext. Synch. (BNC Exp. Trig.): In addition to the Master-Slave camera synchronization mode (see Camera Synchronization p.19) the pco.dimax also utilizes an external synchronization signal that feeds a phase-locked loop (PLL) in the camera. 17 Advantages of the PLL (Ext synch) solution: • • • • Availability: Only for frequencies of 100 or 1000Hz Reliability: In case of dropouts of the external synchronization signal, the synchronization is kept internally by the PLL signal with only small deviation. Noise immunity: Interference on the signal is automatically detected and discarded. Flexibility: The cameras can even be set to different frame rates, as long as all frame rates are an integer multiple of the synchronization frequency. External Exp. Start The image acquisition is triggered by an external signal. It is also possible to force a software trigger for a test image with the Single Trigger button. In the External Exp. Start exposure control mode, single image recording is started by the falling or rising edge of the voltage signal at the BNC Exp. Trig. input (see Appendix A1.2. The frame rate cannot be set, as the frame rate is defined by the frequency of the external signal. However the exposure time and ROI settings affect the maximum possible frame rate. exp trig (in) exp stat (out) busy stat (out) acc. NOTE If the trigger rate of the external signal is quite near the maximum possible frame rate (difference < 1/1000), then it will be random, whether or not a trigger is accepted! accepted not acc. accepted A new trigger is possible after treadout or (texp + tsys) (whichever is longer) after the preceeding trigger. The Busy Status signal (see chapter 6.3.6) indicates if a new trigger will be accepted. The maximum achievable frame rate in External Trigger mode is negligibly less (about 0.1%) than when operating the camera in Auto Sequence mode. If the trigger rate of the external signal is higher than the maximum possible frame rate, then every second trigger pulse is ignored. Therefore the actual frame rate drops to ½ of the external trigger rate. If the trigger rate is increased further, then only every 3rd, every 4th etc. trigger edge will be accepted. exp trig (in) exp stat (out) busy stat (out) acc. not acc. acc. not acc. acc. not acc. acc. In order to avoid trade-offs at maximum frame rate use either the Busy Status signal (see chapter 6.3.6) or make sure that the external trigger rate follows this condition: Ext. Trigger Rate ≤ fmax / 1.001 18 6 CAMWARE 4 SOFTWARE External Exposure Control (Ext. Exp. Ctrl) An external signal, which is applied to the trigger (BNC exp trig) input, controls the start and the duration of the exposure (see chapter 6.3.6). In trigger mode Ext. Exp. Ctrl a new exposure is started by the falling or rising edge of the voltage signal at the BNC input (see 6.3.6). The exposure is finished when the opposite edge is detected. Thus in this mode, the start as well as the length of the exposure time will be controlled externally. No further settings can be made, as the image timing is completely controlled by the exposure trigger signal yet. There is a maximum exposure time. If the trigger pulse is longer than 20ms, the integration will be stopped at 20ms. A new trigger is possible after treadout or (texp + tsys) (whichever is longer) after the preceding trigger. The Busy Status signal (see chapter 6.3.6) indicates if a new trigger will be accepted. exp trig (in) exp stat (out) busy stat (out) treadout acc. accepted accepted not acc. Detailed Timing for External Exposure Start /Control The detailed timing for external trigger includes system delay times, an adjustable additional delay time and the jitter. NOTE There is no specified timing for the software trigger. The software trigger is not recommended for applications where an exact timing is required! exp trig (in) exposure trsys tdelay tjit tfsys tdelay tjit Parameters for the following tables: • Width of the selected ROI must be a multiple of 24, minimum is 96. • Data is not applicable in trigger mode external exposure start. • Trigger edges occurring within tdelay + 200ns after a previous trigger are ignored. tjit: -0 /+25ns tdelay configurable 0…1ms trsys + tfsys system delay times depending on ROI (see next page) 19 Here we would like to show you a list of examples for different ROIs: pco.dimax S1, S4, HD, HD+ Double Image Mode Model S1 Color S1 BW S4 BW ROI (width in pixel) 2000 (only S4) 1440 (only S4) 960 720 trys (µs) 2.377 2.004 1.684 1.524 tfsys (µs) 2.729 2.356 2.036 1.876 S4 Color HD/HD+ 2000 (only S4) 1920 1440 960 720 2.724 2.663 2.300 1.936 1.755 3.124 3.064 2.700 2.337 2.155 Model S1 Color S1 BW S4 BW ROI (width in pixel) 2000 (only S4) 1440 (only S4) 960 720 trys (µs) 5.183 4.436 3.796 3.476 tfsys (µs) 3.081 2.708 2.388 2.228 S4 Color HD/HD+ 2000 (only S4) 1920 1440 960 720 5.948 5.827 5.100 4.373 4.009 3.524 3.464 3.100 2.736 2.555 ROI 2000 (HS4) 1440 (HS2/HS4) 960 720 trys (µs) 1.716 1.556 1.396 1.300 tfsys (µs) 2.068 1.908 1.748 1.652 ROI 2000 (HS4) 1440 (Hs2/HS4) 960 720 trys (µs) 3.860 3.540 3.220 3.028 tfsys (µs) 2.068 1.908 1.748 1.652 CDI Mode pco.dimax HS1, HS2, HS4 Double Image Mode Model HS1 HS2 HS4 CDI Mode Model HS1 HS2 HS4 Further timing settings for all pco.dimax versions available on demand. 20 6 CAMWARE 4 SOFTWARE 2 Timing 2 The exposure and delay time can be adjusted exactly in steps of 1 µs. The effective stepsize depends on the operation mode. The slider and the up/down control refer to the blue highlighted unit. The resulting frame rate is derived from this setting. Delay time is not recommended for high-speed applications. Easily change time base by clicking on … and the time base change window will open. FPS based: The camera will optimize the image recording to achieve the selected frame rate. The exposure time is limited to 1/fps, lower values can be selected. (Selectable for Auto Sequence trigger mode and preset for External synchronization mode.) First the frame rate is set. If the time required for readout of the image is longer than 1 / frame rate, then the frame rate will be reduced to 1 / treadout. camera type exposure time delay time pco.dimax 1,5 µs … 40 ms 2 µs … 40 ms If FPS based is selected and the selected exposure time requires a lower frame rate, the exposure time will be cut to the maximum possible time at that frame rate. The minimum selectable frame rate is 0.465 Hz, but it only makes sense to use: ≥ 20Hz. FPS Presets If FPS Based is set to on, it is possible to select a predefined combination of frame rate and resolution. These presets may vary and depend on your pco.dimax model. For example pco.dimax HD+: 1000Hz @ 1920x1440 (full resolution. By clicking on … you are able to Set max. exp. Camware will set the maximum possible exposure time according to the selected frame rate. 21 Camera Synchronization (Master / Slave) 3 3 The Camera Synchronization in Camware eliminates the need for an external synchronization source and facilitates easy camera synchronization. Using defined settings for all cameras the master camera takes into account the maximum frequency deviation between the cameras and calculates the maximum frame rate such that it is ensured that no camera drops images. Off: Set this camera as stand-alone, i.e. not participating in the chain. Master: Set this camera as master in a daisy chain. Slave: Set this camera as slave in a daisy chain. Wiring Scheme Master The camera must be wired from the Sync Out to the Sync In of the following camera in the chain. The master camera must be at the beginning of the chain. Cameras which are configured as slave or stand-alone, do electrically repeat the synchronization signal. A master camera ignores the signal at its Sync In port and generates a synchronization signal at the Sync Out port. Thus a master camera interrupts a wired chain. The cameras can also be wired as a ring structure. In this case any one of the cameras can act as a master camera. A camera configured as a stand-alone camera does not participate and can be operated individually, but does not interrupt the chain. All cameras should have the same sensor frequency. If not, please define the camera with the lowest sensor operating frequency as master. Specifications • up to 50 m cable (RG174 or RG58) from camera to camera • up to five cameras • synchronization delay less than 1 µs (five cameras, 100 m cable in total) • synchronization jitter less than 50 ns (for any camera in the chain) • the maximum achievable frame rate in camera sync mode is only about 0,5 % less than when operating the camera individually 22 6 CAMWARE 4 SOFTWARE Camera Setup • Set all cameras to same ROI and same size of the RAM segment. • Define the master and slave cameras. • Exposure/delay time and frame rate can only be set for the master camera. • Start recording function of the master camera. Now all cameras are recording images. The software will start the slave cameras first and the master camera last (vice versa at acquisition stop). • Stop recording of the master camera first (Stop button in Camware). The slave cameras will stop automatically after the master camera is stopped. All cameras have now recorded the same number of images. • Images can now be read from all of the cameras. This is done by using an index, where #1 is the first/earliest image. Images with the same index requested from different cameras are taken at the same time. v The sequence trigger (see p.25) can also be used in camera sync mode. However, only the master camera must be configured for the sequence trigger and trigger delay. The sequence trigger mode setting for all slave cameras must be off! Acquire mode is not possible in camera sync mode. 23 6.3.2 IMAGE SIZE Region of Interest 1 In order to speed up the frame rate and to save storage space the ROI (region of interest) selects only a part of the sensor to be read out. Due to the sensor structure and readout electronics the selectable region is always symmetric to the center. pco.dimax HD/HD+/S1/S4 1 increments horizontal: increments vertical: minimum ROI: 48 pixel steps 4 pixel steps 48 x 8 pixels pco.dimax HS increments horizontal: increments vertical: minimum ROI: 2 pixel steps 2 pixel steps 8 x 8 pixels Basic Setting: 2 Activate Basic Setting by clicking on … to easily set a centered ROI by just keying in the resolution in pixels. 3 2 ROI window Activate ROI window by clicking on … after selecting the ROI (symm. horz./vert.) menu, or use the … right to the X Res / Y Res and click on ROI window. 3 The ROI window will open and it is possible to set a new Region of Interest by dragging a window with the mouse or by keying in the values. NOTE (only HS Version) If you change the ROI, for physical reasons, an increasing frame rate is only possible in specific steps. The frame rate increases more, if you make big changes (in horizontal direction). Changes of only a few pixels only cause little frame rate changes (in vertical direction). Examples of a possible ROI with corresponding storage/recording values (only valid for pco.dimax S4 monochrome – differs for all other models): resolution horizontal (pixel) 2016 1920 1008 720 240 2016 resolution vertical (pixe)] 2016 1080 1000 480 32 16 24 max frame rate (fps) 1 279 2 470 4 502 11 576 126 263 73 443 # of images in RAM (36 GB) 6 324 12 395 25 499 74 374 3 346 862 796 872 recording time (s) 4.9 5.0 5.7 6.4 26.5 10.9 6 CAMWARE 4 SOFTWARE 6.3.3 SENSOR CONTROL Double Image / Doubleshutter 1 1 3 2 (Standard for HS/S, optional for HD/HD+) This feature is widely used for particle image velocimetry (PIV) measurements and is a(n) (optional) feature of the pco.dimax. The first exposure time te1 can be any exposure time of the available range of the pco.dimax camera. The second exposure time te2 cannot be directly adjusted. The length of the second exposure is determined by the readout time of the first image. The interframing time titf denotes the transition time between end of exposure #1 and start of exposure #2. As can be seen the maximum frame rate of the double image mode (where frame rate is defined as the frequency of the double images) will drop to just half the value compared to the standard mode. The double image mode will operate only in the trigger modes Auto Sequence and External Exposure Start. See 6.3.1. readout image n, 1st exp. image n, 2nd exp. te2 treadout wait image n+1, 1st exp. status expos exp trig ttd te1 tif General timing for the double image mode te1: exposure 1 ttd: trigger delay time tif: interframing time te2: exposure 2 tid: intrinsic delay treadout: readout time CDI mode 2 The correlated double image (CDI) mode offers to record images with increased dynamic range and a 30% better performance on the weak signal side of the images (at the expense of half of the usual frame rate). B/W Noise Filter (only available for pco.dimax b/w) 3 An optimized hot pixel correction is already integrated. 25 6.3.4 MEMORY The Memory area controls the built-in memory of your pco.dimax. The RAM has four segments, but while using Camware only three are usable, because the fourth is used by Camware itself. You have the possibility to record into three different segments and to set the exact number of images in each segment. Camware always shows the maximum number of images (depending on RAM size and chosen ROI). Active Ram Segment: choose the active segment: 1, 2 or 3. (Quantities shown on screen are just examples: e.g. pco.dimax S4 36GB Ram) 6.3.5 RECORDING CONTROL Recorder Mode 1 In Sequence mode the camera will stop after the memory (i.e. the active RAM segment) is completely filled. In Ring Buffer mode the camera will record until it is stopped – overwriting the previous images continuously. Acquire Mode 2 The Acquire Mode gives you the ability to enable or disable the recording by an external signal. 2 3 NOTE Acquire mode still requires initial camera recording activation by software (press record button)! 1 4 If set to Auto all images are accepted and all images taken are saved. A signal at the BNC acq enbl input (see 6.3.6) is ignored when set to Auto. If set to External, the camera will only record images, when the external signal (voltage) applies. While the sensor timing scheme is not affected by the signal at the acq enbl input, the acq enbl input is sampled at the beginning of the exposure time, which can be seen at the rising edge of the exp stat BNC output. If the acq enbl input is high (low, when inverted) at that time, the image is saved to memory. If the acq enbl input is low (high, when inverted), the image is not saved to memory (image is lost). 26 6 CAMWARE 4 SOFTWARE exp stat (out) acq enbl (in) saved not saved not saved saved In trigger mode External Exp. Start, the acq enbl input works like a gate for the trigger signal. A trigger edge (rising, falling when exp trig is inverted) is accepted only when the acq enbl signal is high (low, when inverted). acq enbl (in) exp trig (in) exp Stat (out) accepted not acc. not acc. accepted In trigger mode External Exp. Ctrl, the acq enbl input works very similar to the mode External Exp. Start. However, the acq enbl input is ignored for the edge which is closing the exposure time (started exposure will be finished accordingly). When using acq enbl in external trigger modes, the following timing specification should be met: exp trig (in) acq enbl (in) pco.dimax model tsu th S1/S4 50 ns 50 ns tsu th HD/HD+ 60 ns 60 ns HS1/HS2/HS4 50 ns 50 ns If the acq enbl signal changes within the window of tsu (set up) to th (hold), the behavior is random. The trigger may be accepted or ignored. 27 Timestamp 3 A time stamp can be placed into the upper left corner of the image. It can be either put off, binary or binary with text. The time resolution is 1 μs. 3 In binary mode the first 16 pixels will be filled with the time stamp information (binary code). The numbers are coded in binary coded decimal (BCD) with one byte per pixel, which means that every pixel can hold two digits. If the pixels have more resolution than 8 bits, then the BCD digits are right bound adjusted and the upper bits are zero. For further information please refer to the SDK. In binary and ASCII mode text will be placed into the image replacing the content of the image (271x 8 pixels). The timestamp indicates the end of the exposure time. Three different information is stamped onto the image: number of the image 1 , date 2 and time 3 . 1 2 3 Additionally to Timestamp the Image overlay function is available, see chapter 6.4. Sequence Trigger Mode 4 4 The Sequence Trigger Mode enables the user to stop capturing a sequence of images via an external signal, before the number of images to be stored after this event must be defined. The Sequence Trigger function utilizes the acq enbl input port (see chapter 6.3.6), therefore the acquire function cannot be used and the acquire mode has to be set to Auto. The recorder mode should be set to Ring Buffer; otherwise the recording may stop, when the selected RAM segment is full. For most cases, this is long before the sequence trigger occurs. Off Function is not available; signal at acq enbl does not stop the record. Software Event Only a software command can stop the sequence. 28 6 CAMWARE 4 SOFTWARE Ext. or Soft. Event Both, an edge at acq enbl or a software command can stop the sequence. acq enbl (in) exposure 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 record state Stop Event Delay Images = 10 The relative position of the trigger within the recorded time window depends on the size of the RAM segment and the delay images parameter. The following figure shows one example, where the buffer size is 1000 images: The position of the trigger is always calculated backwards from the end of the buffer. The relation is always in terms of images. In this context T0 is the point at which the sequence trigger is set (at the acq. enbl. input). RAM 1000 images #1000 #1 800 images stop event Delay Images = 800 (80%) After recording is finished Recorder Images (see chapter 6.6) shows the thumbnail images of the last recording: Image T0 is framed in green, the currently selected image in orange. All images before and after T0 are specifically marked, e.g. with 202 (T0 + 00:00:007). 202, in this case, corresponds to the image number and its recording point in time after T0. The time stamp is divided into min : s : ms. Additional possibility to define T0: Right-click into the thumbnails and Set Current Image as T0. Reset T0 erases this manually set T0. For Recorder Images features see 6.7. 29 6.3.6 I/O SIGNALS TAB Start Camera Control (see 6.3) and select the I/O Signals Tab. 1 2 3 4 NOTE (TYPE): CONTACT high: if contact is open, camera will capture images; CONTACT low: if contact is closed, camera will capture images. Acquire enable 1 Exposure Trigger 2 Type TTL High Level Contact TTL Open/Close (High/Low) High/low Rising / Falling edge Rising / Falling edge Rising / Falling edge Rising / Falling edge High/low TTL High/low RS 485 TTL High Level Contact RS 485 Status Exposure Polarity High/low High/low 3 Ready Status 30 If checked, a signal for Acquire mode or Sequence Trigger mode (see chapter 6.3.5) is accepted at the acq enbl BNC input If checked, a signal for External Exp. Start or External Exp. Ctrl trigger mode (see chapter 6.3.1) is accepted at the exp trig BNC input If checked, a signal indicating exposure status or busy status is given at the status BNC output. Once an acceptable trigger edge is received, busy will be high. As soon as busy is low again, a new trigger edge is accepted Automotive Feature (signal on Lemosa connector). 6 CAMWARE 4 SOFTWARE Type TTL Explanation High Level Contact RS485 Maximum low level: 0.8V Minimum high level: 2V Maximum low level: 5V Minimum high level: 10V Maximum switch on resistance: 100Ohms Minimum switch off resistance: 40kOhms Minimum switch voltage rating: 5VDC Minimum switch current rating: 1mA Receiver sensitivity: +-200mV Note: termination of 120Ohms outside camera required Explanations: Exp trig (in) Exp Stat (out) Busy Stat (out) treadout BNC connectors see chapter A1.2 Filter: electrical interference filters (off, medium, high). An active filter causes an internal signal delay. Polarity: active for high/low signal or rising/falling edge 31 6.3.7 CONVERT CONTROL Start the Convert Control Dialog with the Black/White Button in Camera Properties. Convert Control BW The user can influence how the 12 bit intensity values of the original image are displayed in 8 bit values in different ways. BW Settings (includes histogram of original data) It is possible to hide the histogram of original data 1 and to switch tab/histogram 2 . 4 1 Green sliders in histogram 3 left slider = Min controller (corresponds to value 0 of the 8 bit display). Values below that mark are set to 0, i.e. displayed as black. right slider = Max controller (corresponds to value 255). Values above that mark are set to 255, i.e. displayed as white. 2 3 The values in-between are converted into a value between 0 and 255 according to Contrast and Gamma settings. See the small graph 4 , which reflects the calculation. Proc config tab: please see under Convert Control Color Converted Hist This tab shows converted data. 32 you the histogram of 6 CAMWARE 4 SOFTWARE Convert Control Color (only pco.dimax color) Color Balance (Histogram of original data) Intensity of single color can be controlled by Saturation and Vibrance 1 . 1 2 3 7 4 Press the Auto button to set the white balance 2 . 5 The balancing of RGB can be controlled by Col.Temp and Tint 3 . 6 It is possible to hide the histogram of original data 4 and to switch tab/histogram 5 . The user can influence how the 12 bit intensity values of the original image are displayed in 8 bit values in different ways. White sliders in histogram 6 left slider = Min controller (corresponds to value 0 of the 8 bit display). Values below that mark are set to 0, i.e. displayed as no color. right slider = Max controller (corresponds to value 255). Values above that mark are set to 255, i.e. displayed as full color. The values in-between are converted into a value between 0 and 255 according to Contrast and Gamma settings. See the small graph 7 , which reflects the calculation. 1 3 2 4 Proc. Config (Process configuration) Due to proprietary high-end algorithms used for these image processing features, no detailed description is given here. 1 2 3 4 GPU Processing On: Switch on in order to significantly reduce processing time (increases refresh rate of the live image. Fast pco debayering: only color cameras Color Refine Filter only color cameras Noise Reduction NLM: Non local means algorithm Denoise Adaptive: only color cameras Sharpen: On: only color cameras (first activate Fast pco debayering Converted Hist This tab shows you the histogram of converted data. 33 6.4 IMAGE OVERLAY 1 Open Image Overlay: you can easily switch between Camera Properties and Image Overlay with these two buttons. 1 If not available, please see 6.9.5 View Menu to activate this menu. This function enables an individually configurable image overlay allowing to display information within the images. Many different options are available by clicking Add item to… 2 2 Also the Appearance is configurable: Font, Text color, Text opacity, Background color, Background opacity and horizontal or vertical orientation. 3 A preview of the image overlay is shown. 3 4 Each item can be moved upwards, downwards or deleted by clicking on … 4 By drag & drop the Image Overlay can be moved easily to your favorite position within an image. To activate image overlay right-click in the image window and activate Show Image Overlay. 5 5 NOTE This function does not overwrite image data. 34 6 CAMWARE 4 SOFTWARE 6.5 RECORDER TOOLS Recorder Tools provides Record and Play function, Play Settings and Record Settings. It can be found on the right lower side of Camware or, if closed, activated by View Menu (see chapter 6.9.5) Record Start/Stop record with Record Button. Record: in record state Camware software is highlighted in red. It is possible to change the exposure time during record. See 6.3 Camera Properties. Software Trigger Mode: after record is started an arrow pointing downwards applies a single trigger (see 6.3.1). Play Settings 1 1 Play Speed: selectable play speed from x1 to x256 or from 1fps to 16fps. E.g. in mode x1 a recording with 1000 fps is played with 25fps. 1 fps means that only one frame per second is played. Play Mode: selectable play mode of the recorder (continuous or single time (re)play). 2 Play Direction: selectable direction of record play (forward or backward) Record Settings 2 Averaging: if in the dropdown list a value not equal to x1 is selected, the corresponding number of images is averaged in the buffer, reducing the statistically independent noise. IIR Lowpass: another option to reduce the noise is the activation of the Infinite impulse response IIR lowpass filter. This filter takes 90% of the previous image and 10% of the new image to create images with clearly reduced noise. Image (actual) = Image (act - 1) * 0.9 + Image (new) * 0.1 35 Reminder dialog If you have already made a recording but did not save it, Camware will ask you to save the record before starting a new one. Extended Recorder can be activated (see 6.9.5) Recording with multiple cameras If all cameras are activated, the recording is started simultanously for all cameras. Recorder will use Recorder mode settings (Sequence or Ring Buffer) of the seleted camera for all cameras (see 6.3.7) For single camera recording, deactivate cameras by removing the check mark from the box. 1 1 36 6 CAMWARE 4 SOFTWARE 6.6 VIEW WINDOW More View Windows It is possible to open more view windows of one camera: just click on open view window 1 and Camware will create a new one 2 . Even when multiple view windows (or from multiple cameras) are open, the same image number is always shown in all of the view windows. 2 1 A dropdown menu 3 helps to select a view window. If you have more view windows than can be displayed on the desktop, you will be able to select each view window. Split View Window The view window can be split. Choose Window → Split 44 and a split cross will be shown. You can easily adjust the size of the splitted window elements by grabbing and dragging the dividing lines 55 . The main function is that you are able to view four regions of your image in one view. Choose the Zoom± function to zoom in the image (first turn off Stretched View) (See 6.7.8) If you want to undo the split, you have to double click on the 6 deviding line (after symbol 6 is visible. 4 5 Two Tabs side by side or on top of each other If you want to view two tabs side by side or arranged one above the other just drag a tab and then Camware will ask you if you want to create a new horizontal or vertical tab group. Undo this very easily by draging the tab back to its former position. This also applies for view windows of several cameras. 37 6.7 RECORDER (IMAGES) When recording is done, small preview images (thumbnails) are built and displayed automatically. This will take some time depending on the performance of your computer system and of the interface used. 1 If you click (left mouse button) within the upper scale bar 11 , you can adjust the number of images which are shown by moving the mouse left or right. Minimum is 20 and maximum is half of the recorded images in this scale) Quick scrolling: you can quickly scroll through the thumbnails by dragging the orange bar with the mouse. While quick scrolling, the Preview window will display the active image sequence. This allows you to quickly scroll through the image sequence displaying the live images in the Preview window forwards or backwards. The View window will not actively show live images during quick scrolling (only in normal scrolling speed by mousewheel). If you click on a thumbnail image it will be shown on the view window. You can scroll via mouse wheel through the thumbnails. The upper blue bar correlates to the number of displayed thumbnails. The lower blue bar shows the range of the upper scale in relation to the whole record. 2 The second scale shows the total number of recorded images. It allows to scroll fast through the images 2 . Right-click menu (click on thumbnails) Allows you to rebuild all thumbnails and to search for events. Furthermore, the Set In / Out gives you the possibility to set values for a sequence, which can be played via play button. Reset In / Out discards these settings. Set In / Out is active: if you save/export your images, only the selected images are saved/exported (see 6.9.2). 38 6 CAMWARE 4 SOFTWARE 3 The light gray area 3 in the upper scale shows an In-Out example area. It is very easy to define a new area: just right-click on the start and end frame in one of the scales. The In image must be left to the red bar, the Out image to the right of the red bar. Search Events in Thumbnails: detected events are displayed as green bars. Too dark or bright thumbnails If thumbnails are too dark or too bright, right-click in view window (see 6.9.8) and select Auto Range Peak or Auto Range Crop. Then right-click on a thumbnail image and select Rebuild Thumbnails. Now the thumbnail images should comply with the view window. Set current Image as T0 It is possible to set a T0 Image manually. For information about T0, see Sequence Trigger Mode in chapter 6.3.5. This T0 Image can be resetted. Use your keyboard to scroll through the Images Page up / down keys: 10 Images up or down Arrow keys: quick scrolling through the images. Advantage: fluent video playback in the View window (forwards or backwards). Home/Pos1 key: first image. End key: last image. 39 6.8 SETTINGS OVERVIEW 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 Settings overview shows the most important parameters of your camera(s) at a glance. If you have more than one camera connected, each camera and its parameters are listed. The parameters can only be changed under 6.3 Camera Properties. It is possible to easily switch between the Recorder (Images) section and the Settings Overview. 11 No. Function Camera name Auto Save Type Status 5 6 7 8 9 10 Frame Rate Resolution Exposure Time Number of Images T0 Position Synchronization Status 1 2 3 4 40 Description Name Off , Unconfigured (red), OK (green) Camera type and serial number Ready or Recording Green background: Images are in memory Currently selected frame rate Resolution in pixels Selected exposure time Number of images to be recorded See T0 chapter 6.3.5 Status: locked or - 6 CAMWARE 4 SOFTWARE 6.8.1 AUTO SAVE Auto Save helps to save your recorded images or sequences in an easy way. There is no need to save each image/sequence separately from each connected camera. Therefore this function is very useful if you use more than one camera. Once configured Auto Save allows acquiring and saving as many images/sequences as you will need during your experiment. This function can store RAW (e.g. TIFF) and Export (e.g. AVI, JPG) files. Standard file save see File Menu 6.9.2. Explanations will be displayed in the Info Text window at the bottom of the menu. Enable Auto Save by clicking on the check box. The text will change to Unconfigured! (red background). Right-click on the Unconfigured! field and click on Configure ‘Auto Save’.The Auto Save Options dialog will be displayed. First, configure the General Auto Save Settings - Global Auto Save Mode: two different modes are available, Save manually and Save unattendedly. The Save manually mode allows to store RAW images and export images after a recording session, when you hit the SHIFT and A keys. This gives you the possibility to cut the image sequence in the Recorder Toolbar before saving. The Save unattendedly mode enables to download all RAW images and to export the complete image sequences of all cameras immediately after an active recording is stopped. Select Output Off – Auto Save is deactivated Save RAW – Only 16 bit RAW files are stored (b16, pcoraw, MultiTif-File, Tiff Export – only compressed files are stored (BMP, JPG, Tiff, AVI, MPEG, WMV) Save RAW and Export – RAW and compressed files are stored simultaneously Common Folder: main folder for your stored files RAW and Export file Type: select the type of RAW and Export file Export Color Image: select if you want to export color images (only for color cameras) Apply Automatic File Naming: if set to yes, your stored files are automatically named by Camware according to your automatic file name settings. 41 General Auto Save Settings – File name Set your file name individually by adding or deleting items. Position these elements as needed. Camera Specific Auto Save Settings Configure camera connected camera. specific settings for each Save RAW File Settings: set RAW File Folder and RAW File Name (if not set to automatic file naming). Export File Settings: set Export File Folder and Export File Name (if not set to automatic file naming). Multimedia File Resolution: set predefined video export resolution or enter a Custom x- and y-resolution. Most likely you should set the applied resolution of your camera here. Finish the configuration by clicking OK. After configuration is finished, Auto Save status will be set to OK (green background). 42 6 CAMWARE 4 SOFTWARE 6.9 CAMWARE MENU TABS & FEATURES This chapter describes in detail the Camware Demo Mode and the File, Camera, Acquisition, View and Window menus. 6.9.1 DEMO MODE When Camware is started, it automatically recognizes the camera type of the connected and running cameras. Camware will start in Demo Mode, if your camera is switched off or no camera is connected In this mode all image processing features are available, but all camera settings are deactivated. The user only has to tell Camware what type of image he wants to open. For that purpose, the Demo Mode Setup window opens and asks for the corresponding input. Need Help? If this window pops up because you have trouble running the camera, please see instructions in appendix A5. Resolution The drop down list displays the existing image sensor spatial resolutions of all PCO camera systems. Please select the specific resolution and bit depth of the images to be opened! If double shutter images have been recorded and should be opened, Double Shutter Mode should be checked. Color With the radio buttons, the user can specify whether the image type is monochrome (b/w) or color. Alignment These two radio buttons adjust whether MSB (most significant bit) aligned (upper) or LSB (least significant bit) aligned (lower) images have been stored. Infotext The Infotext is automatically shown in Camware if you open a stored image sequence. The Camera Properties settings, storing location and Record date are listed in this file. Infotext can be activated in the View Menu 6.9.5 at any time. 43 6.9.2 FILE MENU Open RAW File (single image only) This command should be used to import a single image into the currently active image window. Only files with the extension and format of *.b16 (=PCO proprietary binary image format) and *.tif (16 bit TIFF image format) can be imported. If the recorder is enabled, each imported image will be transferred to the buffer shown in the picture number. The image itself will be fitted to the current image size. If the recorder is disabled, the current image sizes will be set to the parameters of the imported image. NOTE Be aware of the different storage abilities of the formats, for example *.bmp - the bitmap format only allows for 8bit values to be stored and therefore the image content of a 16 bit image is reduced, if stored as bitmap. Open RAW Recorder Sequence (image sequence from one camera) This command is used to import a sequence of images. If more than one camera is connected and an image window is currently open, the sequence will be loaded to the active window. If no image window is open, the images will be loaded to camera #1. This command opens the Open file dialog box. Only files with the extension and the format of *.b16, *.pcoraw, *.tif and multi tif can be imported. Save RAW File (single image only) This command should be used to save the image, which is displayed in the active window. The command opens the Save file dialog box. The image file can be saved in 16bit *.b16 and *.tif format. If more than one camera is connected, it is possible to save all current images by selecting Export all images in the Save file dialog box. With this feature it is possible to save one image of each active camera within one process step (it is not necessary to repeat the save process for each camera). The Save command will not be available if no image window is open. For Auto File Save see 6.8.1 Save RAW Recorder Sequence (image sequence from one camera) This command should be used to save or export image sequences. If more than one camera is connected and an image window is currently open, the record of the active window will be saved. The command opens the Save recorder file dialog box. It is possible to select the number of saved images, to step images and to choose the first image number. For Auto File Save see 6.8.1 Export File (not reloadable!) Use this command to export the image of the active image window. This command will open the Export Image dialog box. Files with the extensions fts, tif, bmp, asc, jpg, and jp2 can be exported. This item will not be visible, if no image window is open. For Auto File Save see 6.8.1 44 6 CAMWARE 4 SOFTWARE Export Recorder Sequence (not reloadable!) Use this command to export a sequence of images. If more than one camera is connected and an image window is currently open, the record of the window which has got the input focus will be saved. If no image window is open the Export Recorder Sequence menu does not appear. This command will open the Export recorder box. Files with the extensions fts, tif, bmp, asc, avi, mpg, jpg, jp2 and wmv can be exported (see Appendix A4). Auto File Save see 6.8.1 Options Single File Properties Single tif file 16 bit alignment: upper / lower ASCII File Separator: select a separator for the values in the ASCII file. Select: Tab, space, semicolon, colon, comma, hyphen, slash or backslash. Binary pgm file: set the format of the pgm (portable gray map) file. Select: yes, no. Jpeg2000 image quality: set compression from 20 to 100%. Jpeg image quality: set compression from 20 to 100%. Binary ppm file: set format of the ppm (portable pixmap) file. Select: yes, no RAW 16bit RGB tif file: save raw tif without color balance. Select: yes, no. Use cache file caches image data on disc for a camera with camera internal memory. Select: yes, no General File Properties FIFO buffer size: set the FIFO buffer size in number of images. This helps to avoid gaps during file write delays. Usually this is set to 150. Preserve last record: preserve current recorded images. When set, the user will be asked whether to really start a new record or to close. View Properties: Crosshair color: set the color for crosshair, save ROI and line tool. Crosshair length: set the crosshair length in pixel. Activate crosshair: see chapter 6.9.8 45 Open AVI Codec Dialog If you use Auto File Save, this setting takes an effect on your stored video sequences. You only need to set this option if you use Auto File Save see 6.8.1 Please select the (compression) codec that you want to use for your stored sequences. All installed codecs are listed here. Load lookup Table (for monochrome cameras) With the Pseudo LUT (Lookup-Table) feature you can load any LUT with one of four different formats and you can view the result in the color view window. Use one of the attached predefined LUTs or define your own. Direct Record to File With this command you can preset a certain number of images to be stored. If the camera captures images faster than the computer can save to disk, then you will lose images. The displaying of the images doesn't interfere with the record process. Start Auto Save Only available if Auto Save is activated (see 6.8.1) Exit This command exits the program and closes all channel dialog windows. Window positions, settings and sizes are stored in the windows registry and will be loaded again at next start-up. 6.9.3 CAMERA MENU Camera Control Use this command to open the camera control window (see 6.3). Close Disconnects camera and switches Camware to Demo Mode. In case of multiple cameras, all cameras must be closed in order for Camware to switch to Demo Mode. Rescan Disconnects and reconnects all cameras. Setup (not available for pco.pixelfly usb) 46 6 CAMWARE 4 SOFTWARE 6.9.4 ACQUISITION MENU Live Preview The Live Preview is useful for fast and easy adjusting and focusing of the camera. The active window will be updated. To see another window, simply click on the window. This option is not available in double shutter mode. Acquire Picture (not available) Acquire Sequence Starts recording images into the system memory according to Trigger Mode selection (see 6.3.1). During recording, all camera controls are locked. Rec. Memory Settings (not available) Recorder Settings (not available) 6.9.5 VIEW MENU B/W or Color Window Use this command to open a new display window. Convert Control See chapter 6.3.7. Toolbars and Docking Windows Standard toolbars of Camware 4 are Recorder/ Recorder Tools / Camera Overview / Camera Properties and Image Overlay. Additional Toolbars known from Camware 3.x are displayable, but not essentially needed: Main Toolbar / Extended Recorder / Cursor. For function Infotext see 6.9.1 Application Look The Style and Look of Camware can be customized; many different style sheets are selectable. The Tabbed MDI function (un)docks the view windows. Reset layout to default This resets all your customized changes and restores the default layout. 47 6.9.6 WINDOW MENU New Window A new view window will be opened. Close Window Active window will be closed. Split The view window will be split in four quarters. Camera overview Shows all connected cameras, e.g. 1 Camera 1 (pco.dimax S4) . 6.9.7 HELP MENU Contents Opens the main page of the program help. Search for Help on Opens an index list for help. Create Support File This will activate the Camware log files. Press YES to activate log files and reboot Camware and your pco.dimax. After log files are activated it is possible to create a support file. Please send this file to the PCO support (see A5.2). Logging Enable Logging: Activates Camware log files (this cuts down performance) Clear Logfiles (only visible if logging is enabled): This command erases all actual log files Explore Logfiles: opens windows explorer Disable Logging (only visible if logging is enabled): disables logging Support Mail This command opens your email-program and an already created support file will be added automatically as file attachment. About Camware This window shows program information. 48 6 CAMWARE 4 SOFTWARE 6.9.8 RIGHT-CLICK MENU NOTE Right-click in the View window to open this menu. View Color: color window View Window B: if Double Shutter mode is activated, this will switch to window B (second image) Stretched View: image will be fitted into the display window Stretched View Ratio: aspect ratio are maintained Zoom +/-: image zoom (only available if Stretched View is deactivated) Zoom set the factor of the Zoom (from 0.0625 to 32) Scroll Synchronous if more than one image window is opened, it is possible to scroll synchronously through the images (only available if Stretched View is deactivated) Show Image Overlay: activates the overlay see 6.4 Open LUT: opens look-up table file for false-color illustration Auto Range Peak searches for the minimum and maximum 14 bit intensity values of the image. Given these numbers the converter scales the 8 bit display (256) within these two values. Auto Range Crop sets the converter to ignore the extreme intensity values of the image and scales the display in a smaller range. Thus dark or bright light spots, reflections, etc. are cut off. Continuous Auto Range (Crop): This option enables the automatic min/max function during record and replay. Flip/Mirror: image will be flipped or mirrored Set ‘File Save ROI’: if you want to save just a part of the recorded image (region of interest), it is possible to draw a rectangle with the mouse. This rectangle is valid for all recorded images and can be dragged at its edges. 49 Line Tool: select Line Tool to show a graph, which shows the intensity of the pixels under the red line shown in the image window. The selection of this menu item determines the location of the first point. After this you can move the mouse to the second point, which can be selected by a left click. Now a Line Diagram opens and the length of the line (unit: pixel) is displayed in the window. Copy to Clipboard: will copy the actual image to clipboard Crosshair: activates a centered crosshair. Size and color are selectable see chapter 6.9.2 → Options. Crosshair is movable, just drag it by mouse. Reset it to center position by double-click into center of the crosshair. 50 6 CAMWARE 4 SOFTWARE 6.9.9 ADDITIONAL FEATURES White Balance by Mouse It is possible to change white balance easily by mouse: You only have to press the CTRL (Strg) and the shift button at the same time and select a white or gray area within the image. The pixel values within the coordinates of the selection rectangle are used for calculating a new white balance. For best results we recommend to use the white balance button in the Convert Control Color (see 6.3.7). 1 Fold Up Window The Convert Control windows can be minimized / folded up 1 . Just move the pointer over the bar and the window will unfold again 2 . 2 Setting Contrast Area by Mouse You can control the minimum and maximum values used for the conversion from 16 bit to 8 bit with the mouse. Move the mouse cursor into a region which should be shown with maximum contrast. Press the shift and the left mouse button. Hold down the mouse button while increasing the size of the selection rectangle with mouse moves. After releasing the mouse button the coordinates of selection rectangle act as a border for calculating the minimum and maximum values. Setting a new ROI by Mouse It is possible to change Region of Interest easily by mouse (see ROI 6.3.2.) for the camera. You only have to press the CTRL (Strg) button and drag an area with the left mouse button. The coordinates of the selection rectangle are used for calculating a new region of interest, which will be adapted to the camera capabilities automatically. You can reset the ROI to maximum by pressing the CTRL (Strg) button and the right mouse button. Short Cut List • Acquire Picture: SPACE • Acquire Sequence: STRG + A • Auto Save: SHIFT + A • Export File (Image): STRG + T • Export Recorder Sequence (Video) STRG + O • Open Raw Image File: STRG + I • Open Raw Recorder (Video) Sequence: STRG + R • Save Raw Image File STRG + E • Save Raw Recorder Sequence (Video) STRG + S 51 APPENDIX A1 TECHNICAL DATA 53 A1.1 SPECIFICATIONS 53 A1.4 REVERSE WITH CAPTION 54 A1.5 PINOUT OF LEMO CONNECTOR 55 A1.6 MECHANICAL DIMENSIONS 56 A2 INTERFACES 57 A2.1 CABLE POSSIBILITIES 57 A2.2 USB 2.0 / 3.0 58 A2.3 GIGABIT ETHERNET 59 A2.3.1 QUICK INSTALLATION GUIDE 59 A2.3.2 GigE NETWORK INTERFACE CARD (NIC) 60 A18.104.22.168 ONE CAMERA A22.214.171.124 SEVERAL CAMERAS A126.96.36.199 NETWORK ENVIRON. / PATCH CABLE A2.3.3 DRIVER INSTALLATION 61 61 62 63 A2.3.4 ACTIVATING/DEACTIVATING (WIN7/8) 64 A2.3.5 CALIBRATION TOOL 65 A188.8.131.52 FIRMWARE WARNING A184.108.40.206 NETWORK AND PACKET DELAY A220.127.116.11 JUMBO PACKETS / BUFFER SETTINGS A18.104.22.168 SET CAM. IP ADRESS & SUBNET MASK A22.214.171.124 IMAGE TRANSFER DATA RATE A126.96.36.199 CAMERA TEST A188.8.131.52 TOOL TIPS A2.3.6 HELP GUIDE 65 66 66 67 68 68 69 69 A2.3.7 PERFORMANCE 70 A2.4 CAMERA LINK 71 A2.4.1 FRAME GRABBER INSTALLATION 71 A2.4.2 MICRO DIAGNOSTICS TOOL 72 A2.5 HD-SDI 73 A3 BATTERY OPERATION 74 A4 IMAGE FILE FORMATS 76 A5 CUSTOMER SERVICE 78 A5.1 SERVICE 78 A5.2 MAINTENANCE 78 A5.3 RECYCLING 78 A5.4 LOGFILE / SUPPORT FILE 79 A5.5 TROUBLE SHOOTING 80 A6 INDEX 81 ABOUT PCO 82 52 A1 TECHNICAL DATA A1 TECHNICAL DATA A1.1 SPECIFICATIONS image sensor type of sensor image sensor pixel size (h x v) sensor format / diagonal shutter mode MTF fullwell capacity readout noise quantum efficiency spectral range dark current DSNU PRNU camera exposure / shutter time dynamic range A/D A/D conversion factor region of interest non linearity internal camera memory trigger input signals trigger output signals data interface time stamp time code input operational shock operational vibration interframing time general power supply power consumption weight operating temperature operating humidity range storing temperature range optical interface CE / FCC certified CMOS proprietary 11.1 µm x 11.1 µm 11.1 x 11.1 mm2 / 15.7 mm (S1) 22.18 x 22.18 mm2 / 31.36mm (S4) 21.1 x 11.9 mm2 / 24.2 mm (HD) 21.1 x 15.8 mm2 / 26.4 mm (HD+) 11.0 x 11.0 mm2 / 15.6 mm (HS1) 15.4 x 11.6 mm2 / 19.3 mm (HS2) 22.0 x 22.0 mm2 / 31.1 mm (HS4) global (snapshot) 45.5 lp/mm (theoretical) 36000 e23 e- rms @ 62.5 MHz (typ) 18 e- rms @ 62.5 MHz (CDI, typ) 50% @ peak 290 nm .. 1100 nm 530 e-/pixel/s @20°C < 0.6 counts rms @ 90 % center zone < 1% @ 80 % signal 1.5 µs .. 40 ms 12 bit 8.8 e- / count 48 x 4 pixel (centered) < 0.5 % (diff.) / <0.2 (integr.) 9 / 18 / 36 GB frame / sequence / stop trigger exposure / busy status USB 3.0; GigE / USB 2.0; HD-SDI, Camera Link in image (1 µs resolution) IRIG-B 30 G @ 11ms half sine wace (all axes) 25 G @ 1-150 Hz (all axes) 3.15 µs (S4 mono; S1 mono/color; HS1/HS2/HS4) 3.58 µs (S4 color; HD/HD+) 90 .. 260 VAC (12 VDC optional) 80 W (120 W with battery) 7.9 kg +5°C .. +40°C 10% .. 90% (non-condensing) -20°C .. +70°C F-mount (C-mount optional) yes Subject to change, please refer to current data sheet available on PCO website. 53 A1.2 REVERSE WITH CAPTION LED Colors 1 Error: red; status: green; record: blue and green BNC Connectors 2 (see also chapter 6.3.6) 1 3 2 4 8 5 7 6 BNC acq. enbl trigger(aquire enable) Function: sequence start/stop trigger Type: Input; Feature: galvanic isolated Int1: Pin 2 (signal), Pin3 (GND) Selectable: TTL; High Level TTL; CONTACT mode; RS485 differential (+ time constant input per software) BNC exposure trigger (sync.) Function: single image start trigger, external sync. Type: Input; Feature: galvanic isolated, impedance: 1kOhm (should be externally terminated with 50 Ohms); Int1: Pin 4 (signal), Pin 5 (GND) Selectable: TTL; High Level TTL; CONTACT mode; RS485 differential (+ time constant input per software) BNC status Function: exposure time out, busy signal Type: output; Feature: galvanic isolated Int2: Pin 3 (signal), Pin 4 (GND) Fixed: TTL = 5V => rec. status on; TTL = 0V => rec. off BNC IRIG-B / sequence trigger Function: IRIG-B signal / sequence trigger Type: Input; Feature: galvanic isolated; fixed: 1…10V BNC camera sync output (only Master/Slave sync.) Function: pco.dimax camera synchronization Type: output; Feature: non isolated; fixed: TTL BNC camera sync input (only Master/Slave sync.) Function: pco.dimax camera synchronization Type: input; Feature: non isolated; fixed: TTL Power on/off switch 3 Power connector 4 Pin1 GND; Pin2 +12-36V; Pin3 not used PC Data interface 5 Selectable: USB 2.0 or 3.0 (see A2.2), GigE (see A2.3), Camera Link (see A2.4),HD-SDI (see A2.5) Lemo connectors 6 See A1.3 Serial number tag 7 Dust filter 8 Exchangeable 54 A1 TECHNICAL DATA A1.3 PINOUT OF LEMO CONNECTOR Lemo connector is a high grade push-pull connection device. Connector: (org. Lemosa Part Number) Int1: ECJ.2B.314.CLD; Int2: ECJ.2B.319.CLD e.g. fitting plug connector: (org. Lemosa Part Number) Int1: FGJ.2B.314.CLLD72; Int2: FGJ.2B.319.CLLD72. Lemosa (LEMO) Connector Int. 1 and Int. 2 LEMO Int 1 Pinout (14pins): Pin 1 2 3 4 5 6 Signal name shield trigger (signal) trigger (GND) sync (signal) sync (GND) ready status (sig.) Dir. Feature description IN IN IN IN OUT galvanically isolated, selectable behavior (BNC) 7 8 ready status (GND) OUT fault status (sig.) OUT 9 10 11 12 13 14 fault status (GND) supply voltage (+) supply voltage (+) supply voltage (-) supply voltage (-) NC OUT IN IN IN IN galvanically isolated, selectable behavior (BNC) galv. isol., TTL=5V => armed (LED) TTL=0V => not armed galv. isol., TTL=5V => no fault (LED) TTL=0V => fault input of (+) VDC input of (+) VDC input of (-) VDC input of (-) VDC LEMO Int 2 Pinout (19pins): Pin 1 Signal name set ready (signal) Dir. IN 2 3 set ready (GND) exposure time out (signal) exp. time out (GND) IN OUT 4 5 6 7 8 9 .. 19 free definable 55 OUT Feature description galvanically isolated, selectable behavior galvanically isolated, TTL (BNC, LED) (BNC) A1.4 MECHANICAL DIMENSIONS All dimensions given in millimeter. Input Window Filter NOTE F-Mount flange focal distance: 46,50 mm In front of the sensor is an input window, which acts as safety glass as well as filter and contains an anti-reflective coating (98 % light transmission). The pco.dimax b/w camera screens a standard spectral range of 300 nm – 800 nm. The spectral range of the pco.dimax color is a different one: 400 nm – 700 nm. 56 A2 INTERFACES A2 INTERFACES Many different interfaces are available for the pco.dimax camera. This chapter describes the installation and configuration of USB / GigE / Camera Link and HD-SDI interfaces. A2.1 CABLE POSSIBILITIES Overview of the maximum cable lengths Camera Link base: • standard: 3m • optional: 5m • no cables are included in the camera price USB 2.0 : • standard: 5m • cable is included in the camera price USB 3.0: • standard: 3m • cable and proper PCI express board included in the camera price Gigabit Ethernet : • standard: 10 m • optional: 0.5 m; 2 m; 5 m; 12.5 m; 30 m; 50 m • maximum: 100 m • cable (10m) is included in the camera price 57 A2.2 USB 2.0 / 3.0 Please start the USB 2.0 or 3.0 driver installation from your pco.usb flash drive (or download the latest version from our website. Don’t connect the camera to your computer before driver is completely installed. Run the provided installation file and follow the instructions of the installation wizard. 1 After finishing 2 the driver installation wizard please connect your pco.dimax camera to its power supply and via enclosed USB 2.0 cable to your computer. The first time the camera is connected via USB to the computer, Windows will notify the user that a new device has been detected. USB 2.0: 1 2 USB 3.0: 1 2 58 A2 INTERFACES A2.3 GIGABIT ETHERNET GigE is an interface standard for high-performance industrial cameras. It has been developed by a group of about 50 companies. GigE is based on the Gigabit Ethernet standard which uses standard Ethernet category cabling. The standard is trying to unify protocols currently used in machine vision industrial cameras and let 3rd party organizations develop compatible software and hardware (www.machinevisiononline.org). System requirements (check PCO website for latest versions) • GigE PCO firmware > V2.00 • Camware software package • GigE driver generation 2 > V4.0.0.00 • Complete network environment must be GigE compliant Cat5e or higher patch cable A2.3.1 QUICK INSTALLATION GUIDE Install / configure network interface card (NIC) (precondition for GigE) See chapter A2.3.2 Install GigE driver Please follow instructions. See chapter A2.3.3 Deactivate (uncheck) the GigE driver at each NIC that will not physically be connected to your camera (Win 7/8) See chapter A2.3.4 Make sure that just the service pco.camera with GigE and the protocol Internet protocol (TCP/IP) are activated for each NIC used for PCO cameras (Win 7/8). Make sure the buffer settings of your NIC are set to its maximum See chapter A184.108.40.206 Apply PCO GigE Calibration Tool for camera calibration See chapter A2.3.5 After successful calibration Start Camware See chapter 5 59 Please follow the steps in this order. Additional information can be found in the respective subchapters A2.3.2 GigE NETWORK INTERFACE CARD (NIC) A Gigabit network interface card (NIC) is attached to your computer and ready to use. Ideally it is a PCI-Express NIC to bring out the best data throughput, e.g. Intel Ethernet Server Adapter I210 T1, I350 T2 or I350 T4. Please make sure that the specific driver of the NIC is installed to your Operating System (OS) - If not, your OS may use a standard plug & play driver not performing perfectly with the hardware. It is absolutely essential that the NIC is Gigabit compatible. Such cards should be designated with a maximum data throughput of 1000 Megabits per second (Mbps). Furthermore it is important to know which kind of PCI interface the NIC uses. The PCI-Express interface allows a faster and more stable data transfer than ordinary PCI interfaces. Finally, NIC’s vary in the used chipset. Strongly recommended are chipsets from Intel. If you want to check your network connection or change parameters please open the properties dialog of your LAN connection: START → Control Panel → Network and Internet\Network Connections → Right-click on your network connection: Select properties. Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP) is active if obtain an IP address automatically is selected. Alternatively configuration manually. the can network be set There are different ways to connect one or several PCO GigE cameras to a computer. This chapter provides an overview of the various connectivity options, for detailed configuration see chapter A2.3.5. 60 A2 INTERFACES A220.127.116.11 ONE CAMERA Camera to computer via Point to Point connection, i.e. direct connection via LAN cable. Connect NIC and camera via patch cable directly. Use the Calibration Tool (see. A2.3.5) to configure IP address and subnet mask. A18.104.22.168 SEVERAL CAMERAS Via switch with DHCP server: NIC and cameras obtain the IP addresses automatically by a DHCP server. Via switch without a DHCP server: Camera and NIC IP addresses have to be set manually. The first three sections of camera and NIC IP must be identical. The fourth section of each camera and NIC IP can be any value between 1 and 255, but may not be the same for both devices. For example: NIC IP 192.168.144.10; a proper camera IP would be 192.168.144.100. The Subnet mask must be exactly the same, e.g 255.255.255.0. Note with this configuration: The transmission rates of switch and network card are limited. Standard Gigabit Ethernet components transmit 125MB/s. Using two or more pco.dimax cameras this transmission rate is clearly exceeded. Therefore a Packet Delay must be configured (see A22.214.171.124). Otherwise a loss-free transmission can not be guaranteed. Use the Calibration Tool to configure these settings, see A2.3.5. Camera1 IP: 192.168.144.200 Sub: 255.255.255.0 Camera2 IP: 192.168.144.201 Sub: 255.255.255.0 NIC IP: 192.168.144.10 Subnet: 255.255.255.0 61 Camera3 IP: 192.168.144.202 Sub: 255.255.255.0 Via several NIC’s at one computer: Camera and NIC IP addresses have to be set manually. Each camera NIC pair needs a separate network IP range but the same subnet. The following example shows how to calibrate IP addresses when connecting cameras to individual NIC’s. Most important is that camera IP address and subnet and NIC IP address and subnet have to match. Use the Calibration Tool to configure these settings, see A2.3.5. Camera1 IP: 192.168.144.200 Sub: 255.255.255.0 Camera2 IP: 192.168.145.200 Sub: 255.255.255.0 Camera3 IP: 192.168.146.200 Sub: 255.255.255.0 NIC1 IP: 192.168.144.10 Subnet: 255.255.255.0 NIC2 IP: 192.168.145.10 Subnet: 255.255.255.0 NIC3 IP: 192.168.146.10 Subnet: 255.255.255.0 This step is individual for each NIC. For instance, the receive / transmit buffers of the Intel Ethernet Server Adapter I210 T1, I350 T2 or I350 T4 are set with its Performance options dialog. Its maximum size is 2048, see A126.96.36.199. A188.8.131.52 NETWORK ENVIRONMENT / PATCH CABLE A correct configuration of the network is important for the throughput of the image data, which could be brought out. It is mandatory that any component used for the network connection between camera and computer is compatible with a data throughput of 1000 Mbps. Some of these components are the NIC, router, hub, switch, etc., but also the patch cable. The quality of patch cables is specified in categories. It is necessary to use category 5e-, 6-, or 7- patch cables for a network connection with a data throughput of 1000 Mbps. 62 A2 INTERFACES A2.3.3 DRIVER INSTALLATION NOTE If installer fails, please use uninstaller, remove all old files and then try again. First install the PCO GigE driver to your computer, which is to be found on the attached usb flash drive or on the PCO website. Before installing, you have to remove previously installed GigE driver. The installer will do this for you. Or open control panel → programs and functions → and uninstall PCO GigE driver. o1 2 o o3 o4 o5 Then start the GigE driver setup and follow the instructions. Choose installation directory. Now GigE driver installation is completed. Please reboot your computer to complete the installation. Start Calibration Tool A2.3.5 1 2 3 4 5 NOTE This installation installs both drivers: Gen2 and the former Gen1 V3.1 allowing former GigE cameras to run properly. 63 How to uninstall GigE driver • open the file GigE_Uninstall.exe (if Win 7/8 is used: right-click and select “Run As Administrator”) Start->Programs->Digital Camera Tools->pco.gige->UnInstall pco.gige • or start system control → programs and functions → choose PCO GigE and uninstall A2.3.4 ACTIVATING/DEACTIVATING (WIN7/8) The check box next to pco.camera with GigE is checked for activating and unchecked for deactivating. NOTE (Win7/8) It is absolutely essential that the PCO GigE driver is only activated at the specific NIC that is physically connected to your camera. In addition, just the service pco.camera with GigE and the Internet protocol (TCP/IP) should be activated for each NIC used for PCO cameras. It is possible that, if virus scan/firewall is enabled, a connected camera is not recognized. 64 A2 INTERFACES A2.3.5 CALIBRATION TOOL Use this tool for each Network interface card (NIC) connected to your PCO camera with GigE interface. The PCO GigE Calibration Tool is part of the PCO software package and is started automatically after the PCO GigE Driver installation and is automatically linked to your desktop. Start→All programs→Digital Camera Toolbox→pco.gigeG2→GigECalib (Win 7) Start→All Apps→Digital Camera Toolbox→ GigECalib (Win10) The purpose of this software: • To set camera network parameter (Packet Delay) • To change the network settings (IP address & subnet mask) of the camera • Display connected PCO GigE cameras • To check if the network is configured correctly. 1 2 How does it work? The Start Dialog offers two possibilities: 1 • Choose Set Network and Packet Delay (SET≫) to calibrate network parameters like IP address, Subnet mask and Packet Delay. • Or choose Test Camera Image Transfer Datarate (TEST≫) to 2 test the image transfer of all PCO GigE cameras correctly connected to your PC. A184.108.40.206 FIRMWARE WARNING If this message pops up after you click SET≫, you need to update the firmware of the GigE interface card. Please download the latest firmware from PCO website. Choose Support and your pco.dimax camera model. Otherwise the calibration is not possible, because the driver requires a new firmware version. GigE Firmware version must be at least V2.00. 65 A220.127.116.11 NETWORK AND PACKET DELAY The dialog Camera Network Settings allows you to set the Packet-Delay and to change the PCO GigE Camera network settings. The Packet Delay value indicates the delay (in µs) inserted between each ethernet packet of the image payload data. This can be used as a crude flowcontrol mechanism, if the application or the network infrastructure cannot keep up with the ethernet packets coming from the device. A packet delay always slows down data rate. NOTE If Packet Delay is increased, the data transfer rate is decreased. Table Delay Time and Transmit rate Delay (µs) MB/s 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 66 43 23 19 15 13 11 9.5 8.5 7.5 Max. data-rate via GigE Ethernet: 1000 Mbit/sec ~ 125 MB/sec; 8 to10 bit coding ~ 100 MB/sec A18.104.22.168 JUMBO PACKETS / BUFFER SETTINGS Jumbo Packets and Transmit / Receive Buffer are settings of your network card and can be changed with windows control panel. These buffer settings help to decrease the loss of data packets (images) while transferring data from camera to network interface card. Transmit / receive buffer For some NIC’s you have the opportunity to set parameters manually affecting the stability of the data transfer. The most important ones are Transmit and Receive Buffer. Always set the value of these parameters to its maximum. Start → control panel → change adapter settings → right-click→ properties → configure → advanced (Win7) Jumbo packet If your network adapter supports Jumbo Packet please activate them, because overheads and CPU cycles are reduced. All of your network components must be Jumbo Packet compatible. Start → control panel → change adapter settings → right-click→ properties → configure → advanced (Win7) 66 A2 INTERFACES A22.214.171.124 SET CAMERA IP ADRESS & SUBNET MASK Make sure that the Camera IP Address (Cam IP) and the Camera Network Mask (Cam Subnet) fit to the Network Interface Card (NIC IP & NIC Subnet) connected to. Everything is correct if all values are highlighted in green. If Camera IP or Subnet is not correct, it will be highlighted in red 1. . The first three sections of Camera and NIC IP must be identical. The fourth section between 1 and 255. For example: NIC IP 192.168.144.49; a proper camera IP would be 192.168.144.100. The Subnet mask must be exactly the same, e.g 255.255.255.0. You can only change Camera IP & Subnet with this tool, but not NIC IP & Subnet. 1 2 3 Please double-click onto the table 2 to manipulate the value. Press the Set 3 button to validate the changings. After configuration is finished click Done. 4 4 The next step is to check if IP and Subnet configuration is correct: click Set≫ 5 again to check if all values are highlighted in green. 5 6 Finally always Test≫ 6 your settings. See next page. 67 A126.96.36.199 IMAGE TRANSFER DATA RATE First click Test≫ 1 then please double-click into the Select 2 column of the table to select the camera. If a camera is not highlighted in green the camera cannot be selected for testing. If more than one camera is selected, the cameras are going to be tested in parallel. Please use the Packet Delay parameter 3 as a crude flow control mechanism. E.g. if two PCO GigE cameras are connected to a single GigE Port (for example via a network switch) the sum of the bandwidths has to be smaller than the maximum possible data rate that can be transferred by GigE (100 MB/s; see above). 1 2 3 4 Please press the Next >> the Camera Test dialog. 4 button to open A188.8.131.52 CAMERA TEST 55 All cameras selected in the Select Camera dialog are listed here. If the View box is checked the transferred images are displayed. Please click the Run Test 5 button to begin the Camera Transfer Test. The 6 test grabs images from each camera listed – the images from each camera are transferred in parallel! The whole Camera Transfer Test succeeds only, if each Single Camera Transfer Test succeeds. With a Single Camera Transfer Test 100 images are transferred and it fails, when more than 0.1% of all transferred ethernet packets got lost. If a Single Camera Transfer Test and so the Camera Transfer Test for all connected cameras fails, the first thing to do is to check the Packet Delay value. It indicates the delay (in µs) inserted between each ethernet packet of the image payload data. This can be used as a crude flow-control mechanism. If the application or the network infrastructure cannot keep up with the ethernet packets coming from the device. So, if a Single Camera Transfer Test fails, increase the Packet Delay value. If everything is finished click Done 6 . NOTE The Gen2 GigE maximum data rate is about 100 MB/s, if you have a pco.dimax camera with the Gen1 GigE interface card, the maximum data rate is up to 68 MB/s. 68 A2 INTERFACES A184.108.40.206 TOOL TIPS If you want to enable/disable Tool Tips please run the PCO GiGE Calibration Tool. Click the About button of the Start Dialog and activate/deactivate the Enable Tool Tips check box. Enable Expert view: all setting options are enabled. Tool Tips can help you to understand the functionality of the calibration tool. Packet Delay and other settings are explained in detail. A2.3.6 HELP GUIDE • If your camera is not recognized, please deactivate Firewall and Antivirus programs • Install original driver of your network interface card (e.g. intel driver) guaranteeing full performance • Always install the latest PCO GigE driver • Pay attention to the network interface card buffer settings (see A220.127.116.11) • If the calib tool tells you to update the firmware, please download and install the latest firmware for your camera 69 A2.3.7 PERFORMANCE The following tables give two example configurations, minimum and recommended. The specified values are only valid for these configurations and should act as an orientation. Setup Minimum NIC 1000 Mbps NIC with standard PCI interface NIC configuration Recommended 1000 Mbps NIC with PCIExpress interface (e.g. Intel Ethernet Server Adapter I210 T1, I350 T2 or I350 T4.) Receive / transmit buffer is set to maximum Network connection Patch cable Additional network components Network environment Driver Packet delay /max speed mode Computer Operating system P2P or via switch (e.g. NetGear GS 605) Cat 5e switch, hub, router are compatible to 1000 Mbps 20 µs / off P2P Cat 5e or higher No additional components virus protection/ firewall inactive GigE driver installed 0 µs / off INTEL® Core™ i5 CPU; 2.4 GHz; 4GB RAM Win 7/8 – x64/x86 INTEL® Core™ i7 CPU; 2.8 GHz; 8GB RAM Win 7/8/10 – x64 NOTE Data throughput performance depends on sensor resolution. 70 A2 INTERFACES A2.4 CAMERA LINK A2.4.1 FRAME GRABBER INSTALLATION Instructions for installing and testing the Silicon Software microEnable IV (ME4) Camera Link grabber card. Hardware Installation must be performed by a technician, because high voltages can occur on the device. WARNING ELECTRIC SHOCK WARNING DUE TO VOLTAGE PARTS INSIDE Risk of injury due to electric shock. Always pull the main plug before opening the computer. Please install the latest silicon software runtime package before installing the hardware. (Download: http://www.pco.de/support/) When working on a 64 bit operating system, please make sure to install the proper (64 bit) runtime when also a 64 bit application will be operated. If the application is 32 bit, you need to install the 32 bit runtime accordingly. •1 •2 •3 • 4 •5 If there is no Gigabit Ethernet board installed (standard), please deselect Support for… Let the program also update device drivers. Shutdown your computer, open the computer case and install the grabber card The grabber card should be displayed within the device manager. If the device is not shown this way, please reinstall the SiliconSoftware device driver. After the installation, please start the program microDiagnostics. (see next page) 2 1 3 4 5 71 A2.4.2 MICRO DIAGNOSTICS TOOL 1 Micro Diagnostics Tool works with both meIV AD4 and VD4 frame grabber cards. To test the board, select the board in Diagnosis and click Board 1 to start the test 2 Please upgrade to the supplied firmware. Select Tools → Flash Board(s) 3 and select the appropriate hap file. Micro diagnostics provides the latest available firmware version of the installed runtime. Then click on Yes when you’re asked to proceed. You must restart your computer after the firmware upgrade. 4 Please test the performance of your frame grabber card: click on Performance 4 to start the test. For further information or problems with mainboards please contact our support section. 72 A2 INTERFACES A2.5 HD-SDI HD-SDI is the High Definition Serial Interface and a special standard of the film industry. Only available for color version of the pco.dimax S4 and HD/HD+. HD-SDI can only transfer certain resolutions and frame rates! It can be used e.g. for an output monitor. Possbile resolutions SingleLink, DualLink, 3G 1920x1080 Pixel (1080p/i/psf - Full HD) 1280x720 Pixel (720p - HD Ready) Frame rates PAL (24, 25, 30, 50 und 60 fps) NTSC (23.98, 29.97, 59.94 fps) Image transmission progressive, interlaced, progressive segmented frame Color models RGB, YCC, RAW Bit rate PAL SingleLink & DualLink: 1.485 Gbit/s PAL 3G: 2.97 Gbit/s NTSC SingleLink & DualLink: 1.4835 Gbit/s NTSC 3G: 2.9670 Gbit/s fNTSC = fPAL/1.001 Cable 75 Ohm coaxial cable (RG59, Belden 1694A) 73 A3 BATTERY OPERATION The pco.dimax models are optionally available with a highperformance battery pack, which is mounted on top of the camera body. Charging the Battery The pco.dimax cameras have a built-in battery recharge circuitry, which will recharge the battery and maintain the battery charge level, whenever the power supply is connected and working. Therefore it is not required to remove the battery pack for recharge. NOTE The battery is recharged automatically when the power supply of the camera is connected AND the camera is switched on. The recharging process starts few seconds after the power has been connected. Battery recharge does not depend on the configured battery operating mode. Specifications and General Notes Battery operating time (100% charged) • Standard Operation Mode: • Power-Save Mode: 1 hour 5-6 hours Maximum recharge time • Lithium Iron Phosphate (LiFePO4): 6 hours Calculating remaining time in Power-Save Mode (tps) • • tps = 360 min – top * 6 top [min]: preceding operating time on battery backup Power Consumption The data for the power consumption mentioned in the pco.dimax datasheet does not include the recharge current for the battery. If the camera will recharge the battery, an additional 40 W peak power is required. Resetting Camera by Power Switch With the power switch in off state, the external power supply as well as the battery is disconnected from the camera. There is only a very small self-discharge current within the battery itself. Some customers are used to switch the camera on and off not using the power switch but switching off the supply voltage connected to the camera. However, this is not possible with attached backup battery. In the worst case, the battery will be excessively discharged next day (when done overnight) and (if repeated many times) it will lead to significantly increased aging and possibly early defect of the battery! 74 A3 BATTERY OPERATION Standard Operation Mode The Standard Battery Operation is the default setting of the camera and activated when shipped to customer. In order to maintain stable operation of the camera, the battery backup provides power immediately in case the power supply fails. As soon as the power supply is reestablished, the camera draws the supply current again from the power supply. Whenever the power supply is disconnected the camera runs on battery until the battery is discharged. Before the battery is finally dead the camera shuts down completely. In that case the current settings as well as the image data are lost! The camera provides information about the current charge level of the battery. This information can be used to estimate the remaining operating time as well as to avoid loss of image data. This mode is applicable for: • Operating the camera in an environment where no regular power supply is available or desired. • Backup capability to maintain camera operation in case of unexpected supply breakdowns. Power-Save Mode The Power-Save Mode will keep recorded images in the event of a major power breakdown. The camera must be configured by SDK to change into Power-Save Mode and the user can define a desired delay time. After a power breakdown the camera will continue in Standard Operation Mode. If there is no power supply available during the configured delay time, the camera stops the current recording and enters into Power-Save Mode. When power supply is available again, the Standard Operation Mode will be restored and the battery will be charged. If the main power supply is available for at least 10 seconds during the delay time, the delay is stopped. If the power supply is disconnected again, the delay starts from the beginning. Also, the Power-Save Mode is stopped if power is available again for at least 10 seconds. Please note: • reestablish the power supply in order to bring the camera back to Standard Operation Mode • close and reopen the connection to the camera after the camera is back to Standard Operation Mode • reconfigure all settings and validate them by an Arm Camera command, when the camera shall be used for recording again • it is possible to read recorded images from the camera memory without restoring any settings. 75 A4 IMAGE FILE FORMATS There are different file formats available for saving camera images with Camware: b16 The b16 16 bit format is similar to the bmp format. However, 16 bit pixel values are used instead of 8 bit pixel values. The file format consists either of a Basic Header (six Long-parameter) or of an Extended Header (32 Long-parameter), the latter of which is optionally for additional information. There might follow a variable comment field (ASCII code). Finally, there is the actual data set that is saved linearly (as in the case of BMP files). With the exception of the first value, all parameters are Long Integers (4 Byte). The first six parameters must always exist. The rest of the parameters, as well as the comment field, are optional. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Parameter PCOfile size header length image width image height extended header color mode b/w min b/w max b/w linlog Function the first 4 byte are the characters PCOfile size in byte header size + comment filed in byte image width in pixel image height in pixel -1 (true), extended header follows 0 = black/with camera, 1 = color camera black/white LUT-setting, minimum value black/white LUT-setting, maximum value black/white LUT-setting, 0 = linear, 1 = logarithmic red LUT-setting, minimum value red LUT-setting, maximum value green LUT-setting, minimum value green LUT-setting, maximum value blue LUT-setting, minimum value blue LUT-setting, maximum value color LUT-setting, 0 = linear, 1 = logarithmic 11 red min 12 red max 13 green min 14 green max 15 blue min 16 blue max 17 color linlog 18 internal use 266 Comment file in ASCII characters with variable length of 0…XX. The length of the comment filed must be documented in the header length field. 16 bit pixel data W line 1, pixel 1 value of the first pixel W line 1, pixel 2 value of the second pixel e … … PCO recommends that all images should be saved first in the b16 or TIFF format. The advantage is to have the b16 or tiff images available all the time. You will always have the maximum 16 bit information. Please note that not all image analysis programs can accommodate 16 bit data. The 8 bit format saves only the information displayed on the monitor screen. The 16 bit information will be lost and cannot be displayed later. 76 A4 IMAGE FILE FORMATS pcoraw This 16 bit PCO file format is based on the BigTIFF format, thus allowing for file size > 4GB. A new PCO proprietary compression scheme is added in case it is necessary. Standard File Formats TIFF Tag Image File Format, version 6.0 and lower. There is a 16bit monochrome and color image format. BMP Windows Bitmap Format, b/w or color 8 bit format images, which have been saved in BMP format can’t be reloaded in Camware - only as 8 bit images, i.e. part of the original information (16 bit) is lost. FTS Flexible Image Transport System, Version 3.1. There is a 16 bit image format. The NASA/Science Office of Standards and Technology (NOST) has defined this format. Some programs use the FIT extension for this format. ASCII 16 bit format, some mathematical programs prefer ASCII data. JPG JPEG (named after the Joint Photographic Experts Group who created the standard) is a commonly used method of lossy compression for photographic images. The degree of compression can be adjusted, allowing a selectable tradeoff between storage size and image quality. JP2 JPEG 2000 is a wavelet-based image compression standard and coding system. It was created by the Joint Photographic Experts Group committee in the year 2000 with the intention of superseding their original discrete cosine transform-based JPEG standard (created 1992). AVI Audio Video Interleave is a multimedia container format introduced by Microsoft in November 1992 as part of its Video for Windows technology. MPG MPEG-1, similar to JPEG, is a standard for lossy compression of video and audio developed by the Moving Picture Experts Group (MPEG). WMV Windows Media Video (WMV) is a compressed video compression format for several proprietary codecs developed by Microsoft. The original video format, known as WMV, was originally designed for Internet streaming applications, as a competitor to RealVideo. 77 A5 CUSTOMER SERVICE A5.1 SERVICE The camera is designed to operate with no need of special adjustments or periodic inspections. A5.2 MAINTENANCE CAUTION NOTICE NOTICE NOTICE NOTICE UNPLUG CAMERA BEFORE CLEANING Risk of injury due to electrical shock! Unplug the camera from any power supply before cleaning it. CLEANING Use a soft, dry cloth for cleaning the camera. Do not clean the input window unless it is absolutely necessary. Be careful and avoid scratches and damage to the input window surface. Do not use liquid cleaners or sprays. LENS CLEANING The lens is best cleaned with pressurized air or with liquid cleaners such as pure alcohol or with special optical cleaners that are available at high quality photo stores. Use a cotton swab dipped in pure alcohol or optical cleaning liquid and wipe only on the glass surface. Do not get any cleaning liquid on the metallic parts such as the lens thread, because tiny detached particles may scratch the surface. CLEANING LIQUIDS Aggressive cleaning liquids can damage your camera. Never use aggressive cleaning liquids such as gasoline, acetone, spirits or nitro cleanser. Every time the input window is cleaned, there is the possibility of surface damage. PROTECTIVE CAP Always store the camera with the protective cap or with a lens mounted to avoid dust and dirt on the input window. A5.3 RECYCLING If you want to dispose your camera, please send it to PCO or take it to a local recycling center. The camera includes electronic devices, which can contain materials harmful to the environment. These electronic devices must be recycled. 78 A5 CUSTOMER SERVICE A5.4 LOGFILE / SUPPORT FILE If you have a question, which is not adequately addressed in this manual, please contact PCO or your local dealer. To speed your request, we need the following information: Short description of the problem Description of your application Camera settings Type and version of camera Software being used Camera serial number Operating system (PC) Processor type (PC) Memory Graphic card Graphic card setup How to create a logfile: Enable log files: Repeat Open the Help Menu Save this file Or visit our website: ? Help Menu → Logging → Enable Logfile →Camware will ask you to press NO to activate Logfiles after restart of Camware the workflow which produces the faults Click Support Mail (+ Support File) → Camware will ask you: Generate support file? (CWSupport.zip – don’t rename it) and send it to PCO Support ([email protected]) http://www.pco.de/support/ and upload the support file with our support form Repair Before sending the camera for repair, first contact your local dealer or PCO respectively. When shipping the camera for repair, be certain to carefully pack the camera with proper shipping materials. If possible use the original packaging. Use the protection cap to protect the camera on the lens thread. 79 A5.5 TROUBLE SHOOTING Communication problems (camera is not detected) • Take a look at the LEDs and note their state • Disconnect and reconnect your interface (GigE, USB, CameraLink), then wait for Beep (about 1 min) and start Camware camera search again • If this does not work – please test another interface o Restart your camera by plugging off /on power supply: look at LED sequence and note their state o all LEDs are off for several seconds (if the break time was too short, it might be possible that last LED status will be shown again) o all LEDs light up (red, green and blue) o green LED is blinking for several seconds, then green continuous, all other LEDs off o red LED means initializing failed • Please show us your log-files including extra information (any other abnormalities / camera equipped with a battery?) Image Error (e.g. quadrant error) Please describe your error (send us a Raw B16 or TIFF screenshot) Fan control The pco.dimax has a fan control. After starting or restarting your camera fan runs with highest rotation (noisy) and should slow down after about 30s. GigE-Connection After start-up or (re)connection of GigE cable or by pushing the resetknob at the backside of the pco.dimax, the connection of the GigE interface will be reassembled. A short beep signalizes a physical network connection- this has nothing to do with pco.camera driver (only so much of course that a operating network connection is required for the pco camera driver) A repetitive sequence of beeps signalizes that an infected cable is detected but no communication is possible (autonegotiation failed). Firmware, Software and Driver Update You will find all necessary software and drivers on the accompanying USB storage device. For the latest versions please check our website: http://www.pco.de/support/supportProducts/high-speed-cameras/ 80 A6 INDEX A6 INDEX NOTE: The mentioned page is always the starting page of a chapter! Key word Auto File Save Averaging Chapter 6.8.1 Page 41 6.5 35 Acquire mode 6.3.5 26 A3 74 A2.1 57 6 13 Camera Link A2.4 71 CDI mode 6.3.3 25 Codec Dialog 6.9.2 44 Connection options A1.2 54 Contrast settings (Convert control) 6.3.7 32 Battery Cable lengths Camware software Cuda nvidia driver 4.1 9 Data sheets Demo mode (Camware) A1.1 53 6.9.1 43 Dimensions A1.6 56 Direct record to file 6.9.2 44 Double image mode 6.3.3 25 4.1 ; A2 9; 57 Driver installation File formats Frame rate A4 76 6.3.1 17 GigE configuration A2.3 59 HD-SDI A2.5 73 6.5 35 IIR low pass filter Image Overlay Input / Output possibilities Interfaces 6.4 34 6.3.6 ; A1.2 30; 54 A2 57 Internal Memory 6.3.4 26 Lemo connector Logfile A1.3 55 Live preview Maintenance Master Settings Preview 6.9.7 48 6.9.4; 6.2 47, 14 A5.2 78 6.2 14 6.2 14 Rear connections Recorder modes A1.2 54 6.3.5 26 Recorder memory 6.3.4 26 Recycling A5.3 78 Region of interest (Sensor ROI) 6.3.2 24 Rescan for cameras 6.9.3 46 Safety instructions Save / Open / Print files 2 7 6.9.2 44 Sequence trigger mode 6.3.5 26 Sets (Camera Setting) 6.2 14 Settings Overview 6.8 40 6.9.9 51 A5 78 Synchronization 6.3.1 17 Time stamp Timing 6.3.5 26 6.3.1 17 Trigger Mode 6.3.1 17 USB A2.2 58 White Balance 6.9.9 51 Short Cut List Support 81 ABOUT PCO ABOUT PCO pco. In 1987, PCO was founded with the objective to develop and to produce specialized fast and sensitive video camera systems, mainly for scientific applications. Meanwhile the product range of PCO cameras covers digital camera systems with high dynamic range, high resolution, high speed and low noise, which are sold in the scientific and industrial market all over the world. Currently PCO is one of the leading manufacturers of scientific cameras. Worldwide representatives, together with our own sales department and technical support assure that PCO keeps in touch with our customers and their needs. The actual wide range of specialized camera systems is the result of technical challenge and product specific know-how. A design according to advanced techniques, a high standard of production and strict quality controls guaranty a reliable operation of the cameras. Our own developments in conjunction with an excellent contact to leading manufacturers of image sensors ensure our access to state-of-the-art CCD- and CMOS-technology for our cameras. Since 2001, PCO is located in its own facility building in Kelheim at the shore of the beautiful and international river Danube. Here in the county Bavaria, which is well known for its excellent support and conditions for high technology companies, we share the benefits of the simple access to high performance products and services in the surrounding area. Kelheim itself is a historical town, first documented in 866. The small city is founded at the confluence of the Danube and the Altmühl, which has been converted into the Rhine-Main-Danube bypass channel for water transport. Located in Danube-valley, it is the heart of a beautiful river and forest covered lime plateau landscape. It´s landmark, the Hall of Liberation, was built by Ludwig I. in 1863 on the Mount Michael and is visible from all over the city and valley. The beautiful Danube-Gorge, which is protected as natural monument since 1840, is located between Kelheim and the famous abbey Weltenburg. 82 pco.
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